WorldWideScience

Sample records for photovoltaic concentrator system

  1. Concentrator Photovoltaics

    CERN Document Server

    Luque, Antonio L

    2007-01-01

    Photovoltaic solar-energy conversion is one of the most promising technologies for generating renewable energy, and conversion of concentrated sunlight can lead to reduced cost for solar electricity. In fact, photovoltaic conversion of concentrated sunlight insures an efficient and cost-effective sustainable power resource. This book gives an overview of all components, e.g. cells, concentrators, modules and systems, for systems of concentrator photovoltaics. The authors report on significant results related to design, technology, and applications, and also cover the fundamental physics and market considerations. Specific contributions include: theory and practice of sunlight concentrators; an overview of concentrator PV activities; a description of concentrator solar cells; design and technology of modules and systems; manufacturing aspects; and a market study.

  2. Fabrication and performance analysis of concentrated hybrid photovoltaic system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murthy Krishna

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Sun is the most important source of renewable source of energy. During the past few decades there has been an ever-increasing interest in Photovoltaic (PV cells as it directly converts solar radiation into electricity. This paper involves the performance study of photovoltaic system under concentrated solar radiation. The main problem with the concentration solar energy is the drastic increase in temperature of the photovoltaic module resulting in a decrease in performance efficiency of the system. This problem of overheating of the system can be overcome by providing cooling which would ensure operation of the module in the optimal temperature range. Hence, the setup would function as a hybrid model serving the dual purpose of power generation while also utilizing the waste heat for water heating applications. The experimental set up consist of a novel arrangement of concentrator and reflector and the cooling system. The Hybrid Photovoltaic System was repeatedly tested under real time conditions on several days. A comparison was drawn between the results obtained from direct exposure of a standard photovoltaic module to that obtained from the hybrid system in order to better understand the improvement in performance parameters. The study shown a significant improvement of output of standard photovoltaic module under the concentrated solar radiation.

  3. High-concentration planar microtracking photovoltaic system exceeding 30% efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Jared S.; Grede, Alex J.; Wang, Baomin; Lipski, Michael V.; Fisher, Brent; Lee, Kyu-Tae; He, Junwen; Brulo, Gregory S.; Ma, Xiaokun; Burroughs, Scott; Rahn, Christopher D.; Nuzzo, Ralph G.; Rogers, John A.; Giebink, Noel C.

    2017-08-01

    Prospects for concentrating photovoltaic (CPV) power are growing as the market increasingly values high power conversion efficiency to leverage now-dominant balance of system and soft costs. This trend is particularly acute for rooftop photovoltaic power, where delivering the high efficiency of traditional CPV in the form factor of a standard rooftop photovoltaic panel could be transformative. Here, we demonstrate a fully automated planar microtracking CPV system 660× concentration ratio over a 140∘ full field of view. In outdoor testing over the course of two sunny days, the system operates automatically from sunrise to sunset, outperforming a 17%-efficient commercial silicon solar cell by generating >50% more energy per unit area per day in a direct head-to-head competition. These results support the technical feasibility of planar microtracking CPV to deliver a step change in the efficiency of rooftop solar panels at a commercially relevant concentration ratio.

  4. A miniature concentrating photovoltaic and thermal system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kribus, Abraham; Kaftori, Daniel; Mittelman, Gur; Hirshfeld, Amir; Flitsanov, Yuri; Dayan, Abraham

    2006-01-01

    A novel miniature concentrating PV (MCPV) system is presented and analyzed. The system is producing both electrical and thermal energy, which is supplied to a nearby consumer. In contrast to PV/thermal (PV/T) flat collectors, the heat from an MCPV collector is not limited to low-temperature applications. The work reported here refers to the evaluation and preliminary design of the MCPV approach. The heat transport system, the electric and thermal performance, the manufacturing cost, and the resulting cost of energy in case of domestic water heating have been analyzed. The results show that the new approach has promising prospects

  5. Optimum Design Of Grid Connected Photovoltaic System Using Concentrators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eng. Mohammed Fawzy

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Due to the increasing demand of electrical energy in Egypt and also in many neighboring countries around the world the main problem facing electrical energy production using classical methods such steam power stations is the depletion of fossil fuels. The gap between the electrical energy demand and the continuous increase on the fossil fuel cost make the problem of electricity generation more sophisticated. With the continuous decrease of the photovoltaic PV technologies cost it doesnt make sense neglecting the importance of electricity production using solar photovoltaic PV especially that the annual average daily energy received is about 6 kamp12310whmamp123112day in Cairo Egypt 30N.In this work a detailed simulation model including photovoltaic PV module characteristics and climatic conditions of Cairo Egypt is developed. The model compares fixed PV systems electrical energy output with photovoltaic PV system using concentrators and double axis tracker systems. The comparison includes the energy generated area required as well as the cost per kwh generated. The optimality criterion is the cost per kwh generated. The system that gives the minimum cost per kwh is the optimum system. To verify the developed model the simulation results of fixed PV modules and CPV using tracking system obtained by the model are compared with practical measurements of 40KW peak station erected in Cairo Egypt 30N.Very good agreement between measured values and results obtained from detailed simulation model. For fixed PV system the detailed economic analysis showed that it gives minimum cost perkwh generated Comparisons among these systems are presented. For Cairo results showed that a cost of about 6 to 9 US centskwh is attainable.

  6. Experimental characterization of a concentrating photovoltaic system varying the light concentration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Renno, C.; Petito, F.; Landi, G.; Neitzert, H.C.

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Experimental characterization of a concentrating photovoltaic system. • Analysis of the point-focus concentrating system performances. • Photovoltaic system parameters as function of the concentration factor. - Abstract: The concentrating photovoltaic system represents one of the most promising solar technologies because it allows a more efficient energy conversion. When a CPV system is designed, the main parameter which has to be considered is the concentration factor that affects both the system energy performances and its configuration. An experimental characterization of a CPV system previously realized at the University of Salerno, is presented in this paper considering several aspects related to the optical configuration, the concentration factor and the solar cell used. In particular, the parameters of an Indium Gallium Phosphide/Gallium Arsenide/Germanium triple-junction solar cell are investigated as function of the concentration factor determined by means of an experimental procedure that uses different optical configurations. The maximum concentration factor reached by the CPV system is 310 suns. The cell parameters dependence on the concentration is reported together with an electroluminescence analysis of the Indium Gallium Phosphide/Gallium Arsenide/Germanium cell. A monitoring of the electrical power provided by the system during its working is also presented corresponding to different direct irradiance values. A mean power of 2.95 W with an average efficiency of 32.8% is obtained referring to a mean irradiance of 930 W/m"2; lower values are obtained when the irradiance is highly fluctuating. The concentrating photovoltaic system electric energy output is estimated considering different concentration levels; the maximal obtained value is 23.5 W h on a sunny day at 310×. Finally, the temperature of the triple-junction solar cell is evaluated for different months in order to evaluate the potential annual thermal energy production

  7. Dynamic thermal analysis of a concentrated photovoltaic system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avrett, John T., II; Cain, Stephen C.; Pochet, Michael

    2012-02-01

    Concentrated photovoltaic (PV) technology represents a growing market in the field of terrestrial solar energy production. As the demand for renewable energy technologies increases, further importance is placed upon the modeling, design, and simulation of these systems. Given the U.S. Air Force cultural shift towards energy awareness and conservation, several concentrated PV systems have been installed on Air Force installations across the country. However, there has been a dearth of research within the Air Force devoted to understanding these systems in order to possibly improve the existing technologies. This research presents a new model for a simple concentrated PV system. This model accurately determines the steady state operating temperature as a function of the concentration factor for the optical part of the concentrated PV system, in order to calculate the optimum concentration that maximizes power output and efficiency. The dynamic thermal model derived is validated experimentally using a commercial polysilicon solar cell, and is shown to accurately predict the steady state temperature and ideal concentration factor.

  8. Concentrating photovoltaic solar panel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cashion, Steven A; Bowser, Michael R; Farrelly, Mark B; Hines, Braden E; Holmes, Howard C; Johnson, Jr., Richard L; Russell, Richard J; Turk, Michael F

    2014-04-15

    The present invention relates to photovoltaic power systems, photovoltaic concentrator modules, and related methods. In particular, the present invention features concentrator modules having interior points of attachment for an articulating mechanism and/or an articulating mechanism that has a unique arrangement of chassis members so as to isolate bending, etc. from being transferred among the chassis members. The present invention also features adjustable solar panel mounting features and/or mounting features with two or more degrees of freedom. The present invention also features a mechanical fastener for secondary optics in a concentrator module.

  9. Outdoor Performance Comparison of Concentrator Photovoltaic and Flat Plate Photovoltaic Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hidaka Yoshihide

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Output characteristics of tracking type concentrator photovoltaic (CPV system, multi-crystalline silicon (mc-Si PV system, CIGS PV system, and amorphous silicon (a-Si PV system were analyzed in the data period of a year from August 2013 to July 2014. In this study, we analyzed the influence of environmental factors using average photon energy (APE and temperature of solar cell (Tcell. The characteristics of 14 kW CPV system, 50 kW mc-Si PV system, 60 kW CIGS PV system, 1.35 kW a-Si PV system were evaluated and compared. As a result, the output performance of CPV was highest between the four systems at the most frequent conditions in the outdoor environment.

  10. Long-term performance potential of concentrated photovoltaic (CPV) systems

    KAUST Repository

    Burhan, Muhammad

    2017-07-17

    Owing to the diverse photovoltaic (PV) systems’ design and technology, as well as the dynamic nature of insolation data received on the aperture surfaces, the instantaneous output from a PV system fluctuates greatly. For accurate performance estimation of a large PV field, the long term performance as electrical output is a more rational approach over the conventional testing methods, such as at Standard Testing Conditions (STC) and at the Nominal Operating Cell Temperature (NOCT) available hitherto. In this paper, the long-term performances of concentrated PVs (Cassegrain reflectors and Fresnel lens) with 2-axes tracking and a variety of PV systems, namely the stationary flat-plate PV (mono-crystalline, poly-crystalline and thin-films CIS types), is presented over a period of one year for the merit comparison of system design, under the tropical weather conditions of Singapore. From the measured field performances, the total energy output of 240.2 kW h/m/year is recorded for CPV operation in Singapore, which is nearly two folds higher than the stationary PV panels.

  11. Performance investigation of a concentrating photovoltaic/thermal system with transmissive Fresnel solar concentrator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng, Chaoqing; Zheng, Hongfei; Wang, Rui; Ma, Xinglong

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • A common design method of a cycloidal transmissive Fresnel solar concentrator was presented. • The gallium arsenide high concentrated solar was used as the receiver. • High efficiency of electric generating could be achieved at noon. • Fresnel solar concentrator was studied and compared in hazy weather and clear weather. - Abstract: A design method of a cycloidal transmissive Fresnel solar concentrator which can provide a certain width focal line was presented in this study. Based on the optical principle of refraction, the dimensions of each wedge-shaped element of Fresnel lens are calculated. An optical simulation has been done to obtain the optical efficiency of the concentrator for different tracking error and axial incidence angle. It has been found that about 80% of the incident sunlight can still be gathered by the absorber when the tracking error is within 0.7°. When the axial angle of incidence is within 10°, it almost has no influence to the receiving rate. The concentrating photovoltaic/thermal system with transmissive Fresnel solar concentrator has been designed in this paper. Take the gallium arsenide high concentrated battery as the receiver, experimental research about cylindrical Fresnel concentrating photovoltaic/thermal system is undertaken in the real sky. Main parameters are tested such as the temperature distribution on receiver, electric energy and thermal energy outputs of concentrating photovoltaic/thermal system, the efficiency of multipurpose utilization of electric and heat, and so on. The test results in clear weather show that maximum electric generating efficiency is about 18% at noon, the maximum heat receiving rate of cooling water is about 45%. At noon time (11:00–13:00), the total efficiency of thermal and electricity can reach more than 55%. Performance of this concentrating photovoltaic/thermal system with transmissive Fresnel solar concentrator is studied and compared in two types typical weather, hazy

  12. Design and simulation of a low concentrating photovoltaic/thermal system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosell, J.I.; Vallverdu, X.; Lechon, M.A.; Ibanez, M.

    2005-01-01

    The advantages of photovoltaic/thermal (PV/T) collectors and low solar concentration technologies are combined into a photovoltaic/thermal system to increase the solar energy conversion efficiency. This paper presents a prototype 11X concentration rate and two axis tracking system. The main novelty is the coupling of a linear Fresnel concentrator with a channel photovoltaic/thermal collector. An analytical model to simulate the thermal behaviour of the prototype is proposed and validated. Measured thermal performance of the solar system gives values above 60%. Theoretical analysis confirms that thermal conduction between the PV cells and the absorber plate is a critical parameter

  13. Optical characterization of nonimaging dish concentrator for the application of dense-array concentrator photovoltaic system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Ming-Hui; Chong, Kok-Keong; Wong, Chee-Woon

    2014-01-20

    Optimization of the design of a nonimaging dish concentrator (NIDC) for a dense-array concentrator photovoltaic system is presented. A new algorithm has been developed to determine configuration of facet mirrors in a NIDC. Analytical formulas were derived to analyze the optical performance of a NIDC and then compared with a simulated result obtained from a numerical method. Comprehensive analysis of optical performance via analytical method has been carried out based on facet dimension and focal distance of the concentrator with a total reflective area of 120 m2. The result shows that a facet dimension of 49.8 cm, focal distance of 8 m, and solar concentration ratio of 411.8 suns is the most optimized design for the lowest cost-per-output power, which is US$1.93 per watt.

  14. Design and construction of non-imaging planar concentrator for concentrator photovoltaic system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chong, K.K.; Siaw, F.L.; Wong, C.W.; Wong, G.S. [Faculty of Engineering and Science, Universiti Tunku Abdul Rahman, Off Jalan Genting Kelang, Setapak, 53300 Kuala Lumpur, Wilayah Persekutuan (Malaysia)

    2009-05-15

    A novel configuration of solar concentrator, which is the non-imaging planar concentrator, capable of producing much more uniform sunlight and reasonably high concentration ratio, is designed and constructed. This design is envisioned to be incorporated in concentrator photovoltaic (CPV) systems. The work presented here reports on the design, optical alignment and application of the prototype, which is installed at Universiti Tunku Abdul Rahman (UTAR), Malaysia. In the architecture of the prototype, 360 flat mirrors, each with a dimension of 4.0 cm x 4.0 cm, are arranged into 24 rows and 15 columns with a total reflection area of about 5760 cm{sup 2}. In addition to that, illumination distribution for the prototype is simulated and its results are then compared with the experiment result. (author)

  15. A Concentrator Photovoltaic System Based on a Combination of Prism-Compound Parabolic Concentrators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ngoc Hai Vu

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available We present a cost-effective concentrating photovoltaic system composed of a prism and a compound parabolic concentrator (P-CPC. In this approach, the primary collector consists of a prism, a solid compound parabolic concentrator (CPC, and a slab waveguide. The prism, which is placed on the input aperture of CPC, directs the incoming sunlight beam to be parallel with the main axes of parabolic rims of CPC. Then, the sunlight is reflected at the parabolic rims and concentrated at the focal point of these parabolas. A slab waveguide is coupled at the output aperture of the CPC to collect focused sunlight beams and to guide them to the solar cell. The optical system was modeled and simulated with commercial ray tracing software (LightTools™. Simulation results show that the optical efficiency of a P-CPC can achieve up to 89%. when the concentration ratio of the P-CPC is fixed at 50. We also determine an optimal geometric structure of P-CPC based on simulation. Because of the simplicity of the P-CPC structure, a lower-cost mass production process is possible. A simulation based on optimal structure of P-CPC was performed and the results also shown that P-CPC has high angular tolerance for input sunlight. The high tolerance of the input angle of sunlight allows P-CPC solar concentrator utilize a single sun tracking system instead of a highly precise dual suntracking system as cost effective solution.

  16. Feasibility and parametric evaluation of hybrid concentrated photovoltaic-thermoelectric system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rezaniakolaei, Alireza; Rosendahl, Lasse Aistrup

    2017-01-01

    Concentrated photovoltaic (CPV) system integrated with thermoelectric generators (TEGs) is a novel technology that has potential to offer high efficient system. In this study, a thermally coupled model of concentrated photovoltaic-thermoelctric (CPV/TEG) system is established to investigate...... feasibility of the hybrid system over wide range of solar concentrations and different types of heat sinks. The model takes into account critical design parameters in the CPV and the TEG module. The results of this study show that for thermoelectric materials with ZT ≈ 1, the CPV/TEG system is more efficient...

  17. Designing a concentrating photovoltaic (CPV) system in adjunct with a silicon photovoltaic panel for a solar competition car

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arias-Rosales, Andrés.; Barrera-Velásquez, Jorge; Osorio-Gómez, Gilberto; Mejía-Gutiérrez, Ricardo

    2014-06-01

    Solar competition cars are a very interesting research laboratory for the development of new technologies heading to their further implementation in either commercial passenger vehicles or related applications. Besides, worldwide competitions allow the spreading of such ideas where the best and experienced teams bet on innovation and leading edge technologies, in order to develop more efficient vehicles. In these vehicles, some aspects generally make the difference such as aerodynamics, shape, weight, wheels and the main solar panels. Therefore, seeking to innovate in a competitive advantage, the first Colombian solar vehicle "Primavera", competitor at the World Solar Challenge (WSC)-2013, has implemented the usage of a Concentrating Photovoltaic (CPV) system as a complementary solar energy module to the common silicon photovoltaic panel. By harvesting sunlight with concentrating optical devices, CPVs are capable of maximizing the allowable photovoltaic area. However, the entire CPV system weight must be less harmful than the benefit of the extra electric energy generated, which in adjunct with added manufacture and design complexity, has intervened in the fact that CPVs had never been implemented in a solar car in such a scale as the one described in this work. Design considerations, the system development process and implementation are presented in this document considering both the restrictions of the context and the interaction of the CPV system with the solar car setup. The measured data evidences the advantage of using this complementary system during the competition and the potential this technology has for further developments.

  18. Exergy, Energy, and Dynamic Parameter Analysis of Indigenously Developed Low-Concentration Photovoltaic System

    OpenAIRE

    Pankaj Yadav; Brijesh Tripathi; Manoj Kumar

    2013-01-01

    Piecewise linear parabolic trough collector (PLPTC) is designed and developed to concentrate solar radiation on monocrystalline silicon based photovoltaic module. A theoretical model is used to perform electrical energy and exergy analysis of low-concentration photovoltaic (LCPV) system working under actual test conditions (ATC). The exergy efficiency of LCPV system is in the range from 5.1% to 4.82% with increasing rate of input exergy rate from 30.81 W to 96.12 W, when conce...

  19. Performance investigation of low – Concentration photovoltaic systems under hot and arid conditions: Experimental and numerical results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yousef, Mohamed S.; Abdel Rahman, Ali K.; Ookawara, S.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Influence of cooling on the performance of photovoltaic systems. • A comprehensive model (optical, thermal, and electrical) was developed. • Experimental measurements were conducted under hot climate conditions. • For conventional photovoltaic with cooling, about 11% more power was obtained. • For concentrated photovoltaic with cooling, about 15% more power was obtained. - Abstract: In this study, a comparative performance analysis was performed between a conventional photovoltaic system and a low-concentration photovoltaic system. Two typical photovoltaic modules and two compound parabolic concentrating photovoltaic systems were examined. A Cooling system was employed to lower the temperature of the solar cells in each of the two configurations. Experimental and numerical investigations of the performance of the two arrangements with and without cooling were presented. Experiments were conducted outdoors at the Egypt-Japan University of Science and Technology, subjected to the hot climate conditions of New Borg El-Arab City, Alexandria, Egypt (Longitude/Latitude: E 029°42′/N 30°55′). A comprehensive system model was established, which comprises an optical model, coupled with thermal and electrical models. The coupled model was developed analytically and solved numerically, using MATLAB software, to assess the overall performance of the two configurations, considering the concentration ratio of the concentrated photovoltaic system to be 2.4X. The results indicated that cooling the solar panels considerably improved the electrical power yield of the photovoltaic systems. By employing cooling, the temperatures of the conventional photovoltaic system and the concentrated photovoltaic system were effectively lowered by approximately 25% and 30%, respectively, resulting in a significant enhancement in the electrical power output of the photovoltaic system by 11% and that of the concentrated photovoltaic system by 15%. Furthermore, the

  20. Feasibility and parametric evaluation of hybrid concentrated photovoltaic-thermoelectric system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rezaniakolaei, Alireza; Rosendahl, Lasse Aistrup

    2017-01-01

    Concentrated photovoltaic (CPV) system integrated with thermoelectric generators (TEGs) is a novel technology that has potential to offer high efficient system. In this study, a thermally coupled model of concentrated photovoltaic-thermoelctric (CPV/TEG) system is established to investigate...... than CPV-only system. The results indicate that contribution of the TEG in power generation enhances at high sun concentrations. Depending to critical design parameters of the CPV and the TEG, there are optimal values for heat transfer coefficient in the heat sink that offer minimum energy cost....... feasibility of the hybrid system over wide range of solar concentrations and different types of heat sinks. The model takes into account critical design parameters in the CPV and the TEG module. The results of this study show that for thermoelectric materials with ZT ≈ 1, the CPV/TEG system is more efficient...

  1. Modeling the performance of low concentration photovoltaic systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reis, F. [SESUL, Faculdade de Ciencias da Universidade de Lisboa, 1749-016 Lisboa (Portugal); WS Energia, Ed. Tecnologia II 47, Taguspark, Oeiras (Portugal); Brito, M.C. [SESUL, Faculdade de Ciencias da Universidade de Lisboa, 1749-016 Lisboa (Portugal); Corregidor, V.; Wemans, J. [WS Energia, Ed. Tecnologia II 47, Taguspark, Oeiras (Portugal); Sorasio, G. [WS Energia, Ed. Tecnologia II 47, Taguspark, Oeiras (Portugal); Centro Richerche ISCAT, VS Pellico, 12037, Saluzzo (Italy)

    2010-07-15

    A theoretical model has been developed to describe the response of V-trough systems in terms of module temperature, power output and energy yield using as inputs the atmospheric conditions. The model was adjusted to DoubleSun {sup registered} concentration technology, which integrates dual-axis tracker and conventional mono-crystalline Si modules. The good agreement between model predictions and the results obtained at WS Energia laboratory, Portugal, validated the model. It is shown that DoubleSun {sup registered} technology increases up to 86% the yearly energy yield of conventional modules relative to a fixed flat-plate system. The model was also used to perform a sensitivity analysis, in order to highlight the relevance of the leading working parameters (such as irradiance) in system performance (energy yield and module temperature). Model results show that the operation module temperature is always below the maximum working temperature defined by the module manufacturers. (author)

  2. Simulation and development of a multi-leg homogeniser concentrating assembly for concentrated photovoltaic (CPV) system with electrical rating analysis

    KAUST Repository

    Burhan, Muhammad

    2016-03-09

    Concentrated photovoltaic (CPV) system utilizing multi-junction solar cells, is the main focus for current research, offering highest efficiency among all photovoltaic systems. The main aspect of CPV system is the design and performance of concentrating assembly, as it determines the performance of whole CPV system. However, the conventional design of CPV concentrating assembly dedicates one concentrator for each solar cell, in which single concentrator is capable to concentrate solar radiation onto single solar cell. This paper proposes a novel concentrating assembly for CPV system, which is designed to concentrate solar radiation onto four multi-junction solar cells with a single set of concentrators. The proposed design not only can reduce the number of concentrators and assembly efforts for CPV systems, but also achieved an acceptance angle of 1°. In this paper, the proposed multi-leg homogeniser CPV concentrating assembly is designed, developed, experimentally tested and verified through ray tracing simulation. The paper also discuss the development of mini, precise and accurate but cost effective two axis solar tracker for CPV system, which can be installed at any location even at rooftop of residential buildings, unlike conventional large scale CPV systems. Moreover, through the electrical rating analysis of the developed CPV system, its performance can be accurately estimated in any region. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Simulation and development of a multi-leg homogeniser concentrating assembly for concentrated photovoltaic (CPV) system with electrical rating analysis

    KAUST Repository

    Burhan, Muhammad; Chua, Kian Jon Ernest; Ng, Kim Choon

    2016-01-01

    Concentrated photovoltaic (CPV) system utilizing multi-junction solar cells, is the main focus for current research, offering highest efficiency among all photovoltaic systems. The main aspect of CPV system is the design and performance of concentrating assembly, as it determines the performance of whole CPV system. However, the conventional design of CPV concentrating assembly dedicates one concentrator for each solar cell, in which single concentrator is capable to concentrate solar radiation onto single solar cell. This paper proposes a novel concentrating assembly for CPV system, which is designed to concentrate solar radiation onto four multi-junction solar cells with a single set of concentrators. The proposed design not only can reduce the number of concentrators and assembly efforts for CPV systems, but also achieved an acceptance angle of 1°. In this paper, the proposed multi-leg homogeniser CPV concentrating assembly is designed, developed, experimentally tested and verified through ray tracing simulation. The paper also discuss the development of mini, precise and accurate but cost effective two axis solar tracker for CPV system, which can be installed at any location even at rooftop of residential buildings, unlike conventional large scale CPV systems. Moreover, through the electrical rating analysis of the developed CPV system, its performance can be accurately estimated in any region. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Development of Fresnel-based Concentrated Photovoltaic (CPV System with Uniform Irradiance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irfan Ullah

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Different designs have been presented to achieve high concentration and uniformity for the concentrated photovoltaic (CPV system. Most of the designs have issues of low efficiency in terms of irradiance uniformity. To this end, we present a design methodology to increase irradiance uniformity over solar cell. The system consists of an eight-fold Fresnel lens as a primary optical element (POE and an optical lens, which consists of eight parts, as a secondary optical element (SOE. Sunlight is focused through the POE and then light is spread over cell through the SOE. In the design, maximum sunlight is passed over cell by minimizing losses. Results have shown that the proposed CPV design gives good irradiance uniformity. The concentration module based on this novel design is a promising option for the development of a cost-effective photovoltaic solar energy generation.

  5. Experimental validation of a heat transfer model for concentrating photovoltaic system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sendhil Kumar, Natarajan; Matty, Katz; Rita, Ebner; Simon, Weingaertner; Ortrun, Aßländer; Alex, Cole; Roland, Wertz; Tim, Giesen; Tapas Kumar, Mallick

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, a three dimensional heat transfer model is presented for a novel concentrating photovoltaic design for Active Solar Panel Initiative System (ASPIS). The concentration ratio of two systems (early and integrated prototype) are 5× and 10× respectively, designed for roof-top integrated Photovoltaic systems. ANSYS 12.1, CFX package was effectively used to predict the temperatures of the components of the both ASPIS systems at various boundary conditions. The predicted component temperatures of an early prototype were compared with experimental results of ASPIS, which were carried out in Solecta – Israel and at the Austrian Institute of Technology (AIT) – Austria. It was observed that the solar cell and lens temperature prediction shows good agreement with Solecta measurements. The minimum and maximum deviation of 3.8% and 17.9% were observed between numerical and Solecta measurements and the maximum deviations of 16.9% were observed between modeling and AIT measurements. Thus, the developed validated thermal model enables to predict the component temperatures for concentrating photovoltaic systems. - Highlights: ► Experimentally validated heat transfer model for concentrating Photovoltaic system developed. ► Predictions of solar cell temperatures for parallactic tracking CPV system for roof integration. ► The ASPIS module contains 2 mm wide 216 solar cells manufactured based on SATURN technology. ► A solar cell temperature of 44 °C was predicted for solar radiation intensity was 1000 W/m 2 and ambient temperature was 20 °C. ► Average deviation was 6% and enabled to predict temperature of any CPV system.

  6. Simulation and development of a multi-leg homogeniser concentrating assembly for concentrated photovoltaic (CPV) system with electrical rating analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burhan, Muhammad; Chua, Kian Jon Ernest; Ng, Kim Choon

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Novel multi-leg homogeniser concentrating assembly is developed for CPV system. • Single set of concentrator, concentrates sunlight on 4 MJCs with 1° acceptance angle. • The system performance is analyzed through experiment and ray tracing simulation. • Mini two axis solar tracker, with high tracking accuracy, is developed and tested. • Electrical rating analysis accurately estimates CPV system performance in any region. - Abstract: Concentrated photovoltaic (CPV) system utilizing multi-junction solar cells, is the main focus for current research, offering highest efficiency among all photovoltaic systems. The main aspect of CPV system is the design and performance of concentrating assembly, as it determines the performance of whole CPV system. However, the conventional design of CPV concentrating assembly dedicates one concentrator for each solar cell, in which single concentrator is capable to concentrate solar radiation onto single solar cell. This paper proposes a novel concentrating assembly for CPV system, which is designed to concentrate solar radiation onto four multi-junction solar cells with a single set of concentrators. The proposed design not only can reduce the number of concentrators and assembly efforts for CPV systems, but also achieved an acceptance angle of 1°. In this paper, the proposed multi-leg homogeniser CPV concentrating assembly is designed, developed, experimentally tested and verified through ray tracing simulation. The paper also discuss the development of mini, precise and accurate but cost effective two axis solar tracker for CPV system, which can be installed at any location even at rooftop of residential buildings, unlike conventional large scale CPV systems. Moreover, through the electrical rating analysis of the developed CPV system, its performance can be accurately estimated in any region.

  7. Photovoltaic static concentrator analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almonacid, G.; Luque, A.; Molledo, A. G.

    1984-12-01

    Ray tracing is the basis of the present analysis of truncated bifacial compound parabolic concentrators filled with a dielectric substance, which are of interest in photovoltaic applications where the bifacial cells allow higher static concentrations to be achieved. Among the figures of merit for this type of concentrator, the directional intercept factor plays a major role and is defined as the ratio of the power of the collector to that at the entry aperture, in a lossless concentrator illuminated by light arriving from a given direction. A procedure for measuring outdoor, full size panels has been developed, and a correction method for avoiding the effect of unwanted diffuse radiation during the measurements is presented.

  8. Photovoltaic solar concentrator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielson, Gregory N.; Cruz-Campa, Jose Luis; Okandan, Murat; Resnick, Paul J.; Sanchez, Carlos Anthony; Clews, Peggy J.; Gupta, Vipin P.

    2015-09-08

    A process including forming a photovoltaic solar cell on a substrate, the photovoltaic solar cell comprising an anchor positioned between the photovoltaic solar cell and the substrate to suspend the photovoltaic solar cell from the substrate. A surface of the photovoltaic solar cell opposite the substrate is attached to a receiving substrate. The receiving substrate may be bonded to the photovoltaic solar cell using an adhesive force or a metal connecting member. The photovoltaic solar cell is then detached from the substrate by lifting the receiving substrate having the photovoltaic solar cell attached thereto and severing the anchor connecting the photovoltaic solar cell to the substrate. Depending upon the type of receiving substrate used, the photovoltaic solar cell may be removed from the receiving substrate or remain on the receiving substrate for use in the final product.

  9. Photovoltaic Systems with and without Radiation Concentrators for Temperate and Tropical Regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vania Reis de Souza Sant’Anna

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The industrial development of solar photovoltaic technology has attracted investors and influenced governments to establish public policies for the sector. The present research consisted of studying, building and testing low concentration solar radiation systems for photovoltaic energy conversion. The study used optical nonimaging parameters for the V-trough type radiation concentrator constructed of anodized aluminum, to reflect and to cool. Designed to concentrate radiation by about two times and consisting of a set of photovoltaic modules connected in parallel, they were modeled in the Laboratory of Energy Area in the Department of Agricultural Engineering of the Federal University of Vicosa, Brazil, at the coordinates 20°45′14′′ S latitude, 42°52′53′′ W longitude and altitude 648.74 m. They were installed to the geographic North, with the same slope as the local latitude. For comparative analysis, it was determined the electrical characteristics for evaluation of the prototype’s performance with and without radiation concentration, the final productivity for cities in tropical and temperate regions and economic analysis for the system. It was concluded that the prototypes allowed for a gain of energy with concentration, about 31.3% more, and therefore a productivity gain for the analyzed cities in, kWh·kWp−1.

  10. Commercial Application of a Photovoltaic Concentrator system. Phase I. Final report, 1 June 1978-28 February 1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, D.J.; Anderson, E.R.; Bardwell, K.M.

    1980-04-01

    This report documents the design and analysis of the BDM CAPVC (Commercial Application of a Photovoltaic Concentrator) system. The preliminary design, prototype test and evaluation, system analysis, and final design of a large-scale concentrating photovoltaic system are described. The application is on an attractive new office building which represents a large potential market. The photovoltaic concentrating array is a roof-mounted, single-axis linear parabolic trough, using single crystalline silicon photovoltaic cells. A total of 6720 square feet of aperture is focussed on 13,944 PV cells. The photovoltaic system operates in parallel with the local utility in an augmentary loadsharing operating mode. The array is actively cooled and the thermal energy utilized for building heat during winter months. (WHK)

  11. Photovoltaic solar concentrator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielson, Gregory N.; Gupta, Vipin P.; Okandan, Murat; Watts, Michael R.

    2016-03-15

    A photovoltaic solar concentrator is disclosed with one or more transverse-junction solar cells (also termed point contact solar cells) and a lens located above each solar cell to concentrate sunlight onto the solar cell to generate electricity. Piezoelectric actuators tilt or translate each lens to track the sun using a feedback-control circuit which senses the electricity generated by one or more of the solar cells. The piezoelectric actuators can be coupled through a displacement-multiplier linkage to provide an increased range of movement of each lens. Each lens in the solar concentrator can be supported on a frame (also termed a tilt plate) having three legs, with the movement of the legs being controlled by the piezoelectric actuators.

  12. Design and experimental investigation of a Multi-segment plate concentrated photovoltaic solar energy system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Gang; Chen, Zeshao; Hu, Peng

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • A multi-segment plate concentrated photovoltaic solar energy system was proposed. • A prototype of this new concentrator was developed for experimental investigation. • Experimental investigation results showed a good concentrating uniformity. - Abstract: Solar energy is one of the most promising renewable energies and meaningful for the sustainable development of energy source. A multi-segment plate concentrated photovoltaic (CPV) solar power system was proposed in this paper, the design principle of the multi-segment plate concentrator of this solar power system was given, which could provide uniform solar radiation flux density distribution on solar cells. A prototype of this multi-segment plate CPV solar power system was developed for the experimental study, aiming at the investigations of solar radiation flux density distribution and PV performances under this concentrator design. The experimental results showed that the solar radiation flux density distribution provided by the multi-segment plate concentrator had a good uniformity, and the number and temperature of solar cells both influence the photoelectric transformation efficiency of the CPV solar power system.

  13. Design construction and analysis of solar ridge concentrator photovoltaic (PV) system to improve battery charging performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narasimman, Kalaiselvan; Selvarasan, Iniyan

    2016-05-01

    A ridge concentrator photovoltaic system for a 10W multi-crystalline solar panel was designed with the concentration ratios of 1X and 2X. The ray tracing model of ridge concentrator photovoltaic system was carried out using Trace-Pro simulation. The optimum tilt angle for the concentrator PV system throughout the year was computed. The electrical parameters of the 3 panels were analyzed. The effect of temperature on the electrical performance of the panel was also studied. The reduction of voltage due to increasing panel temperature was managed by MPES type Charge controller. Glass reflector with reflectivity 0.95 was chosen as the ridge wall for the concentrator system. The maximum power outputs for the 1X and 2X panel reached were 9W and 10.5W with glass reflector. The percentage of power improvement for 1X and 2X concentrations were 22.3% and 45.8% respectively. The 2X concentrated panel connected battery takes lower time to charge compared with normal panel connected battery. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  14. Improving the Output Power Stability of a High Concentration Photovoltaic System with Supercapacitors: A Preliminary Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Pei Huang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The output power of a high concentration photovoltaic (HCPV system is very sensitive to fluctuating tracking errors and weather patterns. To help compensate this shortcoming, supercapacitors have been successfully incorporated into photovoltaic systems to improve their output power stability. This study examined the output power stability improvement of an HCPV module with a supercapacitor integrated into its circuit. Furthermore, the equivalent model of the experimental circuit is presented and analyzed. Experimental results suggest that integrating a supercapacitor into an HCPV module could improve its output power stability and further extend its acceptance angle. This paper provides preliminary data of the improvement and its evaluation method, which could be utilized for further improvements to an HCPV system.

  15. Electrical Rating of Concentrated Photovoltaic (CPV) Systems: Long-Term Performance Analysis and Comparison to Conventional PV Systems

    KAUST Repository

    Burhan, Muhammad

    2016-02-29

    The dynamic nature of meteorological data and the commercial availability of diverse photovoltaic systems, ranging from single-junction silicon-based PV panels to concentrated photovoltaic (CPV) systems utilizing multi-junction solar cells and a two-axis solar tracker, demand a simple but accurate methodology for energy planners and PV system designers to understand the economic feasibility of photovoltaic or renewable energy systems. In this paper, an electrical rating methodology is proposed that provides a common playing field for planners, consumers and PV manufacturers to evaluate the long-term performance of photovoltaic systems, as long-term electricity rating is deemed to be a quick and accurate method to evaluate economic viability and determine plant sizes and photovoltaic system power production. A long-term performance analysis based on monthly and electrical ratings (in kWh/m2/year) of two developed CPV prototypes, the Cassegrain mini dish and Fresnel lens CPVs with triple-junction solar cells operating under the meteorological conditions of Singapore, is presented in this paper. Performances are compared to other conventional photovoltaic systems.

  16. Terrestrial photovoltaic power systems with sunlight concentration. Annual progress report, January 1, 1975--December 31, 1975

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Backus, C.E.

    1976-01-31

    This annual report is for the second year of a program to investigate the characteristics of the components and the total system using sunlight concentrated onto solar cells. The second year was primarily to experimentally investigate the conclusions of the first year of analytical studies. Cells have been fabricated that are designed for different intensities. Typically the efficiency of a cell will increase from its 11 percent at AM1 peak to efficiency at the designed concentration level and return to its initial efficiency at about 3 times its designed concentration level. The developed cells have been tested under high intensity simulators and in concentrated sunlight and have shown to have the predicted response. The experimental testing of passive cooling limitations for cooling cells with just finned arrangements in the back of the cell has been completed in the controlled environment of a wind tunnel. These experiments have confirmed the heat transfer coefficients that had been used in the analytical studies. Testing was done to collect heat transfer coefficients for actual wind conditions and these data show good agreement with the controlled wind tunnel data. Four photovoltaic/concentrator system experiments have been started with CR of about 3, 10, 25, and 100. System analysis has indicated that photovoltaic concentration systems may be attractive in low solar irradiation areas such as Cleveland.

  17. Evaluation of optimal dual axis concentrated photovoltaic thermal system with active ventilation using Frog Leap algorithm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gholami, H.; Sarwat, A.I.; Hosseinian, H.; Khalilnejad, A.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Electro-thermal performance of open-loop controlled dual axis CPVT is investigated. • For using the absorbed heat, active ventilation with a heat storage tank is used. • Economic optimization of the system is performed, using Frog Leap algorithm. • Detailed model of all sections is simulated with their characteristics evaluation. • Triple-junction photovoltaic cells, which are the most recent technology, are used. - Abstract: In this study, design and optimization of a concentrated photovoltaic thermal (CPVT) system considering electrical, mechanical, and economical aspects is investigated. For this purpose, each section of the system is simulated in MATLAB, in detail. Triple-junction photovoltaic cells, which are the most recent technology, are used in this study. They are more efficient in comparison to conventional photovoltaic cells. Unlike ordinary procedures, in this work active ventilation is used for absorbing the thermal power of radiation, using heat storage tanks, which not only results in increasing the electrical efficiency of the system through decreasing the temperature, but also leads to storing and managing produced thermal energy and increasing the total efficiency of the system up to 85 percent. The operation of the CPVT system is investigated for total hours of the year, considering the needed thermal load, meteorological conditions, and hourly radiation of Khuznin, a city in Qazvin province, Iran. Finally, the collector used for this system is optimized economically, using frog leap algorithm, which resulted in the cost of 13.4 $/m"2 for a collector with the optimal distance between tubes of 6.34 cm.

  18. The experimental study of a two-stage photovoltaic thermal system based on solar trough concentration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tan, Lijun; Ji, Xu; Li, Ming; Leng, Congbin; Luo, Xi; Li, Haili

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • A two-stage photovoltaic thermal system based on solar trough concentration. • Maximum cell efficiency of 5.21% with the mirror opening width of 57 cm. • With single cycle, maximum temperatures rise in the heating stage is 12.06 °C. • With 30 min multiple cycles, working medium temperature 62.8 °C, increased 28.7 °C. - Abstract: A two-stage photovoltaic thermal system based on solar trough concentration is proposed, in which the metal cavity heating stage is added on the basis of the PV/T stage, and thermal energy with higher temperature is output while electric energy is output. With the 1.8 m 2 mirror PV/T system, the characteristic parameters of the space solar cell under non-concentrating solar radiation and concentrating solar radiation are respectively tested experimentally, and the solar cell output characteristics at different opening widths of concentrating mirror of the PV/T stage under condensation are also tested experimentally. When the mirror opening width was 57 cm, the solar cell efficiency reached maximum value of 5.21%. The experimental platform of the two-stage photovoltaic thermal system was established, with a 1.8 m 2 mirror PV/T stage and a 15 m 2 mirror heating stage, or a 1.8 m 2 mirror PV/T stage and a 30 m 2 mirror heating stage. The results showed that with single cycle, the long metal cavity heating stage would bring lower thermal efficiency, but temperature rise of the working medium is higher, up to 12.06 °C with only single cycle. With 30 min closed multiple cycles, the temperature of the working medium in the water tank was 62.8 °C, with an increase of 28.7 °C, and thermal energy with higher temperature could be output

  19. Field test analysis of concentrator photovoltaic system focusing on average photon energy and temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Husna, Husyira Al; Ota, Yasuyuki; Minemoto, Takashi; Nishioka, Kensuke

    2015-08-01

    The concentrator photovoltaic (CPV) system is unique and different from the common flat-plate PV system. It uses a multi-junction solar cell and a Fresnel lens to concentrate direct solar radiation onto the cell while tracking the sun throughout the day. The cell efficiency could reach over 40% under high concentration ratio. In this study, we analyzed a one year set of environmental condition data of the University of Miyazaki, Japan, where the CPV system was installed. Performance ratio (PR) was discussed to describe the system’s performance. Meanwhile, the average photon energy (APE) was used to describe the spectrum distribution at the site where the CPV system was installed. A circuit simulator network was used to simulate the CPV system electrical characteristics under various environmental conditions. As for the result, we found that the PR of the CPV systems depends on the APE level rather than the cell temperature.

