WorldWideScience

Sample records for photovoltaic energy conversion

  1. Photovoltaic solar energy conversion

    CERN Document Server

    Bauer, Gottfried H

    2015-01-01

    This concise primer on photovoltaic solar energy conversion invites readers to reflect on the conversion of solar light into energy at the most fundamental level and encourages newcomers to the field to help find meaningful answers on how photovoltaic solar energy conversion can work (better), eventually contributing to its ongoing advancement. The book is based on lectures given to graduate students in the Physics Department at the University of Oldenburg over the last two decades, yet also provides an easy-to-follow introduction for doctoral and postdoctoral students from related disciplines such as the materials sciences and electrical engineering. Inspired by classic textbooks in the field, it reflects the author’s own ideas on how to understand, visualize and eventually teach the microscopic physical mechanisms and effects, while keeping the text as concise as possible so as to introduce interested readers to the field and balancing essential knowledge with open questions.

  2. Photovoltaic conversion of laser energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stirn, R. J.

    1976-01-01

    The Schottky barrier photovoltaic converter is suggested as an alternative to the p/n junction photovoltaic devices for the conversion of laser energy to electrical energy. The structure, current, output, and voltage output of the Schottky device are summarized. The more advanced concepts of the multilayer Schottky barrier cell and the AMOS solar cell are briefly considered.

  3. NASA-OAST photovoltaic energy conversion program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullin, J. P.; Loria, J. C.

    1984-01-01

    The NASA program in photovoltaic energy conversion research is discussed. Solar cells, solar arrays, gallium arsenides, space station and spacecraft power supplies, and state of the art devices are discussed.

  4. Silicon nanowires for photovoltaic solar energy conversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Kui-Qing; Lee, Shuit-Tong

    2011-01-11

    Semiconductor nanowires are attracting intense interest as a promising material for solar energy conversion for the new-generation photovoltaic (PV) technology. In particular, silicon nanowires (SiNWs) are under active investigation for PV applications because they offer novel approaches for solar-to-electric energy conversion leading to high-efficiency devices via simple manufacturing. This article reviews the recent developments in the utilization of SiNWs for PV applications, the relationship between SiNW-based PV device structure and performance, and the challenges to obtaining high-performance cost-effective solar cells.

  5. Photovoltaic conversion of the solar energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gordillo G, Gerardo

    1998-01-01

    In this work, a short description of the basic aspect of the performance of homojunction solar cells and of the technological aspects of the fabrication of low cost thin film solar cells is made. Special emphasis on the historical aspects of the evolution of the conversion efficiency of photovoltaic devices based on crystalline silicon, amorphous silicon, Cd Te and CulnSe 2 is also made. The state of art of the technology of photovoltaic devices and modules is additionally presented. The contribution to the development of high efficiency solar cells and modules, carried out by research centers of universities such us: Stuttgart university (Germany), Stockholm university (Sweden), University of South Florida (USA), university of south gales (Australia), by the national renewable energy laboratory of USA and by research centers of companies such us: Matsushita (Japan), BP-solar (England), Boeing (USA), Arco solar (USA), Siemens (Germany) etc. are specially emphasized. Additionally, a section concerning economical aspect of the photovoltaic generation of electric energy is enclosed. In this section an overview of the evolution of price and world market of photovoltaic system is presented

  6. NASA-OAST program in photovoltaic energy conversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullin, J. P.; Flood, D. J.

    1982-01-01

    The NASA program in photovoltaic energy conversion includes research and technology development efforts on solar cells, blankets, and arrays. The overall objectives are to increase conversion efficiency, reduce mass, reduce cost, and increase operating life. The potential growth of space power requirements in the future presents a major challenge to the current state of technology in space photovoltaic systems.

  7. Standard Terminology Relating to Photovoltaic Solar Energy Conversion

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2005-01-01

    1.1 This terminology pertains to photovoltaic (radiant-to-electrical energy conversion) device performance measurements and is not a comprehensive list of terminology for photovoltaics in general. 1.2 Additional terms used in this terminology and of interest to solar energy may be found in Terminology E 772.

  8. Photovoltaic and photoelectrochemical conversion of solar energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grätzel, Michael

    2007-04-15

    The Sun provides approximately 100,000 terawatts to the Earth which is about 10000 times more than the present rate of the world's present energy consumption. Photovoltaic cells are being increasingly used to tap into this huge resource and will play a key role in future sustainable energy systems. So far, solid-state junction devices, usually made of silicon, crystalline or amorphous, and profiting from the experience and material availability resulting from the semiconductor industry, have dominated photovoltaic solar energy converters. These systems have by now attained a mature state serving a rapidly growing market, expected to rise to 300 GW by 2030. However, the cost of photovoltaic electricity production is still too high to be competitive with nuclear or fossil energy. Thin film photovoltaic cells made of CuInSe or CdTe are being increasingly employed along with amorphous silicon. The recently discovered cells based on mesoscopic inorganic or organic semiconductors commonly referred to as 'bulk' junctions due to their three-dimensional structure are very attractive alternatives which offer the prospect of very low cost fabrication. The prototype of this family of devices is the dye-sensitized solar cell (DSC), which accomplishes the optical absorption and the charge separation processes by the association of a sensitizer as light-absorbing material with a wide band gap semiconductor of mesoporous or nanocrystalline morphology. Research is booming also in the area of third generation photovoltaic cells where multi-junction devices and a recent breakthrough concerning multiple carrier generation in quantum dot absorbers offer promising perspectives.

  9. Semiconductor nanowires for photovoltaic and photoelectrochemical energy conversion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dasgupta, Neil; Yang, Peidong

    2013-01-23

    Semiconductor nanowires (NW) possess several beneficial properties for efficient conversion of solar energy into electricity and chemical energy. Due to their efficient absorption of light, short distances for minority carriers to travel, high surface-to-volume ratios, and the availability of scalable synthesis methods, they provide a pathway to address the low cost-to-power requirements for wide-scale adaptation of solar energy conversion technologies. Here we highlight recent progress in our group towards implementation of NW components as photovoltaic and photoelectrochemical energy conversion devices. An emphasis is placed on the unique properties of these one-dimensional (1D) structures, which enable the use of abundant, low-cost materials and improved energy conversion efficiency compared to bulk devices.

  10. Photovoltaic and thermal energy conversion for solar powered satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Von Tiesenhausen, G. F.

    1976-01-01

    A summary is provided concerning the most important aspects of present investigations related to a use of solar power satellites (SPS) as a future source of terrestrial energy. General SPS characteristics are briefly considered, early work is reviewed, and a description of current investigations is presented. System options presently under study include a photovoltaic array, a thermionic system, and a closed Brayton cycle. Attention is given to system reference options, basic building blocks, questions of system analysis and engineering, photovoltaic conversion, and the utility interface. It is concluded that an SPS may be cost effective compared to terrestrial systems by 1995.

  11. Tandem photovoltaic solar cells and increased solar energy conversion efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loferski, J. J.

    1976-01-01

    Tandem photovoltaic cells, as proposed by Jackson (1955) to increase the efficiency of solar energy conversion, involve the construction of a system of stacked p/n homojunction photovoltaic cells composed of different semiconductors. It had been pointed out by critics, however, that the total power which could be extracted from the cells in the stack placed side by side was substantially greater than the power obtained from the stacked cells. A reexamination of the tandem cell concept in view of the development of the past few years is conducted. It is concluded that the use of tandem cell systems in flat plate collectors, as originally envisioned by Jackson, may yet become feasible as a result of the development of economically acceptable solar cells for large scale terrestrial power generation.

  12. Physical aspects of ferroelectric semiconductors for photovoltaic solar energy conversion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez-Varo, Pilar [Departamento de Electrónica y Tecnología de Computadores, CITIC-UGR, Universidad de Granada, 18071 Granada (Spain); Bertoluzzi, Luca [Institute of Advanced Materials (INAM), Universitat Jaume I, 12006 Castelló (Spain); Bisquert, Juan, E-mail: bisquert@uji.es [Institute of Advanced Materials (INAM), Universitat Jaume I, 12006 Castelló (Spain); Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah (Saudi Arabia); Alexe, Marin [Department of Physics, University of Warwick, Coventry CV4 7AL (United Kingdom); Coll, Mariona [Institut de Ciència de Materials de Barcelona (ICMAB-CSIC), Campus UAB, 08193, Bellaterra, Catalonia (Spain); Huang, Jinsong [Department of Mechanical and Materials Engineering and Nebraska Center for Materials and Nanoscience, University of Nebraska-Lincoln, Lincoln, NE 68588-0656 (United States); Jimenez-Tejada, Juan Antonio [Departamento de Electrónica y Tecnología de Computadores, CITIC-UGR, Universidad de Granada, 18071 Granada (Spain); Kirchartz, Thomas [IEK5-Photovoltaik, Forschungszentrum Jülich, 52425 Jülich (Germany); Faculty of Engineering and CENIDE, University of Duisburg–Essen, Carl-Benz-Str. 199, 47057 Duisburg (Germany); Nechache, Riad; Rosei, Federico [INRS—Center Énergie, Matériaux et Télécommunications, Boulevard Lionel-Boulet, Varennes, Québec, J3X 1S2 (Canada); Yuan, Yongbo [Department of Mechanical and Materials Engineering and Nebraska Center for Materials and Nanoscience, University of Nebraska-Lincoln, Lincoln, NE 68588-0656 (United States)

    2016-10-07

    Solar energy conversion using semiconductors to fabricate photovoltaic devices relies on efficient light absorption, charge separation of electron–hole pair carriers or excitons, and fast transport and charge extraction to counter recombination processes. Ferroelectric materials are able to host a permanent electrical polarization which provides control over electrical field distribution in bulk and interfacial regions. In this review, we provide a critical overview of the physical principles and mechanisms of solar energy conversion using ferroelectric semiconductors and contact layers, as well as the main achievements reported so far. In a ferroelectric semiconductor film with ideal contacts, the polarization charge would be totally screened by the metal layers and no charge collection field would exist. However, real materials show a depolarization field, smooth termination of polarization, and interfacial energy barriers that do provide the control of interface and bulk electric field by switchable spontaneous polarization. We explore different phenomena as the polarization-modulated Schottky-like barriers at metal/ferroelectric interfaces, depolarization fields, vacancy migration, and the switchable rectifying behavior of ferroelectric thin films. Using a basic physical model of a solar cell, our analysis provides a general picture of the influence of ferroelectric effects on the actual power conversion efficiency of the solar cell device, and we are able to assess whether these effects or their combinations are beneficial or counterproductive. We describe in detail the bulk photovoltaic effect and the contact layers that modify the built-in field and the charge injection and separation in bulk heterojunction organic cells as well as in photocatalytic and water splitting devices. We also review the dominant families of ferroelectric materials that have been most extensively investigated and have provided the best photovoltaic performance.

  13. Physical aspects of ferroelectric semiconductors for photovoltaic solar energy conversion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopez-Varo, Pilar; Bertoluzzi, Luca; Bisquert, Juan; Alexe, Marin; Coll, Mariona; Huang, Jinsong; Jimenez-Tejada, Juan Antonio; Kirchartz, Thomas; Nechache, Riad; Rosei, Federico; Yuan, Yongbo

    2016-01-01

    Solar energy conversion using semiconductors to fabricate photovoltaic devices relies on efficient light absorption, charge separation of electron–hole pair carriers or excitons, and fast transport and charge extraction to counter recombination processes. Ferroelectric materials are able to host a permanent electrical polarization which provides control over electrical field distribution in bulk and interfacial regions. In this review, we provide a critical overview of the physical principles and mechanisms of solar energy conversion using ferroelectric semiconductors and contact layers, as well as the main achievements reported so far. In a ferroelectric semiconductor film with ideal contacts, the polarization charge would be totally screened by the metal layers and no charge collection field would exist. However, real materials show a depolarization field, smooth termination of polarization, and interfacial energy barriers that do provide the control of interface and bulk electric field by switchable spontaneous polarization. We explore different phenomena as the polarization-modulated Schottky-like barriers at metal/ferroelectric interfaces, depolarization fields, vacancy migration, and the switchable rectifying behavior of ferroelectric thin films. Using a basic physical model of a solar cell, our analysis provides a general picture of the influence of ferroelectric effects on the actual power conversion efficiency of the solar cell device, and we are able to assess whether these effects or their combinations are beneficial or counterproductive. We describe in detail the bulk photovoltaic effect and the contact layers that modify the built-in field and the charge injection and separation in bulk heterojunction organic cells as well as in photocatalytic and water splitting devices. We also review the dominant families of ferroelectric materials that have been most extensively investigated and have provided the best photovoltaic performance.

  14. Current challenges in organic photovoltaic solar energy conversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlenker, Cody W; Thompson, Mark E

    2012-01-01

    Over the last 10 years, significant interest in utilizing conjugated organic molecules for solid-state solar to electric conversion has produced rapid improvement in device efficiencies. Organic photovoltaic (OPV) devices are attractive for their compatibility with low-cost processing techniques and thin-film applicability to flexible and conformal applications. However, many of the processes that lead to power losses in these systems still remain poorly understood, posing a significant challenge for the future efficiency improvements required to make these devices an attractive solar technology. While semiconductor band models have been employed to describe OPV operation, a more appropriate molecular picture of the pertinent processes is beginning to emerge. This chapter presents mechanisms of OPV device operation, based on the bound molecular nature of the involved transient species. With the intention to underscore the importance of considering both thermodynamic and kinetic factors, recent progress in elucidating molecular characteristics that dictate photovoltage losses in heterojunction organic photovoltaics is also discussed.

  15. EXAMINING A SERIES RESONANT INVERTER CIRCUIT TO USE IN THE PHOTOVOLTAIC ENERGY CONVERSION SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Engin ÇETİN

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available As we know, solar energy is the energy source which is environment friendly, renewable, and can be found easily. Particularly, in the recent years, interest on producing electrical energy by alternative energy sources increased because of the fact that underground sources are not enough to produce energy in the future and also these sources cause enviromental pollution. The solar energy is one of the most popular one among the alternative energy sources. Photovoltaic systems produce the electrical energy from the sunlight. In this study, a series resonant inverter circuit which is used in the photovoltaic energy conversion systems has been examined.Effects of the series resonant inverter circuit on the photovoltaic energy conversion system have been investigated and examined

  16. Large impact of reorganization energy on photovoltaic conversion due to interfacial charge-transfer transitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujisawa, Jun-ichi

    2015-05-14

    Interfacial charge-transfer (ICT) transitions are expected to be a novel charge-separation mechanism for efficient photovoltaic conversion featuring one-step charge separation without energy loss. Photovoltaic conversion due to ICT transitions has been investigated using several TiO2-organic hybrid materials that show organic-to-inorganic ICT transitions in the visible region. In applications of ICT transitions to photovoltaic conversion, there is a significant problem that rapid carrier recombination is caused by organic-inorganic electronic coupling that is necessary for the ICT transitions. In order to solve this problem, in this work, I have theoretically studied light-to-current conversions due to the ICT transitions on the basis of the Marcus theory with density functional theory (DFT) and time-dependent DFT (TD-DFT) calculations. An apparent correlation between the reported incident photon-to-current conversion efficiencies (IPCE) and calculated reorganization energies was clearly found, in which the IPCE increases with decreasing the reorganization energy consistent with the Marcus theory in the inverted region. This activation-energy dependence was systematically explained by the equation formulated by the Marcus theory based on a simple excited-state kinetic scheme. This result indicates that the reduction of the reorganization energy can suppress the carrier recombination and enhance the IPCE. The reorganization energy is predominantly governed by the structural change in the chemical-adsorption moiety between the ground and ICT excited states. This work provides crucial knowledge for efficient photovoltaic conversion due to ICT transitions.

  17. Workshop proceedings: Photovoltaic conversion of solar energy for terrestrial applications. Volume 2: Invited papers

    Science.gov (United States)

    1973-01-01

    A photovoltaic device development plan is reported that considers technological as well as economical aspects of single crystal silicon, polycrystal silicon, cadmium sulfide/copper sulfide thin films, as well as other materials and devices for solar cell energy conversion systems.

  18. Integrated photovoltaic-thermal solar energy conversion systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samara, G. A.

    1975-01-01

    A combined photovoltaic/thermal collector has been built and is now being tested. Initial tests have concentrated on evaluating the thermal efficiency of the collector before and after the silicon cells are mounted. With likely improvements in bonding between cells and receiver and in the absorptivity of the cells, thermal efficiencies greater than 50% can be expected for the combined receiver operating at 100 C.

  19. Application of Circuit Model for Photovoltaic Energy Conversion System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natarajan Pandiarajan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Circuit model of photovoltaic (PV module is presented in this paper that can be used as a common platform by material scientists and power electronic circuit designers to develop better PV power plant. Detailed modeling procedure for the circuit model with numerical dimensions is presented using power system blockset of MATLAB/Simulink. The developed model is integrated with DC-DC boost converter with closed-loop control of maximum power point tracking (MPPT algorithm. Simulation results are validated with the experimental setup.

  20. Applied research on energy storage and conversion for photovoltaic and wind energy systems. Volume II. Photovoltaic systems with energy storage. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-01-01

    This volume of the General Electric study was directed at an evaluation of those energy storage technologies deemed best suited for use in conjunction with a photovoltaic energy conversion system in utility, residential and intermediate applications. Break-even cost goals are developed for several storage technologies in each application. These break-even costs are then compared with cost projections presented in Volume I of this report to show technologies and time frames of potential economic viability. The form of the presentation allows the reader to use more accurate storage system cost data as they become available. The report summarizes the investigations performed and presents the results, conclusions and recommendations pertaining to use of energy storage with photovoltaic energy conversion systems. Candidate storage concepts studied include (1) above ground and underground pumped hydro, (2) underground compressed air, (3) electric batteries, (4) flywheels, and (5) hydrogen production and storage. (WHK)

  1. Thermionic photovoltaic energy converter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chubb, D. L. (Inventor)

    1985-01-01

    A thermionic photovoltaic energy conversion device comprises a thermionic diode mounted within a hollow tubular photovoltaic converter. The thermionic diode maintains a cesium discharge for producing excited atoms that emit line radiation in the wavelength region of 850 nm to 890 nm. The photovoltaic converter is a silicon or gallium arsenide photovoltaic cell having bandgap energies in this same wavelength region for optimum cell efficiency.

  2. Acceleration of the solar-thermal energy development but still some brakes upon photovoltaic conversion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2006-01-01

    France shows today the highest growth rate for solar thermal energy with respect to other European countries. This market is structuring and tries to favour quality. A label for systems certification has been presented in January 2007. Photovoltaic conversion has been tied up for a long time by poorly attractive power repurchase tariffs. It benefits now from a propitious framework for its development even if some financial incentive questions relative to the integration of solar panels to buildings remain unanswered. (J.S.)

  3. Silicon Schottky photovoltaic diodes for solar energy conversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, W. A.

    1975-01-01

    Various factors in Schottky barrier solar cell fabrication are evaluated in order to improve understanding of the current flow mechanism and to isolate processing variables that improve efficiency. Results of finger design, substrate resistivity, surface finishing and activation energy studies are detailed. An increased fill factor was obtained by baking of the vacuum system to remove moisture.

  4. Statistical analysis of the electric energy production from photovoltaic conversion using mobile and fixed constructions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bugała, Artur; Bednarek, Karol; Kasprzyk, Leszek; Tomczewski, Andrzej

    2017-10-01

    The paper presents the most representative - from the three-year measurement time period - characteristics of daily and monthly electricity production from a photovoltaic conversion using modules installed in a fixed and 2-axis tracking construction. Results are presented for selected summer, autumn, spring and winter days. Analyzed measuring stand is located on the roof of the Faculty of Electrical Engineering Poznan University of Technology building. The basic parameters of the statistical analysis like mean value, standard deviation, skewness, kurtosis, median, range, or coefficient of variation were used. It was found that the asymmetry factor can be useful in the analysis of the daily electricity production from a photovoltaic conversion. In order to determine the repeatability of monthly electricity production, occurring between the summer, and summer and winter months, a non-parametric Mann-Whitney U test was used as a statistical solution. In order to analyze the repeatability of daily peak hours, describing the largest value of the hourly electricity production, a non-parametric Kruskal-Wallis test was applied as an extension of the Mann-Whitney U test. Based on the analysis of the electric energy distribution from a prepared monitoring system it was found that traditional forecasting methods of the electricity production from a photovoltaic conversion, like multiple regression models, should not be the preferred methods of the analysis.

  5. Development of low-cost silicon crystal growth techniques for terrestrial photovoltaic solar energy conversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoutendyk, J. A.

    1976-01-01

    Because of the growing need for new sources of electrical energy, photovoltaic solar energy conversion is being developed. Photovoltaic devices are now being produced mainly from silicon wafers obtained from the slicing and polishing of cylindrically shaped single crystal ingots. Inherently high-cost processes now being used must either be eliminated or modified to provide low-cost crystalline silicon. Basic to this pursuit is the development of new or modified methods of crystal growth and, if necessary, crystal cutting. If silicon could be grown in a form requiring no cutting, a significant cost saving would potentially be realized. Therefore, several techniques for growth in the form of ribbons or sheets are being explored. In addition, novel techniques for low-cost ingot growth and cutting are under investigation.

  6. Performance testing and economic analysis of a photovoltaic flywheel energy storage and conversion system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hay, R. D.; Millner, A. R.; Jarvinen, P. O.

    1980-01-01

    A subscale prototype of a flywheel energy storage and conversion system for use with photovoltaic power systems of residential and intermediate load-center size has been designed, built and tested by MIT Lincoln Laboratory. System design, including details of such key components as magnetic bearings, motor generator, and power conditioning electronics, is described. Performance results of prototype testing are given and indicate that this system is the equal of or superior to battery-inverter systems for the same application. Results of cost and user-worth analysis show that residential systems are economically feasible in stand-alone and in some utility-interactive applications.

  7. Photovoltaic wire derived from a graphene composite fiber achieving an 8.45 % energy conversion efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Zhibin; Sun, Hao; Chen, Tao; Qiu, Longbin; Luo, Yongfeng; Peng, Huisheng

    2013-07-15

    Wired for light: Novel wire-shaped photovoltaic devices have been developed from graphene/Pt composite fibers. The high flexibility, mechanical strength, and electrical conductivity of graphene composite fibers resulted in a maximum energy conversion efficiency of 8.45 %, which is much higher than that of other wire-shaped photovoltaic devices. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. Engineering graphene and TMDs based van der Waals heterostructures for photovoltaic and photoelectrochemical solar energy conversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Changli; Cao, Qi; Wang, Faze; Xiao, Yequan; Li, Yanbo; Delaunay, Jean-Jacques; Zhu, Hongwei

    2018-05-08

    Graphene and two-dimensional (2D) transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs) have attracted significant interest due to their unique properties that cannot be obtained in their bulk counterparts. These atomically thin 2D materials have demonstrated strong light-matter interactions, tunable optical bandgap structures and unique structural and electrical properties, rendering possible the high conversion efficiency of solar energy with a minimal amount of active absorber material. The isolated 2D monolayer can be stacked into arbitrary van der Waals (vdWs) heterostructures without the need to consider lattice matching. Several combinations of 2D/3D and 2D/2D materials have been assembled to create vdWs heterojunctions for photovoltaic (PV) and photoelectrochemical (PEC) energy conversion. However, the complex, less-constrained, and more environmentally vulnerable interface in a vdWs heterojunction is different from that of a conventional, epitaxially grown heterojunction, engendering new challenges for surface and interface engineering. In this review, the physics of band alignment, the chemistry of surface modification and the behavior of photoexcited charge transfer at the interface during PV and PEC processes will be discussed. We will present a survey of the recent progress and challenges of 2D/3D and 2D/2D vdWs heterojunctions, with emphasis on their applicability to PV and PEC devices. Finally, we will discuss emerging issues yet to be explored for 2D materials to achieve high solar energy conversion efficiency and possible strategies to improve their performance.

  9. Photovoltaic energy conversion and wind power plants creating new jobs; Arbeitsplaetze durch Photovoltaik und Windenergie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hille, G.; Hoffmann, V.U. [Fraunhofer ISE, Freiburg (Germany); Dienhart, H.; Langniss, O.; Nitsch, J. [DLR, Stuttgart (Germany)

    1997-12-01

    Experts are unanimous that opening up new markets through innovative technologies will be the successful strategy for reversing the upward trend of unemployment in Germany. This approach puts renewable energy sources into the foreground, as enhanced use of wind power and photovoltaic energy conversion will no doubt create new jobs. These technologies will, however, require favourable regulatory framework conditions in order to become a significant force in combatting unemployment. (orig./CB) [Deutsch] Es gilt unter Experten als sicher, dass eine Umkehr am Arbeitsmarkt nur dadurch zu schaffen ist, dass innovative Technologien genutzt und damit neue Maerkte erschlossen werden. Demnach koennte etwa dem Ausbau der regenerativen Energietraeger Wind und Photovoltaik zur Schaffung zukunftssicherer Arbeitsplaetze eine grosse Bedeutung zukommen. Einen ernstzunehmenden Beitrag im Kampf gegen die Arbeitslosigkeit koennen diese Technologien allerdings nur unter bestimmten Rahmenbedingungen leisten. (orig./RHM)

  10. Modeling and Coordinated Control Strategy of Large Scale Grid-Connected Wind/Photovoltaic/Energy Storage Hybrid Energy Conversion System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lingguo Kong

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available An AC-linked large scale wind/photovoltaic (PV/energy storage (ES hybrid energy conversion system for grid-connected application was proposed in this paper. Wind energy conversion system (WECS and PV generation system are the primary power sources of the hybrid system. The ES system, including battery and fuel cell (FC, is used as a backup and a power regulation unit to ensure continuous power supply and to take care of the intermittent nature of wind and photovoltaic resources. Static synchronous compensator (STATCOM is employed to support the AC-linked bus voltage and improve low voltage ride through (LVRT capability of the proposed system. An overall power coordinated control strategy is designed to manage real-power and reactive-power flows among the different energy sources, the storage unit, and the STATCOM system in the hybrid system. A simulation case study carried out on Western System Coordinating Council (WSCC 3-machine 9-bus test system for the large scale hybrid energy conversion system has been developed using the DIgSILENT/Power Factory software platform. The hybrid system performance under different scenarios has been verified by simulation studies using practical load demand profiles and real weather data.

  11. Graphene-based photovoltaic cells for near-field thermal energy conversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messina, Riccardo; Ben-Abdallah, Philippe

    2013-01-01

    Thermophotovoltaic devices are energy-conversion systems generating an electric current from the thermal photons radiated by a hot body. While their efficiency is limited in far field by the Schockley-Queisser limit, in near field the heat flux transferred to a photovoltaic cell can be largely enhanced because of the contribution of evanescent photons, in particular for a source supporting a surface mode. Unfortunately, in the infrared where these systems operate, the mismatch between the surface-mode frequency and the semiconductor gap reduces drastically the potential of this technology. In this paper we propose a modified thermophotovoltaic device in which the cell is covered by a graphene sheet. By discussing the transmission coefficient and the spectral properties of the flux, we show that both the cell efficiency and the produced current can be enhanced, paving the way to promising developments for the production of electricity from waste heat.

  12. Workshop proceedings: Photovoltaic conversion of solar energy for terrestrial applications. Volume 1: Working group and panel reports

    Science.gov (United States)

    1973-01-01

    Technological aspects of solar energy conversion by photovoltaic cells are considered. The advantage of the single crystal silicon solar cell approach is developed through comparisons with polycrystalline silicon, cadmium sulfide/copper sulfide thin film cells, and other materials and devices.

  13. Nanomaterials for photovoltaic conversion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davenas, J.; Ltaief, A.; Barlier, V.; Boiteux, G.; Bouazizi, A.

    2008-01-01

    A promising route for photovoltaic conversion has emerged from the combination of electroactive nanomaterials and small bandgap polymers. The formation of bulk heterojunctions resulting from the extended interfaces leads to efficient dissociation of the charge pairs generated under sunlight shown by the rapid extinction of the polymer photoluminescence for increasing contents of fullerenes or TiO 2 nanoparticles in MEH-PPV or PVK. Unconventional elaboration routes of the blends have been developed to increase the nanofiller dispersion and inhibit phase separation at high concentration. The size reduction of the acceptor domains led to a complete quenching of the radiative recombinations, obtained by specific solvent processing of MEH-PPV / C 60 nanocomposites or sol gel elaboration of TiO 2 nanoparticles in a PVK film. A simultaneous increase of the photocurrents could be achieved by the dispersion and size optimisation of the nanofillers. In situ generation of silver particles in MEH-PPV provides an example of enhanced charge separation induced by the plasmon resonance at the metal/polymer interface. The strong influence of the molecular morphology on the nanocomposite properties emphasizes the large improvements which can still be gained on the performances of organic solar cells

  14. Energy Conversion and Transmission Characteristics Analysis of Ice Storage Air Conditioning System Driven by Distributed Photovoltaic Energy System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongfeng Xu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to reduce the investment and operation cost of distributed PV energy system, ice storage technology was introduced to substitute batteries for solar energy storage. Firstly, the ice storage air conditioning system (ISACS driven by distributed photovoltaic energy system (DPES was proposed and the feasibility studies have been investigated in this paper. And then, the theoretical model has been established and experimental work has been done to analyze the energy coupling and transferring characteristics in light-electricity-cold conversion process. In addition, the structure optimization analysis was investigated. Results revealed that energy losses were high in ice making process of ice slide maker with only 17.38% energy utilization efficiency and the energy efficiency and exergy efficiency of ISACS driven by DPES were 5.44% and 67.30%, respectively. So the immersed evaporator and cointegrated exchanger were adopted for higher energy utilization efficiency and better financial rewards in structure optimization. The COP and exergy efficiency of ice maker can be increased to 1.48 and 81.24%, respectively, after optimization and the energy utilization efficiency of ISACS driven by DPES could be improved 2.88 times. Moreover, ISACS has the out-of-the-box function of ordinary air conditioning system. In conclusion, ISACS driven by DPES will have good application prospects in tropical regions without power grid.

  15. Solar spectrum conversion for photovoltaics using nanoparticles

    OpenAIRE

    Sark, W.G.J.H.M. van; Meijerink, A.; Schropp, R.E.I.

    2012-01-01

    The possibility to tune chemical and physical properties in nanosized materials has a strong impact on a variety of technologies, including photovoltaics. One of the prominent research areas of nanomaterials for photovoltaics involves spectral conversion. Conventional single-junction semiconductor solar cells only effectively convert photons of energy close to the semiconductor band gap (Eg) as a result of the mismatch between the incident solar spectrum and the spectral absorption properties...

  16. Hybrid lead halide perovskites for light energy conversion: Excited state properties and photovoltaic applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manser, Joseph S.

    travel 220 nm over the course of 2 ns after photoexcitation, with an extrapolated diffusion length greater than one micrometer over the full excited state lifetime. The solution-processability of metal halide perovskites necessarily raises questions as to the properties of the solvated precursors and their connection to the final solid-state perovskite phase. Through structural and steady-state and time-resolved absorption studies, the important link between the excited state properties of the precursor components, composed of solvated and solid-state halometallate complexes, and CH3NH3PbI3 is evinced. This connection provides insight into optical nonlinearities and electronic properties of the perovskite phase. Fundamental studies of CH 3NH3PbI3 ultimately serve as a foundation for application of this and other related materials in high-performance devices. In the final chapter, the operation of CH3NH3PbI 3 solar cells in a tandem architecture is presented. The quest for economic, large scale hydrogen production has motivated the search for new materials and device designs capable of splitting water using only energy from the sun. In light of this, we introduce an all solution-processed tandem water splitting assembly composed of a BiVO4 photoanode and a single-junction CH3NH3PbI3 hybrid perovskite solar cell. This unique configuration allows efficient solar photon management, with the metal oxide photoanode selectively harvesting high energy visible photons and the underlying perovskite solar cell capturing lower energy visible-near IR wavelengths in a single-pass excitation. Operating without external bias under standard terrestrial one sun illumination, the photoanode-photovoltaic architecture, in conjunction with an earthabundant cobalt phosphate catalyst, exhibits a solar-to-hydrogen conversion efficiency of 2.5% at neutral pH. The design of low-cost tandem water splitting assemblies employing single-junction hybrid perovskite materials establishes a potentially

  17. Space satellite power system. [conversion of solar energy by photovoltaic solar cell arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glaser, P. E.

    1974-01-01

    The concept of a satellite solar power station was studied. It is shown that it offers the potential to meet a significant portion of future energy needs, is pollution free, and is sparing of irreplaceable earth resources. Solar energy is converted by photovoltaic solar cell arrays to dc energy which in turn is converted into microwave energy in a large active phased array. The microwave energy is beamed to earth with little attenuation and is converted back to dc energy on the earth. Economic factors are considered.

  18. Power Control and Optimization of Photovoltaic and Wind Energy Conversion Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghaffari, Azad

    Power map and Maximum Power Point (MPP) of Photovoltaic (PV) and Wind Energy Conversion Systems (WECS) highly depend on system dynamics and environmental parameters, e.g., solar irradiance, temperature, and wind speed. Power optimization algorithms for PV systems and WECS are collectively known as Maximum Power Point Tracking (MPPT) algorithm. Gradient-based Extremum Seeking (ES), as a non-model-based MPPT algorithm, governs the system to its peak point on the steepest descent curve regardless of changes of the system dynamics and variations of the environmental parameters. Since the power map shape defines the gradient vector, then a close estimate of the power map shape is needed to create user assignable transients in the MPPT algorithm. The Hessian gives a precise estimate of the power map in a neighborhood around the MPP. The estimate of the inverse of the Hessian in combination with the estimate of the gradient vector are the key parts to implement the Newton-based ES algorithm. Hence, we generate an estimate of the Hessian using our proposed perturbation matrix. Also, we introduce a dynamic estimator to calculate the inverse of the Hessian which is an essential part of our algorithm. We present various simulations and experiments on the micro-converter PV systems to verify the validity of our proposed algorithm. The ES scheme can also be used in combination with other control algorithms to achieve desired closed-loop performance. The WECS dynamics is slow which causes even slower response time for the MPPT based on the ES. Hence, we present a control scheme, extended from Field-Oriented Control (FOC), in combination with feedback linearization to reduce the convergence time of the closed-loop system. Furthermore, the nonlinear control prevents magnetic saturation of the stator of the Induction Generator (IG). The proposed control algorithm in combination with the ES guarantees the closed-loop system robustness with respect to high level parameter uncertainty

  19. Depletion layer characteristics and photovoltaic energy conversion in organic P-N heterojunctions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chamberlain, G A

    1983-11-01

    The depletion layer characteristics of an organic p-n heterojunction were investigated by measuring the temperature variation of the capacitance, rectification and photovoltaic short-circuit current and open-circuit voltage. The cell consisted of indium-tin-oxide-coated glass/n-type malachite green/p-type merocyanine/Au exposed to chlorine vapour, in the absence of air, to effect the marked rectification and photovoltaic properties observed. Capacitance measurements indicate that a depletion layer of about 65 nm and a barrier height of about 0.8 eV are formed between the two dyes. The forward dark current is dominated by electron tunnelling from the malachite green to the merocyanine. Using an asymmetric trapping model, the reverse saturation current was explained as the thermally activated emission of electrons from filled traps at the Fermi energy of the merocyanine to empty traps in the malachite green over a barrier of 0.72+-0.1 eV. When the cell is working in the photovoltaic mode, the photocurrent is limited by the poor carrier photogeneration efficiency in the malachite green.

  20. Photovoltaic solar energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mouratoglou, P.; Therond, P.G.

    2009-01-01

    The most important assets of photovoltaic energy for sustainable development are its simplicity (no need for complicated thermodynamical cycles) and the universal availability of the sun which explains its great popularity. The main restraint to its full development is the high cost of the technologies used. The silicon technology is the historical technology, it has high conversion rates but is expensive because of high fabrication costs. This technology represents 80% of the market. On the other hand the thin film technology with CdTe, CIS or CIGS is promising in terms of costs but requires research works to increase its conversion rate. Japan and Germany are the leader countries in terms of photovoltaic for research, industrial fabrication or state support, they are followed by Spain, Usa, and China. (A.C.)

  1. Basic aspects for improving the energy conversion efficiency of hetero-junction organic photovoltaic cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryuzaki, Sou; Onoe, Jun

    2013-01-01

    Hetero-junction organic photovoltaic (OPV) cells consisting of donor (D) and acceptor (A) layers have been regarded as next-generation PV cells, because of their fascinating advantages, such as lightweight, low fabrication cost, resource free, and flexibility, when compared to those of conventional PV cells based on silicon and semiconductor compounds. However, the power conversion efficiency (η) of the OPV cells has been still around 8%, though more than 10% efficiency has been required for their practical use. To fully optimize these OPV cells, it is necessary that the low mobility of carriers/excitons in the OPV cells and the open circuit voltage (V OC), of which origin has not been understood well, should be improved. In this review, we address an improvement of the mobility of carriers/excitons by controlling the crystal structure of a donor layer and address how to increase the V OC for zinc octaethylporphyrin [Zn(OEP)]/C60 hetero-junction OPV cells [ITO/Zn(OEP)/C60/Al]. It was found that crystallization of Zn(OEP) films increases the number of inter-molecular charge transfer (IMCT) excitons and enlarges the mobility of carriers and IMCT excitons, thus significantly improving the external quantum efficiency (EQE) under illumination of the photoabsorption band due to the IMCT excitons. Conversely, charge accumulation of photo-generated carriers in the vicinity of the donor/acceptor (D/A) interface was found to play a key role in determining the V OC for the OPV cells.

  2. Electrochemical solar energy conversion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerischer, H.

    1991-01-01

    The principles of solar energy conversion in photoelectrochemical cells are briefly reviewed. Cells for the generation of electric power and for energy storage in form of electrochemical energy are described. These systems are compared with solid state photovoltaic devices, and the inherent difficulties for the operation of the electrochemical systems are analyzed. (author). 28 refs, 10 figs

  3. Solar spectrum conversion for photovoltaics using nanoparticles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sark, W.G.J.H.M. van; Meijerink, A.; Schropp, R.E.I.

    2012-01-01

    The possibility to tune chemical and physical properties in nanosized materials has a strong impact on a variety of technologies, including photovoltaics. One of the prominent research areas of nanomaterials for photovoltaics involves spectral conversion. Conventional single-junction

  4. Research progress of perovskite materials in photocatalysis- and photovoltaics-related energy conversion and environmental treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wei; Tadé, Moses O; Shao, Zongping

    2015-08-07

    Meeting the growing global energy demand is one of the important challenges of the 21st century. Currently over 80% of the world's energy requirements are supplied by the combustion of fossil fuels, which promotes global warming and has deleterious effects on our environment. Moreover, fossil fuels are non-renewable energy and will eventually be exhausted due to the high consumption rate. A new type of alternative energy that is clean, renewable and inexpensive is urgently needed. Several candidates are currently available such as hydraulic power, wind force and nuclear power. Solar energy is particularly attractive because it is essentially clean and inexhaustible. A year's worth of sunlight would provide more than 100 times the energy of the world's entire known fossil fuel reserves. Photocatalysis and photovoltaics are two of the most important routes for the utilization of solar energy. However, environmental protection is also critical to realize a sustainable future, and water pollution is a serious problem of current society. Photocatalysis is also an essential route for the degradation of organic dyes in wastewater. A type of compound with the defined structure of perovskite (ABX3) was observed to play important roles in photocatalysis and photovoltaics. These materials can be used as photocatalysts for water splitting reaction for hydrogen production and photo-degradation of organic dyes in wastewater as well as for photoanodes in dye-sensitized solar cells and light absorbers in perovskite-based solar cells for electricity generation. In this review paper, the recent progress of perovskites for applications in these fields is comprehensively summarized. A description of the basic principles of the water splitting reaction, photo-degradation of organic dyes and solar cells as well as the requirements for efficient photocatalysts is first provided. Then, emphasis is placed on the designation and strategies for perovskite catalysts to improve their

  5. Hybrid photovoltaic-thermoelectric system for concentrated solar energy conversion: Experimental realization and modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beeri, Ofer; Rotem, Oded; Hazan, Eden; Katz, Eugene A.; Braun, Avi; Gelbstein, Yaniv

    2015-09-01

    An experimental demonstration of the combined photovoltaic (PV) and thermoelectric conversion of concentrated sunlight (with concentration factor, X, up to ˜300) into electricity is presented. The hybrid system is based on a multi-junction PV cell and a thermoelectric generator (TEG). The latter increases the electric power of the system and dissipates some of the excessive heat. For X ≤ 200, the system's maximal efficiency, ˜32%, was mostly due to the contribution from the PV cell. With increasing X and system temperature, the PV cell's efficiency decreased while that of the TEG increased. Accordingly, the direct electrical contribution of the TEG started to dominate in the total system power, reaching ˜20% at X ≈ 290. Using a simple steady state finite element modeling, the cooling effect of the TEG on the hybrid system's efficiency was proved to be even more significant than its direct electrical contribution for high solar concentrations. As a result, the total efficiency contribution of the TEG reached ˜40% at X ≈ 200. This suggests a new system optimization concept that takes into account the PV cell's temperature dependence and the trade-off between the direct electrical generation and cooling capabilities of the TEG. It is shown that the hybrid system has a real potential to exceed 50% total efficiency by using more advanced PV cells and TE materials.

  6. A study of potential high band-gap photovoltaic materials for a two step photon intermediate technique in fission energy conversion. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prelas, M.A.

    1996-01-24

    This report describes progress made to develop a high bandgap photovoltaic materials for direct conversion to electricity of excimer radiation produced by fission energy pumped laser. This report summarizes the major achievements in sections. The first section covers n-type diamond. The second section covers forced diffusion. The third section covers radiation effects. The fourth section covers progress in Schottky barrier and heterojunction photovoltaic cells. The fifth section covers cell and reactor development.

  7. Microdistribution of Impurities in Semiconductors and its Influence on Photovoltaic Energy Conversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rava, Paolo

    electrically inert complex. The presence of unactivated areas close to the crystal periphery was attributed to a lower concentration of available vacancies due to the presence of the B-defects (vacancy clusters); a 650(DEGREES)C heat treatment changed their structure, possibly releasing vacancies which then participated in donor formation. On the other hand, the areas activated the first time at 450(DEGREES)C have fewer vacancies available the second time for donor formation and therefore are less activated. It was shown that the vacancy-oxygen complex must be the first step in the formation of multivacancy or any multioxygen donor complexes. The role of a factor other than oxygen in donor activation can be revealed only by a microscale analysis such as the one presented here. In fact, the areas in which donor formation is enhanced by 650(DEGREES)C heat treatment are completely undetected in a macroscale analysis, which therefore would lead to a proportionality between oxygen concentration and activated donors. This work shows that the accepted premise that the concentration of oxygen donors is proportional to the oxygen concentration is not generally valid. Multiple p-n junctions have been prepared in b -doped Si through overcompensation near the oxygen periodic concentration maxima by thermal donors generated during an appropriate heat treatment at 450(DEGREES)C. Application of this structure to photovoltaic energy conversion has been investigated. A new solar cell structure based on multiple p-n junctions was developed and tested. An increase in short circuit current was achieved, but at the same time a degradation in open circuit voltage occurred. An interpretation of the experimental data in the light of the results of a computer simulation showed that an overall increase in efficiency can be achieved in this structure with a small and regular junction spacing. The effect of carrier density inhomogeneities in InP and GaAs samples was then investigated. The same scanning

  8. Solar energy: photovoltaics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goetzberger, A.; Voss, B.; Knobloch, J.

    1994-01-01

    This textbooks covers the following topics: foundations of photovoltaics, solar energy, P-N junctions, physics of solar cells, high-efficiency solar cells, technology of Si solar cells, other solar cells, photovoltaic applications. (orig.)

  9. Error Assessment of Solar Irradiance Forecasts and AC Power from Energy Conversion Model in Grid-Connected Photovoltaic Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gianfranco Chicco

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Availability of effective estimation of the power profiles of photovoltaic systems is essential for studying how to increase the share of intermittent renewable sources in the electricity mix of many countries. For this purpose, weather forecasts, together with historical data of the meteorological quantities, provide fundamental information. The weak point of the forecasts depends on variable sky conditions, when the clouds successively cover and uncover the solar disc. This causes remarkable positive and negative variations in the irradiance pattern measured at the photovoltaic (PV site location. This paper starts from 1 to 3 days-ahead solar irradiance forecasts available during one year, with a few points for each day. These forecasts are interpolated to obtain more irradiance estimations per day. The estimated irradiance data are used to classify the sky conditions into clear, variable or cloudy. The results are compared with the outcomes of the same classification carried out with the irradiance measured in meteorological stations at two real PV sites. The occurrence of irradiance spikes in “broken cloud” conditions is identified and discussed. From the measured irradiance, the Alternating Current (AC power injected into the grid at two PV sites is estimated by using a PV energy conversion model. The AC power errors resulting from the PV model with respect to on-site AC power measurements are shown and discussed.

  10. Efficiency of the monocrystalline photovoltaic modules in conversion solar radiation into electrical energy; Eficiencia de modulos fotovoltaicos monocristalinos na conversao de radiacao solar em energia eletrica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Carliane Diniz e [Universidade Estadual do Maranhao (UEMA), Sao Luis, MA (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Agricola], Email: carlianeds@yahoo.com.br; Seraphim, Odivaldo Jose [Universidade Estadual Paulista (FCA/UNESP), SP (Brazil). Fac. de Ciencias Agronomicas. Dept. de Engenharia Rural], Email: seraphim@fca.unesp.br

    2006-07-01

    With the scarcity of the conventional sources of energy production, other options must be considered, as the use of energy resources you renewed, that they offer to multiple advantages. One of the options to the supply of energy of the agricultural users is the photovoltaic solar systems for the local promotion of the quality of life. The objective of this study was to evaluate two marks of monocrystalline photovoltaic modules in different angles of inclination. The modules had presented low efficiency of conversion in conditions of field for incident solar radiation. (author)

  11. The maximization of the efficiency in the energy conversion in isolated photovoltaic systems; Tecnicas de maxima transferencia de potencia em sistemas fotovoltaicos isolados

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Machado-Neto, L. V. B.; Cabral, C. V. T.; Diniz, A. S. A. C.; Cortizo, P. C.; Oliveira-Filho, D.

    2004-07-01

    The maximization of the efficiency in the energy conversion is essential into the developing of technical and economic sustainability of photovoltaic solar energy systems. In this paper is realized the study of a power maximization technique for photovoltaic generators. The power maximization technique explored in this paper is the Maximum Power Point Tracking (MPPT). There are different strategies being studied currently; this work consists of the development of an electronic converter prototype for MPPT, including the developing of the tracking algorithm implemented in a microcontroller. It is also realized a simulation of the system and a prototype was assembled and the first results are presented here. (Author)

  12. Solar cell array design handbook - The principles and technology of photovoltaic energy conversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rauschenbach, H. S.

    1980-01-01

    Photovoltaic solar cell array design and technology for ground-based and space applications are discussed from the user's point of view. Solar array systems are described, with attention given to array concepts, historical development, applications and performance, and the analysis of array characteristics, circuits, components, performance and reliability is examined. Aspects of solar cell array design considered include the design process, photovoltaic system and detailed array design, and the design of array thermal, radiation shielding and electromagnetic components. Attention is then given to the characteristics and design of the separate components of solar arrays, including the solar cells, optical elements and mechanical elements, and the fabrication, testing, environmental conditions and effects and material properties of arrays and their components are discussed.

  13. Off-axis holographic lens spectrum-splitting photovoltaic system for direct and diffuse solar energy conversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vorndran, Shelby D; Chrysler, Benjamin; Wheelwright, Brian; Angel, Roger; Holman, Zachary; Kostuk, Raymond

    2016-09-20

    This paper describes a high-efficiency, spectrum-splitting photovoltaic module that uses an off-axis volume holographic lens to focus and disperse incident solar illumination to a rectangular shaped high-bandgap indium gallium phosphide cell surrounded by strips of silicon cells. The holographic lens design allows efficient collection of both direct and diffuse illumination to maximize energy yield. We modeled the volume diffraction characteristics using rigorous coupled-wave analysis, and simulated system performance using nonsequential ray tracing and PV cell data from the literature. Under AM 1.5 illumination conditions the simulated module obtained a 30.6% conversion efficiency. This efficiency is a 19.7% relative improvement compared to the more efficient cell in the system (silicon). The module was also simulated under a typical meteorological year of direct and diffuse irradiance in Tucson, Arizona, and Seattle, Washington. Compared to a flat panel silicon module, the holographic spectrum splitting module obtained a relative improvement in energy yield of 17.1% in Tucson and 14.0% in Seattle. An experimental proof-of-concept volume holographic lens was also fabricated in dichromated gelatin to verify the main characteristics of the system. The lens obtained an average first-order diffraction efficiency of 85.4% across the aperture at 532 nm.

  14. Statistical thermodynamics foundation for photovoltaic and photothermal conversion. II. Application to photovoltaic conversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badescu, Viorel; Landsberg, Peter T.

    1995-08-01

    The general theory developed in part I was applied to build up two models of photovoltaic conversion. To this end two different systems were analyzed. The first system consists of the whole absorber (converter), for which the balance equations for energy and entropy are written and then used to derive an upper bound for solar energy conversion. The second system covers a part of the absorber (converter), namely the valence and conduction electronic bands. The balance of energy is used in this case to derive, under additional assumptions, another upper limit for the conversion efficiency. This second system deals with the real location where the power is generated. Both models take into consideration the radiation polarization and reflection, and the effects of concentration. The second model yields a more accurate upper bound for the conversion efficiency. A generalized solar cell equation is derived. It is proved that other previous theories are particular cases of the present more general formalism.

  15. Photovoltaic Solar Energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez N, J.C.; Leal C, H.

    1998-01-01

    A short historical review of the technological advances; the current state and the perspectives of the materials for photovoltaic applications is made. Thereinafter, the general aspects of the physical principles and fundamental parameters that govern the operation of the solar cells are described. To way of the example, a methodology for the design and facilities size of a photovoltaic system is applied. Finally, the perspectives of photovoltaic solar energy in relationship to the market and political of development are mentioned

  16. Solar Photovoltaic Energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehrenreich, Henry; Martin, John H.

    1979-01-01

    The goals of solar photovoltaic technology in contributing to America's future energy needs are presented in this study conducted by the American Physical Society. Although the time needed for photovoltaics to become popular is several decades away, according to the author, short-range applications are given. (Author/SA)

  17. Information report from the Economic Affairs commission on photovoltaic energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    Today and for several years to come, photovoltaic energy represents only a minimal part of the world's electric power production. Photovoltaic energy is only at its beginnings, however several countries have already taken opportunities in the business. This report gives a comprehensive information about photovoltaic energy (basic principles, conversion systems, photovoltaic power plants, incentive programs in other developed countries, regulations ...) and arguments for the development of a structured photovoltaic energy policy in France

  18. Devices and optics for photovoltaic conversion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arujo, G.L.

    1991-01-01

    Photovoltaic energy is one of the most promising renewable energies. The contents of this article deals firstly with the physics of the devices and the optics employed to convert directly sunlight into electricity. Secondly the state of the art of the high efficiency solar cells and concentration systems will be addressed. Finally, there will be some concluding comments about the future prospects of the photovoltaic energy. PV energy conversion is at present a viable technology to produce electricity. But unfortunately its cost is still too high to be competitive with grid connected applications. Roughly speaking there are two main strategies for reducing costs in PV: One of them relies on thin-film, low cost solar cells and modules and the other relies on high efficiency solar cells and modules used, in many cases, in combination with optical concentration. This work will focus in high efficiency solar cells, what means that good quality crystalline semiconductor materials are involved, and in the optics used in concentration systems. 25 figs, 2 tabs

  19. NCPV preprints for the 2. world conference on photovoltaic solar energy conversion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-09-01

    The proceedings contain 26 papers arranged under the following topical sections: Silicon (3 papers); Thin-film PV technologies (11 papers): amorphous silicon, cadmium telluride, copper indium diselenide, and high efficiency devices; Module and BOS manufacturing (2 papers); Cell, module, and system testing (7 papers); and Market development (3 papers). Selected papers have been indexed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  20. Growing green electricity: progress and strategies for use of photosystem I for sustainable photovoltaic energy conversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Khoa; Bruce, Barry D

    2014-09-01

    Oxygenic photosynthesis is driven via sequential action of Photosystem II (PSII) and (PSI)reaction centers via the Z-scheme. Both of these pigment-membrane protein complexes are found in cyanobacteria, algae, and plants. Unlike PSII, PSI is remarkably stable and does not undergo limiting photo-damage. This stability, as well as other fundamental structural differences, makes PSI the most attractive reaction centers for applied photosynthetic applications. These applied applications exploit the efficient light harvesting and high quantum yield of PSI where the isolated PSI particles are redeployed providing electrons directly as a photocurrent or, via a coupled catalyst to yield H₂. Recent advances in molecular genetics, synthetic biology, and nanotechnology have merged to allow PSI to be integrated into a myriad of biohybrid devices. In photocurrent producing devices, PSI has been immobilized onto various electrode substrates with a continuously evolving toolkit of strategies and novel reagents. However, these innovative yet highly variable designs make it difficult to identify the rate-limiting steps and/or components that function as bottlenecks in PSI-biohybrid devices. In this study we aim to highlight these recent advances with a focus on identifying the similarities and differences in electrode surfaces, immobilization/orientation strategies, and artificial redox mediators. Collectively this work has been able to maintain an annual increase in photocurrent density (Acm⁻²) of ~10-fold over the past decade. The potential drawbacks and attractive features of some of these schemes are also discussed with their feasibility on a large-scale. As an environmentally benign and renewable resource, PSI may provide a new sustainable source of bioenergy. This article is part of a special issue entitled: photosynthesis research for sustainability: keys to produce clean energy. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  1. Photovoltaic Energy Conversion Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kouro, Samir; Wu, Bin; Abu-Rub, Haitham

    2014-01-01

    This chapter presents a comprehensive overview of grid-connected PV systems, including power curves, grid-connected configurations, different converter topologies (both single- and three-phase), control schemes, MPPT, and anti-islanding detection methods. The focus of the chapter has been on the ...

  2. Semiconductor electrolyte photovoltaic energy converter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, W. W.; Anderson, L. B.

    1975-01-01

    Feasibility and practicality of a solar cell consisting of a semiconductor surface in contact with an electrolyte are evaluated. Basic components and processes are detailed for photovoltaic energy conversion at the surface of an n-type semiconductor in contact with an electrolyte which is oxidizing to conduction band electrons. Characteristics of single crystal CdS, GaAs, CdSe, CdTe and thin film CdS in contact with aqueous and methanol based electrolytes are studied and open circuit voltages are measured from Mott-Schottky plots and open circuit photo voltages. Quantum efficiencies for short circuit photo currents of a CdS crystal and a 20 micrometer film are shown together with electrical and photovoltaic properties. Highest photon irradiances are observed with the GaAs cell.

  3. Sunlight to hydrogen conversion: Design optimization and energy management of concentrated photovoltaic (CPV-Hydrogen) system using micro genetic algorithm

    KAUST Repository

    Burhan, Muhammad

    2016-02-14

    Owing to the intermittent solar irradiance from cloud cover in the diurnal period and unavailability at night time, the practical design of a solar system requires energy backup storage for an uninterrupted supply or for off-grid operation. However, for highly efficient CPV (concentrated photovoltaic) system, the literature is lacking for energy management and optimization algorithm and tool for standalone operation. In this paper, a system with CPV and electrolyser is presented where beam irradiance of sunlight is harnessed to convert the instantaneously generated electricity into useful Hydrogen/Oxygen gas, where they can be stored and re-used for downstream applications such as the fuel cells, etc. The multi-variable design and multi-objective optimization strategies are proposed and presented for a standalone operation of the CPV-Hydrogen system as well as their system performances, particularly electrical rating of CPV based upon the real weather data of Singapore. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd.

  4. Organic photovoltaic energy in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    Japan finances research programs on photovoltaic conversion since 1974. Research in this domain is one of the 11 priorities of NEDO, the agency of means of the ministry of economy, trade and industry of Japan. The search for an abatement of production costs and of an increase of cells efficiency is mentioned in NEDO's programs as soon as the beginning of the 1990's. A road map has been defined which foresees photovoltaic energy production costs equivalent to the ones of thermal conversion by 2030, i.e. 7 yen/kWh (4.4 cents of euro/kWh). The use of new materials in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSC) or organic solar cells, and of new structures (multi-junctions) is explored to reach this objective. The organic photovoltaic technology is more particularly considered for small generation units in mobile or domestic technologies. Japan is particularly in advance in the improvement of DSSC cells efficiency, in particular in the domain of the research on solid electrolytes. Europe seems more in advance in the domain of the new generation of organic solar cells. Therefore, a complementarity may be found between Japan and French teams in the domain of organic solar cells improvement through collaboration programs. (J.S.)

  5. Photovoltaic Solar Energy Generation

    CERN Document Server

    Lotsch, H.K.V; U.Hoffmann, Volker; Rhodes, William T; Asakura, Toshimitsu; Brenner, Karl-Heinz; Hänsch, Theodor W; Kamiya, Takeshi; Krausz, Ferenc; Monemar, Bo; Venghaus, Herbert; Weber, Horst; Weinfurter, Harald

    2005-01-01

    This comprehensive description and discussion of photovoltaics (PV) is presented at a level that makes it accessible to the interested academic. Starting with an historical overview, the text outlines the relevance of photovoltaics today and in the future. Then follows an introduction to the physical background of solar cells and the most important materials and technologies, with particular emphasis placed on future developments and prospects. The book goes beyond technology by also describing the path from the cell to the module to the system, proceeding to important applications, such as grid-connected and stand-alone systems. The composition and development of the markets and the role of PV in future energy systems are also considered. Finally, the discussion turns to the future structure of energy supplies, expected to comprise more distributed generation, and addresses synergies and competition from other carbon-free energy sources.

  6. Sunlight to hydrogen conversion: Design optimization and energy management of concentrated photovoltaic (CPV-Hydrogen) system using micro genetic algorithm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burhan, Muhammad; Chua, Kian Jon Ernest; Ng, Kim Choon

    2016-01-01

    Owing to the intermittent solar irradiance from cloud cover in the diurnal period and unavailability at night time, the practical design of a solar system requires energy backup storage for an uninterrupted supply or for off-grid operation. However, for highly efficient CPV (concentrated photovoltaic) system, the literature is lacking for energy management and optimization algorithm and tool for standalone operation. In this paper, a system with CPV and electrolyser is presented where beam irradiance of sunlight is harnessed to convert the instantaneously generated electricity into useful Hydrogen/Oxygen gas, where they can be stored and re-used for downstream applications such as the fuel cells, etc. The multi-variable design and multi-objective optimization strategies are proposed and presented for a standalone operation of the CPV-Hydrogen system as well as their system performances, particularly electrical rating of CPV based upon the real weather data of Singapore. - Highlights: • Design modelling and energy management strategy is proposed for CPV-Hydrogen system. • Micro GA does multi-variable and multi-objective optimization for standalone operation. • Design is verified and analysed for minimum cost, zero PSFT and optimal storage. • Performance of each component is presented for different real weather data conditions. • Proposed design approach is applicable in all regions with low and high DNI.

  7. Grid matching of large-scale wind energy conversion systems, alone and in tandem with large-scale photovoltaic systems: An Israeli case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solomon, A.A.; Faiman, D.; Meron, G.

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a grid matching analysis of wind energy conversion systems (WECSs) and photovoltaic (PV)-WECS hybrid systems. The study was carried out using hourly load data of the Israel Electric Corporation (IEC) for the year 2006 and the corresponding simulated hourly performance of large PV and WECS plants in the Negev Desert. Our major objective was to compare the grid-matching capabilities of wind with those of our previously published PV results, and to assess the extent to which the combined employment of WECS and PV can improve the grid matching capability of either technology when used on its own. We find that, due to the differences in diurnal and seasonal output profiles of WECS and PV, their tandem employment significantly improves grid penetration compared to their use individually.

  8. Hydrothermal synthesis of nanocubes of sillenite type compounds for photovoltaic applications and solar energy conversion of carbon dioxide to fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subramanian, Vaidyanathan; Murugesan, Sankaran

    2014-04-29

    The present invention relates to formation of nanocubes of sillenite type compounds, such as bismuth titanate, i.e., Bi.sub.12TiO.sub.20, nanocubes, via a hydrothermal synthesis process, with the resulting compound(s) having multifunctional properties such as being useful in solar energy conversion, environmental remediation, and/or energy storage, for example. In one embodiment, a hydrothermal method is disclosed that transforms nanoparticles of TiO.sub.2 to bismuth titanate, i.e., Bi.sub.12TiO.sub.20, nanocubes, optionally loaded with palladium nanoparticles. The method includes reacting titanium dioxide nanotubes with a bismuth salt in an acidic bath at a temperature sufficient and for a time sufficient to form bismuth titanate crystals, which are subsequently annealed to form bismuth titanate nanocubes. After annealing, the bismuth titanate nanocubes may be optionally loaded with nano-sized metal particles, e.g., nanosized palladium particles.

  9. Perspectives of photovoltaic conversion development in the world

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiron, P.

    2007-01-01

    The present day economical context is favourable to the development of renewable energy sources: high fossil fuel prices, public awareness about environmental problems, etc. The incentive measures implemented by public authorities (regulation, repurchase tariff, tax credits etc.) have permitted to overcome the competitiveness handicap. This favorable framework should last long thanks to the strong support of the European Union. This market study deals with the photovoltaic conversion industry and answers the following questions: what is the world market growth of photovoltaic conversion? What are the most flourishing applications? What are the best oriented markets? How heavy is the world market? What is the degree of competitiveness of this industry? What is the development potential of this market? Who are the best-positioned groups to profit of it? What is the progress of the sector structuration? What is the future of pure players? (J.S.)

  10. Applied research on energy storage and conversion for photovoltaic and wind energy systems. Volume I. Study summary and concept screening. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-01-01

    This study was directed at a review of storage technologies, and particularly those which might be best suited for use in conjunction with wind and photovoltaics. The potential ''worth'' added by incorporating storage was extensively analyzed for both wind and photovoltaics. Energy storage concepts studied include (1) above ground pumped hydro storage, (2) underground pumped hydro storage, (3) thermal storage-oil, (4) thermal storage-steam, (5) underground compressed air storage, (6) pneumatic storage, (7) lead-acid batteries, (8) advanced batteries, (9) inertial storage (flywheel), (10) hydrogen generation and storage, and (11) superconducting magnetic energy storage. The investigations performed and the major results, conclusions, and recommendations are presented in this volume. (WHK)

  11. Direct Conversion of Energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corliss, William R.

    This publication is one of a series of information booklets for the general public published by the United States Atomic Energy Commission. Direct energy conversion involves energy transformation without moving parts. The concepts of direct and dynamic energy conversion plus the laws governing energy conversion are investigated. Among the topics…

  12. ENEA activities on photovoltaic energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coiante, D.; Messana, C.

    1989-01-01

    Photovoltaic conversion appears to be a promising technology for producing electricity. Photovoltaic (PV) solar cells directly convert sun radiation into electricity, without needing moving parts or any kind of fuel. In a long term perspective, PV conversion is expected to become an integrative energy source; at present, high costs are the main limiting factor of the diffusion of PV technology. Costs can be reduced through the joint effect of technological innovation and mass production: therefore, the Italian strategy consists in promoting the gradual enlargement of production volumes and, at the same time, the introduction of less expensive technologies and processes, as soon as they become available. The main responsibility for PV strategies and activities is assigned to ENEA, the Italian National Commission for Nuclear and Alternative Energy Sources. The ENEA five year plan (1985-1989) had allocated about 100 M$ in the PV sector and, as a result, today ENEA is the main national organization promoting PV energy development. ENEA programs include both in house research and external activities. The latter are carried out by universities and industrial firms and concern the whole PV production process from raw materials to complete systems. In Italy there are three main industrial enterprises which produce PV modules an systems: Italsolar (formerly Pragma, ENI group), Ansaldo (IRI group) and Helios Technology, a private firm. Their total annual production capacity amounts to about 2 MW per shift, and is expected to increase in the near future. In 1986, the whole production has been about 0.7 MW: a substantial share of this production has been marketed abroad, mostly as complete systems. (author). 6 tabs

  13. Photovoltaic energy systems. Program summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1982-01-01

    The ongoing research, development, and demonstration efforts of the Photovoltaics Program are highlighted and each of the US Department of Energy's current photovoltaics projects initiated or renewed during fiscal year 1981 is described, including its title, directing organization, project engineer, contractor, principal investigator, contract period, funding, and objectives. The Photovoltaics Program is briefly summarized, including the history and organization and highlights of the research and development and of planning, assessment, and integration. Also summarized is the Federal Photovoltaic Utilization Program. An exhaustive bibliography is included. (LEW)

  14. Efficiency of solar radiation conversion in photovoltaic panels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kurpaska Sławomir

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper included analysis the conversion efficiency in photovoltaic panels. The tests were done between February and June at a test stand equipped with three commonly used types of photovoltaic panels: poly- and monocrystalline silicon and with semi-conductive layer made of copper (Cu, indium (In, gallium (Ga and selenium (Se (CIGS. Five days of each month were selected for a detailed analysis. They were close to the so-called recommended day for calculations in solar power engineering. Efficiency, calculated as the yield of electrical energy in relation to solar radiation energy reaching the panels was made conditional upon solar radiation intensity and ambient temperature. It was found that as solar radiation intensity and ambient temperature increase, the efficiency of solar radiation conversion into electricity is reduced. Correlation dependence was determined for the test data obtained, describing temperature change of panels depending on climatic conditions. It was found that as panel temperature increases, the conversion efficiency is reduced. Within the tested scope of experiment conditions, the efficiency was reduced in the range between 20.1 and 22.8%. The authors also determined the average efficiency values in individual test months together with average ambient conditions of the environment where the process of solar radiation conversion took place.

  15. Photovoltaic energy generation in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1993-01-01

    An overview is given of the current state of the art regarding photovoltaic research and demonstration programmes in the Federal Republic of Germany. Also attention is paid to the companies and research institutes involved, and the long-term economical and technical prospects of photovoltaic energy. 13 figs., 4 tabs., 10 refs

  16. Elements of energy conversion

    CERN Document Server

    Russell, Charles R

    2013-01-01

    Elements of Energy Conversion brings together scattered information on the subject of energy conversion and presents it in terms of the fundamental thermodynamics that apply to energy conversion by any process. Emphasis is given to the development of the theory of heat engines because these are and will remain most important power sources. Descriptive material is then presented to provide elementary information on all important energy conversion devices. The book contains 10 chapters and opens with a discussion of forms of energy, energy sources and storage, and energy conversion. This is foll

  17. Photovoltaic energy barometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2007-01-01

    The european photovoltaic market once again reached the heights in 2006, thanks to the dynamism of the German market. White paper objectives have thus been fulfilled four years ahead of schedule. The european photovoltaic sector remains however very heterogeneous with both an ultra-dominant German market (estimated at 1150 MWp in 2006) and other countries of the European Union that vary from a few kWP to a few dozen MWp. This analysis provides statistical data on the market, the capacity installed during 2005 and 2006, the photovoltaic parks and the evolution of the photovoltaic cell production. (A.L.B.)

  18. Photovoltaic energy systems: Program summary fiscal year 1983

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-01-01

    An overview of government funded activities in photovoltaic energy conversion research is given. Introductory information, a list of directing organizations, a list of acronyms and abbreviations, and an index of current contractors are given.

  19. Energy Conversion Properties of ZnSiP2, a Lattice-Matched Material for Silicon-Based Tandem Photovoltaics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez, Aaron D.; Warren, Emily L.; Gorai, Prashun; Borup, Kasper A.; Krishna, Lakshmi; Kuciauskas, Darius; Dippo, Patricia C.; Ortiz, Brenden R.; Stradins, Paul; Stevanovic, Vladan; Toberer, Eric S.; Tamboli, Adele C.

    2016-11-21

    ZnSiP2 demonstrates promising potential as an optically active material on silicon. There has been a longstanding need for wide band gap materials that can be integrated with Si for tandem photovoltaics and other optoelectronic applications. ZnSiP2 is an inexpensive, earth abundant, wide band gap material that is stable and lattice matched with silicon. This conference proceeding summarizes our PV-relevant work on bulk single crystal ZnSiP2, highlighting the key findings and laying the ground work for integration into Si-based tandem devices.

  20. The photovoltaic energy in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Georgel, O.

    2005-07-01

    Today the Japan is the leader of the photovoltaic energy. The first reason of this success is an action of the government integrating subventions for the installation of photovoltaic systems and a support of the scientific research. To explain this success, the author presents the energy situation in Japan, details the national programs, the industrial sector (market, silicon needs, recycling, manufacturers, building industry) and presents the main actors. (A.L.B.)

  1. Solar energy developments: photovoltaics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sivoththaman, S.

    2006-01-01

    The annual photovoltaic (PV) energy production crossed the 1 Gigawatt mark a couple of years ago, and continues to grow at rates exceeding 40%. The cost of PV has been continuously dropping due to increased production and also thanks to the technological advances made over the past two decades at the material, device, and system levels. Although PV is still considered expensive, cost-competitiveness is expected to be achieved in the next 5-10 years. With the current PV market 90% dominated by crystalline silicon (Si) material, advances are being made in tackling the Si shortage issue, and new approaches in feedstock refinement are getting shape. On the other hand, progress is being made on thin film-based advanced devices and on novel organic semiconductors. Novel concepts based on quantum physics and nanotechnology do have the ability to improve device performance beyond traditional theoretical limits. The domination of Si is expected to shift when these next generation technologies mature into industry-level scalability. On the system level, advanced back-end electronics provides more efficient power conditioning for modern PV modules. Systems level combinations such as solar thermal/PV hybrids and PV/hydrogen systems are also promising. An overview of recent technology developments will be presented with highlights in the Canadian scenario. (author)

  2. Photovoltaic energy barometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon

    2006-01-01

    The european market showed all of its strength and soundness in 2005. The 2005 installed cells growth could have been even greater if the market had not been continually curbed by a lack of raw materials. Germany remained the leading photovoltaic market in the world in 2005, positioned far ahead of Japan and the USA. This unabashed success inspired both Spain and Italy, which set up conditions in order to rapidly develop their photovoltaic sectors. (A.L.B.)

  3. Energy conversion alternatives study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shure, L. T.

    1979-01-01

    Comparison of coal based energy systems is given. Study identifies and compares various advanced energy conversion systems using coal or coal derived fuels for baselaoad electric power generation. Energy Conversion Alternatives Study (ECAS) reports provede government, industry, and general public with technically consistent basis for comparison of system's options of interest for fossilfired electric-utility application.

  4. Sunlight to hydrogen conversion: Design optimization and energy management of concentrated photovoltaic (CPV-Hydrogen) system using micro genetic algorithm

    KAUST Repository

    Burhan, Muhammad; Chua, Kian Jon Ernest; Ng, Kim Choon

    2016-01-01

    Owing to the intermittent solar irradiance from cloud cover in the diurnal period and unavailability at night time, the practical design of a solar system requires energy backup storage for an uninterrupted supply or for off-grid operation. However

  5. Energy conversion statics

    CERN Document Server

    Messerle, H K; Declaris, Nicholas

    2013-01-01

    Energy Conversion Statics deals with equilibrium situations and processes linking equilibrium states. A development of the basic theory of energy conversion statics and its applications is presented. In the applications the emphasis is on processes involving electrical energy. The text commences by introducing the general concept of energy with a survey of primary and secondary energy forms, their availability, and use. The second chapter presents the basic laws of energy conversion. Four postulates defining the overall range of applicability of the general theory are set out, demonstrating th

  6. Phosphorene quantum dot-fullerene nanocomposites for solar energy conversion: An unexplored inorganic-organic nanohybrid with novel photovoltaic properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajbanshi, Biplab; Kar, Moumita; Sarkar, Pallavi; Sarkar, Pranab

    2017-10-01

    Using the self-consistent charge density-functional based tight-binding (SCC-DFTB) method, coupled with time-dependent density functional theory (TDDFT) calculations, for the first time we explore the possibility of use of phosphorene quantum dots in solar energy harvesting devices. The phosphorene quantum dots-fullerene (PQDs-PCBA) nanocomposites show type-II band alignment indicating spatial separation of charge carriers. The TDDFT calculations also show that the PQD-fullerene nanocomposites seem to be exciting material for future generation solar energy harvester, with extremely fast charge transfer and very poor recombination rate.

  7. Photovoltaic conversion in Austria: Inventory 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faninger, G.

    1995-05-01

    On January 1, 1995 photovoltaic systems with a maxiumum capacity of about 1063 kW (peak) were installed in Austria. 48% of the photovoltaic systems are connected with the grid, 24% are stand-alone systems and about 28% are small systems (<200 W) for different applications. (author)

  8. Solar energy conversion systems

    CERN Document Server

    Brownson, Jeffrey R S

    2013-01-01

    Solar energy conversion requires a different mind-set from traditional energy engineering in order to assess distribution, scales of use, systems design, predictive economic models for fluctuating solar resources, and planning to address transient cycles and social adoption. Solar Energy Conversion Systems examines solar energy conversion as an integrative design process, applying systems thinking methods to a solid knowledge base for creators of solar energy systems. This approach permits different levels of access for the emerging broad audience of scientists, engineers, architects, planners

  9. Photovoltaic energy cost limit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coiante, D.

    1992-01-01

    Referring to a photovoltaic system for grid connected applications, a parametric expression of kWh cost is derived. The limit of kWh cost is carried out extrapolating the values of cost components to their lowest figure. The reliability of the forecast is checked by disaggregating kWh cost in direct and indirect costs and by discussing the possible cost reduction of each component

  10. Autonomous renewable energy conversion system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valtchev, V. [Technical University of Varna (Bulgaria). Dept. of Electronics; Bossche, A. van den; Ghijselen, J.; Melkebeek, J. [University of Gent (Belgium). Dept. of Electrical Power Engineering

    2000-02-01

    This paper briefly reviews the need for renewable power generation and describes a medium-power Autonomous Renewable Energy Conversion System (ARECS), integrating conversion of wind and solar energy sources. The objectives of the paper are to extract maximum power from the proposed wind energy conversion scheme and to transfer this power and the power derived by the photovoltaic system in a high efficiency way to a local isolated load. The wind energy conversion operates at variable shaft speed yielding an improved annual energy production over constant speed systems. An induction generator (IG) has been used because of its reduced cost, robustness, absence of separate DC source for excitation, easier dismounting and maintenance. The maximum energy transfer of the wind energy is assured by a simple and reliable control strategy adjusting the stator frequency of the IG so that the power drawn is equal to the peak power production of the wind turbine at any wind speed. The presented control strategy also provides an optimal efficiency operation of the IG by applying a quadratic dependence between the IG terminal voltage and frequency V {approx} f{sup 2}. For improving the total system efficiency, high efficiency converters have been designed and implemented. The modular principle of the proposed DC/DC conversion provides the possibility for modifying the system structure depending on different conditions. The configuration of the presented ARECS and the implementation of the proposed control algorithm for optimal power transfer are fully discussed. The stability and dynamic performance as well as the different operation modes of the proposed control and the operation of the converters are illustrated and verified on an experimental prototype. (author)

  11. Entropy fluxes, endoreversibility, and solar energy conversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vos, A.; Landsberg, P. T.; Baruch, P.; Parrott, J. E.

    1993-09-01

    A formalism illustrating the conversion of radiation energy into work can be obtained in terms of energy and entropy fluxes. Whereas the Landsberg equality was derived for photothermal conversion with zero bandgap, a generalized inequality for photothermal/photovoltaic conversion with a single, but arbitrary, bandgap was deduced. This result was derived for a direct energy and entropy balance. The formalism of endoreversible dynamics was adopted in order to show the correlation with the latter approach. It was a surprising fact that the generalized Landsberg inequality was derived by optimizing some quantity W(sup *), which obtains it maximum value under short-circuit condition.

  12. Photovoltaic energy in power market

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ho, D.T.; Frunt, J.; Myrzik, J.M.A.

    2009-01-01

    Photovoltaic (PV) penetration in the grid connected power system has been growing. Currently, PV electricity is usually directly sold back to the energy supplier at a fixed price and subsidy. However, subsidies should always be a temporary policy, and will eventually be terminated. A question is

  13. Efficiency of solar radiation conversion in photovoltaic panels

    OpenAIRE

    Kurpaska Sławomir; Knaga Jarosław; Latała Hubert; Sikora Jakub; Tomczyk Wiesław

    2018-01-01

    This paper included analysis the conversion efficiency in photovoltaic panels. The tests were done between February and June at a test stand equipped with three commonly used types of photovoltaic panels: poly- and monocrystalline silicon and with semi-conductive layer made of copper (Cu), indium (In), gallium (Ga) and selenium (Se) (CIGS). Five days of each month were selected for a detailed analysis. They were close to the so-called recommended day for calculations in solar power engineerin...

  14. Assessment of photovoltaic conversion technology for electricity producing in Bulgaria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vitanov, P.; Tyutyundzhiev, N.; Peneva, M.; Delibasheva, M.

    1996-01-01

    Characteristics of a 36W/12V solar photovoltaic converter developed in the Bulgarian Academy of Sciences have been studied. Technical description of the module containing 4 monocrystal Si solar elements is given. Each element is with conversion efficiency more than 12% and has multilayer metallization. The power generated by the module is directly proportional to solar radiation. The electric energy generated in a sunny day is more than 240 Wh and more than 7 kWh in a spring month (April). The system can work without a battery for 8 - 18 hours. The results show that the utilization of such type of economically efficient stand-alone systems is advisable for Bulgaria. 4 figs., 3 refs

  15. Highway renewable energy : photovoltaic noise barriers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-07-01

    Highway photovoltaic noise barriers (PVNBs) represent the combination of noise barrier systems and photovoltaic systems in order to mitigate traffic noise while simultaneously producing renewable energy. First deployed in Switzerland in 1989, PVNBs a...

  16. Experimental investigation of an optical water filter for Photovoltaic/Thermal conversion module

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Shohani, Wisam A.M.; Sabouri, Aydin; Al-Dadah, Raya; Mahmoud, Saad; Butt, Haider

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • New design of Photovoltaic/Thermal system is proposed. • Using the optical water layer as a spectrum splitter is tested experimentally. • Optical rig is developed to study the optical performance of water layer. • Energy conversion under different water layer thicknesses is determined. - Abstract: This paper presents an experimental investigation of a novel optical water filter used for Photovoltaic/Thermal and Concentrating Photovoltaic/Thermal modules. A water layer is used as a spectrum splitter of solar radiation placed above the photovoltaic cells and as a thermal working fluid simultaneously. The water layer absorbs the ultraviolet and part of infrared, which are not used by the photovoltaic, but transmits the visible and some of infrared to the solar cell surface which are used by the photovoltaic. In this work, the transmittance of the optical water filter was measured for different water thicknesses (1, 2, 3, 4, and 5 cm) and radiation wavelength ranging from 0.35 to 1 μm. Results show that there is a significant effect of the water layer thickness on the transmittance of the spectra where the transmittance decreases as the water layer increases. Moreover, energy conversion rate of photovoltaic with the optical water filter at different water layer thicknesses has been determined.

  17. Low cost and efficient photovoltaic conversion by nanocrystalline solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Graetzel, M. [Institut de Chimie Physique, Ecole Polytechnique Federal de Lausanne (Switzerland)

    1996-09-01

    Solar cells are expected to provide environmentally friendly solutions to the world`s energy supply problem. Learning from the concepts used by green plants we have developed a molecular photovoltaic device whose overall efficiency for AM 1.5 solar light to electricity has already attained 8-11%. The system is based on the sensitization of nanocrystalline oxide films by transition metal charge transfer sensitizers. In analogy to photosynthesis, the new chemical solar cell achieves the separation of the light absorption and charge carrier transport processes. Extraordinary yields for the conversion of incident photons into electric current are obtained, exceeding 90% for transition metal complexes within the wavelength range of their absorption band. The use of molten salt electrolytes together with coordination complexes of ruthenium as sensitizers and adequate sealing technology has endowed these cells with a remarkable stability making practical applications feasible. Seven industrial cooperations are presently involved in the development to bring these cells to the market. The first cells will be applied to supply electric power for consumer electronic devices. The launching of production of several products of this type is imminent and they should be on the market within the next two years. Quite aside from their intrinsic merits as photovoltaic device, the mesoscopic oxide semiconductor films developed in our laboratory offer attractive possibilities for a number of other applications. Thus, the first example of a nanocrystalline rocking chair battery will be demonstrated and its principle briefly discussed.

  18. Photovoltaic solar energy; Photovoltaische Solarenergie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-07-01

    Within the 27th symposium of the Ostbayerische Technologie-Transfer-Institut e.V. (Regensburg, Federal Republic of Germany) from 29th February to 02th March, 2012, at Banz monastery near Bad Staffelstein (Federal Republic of Germany), the following lectures were held: (1) EEG 12: State of the art and impacts (K. Freier); (2) Promising markets - PV market potentials Europe (M. Lohr); (3) Expansion requires restructuring - Research promotion for renewable energy and renewable energy supply systems (K. Deller); (4) Fields of application and potentials of photovoltaics in Germany without an enhanced EEG compensation (V. Quaschning); (5) ''Smart Solar Grid'' - Results of the analysis and solar roof potential of the first test area of the public utility Ulm (H. Ruf); (6) Power limitation at PV plants - Adjustment of modelling methods and comparison of different location (J. von Appen); (7) Exploitations to the power limitation till to 70 % of the module capacity (B. Giesler); (8) Actual procedural results of the clearing house EEG to photovoltaics and modifications at PV by means of the EEG 2012 (M. Winkler); (9) Grid integration of PV plants from a legal point of view (M. von Oppen); (10) EEG 2012 - Abetment or brake? PV and other renewable energies in comparison (M. Reichmuth); (11) On the precision of radiation and photovoltaics component models (J. Schumacher); (12) Impact of global radiation data with different properties on the performance ratio and prognosticated energy efficiency of photovoltaic power plants (M. Egler); (13) Quantification of superelevations of irradiation in high-resolution DWD datasets for different locations in Germany (M. Zehner); (14) Prognosis of the regional PV performance with measuring data of PV plant and satellite pictures (Y.-M. Saint-Drenan); (15) Photovoltaics and wind power: perfectly complementing power technologies using Central Germany as an example (C. Breyer); (16) Which and how much storages are necessary

  19. Solar energy conversion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kistler, J.

    1981-08-05

    The photovoltaic generator is the central part of all solar systems. Flat solar cells embedded in glass are preferred which can also convert diffuse solar radiation. Hybrid modules generate electrical and thermal energy simultaneously. With decreasing generator cost, the cost of energy storage becomes critical. Development activities are mostly directed on the development of stationary lead accumulator batteries and the electronic charging and protective systems. The block diagram of the current converter is presented, and applications of solar systems in domestic heating engineering, transportation technology, communications, and hydrological engineering. Solar villages are recommended which, established in bilateral cooperation with Third World authorities, may demonstrate the advantages of solar energy in heat and electric power generation.

  20. Photovoltaic solar energy;L'energie solaire photovoltaique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mouratoglou, P. [EDF Energies Nouvelles, 75 - Paris (France); Therond, P.G. [EDF Dir. Nouvelles Technologies, 75 - Paris (France)

    2009-11-15

    The most important assets of photovoltaic energy for sustainable development are its simplicity (no need for complicated thermodynamical cycles) and the universal availability of the sun which explains its great popularity. The main restraint to its full development is the high cost of the technologies used. The silicon technology is the historical technology, it has high conversion rates but is expensive because of high fabrication costs. This technology represents 80% of the market. On the other hand the thin film technology with CdTe, CIS or CIGS is promising in terms of costs but requires research works to increase its conversion rate. Japan and Germany are the leader countries in terms of photovoltaic for research, industrial fabrication or state support, they are followed by Spain, Usa, and China. (A.C.)

  1. Fundamentals of thermophotovoltaic energy conversion

    CERN Document Server

    Chubb, Donald L

    2007-01-01

    This is a text book presenting the fundamentals of thermophotovoltaic(TPV) energy conversion suitable for an upper undergraduate or first year graduate course. In addition it can serve as a reference or design aid for engineers developing TPV systems. Mathematica design programs for interference filters and a planar TPV system are included on a CD-Rom disk. Each chapter includes a summary and concludes with a set of problems. The first chapter presents the electromagnetic theory and radiation transfer theory necessary to calculate the optical properties of the components in a TPV optical cavity. Using a simplified model, Chapter 2 develops expressions for the maximum efficiency and power density for an ideal TPV system. The next three chapters consider the three major components in a TPV system; the emitter, filter and photovoltaic(PV) array. Chapter 3 applies the electromagnetic theory and radiation transfer theory presented in Chapter 1 in the calculation of spectral emittance. From the spectral emittance t...

  2. Ocean wave energy conversion

    CERN Document Server

    McCormick, Michael E

    2007-01-01

    This volume will prove of vital interest to those studying the use of renewable resources. Scientists, engineers, and inventors will find it a valuable review of ocean wave mechanics as well as an introduction to wave energy conversion. It presents physical and mathematical descriptions of the nine generic wave energy conversion techniques, along with their uses and performance characteristics.Author Michael E. McCormick is the Corbin A. McNeill Professor of Naval Engineering at the U.S. Naval Academy. In addition to his timely and significant coverage of possible environmental effects associa

  3. Magnetohydrodynamic energy conversion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosa, R.J.

    1987-01-01

    The object of this book is to present a review of the basic principles and practical aspects of magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) energy conversion. The author has tried to give qualitative semiphysical arguments where possible for the benefit of the reader who is unfamiliar with plasma physics. The aim of MHD energy conversion is to apply to a specific practical goal a part of what has become a vast area of science called plasma physics. The author has attempted to note in the text where a broader view might be fruitful and to give appropriate references

  4. Pffffff... The German energy turnaround so far focused on photovoltaic conversion, but this may soon be over; Pffffff... Die Energiewende bestand bisher vor allem aus dem Zubau der Photovoltaik. Das duerfte vorbei sein

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Podewils, Christoph

    2012-04-15

    The German government is cutting funds for photovoltaic conversion. Fewer new photovoltaic plants are to be constructed, and reimbursement rates will be lower. At the same time, higher demands are made especially on operators of small and medium-sized systems. Defendants were able to prevent the worst in the newly amended Renewables Act, but only just.

  5. Photovoltaic energy in Germany: experience feedback

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Persem, Melanie

    2011-01-01

    This document presents some key information and figures about the development of photovoltaic energy in Germany: resource potential, 2000-2010 development, share in the energy mix, market, legal framework and incentives, market evolution and electricity feed-in tariffs, 2006-2011 evolution of photovoltaic power plant costs, households' contribution, R and D investments, industry development and employment, the German national energy plan after Fukushima, the expectations of the German photovoltaic industry

  6. Miniature photovoltaic energy system for lighting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Awais, M.

    1999-01-01

    In this project a miniature photovoltaic energy system has been designed and developed, that may be used in remote areas and villages for lighting purposes. System sizing is the important part of the project because it affects the cost of the system. Therefore, first of all system sizing has been done. For conversion of dc voltage of the battery into ac voltage, an inverter has been designed. To charge the battery when the sun is not shining, a standby system has been developed using a bicycle and dynamo. To indicate the battery's state of charge and discharge, a battery monitoring circuit has also been developed. Similarly, to protect the battery from over discharging, a battery protection circuit has been designed. In order to measure how much energy is going from standby system to the battery, an efficient dc electronic energy meter has been designed and developed. The working of the overall system has been tested and found to give good performance. (author)

  7. Press document. Photovoltaic energy: boosting the evolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-04-01

    The french potential in the photovoltaic energy is considerable but not very exploited. In this context the CEA, by its function of applied research institute in the domain of the low carbon energies can be a major actor of the sector development. This document presents the research programs in the photovoltaic domain, developed at the CEA, especially on the silicon performance, the photovoltaic solar cells and their integration in the buildings. (A.L.B.)

  8. Microbial Energy Conversion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buckley, Merry [American Society for Microbiology (ASM), Washington, DC (United States); Wall, Judy D. [Univ. of Missouri, Columbia, MO (United States)

    2006-10-01

    The American Academy of Microbiology convened a colloquium March 10-12, 2006, in San Francisco, California, to discuss the production of energy fuels by microbial conversions. The status of research into various microbial energy technologies, the advantages and disadvantages of each of these approaches, research needs in the field, and education and training issues were examined, with the goal of identifying routes for producing biofuels that would both decrease the need for fossil fuels and reduce greenhouse gas emissions. Currently, the choices for providing energy are limited. Policy makers and the research community must begin to pursue a broader array of potential energy technologies. A diverse energy portfolio that includes an assortment of microbial energy choices will allow communities and consumers to select the best energy solution for their own particular needs. Funding agencies and governments alike need to prepare for future energy needs by investing both in the microbial energy technologies that work today and in the untested technologies that will serve the world’s needs tomorrow. More mature bioprocesses, such as ethanol production from starchy materials and methane from waste digestors, will find applications in the short term. However, innovative techniques for liquid fuel or biohydrogen production are among the longer term possibilities that should also be vigorously explored, starting now. Microorganisms can help meet human energy needs in any of a number of ways. In their most obvious role in energy conversion, microorganisms can generate fuels, including ethanol, hydrogen, methane, lipids, and butanol, which can be burned to produce energy. Alternatively, bacteria can be put to use in microbial fuel cells, where they carry out the direct conversion of biomass into electricity. Microorganisms may also be used some day to make oil and natural gas technologies more efficient by sequestering carbon or by assisting in the recovery of oil and

  9. Wind energy conversion system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longrigg, Paul

    1987-01-01

    The wind energy conversion system includes a wind machine having a propeller connected to a generator of electric power, the propeller rotating the generator in response to force of an incident wind. The generator converts the power of the wind to electric power for use by an electric load. Circuitry for varying the duty factor of the generator output power is connected between the generator and the load to thereby alter a loading of the generator and the propeller by the electric load. Wind speed is sensed electro-optically to provide data of wind speed upwind of the propeller, to thereby permit tip speed ratio circuitry to operate the power control circuitry and thereby optimize the tip speed ratio by varying the loading of the propeller. Accordingly, the efficiency of the wind energy conversion system is maximized.

  10. Towards improved photovoltaic conversion using dilute magnetic semiconductors (abstract only)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olsson, Paer; Guillemoles, J-F; Domain, C

    2008-01-01

    Present photovoltaic devices, based on p/n junctions, are limited from first principles to maximal efficiencies of 31% (40% under full solar concentration; Shockley and Queisser 1961 J. Appl. Phys. 32 510). However, more innovative schemes may overcome the Shockley-Queisser limit since the theoretical maximal efficiency of solar energy conversion is higher than 85% (Harder and Wuerfel 2003 Semicond. Sci. Technol. 18 S151). To date, the only practical realization of such an innovative scheme has been multi-junction devices, which at present hold the world record for efficiency at nearly 41% at significant solar concentration (US DOE news site: http://www.energy.gov/news/4503.htm). It has been proposed that one could make use of the solar spectrum in much the same way as the multi-junction devices do but in a single cell, using impurity induced intermediate levels to create gaps of different sizes. This intermediate level semiconductor (ILSC) concept (Green and Wenham 1994 Appl. Phys. Lett. 65 2907; Luque and MartI1997 Phys. Rev. Lett. 78 5014) has a maximal efficiency similar to that of multi-junction devices but suffers from prohibitively large non-radiative recombination rates. We here propose to use a ferromagnetic impurity scheme in order to reduce the non-radiative recombination rates while maintaining the high theoretical maximum efficiency of the ILSC scheme, that is about 46%. Using density functional theory calculations, the electronic and energetic properties of transition metal impurities for a wide range of semiconductors have been analysed. Of the several hundred compounds studied, only a few fulfil the design criteria that we present here. As an example, wide gap AlP is one of the most promising compounds. It was found that inclusion of significant amounts of Mn in AlP induces band structures providing conversion efficiencies potentially close to the theoretical maximum, with an estimated Curie temperature reaching above 100 K

  11. Photovoltaic power systems energy storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buldini, P.L.

    1991-01-01

    Basically, the solar photovoltaic power system consists of: Array of solar panels; Charge/voltage stabilizer; Blocking diode and Storage device. The storage device is a very important part of the system due to the necessity to harmonize the inevitable time shift between energy supply and demand. As energy storage, different devices can be utilized, such as hydropumping, air or other gas compression, flywheel, superconducting magnet, hydrogen generation and so on, but actually secondary (rechargeable) electrochemical cells appear to be the best storage device, due to the direct use for recharge of the d.c. current provided by the solar panels, without any intermediate step of energy transformation and its consequent loss of efficiency

  12. Photovoltaic energy potential of Quebec

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Royer, J.; Thomas, R.

    1993-01-01

    Results are presented from a study concerning the potential of photovoltaic (PV) energy in Quebec to the year 2010. The different PV applications which are or will be economically viable in Quebec for the study period are identified and evaluated in comparison with the conventional energy sources used for these applications. Two penetration scenarios are proposed. One considers little change at the level of policies established for commercialization of PV sources, and the other considers certain measures which accelerate the implementation of PV technology in certain niches. While the off-grid market is already motivated to adopt PV technology for economic reasons, it is forecast that all encouragement from lowering costs would accelerate PV sales, offering a larger purchasing power to all interested parties. Above all, lowered PV costs would open up the network market. Photovoltaics would have access to a much larger market, which will accelerate changes in the very nature of the industry and bring with it new reductions in the costs of producing PV systems. 5 refs., 1 fig., 7 tabs

  13. Solar energy conversion

    CERN Document Server

    Likhtenshtein, Gertz I

    2012-01-01

    Finally filling a gap in the literature for a text that also adopts the chemist?s view of this hot topic, Prof Likhtenshtein, an experienced author and internationally renowned scientist, considers different physical and engineering aspects in solar energy conversion. From theory to real-life systems, he shows exactly which chemical reactions take place when converting light energy, providing an overview of the chemical perspective from fundamentals to molecular harvesting systems and solar cells. This essential guide will thus help researchers in academia and industry better understa

  14. Solar energy photovoltaic technology: proficiency and performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    Total is committed to making the best possible of the planet's fossil fuel reserves while fostering the emergence of other solutions, notably by developing effective alternatives. Total involves in photovoltaics when it founded in 1983 Total Energies, renamed Tenesol in 2005, a world leader in the design and installation of photovoltaic solar power systems. This document presents Total's activities in the domain: the global challenge of energy sources and the environment, the energy collecting by photovoltaic electricity, the silicon technology for cell production, solar panels and systems to distribute energy, research and development to secure the future. (A.L.B.)

  15. Thermodynamics and energy conversion

    CERN Document Server

    Struchtrup, Henning

    2014-01-01

    This textbook gives a thorough treatment of engineering thermodynamics with applications to classical and modern energy conversion devices.   Some emphasis lies on the description of irreversible processes, such as friction, heat transfer and mixing, and the evaluation of the related work losses. Better use of resources requires high efficiencies, therefore the reduction of irreversible losses should be seen as one of the main goals of a thermal engineer. This book provides the necessary tools.   Topics include: car and aircraft engines,  including Otto, Diesel and Atkinson cycles, by-pass turbofan engines, ramjet and scramjet;  steam and gas power plants, including advanced regenerative systems, solar tower, and compressed air energy storage; mixing and separation, including reverse osmosis, osmotic powerplants, and carbon sequestration; phase equilibrium and chemical equilibrium, distillation, chemical reactors, combustion processes, and fuel cells; the microscopic definition of entropy.    The book i...

  16. Module-level DC/DC conversion for photovoltaic systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergveld, H.J.; Büthker, D.; Castello, C.; Doorn, T.S.; Jong, de A.; van Otten, R.; Waal, de K.

    2011-01-01

    Photovoltaic (PV) systems are increasingly used to generate electrical energy from solar irradiance incident on PV modules. Each PV module is formed by placing a large amount of PV cells, typically 60, in series. The PV system is then formed by placing a number, typically 10–12, of PV modules in

  17. Conference: photovoltaic energy - local authorities - Citizen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belon, Daniel; Witte, Sonja; Simonet, Luc; Waldmann, Lars; Fouquet, Doerte; Dupassieux, Henri; Longo, Fabio; Brunel, Arnaud; Kruppert, Andreas; Vachette, Philippe

    2012-01-01

    The French-German office for Renewable energies (OFAEnR) organised a conference on the role of photovoltaic energy, local authorities and Citizens as pillars of the energy transition. In the framework of this French-German exchange of experience, about 100 participants exchanged views on the role of local authorities and Citizens in the implementation of the energy transition. This document brings together the available presentations (slides) made during this event: 1 - Solar photovoltaics, local communities and citizens - Cornerstones of the energy revolution. Franco-German viewpoints (Daniel Belon); 2 - Structure and management of the distribution system operators in Germany. efficient, innovative and reliable: Local public enterprises in Germany (Sonja Witte); 3 - Photovoltaic energy: technical challenges for power grids - A distribution network operator's (DNO) point-of-view (Luc Simonet); 4 - The sun and the grid - challenges of the energy transition (Lars Waldmann); 5 - The role of local public authorities in the networks management: legal situation in France, Germany and in the EU (Doerte Fouquet); 6 - Towards energy transition: challenges for renewable energies - Urban solar planning tools (Henri Dupassieux); 7 - The local energy supply as a municipal task - solar land-use planning in practice in Germany (Fabio Longo); 8 - Supporting and facilitating the financing of photovoltaic projects at a community level (Arnaud Brunel); 9 - Photovoltaics in the municipality VG Arzfeld (Andreas Kruppert); 10 - For the energy revolution to be a success: Invest into renewable energy. Local, controllable and renewable 'shared energy' that is grassroots (Philippe Vachette)

  18. Solar energy – new photovoltaic technologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sommer-Larsen, Peter

    2009-01-01

    Solar energy technologies directly convert sunlight into electricity and heat, or power chemical reactions that convert simple molecules into synthetic chemicals and fuels. The sun is by far the most abundant source of energy, and a sustainable society will need to rely on solar energy as one...... of its major energy sources. Solar energy is a focus point in many strategies for a sustainable energy supply. The European Commission’s Strategic Energy Plan (SET-plan) envisages a Solar Europe Initiative, where photovoltaics and concentrated solar power (CSP) supply as much power as wind mills...... in the future. Much focus is directed towards photovoltaics presently. Installation of solar cell occurs at an unprecedented pace and the expectations of the photovoltaics industry are high: a total PV capacity of 40 GW by 2012 as reported by a recent study. The talk progresses from general solar energy topics...

  19. Geothermal energy conversion facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kutscher, C.F.

    1997-12-31

    With the termination of favorable electricity generation pricing policies, the geothermal industry is exploring ways to improve the efficiency of existing plants and make them more cost-competitive with natural gas. The Geothermal Energy Conversion Facility (GECF) at NREL will allow researchers to study various means for increasing the thermodynamic efficiency of binary cycle geothermal plants. This work has received considerable support from the US geothermal industry and will be done in collaboration with industry members and utilities. The GECF is being constructed on NREL property at the top of South Table Mountain in Golden, Colorado. As shown in Figure 1, it consists of an electrically heated hot water loop that provides heating to a heater/vaporizer in which the working fluid vaporizes at supercritical or subcritical pressures as high as 700 psia. Both an air-cooled and water-cooled condenser will be available for condensing the working fluid. In order to minimize construction costs, available equipment from the similar INEL Heat Cycle Research Facility is being utilized.

  20. Information report from the Economic Affairs commission on photovoltaic energy; Rapport d'information depose en application de l'article 145 du reglement par la commission des affaires economiques sur l'energie photovoltaique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2009-07-01

    Today and for several years to come, photovoltaic energy represents only a minimal part of the world's electric power production. Photovoltaic energy is only at its beginnings, however several countries have already taken opportunities in the business. This report gives a comprehensive information about photovoltaic energy (basic principles, conversion systems, photovoltaic power plants, incentive programs in other developed countries, regulations ...) and arguments for the development of a structured photovoltaic energy policy in France.

  1. Energy level alignment at interfaces in organic photovoltaic devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Opitz, Andreas; Frisch, Johannes; Schlesinger, Raphael; Wilke, Andreas; Koch, Norbert

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Energy level alignment is crucial for organic solar cell efficiency. ► Photoelectron spectroscopy can reliably determine energy levels of organic material interfaces. ► Care must be taken to avoid even subtle sample damage. -- Abstract: The alignment of energy levels at interfaces in organic photovoltaic devices is crucial for their energy conversion efficiency. Photoelectron spectroscopy (PES) is a well-established and widely used technique for determining the electronic structure of materials; at the same time PES measurements of conjugated organic materials often pose significant challenges, such as obtaining sufficiently defined sample structures and radiation-induced damage of the organic layers. Here we report how these challenges can be tackled to unravel the energy levels at interfaces in organic photovoltaic devices, i.e., electrode/organic and organic/organic interfaces. The electronic structure across entire photovoltaic multilayer devices can thus be reconciled. Finally, general considerations for correlating the electronic structure and the photovoltaic performance of devices will be discussed

  2. Energy management in buildings using photovoltaics

    CERN Document Server

    Papadopoulou, Elena

    2012-01-01

    Although fossil fuels remain the primary global energy source, developing and expanding economies are creating an ever-widening gap between supply and demand. Efficient energy management offers a cost-effective opportunity for both industrialized and developing nations to limit the enormous financial and environmental costs associated with burning fossil fuels. The implication of photovoltaic systems in particular presents the potential for clean and sustainable electrical energy to be generated from an unrestricted source. Energy Management in Buildings Using Photovoltaics demonstrates how ad

  3. HYDROKINETIC ENERGY CONVERSION SYSTEMS: PROSPECTS ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    eobe

    Hydrokinetic energy conversion systems utilize the kinetic energy of flowing water bodies with little or no head to generate ... generator. ... Its principle of operation is analogous to that of wind ..... Crisis-solar and wind power systems, 2009,.

  4. Ocean energy conversion - A reality

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sarkar, A.

    -depth analysis of application and achievements of OTEC, tidal energy, impact of astronomical forces on tide, prospects of tidal power plants, wave energy conversion and its mathematical approach for both linear and non-linear waves, economic viability, problems...

  5. Situation and perspectives of the development of investigation on photovoltage conversion of solar energy in Kazakhstan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mansurov, Z.A.; Taurbaev, T.I.; Mikhailov, L.V.; Bychkov, S.G.

    1997-01-01

    The article presents the talk on the research and development on photovoltaic conversion of solar energy in Kazakhstan given at the International Workshop on applied solar energy held in Tashkent(Uzbekistan) in June 1997. It is shown that the use of solar energy devices in particular on the basis of photovoltaic cells has the economical advantage in Kazakhstan arid lands. The description of some photovoltaic cells on the basis of aluminium and gallium arsenide is presented. (A.A.D.)

  6. Modeling and Simulation of Energy Recovery from a Photovoltaic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Modeling and Simulation of Energy Recovery from a Photovoltaic Solar cell. ... Photovoltaic (PV) solar cell which converts solar energy directly into electrical energy is one of ... model of the solar panel which could represent the real systems.

  7. Direct conversion of fusion energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johansson, Markus

    2003-03-01

    Deuterium and tritium are expected to be used as fuel in the first fusion reactors. Energy is released as kinetic energy of ions and neutrons, when deuterium reacts with tritium. One way to convert the kinetic energy to electrical energy, is to let the ions and neutrons hit the reactor wall and convert the heat that is caused by the particle bombardment to electrical energy with ordinary thermal conversion. If the kinetic energy of the ions instead is converted directly to electrical energy, a higher efficiency of the energy conversion is possible. The majority of the fusion energy is released as kinetic energy of neutrons, when deuterium reacts with tritium. Fusion reactions such as the D-D reactions, the D- 3 He reaction and the p- 11 B reaction, where a larger part of the fusion energy becomes kinetic energy of charged particles, appears therefore more suitable for direct conversion. Since they have lower reactivity than the D-T reaction, they need a larger βB 2 0 to give sufficiently high fusion power density. Because of this, the fusion configurations spherical torus (ST) and field-reversed configuration (FRC), where high β values are possible, appear interesting. Rosenbluth and Hinton come to the conclusion that efficient direct conversion isn't possible in closed field line systems and that open geometries, which facilitate direct conversion, provide inadequate confinement for D- 3 He. It is confirmed in this study that it doesn't seem possible to achieve as high direct conversion efficiency in closed systems as in open systems. ST and FRC fusion power plants that utilize direct conversion seem however interesting. Calculations with the help of Maple indicate that the reactor parameters needed for a D-D ST and a D 3 He ST hopefully are possible to achieve. The best energy conversion option for a D-D or D 3 He ST appears to be direct electrodynamic conversion (DEC) together with ordinary thermal conversion or liquid metal MHD conversion (LMMHD). For a D

  8. Direct conversion of fusion energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johansson, Markus

    2003-03-01

    Deuterium and tritium are expected to be used as fuel in the first fusion reactors. Energy is released as kinetic energy of ions and neutrons, when deuterium reacts with tritium. One way to convert the kinetic energy to electrical energy, is to let the ions and neutrons hit the reactor wall and convert the heat that is caused by the particle bombardment to electrical energy with ordinary thermal conversion. If the kinetic energy of the ions instead is converted directly to electrical energy, a higher efficiency of the energy conversion is possible. The majority of the fusion energy is released as kinetic energy of neutrons, when deuterium reacts with tritium. Fusion reactions such as the D-D reactions, the D-{sup 3}He reaction and the p-{sup 11}B reaction, where a larger part of the fusion energy becomes kinetic energy of charged particles, appears therefore more suitable for direct conversion. Since they have lower reactivity than the D-T reaction, they need a larger {beta}B{sup 2}{sub 0} to give sufficiently high fusion power density. Because of this, the fusion configurations spherical torus (ST) and field-reversed configuration (FRC), where high {beta} values are possible, appear interesting. Rosenbluth and Hinton come to the conclusion that efficient direct conversion isn't possible in closed field line systems and that open geometries, which facilitate direct conversion, provide inadequate confinement for D-{sup 3}He. It is confirmed in this study that it doesn't seem possible to achieve as high direct conversion efficiency in closed systems as in open systems. ST and FRC fusion power plants that utilize direct conversion seem however interesting. Calculations with the help of Maple indicate that the reactor parameters needed for a D-D ST and a D{sub 3} He ST hopefully are possible to achieve. The best energy conversion option for a D-D or D{sub 3} He ST appears to be direct electrodynamic conversion (DEC) together with ordinary thermal conversion

  9. Solar thermal energy conversion to electrical power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trinh, Anh-Khoi; González, Ivan; Fournier, Luc; Pelletier, Rémi; Sandoval V, Juan C.; Lesage, Frédéric J.

    2014-01-01

    The conversion of solar energy to electricity currently relies primarily on the photovoltaic effect in which photon bombardment of photovoltaic cells drives an electromotive force within the material. Alternatively, recent studies have investigated the potential of converting solar radiation to electricity by way of the Seebeck effect in which charge carrier mobility is generated by an asymmetric thermal differential. The present study builds upon these latest advancements in the state-of-the-art of thermoelectric system management by combining solar evacuated tube technology with commercially available Bismuth Telluride semiconductor modules. The target heat source is solar radiation and the target heat sink is thermal convection into the ambient air relying on wind aided forced convection. These sources of energy are reproduced in a laboratory controlled environment in order to maintain a thermal dipole across a thermoelectric module. The apparatus is then tested in a natural environment. The novelty of the present work lies in a net thermoelectric power gain for ambient environment applications and an experimental validation of theoretical electrical characteristics relative to a varying electrical load. - Highlights: • Solar radiation maintains a thermal tension which drives an electromotive force. • Voltage, current and electric power are reported and discussed. • Theoretical optimal thermoelectric conversion predictions are presented. • Theory is validated with experimentally measured data

  10. Expected energy production evaluation for photovoltaic systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ding, Yi; Østergaard, Jacob; Peng, Wang

    2011-01-01

    A photovoltaic (PV) system consists of many solar panels, which are connected in series, parallel or a combination of both. Energy production for the PV system with various configurations is different. In this paper, a methodology is developed to evaluate and analyze the expected energy production...

  11. Photovoltaic Solar Energy : From Fundamentals to Applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reinders, Angelina H.M.E.; Verlinden, P.J.; van Sark, W.G.J.H.M.; Freundlich, A.