  20. Outdoor measurements of a photovoltaic system using diffractive spectrum-splitting and concentration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Mohammad

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In a single-bandgap absorber, photons having energy less than the bandgap are not absorbed, while those having energy larger than the bandgap lose the excess energy via thermalization. We present outdoor measurements of a photovoltaic system that overcomes these losses via spectrum splitting and concentration using a planar diffractive optic. The system was comprised of the diffractive optic coupled with GaInP and CIGS solar cells. The optic provides a geometric concentration of 3X for each solar cell. It is easily fabricated by single-step grayscale lithography and it is ultra-thin with a maximum thickness of only 2.5μm. Electrical measurements under direct sunlight demonstrated an increase of ∼25% in total output power compared to the reference case without spectrum splitting and concentration. Since different bandgaps are in the same plane, the proposed photovoltaic system successfully circumvents the lattice-matching and current-matching issues in conventional tandem multi-junction solar cells. This system is also tolerant to solar spectrum variation and fill-factor degradation of constitutive solar cells.

  1. Silicon concentrator cells in a two-stage photovoltaic system with a concentration factor of 300x

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohr, A.

    2005-06-15

    In this work a rear contacted silicon concentrator cell was developed for an application in a two stage concentrator photovoltaic system. This system was developed at Fraunhofer ISE some years ago. The innovation of this one-axis tracked system is that it enables a high geometrical concentration of 300x in combination with a high optical efficiency (around 78%) and a large acceptance angle of {+-}23.5 all year through. For this, the system uses a parabolic mirror (40.4x) and a three dimensional second stage consisting of compound parabolic concentrators (CPCs, 7.7x). For the concentrator concept and particularly for an easy cell integration, the rear line contacted concentrator (RLCC) cells with a maximum efficiency of 25% were developed and a hybrid mounting concept for the RLCC cells is presented. The optical performance of different CPC materials was tested and analysed in this work. Finally, small modules consisting of six series interconnected RLCC cells and six CPCs were integrated into the concentrator system and tested outdoor. A system efficiency of 16.2% was reached at around 800 W/m2 direct irradiance under realistic outdoor conditions. (orig.)

  2. The performance analysis of the Trough Concentrating Solar Photovoltaic/Thermal system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, M., E-mail: liming@ynnu.edu.c [Solar Energy Research Institute, Yunnan Normal University, 650092 Kunming (China); Li, G.L. [School of Physics and Electronic Information, Yunnan Normal University, Kunming 650092 (China); Ji, X.; Yin, F.; Xu, L. [Solar Energy Research Institute, Yunnan Normal University, 650092 Kunming (China)

    2011-06-15

    Research highlights: {yields} A 2 m{sup 2} Trough Concentrating Photovoltaic/Thermal (TCPV/T) system is built, a single crystalline silicon solar cell array, a polycrystalline silicon cell array, a Super cell array and a GaAs cell array are respectively used in the experiments. {yields} Another 10 m{sup 2} TCPV/T system using the GaAs cell array and a concentrating silicon cell array are also constructed and characterized. {yields} The economic performance analysis show the electricity generating cost of the TCPV/T system with the concentrating silicon cell array can catch up with flat-plate PV system. -- Abstract: The electrical and thermal performance of a 2 m{sup 2} Trough Concentrating Photovoltaic/Thermal (TCPV/T) system with an energy flux ratio 10.27 are characterized by experiments. A single crystalline silicon solar cell array, a polycrystalline silicon cell array, a Super cell array and a GaAs cell array are respectively used in the experiments. The experimental results show that the electrical performance of the system with the GaAs cell array is better than that of crystal silicon solar cell arrays. The superior output performance of the GaAs cell array mainly benefits from its lower series resistance. But the thermal performances of the system using the single crystal silicon solar cell array and the polycrystalline silicon solar cell array are better. It results from the widths of the two types of cells in the system close to that of the focal line. Another 10 m{sup 2} TCPV/T system with an energy flux ratio of 20 using the GaAs cell array and a concentrating silicon cell array are also constructed and characterized. The experimental results indicate that the photoelectric efficiency of the GaAs cell array is 23.83%, and the instantaneous electrical efficiency and thermal efficiency of the system are 9.88% and 49.84% respectively. While the instantaneous electrical efficiency and thermal efficiency of the system using the low-cost concentrating

  3. The performance analysis of the Trough Concentrating Solar Photovoltaic/Thermal system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, M.; Li, G.L.; Ji, X.; Yin, F.; Xu, L.

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → A 2 m 2 Trough Concentrating Photovoltaic/Thermal (TCPV/T) system is built, a single crystalline silicon solar cell array, a polycrystalline silicon cell array, a Super cell array and a GaAs cell array are respectively used in the experiments. → Another 10 m 2 TCPV/T system using the GaAs cell array and a concentrating silicon cell array are also constructed and characterized. → The economic performance analysis show the electricity generating cost of the TCPV/T system with the concentrating silicon cell array can catch up with flat-plate PV system. -- Abstract: The electrical and thermal performance of a 2 m 2 Trough Concentrating Photovoltaic/Thermal (TCPV/T) system with an energy flux ratio 10.27 are characterized by experiments. A single crystalline silicon solar cell array, a polycrystalline silicon cell array, a Super cell array and a GaAs cell array are respectively used in the experiments. The experimental results show that the electrical performance of the system with the GaAs cell array is better than that of crystal silicon solar cell arrays. The superior output performance of the GaAs cell array mainly benefits from its lower series resistance. But the thermal performances of the system using the single crystal silicon solar cell array and the polycrystalline silicon solar cell array are better. It results from the widths of the two types of cells in the system close to that of the focal line. Another 10 m 2 TCPV/T system with an energy flux ratio of 20 using the GaAs cell array and a concentrating silicon cell array are also constructed and characterized. The experimental results indicate that the photoelectric efficiency of the GaAs cell array is 23.83%, and the instantaneous electrical efficiency and thermal efficiency of the system are 9.88% and 49.84% respectively. While the instantaneous electrical efficiency and thermal efficiency of the system using the low-cost concentrating silicon cell array are 7.51% and 42

  4. Materials for Concentrator Photovoltaic Systems: Optical Properties and Solar Radiation Durability

    Science.gov (United States)

    French, R. H.; Rodríguez-Parada, J. M.; Yang, M. K.; Lemon, M. F.; Romano, E. C.; Boydell, P.

    2010-10-01

    Concentrator photovoltaic (CPV) systems are designed to operate over a wide range of solar concentrations, from low concentrations of ˜1 to 12 Suns to medium concentrations in the range from 12 to 200 Suns, to high concentration CPV systems going up to 2000 Suns. Many transparent optical materials are used for a wide variety of functions ranging from refractive and reflective optics to homogenizers, encapsulants and even thermal management. The classes of materials used also span a wide spectrum from hydrocarbon polymers (HCP) and fluoropolymers (FP) to silicon containing polymers and polyimides (PI). The optical properties of these materials are essential to the optical behavior of the system. At the same time radiation durability of these materials under the extremely wide range of solar concentrations is a critical performance requirement for the required lifetime of a CPV system. As part of our research on materials for CPV we are evaluating the optical properties and solar radiation durability of various polymeric materials to define the optimum material combinations for various CPV systems.

  5. Optimization of a Point Focus Concentration Photovoltaic System with Passive Cooling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chenlo, F.

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this work is modeling the temperature of photovoltaic (PV) solar cells operating in concentration systems with circular geometry and coupled to a heat sink plate for passive cooling. The proposed thermal behavior model analyses the temperature surface distribution of both PV solar cell and heat sink plate as function of light concentration. The model also allows analyzing the influence of other parameters such as uniform and non-uniform variation of the heat sink plate thickness or variation of the thermal transmission coefficient. The optimal range of the concentration factor is studied using simple models for the PV solar cell efficiency and Fresnel lens concentrator performance together with a function of costs applied to medium concentration silicon crystalline PV cells and high efficiency and high concentration multi-junction PV cells. Finally, experimental main parameters and its procedures measurement for concentration systems are presented. Modeling results show that the use of a high conductivity disk thermally coupled between the rear side of the cell and the cooling plate reduces the working cell temperature. Results also indicates that use of a light redirecting prism by total internal reflection of sunlight, reduces optical losses due to concentrator defects and chromatic aberration and increases the angle tracking error acceptance without having to increase the area of the PV solar cell

  6. Low-cost modular array-field designs for flat-panel and concentrator photovoltaic systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Post, H. N.; Carmichael, D. C.; Alexander, G.; Castle, J. A.

    1982-09-01

    Described are the design and development of low-cost, modular array fields for flat-panel and concentrator photovoltaic (PV) systems. The objective of the work was to reduce substantially the cost of the array-field Balance-of-System (BOS) subsystems and site-specific design costs as compared to previous PV installations. These subsystems include site preparation, foundations, support structures, electrical writing, grounding, lightning protection, electromagnetic interference considerations, and controls. To reduce these BOS and design costs, standardized modular (building-block) designs for flat-panel and concentrator array fields have been developed that are fully integrated and optimized for lowest life-cycle costs. Using drawings and specifications now available, these building-block designs can be used in multiples to install various size array fields. The developed designs are immediately applicable (1982) and reduce the array-field BOS costs to a fraction of previous costs.

  7. Modeling and simulation of the solar concentrator in photovoltaic systems through the application of a new BRDF function model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plachta, Kamil

    2016-04-01

    The paper presents a new algorithm that uses a combination of two models of BRDF functions: Torrance-Sparrow model and HTSG model. The knowledge of technical parameters of a surface is especially useful in the construction of the solar concentrator. The concentrator directs the reflected solar radiation on the surface of photovoltaic panels, increasing the amount of incident radiance. The software applying algorithm allows to calculate surface parameters of the solar concentrator. Performed simulation showing the share of diffuse component and directional component in reflected stream for surfaces made from particular materials. The impact of share of each component in reflected stream on the efficiency of the solar concentrator and photovoltaic surface has also been described. Subsequently, simulation change the value of voltage, current and power output of monocrystalline photovoltaic panels installed in a solar concentrator system has been made for selected surface of materials solar concentrator.

  8. Standard Test Method for Electrical Performance of Concentrator Terrestrial Photovoltaic Modules and Systems Under Natural Sunlight

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2009-01-01

    1.1 This test method covers the determination of the electrical performance of photovoltaic concentrator modules and systems under natural sunlight using a normal incidence pyrheliometer. 1.2 The test method is limited to module assemblies and systems where the geometric concentration ratio specified by the manufacturer is greater than 5. 1.3 This test method applies to concentrators that use passive cooling where the cell temperature is related to the air temperature. 1.4 Measurements under a variety of conditions are allowed; results are reported under a select set of concentrator reporting conditions to facilitate comparison of results. 1.5 This test method applies only to concentrator terrestrial modules and systems. 1.6 This test method assumes that the module or system electrical performance characteristics do not change during the period of test. 1.7 The performance rating determined by this test method applies only at the period of the test, and implies no past or future performance level. 1.8...

  9. Hybrid photovoltaic-thermoelectric system for concentrated solar energy conversion: Experimental realization and modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beeri, Ofer; Rotem, Oded; Hazan, Eden; Katz, Eugene A.; Braun, Avi; Gelbstein, Yaniv

    2015-09-01

    An experimental demonstration of the combined photovoltaic (PV) and thermoelectric conversion of concentrated sunlight (with concentration factor, X, up to ˜300) into electricity is presented. The hybrid system is based on a multi-junction PV cell and a thermoelectric generator (TEG). The latter increases the electric power of the system and dissipates some of the excessive heat. For X ≤ 200, the system's maximal efficiency, ˜32%, was mostly due to the contribution from the PV cell. With increasing X and system temperature, the PV cell's efficiency decreased while that of the TEG increased. Accordingly, the direct electrical contribution of the TEG started to dominate in the total system power, reaching ˜20% at X ≈ 290. Using a simple steady state finite element modeling, the cooling effect of the TEG on the hybrid system's efficiency was proved to be even more significant than its direct electrical contribution for high solar concentrations. As a result, the total efficiency contribution of the TEG reached ˜40% at X ≈ 200. This suggests a new system optimization concept that takes into account the PV cell's temperature dependence and the trade-off between the direct electrical generation and cooling capabilities of the TEG. It is shown that the hybrid system has a real potential to exceed 50% total efficiency by using more advanced PV cells and TE materials.

  10. Energy performance of a concentrated photovoltaic energy system with static linear Fresnel lenses integrated in a greenhouse

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B.A.J. van Tuijl; Piet Sonneveld; J. Campen; Gert-Jan Swinkels; H.J.J. Janssen; G.P.A Bot

    2011-01-01

    A new type of greenhouse with linear Fresnel lenses in the cover performing as a concentrated photovoltaic (CPV) system is presented. The CPV system retains all direct solar radiation, while diffuse solar radiation passes through and enters into the greenhouse cultivation system. The removal of all

  11. Performance study of solar cell arrays based on a Trough Concentrating Photovoltaic/Thermal system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Ming; Ji, Xu; Li, Guoliang; Wei, Shengxian; Li, YingFeng; Shi, Feng

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → The performances of solar cell arrays based on a Trough Concentrating Photovoltaic/Thermal (TCPV/T) system have been studied. → The optimum concentration ratios for the single crystalline silicon cell, the Super cells and the GaAs cells were studied by experiments. → The influences between the solar cell's performance and the series resistances, the working temperature, solar irradiation intensity were explored. - Abstract: The performances of solar cell arrays based on a Trough Concentrating Photovoltaic/Thermal (TCPV/T) system have been studied via both experiment and theoretical calculation. The I-V characteristics of the solar cell arrays and the output performances of the TCPV/T system demonstrated that among the investigated four types of solar cell arrays, the triple junction GaAs cells possessed good performance characteristics and the polysilicon cells exhibited poor performance characteristics under concentrating conditions. The optimum concentration ratios for the single crystalline silicon cell, the Super cells and the GaAs cells were also studied by experiments. The optimum concentration ratios for the single crystalline silicon cells and Super cells were 4.23 and 8.46 respectively, and the triple junction GaAs cells could work well at higher concentration ratio. Besides, some theoretical calculations and experiments were performed to explore the influences of the series resistances and the working temperature. When the series resistances R s changed from 0 Ω to 1 Ω, the maximum power P m of the single crystalline silicon, the polycrystalline silicon, the Super cell and the GaAs cell arrays decreased by 67.78%, 74.93%, 77.30% and 58.07% respectively. When the cell temperature increased by 1 K, the short circuit current of the four types of solar cell arrays decreased by 0.11818 A, 0.05364 A, 0.01387 A and 0.00215 A respectively. The research results demonstrated that the output performance of the solar cell arrays with lower

  12. Long term hydrogen production potential of concentrated photovoltaic (CPV) system in tropical weather of Singapore

    KAUST Repository

    Burhan, Muhammad

    2016-08-23

    Concentrated photovoltaic (CPV) system provides highest solar energy conversion efficiency among all the photovoltaic technologies and provides the most suitable option to convert solar energy into hydrogen, as future sustainable energy carrier. So far, only conventional flat plate PV systems are being used for almost all of the commercial applications. However, most of the studies have only shown the maximum efficiency of hydrogen production using CPV. In actual field conditions, the performance of CPV-Hydrogen system is affected by many parameter and it changes continuously during whole day operation. In this paper, the daily average and long term performances are proposed to analyze the real field potential of the CPV-Hydrogen system, which is of main interest for designers and consumers. An experimental setup is developed and a performance model is proposed to investigate the average and long term production potential of CPV-Hydrogen system. The study is carried out in tropical weather of Singapore. The maximum CPV efficiency of 27-28% and solar to hydrogen (STH) efficiency of 18%, were recorded. In addition, the CPV-Hydrogen system showed the long term average efficiency of 15.5%, for period of one year (12-months), with electrolyser rating of 47 kWh/kg and STH production potential of 218 kWh/kg. Based upon the DNI availability, the system showed hydrogen production potential of 0.153-0.553 kg/m/month, with average production of 0.43 kg/m/month. However, CPV-Hydrogen system has shown annual hydrogen production potential of 5.162 kg/m/year in tropical weather of Singapore.

  13. Investigation on the effect of thermal resistances on a highly concentrated photovoltaic-thermoelectric hybrid system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Jin; Xuan, Yimin

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • The highly concentrated PV-TE hybrid system is studied. • The performances of different cooling systems are analyzed and compared. • Sandwiching a copper plate between the PV and TE can improve the efficiency. • Four thermal design principles of the system are proposed. - Abstract: A thermal analysis of a highly concentrated photovoltaic-thermoelectric (PV-TE) hybrid system is carried out in this paper. Both the output power and the temperature distribution in the hybrid system are calculated by means of a three-dimensional numerical model. Three possible approaches for designing the highly concentrated PV-TE hybrid system are presented by analyzing the thermal resistance of the whole system. First, the sensitivity analysis shows that the thermal resistance between the TE module and the environment has a more great effect on the output power than the thermal resistance between the PV and the TE. The influence of the natural convection and the radiation can be ignored for the highly concentrated PV-TE hybrid system. Second, it is necessary to sandwich a copper plate between the PV and the TE for decreasing the thermal resistance between the PV and the TE. The role of the copper plate is to improve the temperature uniformity. Third, decreasing the area of PV cells can improve the efficiency of the highly concentrated PV-TE hybrid system. It should be pointed out that decreasing the area of PV cells also increases the total thermal resistance, but the raise of the efficiency is caused by the reduction of the heat transfer rate of the system. Therefore, the principle of minimizing the total thermal resistance may not be suitable for optimizing the area of PV cells.

  14. Life cycle assessment and economic analysis of a low concentrating photovoltaic system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Feo, G; Forni, M; Petito, F; Renno, C

    2016-10-01

    Many new photovoltaic (PV) applications, such as the concentrating PV (CPV) systems, are appearing on the market. The main characteristic of CPV systems is to concentrate sunlight on a receiver by means of optical devices and to decrease the solar cells area required. A low CPV (LCPV) system allows optimizing the PV effect with high increase of generated electric power as well as decrease of active surface area. In this paper, an economic analysis and a life cycle assessment (LCA) study of a particular LCPV scheme is presented and its environmental impacts are compared with those of a PV traditional system. The LCA study was performed with the software tool SimaPro 8.0.2, using the Econinvent 3.1 database. A functional unit of 1 kWh of electricity produced was chosen. Carbon Footprint, Ecological Footprint and ReCiPe 2008 were the methods used to assess the environmental impacts of the LCPV plant compared with a corresponding traditional system. All the methods demonstrated the environmental convenience of the LCPV system. The innovative system allowed saving 16.9% of CO2 equivalent in comparison with the traditional PV plant. The environmental impacts saving was 17% in terms of Ecological Footprint, and, finally, 15.8% with the ReCiPe method.

  15. Reuse of the Reflective Light and the Recycle Heat Energy in Concentrated Photovoltaic System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsin-Chien Chen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A complex solar unit with microcrystalline silicon solar cells placed around the centered GaAs triple junction solar cell has been proposed and carried out. With the same illumination area and intensity, the total resultant power shows that the excess microcrystalline silicon solar cells increase the total output power by 13.2% by absorbing the reflective light from the surface of optical collimators. Furthermore, reusing the residual heat energy generated from the above-mentioned mechanism helps to increase the output power by around 14.1%. This mechanism provides a simple method to enhance the utility rate of concentrated photovoltaic (CPV system. Such concept can be further applied to the aerospace industry and the development of more efficient CPV solar energy applications.

  16. A review of concentrated photovoltaic-thermal (CPVT) hybrid solar systems with waste heat recovery (WHR)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xing Ju; Chao Xu; Zhirong Liao; Xiaoze Du; Gaosheng Wei; Zhifeng Wang; Yongping Yang

    2017-01-01

    In conventional photovoltaic (PV) systems,a large portion of solar energy is dissipated as waste heat since the generating efficiency is usually less than 30%.As the dissipated heat can be recovered for various applications,the wasted heat recovery concentrator PV/thermal (WHR CPVT) hybrid systems have been developed.They can provide both electricity and usable heat by combining thermal systems with concentrator PV (CPV) module,which dramatically improves the overall conversion efficiency of solar energy.This paper systematically and comprehensively reviews the research and development ofWHR CPVT systems.WHR CPVT systems with innovative design configurations,different theoretical evaluation models and experimental test processes for several implementations are presented in an integrated manner.We aim to provide a global point of view on the research trends,market potential,technical obstacles,and the future work which is required in the development of WHR CPVT technology.Possibly,it will offer a generic guide to the investigators who are interested in the study of WHR CPVT systems.

  17. Improved ATIR concentrator photovoltaic module

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adriani, Paul M.; Mao, Erwang

    2013-09-01

    Novel aggregated total internal reflection (ATIR) concentrator photovoltaic module design comprises 2-D shaped primary and secondary optics that effectively combine optical efficiency, low profile, convenient range of acceptance angles, reliability, and manufacturability. This novel optical design builds upon previous investigations by improving the shapes of primary and secondary optics to enable improved long-term reliability and manufacturability. This low profile, low concentration (5x to 10x) design fits well with one-axis trackers that are often used for flat plate crystalline silicon photovoltaic modules in large scale ground mount installations. Standard mounting points, materials, and procedures apply without changes from flat plate modules.

  18. Freeform optics for photovoltaic concentration

    OpenAIRE

    Benitez Gimenez, Pablo; Miñano Dominguez, Juan Carlos

    2012-01-01

    Freeform surfaces are the key of the state-of-the-art nonimaging optics to solve the challenges in concentration photovoltaics. Different families (FK, XR, FRXI) will be presented, based on the SMS 3D design method and Köhler homogenization.

  19. Optimum Concentration Ratio Analysis Using Dynamic Thermal Model for Concentrated Photovoltaic System

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-22

    Iberoamericano de Estudiantes de Ingenieria Electrica, s.l. : Cibelec, 2005. 40. Brogren, Maria. Optical Effeciency of Low-Concentrating Solar Energy...46 3.5 Particular Solution to the Transport Equation...50 3.7 Homogenous Solution the Transport Equation ..................................................... 51 3.8 Total Excess

  20. A Systematic Method of Interconnection Optimization for Dense-Array Concentrator Photovoltaic System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siaw, Fei-Lu

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a new systematic approach to analyze all possible array configurations in order to determine the most optimal dense-array configuration for concentrator photovoltaic (CPV) systems. The proposed method is fast, simple, reasonably accurate, and very useful as a preliminary study before constructing a dense-array CPV panel. Using measured flux distribution data, each CPV cells' voltage and current values at three critical points which are at short-circuit, open-circuit, and maximum power point are determined. From there, an algorithm groups the cells into basic modules. The next step is I-V curve prediction, to find the maximum output power of each array configuration. As a case study, twenty different I-V predictions are made for a prototype of nonimaging planar concentrator, and the array configuration that yields the highest output power is determined. The result is then verified by assembling and testing of an actual dense-array on the prototype. It was found that the I-V curve closely resembles simulated I-V prediction, and measured maximum output power varies by only 1.34%. PMID:24453823

  1. A Systematic Method of Interconnection Optimization for Dense-Array Concentrator Photovoltaic System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fei-Lu Siaw

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a new systematic approach to analyze all possible array configurations in order to determine the most optimal dense-array configuration for concentrator photovoltaic (CPV systems. The proposed method is fast, simple, reasonably accurate, and very useful as a preliminary study before constructing a dense-array CPV panel. Using measured flux distribution data, each CPV cells’ voltage and current values at three critical points which are at short-circuit, open-circuit, and maximum power point are determined. From there, an algorithm groups the cells into basic modules. The next step is I-V curve prediction, to find the maximum output power of each array configuration. As a case study, twenty different I-V predictions are made for a prototype of nonimaging planar concentrator, and the array configuration that yields the highest output power is determined. The result is then verified by assembling and testing of an actual dense-array on the prototype. It was found that the I-V curve closely resembles simulated I-V prediction, and measured maximum output power varies by only 1.34%.

  2. A systematic method of interconnection optimization for dense-array concentrator photovoltaic system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siaw, Fei-Lu; Chong, Kok-Keong

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a new systematic approach to analyze all possible array configurations in order to determine the most optimal dense-array configuration for concentrator photovoltaic (CPV) systems. The proposed method is fast, simple, reasonably accurate, and very useful as a preliminary study before constructing a dense-array CPV panel. Using measured flux distribution data, each CPV cells' voltage and current values at three critical points which are at short-circuit, open-circuit, and maximum power point are determined. From there, an algorithm groups the cells into basic modules. The next step is I-V curve prediction, to find the maximum output power of each array configuration. As a case study, twenty different I-V predictions are made for a prototype of nonimaging planar concentrator, and the array configuration that yields the highest output power is determined. The result is then verified by assembling and testing of an actual dense-array on the prototype. It was found that the I-V curve closely resembles simulated I-V prediction, and measured maximum output power varies by only 1.34%.

  3. Building integrated concentrating photovoltaics: A review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chemisana, Daniel

    2011-01-01

    For building integration, Concentrating Photovoltaic (CPV) systems can offer a host of advantages over conventional flat panel devices, the most notable being: a higher electrical conversion efficiency in the PV cells, better use of space, ease of recycling of constituent materials, and reduced use of toxic products involved in the PV cells' production process. However, the viability of Building-Integrated Concentrating PV (BICPV) systems is dependent on their ability to offer a comparative economic advantage over flat panel photovoltaic technologies whose market prices are decreasing from day to day and which offer other advantages such as ease of replacement of structural elements. A comparative analysis is presented of the main existing CPV systems' suitability for use in buildings, in which the different challenges specific to integration of each system are discussed. The systems are categorized by type of concentration technology and concentration factor. (author)

  4. A Three-Dimensional Radiation Transfer Model to Evaluate Performance of Compound Parabolic Concentrator-Based Photovoltaic Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingjing Tang

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available In the past, two-dimensional radiation transfer models (2-D models were widely used to investigate the optical performance of linear compound parabolic concentrators (CPCs, in which the radiation transfer on the cross-section of CPC troughs is considered. However, the photovoltaic efficiency of solar cells depends on the real incidence angle instead of the projection incidence angle, thus 2-D models can’t reasonably evaluate the photovoltaic performance of CPC-based photovoltaic systems (CPVs. In this work, three-dimensional radiation transfer (3-D model within CPC-θa/θe, the CPC with a maximum exit angle θe for radiation within its acceptance angle (θa, is investigated by means of vector algebra, solar geometry and imaging principle of plane mirror, and effects of geometry of CPV-θa/θe on its annual electricity generation are studied. Analysis shows that, as compared to similar photovoltaic (PV panels, the use of CPCs makes the incident angle of solar rays on solar cells increase thus lowers the photovoltaic conversion efficiency of solar cells. Calculations show that, 2-D models can reasonably predict the optical performance of CPVs, but such models always overestimate the photovoltaic performance of CPVs, and even can’t predict the variation trend of annual power output of CPV-θa/θe with θe. Results show that, for full CPV-θa/θe with a given θa, the annual power output increases with θe first and then comes to a halt as θe > 83°, whereas for truncated CPV-θa/θe with a given geometric concentration (Ct, the annual power output decreases with θe.

  5. Concentrated photovoltaics, a case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonini Piergiorgio

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Concentrated Photovoltaics (CPV, once a niche technology, has now reached the maturity and reliability for large scale power generation. Especially in regions where temperatures are very high, the use of high efficiency triple junction solar cells with concentrating optics allows stable energy yield. Thus CPV can be seen as complementary and not in concurrence with silicon photovoltaics. The state of the art, the advantages and limitations of this technology will be shown. Among the main advantages of CPV is the possibility of a much higher energy supply, when compared to silicon photovoltaics, both comparing CPV and silicon with same area or the same installed power. The use of recycled and recyclable materials allows a more environmentally friendly production. The possibility to couple CPV with desalination facilities, energy storage will be analysed. As an example a case study of a CPV installation in Northern Italy is discussed. Here the use of mature technologies, derived from automotive and lighting sectors resulted in a simple and efficient module.

  6. Low-Cost High-Concentration Photovoltaic Systems for Utility Power Generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McConnell, R.; Garboushian, V.; Gordon, R.; Dutra, D.; Kinsey, G.; Geer, S.; Gomez, H.; Cameron, C.

    2012-03-31

    Under DOE's Technology Pathway Partnership (TPP) program, Amonix, Inc. developed a new generation of high-concentration photovoltaic systems using multijunction technology and established the manufacturing capacity needed to supply multi-megawatt power plants buing using the new Amonix 7700-series solar energy systems. For this effort, Amonix Collaborated with a variety of suppliers and partners to complete project tasks. Subcontractors included: Evonik/Cyro; Hitek; the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL); Raytech; Spectrolab; UL; University of Nevada, Las Vegas; and TUV Rheinland PTL. The Amonix TPP tasks included: Task 1: Multijunction Cell Optimization for Field Operation, Task 2: Fresnel Lens R&D, Task 3: Cell Package Design & Production, Task 4: Standards Compliance and Reliability Testing, Task 5: Receiver Plate Production, Task 6: MegaModule Performance, Task 7: MegaModule Cost Reduction, Task 8: Factory Setup and MegaModule Production, Task 9: Tracker and Tracking Controller, Task 10: Installation and Balance of System (BOS), Task 11: Field Testing, and Task 12: Solar Advisor Modeling and Market Analysis. Amonix's TPP addressed nearly the complete PV value chain from epitaxial layer design and wafer processing through system design, manufacturing, deployment and O&M. Amonix has made progress toward achieving these reduced costs through the development of its 28%+ efficient MegaModule, reduced manufacturing and installation cost through design for manufacturing and assembly, automated manufacturing processes, and reduced O&M costs. Program highlights include: (1) Optimized multijunction cell and cell package design to improve performance by > 10%; (2) Updated lens design provided 7% increased performance and higher concentration; (3) 28.7% DC STC MegaModule efficiency achieved in Phase II exceeded Phase III performance goal; (4) New 16' focal length MegaModule achieved target materials and manufacturing cost reduction; (5) Designed and

  7. Photovoltaic applications of Compound Parabolic Concentrator (CPC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winston, R.

    1975-01-01

    The use of a compound parabolic concentrator as field collector, in conjunction with a primary focusing concentrator for photovoltaic applications is studied. The primary focusing concentrator can be a parabolic reflector, an array of Fresnel mirrors, a Fresnel lens or some other lens. Silicon solar cell grid structures are proposed that increase efficiency with concentration up to 10 suns. A ray tracing program has been developed to determine energy distribution at the exit of a compound parabolic concentrator. Projected total cost of a CPC/solar cell system will be between 4 and 5 times lower than for flat plate silicon cell arrays.

  8. Case study of a grid connected with a battery photovoltaic system: V-trough concentration vs. single-axis tracking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tina, G.M.; Scandura, P.F.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► PV systems with sun tracking and concentrators (CPVS) can reduce the cost of energy per kWh produced. ► The V-trough low-concentration system solution is compatible with flat PV module technologies. ► Optical, thermal and electrical models are needed to forecast real power production. ► The description of a PV grid connected system with batteries, a one-axis tracker and CPV photovoltaic system is presented. ► Outdoor measurements of the generating system are provided and discussed. - Abstract: Photovoltaic systems (PVSs) combined with either some form of storage, such as a battery energy storage system (BESS), or direct load control, can play a crucial role in achieving a more economical operation of the electric utility system while enhancing its reliability with additional energy sources. At the same time, it is also important to use cost-effective PV solutions. In this context, a low-concentration PVS (CPVS) is analysed as a feasible alternative. This paper, present a case study of a complex PVS, composed of two PVSs, a storage system (BEES) and an inverter that allows the system to operate in both the island and grid-connected modes. The first PVS, is a 2.76-kWp single-axis tracking system (azimuth) with modules facing south and tilted 30°, while the second PVS is a dual-axis tracking system, rated 860 Wp, consisting of a concentrator at the flat mirrors (DoubleSun® Four). The system is installed on the roof of the main building of the “ITIS Marconi” school (Italy). A detailed description of the system is provided, and preliminary operating data are presented and discussed. The efficiencies of the PV systems are calculated and measured to evaluate the cost effectiveness of a low-concentration system.

  9. Photovoltaic systems in agriculture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corba, Z.; Katic, V.; Milicevic, D.

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents the possibility of using one of the renewable energy resources in agriculture. Specifically, the paper shows the possibility of converting solar energy into electricity through photovoltaic panels. The paper includes the analysis of the energy potential of solar radiation in the AP Vojvodina (Serbia). The results of the analysis can be used for the design of photovoltaic energy systems. The amount of solar energy on the territory of the province is compared with the same data from some European countries, in order to obtain a clear picture of the possibilities of utilization of this type of renewable sources. Three examples of possible application of photovoltaic systems are presented. The first relates to the consumer who is away from the electric distribution network - photovoltaic system in island mode. The remaining two examples relate to the application of photovoltaic power sources in manufacturing plants, flowers or vegetables. Applying photovoltaic source of electrical energy to power pumps for irrigation is highlighted

  10. A new procedure for estimating the cell temperature of a high concentrator photovoltaic grid connected system based on atmospheric parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernández, Eduardo F.; Almonacid, Florencia

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Concentrating grid-connected systems are working at maximum power point. • The operating cell temperature is inherently lower than at open circuit. • Two novel methods for estimating the cell temperature are proposed. • Both predict the operating cell temperature from atmospheric parameters. • Experimental results show that both methods perform effectively. - Abstract: The working cell temperature of high concentrator photovoltaic systems is a crucial parameter when analysing their performance and reliability. At the same time, due to the special features of this technology, the direct measurement of the cell temperature is very complex and is usually obtained by using different indirect methods. High concentrator photovoltaic modules in a system are operating at maximum power since they are connected to an inverter. So that, their cell temperature is lower than the cell temperature of a module at open-circuit voltage since an important part of the light power density is converted into electricity. In this paper, a procedure for indirectly estimating the cell temperature of a high concentrator photovoltaic system from atmospheric parameters is addressed. Therefore, this new procedure has the advantage that is valid for estimating the cell temperature of a system at any location of interest if the atmospheric parameters are available. To achieve this goal, two different methods are proposed: one based on simple mathematical relationships and another based on artificial intelligent techniques. Results show that both methods predicts the cell temperature of a module connected to an inverter with a low margin of error with a normalised root mean square error lower or equal than 3.3%, an absolute root mean square error lower or equal than 2 °C, a mean absolute error lower or equal then 1.5 °C, and a mean bias error and a mean relative error almost equal to 0%

  11. Effects of concentrated sunlight on organic photovoltaics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tromholt, Thomas; Katz, Eugene A.; Hirsch, Baruch

    2010-01-01

    We report the effects of concentrated sunlight on key photovoltaic parameters and stability of organic photovoltaics (OPV). Sunlight collected and concentrated outdoors was focused into an optical fiber and delivered onto a 1 cm2 bulk-heterojunction cell. Sunlight concentration C was varied gradu...

  12. RTI photovoltaic concentrator applications experiment. Phase I. System design. Final report, 1 June 1978-28 February 1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burger, R M; Whisnant, R A; Drake, W C; Daluge, D R; Alberts, R D

    1979-03-01

    An experiment has been designed in which a 100 kW photovoltaic concentrator system serving the electrical load provided by an energy-efficient office-laboratory building will be built and operated in the Research Triangle Park of North Carolina. Since the purpose of the experiment is to provide the essential data for design and installation of future operational systems, the system is designed for operational flexibility. In its main operational mode, a defined primary load is diverted from the utility during all peak-demand periods. This requires the use of 1000 kWh of lead-acid batteries for energy storage. Other operational modes provide for obtaining data on peak demand reduction, on alternative battery use strategies, and on system performance with an isolated load. Operation of the system in parallel with utility-supplied power requires that the photovoltaic array outputs be inverted and that the power be controlled to achieve the operational objectives. Ten 2-axis tracking arrays consisting of 70X parabolic concentrators are used. The system will provide approximately 103 megawatt-hours of power annually to the load and the design is compatible with future retrofits including more efficient solar cells, higher concentration ratios, thermal energy collection, and other technological developments, ensuring its usefulness in research and development beyond the PRDA-35 experiment.

  13. Characterization of a low concentrator photovoltaics module

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Butler, B.A. [Department of Physics, Nelson Mandela Metropolitan University, P. O. Box 77000, Port Elizabeth 6031 (South Africa); Dyk, E.E. van, E-mail: ernest.vandyk@nmmu.ac.za [Department of Physics, Nelson Mandela Metropolitan University, P. O. Box 77000, Port Elizabeth 6031 (South Africa); Vorster, F.J.; Okullo, W.; Munji, M.K. [Department of Physics, Nelson Mandela Metropolitan University, P. O. Box 77000, Port Elizabeth 6031 (South Africa); Booysen, P. [Setsolar, P. O. Box 15934, Panorama 7506 (South Africa)

    2012-05-15

    Low concentration photovoltaic (LCPV) systems have the potential to reduce the cost per kWh of electricity compared to conventional flat-plate photovoltaics (PV) by up to 50%. The cost-savings are realised by replacing expensive PV cells with relatively cheaper optical components to concentrate incident solar irradiance onto a receiver and by tracking the sun along either 1 axis or 2 axes. A LCPV module consists of three interrelated subsystems, viz., the optical, electrical and the thermal subsystems, which must be considered for optimal module design and performance. Successful integration of these subsystems requires the balancing of cost, performance and reliability. In this study LCPV experimental prototype modules were designed, built and evaluated with respect to optimisation of the three subsystems and overall performance. This paper reports on the optical and electrical evaluation of a prototype LCPV module.

  14. Characterization of a low concentrator photovoltaics module

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Butler, B.A.; Dyk, E.E. van; Vorster, F.J.; Okullo, W.; Munji, M.K.; Booysen, P.

    2012-01-01

    Low concentration photovoltaic (LCPV) systems have the potential to reduce the cost per kWh of electricity compared to conventional flat-plate photovoltaics (PV) by up to 50%. The cost-savings are realised by replacing expensive PV cells with relatively cheaper optical components to concentrate incident solar irradiance onto a receiver and by tracking the sun along either 1 axis or 2 axes. A LCPV module consists of three interrelated subsystems, viz., the optical, electrical and the thermal subsystems, which must be considered for optimal module design and performance. Successful integration of these subsystems requires the balancing of cost, performance and reliability. In this study LCPV experimental prototype modules were designed, built and evaluated with respect to optimisation of the three subsystems and overall performance. This paper reports on the optical and electrical evaluation of a prototype LCPV module.

  15. Characterization of a low concentrator photovoltaics module

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, B. A.; van Dyk, E. E.; Vorster, F. J.; Okullo, W.; Munji, M. K.; Booysen, P.

    2012-05-01

    Low concentration photovoltaic (LCPV) systems have the potential to reduce the cost per kWh of electricity compared to conventional flat-plate photovoltaics (PV) by up to 50%. The cost-savings are realised by replacing expensive PV cells with relatively cheaper optical components to concentrate incident solar irradiance onto a receiver and by tracking the sun along either 1 axis or 2 axes. A LCPV module consists of three interrelated subsystems, viz., the optical, electrical and the thermal subsystems, which must be considered for optimal module design and performance. Successful integration of these subsystems requires the balancing of cost, performance and reliability. In this study LCPV experimental prototype modules were designed, built and evaluated with respect to optimisation of the three subsystems and overall performance. This paper reports on the optical and electrical evaluation of a prototype LCPV module.

  16. Photovoltaic concentrator module improvements study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levy, S.L.; Kerschen, K.A. (Black and Veatch, Kansas City, MO (United States)); Hutchison, G. (Solar Kinetics, Inc., Dallas, TX (United States)); Nowlan, M.J. (Spire Corp., Bedford, MA (United States))

    1991-08-01

    This report presents results of a project to design and fabricate an improved photovoltaic concentrator module. Using previous work as a baseline, this study conducted analyses and testing to select major module components and design features. The lens parquet and concentrator solar cell were selected from the highest performing, available components. A single 185X point-focus module was fabricated by the project team and tested at Sandia. Major module characteristics include a 6 by 4 compression-molded acrylic lens parquet (0.737 m{sup 2} area), twenty-four 0.2 ohms-cm, FZ, p-Si solar cells (1.56 cm{sup 2} area) soldered to ceramic substrates and copper heat spreaders, and an aluminized steel housing with corrugated bottom. This project marked the first attempt to use prismatic covers on solar cells in a high-concentration, point-focus application. Cells with 15 percent metallization were obtained, but problems with the fabrication and placement of prismatic covers on these cells lead to the decision not to use covers in the prototype module. Cell assembly fabrication, module fabrication, and module optical design activities are presented here. Test results are also presented for bare cells, cell assemblies, and module. At operating conditions of 981 watts/m{sup 2} DNI and an estimated cell temperature of 65{degrees}C, the module demonstrated an efficiency of 13.9 percent prior to stressed environmental exposure. 12 refs., 56 figs., 7 tabs.

  17. Enhancing performance of a linear dielectric based concentrating photovoltaic system using a reflective film along the edge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baig, Hasan; Sarmah, Nabin; Chemisana, Daniel; Rosell, Joan; Mallick, Tapas K.

    2014-01-01

    In the present study, we model and analyse the performance of a dielectric based linear concentrating photovoltaic system using ray tracing and finite element methods. The results obtained are compared with the experiments. The system under study is a linear asymmetric CPC (Compound Parabolic Concentrator) designed to operate under extreme incident angles of 0° and 55° and have a geometrical concentration ratio of 2.8×. Initial experiments showed a maximum PR (power ratio) of 2.2 compared to a non concentrating counterpart. An improvement to this has been proposed and verified by adding a reflective film along the edges of the concentrator to capture the escaping rays and minimise optical losses. The addition of the reflective film changes the incoming distribution on the solar cell. Results show an increase of 16% in the average power output while using this reflective film. On including the thermal effects it was found that the overall benefit changes to about 6% while using a reflective film. Additionally, the effects of the non-uniformity of the incoming radiation are also analysed and reported for both the cases. It is found that adding the reflective film drops the maximum power at the output by only 0.5% due to the effect of non-uniformity. - Highlights: • Optical, thermal and electrical analysis of a concentrating photovoltaic system. • Improvement in performance by use of reflective film along the edge. • Experimental validation of results. • Effects of non-uniform illumination on the performance of the CPV system. • Impact of temperature profile on the overall performance

  18. Performance of Partially Covered N Number of Photovoltaic Thermal (PVT) - Compound Parabolic Concentrator (CPC) Series Connected Water Heating System

    OpenAIRE

    Rohit Tripathi; Sumit Tiwari; G. N. Tiwari

    2016-01-01

    In present study, an approach is adopted where photovoltaic thermal flat plate collector is integrated with compound parabolic concentrator. Analytical expression of temperature dependent electrical efficiency of N number of partially covered Photovoltaic Thermal (PVT) - Compound Parabolic Concentrator (CPC) water collector connected in series has been derived with the help of basic thermal energy balance equations. Analysis has been carried for winter weather condition at Delhi location, Ind...

  19. An End of Service Life Assessment of PMMA Lenses from Veteran Concentrator Photovoltaic Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, David C.; Khonkar, Hussameldin I.; Herrero, Rebecca; Anton, Ignacio; Johnson, David K.; Vinzant, Todd B.; Deutch, Steve; To, Bobby; Sala, Gabriel; Kurtz, Sarah R.

    2017-03-21

    The optical performance of poly(methyl methacrylate) lenses from veteran concentrator photovoltaic modules was examined after the end of their service life. Lenses from the Martin-Marietta and Intersol module designs were examined from the 'Solar Village' site near Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, as well as the Phoenix Sky Harbor airport, followed by the Arizona Public Service Solar Test and Research (APS-STaR) center in Tempe, Arizona. The various lens specimens were deployed for 20, 27, and 22 years, respectively. Optical characterizations included lens efficiency (Solar Simulator instrument), material transmittance and haze (of coupons cut from veteran lenses, then measured again after their faceted back surface was polished, and then measured again after the incident front surface was polished), and direct transmittance (as a function of detector's acceptance angle, using the Very Low Angular Beam Spread ('VLABS') instrument). Lens efficiency measurements compared the central region to the entire lens, also using hot and cold mirror measurements to diagnose differences in performance. A series of subsequent characterizations was performed because a decrease in performance of greater than 10% was observed for some of the veteran lenses. Surface roughness was examined using atomic force microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. Facet geometry (tip and valley radius) was quantified on cross-sectioned specimens. Molecular weight was compared between the incident and faceted surfaces of the lenses.

  20. Sunlight to hydrogen conversion: Design optimization and energy management of concentrated photovoltaic (CPV-Hydrogen) system using micro genetic algorithm

    KAUST Repository

    Burhan, Muhammad

    2016-02-14

    Owing to the intermittent solar irradiance from cloud cover in the diurnal period and unavailability at night time, the practical design of a solar system requires energy backup storage for an uninterrupted supply or for off-grid operation. However, for highly efficient CPV (concentrated photovoltaic) system, the literature is lacking for energy management and optimization algorithm and tool for standalone operation. In this paper, a system with CPV and electrolyser is presented where beam irradiance of sunlight is harnessed to convert the instantaneously generated electricity into useful Hydrogen/Oxygen gas, where they can be stored and re-used for downstream applications such as the fuel cells, etc. The multi-variable design and multi-objective optimization strategies are proposed and presented for a standalone operation of the CPV-Hydrogen system as well as their system performances, particularly electrical rating of CPV based upon the real weather data of Singapore. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd.

  1. Life cycle assessment and evaluation of energy payback time on high-concentration photovoltaic power generation system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishimura, A.; Hayashi, Y.; Tanaka, K.; Hirota, M.; Kato, S.; Ito, M.; Araki, K.; Hu, E.J.

    2010-01-01

    In this study, the environmental load of photovoltaic power generation system (PV) during its life cycle and energy payback time (EPT) are evaluated by LCA scheme. Two hypothetical case studies in Toyohashi, Japan and Gobi dessert in China have been carried out to investigate the influence of installation location and PV type on environmental load and EPT. The environmental load and EPT of a high-concentration photovoltaic power generation system (hcpV) and a multi-crystalline silicon photovoltaic power generation system (mc-Si PV) are studied. The study shows for a PV of 100 MW size, the total impacts of the hcpV installed in Toyohashi is larger than that of the hcpV installed in Gobi desert by 5% without consideration of recycling stage. The EPT of the hcpV assumed to be installed in Gobi desert is shorter than EPT of the hcpV assumed to be installed in Toyohashi by 0.64 year. From these results, the superiority to install PV in Gobi desert is certificated. Comparing with hcpV and mc-Si PV, the ratio of the total impacts of mc-Si PV to that of hcpV is 0.34 without consideration of recycling stage. The EPT of hcpV is longer than EPT of mc-Si PV by 0.27 year. The amount of global solar radiation contributing to the amount of power generation of mc-Si PV is larger than the amount of direct solar radiation contributing to the amount of power generation of hcpV by about 188 kW h/(m 2 year) in Gobi desert. Consequently, it appears that using mc-Si PV in Gobi desert is the best option.

  2. Experimental study on direct-contact liquid film cooling simulated dense-array solar cells in high concentrating photovoltaic system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Yiping; Shi, Xusheng; Huang, Qunwu; Cui, Yong; Kang, Xue

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Direct-contact liquid film cooling dense-array solar cells was first proposed. • Average temperature was controlled well below 80 °C. • The maximum temperature difference was less than 10 °C. • The heat transfer coefficient reached up to 11.91 kW/(m"2·K) under 589X. - Abstract: This paper presented a new method of cooling dense-array solar cells in high concentrating photovoltaic system by direct-contact liquid film, and water was used as working fluid. An electric heating plate was designed to simulate the dense-array solar cells in high concentrating photovoltaic system. The input power of electric heating plate simulated the concentration ratios. By heat transfer experiments, the effect of water temperatures and flow rates on heat transfer performance was investigated. The results indicated that: the average temperature of simulated solar cells was controlled well below 80 °C under water temperature of 30 °C and flow rate of 300 L/h when concentration ratio ranged between 300X and 600X. The maximum temperature difference among temperature measurement points was less than 10 °C, which showed the temperature distribution was well uniform. The heat transfer coefficient reached up to 11.91 kW/(m"2·K) under concentration ratio of 589X. To improve heat transfer performance and obtain low average temperature of dense-array solar cells, lower water temperature and suitable water flow rate are preferred.

  3. Survey of photovoltaic systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-08-01

    In developing this survey of photovoltaic systems, the University of Alabama in Huntsville assembled a task team to perform an extensive telephone survey of all known photovoltaic manufacturers. Three US companies accounted for 77% of the total domestic sales in 1978. They are Solarex Corporation, Solar Power Croporation, and ARCO Solar, Inc. This survey of solar photovoltaic (P/V) manufacturers and suppliers consists of three parts: a catalog of suppliers arranged alphabetically, data sheets on specific products, and typical operating, installation, or maintenance instructions and procedures. This report does not recommend or endorse any company product or information presented within as the results of this survey.

  4. Wafer integrated micro-scale concentrating photovoltaics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Tian; Li, Duanhui; Li, Lan; Jared, Bradley; Keeler, Gordon; Miller, Bill; Sweatt, William; Paap, Scott; Saavedra, Michael; Das, Ujjwal; Hegedus, Steve; Tauke-Pedretti, Anna; Hu, Juejun

    2017-09-01

    Recent development of a novel micro-scale PV/CPV technology is presented. The Wafer Integrated Micro-scale PV approach (WPV) seamlessly integrates multijunction micro-cells with a multi-functional silicon platform that provides optical micro-concentration, hybrid photovoltaic, and mechanical micro-assembly. The wafer-embedded micro-concentrating elements is shown to considerably improve the concentration-acceptance-angle product, potentially leading to dramatically reduced module materials and fabrication costs, sufficient angular tolerance for low-cost trackers, and an ultra-compact optical architecture, which makes the WPV module compatible with commercial flat panel infrastructures. The PV/CPV hybrid architecture further allows the collection of both direct and diffuse sunlight, thus extending the geographic and market domains for cost-effective PV system deployment. The WPV approach can potentially benefits from both the high performance of multijunction cells and the low cost of flat plate Si PV systems.

  5. Autonomous photovoltaic lighting system

    OpenAIRE

    Hafez, Ahmed A. A.; Montesinos Miracle, Daniel; Sudrià Andreu, Antoni

    2012-01-01

    This paper introduces a comparison between the conventional and Photovoltaic (PV) lighting systems. A simple sizing procedure for a PV stand-alone system was advised. The paper also proposes a novel PV lighting system. The proposed system is simple, compact and reliable. The system operation was investigated by thoroughly mathematical and simulation work.

  6. A comparative performance study of a photovoltaic concentrator system with discrete mirror and continuos profile for two different absorber shapes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    H, Saiful; Rezau, K.M [University of Dhaka, Dhaka (Bangladesh)

    2000-07-01

    Profiles of parabolic concentrators of discrete mirror and continuos surface mirror have been designed for combined electrical thermal photovoltaic systems. In the design the changes of concentration ratio, effect of reflection, angle of incidence over the absorber have been taken into account for maximum energy collection. The performances of the system are studied for solar cells of modified grid finger for illuminations from 1-10 sun. The local concentration ratio (LCR) distribution over the absorbers for both the concentrator, the optical efficiency, thermal efficiency, electrical and thermal power output and overall efficiency have been evaluated for different values of beam radiation concentration ratio and focal distance. [Spanish] Se han disenado perfiles de concentradores parabolicos de espejo discreto y de superficie continua para sistemas fotovoltaicos combinados electricos y termicos. En el diseno los cambios de la proporcion de concentracion, del efecto de la reflexion, del angulo de incidencia sobre el observador se han tenido en cuenta para una maxima recoleccion de energia. Los rendimientos del sistema se han estudiado para celdas solares de parrilla modificada para iluminaciones solares de 1-10. Han sido evaluados para diferentes valores de la proporcion de la concentracion de la radiacion en el rayo y la distancia focal la proporcion de concentracion local (LCR) de la distribucion en los absorbedores, para el concentrador la eficiencia optica, la eficiencia termica, electrica, la produccion de energia termica y electrica y la eficiencia total.

  7. Optimisation of the performance of a novel rotationally asymmetrical optical concentrator design for building integrated photovoltaic system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abu-Bakar, Siti Hawa; Muhammad-Sukki, Firdaus; Freier, Daria; Ramirez-Iniguez, Roberto; Mallick, Tapas Kumar; Munir, Abu Bakar; Mohd Yasin, Siti Hajar; Abubakar Mas'ud, Abdullahi; Md Yunus, Norhidayah

    2015-01-01

    Solar energy is one of the renewable energy sources that has shown promising potential in addressing the world's energy needs, particularly via the solar PV (photovoltaic) technology. However, the high cost of installation is still being considered as the main obstacle to the widespread adoption of solar PV system. The use of solar concentrators is one of the solutions that could help to produce lower cost solar PV systems. One of the existing concentrator designs is known as the RADTIRC (rotationally asymmetrical dielectric totally internally reflecting concentrator) which was developed in GCU (Glasgow Caledonian University) since 2010. This paper aims at optimising the existing RADTIRC prototype by increasing its electrical output whilst keeping the cost of the system at minimum. This is achieved by adopting a better material and a different technique to fabricate the concentrator. The optimised RADTIRC prototype was fabricated from PMMA (polymethyl-methacrylate) using injection moulding. It was found that the optimised RADTIRC-PV prototype generated an opto-electronic gain of 4.48 when compared with the bare cell under STC (standard test conditions). A comparison with the old prototype showed that the optimised RADTIRC-PV prototype increased the short circuit current by 13.57% under STC. - Highlights: • An optimisation of the performance of the RADTIRC was presented. • The optimised prototype was fabricated from PMMA using injection moulding. • The electrical and optical performances were investigated. • The optimised prototype generated an opto-electronic gain of 4.48x

  8. Photovoltaic roofing tile systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melchior, B.

    The integration of photovoltaic (PV) systems in architecture is discussed. A PV-solar roofing tile system with polymer concrete base; PV-roofing tile with elastomer frame profiles and aluminum profile frames; contact technique; and solar cell modules measuring technique are described. Field tests at several places were conducted on the solar generator, electric current behavior, battery station, electric installation, power conditioner, solar measuring system with magnetic bubble memory technique, data transmission via telephone modems, and data processing system. The very favorable response to the PV-compact system proves the commercial possibilities of photovoltaic integration in architecture.

  9. Photovoltaic power generation system with photovoltaic cells as bypass diodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lentine, Anthony L.; Nielson, Gregory N.; Tauke-Pedretti, Anna; Cruz-Campa, Jose Luis; Okandan, Murat

    2017-11-28

    A photovoltaic power generation system that includes a solar panel is described herein. The solar panel includes a photovoltaic sub-module, which includes a group of microsystem enabled photovoltaic cells. The group includes a first string of photovoltaic cells, a second string of photovoltaic cells, and a differing photovoltaic cell. Photovoltaic cells in the first string are electrically connected in series, and photovoltaic cells in the second string are electrically connected in series. Further, the first string of photovoltaic cells, the second string of photovoltaic cells, and the differing photovoltaic cell are electrically connected in parallel. Moreover, the differing photovoltaic cell is used as a bypass diode for the first string of photovoltaic cells and the second string of photovoltaic cells.

  10. Recent results for concentrator photovoltaics in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaguchi, Masafumi; Takamoto, Tatsuya; Araki, Kenji; Kojima, Nobuaki

    2016-04-01

    We summarize the Europe-Japan Collaborative Research Project on Concentrator Photovoltaics (CPV); NGCPV Project (a New Generation of Concentrator PhotoVoltaic cells, modules and systems). The aim of this project was to accelerate the move to very high efficiency and lower cost CPV technologies and to enhance the widespread deployment of CPV systems. Seven European partners and nine Japanese partners have contributed to this international collaboration. The following objectives have been reached: 1) a CPV cell with InGaP/GaAs/InGaAs three-junction world-record efficiency of 44.4% has been developed by Sharp, 2) 50 kW and 15 kW CPV plant operations with an average DC efficiency of 27.8% have been demonstrated in Spain (since mid-2012), 3) a new “Intrepid” CPV module with 31.3% efficiency has been developed by Daido Steel, 4) standard measurement of CPV cells has been established by FhG-ISE and AIST, and 46.0% efficiency has been confirmed for the direct-bonded GaInP/GaAs/GaInAsP/GaInAs four-junction solar cell under this project, 5) the fundamental research on novel materials and structures for CPV has also been conducted.

  11. Photovoltaic concentrator assembly with optically active cover

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plesniak, Adam P

    2014-01-21

    A photovoltaic concentrator assembly that includes a housing that defines an internal volume and includes a rim, wherein the rim defines an opening into the internal volume, a photovoltaic cell positioned in the internal volume, and an optical element that includes an optically active body and a flange extending outward from the body, wherein the flange is sealingly engaged with the rim of the housing to enclose the internal volume.

  12. Parametric performance analysis of a concentrated photovoltaic co-generation system equipped with a thermal storage tank

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imtiaz Hussain, M.; Lee, Gwi Hyun

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Both thermal and electrical powers varied by changing surface area of collector. • Thermal stratification and total system power were increased at critical flow rate. • Parametric analysis of the CPVC system offers to determine the desired outcome. • Thermal and electrical outputs varied by changing the focal length of Fresnel lens. - Abstract: This article presents a parametric study of a concentrated photovoltaic co-generation (CPVC) system with an attached thermal storage tank. The CPVC system utilized dual-axis tracker and multiple solar energy collector (SEC) modules and forced cooling system. Each SEC module comprised 16 triple-junction solar cells, copper tube absorbers, and 16 Fresnel lenses were aligned against each solar cell. This study investigated all possible parameters that can affect the CPVC system performance, including the collector area, solar irradiation, inlet temperature, and mass flow rate. The surface area of the collector and the thermal power were increased by increasing the number of SEC modules connected in series; however, the electrical power output decreased from the first to the fourth SEC module consecutively. At the measured optimal flow rate, mixing and thermal diffusion in the storage tank were decreased, and the total power generation from the CPVC system was increased. Variations in the thermal and electrical power outputs were also observed when the focal length of the Fresnel lens was changed. This parametric analysis enables the CPVC system to obtain the desired output by varying the combination of operational and geometrical parameters

  13. Photovoltaic modules with cylindrical waveguides in a system for the secondary concentration of solar radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreev, V. M.; Davidyuk, N. Yu.; Ionova, E. A.; Rumyantsev, V. D.

    2013-09-01

    The parameters of the concentrating photoelectric modules with triple-junction (InGaP/GaAs/Ge) solar cells whose focusing system contains an original secondary optical element are studied. The element consists of a plane-convex lens in optical contact with the front surface of an intermediate glass plate and a cylindrical waveguide that is located on the rear side of the glass plate above the surface of the solar element. It is demonstrated that the structure of the secondary optical element provides a wide misorientation characteristic of the concentrator and the cylindrical waveguide allows a more uniform radiation density over the surface of the solar cell. The effect of chromatic aberration in the primary and secondary optical systems on the parameters of photoelectric modules is analyzed. It is demonstrated that the presence of waveguides with a length of 3-5 mm leads to effective redistribution of radiation over the surface of the solar cell whereas shorter and longer waveguides provide the local concentration of radiation at the center of the photodetecting area.

  14. Multiphysics modelling and experimental validation of high concentration photovoltaic modules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Theristis, Marios; Fernández, Eduardo F.; Sumner, Mike; O'Donovan, Tadhg S.

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • A multiphysics modelling approach for concentrating photovoltaics was developed. • An experimental campaign was conducted to validate the models. • The experimental results were in good agreement with the models. • The multiphysics modelling allows the concentrator’s optimisation. - Abstract: High concentration photovoltaics, equipped with high efficiency multijunction solar cells, have great potential in achieving cost-effective and clean electricity generation at utility scale. Such systems are more complex compared to conventional photovoltaics because of the multiphysics effect that is present. Modelling the power output of such systems is therefore crucial for their further market penetration. Following this line, a multiphysics modelling procedure for high concentration photovoltaics is presented in this work. It combines an open source spectral model, a single diode electrical model and a three-dimensional finite element thermal model. In order to validate the models and the multiphysics modelling procedure against actual data, an outdoor experimental campaign was conducted in Albuquerque, New Mexico using a high concentration photovoltaic monomodule that is thoroughly described in terms of its geometry and materials. The experimental results were in good agreement (within 2.7%) with the predicted maximum power point. This multiphysics approach is relatively more complex when compared to empirical models, but besides the overall performance prediction it can also provide better understanding of the physics involved in the conversion of solar irradiance into electricity. It can therefore be used for the design and optimisation of high concentration photovoltaic modules.

  15. Sunlight to hydrogen conversion: Design optimization and energy management of concentrated photovoltaic (CPV-Hydrogen) system using micro genetic algorithm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burhan, Muhammad; Chua, Kian Jon Ernest; Ng, Kim Choon

    2016-01-01

    Owing to the intermittent solar irradiance from cloud cover in the diurnal period and unavailability at night time, the practical design of a solar system requires energy backup storage for an uninterrupted supply or for off-grid operation. However, for highly efficient CPV (concentrated photovoltaic) system, the literature is lacking for energy management and optimization algorithm and tool for standalone operation. In this paper, a system with CPV and electrolyser is presented where beam irradiance of sunlight is harnessed to convert the instantaneously generated electricity into useful Hydrogen/Oxygen gas, where they can be stored and re-used for downstream applications such as the fuel cells, etc. The multi-variable design and multi-objective optimization strategies are proposed and presented for a standalone operation of the CPV-Hydrogen system as well as their system performances, particularly electrical rating of CPV based upon the real weather data of Singapore. - Highlights: • Design modelling and energy management strategy is proposed for CPV-Hydrogen system. • Micro GA does multi-variable and multi-objective optimization for standalone operation. • Design is verified and analysed for minimum cost, zero PSFT and optimal storage. • Performance of each component is presented for different real weather data conditions. • Proposed design approach is applicable in all regions with low and high DNI.

  16. A Novel Concentrator Photovoltaic (CPV System with the Improvement of Irradiance Uniformity and the Capturing of Diffuse Solar Radiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nguyen Xuan Tien

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a novel concentrator photovoltaic (CPV system with improved irradiation uniformity and system efficiency. CPV technology is very promising its for highly efficient solar energy conversion. A conventional CPV system usually uses only one optical component, such as a refractive Fresnel lens or a reflective parabolic dish, to collect and concentrate solar radiation on the solar cell surface. Such a system creates strongly non-uniform irradiation distribution on the solar cell, which tends to cause hot spots, current mismatch, and degrades the overall efficiency of the system. Additionally, a high-concentration CPV system is unable to collect diffuse solar radiation. In this paper, we propose a novel CPV system with improved irradiation uniformity and collection of diffuse solar radiation. The proposed system uses a Fresnel lens as a primary optical element (POE to concentrate and focus the sunlight and a plano-concave lens as a secondary optical element (SOE to uniformly distribute the sunlight over the surface of multi-junction (MJ solar cells. By using the SOE, the irradiance uniformity is significantly improved in the system. Additionally, the proposed system also captures diffuse solar radiation by using an additional low-cost solar cell surrounding MJ cells. In our system, incident direct solar radiation is captured by MJ solar cells, whereas incident diffuse solar radiation is captured by the low-cost solar cell. Simulation models were developed using a commercial optical simulation tool (LightTools™. The irradiance uniformity and efficiency of the proposed CPV system were analyzed, evaluated, and compared with those of conventional CPV systems. The analyzed and simulated results show that the CPV system significantly improves the irradiance uniformity as well as the system efficiency compared to the conventional CPV systems. Numerically, for our simulation models, the designed CPV with the SOE and low-cost cell provided

  17. Multijunction Photovoltaic Technologies for High-Performance Concentrators: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McConnell, R.; Symko-Davies, M.

    2006-05-01

    Multijunction solar cells provide high-performance technology pathways leading to potentially low-cost electricity generated from concentrated sunlight. The National Center for Photovoltaics at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory has funded different III-V multijunction solar cell technologies and various solar concentration approaches. Within this group of projects, III-V solar cell efficiencies of 41% are close at hand and will likely be reported in these conference proceedings. Companies with well-developed solar concentrator structures foresee installed system costs of $3/watt--half of today's costs--within the next 2 to 5 years as these high-efficiency photovoltaic technologies are incorporated into their concentrator photovoltaic systems. These technology improvements are timely as new large-scale multi-megawatt markets, appropriate for high performance PV concentrators, open around the world.

  18. Performance comparison between ethanol phase-change immersion and active water cooling for solar cells in high concentrating photovoltaic system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Yiping; Wen, Chen; Huang, Qunwu; Kang, Xue; Chen, Miao; Wang, Huilin

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Thermal performances of ethanol phase-change immersion and active water cooling are compared. • Effects of operation parameters on ethanol phase-change immersion are studied. • Optimum filling ratio is 30% for ethanol phase-change immersion cooling system. • Exergy efficiency of ethanol phase-change immersion method increases by 57%. - Abstract: This paper presents an optimized ethanol phase-change immersion cooling method to obtain lower temperature of dense-array solar cells in high concentrating photovoltaic system. The thermal performances of this system were compared with a conventional active water cooling system with minichannels from the perspectives of start-up characteristic, temperature uniformity, thermal resistance and heat transfer coefficient. This paper also explored the influences of liquid filling ratio, absolute pressure and water flow rate on thermal performances. Dense-array LEDs were used to simulate heat power of solar cells worked under high concentration ratios. It can be observed that the optimal filling ratio was 30% in which the thermal resistance was 0.479 °C/W and the heat transfer coefficient was 9726.21 W/(m 2 ·°C). To quantify the quality of energy output of two cooling systems, exergy analysis are conducted and maximum exergy efficiencies were 17.70% and 11.27%, respectively. The experimental results represent an improvement towards thermal performances of ethanol phase-change immersion cooling system due to the reduction in contact thermal resistance. This study improves the operation control and applications for ethanol phase-change immersion cooling technology.

  19. Photovoltaic systems. Program summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1978-12-01

    Each of the Department of Energy's Photovoltaic Systems Program projects funded and/or in existence during fiscal year 1978 (October 1, 1977 through September 30, 1978) are described. The project sheets list the contractor, principal investigator, and contract number and funding and summarize the programs and status. The program is divided into various elements: program assessment and integration, research and advanced development, technology development, system definition and development, system application experiments, and standards and performance criteria. (WHK)

  20. Freeform optics applications in photovoltaic concentration

    OpenAIRE

    Miñano Dominguez, Juan Carlos; Benitez Gimenez, Pablo; Zamora Herranz, Pablo; Mendes Lopes, Joao; Buljan, Marina; Santamaria Galdon, Maria Asuncion

    2012-01-01

    Freeform surfaces are the key of the state-of-the-art nonimaging optics to solve the challenges in concentration photovoltaics. Different families (FK, XR, FRXI) will be presented, based on the SMS 3D design method and Köhler homogenization.

  1. A novel application for concentrator photovoltaic in the field of agriculture photovoltaics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Luqing; Guan, Chenggang; Zhang, Fangxin; Li, Ming; Lv, Hui; Liu, Yang; Yao, Peijun; Ingenhoff, Jan; Liu, Wen

    2017-09-01

    Agriculture photovoltaics is a trend setting area which has already led to a new industrial revolution. Shortage of land in some countries and desertification of land where regular solar panels are deployed are some of the major problems in the photovoltaic industry. Concentrator photovoltaics experienced a decline in applicability after the cost erosion of regular solar panels at the end of the last decade. We demonstrate a novel and unique application for concentrator photovoltaics tackling at a same time the issue of conventional photovoltaics preventing the land being used for agricultural purpose where ever solar panels are installed. We leverage the principle of diffractive and interference technology to split the sun light into transmitted wavelengths necessary for plant growth and reflected wavelengths useful for solar energy generation. The technology has been successfully implemented in field trials and sophisticated scientific studies have been undertaken to evaluate the suitability of this technology for competitive solar power generation and simultaneous high-quality plant growth. The average efficiency of the agriculture photovoltaic system has reached more than 8% and the average efficiency of the CPV system is 6.80%.

  2. Design and Optimization of Fresnel Lens for High Concentration Photovoltaic System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Jing

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A practical optimization design is proposed, in which the solar direct light spectrum and multijunction cell response range are taken into account in combination, particularly for the Fresnel concentrators with a high concentration and a small aspect ratio. In addition, the change of refractive index due to temperature variation in outdoor operation conditions is also considered in the design stage. The calculation results show that this novel Fresnel lens achieves an enhancement of energy efficiency of about 10% compared with conventional Fresnel lens for a given solar spectrum, solar cell response, and corrected sunshine hours of different ambient temperature intervals.

  3. Transient Model of Hybrid Concentrated Photovoltaic with Thermoelectric Generator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mahmoudi Nezhad, Sajjad; Qing, Shaowei; Rezaniakolaei, Alireza

    2017-01-01

    Transient performance of a concentrated photovoltaic thermoelectric (CPV-TEG) hybrid system is modeled and investigated. A heat sink with water, as the working fluid has been implemented as the cold reservoir of the hybrid system to harvest the heat loss from CPV cell and to increase the efficiency...

  4. Long term hydrogen production potential of concentrated photovoltaic (CPV) system in tropical weather of Singapore

    KAUST Repository

    Burhan, Muhammad; Chua, Kian Jon Ernest; Ng, Kim Choon

    2016-01-01

    far, only conventional flat plate PV systems are being used for almost all of the commercial applications. However, most of the studies have only shown the maximum efficiency of hydrogen production using CPV. In actual field conditions, the performance

  5. Impact of spectral irradiance distribution and temperature on the outdoor performance of concentrator photovoltaic system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Husna, Husyira Al; Shibata, Naoki; Sawano, Naoki; Ueno, Seiya; Ota, Yasuyuki; Minemoto, Takashi; Araki, Kenji; Nishioka, Kensuke

    2013-09-01

    Multi-junction solar cell is designed to have considerable effect towards the solar spectrum distribution so that the maximum solar radiation could be absorbed hence, enhancing the energy conversion efficiency of the cell. Due to its application in CPV system, the system's characteristics are more sensitive to environmental factor in comparison to flat-plate PV system which commonly equipped with Si-based solar cell. In this paper, the impact of environmental factors i.e. average photon energy (APE) and temperature of solar cell (Tcell) towards the performance of the tracking type CPV system were discussed. A year data period of direct spectral irradiance, cell temperature, and power output which recorded from November 2010 to October 2011 at a CPV system power generator plant located at Miyazaki, Japan was used in this study. The result showed that most frequent condition during operation was at APE = 1.87±0.005eV, Tcell = 65±2.5°C with performance ratio of 83.9%. Furthermore, an equivalent circuit simulation of a CPV subsystem in module unit was conducted in order to investigate the influence of environmental factors towards the performance of the module.

  6. Durability of Polymeric Encapsulation Materials for a PMMA/glass Concentrator Photovoltaic System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, David C.; Kempe, Michael D.; Muller, Matthew T; Gray, Matthew H.; Araki, Kenji; Kurtz, Sarah R.

    2014-04-08

    The durability of polymeric encapsulation materials was examined using outdoor exposure at the nominal geometric concentration of 500 suns. The results for 36 months cumulative field deployment are presented for materials including: poly(ethylene-co-vinyl acetate), (EVA); polyvinyl butyral (PVB); ionomer; polyethylene/ polyoctene copolymer (PO); thermoplastic polyurethane (TPU); poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS); poly(diphenyl dimethyl siloxane) (PDPDMS); and poly(phenyl-methyl siloxane) (PPMS). Measurements of the field conditions including ambient temperature and ultraviolet (UV) dose were recorded at the test site during the experiment. Measurements for the experiment included optical transmittance (with subsequent analysis of solar-weighted transmittance, UV cut-off wavelength, and yellowness index), mass, visual photography, photoelastic imaging, and fluorescence spectroscopy. While the results to date for EVA are presented and discussed, examination here focuses more on the siloxane materials. A specimen recently observed to fail by thermal decomposition is discussed in terms of the implementation of the experiment as well as its fluorescence signature, which was observed to become more pronounced with age. Modulated thermogravimetry (allowing determination of the activation energy of thermal decomposition) was performed on a subset of the siloxanes to quantify the propensity for decomposition at elevated temperatures. Supplemental, Pt-catalyst- and primer-solutions as well as peroxide-cured PDMS specimens were examined to assess the source of the luminescence. The results of the study including the change in optical transmittance, observed failure modes, and subsequent analyses of the failure modes are described in the conclusions.

  7. Photovoltaics: systems considerations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haq, A M

    1982-08-01

    Photovoltaics applications to date and the potential uses and growth of this alternative energy source for the future are examined in the light of present world economic conditions. In addition, a more detailed description is given, illustrating the method by which system sizing and design are calculated and mentioning such factors as local solar radiation and insolation levels, humidity, wind loading and altitude, all of which affect the optimal system size. The role of computer programming in these calculations is also outlined, illustrating the way in which deterioration, battery losses, poor weather etc. can be accounted and compensated for in the systems design process. The elements of the actual systems are also described, including details of the solar cells and arrays, the electronic controls incorporated in the systems and the characteristics of the batteries used. A resume of projected costs and current technological advances in silicon processing techniques is given together with an analysis of present and future growth trends in the photovoltaics industry.

  8. White butterflies as solar photovoltaic concentrators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanks, Katie; Senthilarasu, S.; Ffrench-Constant, Richard H.; Mallick, Tapas K.

    2015-07-01

    Man’s harvesting of photovoltaic energy requires the deployment of extensive arrays of solar panels. To improve both the gathering of thermal and photovoltaic energy from the sun we have examined the concept of biomimicry in white butterflies of the family Pieridae. We tested the hypothesis that the V-shaped posture of basking white butterflies mimics the V-trough concentrator which is designed to increase solar input to photovoltaic cells. These solar concentrators improve harvesting efficiency but are both heavy and bulky, severely limiting their deployment. Here, we show that the attachment of butterfly wings to a solar cell increases its output power by 42.3%, proving that the wings are indeed highly reflective. Importantly, and relative to current concentrators, the wings improve the power to weight ratio of the overall structure 17-fold, vastly expanding their potential application. Moreover, a single mono-layer of scale cells removed from the butterflies’ wings maintained this high reflectivity showing that a single layer of scale cell-like structures can also form a useful coating. As predicted, the wings increased the temperature of the butterflies’ thorax dramatically, showing that the V-shaped basking posture of white butterflies has indeed evolved to increase the temperature of their flight muscles prior to take-off.

  9. White butterflies as solar photovoltaic concentrators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanks, Katie; Senthilarasu, S; Ffrench-Constant, Richard H; Mallick, Tapas K

    2015-07-31

    Man's harvesting of photovoltaic energy requires the deployment of extensive arrays of solar panels. To improve both the gathering of thermal and photovoltaic energy from the sun we have examined the concept of biomimicry in white butterflies of the family Pieridae. We tested the hypothesis that the V-shaped posture of basking white butterflies mimics the V-trough concentrator which is designed to increase solar input to photovoltaic cells. These solar concentrators improve harvesting efficiency but are both heavy and bulky, severely limiting their deployment. Here, we show that the attachment of butterfly wings to a solar cell increases its output power by 42.3%, proving that the wings are indeed highly reflective. Importantly, and relative to current concentrators, the wings improve the power to weight ratio of the overall structure 17-fold, vastly expanding their potential application. Moreover, a single mono-layer of scale cells removed from the butterflies' wings maintained this high reflectivity showing that a single layer of scale cell-like structures can also form a useful coating. As predicted, the wings increased the temperature of the butterflies' thorax dramatically, showing that the V-shaped basking posture of white butterflies has indeed evolved to increase the temperature of their flight muscles prior to take-off.

  10. Photovoltaic systems in Indonesia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tjaroko, T.; Bakker, P. de

    2001-01-01

    The article discusses the reasons for the slow growth of the photovoltaic industry in Indonesia where more than 100 million people have no access to electricity, but there is an abundance of solar power. There should be considerable scope for solar home systems in particular. Barriers to expansion of the PV market have included the devaluation of the rupee and the failure of many government-initiated projects. It is concluded that at present, the purchasing power of individuals is insufficient for the potential PV market to expand

  11. Trans-Pecos Photovoltaic Concentration Experiment. Final report for Phase-I system design, 6 June 1978-28 February 1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marcy, W.M.; Dudek, R.A.

    1979-03-30

    The Trans-Pecos Photovoltaic Concentrating Experiment is the design of a 200 kWe peak photovoltaic concentrating system applied to deep well irrigation in the Trans-Pecos region of Texas. The site selected is typical of deep well irrigation in arid regions of Texas, New Mexico, and Arizona. The existing well utilizes a 200 horse power, three phase, 480 volt induction motor to lift water 540 feet to irrigate 380 acres. The Trans-Pecos Photovoltaic Concentration (PVC) system employs a two axis (azimuth-elevation) tracking parabolic concentrator module that focuses sunlight at 38X concentration on two strings of actively cooled silicon solar cells. The direct current from a field of 102 collector modules is converted by a maximum power point electric power conditioning system to three phase alternating current. The power from the power conditioning system is connected through appropriate switchgear in parallel with the utility grid to the well's induction motor. The operational philosophy of the experiment is to displace daytime utility power with solar generated electric power. The solar system is sized to provide approximately 50 percent of the 24 hour energy demand of the motor. This requires an energy exchange with the utility since peak solar power (200 kWe) generated exceeds the peak motor demand (149.2 kWe). The annual energy production is projected to be 511 Mwh using El Paso, Texas solar TMY data. System electrical power production efficiency is projected to be 7.4 percent at the design point, and 7.0 percent on an annual electrical energy production basis. The system is projected to provide 37.8 percent of the 24 hour energy demand of the motor at the design point of March 10, excluding energy delivered to the grid in excess of motor demand. The total energy produced is projected to be 39.0 percent of the 24 hour energy demand of the motor at the design point of March 10.

  12. Three-phase Photovoltaic Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kerekes, Tamas; Sera, Dezso; Máthé, Lászlo

    2015-01-01

    , detailing the different photovoltaic inverter structures and topologies as well as discussing the different control layers within a grid-connected photovoltaic plant. Modulation schemes for various photovoltaic inverter topologies, grid synchronization, current control, active and reactive power control......Photovoltaic technology has experienced unprecedented growth in the last two decades, transforming from mainly off-grid niche generation to a major renewable energy technology, reaching approximately 180 GW of capacity worldwide at the end of 2014. Large photovoltaic power plants interfacing...... the grid through a three-phase power electronic converter are now well on the way to becoming a major player in the power system in many countries. Therefore, this article gives an overview of photovoltaic systems with a focus on three-phase applications, presenting these both from a hardware point of view...

  13. Optimization of the concentration level in the peak-watt cost of photovoltaic concentrator systems; Optimizacion del nivel de concentracion desde el punto de vista economico en instalaciones fotovoltaicas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Illanes, R.; De la cueva, J. M.; De Francisco, A.; Prieto, E.; De Blas, M. A.

    2004-07-01

    In this paper, the effect of the geometric concentration level in the peak-watt cost of photovoltaic concentrator systems is analysed. The optimum levels to make minimum cost for every cell technology is determined for the assumption of some prices. It is concluded that low and middle level concentration are the most profitable systems when cells of monocrystalline Silicon are used, being high level concentration systems the most interesting with high efficiency technologies. A reduction in the peak-watt cost between 50% and 70% of the present price of PV flat panels may be possible, although it would be desirable more data available on the price of components. (Author)

  14. Current Status of Concentrator Photovoltaic (CPV) Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Philipps, Simon P. [Fraunhofer Inst. for Solar Energy Systems ISE, Freiburg (Germany); Bett, Andreas W. [Fraunhofer Inst. for Solar Energy Systems ISE, Freiburg (Germany); Horowitz, Kelsey [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Kurtz, Sarah [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2015-12-01

    This report summarizes the status of the concentrator photovoltaic (CPV) market and industry as well as current trends in research and technology. This report is intended to guide research agendas for Fraunhofer ISE, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), and other R&D organizations. Version 1.1 of this report includes recent progress in CPV. The recent record module efficiency of 38.9% at Concentrator Standard Test Conditions (CSTC) is an impressive result, demonstrating the continuing opportunity for CPV technology to improve. 38.9% at Concentrator Standard Test Conditions (CSTC) is an impressive result, demonstrating the continuing opportunity for CPV technology to improve. 38.9% at Concentrator Standard Test Conditions (CSTC) is an impressive result, demonstrating the continuing opportunity for CPV technology to improve. 38.9% at Concentrator Standard Test Conditions (CSTC) is an impressive result, demonstrating the continuing opportunity for CPV technology to improve.

  15. Technology fundamentals: photovoltaic systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quaschning, V.

    2006-01-01

    The generation of electric power from photovoltaic systems is described in detail. The mechanism of operation of solar cells is described in terms of photons, electrons, charge carriers and charge separation. The various cells, modules, technical terms and related technology are discussed. The chemical elements used in solar cells are mentioned and the manufacturing processes described. The technical advantages of the newer thin-film modules over the traditional silicon cells are given but at present manufacturing cost is limiting their production. Both stand-alone and grid-connected PV systems are described. The potential market for PV systems is discussed. It is suggested that PV could eventually meet the total global electric power demand. (author)

  16. Photovoltaic systems engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Messenger, Roger A

    2010-01-01

    BackgroundPopulation and Energy DemandEnergy UnitsCurrent World Energy Use PatternsExponential GrowthHubbert's Gaussian ModelNet Energy, Btu Economics, and the Test for SustainabilityDirect Conversion of Sunlight to Electricity with PhotovoltaicsThe SunThe Solar SpectrumThe Effect of Atmosphere on SunlightSunlight SpecificsCapturing SunlightIntroduction to PV SystemsThe PV CellThe PV ModuleThe PV ArrayEnergy StoragePV System LoadsPV System AvailabilityAssociated System Electronic ComponentsGeneratorsBalance of System (BOS) ComponentsGrid-Connected Utility-Interactive PV SystemsApplicable Codes and StandardsDesign Considerations for Straight Grid-Connected PV SystemsDesign of a System Based on Desired Annual System PerformanceDesign of a System Based on Available Roof SpaceDesign of a Microinverter-Based SystemDesign of a Nominal 21 kW System that Feeds a Three-Phase Distribution PanelDesign of a Nominal 250 kW SystemSystem Performance MonitoringMechanical ConsiderationsImportant Properties of MaterialsEstabli...

  17. Solar cell concentrating system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garg, H.P.; Sharma, V.K.; Agarwal, R.K.

    1986-11-01

    This study reviews fabrication techniques and testing facilities for different solar cells under concentration which have been developed and tested. It is also aimed to examine solar energy concentrators which are prospective candidates for photovoltaic concentrator systems. This may provide an impetus to the scientists working in the area of solar cell technology

  18. Outdoor performance analysis of a 1090× point-focus Fresnel high concentrator photovoltaic/thermal system with triple-junction solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, Ning; Ji, Jie; Sun, Wei; Han, Lisheng; Chen, Haifei; Jin, Zhuling

    2015-01-01

    Graphical abstract: A high concentrator photovoltaic/thermal (HCPV/T) system based on point-focus Fresnel lens has been set up in this work. The concentrator has a geometric concentration ratio of 1090× and uniform irradiation distribution can be obtained on solar cells. The system produces both electricity and heat. Performance of the system has been investigated based on the outdoor measurement in a clear day. The HCPV/T system presents an instantaneous electrical efficiency of 28% and a highest instantaneous thermal efficiency of 54%, respectively. Experimental results show that direct irradiation affects the electrical performance of the system dominantly. Fitting results of electrical performance offer simple and reliable methods to analyze the system performance. - Highlights: • A point-focus Fresnel lens photovoltaic/thermal system is proposed and studied. • The system presents an instantaneous electrical efficiency of 28%. • The system has a highest instantaneous thermal efficiency of 54%. • Direct irradiation has the dominant effect on the electrical performance. • Fitting results offer simple and reliable methods to analyze system performances. - Abstract: A high concentrator photovoltaic/thermal (HCPV/T) system based on point-focus Fresnel lens has been set up in this work. The concentrator has a geometric concentration ratio of 1090× and uniform irradiation distribution can be obtained on solar cells. The system produces both electricity and heat. Performance of the system has been investigated based on the outdoor measurement in a clear day. The HCPV/T system presents an instantaneous electrical efficiency of 28% and a highest instantaneous thermal efficiency of 54%, which means the overall efficiency of the system can be more than 80%. A mathematical model for calculating cell temperature is proposed to solve difficult measurement of cell temperature in a system. Moreover, characteristics of electrical performance under various direct

  19. Photovoltaic module mounting system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miros, Robert H. J. [Fairfax, CA; Mittan, Margaret Birmingham [Oakland, CA; Seery, Martin N [San Rafael, CA; Holland, Rodney H [Novato, CA

    2012-04-17

    A solar array mounting system having unique installation, load distribution, and grounding features, and which is adaptable for mounting solar panels having no external frame. The solar array mounting system includes flexible, pedestal-style feet and structural links connected in a grid formation on the mounting surface. The photovoltaic modules are secured in place via the use of attachment clamps that grip the edge of the typically glass substrate. The panel mounting clamps are then held in place by tilt brackets and/or mid-link brackets that provide fixation for the clamps and align the solar panels at a tilt to the horizontal mounting surface. The tilt brackets are held in place atop the flexible feet and connected link members thus creating a complete mounting structure.

  20. Qualification standard for photovoltaic concentrator modules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McConnell, R.; Kurtz, S.; Bottenberg, W. R.; Hammond, R.; Jochums, S. W.; McDanal, A. J.; Roubideaux, D.; Whitaker, C.; Wohlgemuth, J.

    2000-05-05

    The paper describes a proposed qualification standard for photovoltaic concentrator modules. The standard's purpose is to provide stress tests and procedures to identify any component weakness in photovoltaic concentrator modules intended for power generation applications. If no weaknesses are identified during qualification, both the manufacturer and the customer can expect a more reliable product. The qualification test program for the standard includes thermal cycles, humidity-freeze cycles, water spray, off-axis beam damage, hail impact, hot-spot endurance, as well as electrical tests for performance, ground continuity, isolation, wet insulation resistance, and bypass diodes. Because concentrator module performance can not be verified using solar simulator and reference cell procedures suitable for flat-plate modules, the standard specifies an outdoor I-V test analysis allowing a performance comparison before and after a test procedure. Two options to this complex analysis are the use of a reference concentrator module for side-by-side outdoor comparison with modules undergoing various tests and a dark I-V performance check.