    2016-01-01

    Solar PV is now the third most important renewable energy source, after hydro and wind power, in terms of global installed capacity. Bringing together the expertise of international PV specialists Photovoltaic Solar Energy: From Fundamentals to Applications provides a comprehensive and up-to-date

  12. Energy conversion at dipolarization fronts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khotyaintsev, Yu. V.; Divin, A.; Vaivads, A.; André, M.; Markidis, S.

    2017-02-01

    We use multispacecraft observations by Cluster in the Earth's magnetotail and 3-D particle-in-cell simulations to investigate conversion of electromagnetic energy at the front of a fast plasma jet. We find that the major energy conversion is happening in the Earth (laboratory) frame, where the electromagnetic energy is being transferred from the electromagnetic field to particles. This process operates in a region with size of the order several ion inertial lengths across the jet front, and the primary contribution to E·j is coming from the motional electric field and the ion current. In the frame of the front we find fluctuating energy conversion with localized loads and generators at sub-ion scales which are primarily related to the lower hybrid drift instability excited at the front; however, these provide relatively small net energy conversion.

  13. The Research and Development of the Radioisotope Energy Conversion System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steinfelds, E.V.; Ghosh, T.K.; Prelas, M.A.; Tompson, R.V.; Loyalka, S.K.

    2001-01-01

    The project of developing radioisotope energy conversion system (RECS) involves analytical computational assisted design and modeling and also laboratory research. The computational analysis consists of selecting various geometries and materials for the main RECS container and the internally located radioisotope, computing the fluxes of the beta (-) particles and of the visible (or ultraviolet) photons produced by the beta (-) s, computing the transport of these photons to the photovoltaic cells, and computing the overall efficiency of useful conversion of the radioisotope power

  14. Ultrafast Electron Dynamics in Solar Energy Conversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponseca, Carlito S; Chábera, Pavel; Uhlig, Jens; Persson, Petter; Sundström, Villy

    2017-08-23

    Electrons are the workhorses of solar energy conversion. Conversion of the energy of light to electricity in photovoltaics, or to energy-rich molecules (solar fuel) through photocatalytic processes, invariably starts with photoinduced generation of energy-rich electrons. The harvesting of these electrons in practical devices rests on a series of electron transfer processes whose dynamics and efficiencies determine the function of materials and devices. To capture the energy of a photogenerated electron-hole pair in a solar cell material, charges of opposite sign have to be separated against electrostatic attractions, prevented from recombining and being transported through the active material to electrodes where they can be extracted. In photocatalytic solar fuel production, these electron processes are coupled to chemical reactions leading to storage of the energy of light in chemical bonds. With the focus on the ultrafast time scale, we here discuss the light-induced electron processes underlying the function of several molecular and hybrid materials currently under development for solar energy applications in dye or quantum dot-sensitized solar cells, polymer-fullerene polymer solar cells, organometal halide perovskite solar cells, and finally some photocatalytic systems.

  15. Energy conversion device with support member having pore channels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Routkevitch, Dmitri [Longmont, CO; Wind, Rikard A [Johnstown, CO

    2014-01-07

    Energy devices such as energy conversion devices and energy storage devices and methods for the manufacture of such devices. The devices include a support member having an array of pore channels having a small average pore channel diameter and having a pore channel length. Material layers that may include energy conversion materials and conductive materials are coaxially disposed within the pore channels to form material rods having a relatively small cross-section and a relatively long length. By varying the structure of the materials in the pore channels, various energy devices can be fabricated, such as photovoltaic (PV) devices, radiation detectors, capacitors, batteries and the like.

  16. Study of Photovoltaic Energy Storage by Supercapacitors through Both Experimental and Modelling Approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierre-Olivier Logerais

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The storage of photovoltaic energy by supercapacitors is studied by using two approaches. An overview on the integration of supercapacitors in solar energy conversion systems is previously provided. First, a realized experimental setup of charge/discharge of supercapacitors fed by a photovoltaic array has been operated with fine data acquisition. The second approach consists in simulating photovoltaic energy storage by supercapacitors with a faithful and accessible model composed of solar irradiance evaluation, equivalent electrical circuit for photovoltaic conversion, and a multibranch circuit for supercapacitor. Both the experimental and calculated results are confronted, and an error of 1% on the stored energy is found with a correction largely within ±10% of the transmission line capacitance according to temperature.

  17. Photovoltaics: Energy for the New Millenium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surek, Thomas

    2000-04-01

    Photovoltaics (PV) is a semiconductor-based technology that directly converts sunlight to electricity. The stimulus for terrestrial PV started more than 25 years ago in response to the oil crises of the 1970s, which resulted in major government programs in the United States, Europe, Japan, and elsewhere. Ongoing concerns with the global environment, as well as the worldwide efforts to seek alternate, indigenous sources of energy, continue to drive the investment in PV research and deployment. Today, the manufacture, sale, and use of PV has become a billion-dollar industry worldwide, with nearly 200 megawatts (MW) of PV modules shipped in 1999. The twenty five years of research and development led to the discovery of new PV materials, devices, and fabrication approaches; continuing improvements in the efficiency and reliability of solar cells and modules; and lower PV module and system costs. This talk reviews the rapid progress that has occurred in PV technology from the laboratory to the marketplace, including reviews of the leading technology options, status and issues, and key industry players. New processes for fabricating PV materials and devices, and innovative PV approaches with low-cost potential are elements of an ongoing research program aimed at future advancements in PV cost and performance While major market opportunities continue to exist in the developing countries, where sizable populations are without any electricity, today's manufacturing expansions are fueled by market initiatives for grid-connected PV in residential and commercial buildings. The combinations of increased production capacities, with the attendant cost reductions as a result of economies of scale, are expected to lead to sustainable markets. A key to achieving the ultimate potential of PV is to continue to increase the sunlight-to-electricity conversion efficiencies and translate the laboratory successes to cost-competitive products. Building a robust technology base is essential

  18. Solar electric power generation photovoltaic energy systems

    CERN Document Server

    Krauter, Stefan CW

    2007-01-01

    Solar electricity is a viable, environmentally sustainable alternative to the world's energy supplies. In support, this work examines the various technical parameters of photovoltaic systems. It analyzes the study of performance and yield (including optical, thermal, and electrical parameters and interfaces).

  19. Photovoltaics as a worldwide energy source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, G.J.

    1991-01-01

    Photovoltaic energy systems have historically been treated as a bulk power generation source for the future. However, utilities and other agencies involved with electrification throughout the world are beginning to find photovoltaics a least-cost option to meet specific loads both for themselves and their customers, in both off-grid and grid-connected applications. These expanding markets offer the potential of hundreds of megawatts of sales in the coming decade, but a strategy addressing both industrial growth and user acceptance is necessary to capitalize on this opportunity. 11 refs

  20. Environmental effects of energy conversion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hansmeyer, K.H.; Fortak, H.; Knoepp, H.; Lindackers, K.H.; Schafhausen, F.; Schoedel, J.P.

    1984-01-01

    The article presents an analysis of energy conversion systems by the ''Council of Environmental Experts'' in order to correct the erroneous assumption that small energy conversion systems will also be small-scale and negligible emitters of pollutants. The additional pollution caused by Neurath power plant is considered to be low, at least in its immediate vicinity, owing to the implementation of the most recent technical developments. The environmental effects of energy conversion processes are discussed, including the waste heat problem and processes for water-cooling of power plants. General aspects of a new concept of energy taxation are discussed which is to reduce energy consumption. The problem of radioactive waste is discussed from spent fuel storage and reprocessing to the decommissioning of older power plants. The author points out that also new fossil-fuel technologies will pollute the environment. (orig.) [de

  1. Flow energy conversion system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sargsyan, R.A.

    2011-01-01

    A cost-effective hydropower system called here Flow Energy Converter was developed, patented, manufactured and tested for water pumping, electricity generation and other purposes especially useful for the rural communities. The system consists of water-driven turbine with plane-surface blades, power transmission means and pump and/or generator. Working sample of the Flow Energy Converter was designed and manufactured at the Institute of Radio Physics and Electronics

  2. The photovoltaic energy in Japan; Energie photovoltaique au Japon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Georgel, O

    2005-07-15

    Today the Japan is the leader of the photovoltaic energy. The first reason of this success is an action of the government integrating subventions for the installation of photovoltaic systems and a support of the scientific research. To explain this success, the author presents the energy situation in Japan, details the national programs, the industrial sector (market, silicon needs, recycling, manufacturers, building industry) and presents the main actors. (A.L.B.)

  3. Solar photovoltaic power generation system and understanding of green energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoo, Chun Sik

    2004-03-01

    This book introduces sunlight generation system and green energy, which includes new and renewable energy such as photovoltaic power generation, solar thermal, wind power, bio energy, waste energy, geothermal energy, ocean energy and fuel cell photovoltaic industry like summary, technology trend, market trend, development strategy of the industry in Korea, and other countries, design of photovoltaic power generation system supporting policy and related business of new and renewable energy.

  4. Solar energy conversion. Chemical aspects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Likhtenshtein, Gertz [Ben-Gurion Univ. of the Negev, Beersheba (Israel). Dept. of Chemistry

    2012-07-01

    Finally filling a gap in the literature for a text that also adopts the chemist's view of this hot topic, Professor Likhtenshtein, an experienced author and internationally renowned scientist, considers different physical and engineering aspects in solar energy conversion. From theory to real-life systems, he shows exactly which chemical reactions take place when converting light energy, providing an overview of the chemical perspective from fundamentals to molecular harvesting systems and solar cells. This essential guide will thus help researchers in academia and industry better understand solar energy conversion, and so ultimately help this promising, multibillion euro/dollar field to expand. (orig.)

  5. Energy conversion and utilization technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    The DOE Energy Conversion and Utilization Technologies (ECUT) Program continues its efforts to expand the generic knowledge base in emerging technological areas that support energy conservation initiatives by both the DOE end-use sector programs and US private industry. ECUT addresses specific problems associated with the efficiency limits and capabilities to use alternative fuels in energy conversion and end-use. Research is aimed at understanding and improving techniques, processes, and materials that push the thermodynamic efficiency of energy conversion and usage beyond the state of the art. Research programs cover the following areas: combustion, thermal sciences, materials, catalysis and biocatalysis, and tribology. Six sections describe the status of direct contact heat exchange; the ECUT biocatalysis project; a computerized tribology information system; ceramic surface modification; simulation of internal combustion engine processes; and materials-by-design. These six sections have been indexed separately for inclusion on the database. (CK)

  6. Evolution of energy conversion plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osnaghi, C.

    2001-01-01

    The paper concerns the evolution and the future development of energy conversion plants and puts into evidence the great importance of the scientific and technological improvement in machines design, in order to optimize the use of energy resources and to improve ambient compatibility [it

  7. Energy Conversion and Storage Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cairns, E.J.

    1992-03-01

    The Energy Conversion and Storage Program applies chemistry and materials science principles to solve problems in (1) production of new synthetic fuels, (2) development of high-performance rechargeable batteries and fuel cells, (3) development of advanced thermochemical processes for energy conversion, (4) characterization of complex chemical processes, and (5) application of novel materials for energy conversion and transmission. Projects focus on transport-process principles, chemical kinetics, thermodynamics, separation processes, organic and physical chemistry, novel materials, and advanced methods of analysis. Electrochemistry research aims to develop advanced power systems for electric vehicle and stationary energy storage applications. Topics include identification of new electrochemical couples for advanced rechargeable batteries, improvements in battery and fuel-cell materials, and the establishment of engineering principles applicable to electrochemical energy storage and conversion. Chemical Applications research includes topics such as separations, catalysis, fuels, and chemical analyses. Included in this program area are projects to develop improved, energy-efficient methods for processing waste streams from synfuel plants and coal gasifiers. Other research projects seek to identify and characterize the constituents of liquid fuel-system streams and to devise energy-efficient means for their separation. Materials Applications research includes the evaluation of the properties of advanced materials, as well as the development of novel preparation techniques. For example, the use of advanced techniques, such as sputtering and laser ablation, are being used to produce high-temperature superconducting films.

  8. Organic photovoltaic energy in Japan; Le photovoltaique organique au Japon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-07-01

    Japan finances research programs on photovoltaic conversion since 1974. Research in this domain is one of the 11 priorities of NEDO, the agency of means of the ministry of economy, trade and industry of Japan. The search for an abatement of production costs and of an increase of cells efficiency is mentioned in NEDO's programs as soon as the beginning of the 1990's. A road map has been defined which foresees photovoltaic energy production costs equivalent to the ones of thermal conversion by 2030, i.e. 7 yen/kWh (4.4 cents of euro/kWh). The use of new materials in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSC) or organic solar cells, and of new structures (multi-junctions) is explored to reach this objective. The organic photovoltaic technology is more particularly considered for small generation units in mobile or domestic technologies. Japan is particularly in advance in the improvement of DSSC cells efficiency, in particular in the domain of the research on solid electrolytes. Europe seems more in advance in the domain of the new generation of organic solar cells. Therefore, a complementarity may be found between Japan and French teams in the domain of organic solar cells improvement through collaboration programs. (J.S.)

  9. Conference on photovoltaic energy network parity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abadie, Pierre-Marie; Masson, Gaetan; Henzelmann, Orsten; Joly, Jean-Pierre; Guillemoles, Jean-Francois; Auffret, Jean-Marc; Berger, Arnaud; Binder, Jann; Martin, David; Beck, Bernhard; Mahuet, Audrey; Mueller, Thorsten; Contamin, Raphael

    2012-01-01

    The French-German office for Renewable energies (OFAEnR) organised a conference on the present day and future challenges of the development, support and market integration of photovoltaic energy. In the framework of this French-German exchange of experience, about 120 participants exchanged views on support models to renewable energy sources, research results on self-consumption and business models for the renewable energies sector. This document brings together the available presentations (slides) made during this event: 1 - Overview of France's PV support policies (Pierre-Marie Abadie); 2 - Grid parity: first step towards PV competitiveness (Gaetan Masson); 3 - How competitive is solar power? Requirements and impact on the European industry (Orsten Henzelmann); 4 - Key elements of the National Institute of Solar energy - INeS (Jean-Pierre Joly); 5 - Research priorities according to the Paris Institute of Photovoltaics (Jean-Francois Guillemoles); 6 - Bosch Solar energy (Jean-Marc Auffret); 7 - Financing and insuring photovoltaics - History and future prospects (Arnaud Berger); 8 - Decentralized Photovoltaics: Autonomy, Self-Consumption and Reduction of Grid Loading through electrical and Thermal Storage (Jann Binder); 9 - Off Grid systems, mini grid and grid parity, field feedback and perspectives. From the producer-consumer to the smart grid: experience feedback of PV management models (David Martin); 10 - Benefits for solar power plants in respect of grid stabilization (Bernhard Beck); 11 - Renewable energies integration to electricity market: impacts and challenges (Audrey Mahuet); 12 - Promotion of PV in Germany: Feed-in tariffs, self-consumption and direct selling - Review and forecast (Thorsten Mueller); 13 - How to support renewable electricity in France? (Raphael Contamin)

  10. Engineered nanomaterials for solar energy conversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mlinar, Vladan

    2013-02-01

    Understanding how to engineer nanomaterials for targeted solar-cell applications is the key to improving their efficiency and could lead to breakthroughs in their design. Proposed mechanisms for the conversion of solar energy to electricity are those exploiting the particle nature of light in conventional photovoltaic cells, and those using the collective electromagnetic nature, where light is captured by antennas and rectified. In both cases, engineered nanomaterials form the crucial components. Examples include arrays of semiconductor nanostructures as an intermediate band (so called intermediate band solar cells), semiconductor nanocrystals for multiple exciton generation, or, in antenna-rectifier cells, nanomaterials for effective optical frequency rectification. Here, we discuss the state of the art in p-n junction, intermediate band, multiple exciton generation, and antenna-rectifier solar cells. We provide a summary of how engineered nanomaterials have been used in these systems and a discussion of the open questions.

  11. New jobs in the field of photovoltaic energy conversion. 2001: A boom like none before; Photovoltalik schafft Arbeitsplaetze. 2001 brachte Boom wie noch nie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lemme, H.

    2002-09-17

    In 2001, the demand for solar power systems nearly doubled, and there is continued interest in 2002 although a growth rate like this cannot be continued infinitely. The future of the industry will depend on the decisions of the new German government. [German] Die Nachfrage nach Solarstromanlagen hat sich im letzten Jahr in Deutschland fast verdoppelt. Zwar setzt sich diese Zuwachsrate nicht mehr genauso fort, doch insgesamt bleibt das Interesse an dieser erneuerbaren Energie hoch. Wie sich die Branche langfristig weiterentwickelt, haengt nun entscheidend von der Foerderpolitik der naechsten Regierung ab. (orig.)

  12. Theoretical efficiency limits for thermoradiative energy conversion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strandberg, Rune

    2015-01-01

    A new method to produce electricity from heat called thermoradiative energy conversion is analyzed. The method is based on sustaining a difference in the chemical potential for electron populations above and below an energy gap and let this difference drive a current through an electric circuit. The difference in chemical potential originates from an imbalance in the excitation and de-excitation of electrons across the energy gap. The method has similarities to thermophotovoltaics and conventional photovoltaics. While photovoltaic cells absorb thermal radiation from a body with higher temperature than the cell itself, thermoradiative cells are hot during operation and emit a net outflow of photons to colder surroundings. A thermoradiative cell with an energy gap of 0.25 eV at a temperature of 500 K in surroundings at 300 K is found to have a theoretical efficiency limit of 33.2%. For a high-temperature thermoradiative cell with an energy gap of 0.4 eV, a theoretical efficiency close to 50% is found while the cell produces 1000 W/m 2 has a temperature of 1000 K and is placed in surroundings with a temperature of 300 K. Some aspects related to the practical implementation of the concept are discussed and some challenges are addressed. It is, for example, obvious that there is an upper boundary for the temperature under which solid state devices can work properly over time. No conclusions are drawn with regard to such practical boundaries, because the work is aimed at establishing upper limits for ideal thermoradiative devices

  13. Nano-materials for solar energy conversion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davenas, J.; Boiteux, G.; Ltaief, A.; Barlier, V.

    2006-01-01

    Nano-materials present an important development potential in the field of photovoltaic conversion in opening new outlooks in the reduction of the solar energy cost. The organic or hybrid solar cells principle is based on the electron-hole pairs dissociation, generated under solar radiation on a conjugated polymer, by chemical species acting as electrons acceptors. The two ways based on fullerenes dispersion or on TiO 2 particles in a semi-conductor polymer (MEH-PPV, PVK) are discussed. The acceptors concentration is high in order to allow the conduction of the electrons on a percolation way, the polymer providing the holes conduction. A new preparation method of the mixtures MEH-PPV/fullerenes based on the use of specific solvents has allowed to produce fullerenes having nano-metric sizes ranges. It has then been possible to decrease the fullerenes concentration allowing the dissociation and the transport of photoinduced charges. The way based on the in-situ generation of TiO 2 from an organometallic precursor has allowed to obtain dispersions of nano-metric inorganic particles. The optimization of the photovoltaic properties of these nano-composites requires a particular adjustment of their composition and size ranges leading to a better control of the synthesis processes. (O.M.)

  14. Photovoltaic power - An important new energy option

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferber, R. R.

    1983-01-01

    A review of photovoltaic (PV) power technology is presented with an emphasis of PV as an economical and technically feasible alternative source of energy. The successful completion of the development and transfer of emerging low-cost technologies into a fully commercialized status are identified as the means to the realization of this option's full potential. The DOE National Photovoltaics Program, a significant sponsor of PV R&D, expects both flat-plate and concentrator collectors to meet established cost targets. Citing the DOE large flat-plate grid-connected system project of the Sacramento Municipal Utility District, current technology modules priced at near $5/Wp (1983 dollars) are steadily reducing costs. A recent DOE study suggests that PV-generated electricity produced at a 30-year levelized cost of 15 cents per kWh would represent a viable energy supply alternative for the nation.

  15. Photovoltaic solar energy: State of the art

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Sark, W.G.J.H.M.; Sinke, W.C.

    1993-03-01

    Attention is paid to developments in the Netherlands of all aspects of photovoltaic (PV) energy: solar cells, components, PV-systems and all kinds of applications. Efficiencies of the present solar cell types still increase, varying from more than 10% for organic/TiO 2 solar cells to 33% for GaAs/GaSb concentrator tandem solar cells. 3 figs., 2 ills., 1 tab

  16. Photovoltaics: US aims for zero-energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barbose, G.; Wiser, R.; Bolinger, M.

    2006-01-01

    The strategies used in nine US states to support the use of photovoltaics (PV) in new market-rate homes are described. Standard buy-down programmes, the use of competitive bidding to support renewable energy technologies in larger projects, and general research and development funding for clean energy and green buildings are discussed. Targeted efforts to support PV in new houses, and market impacts are considered. Basic lessons learnt are outlined and include the need to track key information about PV installations in new dwellings, to ensure adequate funding, to consider higher incentive levels, coordinate PV and energy efficiency programmes, cultivate the installer infrastructure, educate key professionals, and engage the building community

  17. Thermodynamic limits to the conversion of blackbody radiation by quantum systems. [with application to solar energy conversion devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buoncristiani, A. M.; Smith, B. T.; Byvik, C. E.

    1982-01-01

    Using general thermodynamic arguments, we analyze the conversion of the energy contained in the radiation from a blackbody to useful work by a quantum system. We show that the energy available for conversion is bounded above by the change in free energy in the incident and reradiated fields and that this free energy change depends upon the temperature of the receiving device. Universal efficiency curves giving the ultimate thermodynamic conversion efficiency of the quantum system are presented in terms of the blackbody temperature and the temperature and threshold energy of the quantum system. Application of these results is made to a variety of systems including biological photosynthetic, photovoltaic, and photoelectrochemical systems.

  18. Photovoltaic solar energy: which realities for 2020? Summarized synthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    This report first describes the situation of the photovoltaic as situated at a crossroad with strong development possibilities for the French photovoltaic sector. It presents the photovoltaic energy as a competitive, regulatory and ecologic one, and therefore inescapable. It outlines stakes and obstacles of the French situation regarding the development of this sector. It highlights the economic and social benefit investing in this sector. Some propositions are stated for the promotion of the photovoltaic solar sector. Challenges are identified

  19. Energy metrics analysis of hybrid - photovoltaic (PV) modules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tiwari, Arvind [Department of Electronics and Communication, Krishna Institute of Engineering and Technology, 13 k.m. stone, Ghaziabad - Meerut Road, Ghaziabad 201 206, UP (India); Barnwal, P.; Sandhu, G.S.; Sodha, M.S. [Centre for Energy Studies, Indian Institute of Technology Delhi, Hauz Khas, New Delhi 110 016 (India)

    2009-12-15

    In this paper, energy metrics (energy pay back time, electricity production factor and life cycle conversion efficiency) of hybrid photovoltaic (PV) modules have been analyzed and presented for the composite climate of New Delhi, India. For this purpose, it is necessary to calculate (1) the energy consumption in making different components of the PV modules and (2) the annual energy (electrical and thermal) available from the hybrid-PV modules. A set of mathematical relations have been reformulated for computation of the energy metrics. The manufacturing energy, material production energy, energy use and distribution energy of the system have been taken into account, to determine the embodied energy for the hybrid-PV modules. The embodied energy and annual energy outputs have been used for evaluation of the energy metrics. For hybrid PV module, it has been observed that the EPBT gets significantly reduced by taking into account the increase in annual energy availability of the thermal energy in addition to the electrical energy. The values of EPF and LCCE of hybrid PV module become higher as expected. (author)

  20. Algal Energy Conversion and Capture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazendonk, P.

    2015-12-01

    We address the potential for energy conversions and capture for: energy generation; reduction in energy use; reduction in greenhouse gas emissions; remediation of water and air pollution; protection and enhancement of soil fertility. These processes have the potential to sequester carbon at scales that may have global impact. Energy conversion and capture strategies evaluate energy use and production from agriculture, urban areas and industries, and apply existing and emerging technologies to reduce and recapture energy embedded in waste products. The basis of biocrude production from Micro-algal feedstocks: 1) The nutrients from the liquid fraction of waste streams are concentrated and fed into photo bioreactors (essentially large vessels in which microalgae are grown) along with CO2 from flue gasses from down stream processes. 2) The algae are processed to remove high value products such as proteins and beta-carotenes. The advantage of algae feedstocks is the high biomass productivity is 30-50 times that of land based crops and the remaining biomass contains minimal components that are difficult to convert to biocrude. 3) The remaining biomass undergoes hydrothermal liquefaction to produces biocrude and biochar. The flue gasses of this process can be used to produce electricity (fuel cell) and subsequently fed back into the photobioreactor. The thermal energy required for this process is small, hence readily obtained from solar-thermal sources, and furthermore no drying or preprocessing is required keeping the energy overhead extremely small. 4) The biocrude can be upgraded and refined as conventional crude oil, creating a range of liquid fuels. In principle this process can be applied on the farm scale to the municipal scale. Overall, our primary food production is too dependent on fossil fuels. Energy conversion and capture can make food production sustainable.

  1. Advanced Energy Validated Photovoltaic Inverter Technology at NREL | Energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inverter Technology at NREL Advanced Energy Industries-NREL's first partner at the Energy Systems Integration Facility (ESIF)-validated its advanced photovoltaic (PV) inverter technology using the ESIF's computer screen in a laboratory, with power inverter hardware in the background Photo by Dennis Schroeder

  2. Japan, world leader of photovoltaic energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strasser, F.

    2006-01-01

    Since the beginning of the 1970's, the potentialities of photovoltaic energy has been recognized by the Japanese government which has sustained this technology in two ways. First, by the financing of R and D programs, and second, by giving subsidies to citizens for the installation of solar panels. Today, Japan is the world leader of photovoltaic energy, both for the installed power and for the production of solar cells. In 2003, the International Energy Agency was reporting 1.809 GW of worldwide installed capacity among which 48% was in Japan (0.86 GW) with respect to 0.4 GW in Germany, 0.275 GW in the USA and only 20 MW in France. This capacity would have exceeded 1.1 GW at the end of 2004. Half of the solar modules are manufactured in Japan. The ministry of economy, trade and industry (METI) has fixed ambitious goals for 2010: the overall new energy sources much represent 3% of the primary energy (with respect to 1% today) and the installed capacity must reach 4.8 GW. The road-map of the New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organisation (NEDO) foresees 100 GW by 2030. (J.S.)

  3. Photovoltaic solar energy. Proceedings; Photovoltaische Solarenergie. Tagungsband

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-07-01

    Within the 21st symposium 'Photovoltaic Solar Energy' of the Ostbayerisches Technologie-Transfer-Institut e.V. (Regensburg, Federal Republic of Germany) at Banz Monastery (Bad Staffelstein, Federal Republic of Germany) between 8th and 10th March, 2006, the following lessons were held: (1) Basic conditions for a market support programme in the European context (EEG) (Winfried Hoffmann); (2) Actual developments in the German market of photovoltaics (Gerhard Stryi-Hipp); (3) Become a part of the global economic survey of Task 2 ''PV cost over time'' (Thomas Nordmann); (4) The market of photovoltaic will be a European market in the future (Murray Cameron); (5) Development and state of the art of the photovoltaic industry in the Peoples Republic of China (Frank Haugwitz); (6) Silicon for the photovoltaic industry (Karl Hesse); (7) Cell technology: Impulses for a cost effective photovoltaic with valuable silicon (Rolf Brendel); (8) Thin-film solar modules for the photovoltaic - state of the art and industrial perspectives (Michael Powalla); (9) Modules - bottleneck and flood of orders: How to act an installer? (Helmut Godard); (10) Photovoltaic open-field systems - Actual experiences and conflict lines (Ole Langniss); (11) Comparison of actual and future trends of Balance-of-System costs for large scale ground based PV systems with crystalline and thin-film modules (Manfred Baechler); (12) Financing PX projects from a Bank perspective (Joachim Treder); (13) Criteria of quality for solar fonds - Criteria of evaluation for capital investors and self-commitment for emission houses (Ulla Meixner); (14) Analysis of the distribution pathways for photovoltaic plants from the manufacturer to the final customer considering the decreasing demand and increasing prices (Michael Forst); (15) Solar power 2005 - Evaluation of real operational data of 1,000 plants in Germany (Gerd Heilscher); (16) Improvement of PV-inverter efficiency - targets, pathways

  4. MODELING SIMULATION AND PERFORMANCE STUDY OF GRIDCONNECTED PHOTOVOLTAIC ENERGY SYSTEM

    OpenAIRE

    Nagendra K; Karthik J; Keerthi Rao C; Kumar Raja Pemmadi

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents Modeling Simulation of grid connected Photovoltaic Energy System and performance study using MATLAB/Simulink. The Photovoltaic energy system is considered in three main parts PV Model, Power conditioning System and Grid interface. The Photovoltaic Model is inter-connected with grid through full scale power electronic devices. The simulation is conducted on the PV energy system at normal temperature and at constant load by using MATLAB.

  5. Wide-Scale Adoption of Photovoltaic Energy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Yongheng; Enjeti, Prasad; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2015-01-01

    Current grid standards largely require that low-power (e.g., several kilowatts) single-phase photovoltaic (PV) systems operate at unity power factor (PF) with maximum power point tracking (MPPT), and disconnect from the grid under grid faults by means of islanding detection. However, in the case...... of wide-scale penetration of single-phase PV systems in the distributed grid, disconnection under grid faults can contribute to 1) voltage flickers, 2) power outages, and 3) system instability. This article explores grid code modifications for a wide-scale adoption of PV systems in the distribution grid....... In addition, based on the fact that Italy and Japan have recently undertaken a major review of standards for PV power conversion systems connected to low-voltage networks, the importance of low voltage ride-through (LVRT) for single-phase PV power systems under grid faults is considered, along with three...

  6. Candidate solar cell materials for photovoltaic conversion in a solar power satellite /SPS/

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glaser, P. E.; Almgren, D. W.

    1978-01-01

    In recognition of the obstacles to solar-generated baseload power on earth, proposals have been made to locate solar power satellites in geosynchronous earth orbit (GEO), where solar energy would be available 24 hours a day during most of the time of the year. In an SPS, the electricity produced by solar energy conversion will be fed to microwave generators forming part of a planar phase-array transmitting antenna. The antenna is designed to precisely direct a microwave beam of very low intensity to one or more receiving antennas at desired locations on earth. At the receiving antenna, the microwave energy will be safely and efficiently reconverted to electricity and then be transmitted to consumers. An SPS system will include a number of satellites in GEO. Attention is given to the photovoltaic option for solar energy conversion in GEO, solar cell requirements, the availability of materials, the implication of large production volumes, requirements for high-volume manufacture of solar cell arrays, and the effects of concentration ratio on solar cell array area.

  7. Parametric study of laser photovoltaic energy converters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, G. H.; Heinbockel, J. H.

    1987-01-01

    Photovoltaic converters are of interest for converting laser power to electrical power in a space-based laser power system. This paper describes a model for photovoltaic laser converters and the application of this model to a neodymium laser silicon photovoltaic converter system. A parametric study which defines the sensitivity of the photovoltaic parameters is described. An optimized silicon photovoltaic converter has an efficiency greater than 50 percent for 1000 W/sq cm of neodymium laser radiation.

  8. Subcutaneous Photovoltaic Infrared Energy Harvesting for Bio-Implantable Devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Eunseong; Blaauw, David; Phillips, Jamie D

    2017-05-01

    Wireless biomedical implantable devices on the mm-scale enable a wide range of applications for human health, safety, and identification, though energy harvesting and power generation are still looming challenges that impede their widespread application. Energy scavenging approaches to power biomedical implants have included thermal [1-3], kinetic [4-6], radio-frequency [7-11] and radiative sources [12-14]. However, the achievement of efficient energy scavenging for biomedical implants at the mm-scale has been elusive. Here we show that photovoltaic cells at the mm-scale can achieve a power conversion efficiency of more than 17 % for silicon and 31 % for GaAs under 1.06 μW/mm 2 infrared irradiation at 850 nm. Finally, these photovoltaic cells demonstrate highly efficient energy harvesting through biological tissue from ambient sunlight, or irradiation from infrared sources such as used in present-day surveillance systems, by utilizing the near infrared (NIR) transparency window between the 650 nm and 950 nm wavelength range [15-17].

  9. Photovoltaics and renewable energies in Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaeger-Waldau, Arnulf

    2007-01-01

    Photovoltaics and renewable energies are growing at a much faster pace than the rest of the economy in Europe and worldwide. This and the dramatic oil price increases in 2005 have led to a remarkable re-evaluation of the renewable energy sector by politics and financing institutions. Despite the fact that there are still discrepancies between the European Union and the USA, as to how to deal with climate change, renewable energies will play an important role for the implementation of the Kyoto Protocol and the worldwide introduction of tradable Green Certificates. Apart from the electricity sector, renewable energy sources for the generation of heat and the use of environment friendly biofuels for the transport sector will become more and more important in the future. (author)

  10. Concentrator photovoltaic module architectures with capabilities for capture and conversion of full global solar radiation

    KAUST Repository

    Lee, Kyu Tae

    2016-12-06

    Emerging classes ofconcentrator photovoltaic (CPV) modules reach efficiencies that are far greater than those of even the highest performance flat-plate PV technologies, with architectures that have the potential to provide the lowest cost of energy in locations with high direct normal irradiance (DNI). A disadvantage is their inability to effectively use diffuse sunlight, thereby constraining widespread geographic deployment and limiting performance even under the most favorable DNI conditions. This study introduces a module design that integrates capabilities in flat-plate PV directly with the most sophisticated CPV technologies, for capture of both direct and diffuse sunlight, thereby achieving efficiency in PV conversion of the global solar radiation. Specific examples of this scheme exploit commodity silicon (Si) cells integrated with two different CPV module designs, where they capture light that is not efficiently directed by the concentrator optics onto large-scale arrays of miniature multijunction (MJ) solar cells that use advanced III-V semiconductor technologies. In this CPV scheme (

  11. Concentrator photovoltaic module architectures with capabilities for capture and conversion of full global solar radiation

    KAUST Repository

    Lee, Kyu Tae; Yao, Yuan; He, Junwen; Fisher, Brent; Sheng, Xing; Lumb, Matthew; Xu, Lu; Anderson, Mikayla A.; Scheiman, David; Han, Seungyong; Kang, Yongseon; Gumus, Abdurrahman; Bahabry, Rabab R.; Lee, Jung Woo; Paik, Ungyu; Bronstein, Noah D.; Alivisatos, A. Paul; Meitl, Matthew; Burroughs, Scott; Hussain, Muhammad Mustafa; Lee, Jeong Chul; Nuzzo, Ralph G.; Rogers, John A.

    2016-01-01

    Emerging classes ofconcentrator photovoltaic (CPV) modules reach efficiencies that are far greater than those of even the highest performance flat-plate PV technologies, with architectures that have the potential to provide the lowest cost of energy in locations with high direct normal irradiance (DNI). A disadvantage is their inability to effectively use diffuse sunlight, thereby constraining widespread geographic deployment and limiting performance even under the most favorable DNI conditions. This study introduces a module design that integrates capabilities in flat-plate PV directly with the most sophisticated CPV technologies, for capture of both direct and diffuse sunlight, thereby achieving efficiency in PV conversion of the global solar radiation. Specific examples of this scheme exploit commodity silicon (Si) cells integrated with two different CPV module designs, where they capture light that is not efficiently directed by the concentrator optics onto large-scale arrays of miniature multijunction (MJ) solar cells that use advanced III-V semiconductor technologies. In this CPV scheme (

  12. Thermal Change for Photovoltaic Panels and Energy Effects

    OpenAIRE

    İmal, Nazım; Hasar, Şahabettin; Çınar, Harun; Şener, Eralp

    2015-01-01

    Photovoltaic panels (solar cells), they receive photon energy from sunlight, convert them to electrical energy by the semiconductor structural features. Photovoltaic panels produce a voltage, depending on the change of functional sunlight exposure. Produced voltage and determining of provided electrical power, must be dealt with the physical parameters that uses the concepts of light and temperature. In this study, usage of monocrystalline and polycrystalline structured photovoltaic panels el...

  13. Efficiency gains of photovoltaic system using latent heat thermal energy storage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tan, Lippong; Date, Abhijit; Fernandes, Gabriel; Singh, Baljit; Ganguly, Sayantan

    This paper presents experimental assessments of the thermal and electrical performance of photovoltaic (PV) system by comparing the latent heat-cooled PV panel with the naturally-cooled equivalent. It is commonly known that the energy conversion efficiency of the PV cells declines with the increment

  14. Organohalide Perovskites for Solar Energy Conversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Qianqian; Armin, Ardalan; Burn, Paul L; Meredith, Paul

    2016-03-15

    Lead-based organohalide perovskites have recently emerged as arguably the most promising of all next generation thin film solar cell technologies. Power conversion efficiencies have reached 20% in less than 5 years, and their application to other optoelectronic device platforms such as photodetectors and light emitting diodes is being increasingly reported. Organohalide perovskites can be solution processed or evaporated at low temperatures to form simple thin film photojunctions, thus delivering the potential for the holy grail of high efficiency, low embedded energy, and low cost photovoltaics. The initial device-driven "perovskite fever" has more recently given way to efforts to better understand how these materials work in solar cells, and deeper elucidation of their structure-property relationships. In this Account, we focus on this element of organohalide perovskite chemistry and physics in particular examining critical electro-optical, morphological, and architectural phenomena. We first examine basic crystal and chemical structure, and how this impacts important solar-cell related properties such as the optical gap. We then turn to deeper electronic phenomena such as carrier mobilities, trap densities, and recombination dynamics, as well as examining ionic and dielectric properties and how these two types of physics impact each other. The issue of whether organohalide perovskites are predominantly nonexcitonic at room temperature is currently a matter of some debate, and we summarize the evidence for what appears to be the emerging field consensus: an exciton binding energy of order 10 meV. Having discussed the important basic chemistry and physics we turn to more device-related considerations including processing, morphology, architecture, thin film electro-optics and interfacial energetics. These phenomena directly impact solar cell performance parameters such as open circuit voltage, short circuit current density, internal and external quantum efficiency

  15. Photovoltaic Energy Harvester with Power Management System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Ferri

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a photovoltaic energy harvester, realized in 0.35-μm CMOS technology. The proposed system collects light energy from the environment, by means of 2-mm2 on-chip integrated microsolar cells, and accumulates it in an external capacitor. While the capacitor is charging, the load is disconnected. When the energy in the external capacitor is enough to operate the load for a predefined time slot, the load is connected to the capacitor by a power management circuit. The choice of the value of the capacitance determines the operating time slot for the load. The proposed solution is suitable for discrete-time-regime applications, such as sensor network nodes, or, in general, systems that require power supply periodically for short time slots. The power management circuit includes a charge pump, a comparator, a level shifter, and a linear voltage regulator. The whole system has been extensively simulated, integrated, and experimentally characterized.

  16. High temperature thermoelectric energy conversion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wood, C.

    1986-01-01

    Considerable advances were made in the late '50's and early early '60's in the theory and development of materials for high-temperature thermoelectric energy conversion. This early work culminated in a variety of materials, spanning a range of temperatures, with the product of the figure of merit, Z, and temperature, T, i.e., the dimensionless figure of merit, ZT, of the order of one. This experimental limitation appeared to be universal and led a number of investigators to explore the possibility that a ZT - also represents a theoretical limitation. It was found not to be so

  17. Diverting indirect subsidies from the nuclear industry to the photovoltaic industry: Energy and financial returns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zelenika-Zovko, I.; Pearce, J.M.

    2011-01-01

    Nuclear power and solar photovoltaic energy conversion often compete for policy support that governs economic viability. This paper compares current subsidization of the nuclear industry with providing equivalent support to manufacturing photovoltaic modules. Current U.S. indirect nuclear insurance subsidies are reviewed and the power, energy and financial outcomes of this indirect subsidy are compared to equivalent amounts for indirect subsidies (loan guarantees) for photovoltaic manufacturing using a model that holds economic values constant for clarity. The preliminary analysis indicates that if only this one relatively ignored indirect subsidy for nuclear power was diverted to photovoltaic manufacturing, it would result in more installed power and more energy produced by mid-century. By 2110 cumulative electricity output of solar would provide an additional 48,600 TWh over nuclear worth $5.3 trillion. The results clearly show that not only does the indirect insurance liability subsidy play a significant factor for nuclear industry, but also how the transfer of such an indirect subsidy from the nuclear to photovoltaic industry would result in more energy over the life cycle of the technologies. - Highlights: → The indirect insurance liability subsidy has been quantified over the life cycle of the U.S. nuclear fleet. → It was found to play a significant factor in the economics of the nuclear industry. → A transfer of such an indirect subsidy from the nuclear to photovoltaic industry would result in significantly more energy over the life cycle of the technologies.

  18. Energy conversion in polyelectrolyte hydrogels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olvera de La Cruz, Monica; Erbas, Aykut; Olvera de la Cruz Team

    Energy conversion and storage have been an active field of research in nanotechnology parallel to recent interests towards renewable energy. Polyelectrolyte (PE) hydrogels have attracted considerable attention in this field due to their mechanical flexibility and stimuli-responsive properties. Ideally, when a hydrogel is deformed, applied mechanical work can be converted into electrostatic, elastic and steric-interaction energies. In this talk, we discuss the results of our extensive molecular dynamics simulations of PE hydrogels. We demonstrate that, on deformation, hydrogels adjust their deformed state predominantly by altering electrostatic interactions between their charged groups rather than excluded-volume and bond energies. This is due to the hydrogel's inherent tendency to preserve electro-neutrality in its interior, in combination with correlations imposed by backbone charges. Our findings are valid for a wide range of compression ratios and ionic strengths. The electrostatic-energy alterations that we observe in our MD simulations may induce pH or redox-potential changes inside the hydrogels. The resulting energetic difference can be harvested, for instance, analogously to a Carnot engine, or facilitated for sensor applications. Center for Bio-inspired Energy Science (CBES).

  19. Photoelectrochemical Complexes of Fucoxanthin-Chlorophyll Protein for Bio-Photovoltaic Conversion with a High Open-Circuit Photovoltage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Tianning; Liu, Cheng; Dong, Wenjing; Wang, Wenda; Sun, Yan; Chen, Xin; Yang, Chunhong; Dai, Ning

    2017-12-05

    Open-circuit photovoltage (V oc ) is among the critical parameters for achieving an efficient light-to-charge conversion in existing solar photovoltaic devices. Natural photosynthesis exploits light-harvesting chlorophyll (Chl) protein complexes to transfer sunlight energy efficiently. We describe the exploitation of photosynthetic fucoxanthin-chlorophyll protein (FCP) complexes for realizing photoelectrochemical cells with a high V oc . An antenna-dependent photocurrent response and a V oc up to 0.72 V are observed and demonstrated in the bio-photovoltaic devices fabricated with photosynthetic FCP complexes and TiO 2 nanostructures. Such high V oc is determined by fucoxanthin in FCP complexes, and is rarely found in photoelectrochemical cells with other natural light-harvesting antenna. We think that the FCP-based bio-photovoltaic conversion will provide an opportunity to fabricate environmental benign photoelectrochemical cells with high V oc , and also help improve the understanding of the essential physics behind the light-to-charge conversion in photosynthetic complexes. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. Physical Limits of Solar Energy Conversion in the Earth System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleidon, Axel; Miller, Lee; Gans, Fabian

    2016-01-01

    Solar energy provides by far the greatest potential for energy generation among all forms of renewable energy. Yet, just as for any form of energy conversion, it is subject to physical limits. Here we review the physical limits that determine how much energy can potentially be generated out of sunlight using a combination of thermodynamics and observed climatic variables. We first explain how the first and second law of thermodynamics constrain energy conversions and thereby the generation of renewable energy, and how this applies to the conversions of solar radiation within the Earth system. These limits are applied to the conversion of direct and diffuse solar radiation - which relates to concentrated solar power (CSP) and photovoltaic (PV) technologies as well as biomass production or any other photochemical conversion - as well as solar radiative heating, which generates atmospheric motion and thus relates to wind power technologies. When these conversion limits are applied to observed data sets of solar radiation at the land surface, it is estimated that direct concentrated solar power has a potential on land of up to 11.6 PW (1 PW=10(15) W), whereas photovoltaic power has a potential of up to 16.3 PW. Both biomass and wind power operate at much lower efficiencies, so their potentials of about 0.3 and 0.1 PW are much lower. These estimates are considerably lower than the incoming flux of solar radiation of 175 PW. When compared to a 2012 primary energy demand of 17 TW, the most direct uses of solar radiation, e.g., by CSP or PV, have thus by far the greatest potential to yield renewable energy requiring the least space to satisfy the human energy demand. Further conversions into solar-based fuels would be reduced by further losses which would lower these potentials. The substantially greater potential of solar-based renewable energy compared to other forms of renewable energy simply reflects much fewer and lower unavoidable conversion losses when solar

  1. Ocean thermal-energy conversion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ford, G; Niblett, C; Walker, L

    1983-03-01

    Ocean thermal-energy conversion (OTEC) is a novel 'alternative' energy technology that has created much interest in a number of countries; namely, the USA, Japan, France, Sweden, Holland, India and most recently, the UK. In particular, the first three of these have had programmes to develop the required technology. However, most interest has been centred in the USA, where the current hiatus in Federal funding provides a timely opportunity to assess progress. This paper offers a survey of the prevailing position there; outlining the outstanding technical and associated problems, and likely future developments. Non-USA programmes are only mentioned to contrast them with the American position. At present, it does not appear that OTEC plants will be commercially viable on a widespread basis even in the tropics. This is particularly true of the larger plants (400 MWe, MWe = megawatts of electrical energy, the final output of a power station) towards which the American programme is ultimately geared. There does seem to be a strong possibility that small OTEC plants, around 40 MWe or less, can be commercial in certain circumstances. This would be possible when one or, preferably, more of the following conditions are met: (i) where a land-based rather than 'at sea' plant is possible, (ii) where alternative energy supplies are at a premium, i.e. islands or regions without indigenous energy supplies, and (iii) where conditions are such that an OTEC plant could operate in conjunction with either or both an aquaculture or desalination plant.

  2. Combination solar photovoltaic heat engine energy converter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chubb, Donald L.

    1987-01-01

    A combination solar photovoltaic heat engine converter is proposed. Such a system is suitable for either terrestrial or space power applications. The combination system has a higher efficiency than either the photovoltaic array or the heat engine alone can attain. Advantages in concentrator and radiator area and receiver mass of the photovoltaic heat engine system over a heat-engine-only system are estimated. A mass and area comparison between the proposed space station organic Rankine power system and a combination PV-heat engine system is made. The critical problem for the proposed converter is the necessity for high temperature photovoltaic array operation. Estimates of the required photovoltaic temperature are presented.

  3. Renewable Energy Operation and Conversion Schemes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spagnuolo, Giovanni; Petrone, Giovanni; Araujo, Samuel Vasconcelos

    2010-01-01

    A short summary of some speeches given during Seminar on Renewable Energy system (SERENE) is presented. The contributions have been mainly focused on power electronics for photovoltaic (PV) and sea wave energies, pointing out some aspects related to efficiency, reliability, and grid integration. ...

  4. Graphene-Based Integrated Photovoltaic Energy Harvesting/Storage Device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chien, Chih-Tao; Hiralal, Pritesh; Wang, Di-Yan; Huang, I-Sheng; Chen, Chia-Chun; Chen, Chun-Wei; Amaratunga, Gehan A J

    2015-06-24

    Energy scavenging has become a fundamental part of ubiquitous sensor networks. Of all the scavenging technologies, solar has the highest power density available. However, the energy source is erratic. Integrating energy conversion and storage devices is a viable route to obtain self-powered electronic systems which have long-term maintenance-free operation. In this work, we demonstrate an integrated-power-sheet, consisting of a string of series connected organic photovoltaic cells (OPCs) and graphene supercapacitors on a single substrate, using graphene as a common platform. This results in lighter and more flexible power packs. Graphene is used in different forms and qualities for different functions. Chemical vapor deposition grown high quality graphene is used as a transparent conductor, while solution exfoliated graphene pastes are used as supercapacitor electrodes. Solution-based coating techniques are used to deposit the separate components onto a single substrate, making the process compatible with roll-to-roll manufacture. Eight series connected OPCs based on poly(3-hexylthiophene)(P3HT):phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester (PC60 BM) bulk-heterojunction cells with aluminum electrodes, resulting in a ≈5 V open-circuit voltage, provide the energy harvesting capability. Supercapacitors based on graphene ink with ≈2.5 mF cm(-2) capacitance provide the energy storage capability. The integrated-power-sheet with photovoltaic (PV) energy harvesting and storage functions had a mass of 0.35 g plus the substrate. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. Photovoltaics come to the rescue of energy savings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2006-01-01

    In light of continuously rising energy prices and the necessity to step up environmental and climate protection measures, photovoltaics and solar thermal applications are being viewed with increased interest as alternative sources of energy. (authors)

  6. Monocrystalline silicon photovoltaic luminescent solar concentrator with 4.2% power conversion efficiency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Desmet, L.; Ras, A.J.M.; Boer, de D.K.G.; Debije, M.G.

    2012-01-01

    We report conversion efficiencies of experimental single and dual light guide luminescent solar concentrators. We have built several 5¿¿cm×5¿¿cm and 10¿¿cm×10¿¿cm luminescent solar concentrator (LSC) demonstrators consisting of c-Si photovoltaic cells attached to luminescent light guides of Lumogen

  7. Optimization theory for ballistic energy conversion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Xie, Yanbo; Versluis, Michel; Van Den Berg, Albert; Eijkel, Jan C.T.

    2016-01-01

    The growing demand of renewable energy stimulates the exploration of new materials and methods for clean energy. We recently demonstrated a high efficiency and power density energy conversion mechanism by using jetted charged microdroplets, termed as ballistic energy conversion. Hereby, we model and

  8. Solar thermal power and photovoltaic energy are both developing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Jannic, N.; Houot, G.

    2010-01-01

    Thermodynamic solar energy and photovoltaic energy are expected to reach together a quarter of the world electricity production by 2050. In France the development of thermodynamic solar plants is hampered by the high cost of land in the sunny regions. As for photovoltaic energy, France has the potentiality to become an important producer. Since 2006, the French government has supported photovoltaic energy by proposing incentive electricity purchase prices guaranteed for 20 years. In 2006, the Ines research institute was founded, one of its research fields is the development of high yield silicon cells. (A.C.)

  9. Tropospheric effects of energy conversion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Derwent, R.G.

    1992-01-01

    The tropospheric concentrations of a number of trace gases are increasing due to man's activities. For some trace gases, their atmospheric life cycles are not fully understood and it is difficult to be certain about the role of man's activities. Emissions from the energy industries and energy conversion processes represent an important subset of source terms in these life cycles, along with agriculture, deforestation, cement manufacture, biomass burning, process industries and natural biospheric processes. Global Warming Potentials (GWPs) allow the tropospheric effects of a range of climate forcing trace gases to be assessed on a comparable basis. If a short term view of the commitment to global warming is adopted then the contribution from other trace gases may approach and exceed that of carbon dioxide, itself. Over longer time horizons, the long atmospheric lifetime of carbon dioxide shows through as a major influence and the contributions from the other trace gases appear to be much smaller, representing an additional 13-18% contribution on top of that from CO 2 itself

  10. Photovoltaic. Solar electricity, a sustainable source of energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stryi-Hipp, Gerhard; Loyen, Richard; Knaack, Jan; Chrometzka, Thomas

    2008-06-01

    This German publication outlines that solar energy is now essential to any sustainable energy mix, and describes the operation principle of solar photovoltaic energy production. It describes how it can be applied for the production of electricity in isolated areas, and for individual housing as well as commercial buildings, and presents the concept of ground-based solar plants. The next part discusses the development of the photovoltaic market (its huge potential, its world size) and indicates the different associated arrangements of financial support or subsidy. It also discusses how photovoltaic markets can be developed, and proposes an overview of the German model

  11. Exciton management in organic photovoltaic multidonor energy cascades.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffith, Olga L; Forrest, Stephen R

    2014-05-14

    Multilayer donor regions in organic photovoltaics show improved power conversion efficiency when arranged in decreasing exciton energy order from the anode to the acceptor interface. These so-called "energy cascades" drive exciton transfer from the anode to the dissociating interface while reducing exciton quenching and allowing improved overlap with the solar spectrum. Here we investigate the relative importance of exciton transfer and blocking in a donor cascade employing diphenyltetracene (D1), rubrene (D2), and tetraphenyldibenzoperiflanthene (D3) whose optical gaps monotonically decrease from D1 to D3. In this structure, D1 blocks excitons from quenching at the anode, D2 accepts transfer of excitons from D1 and blocks excitons at the interface between D2 and D3, and D3 contributes the most to the photocurrent due to its strong absorption at visible wavelengths, while also determining the open circuit voltage. We observe singlet exciton Förster transfer from D1 to D2 to D3 consistent with cascade operation. The power conversion efficiency of the optimized cascade OPV with a C60 acceptor layer is 7.1 ± 0.4%, which is significantly higher than bilayer devices made with only the individual donors. We develop a quantitative model to identify the dominant exciton processes that govern the photocurrent generation in multilayer organic structures.

  12. Extended exergy concept to facilitate designing and optimization of frequency-dependent direct energy conversion systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wijewardane, S.; Goswami, Yogi

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Proved exergy method is not adequate to optimize frequency-dependent energy conversion. • Exergy concept is modified to facilitate the thermoeconomic optimization of photocell. • The exergy of arbitrary radiation is used for a practical purpose. • The utility of the concept is illustrated using pragmatic examples. - Abstract: Providing the radiation within the acceptable (responsive) frequency range(s) is a common method to increase the efficiency of the frequency-dependent energy conversion systems, such as photovoltaic and nano-scale rectenna. Appropriately designed auxiliary items such as spectrally selective thermal emitters, optical filters, and lenses are used for this purpose. However any energy conversion method that utilizes auxiliary components to increase the efficiency of a system has to justify the potential cost incurred by those auxiliary components through the economic gain emerging from the increased system efficiency. Therefore much effort should be devoted to design innovative systems, effectively integrating the auxiliary items and to optimize the system with economic considerations. Exergy is the widely used method to design and optimize conventional energy conversion systems. Although the exergy concept is used to analyze photovoltaic systems, it has not been used effectively to design and optimize such systems. In this manuscript, we present a modified exergy method in order to effectively design and economically optimize frequency-dependent energy conversion systems. Also, we illustrate the utility of this concept using examples of thermophotovoltaic, Photovoltaic/Thermal and concentrated solar photovoltaic

  13. Stochastic coordination of joint wind and photovoltaic systems with energy storage in day-ahead market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomes, I.L.R.; Pousinho, H.M.I.; Melício, R.; Mendes, V.M.F.

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents an optimal bid submission in a day-ahead electricity market for the problem of joint operation of wind with photovoltaic power systems having an energy storage device. Uncertainty not only due to the electricity market price, but also due to wind and photovoltaic powers is one of the main characteristics of this submission. The problem is formulated as a two-stage stochastic programming problem. The optimal bids and the energy flow in the batteries are the first-stage variables and the energy deviation is the second stage variable of the problem. Energy storage is a way to harness renewable energy conversion, allowing the store and discharge of energy at conveniently market prices. A case study with data from the Iberian day-ahead electricity market is presented and a comparison between joint and disjoint operations is discussed. - • Joint wind and PV systems with energy storage. • Electricity markets. • Stochastic optimization. • Day-ahead market.

  14. Energy Conversion Alternatives Study (ECAS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-01-01

    ECAS compared various advanced energy conversion systems that can use coal or coal-derived fuels for baseload electric power generation. It was conducted in two phases. Phase 1 consisted of parametric studies. From these results, 11 concepts were selected for further study in Phase 2. For each of the Phase 2 systems and a common set of ground rules, performance, cost, environmental intrusion, and natural resource requirements were estimated. In addition, the contractors defined the state of the associated technology, identified the advances required, prepared preliminary research and development plans, and assessed other factors that would affect the implementation of each type of powerplant. The systems studied in Phase 2 include steam systems with atmospheric- and pressurized-fluidized-bed boilers; combined cycle gas turbine/steam systems with integrated gasifiers or fired by a semiclean, coal derived fuel; a potassium/steam system with a pressurized-fluidized-bed boiler; a closed-cycle gas turbine/organic system with a high-temperature, atmospheric-fluidized-bed furnace; a direct-coal-fired, open- cycle magnetohydrodynamic/steam system; and a molten-carbonate fuel cell/steam system with an integrated gasifier. The sensitivity of the results to changes in the ground rules and the impact of uncertainties in capital cost estimates were also examined.

  15. Organic photovoltaics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Demming, Anna; Krebs, Frederik C; Chen, Hongzheng

    2013-01-01

    's supply, even at our increasingly ravenous rate of global energy consumption [1]. But it's not what you have got it's what you do with it. Hence the intense focus on photovoltaic research to find more efficient ways to harness energy from the Sun. Recently much of this research has centred on organic...... solar cells since they offer simple, low-cost, light-weight and large-area flexible photovoltaic structures. This issue with guest editors Frederik C Krebs and Hongzheng Chen focuses on some of the developments at the frontier of organic photovoltaic technology. Improving the power conversion efficiency...... of organic photovoltaic systems, while maintaining the inherent material, economic and fabrication benefits, has absorbed a great deal of research attention in recent years. Here significant progress has been made with reports now of organic photovoltaic devices with efficiencies of around 10%. Yet operating...

  16. Principles of energy conversion, second edition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Culp, A.W. Jr.

    1991-01-01

    This book is organized under the following headings: Energy classification, sources, utilization, economics and terminology; Principal fuels for energy conversion; Production of thermal energy; Fossil-fuel systems (such as steam generators, etc.); Nuclear reactor design and operation; The environmental impact of power plant operation; Production of mechanical energy; Production of electrical energy; and Energy storage

  17. Enhanced Reliability of Photovoltaic Systems with Energy Storage and Controls

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manz, D.; Schelenz, O.; Chandra, R.; Bose, S.; de Rooij, M.; Bebic, J.

    2008-02-01

    This report summarizes efforts to reconfigure loads during outages to allow individual customers the opportunity to enhance the reliability of their electric service through the management of their loads, photovoltaics, and energy storage devices.

  18. Methods for locating ground faults and insulation degradation condition in energy conversion systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agamy, Mohamed; Elasser, Ahmed; Galbraith, Anthony William; Harfman Todorovic, Maja

    2015-08-11

    Methods for determining a ground fault or insulation degradation condition within energy conversion systems are described. A method for determining a ground fault within an energy conversion system may include, in part, a comparison of baseline waveform of differential current to a waveform of differential current during operation for a plurality of DC current carrying conductors in an energy conversion system. A method for determining insulation degradation within an energy conversion system may include, in part, a comparison of baseline frequency spectra of differential current to a frequency spectra of differential current transient at start-up for a plurality of DC current carrying conductors in an energy conversion system. In one embodiment, the energy conversion system may be a photovoltaic system.

  19. Integrated solar capacitors for energy conversion and storage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ruiyuan Liu; Yuqiang Liu; Haiyang Zou; Tao Song; Baoquan Sun

    2017-01-01

    Solar energy is one of the most popular clean energy sources and is a promising alternative to fulfill the increasing energy demands of modern society.Solar cells have long been under intensive research attention for harvesting energy from sunlight with a high power-conversion efficiency and low cost.However,the power outputs of photovoltaic devices suffer from fluctuations due to the intermittent instinct of the solar radiation.Integrating solar cells and energystorage devices as self-powering systems may solve this problem through the simultaneous storage of the electricity and manipulation of the energy output.This review summarizes the research progress in the integration of new-generation solar cells with supercapacitors,with emphasis on the structures,materials,performance,and new design features.The current challenges and future prospects are discussed with the aim of expanding research and development in this field.

  20. Advanced Photonic Processes for Photovoltaic and Energy Storage Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sygletou, Maria; Petridis, Constantinos; Kymakis, Emmanuel; Stratakis, Emmanuel

    2017-10-01

    Solar-energy harvesting through photovoltaic (PV) conversion is the most promising technology for long-term renewable energy production. At the same time, significant progress has been made in the development of energy-storage (ES) systems, which are essential components within the cycle of energy generation, transmission, and usage. Toward commercial applications, the enhancement of the performance and competitiveness of PV and ES systems requires the adoption of precise, but simple and low-cost manufacturing solutions, compatible with large-scale and high-throughput production lines. Photonic processes enable cost-efficient, noncontact, highly precise, and selective engineering of materials via photothermal, photochemical, or photophysical routes. Laser-based processes, in particular, provide access to a plethora of processing parameters that can be tuned with a remarkably high degree of precision to enable innovative processing routes that cannot be attained by conventional approaches. The focus here is on the application of advanced light-driven approaches for the fabrication, as well as the synthesis, of materials and components relevant to PV and ES systems. Besides presenting recent advances on recent achievements, the existing limitations are outlined and future possibilities and emerging prospects discussed. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. Assessment of the technology required to develop photovoltaic power system for large scale national energy applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lutwack, R.

    1974-01-01

    A technical assessment of a program to develop photovoltaic power system technology for large-scale national energy applications was made by analyzing and judging the alternative candidate photovoltaic systems and development tasks. A program plan was constructed based on achieving the 10 year objective of a program to establish the practicability of large-scale terrestrial power installations using photovoltaic conversion arrays costing less than $0.50/peak W. Guidelines for the tasks of a 5 year program were derived from a set of 5 year objectives deduced from the 10 year objective. This report indicates the need for an early emphasis on the development of the single-crystal Si photovoltaic system for commercial utilization; a production goal of 5 x 10 to the 8th power peak W/year of $0.50 cells was projected for the year 1985. The developments of other photovoltaic conversion systems were assigned to longer range development roles. The status of the technology developments and the applicability of solar arrays in particular power installations, ranging from houses to central power plants, was scheduled to be verified in a series of demonstration projects. The budget recommended for the first 5 year phase of the program is $268.5M.

  2. Energy conversion and management principles and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Petrecca, Giovanni

    2014-01-01

    This book provides an overall view of energy conversion and management in industry and in buildings by following the streams of energy from the site boundaries to the end users. Written for an audience of both practitioners and faculty/students, Energy Conversion and Management: Principles and Applications presents general principles of energy conversion and energy sources, both traditional and renewable, in a broad range of facilities such as electrical substations, boiler plants, heat and power plants, electrical networks, thermal fluid distributions lines and insulations, pumps and fans, ai

  3. Advances in wind energy conversion technology

    CERN Document Server

    Sathyajith, Mathew

    2011-01-01

    The technology of generating energy from wind has significantly changed during the past five years. The book brings together all the latest aspects of wind energy conversion technology - from wind resource analysis to grid integration of generated electricity.

  4. Towards a more efficient energy use in photovoltaic powered products

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kan, S.Y.; Strijk, R.

    2006-01-01

    This paper analyzes the energy saving and power management solutions necessary to improve the energy consumption efficiency in photovoltaic powered products. Important in the design of such products is not only the energy supply optimization required to deliver the actual energy to fulfil their

  5. Photovoltaics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prince, M.B.

    1994-01-01

    Photovoltaic energy systems have the long range potential for supplying a significant part of the world's need for electricity Even today, such systems offer many benefits compared to other energy systems such as fossil fuel, nuclear and other renewable systems. These include: stability, reliability, require no water, no moving parts, environmentally benign, moderate efficiency, modular, universally usable, easy maintenance, and low power distribution costs. This paper will present information on present costs of the key system components, realistic cost projections and the results of a comparative study of three renewable approaches for a large system. (author), (tabs. 2)

  6. Dye-sensitized solar cell module realized photovoltaic and photothermal highly efficient conversion via three-dimensional printing technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Qi-Zhang; Zhu Yan-Qing; Shi Ji-Fu; Wang Lei-Lei; Zhong Liu-Wen; Xu Gang

    2017-01-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) printing technology is employed to improve the photovoltaic and photothermal conversion efficiency of dye-sensitized solar cell (DSC) module. The 3D-printed concentrator is optically designed and improves the photovoltaic efficiency of the DSC module from 5.48% to 7.03%. Additionally, with the 3D-printed microfluidic device serving as water cooling, the temperature of the DSC can be effectively controlled, which is beneficial for keeping a high photovoltaic conversion efficiency for DSC module. Moreover, the 3D-printed microfluidic device can realize photothermal conversion with an instantaneous photothermal efficiency of 42.1%. The integrated device realizes a total photovoltaic and photothermal conversion efficiency of 49% at the optimal working condition. (paper)

  7. PVMaT - OMNION Series 3000: Photovoltaic Power Conversion System for Utility Interconnected Application; Annual Report, May 1997 - February 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Porter, D.

    2000-09-13

    This report details the work performed which was geared towards making advancements in three major areas (cost, reliability and performance) of three-phase, utility interconnected and photovoltaic power conversion.

  8. Dye-sensitized solar cell module realized photovoltaic and photothermal highly efficient conversion via three-dimensional printing technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qi-Zhang Huang; Yan-Qing Zhu; Ji-Fu Shi; Lei-Lei Wang; Liu-Wen Zhong; Gang Xu

    2017-01-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) printing technology is employed to improve the photovoltaic and photothermal conversion efficiency of dye-sensitized solar cell (DSC) module.The 3D-printed concentrator is optically designed and improves the photovoltaic efficiency of the DSC module from 5.48% to 7.03%.Additionally,with the 3D-printed microfluidic device serving as water cooling,the temperature of the DSC can be effectively controlled,which is beneficial for keeping a high photovoltaic conversion efficiency for DSC module.Moreover,the 3D-printed microfluidic device can realize photothermal conversion with an instantaneous photothermal efficiency of 42.1%.The integrated device realizes a total photovoltaic and photothermal conversion efficiency of 49% at the optimal working condition.

  9. Photovoltaic module with integrated power conversion and interconnection system - the European project PV-MIPS

    OpenAIRE

    Henze, N.; Engler, A.; Zacharias, P.

    2006-01-01

    Within the 6th framework program funded by the European Commission the project PV-MIPS (Photovoltaic Module with Integrated Power Conversion System) was launched in November 2004. Together with eleven European partners from Germany, Austria, Greece and the Netherlands a solar module with integrated in-verter shall be developed that can feed solar electricity directly into the grid. The challenging objective of the project is to reduce the total costs of a PV system. At the same time lifetime ...

  10. Concentrator Photovoltaics

    CERN Document Server

    Luque, Antonio L

    2007-01-01

    Photovoltaic solar-energy conversion is one of the most promising technologies for generating renewable energy, and conversion of concentrated sunlight can lead to reduced cost for solar electricity. In fact, photovoltaic conversion of concentrated sunlight insures an efficient and cost-effective sustainable power resource. This book gives an overview of all components, e.g. cells, concentrators, modules and systems, for systems of concentrator photovoltaics. The authors report on significant results related to design, technology, and applications, and also cover the fundamental physics and market considerations. Specific contributions include: theory and practice of sunlight concentrators; an overview of concentrator PV activities; a description of concentrator solar cells; design and technology of modules and systems; manufacturing aspects; and a market study.

  11. Gallium Nitride Direct Energy Conversion Betavoltaic Modeling and Optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-03-01

    power source. Autonomous systems such as space satellites require power sources that have strict size , weight, and power (SWaP) limitations, which...conversion process, called beta- photovoltaics , has a system efficiency that is dependent on both the conversion efficiency of the phosphor and the...effectively providing 9 J per day for autonomous systems . However, the volume for beta- photovoltaics is larger due to the need for phosphors to

  12. A Switched-Capacitor Based High Conversion Ratio Converter for Renewable Energy Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Kerui; Yin, Zhijian; Yang, Yongheng

    2017-01-01

    A high step-up switched-capacitor based converter is proposed in this paper. The proposed converter features high conversion ratio, low voltage stress and continuous input current, which makes it very suitable for renewable energy applications like photovoltaic systems. More importantly...... voltage gain, low voltage stress on the switches, continuous input current, and relatively high efficiency....

  13. Direct Energy Conversion Literature Abstracts

    Science.gov (United States)

    1962-12-01

    TMMOELECTRIC 6 CONVERSION SYSTEMS. compiled by Edda 7p.. Aug.1960. (Spec. Bibl. 430) Barber. 48p., Mar. 1962. (Lit. Search 392) (Contract NAS 7-100) Covers...2865 BaranskiiP.I ............... 2905, 2945 Brogan, T.R. .............. 3322 Barber, Edda ................. . 2866 Brooklyn Polytechnic

  14. Modular assembly of a photovoltaic solar energy receiver

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graven, Robert M.; Gorski, Anthony J.; Schertz, William W.; Graae, Johan E. A.

    1978-01-01

    There is provided a modular assembly of a solar energy concentrator having a photovoltaic energy receiver with passive cooling. Solar cell means are fixedly coupled to a radiant energy concentrator. Tension means bias a large area heat sink against the cell thereby allowing the cell to expand or contract with respect to the heat sink due to differential heat expansion.

  15. Realizing Efficient Energy Harvesting from Organic Photovoltaic Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Yunlong

    Organic photovoltaic cells (OPVs) are emerging field of research in renewable energy. The development of OPVs in recent years has made this technology viable for many niche applications. In order to realize widespread application however, the power conversion efficiency requires further improvement. The efficiency of an OPV depends on the short-circuit current density (JSC), open-circuit voltage (VOC) and fill factor (FF). For state-of-the-art devices, JSC is mostly optimized with the application of novel low-bandgap materials and a bulk heterojunction device architecture (internal quantum efficiency approaching 100%). The remaining limiting factors are the low VOC and FF. This work focuses on overcoming these bottlenecks for improved efficiency. Temperature dependent measurements of device performance are used to examine both charge transfer and exciton ionization process in OPVs. The results permit an improved understanding of the intrinsic limit for VOC in various device architectures and provide insight on device operation. Efforts have also been directed at engineering device architecture for optimized FF, realizing a very high efficiency of 8% for vapor deposited small molecule OPVs. With collaborators, new molecules with tailored desired energy levels are being designed for further improvements in efficiency. A new type of hybrid organic-inorganic perovskite material is also included in this study. By addressing processing issues and anomalous hysteresis effects, a very high efficiency of 19.1% is achieved. Moving forward, topics including engineering film crystallinity, exploring tandem architectures and understanding degradation mechanisms will further push OPVs toward broad commercialization.

  16. Materials in energy conversion, harvesting, and storage

    CERN Document Server

    Lu, Kathy

    2014-01-01

    First authored book to address materials' role in the quest for the next generation of energy materials Energy balance, efficiency, sustainability, and so on, are some of many facets of energy challenges covered in current research. However, there has not been a monograph that directly covers a spectrum of materials issues in the context of energy conversion, harvesting and storage. Addressing one of the most pressing problems of our time, Materials in Energy Conversion, Harvesting, and Storage illuminates the roles and performance requirements of materials in energy an

  17. Energy Conversion & Storage Program, 1993 annual report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cairns, E.J.

    1994-06-01

    The Energy Conversion and Storage Program applies chemistry and materials science principles to solve problems in: production of new synthetic fuels; development of high-performance rechargeable batteries and fuel cells; development of high-efficiency thermochemical processes for energy conversion; characterization of complex chemical processes and chemical species; and the study and application of novel materials for energy conversion and transmission. Projects focus on transport-process principles, chemical kinetics, thermodynamics, chemical kinetics, thermodynamics, separation processes, organic and physical chemistry, novel materials, and advanced methods of analysis.

  18. Conference on new consumption and commercialization models for photovoltaic energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freier, Karin; Fontaine, Pierre; Mayer, Joerg; Jimenez, Julien; Richard, Pascal; Vogtmann, Michael; Schaefer, Felix; Martin, Nicolas; Buis, Sabine

    2014-01-01

    The French-German office for Renewable energies (OFAEnR) organised a conference on new consumption and commercialization models for photovoltaic energy. In the framework of this French-German exchange of experience, about 120 participants exchanged views on the new economic models for solar energy producers while the photovoltaic industry has to face a progressive reduction of feed-in tariffs and of other incentive mechanisms. Beside the legal and economic aspects, technical questions around energy storage and integration of photovoltaic production to the grid were also addressed. This document brings together the available presentations (slides) made during this event: 1 - Stimulating self-consumption and direct selling within the EEG (Karin Freier); 2 - Development of PV self-consumption in France (Pierre Fontaine); 3 - experience from applying the new support program for solar energy storage systems (Joerg Mayer); 4 - Call for solar photovoltaic projects for own consumption in Aquitaine region (Julien Jimenez); 5 - SMA Flexible Storage System - New version of the Sunny Island inverter for smart photovoltaic energy storage (Pascal Richard); 6 - PV Own Consumption in industry and commerce - examples und Operating Concepts (Michael Vogtmann); 7 - Supplying tenants in multiple-family housing with solar power in the 'Neue Heimat' project (Felix Schaefer); 8 - How to manage PV-storage self-consumption from a grid point of view? (Nicolas Martin); 9 - Closing talk (Sabine Buis)

  19. Fabrication of photovoltaic laser energy converterby MBE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Hamilton; Wang, Scott; Chan, W. S.

    1993-01-01

    A laser-energy converter, fabricated by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE), was developed. This converter is a stack of vertical p-n junctions connected in series by low-resistivity, lattice matched CoSi2 layers to achieve a high conversion efficiency. Special high-temperature electron-beam (e-beam) sources were developed especially for the MBE growth of the junctions and CoSi2 layers. Making use of the small (greater than 1.2 percent) lattice mismatch between CoSi2 and Si layers, high-quality and pinhole-free epilayers were achieved, providing a capability of fabricating all the junctions and connecting layers as a single growth process with one pumpdown. Well-defined multiple p-n junctions connected by CoSi2 layers were accomplished by employing a low growth temperature (greater than 700 C) and a low growth rate (less than 0.5 microns/hour). Producing negligible interdiffusion, the low growth temperature and rate also produced negligible pinholes in the CoSi2 layers. For the first time, a stack of three p-n junctions connected by two 10(exp -5) Ohm-cm CoSi2 layers was achieved, meeting the high conversion efficiency requirement. This process can now be optimized for high growth rate to form a practical converter with 10 p-n junctions in the stack.

  20. Efficient electrochemical CO2 conversion powered by renewable energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kauffman, Douglas R; Thakkar, Jay; Siva, Rajan; Matranga, Christopher; Ohodnicki, Paul R; Zeng, Chenjie; Jin, Rongchao

    2015-07-22

    The catalytic conversion of CO2 into industrially relevant chemicals is one strategy for mitigating greenhouse gas emissions. Along these lines, electrochemical CO2 conversion technologies are attractive because they can operate with high reaction rates at ambient conditions. However, electrochemical systems require electricity, and CO2 conversion processes must integrate with carbon-free, renewable-energy sources to be viable on larger scales. We utilize Au25 nanoclusters as renewably powered CO2 conversion electrocatalysts with CO2 → CO reaction rates between 400 and 800 L of CO2 per gram of catalytic metal per hour and product selectivities between 80 and 95%. These performance metrics correspond to conversion rates approaching 0.8-1.6 kg of CO2 per gram of catalytic metal per hour. We also present data showing CO2 conversion rates and product selectivity strongly depend on catalyst loading. Optimized systems demonstrate stable operation and reaction turnover numbers (TONs) approaching 6 × 10(6) molCO2 molcatalyst(-1) during a multiday (36 h total hours) CO2 electrolysis experiment containing multiple start/stop cycles. TONs between 1 × 10(6) and 4 × 10(6) molCO2 molcatalyst(-1) were obtained when our system was powered by consumer-grade renewable-energy sources. Daytime photovoltaic-powered CO2 conversion was demonstrated for 12 h and we mimicked low-light or nighttime operation for 24 h with a solar-rechargeable battery. This proof-of-principle study provides some of the initial performance data necessary for assessing the scalability and technical viability of electrochemical CO2 conversion technologies. Specifically, we show the following: (1) all electrochemical CO2 conversion systems will produce a net increase in CO2 emissions if they do not integrate with renewable-energy sources, (2) catalyst loading vs activity trends can be used to tune process rates and product distributions, and (3) state-of-the-art renewable-energy technologies are sufficient

  1. Photovoltaic energy technologies: Health and environmental effects document

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moskowitz, P. D.; Hamilton, L. D.; Morris, S. C.; Rowe, M. D.

    1980-09-01

    The potential health and environmental consequences of producing electricity by photovoltaic energy systems was analyzed. Potential health and environmental risks are identified in representative fuel and material supply cycles including extraction, processing, refining, fabrication, installation, operation, and isposal for four photovoltaic energy systems (silicon N/P single crystal, silicon metal/insulator/semiconductor (MIS) cell, cadmium sulfide/copper sulfide backwall cell, and gallium arsenide heterojunction cell) delivering equal amounts of useful energy. Each step of the fuel and material supply cycles, materials demands, byproducts, public health, occupational health, and environmental hazards is identified.

  2. Compact Energy Conversion Module, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This STTR project delivers a compact vibration-based Energy Conversion Module (ECM) that powers sensors for purposes such as structural health monitoring (SHM). NASA...

  3. Compact energy conversion module, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This STTR project delivers a compact vibration-based Energy Conversion Module (ECM) that powers sensors for purposes like structural health monitoring (SHM). NASA...

  4. Wind Energy Conversion Systems Technology and Trends

    CERN Document Server

    2012-01-01

    Wind Energy Conversion System covers the technological progress of wind energy conversion systems, along with potential future trends. It includes recently developed wind energy conversion systems such as multi-converter operation of variable-speed wind generators, lightning protection schemes, voltage flicker mitigation and prediction schemes for advanced control of wind generators. Modeling and control strategies of variable speed wind generators are discussed, together with the frequency converter topologies suitable for grid integration. Wind Energy Conversion System also describes offshore farm technologies including multi-terminal topology and space-based wind observation schemes, as well as both AC and DC based wind farm topologies. The stability and reliability of wind farms are discussed, and grid integration issues are examined in the context of the most recent industry guidelines. Wind power smoothing, one of the big challenges for transmission system operators, is a particular focus. Fault ride th...

  5. Urban energy conversion and its effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geiger, B.

    1981-01-01

    The extent to which the building up and energy conversion affect the quality and energy economy of living space is shown by the example of Munich. The comparison of the energy economy of various ecological systems give qualified information for assessing the thermal loading in densely inhabited areas and show the basic differences between built-up and country areas. (DG) [de

  6. Modelling of storage of the photovoltaic energy by super-capacitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Camara, Mohamed Ansoumane

    2011-01-01

    The storage by ultra-capacitors of photovoltaic energy is modeled in order to have an accurate and accessible model to integrate ultra-capacitors into solar energy conversion systems. Ultra-capacitors are modeled by a multi-branch circuit representation composed of resistors and capacitors with variable voltage whose values are determined by an accurate characterization experiment. Moreover, all the elements of a typical photovoltaic energy conversion system are modeled by using the Matlab/Simulink software (solar radiation, photovoltaic arrays, regulator, batteries and charges). The energy storage model by ultra-capacitors is then validated by the good agreement of measured values taken in real conditions with the results provided by simulations. Finally, two examples are proposed and discussed: the determination of the storage duration of ultra-capacitors versus solar irradiance and ambient temperature, and the integration of ultra-capacitors in the electrical feeding system of a DC motor to reduce the electrical current peak of the battery at the start of the motor. (author) [fr

  7. Electromagnetic wave energy conversion research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, R. L.; Callahan, P. S.

    1975-01-01

    Known electromagnetic wave absorbing structures found in nature were first studied for clues of how one might later design large area man-made radiant-electric converters. This led to the study of the electro-optics of insect dielectric antennae. Insights were achieved into how these antennae probably operate in the infrared 7-14um range. EWEC theoretical models and relevant cases were concisely formulated and justified for metal and dielectric absorber materials. Finding the electromagnetic field solutions to these models is a problem not yet solved. A rough estimate of losses in metal, solid dielectric, and hollow dielectric waveguides indicates future radiant-electric EWEC research should aim toward dielectric materials for maximum conversion efficiency. It was also found that the absorber bandwidth is a theoretical limitation on radiant-electric conversion efficiency. Ideally, the absorbers' wavelength would be centered on the irradiating spectrum and have the same bandwith as the irradiating wave. The EWEC concept appears to have a valid scientific basis, but considerable more research is needed before it is thoroughly understood, especially for the complex randomly polarized, wide band, phase incoherent spectrum of the sun. Specific recommended research areas are identified.

  8. Energy conservation house by photovoltaic system. 2; Taiyoko hatsuden wo donyushita sho energy jutaku. 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Itsumi, J. [Kumamoto Institute of Technology, Kumamoto (Japan)

    1996-10-27

    Photovoltaic power generation system was once placed in excessive expectation what with a growing tendency toward environmental issues and what with vulnerability in supply and demand of energy. However, its utilization was negative because of the low energy conversion efficiency and the high cost. Then, gradually the wind shifted round to the improvement in solar cell efficiency, reduced cost, implementation of subsidizing policy by MITI, purchase of excess power by electric power companies and the amendment of the Electricity Enterprises Act, encouraging the use of the system again. In addition, with a lesson from the Great Hanshin Earthquake, the merit of the system was appreciated as a life-support power source, motivating house-builders. Earlier, the authors had reported designs of energy-saving homes, system structures of photovoltaic power generation, etc. This paper presents the power generation record of a year old system and an example of the comfortable sealed residential room environment, etc., created with the use of the power thus obtained. The annual power generation was 4,088kWh, 30% of which was used in the house and 70% of which was sold as an excess power, resulting in the purchase of power for 6,642kWh. 5 refs., 4 figs, 2 tabs.

  9. Advances in copper-chalcopyrite thin films for solar energy conversion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaneshiro, Jess; Gaillard, Nicolas; Rocheleau, Richard; Miller, Eric [Hawaii Natural Energy Institute, University of Hawaii at Manoa, 1680 East-West Road, Post 109, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States)

    2010-01-15

    Promising alternatives to crystalline silicon as the basic building block of solar cells include copper-chalcopyrite thin films such as copper indium gallium diselenide, a class of thin films exhibiting bandgap-tunable semiconductor behavior, direct bandgaps and high absorption coefficients. These properties allow for the development of novel solar-energy conversion configurations like ultra-high efficiency multi-junction solar cells utilizing combinations of photovoltaic and photoelectrochemical junctions for hydrogen production. This paper discusses the current worldwide status as well as the development and optimization of copper-chalcopyrite thin films deposited onto various substrate types for different photovoltaic and photoelectrochemical applications at the Hawaii Natural Energy Institute. (author)

  10. Does Your Domestic Photovoltaic Energy System Survive Grid Outages?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jongerden, M.R.; Hüls, Jannik; Remke, Anne Katharina Ingrid; Haverkort, Boudewijn R.H.M.

    2016-01-01

    Domestic renewable energy systems, including photovoltaic energy generation, as well as local storage, are becoming increasingly popular and economically feasible, but do come with a wide range of options. Hence, it can be difficult to match their specification to specific customer’s needs. Next to

  11. Wind energy conversion 1994. Proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elliot, G.

    1995-01-01

    At the British Wind Energy Association's 16th Annual Conference, held in Stirling, over 60 high quality papers were presented, including a session devoted to 'Wind Energy in Scotland'. Under the Non Fossil Fuel Obligation (NFFO) wind energy has experienced rapid growth in England and Wales and with Scotland now having its own 'Scottish Renewables Obligation' (SRO) the opportunity to tap one of Europe's most important renewable energy resources now exists. The main contemporary issues concerning wind farming today, namely technical, social, economic and environmental were examined in the Geoff Pontin Memorial Lecture, which focused on these aspects in the context of grid integrated wind energy development. The remaining conference themes included machine development, aerodynamics and control, small machines, fatigue and dynamics, public attitudes, noise emissions, electrical integration, resource measurement, and standards, safety and planning. (author)

  12. Interim performance criteria for photovoltaic energy systems. [Glossary included

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeBlasio, R.; Forman, S.; Hogan, S.; Nuss, G.; Post, H.; Ross, R.; Schafft, H.

    1980-12-01

    This document is a response to the Photovoltaic Research, Development, and Demonstration Act of 1978 (P.L. 95-590) which required the generation of performance criteria for photovoltaic energy systems. Since the document is evolutionary and will be updated, the term interim is used. More than 50 experts in the photovoltaic field have contributed in the writing and review of the 179 performance criteria listed in this document. The performance criteria address characteristics of present-day photovoltaic systems that are of interest to manufacturers, government agencies, purchasers, and all others interested in various aspects of photovoltaic system performance and safety. The performance criteria apply to the system as a whole and to its possible subsystems: array, power conditioning, monitor and control, storage, cabling, and power distribution. They are further categorized according to the following performance attributes: electrical, thermal, mechanical/structural, safety, durability/reliability, installation/operation/maintenance, and building/site. Each criterion contains a statement of expected performance (nonprescriptive), a method of evaluation, and a commentary with further information or justification. Over 50 references for background information are also given. A glossary with definitions relevant to photovoltaic systems and a section on test methods are presented in the appendices. Twenty test methods are included to measure performance characteristics of the subsystem elements. These test methods and other parts of the document will be expanded or revised as future experience and needs dictate.

  13. Synergistic energy conversion process using nuclear energy and fossil fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hori, Masao

    2007-01-01

    Because primary energies such as fossil fuels, nuclear energy and renewable energy are limited in quantity of supply, it is necessary to use available energies effectively for the increase of energy demand that is inevitable this century while keeping environment in good condition. For this purpose, an efficient synergistic energy conversion process using nuclear energy and fossil fuels together converted to energy carriers such are electricity, hydrogen, and synthetic fuels seems to be effective. Synergistic energy conversion processes containing nuclear energy were surveyed and effects of these processes on resource saving and the CO 2 emission reduction were discussed. (T.T.)

  14. Strained quantum well photovoltaic energy converter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freundlich, Alexandre (Inventor); Renaud, Philippe (Inventor); Vilela, Mauro Francisco (Inventor); Bensaoula, Abdelhak (Inventor)

    1998-01-01

    An indium phosphide photovoltaic cell is provided where one or more quantum wells are introduced between the conventional p-conductivity and n-conductivity indium phosphide layer. The approach allows the cell to convert the light over a wider range of wavelengths than a conventional single junction cell and in particular convert efficiently transparency losses of the indium phosphide conventional cell. The approach hence may be used to increase the cell current output. A method of fabrication of photovoltaic devices is provided where ternary InAsP and InGaAs alloys are used as well material in the quantum well region and results in an increase of the cell current output.

  15. Photovoltaics as an operating energy system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, G. J.; Post, H. N.; Thomas, M. G.

    In the short time since the discovery of the modern solar cell in 1954, terrestrial photovoltaic power system technology has matured in all areas, from collector reliability to system and subsystem design and operations. Today's PV systems are finding widespread use in powering loads where conventional sources are either unavailable, unreliable, or too costly. A broad range of applications is possible because of the modularity of the technology---it can be used to power loads ranging from less than a watt to several megawatts. This inherent modularity makes PV an excellent choice to play a major role in rural electrification in the developing world. The future for grid-connected photovoltaic systems is also very promising. Indications are that several of today's technologies, at higher production rates and in megawatt-sized installations, will generate electricity in the vicinity of $0.12/kWh in the near future.

  16. Photovoltaic research and development

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Cummings, F

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Photovoltaic (PV) is the direct conversion of sunlight into electrical energy through a solar cell. This presentation consists of an introduction to photovoltaics, the South African PV research roadmap, a look at the CSIR PV research and development...

  17. Review of photovoltaic energy development in Kenya for rural electrification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rabah, K.V.O.; Ndjeli, L.; Raturi, A.K.

    1995-10-01

    Energy demand is rapidly growing throughout much of the developing world, where an estimated two billion people, mostly from sparsely populated areas, currently live without electricity. As electrical energy systems are selected to help meet these people's electricity need, the environmental ramifications of the generating systems become increasingly important. Photovoltaic systems generate electricity without emitting greenhouse gases, and result in global, regional and local air quality advantages. In this work we intend to carry out research and development of photovoltaic solar cells for rural electrification - especially solar powered water pumping. (author). 56 refs, 11 figs

  18. Department of Energy: Photovoltaics program - FY 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-12-31

    The National Photovoltaic Program supports efforts to make PV an important part of the US economy through three main program elements: Research and Development, Technology Development, and Systems Engineering and Applications. (1) Research and Development activities generate new ideas, test the latest scientific theories, and push the limits of PV efficiencies in laboratory and prototype materials and devices. (2) Technology Development activities apply laboratory innovations to products to improve PV technology and the manufacturing techniques used to produce PV systems for the market. (3) Systems Engineering and Applications activities help improve PV systems and validate these improvements through tests, measurements, and deployment of prototypes. In addition, applications research validates, sales, maintenance, and financing mechanisms worldwide. (4) Environmental, Health, Safety and Resource Characterization activities help to define environmental, health and safety issues for those facilities engaged in the manufacture of PV products and organizations engaged in PV research and development. All PV Program activities are planned and executed in close collaboration and partnership with the U.S. PV industry. The overall PV Program is planned to be a balanced effort of research, manufacturing development, and market development. Critical to the success of this strategy is the National Photovoltaic Program`s effort to reduce the cost of electricity generated by photovoltaic. The program is doing this in three primary ways: by making devices more efficient, by making PV systems less expensive, and by validating the technology through measurements, tests, and prototypes.

  19. Concentrator photovoltaic module architectures with capabilities for capture and conversion of full global solar radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kyu-Tae; Yao, Yuan; He, Junwen; Fisher, Brent; Sheng, Xing; Lumb, Matthew; Xu, Lu; Anderson, Mikayla A.; Scheiman, David; Han, Seungyong; Kang, Yongseon; Gumus, Abdurrahman; Bahabry, Rabab R.; Lee, Jung Woo; Paik, Ungyu; Bronstein, Noah D.; Alivisatos, A. Paul; Meitl, Matthew; Burroughs, Scott; Mustafa Hussain, Muhammad; Lee, Jeong Chul; Nuzzo, Ralph G.; Rogers, John A.

    2016-12-01

    Emerging classes of concentrator photovoltaic (CPV) modules reach efficiencies that are far greater than those of even the highest performance flat-plate PV technologies, with architectures that have the potential to provide the lowest cost of energy in locations with high direct normal irradiance (DNI). A disadvantage is their inability to effectively use diffuse sunlight, thereby constraining widespread geographic deployment and limiting performance even under the most favorable DNI conditions. This study introduces a module design that integrates capabilities in flat-plate PV directly with the most sophisticated CPV technologies, for capture of both direct and diffuse sunlight, thereby achieving efficiency in PV conversion of the global solar radiation. Specific examples of this scheme exploit commodity silicon (Si) cells integrated with two different CPV module designs, where they capture light that is not efficiently directed by the concentrator optics onto large-scale arrays of miniature multijunction (MJ) solar cells that use advanced III-V semiconductor technologies. In this CPV+ scheme (“+” denotes the addition of diffuse collector), the Si and MJ cells operate independently on indirect and direct solar radiation, respectively. On-sun experimental studies of CPV+ modules at latitudes of 35.9886° N (Durham, NC), 40.1125° N (Bondville, IL), and 38.9072° N (Washington, DC) show improvements in absolute module efficiencies of between 1.02% and 8.45% over values obtained using otherwise similar CPV modules, depending on weather conditions. These concepts have the potential to expand the geographic reach and improve the cost-effectiveness of the highest efficiency forms of PV power generation.

  20. Adaptability of solar energy conversion systems on ships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visa, I.; Cotorcea, A.; Neagoe, M.; Moldovan, M.

    2016-08-01

    International trade of goods largely uses maritime/transoceanic ships driven by engines using fossil fuels. This two centuries tradition is technologically mature but significantly adds to the CO2 emissions; therefore, recent trends focus on on-board implementation of systems converting the solar energy into power (photovoltaic systems) or heat (solar-thermal systems). These systems are carbon-emissions free but are still under research and plenty of effort is devoted to fast reach maturity and feasibility. Unlike the systems implemented in a specific continental location, the design of solar energy conversion systems installed on shipboard has to face the problem generated by the system base motion along with the ship travelling on routes at different latitudes: the navigation direction and sense and roll-pitch combined motion with reduced amplitude, but with relatively high frequency. These raise highly interesting challenges in the design and development of mechanical systems that support the maximal output in terms of electricity or heat. The paper addresses the modelling of the relative position of a solar energy conversion surface installed on a ship according to the current position of the sun; the model is based on the navigation trajectory/route, ship motion generated by waves and the relative sun-earth motion. The model describes the incidence angle of the sunray on the conversion surface through five characteristic angles: three used to define the ship orientation and two for the solar angles; based on, their influence on the efficiency in solar energy collection is analyzed by numerical simulations and appropriate recommendations are formulated for increasing the solar energy conversion systems adaptability on ships.

  1. Energy production, conversion, storage, conservation, and coupling

    CERN Document Server

    Demirel, Yaşar

    2012-01-01

    Understanding the sustainable use of energy in various processes is an integral part of engineering and scientific studies, which rely on a sound knowledge of energy systems. Whilst many institutions now offer degrees in energy-related programs, a comprehensive textbook, which introduces and explains sustainable energy systems and can be used across engineering and scientific fields, has been lacking. Energy: Production, Conversion, Storage, Conservation, and Coupling provides the reader with a practical understanding of these five main topic areas of energy including 130 examples and over 600 practice problems. Each chapter contains a range of supporting figures, tables, thermodynamic diagrams and charts, while the Appendix supplies the reader with all the necessary data including the steam tables. This new textbook presents a clear introduction of basic vocabulary, properties, forms, sources, and balances of energy before advancing to the main topic areas of: • Energy production and conversion in importa...

  2. Photovoltaic energy: an energy that wins. Solar systems, energy, environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Felines, P.; Martin, P.E.; Schmit, R.; Hammerbacher, M.; Bal, J.L.; Gaillard, M.; Mandil, O.; Duchemin, I.; Magnin, P.A.; Vandal, A.; Carella, R.

    1998-01-01

    Photovoltaic cell and module production has increased by 43% with respect to the previous year, to reach a record: 126.7 MW p. This strong growth in production was the result of the ''70000 roofs'' project in Japan, programs of the same type in Germany, Switzerland and the Netherlands, and to the autonomous installations market. The American production growth is explained by the increase in exports to Japan, with a 'total exports/production' ratio which is now established in the vicinity of 75%. The Japanese production was sold entirely on the domestic market, and this for the second straight year. For the most part, European production was sold in Germany, Switzerland and the Netherlands, as well as on the decentralized rural electrification market (particularly in India). (N.C.)

  3. Electrochemistry of Nanocomposite Materials for Energy Conversion

    OpenAIRE

    Boni, Alessandro

    2016-01-01

    Energy is the most relevant technological issue that the world experiences today, and the development of efficient technologies able to store and convert energy in different forms is urgently needed. The storage of electrical energy is of major importance and electrochemical processes are particularly suited for the demanding task of an efficient inter-conversion. A potential strategy is to store electricity into the chemical bonds of electrogenerated fuels, like hydrogen and/or energy-den...

  4. Projected photovoltaic energy impacts on US CO2 emissions: an integrated energy environmental-economic analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, J.C.; Fthenakis, V.M.; Morris, S.C.; Goldstein, G.A.; Moskowitz, P.D.

    1997-01-01

    The potential role of photovoltaic technologies in reducing carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) emissions in the USA was evaluated using an energy-environment-economic systems model. With a range of assumptions about future scenarios up to 2030, the model results provide an objective quantitative assessment of the prospects for photovoltaics in a competitive market. With the projected improvements in cost and efficiency, photovoltaics will compete favourably as a general source of electricity supply to the grid by about 2010 in southwestern USA. This analysis indicates that photovoltaics has the potential to reach a total installed capacity of 140 GW by the year 2030, and to displace a cumulative 450 million metric tons of carbon emissions from 1995 to 2030. At the projected 2030 capacity, photovoltaics could displace over 64 million metric tons of carbon emissions a year. Under constraints on carbon emissions, photovoltaics becomes more cost effective and would further reduce carbon emissions from the US energy system. (author)

  5. Applied photovoltaics as a practical education in renewable energy technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stoev, Mitko

    2009-01-01

    The optional course „Applied Photovoltaic” for MEng students specializing in Electronics at the Faculty of Electronics and Automation, TU-Plovdiv is presented. The main topics of the advanced PV course as a modern sustainable energetic based on the photovoltaic effect and energy from Sun as a renewable energy source; materials and technologies in photovoltaic; design of solar cells and PV modules and PV generators up to 100 kWp; BIPV and CIPV systems; hybrid PV systems; PV mounting; monitoring of PV systems and EC regulations for PV systems connected to the utility grid are discussed. The advanced teaching method by online e-platform with virtual resources is presented. Key words: PV education, PV technologies, applied photovoltaic, e-platform

  6. Energy technology sources, systems and frontier conversion

    CERN Document Server

    Ohta, Tokio

    1994-01-01

    This book provides a concise and technical overview of energy technology: the sources of energy, energy systems and frontier conversion. As well as serving as a basic reference book for professional scientists and students of energy, it is intended for scientists and policy makers in other disciplines (including practising engineers, biologists, physicists, economists and managers in energy related industries) who need an up-to-date and authoritative guide to the field of energy technology.Energy systems and their elemental technologies are introduced and evaluated from the view point

  7. OPTIMIZATION OF AEOLIAN ENERGY CONVERSION ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    30 juin 2010 ... wind energy based on a criterion optimization that must maintain specific speed of the turbine at optimum speed which corresponds to the maximum power ... ainsi que la structure et les méthodes de contrôle-commande ...

  8. Photovoltaic conversion efficiency in copper-phthalocyanine/perylenetetracarboxylic acid benzimidazole heterojunction solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsutsui, Tetsuo [Dept. of Materials Science and Technology, Graduate School of Engineering Sciences, Kyushu Univ., Fukuoka (Japan); Nakashima, Takuya [Dept. of Materials Science and Technology, Graduate School of Engineering Sciences, Kyushu Univ., Fukuoka (Japan); Fujita, Yoshimasa [Dept. of Materials Science and Technology, Graduate School of Engineering Sciences, Kyushu Univ., Fukuoka (Japan); Saito, Shogo [Dept. of Materials Science and Technology, Graduate School of Engineering Sciences, Kyushu Univ., Fukuoka (Japan)

    1995-04-01

    Energy conversion efficiency of organic heterojuction-type solar cells was analyzed based on a simplified model. Energy conversion efficiency was expressed by four terms, a proton collection factor, a voltage output factor, an average quantum efficiency of photo-carrier generation and a fill factor. Meanings of low values of former two terms were discussed. (orig.)

  9. Polymers for energy storage and conversion

    CERN Document Server

    Mittal, Vikas

    2013-01-01

    One of the first comprehensive books to focus on the role of polymers in the burgeoning energy materials market Polymers are increasingly finding applications in the areas of energy storage and conversion. A number of recent advances in the control of the polymer molecular structure which allows the polymer properties to be more finely tuned have led to these advances and new applications. Polymers for Energy Storage and Conversion assimilates these advances in the form of a comprehensive text that includes the synthesis and properties of a large number of polymer systems for

  10. Optical Energy Transfer and Conversion System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogan, Bartholomew P. (Inventor); Stone, William C. (Inventor)

    2018-01-01

    An optical energy transfer and conversion system comprising a fiber spooler and an electrical power extraction subsystem connected to the spooler with an optical waveguide. Optical energy is generated at and transferred from a base station through fiber wrapped around the spooler, and ultimately to the power extraction system at a remote mobility platform for conversion to another form of energy. The fiber spooler may reside on the remote mobility platform which may be a vehicle, or apparatus that is either self-propelled or is carried by a secondary mobility platform either on land, under the sea, in the air or in space.

  11. Synchronous generator wind energy conversion control system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Medeiros, A.L.R. [Wind Energy Group, Recife (Brazil); Lima, A.M.N.; Jacobina, C.B.; Simoes, F.J. [DEE, Campina Grande (Brazil)

    1996-12-31

    This paper presents the performance evaluation and the design of the control system of a WECS (Wind Energy Conversion System) that employs a synchronous generator based on its digital simulation. The WECS discussed in this paper is connected to the utility grid through two Pulse Width Modulated (PWM) power converters. The structure of the proposed WECS enables us to achieve high performance energy conversion by: (i) maximizing the wind energy capture and (ii) minimizing the reactive power flowing between the grid and the synchronous generator. 8 refs., 19 figs.

  12. Power production with direct energy conversion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rochau, G.; Lipinski, R.; Polansky, G.; Seidel, D.; Slutz, S. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Morrow, C. [Morrow Consulting, Albuquerque, NM (United States); Anghaie, S. [Florida Univ., Gainesville, FL (United States); Beller, D. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Brown, L. [General Atomic Co., San Diego, CA (United States); Parish, T. [Texas A and M Univ., College Station, TX (United States). Dept. of Nuclear Engineering

    2001-07-01

    The direct energy conversion (DEC) project has as its main goal the development of a direct energy conversion process suitable for commercial development. We define direct energy conversion as any fission process that returns usable energy without using an intermediate thermal process. During the first phase of study, nine different concepts were investigated and 3 were selected: 1) quasi-spherical magnetically insulated fission electrode cell, 2) fission fragment magnetic collimator, and 3) gaseous core reactor with MHD generator. Selection was based on efficiency and feasibility. The realization of their potential requires an investment in both technically and commercially oriented research. The DEC project has a process in place to take one of these concepts forward and to outline the road map for further development. (A.C.)

  13. Power production with direct energy conversion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rochau, G.; Lipinski, R.; Polansky, G.; Seidel, D.; Slutz, S.; Morrow, C.; Anghaie, S.; Beller, D.; Brown, L.; Parish, T.

    2001-01-01

    The direct energy conversion (DEC) project has as its main goal the development of a direct energy conversion process suitable for commercial development. We define direct energy conversion as any fission process that returns usable energy without using an intermediate thermal process. During the first phase of study, nine different concepts were investigated and 3 were selected: 1) quasi-spherical magnetically insulated fission electrode cell, 2) fission fragment magnetic collimator, and 3) gaseous core reactor with MHD generator. Selection was based on efficiency and feasibility. The realization of their potential requires an investment in both technically and commercially oriented research. The DEC project has a process in place to take one of these concepts forward and to outline the road map for further development. (A.C.)

  14. EROI of crystalline silicon photovoltaics : Variations under different assumptions regarding manufacturing energy inputs and energy output

    OpenAIRE

    Lundin, Johan

    2013-01-01

    Installed photovoltaic nameplate power have been growing rapidly around the worldin the last few years. But how much energy is returned to society (i.e. net energy) by this technology, and which factors contribute the most to the amount of energy returned? The objective of this thesis was to examine the importance of certain inputs and outputs along the solar panel production chain and their effect on the energy return on (energy) investment (EROI) for crystalline wafer-based photovoltaics. A...

  15. Highly efficient hybrid energy generator: coupled organic photovoltaic device and randomly oriented electrospun poly(vinylidene fluoride) nanofiber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Boongik; Lee, Kihwan; Park, Jongjin; Kim, Jongmin; Kim, Ohyun

    2013-03-01

    A hybrid architecture consisting of an inverted organic photovoltaic device and a randomly-oriented electrospun PVDF piezoelectric device was fabricated as a highly-efficient energy generator. It uses the inverted photovoltaic device with coupled electrospun PVDF nanofibers as tandem structure to convert solar and mechanical vibrations energy to electricity simultaneously or individually. The power conversion efficiency of the photovoltaic device was also significantly improved up to 4.72% by optimized processes such as intrinsic ZnO, MoO3 and active layer. A simple electrospinning method with the two electrode technique was adopted to achieve a high voltage of - 300 mV in PVDF piezoelectric fibers. Highly-efficient HEG using voltage adder circuit provides the conceptual possibility of realizing multi-functional energy generator whenever and wherever various energy sources are available.

  16. Frontiers of Energy Storage and Conversion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiajun Chen

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This special issue of Inorganics features a Forum for novel materials and approaches for electrochemical energy storage and conversion. Diminishing non-renewable fossil fuels and the resulting unattainability of environment have made us search new sustainable energy resources and develop technology for efficient utilization of such resources. Green energy sources, such as solar, hydroelectric, thermal and wind energy are partially replacing fossil fuels as means to generate power. Inorganic (solid state materials are key in the development of advanced devices for the efficient storage and conversion of energy. The grand challenge facing the inorganic chemist is to discover, design rationally and utilize advanced technological materials made from earth-abound elements for these energy storage and conversion processes. Recent spectacular progress in inorganic materials synthesis, characterization, and computational screening has greatly advanced this field, which drove us to edit this issue to provide a window to view the development of this field for the community. This special issue comprises research articles, which highlights some of the most recent advances in new materials for energy storage and conversion. [...

  17. The Italian programme in photovoltaic solar energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farinelli, U.

    Italian programs and goals for developing a photovoltaic (PV) industry and market are outlined. It is suggested that only a few megawatts of PVs will be produced for domestic consumption in the next few years, while the largest market is for developing nations where costly diesel-fueled generators are used. The installation of PV systems in developing areas will permit testing and scaling up of production capacities from several MW to several hundred MW and then to GW annual production. Approximately 55,000,000 was devoted to government research in PV in 1982 and a PV research laboratory is being built near Naples.

  18. US energy conversion and use characteristics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Imhoff, C.H.; Liberman, A.; Ashton, W.B.

    1982-02-01

    The long-range goal of the Energy Conversion and Utilization Technology (ECUT) Program is to enhance energy productivity in all energy-use sectors by supporting research on improved efficiency and fuel switching capability in the conversion and utilization of energy. Regardless of the deficiencies of current information, a summary of the best available energy-use information is needed now to support current ECUT program planning. This document is the initial draft of this type of summary and serves as a data book that will present current and periodically updated descriptions of the following aspects of energy use: gross US energy consumption in each major energy-use sector; energy consumption by fuel type in each sector; energy efficiency of major equipment/processes; and inventories, replacement rates, and use patterns for major energy-using capital stocks. These data will help the ECUT program staff perform two vital planning functions: determine areas in which research to improve energy productivity might provide significant energy savings or fuel switching and estimate the actual effect that specific research projects may have on energy productivity and conservation. Descriptions of the data sources and examples of the uses of the different types of data are provided in Section 2. The energy-use information is presented in the last four sections; Section 3 contains general, national consumption data; and Sections 4 through 6 contain residential/commercial, industrial, and transportation consumption data, respectively. (MCW)

  19. Photovoltaic (PV) energy in the Netherlands and Switzerland. A comparison

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van der Loo, F.; Spiessens, P.

    1995-01-01

    The development of photovoltaic (PV) energy in Switzerland and the Netherlands is compared for a number of aspects. The Swiss have realized more PV capacity. Also the economic conditions to develop PV are better in Switzerland than in the Netherlands. In Switzerland the public support is mobilized for solar energy while in the Netherlands a social basis is created for wind energy. 3 ills., 3 tabs

  20. Less CO2 by means of photovoltaic energy (PV)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alsema, E.A.; Van Brummelen, M.