  1. Nonimaging concentrators for photovoltaic arrays in space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winston, R.; Greenman, P.; Rockey, D.

    1981-01-01

    Two stage concentrators are studied in order to design an optimum concentrator for photovoltaic arrays in space. The study is directed at designs with two-dimensional geometries because they are better suited to moderate concentrations of about 10 X to 50 X, and because the instantaneous flux distribution is more uniform. It is found that with an f/0.5 primary, where f is the focal length of the primary, the flux distribution is very smooth regardless of the angle of incidence of the radiation. As the focal ratio is increased, peaks in the distribution begin to appear. The nonuniformities can be reduced by introducing small, closely spaced distortions into the reflecting surfaces, and practical arrays can achieve a concentration of 10 when the acceptance half angle is 4.25 deg or 50 when the acceptance half angle is + or - 1 deg.

  2. Optimization of photovoltaic power systems

    CERN Document Server

    Rekioua, Djamila

    2012-01-01

    Photovoltaic generation is one of the cleanest forms of energy conversion available. One of the advantages offered by solar energy is its potential to provide sustainable electricity in areas not served by the conventional power grid. Optimisation of Photovoltaic Power Systems details explicit modelling, control and optimisation of the most popular stand-alone applications such as pumping, power supply, and desalination. Each section is concluded by an example using the MATLAB(R) and Simulink(R) packages to help the reader understand and evaluate the performance of different photovoltaic syste

  3. Experimental research on photovoltaic module for asymmetrical compound parabolic concentrator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yuan, Jinshe; Wang, Mingyue [Chongqing Normal University, Chongqing (China). Department of Physics; Yang, Changmin [Xian University of Technology, Xian (China). Department of Applied Physics

    2008-07-01

    The photovoltaic module for the use of fixed asymmetrical CPC concentrator was designed and fabricated based on the performance of polycrystalline-silicon solar cells with back surface field (BSF) structure. The performance of the combination of the module and asymmetrical CPC concentrator was investigated. The results show its effective concentration ratio to be 2.46 and the output power of the PV-a-CPC system to be increased by 2.13 times compared with that of the module approximately. (orig.)

  4. Photovoltaic System in Progress

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shoro, Ghulam Mustafa; Hussain, Dil Muhammad Akbar; Sera, Dezso

    2013-01-01

    This paper provides a comprehensive update on photovoltaic (PV) technologies and the materials. In recent years, targeted research advancement has been made in the photovoltaic cell technologies to reduce cost and increase efficiency. Presently, several types of PV solar panels are commercially...... falls in the third generation PV technologies. However, Multi-junction Cells are still considered new and have not yet achieved commercialization status. The fundamental change observed among all generations has been how the semiconductor material is employed and the development associated with crystal...

  5. A Photovoltaic System Payback Calculator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riley, Daniel M. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Fleming, Jeffrey E. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Gallegos, Gerald R. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2016-06-01

    The Roof Asset Management Program (RAMP) is a DOE NNSA initiative to manage roof repairs and replacement at NNSA facilities. In some cases, installation of a photovoltaic system on new roofs may be possible and desired for financial reasons and to meet federal renewable energy goals. One method to quantify the financial benefits of PV systems is the payback period, or the length of time required for a PV system to generate energy value equivalent to the system's cost. Sandia Laboratories created a simple spreadsheet-based solar energy valuation tool for use by RAMP personnel to quickly evaluate the estimated payback period of prospective or installed photovoltaic systems.

  6. MATLAB Simulation of Photovoltaic and Photovoltaic/Thermal Systems Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasir, Farah H. M.; Husaini, Yusnira

    2018-03-01

    The efficiency of the photovoltaic reduces when the photovoltaic cell temperature increased due to solar irradiance. One solution is come up with the cooling system photovoltaic system. This combination is forming the photovoltaic-thermal (PV/T) system. Not only will it generate electricity also heat at the same time. The aim of this research is to focus on the modeling and simulation of photovoltaic (PV) and photovoltaic-thermal (PV/T) electrical performance by using single-diode equivalent circuit model. Both PV and PV/T models are developed in Matlab/Simulink. By providing the cooling system in PV/T, the efficiency of the system can be increased by decreasing the PV cell temperature. The maximum thermal, electrical and total efficiency values of PV/T in the present research are 35.18%, 15.56% and 50.74% at solar irradiance of 400 W/m2, mass flow rate of 0.05kgs-1 and inlet temperature of 25 °C respectively has been obtained. The photovoltaic-thermal shows that the higher efficiency performance compared to the photovoltaic system.

  7. A comparison of performance of flat and bent photovoltaic luminescent solar concentrators

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vishwanathan, B.; Reinders, A. H.M.E.; de Boer, D.K.G.; Desmet, L.; Ras, A. J.M.; Zahn, F. H.; Debije, M.G.

    2015-01-01

    To employ new solar photovoltaic technologies in products and buildings, many systems need to be adapted. Inspired by the cylindrical shape, in this work we have evaluated the performance of luminescent solar concentrator photovoltaic (LSC-PV) elements with narrow PV cell strips that could be

  8. Systems Integration | Photovoltaic Research | NREL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Integration Systems Integration The National Center for Photovoltaics (NCPV) at NREL provides grid integration support, system-level testing, and systems analysis for the Department of Energy's solar distributed grid integration projects supported by the SunShot Initiative. These projects address technical

  9. Technique for Outdoor Test on Concentrating Photovoltaic Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Sansoni

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Outdoor experimentation of solar cells is essential to maximize their performance and to assess utilization requirements and limits. More generally tests with direct exposure to the sun are useful to understand the behavior of components and new materials for solar applications in real working conditions. Insolation and ambient factors are uncontrollable but can be monitored to know the environmental situation of the solar exposure experiment. A parallel characterization of the photocells can be performed in laboratory under controllable and reproducible conditions. A methodology to execute solar exposure tests is proposed and practically applied on photovoltaic cells for a solar cogeneration system. The cells are measured with concentrated solar light obtained utilizing a large Fresnel lens mounted on a sun tracker. Outdoor measurements monitor the effects of the exposure of two multijunction photovoltaic cells to focused sunlight. The main result is the continuous acquisition of the V-I (voltage-current curve for the cells in different conditions of solar concentration and temperature of exercise to assess their behavior. The research investigates electrical power extracted, efficiency, temperatures reached, and possible damages of the photovoltaic cell.

  10. Experimental integrated photovoltaic systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pop-Jordanov, Jordan; Markovska, Natasha; Dimitrov, D.; Kocev, K.; Dimitrovski, D.

    2000-01-01

    Recently, the interest in building-integrated photovoltaic installations has started to increase within governmental and municipality authorities, as well as some industrial companies. To serve a national public-awareness program of solar electricity promotion and education, the indigenous solar energy potential, optimization of possible PV installation, and three test cases of building-integrated grid-connected experimental facilities have been studied. The results showed the feasibility and performance of the proposed concepts. (Original)

  11. Design of photovoltaic systems

    OpenAIRE

    Laso Martínez, Miguel

    2014-01-01

    Photovoltaic (PV) harvesting of solar energy is based on capturing sunlight and transforming it into electricity. This type of electricity generation does not pollute the environment as much as other types of energy production, that is why nowadays some engineers would like to improve it. To carry out this change we use solar cells made of semiconductor materials (Silicon) in which it is artificially created a permanent electric field. These cells are connected in series or par...

  12. Design of Residential Photovoltaic Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kerekes, Tamas; Sera, Dezso; Mathe, Laszlo

    2017-01-01

    Renewable energy has become very important both worldwide and on the European market, mainly due to the decrease in the photovoltaic (PV) system cost (up to 75%) during the last decade. PV installations worldwide have reached 227 GW at the end of 2015 with a predicted extra 50 GW of new...

  13. Assessment of the Carbon Footprint, Social Benefit of Carbon Reduction, and Energy Payback Time of a High-Concentration Photovoltaic System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allen H. Hu

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Depleting fossil fuel sources and worsening global warming are two of the most serious world problems. Many renewable energy technologies are continuously being developed to overcome these challenges. Among these technologies, high-concentration photovoltaics (HCPV is a promising technology that reduces the use of expensive photovoltaic materials to achieve highly efficient energy conversion. This reduction process is achieved by adopting concentrating and tracking technologies. This study intends to understand and assess the carbon footprint and energy payback time (EPBT of HCPV modules during their entire life cycles. The social benefit of carbon reduction is also evaluated as another indicator to assess the energy alternatives. An HCPV module and a tracker from the Institute of Nuclear Energy Research (INER were applied, and SimaPro 8.0.2 was used for the assessment. The functional unit used in this study was 1 kWh, which is produced by HCPV, and inventory data was sourced from Ecoinvent 3.0 and the Taiwan carbon footprint calculation database. The carbon footprint, EPBT, and social benefit of carbon reduction were evaluated as 107.69 g CO2eq/kWh, 2.61 years, and 0.022 USD/kWh, respectively. Direct normal irradiation (DNI, life expectancy, and the degradation rate of HCPV system were subjected to sensitivity analysis. Results show that the influence of lifetime assumption under a low DNI value is greater than those under high DNI values. Degradation rate is also another important factor when assessing the carbon footprint of HCPV under a low DNI value and a long lifetime assumption. The findings of this study can provide several insights for the development of the Taiwanese solar industry.

  14. Accelerated stability testing of organic photovoltaics using concentrated sunlight

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Katz, Eugene A.; Manor, Assaf; Mescheloff, Asaf

    2012-01-01

    We suggest to use concentrated sunlight for accelerated studies of light-induced mechanisms in the degradation of organic photovoltaics (OPV) based on the polymer (P3HT)/fullerene (PCBM) bulk heterojunctions. Two particular cases of the degradation are reported.......We suggest to use concentrated sunlight for accelerated studies of light-induced mechanisms in the degradation of organic photovoltaics (OPV) based on the polymer (P3HT)/fullerene (PCBM) bulk heterojunctions. Two particular cases of the degradation are reported....

  15. Tracking integration in concentrating photovoltaics using laterally moving optics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duerr, Fabian; Meuret, Youri; Thienpont, Hugo

    2011-05-09

    In this work the concept of tracking-integrated concentrating photovoltaics is studied and its capabilities are quantitatively analyzed. The design strategy desists from ideal concentration performance to reduce the external mechanical solar tracking effort in favor of a compact installation, possibly resulting in lower overall cost. The proposed optical design is based on an extended Simultaneous Multiple Surface (SMS) algorithm and uses two laterally moving plano-convex lenses to achieve high concentration over a wide angular range of ±24°. It achieves 500× concentration, outperforming its conventional concentrating photovoltaic counterparts on a polar aligned single axis tracker.

  16. Photovoltaic conference on system services

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burges, Karsten; Freier, Karin; Vincent, Jeremy; Montigny, Marie; Engel, Bernd; Konstanciak, Wilhelm; Makdessi, Georges; Acres, Adrien; Schlaaff, Torsten; Defaix, Christophe

    2015-01-01

    The French-German office for Renewable energies (OFAEnR) organised a photovoltaic conference on system services and photovoltaic facilities. In the framework of this French-German exchange of experience, about 100 participants have analysed and discussed the regulatory, technical and economical context of system services, their evolution and implementation in the framework of an accelerated development of photovoltaic conversion in both countries. This document brings together the available presentations (slides) made during this event: 1 - Technical Introduction to system services: principles, actors and perspectives (Karsten Burges); 2 - Legal guidelines of EEG (Renewable energy Sources Act) and the System Stability Ordinance as well as future measures for PV grid integration (Karin Freier); 3 - evolution of ancillary services regulation; opening the possibility for new market players to participate in maintaining the system stability (Jeremy Vincent, Marie Montigny); 4 - Paradigm shift for ancillary services: PV as a new stakeholder (Bernd Engel); 5 - Challenges of RES integration (Wilhelm Konstanciak 6 - System services supplied by PV inverters, solutions for frequency and active/reactive power control at the injection point (Georges Makdessi); 7 - Grid disturbance abatement and voltage stability control by monitoring local scale PV production (Adrien Acres); 8 - Flexibly Adaptable Power Plant Controller - The Answer to Various Grid Requirements (Torsten Schlaaff); 9 - ENR-pool project: What kind of business model for ancillary services by PV power plants? (Christophe Defaix)

  17. Photovoltaic assisted solar drying system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruslan, M.H.; Othman, M.Y.; Baharuddin Yatim; Kamaruzzaman Sopian; Ali, M.I.; Ibarahim, Z.

    2006-01-01

    A photovoltaic assisted solar drying system has been constructed at the Solar Energy Research Park, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia. This drying system uses a custom designed parallel flow V-groove type collector. A fan powered by photovoltaic source assists the air flow through the drying system. A funnel with increasing diameter towards the top with ventilator turbine is incorporated into the system to facilitate the air flow during the absence of photovoltaic energy source. This drying system is designed with high efficiency and portability in mind so that it can readily be used at plantation sites where the crops are harvested or produced. A daily mean efficiency about 44% with mean air flow rate 0.16 kgs -1 has been achieved at mean daily radiation intensity of 800 Wm -2 . daily mean temperature of air drying chamber under the above conditions is 46 o C. Study has shown that the air flow and air temperature increase with the increase of solar radiation intensity. On a bright sunny day with instantaneous solar intensity about 600 Wm -2 , the temperature of air entering the drying chamber of 45 o C has been measured. In the absence of photovoltaic or in natural convection flow, the instantaneous efficiency decreased when solar radiation increased. The instantaneous efficiency recorded are 35% and 27% respectively at 570 Wm -2 and 745 Wm -2 of solar radiation. The temperature of drying chamber for the same amount of solar radiation are 42 o C and 48 o C respectively. Thus, the solar dryer shows a great potential for application in drying process of agricultural produce

  18. Automatic outdoor monitoring system for photovoltaic panels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefancich, Marco; Simpson, Lin; Chiesa, Matteo

    2016-05-01

    Long-term acquisition of solar panel performance parameters, for panels operated at maximum power point in their real environment, is of critical importance in the photovoltaic research sector. However, few options exist for the characterization of non-standard panels such as concentrated photovoltaic systems, heavily soiled or shaded panels or those operating under non-standard spectral illumination; certainly, it is difficult to find such a measurement system that is flexible and affordable enough to be adopted by the smaller research institutes or universities. We present here an instrument aiming to fill this gap, autonomously tracking and maintaining any solar panel at maximum power point while continuously monitoring its operational parameters and dissipating the produced energy without connection to the power grid. The instrument allows periodic acquisition of current-voltage curves to verify the employed maximum power point tracking approach. At the same time, with hardware schematics and software code being provided, it provides a flexible open development environment for the monitoring of non-standard generators like concentrator photovoltaic systems and to test novel power tracking approaches. The key issues, and the corresponding solutions, encountered in the design are analyzed in detail and the relevant schematics presented.

  19. Automatic outdoor monitoring system for photovoltaic panels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stefancich, Marco [Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerce, Istituto dei Materiali per l’Elettronica ed il Magnetismo (CNR-IMEM), Parco Area delle Scienze 37/A, 43124 Parma, Italy; Simpson, Lin [National Renewable Energy Laboratory, 15013 Denver West Parkway, Golden, Colorado 80401, USA; Chiesa, Matteo [Masdar Institute of Science and Technology, P.O. Box 54224, Masdar City, Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates

    2016-05-01

    Long-term acquisition of solar panel performance parameters, for panels operated at maximum power point in their real environment, is of critical importance in the photovoltaic research sector. However, few options exist for the characterization of non-standard panels such as concentrated photovoltaic systems, heavily soiled or shaded panels or those operating under non-standard spectral illumination; certainly, it is difficult to find such a measurement system that is flexible and affordable enough to be adopted by the smaller research institutes or universities. We present here an instrument aiming to fill this gap, autonomously tracking and maintaining any solar panel at maximum power point while continuously monitoring its operational parameters and dissipating the produced energy without connection to the power grid. The instrument allows periodic acquisition of current-voltage curves to verify the employed maximum power point tracking approach. At the same time, with hardware schematics and software code being provided, it provides a flexible open development environment for the monitoring of non-standard generators like concentrator photovoltaic systems and to test novel power tracking approaches. The key issues, and the corresponding solutions, encountered in the design are analyzed in detail and the relevant schematics presented.

  20. New Markets for Solar Photovoltaic Power Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Chacko; Jennings, Philip; Singh, Dilawar

    2007-10-01

    Over the past five years solar photovoltaic (PV) power supply systems have matured and are now being deployed on a much larger scale. The traditional small-scale remote area power supply systems are still important and village electrification is also a large and growing market but large scale, grid-connected systems and building integrated systems are now being deployed in many countries. This growth has been aided by imaginative government policies in several countries and the overall result is a growth rate of over 40% per annum in the sales of PV systems. Optimistic forecasts are being made about the future of PV power as a major source of sustainable energy. Plans are now being formulated by the IEA for very large-scale PV installations of more than 100 MW peak output. The Australian Government has announced a subsidy for a large solar photovoltaic power station of 154 MW in Victoria, based on the concentrator technology developed in Australia. In Western Australia a proposal has been submitted to the State Government for a 2 MW photovoltaic power system to provide fringe of grid support at Perenjori. This paper outlines the technologies, designs, management and policies that underpin these exciting developments in solar PV power.

  1. Design of photovoltaic central power station concentrator array

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1984-02-01

    A design for a photovoltaic central power station using tracking concentrators has been developed. The 100 MW plant is assumed to be located adjacent to the Saguaro Power Station of Arizona Public Service. The design assumes an advanced Martin Marietta two-axis tracking fresnel lens concentrator. The concentrators are arrayed in 5 MW subfields, each with its own power conditioning unit. The photovoltaic plant output is connected to the existing 115 kV switchyard. The site specific design allows detailed cost estimates for engineering, site preparation, and installation. Collector and power conditioning costs have been treated parametrically.

  2. Concentration of solar radiation by white backed photovoltaic panels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smestad, G; Hamill, P

    1984-12-01

    In this paper, we present an analysis of the concentration achieved by white backed photovoltaic panels. Concentration is due to the trapping by light scattered in the refractive plate to which the solar cell is bonded. Using the reciprocity relation and assuming the ideal case of a Lambertian distribution, a detailed model is formulated that includes the effects of the thickness and walls of the concentrator. This model converges to the thermodynamic limit and is found to be consistent with experimental results for a wide range of cell sizes. Finally, the model is generalized to multiple-cell photovoltaic panels.

  3. Photovoltaic power system reliability considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lalli, V. R.

    1980-01-01

    This paper describes an example of how modern engineering and safety techniques can be used to assure the reliable and safe operation of photovoltaic power systems. This particular application was for a solar cell power system demonstration project in Tangaye, Upper Volta, Africa. The techniques involve a definition of the power system natural and operating environment, use of design criteria and analysis techniques, an awareness of potential problems via the inherent reliability and FMEA methods, and use of a fail-safe and planned spare parts engineering philosophy.

  4. Development of the SEA Corporation Powergrid{trademark} photovoltaic concentrator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaminar, N.; Curchod, D.; Daroczi, S.; Walpert, M.; Sahagian, J.; Pepper, J. [Photovoltaics International, LLC, Sunnyvale, CA (United States)

    1998-03-01

    This report covers the three phase effort to bring the SEA Corporation`s Powergrid{trademark} from the concept stage to pilot production. The three phases of this contract covered component development, prototype module development, and pilot line production. The Powergrid is a photovoltaic concentrator that generates direct current electricity directly from sunlight using a linear Fresnel lens. Analysis has shown that the Powergrid has the potential to be very low cost in volume production. Before the start of the project, only proof of concept demonstrations of the components had been completed. During the project, SEA Corporation developed a low cost extruded Fresnel lens, a low cost receiver assembly using one sun type cells, a low cost plastic module housing, a single axis tracking system and frame structure, and pilot production equipment and techniques. In addition, an 800 kW/yr pilot production rate was demonstrated and two 40 kW systems were manufactured and installed.

  5. Photovoltaic pump systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klockgether, J.; Kiessling, K. P.

    1983-09-01

    Solar pump systems for the irrigation of fields and for water supply in regions with much sunshine are discussed. For surface water and sources with a hoisting depth of 12 m, a system with immersion pumps is used. For deep sources with larger hoisting depths, an underwater motor pump was developed. Both types of pump system meet the requirements of simple installation and manipulation, safe operation, maintenance free, and high efficiency reducing the number of solar cells needed.

  6. Optics of two-stage photovoltaic concentrators with dielectric second stages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ning, Xiaohui; O'Gallagher, Joseph; Winston, Roland

    1987-04-01

    Two-stage photovoltaic concentrators with Fresnel lenses as primaries and dielectric totally internally reflecting nonimaging concentrators as secondaries are discussed. The general design principles of such two-stage systems are given. Their optical properties are studied and analyzed in detail using computer ray trace procedures. It is found that the two-stage concentrator offers not only a higher concentration or increased acceptance angle, but also a more uniform flux distribution on the photovoltaic cell than the point focusing Fresnel lens alone. Experimental measurements with a two-stage prototype module are presented and compared to the analytical predictions.

  7. Optics of two-stage photovoltaic concentrators with dielectric second stages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ning, X; O'Gallagher, J; Winston, R

    1987-04-01

    Two-stage photovoltaic concentrators with Fresnel lenses as primaries and dielectric totally internally reflecting nonimaging concentrators as secondaries are discussed. The general design principles of such two-stage systems are given. Their optical properties are studied and analyzed in detail using computer ray trace procedures. It is found that the two-stage concentrator offers not only a higher concentration or increased acceptance angle, but also a more uniform flux distribution on the photovoltaic cell than the point focusing Fresnel lens alone. Experimental measurements with a two-stage prototype module are presented and compared to the analytical predictions.

  8. Dynamically reconfigurable photovoltaic system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okandan, Murat; Nielson, Gregory N.

    2016-05-31

    A PV system composed of sub-arrays, each having a group of PV cells that are electrically connected to each other. A power management circuit for each sub-array has a communications interface and serves to connect or disconnect the sub-array to a programmable power grid. The power grid has bus rows and bus columns. A bus management circuit is positioned at a respective junction of a bus column and a bus row and is programmable through its communication interface to connect or disconnect a power path in the grid. As a result, selected sub-arrays are connected by selected power paths to be in parallel so as to produce a low system voltage, and, alternately in series so as to produce a high system voltage that is greater than the low voltage by at least a factor of ten.

  9. Dynamically reconfigurable photovoltaic system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okandan, Murat; Nielson, Gregory N.

    2016-12-27

    A PV system composed of sub-arrays, each having a group of PV cells that are electrically connected to each other. A power management circuit for each sub-array has a communications interface and serves to connect or disconnect the sub-array to a programmable power grid. The power grid has bus rows and bus columns. A bus management circuit is positioned at a respective junction of a bus column and a bus row and is programmable through its communication interface to connect or disconnect a power path in the grid. As a result, selected sub-arrays are connected by selected power paths to be in parallel so as to produce a low system voltage, and, alternately in series so as to produce a high system voltage that is greater than the low voltage by at least a factor of ten.

  10. Photovoltaic Energy Conversion Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kouro, Samir; Wu, Bin; Abu-Rub, Haitham

    2014-01-01

    This chapter presents a comprehensive overview of grid-connected PV systems, including power curves, grid-connected configurations, different converter topologies (both single- and three-phase), control schemes, MPPT, and anti-islanding detection methods. The focus of the chapter has been on the ...

  11. Characteristic and comparison of different submounts on concentrating photovoltaic module

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yueh-Mu; Shih, Zun-Hao; Hong, Hwen-Fen; Shin, Hwa-Yuh; Kuo, Cherng-Tsong

    2014-09-01

    High concentration photovoltaics systems employ concentrating optics consisting of dish reflectors or fresnel lenses that concentrate sunlight to 500 suns or more. In general, under concentrating light operation condition, the device temperature rises quickly and the open-circuit voltage of solar cell will decrease with increasing temperature; therefore, the system output power or energy-conversion efficiency will decrease while temperature of solar cell increased. In this study, we analyze the ceramic thermal resistance and propose a direct temperature measurement method of the solar cell. The direct temperature measurement of the cell and the ceramic was achieved by utilizing buried thermocouples with a diameter of 50 μm between the cell/ceramic and aluminum plate. The different light flux densities ranging from 500 to 800 W/m2 at 100 W/m2 interval by solar simulator are provided to measure temperature, and the cell temperatures measured are 39.8 °C, 41 °C, 45 °C and 48 °C, respectively. The temperature differences between the cell and aluminum plate of the light flux densities from 500 W/m2 to 800 W/m2 are in the range of 4.2 °C to 8 °C. Accordingly we can obtain the temperature distribution of HCPV module at difference region. The results can help us to optimize module package technology and to choose better material applied to the module to improve conversion efficiency of the cell.

  12. Sunlight to hydrogen conversion: Design optimization and energy management of concentrated photovoltaic (CPV-Hydrogen) system using micro genetic algorithm

    KAUST Repository

    Burhan, Muhammad; Chua, Kian Jon Ernest; Ng, Kim Choon

    2016-01-01

    Owing to the intermittent solar irradiance from cloud cover in the diurnal period and unavailability at night time, the practical design of a solar system requires energy backup storage for an uninterrupted supply or for off-grid operation. However

  13. Dynamic Control Based Photovoltaic Illuminating System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Chengkai

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Smart LED illumination system can use the power from whether the photovoltaic cell or the power grid automatically based on the SOC (State Of Charge of the photovoltaic cell. This paper proposes a feedback control of the photovoltaic cells and a dynamic control strategy for the Energy system. The dynamic control strategy is used to determine the switching state of the photovoltaic cell based on the illumination load in the past one hour and the battery capacity. These controls are manifested by experimental prototype that the control scheme is correct and effective.

  14. In-situ thermoelectric temperature monitoring and "Closed-loop integrated control" system for concentrator photovoltaic-thermoelectric hybrid receivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rolley, Matthew H.; Sweet, Tracy K. N.; Min, Gao

    2017-09-01

    This work demonstrates a new technique that capitalizes on the inherent flexibility of the thermoelectric module to provide a multifunctional platform, and exhibits a unique advantage only available within CPV-TE hybrid architectures. This system is the first to use the thermoelectric itself for hot-side temperature feedback to a PID control system, needing no additional thermocouple or thermistor to be attached to the cell - eliminating shading, and complex mechanical designs for mounting. Temperature measurement accuracy and thermoelectric active cooling functionality is preserved. Dynamic "per-cell" condition monitoring and protection is feasible using this technique, with direct cell-specific temperature measurement accurate to 1°C demonstrated over the entire experimental range. The extrapolation accuracy potential of the technique was also evaluated.

  15. Cost and Performance Model for Photovoltaic Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borden, C. S.; Smith, J. H.; Davisson, M. C.; Reiter, L. J.

    1986-01-01

    Lifetime cost and performance (LCP) model assists in assessment of design options for photovoltaic systems. LCP is simulation of performance, cost, and revenue streams associated with photovoltaic power systems connected to electric-utility grid. LCP provides user with substantial flexibility in specifying technical and economic environment of application.

  16. Dynamic of small photovoltaic systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehrmann, A.; Kleinkauf, W.; Pigorsch, W.; Steeb, H.

    The results of 1.5 yr of field-testing of two photovoltaic (PV) power plants, one equipped with an electrolyzer and H2 storage, are reported. Both systems were interconnected with the grid and featured the PV module, a power conditioning unit, ac and dc load connections, and control units. The rated power of both units was 100 Wp. The system with electrolysis was governed by control laws which maximized the electrolyzer current. The tests underscored the preference for a power conditioning unit, rather than direct output to load connections. A 1 kWp system was developed in a follow-up program and will be tested in concert with electrolysis and interconnection with several grid customers. The program is geared to eventual development of larger units for utility-size applications.

  17. Photovoltaic power systems energy storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buldini, P.L.

    1991-01-01

    Basically, the solar photovoltaic power system consists of: Array of solar panels; Charge/voltage stabilizer; Blocking diode and Storage device. The storage device is a very important part of the system due to the necessity to harmonize the inevitable time shift between energy supply and demand. As energy storage, different devices can be utilized, such as hydropumping, air or other gas compression, flywheel, superconducting magnet, hydrogen generation and so on, but actually secondary (rechargeable) electrochemical cells appear to be the best storage device, due to the direct use for recharge of the d.c. current provided by the solar panels, without any intermediate step of energy transformation and its consequent loss of efficiency

  18. APPLICATION OF A PHOTOVOLTAIC SYSTEM IN WATER ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    use of the Photovoltaic system for water pumping is explored. .... employed to advantage for rural Ethiopia are solar energy, wind ... Kwh/sq.m/day and with a yearly average of about .... equator. Well Data : Total head 62m ... Investment return in photovoltaic potable water ... without any considerable change in performance.

  19. Photovoltaic energy systems. Program summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1982-01-01

    The ongoing research, development, and demonstration efforts of the Photovoltaics Program are highlighted and each of the US Department of Energy's current photovoltaics projects initiated or renewed during fiscal year 1981 is described, including its title, directing organization, project engineer, contractor, principal investigator, contract period, funding, and objectives. The Photovoltaics Program is briefly summarized, including the history and organization and highlights of the research and development and of planning, assessment, and integration. Also summarized is the Federal Photovoltaic Utilization Program. An exhaustive bibliography is included. (LEW)

  20. Airport Solar Photovoltaic Concentrator Project. Phase 1 - final report, June 1, 1978-February 28, 1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-12-01

    The system design, analysis, and specification, site preparation, and operation and evaluation plan for a 500 kWe photovoltaic power supply to be located at the Phoenix Sky Harbor International Airport in Phoenix, Arizona, are presented. The solar cell arrays are concentrator silicon solar cells with tracking 70X Cassegrain-type concentrators. The power conditioning system, tracking system, and control systems are described in detal. Environmental impact studies are described. Component specifications and drawings are included. (WHK)

  1. Estimating Solar Irradiation Absorbed by Photovoltaic Panels with Low Concentration Located in Craiova, Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ionel L. Alboteanu

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Solar irradiation is one of the important parameters that should be taken into consideration for the design and utilization of a photovoltaic system. Usually, the input parameters of a photovoltaic system are solar irradiation, the ambient environment temperature and the wind speed, and as a consequence most photovoltaic systems are equipped with sensors for measuring these parameters. This paper presents several mathematical models for solar irradiation assessment. The starting point is represented by the mathematical model of extraterrestrial irradiation, and resulting finally in the model for solar irradiation, absorbed by a low concentration photovoltaic panel. These estimating models of solar irradiation have been particularized for the Craiova, Romania, and have been verified through numerical simulation. Regarding terrestrial solar irradiation, four mathematical models have been adopted, namely Adnot, Haurwitz, Kasten and Empirical (EIM. Of these, the most appropriate for the Craiova location were the models Adnot and Empirical. Consequently, for the calculation of the solar irradiation absorbed by the photovoltaic (PV panels with low concentration, these models have been taken into consideration. In this study, a comparative analysis was also carried out with respect to the solar irradiation absorbed by the PV panels without concentration and those with collectedness of the solar radiation. This analysis was based on the results of numerical simulation and experimental tests.

  2. Home Photovoltaic System Design in Pangkalpinang City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunanda, Wahri

    2018-02-01

    This research aims to obtain the design of home photovoltaic systems in Pangkalpinang and the opportunity of economic savings. The system consists of photovoltaic with batteries. Based on electricity consumption of several houses with installed power of 1300 VA and 2200 VA in Pangkalpinang for one year, the daily load of photovoltaic system is varied to 40%, 30% and 20% of the average value of the daily home electricity consumption. The investment costs, the cost of replacement parts and the cost of electricity consumption accrued to PLN during lifetime of systems (25 years) are also calculated. The result provided that there are no economic saving opportunities for photovoltaic systems with batteries at home with installed power of 1300 VA and 2200 VA in Pangkalpinang. The most economical is the photovoltaic system with the daily load of 20% of the average value of the daily home electricity consumption. The configuration of photovoltaic system for 1300 VA home consists of 10 modules of 200 wattpeak and 4 batteries 150 AH, 12 Volt while photovoltaic system for 2200 VA home consists of 15 modules of 200 wattpeak and 6 batteries 150 AH,12Volt.

  3. Characterization of a photovoltaic-thermal module for Fresnel linear concentrator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chemisana, D.; Ibanez, M.; Rosell, J.I.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → A combined domed Fresnel lens - CPC PVT system is designed and characterized. → Electrical and thermal experiments have been performed. → CFD analysis has been used to determine thermal characteristic dimensionless numbers. - Abstract: An advanced solar unit is designed to match the needs of building integration and concentrating photovoltaic/thermal generation. The unit proposed accurately combines three elements: a domed linear Fresnel lens as primary concentrator, a compound parabolic reflector as secondary concentrator and a photovoltaic-thermal module. In this work the photovoltaic-thermal generator is built, analysed and characterized. Models for the electrical and thermal behaviour of the module are developed and validated experimentally. Applying a thermal resistances approach the results from both models are combined. Finally, efficiency electrical and thermal curves are derived from theoretical analysis showing good agreement with experimental measurements.

  4. Photovoltaic power generation system free of bypass diodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lentine, Anthony L.; Okandan, Murat; Nielson, Gregory N.

    2015-07-28

    A photovoltaic power generation system that includes a solar panel that is free of bypass diodes is described herein. The solar panel includes a plurality of photovoltaic sub-modules, wherein at least two of photovoltaic sub-modules in the plurality of photovoltaic sub-modules are electrically connected in parallel. A photovoltaic sub-module includes a plurality of groups of electrically connected photovoltaic cells, wherein at least two of the groups are electrically connected in series. A photovoltaic group includes a plurality of strings of photovoltaic cells, wherein a string of photovoltaic cells comprises a plurality of photovoltaic cells electrically connected in series. The strings of photovoltaic cells are electrically connected in parallel, and the photovoltaic cells are microsystem-enabled photovoltaic cells.

  5. Photovoltaic concentrator technology development project. Sixth project integration meeting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-10-01

    Thirty-three abstracts and short papers are presented which describe the current status of research, development, and demonstration of concentrator solar cell technology. Solar concentrators discussed include the parabolic trough, linear focus Fresnel lens, point focus Fresnel lens, and the parabolic dish. Solar cells studied include silicon, GaAs, and AlGaAs. Research on multiple junction cells, combined photovoltaic/thermal collectors, back contact solar cells, and beam splitter modules is described. Concentrator solar cell demonstration programs are reported. Contractor status summaries are given for 33 US DOE concentrator solar cell contracts; a description of the project, project status, and key results to date is included. (WHK)

  6. Added values of photovoltaic power systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-03-01

    The structure, ownership and operation of electricity systems around the world are changing in response to industry restructuring, the availability of new technologies and increasing environmental awareness. At the same time, many countries have yet to provide basic energy services for their populations, particularly in areas not served by the electricity grid. Large-scale, central power generation and distribution which characterized the electricity industry for much of the 20 th century is being challenged by new technologies, which are cleaner, faster to deploy and better matched to local requirements. Higher values are being placed on ancillary services, such as power system reliability and voltage stability, so that a simple comparison of energy cost is no longer appropriate as a measure of competitiveness. Solar photovoltaic electricity is unique amongst the new energy sources for the wide range of energy and non-energy benefits which can be provided, while the use of photovoltaic power systems as an integral part of a building provides the greatest opportunity for exploiting non-energy benefits and for adding value to the photovoltaic power system. This report documents the potential added values or non-energy benefits photovoltaic power systems can provide, the current state of market development and the key barriers faced by renewable energy technologies generally and photovoltaic power systems in particular. Means by which non-energy benefits may be used to overcome barriers to the use of photovoltaic power systems are then discussed, with specific attention to the use of building integrated photovoltaics. (author)

  7. Added values of photovoltaic power systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-15

    The structure, ownership and operation of electricity systems around the world are changing in response to industry restructuring, the availability of new technologies and increasing environmental awareness. At the same time, many countries have yet to provide basic energy services for their populations, particularly in areas not served by the electricity grid. Large-scale, central power generation and distribution which characterized the electricity industry for much of the 20{sup th} century is being challenged by new technologies, which are cleaner, faster to deploy and better matched to local requirements. Higher values are being placed on ancillary services, such as power system reliability and voltage stability, so that a simple comparison of energy cost is no longer appropriate as a measure of competitiveness. Solar photovoltaic electricity is unique amongst the new energy sources for the wide range of energy and non-energy benefits which can be provided, while the use of photovoltaic power systems as an integral part of a building provides the greatest opportunity for exploiting non-energy benefits and for adding value to the photovoltaic power system. This report documents the potential added values or non-energy benefits photovoltaic power systems can provide, the current state of market development and the key barriers faced by renewable energy technologies generally and photovoltaic power systems in particular. Means by which non-energy benefits may be used to overcome barriers to the use of photovoltaic power systems are then discussed, with specific attention to the use of building integrated photovoltaics. (author)

  8. Voltage Quality Improvement Using Solar Photovoltaic Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denisa Galzina

    2015-06-01

    This paper briefly shows the methods of power quality improvement, and then the results of on-site power quality measurements in the grid before and after the connection of the solar photovoltaic system.

  9. A compact spectrum splitting concentrator for high concentration photovoltaics based on the dispersion of a lens

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, J.; Flowers, C. A.; Yao, Y.; Atwater, H. A.; Rockett, A. A.; Nuzzo, R. G.

    2018-06-01

    Photovoltaic devices used in conjunction with functional optical elements for light concentration and spectrum splitting are known to be a viable approach for highly efficient photovoltaics. Conventional designs employ discrete optical elements, each with the task of either performing optical concentration or separating the solar spectrum. In the present work, we examine the performance of a compact photovoltaic architecture in which a single lens plays a dual role as both a concentrator and a spectrum splitter, the latter made possible by exploiting its intrinsic dispersion. A four-terminal two-junction InGaP/GaAs device is prepared to validate the concept and illustrates pathways for improvements. A spectral separation in the visible range is demonstrated at the focal point of a plano-convex lens with a geometric concentration ratio of 1104X with respect to the InGaP subcell.

  10. Cylindrically symmetric Fresnel lens for high concentration photovoltaic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, Yu-Ting; Su, Guo-Dung

    2009-08-01

    High concentration photovoltaic (HCPV) utilizes point-focus cost-effective plastic Fresnel lens. And a millimeter-sized Ill-V compound multi-junction solar cell is placed underneath focusing optics which can achieve cell efficiency potential of up to 40.7 %. The advantage of HCPV makes less solar cell area and higher efficiency; however, the acceptance angle of HCPV is about +/-1°, which is very small and the mechanical tracking of the sun is necessary. In order to reduce the power consumption and the angle tracking error of tracking systems, a light collector model with larger acceptance angle is designed with ZEMAX®. In this model, the original radially symmetric Fresnel lens of HCPV is replaced by cylindrically symmetric Fresnel lens and a parabolic reflective surface. Light is collected in two dimensions separately. And a couple of lenses and a light pipe are added before the solar cell chip in order to collect more light when sun light deviates from incident angle of 00. An acceptance angle of +/-10° is achieved with GCR 400.

  11. Luminescent solar concentrators for building-integrated photovoltaics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meinardi, Francesco; Bruni, Francesco; Brovelli, Sergio

    2017-12-01

    The transition to fully energetically sustainable architecture through the realization of so-called net zero-energy buildings is currently in progress in areas with low population density. However, this is not yet true in cities, where the cost of land for the installation of ground photovoltaic (PV) is prohibitively high and the rooftop space is too scarce to accommodate the PV modules necessary for sustaining the electrical requirements of tall buildings. Thus, new technologies are being investigated to integrate solar-harvesting devices into building façades in the form of PV windows or envelope elements. Luminescent solar concentrators (LSCs) are the most promising technology for semi-transparent, electrodeless PV glazing systems that can be integrated 'invisibly' into the built environment without detrimental effects to the aesthetics of the building or the quality of life of the inhabitants. After 40 years of research, recent breakthroughs in the realization of reabsorption-free emitters with broadband absorption have boosted the performance of LSCs to such a degree that they might be commercialized in the near future. In this Perspective, we explore the successful strategies that have allowed this change of pace, examining and comparing the different types of chromophores and waveguide materials, and discuss the issues that remain to be investigated for further progress.

  12. Concentrating photovoltaics for the Tropics. Final Report, June 1, 1978-February 28, 1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-06-30

    The design and specification of a photovoltaic concentrator total energy system are presented. The design will provide nearly half the electrical energy needs and most of the thermal energy needs (absorption chillers) of the Center for Energy and Environment Research, University of Puerto Rico, and the hot water needs of the Oncologic Hospital and Children's Hospital, Puerto Rico Medical Center. The system will utilize 34,190 sq ft of 40X slat type concentrators with secondary CPC concentrators to provide 162 kWe. The combined photovoltaic/thermal collector system utilizes a 20,000 gal steel thermal storage tank, and two absorption refrigeration units which will produce a total of 149 tons of cooling. Detailed drawings and system fabrication and installation plans are included. Insolation data for the San Juan, Puerto Rico site are presented, and calculated system performance based on this data is presented. (WHK)

  13. Concentrating photovoltaics for the Tropics. Final Report, June 1, 1978-February 28, 1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-06-30

    The design and specification of a photovoltaic concentrator total energy system are presented. The design will provide nearly half the electrical energy needs and most of the thermal energy needs (absorption chillers) of the Center for Energy and Environment Research, University of Puerto Rico, and the hot water needs of the Oncologic Hospital and Children's Hospital, Puerto Rico Medical Center. The system will utilize 34,190 sq ft of 40X slat type concentrators with secondary CPC concentrators to provide 162 kWe. The combined photovoltaic/thermal collector system utilizes a 20,000 gal steel thermal storage tank, and two absorption refrigeration units which will produce a total of 149 tons of cooling. Detailed drawings and system fabrication and installation plans are included. Insolation data for the San Juan, Puerto Rico site are presented, and calculated system performance based on this data is presented. (WHK)

  14. Systems and methods for photovoltaic string protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krein, Philip T.; Kim, Katherine A.; Pilawa-Podgurski, Robert C. N.

    2017-10-25

    A system and method includes a circuit for protecting a photovoltaic string. A bypass switch connects in parallel to the photovoltaic string and a hot spot protection switch connects in series with the photovoltaic string. A first control signal controls opening and closing of the bypass switch and a second control signal controls opening and closing of the hot spot protection switch. Upon detection of a hot spot condition the first control signal closes the bypass switch and after the bypass switch is closed the second control signal opens the hot spot protection switch.

  15. Cost Estimates Of Concentrated Photovoltaic Heat Sink Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-01

    PV), return on investment (ROI) 15. NUMBER OF PAGES 59 16. PRICE CODE 17. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF REPORT Unclassified 18. SECURITY...improvements increase overall system returns on investment and 11 provide pathways for further reduction in system costs (Phillips et al., 2015). Phillips...generation. As the CPV market has matured, production costs have come down to near flat-panel photovoltaic (PV) production costs. CPV units

  16. Optical design of a solar flux homogenizer for concentrator photovoltaics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreske, Kathi

    2002-04-01

    An optical solution is described for the redistribution of the light reflected from a 400-m2 paraboloidal solar concentrating dish as uniformly as possible over an approximately 1-m2 plane. Concentrator photovoltaic cells will be mounted at this plane, and they require a uniform light distribution for high efficiency. It is proposed that the solar cells will be mounted at the output of a rectangular receiver box with reflective sidewalls (i.e., a kaleidoscope), which will redistribute the light. I discuss the receiver box properties that influence the light distribution reaching the solar cells.