    1992-11-01

    Regarding the title subject special attention is paid to the technical limitations of a fast introduction of the use of photovoltaic (PV) energy conversion. After a brief introduction on PV systems and the operation of a solar cell in chapter two, a state of the art is given of PV technology and possible price developments for PV modules and Balance-Of-System (BOS) components up to the year 2000 in chapters three and four. In chapter five the potential of installing grid-connected PV systems in the Netherlands is determined, taking into account the options of using existing buildings (PV systems on the roof), unexplored ground, in the verge of highways or railroads, industrial areas and airports. In chapter six non-economical bottlenecks for a large-scale introduction of grid-connected PV systems are discussed: the industrial production capacity for PV modules and other components, the fitting-in into the public electricity supply, and institutional aspects of installing PV systems on roofs. In chapter seven it is determined how much costs can be saved and CO 2 emission can be reduced when PV capacity is fitted-in into the Dutch electric power supply. The calculations are based on the Global Shift scenario. In chapter eight two scenarios (an optimistic scenario and a more realistic scenario) for the introduction of PV systems are outlined. For both scenarios the financial consequences and the contribution to the electric power supply are indicated. In chapter nine the net energy yield, being the result of the previously discussed introduction scenarios, is calculated, followed by a calculation of the avoided CO 2 emission, as well as the costs to avoid such emission. 25 figs., 15 tabs., 116 refs., 1 annex

  1. Energy conversion in natural and artificial photosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McConnell, Iain; Li, Gonghu; Brudvig, Gary W

    2010-05-28

    Modern civilization is dependent upon fossil fuels, a nonrenewable energy source originally provided by the storage of solar energy. Fossil-fuel dependence has severe consequences, including energy security issues and greenhouse gas emissions. The consequences of fossil-fuel dependence could be avoided by fuel-producing artificial systems that mimic natural photosynthesis, directly converting solar energy to fuel. This review describes the three key components of solar energy conversion in photosynthesis: light harvesting, charge separation, and catalysis. These processes are compared in natural and in artificial systems. Such a comparison can assist in understanding the general principles of photosynthesis and in developing working devices, including photoelectrochemical cells, for solar energy conversion. 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Surface Plasmon-Assisted Solar Energy Conversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodekatos, Georgios; Schünemann, Stefan; Tüysüz, Harun

    2016-01-01

    The utilization of localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) from plasmonic noble metals in combination with semiconductors promises great improvements for visible light-driven photocatalysis, in particular for energy conversion. This review summarizes the basic principles of plasmonic photocatalysis, giving a comprehensive overview about the proposed mechanisms for enhancing the performance of photocatalytically active semiconductors with plasmonic devices and their applications for surface plasmon-assisted solar energy conversion. The main focus is on gold and, to a lesser extent, silver nanoparticles in combination with titania as semiconductor and their usage as active plasmonic photocatalysts. Recent advances in water splitting, hydrogen generation with sacrificial organic compounds, and CO2 reduction to hydrocarbons for solar fuel production are highlighted. Finally, further improvements for plasmonic photocatalysts, regarding performance, stability, and economic feasibility, are discussed for surface plasmon-assisted solar energy conversion.

  3. Energy conversion & storage program. 1995 annual report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cairns, E.J.

    1996-06-01

    The 1995 annual report discusses laboratory activities in the Energy Conversion and Storage (EC&S) Program. The report is divided into three categories: electrochemistry, chemical applications, and material applications. Research performed in each category during 1995 is described. Specific research topics relate to the development of high-performance rechargeable batteries and fuel cells, the development of high-efficiency thermochemical processes for energy conversion, the characterization of new chemical processes and complex chemical species, and the study and application of novel materials related to energy conversion and transmission. Research projects focus on transport-process principles, chemical kinetics, thermodynamics, separation processes, organic and physical chemistry, novel materials and deposition technologies, and advanced methods of analysis.

  4. The role of Photovoltaics towards 100% Renewable energy systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mathiesen, Brian Vad; David, Andrei; Petersen, Silas

    builds on a literature review of the global and Danish trends in capacity, costs and types of support schemes, but also develops a GIS and energy system analysis supported by a set of economic calculations to inquire on the recommended pathway for the future investments in photovoltaics in Denmark...

  5. Efficient photovoltaic conversion of graphene–carbon nanotube hybrid films grown from solid precursors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gan, Xin; Lv, Ruitao; Bai, Junfei; Zhang, Zexia; Wei, Jinquan; Huang, Zheng-Hong; Zhu, Hongwei; Kang, Feiyu; Terrones, Mauricio

    2015-01-01

    Large-area (e.g. centimeter size) graphene sheets are usually synthesized via pyrolysis of gaseous carbon precursors (e.g. methane) on metal substrates like Cu using chemical vapor deposition (CVD), but the presence of grain boundaries and the residual polymers during transfer deteriorates significantly the properties of the CVD graphene. If carbon nanotubes (CNTs) can be covalently bonded to graphene, the hybrid system could possess excellent electrical conductivity, transparency and mechanical strength. In this work, conducting and transparent CNT–graphene hybrid films were synthesized by a facile solid precursor pyrolysis method. Furthermore, the synthesized CNT–graphene hybrid films display enhanced photovoltaic conversion efficiency when compared to devices based on CNT membranes or graphene sheets. Upon chemical doping, the graphene–CNT/Si solar cells reveal power conversion efficiencies up to 8.50%. (paper)

  6. Solar energy photovoltaic technology: proficiency and performance; L'energie solaire maitrise et performance photovoltaiques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-07-01

    Total is committed to making the best possible of the planet's fossil fuel reserves while fostering the emergence of other solutions, notably by developing effective alternatives. Total involves in photovoltaics when it founded in 1983 Total Energies, renamed Tenesol in 2005, a world leader in the design and installation of photovoltaic solar power systems. This document presents Total's activities in the domain: the global challenge of energy sources and the environment, the energy collecting by photovoltaic electricity, the silicon technology for cell production, solar panels and systems to distribute energy, research and development to secure the future. (A.L.B.)

  7. Observatory of photovoltaic solar energy in France - 20. edition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-12-01

    After an overview of important events in the World regarding the development of photovoltaic solar energy in 2016, and predictions regarding new connected installations in 2016, this document present graphs and figures which illustrate the evolution of the photovoltaic fleet in the World, the comparison of production costs of new electric power generation capacities, the evolution of the French photovoltaic power production since 2009, the evolution of the distribution of the French fleet in terms of installation power (from large projects to residential), of connections to the grid, of number of connections and purchase tariffs for the different types of installations (residential, medium roofs, large roofs, very large roofs, very large ground-based or roof-based projects) and for queuing projects, in terms of evolution of purchase tariffs since 2011, and of evolution of impact on the CSPE financing system

  8. MATERIALS REQUIREMENTS FOR THERMIONIC ENERGY CONVERSION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allen, R. C.; Skeen, C. H.

    1963-03-15

    The fundamentals of the thermionic energy conversion and its potential applications are reviewed. Materials problems associated with thermionic emitters are considered in relation to the following: work function; emissivity; vaporization; thermal, mechanical, and electrical properties; chemical stability; permeation; and stability under nuclear radiation. Cesium purity and materials suitable for collectors, electrical leads, support structures, insulators, and seals are also discussed. Experimental work on problems involved is reviewed. It is concluded that significant developments have occurred recently in all areas of thermionic energy conversion. (40 references) (A.G.W.)

  9. The direct conversion of solar energy to electricity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    Half the world's population lives without access to electricity in the rural areas and villages of developing countries. In 1987, world population reached 5 billion and, according to World Bank projections, will increase to over 6 billion in the year 2000 and to over 8 billion in 2025. Such population growth is not uniformly distributed: developed countries have small or negative growth and account for a declining proportion of the world's population. Inasmuch as 95 per cent of the extra inhabitants added each year are in developing countries, rapid population growth in those countries raises serious questions about energy availability for basic human needs and, of course, more broadly about the environment's capacity to support that growth. The present report makes reference to one of the most comprehensively documented conservative scenarios for world energy demand in the year 2020, namely, Energy for a Sustainable World, which assumed that long-term world sustainability must entail constraints on (a) use of natural resources and (b) combustion of fossil fuels resulting in the greenhouse effect. Solar energy is abundant and could become a major source of electricity. Photovoltaics has three particular advantages. It accomplishes sunlight-to-electricity conversion entirely with solid-state electronic components, and with no moving parts required, thereby promising high equipment availability and very low operating and maintenance costs. PV also appears to have very limited environmental impact, with no emissions of the gaseous pollutants associated with fossil-fuel burning and few of the possible local problems associated with some other renewable energy technologies. Finally, the products of photovoltaic technology are modular in construction and can be built up on site in a flexible way, thus minimizing front-end financial risk and investment costs. Figs and tabs

  10. Energy conversion technology by chemical processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oh, I W; Yoon, K S; Cho, B W [Korea Inst. of Science and Technology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); and others

    1996-12-01

    The sharp increase in energy usage according to the industry development has resulted in deficiency of energy resources and severe pollution problems. Therefore, development of the effective way of energy usage and energy resources of low pollution is needed. Development of the energy conversion technology by chemical processes is also indispensable, which will replace the pollutant-producing and inefficient mechanical energy conversion technologies. Energy conversion technology by chemical processes directly converts chemical energy to electrical one, or converts heat energy to chemical one followed by heat storage. The technology includes batteries, fuel cells, and energy storage system. The are still many problems on performance, safety, and manufacturing of the secondary battery which is highly demanded in electronics, communication, and computer industries. To overcome these problems, key components such as carbon electrode, metal oxide electrode, and solid polymer electrolyte are developed in this study, followed by the fabrication of the lithium secondary battery. Polymer electrolyte fuel cell, as an advanced power generating apparatus with high efficiency, no pollution, and no noise, has many applications such as zero-emission vehicles, on-site power plants, and military purposes. After fabricating the cell components and operating the single cells, the fundamental technologies in polymer electrolyte fuel cell are established in this study. Energy storage technology provides the safe and regular heat energy, irrespective of the change of the heat energy sources, adjusts time gap between consumption and supply, and upgrades and concentrates low grade heat energy. In this study, useful chemical reactions for efficient storage and transport are investigated and the chemical heat storage technology are developed. (author) 41 refs., 90 figs., 20 tabs.

  11. Overall efficiencies for conversion of solar energy to a chemical fuel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fish, J. D.

    A complete and consistent scheme for determining the overall efficiency of a generalized process for the conversion of solar energy into a chemical fuel (e.g. hydrogen) is developed and applied to seven conversion processes: thermal, thermochemical, photovoltaic, photogalvanic, photoelectrolysis, photosynthesis and photochemical conversion. It is demonstrated that the overall efficiency of each of these processes is determined by ten common factors: maximum theoretical efficiency, inherent absorption losses, inherent internal losses, rate limiting effects, reflection losses, transmission losses, coverage losses, system construction requirements, parasitic losses and harvesting and conversion losses. Both state-of-the-art and optimistic values are assigned to each factor for each of the seven conversion processes. State-of-the-art overall efficiencies ranged from 5% for thermal conversion down to essentially zero for thermochemical. Optimistic values in the range of about 10 to 15% are calculated for several of the processes.

  12. Hybrid photovoltaic system control for enhancing sustainable energy. Economic aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leva, Sonia; Roscia, Mariacristina; Zaninelli, Dario

    2005-01-01

    The paper introduces hybrid photovoltaic/diesel generation systems for supplying remote power plant taking into account the enhancement of sustainable energy on the economic point of view. In particular, a new monitoring and control device is presented in order to carry out the optimum energy flows and a cost evaluation is performed on a real plant showing the effect and weight of the economical sustainability and economical saving. (authors)

  13. Utilization of photovoltaic solar energy technology for rural electricity supply at Sabah

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohd Noh Dalimin

    1996-01-01

    The conversion of sunlight to electrical energy using photovoltaic systems for lighting, water pumping, telecommunications and vaccine refrigeration are already proven, commercially available and in many, are economically viable. More and more houses in rural areas of Sabah are connected to solar powered infra structural development needs such as street lights, radio repeater station, telecommunication and high-voltage beacons. To meet the infra structural and environmental challenges, especially in remote locations and with prospects of greater economic competitiveness, central and distributed grid connected photovoltaic systems are now being evaluated in Mandahan, Papar and in Marak Parak, Kota Marudu. This paper reports on the progress with the application of the technology and the prospects for wider dissemination

  14. Systems and methods for wave energy conversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDonald, Daniel G.; Cantara, Justin; Nathan, Craig; Lopes, Amy M.; Green, Brandon E.

    2017-02-28

    Systems for wave energy conversion that have components that can survive the harsh marine environment and that can be attached to fixed structures, such as a pier, and having the ability to naturally adjust for tidal height and methods for their use are presented.

  15. A Case Analysis of Energy Savings Performance Contract Projects and Photovoltaic Energy at Fort Bliss, El Paso, Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-06-01

    PHOTOVOLTAIC ENERGY AND FORT BLISS CASE BACKGROUND A. PHOTOVOLTAIC ENERGY The use of photovoltaic power systems is nothing new in the Department...against the Outback MPPT charge controller . This test will be done over a one month timeframe. The Arizona Power ISG test plan is contained in...cost-benefit analysis of conventional power versus emerging photovoltaic energy for the Army’s Fort Bliss in El Paso, TX. The project will also analyze

  16. WIND ENERGY CONVERSION SYSTEMS - A TECHNICAL REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. RAMESH BABU

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Wind power production has been under the main focus for the past decade in power production and tremendous amount of research work is going on renewable energy, specifically on wind power extraction. Wind power provides an eco-friendly power generation and helps to meet the national energy demand when there is a diminishing trend in terms of non-renewable resources. This paper reviews the modeling of Wind Energy Conversion Systems (WECS, control strategies of controllers and various Maximum Power Point Tracking (MPPT technologies that are being proposed for efficient production of wind energy from the available resource.

  17. Photovoltaic test and demonstration project. [residential energy program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forestieri, A. F.; Brandhorst, H. W., Jr.; Deyo, J. N.

    1976-01-01

    The considered project consists of three subprojects related to applications, device performance and diagnostics, and endurance testing. The objectives of the applications subproject include the determination of the operating characteristics for a variety of photovoltaic conversion systems. A system test facility is being constructed in this connection and a prototype residence experiment is to be conducted. Market demand for solar cells is to be stimulated by demonstrating suitability of solar cells for specific near-term applications. Activities conducted in connection with device performance studies and diagnostics are also discussed along with developments in the area of endurance testing.

  18. Thermoelectric cooling in combination with photovoltaics and thermal energy storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Skovajsa Jan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the use of modern technologies that can improve the thermal comfort in buildings. The article describes the usage of thermal energy storage device based on the phase change material (PCM. The technology improves the thermal capacity of the building and it is possible to use it for active heating and cooling. It is designed as a “green technology” so it is able to use renewable energy sources, e.g., photovoltaic panels, solar thermal collectors, and heat pump. Moreover, an interesting possibility is the ability to use thermal energy storage in combination with a photovoltaic system and thermoelectric coolers. In the research, there were made measurements of the different operating modes and the results are presented in the text.

  19. EU Directives, national regulations and incentives for photovoltaic solar energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jager-Waldau, A.; Ossenbrink, H.; Scholz, H.; Bloem, H.; Werring, L.

    2004-01-01

    The European Union long-term strategy for security of energy supply and its commitment to curb climate change led to the adoption of a series of Strategy Papers and EU Directives. In all these, it is clearly stated that climate change is a long-term challenge for the international community and that the commitments made in the Kyoto Protocol can only be a first step. The promotion of renewable energies is a most important element of this process. It regards industry, jobs and foreign trade balance as well, generating benefit to social sustainability. Photovoltaic is a key technology with the potential not only to serve the needs in energy supply of tomorrow in a sustainable way, but already today, it can improve security and stability of electricity services at peak times, due to its decentralized nature. This paper gives an update on the EU and National legislation in place to promote the implementation of photovoltaic. (authors)

  20. Which advances and place for photovoltaic energy?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2006-01-01

    While the European governments wish to raise to 20% the share of energy generated from clean sources, the solar energy appears as an excellent complement to the wind/hydraulic alternative. Today limited to 0.09% of the energy production capacity in Europe (with respect to 3.8% and 20% for the wind and hydro energies, respectively), the solar energy is a developing sector thanks to strong financial incentives. However, only important technological progresses would make solar energy a major energy source. Among the possible innovations, the development of efficient organic or plastic solar cells is one of the most promising way. Short paper. (J.S.)

  1. Energy conversion using hydrogen PEM fuel cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stoenescu, D.; Patularu, L.; Culcer, M.; Lazar, R.; Mirica, D.; Varlam, M.; Carcadea, E.; Stefanescu, I.

    2004-01-01

    It is well known that hydrogen is the most promising solution of future energy, both for long and medium term strategies. Hydrogen can be produced using many primary sources (naphthalene, natural gas, methanol, coal, biomass), solar cells power, etc. It can be burned or chemically reacted having a high yield of energy conversion and is a non-polluted fuel. This paper presents the results obtained by ICSI Rm. Valcea in an experimental-demonstrative conversion energy system consisting in a catalytic methane reforming plant for hydrogen production and three synthesis gas purification units in order to get pure hydrogen with a CO level lower than 10 ppm that finally feeds a hydrogen fuel stock. (authors)

  2. Solar breeder: Energy payback time for silicon photovoltaic systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindmayer, J.

    1977-01-01

    The energy expenditures of the prevailing manufacturing technology of terrestrial photovoltaic cells and panels were evaluated, including silicon reduction, silicon refinement, crystal growth, cell processing and panel building. Energy expenditures include direct energy, indirect energy, and energy in the form of equipment and overhead expenses. Payback times were development using a conventional solar cell as a test vehicle which allows for the comparison of its energy generating capability with the energies expended during the production process. It was found that the energy payback time for a typical solar panel produced by the prevailing technology is 6.4 years. Furthermore, this value drops to 3.8 years under more favorable conditions. Moreover, since the major energy use reductions in terrestrial manufacturing have occurred in cell processing, this payback time directly illustrates the areas where major future energy reductions can be made -- silicon refinement, crystal growth, and panel building.

  3. Novel Nuclear Powered Photocatalytic Energy Conversion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    White, John R.; Kinsmen, Douglas; Regan, Thomas M.; Bobek, Leo M.

    2005-01-01

    The University of Massachusetts Lowell Radiation Laboratory (UMLRL) is involved in a comprehensive project to investigate a unique radiation sensing and energy conversion technology with applications for in-situ monitoring of spent nuclear fuel (SNF) during cask transport and storage. The technology makes use of the gamma photons emitted from the SNF as an inherent power source for driving a GPS-class transceiver that has the ability to verify the position and contents of the SNF cask. The power conversion process, which converts the gamma photon energy into electrical power, is based on a variation of the successful dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC) design developed by Konarka Technologies, Inc. (KTI). In particular, the focus of the current research is to make direct use of the high-energy gamma photons emitted from SNF, coupled with a scintillator material to convert some of the incident gamma photons into photons having wavelengths within the visible region of the electromagnetic spectrum. The high-energy gammas from the SNF will generate some power directly via Compton scattering and the photoelectric effect, and the generated visible photons output from the scintillator material can also be converted to electrical power in a manner similar to that of a standard solar cell. Upon successful implementation of an energy conversion device based on this new gammavoltaic principle, this inherent power source could then be utilized within SNF storage casks to drive a tamper-proof, low-power, electronic detection/security monitoring system for the spent fuel. The current project has addressed several aspects associated with this new energy conversion concept, including the development of a base conceptual design for an inherent gamma-induced power conversion unit for SNF monitoring, the characterization of the radiation environment that can be expected within a typical SNF storage system, the initial evaluation of Konarka's base solar cell design, the design and

  4. Organometallics and related molecules for energy conversion

    CERN Document Server

    Wong, Wai-Yeung

    2015-01-01

    This book presents a critical perspective of the applications of organometallic compounds (including those with metal or metalloid elements) and other related metal complexes as versatile functional materials in the transformation of light into electricity (solar energy conversion) and electricity into light (light generation in light emitting diode), in the reduction of carbon dioxide to useful chemicals, as well as in the safe and efficient production and utilization of hydrogen, which serves as an energy storage medium (i.e. energy carrier). This book focuses on recent research developmen

  5. Hybrid photovoltaic-diesel-battery systems for remote energy supply

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bopp, G.; Gabler, H.; Kiefer, K.; Preiser, K.; Wiemken, E. [Fraunhofer Institute for Solar Energy Systems ISE, Freiburg (Germany)

    1997-12-31

    Photovoltaic solar generators combined with diesel engines and battery energy storage are powering isolated mountain lodges, information centres in nature parks, isolated farms or dwellings all over Europe. A total of 300000 buildings in Europe are estimated to be not connected to the public grid. This represents a major market potential for photovoltaics, as often photovoltaic power generation is less expensive than a connection to the electric utility. The Fraunhofer Institute for Solar Energy Systems ISE has planned, realized and monitored about 30 hybrid remote energy supply systems with PV generators typically around 5 kW for loads typically around 20 kWh per day. More than one hundred years of operational experience accumulated so far, are a sound foundation on which to draw an interim balance over problems solved and technical questions still under development. Room for further technical development is seen in the domain of system reliability and the reduction of operating costs as well as in the optimization of the utilisation of the electric energy produced by the PV generator. (orig.) 8 refs.

  6. Energy Conversion at Micro and Nanoscale

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gammaitoni, Luca

    2014-01-01

    Energy management is considered a task of strategic importance in contemporary society. It is a common fact that the most successful economies of the planet are the economies that can transform and use large quantities of energy. In this talk we will discuss the role of energy with specific attention to the processes that happens at micro and nanoscale. The description of energy conversion processes at these scales requires approaches that go way beyond the standard equilibrium termodynamics of macroscopic systems. In this talk we will address from a fundamental point of view the physics of the dissipation of energy and will focus our attention to the energy transformation processes that take place in the modern micro and nano information and communication devices

  7. Photovoltaics technology program summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-05-01

    An adequate supply of energy at reasonable price is discussed. Economic efficiency and the following strategies to obtain it are suggested: (1) minimization of federal regulation in energy pricing; and (2) promote a balanced and mixed energy resource system. The development of photovoltaic energy conversion technology is summarized.

  8. Energy Efficiency Enhancement of Photovoltaics by Phase Change Materials through Thermal Energy Recovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Hasan

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Photovoltaic (PV panels convert a certain amount of incident solar radiation into electricity, while the rest is converted to heat, leading to a temperature rise in the PV. This elevated temperature deteriorates the power output and induces structural degradation, resulting in reduced PV lifespan. One potential solution entails PV thermal management employing active and passive means. The traditional passive means are found to be largely ineffective, while active means are considered to be energy intensive. A passive thermal management system using phase change materials (PCMs can effectively limit PV temperature rises. The PCM-based approach however is cost inefficient unless the stored thermal energy is recovered effectively. The current article investigates a way to utilize the thermal energy stored in the PCM behind the PV for domestic water heating applications. The system is evaluated in the winter conditions of UAE to deliver heat during water heating demand periods. The proposed system achieved a ~1.3% increase in PV electrical conversion efficiency, along with the recovery of ~41% of the thermal energy compared to the incident solar radiation.

  9. Particle Discrimination Experiment for Direct Energy Conversion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yasaka, Y.; Kiriyama, Y.; Yamamoto, S.; Takeno, H.; Ishikawa, M.

    2005-01-01

    A direct energy conversion system designed for D- 3 He fusion reactor based on a field reversed configuration employs a venetian-blind type converter for thermal ions to produce DC power and a traveling wave type converter for fusion protons to produce RF power. It is therefore necessary to separate, discriminate, and guide the particle species. For this purpose, a cusp magnetic field is proposed, in which the electrons are deflected and guided along the field line to the line cusp, while the ions pass through the point cusp. A small-scale experimental device was used to study the basic characteristics of discrimination of electrons and ions in the cusp magnetic field. Ions separated from electrons are guided to an ion collector, which is operated as a one-stage direct energy converter. The conversion efficiency was measured for cases with different values of mean and spread of ion energy. These experiments successfully demonstrate direct energy conversion from plasma beams using particle discrimination by a cusp magnetic field

  10. EPR's energy conversion system. Alstom's solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ledermann, P.

    2009-01-01

    ARABELLE steam turbines have been developed by Alstom to be used as the energy conversion system of light water reactors with high output power like the N4 PWR and the EPR. ARABELLE turbines cumulate 200.000 hours of service with a reliability ratio of 99.97 per cent. This series of slides presents the main features of the turbine including: the use of the simple flux, the very large shape of low pressure blades, the technology of welded rotors. The other main equipment like the alternator, the condenser, the moisture separator-reheaters, the circulating pumps that Alstom integrates in the energy conversion system have benefited with technological improvements that are also presented. (A.C.)

  11. Air Turbines for Wave Energy Conversion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manabu Takao

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the present status of the art on air turbines, which could be used for wave energy conversion. The air turbines included in the paper are as follows: Wells type turbines, impulse turbines, radial turbines, cross-flow turbine, and Savonius turbine. The overall performances of the turbines under irregular wave conditions, which typically occur in the sea, have been compared by numerical simulation and sea trial. As a result, under irregular wave conditions it is found that the running and starting characteristics of the impulse type turbines could be superior to those of the Wells turbine. Moreover, as the current challenge on turbine technology, the authors explain a twin-impulse turbine topology for wave energy conversion.

  12. The Energy Conversation: The First 3 Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-07-01

    emerging clear and present reality] 7“Facing the Hard Truths about Energy” National Petroleum Council, 2007. www.npchardtruthsreport.org 8 Verrastro and...commuting five days/week, dispersing eight tons of pollutants into the environment and using 233 hours for travel to and from work w Telecommuting three... The Energy Conversation the first 3 years Report Documentation Page Form ApprovedOMB No. 0704-0188 Public reporting burden for the collection of

  13. Multifunctional Energy Storage and Conversion Devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yan; Zhu, Minshen; Huang, Yang; Pei, Zengxia; Li, Hongfei; Wang, Zifeng; Xue, Qi; Zhi, Chunyi

    2016-10-01

    Multifunctional energy storage and conversion devices that incorporate novel features and functions in intelligent and interactive modes, represent a radical advance in consumer products, such as wearable electronics, healthcare devices, artificial intelligence, electric vehicles, smart household, and space satellites, etc. Here, smart energy devices are defined to be energy devices that are responsive to changes in configurational integrity, voltage, mechanical deformation, light, and temperature, called self-healability, electrochromism, shape memory, photodetection, and thermal responsivity. Advisable materials, device designs, and performances are crucial for the development of energy electronics endowed with these smart functions. Integrating these smart functions in energy storage and conversion devices gives rise to great challenges from the viewpoint of both understanding the fundamental mechanisms and practical implementation. Current state-of-art examples of these smart multifunctional energy devices, pertinent to materials, fabrication strategies, and performances, are highlighted. In addition, current challenges and potential solutions from materials synthesis to device performances are discussed. Finally, some important directions in this fast developing field are considered to further expand their application. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. Thermoelectric Energy Conversion: Materials, Devices, and Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Gang

    2015-01-01

    This paper will present a discussion of challenges, progresses, and opportunities in thermoelectric energy conversion technology. We will start with an introduction to thermoelectric technology, followed by discussing advances in thermoelectric materials, devices, and systems. Thermoelectric energy conversion exploits the Seebeck effect to convert thermal energy into electricity, or the Peltier effect for heat pumping applications. Thermoelectric devices are scalable, capable of generating power from nano Watts to mega Watts. One key issue is to improve materials thermoelectric figure- of-merit that is linearly proportional to the Seebeck coefficient, the square of the electrical conductivity, and inversely proportional to the thermal conductivity. Improving the figure-of-merit requires good understanding of electron and phonon transport as their properties are often contradictory in trends. Over the past decade, excellent progresses have been made in the understanding of electron and phonon transport in thermoelectric materials, and in improving existing and identify new materials, especially by exploring nanoscale size effects. Taking materials to real world applications, however, faces more challenges in terms of materials stability, device fabrication, thermal management and system design. Progresses and lessons learnt from our effort in fabricating thermoelectric devices will be discussed. We have demonstrated device thermal-to-electrical energy conversion efficiency ∼10% and solar-thermoelectric generator efficiency at 4.6% without optical concentration of sunlight (Figure 1) and ∼8-9% efficiency with optical concentration. Great opportunities exist in advancing materials as well as in using existing materials for energy efficiency improvements and renewable energy utilization, as well as mobile applications. (paper)

  15. Design of Novel Metal Nanostructures for Broadband Solar Energy Conversion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristine A. Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Solar power holds great potential as an alternative energy source, but current photovoltaic cells have much room for improvement in cost and efficiency. Our objective was to develop metal nanostructures whose surface plasmon resonance (SPR spectra closely match the solar spectrum to enhance light absorption and scattering. We employed the finite-difference time-domain simulation method to evaluate the effect of varying key parameters. A novel nanostructure with SPR absorption matching a region of the solar spectrum (300 to 1500 nm that contains 90% of solar energy was successfully designed. This structure consists of a large gold-silica core-shell structure with smaller gold nanoparticles and nanorods on its surface. Such complex nanostructures are promising for broad and tunable absorption spectra. In addition, we investigated the SPR of silver nanoparticle arrays, which can achieve scattering close to the solar spectrum. We demonstrated an improvement in efficiency of over 30% with optimal nanoparticle radius and periods of 75 nm and 325 nm, respectively. In combination, our studies enable high-efficiency, tunable, and cost-effective enhancement of both light absorption and scattering, which has potential applications in solar energy conversion as well as biomedical imaging.

  16. Photovoltaics as a worldwide energy option: A case study in development strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, G.; Pate, R.; Hill, R.

    1991-01-01

    Renewable energy technologies, such as solar thermal electric, photovoltaics (PV), and wind energy have made significant gains in cost and performance in the past decades. As a result, there have been high expectations on the part of the public for these sources to play a major role in future energy supply, especially as environmental concerns about conventional sources increase. Despite these past gains and high expectations, the global potential of renewable energy technologies still remains largely untapped, principally because of issues of industrialization and user acceptance. There is increasing recognition that government energy programs must incorporate a broader strategy than the traditional basic research role if they are to address these issues. Essential elements of this strategy are affordable technology, a healthy industry, sustained market growth, user acceptance, and equitable policy and financial environments. The US Department of Energy (DOE) programs in solar electric conversion have already started the development of the required broader-based effort. This paper presents the status of that work, utilizing the US National Photovoltaic Program as a case study

  17. Energy analysis of solar photovoltaic module production in India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prakash, R.; Bansal, N.K.

    1995-01-01

    The objective of this article is to evaluate the energy consumption in solar photovoltaic (SPV) module production in India and examine its implications for large-scale introduction of SPV plants in the country. Data on energy used in SPV production were collected from existing manufacturing facilities in the country. The energy payback period turns out to be approximately 4 years. This is comparable to energy payback periods of similar modules produced internationally. However, if an ambitious program of introducing SPV power production is undertaken to contribute substantially to the power scenario in the country, an annual growth rate beyond 21% will render the program an energy sink rather than an energy source, as borne out by dynamic energy analysis. Policy implications are also discussed in light of this analysis

  18. ENERGY MANAGEMENT OF PHOTOVOLTAIC SYSTEMS USING FUEL CELLS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristian MIRON

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Renewable energy generators show an accelerated growth both in terms of production wise, as well as in research fields. Focusing only on photovoltaic panels, the generated energy has the disadvantage of being strongly oscillatory in evolution. The classical solution is to create a network between photovoltaic farms spanning on large distances, in order to share the total energy before sending it to the clients. A solution that was recently proposed is going to use hydrogen in order to store the energy surplus. Fuel Cells (FCs represent energy generators whose energy vector is usually hydrogen. These have already started the transition from the laboratory context towards commercialization. Due to their high energy density, as well as their theoretical infinite storage capacity through hydrogen, configurations based on electrolyzers and FCs are seen as high potential storage systems, both for vehicle and for stationary applications. Therefore, a study on such distributed control systems is of high importance. This paper analyses the existing solutions, with emphasis on a particular case where a supervisory system is developed and tested in a specialised simulation software.

  19. Nanoscale Materials and Architectures for Energy Conversion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grulke, Eric A. [Univ. of Kentucky, Lexington, KY (United States); Sunkara, Mahendra K. [University of Louisville, KY (United States)

    2011-05-25

    The Kentucky EPSCoR Program supported an inter-university, multidisciplinary energy-related research cluster studying nanomaterials for converting solar radiation and residual thermal energy to electrical energy and hydrogen. It created a collaborative center of excellence based on research expertise in nanomaterials, architectures, and their synthesis. The project strengthened and improved the collaboration between the University of Louisville, the University of Kentucky, and NREL. The cluster hired a new faculty member for ultra-fast transient spectroscopy, and enabled the mentoring of one research scientist, two postdoctoral scholars and ten graduate students. Work was accomplished with three focused cluster projects: organic and photoelectrochemical solar cells, solar fuels, and thermionic energy conversion.

  20. Photovoltaic energy in France: 2015, a good year

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Courtel, J.; Tuille, F.

    2015-01-01

    The figures collected for the first semester of 2015 show that the 2014 growth of photovoltaic energy is keeping on. In june 2015 the cumulated installed power reached 6046 MWc. The next challenge is the implementation in january 2016 of a new financial support mechanism based on additional income instead of an EDF's obligation to purchase at fixed tariffs. The additional income is due to be paid with regular periodicity rather than as a whole at the beginning of the project. The amount of the additional income will be calculated as a difference between a maximum target price and the average market price of electricity. This new financial support mechanism shows that the photovoltaic sector is entering a maturity phase. (A.C.)

  1. Photovoltaic Energy Program Overview, Fiscal Year 2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weis-Taylor, P.

    2001-03-02

    This ''annual report'' details the FY 2000 achievements of the U.S. Department of Energy PV Program in the categories of Research and Development, Technology Development, and Systems Engineering and Applications. Highlights include development of a record-breaking concentrator solar cell that is 32.4% efficient; fabrication of a record CIGS (copper indium gallium diselenide) cell at 18.8% efficiency; sharing an R and D 100 award with Siemens Solar Industries and the California Energy Commission for development and deployment of commercial CIS thin-film modules; and support for the efforts of the PV Industry Roadmap Workshop.

  2. Better chances for photovoltaic solar energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sinke, W.C.

    1992-01-01

    There is a growing interest in the use of solar energy based on the policy to reduce the emission of carbon dioxide and acidifying pollutants, and the desire to save energy, in particular with regard to the increase of energy consumption, which can be expected to occur in the near future in developing countries. After a brief introduction on the efficiencies of monocrystalline silicon (m-Si), polycrystalline silicon (p-Si) and amorphous silicon (a-Si) solar cells realized sofar, attention is paid to two remarkable developments in solar cell research. One is at Texas Instruments where silicon balls in aluminium foil are fabricated, for which the average energy efficiency realized sofar is 10% for small surfaces (10 cm 2 ). The cell is called the spheral solar cell. A second development is at the Federal Institute for Technology in Lausanne, Switzerland, where the researchers O'Regan and Graetzel reported on the development of a photo-electrochemical solar cell with a high efficiency and good stability. Their cell is dye sensitized, which means that the light absorption function of the cell is separated from the load transport function. Finally brief attention is paid to the introduction and use of solar home systems in Indonesia. 5 figs

  3. Relationship between the energy levels and the photovoltaic properties of oligothiophenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Eunhee

    2014-08-01

    A series of linear π-conjugated oligothiophenes, α,α'-dihexylquinquethiophene (DH5T), 2,5-bis(5'-hexyl-2,2'-bithiophene-5-yl)thieno[3,2-b]thiophene (DH5TT), and α,α'-dihexylheptathiophene (DH7T), has been synthesized using the Suzuki coupling reaction. The optical and electrochemical properties of oligothiophenes were easily tuned by controlling the thiophene number. The UV-vis absorption and photoluminescence (PL) spectra are gradually red-shifted on going from DH5T and DH5TT to DH7T due to the increase in α-conjugation length. The energy band gap decreased as the oligothiophene length increased. The optical band gaps of DH5T, DH5TT, and DH7T occur at 2.39, 2.25, and 2.01 eV, respectively. Bulk heterojunction organic photovoltaic cells (OPVs) fabricated from oligomers showed the power conversion efficiency of 0.45-0.8% under AM 1.5 (100 mW/cm2). Among them, DH5T showed the best OPV performance of an open circuit voltage (VOC) of 0.51 V, short-circuit current (JSC) of 4.25 mA/cm2, and fill factor (FF) of 0.37, resulting in the power conversion efficiency of 0.80%. Moreover, the relationship between conjugation length and photovoltaic properties was systematically investigated in terms of the energy band gap and open circuit voltage (VOC).

  4. Photovoltaic Energy Program Contract Summary; Fiscal Year 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Surek, T.

    1999-02-16

    This document provides individual summaries of some 200 photovoltaics research projects performed in house and by subcontractors to Department of Energy national laboratories and field offices, including the National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Sandia National Laboratories, Golden Field Office, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Albuquerque Field Office, and Boston Support Office. The document is divided into the following sections: research and development, technology development, and systems engineering and applications. Three indexes are included: performing organizations by name, performing organizations by state, and performing organizations by technology area.

  5. The Redox Flow System for solar photovoltaic energy storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odonnell, P.; Gahn, R. F.; Pfeiffer, W.

    1976-01-01

    The interfacing of a Solar Photovoltaic System and a Redox Flow System for storage was workable. The Redox Flow System, which utilizes the oxidation-reduction capability of two redox couples, in this case iron and titanium, for its storage capacity, gave a relatively constant output regardless of solar activity so that a load could be run continually day and night utilizing the sun's energy. One portion of the system was connected to a bank of solar cells to electrochemically charge the solutions, while a separate part of the system was used to electrochemically discharge the stored energy.

  6. ANALYSIS OF THE ENERGY EFFICIENCY OF PHOTOVOLTAIC POLYCRYSTALLINE AND THIN-FILM PHOTOVOLTAIC FARM IN THE DOLINA ZIELAWY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr Dragan

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Renewable energy is an opportunity not only to improve the energy efficiency of individual customers, but also to ensure energy security for local governments. In 2007, in Lublin province 5 municipalities have formed a partnership government called "Valley of Zielawa". The objectives of the partnership is the cooperation in the field of education, tasks in the field of culture, health protection, social welfare, fire protection and street lighting. One of the overarching goals of the partnership include ensure energy security and improving energy efficiency through the utilization of solar energy. Solar energy resources in the Lublin region are mainly characterized by a very high degree of sunlight compared to other regions of the country. The greatest potential for solar energy use is the eastern area of the province (including the area of partnership. In order to ensure the energy security of the community established a company Energy Valley of Zielawa, which in 2014 built a photovoltaic farm with a capacity of 1.4 MW in the Bordziłówka in Municipality Rossosz. This paper presents an analysis of photovoltaic farm work over the year and a half and the analysis of the energy efficiency of various types of photovoltaic panels which produce energy on a farm in photovoltaic Bordziłówce.

  7. Photovoltaic module energy rating methodology development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kroposki, B.; Myers, D.; Emery, K.; Mrig, L. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States); Whitaker, C.; Newmiller, J. [Endecon Engineering, San Ramon, CA (United States)

    1996-05-01

    A consensus-based methodology to calculate the energy output of a PV module will be described in this paper. The methodology develops a simple measure of PV module performance that provides for a realistic estimate of how a module will perform in specific applications. The approach makes use of the weather data profiles that describe conditions throughout the United States and emphasizes performance differences between various module types. An industry-representative Technical Review Committee has been assembled to provide feedback and guidance on the strawman and final approach used in developing the methodology.

  8. Photovoltaic performance and the energy landscape of CH3NH3PbI3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yecheng; Huang, Fuzhi; Cheng, Yi-Bing; Gray-Weale, Angus

    2015-09-21

    Photovoltaic cells with absorbing layers of certain perovskites have power conversion efficiencies up to 20%. Among these materials, CH3NH3PbI3 is widely used. Here we use density-functional theory to calculate the energies and rotational energy barriers of a methylammonium ion in the α or β phase of CH3NH3PbI3 with differently oriented neighbouring methylammonium ions. Our results suggest the methylammonium ions in CH3NH3PbI3 prefer to rotate collectively, and to be parallel to their neighbours. Changes in polarization on rotation of methylammonium ions are two to three times larger than those on relaxation of the lead ion from the centre of its coordination shell. The preferences for parallel configuration and concerted rotation, with the polarisation changes, are consistent with ferroelectricity in the material, and indicate that this polarisation is governed by methylammonium orientational correlations. We show that the field due to this polarisation is strong enough to screen the field hindering charge transport, and find this screening field in agreement with experiment. We examine two possible mechanisms for the effect of methylammonium ion rotation on photovoltaic performance. One is that rearrangement of methylammoniums promotes the creation and transport of charge carriers. Some effective masses change greatly, but changes in band structure with methylammonium rotation are not large enough to explain current-voltage hysteresis behaviour. The second possible mechanism is that polarization screens the hindering electric field, which arises from charge accumulation in the transport layers. Polarization changes on methylammonium rotation favour this second mechanism, suggesting that collective reorientation of methylammonium ions in the bulk crystal are in significant part responsible for the hysteresis and power conversion characteristics of CH3NH3PbI3 photovoltaic cells.

  9. Energy level alignment at C{sub 60}/DTDCTB/PEDOT:PSS interfaces in organic photovoltaics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoo, Jisu; Jung, Kwanwook; Jeong, Junkyeong; Hyun, Gyeongho [Institute of Physics and Applied Physics, Yonsei University, 50 Yonsei-ro, Seodaemun-gu, Seoul 03722 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Hyunbok, E-mail: hyunbok@kangwon.ac.kr [Department of Physics, Kangwon National University, Chuncheon-si, Gangwon-do 24341 (Korea, Republic of); Yi, Yeonjin, E-mail: yeonjin@yonsei.ac.kr [Institute of Physics and Applied Physics, Yonsei University, 50 Yonsei-ro, Seodaemun-gu, Seoul 03722 (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-04-30

    Highlights: • The interfacial energy level alignment of C{sub 60}/DTDCTB/PEDOT:PSS was determined via in situ UPS and IPES measurements. • A large photovoltaic gap of 1.30 eV was evaluated between the DTDCTB donor and C{sub 60} acceptor. • A low hole extraction barrier of 0.42 eV from DTDCTB to PEDOT:PSS was evaluated. • The excellent electronic properties of DTDCTB with a narrow band gap were the source of its high OPV power conversion efficiencies. - Abstract: The electronic structure of a narrow band gap small molecule ditolylaminothienyl–benzothiadiazole–dicyanovinylene (DTDCTB), possessing a donor-acceptor-acceptor configuration, was investigated with regard to its application as an efficient donor material in organic photovoltaics (OPVs). The interfacial orbital alignment of C{sub 60}/DTDCTB/poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) was determined using in situ ultraviolet photoelectron and inverse photoelectron spectroscopic methods. The ionization energy and electron affinity values of DTDCTB were measured to be 5.27 eV and 3.65 eV, respectively, and thus a very small transport gap of 1.62 eV was evaluated. Large band bending of DTDCTB on PEDOT:PSS was observed, resulting in a low hole extraction barrier. Additionally, the photovoltaic gap between the highest occupied molecular orbital level of the DTDCTB donor and the lowest unoccupied molecular orbital level of the C{sub 60} acceptor was estimated to be 1.30 eV, which is known to be the theoretical maximum open-circuit voltage in OPVs employing the C{sub 60}/DTDCTB active layer. The unique electronic structures of DTDCTB contributed toward the recently reported excellent power conversion efficiencies of OPVs containing a DTDCTB donor material.

  10. Graphene for thermoelectronic solar energy conversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    De, Dilip K.; Olukunle, Olawole C.

    2017-08-01

    Graphene is a high temperature material which can stand temperature as high as 4600 K in vacuum. Even though its work function is high (4.6 eV) the thermionic emission current density at such temperature is very high. Graphene is a wonderful material whose work function can be engineered as desired. Kwon et al41 reported a chemical approach to reduce work function of graphene using K2CO3, Li2CO3, Rb2CO3, Cs2CO3. The work functions are reported to be 3.7 eV, 3.8 eV, 3.5 eV and 3.4 eV. Even though they did not report the high temperature tolerance of such alkali metal carbonate doped graphene, their works open a great promise for use of pure graphene and doped graphene as emitter (cathode) and collector (anode) in a solar thermionic energy converter. This paper discusses the dynamics of solar energy conversion to electrical energy using thermionic energy converter with graphene as emitter and collector. We have considered parabolic mirror concentrator to focus solar energy onto the emitter to achieve temperature around 4300 K. Our theoretical calculations and the modelling show that efficiency as high as 55% can easily be achieved if space-charge problem can be reduced and the collector can be cooled to certain proper temperature. We have discussed methods of controlling the associated space-charge problems. Richardson-Dushman equation modified by the authors have been used in this modelling. Such solar energy conversion would reduce the dependence on silicon solar panel and has great potential for future applications.

  11. Photovoltaics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-06-01

    This road-map proposes by the Group Total aims to inform the public on the photovoltaics. It presents the principles and the applications, the issues and the current technology, the challenges and the Group Total commitment in the domain. (A.L.B.)

  12. Life cycle energy metrics and CO 2 credit analysis of a hybrid photovoltaic/thermal greenhouse dryer

    OpenAIRE

    P. Barnwal; G. N. Tiwari

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, life cycle energy metrics, such as energy payback time (EPBT), energy production factor (EPF) and life cycle conversion efficiency (LCCE), and mitigation of CO 2 emissions for a hybrid photovoltaic/thermal (PV/T) greenhouse dryer have been analyzed. The hybrid PV/T greenhouse (roof type even span) dryer, designed and constructed at Solar Energy Park, Indian Institute of Technology, New Delhi (28°35′N, 77°12′E, 216 m above MSL), India, has a 2.50 m × 2.60 m floor area, 1.80 m ce...

  13. Novel simplified hourly energy flow models for photovoltaic power systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khatib, Tamer; Elmenreich, Wilfried

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • We developed an energy flow model for standalone PV system using MATLAB line code. • We developed an energy flow model for hybrid PV/wind system using MATLAB line code. • We developed an energy flow model for hybrid PV/diesel system using MATLAB line code. - Abstract: This paper presents simplified energy flow models for photovoltaic (PV) power systems using MATLAB. Three types of PV power system are taken into consideration namely standalone PV systems, hybrid PV/wind systems and hybrid PV/diesel systems. The logic of the energy flow for each PV power system is discussed first and then the MATLAB line codes for these models are provided and explained. The results prove the accuracy of the proposed models. Such models help modeling and sizing PV systems

  14. Carbon aerogel electrodes for direct energy conversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer, Steven T.; Kaschmitter, James L.; Pekala, Richard W.

    1997-01-01

    A direct energy conversion device, such as a fuel cell, using carbon aerogel electrodes, wherein the carbon aerogel is loaded with a noble catalyst, such as platinum or rhodium and soaked with phosphoric acid, for example. A separator is located between the electrodes, which are placed in a cylinder having plate current collectors positioned adjacent the electrodes and connected to a power supply, and a pair of gas manifolds, containing hydrogen and oxygen positioned adjacent the current collectors. Due to the high surface area and excellent electrical conductivity of carbon aerogels, the problems relative to high polarization resistance of carbon composite electrodes conventionally used in fuel cells are overcome.

  15. Combining Energy Conversion and Storage: A Solar Powered Supercapacitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Narayanan, Remya; Kumar, P. Naresh; Deepa, Melepurath; Srivastava, Avanish Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • A plasmonic TiO_2/CdS/Au fibers photoanode is fabricated for the first time. • The efficiency of the plasmonic cell is greater by 1.35 times than the non-plasmonic one. • A solar powered supercapacitor is developed with plasmonic photoanode and multiwalled carbon nanotubes. • The solar cell current charges the supercapacitor. • A specific capacitance of 150 F g"−"1 is achieved under sunlight without any external bias. - Abstract: A solar powered supercapacitor wherein a plasmonic quantum dot solar cell (QDSC) sources the photocurrent for charging/discharging a conjoined supercapacitor based on multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) is demonstrated. Gold or Au fibers are integrated into a titanium dioxide/cadmium sulfide (TiO_2/CdS) electrode to yield a TiO_2/CdS/Au photoanode. The plasmonic effect of Au fibers is reflected in the higher incident photon to current conversion efficiency (IPCE = 55%) and an improved overall power conversion efficiency (3.45%) produced by the TiO_2/CdS/Au photoanode relative to the non-plasmonic TiO_2/CdS photoanode. A Janus type bi-functional electrode composed of MWCNTs on either face separated by glass is prepared and it is coupled with the TiO_2/CdS/Au electrode and another MWCNT electrode to yield the tandem solar powered supercapacitor. By channelling the photocurrent produced by the QDSC part, under 0.1 sun illumination, the capacitance of the symmetric supercapacitor, without the application of any external bias is 150 F g"−"1 which compares well with reported values of electrically powered MWCNT supercapacitors. Our innovative design for a photo-supercapacitor offers a new paradigm for combining low cost photovoltaics with energy storage to yield a technologically useful device that needs nothing else other than solar energy to run.

  16. Hydrogen as the solar energy translator. [in photochemical and photovoltaic processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelley, J. H.

    1979-01-01

    Many concepts are being investigated to convert sunlight to workable energy forms with emphasis on electricity and thermal energy. The electrical alternatives include direct conversion of photons to electricity via photovoltaic solar cells and solar/thermal production of electricity via heat-energy cycles. Solar cells, when commercialized, are expected to have efficiencies of about 12 to 14 percent. The cells would be active about eight hours per day. However, solar-operated water-splitting process research, initiated through JPL, shows promise for direct production of hydrogen from sunlight with efficiencies of up to 35 to 40 percent. The hydrogen, a valuable commodity in itself, can also serve as a storable energy form, easily and efficiently converted to electricity by fuel cells and other advanced-technology devices on a 24-hour basis or on demand with an overall efficiency of 25 to 30 percent. Thus, hydrogen serves as the fundamental translator of energy from its solar form to electrical form more effectively, and possibly more efficiently, than direct conversion. Hydrogen also can produce other chemical energy forms using solar energy.

  17. Plasmasol, photovoltaic effect in a solar photo plasma. Final report of the project. Concerted action energy - 2003; Plasmasol, effet photovoltaique dans un photoplasma solaire. Rapport final du Projet. Action Concertee Energie - 2003 CNRS-MRNT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-07-01

    The aim of this project was to study the feasibility of the solar energy photovoltaic conversion from the photo-ionization of a gaseous medium constituted of metallic vapors. After a bibliography and a recall of based physical data the report presents the absorption of the solar radiation by the cesium vapor, a simplified model of the photovoltaic effect in a photo-plasma, the experimental device and the results. (A.L.B.)

  18. Power conversion and control methods for renewable energy sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Dachuan

    2005-07-01

    In recent years, there has been an increase in the use of renewable energy due to the growing concern over the pollution caused by fossil-fuel-based energy. Renewable energy sources, such as photovoltaic (PV) and fuel cell, can be used to enhance the safety, reliability, sustainability, and transmission efficiency of a power system. This dissertation focuses on the power conversion and control for two major renewable-energy sources: PV and fuel cell. Firstly, a current-based, maximum power-point tracking (MPPT) algorithm is proposed for PV energy. An economical converter system using the above scheme for converting the output from PV panels into 60 Hz AC voltage is developed and built. Secondly, a novel circuit model for the Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM) fuel-cell stack that is useful in the design and analysis of fuel-cell-based power systems is proposed. This Pspice-based model uses elements available in the Pspice library with some modifications to represent both the static and dynamic responses of a PEM fuel-cell module. The accuracy of the model is verified by comparing the simulation and experimental results. Thirdly, a DSP-controlled three-phase induction-motor drive using constant voltage over frequency is built and can be used in a fuel-cell automobile. A hydrogen sensor is used in the drive to both sound an alarm and shut down the inverter trigger pulses through the DSP. Finally, a hybrid power system consisting of PV panels and fuel cell is proposed and built. In the proposed system, PV panels can supply most of the power when the sunlight is available, and the excess power required by the load is supplied by a fuel cell. Load sharing between a fuel cell (FC) and the PV panel is investigated by both simulation and experiments.

  19. Direct energy conversion of radiation energy in fusion reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamaguchi, S.; Iiyoshi, A.; Motojima, O.; Okamoto, M.; Sudo, S.; Ohnishi, M.; Onozuka, M.; Uenosono, C.

    1993-11-01

    Direct energy conversion from plasma heat flux has been studied. Since major parts of fusion energy in the advanced fusion reactor are radiation and charged particle energies, the flexible design of the blanket is possible. We discuss the potentiality of the thermoelectric element that generates electricity by temperature gradient in conductors. A strong magnetic field is used to confine the fusion plasma, therefore, it is appropriate to consider the effect of the magnetic field. We propose a new element which is called Nernst element. The new element needs the magnetic field and the temperature gradient. We compare the efficiency of these two elements in a semiconductor model. Finally, a direct energy conversion are mentioned. (author)

  20. Direct energy conversion of radiation energy in fusion reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaguchi, S.; Iiyoshi, A.; Motojima, O.; Okamoto, M.; Sudo, S.; Ohnishi, M.; Onozuka, M.; Uenosono, C.

    1993-11-01

    Direct energy conversion from plasma heat flux has been studied. Since major parts of fusion energy in the advanced fusion reactor are radiation and charged particle energies, the flexible design of the blanket is possible. We discuss the potentiality of the thermoelectric element that generates electricity by temperature gradient in conductors. A strong magnetic field is used to confine the fusion plasma, therefore, it is appropriate to consider the effect of the magnetic field. We propose a new element which is called Nernst element. The new element needs the magnetic field and the temperature gradient. We compare the efficiency of these two elements in a semiconductor model. Finally, a direct energy conversion are mentioned.

  1. Direct energy conversion of radiation energy in fusion reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamaguchi, S.; Iiyoshi, A.; Motojima, O.; Okamoto, M.; Sudo, S.; Ohnishi, M.; Onozuka, M.; Uenosono, C.

    1993-11-01

    Direct energy conversion from plasma heat flux has been studied. Since major parts of fusion energy in the advanced fusion reactor are radiation and charged particle energies, the flexible design of the blanket is possible. We discuss the potentiality of the thermoelectric element that generates electricity by temperature gradient in conductors. A strong magnetic field is used to confine the fusion plasma, therefore, it is appropriate to consider the effect of the magnetic field. We propose a new element which is called Nernst element. The new element needs the magnetic field and the temperature gradient. We compare the efficiency of these two elements in a semiconductor model. Finally, a direct energy conversion are mentioned. (author).

  2. A Conversation on Zero Net Energy Buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torcellini, Paul A [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Eley, Charles [Consultant; Gupta, Smita [Itron; McHugh, Jon [McHugh Energy Consultants; Lui, Bing [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory; Higgins, Cathy [New Buildings Institute; Iplikci, Jessica [Energy Trust of Oregon; Rosenberg, Michael [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory

    2017-06-01

    Recently, zero net energy (ZNE) buildings have moved from state-of-the-art small project demonstrations to a more widely adopted approach across the country among various building types and sizes. States such as California set policy goals of all new residential construction to be NZE by 2020 and all commercial buildings to be NZE by 2030. However, the market for designing, constructing, and operating ZNE buildings is still relatively small. We bring together distinguished experts to share their thoughts on making ZNE buildings more widespread and mainstream from a broad perspective, including governments, utilities, energy-efficiency research institutes, and building owners. This conversation also presents the benefits of ZNE and ways to achieve that goal in the design and operation of buildings. The following is a roundtable conducted by ASHRAE Journal and Bing Liu with Charles Eley, Smita Gupta, Cathy Higgins, Jessica Iplikci, Jon McHugh, Michael Rosenberg, and Paul Torcellini.