  17. Photovoltaic systems: state of the art and short-medium term perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brofferio, Sergio C.; Rota, Alberto

    2006-01-01

    The paper presents and discusses, from a technology and economic point of view, the characteristics, performances, issues and perspectives of the thin films and the solar concentrating photovoltaic systems in the short and medium terms. Both have well based motivations to be an evolutionary step of current wafer based Silicon systems: the former as Building Integrated Photovoltaic and the latter as high density and high power photovoltaic systems [it

  18. Modeling photovoltaic systems for AC appliances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreea Maria Neaca

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper is described the development of a model which can simulate the performance of a photovoltaic (PV system under specific meteorological conditions and transforming the DC current into AC current. In this model, the accent stands on the design of a series charge regulator. It is treated also the benefit of creating a circuit, with different methods, that can test the maximum power point trackers (MPPT for different photovoltaic applications.

  19. Reliability Evaluation of Concentrator Photovoltaic Modules per IEC Qualification Specifications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tamizhmani, Govindasamy

    2012-12-05

    This project is related to the qualification testing of new generation CPV (concentrator photovoltaics) modules at lower testing costs and lower turnaround time. In this project, the first testing program was completed for two CPV manufacturers, the second testing program was completed for two manufacturers at 65% of the actual testing cost and at less than 3 months of testing turnaround time and the third testing program was completed for two manufacturers at 65% of the actual testing cost and at less than 3 months of testing turnaround time. Due to their financial situation and restructuring, Amonix (one of the CPV manufacturers) intermittently terminated the test programs.

  20. Photovoltaic-Concentrator Based Power Beaming For Space Elevator Application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Becker, Daniel E.; Chiang, Richard; Keys, Catherine C.; Lyjak, Andrew W.; Starch, Michael D.; Nees, John A.

    2010-01-01

    The MClimber team, at the Student Space Systems Fabrication Laboratory of the University of Michigan, has developed a prototype robotic climber for competition in the NASA sponsored Power Beaming Challenge. This paper describes the development of the system that utilizes a simple telescope to deliver an 8 kW beam to a photovoltaic panel in order to power a one kilometer climb. Its unique approach utilizes a precision GPS signal to track the panel. Fundamental systems of the project were implemented using a design strategy focusing on robustness and modularity. Development of this design and its results are presented.

  1. Photovoltaic systems for export application. Informal report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duffy, J.; Campbell, H.; Sajo, A.; Sanz, E. [Univ. of Lowell, MA (United States)

    1988-01-31

    One approach to improving the competitiveness of photovoltaic systems is the development of designs specifically for export applications. In other words, where is it appropriate in a system design to incorporate components manufactured and/or assembled in the receiving country in order to improve the photovoltaic exports from the US? What appears to be needed is a systematic method of evaluating the potential for export from the US of PV systems for various application in different countries. Development of such a method was the goal of this project.

  2. Optimization of a Point Focus Concentration Photovoltaic System with Passive Cooling; Optimización de un Sistema Fotovoltaico de Concentración de Foco Puntual con Refrigeración Pasiva

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chenlo, F.

    2015-07-01

    The objective of this work is modeling the temperature of photovoltaic (PV) solar cells operating in concentration systems with circular geometry and coupled to a heat sink plate for passive cooling. The proposed thermal behavior model analyses the temperature surface distribution of both PV solar cell and heat sink plate as function of light concentration. The model also allows analyzing the influence of other parameters such as uniform and non-uniform variation of the heat sink plate thickness or variation of the thermal transmission coefficient. The optimal range of the concentration factor is studied using simple models for the PV solar cell efficiency and Fresnel lens concentrator performance together with a function of costs applied to medium concentration silicon crystalline PV cells and high efficiency and high concentration multi-junction PV cells. Finally, experimental main parameters and its procedures measurement for concentration systems are presented. Modeling results show that the use of a high conductivity disk thermally coupled between the rear side of the cell and the cooling plate reduces the working cell temperature. Results also indicates that use of a light redirecting prism by total internal reflection of sunlight, reduces optical losses due to concentrator defects and chromatic aberration and increases the angle tracking error acceptance without having to increase the area of the PV solar cell.

  3. Expected energy production evaluation for photovoltaic systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ding, Yi; Østergaard, Jacob; Peng, Wang

    2011-01-01

    A photovoltaic (PV) system consists of many solar panels, which are connected in series, parallel or a combination of both. Energy production for the PV system with various configurations is different. In this paper, a methodology is developed to evaluate and analyze the expected energy production...

  4. Photovoltaic systems concept study. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1977-04-01

    The work performed in the conceptual design and systems analysis of three sizes of photovoltaic solar electric power systems is contained in five volumes consisting of nine sections plus appendices. Separate abstracts were prepared for the two sections in this volume. (MHR)

  5. Natural conditions and administrative settings for concentrating photovoltaics in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Ling; Chen, Xiaoyuan; Leutz, Ralf

    2012-10-01

    It is an inevitable trend for China to develop green technologies to help the country to produce cleaner energy and to consume it more efficiently, under the pressure of energy security concern, the nation's emissions trajectory and sustainable economic development. The abundant solar resources in West China provide a big potential to utilize the solar energy. Under the promotion of key incentive policies including both feed-in-tariff (FIT) mechanisms and government rebate programs, China has become a major global solar force in photovoltaic (PV) industry both in manufacturing and in the installation of flat-plate products, with 16 GW production and 2.75 GW installation achieved in the year 2011. As a branch of PV technology, concentrating photovoltaics (CPV) technology with several years' development history in China is presently moving from pilot facilities to commercial-scale applications. Several MW-CPV power plants have been installed by both domestic and western companies in China, factories with several hundred-MW production capacity are being planned or built. Sustainable performance and reliability improvement of CPV modules, a vertical integration of supply chain in CPV industry aiming at a cost reduction, a sufficient grid infrastructure for facilitating the West-East and North-South electricity transmission will promote Chinese CPV market to actually initiate, develop and mature.

  6. Photovoltaics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prince, M.B.

    1994-01-01

    Photovoltaic energy systems have the long range potential for supplying a significant part of the world's need for electricity Even today, such systems offer many benefits compared to other energy systems such as fossil fuel, nuclear and other renewable systems. These include: stability, reliability, require no water, no moving parts, environmentally benign, moderate efficiency, modular, universally usable, easy maintenance, and low power distribution costs. This paper will present information on present costs of the key system components, realistic cost projections and the results of a comparative study of three renewable approaches for a large system. (author), (tabs. 2)

  7. Three-Phase Photovoltaic Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kerekes, Tamas; Sera, Dezso; Máthé, Lászlo

    2017-01-01

    Photovoltaic (PV) technology has experienced an unprecedented growth in the last two decades, transforming from mainly an off-grid niche generation to a major renewable energy technology, reaching approximately 227 GW of capacity worldwide at the end of 2015 with a predicted extra 50 GW of new...... a hardware point of view, detailing the different PV inverter structures and topologies and discussing the different control layers within a grid-connected PV plant. Modulation schemes for various PV inverter topologies, grid synchronization, current control, active and reactive power control, maximum power...

  8. Photovoltaics. System design and practice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haeberlin, Heinrich [Berne Univ. of Applied Sciences (Switzerland)

    2012-07-01

    ''Photovoltaics'' is the direct conversion of sunlight to electrical energy. This environmentally friendly process is used today worldwide. In the informative and in English available specialist publication the possibilities but also the problems by using the direct conversion of sunlight to electric current and its feeding into the general power grid or isolated networks are described detailed and clearly. Beside solar cells also all other installation components are widely considered, e. g. solar modules, solar panels, secondary cells, charge controller as well as inverter and lightning protection. The book is completed with basic information from around the world and operational experiences for the calculation of profits.

  9. Application and design of solar photovoltaic system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Tianze; Lu Hengwei; Jiang Chuan; Hou Luan; Zhang Xia

    2011-01-01

    Solar modules, power electronic equipments which include the charge-discharge controller, the inverter, the test instrumentation and the computer monitoring, and the storage battery or the other energy storage and auxiliary generating plant make up of the photovoltaic system which is shown in the thesis. PV system design should follow to meet the load supply requirements, make system low cost, seriously consider the design of software and hardware, and make general software design prior to hardware design in the paper. To take the design of PV system for an example, the paper gives the analysis of the design of system software and system hardware, economic benefit, and basic ideas and steps of the installation and the connection of the system. It elaborates on the information acquisition, the software and hardware design of the system, the evaluation and optimization of the system. Finally, it shows the analysis and prospect of the application of photovoltaic technology in outer space, solar lamps, freeways and communications.

  10. Photovoltaic Cells and Systems: Current State and Future Trends

    OpenAIRE

    Hadj Bourdoucen; Joseph A. Jervase; Abdullah Al-Badi; Adel Gastli; Arif Malik

    2000-01-01

    Photovoltaics is the process of converting solar energy into electrical energy. Any photovoltaic system invariably consists of solar cell arrays and electric power conditioners. Photovoltaic systems are reliable, quiet, safe and both environmentally benign and self-sustaining. In addition, they are cost-effective for applications in remote areas. This paper presents a review of solar system components and integration, manufacturing, applications, and basic research related to photovoltaics. P...

  11. TwinFocus, a concentrated photovoltaic module based on mature technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonini Piergiorgio

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Among solar power generation, concentrated photovoltaics (CPV based on multijunction (MJ solar cells, is one of the most promising technology for hot climates. The fact that multijunction solar cells based on direct band gap semiconductors demonstrate lower dependence on temperature than silicon solar cells boosted their use in concentrated photovoltaics modules. Departing from the mainstream design of Fresnel lenses, the CPV module based on TwinFocus design with off-axis quasi parabolic mirrors differentiates itself for its compactness and the possibility of easy integration also in roof-top applications. A detailed description of the module and of the systems will be given together with measured performances, and expectations for the next release.

  12. Solar electric power generation photovoltaic energy systems

    CERN Document Server

    Krauter, Stefan CW

    2007-01-01

    Solar electricity is a viable, environmentally sustainable alternative to the world's energy supplies. In support, this work examines the various technical parameters of photovoltaic systems. It analyzes the study of performance and yield (including optical, thermal, and electrical parameters and interfaces).

  13. Simulation of the optimal size of photovoltaic system using ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    . ... is composed of photovoltaic array, power tracker, battery storage, inverter and load. The data used were the sunshine duration and solar radiation intensity for ... covered by the photovoltaic system without battery storage, monthly-average ...

  14. Porous Nanomaterials for Ultrabroadband Omnidirectional Anti-Reflection Surfaces with Applications in High Concentration Photovoltaics

    KAUST Repository

    Yao, Yuan

    2016-12-06

    Materials for nanoporous coatings that exploit optimized chemistries and self-assembly processes offer capabilities to reach ≈98% transmission efficiency and negligible scattering losses over the broad wavelength range of the solar spectrum from 350 nm to 1.5 μm, on both flat and curved glass substrates. These nanomaterial anti-reflection coatings also offer wide acceptance angles, up to ±40°, for both s- and p-polarization states of incident light. Carefully controlled bilayer films have allowed for the fabrication of dual-sided, gradient index profiles on plano-convex lens elements. In concentration photovoltaics platforms, the resultant enhancements in the photovoltaics efficiencies are ≈8%, as defined by experimental measurements on systems that use microscale triple-junction solar cells. These materials and their applications in technologies that require control over interface reflections have the potential for broad utility in imaging systems, photolithography, light-emitting diodes, and display technologies.

  15. Photovoltaics as an operating energy system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, G. J.; Post, H. N.; Thomas, M. G.

    In the short time since the discovery of the modern solar cell in 1954, terrestrial photovoltaic power system technology has matured in all areas, from collector reliability to system and subsystem design and operations. Today's PV systems are finding widespread use in powering loads where conventional sources are either unavailable, unreliable, or too costly. A broad range of applications is possible because of the modularity of the technology---it can be used to power loads ranging from less than a watt to several megawatts. This inherent modularity makes PV an excellent choice to play a major role in rural electrification in the developing world. The future for grid-connected photovoltaic systems is also very promising. Indications are that several of today's technologies, at higher production rates and in megawatt-sized installations, will generate electricity in the vicinity of $0.12/kWh in the near future.

  16. Flate-plate photovoltaic power systems handbook for Federal agencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cochrane, E. H.; Lawson, A. C.; Savage, C. H.

    1984-01-01

    The primary purpose is to provide a tool for personnel in Federal agencies to evaluate the viability of potential photovoltaic applications. A second objective is to provide descriptions of various photovoltaic systems installed by different Federal agencies under the Federal Photovoltaic Utilization Program so that other agencies may consider similar applications. A third objective is to share lessons learned to enable more effective procurement, design, installation, and operation of future photovoltaic systems. The intent is not to provide a complete handbook, but rather to provide a guide for Federal agency personnel with additional information incorporated by references. The steps to be followed in selecting, procuring, and installing a photovoltaic application are given.

  17. Study of the electrical and thermal performances of photovoltaic thermal collector-compound parabolic concentrated

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahed Hameed Jaaz

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available The importance of utilizing the solar energy as a very suitable source among multi-source approaches to replace the conventional energy is on the rise in the last four decades. The invention of the photovoltaic module (PV could be the corner stone in this process. However, the limited amount of energy obtained from PV was and still the main challenge of full utilization of the solar energy. In this paper, the use of the compound parabolic concentrator (CPC along with the thermal photovoltaic module (PVT where the cooling process of the CPC is conducted using a novel technique of water jet impingement has applied experimentally and physically tested. The test includes the effect of water jet impingement on the total power, electrical efficiency, thermal efficiency, and total efficiency on CPC-PVT system. The cooling process at the maximum irradiation by water jet impingement resulted in improving the electrical efficiency by 7%, total output power by 31% and the thermal efficiency by 81%. These results outperform the recent highest results recorded by the most recent work. Keywords: Photovoltaic thermal collectors, Electrical performance, Thermal performance, Compound parabolic concentrator, Jet impingement

  18. Stand alone photovoltaic systems: guarantee of results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-12-31

    This study aims to provide a guarantee of results for system performance for users of stand-alone photovoltaic (PV) systems, which have no back-up generator. The appropriate main performance criterion for PV systems is that a specified load is supplied with power either continuously or intermittently whenever the load requires power. A methodology to evaluate the power availability of stand-alone PV systems has been developed as part of the project, which encompasses power losses due to weather variations. The guarantee of results produced allows users to compare system designs from different manufacturers. (UK)

  19. Batteryless photovoltaic reverse-osmosis desalination system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomson, M.; Miranda, M.; Gwillim, J.; Rowbottom, A.; Draisey, I.

    2001-07-01

    The aim of this project was to design an efficient cost-effective batteryless photovoltaic-powered seawater reverse-osmosis desalination system, to deliver in the order of 3 m{sup 3} of fresh drinking water per day. The desalination of seawater to produce fresh drinking water is extremely valuable on islands and in coastal regions wherever natural freshwater is scarce. Existing small-scale desalination equipment, suitable for areas of medium and low population density, often requires a copious and constant supply of energy, either electricity or diesel. If supply of these fuels is expensive or insecure, but the area has a good solar resource, the use of photovoltaic power is an attractive option. Existing demonstrations of photovoltaic-powered desalination generally employ lead-acid batteries, which allow the equipment to operate at a constant flow, but are notoriously problematic in practice. The system developed in this project runs at variable flow, enabling it to make efficient use of the naturally varying solar resource, without need of batteries. In a sense, the freshwater tank is providing the energy storage. In this project, we have reviewed the merits of a wide variety of reverse-osmosis system configurations and component options. We have completed extensive in-house testing and characterisation of major hardware components and used the results to construct detailed software models. Using these, we have designed a system that meets the above project aim, and we have predicted its performance in detail. Our designs show that a system costing 23,055 pounds stirling will produce 1424 m{sup 3} of fresh drinking water annually - an average of just over 3.9 m{sup 3}/day. The system has no fuel costs and no batteries. The overall cost of water, including full maintenance, is 2.00 pounds stirling per m{sup 3}. The energy consumption (photovoltaic-electricity) is typically between 3.2 and 3.7 kWh/m{sup 3} depending on the solar irradiance and feed water

  20. Implementing agreement on photovoltaic power systems - Annual report 2006

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-07-01

    This annual report for the International Energy Agency (IEA) reports on the programme's activities in 2006. The IEA Photovoltaic Power Systems Programme (PVPS) is one of the collaborative research and development agreements established within the IEA. Its mission is to enhance international collaboration efforts which support the development and deployment of photovoltaic solar energy. In this annual report, the programme's mission and its strategies for reaching four objectives are reviewed and status reports on the programme's various tasks and sub-tasks are presented. The tasks include the exchange and dissemination of information on photovoltaic power systems, the performance, reliability and analysis of photovoltaic systems, a study on very large scale photovoltaic power generation system, photovoltaic services for developing countries, urban-scale PV applications and hybrid systems within mini-grids. The status and prospects in the 21 countries and organisations participating in the programme are presented. Along with country-specific topics, industry activities, research, development and demonstration projects, applications, education and governmental activities as well as future activities are reviewed. Finally, completed tasks are reviewed. These include the use of photovoltaic power systems in stand-alone and island applications, grid interconnection of building integrated and other distributed photovoltaic power systems, design and operation of modular photovoltaic plants for large scale power generation and photovoltaic power systems in the built environment. The report is completed with a list of Executive Committee members and Operating Agents.

  1. Implementing agreement on photovoltaic power systems - Annual report 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-07-01

    This annual report for the International Energy Agency (IEA) reports on the programme's activities in 2007. The IEA Photovoltaic Power Systems Programme (PVPS) is one of the collaborative research and development agreements established within the IEA. Its mission is to enhance international collaboration efforts which support the development and deployment of photovoltaic solar energy. In this annual report, the programme's mission and its strategies for reaching four objectives are reviewed and status reports on the programme's various tasks and sub-tasks are presented. The tasks include the exchange and dissemination of information on photovoltaic power systems, the performance, reliability and analysis of photovoltaic systems, a study on very large scale photovoltaic power generation system, photovoltaic services for developing countries, urban-scale PV applications, hybrid systems within mini-grids and PV environmental health and safety activities. The status and prospects in the 22 countries and organisations participating in the programme are presented. Along with country-specific topics, industry activities, research, development and demonstration projects, applications, education and governmental activities as well as future activities are reviewed. Finally, completed tasks are reviewed. These include the use of photovoltaic power systems in stand-alone and island applications, grid interconnection of building integrated and other distributed photovoltaic power systems, design and operation of modular photovoltaic plants for large scale power generation and photovoltaic power systems in the built environment. The report is completed with a list of Executive Committee members and Operating Agents.

  2. Implementing agreement on photovoltaic power systems - Annual report 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2009-07-01

    This annual report for the International Energy Agency (IEA) reports on the programme's activities in 2008. The IEA Photovoltaic Power Systems Programme (PVPS) is one of the collaborative research and development agreements established within the IEA. Its mission is to enhance international collaboration efforts which support the development and deployment of photovoltaic solar energy. In this annual report, the programme's mission and its strategies for reaching four objectives are reviewed and status reports on the programme's various tasks and sub-tasks are presented. The tasks include the exchange and dissemination of information on photovoltaic power systems, a study on very large scale photovoltaic power generation system, photovoltaic services for developing countries, urban-scale PV applications, hybrid systems within mini-grids as well as health and safety activities. The status and prospects in the 23 countries and organisations participating in the programme are presented. Along with country-specific topics, industry activities, research, development and demonstration projects, applications, education and governmental activities as well as future activities are reviewed. Finally, completed tasks are reviewed. These include the performance, reliability and analysis of photovoltaic systems, the use of photovoltaic power systems in stand-alone and island applications, grid interconnection of building integrated and other distributed photovoltaic power systems, design and operation of modular photovoltaic plants for large scale power generation and photovoltaic power systems in the built environment. The report is completed with a list of Executive Committee members and Operating Agents.

  3. Implementing agreement on photovoltaic power systems - Annual report 2006

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-07-01

    This annual report for the International Energy Agency (IEA) reports on the programme's activities in 2006. The IEA Photovoltaic Power Systems Programme (PVPS) is one of the collaborative research and development agreements established within the IEA. Its mission is to enhance international collaboration efforts which support the development and deployment of photovoltaic solar energy. In this annual report, the programme's mission and its strategies for reaching four objectives are reviewed and status reports on the programme's various tasks and sub-tasks are presented. The tasks include the exchange and dissemination of information on photovoltaic power systems, the performance, reliability and analysis of photovoltaic systems, a study on very large scale photovoltaic power generation system, photovoltaic services for developing countries, urban-scale PV applications and hybrid systems within mini-grids. The status and prospects in the 21 countries and organisations participating in the programme are presented. Along with country-specific topics, industry activities, research, development and demonstration projects, applications, education and governmental activities as well as future activities are reviewed. Finally, completed tasks are reviewed. These include the use of photovoltaic power systems in stand-alone and island applications, grid interconnection of building integrated and other distributed photovoltaic power systems, design and operation of modular photovoltaic plants for large scale power generation and photovoltaic power systems in the built environment. The report is completed with a list of Executive Committee members and Operating Agents.

  4. Implementing agreement on photovoltaic power systems - Annual report 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-07-01

    This annual report for the International Energy Agency (IEA) reports on the programme's activities in 2007. The IEA Photovoltaic Power Systems Programme (PVPS) is one of the collaborative research and development agreements established within the IEA. Its mission is to enhance international collaboration efforts which support the development and deployment of photovoltaic solar energy. In this annual report, the programme's mission and its strategies for reaching four objectives are reviewed and status reports on the programme's various tasks and sub-tasks are presented. The tasks include the exchange and dissemination of information on photovoltaic power systems, the performance, reliability and analysis of photovoltaic systems, a study on very large scale photovoltaic power generation system, photovoltaic services for developing countries, urban-scale PV applications, hybrid systems within mini-grids and PV environmental health and safety activities. The status and prospects in the 22 countries and organisations participating in the programme are presented. Along with country-specific topics, industry activities, research, development and demonstration projects, applications, education and governmental activities as well as future activities are reviewed. Finally, completed tasks are reviewed. These include the use of photovoltaic power systems in stand-alone and island applications, grid interconnection of building integrated and other distributed photovoltaic power systems, design and operation of modular photovoltaic plants for large scale power generation and photovoltaic power systems in the built environment. The report is completed with a list of Executive Committee members and Operating Agents.

  5. Implementing agreement on photovoltaic power systems - Annual report 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2009-07-01

    This annual report for the International Energy Agency (IEA) reports on the programme's activities in 2008. The IEA Photovoltaic Power Systems Programme (PVPS) is one of the collaborative research and development agreements established within the IEA. Its mission is to enhance international collaboration efforts which support the development and deployment of photovoltaic solar energy. In this annual report, the programme's mission and its strategies for reaching four objectives are reviewed and status reports on the programme's various tasks and sub-tasks are presented. The tasks include the exchange and dissemination of information on photovoltaic power systems, a study on very large scale photovoltaic power generation system, photovoltaic services for developing countries, urban-scale PV applications, hybrid systems within mini-grids as well as health and safety activities. The status and prospects in the 23 countries and organisations participating in the programme are presented. Along with country-specific topics, industry activities, research, development and demonstration projects, applications, education and governmental activities as well as future activities are reviewed. Finally, completed tasks are reviewed. These include the performance, reliability and analysis of photovoltaic systems, the use of photovoltaic power systems in stand-alone and island applications, grid interconnection of building integrated and other distributed photovoltaic power systems, design and operation of modular photovoltaic plants for large scale power generation and photovoltaic power systems in the built environment. The report is completed with a list of Executive Committee members and Operating Agents.

  6. 聚光光伏技术概述%Overview of Concentrating Photovoltaic

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张志刚

    2012-01-01

      With the environmental pollution aggravation and fossil fuel depletion,harnessing the power of the sun directly or indirectly remains at the core of future energy scenarios. Concentrating photovoltaics(CPV),with the advantage of higher photovoltaic conversion efficiency and lower consumption of solar cells,have great potential of reducing the cost of photovoltaic generation system. This review focuses on the history and current status of CPV systems.%  随着化石能源的消耗和环境污染的加剧,直接或间接利用太阳能成为了未来能源模式的核心内容之一。在光伏发电技术中,具有高转换效率、低芯片消耗优势的聚光光伏发电(CPV)技术在降低光伏发电成本方面潜力巨大。本文将对聚光光伏发电技术进行介绍。

  7. Space Photovoltaic Concentrator Using Robust Fresnel Lenses, 4-Junction Cells, Graphene Radiators, and Articulating Receivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neill, Mark; McDanal, A. J.; Brandhorst, Henry; Spence, Brian; Iqbal, Shawn; Sharps, Paul; McPheeters, Clay; Steinfeldt, Jeff; Piszczor, Michael; Myers, Matt

    2016-01-01

    At the 42nd PVSC, our team presented recent advances in our space photovoltaic concentrator technology. These advances include more robust Fresnel lenses for optical concentration, more thermally conductive graphene radiators for waste heat rejection, improved color-mixing lens technology to minimize chromatic aberration losses with 4-junction solar cells, and an articulating photovoltaic receiver enabling single-axis sun-tracking, while maintaining a sharp focal line despite large beta angles of incidence. In the past year, under a NASA Phase II SBIR program, our team has made much additional progress in the development of this new space photovoltaic concentrator technology, as described in this paper.

  8. Component and prototype panel testing of the mini-dome Fresnel lens photovoltaic concentrator array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piszczor, Michael F.; Swartz, Clifford K.; O'Neill, Mark J.

    1990-01-01

    The mini-dome Fresnel lens concentrator array, a high-efficiency, lightweight space photovoltaic array concept, is described. The three critical elements of the array concept are the Fresnel lens concentrator, the prismatic cell power cover, and the photovoltaic cell. Prototype concentrator lenses have been fabricated and tested, with optical efficiencies reaching 90 percent. Work is progressing on the design and fabrication of the panel structure. The impact of recent advances in 30 percent-efficient multijunction photovoltaic cells on array performance is also discussed. Near-term performance goals of 300 w/sq m and 100 w/kg are now feasible.

  9. MODELING SIMULATION AND PERFORMANCE STUDY OF GRIDCONNECTED PHOTOVOLTAIC ENERGY SYSTEM

    OpenAIRE

    Nagendra K; Karthik J; Keerthi Rao C; Kumar Raja Pemmadi

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents Modeling Simulation of grid connected Photovoltaic Energy System and performance study using MATLAB/Simulink. The Photovoltaic energy system is considered in three main parts PV Model, Power conditioning System and Grid interface. The Photovoltaic Model is inter-connected with grid through full scale power electronic devices. The simulation is conducted on the PV energy system at normal temperature and at constant load by using MATLAB.

  10. Outdoor thermal and electrical characterisation of photovoltaic modules and systems

    OpenAIRE

    Herteleer, Bert

    2016-01-01

    Current and future investors in photovoltaic systems are interested in how well the system performs, and how predictable this is over the expected lifetime. To do so, models have been developed and measurements of photovoltaic systems have been done. This dissertation presents the outdoor measurement set-up that has been developed for thermal and electrical characterisation of photovoltaic modules and systems, aimed at measuring transient effects and changes. The main design decisions and ...

  11. Implementing agreement on photovoltaic power systems - Annual report 2004

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    This annual report for the International Energy Agency (IEA) reports on the programme's activities in 2004. The IEA Photovoltaic Power Systems Programme (PVPS) is one of the collaborative research and development agreements established within the IEA. Its mission is to enhance international collaboration efforts which support the development and deployment of photovoltaic solar energy. In this annual report, the programme's mission and its strategies for reaching four objectives are reviewed and status reports on the programme's various tasks and sub-tasks are presented. The tasks include the exchange and dissemination of information on photovoltaic power systems, the performance, reliability and analysis of photovoltaic systems, the use of photovoltaic power systems in stand-alone and island applications, a study on very large scale photovoltaic power generation system, photovoltaic services for developing countries and urban-scale PV applications. The status and prospects in the 21 countries and organisations participating in the programme are presented. Along with country-specific topics, industry activities, research, development and demonstration projects, applications, education and governmental activities as well as future activities are reviewed. Finally, completed tasks are reviewed. These include grid interconnection of building integrated and other distributed photovoltaic power systems, design and operation of modular photovoltaic plants for large scale power generation and photovoltaic power systems in the built environment. The report is completed with a list of Executive Committee members and Operating Agents.

  12. Implementing agreement on photovoltaic power systems - Annual report 2004

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    This annual report for the International Energy Agency (IEA) reports on the programme's activities in 2004. The IEA Photovoltaic Power Systems Programme (PVPS) is one of the collaborative research and development agreements established within the IEA. Its mission is to enhance international collaboration efforts which support the development and deployment of photovoltaic solar energy. In this annual report, the programme's mission and its strategies for reaching four objectives are reviewed and status reports on the programme's various tasks and sub-tasks are presented. The tasks include the exchange and dissemination of information on photovoltaic power systems, the performance, reliability and analysis of photovoltaic systems, the use of photovoltaic power systems in stand-alone and island applications, a study on very large scale photovoltaic power generation system, photovoltaic services for developing countries and urban-scale PV applications. The status and prospects in the 21 countries and organisations participating in the programme are presented. Along with country-specific topics, industry activities, research, development and demonstration projects, applications, education and governmental activities as well as future activities are reviewed. Finally, completed tasks are reviewed. These include grid interconnection of building integrated and other distributed photovoltaic power systems, design and operation of modular photovoltaic plants for large scale power generation and photovoltaic power systems in the built environment. The report is completed with a list of Executive Committee members and Operating Agents.

  13. Implementing agreement on photovoltaic power systems - Annual report 2005

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-07-01

    This annual report for the International Energy Agency (IEA) reports on the programme's activities in 2005. The IEA Photovoltaic Power Systems Programme (PVPS) is one of the collaborative research and development agreements established within the IEA. Its mission is to enhance international collaboration efforts which support the development and deployment of photovoltaic solar energy. In this annual report, the programme's mission and its strategies for reaching four objectives are reviewed and status reports on the programme's various tasks and sub-tasks are presented. The tasks include the exchange and dissemination of information on photovoltaic power systems, the performance, reliability and analysis of photovoltaic systems, a study on very large scale photovoltaic power generation system, photovoltaic services for developing countries and urban-scale PV applications. The status and prospects in the 21 countries and organisations participating in the programme are presented. Along with country-specific topics, industry activities, research, development and demonstration projects, applications, education and governmental activities as well as future activities are reviewed. Finally, completed tasks are reviewed. These include the use of photovoltaic power systems in stand-alone and island applications, grid interconnection of building integrated and other distributed photovoltaic power systems, design and operation of modular photovoltaic plants for large scale power generation and photovoltaic power systems in the built environment. The report is completed with a list of Executive Committee members and Operating Agents.

  14. Implementing agreement on photovoltaic power systems - Annual report 2005

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-07-01

    This annual report for the International Energy Agency (IEA) reports on the programme's activities in 2005. The IEA Photovoltaic Power Systems Programme (PVPS) is one of the collaborative research and development agreements established within the IEA. Its mission is to enhance international collaboration efforts which support the development and deployment of photovoltaic solar energy. In this annual report, the programme's mission and its strategies for reaching four objectives are reviewed and status reports on the programme's various tasks and sub-tasks are presented. The tasks include the exchange and dissemination of information on photovoltaic power systems, the performance, reliability and analysis of photovoltaic systems, a study on very large scale photovoltaic power generation system, photovoltaic services for developing countries and urban-scale PV applications. The status and prospects in the 21 countries and organisations participating in the programme are presented. Along with country-specific topics, industry activities, research, development and demonstration projects, applications, education and governmental activities as well as future activities are reviewed. Finally, completed tasks are reviewed. These include the use of photovoltaic power systems in stand-alone and island applications, grid interconnection of building integrated and other distributed photovoltaic power systems, design and operation of modular photovoltaic plants for large scale power generation and photovoltaic power systems in the built environment. The report is completed with a list of Executive Committee members and Operating Agents.

  15. Photovoltaics. [research and development of terrestrial electric power systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, J. L.

    1981-01-01

    The federal government has sponsored a program of research and development on terrestrial photovoltaic systems that is designed to reduce the costs of such systems through technological advances. There are many potential paths to lower system costs, and successful developments have led to increased private investment in photovoltaics. The prices for photovoltaic collectors and systems that appear to be achievable within this decade offer hope that the systems will soon be attractive in utility applications within the United States. Most of the advances achieved will also be directly applicable to the remote markets in which photovoltaic systems are now commercially successful

  16. Integrated photovoltaic (PV) monitoring system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahinder Singh, Balbir Singh; Husain, NurSyahidah; Mohamed, Norani Muti

    2012-09-01

    The main aim of this research work is to design an accurate and reliable monitoring system to be integrated with solar electricity generating system. The performance monitoring system is required to ensure that the PVEGS is operating at an optimum level. The PV monitoring system is able to measure all the important parameters that determine an optimum performance. The measured values are recorded continuously, as the data acquisition system is connected to a computer, and data is stored at fixed intervals. The data can be locally used and can also be transmitted via internet. The data that appears directly on the local monitoring system is displayed via graphical user interface that was created by using Visual basic and Apache software was used for data transmission The accuracy and reliability of the developed monitoring system was tested against the data that captured simultaneously by using a standard power quality analyzer device. The high correlation which is 97% values indicates the level of accuracy of the monitoring system. The aim of leveraging on a system for continuous monitoring system is achieved, both locally, and can be viewed simultaneously at a remote system.

  17. Grid-connected wind and photovoltaic system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devabakthuni, Sindhuja

    The objective of this thesis is to design a grid connected wind and photovoltaic system. A new model of converter control was designed which maintains the voltage of the bus to grid as constant when combined system of solar and wind is connected to AC bus. The model is designed to track maximum power at each point irrespective of changes in irradiance, temperature and wind speed which affects the power supplied to grid. Solar power from the sun is not constant as it is affected by changes in irradiances and temperature. Even the wind power is affected by wind speed. A MPPT controller was designed for both systems. A boost converter is designed which uses the pulses from MPPT controller to boost the output. Wind system consists of wind turbine block from the MATLAB with a pitch angle controller to maintain optimum pitch angle. The output from wind turbine is connected to a permanent magnet synchronous generator. The unregulated DC output from the photovoltaic system is directly given to boost converter. The AC output from the wind system is given to an uncontrolled rectifier to get a unregulated DC output. The unregulated DC output goes to the boost converter. A voltage source inverter was designed which converts the rectified DC output from the boost converter to AC power. The inverter is designed to maintain constant AC bus voltage irrespective of the disturbances in the power supply. Photovoltaic and wind systems are individually designed for 5KW each in MATLAB-Simulink environment. In this thesis, the models were subjected to changes in irradiance, temperature and wind speed and the results were interpreted. The model was successful in tracking maximum at every instant and the AC bus voltage was maintained constant throughout the simulation.

  18. A review of the promises and challenges of micro-concentrator photovoltaics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domínguez, César; Jost, Norman; Askins, Steve; Victoria, Marta; Antón, Ignacio

    2017-09-01

    Micro concentrator photovoltaics (micro-CPV) is an unconventional approach for developing high-efficiency low-cost PV systems. The micrifying of cells and optics brings about an increase of efficiency with respect to classical CPV, at the expense of some fundamental challenges at mass production. The large costs linked to miniaturization under conventional serial-assembly processes raise the need for the development of parallel manufacturing technologies. In return, the tiny sizes involved allows exploring unconventional optical architectures or revisiting conventional concepts that were typically discarded because of large material consumption or high bulk absorption at classical CPV sizes.

  19. Thermal characteristics of a medium-level concentration photovoltaic unit with evaporation cooling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kokotov, Yuri V.; Reyz, Michael A.; Fisher, Yossi

    2009-08-01

    The results of thermal analysis and experiments are presented for a 1-kW brand new medium-level (8X) concentration photovoltaic (CPV) unit that is cooled by evaporation and built as an elongated floating solar unit. The unit keeps the silicon PV elements at low and stable temperature around the clock, significantly outperforms competitors' systems in terms of the power output and the life span of identical PV elements. It is demonstrated theoretically and experimentally that the PV element temperature level exceeds the temperature level of water in the water basin (used as a heat sink) by just a few degrees.

  20. InPhoCUS (Inflated Photovoltaic Ultra-light Mirror Concentrators): First Results Of The Project And Future Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pravettoni, Mauro; Barbato, Maurizio; Cooper, Thomas; Pedretti, Andrea; Ambrosetti, Gianluca; Steinfeld, Aldo

    2011-12-01

    InPhoCUS (Inflated PhotovoltaiC Ultra-light mirror concentratorS) is a concentrating photovoltaic (CPV) project funded by the Swiss Confederation's Innovation Promotion Agency (CTI) and developed by Airlight Energy Holding SA, the University of Applied Sciences and Arts of Southern Switzerland and the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology. The proposed novel concentrating system has already been patented for concentrated solar power applications: it is made by unconventional pneumatic multilayer polymeric mirrors, has an innovative fibre-reinforced concrete structure and an original tilting mechanism to track the sun. The innovative CPV solar collector is profitable for electric power plants both for the sun-belt region and in the Mediterranean. In this paper the authors present the novel CPV system and preliminary results on cost analysis, optical design and thermal modelling.

  1. Photovoltaic array mounting apparatus, systems, and methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, Jack Raymond; Atchley, Brian; Hudson, Tyrus Hawkes; Johansen, Emil

    2016-01-05

    A photovoltaic array, including: (a) supports laid out on a surface in rows and columns; (b) photovoltaic modules positioned on top of the supports; and (c) fasteners connecting the photovoltaic modules to the supports, wherein the supports have an upper pedestal surface and a lower pedestal surface such that the photovoltaic modules are positioned at a non-horizontal angle when edges of the photovoltaic modules are positioned on top of the upper and lower pedestal surfaces, and wherein a portion of the fasteners rotate to lock the photovoltaic modules onto the supports.

  2. Flat plate vs. concentrator solar photovoltaic cells - A manufacturing cost analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granon, L. A.; Coleman, M. G.

    1980-01-01

    The choice of which photovoltaic system (flat plate or concentrator) to use for utilizing solar cells to generate electricity depends mainly on the cost. A detailed, comparative manufacturing cost analysis of the two types of systems is presented. Several common assumptions, i.e., cell thickness, interest rate, power rate, factory production life, polysilicon cost, and direct labor rate are utilized in this analysis. Process sequences, cost variables, and sensitivity analyses have been studied, and results of the latter show that the most important parameters which determine manufacturing costs are concentration ratio, manufacturing volume, and cell efficiency. The total cost per watt of the flat plate solar cell is $1.45, and that of the concentrator solar cell is $1.85, the higher cost being due to the increased process complexity and material costs.

  3. Prognostics and health management of photovoltaic systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Jay; Riley, Daniel

    2018-04-10

    The various technologies presented herein relate to providing prognosis and health management (PHM) of a photovoltaic (PV) system. A PV PHM system can eliminate long-standing issues associated with detecting performance reduction in PV systems. The PV PHM system can utilize an ANN model with meteorological and power input data to facilitate alert generation in the event of a performance reduction without the need for information about the PV PHM system components and design. Comparisons between system data and the PHM model can provide scheduling of maintenance on an as-needed basis. The PHM can also provide an approach for monitoring system/component degradation over the lifetime of the PV system.

  4. Solar photovoltaic power generation system and understanding of green energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoo, Chun Sik

    2004-03-01

    This book introduces sunlight generation system and green energy, which includes new and renewable energy such as photovoltaic power generation, solar thermal, wind power, bio energy, waste energy, geothermal energy, ocean energy and fuel cell photovoltaic industry like summary, technology trend, market trend, development strategy of the industry in Korea, and other countries, design of photovoltaic power generation system supporting policy and related business of new and renewable energy.

  5. Implementing agreement on photovoltaic power systems - Annual report 2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    This annual report for the International Energy Agency (IEA) reports on the programme's activities in 2000. The IEA Photovoltaic Power Systems Programme (PVPS) is one of the collaborative research and development agreements established within the IEA. Its mission is to enhance international collaboration efforts which support the development and deployment of photovoltaic solar energy. In this annual report, the programme's mission and its strategies for reaching four objectives are reviewed. Status reports on the programme's various tasks and sub-tasks are presented. The tasks include the exchange and dissemination of information on photovoltaic power systems, the operational performance and design of photovoltaic systems, the use of photovoltaic power systems in stand-alone and island applications, the grid interconnection of building-integrated and other distributed photovoltaic power systems, photovoltaic power systems in the built environment, very large scale photovoltaic power generation systems and the deployment of photovoltaic technologies in developing countries. The status and prospects in the 20 countries participating in the programme are presented. Along with country-specific topics, industry activities, research, development and demonstration projects, applications, education and governmental activities as well as future activities are reviewed. The report is completed with a list of Executive Committee members and Operating Agents.

  6. Implementing agreement on photovoltaic power systems - Annual report 2001

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-07-01

    This annual report for the International Energy Agency (IEA) reports on the programme's activities in 2001. The IEA Photovoltaic Power Systems Programme (PVPS) is one of the collaborative research and development agreements established within the IEA. Its mission is to enhance international collaboration efforts which support the development and deployment of photovoltaic solar energy. In this annual report, the programme's mission and its strategies for reaching four objectives are reviewed. Status reports on the programme's various tasks and sub-tasks are presented. The tasks include the exchange and dissemination of information on photovoltaic power systems, the operational performance, maintenance and sizing of photovoltaic systems, the use of photovoltaic power systems in stand-alone and island applications, grid interconnection of building integrated and other distributed photovoltaic power systems, photovoltaic power systems in the built environment, a study on very large scale photovoltaic power generation system and the deployment of photovoltaic technologies in developing countries. The status and prospects in the 20 countries participating in the programme are presented. Along with country-specific topics, industry activities, research, development and demonstration projects, applications, education and governmental activities as well as future activities are reviewed. The report is completed with a list of Executive Committee members and Operating Agents.

  7. Implementing agreement on photovoltaic power systems - Annual report 2003

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-07-01

    This annual report for the International Energy Agency (IEA) reports on the programme's activities in 2003. The IEA Photovoltaic Power Systems Programme (PVPS) is one of the collaborative research and development agreements established within the IEA. Its mission is to enhance international collaboration efforts which support the development and deployment of photovoltaic solar energy. In this annual report, the programme's mission and its strategies for reaching four objectives are reviewed. The programme's tenth anniversary is noted. Status reports on the programme's various tasks and sub-tasks are presented. The tasks include the exchange and dissemination of information on photovoltaic power systems, the operational performance, maintenance and sizing of photovoltaic systems, the use of photovoltaic power systems in stand-alone and island applications, grid interconnection of building integrated and other distributed photovoltaic power systems, photovoltaic power systems in the built environment, a study on very large scale photovoltaic power generation system, the deployment of photovoltaic technologies in developing countries and urban-scale PV applications. The status and prospects in the 20 countries and organisations participating in the programme are presented. Along with country-specific topics, industry activities, research, development and demonstration projects, applications, education and governmental activities as well as future activities are reviewed. The report is completed with a list of Executive Committee members and Operating Agents.