  3. Technology assessment of wind energy conversion systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meier, B. W.; Merson, T. J.

    1980-09-01

    Environmental data for wind energy conversion systems (WECSs) have been generated in support of the Technology Assessment of Solar Energy (TASE) program. Two candidates have been chosen to characterize the WECS that might be deployed if this technology makes a significant contribution to the national energy requirements. One WECS is a large machine of 1.5-MW-rated capacity that can be used by utilities. The other WECS is a small machine that is characteristic of units that might be used to meet residential or small business energy requirements. Energy storage systems are discussed for each machine to address the intermittent nature of wind power. Many types of WECSs are being studied and a brief review of the technology is included to give background for choosing horizontal axis designs for this study. Cost estimates have been made for both large and small systems as required for input to the Strategic Environmental Assessment Simulation (SEAS) computer program. Material requirements, based on current generation WECSs, are discussed and a general discussion of environmental impacts associated with WECS deployment is presented.

  4. Calorimetric Measurement for Internal Conversion Efficiency of Photovoltaic Cells/Modules Based on Electrical Substitution Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Terubumi; Tatsuta, Muneaki; Abe, Yamato; Takesawa, Minato

    2018-02-01

    We have succeeded in the direct measurement for solar cell/module internal conversion efficiency based on a calorimetric method or electrical substitution method by which the absorbed radiant power is determined by replacing the heat absorbed in the cell/module with the electrical power. The technique is advantageous in that the reflectance and transmittance measurements, which are required in the conventional methods, are not necessary. Also, the internal quantum efficiency can be derived from conversion efficiencies by using the average photon energy. Agreements of the measured data with the values estimated from the nominal values support the validity of this technique.

  5. Press document. Photovoltaic energy: boosting the evolution; Dossier de presse. Photovoltaique: accelerer l'innovation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2009-04-15

    The french potential in the photovoltaic energy is considerable but not very exploited. In this context the CEA, by its function of applied research institute in the domain of the low carbon energies can be a major actor of the sector development. This document presents the research programs in the photovoltaic domain, developed at the CEA, especially on the silicon performance, the photovoltaic solar cells and their integration in the buildings. (A.L.B.)

  6. Biomass energy conversion: conventional and advanced technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Young, B C; Hauserman, W B [Energy and Environmental Research Center, University of North Dakota, Grand Forks, ND (United States)

    1995-12-01

    Increasing interest in biomass energy conversion in recent years has focused attention on enhancing the efficiency of technologies converting biomass fuels into heat and power, their capital and operating costs and their environmental emissions. Conventional combustion systems, such as fixed-bed or grate units and entrainment units, deliver lower efficiencies (<25%) than modem coal-fired combustors (30-35%). The gasification of biomass will improve energy conversion efficiency and yield products useful for heat and power generation and chemical synthesis. Advanced biomass gasification technologies using pressurized fluidized-bed systems, including those incorporating hot-gas clean-up for feeding gas turbines or fuel cells, are being demonstrated. However, many biomass gasification processes are derivatives of coal gasification technologies and do not exploit the unique properties of biomass. This paper examines some existing and upcoming technologies for converting biomass into electric power or heat. Small-scale 1-30 MWe units are emphasized, but brief reference is made to larger and smaller systems, including those that bum coal-biomass mixtures and gasifiers that feed pilot-fuelled diesel engines. Promising advanced systems, such as a biomass integrated gasifier/gas turbine (BIG/GT) with combined-cycle operation and a biomass gasifier coupled to a fuel cell, giving cycle efficiencies approaching 50% are also described. These advanced gasifiers, typically fluid-bed designs, may be pressurized and can use a wide variety of biomass materials to generate electricity, process steam and chemical products such as methanol. Low-cost, disposable catalysts are becoming available for hot-gas clean-up (enhanced gas composition) for turbine and fuel cell systems. The advantages, limitations and relative costs of various biomass gasifier systems are briefly discussed. The paper identifies the best known biomass power projects and includes some information on proposed and

  7. Biomass energy conversion: conventional and advanced technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Young, B.C.; Hauserman, W.B.

    1995-01-01

    Increasing interest in biomass energy conversion in recent years has focused attention on enhancing the efficiency of technologies converting biomass fuels into heat and power, their capital and operating costs and their environmental emissions. Conventional combustion systems, such as fixed-bed or grate units and entrainment units, deliver lower efficiencies (<25%) than modem coal-fired combustors (30-35%). The gasification of biomass will improve energy conversion efficiency and yield products useful for heat and power generation and chemical synthesis. Advanced biomass gasification technologies using pressurized fluidized-bed systems, including those incorporating hot-gas clean-up for feeding gas turbines or fuel cells, are being demonstrated. However, many biomass gasification processes are derivatives of coal gasification technologies and do not exploit the unique properties of biomass. This paper examines some existing and upcoming technologies for converting biomass into electric power or heat. Small-scale 1-30 MWe units are emphasized, but brief reference is made to larger and smaller systems, including those that bum coal-biomass mixtures and gasifiers that feed pilot-fuelled diesel engines. Promising advanced systems, such as a biomass integrated gasifier/gas turbine (BIG/GT) with combined-cycle operation and a biomass gasifier coupled to a fuel cell, giving cycle efficiencies approaching 50% are also described. These advanced gasifiers, typically fluid-bed designs, may be pressurized and can use a wide variety of biomass materials to generate electricity, process steam and chemical products such as methanol. Low-cost, disposable catalysts are becoming available for hot-gas clean-up (enhanced gas composition) for turbine and fuel cell systems. The advantages, limitations and relative costs of various biomass gasifier systems are briefly discussed. The paper identifies the best known biomass power projects and includes some information on proposed and

  8. Solar photovoltaic (PV) energy; latest developments in the building integrated and hybrid PV systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zahedi, A.

    2006-01-01

    Environmental concerns are growing and interest in environmental issues is increasing and the idea of generating electricity with less pollution is becoming more and more attractive. Unlike conventional generation systems, fuel of the solar photovoltaic energy is available at no cost. And solar photovoltaic energy systems generate electricity pollution-free and can easily be installed on the roof of residential as well as on the wall of commercial buildings as grid-connected PV application. In addition to grid-connected rooftop PV systems, solar photovoltaic energy offers a solution for supplying electricity to remote located communities and facilities, those not accessible by electricity companies. The interest in solar photovoltaic energy is growing worldwide. Today, more than 3500MW of photovoltaic systems have been installed all over the world. Since 1970, the PV price has continuously dropped [8]. This price drop has encouraged worldwide application of small-scale residential PV systems. These recent developments have led researchers concerned with the environment to undertake extensive research projects for harnessing renewable energy sources including solar energy. The usage of solar photovoltaic as a source of energy is considered more seriously making future of this technology looks promising. The objective of this contribution is to present the latest developments in the area of solar photovoltaic energy systems. A further objective of this contribution is to discuss the long-term prospect of the solar photovoltaic energy as a sustainable energy supply. [Author

  9. Enhancing the Photovoltaic Performance of Perovskite Solar Cells with a Down-Conversion Eu-Complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Ling; Chen, Wangchao; Zheng, Jiawei; Zhu, Liangzheng; Mo, Li'e; Li, Zhaoqian; Hu, Linhua; Hayat, Tasawar; Alsaedi, Ahmed; Zhang, Changneng; Dai, Songyuan

    2017-08-16

    Organometal halide perovskite solar cells (PSCs) have shown high photovoltaic performance but poor utilization of ultraviolet (UV) irradiation. Lanthanide complexes have a wide absorption range in the UV region and they can down-convert the absorbed UV light into visible light, which provides a possibility for PSCs to utilize UV light for higher photocurrent, efficiency, and stability. In this study, we use a transparent luminescent down-converting layer (LDL) of Eu-4,7-diphenyl-1,10-phenanthroline (Eu-complex) to improve the light utilization efficiency of PSCs. Compared with the uncoated PSC, the PSC coated with Eu-complex LDL on the reverse of the fluorine-doped tin oxide glass displayed an enhancement of 11.8% in short-circuit current density (J sc ) and 15.3% in efficiency due to the Eu-complex LDL re-emitting UV light (300-380 nm) in the visible range. It is indicated that the Eu-complex LDL plays the role of enhancing the power conversion efficiency as well as reducing UV degradation for PSCs.

  10. Design rules for donors in bulk-heterojunction solar cells - towards 10 % energy-conversion efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scharber, M.C.; Muehlbacher, D.; Koppe, M.; Denk, P.; Waldauf, C.; Brabec, C.J. [Konarka Austria, Altenbergerstrasse 69, A-4040 Linz (Austria); Heeger, A.J. [Department of Materials Science, Broida Hall 6125, University of California at Santa Barbara, Santa Barbara, CA 3106-5090 (United States)

    2006-03-17

    For bulk-heterojunction photovoltaic cells fabricated from conjugated polymers and a fullerene derivative, the relation between the open-circuit voltage (V{sub oc}) and the oxidation potential for different conjugated polymers is studied. A linear relation between V{sub oc} and the oxidation potential is found (see figure). Based on this relation, the energy-conversion efficiency of a bulk-heterojunction solar cell is derived as a function of the bandgap and the energy levels of the conjugated polymer. (Abstract Copyright [2006], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  11. Proceedings of the 30. intersociety energy conversion engineering conference. Volume 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goswami, D.Y.; Kannberg, L.D.; Somasundaram, S.

    1995-01-01

    This conference provides a forum to present and discuss the engineering aspects of energy conversion, advanced and unconventional energy systems and devices, energy conversion and utilization, environmental issues and policy implications on research, development, and implementation of technologies. The solution for a sustainable future will lie in a mix of all of the available energy resources (renewable and non-renewable) and diverse energy conversion technologies that will maintain quality of life in a sustainable manner. The 100 papers in Volume 2 are divided into the following topical sections: (1) Environmental impact--Impacts and technologies; (2) Energy systems--Electric/hybrid vehicle technology; Transportation system assessments; Simulation and modeling of systems; Cogeneration and other energy systems; Thermal energy storage applications; Fluids and heat transfer topics; Demand-side management in buildings; and Energy management; (3) Policy impacts on energy--Developing countries and Global; (4) Renewable energy sources--Solar and geothermal power; Solar thermal power; Photovoltaics; Biomass power; Solar thermal; and Renewable energy--status and future. All papers have been processed separately for inclusion on the data base

  12. Bio-Inspired Photon Absorption and Energy Transfer for Next Generation Photovoltaic Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magsi, Komal

    Nature's solar energy harvesting system, photosynthesis, serves as a model for photon absorption, spectra broadening, and energy transfer. Photosynthesis harvests light far differently than photovoltaic cells. These differences offer both engineering opportunity and scientific challenges since not all of the natural photon absorption mechanisms have been understood. In return, solar cells can be a very sensitive probe for the absorption characteristics of molecules capable of transferring charge to a conductive interface. The objective of this scientific work is the advancement of next generation photovoltaics through the development and application of natural photo-energy transfer processes. Two scientific methods were used in the development and application of enhancing photon absorption and transfer. First, a detailed analysis of photovoltaic front surface fluorescent spectral modification and light scattering by hetero-structure was conducted. Phosphor based spectral down-conversion is a well-known laser technology. The theoretical calculations presented here indicate that parasitic losses and light scattering within the spectral range are large enough to offset any expected gains. The second approach for enhancing photon absorption is based on bio-inspired mechanisms. Key to the utilization of these natural processes is the development of a detailed scientific understanding and the application of these processes to cost effective systems and devices. In this work both aspects are investigated. Dye type solar cells were prepared and tested as a function of Chlorophyll (or Sodium-Copper Chlorophyllin) and accessory dyes. Forster has shown that the fluorescence ratio of Chlorophyll is modified and broadened by separate photon absorption (sensitized absorption) through interaction with nearby accessory pigments. This work used the dye type solar cell as a diagnostic tool by which to investigate photon absorption and photon energy transfer. These experiments shed

  13. Simulation of diesel engine energy conversion processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    А. С. Афанасьев

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In order to keep diesel engines in good working order the troubleshooting methods shall be improved. For their further improvement by parameters of associated processes a need has arisen to develop a diesel engine troubleshooting method based on time parameters of operating cycle. For such method to be developed a computational experiment involving simulation of diesel engine energy conversion processes has been carried out. The simulation was based on the basic mathematical model of reciprocating internal combustion engines, representing a closed system of equations and relationships. The said model has been supplemented with the engine torque dynamics taking into account the current values of in-cylinder processes with different amounts of fuel injected, including zero feed.The torque values obtained by the in-cylinder pressure conversion does not account for mechanical losses, which is why the base simulation program has been supplemented with calculations for the friction and pumping forces. In order to determine the indicator diagram of idle cylinder a transition to zero fuel feed mode and exclusion of the combustion process from calculation have been provisioned.

  14. Electrical Systems for Wave Energy Conversion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bostroem, Cecilia

    2011-07-01

    Wave energy is a renewable energy source with a large potential to contribute to the world's electricity production. There exist several technologies on how to convert the energy in the ocean waves into electric energy. The wave energy converter (WEC) presented in this thesis is based on a linear synchronous generator. The generator is placed on the seabed and driven by a point absorbing buoy on the ocean surface. Instead of having one large unit, several smaller units are interconnected to increase the total installed power. To convert and interconnect the power from the generators, marine substations are used. The marine substations are placed on the seabed and convert the fluctuating AC from the generators into an AC suitable for grid connection. The work presented in the thesis focuses on the first steps in the electric energy conversion, converting the voltage out from the generators into DC, which have an impact on the WEC's ability to absorb and produce power. The purpose has been to investigate how the generator will operate when it is subjected to different load cases and to obtain guidelines on how future systems could be improved. Offshore experiments and simulations have been done on full scale generators connected to four different loads, i.e. one linear resistive load and three different non-linear loads representing different cases for grid connected WECs. The results show that the power can be controlled and optimized by choosing a suitable system for the WEC. It is not obvious which kind of system is the most preferable, since there are many different parameters that have an impact on the system performance, such as the size of the buoy, how the generator is designed, the number of WECs, the highest allowed complexity of the system, costs and so on. Therefore, the design of the electrical system should preferably be carried out in parallel with the design of the WEC in order to achieve an efficient system

  15. Revisit ocean thermal energy conversion system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, J.C.; Krock, H.J.; Oney, S.K.

    2003-01-01

    The earth, covered more than 70.8% by the ocean, receives most of its energy from the sun. Solar energy is transmitted through the atmosphere and efficiently collected and stored in the surface layer of the ocean, largely in the tropical zone. Some of the energy is re-emitted to the atmosphere to drive the hydrologic cycle and wind. The wind field returns some of the energy to the ocean in the form of waves and currents. The majority of the absorbed solar energy is stored in vertical thermal gradients near the surface layer of the ocean, most of which is in the tropical region. This thermal energy replenished each day by the sun in the tropical ocean represents a tremendous pollution-free energy resource for human civilization. Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC) technology refers to a mechanical system that utilizes the natural temperature gradient that exists in the tropical ocean between the warm surface water and the deep cold water, to generate electricity and produce other economically valuable by-products. The science and engineering behind OTEC have been studied in the US since the mid-seventies, supported early by the U.S. Government and later by State and private industries. There are two general types of OTEC designs: closed-cycle plants utilize the evaporation of a working fluid, such as ammonia or propylene, to drive the turbine-generator, and open-cycle plants use steam from evaporated sea water to run the turbine. Another commonly known design, hybrid plants, is a combination of the two. OTEC requires relatively low operation and maintenance costs and no fossil fuel consumption. OTEC system possesses a formidable potential capacity for renewable energy and offers a significant elimination of greenhouse gases in producing power. In addition to electricity and drinking water, an OTEC system can produce many valuable by-products and side-utilizations, such as: hydrogen, air-conditioning, ice, aquaculture, and agriculture, etc. The potential of these

  16. Semiconductor Grade, Solar Silicon Purification Project. [photovoltaic solar energy conversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingle, W. M.; Rosler, R. S.; Thompson, S. W.; Chaney, R. E.

    1979-01-01

    A low cost by-product, SiF4, is reacted with mg silicon to form SiF2 gas which is polymerized. The (SiF2)x polymer is heated forming volatile SixFy homologues which disproportionate on a silicon particle bed forming silicon and SiF4. The silicon analysis procedure relied heavily on mass spectroscopic and emission spectroscopic analysis. These analyses demonstrated that major purification had occured and some samples were indistinguishable from semiconductor grade silicon (except possibly for phosphorus). However, electrical analysis via crystal growth reveal that the product contains compensated phosphorus and boron.

  17. Localized Oscillatory Energy Conversion in Magnetopause Reconnection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burch, J. L.; Ergun, R. E.; Cassak, P. A.; Webster, J. M.; Torbert, R. B.; Giles, B. L.; Dorelli, J. C.; Rager, A. C.; Hwang, K.-J.; Phan, T. D.; Genestreti, K. J.; Allen, R. C.; Chen, L.-J.; Wang, S.; Gershman, D.; Le Contel, O.; Russell, C. T.; Strangeway, R. J.; Wilder, F. D.; Graham, D. B.; Hesse, M.; Drake, J. F.; Swisdak, M.; Price, L. M.; Shay, M. A.; Lindqvist, P.-A.; Pollock, C. J.; Denton, R. E.; Newman, D. L.

    2018-02-01

    Data from the NASA Magnetospheric Multiscale mission are used to investigate asymmetric magnetic reconnection at the dayside boundary between the Earth's magnetosphere and the solar wind. High-resolution measurements of plasmas and fields are used to identify highly localized ( 15 electron Debye lengths) standing wave structures with large electric field amplitudes (up to 100 mV/m). These wave structures are associated with spatially oscillatory energy conversion, which appears as alternatingly positive and negative values of J · E. For small guide magnetic fields the wave structures occur in the electron stagnation region at the magnetosphere edge of the electron diffusion region. For larger guide fields the structures also occur near the reconnection X-line. This difference is explained in terms of channels for the out-of-plane current (agyrotropic electrons at the stagnation point and guide field-aligned electrons at the X-line).

  18. Systems Engineering Model for ART Energy Conversion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendez Cruz, Carmen Margarita [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Rochau, Gary E. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Wilson, Mollye C. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-02-01

    The near-term objective of the EC team is to establish an operating, commercially scalable Recompression Closed Brayton Cycle (RCBC) to be constructed for the NE - STEP demonstration system (demo) with the lowest risk possible. A systems engineering approach is recommended to ensure adequate requirements gathering, documentation, and mode ling that supports technology development relevant to advanced reactors while supporting crosscut interests in potential applications. A holistic systems engineering model was designed for the ART Energy Conversion program by leveraging Concurrent Engineering, Balance Model, Simplified V Model, and Project Management principles. The resulting model supports the identification and validation of lifecycle Brayton systems requirements, and allows designers to detail system-specific components relevant to the current stage in the lifecycle, while maintaining a holistic view of all system elements.

  19. Energy efficiency of a photovoltaic cell based thin films CZTS by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Energy efficiency of a photovoltaic cell based thin films CZTS by SCAPS. ... use of natural resources, the use of renewable energy including solar photovoltaic ... η for typical structures of ZnO / i- ZnO / CdS / CZTS and ITO / ZnO / CdS / CZTS.

  20. OPTIMIZATION OF AEOLIAN ENERGY CONVERSION OPTIMISATION DE LA CONVERSION DE L’ENERGIE EOLIENNE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Soufi

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The use of renewable energy increases, because people are increasingly concerned with environmental issues. Among renewable, wind power is now widely used. Their study showed that a value of wind speed, there is a maximum mechanical power supplied by the turbine. So, power is supplied are particularly changes with maximum speed.However, the objective of this paper is to present an algorithm for optimal conversion of wind energy based on a criterion optimization that must maintain specific speed of the turbine at optimum speed which corresponds to the maximum power provided by the steady wind turbine. To this end, the object is to preserve the position of any static operating point on the characteristic of optimal.To validate the model and algorithm for optimal conversion of wind energy, a series of numerical simulations carried out using the software MatLab Simulink will be presented is discussed.

  1. U.S. Department of Energy photovoltaic energy program contract summary, fiscal year 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Surek, T.; Hansen, A.

    2000-02-17

    This report summarizes the in-house and subcontracted research and development (R and D) activities under the National Center for Photovoltaics (NCPV) and US Department of Energy (DOE) National Photovoltaics Program from October 1, 1998, through September 30, 1999 (FY 1999). The mission of the DOE National Photovoltaics Program is to make PV a significant part of the domestic economy as an industry and an energy resource. The two primary goals of the national program are to (1) maintain the US industry's world leadership in research and technology development and (2) help the US industry remain a major, profitable force in the world market. The NCPV is part of the National PV Program and provides leadership and support to the national program toward achieving its mission and goals.

  2. U.S. Department of Energy photovoltaic energy program contract summary, fiscal year 1999

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Surek, T.; Hansen, A.

    2000-01-01

    This report summarizes the in-house and subcontracted research and development (R and D) activities under the National Center for Photovoltaics (NCPV) and US Department of Energy (DOE) National Photovoltaics Program from October 1, 1998, through September 30, 1999 (FY 1999). The mission of the DOE National Photovoltaics Program is to make PV a significant part of the domestic economy as an industry and an energy resource. The two primary goals of the national program are to (1) maintain the US industry's world leadership in research and technology development and (2) help the US industry remain a major, profitable force in the world market. The NCPV is part of the National PV Program and provides leadership and support to the national program toward achieving its mission and goals

  3. Creating Public Awareness of Renewable Energy by Combining a Photovoltaic System and Nature

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knott, Arnold; Lund, Dorthe Hedensted; Andersen, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    Energy is seemingly permanently and nearly everywhere in the western world available to the end consumer. While a majority of the western civilization is aware of the downsides of fossil energy sources and is favoring renewable energy sources, the energy consumption is still increasing. The situa......Energy is seemingly permanently and nearly everywhere in the western world available to the end consumer. While a majority of the western civilization is aware of the downsides of fossil energy sources and is favoring renewable energy sources, the energy consumption is still increasing....... The situation is quite clear to the experts in the field, but further awareness in the public must be created. Therefore this paper addresses a method of creating this awareness: installations that stimulate conversations of renewable energy. A solar tree was developed and built to serve young people with an AC....... The mechanical requirements and the developed solution is shown, before providing intensive insight into the electrical configuration, consisting of a battery, photovoltaic cells and a DC-AC converter. Furthermore a low complexity charge controller is presented. The resulting solar tree is capable of attracting...

  4. Flexo-photovoltaic effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ming-Min; Kim, Dong Jik; Alexe, Marin

    2018-04-19

    It is highly desirable to discover photovoltaic mechanisms that enable a higher efficiency of solar cells. Here, we report that the bulk photovoltaic effect, which is free from the thermodynamic Shockley-Queisser limit but usually manifested only in noncentrosymmetric (piezoelectric or ferroelectric) materials, can be realized in any semiconductor, including silicon, by mediation of flexoelectric effect. We introduce strain gradients using either an atomic force microscope or a micron-scale indentation system, creating giant photovoltaic currents from centrosymmetric single crystals of SrTiO 3 , TiO 2 , and Si. This strain-gradient-induced bulk photovoltaic effect, which we call the flexo-photovoltaic effect, functions in the absence of a p - n junction. This finding may extend present solar cell technologies by boosting the solar energy conversion efficiency from a wide pool of established semiconductors. Copyright © 2018, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  5. Ocean thermal energy conversion: Perspective and status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Anthony; Hillis, David L.

    The use of the thermal gradient between the warm surface waters and the deep cold waters of tropical oceans was first proposed by J. A. d'Arsonval in 1881 and tried unsuccessfully by George Claude in 1930. Interest in Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC) and other renewable energy sources revived in the 1970s as a result of oil embargoes. At that time, the emphasis was on large floating plants miles from shore producing 250 to 400 MW for maintained grids. When the problems of such plants became better understood and the price of oil reversed its upward trend, the emphasis shifted to smaller (10 MW) shore based plants on tropical islands. Such plants would be especially attractive if they produce fresh water as a by-product. During the past 15 years, major progress has been made in converting OTEC unknowns into knowns. Mini-OTEC proved the closed cycle concept. Cost effective heat exchanger concepts were identified. An effective biofouling control technique was discovered. Aluminum was determined to be promising for OTEC heat exchangers. Heat transfer augmentation techniques were identified, which promised a reduction on heat exchanger size and cost. Fresh water was produced by an OTEC open cycle flash evaporator, using the heat energy in the seawater itself. The current R and D emphasis is on the design and construction of a test facility to demonstrate the technical feasibility of the open cycle process. The 10 MW shore-based, closed cycle plant can be built with today's technology; with the incorporation of a flash evaporator, it will produce fresh water as well as electrical power; both valuable commodities on many tropical islands. The open cycle process has unknowns that require solution before the technical feasibility can be demonstrated. The economic viability of either cycle depends on reducing the capital costs of OTEC plants and on future trends in the costs of conventional energy sources.

  6. The Carbon Nanotube Fibers for Optoelectric Conversion and Energy Storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongfeng Luo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This review summarizes recent studies on carbon nanotube (CNT fibers for weavable device of optoelectric conversion and energy storage. The intrinsic properties of individual CNTs make the CNT fibers ideal candidates for optoelectric conversion and energy storage. Many potential applications such as solar cell, supercapacitor, and lithium ion battery have been envisaged. The recent advancement in CNT fibers for optoelectric conversion and energy storage and the current challenge including low energy conversion efficiency and low stability and future direction of the energy fiber have been finally summarized in this paper.

  7. Research and development of system to utilize photovoltaic energy. Survey on the specific purpose modules; Taiyoko hatsuden riyo system no kenkyu kaihatsu. Taiyoto module ni kansuru chosa kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tatsuta, M [New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization, Tokyo (Japan)

    1994-12-01

    This paper reports the survey results on the specific purpose modules for photovoltaic power generation in fiscal 1994. (1) On the feasibility survey on new application fields, it was clarified that photovoltaic power generation is applicable to extensive areas such as farmland, road, railway and public facility as latent demand sites. (2) On the optimum modules for various specific purposes, the structure, production method, cost estimation and issues of various modules were studied for desert, wasteland, coast, ocean, river, embankment, railway, road, mobile facility and arcade. (3) On the survey on new materials and material development, various conventional materials and materials promising for required performance were surveyed for every application. (4) On the survey on technology trends, the survey members participated in the first international photovoltaic energy conversion conference and the photovoltaic power generation workshop, while the members held the 1st-5th specific purpose module subcommittees. 1 tab.

  8. Iron disulfide for solar energy conversion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ennaoui, A. (Hahn-Meitner-Inst., Abt. Solare Energetik und Materialforschung, Berlin (Germany)); Fiechter, S. (Hahn-Meitner-Inst., Abt. Solare Energetik und Materialforschung, Berlin (Germany)); Pettenkofer, C. (Hahn-Meitner-Inst., Abt. Solare Energetik und Materialforschung, Berlin (Germany)); Alonso-Vante, N. (Hahn-Meitner-Inst., Abt. Solare Energetik und Materialforschung, Berlin (Germany)); Bueker, K. (Hahn-Meitner-Inst., Abt. Solare Energetik und Materialforschung, Berlin (Germany)); Bronold, M. (Hahn-Meitner-Inst., Abt. Solare Energetik und Materialforschung, Berlin (Germany)); Hoepfner, C. (Hahn-Meitner-Inst., Abt. Solare Energetik und Materialforschung, Berlin (Germany)); Tributsch, H. (Hahn-Meitner-Inst., Abt. Solare Energetik und Materialforschung, Berlin (Germany))

    1993-05-01

    Pyrite (E[sub g] = 0.95 eV) is being developed as a solar energy material due to its environmental compatibility and its very high light absorption coefficient. A compilation of material, electronic and interfacial chemical properties is presented, which is considered relevant for quantum energy conversion. In spite of intricate problems existing within material chemistry, high quantum efficiencies for photocurrent generation (> 90%) and high photovoltages ([approx] 500 mV) have been observed with single crystal electrodes and thin layers respectively. The most interesting aspect of this study is the use of pyrite as an ultrathin (10-20 nm) layer sandwiched between large gap p-type and n-type materials in a p-i-n like structure. Such a system, in which the pyrite layer only acts as photon absorber and mediates injection of excited electrons can be defined as sensitization solar cell. The peculiar electron transfer properties of pyrite interfaces, facilitating interfacial coordination chemical pathways, may turn out to be very helpful. Significant research challenges are discussed in the hope of attracting interest in the development of solar cells from this abundant material. (orig.)

  9. Analysis of the economics of photovoltaic-diesel-battery energy systems for remote applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brainard, W. A.

    1983-01-01

    Computer simulations were conducted to analyze the performance and operating cost of a photovoltaic energy source combined with a diesel generator system and battery storage. The simulations were based on the load demand profiles used for the design of an all photovoltaic energy system installed in the remote Papago Indian Village of Schuchuli, Arizona. Twenty year simulations were run using solar insolation data from Phoenix SOLMET tapes. Total energy produced, energy consumed, operation and maintenance costs were calculated. The life cycle and levelized energy costs were determined for a variety of system configurations (i.e., varying amounts of photovoltaic array and battery storage).

  10. Intelligent Photovoltaic Maximum Power Point Tracking Controller for Energy Enhancement in Renewable Energy System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subiyanto

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Photovoltaic (PV system is one of the promising renewable energy technologies. Although the energy conversion efficiency of the system is still low, but it has the advantage that the operating cost is free, very low maintenance and pollution-free. Maximum power point tracking (MPPT is a significant part of PV systems. This paper presents a novel intelligent MPPT controller for PV systems. For the MPPT algorithm, an optimized fuzzy logic controller (FLC using the Hopfield neural network is proposed. It utilizes an automatically tuned FLC membership function instead of the trial-and-error approach. The MPPT algorithm is implemented in a new variant of coupled inductor soft switching boost converter with high voltage gain to increase the converter output from the PV panel. The applied switching technique, which includes passive and active regenerative snubber circuits, reduces the insulated gate bipolar transistor switching losses. The proposed MPPT algorithm is implemented using the dSPACE DS1104 platform software on a DS1104 board controller. The prototype MPPT controller is tested using an agilent solar array simulator together with a 3 kW real PV panel. Experimental test results show that the proposed boost converter produces higher output voltages and gives better efficiency (90% than the conventional boost converter with an RCD snubber, which gives 81% efficiency. The prototype MPPT controller is also found to be capable of tracking power from the 3 kW PV array about 2.4 times more than that without using the MPPT controller.

  11. Thin-film-based CdTe photovoltaic module characterization: measurements and energy prediction improvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lay-Ekuakille, A; Arnesano, A; Vergallo, P

    2013-01-01

    Photovoltaic characterization is a topic of major interest in the field of renewable energy. Monocrystalline and polycrystalline modules are mostly used and, hence characterized since many laboratories have data of them. Conversely, cadmium telluride (CdTe), as thin-film module are, in some circumstances, difficult to be used for energy prediction. This work covers outdoor testing of photovoltaic modules, in particular that regarding CdTe ones. The scope is to obtain temperature coefficients that best predict the energy production. A First Solar (K-275) module has been used for the purposes of this research. Outdoor characterizations were performed at Department of Innovation Engineering, University of Salento, Lecce, Italy. The location of Lecce city represents a typical site in the South Italy. The module was exposed outdoor and tested under clear sky conditions as well as under cloudy sky ones. During testing, the global-inclined irradiance varied between 0 and 1500 W/m(2). About 37,000 I-V characteristics were acquired, allowing to process temperature coefficients as a function of irradiance and ambient temperature. The module was characterized by measuring the full temperature-irradiance matrix in the range from 50 to 1300 W/m(2) and from -1 to 40 W/m(2) from October 2011 to February 2012. Afterwards, the module energy output, under real conditions, was calculated with the "matrix method" of SUPSI-ISAAC and the results were compared with the five months energy output data of the same module measured with the outdoor energy yield facility in Lecce.

  12. The 20 year evolution of an energy conversion course at the United States Military Academy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bailey, Margaret; Oezer Arnas, A.; Potter, Robert; Samples, Jerry W.

    2004-01-01

    Over the past several years, an energy conversion course offered by the Mechanical Engineering Program at the United States Military Academy in West Point, New York, has evolved into a cohesive series of lessons addressing three general topical areas: advanced thermodynamics, advanced mechanical system analysis, and direct energy conversion systems. Mechanical engineering majors enroll in Energy Conversion Systems (ME 472) during the fall semester of their senior year as an advanced elective. ME 472 builds directly on the material covered in Thermodynamics (EM 301) taken during the student's junior year. In the first segment of ME 472, the students study advanced thermodynamic topics including exergy and combustion analyses. The students then analyze various mechanical systems including refrigeration systems, internal combustion engines, boilers, and fossil fuel fired steam and gas turbine combined power plants. Exergetic efficiencies of various equipment and systems are determined. The final portion of the course covers direct energy conversion technology, including fuel cells, photovoltaics, thermoelectricity, thermionics and magnetohydrodynamics. Supplemental lessons on energy storage, semi-conductors and nonreactive energy sources (such as solar collectors, wind turbines, and hydroelectric plants) are included here. This paper discusses the evolution of ME 472 since its inception and explains the motivations for the course's progress

  13. Fundamental formulae for wave-energy conversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falnes, Johannes; Kurniawan, Adi

    2015-03-01

    The time-average wave power that is absorbed from an incident wave by means of a wave-energy conversion (WEC) unit, or by an array of WEC units-i.e. oscillating immersed bodies and/or oscillating water columns (OWCs)-may be mathematically expressed in terms of the WEC units' complex oscillation amplitudes, or in terms of the generated outgoing (diffracted plus radiated) waves, or alternatively, in terms of the radiated waves alone. Following recent controversy, the corresponding three optional expressions are derived, compared and discussed in this paper. They all provide the correct time-average absorbed power. However, only the first-mentioned expression is applicable to quantify the instantaneous absorbed wave power and the associated reactive power. In this connection, new formulae are derived that relate the 'added-mass' matrix, as well as a couple of additional reactive radiation-parameter matrices, to the difference between kinetic energy and potential energy in the water surrounding the immersed oscillating WEC array. Further, a complex collective oscillation amplitude is introduced, which makes it possible to derive, by a very simple algebraic method, various simple expressions for the maximum time-average wave power that may be absorbed by the WEC array. The real-valued time-average absorbed power is illustrated as an axisymmetric paraboloid defined on the complex collective-amplitude plane. This is a simple illustration of the so-called 'fundamental theorem for wave power'. Finally, the paper also presents a new derivation that extends a recently published result on the direction-average maximum absorbed wave power to cases where the WEC array's radiation damping matrix may be singular and where the WEC array may contain OWCs in addition to oscillating bodies.

  14. Photovoltaic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fechner, H.; Heidenreich, M.

    2001-01-01

    In 1993 a wide test for photovoltaic (PV) was carried out in Austria, 110 stations were built and precise measurements were done. At that time the demand of integrating direct current from solar cells into the 50 Hz alternating current network was a weak point. At present four european research projects dealing with security, reliability, network compatibility and its integration in buildings are being developed. The cost development of PVs in Germany from 1983 to 1998 is given. Because of the PV environmental quality, one million of new intallations are demanded (until 2010) by the European commission. In Austria exists ∼5,000 kWp installed capacity and the growth rate average in the last years was 30 %. (nevyjel)

  15. Direct energy conversion of radiation energy in fusion reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamaguchi, S.; Iiyoshi, A.; Motojima, O.; Okamoto, M.; Sudo, S. [National Inst. for Fusion Science, Nagoya (Japan); Ohnishi, M.; Onozuka, M.; Uenosono, C.

    1994-12-31

    Direct energy conversion from plasma heat flux has been studied. Since major parts of fusion energy in the advanced fusion reactor are radiation and charged particle energies, the flexible design of the blanket is possible. We discuss the potentiality of the thermoelectric element that generate electricity by temperature gradient in conductors. A Strong magnetic field is used to confine the fusion plasma, therefore, it is appropriate to consider the effect of the magnetic field. We propose a new element which is called Nernst element. The new element needs the magnetic field and the temperature gradient. We compare the efficiency of these two elements in a semiconductor model. Finally, a direct energy converter are mentioned. (author).

  16. Direct energy conversion of radiation energy in fusion reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamaguchi, S.; Iiyoshi, A.; Motojima, O.; Okamoto, M.; Sudo, S.; Ohnishi, M.; Onozuka, M.; Uenosono, C.

    1994-01-01

    Direct energy conversion from plasma heat flux has been studied. Since major parts of fusion energy in the advanced fusion reactor are radiation and charged particle energies, the flexible design of the blanket is possible. We discuss the potentiality of the thermoelectric element that generate electricity by temperature gradient in conductors. A Strong magnetic field is used to confine the fusion plasma, therefore, it is appropriate to consider the effect of the magnetic field. We propose a new element which is called Nernst element. The new element needs the magnetic field and the temperature gradient. We compare the efficiency of these two elements in a semiconductor model. Finally, a direct energy converter are mentioned. (author)

  17. Three-dimensional models of conventional and vertical junction laser-photovoltaic energy converters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinbockel, John H.; Walker, Gilbert H.

    1988-01-01

    Three-dimensional models of both conventional planar junction and vertical junction photovoltaic energy converters have been constructed. The models are a set of linear partial differential equations and take into account many photoconverter design parameters. The model is applied to Si photoconverters; however, the model may be used with other semiconductors. When used with a Nd laser, the conversion efficiency of the Si vertical junction photoconverter is 47 percent, whereas the efficiency for the conventional planar Si photoconverter is only 17 percent. A parametric study of the Si vertical junction photoconverter is then done in order to describe the optimum converter for use with the 1.06-micron Nd laser. The efficiency of this optimized vertical junction converter is 44 percent at 1 kW/sq cm.

  18. 2nd Workshop on the Chemistry of Energy Conversion

    CERN Document Server

    2016-01-01

    A sustainable energy future that does not rely on fossil fuels requires the advances of new materials design and development with efficient energy conversion. However, materials development is still at its infancy. There is an imperative to develop new energy conversion strategies. In Nature, plants harness sunlight and convert them into chemical energy. The ability to mimic Nature by combining synthetic nanoscopic and molecular components to produce chemical fuels is the Holy Grail to achieve sustainable energy production.​ The Institute of Advanced Studies (IAS) and the School of Physical and Mathematical Sciences (SPMS), NTU, are jointly organizing this workshop. We aim to create dialogues among scientists in the energy conversion field, with the ultimate goal of facilitating breakthroughs in materials design for energy conversion. It will also bring the expertise on Chemistry of Energy Conversion to the door steps of the materials research community in Singapore and also provide a platform for partic...

  19. Computational screening of new inorganic materials for highly efficient solar energy conversion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuhar, Korina

    2017-01-01

    in solar cells convert solar energy into electricity, and PC uses harvested energy to conduct chemical reactions, such as splitting water into oxygen and, more importantly, hydrogen, also known as the fuel of the future. Further progress in both PV and PC fields is mostly limited by the flaws in materials...... materials. In this work a high-throughput computational search for suitable absorbers for PV and PC applications is presented. A set of descriptors has been developed, such that each descriptor targets an important property or issue of a good solar energy conversion material. The screening study...... that we have access to. Despite the vast amounts of energy at our disposal, we are not able to harvest this solar energy efficiently. Currently, there are a few ways of converting solar power into usable energy, such as photovoltaics (PV) or photoelectrochemical generation of fuels (PC). PV processes...

  20. Demonstrating Energy Conversion with Piezoelectric Crystals and a Paddle Fan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakbamrung, Prissana; Putson, Chatchai; Muensit, Nantakan

    2014-01-01

    A simple energy conversion system--particularly, the conversion of mechanical energy into electrical energy by using shaker flashlights--has recently been presented. This system uses hand generators, consisting of a magnet in a tube with a coil wrapped around it, and acts as an ac source when the magnet passes back and forth through the coil.…

  1. The Role of Photovoltaics in Energy Requirements in Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shah, I.A.; Haq, N.U.; Nasir, H.

    2011-01-01

    In this review article global energy issue is discussed with specific reference to Pakistan. The energy consumption and supply from different sources like oil, gas, electricity, nuclear power, bio gas and especially from renewables is taken into account. Also discussed some suggestions for the energy requirements. Focus is given to the production of renewable energy sources like technology of photovoltaics in which solar power is converted into electricity. Solar cell is discussed including its two basic types inorganic solar cell and organic solar cell, its way of functioning, process of fabrication etc is also discussed. Organic or polymeric solar cell is discussed in detail. keeping in view the financial condition and requirement of energy for our country suggestions are given for low cost and simple processing of organic solar cells. It is also suggested that availability of all the materials required for the development of organic solar cells should be guaranteed. Interest should be developed at the university and other research organization level of Pakistan to do work on polymeric solar cells for increasing their efficiencies so that they can be practically utilized. (author)

  2. Optimization of photovoltaic energy production through an efficient switching matrix

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pietro Romano

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This work presents a preliminary study on the implementation of a new system for power output maximization of photovoltaic generators under non-homogeneous conditions. The study evaluates the performance of an efficient switching matrix and the relevant automatic reconfiguration control algorithms. The switching matrix is installed between the PV generator and the inverter, allowing a large number of possible module configurations. PV generator, switching matrix and the intelligent controller have been simulated in Simulink. The proposed reconfiguration system improved the energy extracted by the PV generator under non-uniform solar irradiation conditions. Short calculation times of the proposed control algorithms allow its use in real time applications even where a higher number of PV modules is required.

  3. Smart Cooling Controlled System Exploiting Photovoltaic Renewable Energy Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Atieh

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available A smart cooling system to control the ambient temperature of a premise in Amman, Jordan, is investigated and implemented. The premise holds 650 people and has 14 air conditioners with the cooling capacity ranging from 3 to 5 ton refrigerant (TR each. The control of the cooling system includes implementing different electronics circuits that are used to sense the ambient temperature and humidity, count the number of people in the premise and then turn ON/OFF certain air conditioner(s. The data collected by different electronic circuits are fed wirelessly to a microcontroller, which decides which air conditioner will be turned ON/OFF, its location and its desired set cooling temperature. The cooling system is integrated with an on-grid solar photovoltaic energy system to minimize the operational cost of the overall cooling system.

  4. An update on the Department of Energy's photovoltaic program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benner, John P.; Fitzgerald, Mark

    1994-01-01

    Funding for the terrestrial photovoltaic's program is $78 million in 1994. This is more than double the minimum level reached in 1989 and runs counter to the general trend of decreasing budgets for Department of Energy (DOE) programs. During the past five years, the program has expanded its mission from research and development to also address manufacturing technology and commercialization assistance. These new activities are directed toward revitalizing the market to reinstate the rapid rate of sales growth needed to attract investment. The program is approaching balance among efforts in each of the three areas. This translates to a reduction in some of the R & D activities of most relevance to the space power community. On the other hand, some of the advancements in manufacturing may finally bring thin-film technologies to reality for space arrays. This talk will describe the status and direction of DOE program with an eye toward highlighting its impact on technology of interest for space.

  5. Forecasted Changes in West Africa Photovoltaic Energy Output by 2045

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serge Dimitri Yikwe Buri Bazyomo

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The impacts of climate change on photovoltaic (PV output in the fifteen countries of the Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS was analyzed in this paper. Using a set of eight climate models, the trends of solar radiation and temperature between 2006–2100 were examined. Assuming a lifetime of 40 years, the future changes of photovoltaic energy output for the tilted plane receptor compared to 2006–2015 were computed for the whole region. The results show that the trends of solar irradiation are negative except for the Irish Centre for High-End Computing model which predicts a positive trend with a maximum value of 0.17 W/m2/year for Cape Verde and the minimum of −0.06 W/m2/year for Liberia. The minimum of the negative trend is −0.18 W/m2/year predicted by the Model for Interdisciplinary Research on Climate (MIROC, developed at the University of Tokyo Center for Climate System Research for Cape Verde. Furthermore, temperature trends are positive with a maximum of 0.08 K/year predicted by MIROC for Niger and minimum of 0.03 K/year predicted by Nature Conservancy of Canada (NCC, Max Planck Institute (MPI for Climate Meteorology at Hamburg, French National Meteorological Research Center (CNRM and Canadian Centre for Climate Modelling and Analysis (CCCMA for Cape Verde. Photovolataic energy output changes show increasing trends in Sierra Leone with 0.013%/year as the maximum. Climate change will lead to a decreasing trend of PV output in the rest of the countries with a minimum of 0.032%/year in Niger.

  6. Comparative analysis of thermal storage cooling and storage battery cooling using photovoltaic generation. Part 2. Research on architectural systematization of energy conversion devices; Taiyoko hatsuden ni yoru chikunetsu reibo to chikuden reibo ni tsuite. 2. Energy henkan no kenchiku system ka ni kansuru kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ito, N; Kimura, G; Fukao, S; Shimizu, T; Sunaga, N; Tsunoda, M; Muro, K; Yamanaka, S [Tokyo Metropolitan University, Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-10-27

    For use in energy self-sufficient buildings, a system was studied capable of retaining for its own use the excess of power produced by a photovoltaic power generation system without releasing it to the commercial system. Summertime cooling was considered. The storage battery cooling system was provided with two solar cell systems and, in the daytime, one was used for cooling and the other for charging batteries for nighttime cooling. In the cold heat storage cooling system, cold heat accumulators (red bricks) were provided in the wall and floor, and under the floor, and the floor was a grating for proper ventilation between the room and underfloor space. With the solar cell-driven air conditioner out of operation, cold heat was fed to the room from the underfloor cold heat accumulators by a fan. In storage battery cooling, solar power covered 60% of what the air conditioner used. In the presence of sufficient power in storage, the air conditioner stayed on at night without buying commercial power, when the room temperature was 25{degree}C. In the cold heat accumulation cooling, 50% of the air conditioner power consumption was covered by solar power. It is recommended to install cold heat accumulators not in the room but in a separate space, such as the underfloor space, where they are exposed to the cooling cold air direct from an air conditioner for future retrieval of cold heat. 2 refs., 9 figs., 3 tabs.

  7. Photovoltaic energy: an efficient development tool for Sub-Saharan economies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Megherbi, Karim

    2013-01-01

    In this report, the author aims at highlighting the main success factors for a photovoltaic program in sub-Saharan Africa, and the benefits of this technology for African electricity operators. He first presents the electricity sector of Sub-Saharan Africa, its current situation, its scenarios of evolution, and the limitations of scenarios based on conventional energies. In a second part, he discusses the role photovoltaic solar energy could have within the energy mix of Sub-Saharan countries. He discusses how to calculate the cost of photovoltaic electricity production, and the value of photovoltaic electricity, discusses the main influencing parameters, and tries to identify when it becomes worth to choose photovoltaic electricity. He describes the implementation of an adapted legal and economic framework, the 'feed-in-tariff'. An appendix contains a proposition for Western Africa and analyses the case of Benin

  8. Hole-Transfer Dependence on Blend Morphology and Energy Level Alignment in Polymer: ITIC Photovoltaic Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eastham, Nicholas D; Logsdon, Jenna L; Manley, Eric F; Aldrich, Thomas J; Leonardi, Matthew J; Wang, Gang; Powers-Riggs, Natalia E; Young, Ryan M; Chen, Lin X; Wasielewski, Michael R; Melkonyan, Ferdinand S; Chang, Robert P H; Marks, Tobin J

    2018-01-01

    Bulk-heterojunction organic photovoltaic materials containing nonfullerene acceptors (NFAs) have seen remarkable advances in the past year, finally surpassing fullerenes in performance. Indeed, acceptors based on indacenodithiophene (IDT) have become synonymous with high power conversion efficiencies (PCEs). Nevertheless, NFAs have yet to achieve fill factors (FFs) comparable to those of the highest-performing fullerene-based materials. To address this seeming anomaly, this study examines a high efficiency IDT-based acceptor, ITIC, paired with three donor polymers known to achieve high FFs with fullerenes, PTPD3T, PBTI3T, and PBTSA3T. Excellent PCEs up to 8.43% are achieved from PTPD3T:ITIC blends, reflecting good charge transport, optimal morphology, and efficient ITIC to PTPD3T hole-transfer, as observed by femtosecond transient absorption spectroscopy. Hole-transfer is observed from ITIC to PBTI3T and PBTSA3T, but less efficiently, reflecting measurably inferior morphology and nonoptimal energy level alignment, resulting in PCEs of 5.34% and 4.65%, respectively. This work demonstrates the importance of proper morphology and kinetics of ITIC → donor polymer hole-transfer in boosting the performance of polymer:ITIC photovoltaic bulk heterojunction blends. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. The effect of strontium and barium doping on perovskite-structured energy materials for photovoltaic applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Ming-Chung; Chen, Wei-Cheng; Chan, Shun-Hsiang; Su, Wei-Fang

    2018-01-01

    Perovskite solar cell is a novel photovoltaic technology with the superior progress in efficiency and the simple solution processes. Develop lead-free or lead-reduced perovskite materials is a significant concern for high-performance perovskite solar cell. Among the alkaline earth metals, the Sr2+ and Ba2+ are suitable for Pb2+ replacement in perovskite film due to fitting Goldschmidt's tolerance factor. In this study, we adopted Ba-doped and Sr-doped perovskite structured materials with different doping levels, including 1.0, 5.0, and 10.0 mol%, to prepare perovskite solar cells. Both Ba-doped and Sr-doped perovskite structured materials have a related tendency in absorption behavior and surface morphology. At 10.0 mol% doping level, the power conversion efficiency (PCE) of Sr-doped perovskite solar cells is only ∼0.5%, but the PCE of Ba-doped perovskite solar cells can be achieved to ∼9.7%. Ba-doped perovskite solar cells showed the acceptable photovoltaic characteristics than Sr-doped perovskite solar cells. Ba dopant can partially replace the amount of lead in the perovskite solar cells, and it could be a potential candidate in the field of lead-free or lead-reduced perovskite energy materials.

  10. Conversion of zero point energy into high-energy photons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ivlev, B. I. [Universidad Autonoma de San Luis Potosi, Instituto de Fisica, Av. Manuel Nava No. 6, Zona Universitaria, 78290 San Luis Potosi, SLP (Mexico)

    2016-11-01

    An unusual phenomenon, observed in experiments is studied. X-ray laser bursts of keV energy are emitted from a metal where long-living states, resulting in population inversion, are totally unexpected. Anomalous electron-photon states are revealed to be formed inside the metal. These states are associated with narrow, 10{sup -11} cm, potential well created by the local reduction of zero point electromagnetic energy. In contrast to analogous van der Waals potential well, leading to attraction of two hydrogen atoms, the depth of the anomalous well is on the order of 1 MeV. The states in that well are long-living which results in population inversion and subsequent laser generation observed. The X-ray emission, occurring in transitions to lower levels, is due to the conversion of zero point electromagnetic energy. (Author)

  11. Profitability of Residential Battery Energy Storage Combined with Solar Photovoltaics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christoph Goebel

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Lithium-ion (Li-Ion batteries are increasingly being considered as bulk energy storage in grid applications. One such application is residential energy storage combined with solar photovoltaic (PV panels to enable higher self-consumption rates, which has become financially more attractive recently due to decreasing feed-in subsidies. Although residential energy storage solutions are commercially mature, it remains unclear which system configurations and circumstances, including aggregator-based applications such as the provision of ancillary services, lead to profitable consumer investments. Therefore, we conduct an extensive simulation study that is able to jointly capture these aspects. Our results show that, at current battery module prices, even optimal system configurations still do not lead to profitable investments into Li-Ion batteries if they are merely used as a buffer for solar energy. The first settings in which they will become profitable, as prices are further declining, will be larger households at locations with higher average levels of solar irradiance. If the batteries can be remote-controlled by an aggregator to provide overnight negative reserve, their profitability increases significantly.

  12. Organometallic photovoltaics: a new and versatile approach for harvesting solar energy using conjugated polymetallaynes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Wai-Yeung; Ho, Cheuk-Lam

    2010-09-21

    Energy remains one of the world's great challenges. Growing concerns about limited fossil fuel resources and the accumulation of CO(2) in the atmosphere from burning those fuels have stimulated tremendous academic and industrial interest. Researchers are focusing both on developing inexpensive renewable energy resources and on improving the technologies for energy conversion. Solar energy has the capacity to meet increasing global energy needs. Harvesting energy directly from sunlight using photovoltaic technology significantly reduces atmospheric emissions, avoiding the detrimental effects of these gases on the environment. Currently inorganic semiconductors dominate the solar cell production market, but these materials require high technology production and expensive materials, making electricity produced in this manner too costly to compete with conventional sources of electricity. Researchers have successfully fabricated efficient organic-based polymer solar cells (PSCs) as a lower cost alternative. Recently, metalated conjugated polymers have shown exceptional promise as donor materials in bulk-heterojunction solar cells and are emerging as viable alternatives to the all-organic congeners currently in use. Among these metalated conjugated polymers, soluble platinum(II)-containing poly(arylene ethynylene)s of variable bandgaps (∼1.4-3.0 eV) represent attractive candidates for a cost-effective, lightweight solar-energy conversion platform. This Account highlights and discusses the recent advances of this research frontier in organometallic photovoltaics. The emerging use of low-bandgap soluble platinum-acetylide polymers in PSCs offers a new and versatile strategy to capture sunlight for efficient solar power generation. Properties of these polyplatinynes--including their chemical structures, absorption coefficients, bandgaps, charge mobilities, accessibility of triplet excitons, molecular weights, and blend film morphologies--critically influence the device

  13. Monolithic, multi-bandgap, tandem, ultra-thin, strain-counterbalanced, photovoltaic energy converters with optimal subcell bandgaps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wanlass, Mark W [Golden, CO; Mascarenhas, Angelo [Lakewood, CO

    2012-05-08

    Modeling a monolithic, multi-bandgap, tandem, solar photovoltaic converter or thermophotovoltaic converter by constraining the bandgap value for the bottom subcell to no less than a particular value produces an optimum combination of subcell bandgaps that provide theoretical energy conversion efficiencies nearly as good as unconstrained maximum theoretical conversion efficiency models, but which are more conducive to actual fabrication to achieve such conversion efficiencies than unconstrained model optimum bandgap combinations. Achieving such constrained or unconstrained optimum bandgap combinations includes growth of a graded layer transition from larger lattice constant on the parent substrate to a smaller lattice constant to accommodate higher bandgap upper subcells and at least one graded layer that transitions back to a larger lattice constant to accommodate lower bandgap lower subcells and to counter-strain the epistructure to mitigate epistructure bowing.