  8. Miniature photovoltaic energy system for lighting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Awais, M.

    1999-01-01

    In this project a miniature photovoltaic energy system has been designed and developed, that may be used in remote areas and villages for lighting purposes. System sizing is the important part of the project because it affects the cost of the system. Therefore, first of all system sizing has been done. For conversion of dc voltage of the battery into ac voltage, an inverter has been designed. To charge the battery when the sun is not shining, a standby system has been developed using a bicycle and dynamo. To indicate the battery's state of charge and discharge, a battery monitoring circuit has also been developed. Similarly, to protect the battery from over discharging, a battery protection circuit has been designed. In order to measure how much energy is going from standby system to the battery, an efficient dc electronic energy meter has been designed and developed. The working of the overall system has been tested and found to give good performance. (author)

  9. Performance Analysis of Photovoltaic Water Heating System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomas Matuska

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Performance of solar photovoltaic water heating systems with direct coupling of PV array to DC resistive heating elements has been studied and compared with solar photothermal systems. An analysis of optimum fixed load resistance for different climate conditions has been performed for simple PV heating systems. The optimum value of the fixed load resistance depends on the climate, especially on annual solar irradiation level. Use of maximum power point tracking compared to fixed optimized load resistance increases the annual yield by 20 to 35%. While total annual efficiency of the PV water heating systems in Europe ranges from 10% for PV systems without MPP tracking up to 15% for system with advanced MPP trackers, the efficiency of solar photothermal system for identical hot water load and climate conditions is more than 3 times higher.

  10. Factors Associated with Photovoltaic System Costs (Topical Issues Brief)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mortensen, J.

    2001-06-12

    A variety of factors can affect the cost of photovoltaic systems. This report analyses the relationship among such factors by using information entered into a voluntary registry of PV systems and performing regression analyses. The results showed statistically significant relationships between photovoltaic system cost and (a) grid connection, (b) installation year, (c) areas where the utility had entered into volume purchasing agreements.

  11. Transformerless microinverter for photovoltaic systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salmi, Tarak; Masmoudi, Ahmed [Research Unit on Renewable Energies and Electric Vehicles, National Engineering School of Sfax, P.O.Box: W, 3038 Sfax (Tunisia); Bouzguenda, Mounir; Gastli, Adel [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, College of Engineering, Sultan Qaboos University, P.O. Box 33, P.C. 123, Al-Khoudh (Oman)

    2012-07-01

    When a galvanic connection between the grid and the PV array is made, a common-mode voltage exists that generates common-mode currents. These common-mode currents may produce electromagnetic interferences, grid current distortion and additional losses in the system. Therefore, to avoid the leakage currents that would penalize the transformerless power chains, it is worth focusing on topologies that do not generate common-mode currents. Some topologies available in the market touch more or less such a crucial requirement. However, some drawbacks generated by the non-utilization of the transformer still exist. These drawbacks maybe reduced or totally eliminated using suitable topologies as well as control strategies. In this paper, a new topology has been developed. Its control strategy has been simulated and experimentally validated. Accordingly, high conversion efficiency and low leakage current level have been demonstrated.

  12. Performance analysis of a photovoltaic-thermochemical hybrid system prototype

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Wenjia; Ling, Yunyi; Liu, Xiangxin; Hao, Yong

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: •A modular photovoltaic-thermochemical hybrid system prototype is proposed. •Net solar-electric efficiency up to 41% is achievable. •Stable solar power supply is achievable via convenient energy storage. •The modular design facilitates the scalability of the hybrid system. -- Abstract: A solar photovoltaic (PV) thermochemical hybrid system consisting of a point-focus Fresnel concentrator, a PV cell and a methanol thermochemical reactor is proposed. In particular, a reactor capable of operating under high solar concentration is designed, manufactured and tested. Studies on both kinetic and thermodynamic characteristics of the reactor and the system are performed. Analysis of numerical and experimental results shows that with cascaded solar energy utilization and synergy among different forms of energy, the hybrid system has the advantages of high net solar-electric efficiency (up to 41%), stable solar energy power supply, solar energy storage (via syngas) and flexibility in application scale. The hybrid system proposed in this work provides a potential solution to some key challenges of current solar energy utilization technologies.

  13. Integrating photovoltaics into utility distribution systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaininger, H.W.; Barnes, P.R.

    1995-01-01

    Electric utility distribution system impacts associated with the integration of distributed photovoltaic (PV) energy sources vary from site to site and utility to utility. The objective of this paper is to examine several utility- and site-specific conditions which may affect economic viability of distributed PV applications to utility systems. Assessment methodology compatible with technical and economic assessment techniques employed by utility engineers and planners is employed to determine PV benefits for seven different utility systems. The seven case studies are performed using utility system characteristics and assumptions obtained from appropriate utility personnel. The resulting site-specific distributed PV benefits increase nonsite-specific generation system benefits available to central station PV plants as much as 46%, for one utility located in the Southwest

  14. Thermal analysis of a multi-layer microchannel heat sink for cooling concentrator photovoltaic (CPV) cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siyabi, Idris Al; Shanks, Katie; Mallick, Tapas; Sundaram, Senthilarasu

    2017-09-01

    Concentrator Photovoltaic (CPV) technology is increasingly being considered as an alternative option for solar electricity generation. However, increasing the light concentration ratio could decrease the system output power due to the increase in the temperature of the cells. The performance of a multi-layer microchannel heat sink configuration was evaluated using numerical analysis. In this analysis, three dimensional incompressible laminar steady flow model was solved numerically. An electrical and thermal solar cell model was coupled for solar cell temperature and efficiency calculations. Thermal resistance, solar cell temperature and pumping power were used for the system efficiency evaluation. An increase in the number of microchannel layers exhibited the best overall performance in terms of the thermal resistance, solar cell temperature uniformity and pressure drop. The channel height and width has no effect on the solar cell maximum temperature. However, increasing channel height leads to a reduction in the pressure drop and hence less fluid pumping power.

  15. Detection of arcing location on photovoltaic systems using filters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Jay

    2018-02-20

    The present invention relates to photovoltaic systems capable of identifying the location of an arc-fault. In particular, such systems include a unique filter connected to each photovoltaic (PV) string, thereby providing a unique filtered noise profile associated with a particular PV string. Also described herein are methods for identifying and isolating such arc-faults.

  16. Integrated Photovoltaic System Used as an Alternative Power Source

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ionel Laurentiu Alboteanu

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a solution to use solar energy as an alternative source of electricity to conventional sources. The solution is to use a compact photovoltaic system integrated into a micro smart grid. The studied photovoltaic system is used into concrete application for the power supply lighting in a didactic laboratory.

  17. Nonimaging solar concentrator with near-uniform irradiance for photovoltaic arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Gallagher, Joseph J.; Winston, Roland; Gee, Randy

    2001-11-01

    We report results of a study our group has undertaken to design a solar concentrator with uniform irradiance on a planar target. This attribute is especially important for photovoltaic concentrators. We find that a variety of optical mixers, some incorporating a moderate level of concentration, can be quite effective in achieving near uniform irradiance.

  18. Photovoltaic Energy Harvester with Power Management System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Ferri

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a photovoltaic energy harvester, realized in 0.35-μm CMOS technology. The proposed system collects light energy from the environment, by means of 2-mm2 on-chip integrated microsolar cells, and accumulates it in an external capacitor. While the capacitor is charging, the load is disconnected. When the energy in the external capacitor is enough to operate the load for a predefined time slot, the load is connected to the capacitor by a power management circuit. The choice of the value of the capacitance determines the operating time slot for the load. The proposed solution is suitable for discrete-time-regime applications, such as sensor network nodes, or, in general, systems that require power supply periodically for short time slots. The power management circuit includes a charge pump, a comparator, a level shifter, and a linear voltage regulator. The whole system has been extensively simulated, integrated, and experimentally characterized.

  19. MPPT for Photovoltaic System Using Nonlinear Controller

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramsha Iftikhar

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Photovoltaic (PV system generates energy that varies with the variation in environmental conditions such as temperature and solar radiation. To cope up with the ever increasing demand of energy, the PV system must operate at maximum power point (MPP, which changes with load as well as weather conditions. This paper proposes a nonlinear backstepping controller to harvest maximum power from a PV array using DC-DC buck converter. A regression plane is formulated after collecting the data of the PV array from its characteristic curves to provide the reference voltage to track MPP. Asymptotic stability of the system is proved using Lyapunov stability criteria. The simulation results validate the rapid tracking and efficient performance of the controller. For further validation of the results, it also provides a comparison of the proposed controller with conventional perturb and observe (P&O and fuzzy logic-based controller (FLBC under abrupt changes in environmental conditions.

  20. An active cooling system for photovoltaic modules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teo, H.G.; Lee, P.S.; Hawlader, M.N.A.

    2012-01-01

    The electrical efficiency of photovoltaic (PV) cell is adversely affected by the significant increase of cell operating temperature during absorption of solar radiation. A hybrid photovoltaic/thermal (PV/T) solar system was designed, fabricated and experimentally investigated in this work. To actively cool the PV cells, a parallel array of ducts with inlet/outlet manifold designed for uniform airflow distribution was attached to the back of the PV panel. Experiments were performed with and without active cooling. A linear trend between the efficiency and temperature was found. Without active cooling, the temperature of the module was high and solar cells can only achieve an efficiency of 8–9%. However, when the module was operated under active cooling condition, the temperature dropped significantly leading to an increase in efficiency of solar cells to between 12% and 14%. A heat transfer simulation model was developed to compare to the actual temperature profile of PV module and good agreement between the simulation and experimental results is obtained.

  1. Economic optimization of photovoltaic water pumping systems for irrigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campana, P.E.; Li, H.; Zhang, J.; Zhang, R.; Liu, J.; Yan, J.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • A novel optimization procedure for photovoltaic water pumping systems for irrigation is proposed. • An hourly simulation model is the basis of the optimization procedure. • The effectiveness of the new optimization approach has been tested to an existing photovoltaic water pumping system. - Abstract: Photovoltaic water pumping technology is considered as a sustainable and economical solution to provide water for irrigation, which can halt grassland degradation and promote farmland conservation in China. The appropriate design and operation significantly depend on the available solar irradiation, crop water demand, water resources and the corresponding benefit from the crop sale. In this work, a novel optimization procedure is proposed, which takes into consideration not only the availability of groundwater resources and the effect of water supply on crop yield, but also the investment cost of photovoltaic water pumping system and the revenue from crop sale. A simulation model, which combines the dynamics of photovoltaic water pumping system, groundwater level, water supply, crop water demand and crop yield, is employed during the optimization. To prove the effectiveness of the new optimization approach, it has been applied to an existing photovoltaic water pumping system. Results show that the optimal configuration can guarantee continuous operations and lead to a substantial reduction of photovoltaic array size and consequently of the investment capital cost and the payback period. Sensitivity studies have been conducted to investigate the impacts of the prices of photovoltaic modules and forage on the optimization. Results show that the water resource is a determinant factor

  2. Implementing agreement on photovoltaic power systems - Annual report 2009

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-07-01

    This annual report for the International Energy Agency (IEA) reports on the programme's activities in 2009. The IEA Photovoltaic Power Systems Programme (PVPS) is one of the collaborative research and development agreements established within the IEA. Its mission is to enhance international collaboration efforts which support the development and deployment of photovoltaic solar energy. In this annual report, the programme's mission and its strategies for reaching four objectives are reviewed and status reports on the programme's various tasks and sub-tasks are presented, as are activities planned for 2010. The tasks include the exchange and dissemination of information on photovoltaic power systems, a study on very large scale photovoltaic power generation system, photovoltaic services for developing countries, urban-scale PV applications, hybrid systems within mini-grids, PV environmental health and safety activities, performance and reliability of PV systems and high penetration PV in electricity grids. The status and prospects in the 23 countries and organisations participating in the programme are presented. Along with country-specific topics, industry activities, research, development and demonstration projects, applications, education and governmental activities as well as future activities are reviewed. Finally, completed tasks are reviewed. These include the performance, reliability and analysis of photovoltaic systems, the use of photovoltaic power systems in stand-alone and island applications, grid interconnection of building integrated and other distributed photovoltaic power systems, design and operation of modular photovoltaic plants for large scale power generation and photovoltaic power systems in the built environment. The report is completed with a list of Executive Committee members and Operating Agents.

  3. Hybrid system power generation'wind-photovoltaic' connected to the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hybrid system power generation'wind-photovoltaic' connected to the ... from Hybrid System, power delivered to or from grid and phase voltage of the inverter leg. ... Renewable Energy, Electrical Network 220 kV, Hybrid System, Solar, MPPT.

  4. Thermal resistance analysis and optimization of photovoltaic-thermoelectric hybrid system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yin, Ershuai; Li, Qiang; Xuan, Yimin

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • A detailed thermal resistance analysis of the PV-TE hybrid system is proposed. • c-Si PV and p-Si PV cells are proved to be inapplicable for the PV-TE hybrid system. • Some criteria for selecting coupling devices and optimal design are obtained. • A detailed process of designing the practical PV-TE hybrid system is provided. - Abstract: The thermal resistance theory is introduced into the theoretical model of the photovoltaic-thermoelectric (PV-TE) hybrid system. A detailed thermal resistance analysis is proposed to optimize the design of the coupled system in terms of optimal total conversion efficiency. Systems using four types of photovoltaic cells are investigated, including monocrystalline silicon photovoltaic cell, polycrystalline silicon photovoltaic cell, amorphous silicon photovoltaic cell and polymer photovoltaic cell. Three cooling methods, including natural cooling, forced air cooling and water cooling, are compared, which demonstrates a significant superiority of water cooling for the concentrating photovoltaic-thermoelectric hybrid system. Influences of the optical concentrating ratio and velocity of water are studied together and the optimal values are revealed. The impacts of the thermal resistances of the contact surface, TE generator and the upper heat loss thermal resistance on the property of the coupled system are investigated, respectively. The results indicate that amorphous silicon PV cell and polymer PV cell are more appropriate for the concentrating hybrid system. Enlarging the thermal resistance of the thermoelectric generator can significantly increase the performance of the coupled system using amorphous silicon PV cell or polymer PV cell.

  5. Outdoor Performance Analysis of a Photovoltaic Thermal (PVT) Collector with Jet Impingement and Compound Parabolic Concentrator (CPC)

    OpenAIRE

    Ahed Hameed Jaaz; Husam Abdulrasool Hasan; Kamaruzzaman Sopian; Abdul Amir H. Kadhum; Tayser Sumer Gaaz; Ahmed A. Al-Amiery

    2017-01-01

    This paper discusses the effect of jet impingement of water on a photovoltaic thermal (PVT) collector and compound parabolic concentrators (CPC) on electrical efficiency, thermal efficiency and power production of a PVT system. A prototype of a PVT solar water collector installed with a jet impingement and CPC has been designed, fabricated and experimentally investigated. The efficiency of the system can be improved by using jet impingement of water to decrease the temperature of the solar ce...

  6. Grid Converters for Photovoltaic and Wind Power Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Teodorescu, Remus; Liserre, Marco; Rodriguez, Pedro

    power, operation within a wide range of voltage and frequency, voltage ride-through capability, reactive current injection during faults, grid services support. This book explains the topologies, modulation and control of grid converters for both photovoltaic and wind power applications. In addition...... to power electronics, this book focuses on the specific applications in photovoltaic wind power systems where grid condition is an essential factor. With a review of the most recent grid requirements for photovoltaic and wind power systems, the book discusses these other relevant issues: Modern grid...... inverter topologies for photovoltaic and wind turbines Islanding detection methods for photovoltaic systems Synchronization techniques based on second order generalized integrators (SOGI) Advanced synchronization techniques with robust operation under grid unbalance condition grid filter design and active...

  7. Performance comparison of four kinds of flat nonimaging Fresnel lenses made of polycarbonates and polymethyl methacrylate for concentrated photovoltaics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Languy, Fabian; Habraken, Serge

    2011-07-15

    Solar concentrators made of a single refractive primary optics are limited to a concentration ratio of about 1000× [Opt. Express 19, A280 (2011)], due only to longitudinal chromatic aberration, while mirrors are limited to ∼46,000× by the angular size of the Sun. To reduce the chromatic aberration while keeping cost-effective systems for concentrated photovoltaics, a study of four different kinds of flat Fresnel doublets made of polycarbonates and polymethyl methacrylate is presented. It reveals that Fresnel doublets may have fewer optical losses than non-Fresnel doublets, with a lower lateral chromatic split allowing for even higher concentration ratio. © 2011 Optical Society of America

  8. High Efficiency Nanostructured III-V Photovoltaics for Solar Concentrator Application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hubbard, Seth

    2012-09-12

    The High Efficiency Nanostructured III-V Photovoltaics for Solar Concentrators project seeks to provide new photovoltaic cells for Concentrator Photovoltaics (CPV) Systems with higher cell efficiency, more favorable temperature coefficients and less sensitivity to changes in spectral distribution. The main objective of this project is to provide high efficiency III-V solar cells that will reduce the overall cost per Watt for power generation using CPV systems.This work is focused both on a potential near term application, namely the use of indium arsenide (InAs) QDs to spectrally "tune" the middle (GaAs) cell of a SOA triple junction device to a more favorable effective bandgap, as well as the long term goal of demonstrating intermediate band solar cell effects. The QDs are confined within a high electric field i-region of a standard GaAs solar cell. The extended absorption spectrum (and thus enhanced short circuit current) of the QD solar cell results from the increase in the sub GaAs bandgap spectral response that is achievable as quantum dot layers are introduced into the i-region. We have grown InAs quantum dots by OMVPE technique and optimized the QD growth conditions. Arrays of up to 40 layers of strain balanced quantum dots have been experimentally demonstrated with good material quality, low residual stain and high PL intensity. Quantum dot enhanced solar cells were grown and tested under simulated one sun AM1.5 conditions. Concentrator solar cells have been grown and fabricated with 5-40 layers of QDs. Testing of these devices show the QD cells have improved efficiency compared to baseline devices without QDs. Device modeling and measurement of thermal properties were performed using Crosslight APSYS. Improvements in a triple junction solar cell with the insertion of QDs into the middle current limiting junction was shown to be as high as 29% under one sun illumination for a 10 layer stack QD enhanced triple junction solar cell. QD devices have strong

  9. Market valuation perspectives for photovoltaic systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klise, Geoffrey Taylor [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2014-08-01

    Sandia National Laboratories, working with Energy Sense Finance developed the proof-ofconcept PV Valueª tool in 2011 to provide real estate appraisers a tool that can be used to develop the market value and fair market value of a solar photovoltaic system. PV Valueª moved from a proof-of-concept spreadsheet to a commercial web-based tool developed and operated exclusively by Energy Sense Finance in June 2014. This paper presents the results of a survey aimed at different user categories in order to measure how the tool is being used in the marketplace as well as elicit information that can be used to improve the tools effectiveness.

  10. The maximum theoretical performance of unconcentrated solar photovoltaic and thermoelectric generator systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørk, Rasmus; Nielsen, Kaspar Kirstein

    2017-01-01

    The maximum efficiency for photovoltaic (PV) and thermoelectric generator (TEG) systems without concentration is investigated. Both a combined system where the TEG is mounted directly on the back of the PV and a tandem system where the incoming sunlight is split, and the short wavelength radiation...

  11. Comparative analysis of concentrating solar power and photovoltaic technologies: Technical and environmental evaluations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Desideri, U.; Zepparelli, F.; Morettini, V.; Garroni, E.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Life cycle was assessed for both concentrated solar power and photovoltaic systems. ► The PV plant has a higher environmental impact than the CSP plant. ► The Global Warming Potential is lower for the CSP than for the PV plant. ► The energy payback time is lower for the CSP than for the PV plant. -- Abstract: Solar energy is an important alternative energy source to fossil fuels and theoretically the most available energy source on the earth. Solar energy can be converted into electric energy by using two different processes: by means of thermodynamic cycles and the photovoltaic conversion. Solar thermal technologies, sometimes called thermodynamic solar technologies, operating at medium (about 500 °C) and high temperatures (about 1000 °C), have recently attracted a renewed interest and have become one of the most promising alternatives in the field of solar energy utilization. Photovoltaic conversion is very interesting, although still quite expensive, because of the absence of moving components and the reduced operating and management costs. The main objectives of the present work are: •to carry out comparative technical evaluations on the amount of electricity produced by two hypothetical plants, located on the same site, for which a preliminary design was made: a solar thermal power plant with parabolic trough collectors and a photovoltaic plant with a single-axis tracking system; •to carry out a comparative analysis of the environmental impact derived from the processes of electricity generation during the whole life cycle of the two hypothetical power plants. First a technical comparison between the two plants was made assuming that they have the same nominal electric power and then the same total covered surface. The methodology chosen to evaluate the environmental impact associated with the power plants is the Life Cycle Assessment (LCA). It allows to analyze all the phases of the life cycle of the plants, from the extraction of

  12. Model-based fault detection algorithm for photovoltaic system monitoring

    KAUST Repository

    Harrou, Fouzi; Sun, Ying; Saidi, Ahmed

    2018-01-01

    Reliable detection of faults in PV systems plays an important role in improving their reliability, productivity, and safety. This paper addresses the detection of faults in the direct current (DC) side of photovoltaic (PV) systems using a

  13. Monocrystalline silicon photovoltaic luminescent solar concentrator with 4.2% power conversion efficiency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Desmet, L.; Ras, A.J.M.; Boer, de D.K.G.; Debije, M.G.

    2012-01-01

    We report conversion efficiencies of experimental single and dual light guide luminescent solar concentrators. We have built several 5¿¿cm×5¿¿cm and 10¿¿cm×10¿¿cm luminescent solar concentrator (LSC) demonstrators consisting of c-Si photovoltaic cells attached to luminescent light guides of Lumogen

  14. Statistical fault detection in photovoltaic systems

    KAUST Repository

    Garoudja, Elyes

    2017-05-08

    Faults in photovoltaic (PV) systems, which can result in energy loss, system shutdown or even serious safety breaches, are often difficult to avoid. Fault detection in such systems is imperative to improve their reliability, productivity, safety and efficiency. Here, an innovative model-based fault-detection approach for early detection of shading of PV modules and faults on the direct current (DC) side of PV systems is proposed. This approach combines the flexibility, and simplicity of a one-diode model with the extended capacity of an exponentially weighted moving average (EWMA) control chart to detect incipient changes in a PV system. The one-diode model, which is easily calibrated due to its limited calibration parameters, is used to predict the healthy PV array\\'s maximum power coordinates of current, voltage and power using measured temperatures and irradiances. Residuals, which capture the difference between the measurements and the predictions of the one-diode model, are generated and used as fault indicators. Then, the EWMA monitoring chart is applied on the uncorrelated residuals obtained from the one-diode model to detect and identify the type of fault. Actual data from the grid-connected PV system installed at the Renewable Energy Development Center, Algeria, are used to assess the performance of the proposed approach. Results show that the proposed approach successfully monitors the DC side of PV systems and detects temporary shading.

  15. Study of the electrical and thermal performances of photovoltaic thermal collector-compound parabolic concentrated

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaaz, Ahed Hameed; Sopian, Kamaruzzaman; Gaaz, Tayser Sumer

    2018-06-01

    The importance of utilizing the solar energy as a very suitable source among multi-source approaches to replace the conventional energy is on the rise in the last four decades. The invention of the photovoltaic module (PV) could be the corner stone in this process. However, the limited amount of energy obtained from PV was and still the main challenge of full utilization of the solar energy. In this paper, the use of the compound parabolic concentrator (CPC) along with the thermal photovoltaic module (PVT) where the cooling process of the CPC is conducted using a novel technique of water jet impingement has applied experimentally and physically tested. The test includes the effect of water jet impingement on the total power, electrical efficiency, thermal efficiency, and total efficiency on CPC-PVT system. The cooling process at the maximum irradiation by water jet impingement resulted in improving the electrical efficiency by 7%, total output power by 31% and the thermal efficiency by 81%. These results outperform the recent highest results recorded by the most recent work.

  16. Analysis of Photovoltaic Self-Consumption Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos J. Sarasa-Maestro

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Components and installation prices could make the self-consumption of solar photovoltaic (PV systems competitive. In this paper, we explore different self-consumption options, off-grid PV systems (with back-up generator and/or batteries, and grid-connected PV systems under net-metering policies. The calculation of the net present cost (NPC reveals that the grid-connected PV-only case (for the net-metering scheme is the most attractive from the technical and financial points of view, with a levelised cost of energy less than 0.1 €/kWh. Off-grid PV + Diesel + Batteries has a higher cost, around two or three times the grid-connected PV-only under net metering. Additionally, the off-grid PV + Diesel is less attractive from a financial point of view, which has a cost of around 10 times the PV-only under net metering. In addition, the values of life cycle CO2 emissions in each of the cases studied have been compared, and we have concluded that although the off-grid PV + Diesel + Batteries system presents lower CO2 emissions than the PV-only system, the existence of batteries does not allow one to affirm that the PV + Diesel + Batteries system is the best from an environmental point of view.

  17. Photovoltaic power systems and the National Electrical Code: Suggested practices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiles, J. [New Mexico State Univ., Las Cruces, NM (United States). Southwest Technology Development Inst.

    1996-12-01

    This guide provides information on how the National Electrical Code (NEC) applies to photovoltaic systems. The guide is not intended to supplant or replace the NEC; it paraphrases the NEC where it pertains to photovoltaic systems and should be used with the full text of the NEC. Users of this guide should be thoroughly familiar with the NEC and know the engineering principles and hazards associated with electrical and photovoltaic power systems. The information in this guide is the best available at the time of publication and is believed to be technically accurate; it will be updated frequently. Application of this information and results obtained are the responsibility of the user.

  18. Photovoltaic Power Systems and the National Electrical Code: Suggested Practices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2002-02-01

    This guide provides information on how the National Electrical Code (NEC) applies to photovoltaic systems. The guide is not intended to supplant or replace the NEC; it paraphrases the NEC where it pertains to photovoltaic systems and should be used with the full text of the NEC. Users of this guide should be thoroughly familiar with the NEC and know the engineering principles and hazards associated with electrical and photovoltaic power systems. The information in this guide is the best available at the time of publication and is believed to be technically accurate; it will be updated frequently.

  19. A sensitivity analysis of central flat-plate photovoltaic systems and implications for national photovoltaics program planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crosetti, M. R.

    1985-01-01

    The sensitivity of the National Photovoltaic Research Program goals to changes in individual photovoltaic system parameters is explored. Using the relationship between lifetime cost and system performance parameters, tests were made to see how overall photovoltaic system energy costs are affected by changes in the goals set for module cost and efficiency, system component costs and efficiencies, operation and maintenance costs, and indirect costs. The results are presented in tables and figures for easy reference.

  20. Photovoltaics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-06-01

    This road-map proposes by the Group Total aims to inform the public on the photovoltaics. It presents the principles and the applications, the issues and the current technology, the challenges and the Group Total commitment in the domain. (A.L.B.)

  1. Field Performance of Photovoltaic Systems in the Tucson Desert

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orsburn, Sean; Brooks, Adria; Cormode, Daniel; Greenberg, James; Hardesty, Garrett; Lonij, Vincent; Salhab, Anas; St. Germaine, Tyler; Torres, Gabe; Cronin, Alexander

    2011-10-01

    At the Tucson Electric Power (TEP) solar test yard, over 20 different grid-connected photovoltaic (PV) systems are being tested. The goal at the TEP solar test yard is to measure and model real-world performance of PV systems and to benchmark new technologies such as holographic concentrators. By studying voltage and current produced by the PV systems as a function of incident irradiance, and module temperature, we can compare our measurements of field-performance (in a harsh desert environment) to manufacturer specifications (determined under laboratory conditions). In order to measure high-voltage and high-current signals, we designed and built reliable, accurate sensors that can handle extreme desert temperatures. We will present several benchmarks of sensors in a controlled environment, including shunt resistors and Hall-effect current sensors, to determine temperature drift and accuracy. Finally we will present preliminary field measurements of PV performance for several different PV technologies.

  2. Photovoltaics for professionals solar electric systems marketing, design and installation

    CERN Document Server

    Falk, Antony; Remmers, Karl-Heinz

    2007-01-01

    For the building industry, the installation of photovoltaic systems has become a new field of activity. Interest in solar energy is growing and future business prospects are excellent. Photovoltaics for Professionals describes the practicalities of marketing, designing and installing photovoltaic systems, both grid-tied and stand-alone. It has been written for electricians, technicians, builders, architects and building engineers who want to get involved in this expanding industry. It answers all the beginner's questions as well as serving as a textbook and work of reference

  3. Design optimization of photovoltaic powered water pumping systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghoneim, A.A.

    2006-01-01

    The use of photovoltaics as the power source for pumping water is one of the most promising areas in photovoltaic applications. With the increased use of water pumping systems, more attention has been paid to their design and optimum utilization in order to achieve the most reliable and economical operation. This paper presents the results of performance optimization of a photovoltaic powered water pumping system in the Kuwait climate. The direct coupled photovoltaic water pumping system studied consists of the PV array, DC motor, centrifugal pump, a storage tank that serves a similar purpose to battery storage and a maximum power point tracker to improve the efficiency of the system. The pumped water is desired to satisfy the domestic needs of 300 persons in a remote area in Kuwait. Assuming a figure of 40 l/person/day for water consumption, a volume of 12 m 3 should be pumped daily from a deep well throughout the year. A computer simulation program is developed to determine the performance of the proposed system in the Kuwait climate. The simulation program consists of a component model for the PV array with maximum power point tracker and component models for both the DC motor and the centrifugal pump. The five parameter model is adapted to simulate the performance of amorphous silicon solar cell modules. The size of the PV array, PV array orientation and the pump-motor-hydraulic system characteristics are varied to achieve the optimum performance for the proposed system. The life cycle cost method is implemented to evaluate the economic feasibility of the optimized photovoltaic powered water pumping system. At the current prices of PV modules, the cost of the proposed photovoltaic powered water pumping system is found to be less expensive than the cost of the conventional fuel system. In addition, the expected reduction in the prices of photovoltaic modules in the near future will make photovoltaic powered water pumping systems more feasible

  4. Grid-connected photovoltaic system design for local government ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Grid-connected photovoltaic system design for local government offices in Nigeria. ... Nigerian Journal of Technology. Journal Home ... It is neat, silent and elegant process of generating electric power in environmentally friendly manner. In this ...

  5. Correlation of photovoltaic geographical information system data ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this study, a 12-month record of global solar radiation (GSR) data in Niger Delta ... the viewpoint of making a case for renewable energy investment in the region. Keywords: Solar energy, global solar radiation, Photovoltaic GIS, Niger Delta

  6. Optimization of concentrator photovoltaic solar cell performance through photonic engineering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harris, James [Stanford Univ., CA (United States)

    2018-04-04

    The goal of this program was to incorporate two new and innovative design concepts into the design and production of CPV cells that have near zero added cost, yet significantly increase the operational efficiency of CPV modules. The program focused developing luminescent coupling effects and radiative cooling layers to increase efficiency and suppress CPV module power losses due to spectral variations and heating. The major results of the program were: 1) The optics of three commercial refractive (Fresnel) concentrators were characterized and prevent application of radiative cooling concepts due to strong mid-IR absorption (4-12µm) required to effectively radiate blackbody radiation from the cells and provide cooling. Investigation of alternative materials for the concentrator lenses produced only undesirable options—materials with reasonable mid-IR transmission for cooling only had about 30-40 visible transmission, thus reducing incident sunlight by >50%. While our investigation was somewhat limited, our work suggests that the only viable concentrator system that can incorporate radiative cooling utilizes reflective optics. 2) With limited ability to test high concentration CPV cells (requires outdoor testing), we acquired both semi-crystalline and crystalline Si cells and tested them in our outdoor facility and demonstrated 4°C cooling using a simple silica layer coating on the cells. 3) Characterizing Si cells in the IR associated with radiative cooling, we observed very significant near-IR absorption that increases the cell operating temperature by a similar amount, 4-5°C. By appropriate surface layer design, one can produce a layer that is highly reflective in the near-IR (1.5-4µm) and highly emissive in the mid-IR (5-15µm), thus reducing cell operational temperature by 10°C and increasing efficiency by ~1% absolute. The radiative cooling effect in c-Si solar cells might be further improved by providing a higher thermal conductive elastomer for

  7. PV Obelisk - Information system with photovoltaics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruoss, D.; Rasmussen, J.

    2004-01-01

    This final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) describes the development of an information system powered by a photovoltaic (PV) array. As an innovative approach, the 'PV-Obelisk' project is the combination of PV with a multi-functional pillar made of natural stone in an aesthetic way. The PV modules serve both as a power supply and as a design element. Two initial prototypes led the way to a third, optimised consumer configuration that was planned to guarantee maximum user frequency. Test operation in front of the 'Heidiland' motor way restaurant confirmed the market analyses made and delivered the expected results. The product, whose three LCD displays are updated via a mobile telephony-based text-message system, proved its technical reliability and showed a high user frequency. Because of the high overall energy consumption, PV power can only partially contribute to the energy supply needed. Various compromises in the technical and aesthetic areas are discussed that were made for the sake of product acceptance in the market. The range of application areas for such a 'PV Obelisk' are discussed and the need for early co-ordination with urban planners is stressed

  8. Design of boat powered photovoltaic systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Syafaruddin; Galla, D; Ajami, W.A.F.A.

    2014-01-01

    The solar energy has high potential applications in Indonesia since the country is located close to the equatorial region that makes the sun is almost bright along the day. In this paper, the boat power photovoltaic system is proposed. Such design may promote new innovations technically and economically in water transportation system since the country demography is almost 75% surrounded by water. The electricity energy is harvested from the sun through the PV panel then stored in the battery by solar charge control mechanism in order to rotate the prime mover of the boat by means the DC motor. The shaft of the DC motor is directly connected to the boat propeller and the speed motor is regulated by the pulse width modulation (PWM) technique generated from the AVR microcontroller ATmega16. The final design is obtained that for the boat with the total weight of 531.1758 kg, it may operate for 1.26 hours with the knot speed of 3.11 when 2 PV panels of 50 W, 2 DC motor of 0.3 kW and battery of 100 Ah capacity are used with the overall efficiency performance not less than 87.4%. (author)

  9. Modelling acceptance of sunlight in high and low photovoltaic concentration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leutz, Ralf, E-mail: ralf.leutz@leopil.com [Leutz Optics and Illumination UG (haftungsbeschränkt), Marburg (Germany)

    2014-09-26

    A simple model incorporating linear radiation characteristics, along with the optical trains and geometrical concentration ratios of solar concentrators is presented with performance examples for optical trains of HCPV, LCPV and benchmark flat-plate PV.

  10. Modelling acceptance of sunlight in high and low photovoltaic concentration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leutz, Ralf

    2014-09-01

    A simple model incorporating linear radiation characteristics, along with the optical trains and geometrical concentration ratios of solar concentrators is presented with performance examples for optical trains of HCPV, LCPV and benchmark flat-plate PV.

  11. Modelling acceptance of sunlight in high and low photovoltaic concentration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leutz, Ralf

    2014-01-01

    A simple model incorporating linear radiation characteristics, along with the optical trains and geometrical concentration ratios of solar concentrators is presented with performance examples for optical trains of HCPV, LCPV and benchmark flat-plate PV

  12. Reversible degradation in ITO-containing organic photovoltaics under concentrated sunlight

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Galagan, Y.O.; Mescheloff, A.; Veenstra, S.C.; Andriessen, H.A.J.M.; Katz, E.A.

    2015-01-01

    Stabilities of ITO-containing and ITO-free organic solar cells were investigated under simulated AM 1.5G illumination and under concentrated natural sunlight. In both cases ITO-free devices exhibit high stability, while devices containing ITO show degradation of their photovoltaic performance. The

  13. Grid-Tied Photovoltaic Power System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eichenberg, Dennis J.

    2011-01-01

    A grid-tied photovoltaic (PV) power system is connected directly to the utility distribution grid. Facility power can be obtained from the utility system as normal. The PV system is synchronized with the utility system to provide power for the facility, and excess power is provided to the utility. Operating costs of a PV power system are low compared to conventional power technologies. This method can displace the highest-cost electricity during times of peak demand in most climatic regions, and thus reduce grid loading. Net metering is often used, in which independent power producers such as PV power systems are connected to the utility grid via the customers main service panels and meters. When the PV power system is generating more power than required at that location, the excess power is provided to the utility grid. The customer pays the net of the power purchased when the on-site power demand is greater than the onsite power production, and the excess power is returned to the utility grid. Power generated by the PV system reduces utility demand, and the surplus power aids the community. Modern PV panels are readily available, reliable, efficient, and economical, with a life expectancy of at least 25 years. Modern electronics have been the enabling technology behind grid-tied power systems, making them safe, reliable, efficient, and economical with a life expectancy equal to the modern PV panels. The grid-tied PV power system was successfully designed and developed, and this served to validate the basic principles developed, and the theoretical work that was performed. Grid-tied PV power systems are reliable, maintenance- free, long-life power systems, and are of significant value to NASA and the community. Of particular value are the analytical tools and capabilities that have been successfully developed. Performance predictions can be made confidently for grid-tied PV systems of various scales. The work was done under the NASA Hybrid Power Management (HPM

  14. Interim performance criteria for photovoltaic energy systems. [Glossary included

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeBlasio, R.; Forman, S.; Hogan, S.; Nuss, G.; Post, H.; Ross, R.; Schafft, H.

    1980-12-01

    This document is a response to the Photovoltaic Research, Development, and Demonstration Act of 1978 (P.L. 95-590) which required the generation of performance criteria for photovoltaic energy systems. Since the document is evolutionary and will be updated, the term interim is used. More than 50 experts in the photovoltaic field have contributed in the writing and review of the 179 performance criteria listed in this document. The performance criteria address characteristics of present-day photovoltaic systems that are of interest to manufacturers, government agencies, purchasers, and all others interested in various aspects of photovoltaic system performance and safety. The performance criteria apply to the system as a whole and to its possible subsystems: array, power conditioning, monitor and control, storage, cabling, and power distribution. They are further categorized according to the following performance attributes: electrical, thermal, mechanical/structural, safety, durability/reliability, installation/operation/maintenance, and building/site. Each criterion contains a statement of expected performance (nonprescriptive), a method of evaluation, and a commentary with further information or justification. Over 50 references for background information are also given. A glossary with definitions relevant to photovoltaic systems and a section on test methods are presented in the appendices. Twenty test methods are included to measure performance characteristics of the subsystem elements. These test methods and other parts of the document will be expanded or revised as future experience and needs dictate.

  15. Field trial of rural solar photovoltaic system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basu, P.; Mukhopadhyay, K.; Banerjee, T.; Das, S.; Saha, H.

    Experience, costs, and performance of photovoltaic (PV) systems set up in a remote Indian village to power an adult literacy center and an irrigation pump are described. The center was furnished with a 14-module, 200 W array to power a television and three fluorescent lamps. The pumping installation has 20 modules for a 300 W output directly coupled to a 300-W dc pump motor. Data were gathered on the open circuit voltage, short circuit current, specific gravity of the battery fluid, degradation of the cells, nominal operating temperature of the cells, load currents, Amp-hours, water flow rate (pump), and the static head and draw down rate (pump). Monitoring of the array performances in the dusty environment showed that once/week cleaning is necessary. Al-substrates cracked at the center installation and sealant evaporation caused condensation which degraded the light transmissivity and thereby the short-circuit current of the modules. The combination of low-efficiency (5 pct) cells and cheap labor demonstrated economic operation without high-efficiency cells.

  16. Utility-Scale Concentrating Solar Power and Photovoltaic Projects: A Technology and Market Overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendelsohn, M.; Lowder, T.; Canavan, B.

    2012-04-01

    Over the last several years, solar energy technologies have been, or are in the process of being, deployed at unprecedented levels. A critical recent development, resulting from the massive scale of projects in progress or recently completed, is having the power sold directly to electric utilities. Such 'utility-scale' systems offer the opportunity to deploy solar technologies far faster than the traditional 'behind-the-meter' projects designed to offset retail load. Moreover, these systems have employed significant economies of scale during construction and operation, attracting financial capital, which in turn can reduce the delivered cost of power. This report is a summary of the current U.S. utility-scale solar state-of-the-market and development pipeline. Utility-scale solar energy systems are generally categorized as one of two basic designs: concentrating solar power (CSP) and photovoltaic (PV). CSP systems can be further delineated into four commercially available technologies: parabolic trough, central receiver (CR), parabolic dish, and linear Fresnel reflector. CSP systems can also be categorized as hybrid, which combine a solar-based system (generally parabolic trough, CR, or linear Fresnel) and a fossil fuel energy system to produce electric power or steam.

  17. Installation of a Roof Mounted Photovoltaic System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, M.

    2015-12-01

    In order to create a safe and comfortable environment for students to learn, a lot of electricity, which is generated from coal fired power plants, is used. Therefore, ISF Academy, a school in Hong Kong with approximately 1,500 students, will be installing a rooftop photovoltaic (PV) system with 302 solar panels. Not only will these panels be used to power a classroom, they will also serve as an educational opportunity for students to learn about the importance of renewable energy technology and its uses. There were four different options for the installation of the solar panels, and the final choice was made based on the loading capacity of the roof, considering the fact that overstressing the roof could prove to be a safety hazard. Moreover, due to consideration of the risk of typhoons in Hong Kong, the solar panel PV system will include concrete plinths as counterweights - but not so much that the roof would be severely overstressed. During and after the installation of the PV system, students involved would be able to do multiple calculations, such as determining the reduction of the school's carbon footprint. This can allow students to learn about the impact renewable energy can have on the environment. Another project students can participate in includes measuring the efficiency of the solar panels and how much power can be produced per year, which in turn can help with calculate the amount of money saved per year and when we will achieve economic parity. In short, the installation of the roof mounted PV system will not only be able to help save money for the school but also provide learning opportunities for students studying at the ISF Academy.

  18. Photovoltaic system criteria documents. Volume 3: Environmental issues and evaluation criteria for photovoltaic applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koenig, John C.; Billitti, Joseph W.; Tallon, John M.

    1979-01-01

    The environmental issues and evaluation criteria relating to the suitability of sites proposed for photovoltaic (PV) system deployment are identified. The important issues are defined, briefly discussed and then developed into evaluation criteria. System designers are provided with information on the environmental sensitivity of PV systems in realistic applications, background material which indicates the applicability of the siting issues identified, and evaluation criteria are defined to facilitate the selection of sites that maximize PV system operation.