  14. New energy storage systems for photovoltaic supplied consumer products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burges, K.; Blok, K.

    1993-12-01

    In a previous study attention was paid to the possibility of reducing battery wastes in the Netherlands by means of integration of photovoltaic (PV) cells in small, electric consumer products. The result of that study was that only two environment-friendly applications could be used: capacitors in calculators or watches. However, new types of energy storage systems have been developed and commercialized, so that the above-mentioned study is updated. First, the technical, economic and environmental parameters of several energy storage systems are compared. Next, a number of products, in which PV-cells can be integrated, has been selected and the economic and environmental effects are calculated and analyzed. The energy storage systems discussed are primary alkaline batteries, NiCd batteries, Ni-Metal-Hydride (NiMH) batteries, Li-Solid-State (LiSS) batteries, and capacitors. It is estimated that by means of the proposed integration of PV-cells in specific consumer products the amount of battery wastes can be reduced by 50%. 33 tabs., 1 appendix, 50 refs

  15. Energy saved neon sign lighting power supply for photovoltaic systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanitteerapan, T.; Dokpikul, S.; Arunrungrasmi, S. [King Mongkut Univ. of Technology Thonburi, Bangmod, Tungkru, Bangkok (Thailand). Dept. of Electrical Technology Education, Faculty of Industrial Education

    2007-07-01

    Petroleum oil, natural gas and fossil fuels are commonly used in power plants for electrical power generation. However, because of their negative environmental impacts, energy and environmental savings from renewable energy resources are necessary choices. Solar energy can be converted to the electrical voltage by using solar arrays. This process can be used in many electrical applications. This paper introduced a neon sign lighting power supply for a small photovoltaic powered stand-alone commercial advertising board for a remote area in Thailand. The circuit implementation was very simple, consisting of an active switch device, a resonant capacitor and high frequency transformer. The control also operated as a fixed frequency and fixed duty ratio controller. The paper discussed the principle of neon sign lighting, power circuit operation, and control circuit operation. To verify the proposed power supply, the circuit experiment of the proposed power supply for the neon sign lighting was applied to a 10 foot long, 10 millimeter diameter bulb. The neon sign was ignited smoothly with little power consumption. 2 refs., 1 tab., 10 figs.

  16. Solar energy scenarios in Brazil. Part two: Photovoltaics applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martins, F.R.; Ruether, R.; Pereira, E.B.; Abreu, S.L.

    2008-01-01

    This paper discusses some energy scenarios for photovoltaic applications in Brazil engendered by using SWERA database in order to demonstrate its potential for feasibility analysis and application in the energy planning for electricity generation. It discusses two major different markets: hybrid PV-Diesel installations in mini-grids of the off-grid Brazilian electricity system in the Amazon region, and grid-connected PV in urban areas of the interconnected Brazilian electricity system. The potential for using PV is huge, and can be estimated in tens to hundreds of MWp in the Amazon region alone, even if only a fraction of the existing Diesel-fired plants with a total installed capacity of over 620 MVA would fit to run in an optimum Diesel/PV mix. Most of the major cities in Brazil present greater electricity demand in summertime with the demand peak happening in the daytime period. This energy profile match the actual solar resource assessment provided by SWERA Data Archive, enabling grid-connected PV systems to provide an important contribution to the utility's capacity

  17. Renewable energy systems advanced conversion technologies and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Luo, Fang Lin

    2012-01-01

    Energy conversion techniques are key in power electronics and even more so in renewable energy source systems, which require a large number of converters. Renewable Energy Systems: Advanced Conversion Technologies and Applications describes advanced conversion technologies and provides design examples of converters and inverters for renewable energy systems-including wind turbine and solar panel energy systems. Learn Cutting-Edge Techniques for Converters and Inverters Setting the scene, the book begins with a review of the basics of astronomy and Earth physics. It then systematically introduc

  18. Presentations given at the Enerplan Conference: facilitating photovoltaic energy integration in the grid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueth, Thierry; Thomas, Christophe; Loyen, Richard; Masson, Gaetan; Najdawi, Celine; Dubus, Jean-Michel; Carre, Olivier; Resseguier, Stephane de; Alazard, Raymond; Prest, Ignace de; Humez, Herve; Kaiser, Martin; Cassagne, Valerick; Dauphin, Francois; Merley, Jacques; Laffaille, Didier; Gossement, Arnaud; Belon, Daniel; Blanquet, Francois; Bonnet, Jean-Philippe; Sanchez, Louis; Vienot, Raphaelle; Lambert, Karine; Berly, Frederic

    2013-07-01

    Large-scale integration of photovoltaic energy in power grids are present day topics of strategical stakes for the development of the photovoltaic industry and for the success of the energy transition. This conference provided some answers to three main subjects which were the main themes of the 3 round-tables: 1 - Identifying the context elements leading to a large integration of solar energy in Europe and in France; 2 - Identifying the technical solutions facilitating the technical integration of photovoltaic energy in power grids; 3 - Analysing the expected regional schemes for connecting renewable energies to the network, in order to shift from an administrative planning to a dynamical and practical approach profitable to the photovoltaic industry. This document brings together the available presentations (slides) given at the colloquium

  19. Key technical and non-technical challenges for mass deployment of photovoltaic solar energy (PV)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sinke, W.C.

    2001-12-01

    Photovoltaic solar energy (PV) is used for direct conversion of sunlight into electricity. It is not to be confused with low-temperature thermal solar energy (e.g. solar domestic hot water systems) and with solar electricity production using a conventional high-temperature steam cycle (using parabolic troughs or 'power towers'). Important features of PV are: inherently renewable; sustainable if well designed, manufactured, used, and disposed; no moving parts, quiet; reliable if well designed and engineered; modular (from milliwatts to multi-megawatts); suitable for a wide variety of applications (stand-alone and grid-connected); large potential (regionally and globally); intermittent; capacity factor (ratio of average system power to installed (=peak) power) =0.08-0.24. PV is among the major renewable energy technologies in all well known energy scenarios, although a substantial role in % of the total energy production can only be achieved on the long term (typically 40-60 years years). Fortunately, long before that the PV market may be a rapidly growing, multi-billion euro business, providing enormous economic opportunities and many jobs

  20. 24 Energy production and financial analysis of photovoltaic energy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bernabé Marí Soucase

    A techno-economic analysis has been used for project cost control, ... First of all, we defined Cash Flow as movements of money in and out of any ... cost of electric energy in Côte d'Ivoire for the common use of families and small companies [9].

  1. Semiconductor Nanowires and Nanotubes for Energy Conversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fardy, Melissa Anne

    In recent years semiconductor nanowires and nanotubes have garnered increased attention for their unique properties. With their nanoscale dimensions comes high surface area and quantum confinement, promising enhancements in a wide range of applications. 1-dimensional nanostructures are especially attractive for energy conversion applications where photons, phonons, and electrons come into play. Since the bohr exciton radius and phonon and electron mean free paths are on the same length scales as nanowire diameters, optical, thermal, and electrical properties can be tuned by simple nanowire size adjustments. In addition, the high surface area inherent to nanowires and nanotubes lends them towards efficient charge separation and superior catalytic performance. In thermoelectric power generation, the nanoscale wire diameter can effectively scatter phonons, promoting reductions in thermal conductivity and enhancements in the thermoelectric figure of merit. To that end, single-crystalline arrays of PbS, PbSe, and PbTe nanowires have been synthesized by a chemical vapor transport approach. The electrical and thermal transport properties of the nanowires were characterized to investigate their potential as thermoelectric materials. Compared to bulk, the lead chalcogenide nanowires exhibit reduced thermal conductivity below 100 K by up to 3 orders of magnitude, suggesting that they may be promising thermoelectric materials. Smaller diameters and increased surface roughness are expected to give additional enhancements. The solution-phase synthesis of PbSe nanowires via oriented attachment of nanoparticles enables facile surface engineering and diameter control. Branched PbSe nanowires synthesized by this approach showed near degenerately doped charge carrier concentrations. Compared to the bulk, the PbSe nanowires exhibited a similar Seebeck coefficient and a significant reduction in thermal conductivity in the temperature range 20 K to 300 K. Thermal annealing of the Pb

  2. Does Your Domestic Photovoltaic Energy System Survive Grid Outages?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marijn R. Jongerden

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Domestic renewable energy systems, including photovoltaic energy generation, as well as local storage, are becoming increasingly popular and economically feasible, but do come with a wide range of options. Hence, it can be difficult to match their specification to specific customer’s needs. Next to the usage-specific demand profiles and location-specific production profiles, local energy storage through the use of batteries is becoming increasingly important, since it allows one to balance variations in production and demand, either locally or via the grid. Moreover, local storage can also help to ensure a continuous energy supply in the presence of grid outages, at least for a while. Hybrid Petri net (HPN models allow one to analyze the effect of different battery management strategies on the continuity of such energy systems in the case of grid outages. The current paper focuses on one of these strategies, the so-called smart strategy, that reserves a certain percentage of the battery capacity to be only used in case of grid outages. Additionally, we introduce a new strategy that makes better use of the reserved backup capacity, by reducing the demand in the presence of a grid outage through a prioritization mechanism. This new strategy, called power-save, only allows the essential (high-priority demand to draw from the battery during power outages. We show that this new strategy outperforms previously-proposed strategies through a careful analysis of a number of scenarios and for a selection of survivability measures, such as minimum survivability per day, number of survivable hours per day, minimum survivability per year and various survivability quantiles.

  3. Energy Conversion Alternatives Study (ECAS), General Electric Phase 1. Volume 3: Energy conversion subsystems and components. Part 1: Bottoming cycles and materials of construction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, R. P.; Solomon, H. D.

    1976-01-01

    Energy conversion subsystems and components were evaluated in terms of advanced energy conversion systems. Results of the bottoming cycles and materials of construction studies are presented and discussed.

  4. Integrating DC/DC Conversion with Possible Reconfiguration within Submodule Solar Photovoltaic Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Peter Jen-Hung

    This research first proposes a method to merge photovoltaic (PV) cells or PV panels within the internal components DC-DC converters. The purpose of this merged structure is to reconfigure the PV modules between series and parallel connections using high switching frequencies (hundreds of kHz). This leads to multi-levels of voltages and currents that become applied to the output filter of the converter. Further, this research introduces a concept of a switching cell that utilizes the reconfiguration of series and parallel connections in DC-DC converters. The switching occurs at high switching frequency and the switches can be integrated to be within the solar panels or in between the solar cells. The concept is generalized and applied to basic buck and boost topologies. As examples of the new types of converters: reconfigurable PV-buck and PV-boost converter topologies are presented. It is also possible to create other reconfigurable power converters: non-isolated and isolated topologies. Analysis, simulation and experimental verification for the reconfigurable PV-buck and PV-boost converters are presented extensively to illustrate proof of concept. Benefits and drawbacks of the new approach are discussed. The second part of this research proposes to utilize the internal solar cell capacitance and internal solar module wire parasitic inductances to replace the input capacitor and filter inductor in boost derived DC-DC converters for energy harvesting applications. High switching frequency (MHz) hard switched and resonant boost converters are proposed. Their analysis, simulation and experimental prototypes are presented. A specific proof-of-concept application is especially tested for foldable PV panels, which are known for their high internal wire inductance. The experimental converters successfully boost solar module voltage without adding any external input capacitance or filter inductor. Benefits and drawbacks of new proposed PV submodule integrated boost

  5. Design of a photovoltaic-hydrogen-fuel cell energy system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lehman, P A; Chamberlin, C E [Humboldt State Univ., Arcata, CA (US). Dept. of Environmental Resources Engineering

    1991-01-01

    The design of a stand-alone renewable energy system using hydrogen (H{sub 2}) as the energy storage medium and a fuel cell as the regeneration technology is reported. The system being installed at the Humboldt State University Telonicher Marine Laboratory consists of a 9.2 kW photovoltaic (PV) array coupled to a high pressure, bipolar alkaline electrolyser. The array powers the Laboratory's air compressor system whenever possible; excess power is shunted to the electrolyser for hydrogen and oxygen (O{sub 2}) production. When the array cannot provide sufficient power, stored hydrogen and oxygen are furnished to a proton exchange membrane fuel cell which, smoothly and without interruption, supplies the load. In reporting the design, details of component selection, sizing, and integration, control system logic and implementation, and safety considerations are discussed. Plans for a monitoring network to chronicle system performance are presented, questions that will be addressed through the monitoring program are included, and the present status of the project is reported. (Author).

  6. Experimental Research of a New Wave Energy Conversion Device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Zhongyue; Shang, Jianzhong; Luo, Zirong; Sun, Chongfei; Chen, Gewei

    2018-01-01

    With the increasing tension of contemporary social energy, the development and utilization of renewable energy has become an important development direction. As an important part of renewable energy, wave energy has the characteristics of green environmental protection and abundant reserves, attracting more investment and research. For small marine equipment energy supply problem, this paper puts forward a micro wave energy conversion device as the basic of heaving motion of waves in the ocean. This paper designed a new type of power output device can solve the micro wave energy conversion problem.

  7. Titanium dioxide nanotube membranes for solar energy conversion: effect of deep and shallow dopants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Yuchen; Nagpal, Prashant

    2017-04-12

    Nanostructured titanium dioxide (TiO 2 ) has been intensively investigated as a material of choice for solar energy conversion in photocatalytic, photoelectrochemical, photovoltaic, and other photosensitized devices for converting light into chemical feedstocks or electricity. Towards management of light absorption in TiO 2 , while the nanotubular structure improves light absorption and simultaneous charge transfer to mitigate problems due to the indirect bandgap of the semiconductor, typically dopants are used to improve light absorption of incident solar irradiation in the wide bandgap of TiO 2 . While these dopants can be critical to the success of these solar energy conversion devices, their effect on photophysical and photoelectrochemical properties and detailed photokinetics are relatively under-studied. Here, we show the effect of deep and shallow metal dopants on the kinetics of photogenerated charged carriers in TiO 2 and the resulting effect on photocatalytic and photoelectrochemical processes using these nanotube membranes. We performed a detailed optical, electronic, voltammetry and electrochemical impedance study to understand the effect of shallow and deep metal dopants (using undoped and niobium- and copper-doped TiO 2 nanotubes) on light absorption, charge transport and charge transfer processes. Using wireless photocatalytic methylene blue degradation and carbon dioxide reduction, and wired photoelectrochemical device measurements, we elucidate the effect of different dopants on solar-to-fuel conversion efficiency and simultaneously describe the photokinetics using a model, to help design better energy conversion devices.

  8. Optimization of photovoltaic power systems

    CERN Document Server

    Rekioua, Djamila

    2012-01-01

    Photovoltaic generation is one of the cleanest forms of energy conversion available. One of the advantages offered by solar energy is its potential to provide sustainable electricity in areas not served by the conventional power grid. Optimisation of Photovoltaic Power Systems details explicit modelling, control and optimisation of the most popular stand-alone applications such as pumping, power supply, and desalination. Each section is concluded by an example using the MATLAB(R) and Simulink(R) packages to help the reader understand and evaluate the performance of different photovoltaic syste

  9. Municipal programs of photovoltaic energy development; Les programmes municipaux de developpement du photovoltaique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    This study presents some remarkable actions carried out in several European municipalities for the promotion and development of photovoltaic applications: installation of solar cells on public buildings, integration of the photovoltaic energy in the urban plan, application in the transportation sector, programs of public information, of promotion, of incitation, of financing, solar electricity trade, promotion of the 'green current'. After a presentation of the general situation of photovoltaic energy in Europe, and of its development in France, nine case-forms present the experience of nine selected European cities in this domain (Amersfoort (NL), Barcelona (ES), Braedstrup (DK), Karlsruhe (DE), Lausanne (CH), Mataro (ES), Muenchen (ES), Palermo (IT), Zurich (CH)). (J.S.)

  10. Rectenna session: Micro aspects. [energy conversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutmann, R. J.

    1980-01-01

    Two micro aspects of the rectenna design are addressed: evaluation of the degradation in net rectenna RF to DC conversion efficiency due to power density variations across the rectenna (power combining analysis) and design of Yagi-Uda receiving elements to reduce rectenna cost by decreasing the number of conversion circuits (directional receiving elements). The first of these micro aspects involves resolving a fundamental question of efficiency potential with a rectenna, while the second involves a design modification with a large potential cost saving.

  11. Biogas/photovoltaic hybrid power system for decentralized energy supply of rural areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borges Neto, M.R.; Carvalho, P.C.M.; Carioca, J.O.B.; Canafistula, F.J.F.

    2010-01-01

    Biomasses created from natural resources such as firewood, charcoal and forest crops are still the main source of energy in many communities in the developing countries of the world. The absence of modern techniques, in terms of energy conversion and the lack of resource planning, places a great burden on the environment, not only in terms of deforestation but the polluting residual emissions created by the burning of such fuels. Even in some developed countries, it is possible to find rural areas that have no access to the conventional national electrical grid. The lack of this facility is detrimental to the social and economic development of any country or community. Renewable energy systems have been used in many cases to mitigate these problems. The present paper introduces the concept of an alternative Hybrid Power System configuration that combines photovoltaic modules and digesters fuelled by goat manure as the basis for rural sustainable development. Attention is drawn to the Northeast Region of Brazil, one of the largest semi-arid regions in a single country. The regional conditions of Northeast of Brazil are not unique, suggesting that other countries of a similar nature would benefit from the same energy system.

  12. Biogas/photovoltaic hybrid power system for decentralized energy supply of rural areas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borges Neto, M.R. [Federal Institute of Education, Science and Technology of Sertao Pernambucano - IFSertao-PE, BR407, km 8, 56314-520 Petrolina, PE (Brazil); Federal University of Ceara, Department of Electrical Engineering, Caixa Postal 6001 - Campus do Pici, 60455-760 Fortaleza, CE (Brazil); Carvalho, P.C.M. [Federal University of Ceara, Department of Electrical Engineering, Caixa Postal 6001 - Campus do Pici, 60455-760 Fortaleza, CE (Brazil); Carioca, J.O.B. [Federal University of Ceara, Department of Food Engineering, Caixa Postal 6001 - Campus do Pici, 60455-760 Fortaleza, CE (Brazil); Canafistula, F.J.F. [Federal University of Ceara, Department of Agricultural Engineering, Caixa Postal 6001 - Campus do Pici, 60455-760 Fortaleza, CE (Brazil)

    2010-08-15

    Biomasses created from natural resources such as firewood, charcoal and forest crops are still the main source of energy in many communities in the developing countries of the world. The absence of modern techniques, in terms of energy conversion and the lack of resource planning, places a great burden on the environment, not only in terms of deforestation but the polluting residual emissions created by the burning of such fuels. Even in some developed countries, it is possible to find rural areas that have no access to the conventional national electrical grid. The lack of this facility is detrimental to the social and economic development of any country or community. Renewable energy systems have been used in many cases to mitigate these problems. The present paper introduces the concept of an alternative Hybrid Power System configuration that combines photovoltaic modules and digesters fuelled by goat manure as the basis for rural sustainable development. Attention is drawn to the Northeast Region of Brazil, one of the largest semi-arid regions in a single country. The regional conditions of Northeast of Brazil are not unique, suggesting that other countries of a similar nature would benefit from the same energy system. (author)

  13. Thermal to Electric Energy Conversion for Cyclic Heat Loads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitehead, Benjamin E.

    Today, we find cyclic heat loads almost everywhere. When we drive our cars, the engines heat up while we are driving and cool while parked. Processors heat while the computer is in use at the office and cool when idle at night. The sun heats the earth during the day and the earth radiates that heat into space at night. With modern technology, we have access to a number of methods to take that heat and convert it into electricity, but, before selecting one, we need to identify the parameters that inform decision making. The majority of the parameters for most systems include duty cycle, total cost, weight, size, thermal efficiency, and electrical efficiency. However, the importance of each of these will depend on the application. Size and weight take priority in a handheld device, while efficiency dominates in a power plant, and duty cycle is likely to dominate in highly demanding heat pump applications. Over the past decade, developments in semiconductor technology has led to the creation of the thermoelectric generator. With no moving parts and a nearly endlessly scalable nature, these generators present interesting opportunities for taking advantage of any source of waste heat. However, these generators are typically only capable of 5-8% efficiency from conversion of thermal to electric energy. [1]. Similarly, advancements in photovoltaic cells has led to the development of thermophotovoltaics. By heating an emitter to a temperature so it radiates light, a thermophotovoltaic cell then converts that light into electricity. By selecting materials that emit light in the optimal ranges of the appropriate photovoltaic cells, thermophotovoltaic systems can potentially exceed the current maximum of 10% efficiency. [2]. By pressurizing certain metal powders with hydrogen, hydrogen can be bound to the metal, creating a metal hydride, from which hydrogen can be later re-extracted under the correct pressure and temperature conditions. Since this hydriding reaction is

  14. Energy price, Environmental policy, and technological bias of photovoltaics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stambouli, A. Boudghene; Larbi, N.; Traversa, E.

    2006-01-01

    0.52 degree centigrade above the long-term 1880-2000 average (13.9 degree centigrade) and in June 2003 temperature anomalies was 2.3 degree centigrade higher with respect to 1961-1990 based period. Alternative sources of energy should be explored and their utilisation should be stepped up. Solar energy which is not only excellent resource of alternative energy but also clean and easy to access, make environmental sense for any nation. Compared to fossil-generated electricity, each kilowatt of solar photovoltaics (PV) could prevent substantial emissions that endanger our environment and personal health. Typically, on an annual 'per kilowatt' basis, PV offsets or saves up to 16 kgs of NOx, 9 kgs of SOx, and 6 kgs of other particulates. In addition, one kilowatt of PV typically, per year, offsets between 600 and 2300 kgs of CO2, a greenhouse gas that contributes to global warming, and prevents, each month, 75 kg of fossil fuel from being mined, and keeps 473 litre of water from being consumed. In this paper the main features of the proposal are presented, and important energy related environment problems are highlighted. Several issues relating to solar energy, environment and sustainable development are examined from both current and future perspectives.(Author)

  15. The learning potential of photovoltaics: implications for energy policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zwaan, Bob van der; Rabl, Ari

    2004-01-01

    This article examines the prospects for cost reductions of flat panel photovoltaic (PV) electricity. Current PV production cost ranges are presented, in terms of cost per peak W and cost per kWh, for single crystalline and multi-crystalline silicon, as well as for thin-film technologies. Possible decreases of these costs are assessed, as expected based on learning curves. The cumulative production needed to reach 'breakeven' (at which PV is competitive with conventional alternatives) is estimated for a range of values of the learning curve parameter. The cost of this cumulative production is calculated, and the question is posed whether and how the 'cost cap' can be bridged, the latter being the difference between what this cumulative production will cost and what it would cost if it could be produced at a currently competitive level. We also estimate how much PV could gain if external costs (due to environmental and health damage) of energy were internalised, for example by an energy tax. The conclusions are: (1) mainly due its high costs, PV electricity is unlikely to play a major role in global energy supply and carbon emissions abatement before 2020, (2) extrapolating past learning curves, one can expect its costs to decrease significantly, so that a considerable PV electricity share world-wide could materialise after 2020, (3) niche-market applications, e.g. using stand-alone systems in remote areas, are crucial for continuing 'the ride along the learning curve', (4) damage costs of conventional (fossil) power sources are considerable, and they could provide an important part of the rationale behind major policy efforts to encourage increased use of PV. The costs involved with such policies would be elevated, but a considerable share of these costs could be justified by the fact that conventional power damage costs constitute a significant fraction of the cost gap, although probably not enough to close it

  16. Organic Semiconductor Photovoltaics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sariciftci, Niyazi Serdar

    2005-03-01

    Recent developments on organic photovoltaic elements are reviewed. Semiconducting conjugated polymers and molecules as well as nanocrystalline inorganic semiconductors are used in composite thin films. The photophysics of such photoactive devices is based on the photoinduced charge transfer from donor type semiconducting molecules onto acceptor type molecules such as Buckminsterfullerene, C60 and/or nanoparticles. Similar to the first steps in natural photosynthesis, this photoinduced electron transfer leads to a number of potentially interesting applications which include sensitization of the photoconductivity and photovoltaic phenomena. Examples of photovoltaic architectures are discussed with their potential in terrestrial solar energy conversion. Several materials are introduced and discussed for their photovoltaic activities. Furthermore, nanomorphology has been investigated with AFM, SEM and TEM. The morphology/property relationship for a given photoactive system is found to be a major effect.

  17. Overview of Maximum Power Point Tracking Techniques for Photovoltaic Energy Production Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koutroulis, Eftichios; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2015-01-01

    A substantial growth of the installed photovoltaic systems capacity has occurred around the world during the last decade, thus enhancing the availability of electric energy in an environmentally friendly way. The maximum power point tracking technique enables maximization of the energy production...... of photovoltaic sources during stochastically varying solar irradiation and ambient temperature conditions. Thus, the overall efficiency of the photovoltaic energy production system is increased. Numerous techniques have been presented during the last decade for implementing the maximum power point tracking...... process in a photovoltaic system. This article provides an overview of the operating principles of these techniques, which are suited for either uniform or non-uniform solar irradiation conditions. The operational characteristics and implementation requirements of these maximum power point tracking...

  18. The characteristic analysis of the solar energy photovoltaic power generation system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, B.; Li, K.; Niu, D. D.; Jin, Y. A.; Liu, Y.

    2017-01-01

    Solar energy is an inexhaustible, clean, renewable energy source. Photovoltaic cells are a key component in solar power generation, so thorough research on output characteristics is of far-reaching importance. In this paper, an illumination model and a photovoltaic power station output power model were established, and simulation analysis was conducted using Matlab and other software. The analysis evaluated the condition of solar energy resources in the Baicheng region in the western part of Jilin province, China. The characteristic curve of the power output from a photovoltaic power station was obtained by simulation calculation. It was shown that the monthly average output power of the photovoltaic power station is affected by seasonal changes; the output power is higher in summer and autumn, and lower in spring and winter.

  19. Trend chart: photovoltaic solar energy. Second quarter 2016

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reynaud, Didier

    2016-08-01

    This newsletter presents a quarterly review of the French photovoltaic park situation: evolution of the connected power, new connected facilities, production by power range, ongoing projects and regional statistics (number of facilities, power, distribution, evolution)

  20. Trend chart: photovoltaic solar energy. First quarter 2016

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reynaud, Didier

    2016-05-01

    This newsletter presents a quarterly review of the French photovoltaic park situation: evolution of the connected power, new connected facilities, production by power range, ongoing projects and regional statistics (number of facilities, power, distribution, evolution)

  1. Photovoltaic solar energy: which realities for 2020? Summarized synthesis; Solaire photovoltaique: quelles realites pour 2020?. Synthese resumee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-07-01

    This report first describes the situation of the photovoltaic as situated at a crossroad with strong development possibilities for the French photovoltaic sector. It presents the photovoltaic energy as a competitive, regulatory and ecologic one, and therefore inescapable. It outlines stakes and obstacles of the French situation regarding the development of this sector. It highlights the economic and social benefit investing in this sector. Some propositions are stated for the promotion of the photovoltaic solar sector. Challenges are identified

  2. Energy-cascade organic photovoltaic devices incorporating a host-guest architecture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menke, S Matthew; Holmes, Russell J

    2015-02-04

    In planar heterojunction organic photovoltaic devices (OPVs), broad spectral coverage can be realized by incorporating multiple molecular absorbers in an energy-cascade architecture. Here, this approach is combined with a host-guest donor layer architecture previously shown to optimize exciton transport for the fluorescent organic semiconductor boron subphthalocyanine chloride (SubPc) when diluted in an optically transparent host. In order to maximize the absorption efficiency, energy-cascade OPVs that utilize both photoactive host and guest donor materials are examined using the pairing of SubPc and boron subnaphthalocyanine chloride (SubNc), respectively. In a planar heterojunction architecture, excitons generated on the SubPc host rapidly energy transfer to the SubNc guest, where they may migrate toward the dissociating, donor-acceptor interface. Overall, the incorporation of a photoactive host leads to a 13% enhancement in the short-circuit current density and a 20% enhancement in the power conversion efficiency relative to an optimized host-guest OPV combining SubNc with a nonabsorbing host. This work underscores the potential for further design refinements in planar heterojunction OPVs and demonstrates progress toward the effective separation of functionality between constituent OPV materials.

  3. Examination of spent fuel radiation energy conversion for electricity generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Haneol; Yim, Man-Sung, E-mail: msyim@kaist.ac.kr

    2016-04-15

    Highlights: • Utilizing conversion of radiation energy of spent fuel to electric energy. • MCNPX modeling and experiment were used to estimate energy conversion. • The converted energy may be useful for nuclear security applications. • The converted energy may be utilized for safety applications through energy storage. - Abstract: Supply of electricity inside nuclear power plant is one of the most important considerations for nuclear safety and security. In this study, generation of electric energy by converting radiation energy of spent nuclear fuel was investigated. Computational modeling work by using MCNPX 2.7.0 code along with experiment was performed to estimate the amount of electric energy generation. The calculation using the developed modeling work was validated through comparison with an integrated experiment. The amount of electric energy generation based on a conceptual design of an energy conversion module was estimated to be low. But the amount may be useful for nuclear security applications. An alternative way of utilizing the produced electric energy could be considered for nuclear safety application through energy storage. Further studies are needed to improve the efficiency of the proposed energy conversion concept and to examine the issue of radiation damage and economic feasibility.

  4. Advances in spectral conversion for photovoltaics: up-converting Er3+ doped YF3 nano-crystals in transparent glass ceramic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marques-Hueso, Jose; Chen, Daqin; MacDougall, Sean K. W.; Wang, Yuansheng; Richards, Bryce S.

    2011-09-01

    Up- and down-conversion (UC, DC) constitute two singular routes to achieve improved energy harvesting of sunlight by changing its shape of the solar spectrum. To obtain a significant conversion rate two main challenges have to be overcome: i) the excited lanthanide ions have to emit efficiently, a target which has been better accomplished for DC materials; ii) the absorption in the lanthanide-based UC and DC layers has to be high to ensure a sizeable fraction of photons can be harvested. In this paper, we review such materials and their use as spectral converters for photovoltaics (PV), paying special attention to the UC and DC processes in lanthanide glasses in fluoride matrices. We discuss the challenges that need to be overcome in order to implement these materials in real PV devices. Finally, we will present the synthesis of erbium (Er3+) doped YF3 nano-crystals embedded in transparent glass ceramic (TGC) by melt quenching. This material presents a low phonon energy environment for the Er3+ ions due to the fluoride crystals, while the silica glass provides chemical and mechanical stability to the compound.

  5. Recent Progress on Integrated Energy Conversion and Storage Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Bin; Ye, Delai; Wang, Lianzhou

    2017-09-01

    Over the last few decades, there has been increasing interest in the design and construction of integrated energy conversion and storage systems (IECSSs) that can simultaneously capture and store various forms of energies from nature. A large number of IECSSs have been developed with different combination of energy conversion technologies such as solar cells, mechanical generators and thermoelectric generators and energy storage devices such as rechargeable batteries and supercapacitors. This review summarizes the recent advancements to date of IECSSs based on different energy sources including solar, mechanical, thermal as well as multiple types of energies, with a special focus on the system configuration and working mechanism. With the rapid development of new energy conversion and storage technologies, innovative high performance IECSSs are of high expectation to be realised for diverse practical applications in the near future.

  6. Space electric power design study. [laser energy conversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martini, W. R.

    1976-01-01

    The conversion of laser energy to electrical energy is discussed. Heat engines in which the laser heats the gas inside the engine through a window as well as heat engines in which the gas is heated by a thermal energy storage reservoir which has been heated by laser radiation are both evaluated, as well as the necessary energy storage, transmission and conversion components needed for a full system. Preliminary system concepts are presented and a recommended development program is outlined. It appears possible that a free displacer Stirling engine operating directly a linear electric generator can convert 65% of the incident laser energy into electricity.

  7. Feasibility study on conversion and storage of solar energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Senghaphan, W; Tunsiri, P; Trivijitkasem, P; Ratanathammaphan, K

    1982-01-01

    A study has been conducted on the energy conversion system from solar energy to mechanical energy and on the efficiency of energy storage by an ordinary battery. The conversion system makes use of a thermal cycle, that is to say, the solar energy is collected as heat, and this heat makes suitable working substances evaporate into vapor with volume and pressure which can be used to drive the turbine resulting in mechanical energy. The vapor which passes through the turbine will have reduced pressure and reduced temperature and will be recondensed into liquid after passing through a suitable radiator. This liquid can be pumped back into the hot part of the conversion system with little energy. It is found by this study that the turbine could be operated by using acetone as working substance with a 80-90/sup 0/C source of heat. In the energy conversion system from solar energy to electrical energy, it is essential to provide for an energy storage, so that energy can be used in the absence of sunshine. To store energy by using a batter is one of the convenient methods. Therefore the efficiency of the batteries has been studied. Owing to incompleteness of the researched system, a conventional DC power supply has been used for charging the batteries. It is found that the efficiency of the charging and discharging cycle of batteries is about 40-60%.

  8. Power electronics and control techniques for maximum energy harvesting in photovoltaic systems

    CERN Document Server

    Femia, Nicola

    2012-01-01

    Incentives provided by European governments have resulted in the rapid growth of the photovoltaic (PV) market. Many PV modules are now commercially available, and there are a number of power electronic systems for processing the electrical power produced by PV systems, especially for grid-connected applications. Filling a gap in the literature, Power Electronics and Control Techniques for Maximum Energy Harvesting in Photovoltaic Systems brings together research on control circuits, systems, and techniques dedicated to the maximization of the electrical power produced by a photovoltaic (PV) so

  9. Microfluidic energy conversion by application of two phase flow

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Xie, Yanbo

    2013-01-01

    We investigated the energy conversion performance by the streaming potential using totally different approaches. By introducing gas bubbles, which can be considered as perfect insulators, the internal electrical resistance of the system can be increased, decreasing the conduction current. Following

  10. Advanced Reactor Technology/Energy Conversion Project FY17 Accomplishments.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rochau, Gary E. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2018-02-01

    The purpose of the ART Energy Conversion (EC) Project is to provide solutions to convert the heat from an advanced reactor to useful products that support commercial application of the reactor designs.

  11. Long-term energy output estimation for photovoltaic energy systems using synthetic solar irradiation data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Celik, A.N.

    2003-01-01

    A general methodology is presented to estimate the monthly average daily energy output from photovoltaic energy systems. Energy output is estimated from synthetically generated solar radiation data. The synthetic solar radiation data are generated based on the cumulative frequency distribution of the daily clearness index, given as a function of the monthly clearness index. Two sets of synthetic solar irradiation data are generated: 3- and 4-day months. In the 3-day month, each month is represented by 3 days and in the 4-day month, by 4 days. The 3- and 4-day solar irradiation data are synthetically generated for each month and the corresponding energy outputs are calculated. A total of 8-year long measured hourly solar irradiation data, from five different locations in the world, is used to validate the new model. The monthly energy output values calculated from the synthetic solar irradiation data are compared to those calculated from the measured hour-by-hour data. It is shown that when the measured solar radiation data do not exist for a particular location or reduced data set is advantageous, the energy output from photovoltaic converters could be correctly calculated

  12. Photonic design for efficient solid state energy conversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agrawal, Mukul

    The efficiency of conversion between electrical and photonic energy in optoelectronic devices such as light-emitting diodes, photodetectors and solar cells is strongly affected by the photonic modes supported by the device structure. In this thesis, we show how tuning of the local photon density of states in subwavelength structures can be used to optimize device performance. The first part of the thesis is focused on organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs), a candidate technology for next-generation displays and solid-state lighting. An important unsolved problem in OLEDs is to ensure that a significant fraction of photons emitted by the organic emissive layer couple out of the device structure instead of remaining trapped in the device. It is shown using modeling and experiments that optimized non-periodic dielectric multilayer stacks can significantly increase the photon outcoupling while maintaining display quality brightness uniformity over the viewing cone. In the second part, we discuss the theoretical limits to broadband light harvesting in photovoltaic cells. First, it is shown that the extent to which one-dimensional optical cavities can be used to enhance light absorption over a broad spectral range is limited by the requirement that the cavity mirrors have a causal response. This result is used as a guide to design practical dielectric structures that enhance light harvesting in planar thin-film organic solar cells. Finally, we consider the enhancement of optical absorption in two- and three-dimensional structures in which incident light is scattered into quasi-trapped modes for more effective utilization of solar radiation. It is shown that there is an upper bound to the degree to which optical absorption can be enhanced that is identical to the limit found in the geometric optics regime. Rigorous optical simulations are used to show that an optical structure consisting of a two-dimensional array of inverted pyramids comes close to this limit. Before

  13. Photovoltaic energy congress 'PV Industry Forum 2008' of Munich. Looking for new technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2008-01-01

    The debate between scientists and investors about photovoltaic conversion remains dominated by the silicon shortage and by replacement solutions that should allow the world market to maintain its strong growth. Thin film, concentrators and trackers are the three processes put forward, alone, or more and more combined with each others. This article presents the German context of photovoltaic power, the world market status, the German industry as world leader in this domain, and the technology advances in thin films, optical concentration, and tracking. (J.S.)

  14. Achieving sustainable biomass conversion to energy and bio products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matteson, G. C.

    2009-01-01

    The present effort in to maximize biomass conversion-to-energy and bio products is examined in terms of sustain ability practices. New goals, standards in practice, measurements and certification are needed for the sustainable biomass industry. Sustainable practices produce biomass energy and products in a manner that is secure, renewable, accessible locally, and pollution free. To achieve sustainable conversion, some new goals are proposed. (Author)

  15. Ballistic energy conversion: physical modeling and optical characterization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Xie, Yanbo; Bos, Diederik; van der Meulen, Mark-Jan; van der Meulen, Mark-Jan; Versluis, Michel; van den Berg, Albert; Eijkel, Jan C.T.

    2016-01-01

    The growing demand for renewable energy stimulates the exploration of new materials and methods for clean energy, a process which is boosted by nanoscience and emerging nanotechnologies. Recently a high efficiency and high power density energy conversion mechanism was demonstrated through the use of

  16. Electricity from Sunlight: The Future of Photovoltaics. Worldwatch Paper 52.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flavin, Christopher

    Solar photovoltaic cells have been called the ultimate energy technology, environmentally benign and without moving parts, solar cells directly convert sunlight into electricity. Photovoltaic energy conversion is fundamentally different from all other forms of electricity generation. Without turbines, generators or other mechanical equipment, it…

  17. Efficient conversion of solar energy to biomass and electricity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parlevliet, David; Moheimani, Navid Reza

    2014-01-01

    The Earth receives around 1000 W.m(-2) of power from the Sun and only a fraction of this light energy is able to be converted to biomass (chemical energy) via the process of photosynthesis. Out of all photosynthetic organisms, microalgae, due to their fast growth rates and their ability to grow on non-arable land using saline water, have been identified as potential source of raw material for chemical energy production. Electrical energy can also be produced from this same solar resource via the use of photovoltaic modules. In this work we propose a novel method of combining both of these energy production processes to make full utilisation of the solar spectrum and increase the productivity of light-limited microalgae systems. These two methods of energy production would appear to compete for use of the same energy resource (sunlight) to produce either chemical or electrical energy. However, some groups of microalgae (i.e. Chlorophyta) only require the blue and red portions of the spectrum whereas photovoltaic devices can absorb strongly over the full range of visible light. This suggests that a combination of the two energy production systems would allow for a full utilization of the solar spectrum allowing both the production of chemical and electrical energy from the one facility making efficient use of available land and solar energy. In this work we propose to introduce a filter above the algae culture to modify the spectrum of light received by the algae and redirect parts of the spectrum to generate electricity. The electrical energy generated by this approach can then be directed to running ancillary systems or producing extra illumination for the growth of microalgae. We have modelled an approach whereby the productivity of light-limited microalgae systems can be improved by at least 4% through using an LED array to increase the total amount of illumination on the microalgae culture.

  18. Conversion of biomass into energy source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antonescu, S.; Garjoaba, M.; Antonescu, A.

    2005-01-01

    This study assists the identification of possible application and markets of the CHP-plants in the NAS states, and forms the first part of a detailed study on economical and ecological prospects of small scale and large heat pipe reformers in NAS. It is well known that the energy strategy of the European Union, foresees the increase of the participation of the renewable energy from the total of the energy resources of the European Union, up to 12% in 2010. This participation is of a great importance for the adequate reduction of green house effect gases. From the energy production point of view it is proven the fact that in 2010 the production of renewable energy will be: electricity - 675 tWh; heat - 80 Mtoe (930 TWh). From the above mentioned energy demand, the biomass will cover: electricity - 230 TWh-34,1%; heat - 75 Mtoe (93,8%)

  19. Energy Conversion and Storage Requirements for Hybrid Electric Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misra, Ajay

    2016-01-01

    Among various options for reducing greenhouse gases in future large commercial aircraft, hybrid electric option holds significant promise. In the hybrid electric aircraft concept, gas turbine engine is used in combination with an energy storage system to drive the fan that propels the aircraft, with gas turbine engine being used for certain segments of the flight cycle and energy storage system being used for other segments. The paper will provide an overview of various energy conversion and storage options for hybrid electric aircraft. Such options may include fuel cells, batteries, super capacitors, multifunctional structures with energy storage capability, thermoelectric, thermionic or a combination of any of these options. The energy conversion and storage requirements for hybrid electric aircraft will be presented. The role of materials in energy conversion and storage systems for hybrid electric aircraft will be discussed.

  20. Materials science for solar energy conversion systems

    CERN Document Server

    Granqvist, CG

    1991-01-01

    Rapid advances in materials technology are creating many novel forms of coatings for energy efficient applications in solar energy. Insulating heat mirrors, selective absorbers, transparent insulation and fluorescent concentrators are already available commercially. Radiative cooling, electrochromic windows and polymeric light pipes hold promise for future development, while chemical and photochemical processes are being considered for energy storage. This book investigates new material advances as well as applications, costs, reliability and industrial production of existing materials. Each c

  1. Teaching on ocean-wave-energy conversion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Falnes, J. [Norges teknisk-naturvitskaplege univ., Inst. for fysikk, Trondheim (Norway)

    2001-07-01

    Ocean-wave energy utilisation has for 27 years been a university research subject, in which the author has been active from the first year. In this paper he presents some information related to his teaching on the subject during many of these years. This includes teaching on the pre-university level and, in particular, development of the wave-energy module for an educational CD-ROM on sustainable technology and renewable energy. Education of the general public is very important. On the other hand teaching of doctor students and other wave-energy researchers is also a subject of the paper. (au)

  2. Biomass energy conversion workshop for industrial executives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1979-01-01

    The rising costs of energy and the risks of uncertain energy supplies are increasingly familiar problems in industry. Bottom line profits and even the simple ability to operate can be affected by spiralling energy costs. An often overlooked alternative is the potential to turn industrial waste or residue into an energy source. On April 9 and 10, 1979, in Claremont, California, the Solar Energy Research Institute (SERI), the California Energy Commission (CEC), and the Western Solar Utilization Network (WSUN) held a workshop which provided industrial managers with current information on using residues and wastes as industrial energy sources. Successful industrial experiences were described by managers from the food processing and forest product industries, and direct combustion and low-Btu gasification equipment was described in detail. These speakers' presentations are contained in this document. Some major conclusions of the conference were: numerous current industrial applications of wastes and residues as fuels are economic and reliable; off-the-shelf technologies exist for converting biomass wastes and residues to energy; a variety of financial (tax credits) and institutional (PUC rate structures) incentives can help make these waste-to-energy projects more attractive to industry. However, many of these incentives are still being developed and their precise impact must be evaluated on a case-by-case basis.

  3. Photovoltaic energy: global market perspectives; Energia fotovoltaica: perspectivas de mercado mundial

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moreira, Jose G.S.; Fabrizy, Marie P. [Sao Paulo Univ., SP (Brazil). Inst. de Eletrotecnica e Energia

    1996-12-31

    The global market of the solar photovoltaic energy has been mainly concentrated in the residential sector. However, there is a strong tendency to apply solar photovoltaic panels linked to the utilities power systems. Besides, that is the only case in which an increase in the cells production scale would be justified because it would reduce the production and new technologies research costs 3 figs., 1 tab.; e-mail: gui at iee.usp.br

  4. Energy metrics of photovoltaic/thermal and earth air heat exchanger integrated greenhouse for different climatic conditions of India

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nayak, Sujata; Tiwari, G.N. [Centre for Energy Studies, Indian Institute of Technology Delhi, Hauz Khas, New Delhi 110016 (India)

    2010-10-15

    In this paper, a study is carried out to evaluate the annual thermal and exergy performance of a photovoltaic/thermal (PV/T) and earth air heat exchanger (EAHE) system, integrated with a greenhouse, located at IIT Delhi, India, for different climatic conditions of Srinagar, Mumbai, Jodhpur, New Delhi and Bangalore. A comparison is made of various energy metrics, such as energy payback time (EPBT), electricity production factor (EPF) and life cycle conversion efficiency (LCCE) of the system by considering four weather conditions (a-d type) for five climatic zones. The embodied energy and annual energy outputs have been used for evaluation of the energy metrics. The annual overall thermal energy, annual electrical energy savings and annual exergy was found to be best for the climatic condition of Jodhpur at 29,156.8 kWh, 1185 kWh and 1366.4 kWh, respectively when compared with other weather stations covered in the study, due to higher solar intensity I and sunshine hours, and is lowest for Srinagar station. The results also showed that energy payback time for Jodhpur station is lowest at 16.7 years and highest for Srinagar station at 21.6 years. Electricity production factor (EPF) is highest for Jodhpur, i.e. 2.04 and Life cycle conversion efficiency (LCCE) is highest for Srinagar station. It is also observed that LCCE increases with increase in life cycle. (author)

  5. Output energy of a photovoltaic module mounted on a single-axis tracking system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Tian Pau

    2009-01-01

    In this study, the electric energy from a photovoltaic module was calculated theoretically at different azimuths and tilt angles in Taiwan. The gain of the module mounted on a single-axis tracking panel relative to a traditional fixed panel was analyzed. To simulate different operation environments, both types of radiation will be considered in addition to observed radiation, i.e. the extraterrestrial radiation and the global radiation predicted by an empirical model. The results show that the optimal tilt angle obtained from the observed data is flatter than those from other two radiation types and becomes flatter while the panel deviates from due south. The yearly gains obtained from the extraterrestrial, predicted and observed radiations are 51.4%, 28.5% and 18.7%, respectively, if a single-axis tracked panel is installed with the yearly optimal tilt angle; the similar gains are 45.3%, 25.9% and 17.5%, respectively, while the panel is adjusted to its monthly optimal angle each month. The amount of yearly energy in due west (or east) is less than its maximum in due south by about 11%, 10% and 5% for the extraterrestrial, predicted and observed radiation respectively. The yearly conversion efficiency of a fixed module is 10.2%, 9.2% and 8.3% for the extraterrestrial, predicted and observed radiation, respectively.

  6. REVIEW ON GRID INTERFACING OF MULTIMEGAWATT PHOTOVOLTAIC INVERTERS

    OpenAIRE

    Mr. Vilas S. Solanke*; Mr. Naveen Kumar

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents review on the latest development of control of grid connected photovoltaic energy conversion system. Also this paper present existing systems control algorithm for three-phase and single phase grid-connected photovoltaic (PV) system. This paper focuses on one aspect of solar energy, namely grid interfacing of large-scale PV farms. This Grid-connected photovoltaic i.e. PV systems can provide a number of benefits to electric utilities, such as power loss reduction, improve...

  7. Photonic Crystal Emitters for Thermophotovoltaic Energy Conversion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stelmakh, Veronika; Chan, Walker R; Joannopoulos, John D; Celanovic, Ivan; Ghebrebrhan, Michael; Soljacic, Marin

    2015-01-01

    This paper reports the design, fabrication, and characterization of 2D photonic crystal (PhC) thermal emitters for a millimeter-scale hydrocarbon TPV microgenerator as a possible replacement for batteries in portable microelectronics, robotics, etc. In our TPV system, combustion heats a PhC emitter to incandescence and the resulting radiation is converted by a low-bandgap TPV cell. The PhC tailors the photonic density of states to produce spectrally confined thermal emission that matches the bandgap of the TPV cell, enabling high heat-to-electricity conversion efficiency. The work builds on a previously developed fabrication process to produce a square array of cylindrical cavities in a metal substrate. We will present ongoing incremental improvements in the optical and thermo-mechanical properties, the fabrication process, and the system integration, as recently combined with fabrication using novel materials, such as sputtered coatings, to enable a monolithic system. (paper)

  8. Optimum energy management of a photovoltaic water pumping system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sallem, Souhir; Chaabene, Maher; Kamoun, M.B.A.

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents a new management approach which makes decision on the optimum connection times of the elements of a photovoltaic water pumping installation: battery, water pump and photovoltaic panel. The decision is made by fuzzy rules considering the battery safety on the first hand and the Photovoltaic Panel Generation (PVPG) forecast during a considered day and the load required power on the second hand. The optimization approach consists of the extension of the operation time of the water pump with respects to multi objective management criteria. Compared to the stand alone management method, the new approach effectiveness is confirmed by the extension of the pumping period for more than 5 h a day.

  9. Energy Return on Energy Invested (ERoEI) for photovoltaic solar systems in regions of moderate insolation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferroni, Ferruccio; Hopkirk, Robert J.

    2016-01-01

    Many people believe renewable energy sources to be capable of substituting fossil or nuclear energy. However there exist very few scientifically sound studies, which apply due diligence to substantiating this impression. In the present paper, the case of photovoltaic power sources in regions of moderate insolation is analysed critically by using the concept of Energy Return on Energy Invested (ERoEI, also called EROI). But the methodology for calculating the ERoEI differs greatly from author-to-author. The main differences between solar PV Systems are between the current ERoEI and what is called the extended ERoEI (ERoEI EXT ). The current methodology recommended by the International Energy Agency is not strictly applicable for comparing photovoltaic (PV) power generation with other systems. The main reasons are due to the fact that on one hand, solar electricity is very material-intensive, labour-intensive and capital-intensive and on the other hand the solar radiation exhibits a rather low power density. - Highlights: •Data are available from several years of photovoltaic energy experience in northern Europe. •These are used to show the way to calculate a full, extended ERoEI. •The viability and sustainability in these latitudes of photovoltaic energy is questioned. •Use of photovoltaic technology is shown to result in creation of an energy sink.

  10. Teaching elementary thermodynamics and energy conversion: Opinions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaggioli, Richard A.

    2010-01-01

    This presentation deals with innovation in teaching and understanding of thermodynamic principles. Key features of the approach being advocated are: (a) postulation of the existence of entropy, (b) explicitly associating energy transfers with other transports, (c) stating the 2nd Law in terms of Gibbs' available-energy, (d) systematic use of software such as EES. The paper outlines and elaborates upon an introductory course. Major headings in the course are: basic concepts: properties, additive properties and balances, primitive properties, energy, 1st Law. entropy, elementary academic applications of balances, available-energy, second law, exergy, thermostatic property relations, EES. Applications to processes, fluid flow, Heat transfer, thermochemical. Applications to devices, single-process, compound-process, systems (consisting of devices and processes functioning together).

  11. Photovoltaic Energy-Assisted Electrocoagulation of a Synthetic Textile Effluent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thelma Beatriz Pavón-Silva

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The feasibility of using photovoltaic modules to power a continuous 14 L electrochemical reactor applied to remove an azo dye with an efficiency of 70% is reported. The photovoltaic modules were directly connected, and the system efficiency was observed properly maintained when currents were applied in the range of 2.5 to 7.9 A. This value depends on solar radiation. Likewise, it was found that the efficiency depends mainly on the current density and the flow rate prevailing in the reactor.

  12. Photovoltaic Energy-Assisted Electrocoagulation of a Synthetic Textile Effluent

    OpenAIRE

    Thelma Beatriz Pavón-Silva; Hipólito Romero-Tehuitzil; Gonzálo Munguia del Río; Jorge Huacuz-Villamar

    2018-01-01

    The feasibility of using photovoltaic modules to power a continuous 14 L electrochemical reactor applied to remove an azo dye with an efficiency of 70% is reported. The photovoltaic modules were directly connected, and the system efficiency was observed properly maintained when currents were applied in the range of 2.5 to 7.9 A. This value depends on solar radiation. Likewise, it was found that the efficiency depends mainly on the current density and the flow rate prevailing in the reactor.

  13. Emerging electrochemical energy conversion and storage technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badwal, Sukhvinder P. S.; Giddey, Sarbjit S.; Munnings, Christopher; Bhatt, Anand I.; Hollenkamp, Anthony F.

    2014-01-01

    Electrochemical cells and systems play a key role in a wide range of industry sectors. These devices are critical enabling technologies for renewable energy; energy management, conservation, and storage; pollution control/monitoring; and greenhouse gas reduction. A large number of electrochemical energy technologies have been developed in the past. These systems continue to be optimized in terms of cost, life time, and performance, leading to their continued expansion into existing and emerging market sectors. The more established technologies such as deep-cycle batteries and sensors are being joined by emerging technologies such as fuel cells, large format lithium-ion batteries, electrochemical reactors; ion transport membranes and supercapacitors. This growing demand (multi billion dollars) for electrochemical energy systems along with the increasing maturity of a number of technologies is having a significant effect on the global research and development effort which is increasing in both in size and depth. A number of new technologies, which will have substantial impact on the environment and the way we produce and utilize energy, are under development. This paper presents an overview of several emerging electrochemical energy technologies along with a discussion some of the key technical challenges. PMID:25309898

  14. Supramolecular Structures for Photochemical Energy Conversion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gust, Devens; Moore, Thomas A.; Moore, Ana L.

    2003-08-26

    OAK B188 The goal of this project is to mimic the energy transduction processes by which photosynthetic organisms harvest sunlight and convert it to forms of energy that are more easily used and stored. The results may lead to new technologies for solar energy harvesting based on the natural photosynthetic process. They may also enrich our understanding and control of photosynthesis in living organisms, and lead to methods for increasing natural biomass production, carbon dioxide removal, and oxygen generation. In our work to date, we have learned how to make synthetic antenna and reaction center molecules that absorb light and undergo photoinduced electron transfer to generate long-lived, energetic charge-separated states. We have assembled a prototype system in which artificial reaction centers are inserted into liposomes (artificial cell-like constructs), where they carry out light-driven transmembrane translocation of hydrogen ions to generate proton motive force. By insertion of natural ATP synthase into the liposomal bilayer, this proton motive force has been used to power the synthesis of ATP. ATP is a natural biological energy currency. We are carrying out a systematic investigation of these artificial photosynthetic energy harvesting constructs in order to understand better how they operate. In addition, we are exploring strategies for reversing the direction of the light-powered proton pumping. Most recently, we have extended these studies to develop a light-powered transmembrane calcium ion pump that converts sunlight into energy stored as a calcium ion concentration gradient across a lipid bilayer.

  15. Energy saving house utilizing photovoltaic system. 3; Taiyoko hatsuden wo donyushita sho energy jutaku. 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Itsumi, J. [Kumamoto Institute of Technology, Kumamoto (Japan)

    1997-11-25

    Various measurements are conducted in an energy-efficient house equipped with a photovoltaic power generation system and actually lived in by people, and matching between the household load and photovoltaic power generation, and the consumption of power, are examined. As the result investigation of power consumption in the house, it is found that 13.31kWh is consumed in the daytime in winter, and 14.15kWh in summer. Thirty-two 153W modules are used, and they produce 12.74kWh in four hours on a fine summer day, which amount nearly satisfies the demand of the household. As for the records during a year beginning in May, 1996, it is found that an annual amount of 4326kWh was generated, with 68% being surplus and 32% consumed for the household. Details of the household consumption were that 49.2% was consumed for house heating and cooling and 34.1% for cooking, the two in total occupying more than 80% of the whole household consumption. Energy-saving behavior is evaluated by comparing the energy-efficient house with some ordinary residential houses in Kumamoto City, and it is found that there is a yearly difference of 104,310 yen in electricity bill or 47% in energy saving effect. 5 refs., 4 figs., 4 tabs.

  16. A Conversation on Zero Net Energy Buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eley, Charles; Gupta, Smita; Torcellini, Paul; Mchugh, Jon; Liu, Bing; Higgins, Cathy; Iplikci, Jessica; Rosenberg, Michael I.

    2017-06-30

    The submitted Roundtable discussion covers zero net energy (ZNE) buildings and their expansion into the market as a more widely adopted approach for various building types and sizes. However, the market is still small, and this discussion brings together distinguished researchers, designers, policy makers, and program administrations to represent the key factors making ZNE building more widespread and mainstream from a broad perspective, including governments, utilities, energy-efficiency research institutes, and building owners. This roundtable was conducted by the ASHRAE Journal with Bing Liu, P.E., Member ASHRAE, Charles Eley, FAIA, P.E., Member ASHRAE; Smita Gupta, Itron; Cathy Higgins, New Buildings Institute; Jessica Iplikci, Energy Trust of Oregon; Jon McHugh, P.E., Member ASHRAE; Michael Rosenberg, Member ASHRAE; and Paul Torcellini, Ph.D., P.E., NREL.

  17. Rotating flux compressor for energy conversion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chowdhuri, P.; Linton, T.W.; Phillips, J.A.

    1983-01-01

    The rotating flux compressor (RFC) converts rotational kinetic energy into an electrical output pulse which would have higher energy than the electrical energy initially stored in the compressor. An RFC has been designed in which wedge-shaped rotor blades pass through the air gaps between successive turns of a solenoid, the stator. Magnetic flux is generated by pulsing the stator solenoids when the inductance is a maximum, i.e., when the flux fills the stator-solenoid volume. Connecting the solenoid across a load conserves the flux which is compressed within the small volume surrounding the stator periphery when the rotor blades cut into the free space between the stator plates, creating a minimum-inductance condition. The unique features of this design are: (1) no electrical connections (brushes) to the rotor; (2) no conventional windings; and (3) no maintenance. The device has been tested up to 5000 rpm of rotor speed

  18. Energy management algorithm for an optimum control of a photovoltaic water pumping system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sallem, Souhir; Chaabene, Maher; Kamoun, M.B.A.

    2009-01-01

    The effectiveness of photovoltaic water pumping systems depends on the adequacy between the generated energy and the volume of pumped water. This paper presents an intelligent algorithm which makes decision on the interconnection modes and instants of photovoltaic installation components: battery, water pump and photovoltaic panel. The decision is made by fuzzy rules on the basis of the Photovoltaic Panel Generation (PVPG) forecast during a considered day, on the load required power, and by considering the battery safety. The algorithm aims to extend operation time of the water pump by controlling a switching unit which links the system components with respect to multi objective management criteria. The algorithm implementation demonstrates that the approach extends the pumping period for more than 5 h a day which gives a mean daily improvement of 97% of the water pumped volume.

  19. Energy analysis of biochemical conversion processes of biomass to bioethanol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bakari, M.; Ngadi, M.; Bergthorson, T. [McGill Univ., Ste-Anne-de-Bellevue, PQ (Canada). Dept. of Bioresource Engineering

    2010-07-01

    Bioethanol is among the most promising of biofuels that can be produced from different biomass such as agricultural products, waste and byproducts. This paper reported on a study that examined the energy conversion of different groups of biomass to bioethanol, including lignocelluloses, starches and sugar. Biochemical conversion generally involves the breakdown of biomass to simple sugars using different pretreatment methods. The energy needed for the conversion steps was calculated in order to obtain mass and energy efficiencies for the conversions. Mass conversion ratios of corn, molasses and rice straw were calculated as 0.3396, 0.2300 and 0.2296 kg of bioethanol per kg of biomass, respectively. The energy efficiency of biochemical conversion of corn, molasses and rice straw was calculated as 28.57, 28.21 and 31.33 per cent, respectively. The results demonstrated that lignocelluloses can be efficiently converted with specific microorganisms such as Mucor indicus, Rhizopus oryzae using the Simultaneous Saccharification and Fermentation (SSF) methods.

  20. Trend chart: photovoltaic solar energy. Forth quarter 2016

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coltier, Yves

    2017-02-01

    This publication presents a quarterly review of power generation from photovoltaic power plants connected to the French grid (continental France, Corsica and overseas territories): total connected load, quarterly distribution of new connections, progress of connected power during the last years, power generated since the beginning of the year and comparison with previous years, projects in progress, detailed regional results, methodology used

  1. Trend chart: photovoltaic solar energy. Third quarter 2016

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coltier, Yves

    2016-11-01

    This publication presents a quarterly review of power generation from photovoltaic power plants connected to the French grid (continental France, Corsica and overseas territories): total connected load, quarterly distribution of new connections, progress of connected power during the last years, power generated since the beginning of the year and comparison with previous years, projects in progress, detailed regional results, methodology used

  2. Trend chart: photovoltaic solar energy. Forth quarter 2015

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reynaud, Didier

    2016-02-01

    This publication presents a quarterly review of power generation from photovoltaic power plants connected to the French grid (continental France, Corsica and overseas territories): total connected load, quarterly distribution of new connections, progress of connected power during the last years, power generated since the beginning of the year and comparison with previous years, projects in progress, detailed regional results, methodology used

  3. Trend chart: photovoltaic solar energy. First quarter 2017

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2017-05-01

    This publication presents a quarterly review of power generation from photovoltaic power plants connected to the French grid (continental France, Corsica and overseas territories): total connected load, quarterly distribution of new connections, progress of connected power during the last years, power generated since the beginning of the year and comparison with previous years, projects in progress, detailed regional results, methodology used

  4. Diversity in solar photovoltaic energy: Implications for innovation and policy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Subtil Lacerda, J.; van den Bergh, J.C.J.M.

    2016-01-01

    We undertake a qualitative empirical study of the solar photovoltaic (PV) industry in order to investigate the role of diversity in stimulating innovation and diffusion. Based on evolutionary-economic concepts, we identify the main dimensions and components of diversity in the solar PV industry.

  5. Roof Photovoltaic Test Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — In order to accurately predict the annual energy production of photovoltaic systems for any given geographical location, building orientation, and photovoltaic cell...

  6. Aerodynamic Aspects of Wind Energy Conversion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Jens Nørkær

    2011-01-01

    This article reviews the most important aerodynamic research topics in the field of wind energy. Wind turbine aerodynamics concerns the modeling and prediction of aerodynamic forces, such as performance predictions of wind farms, and the design of specific parts of wind turbines, such as rotor...

  7. Direct energy conversion for fusion reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barr, W.L.

    1977-01-01

    Complex multistage plasma converters were tested at efficiencies approaching 90% at low energies and powers, and simpler, more cost-effective versions at 65% efficiency. Laboratory tests of neutral-beam direct converters at 15 keV and 2 kW gave 70% efficiency. A 120-keV, 1.5-MW version is being tested

  8. Innovative Breakwaters Design for Wave Energy Conversion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vicinanza, Diego; Stagonas, D.; Müller, G.

    2012-01-01

    the rubble mound breakwaters and seawalls related activity and the energy demand of small human communities. Wave loadings and overtopping on a seawall and rubble mound breakwater with front reservoir are discussed on the basis of physical 2-D model tests carried out at University of Southampton (UK...

  9. Structured luminescent solar energy concentrators : a new route towards inexpensive photovoltaic energy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tsoi, S.

    2012-01-01

    The solar energy market has grown considerably over the last decade due to increasing global awareness of environmental issues, the effects of greenhouse gases and fossil fuel shortages. More and more areas are now perceived as potential markets for solar energy conversion devices with the ultimate

  10. Experimental facility for explosive energy conversion into coherent microwave radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vdovin, V.A.; Korzhenevskij, A.V.; Cherepenin, V.A.

    2003-01-01

    The explosive energy conversion into the microwave radiation energy is considered with application of the explosion magnetic generator, heavy-current electron accelerator and Cherenkov microwave range generator. The electron accelerator formed the beam of 33 cm in diameter and current of ∼ 25 kA. The electrodynamic system of the SHF-generator has the diameter of ∼ 35 cm and it is accomplished in the form of the periodical nonuniform dielectric. The proposed explosive energy conversion scheme makes it possible to obtain the radiation capacity of approximately 100 MW in the 3-cm wave range by the pulse duration of ∼ 800 ns [ru

  11. Expansionary economic effects of energy conversion under stagnation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ono, Yoshiyasu

    2013-01-01

    After the Fukushima disaster, energy conversion such as nuclear power phaseout and deployment of renewable energy or survival of nuclear power had been actively argued pro and con. Both sides admitted extra costs were needed but their economic effects would be contrary dependent on business state. Under better economy, extra costs would be actual burden of total economy. Under stagnation as was long in Japan at present, extra costs brought about expansion of employment and economy with simulated consumption increase. Industry conversion would occur such industry intensively using power would depreciate and energy conserved industry would grow. Difference of power use intensity between industries made difficult in energy conversion because present Japanese industry constitution was mostly formed based on cheap power cost for industry use. Even taking account of international competition, the same would be true by adjusting finance balance sheet and currency exchange rate. (T. Tanaka)

  12. Role of Bioreactors in Microbial Biomass and Energy Conversion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Liang [Chongqing University, Chongqing, China; Zhang, Biao [Chongqing University, Chongqing, China; Zhu, Xun [Chongqing University, Chongqing, China; Chang, Haixing [Chongqing University of Technology; Ou, Shawn [ORNL; Wang, HONG [Chongqing University, Chongqing, China

    2018-04-01

    Bioenergy is the world’s largest contributor to the renewable and sustainable energy sector, and it plays a significant role in various energy industries. A large amount of research has contributed to the rapidly evolving field of bioenergy and one of the most important topics is the use of the bioreactor. Bioreactors play a critical role in the successful development of technologies for microbial biomass cultivation and energy conversion. In this chapter, after a brief introduction to bioreactors (basic concepts, configurations, functions, and influencing factors), the applications of the bioreactor in microbial biomass, microbial biofuel conversion, and microbial electrochemical systems are described. Importantly, the role and significance of the bioreactor in the bioenergy process are discussed to provide a better understanding of the use of bioreactors in managing microbial biomass and energy conversion.

  13. Performance optimization of a photovoltaic chain conversion by the PWM control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezoug, M. R.; Chenni, R.

    2017-02-01

    The interest of the research technique of maximum power point tracking, exposed by this article, lays in the fact of work instantly on the real characteristic of the photovoltaic module. This work is based on instantaneous measurements of its terminals' current & voltage as well as the exploitation of the characteristic "Power - Duty Cycle" to define rapidly the Duty cycle in which power reaches its maximum value. To ensure instantaneous tracking of the point of maximum power, we use "DC/DC Converter" based on "Pulse Wave Modulation's (PWM) Command" controlled by an algorithm implanted in a microcontroller's memory. This algorithm responds to the quick changes in climate (sunlight and temperature). To identify the control parameters "VPV & IPV" at any change in operating conditions, sensors are projected. this algorithm applied to the Duty cycle of the static converter enables the control of power supplied by the photovoltaic generator thanks to oscillatory movement around the MPP. Our article highlights the importance of this technique which lays in its simplicity and performance in changing climatic conditions. This efficiency is confirmed by experimental tests and this technique will improve its predecessors.

  14. Conversion of solar energy into heat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Devin, B.; Etievant, C.

    1975-01-01

    Argument prevails regarding the main parameters involved in the definition of installations designed to convert by means of a thermal machine, solar energy into electrical or mechanical energy. Between the temperature of the cold source and the stagnation temperature, there exists an optimal temperature which makes for the maximum efficiency of the collector/thermal machine unit. The optimal operating conditions for different types of collector are examined. Optimization of the surface of the collector is dealt with in particular. The structure and cost of solar installations are also analyzed with some examples as basis: solar pumps of 1 to 25kW, a 50MWe electrosolar plant. The cost involves three main elements: the collector, the thermal unit and the heat storage device. The latter is necessary for the integration of diurnal and nocturnal fluctuations of isolation. It is shown that thermal storage is economically payable only under certain conditions [fr

  15. U.S. Department of Energy Photovoltaic Energy Program Contract Summary: Fiscal Year 2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Surek, T.

    2001-02-21

    This report summarizes the in-house and subcontracted research and development (R and D) activities under the National Center for Photovoltaics (NCPV) and U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) National Photovoltaics Program from October 1, 1999, through September 30, 2000 (FY 2000). The mission of the DOE National Photovoltaics Program is to make PV a significant part of the domestic economy-as an industry and an energy resource. The two primary goals of the national program are to (1) maintain the U.S. industry's world leadership in research and technology development and (2) help the U.S. industry remain a major, profitable force in the world market. The NCPV is part of the National PV Program and provides leadership and support to the national program toward achieving its mission and goals. This Contract Summary for fiscal year (FY) 2000 documents some 179 research projects supported by the PV Program, performed by 107 organizations in 32 states, including 69 projects performed by universities and 60 projects performed by our industry partners. Of the total FY 2000 PV Program budget of $65.9 million, the industry and university research efforts received $36.9 million, or nearly 56%. And, of this amount, more than 93% was for contractors selected on a competitive basis. Much of the funding to industry was matched by industry cost-sharing. Each individual effort described in this summary represents another step toward improving PV manufacturing, performance, cost, and applications, and another step toward accomplishing the DOE PV Program's overall mission.

  16. Hybrid diagnosis to characterise the energy and environmental enhancement of photovoltaic modules using smart materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Royo, Patricia; Ferreira, Víctor J.; López-Sabirón, Ana M.; Ferreira, Germán

    2016-01-01

    Growing demands for energy, gradual depletion of fossil resources and high environmental impacts require that current energy production models be replaced by more sustainable technology. Thus, research efforts focused on improving energy efficiency and material efficiency are considered extremely relevant. In the following work, the influence of incorporating PCMs (phase change materials) on electricity conversion efficiency discussed along with hot spot prevention and lifetime increases in BIPV (building-integrated photovoltaics). The main goal is to evaluate the operational temperature control in a BIPV with or without PCMs considering different climatic severities. A design parameter analysis was conducted, and the importance of suitable PCMs and proper system designs are revealed. Also, this study indicates that areas with different climatic severities must be considered for widespread evaluations of this technology application to impact diverse regions. Additionally, an environmental analysis based on the LCA (life cycle assessment) methodology was performed using the SimaPro software. The results show that a positive environmental impact is generated by PCM applications because of the decreased amount of consumed resources in BIPV manufacturing, which is related to the lifetime extension resulting from the ability of PCMs to store latent heat and prevent premature physical damage to the BIPV. - Highlights: • Thermal-regulating PV through innovative solutions based on PCM is focused. • A proper design parameter and PCM selection will enhance the PV performance. • T pv/pcm was reduced by 8°C and η pv/pcm improved by 3% compared to η pv , in Zaragoza. • The PCM-related thermal regulation reduces premature degradation in PV systems. • The application of PCM in PV improves the energy and environmental efficiency.

  17. Assessment of the energy performance, economics and environmental footprint of silicon heterojunction photovoltaic technology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Louwen, A.

    2017-01-01

    To make the transition towards a more sustainable energy supply, it is necessary that we drastically increase the share of renewable electricity generation. Solar photovoltaic energy is regarded as one of the prime options to reduce the greenhouse gas intensity of our electricity supply, and many

  18. Hierarchical predictive control scheme for distributed energy storage integrated with residential demand and photovoltaic generation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lampropoulos, I.; Garoufalis, P.; van den Bosch, P.P.J.; Kling, W.L.

    2015-01-01

    A hierarchical control scheme is defined for the energy management of a battery energy storage system which is integrated in a low-voltage distribution grid with residential customers and photovoltaic installations. The scope is the economic optimisation of the integrated system by employing

  19. A software application for energy flow simulation of a grid connected photovoltaic system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamad, Ayman A.; Alsaad, Mohammad A.

    2010-01-01

    A computer software application was developed to simulate hourly energy flow of a grid connected photovoltaic system. This software application enables conducting an operational evaluation of a studied photovoltaic system in terms of energy exchange with the electrical grid. The system model consists of a photovoltaic array, a converter and an optional generic energy storage component that supports scheduled charging/discharging. In addition to system design parameters, the software uses hourly solar data and hourly load data to determine the amount of energy exchanged with electrical grid for each hour of the simulated year. The resulting information is useful in assessing the impact of the system on demand for electrical energy of a building that uses it. The software also aggregates these hourly results in daily, monthly and full year sums. The software finds the financial benefit of the system as the difference in grid electrical energy cost between two simultaneously considered cases. One is with load supplied only by the electrical grid, while the other is with the photovoltaic system present and contributing energy. The software supports the energy pricing scheme used in Jordan for domestic consumers, which is based on slices of monthly consumption. By projecting the yearly financial results on the system lifetime, the application weighs the financial benefit resulting from using the system against its cost, thus facilitating an economical evaluation.

  20. Autonomous Active Power Control for Islanded AC Microgrids with Photovoltaic Generation and Energy Storage System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Dan; Tang, Fen; Dragicevic, Tomislav

    2014-01-01

    In an islanded AC microgrid with distributed energy storage system (ESS), photovoltaic (PV) generation and loads, a coordinated active power regulation is required to ensure efficient utilization of renewable energy, while keeping the ESS from overcharge and over discharge conditions. In this paper...

  1. Rooftop photovoltaic (PV) systems for industrial halls: Achieving economic benefit via lowering energy demand

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lee, B.; Trcka, M.; Hensen, J.L.M.

    2012-01-01

    Industrial halls are characterized with their relatively high roof-to-floor ratio, which facilitates ready deployment of renewable energy generation, such as photovoltaic (PV) systems, on the rooftop. To promote deployment of renewable energy generation, feed-in tariff (FIT) higher than the

  2. Carbon nanomaterials for advanced energy conversion and storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Liming; Chang, Dong Wook; Baek, Jong-Beom; Lu, Wen

    2012-04-23

    It is estimated that the world will need to double its energy supply by 2050. Nanotechnology has opened up new frontiers in materials science and engineering to meet this challenge by creating new materials, particularly carbon nanomaterials, for efficient energy conversion and storage. Comparing to conventional energy materials, carbon nanomaterials possess unique size-/surface-dependent (e.g., morphological, electrical, optical, and mechanical) properties useful for enhancing the energy-conversion and storage performances. During the past 25 years or so, therefore, considerable efforts have been made to utilize the unique properties of carbon nanomaterials, including fullerenes, carbon nanotubes, and graphene, as energy materials, and tremendous progress has been achieved in developing high-performance energy conversion (e.g., solar cells and fuel cells) and storage (e.g., supercapacitors and batteries) devices. This article reviews progress in the research and development of carbon nanomaterials during the past twenty years or so for advanced energy conversion and storage, along with some discussions on challenges and perspectives in this exciting field. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. Energy Conversion and Storage Program. 1990 annual report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cairns, E.J.

    1992-03-01

    The Energy Conversion and Storage Program applies chemistry and materials science principles to solve problems in (1) production of new synthetic fuels, (2) development of high-performance rechargeable batteries and fuel cells, (3) development of advanced thermochemical processes for energy conversion, (4) characterization of complex chemical processes, and (5) application of novel materials for energy conversion and transmission. Projects focus on transport-process principles, chemical kinetics, thermodynamics, separation processes, organic and physical chemistry, novel materials, and advanced methods of analysis. Electrochemistry research aims to develop advanced power systems for electric vehicle and stationary energy storage applications. Topics include identification of new electrochemical couples for advanced rechargeable batteries, improvements in battery and fuel-cell materials, and the establishment of engineering principles applicable to electrochemical energy storage and conversion. Chemical Applications research includes topics such as separations, catalysis, fuels, and chemical analyses. Included in this program area are projects to develop improved, energy-efficient methods for processing waste streams from synfuel plants and coal gasifiers. Other research projects seek to identify and characterize the constituents of liquid fuel-system streams and to devise energy-efficient means for their separation. Materials Applications research includes the evaluation of the properties of advanced materials, as well as the development of novel preparation techniques. For example, the use of advanced techniques, such as sputtering and laser ablation, are being used to produce high-temperature superconducting films.

  4. Questions of economics. [solar energy conversion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Graeff, P

    1976-05-01

    The essay deals with questions of profitability in connection with the use of solar energy to heat buildings or to prepare hot water. The total problem is approached from 3 points of view: 1. General national economy point of view: Judgment by politicians determines the possibilities of support by the government. 2. The business economy aspect: Here the most important matter is to construct the plants with dimensions permitting to obtain the highest profits possible. 3. The financing model: possible incentives must be taken into consideration as well as technical aspects, e.g. the service life of the plants.

  5. Geomagnetic activity effects on plasma sheet energy conversion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Hamrin

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available In this article we use three years (2001, 2002, and 2004 of Cluster plasma sheet data to investigate what happens to localized energy conversion regions (ECRs in the plasma sheet during times of high magnetospheric activity. By examining variations in the power density, E·J, where E is the electric field and J is the current density obtained by Cluster, we have studied the influence on Concentrated Load Regions (CLRs and Concentrated Generator Regions (CGRs from variations in the geomagnetic disturbance level as expressed by the Kp, the AE, and the Dst indices. We find that the ECR occurrence frequency increases during higher magnetospheric activities, and that the ECRs become stronger. This is true both for CLRs and for CGRs, and the localized energy conversion therefore concerns energy conversion in both directions between the particles and the fields in the plasma sheet. A higher geomagnetic activity hence increases the general level of energy conversion in the plasma sheet. Moreover, we have shown that CLRs live longer during magnetically disturbed times, hence converting more electromagnetic energy. The CGR lifetime, on the other hand, seems to be unaffected by the geomagnetic activity level. The evidence for increased energy conversion during geomagnetically disturbed times is most clear for Kp and for AE, but there are also some indications that energy conversion increases during large negative Dst. This is consistent with the plasma sheet magnetically mapping to the auroral zone, and therefore being more tightly coupled to auroral activities and variations in the AE and Kp indices, than to variations in the ring current region as described by the Dst index.

  6. Mathematical modeling of a photovoltaic-laser energy converter for iodine laser radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Gilbert H.; Heinbockel, John H.

    1987-01-01

    Space-based laser power systems will require converters to change laser radiation into electricity. Vertical junction photovoltaic converters are promising devices for this use. A promising laser for the laser power station is the t-C4F9I laser which emits radiation at a wavelength of 1.315 microns. This paper describes the results of mathematical modeling of a photovoltaic-laser energy converter for use with this laser. The material for this photovoltaic converter is Ga(53)In(47)As which has a bandgap energy of 0.94 eV, slightly below the energy of the laser photons (0.943 eV). Results of a study optimizing the converter parameters are presented. Calculated efficiency for a 1000 vertical junction converter is 42.5 percent at a power density of 1 x 10 to the 3d power w/sq cm.

  7. Energy analysis of batteries in photovoltaic systems. Part II: Energy return factors and overall battery efficiencies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rydh, Carl Johan; Sanden, Bjoern A.

    2005-01-01

    Energy return factors and overall energy efficiencies are calculated for a stand-alone photovoltaic (PV)-battery system. Eight battery technologies are evaluated: lithium-ion (nickel), sodium-sulphur, nickel-cadmium, nickel-metal hydride, lead-acid, vanadium-redox, zinc-bromine and polysulphide-bromide. With a battery energy storage capacity three times higher than the daily energy output, the energy return factor for the PV-battery system ranges from 2.2 to 10 in our reference case. For a PV-battery system with a service life of 30 yr, this corresponds to energy payback times between 2.5 and 13 yr. The energy payback time is 1.8-3.3 yr for the PV array and 0.72-10 yr for the battery, showing the energy related significance of batteries and the large variation between different technologies. In extreme cases, energy return factors below one occur, implying no net energy output. The overall battery efficiency, including not only direct energy losses during operation but also energy requirements for production and transport of the charger, the battery and the inverter, is 0.41-0.80. For some batteries, the overall battery efficiency is significantly lower than the direct efficiency of the charger, the battery and the inverter (0.50-0.85). The ranking order of batteries in terms of energy efficiency, the relative importance of different battery parameters and the optimal system design and operation (e.g. the use of air conditioning) are, in many cases, dependent on the characterisation of the energy background system and on which type of energy efficiency measure is used (energy return factor or overall battery efficiency)

  8. Proceedings of the 25th intersociety energy conversion engineering conference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nelson, P.A.; Schertz, W.W.; Till, R.H.

    1990-01-01

    This book contains the proceedings of the 25th intersociety energy conversion engineering conference. Volume 1 is organized under the following headings: space power systems requirements and issues, space power systems; space power systems 2; space nuclear power reactors space nuclear reactor technology I; space nuclear reactor technology II; reactor technology; isotopic fueled power systems I, isotopic fueled power systems II, space power automation; space power automation II, space power automation III; space power automation IV; space power automation V; power systems hardware and design selection, power components, pulse power, power management and distribution, power management and distribution II, power management and distribution III; space energy conversion: solar dynamic, space energy conversion: static and dynamic, space solar array technology, advanced space solar cells

  9. Polyaniline (PANi based electrode materials for energy storage and conversion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huanhuan Wang

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Polyaniline (PANi as one kind of conducting polymers has been playing a great role in the energy storage and conversion devices besides carbonaceous materials and metallic compounds. Due to high specific capacitance, high flexibility and low cost, PANi has shown great potential in supercapacitor. It alone can be used in fabricating an electrode. However, the inferior stability of PANi limits its application. The combination of PANi and other active materials (carbon materials, metal compounds or other polymers can surpass these intrinsic disadvantages of PANi. This review summarizes the recent progress in PANi based composites for energy storage/conversion, like application in supercapacitors, rechargeable batteries, fuel cells and water hydrolysis. Besides, PANi derived nitrogen-doped carbon materials, which have been widely employed as carbon based electrodes/catalysts, are also involved in this review. PANi as a promising material for energy storage/conversion is deserved for intensive study and further development.

  10. Optimizing Energy Conversion: Magnetic Nano-materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIntyre, Dylan; Dann, Martin; Ilie, Carolina C.

    2015-03-01

    We present herein the work started at SUNY Oswego as a part of a SUNY 4E grant. The SUNY 4E Network of Excellence has awarded SUNY Oswego and collaborators a grant to carry out extensive studies on magnetic nanoparticles. The focus of the study is to develop cost effective rare-earth-free magnetic materials that will enhance energy transmission performance of various electrical devices (solar cells, electric cars, hard drives, etc.). The SUNY Oswego team has started the preliminary work for the project and graduate students from the rest of the SUNY 4E team (UB, Alfred College, Albany) will continue the project. The preliminary work concentrates on analyzing the properties of magnetic nanoparticle candidates, calculating molecular orbitals and band gap, and the fabrication of thin films. SUNY 4E Network of Excellence Grant.

  11. Functionalization of graphene for efficient energy conversion and storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Liming

    2013-01-15

    As global energy consumption accelerates at an alarming rate, the development of clean and renewable energy conversion and storage systems has become more important than ever. Although the efficiency of energy conversion and storage devices depends on a variety of factors, their overall performance strongly relies on the structure and properties of the component materials. Nanotechnology has opened up new frontiers in materials science and engineering to meet this challenge by creating new materials, particularly carbon nanomaterials, for efficient energy conversion and storage. As a building block for carbon materials of all other dimensionalities (such as 0D buckyball, 1D nanotube, 3D graphite), the two-dimensional (2D) single atomic carbon sheet of graphene has emerged as an attractive candidate for energy applications due to its unique structure and properties. Like other materials, however, a graphene-based material that possesses desirable bulk properties rarely features the surface characteristics required for certain specific applications. Therefore, surface functionalization is essential, and researchers have devised various covalent and noncovalent chemistries for making graphene materials with the bulk and surface properties needed for efficient energy conversion and storage. In this Account, I summarize some of our new ideas and strategies for the controlled functionalization of graphene for the development of efficient energy conversion and storage devices, such as solar cells, fuel cells, supercapacitors, and batteries. The dangling bonds at the edge of graphene can be used for the covalent attachment of various chemical moieties while the graphene basal plane can be modified via either covalent or noncovalent functionalization. The asymmetric functionalization of the two opposite surfaces of individual graphene sheets with different moieties can lead to the self-assembly of graphene sheets into hierarchically structured materials. Judicious

  12. Rare-earth magnet applications in energy conversion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tripathi, K.C.

    1998-01-01

    In recent years there has been considerable progress in the field of development and variety of new applications of rare-earth and rare-earth transition metal magnets. High energy content Nd-Fe-B magnet system which competes with superconducting magnets is very promising for the use in energy conversion machines, levitation systems, magnetic resonance investigation and other magnetic applications. Energy conversion machines such as motors and generators are of interest in this context. Motor converts electrical energy into mechanical energy using permanent magnets and ferromagnetic materials as its components. Electric generator converts mechanical energy into electricity using permanent magnets and ferromagnetic material. In both cases symmetry and symmetry breaking play an important role. Symmetry exists above curie temperature, as temperature is lowered symmetry is broken due to spontaneous magnetisation. Author and coworkers developed some new and highest efficiency, permanent magnet based, electronically controlled, dynamically synchronised pulsed dc linear and rotational motors which are briefly described here. Based on such experience and considering field interactions inside material under dynamical conditions and special geometrical situations, order-disorder processes, symmetry breaking and energy transfer on the basis of manifold aspects as a cooperative many body interaction, thermal fluctuations, zero-point energy, dissipation of energy, entropy exchange are discussed in context of conversion of environmental heat into electricity as suggested by Tripathi earlier. (orig.)

  13. A Power Supply System with ZVS and Current-Doubler Features for Hybrid Renewable Energy Conversion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jye-Chau Su

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a power supply system for hybrid renewable energy conversion is proposed, which can process PV (photovoltaic power and wind-turbine energy simultaneously for step-down voltage and high current applications. It is a dual-input converter and mainly contains a PV energy source, a wind turbine energy source, a zero-voltage-switching (ZVS forward converter, and a current-doubler rectifier. The proposed power supply system has the following advantages: (1 PV-arrays and wind-energy sources can alternatively deliver power to the load during climate or season alteration; (2 maximum power point tracking (MPPT can be accomplished for both different kinds of renewable-energy sources; (3 ZVS and synchronous rectification techniques for the active switches of the forward converter are embedded so as to reduce switching and conducting losses; and (4 electricity isolation is naturally obtained. To achieve an optimally dynamic response and to increase control flexibility, a digital signal processor (DSP is investigated and presented to implement MPPT algorithm and power regulating scheme. Finally, a 240 W prototype power supply system with ZVS and current-doubler features to deal with PV power and wind energy is built and implemented. Experimental results are presented to verify the performance and the feasibility of the proposed power supply system.

  14. Light energy conversion by photocatalytic reaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujishima, Akira; Yamagata, Sadamu [Univ. of Tokyo (Japan)

    1989-01-01

    The photocatalytic reaction, to be made to a suspended semiconductor powder system, was explained in summary. By using semiconductor as an electrode for the electrolyzation, etc. and projecting light on it to generate photoelectromotive force, a photocell can be composed. eg., by composing titanium oxide electrode, n-type semiconductor and platinum electrode, and irradiating light on the former electrode to generate electric current, oxygen and hydrogen are produced from the titanium oxide electrode and platinum electrode, respectively, which means the possibility of obtainment of clean energy from water as raw material. Such a wet type photocell, easy to produce, is active also in research. With white titanium oxide powder being suspended in water solution, hydrogen is produced by projecting light into it. Such a semiconductor is called photocatalyst, in which the research has been widely developed, mainly by taking notice of the hydrogen production on reduction side, since 1972. The photocatalysis using colloid and, differently, that doing heteropolyacid are also taken notice of. 24 refs., 6 figs.

  15. Photoassisted electrolysis of water - Conversion of optical to chemical energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wrighton, M. S.; Bolts, J. M.; Kaiser, S. W.; Ellis, A. B.

    1976-01-01

    A description is given of devices, termed photoelectrochemical cells, which can, in principle, be used to directly convert light to fuels and/or electricity. The fundamental principles on which the photoelectrochemical cell is based are related to the observation that irradiation of a semiconductor electrode in an electrochemical cell can result in the flow of an electric current in the external circuit. Attention is given to the basic mechanisms involved, the energy conversion efficiency, the advantages of photoelectrochemical cells, and the results of investigations related to the study of energy conversion via photoelectrochemical cells.

  16. Nanogold plasmonic photocatalysis for organic synthesis and clean energy conversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Changlong; Astruc, Didier

    2014-01-01

    This review provides the basic concepts, an overall survey and the state-of-the art of plasmon-based nanogold photocatalysis using visible light including fundamental understanding and major applications to organic reactions and clean energy-conversion systems. First, the basic concepts of localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) are recalled, then the major preparation methods of AuNP-based plasmonic photocatalysts are reviewed. The major part of the review is dedicated to the latest progress in the application of nanogold plasmonic photocatalysis to organic transformations and energy conversions, and the proposed mechanisms are discussed. In conclusion, new challenges and perspectives are proposed and analyzed.

  17. A review of electrohydrodynamic casting energy conversion polymer composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong X. Gan

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides a brief review on manufacturing polymer composite materials through the nontraditional electrohydrodynamic (EHD casting approach. First, the EHD technology will be introduced. Then, typical functional polymer composite materials including thermoelectric and photoelectric energy conversion polymers and their composites will be presented. Specifically, how to make composite materials containing functional nanoparticles will be discussed. Converting polymeric fibers into partially carbonized fiber composites will also be shown. The latest research results of polymeric composite materials with energy conversion and sensing functions will be given.

  18. Organic solar cell modules for specific applications-From energy autonomous systems to large area photovoltaics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niggemann, M.; Zimmermann, B.; Haschke, J.; Glatthaar, M.; Gombert, A.

    2008-01-01

    We report on the development of two types of organic solar cell modules one for energy autonomous systems and one for large area energy harvesting. The first requires a specific tailoring of the solar cell geometry and cell interconnection in order to power an energy autonomous system under its specific operating conditions. We present an organic solar cell module with 22 interconnected solar cells. A power conversion efficiency of 2% under solar illumination has been reached on the active area of 46.2 cm 2 . A voltage of 4 V at the maximum power point has been obtained under indoor illumination conditions. Micro contact printing of a self assembling monolayer was employed for the patterning of the polymer anode. Large area photovoltaic modules have to meet the requirements on efficiency, lifetime and costs simultaneously. To minimize the production costs, a suitable concept for efficient reel-to-reel production of large area modules is needed. A major contribution to reduce the costs is the substitution of the commonly used indium tin oxide electrode by a cheap material. We present the state of the art of the anode wrap through concept as a reel-to-reel suited module concept and show comparative calculations of the module interconnection of the wrap through concept and the standard ITO-based cell architecture. As a result, the calculated overall module efficiency of the anode wrap through module exceeds the overall efficiency of modules based on ITO on glass (sheet resistance 15 Ω/square) and on foils (sheet resistance 60 Ω/square)

  19. Direct energy conversion system for D-3He fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomita, Y.; Shu, L.Y.; Momota, H.

    1993-11-01

    A novel and highly efficient direct energy conversion system is proposed for utilizing D- 3 He fueled fusion. In order to convert kinetic energy of ions, we applied a pair of direct energy conversion systems each of which has a cusp-type DEC and a traveling wave DEC (TWDEC). In a cusp-type DEC, electrons are separated from the escaping ions at the first line-cusp and the energy of thermal ion components is converted at the second cusp DEC. The fusion protons go through the cusp-type DEC and arrive at the TWDEC, which principle is similar to 'LINAC.' The energy of fusion protons is recovered to electricity with an efficiency of more than 70%. These DECs bring about the high efficient fusion plant. (author)

  20. The development of the market for photovoltaic energy in the Netherlands. Vision of the Organization for Renewable Energy (ODE)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cace, J.

    2004-01-01

    A brief overview is given of the vision of the Dutch Organization for Renewable Energy (ODE, abbreviated in Dutch) on the development of the market for photovoltaic energy in the Netherlands, focusing on the investment cost, bottlenecks and solutions, and parties involved [nl

  1. Energy conversion processes for the use of geothermal heat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Minder, R. [Minder Energy Consulting, Oberlunkhofen (Switzerland); Koedel, J.; Schaedle, K.-H.; Ramsel, K. [Gruneko AG, Basel (Switzerland); Girardin, L.; Marechal, F. [Swiss Federal Institute of Technology (EPFL), Laboratory for industrial energy systems (LENI), Lausanne (Switzerland)

    2007-03-15

    This comprehensive final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) presents the results of a study made on energy conversion processes that can be used when geothermal heat is to be used. The study deals with both theoretical and practical aspects of the conversion of geothermal heat to electricity. The report is divided into several parts and covers general study, practical experience, planning and operation of geothermal power plants as well as methodology for the optimal integration of energy conversion systems in geothermal power plants. In the first part, the specific properties and characteristics of geothermal resources are discussed. Also, a general survey of conversion processes is presented with special emphasis on thermo-electric conversion. The second part deals with practical aspects related to planning, construction and operation of geothermal power plant. Technical basics, such as relevant site-specific conditions, drilling techniques, thermal water or brine quality and materials requirements. Further, planning procedures are discussed. Also, operation and maintenance aspects are examined and some basic information on costs is presented. The third part of the report presents the methodology and results for the optimal valorisation of the thermodynamic potential of deep geothermal systems.

  2. Energy production estimation for Kosh-Agach grid-tie photovoltaic power plant for different photovoltaic module types

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabderakhmanova, T. S.; Kiseleva, S. V.; Frid, S. E.; Tarasenko, A. B.

    2016-11-01

    This paper is devoted to calculation of yearly energy production, demanded area and capital costs for first Russian 5 MW grid-tie photovoltaic (PV) plant in Altay Republic that is named Kosh-Agach. Simple linear calculation model, involving average solar radiation and temperature data, grid-tie inverter power-efficiency dependence and PV modules parameters is proposed. Monthly and yearly energy production, equipment costs and demanded area for PV plant are estimated for mono-, polycrystalline and amorphous modules. Calculation includes three types of initial radiation and temperature data—average day for every month from NASA SSE, average radiation and temperature for each day of the year from NASA POWER and typical meteorology year generated from average data for every month. The peculiarities for each type of initial data and their influence on results are discussed.

  3. Energy production estimation for Kosh-Agach grid-tie photovoltaic power plant for different photovoltaic module types

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gabderakhmanova, T S; Frid, S E; Tarasenko, A B; Kiseleva, S V

    2016-01-01

    This paper is devoted to calculation of yearly energy production, demanded area and capital costs for first Russian 5 MW grid-tie photovoltaic (PV) plant in Altay Republic that is named Kosh-Agach. Simple linear calculation model, involving average solar radiation and temperature data, grid-tie inverter power-efficiency dependence and PV modules parameters is proposed. Monthly and yearly energy production, equipment costs and demanded area for PV plant are estimated for mono-, polycrystalline and amorphous modules. Calculation includes three types of initial radiation and temperature data—average day for every month from NASA SSE, average radiation and temperature for each day of the year from NASA POWER and typical meteorology year generated from average data for every month. The peculiarities for each type of initial data and their influence on results are discussed. (paper)

  4. Thermal and electrical energy yield analysis of a directly water cooled photovoltaic module

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mtunzi Busiso

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Electrical energy of photovoltaic modules drops by 0.5% for each degree increase in temperature. Direct water cooling of photovoltaic modules was found to give improved electrical and thermal yield. A prototype was put in place to analyse the field data for a period of a year. The results showed an initial high performance ratio and electrical power output. The monthly energy saving efficiency of the directly water cooled module was found to be approximately 61%. The solar utilisation of the naturally cooled photovoltaic module was found to be 8.79% and for the directly water cooled module its solar utilisation was 47.93%. Implementation of such systems on households may reduce the load from the utility company, bring about huge savings on electricity bills and help in reducing carbon emissions.

  5. Municipal programs of photovoltaic energy development; Les programmes municipaux de developpement du photovoltaique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    This study presents some remarkable actions carried out in several European municipalities for the promotion and development of photovoltaic applications: installation of solar cells on public buildings, integration of the photovoltaic energy in the urban plan, application in the transportation sector, programs of public information, of promotion, of incitation, of financing, solar electricity trade, promotion of the 'green current'. After a presentation of the general situation of photovoltaic energy in Europe, and of its development in France, nine case-forms present the experience of nine selected European cities in this domain (Amersfoort (NL), Barcelona (ES), Braedstrup (DK), Karlsruhe (DE), Lausanne (CH), Mataro (ES), Muenchen (ES), Palermo (IT), Zurich (CH)). (J.S.)

  6. Energy harvesting solar, wind, and ocean energy conversion systems

    CERN Document Server

    Khaligh, Alireza

    2009-01-01

    Also called energy scavenging, energy harvesting captures, stores, and uses ""clean"" energy sources by employing interfaces, storage devices, and other units. Unlike conventional electric power generation systems, renewable energy harvesting does not use fossil fuels and the generation units can be decentralized, thereby significantly reducing transmission and distribution losses. But advanced technical methods must be developed to increase the efficiency of devices in harvesting energy from environmentally friendly, ""green"" resources and converting them into electrical energy.Recognizing t

  7. Improvement of the efficiency characteristics on the photovoltaic generation system based on a generation control circuit. Part 3. Research on architectural systematization of energy conversion devices; Dosaten seigyo kairo wo mochiita taiyo denchi hatsuden koritsu no kaizen. 3. Energy henkan no kenchiku system ka ni kansuru kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shimizu, T.; Ito, N.; Kimura, G.; Fukao, S.; Sunaga, N.; Tsunoda, M.; Muro, K. [Tokyo Metropolitan University, Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-10-27

    In introducing a photovoltaic power generation system to urban homes, the general practice is to install a large number of solar cell panels on the roof. However, as is often the case, a part of the solar cell panels is in the shadows (partial shadows) of neighboring homes, electric poles, cables and trees. Under the circumstances, studies were made on the numerous changes in the lowered generating capacity of individual solar cells by the partial shadows. Developed by the authors were the generation point control principle, in which the generation point was individually controlled on serially connected plural solar cell modules, and a practical circuit system based on that principle with the effects verified in a field test. In the test, the generated power of the system was 476W without partial shadows, and was 323W with partial shadows and without the operation of the generation point control circuit, increasing to 406W with partial shadows and with the operation of the circuit. As a result, compared with the case where no generation point control circuit was employed, the effectiveness of the proposed circuit was evident. 3 refs., 10 figs., 1 tab.

  8. Energy Storage System with Voltage Equalization Strategy for Wind Energy Conversion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng-Tao Tsai

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, an energy storage system with voltage equalization strategy for wind energy conversion is presented. The proposed energy storage system provides a voltage equalization strategy for series-connected lead-acid batteries to increase their total storage capacity and lifecycle. In order to draw the maximum power from the wind energy, a perturbation-and-observation method and digital signal processor (DSP are incorporated to implement maximum power point tracking (MPPT algorithm and power regulating scheme. In the proposed energy storage system, all power switches have zero-voltage-switching (ZVS feature at turn-on transition. Therefore, the conversion efficiency can be increased. Finally, a prototype energy storage system for wind energy conversion is built and implemented. Experimental results have verified the performance and feasibility of the proposed energy storage system for wind energy conversion.

  9. Numerical Simulation of Energy Conversion Mechanism in Electric Explosion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wanjun, Wang; Junjun, Lv; Mingshui, Zhu; Qiubo, Fu; EFIs Integration R&D Group Team

    2017-06-01

    Electric explosion happens when micron-scale metal films such as copper film is stimulated by short-time current pulse, while generating high temperature and high pressure plasma. The expansion process of the plasma plays an important role in the study of the generation of shock waves and the study of the EOS of matter under high pressure. In this paper, the electric explosion process is divided into two stages: the energy deposition stage and the quasi-isentropic expansion stage, and a dynamic EOS of plasma considering the energy replenishment is established. On this basis, flyer driven by plasma is studied numerically, the pressure and the internal energy of plasma in the energy deposition stage and the quasi - isentropic expansion stage are obtained by comparing the velocity history of the flyer with the experimental results. An energy conversion model is established, and the energy conversion efficiency of each process is obtained, and the influence of impedance matching relationship between flyer and metal plasma on the energy conversion efficiency is proposed in this paper.

  10. Energy Conversion Loops for Flux-Switching PM Machine Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Ilhan

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Induction and synchronous machines have traditionally been the first choice of automotive manufacturers for electric/hybrid vehicles. However, these conventional machines are not able anymore to meet the increasing demands for a higher energy density due to space limitation in cars. Flux-switching PM (FSPM machines with their high energy density are very suitable to answer this demand. In this paper, the energy conversion loop technique is implemented on FSPM for the first time. The energy conversion technique is a powerful tool for the visualization of machine characteristics, both linear and nonlinear. Further, the technique provides insight into the torque production mechanism. A stepwise explanation is given on how to create these loops for FSPM along with the machine operation.

  11. Piezoelectric ribbons printed onto rubber for flexible energy conversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Yi; Jafferis, Noah T; Lyons, Kenneth; Lee, Christine M; Ahmad, Habib; McAlpine, Michael C

    2010-02-10

    The development of a method for integrating highly efficient energy conversion materials onto stretchable, biocompatible rubbers could yield breakthroughs in implantable or wearable energy harvesting systems. Being electromechanically coupled, piezoelectric crystals represent a particularly interesting subset of smart materials that function as sensors/actuators, bioMEMS devices, and energy converters. Yet, the crystallization of these materials generally requires high temperatures for maximally efficient performance, rendering them incompatible with temperature-sensitive plastics and rubbers. Here, we overcome these limitations by presenting a scalable and parallel process for transferring crystalline piezoelectric nanothick ribbons of lead zirconate titanate from host substrates onto flexible rubbers over macroscopic areas. Fundamental characterization of the ribbons by piezo-force microscopy indicates that their electromechanical energy conversion metrics are among the highest reported on a flexible medium. The excellent performance of the piezo-ribbon assemblies coupled with stretchable, biocompatible rubber may enable a host of exciting avenues in fundamental research and novel applications.

  12. Energy conversion of biomass in coping with global warming

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yokoyama, Shin-ya; Ogi, Tomoko; Minowa, Tomoaki [National Inst. for Resources and Environment, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan)

    1993-12-31

    The main purpose of the present paper is to propose energy conversion technologies of biomass in coping with global warming. Among thermochemical conversion, liquid fuel production by high pressure process is mainly introduced. Biomass is a term used to describe materials of biological origin, either purpose-grown or arising as by-products, residues or wastes from forestry, agriculture and food processing. Such biomass is a renewable energy sources dependent on solar energy. Through photosynthesis, plants converts carbon dioxide into organic materials used in their growth. Energy can be recovered from the plant materials by several processes, the simplest way is burning in air. As far as biomass is used in this way, there is no atmospheric accumulation of carbon dioxide making no effect on the Greenhouse Effect, provided that the cycle of regrowth and burning is sustained.

  13. Proceedings of the 27th intersociety energy conversion engineering conference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    This book contains the proceedings of the 27th Intersociety Energy Conversion Engineering Conference. Topics included: Stirling Cycle Analysis; Stirling Cycle Models; Stirling Refrigerators/Heat Pumps and Cryocoolers; Domestic Policy; Efficiency/Conservation; Stirling Solar Terrestrial; Stirling Component Technology; Environmental Impacts; Renewable Resource Systems; Stirling Power Generation; Stirling Heat Transport System Technology; and Stirling Cycle Loss Understanding

  14. Gate controlled high efficiency ballistic energy conversion system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Xie, Yanbo; Bos, Diederik; de Boer, Hans L.; van den Berg, Albert; Eijkel, Jan C.T.; Zengerle, R.

    2013-01-01

    Last year we demonstrated the microjet ballistic energy conversion system[1]. Here we show that the efficiency of such a system can be further improved by gate control. With gate control the electrical current generation is enhanced a hundred times with respect to the current generated from the zeta

  15. Exploring driving forces and liquid properties for electrokinetic energy conversion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nguyen, Trieu

    2015-01-01

    This thesis presents an effort to understand electrokinetic energy conversion systems which are based on motion of ionic charges in micro- and nano-confinements. In particular, both experimentally and theoretically the utilization of different kind of liquids was investigated to convert mechanical

  16. Solar Program Assessment: Environmental Factors - Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Energy Research and Development Administration, Washington, DC. Div. of Solar Energy.

    This report presents the environmental problems which may arise with the further development of Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion, one of the eight Federally-funded solar technologies. To provide a background for this environmental analysis, the history and basic concepts of the technology are reviewed, as are its economic and resource requirements.…

  17. Proceedings of the 25th Intersociety Energy Conversion Engineering Conference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nelson, P.A.; Schertz, W.W.; Till, R.H.

    1990-01-01

    This book contains papers presented at a conference on energy conversion engineering. Topics covered include: USAF space power requirements, modelling of the dynamics of a low speed gas-liquid heat engine, and comparative assessment of single-axis force generation mechanisms for superconducting suspensions

  18. Renewable energy distributed power system with photovoltaic/ thermal and bio gas power generators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haider, M.U.; Rehman, S.U.

    2011-01-01

    The energy shortage and environmental pollution is becoming an important problem in these days. Hence it is very much important to use renewable power technologies to get rid of these problems. The important renewable energy sources are Bio-Energy, Wind Energy, Hydrogen Energy, Tide Energy, Terrestrial Heat Energy, Solar Energy, Thermal Energy and so on. Pakistan is rich in all these aspects particularly in Solar and Thermal Energies. In major areas of Pakistan like in South Punjab, Sind and Baluchistan the weather condition are very friendly for these types of Renewable Energies. In these areas Solar Energy can be utilized by solar panels in conjunction with thermal panels. The Photovoltaic cells are used to convert Solar Energy directly to Electrical Energy and thermal panels can be uses to convert solar energy into heat energy and this heat energy will be used to drive some turbine to get Electrical Energy. The Solar Energy can be absorbed more efficiently by any given area of Solar Panel if these two technologies can be combined in such a way that they can work together. The first part of this paper shows that how these technologies can be combined. Furthermore it is known to all that photovoltaic/thermal panels depend entirely on weather conditions. So in order to maintain constant power a biogas generator is used in conjunction with these. (author)

  19. Review of direct energy conversion for fusion reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barr, W.L.; Moir, R.W.

    1976-01-01

    The direct conversion to electrical energy of the energy carried by the leakage plasma from a fusion reactor and by the ions that are not converted to neutrals in a neutral-beam injector is discussed. The conversion process is electrostatic deceleration and direct particle collection as distinct from plasma expansion against a time-varying magnetic field or conversion in an EXB duct (both MHD). Relatively simple 1-stage plasma direct converters are discussed which can have efficiencies of about 50 percent. More complex and costly (measured in $/kW) 2-, 3-, 4-, and 22-stage concepts have been tested at efficiencies approaching 90 percent. Beam direct converters have been tested at 15 keV and 2 kW of power at 70 +- 2 percent efficiency, and a test of a 120-keV, 1-MW version is being prepared. Designs for a 120-keV, 4-MW unit are presented. The beam direct converter, besides saving on power supplies and on beam dumps, should raise the efficiency of creating a neutral beam from 40 percent without direct conversion to 70 percent with direct conversion for a 120-keV deuterium beam. The technological limits determining power handling and lifetime such as space-charge effects, heat removal, electrode material, sputtering, blistering, voltage holding, and insulation design, are discussed. The application of plasma direct converters to toroidal plasma confinement concepts is also discussed

  20. Nano Sensing and Energy Conversion Using Surface Plasmon Resonance (SPR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iltai (Isaac Kim

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Nanophotonic technique has been attracting much attention in applications of nano-bio-chemical sensing and energy conversion of solar energy harvesting and enhanced energy transfer. One approach for nano-bio-chemical sensing is surface plasmon resonance (SPR imaging, which can detect the material properties, such as density, ion concentration, temperature, and effective refractive index in high sensitivity, label-free, and real-time under ambient conditions. Recent study shows that SPR can successfully detect the concentration variation of nanofluids during evaporation-induced self-assembly process. Spoof surface plasmon resonance based on multilayer metallo-dielectric hyperbolic metamaterials demonstrate SPR dispersion control, which can be combined with SPR imaging, to characterize high refractive index materials because of its exotic optical properties. Furthermore, nano-biophotonics could enable innovative energy conversion such as the increase of absorption and emission efficiency and the perfect absorption. Localized SPR using metal nanoparticles show highly enhanced absorption in solar energy harvesting. Three-dimensional hyperbolic metamaterial cavity nanostructure shows enhanced spontaneous emission. Recently ultrathin film perfect absorber is demonstrated with the film thickness is as low as ~1/50th of the operating wavelength using epsilon-near-zero (ENZ phenomena at the wavelength close to SPR. It is expected to provide a breakthrough in sensing and energy conversion applications using the exotic optical properties based on the nanophotonic technique.