  19. Remote residential photovoltaic systems in British Columbia: A study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mathews, R B

    1989-01-01

    A survey of existing residential photovoltaic power systems in remote areas in British Columbia was conducted to collect data on system performance. The 80 respondents had systems with arrays ranging from 5 to 875 watts, costing from $200 to $14,000. An overwhelming majority of users expressed overall satisfaction with the contribution of photovoltaic technology to their life style. Specific advantages of photovoltaic systems over alternative energy sources included cost-effectiveness, low maintenance, lack of noise and pollution, and ease of operation. Problems with the systems included low winter power, unsatisfactory load matching, and improper operation of associated battery storage systems. It was noted that load profile estimation and system sizing calculations are difficult because control over user behavior with respect to the power system is nearly non-existent when compared to industrial installations. Low-level ampere-hour monitoring of 10 representative sites was carried out and results are presented, giving the power contributions of the photovoltaic system along with any backup system that may be present. Remote residential photovoltaic systems should continue to gain acceptance and more widespread use, especially as module costs drop and more efficient loads (especially appliances such as refrigerators) become practical. 10 figs., 2 tabs.

  20. Application of Solar Photovoltaic Water Pumping System in Hainan Agriculture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiangchun; YU; Qingqing; LIN; Xuedong; ZHOU; Zhibin; YANG

    2013-01-01

    With radical socio-economic development and strengthening of regulation of agricultural industrial structure in Hainan Province,fresh water resource becomes increasingly insufficient.Existing water-saving facilities and measures are unable to promote sustainable and stable development of local economy.This needs modern irrigation method.Solar photovoltaic water pumping system is necessary and feasible in Hainan agriculture,and will have directive significance for Hainan Province developing photovoltaic agriculture.

  1. Monocrystalline silicon solar cells applied in photovoltaic system

    OpenAIRE

    L.A. Dobrzański; A. Drygała; M. Giedroć; M. Macek

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of the paper is to fabricate the monocrystalline silicon solar cells using the conventional technology by means of screen printing process and to make of them photovoltaic system.Design/methodology/approach: The investigation of current – voltage characteristic to determinate basic electrical properties of monocrystalline silicon solar cells were investigated under Standard Test Condition. Photovoltaic module was produced from solar cells with the largest short-circuit curren...

  2. Performance characteristics of solar-photovoltaic flywheel-storage systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarvinen, P. O.; Brench, B. L.; Rasmussen, N. E.

    A solar photovoltaic energy flywheel storage and conversion system for residential applications was tested. Performance and efficiency measurements were conducted on the system, which utilizes low loss magnetic bearings, maximum power point tracking of the photovoltaic array, integrated permanent magnet motor generator, and output power conditioning sections of either the stand alone cycloconverter or utility interactive inverter type. The overall in/out electrical storage efficiency of the flywheel system was measured along with the power transfer efficiencies of the individual components and the system spin down tare losses. The system compares favorably with systems which use batteries and inverters.

  3. Design and Prototyping of Stationary Catadioptric Concentrating Photovoltaic Modules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McMahon, William E [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Lloyd, John [Glint Photonics; Kozodoy, Peter [Glint Photonics; Gladden, Christopher [Glint Photonics; Pavilonis, Michael [Glint Photonics; Casper, Chadwick [Glint Photonics; Schneider, Kevin [Glint Photonics

    2017-11-06

    The optical design of a catadioptric concentrator is presented which provides a flat focal plane and efficient power collection from normal to 60 degree incidence, along with an initial prototype demonstration.

  4. Price-Efficiency Relationship for Photovoltaic Systems on a Global Basis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Sait Cengiz

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Solar energy is the most abundant, useful, efficient, and environmentally friendly source of renewable energy. In addition, in recent years, the capacity of photovoltaic electricity generation systems has increased exponentially throughout the world given an increase in the economic viability and reliability of photovoltaic systems. Moreover, many studies state that photovoltaic power systems will play a key role in electricity generation in the future. When first produced, photovoltaic systems had short lifetimes. Currently, through development, the technology lifecycle of photovoltaic systems has increased to 20–25 years. Studies showed that photovoltaic systems would be broadly used in the future, a conclusion reached by considering the rapidly decreasing cost of photovoltaic systems. Because price analysis is very important for energy marketing, in this study, a review of the cost potential factors on photovoltaic panels is realized and the expected cost potential of photovoltaic systems is examined considering numerous studies.

  5. Conceptual design and systems analysis of photovoltaic power systems. Volume III(1). Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pittman, P.F.

    1977-05-01

    Conceptual designs were made and analyses were performed on three types of solar photovoltaic power systems. Included were Residential (1 to 10 kW), Intermediate (0.1 to 10 MW), and Central (50 to 1000 MW) Power Systems to be installed in the 1985 to 2000 time period. Subsystem technology presented here includes: insolation, concentration, silicon solar cell modules, CdS solar cell module, array structure, battery energy storage, power conditioning, residential power system architectural designs, intermediate power system structural design, and central power system facilities and site survey.

  6. Analysis and Prediction of Energy Production in Concentrating Photovoltaic (CPV Installations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allen Barnett

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available A method for the prediction of Energy Production (EP in Concentrating Photovoltaic (CPV installations is examined in this study. It presents a new method that predicts EP by using Global Horizontal Irradiation (GHI and the Photovoltaic Geographical Information System (PVGIS database, instead of Direct Normal Irradiation (DNI data, which are rarely recorded at most locations. EP at four Spanish CPV installations is analyzed: two are based on silicon solar cells and the other two on multi-junction III-V solar cells. The real EP is compared with the predicted EP. Two methods for EP prediction are presented. In the first preliminary method, a monthly Performance Ratio (PR is used as an arbitrary constant value (75% and an estimation of the DNI. The DNI estimation is obtained from GHI measurements and the PVGIS database. In the second method, a lineal model is proposed for the first time in this paper to obtain the predicted EP from the estimated DNI. This lineal model is the regression line that correlates the real monthly EP and the estimated DNI in 2009. This new method implies that the monthly PR is variable. Using the new method, the difference between the predicted and the real EP values is less than 2% for the annual EP and is in the range of 5.6%–16.1% for the monthly EP. The method that uses the variable monthly PR allows the prediction of the EP with reasonable accuracy. It is therefore possible to predict the CPV EP for any location, using only widely available GHI data and the PVGIS database.

  7. Performance analysis and test for through concentrating photovoltaic/thermal system applied in facility agriculture%设施农业用槽式太阳能聚光电热联供系统性能分析与试验

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于苗苗; 侯静; 常泽辉; 贾柠泽; 贾彦

    2016-01-01

    With the increase of global urban population and development of agriculture science and technology, modern agriculture has increasingly become the focus of the urban planning and construction. Facility agriculture is an important mode of development in modern agriculture, which plays a key role in improving the micro-environment for growth of crops. But some environmental testing equipment and production facilities consume a lot of energy in the facility agriculture. In order to solve the problem of large fossil energy consumption in the facility agriculture, solar photovoltaic (PV) systems have been mounted based on configuration of the facility agriculture which does not need land space unlike PV systems. Facility agriculture integrated with photovoltaic systems can not only provide quality fresh agriculture products, but also fulfill the agriculture’s electricity demand without negative impact on the environment. However, currently, photovoltaic ecological agriculture system increases the distance between the agricultural greenhouses and reduce the economic benefits of the facility agriculture in the unit land area because of the shielding of the solar photovoltaic modules arranged on the back wall of the greenhouse. Therefore, increasing the output power per the unit area of solar cell is imminent. For this reason, there is a growing interest in concentrating photovoltaic (CPV) technologies which are systems made of optical devices that focus light towards decreased area of photovoltaic materials. Thus a novel trough solar concentrating photovoltaic/thermal (CPVT) system in facility agriculture was proposed in this paper. The system had a compound parabolic concentrator (CPC), photovoltaic/thermal (PV/T) system with steel heat exchanger sandwiched between two identical monocrystalline silicon batteries bonded with glue and tracking device. The two main advantages of the system were their ability to reduce the number of photovoltaic cells of rated electric

  8. Photovoltaic Test and Demonstration Project. [for solar cell power systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forestieri, A. F.; Brandhorst, H. W., Jr.; Deyo, J. N.

    1976-01-01

    The Photovoltaic Test and Demonstration Project was initiated by NASA in June, 1975, to develop economically feasible photovoltaic power systems suitable for a variety of terrestrial applications. Objectives include the determination of operating characteristic and lifetimes of a variety of solar cell systems and components and development of methodology and techniques for accurate measurements of solar cell and array performance and diagnostic measurements for solar power systems. Initial work will be concerned with residential applications, with testing of the first prototype system scheduled for June, 1976. An outdoor 10 kW array for testing solar power systems is under construction.

  9. Sliding mode controller for a photovoltaic pumping system

    Science.gov (United States)

    ElOugli, A.; Miqoi, S.; Boutouba, M.; Tidhaf, B.

    2017-03-01

    In this paper, a sliding mode control scheme (SMC) for maximum power point tracking controller for a photovoltaic pumping system, is proposed. The main goal is to maximize the flow rate for a water pump, by forcing the photovoltaic system to operate in its MPP, to obtain the maximum power that a PV system can deliver.And this, through the intermediary of a sliding mode controller to track and control the MPP by overcoming the power oscillation around the operating point, which appears in most implemented MPPT techniques. The sliding mode control approach is recognized as one of the efficient and powerful tools for nonlinear systems under uncertainty conditions.The proposed controller with photovoltaic pumping system is designed and simulated using MATLAB/SIMULINK environment. In addition, to evaluate its performances, a classical MPPT algorithm using perturb and observe (P&O) has been used for the same system to compare to our controller. Simulation results are shown.

  10. High-resolution global irradiance monitoring from photovoltaic systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchmann, Tina; Pfeilsticker, Klaus; Siegmund, Alexander; Meilinger, Stefanie; Mayer, Bernhard; Pinitz, Sven; Steinbrecht, Wolfgang

    2016-04-01

    Reliable and regional differentiated power forecasts are required to guarantee an efficient and economic energy transition towards renewable energies. Amongst other renewable energy technologies, e.g. wind mills, photovoltaic systems are an essential component of this transition being cost-efficient and simply to install. Reliable power forecasts are however required for a grid integration of photovoltaic systems, which among other data requires high-resolution spatio-temporal global irradiance data. Hence the generation of robust reviewed global irradiance data is an essential contribution for the energy transition. To achieve this goal our studies introduce a novel method which makes use of photovoltaic power generation in order to infer global irradiance. The method allows to determine high-resolution temporal global irradiance data (one data point every 15 minutes at each location) from power data of operated photovoltaic systems. Due to the multitude of installed photovoltaic systems (in Germany) the detailed spatial coverage is much better than for example only using global irradiance data from conventional pyranometer networks (e.g. from the German Weather Service). Our designated method is composed of two components: a forward component, i.e. to conclude from predicted global irradiance to photovoltaic (PV) power, and a backward component, i.e. from PV power with suitable calibration to global irradiance. The forward process is modelled by using the radiation transport model libRadtran (B. Mayer and A. Kylling (1)) for clear skies to obtain the characteristics (orientation, size, temperature dependence, …) of individual PV systems. For PV systems in the vicinity of a meteorological station, these data are validated against calibrated pyranometer readings. The forward-modelled global irradiance is used to determine the power efficiency for each photovoltaic system using non-linear optimisation techniques. The backward component uses the power efficiency

  11. Detailed Performance Model for Photovoltaic Systems: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tian, H.; Mancilla-David, F.; Ellis, K.; Muljadi, E.; Jenkins, P.

    2012-07-01

    This paper presents a modified current-voltage relationship for the single diode model. The single-diode model has been derived from the well-known equivalent circuit for a single photovoltaic cell. The modification presented in this paper accounts for both parallel and series connections in an array.

  12. Photovoltaic plants in the electronic system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marzio, L.; Vigotti, R.

    1999-01-01

    The article provides a 1998 updated picture of Italy's and the world's photovoltaic market in terms of produced modules and total installed capacity, as well as market growth forecasts up to 2010. After a short description of the state-of-the-art of cell and module manufacturing, ana analysis of the cost of producing a photovoltaic kW is reported for different plant types: stand-alone plants with energy storage batteries, plants connected to low low voltage networks or intended for supporting medium voltage networks, hybrid plants with diesel sets. The article is concluded by illustrating ENEL's (Electric Power Production Company) engagement in the field of photovoltaic solar energy as regards theoretical studies, research and testing of new technologies, and installing plants; over nearly twenty years of activity, ENEL has designed and built a few hundreds of photovoltaic plants for a total capacity of about 4.000 kW, and is currently in the process of setting up a further 370 kW [it

  13. Can Integrated Micro-Optical Concentrator Technology Revolutionize Flat-Plate Photovoltaic Solar Energy Harvesting?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haney, Michael W.

    2015-12-01

    The economies-of-scale and enhanced performance of integrated micro-technologies have repeatedly delivered disruptive market impact. Examples range from microelectronics to displays to lighting. However, integrated micro-scale technologies have yet to be applied in a transformational way to solar photovoltaic panels. The recently announced Micro-scale Optimized Solar-cell Arrays with Integrated Concentration (MOSAIC) program aims to create a new paradigm in solar photovoltaic panel technology based on the incorporation of micro-concentrating photo-voltaic (μ-CPV) cells. As depicted in Figure 1, MOSAIC will integrate arrays of micro-optical concentrating elements and micro-scale PV elements to achieve the same aggregated collection area and high conversion efficiency of a conventional (i.e., macro-scale) CPV approach, but with the low profile and mass, and hopefully cost, of a conventional non-concentrated PV panel. The reduced size and weight, and enhanced wiring complexity, of the MOSAIC approach provide the opportunity to access the high-performance/low-cost region between the conventional CPV and flat-plate (1-sun) PV domains shown in Figure 2. Accessing this portion of the graph in Figure 2 will expand the geographic and market reach of flat-plate PV. This talk reviews the motivation and goals for the MOSAIC program. The diversity of the technical approaches to micro-concentration, embedded solar tracking, and hybrid direct/diffuse solar resource collection found in the MOSAIC portfolio of projects will also be highlighted.

  14. Low-voltage grid-connection of photovoltaic power systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Collinson, A.; Thornycroft, J.

    1999-07-01

    This report summarises the results of a project aimed at developing technical guidelines concerning grid connected photovoltaic (PV) inverter generators which are to be published in draft form as the {sup U}K Technical Guidelines for Inverter Connected Single Phase Photovoltaic (PV) Generators up to 5kVA{sup .} The background to the use of PV in the UK is traced, and the technical criteria for electrical integration of PV systems, and UK guidelines for grid connected PV systems are examined. The findings of the working group of the International Energy Agency (IEA) Implementing Agreement on Photovoltaic Power Systems are also presented in this report. Appendices discuss the UK technical guidelines, the IEA Task V activities,, utility aspects of grid-connected PV systems, and demonstration tests on grid-connected PV systems, and lists Task V reports.

  15. A dynamic model of a photovoltaic vapour compression system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Renno, C.

    2009-01-01

    A dynamic simulation of a photovoltaic vapour compression system is presented in this paper. In particular, there are several options to convert solar energy into refrigeration effect such as the absorption cycle, the thermo-mechanical refrigeration systems, the regenerative desiccant process or the steam jet system. This effect can also be produced by a conventional vapor compression cycle in which the compressor is driven by an electric motor supplied by means of photovoltaic cells. It is also possible to produce the cooling effect adopting the thermoelectric refrigeration, with electricity supplied by means of photovoltaic cells. Absorption and solar mechanical systems are necessarily larger and require extensive plumbing and electrical connections. The dynamic model allows to obtain some characteristic temperatures of the photovoltaic system and the energy consumptions with and without load perturbations. This model results a useful tool to study the dynamic working, for example, of photovoltaic refrigerators used in rural areas and remote islands, for their simple structure and low costs, to preserve foodstuffs, vaccines and other life saving medicines. (author)

  16. Photovoltaic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fechner, H.; Heidenreich, M.

    2001-01-01

    In 1993 a wide test for photovoltaic (PV) was carried out in Austria, 110 stations were built and precise measurements were done. At that time the demand of integrating direct current from solar cells into the 50 Hz alternating current network was a weak point. At present four european research projects dealing with security, reliability, network compatibility and its integration in buildings are being developed. The cost development of PVs in Germany from 1983 to 1998 is given. Because of the PV environmental quality, one million of new intallations are demanded (until 2010) by the European commission. In Austria exists ∼5,000 kWp installed capacity and the growth rate average in the last years was 30 %. (nevyjel)

  17. Improving Thermal and Electrical Efficiency in Photovoltaic Thermal Systems for Sustainable Cooling System Integration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Alobaid

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Research into photovoltaic thermal systems is important in solar technologies as photovoltaic thermal systems are designed to produce both electrical and thermal energy, this can lead to improved performance of the overall system. The performance of photovoltaic thermal systems is based on several factors that include photovoltaic thermal materials, design, ambient temperature, inlet and outlet fluid temperature and photovoltaic cell temperature. The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of photovoltaic thermal outlet water temperatures and solar cell temperature on both electrical and thermal efficiency for different range of inlet water temperature. To achieve this, a mathematical model of a photovoltaic thermal system was developed to calculate the anticipated system performance. The factors that affect the efficiency of photovoltaic thermal collectors were discussed and the outlet fluid temperature from the photovoltaic thermal is investigated in order to reach the highest overall efficiency for the solar cooling system. An average thermal and electrical efficiency of 65% and 13.7%, respectively, was achieved and the photovoltaic thermal mathematical model was validated with experimental data from literature.

  18. Overview of Single-Phase Grid-Connected Photovoltaic Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Yongheng; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2015-01-01

    A still booming installation of solar photovoltaic (PV) systems has been witnessed worldwide. It is mainly driven by the demand of “clean” power generation. Grid-connected PV systems will become an even active player in the future mixed power systems, which are linked by a vast of power electronics...

  19. Performance of solar photovoltaic array fed water pumping system ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper discusses the design and performance analysis of a solar photovoltaic (SPV) array fed water pumping system utilizing a special class of highly rugged machine with simple drive system called switched reluctance motor (SRM) drive. The proposed method of water pumping system also provides the cost effective ...

  20. Ampere hour method of sizing a stand alone photovoltaic system ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Stand-alone photovoltaic power systems are natural options for application in electrification of remote areas which are not served by the grid electricity supply system. An ampere-hour ... Sizing of the balance-of-system were carefully handled to avoid undersizing or oversizing and subsequent variation in supply reliability.

  1. On the design of product integrated photovoltaic systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reich, N.H.

    2010-01-01

    With photovoltaic (PV) systems it is possible to create electricity generation systems for a wide range of purposes, of literally any size (microwatts to gigawatts). Solar cells deployed in large scale, grid-connected PV systems may energize millions of electric appliances connected by a utility

  2. Flexible Power Control of Photovoltaic Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blaabjerg, Frede; Sangwongwanich, Ariya; Yang, Yongheng

    2018-01-01

    With a still increasing penetration level of grid-connected photovoltaic (PV) systems, more advanced and flexible control functionalities are demanded. To ensure a smooth and friendly integration between the PV systems and the grid, the power generated by the PV system needs to be flexible...

  3. Development and design of photovoltaic power prediction system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhijia; Zhou, Hai; Cheng, Xu

    2018-02-01

    In order to reduce the impact of power grid safety caused by volatility and randomness of the energy produced in photovoltaic power plants, this paper puts forward a construction scheme on photovoltaic power generation prediction system, introducing the technical requirements, system configuration and function of each module, and discussing the main technical features of the platform software development. The scheme has been applied in many PV power plants in the northwest of China. It shows that the system can produce reasonable prediction results, providing a right guidance for dispatching and efficient running for PV power plant.

  4. Microsystem enabled photovoltaic modules and systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielson, Gregory N; Sweatt, William C; Okandan, Murat

    2015-05-12

    A microsystem enabled photovoltaic (MEPV) module including: an absorber layer; a fixed optic layer coupled to the absorber layer; a translatable optic layer; a translation stage coupled between the fixed and translatable optic layers; and a motion processor electrically coupled to the translation stage to controls motion of the translatable optic layer relative to the fixed optic layer. The absorber layer includes an array of photovoltaic (PV) elements. The fixed optic layer includes an array of quasi-collimating (QC) micro-optical elements designed and arranged to couple incident radiation from an intermediate image formed by the translatable optic layer into one of the PV elements such that it is quasi-collimated. The translatable optic layer includes an array of focusing micro-optical elements corresponding to the QC micro-optical element array. Each focusing micro-optical element is designed to produce a quasi-telecentric intermediate image from substantially collimated radiation incident within a predetermined field of view.

  5. Results of the PRDA 35 qualification tests of the Motorola concentrating photovoltaic module

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pritchard, D.A.

    1981-10-01

    A passively-cooled, Fresnel lens, concentrating photovoltaic module, designed and built by Motorola, Incorporated, was tested to the PRDA 35 specifications. The PRDA 35 module test program is described. Physical, electrical, and thermal characteristics of the module are presented. Module performance is shown using multiple linear regression techniques: some change was measured after environmental exposure. In addition, sample cell assemblies were evaluated for effects of severe environmental conditions. Results presented herein show the module has met the qualification goals.

  6. Analysis of batteries for use in photovoltaic systems. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Podder, A; Kapner, M

    1981-02-01

    An evaluation of 11 types of secondary batteries for energy storage in photovoltaic electric power systems is given. The evaluation was based on six specific application scenarios which were selected to represent the diverse requirements of various photovoltaic systems. Electrical load characteristics and solar insulation data were first obtained for each application scenario. A computer-based simulation program, SOLSIM, was then developed to determine optimal sizes for battery, solar array, and power conditioning systems. Projected service lives and battery costs were used to estimate life-cycle costs for each candidate battery type. The evaluation considered battery life-cycle cost, safety and health effects associated with battery operation, and reliability/maintainability. The 11 battery types were: lead-acid, nickel-zinc, nickel-iron, nickel-hydrogen, lithium-iron sulfide, calcium-iron sulfide, sodium-sulfur, zinc-chlorine, zinc-bromine, Redox, and zinc-ferricyanide. The six application scenarios were: (1) a single-family house in Denver, Colorado (photovoltaic system connected to the utility line); (2) a remote village in equatorial Africa (stand-alone power system); (3) a dairy farm in Howard County, Maryland (onsite generator for backup power); (4) a 50,000 square foot office building in Washington, DC (onsite generator backup); (5) a community in central Arizona with a population of 10,000 (battery to be used for dedicated energy storage for a utility grid-connected photovoltaic power plant); and (6) a military field telephone office with a constant 300 W load (trailer-mounted auxiliary generator backup). Recommendations for a research and development program on battery energy storage for photovoltaic applications are given, and a discussion of electrical interfacing problems for utility line-connected photovoltaic power systems is included. (WHK)

  7. Grid converters for photovoltaic and wind power systems

    CERN Document Server

    Teodorescu, Remus; Rodríguez, Pedro

    2011-01-01

    "Grid Converters for Photovoltaic and Wind Power Systems provides a comprehensive description of the control of grid converters for photovoltaic and wind power systems. The authors present a range of control methods for meeting the latest application, power quality and power conversion requirements and standards, as well as looking towards potential future control functions. Practical examples, exercises, and an accompanying website with simulation models using Matlab and Simulink environments, and PSIM software make this text a pragmatic resource for electrical engineers as well as students taking related courses"--

  8. Solar photovoltaic water pumping system using a new linear actuator

    OpenAIRE

    Andrada Gascón, Pedro; Castro, Javier

    2007-01-01

    In this paper a photovoltaic solar pumping system using a new linear actuator is presented. This linear actuator is a double-sided flat two-phase variable-reluctance linear stepper motor that moves a piston-type water pump with the help of a rope, a pulley and a counterweight. The entire actuator pump ensemble is controlled by a simple electronic unit that manages the electric power generated by a photovoltaic array. The proposed system is suitable for rural communities in developing...

  9. Smart Cooling Controlled System Exploiting Photovoltaic Renewable Energy Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Atieh

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available A smart cooling system to control the ambient temperature of a premise in Amman, Jordan, is investigated and implemented. The premise holds 650 people and has 14 air conditioners with the cooling capacity ranging from 3 to 5 ton refrigerant (TR each. The control of the cooling system includes implementing different electronics circuits that are used to sense the ambient temperature and humidity, count the number of people in the premise and then turn ON/OFF certain air conditioner(s. The data collected by different electronic circuits are fed wirelessly to a microcontroller, which decides which air conditioner will be turned ON/OFF, its location and its desired set cooling temperature. The cooling system is integrated with an on-grid solar photovoltaic energy system to minimize the operational cost of the overall cooling system.

  10. Feasibility Study of Seawater Electrolysis for Photovoltaic/Fuel Cell Hybrid Power System for the Coastal Areas in Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srisiriwat, A.; Pirom, W.

    2017-10-01

    Solar photovoltaic cell and fuel cell are the practicable options to realize as a possible hybrid power system because the power of the sun cannot be utilized at night or cloudy days but hydrogen has been found as an ideal energy carrier for being transportable, storable, and converting energy though fuel cell. Hydrogen storage is chosen for its ability to obtain a clean energy option. Electrolysis, which is the simplest process to produce hydrogen, can be powered by the dc voltage from the photovoltaic cell instead of using the battery as power supply. This paper concentrates on a feasibility study of seawater electrolysis using photovoltaic power integrated fuel cell system for the coastal cities in Thailand. The proposed system composed of photovoltaic arrays, seawater electrolyzer and fuel cell is presented when the 10-kW of fuel cell electrical power is considered. The feasibility study of hydrogen production and energy analysis of this proposed system is also evaluated.

  11. Module-level DC/DC conversion for photovoltaic systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergveld, H.J.; Büthker, D.; Castello, C.; Doorn, T.S.; Jong, de A.; van Otten, R.; Waal, de K.

    2011-01-01

    Photovoltaic (PV) systems are increasingly used to generate electrical energy from solar irradiance incident on PV modules. Each PV module is formed by placing a large amount of PV cells, typically 60, in series. The PV system is then formed by placing a number, typically 10–12, of PV modules in

  12. Investigation of a demonstrating photo-voltaic system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Platikanov, S.; Markova, D.; Tsankov, P.; Grachki, I.

    2002-01-01

    A photovoltaic system for converting solar energy into electric energy has been built in the Technical University of Gabrovo. The measurements results of the solar radiation daily variation, temperature, illuminations and other technical characteristics of PV system are shown graphically. (authors)

  13. Local device parameter extraction of a concentrator photovoltaic cell under solar spot illumination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Munji, M.K.; Okullo, W.; van Dyk, E.E.; Vorster, F.J. [Physics Department, Nelson Mandela Metropolitan University, P O Box 77000, Port Elizabeth 6031 (South Africa)

    2010-12-15

    Focused sunlight can act as a localized source of excess minority carriers in a solar cell. Current signal generated by these carriers gives considerable information about the electrical properties of the cell's material. Point by point current-voltage data were measured for a back point-contact concentrator photovoltaic cell when illuminated by focused sunlight. Two numerical curve fitting procedures: a non-linear two-point interval division and particle swarm optimization algorithm were then applied to extract local parameters (i.e. as function of position) from the current-voltage data at each measurement point. Extracted parameters plotted yields relative spatial information about the electrical properties of a solar cell in a two or three dimensional mapping. The curve fitting routines applied to current-voltage data reveal that performance parameters: short circuit current, open circuit voltage, maximum power and fill factor show distinct variations in the vicinity of the observed current reducing feature. The relative values of the diode ideality factors, series resistance, shunt resistance and reverse saturation currents from both methods showed no significant measurable features that could be distinguished. This shows that the observed reduction in photo-induced current was due to severe recombination in the bulk or around the highly diffused point contacts and not the quality of the multiple p-n junctions of the cell. These approaches allow one to obtain a set of parameters at each local point on the cell which are reasonable and representative of the physical system. (author)

  14. Durability of Poly(Methyl Methacrylate) Lenses Used in Concentrating Photovoltaic Modules: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, D. C.; Gedvilas, L. M.; To, B.; Kennedy, C. E.; Kurtz, S. R.

    2010-08-01

    Concentrating photovoltaic (CPV) technology has recently gained interest based on their expected low levelized cost of electricity, high efficiency, and scalability. Many CPV systems use Fresnel lenses made of poly(methyl methacrylate)(PMMA) to obtain a high optical flux density. The optical and mechanical durability of such components, however, are not well established relative to the desired service life of 30 years. Specific reliability issues may include: reduced optical transmittance, discoloration, hazing, surface erosion, embrittlement, crack growth, physical aging, shape setting (warpage), and soiling. The initial results for contemporary lens- and material-specimens aged cumulatively to 6 months are presented. The study here uses an environmental chamber equipped with a xenon-arc lamp to age specimens at least 8x the nominal field rate. A broad range in the affected characteristics (including optical transmittance, yellowness index, mass loss, and contact angle) has been observed to date, depending on the formulation of PMMA used. The most affected specimens are further examined in terms of their visual appearance, surface roughness (examined via atomic force microscopy), and molecular structure (via Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy).

  15. Systems and methods for distributing power using photovoltaic resources and a shifting battery system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mammoli, Andrea A.; Lavrova, Olga; Arellano, Brian; Cheng, Feng; Greenwood, Wesley; Hawkins, Jonathan; Willard, Steve

    2017-06-27

    The present invention is an apparatus and method for delivering energy using a renewable resource. The method includes providing a photovoltaic energy source and applying energy storage to the photovoltaic energy source via a battery storage unit. The energy output from the photovoltaic energy source and the battery system is controlled using a battery control system. The battery control system predicts peak load, develops a schedule that includes when to begin discharging power and when to stop discharging power, shifts power to the battery storage unit when excess power is available, and prioritizes the functionality of the battery storage unit and the photovoltaic energy source.

  16. 75 FR 61509 - Notice of Issuance of Final Determination Concerning Solar Photovoltaic Panel Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-05

    ... Determination Concerning Solar Photovoltaic Panel Systems AGENCY: U.S. Customs and Border Protection, Department... Procurement; Title III, Trade Agreements Act of 1979; Country of Origin of solar photovoltaic panel system... solar photovoltaic (``PV'') panel systems contain both U.S. and foreign-origin raw materials and...

  17. Low-cost photovoltaics: Luminescent solar concentrators and colloidal quantum dot solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leow, Shin Woei

    Solar energy has long been lauded as an inexhaustible fuel source with more energy reaching the earth's surface in one hour than the global consumption for a year. Although capable of satisfying the world's energy requirements, solar energy remains an expensive technology that has yet to attain grid parity. Another drawback is that existing solar farms require large quantities of land in order to generate power at useful rates. In this work, we look to luminescent solar concentrator systems and quantum dot technology as viable solutions to lowering the cost of solar electricity production with the flexibility to integrate such technologies into buildings to achieve dual land use. Luminescent solar concentrator (LSC) windows with front-facing photovoltaic (PV) cells were built and their gain and power efficiency were investigated. Conventional LSCs employ a photovoltaic (PV) cell that is placed on the edge of the LSC, facing inward. This work describes a new design with the PV cells on the front-face allowing them to receive both direct solar irradiation and wave-guided photons emitted from a dye embedded in an acrylic sheet, which is optically coupled to the PV cells. Parameters investigated include the thickness of the waveguide, edge treatment of the window, cell width, and cell placement. The data allowed us to make projections that aided in designing windows for maximized overall efficiency. A gain in power of 2.2x over the PV cells alone was obtained with PV cell coverage of 5%, and a power conversion efficiency as high as 6.8% was obtained with a PV cell coverage of 31%. Balancing the trade-offs between gain and efficiency, the design with the lowest cost per watt attained a power efficiency of 3.8% and a gain of 1.6x. With the viability of the LSC demonstrated, a weighted Monte-Carlo Ray Tracing program was developed to study the transport of photons and loss mechanisms in the LSC to aid in design optimization. The program imports measured absorption

  18. Microsystem enabled photovoltaic modules and systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nielson, Gregory N.; Sweatt, William C.; Okandan, Murat

    2017-09-12

    A photovoltaic (PV) module includes an absorber layer coupled to an optic layer. The absorber layer includes an array of PV elements. The optic layer includes a close-packed array of Keplerian telescope elements, each corresponding to one of an array of pupil elements. The Keplerian telescope substantially couple radiation that is incident on their objective surfaces into the corresponding pupil elements. Each pupil element relays radiation that is coupled into it from the corresponding Keplerian telescope element into the corresponding PV element.

  19. A Framework for Photovoltaic and Thermosiphon Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Guidoni

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Pessimistic forecasts are growing in the Brazilian energy scenario demanding the use of renewable sources of energy such as the solar one. As metropolitan regions have become more populous, private and public companies have developed new technologies based on renewable energy sources. In order to supply such demand, new computer techniques have to be developed. This paper presents a framework to assist the developer to model new components and simulate solar energy applications. By applying the framework concepts, such as source code reuse, one can create a complete environment to evaluate solar energy data. The framework supports software development and tool implementation to be used in photovoltaic and thermosiphon processes.

  20. Reduction of intensity variations on a photovoltaic array with compound parabolic concentrators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenman, P.; Ogallagher, J.; Winston, R.; Costogue, E.

    1979-01-01

    The reduction of nonuniformities in the intensity distribution of light focused on a photovoltaic array by a compound parabolic concentrator is investigated. The introduction of small distortions into the surfaces of the reflector in order to diffuse the incident collimated light to fill the angular acceptance of the concentrator is calculated by means of ray tracing to decrease the irradiance nonuniformity at the cost of a lowered effective concentration of the concentrator. Measurements of the intensity distribution on a scale test model in terrestrial sunlight with corrugated aluminized mylar reflectors are shown to be in good agreement with the ray tracing results. A two-stage concentrator consisting of a focusing primary and a nonimaging secondary is also shown to result in a fairly uniform intensity distribution except in the case of a 4-deg incidence angle, which may be corrected by the introduction of distortions into one or both concentration stages.

  1. Nonimaging polygonal mirrors achieving uniform irradiance distributions on concentrating photovoltaic cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitz, Max; Dähler, Fabian; Elvinger, François; Pedretti, Andrea; Steinfeld, Aldo

    2017-04-10

    We introduce a design methodology for nonimaging, single-reflection mirrors with polygonal inlet apertures that generate a uniform irradiance distribution on a polygonal outlet aperture, enabling a multitude of applications within the domain of concentrated photovoltaics. Notably, we present single-mirror concentrators of square and hexagonal perimeter that achieve very high irradiance uniformity on a square receiver at concentrations ranging from 100 to 1000 suns. These optical designs can be assembled in compound concentrators with maximized active area fraction by leveraging tessellation. More advanced multi-mirror concentrators, where each mirror individually illuminates the whole area of the receiver, allow for improved performance while permitting greater flexibility for the concentrator shape and robustness against partial shading of the inlet aperture.

  2. Performance of small-scale photovoltaic systems and their potential for rural electrification in Ethiopia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stutenbaeumer, Ulrich; Negash, Tesfaye; Abdi, Amensisa [Addis Ababa Univ., Dept. of Physics, Addis Ababa (Ethiopia)

    1999-09-01

    The performance of small-scale stand-alone photovoltaic systems is tested under the climatic conditions of Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. With climatic data obtained at a station in the Rift Valley, the photovoltaic systems performance is estimated for those climatic conditions. The economics of small-scale stand-alone photovoltaic system applications under Ethiopian conditions are analysed. The potential of photovoltaics for the rural electrification of Ethiopia is discussed. (Author)

  3. Solar photovoltaic applications seminar: design, installation and operation of small, stand-alone photovoltaic power systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-07-01

    This seminar material was developed primarily to provide solar photovoltaic (PV) applied engineering technology to the Federal community. An introduction to photoconductivity, semiconductors, and solar photovoltaic cells is included along with a demonstration of specific applications and application identification. The seminar details general systems design and incorporates most known information from industry, academia, and Government concerning small solar cell power system design engineering, presented in a practical and applied manner. Solar PV power system applications involve classical direct electrical energy conversion and electric power system analysis and synthesis. Presentations and examples involve a variety of disciplines including structural analysis, electric power and load analysis, reliability, sizing and optimization; and, installation, operation and maintenance. Four specific system designs are demonstrated: water pumping, domestic uses, navigational and aircraft aids, and telecommunications. All of the applications discussed are for small power requirement (under 2 kilowatts), stand-alone systems to be used in remote locations. Also presented are practical lessons gained from currently installed and operating systems, problems at sites and their resolution, a logical progression through each major phase of system acquisition, as well as thorough design reviews for each application.

  4. The role of Photovoltaics towards 100% Renewable energy systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mathiesen, Brian Vad; David, Andrei; Petersen, Silas

    builds on a literature review of the global and Danish trends in capacity, costs and types of support schemes, but also develops a GIS and energy system analysis supported by a set of economic calculations to inquire on the recommended pathway for the future investments in photovoltaics in Denmark...

  5. Repetitive controller for improving grid-connected photovoltaic systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Almeida, de P.M.; Duarte, J.L.; Ribeiro, P.F.; Barbosa, P.G.

    2014-01-01

    This study presents the modelling and design steps of a discrete time recursive repetitive controller (RC) to be used in a grid-connected photovoltaic (PV) system. It is shown that the linear synchronous reference frame proportional-integral controller, originally designed to control the converter's

  6. EMISSIONS REDUCTION DATA FOR GRID-CONNECTED PHOTOVOLTAIC POWER SYSTEMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study measured the pollutant emission reduction potential of 29 photovoltaic (PV) systems installed on residential and commercial building rooftops across the U.S. from 1993 through 1997. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and 21 electric power companies sponsor...

  7. Does Your Domestic Photovoltaic Energy System Survive Grid Outages?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jongerden, M.R.; Hüls, Jannik; Remke, Anne Katharina Ingrid; Haverkort, Boudewijn R.H.M.

    2016-01-01

    Domestic renewable energy systems, including photovoltaic energy generation, as well as local storage, are becoming increasingly popular and economically feasible, but do come with a wide range of options. Hence, it can be difficult to match their specification to specific customer’s needs. Next to

  8. A single phase photovoltaic inverter control for grid connected system

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    This paper presents a control scheme for single phase grid connected photovoltaic (PV) system operating under both grid connected and isolated grid mode. The control techniques include voltage and current control of grid-tie PV inverter. During grid connected mode, grid controls the amplitude and frequency of the PV ...

  9. PVSOFT99 - Photovoltaic (PV) System Sizing And Simulation Software

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A computer program (PVSOFT99) has been developed for sizing and simulation of stand-alone photovoltaic (PV) systems. Two distinct PV sizing algorithms, one based on the worst case and the other on the reliability concept, have been incorporated in the program. The reliability concept is generalized in that variation of ...

  10. A review on sizing methodologies of photovoltaic array and storage battery in a standalone photovoltaic system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khatib, Tamer; Ibrahim, Ibrahim A.; Mohamed, Azah

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • We review the current methods for sizing standalone PV systems. • We review the current criteria adapted in sizing standalone PV systems. • We review current method for sizing battery in standalone PV systems. - Abstract: The reliance of future energy demand on standalone PV system is based on its payback period and particular electrical grid parity prices. This highlights the importance for optimum and applicable methods for sizing these systems. Moreover, the designers are being more sensitive toward simple and reliable sizing models for standalone PV system. This paper proposes a review on important knowledge that needs to be taken into account while designing and implementing standalone PV systems. Such a knowledge includes configurations of standalone photovoltaic system, evaluation criteria for unit sizing, sizing methodologies. Moreover, this review provides highlights on challenges and limitations of standalone PV system size optimization techniques.

  11. Tracking strategy for photovoltaic solar systems in high latitudes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quesada, Guillermo; Guillon, Laura; Rousse, Daniel R.; Mehrtash, Mostafa; Dutil, Yvan; Paradis, Pierre-Luc

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • In cloudy conditions tracking the sun is ineffective. • A methodology to estimate a theoretical threshold for solar tracking was developed. • A tracking strategy to maximize electricity production was proposed. - Abstract: Several studies show that from about 20% to 50% more solar energy can be recovered by using photovoltaic systems that track the sun rather than systems set at a fixed angle. For overcast or cloudy days, recent studies propose the use of a set position in which each photovoltaic panel faces toward the zenith (horizontal position). Compared to a panel that follows the sun’s path, this approach claims that a horizontal panel increases the amount of solar radiation captured and subsequently the quantity of electricity produced. The present work assesses a solar tracking photovoltaic panel hourly and seasonally in high latitudes. A theoretical method based on an isotropic sky model was formulated, implemented, and used in a case study analysis of a grid-connected photovoltaic system in Montreal, Canada. The results obtained, based on the definition of a critical hourly global solar radiation, were validated numerically and experimentally. The study confirmed that a zenith-set sun tracking strategy for overcast or mostly cloudy days in summer is not advantageous

  12. Integrated photovoltaic-thermal solar energy conversion systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samara, G. A.

    1975-01-01

    A combined photovoltaic/thermal collector has been built and is now being tested. Initial tests have concentrated on evaluating the thermal efficiency of the collector before and after the silicon cells are mounted. With likely improvements in bonding between cells and receiver and in the absorptivity of the cells, thermal efficiencies greater than 50% can be expected for the combined receiver operating at 100 C.

  13. Photovoltaic array mounting apparatus, systems, and methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, John Raymond; Atchley, Brian; Hudson, Tyrus Hawkes; Johansen, Emil

    2014-12-02

    An apparatus for mounting a photovoltaic (PV) module on a surface, including a support with an upper surface, a lower surface, tabs, one or more openings, and a clip comprising an arm and a notch, where the apparatus resists wind forces and seismic forces and creates a grounding electrical bond between the PV module, support, and clip. The invention further includes a method for installing PV modules on a surface that includes arranging supports in rows along an X axis and in columns along a Y axis on a surface such that in each row the distance between two neighboring supports does not exceed the length of the longest side of a PV module and in each column the distance between two neighboring supports does not exceed the length of the shortest side of a PV module.

  14. Thermal photovoltaic solar integrated system analysis using neural networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ashhab, S. [Hashemite Univ., Zarqa (Jordan). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

    2007-07-01

    The energy demand in Jordan is primarily met by petroleum products. As such, the development of renewable energy systems is quite attractive. In particular, solar energy is a promising renewable energy source in Jordan and has been used for food canning, paper production, air-conditioning and sterilization. Artificial neural networks (ANNs) have received significant attention due to their capabilities in forecasting, modelling of complex nonlinear systems and control. ANNs have been used for forecasting solar energy. This paper presented a study that examined a thermal photovoltaic solar integrated system that was built in Jordan. Historical input-output system data that was collected experimentally was used to train an ANN that predicted the collector, PV module, pump and total efficiencies. The model predicted the efficiencies well and can therefore be utilized to find the operating conditions of the system that will produce the maximum system efficiencies. The paper provided a description of the photovoltaic solar system including equations for PV module efficiency; pump efficiency; and total efficiency. The paper also presented data relevant to the system performance and neural networks. The results of a neural net model were also presented based on the thermal PV solar integrated system data that was collected. It was concluded that the neural net model of the thermal photovoltaic solar integrated system set the background for achieving the best system performance. 10 refs., 6 figs.

  15. Photovoltaic Thermal panels in collective thermal solar systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elswijk, M.J.; Strootman, K.J.; Jong, M.J.M.; De Lange, E.T.N.; Smit, W.F.

    2003-12-01

    A feasibility study has been carried out to assess the options to apply photovoltaic/thermal panels (PVT-panels) in collective solar thermal systems in urban areas in the Netherlands. The study was focused on the technical (architecture and installations) and the economical feasibility of collective PVT-systems in comparison with conventional solar thermal systems and combinations of photovoltaic (PV) panels and solar collectors. The results of the study also give insight into cost and the market for PVT-panels. Three case studies in which collective solar collector systems were applied are analyzed again by simulating the installation of a PVT-panels system and a separate solar thermal PV system [nl

  16. Design, testing, and economics of a 430 W sub p photovoltaic concentrator array for non grid-connected applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maish, A. B.; Rios, M., Jr.; Togami, H.

    A stand-alone 430 W/sub p/ photovoltaic (PV) concentrating system for low power, non grid-connected applications has been designed, fabricated, and tested at Sandia National Laboratories. The array consists of four passively cooled Fresnel lens concentrating modules on a newly developed polar axis tracking structure. Two axis tracking is provided using a self powered clock drive unit mounted on a single post foundation. Test results of tracking accuracy, array output power, parasitic power, performance in winds and array reliability are discussed. using a range of estimated production costs for small production volumes, the life-cycle energy costs have been calculated and compared to the equivalent energy costs of a 3 kW diesel electric generator set and of an equivalent flat panel PV system.

  17. Sandia photovoltaic systems definition and application experiment projects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, G.

    1983-04-01

    A compilation is given of the abstracts and visual material used in presentation at the Fourth Photovoltaic Systems Definition and Applications Projects Integration Meeting held at the Marriott Hotel, April 12-14, 1983, in Albuquerque, New Mexico. The meeting provided a forum for detailed analyses on recently completed and current activities. These activities include systems research, balance-of-system technology development, residential experimentation, and evaluation of intermediate-sized applications.

  18. Concentrating Solar Power Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitz-Paal, R.

    2017-07-01

    Development of Concentrating Solar Power Systems has started about 40 years ago. A first commercial implementation was performed between 1985 and 1991 in California. However, a drop in gas prices caused a longer period without further deployment. It was overcome in 2007 when new incentive schemes for renewables in Spain and the US enabled a commercial restart. In 2016, almost 100 commercial CSP plants with more than 5GW are installed worldwide. This paper describes the physical background of CSP technology, its technical characteristics and concepts. Furthermore, it discusses system performances, cost structures and the expected advancement.

  19. Task 5. Grid interconnection of building integrated and other dispersed photovoltaic power systems. International guideline for the certification of photovoltaic system components and grid-connected systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bower, W.

    2002-02-15

    This report for the International Energy Agency (IEA) made by Task 5 of the Photovoltaic Power Systems (PVPS) programme presents a guideline for the certification of photovoltaic system components and grid-connected systems. The mission of the Photovoltaic Power Systems Programme is to enhance the international collaboration efforts which accelerate the development and deployment of photovoltaic solar energy. Task 5 deals with issues concerning grid-interconnection and distributed PV power systems. This generic international guideline for the certification of photovoltaic system components and complete grid-connected photovoltaic systems describes a set of recommended methods and tests that may be used to verify the integrity of hardware and installations, compliance with applicable standards/codes and can be used to provide a measure of the performance of components or of entire systems. The guideline is to help ensure that photovoltaic installations are both safe for equipment as well as for personnel when used according to the applicable installation standards and codes. The guideline may be used in any country using the rules stipulated by the applicable standards and codes and by applying them to the guideline's recommended tests. This document uses examples for some tests but does not specify exact test set-ups, equipment accuracy, equipment manufacturers or calibration procedures.

  20. Theory for optimal design of waveguiding light concentrators in photovoltaic microcell arrays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semichaevsky, Andrey V; Johnson, Harley T; Yoon, Jongseung; Nuzzo, Ralph G; Li, Lanfang; Rogers, John

    2011-06-10

    Efficiency of ultrathin flexible solar photovoltaic silicon microcell arrays can be significantly improved using nonimaging solar concentrators. A fluorophore is introduced to match the solar spectrum and the low-reflectivity wavelength range of Si, reduce the escape losses, and allow the nontracking operation. In this paper we optimize our solar concentrators using a luminescent/nonluminescent photon transport model. Key modeling results are compared quantitatively to experiments and are in good agreement with the latter. Our solar concentrator performance is not limited by the dye self-absorption. Bending deformations of the flexible solar collectors do not result in their indirect gain degradation compared to flat solar concentrators with the same projected area.

  1. Development of a general method for photovoltaic system analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nolay, P

    1987-01-01

    The photovoltaic conversion for energetic applications is now widely used, but its development still needs the resolution of many problems for the sizing and for the real working of the installations. The precise analysis of the components and whole system behaviour has led to the development of accurate models for the simulation of such systems. From this modelling phase, a simulation code has been built. The validation of this software has been achieved from experimental test measurements. Since the quality of the software depends on the precision of the input data, an original method of determination of component characteristics, by means of model identification, has been developed. These tools permit the prediction of system behaviour and the dynamic simulation of systems under real conditions. Used for the study of photovoltaic system sizing, this software has allowed the definition of new concepts which will serve as a basis for the development of a sizing method.

  2. Investigation of Photovoltaic Assisted Misting System Application for Arbor Refreshment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hikmet Esen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, for the first time in the literature, solar assisted cooler with misting system established on an arbor with an area of 24 m2 and georeferenced in Elazig (38.6775° N, 39.1707° E, Turkey, is presented. Here, we present a system that reduces interior temperature of the arbor while increasing humidity. Also, the system generates required electricity with a solar photovoltaic module to power pressurized water pump through an inverter and stores it in a battery for use when there is no sunlight. The model of the photovoltaic module was implemented using a Matlab program. As a result of being an uncomplicated system, return on investment for the system is 3.7 years.

  3. Simulation of an active cooling system for photovoltaic modules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdelhakim, Lotfi

    2016-01-01

    Photovoltaic cells are devices that convert solar radiation directly into electricity. However, solar radiation increases the photovoltaic cells temperature [1] [2]. The temperature has an influence on the degradation of the cell efficiency and the lifetime of a PV cell. This work reports on a water cooling technique for photovoltaic panel, whereby the cooling system was placed at the front surface of the cells to dissipate excess heat away and to block unwanted radiation. By using water as a cooling medium for the photovoltaic solar cells, the overheating of closed panel is greatly reduced without prejudicing luminosity. The water also acts as a filter to remove a portion of solar spectrum in the infrared band but allows transmission of the visible spectrum most useful for the PV operation. To improve the cooling system efficiency and electrical efficiency, uniform flow rate among the cooling system is required to ensure uniform distribution of the operating temperature of the PV cells. The aims of this study are to develop a 3D thermal model to simulate the cooling and heat transfer in Photovoltaic panel and to recommend a cooling technique for the PV panel. The velocity, pressure and temperature distribution of the three-dimensional flow across the cooling block were determined using the commercial package, Fluent. The second objective of this work is to study the influence of the geometrical dimensions of the panel, water mass flow rate and water inlet temperature on the flow distribution and the solar panel temperature. The results obtained by the model are compared with experimental results from testing the prototype of the cooling device.

  4. Simulation of an active cooling system for photovoltaic modules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdelhakim, Lotfi [Széchenyi István University of Applied Sciences, Department of Mathematics, P.O.Box 701, H-9007 Győr (Hungary)

    2016-06-08

    Photovoltaic cells are devices that convert solar radiation directly into electricity. However, solar radiation increases the photovoltaic cells temperature [1] [2]. The temperature has an influence on the degradation of the cell efficiency and the lifetime of a PV cell. This work reports on a water cooling technique for photovoltaic panel, whereby the cooling system was placed at the front surface of the cells to dissipate excess heat away and to block unwanted radiation. By using water as a cooling medium for the photovoltaic solar cells, the overheating of closed panel is greatly reduced without prejudicing luminosity. The water also acts as a filter to remove a portion of solar spectrum in the infrared band but allows transmission of the visible spectrum most useful for the PV operation. To improve the cooling system efficiency and electrical efficiency, uniform flow rate among the cooling system is required to ensure uniform distribution of the operating temperature of the PV cells. The aims of this study are to develop a 3D thermal model to simulate the cooling and heat transfer in Photovoltaic panel and to recommend a cooling technique for the PV panel. The velocity, pressure and temperature distribution of the three-dimensional flow across the cooling block were determined using the commercial package, Fluent. The second objective of this work is to study the influence of the geometrical dimensions of the panel, water mass flow rate and water inlet temperature on the flow distribution and the solar panel temperature. The results obtained by the model are compared with experimental results from testing the prototype of the cooling device.

  5. Combination solar photovoltaic heat engine energy converter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chubb, Donald L.

    1987-01-01

    A combination solar photovoltaic heat engine converter is proposed. Such a system is suitable for either terrestrial or space power applications. The combination system has a higher efficiency than either the photovoltaic array or the heat engine alone can attain. Advantages in concentrator and radiator area and receiver mass of the photovoltaic heat engine system over a heat-engine-only system are estimated. A mass and area comparison between the proposed space station organic Rankine power system and a combination PV-heat engine system is made. The critical problem for the proposed converter is the necessity for high temperature photovoltaic array operation. Estimates of the required photovoltaic temperature are presented.

  6. Performance Analysis of a Photovoltaic-Thermal Integrated System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radziemska, E.

    2009-01-01

    The present commercial photovoltaic solar cells (PV) converts solar energy into electricity with a relatively low efficiency, less than 20%. More than 80% of the absorbed solar energy is dumped to the surroundings again after photovoltaic conversion. Hybrid PV/T systems consist of PV modules coupled with the heat extraction devices. The PV/T collectors generate electric power and heat simultaneously. Stabilizing temperature of photovoltaic modules at low level is highly desirable to obtain efficiency increase. The total efficiency of 60-80% can be achieved with the whole PV/T system provided that the T system is operated near ambient temperature. The value of the low-T heat energy is typically much smaller than the value of the PV electricity. The PV/T systems can exist in many designs, but the most common models are with the use of water or air as a working fuid. Efficiency is the most valuable parameter for the economic analysis. It has substantial meaning in the case of installations with great nominal power, as air-cooled Building Integrated Photovoltaic Systems (BIPV). In this paper the performance analysis of a hybrid PV/T system is presented: an energetic analysis as well as an exergetic analysis. Exergy is always destroyed when a process involves a temperature change. This destruction is proportional to the entropy increase of the system together with its surroundings the destroyed exergy has been called energy. Exergy analysis identifies the location, the magnitude, and the sources of thermodynamic inefficiencies in a system. This information, which cannot be provided by other means (e.g., an energy analysis), is very useful for the improvement and cost-effectiveness of the system. Calculations were carried out for the tested water-cooled ASE-100-DGL-SM Solar watt module.

  7. Performance Analysis of a Photovoltaic-Thermal Integrated System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewa Radziemska

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The present commercial photovoltaic solar cells (PV converts solar energy into electricity with a relatively low efficiency, less than 20%. More than 80% of the absorbed solar energy is dumped to the surroundings again after photovoltaic conversion. Hybrid PV/T systems consist of PV modules coupled with the heat extraction devices. The PV/T collectors generate electric power and heat simultaneously. Stabilizing temperature of photovoltaic modules at low level is higly desirable to obtain efficiency increase. The total efficiency of 60–80% can be achieved with the whole PV/T system provided that the T system is operated near ambient temperature. The value of the low-T heat energy is typically much smaller than the value of the PV electricity. The PV/T systems can exist in many designs, but the most common models are with the use of water or air as a working fuid. Efficiency is the most valuable parameter for the economic analysis. It has substantial meaning in the case of installations with great nominal power, as air-cooled Building Integrated Photovoltaic Systems (BIPV. In this paper the performance analysis of a hybrid PV/T system is presented: an energetic analysis as well as an exergetic analysis. Exergy is always destroyed when a process involves a temperature change. This destruction is proportional to the entropy increase of the system together with its surroundings—the destroyed exergy has been called anergy. Exergy analysis identifies the location, the magnitude, and the sources of thermodynamic inefficiences in a system. This information, which cannot be provided by other means (e.g., an energy analysis, is very useful for the improvement and cost-effictiveness of the system. Calculations were carried out for the tested water-cooled ASE-100-DGL-SM Solarwatt module.

  8. Integration of Photovoltaic Plants and Supercapacitors in Tramway Power Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flavio Ciccarelli

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The growing interest in the use of energy storage systems to improve the performance of tramways has prompted the development of control techniques and optimal storage devices, displacement, and sizing to obtain the maximum profit and reduce the total installation cost. Recently, the rapid diffusion of renewable energy generation from photovoltaic panels has also created a large interest in coupling renewable energy and storage units. This study analyzed the integration of a photovoltaic power plant, supercapacitor energy storage system, and railway power system. Random optimization was used to verify the feasibility of this integration in a real tramway electric system operating in the city of Naples, and the benefits and total cost of this integration were evaluated.

  9. DOE LeRC photovoltaic systems test facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cull, R. C.; Forestieri, A. F.

    1978-01-01

    The facility was designed and built and is being operated as a national facility to serve the needs of the entire DOE National Photovoltaic Program. The object of the facility is to provide a place where photovoltaic systems may be assembled and electrically configured, without specific physical configuration, for operation and testing to evaluate their performance and characteristics. The facility as a breadboard system allows investigation of operational characteristics and checkout of components, subsystems and systems before they are mounted in field experiments or demonstrations. The facility as currently configured consist of 10 kW of solar arrays built from modules, two inverter test stations, a battery storage system, interface with local load and the utility grid, and instrumentation and control necessary to make a flexible operating facility. Expansion to 30 kW is planned for 1978. Test results and operating experience are summaried to show the variety of work that can be done with this facility.

  10. An analysis of reliability for photovoltaic systems on the field test project for photovoltaic in Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oozeki, Takashi; Yamada, Takao; Kato, Kazuhiko [National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), Research center for photovoltaic (RCPV), Tsukuba (Japan); Yamamoto, Taiji [New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization, MUZA Kawasaki Central Tower, Kanagawa (Japan)

    2008-07-01

    To develop a Photovoltaic (PV) module and cell efficiency are not only important, but also improving PV system performances is the significant technology. The long term reliability is one of the most important in PV systems' performances. In Japan, NEDO (New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization) has organized ''Field test (FT) project in Japan'' from FY 1992 up to now. The user of PV systems in the project cooperates for collecting monitoring data and reports the information of maintenance and some failures of PV systems for four years. In this paper, the failures and maintenance information are reported by using MTBF, MTTR, and so on. Moreover, the power conditioner is suspended by some protection or other reason - it is not failure, and the power conditioner can be restarted-which are obtained by PV system user's reports. (orig.)

  11. Analysis and comparison between a concentrating solar and a photovoltaic power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Desideri, Umberto; Campana, Pietro Elia

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • The performance of CSP and PV plants were compared with similar assumptions. • The influence of the site on the performance of CSP and PV plants is determined. • CSP plants performance is always higher in locations where DNI is prevailing. • CSP levelized electricity costs are generally lower than those from PV plants. • PV plants may produce larger amounts of electricity where the DNI is not prevailing. - Abstract: Solar energy is a source, which can be exploited in two main ways to generate power: direct conversion into electric energy using photovoltaic panels and by means of a thermodynamic cycle. In both cases the amount of energy, which can be converted, is changing daily and seasonally, causing a discontinuous electricity production. In order to limit this drawback, concentrated solar power plants (CSP) and photovoltaic plants (PV) can be equipped with a storage system that can be configured not only for covering peak-loads but also for the base-load after the sunset or before the sunrise. In CSP plants it is the sun’s thermal energy to be stored, whereas in PV applications it is the electrical energy to be stored in batteries, although this is not economically and environmentally feasible in large-scale power plants. The main aim of this paper is to study the performance of concentrated solar power plants equipped with molten salts thermal storage to cover a base load of 3 MW el . In order to verify the possibility of storing effectively the thermal energy and to design a plant for base load operation, two locations were chosen for the study: Gela in southern Italy, and Luxor in Egypt. The electricity production of the CSP facilities has been analyzed and then compared with the electricity production of PV plants. Two different comparisons were done, one by sizing the PV plant to provide the same peak power and one using the same collectors surface. This paper has also highlighted some important issues in site selection and in

  12. Optimal sizing method for stand-alone photovoltaic power systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Groumpos, P P; Papageorgiou, G

    1987-01-01

    The total life-cycle cost of stand-alone photovoltaic (SAPV) power systems is mathematically formulated. A new optimal sizing algorithm for the solar array and battery capacity is developed. The optimum value of a balancing parameter, M, for the optimal sizing of SAPV system components is derived. The proposed optimal sizing algorithm is used in an illustrative example, where a more economical life-cycle cost has bene obtained. The question of cost versus reliability is briefly discussed.

  13. Study of a photovoltaic system with MPPT using Matlab

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dumitru Pop

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper a photovoltaic (PV system is analyzed using Matlab. First, a Matlab code is written in order to obtain the I-V and P-V curves at different values of solar irradiation and cell temperature. The results were compared with the experimental data of a commercial PV module, USP 150. Then, the code was implemented in Simulink and, along with a MPPT algorithm and a DC-DC converter, the whole system was simulated.

  14. EXPERIMENTAL ANALYSIS OF THE CHARACTERISTIC PERFORMANCE OF STANDALONE PHOTOVOLTAIC SYSTEM

    OpenAIRE

    Birendra Kishore; Anirban Nandy*; O.P. Pandey

    2016-01-01

    This paper demonstrates an insight solar PV Stand Alone system which is a practical model with a halogen light source. At different situations the performance of solar PV cells are analyzed. The system produces power with depending on the change in halogen light intensity & temperature. A theoretical & experimental analysis of the PV cell can be achieved. In this paper the I-V & P-V characteristic of the solar photovoltaic cells with changes in temperature and isolation have been showed. With...

  15. Federal policies to promote the widespread utilization of photovoltaic systems. Volume two. Technical document

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-02-01

    The question of photovoltaic system interactions with electric utility grids is addressed. Discussions of system configurations, effects on utility dispatch and generation planning, effects of utility rate structures on photovoltaic deployment and vice versa, interactions of photovoltaic and electrical storage systems, effects on end-use reliability, and the ultimate limitations on photovoltaic penetration into electric grids are presented. Photovoltaic system economic issues are considered. Discussions of the high first cost and the Program plans and strategies to reduce costs (and PV prices), expected evolution of photovoltaic technology, effects of various financial incentives on photovoltaics, implications of utility vs non-utility ownership of photovoltaics, likelihood that sufficient capital will be available to adequately finance the deployment of photovoltaic systems, current status and expected evolution of the photovoltaic supply industry, and the programmatic activities directed at aiding the evolution of a healthy, competitive industry are presented. The basic issues of photovoltaic market development are studied. The potential of various market segments and the complexity involved in defining and identifying the various segments; issues to be faced in deployment of dispersed photovoltaic systems including innovation acceptance on the part of the building industry, building codes, zoning, insurance, information dissemination, public acceptance, solar access, state and local solar photovoltaic incentives, and the implications for urban and suburban land use; and the need for, and method of development of, photovoltaic standards and warranties on photovoltaic systems are discussed. The conclusions of the report with respect to the information requested by Congress are summarized, and findings for congressional action are presented. (WHK)

  16. Distribution system costs associated with the deployment of photovoltaic systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horowitz, Kelsey A. W.; Palmintier, Bryan; Mather, Barry; Denholm, Paul

    2018-07-01

    The broadening of our energy system to include increasing amounts of wind and solar has led to significant debate about the total costs and benefits associated with different types of generators - with potentially far-reaching policy implications. This has included debate about the cost associated with integrating these generators onto the electric grid. For photovoltaics (PV), this encompasses costs incurred on both the bulk power and distribution systems, as well as the value provided to them. These costs and benefits, in particular those associated with integrating PV onto the distribution system, are not well understood. We seek to advance the state of understanding of 'grid integration costs' for the distribution system by reviewing prior literature and outlining a transparent, bottom-up approach that can be used to calculate these costs. We provide a clear delineation of costs to integrate PV in to the distribution system within the larger context of total costs and benefits associated with PV generators. We emphasize that these costs are situationally dependent, and that a single 'cost of integration' cannot be obtained. We additionally emphasize that benefits must be considered when evaluating the competitiveness of the technology in a given situation.

  17. Design of a holographic micro-scale spectrum-splitting photovoltaic system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yuechen; Vorndran, Shelby; Ayala Pelaez, Silvana; Russo, Juan M.; Kostuk, Raymond K.

    2015-09-01

    Micro-scale PV technology combines the high conversion efficiency of concentrated photovoltaics (CPV) with the low costs and the simple form of flat panel PV. Some of the benefits of micro-scale PV include: reduced semiconductor material usage; improved heat rejection capacity; and more versatile PV cell interconnect configurations. Spectrumsplitting is also a beneficial technique to increase the efficiency and reduce the cost of photovoltaic systems. It spatially separates the incident solar spectrum into spectral components and directs them to PV cells with matching bandgaps. This approach avoids the current and lattice matching problems that exist in tandem multi-junction systems. In this paper, we applied the ideas of spectrum-splitting in a micro-scale PV system, and demonstrated a holographic micro-scale spectrum-splitting photovoltaic system. This system consists of a volume transmission hologram in combination with a micro-lens array. An analysis methodology was developed to design the system and determine the performance of the resulting system. The spatial characteristics of the dispersed spectrum, the overall system conversion efficiency, and the improvement over best bandgap will be discussed.

  18. Outdoor Performance Analysis of a Photovoltaic Thermal (PVT) Collector with Jet Impingement and Compound Parabolic Concentrator (CPC).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaaz, Ahed Hameed; Hasan, Husam Abdulrasool; Sopian, Kamaruzzaman; Kadhum, Abdul Amir H; Gaaz, Tayser Sumer; Al-Amiery, Ahmed A

    2017-08-01

    This paper discusses the effect of jet impingement of water on a photovoltaic thermal (PVT) collector and compound parabolic concentrators (CPC) on electrical efficiency, thermal efficiency and power production of a PVT system. A prototype of a PVT solar water collector installed with a jet impingement and CPC has been designed, fabricated and experimentally investigated. The efficiency of the system can be improved by using jet impingement of water to decrease the temperature of the solar cells. The electrical efficiency and power output are directly correlated with the mass flow rate. The results show that electrical efficiency was improved by 7% when using CPC and jet impingement cooling in a PVT solar collector at 1:00 p.m. (solar irradiance of 1050 W/m² and an ambient temperature of 33.5 °C). It can also be seen that the power output improved by 36% when using jet impingement cooling with CPC, and 20% without CPC in the photovoltaic (PV) module at 1:30 p.m. The short-circuit current I SC of the PV module experienced an improvement of ~28% when using jet impingement cooling with CPC, and 11.7% without CPC. The output of the PV module was enhanced by 31% when using jet impingement cooling with CPC, and 16% without CPC.

  19. Outdoor Performance Analysis of a Photovoltaic Thermal (PVT Collector with Jet Impingement and Compound Parabolic Concentrator (CPC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahed Hameed Jaaz

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the effect of jet impingement of water on a photovoltaic thermal (PVT collector and compound parabolic concentrators (CPC on electrical efficiency, thermal efficiency and power production of a PVT system. A prototype of a PVT solar water collector installed with a jet impingement and CPC has been designed, fabricated and experimentally investigated. The efficiency of the system can be improved by using jet impingement of water to decrease the temperature of the solar cells. The electrical efficiency and power output are directly correlated with the mass flow rate. The results show that electrical efficiency was improved by 7% when using CPC and jet impingement cooling in a PVT solar collector at 1:00 p.m. (solar irradiance of 1050 W/m2 and an ambient temperature of 33.5 °C. It can also be seen that the power output improved by 36% when using jet impingement cooling with CPC, and 20% without CPC in the photovoltaic (PV module at 1:30 p.m. The short-circuit current ISC of the PV module experienced an improvement of ~28% when using jet impingement cooling with CPC, and 11.7% without CPC. The output of the PV module was enhanced by 31% when using jet impingement cooling with CPC, and 16% without CPC.

  20. Antitrust implications of utility participation in the market for remote photovoltaic systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Starrs, T.J.

    1994-01-01

    Remote photovoltaic systems are an important niche market in the development of a viable photovoltaics industry. Electric utilities in the US have started offering remote photovoltaic service. Utilities have the potential to use their monopoly power in regulated markets to unfair competitive advantage in competitive markets. Therefore, utility participation in remote photovoltaic markets raises potentially significant issues of antitrust law and policy. This paper describes some of the legal and factual criteria that US courts and regulatory agencies are likely to use in assessing the antitrust implications of utility participation in the market for remote photovoltaic systems

  1. solaR: Solar Radiation and Photovoltaic Systems with R

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar Perpiñan Lamigueiro

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The solaR package allows for reproducible research both for photovoltaics (PV systems performance and solar radiation. It includes a set of classes, methods and functions to calculate the sun geometry and the solar radiation incident on a photovoltaic generator and to simulate the performance of several applications of the photovoltaic energy. This package performs the whole calculation procedure from both daily and intradaily global horizontal irradiation to the final productivity of grid-connected PV systems and water pumping PV systems.It is designed using a set of S4 classes whose core is a group of slots with multivariate time series. The classes share a variety of methods to access the information and several visualization methods. In addition, the package provides a tool for the visual statistical analysis of the performance of a large PV plant composed of several systems.Although solaR is primarily designed for time series associated to a location defined by its latitude/longitude values and the temperature and irradiation conditions, it can be easily combined with spatial packages for space-time analysis.

  2. Distributed photovoltaic systems - Addressing the utility interface issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firstman, S. I.; Vachtsevanos, G. J.

    This paper reviews work conducted in the United States on the impact of dispersed photovoltaic sources upon utility operations. The photovoltaic (PV) arrays are roof-mounted on residential houses and connected, via appropriate power conditioning equipment, to the utility grid. The presence of such small (4-6 Kw) dispersed generators on the distribution network raises questions of a technical, economic and institutional nature. After a brief identification of utility interface issues, the paper addresses such technical concerns as protection of equipment and personnel safety, power quality and utility operational stability. A combination of experimental and analytical approaches has been adopted to arrive at solutions to these problems. Problem areas, under various PV system penetration scenarios, are identified and conceptual designs of protection and control equipment and operating policies are developed so that system reliability is maintained while minimizing capital costs. It is hoped that the resolution of balance-of-system and grid interface questions will ascertain the economic viability of photovoltaic systems and assist in their widespread utilization in the future.

  3. A quantitative method for photovoltaic encapsulation system optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, A., III; Minning, C. P.; Cuddihy, E. F.

    1981-01-01

    It is pointed out that the design of encapsulation systems for flat plate photovoltaic modules requires the fulfillment of conflicting design requirements. An investigation was conducted with the objective to find an approach which will make it possible to determine a system with optimum characteristics. The results of the thermal, optical, structural, and electrical isolation analyses performed in the investigation indicate the major factors in the design of terrestrial photovoltaic modules. For defect-free materials, minimum encapsulation thicknesses are determined primarily by structural considerations. Cell temperature is not strongly affected by encapsulant thickness or thermal conductivity. The emissivity of module surfaces exerts a significant influence on cell temperature. Encapsulants should be elastomeric, and ribs are required on substrate modules. Aluminum is unsuitable as a substrate material. Antireflection coating is required on cell surfaces.

  4. Photovoltaic system criteria documents. Volume 1: Guidelines for evaluating the management and operations planning of photovoltaic applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koenig, John C.; Billitti, Joseph W.; Tallon, John M.

    1979-01-01

    Guidelines are provided to the Field Centers for organization, scheduling, project and cost control, and performance in the areas of project management and operations planning for Photovoltaics Test and Applications. These guidelines may be used in organizing a T and A Project Team for system design/test, site construction and operation, and as the basis for evaluating T and A proposals. The attributes are described for project management and operations planning to be used by the Field Centers. Specifically, all project management and operational issues affecting costs, schedules and performance of photovoltaic systems are addressed. Photovoltaic tests and applications include residential, intermediate load center, central station, and stand-alone systems. The sub-categories of system maturity considered are: Initial System Evaluation Experiments (ISEE); System Readiness Experiments (SRE); and Commercial Readiness Demonstration Projects (CRDP).

  5. The Redox Flow System for solar photovoltaic energy storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odonnell, P.; Gahn, R. F.; Pfeiffer, W.

    1976-01-01

    The interfacing of a Solar Photovoltaic System and a Redox Flow System for storage was workable. The Redox Flow System, which utilizes the oxidation-reduction capability of two redox couples, in this case iron and titanium, for its storage capacity, gave a relatively constant output regardless of solar activity so that a load could be run continually day and night utilizing the sun's energy. One portion of the system was connected to a bank of solar cells to electrochemically charge the solutions, while a separate part of the system was used to electrochemically discharge the stored energy.

  6. Overview of Single-Phase Grid-Connected Photovoltaic Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Yongheng; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2015-01-01

    A still booming installation of solar photovoltaic (PV) systems has been witnessed worldwide. It is mainly driven by the demand of “clean” power generation. Grid-connected PV systems will become an even active player in the future mixed power systems, which are linked by a vast of power electronics converters. In order to achieve a reliable and efficient power generation from PV systems, stringent demands have been imposed on the entire PV system. It in return advances the development of powe...

  7. Hybrid photovoltaic system control for enhancing sustainable energy. Economic aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leva, Sonia; Roscia, Mariacristina; Zaninelli, Dario

    2005-01-01

    The paper introduces hybrid photovoltaic/diesel generation systems for supplying remote power plant taking into account the enhancement of sustainable energy on the economic point of view. In particular, a new monitoring and control device is presented in order to carry out the optimum energy flows and a cost evaluation is performed on a real plant showing the effect and weight of the economical sustainability and economical saving. (authors)

  8. Microcomputer control of a residential photovoltaic power conditioning system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bose, B.K.; Steigerwald, R.L.; Szczesny, P.M.

    1984-01-01

    Microcomputer-based control of a residential photovoltaic power conditioning system is described. The microcomputer is responsible for array current feedback control, maximum power tracking control, array safe zone steering control, phase-locked reference wave synthesis, sequencing control, and some diagnostics. The control functions are implemented using Intel 8751 single-chip microcomputer-based hardware and software. The controller has been tested in the laboratory with the prototype power conditioner and shows excellent performance.

  9. Microcomputer control of a residential photovoltaic power conditioning system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bose, B.K.; Steigerwald, R.L.; Szczesny, P.M.

    1985-09-01

    Microcomputer-based control of a residential photovoltaic power conditioning system is described. The microcomputer is responsible for array current feedback control, maximum power tracking control, array safe zone steering control, phase-locked reference wave synthesis, sequencing control, and some diagnostics. The control functions are implemented using Intel 8751 single-chip microcomputer-based hardware and software. The controller has been tested in the laboratory with the prototype power conditioner and shows excellent performance.

  10. Application of Solar Photovoltaic Water Pumping System in Hainan Agriculture

    OpenAIRE

    Yu, Xiangchun; Lin, Qingqing; Zhou, Xuedong; Yang, Zhibin

    2013-01-01

    With radical socio-economic development and strengthening of regulation of agricultural industrial structure in Hainan Province, fresh water resource becomes increasingly insufficient. Existing water-saving facilities and measures are unable to promote sustainable and stable development of local economy. This needs modern irrigation method. Solar photovoltaic water pumping system is necessary and feasible in Hainan agriculture, and will have directive significance for Hainan Province developi...

  11. Dual temperature concentration system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spevack, J.S.

    1975-01-01

    In a dual temperature isotope exchange system--exemplified by exchange of deuterium and protium between water and hydrogen sulfide gas in hot and cold towers, in which the feed stream (water) containing the desired isotope is passed through a pair of towers maintained at different temperatures wherein it effects isotope exchange with countercurrently circulated auxiliary fluid (H 2 S) and is impoverished in said isotope and then disposed of, e.g. discharged to waste,--the flow of isotope enriched auxiliary fluid between said towers (hot H 2 S saturated with water vapor) is divided and a part thereof is adjusted in its temperature (to cold tower conditions) and then passed to the auxiliary fluid impoverishing (cold) tower, while the remainder of the divided flow of such enriched auxiliary fluid is passed through a subsequent isotope concentration treatment to produce a product more highly enriched in the desired isotope and wherein it is also adjusted in its temperature and is impoverished in said isotope during said subsequent treatment before it is delivered to the said auxiliary fluid impoverishing (cold) tower. Certain provisions are made for returning to the hot tower liquid carried as vapor by the remainder of the divided flow to the subsequent isotope concentration treatment, for recovering sensible and latent heat, and for reducing passage of auxiliary fluid to waste

  12. Recent progresses and achievements in photovoltaic-phase change material technology: A review with special treatment on photovoltaic thermal-phase change material systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Islam, M.M.; Pandey, A.K.; Hasanuzzaman, M.; Rahim, N.A.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Broad summary of phase change materials based cooling for photovoltaic modules. • Compendium on phase change materials that are mostly used in photovoltaic systems. • Extension of heat availability period by 75–100% with phase change material. • Heat storage potential improves by 33–50% more with phase change material. • Future trend and move in photovoltaic thermal research. - Abstract: This communication lays out an appraisal on the recent works of phase change materials based thermal management techniques for photovoltaic systems with special focus on the so called photovoltaic thermal-phase change material system. Attempt has also been made to draw wide-ranging classification of both photovoltaic and photovoltaic thermal systems and their conventional cooling or heat harvesting methods developed so far so that feasible phase change materials application area in these systems can be pointed out. In addition, a brief literature on phase change materials with particular focus on their solar application has also been presented. Overview of the researches and studies establish that using phase change materials for photovoltaic thermal control is technically viable if some issues like thermal conductivity or phase stability are properly addressed. The photovoltaic thermal-phase change material systems are found to offer 33% (maximum 50%) more heat storage potential than the conventional photovoltaic-thermal water system and that with 75–100% extended heat availability period and around 9% escalation in output. Reduction in temperature attained with photovoltaic thermal-phase change material system is better than that with regular photovoltaic-thermal water system, too. Studies also show the potential of another emerging technology of photovoltaic thermal-microencapsulated phase change material system that makes use of microencapsulated phase change materials in thermal regulation. Future focus areas on photovoltaic thermal-phase change

  13. Hybrid photovoltaic-diesel-battery systems for remote energy supply

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bopp, G.; Gabler, H.; Kiefer, K.; Preiser, K.; Wiemken, E. [Fraunhofer Institute for Solar Energy Systems ISE, Freiburg (Germany)

    1997-12-31

    Photovoltaic solar generators combined with diesel engines and battery energy storage are powering isolated mountain lodges, information centres in nature parks, isolated farms or dwellings all over Europe. A total of 300000 buildings in Europe are estimated to be not connected to the public grid. This represents a major market potential for photovoltaics, as often photovoltaic power generation is less expensive than a connection to the electric utility. The Fraunhofer Institute for Solar Energy Systems ISE has planned, realized and monitored about 30 hybrid remote energy supply systems with PV generators typically around 5 kW for loads typically around 20 kWh per day. More than one hundred years of operational experience accumulated so far, are a sound foundation on which to draw an interim balance over problems solved and technical questions still under development. Room for further technical development is seen in the domain of system reliability and the reduction of operating costs as well as in the optimization of the utilisation of the electric energy produced by the PV generator. (orig.) 8 refs.

  14. Luminescent solar concentrators with a bottom-mounted photovoltaic cell: performance optimization and power gain analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ningning Zhang; Yi Zhang; Jun Bao; Feng Zhang; Sen Yan; Song Sun; Chen Gao

    2017-01-01

    Polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) plate luminescent solar concentrators with a bottom-mounted (BM-LSCs) photovoltaic (PV) cell are fabricated by using a mixture of Lumogen Red 305 and Yellow 083 fluorescent dyes and a commercial monocrystalline silicon cell.The fabricated LSC with dye concentrations of 40 ppm has the highest power gain of 1.50,which is the highest value reported for the dye-doped PMMA plate LSCs.The power gain of the LSC comes from three parts:the waveguide light,the transmitted light,and the reflected light from a white reflector,and their contributions are analyzed quantitatively.The results suggest that the BM-LSCs have great potential for future low-cost PV devices in building integrated PV applications.

  15. Polymer and Concentrator Photovoltaic Technologies - Energy Return Factors and Area Efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loefgren, Birger; Gustaf Zettergren

    2006-12-20

    Market diffusion of flat plate crystalline silicon photovoltaic (PV) technology has been induced by economical support schemes and has lead to reduced cost per produced kWh electricity. For further market penetration of the PV technology, a continued reduction of production cost is required. Two alternative approaches to achieve this are using less expensive materials or changing the active materials. The technologies of concentrator PV (CPV) systems and polymer PV (PPV) devices represent these two strategies. The potential energy performance of these technologies is studied in terms of the process primary energy requirements for manufacturing, how many times this energy is paid back during its lifetime and as the required land area for electricity generation. The study is an energy analysis incorporating the inherent uncertainties in technology development. Uncertainties are identified in data acquisition, in design choices, as induced by development and improvement, in performance and by different application scenarios. The future technology alternatives are defined in different ways for CPV and PPV. CPV parameters are derived from existing products and ideas for improvements and PPV parameters from the directions of research. This study shows that the invested energy in future CPV and PPV is potentially paid back up to about 90 and 170 times, respectively, under Arizona (CPV) and average European (PPV) solar irradiation conditions. However the result is highly dependent on configuration, inventory data and device performance. Thus, for certain design alternatives, data and performance, PPV production energy is far from paid back during its lifetime. For CPV the energy return factor is decreased to about 13 in the least beneficial case. Area efficiency is studied as the land area requirements for producing a net output electricity of 1 MWh during 25 years. With device efficiencies from 1 to 5 per cent and lifetimes from 1 to 5 years a PPV device requires from 2

  16. FY 2000 report on the demonstrative research for photovoltaic power generation system in Thailand. Demonstrative study on photovoltaic power generation grid-connected system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-09-01

    In relation to the demonstrative study of the photovoltaic power system that is planned in Libong island, Thailand, the FY 2000 results were reported. In this R and D, construction/demonstrative operation were planned for a photovoltaic power station with a generation output of 100kW, photovoltaic power system in school facilities, and system for transmitting/distributing power to houses by connecting the power station and power system. In this fiscal year, the field survey was conducted together with the alteration from Yao Yai island, for which the demonstrative study was planned at first, to Libong island. The electric equipment was selected which met the requests from Thailand and the results of the field survey, and the basic design of the photovoltaic power generation/transmission/distribution system was completed. Based on this, the design/manufacture of photovoltaic power generation modules, power control equipment, measuring equipment, etc. were made. At the construction site of photovoltaic power station, construction work such as land formation was conducted. Further, Thai engineers who visited Japan did the following: discussions about power system, presence at test/inspection of photovoltaic power generation modules, visits to photovoltaic power stations, wind power stations, etc. (NEDO)

  17. Photovoltaic System with Smart Tracking of the Optimal Working Point

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PATARAU, T.

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available A photovoltaic (PV system, based on a Maximum Power Point Tracking (MPPT controller that extracts the maximum possible output power from the solar panel is described. Output efficiency of a PV energy system can be achieved only if the system working point is brought near the maximum power point (MPP. The proposed system, making use of several MPPT control algorithms (Perturb and Observe, Incremental conductance, Fuzzy Logic, demonstrates in simulations as well as in real experiments good tracking of the optimal working point.

  18. Diffusion of photovoltaic systems for rural electrification in Thailand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sriwannawit, Pranpreya; Laestadius, Staffan [Department of Industrial Economics and Management, Royal Institute of Technology (KTH), Lindstedtsvagen 30, Stockholm 10044 (Sweden)

    2013-07-01

    This paper studies a pilot project in which photovoltaic systems were installed in thirty-six places in the remote areas of Thailand with no access to electricity. One sub-project out of thirty-six was chosen for in-depth investigation. We discuss the appropriateness of solar energy for Thailand context. The diffusion process of PV systems is analyzed on four elements: innovation, communication channel, time and social system. This project is an extreme case as the PV systems and services were provided for free of charge. Even so, there are still some challenges to get acceptance for this sustainable form of energy.

  19. Photovoltaic solar panel for a hybrid PV/thermal system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zakharchenko, R.; Licea-Jimenez, L.; Perez-Garcia, S.A.; Perez-Robles, J.F.; Gonzalez-Hernandez, J.; Vorobiev, Y. [CINVESTAV-Queretaro, (Mexico); Vorobiev, P. [Universidad Autonoma de Queretaro, (Mexico). Facultad de Ingenieria; Dehesa-Carrasco, U. [Instituto Tec. Del Istmo, Oaxaco (Mexico). Dep. de Ingenieria Electromecanica

    2004-05-01

    The hybrid PV-thermal system was studied, with the photovoltaic panel (PVP) area much smaller than that of the solar collector. Performance of the different panels in the system was investigated, in particular, those made of crystalline (c-) Si, {alpha}-Si and CuInSe{sub 2} as well as different materials and constructions for the thermal contact between the panel and the collector. Our conclusion is that the PVP for application in a hybrid system needs a special design providing efficient heat extraction from it. PVP was designed and made. Its study has shown that this design provides the high electrical and thermal efficiency of the hybrid system. (author)

  20. Statistical Analysis of the Grid Connected Photovoltaic System Performance Ratio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Vilariño-García

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available A methodology based on the application of variance analysis and Tukey's method to a data set of solar radiation in the plane of the photovoltaic modules and the corresponding values of power delivered to the grid at intervals of 10 minutes presents from sunrise to sunset during the 52 weeks of the year 2013. These data were obtained through a monitoring system located in a photovoltaic plant of 10 MW of rated power located in Cordoba, consisting of 16 transformers and 98 investors. The application of the comparative method among the middle of the performance index of the processing centers to detect with an analysis of variance if there is significant difference in average at least the rest at a level of significance of 5% and then by testing Tukey which one or more processing centers that are below average due to a fault to be detected and corrected are.

  1. A General Constant Power Generation Algorithm for Photovoltaic Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tafti, Hossein Dehghani; Maswood, Ali Iftekhar; Konstantinou, Georgios

    2018-01-01

    Photovoltaic power plants (PVPPs) typically operate by tracking the maximum power point in order to maximize conversion efficiency. However, with the continuous increase of installed grid-connected PVPPs, power system operators have been experiencing new challenges, like overloading, overvoltages...... on a hysteresis band controller in order to obtain fast dynamic response under transients and low power oscillation during steady-state operation. The performance of the proposed algorithm for both single- and two-stage PVPPs is examined on a 50-kVA simulation setup of these topologies. Moreover, experimental...... and operation during grid voltage disturbances. Consequently, constant power generation (CPG) is imposed by grid codes. An algorithm for the calculation of the photovoltaic panel voltage reference, which generates a constant power from the PVPP, is introduced in this paper. The key novelty of the proposed...

  2. Assessment of quantum dots concentrators for photovoltaic electricity production; Evaluation du potentiel de concentrateurs a quantum dots pour la production d'electricite photovoltaique. Rapport final

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schueler, A.; Kostro, A.; Huriet, B.

    2006-07-01

    One of the most promising application of semiconductor nanostructures in the field of photovoltaics might be planar photoluminescent concentrators. Even for diffuse solar radiation, considerable concentration factors might be achieved. Such devices have originally been designed on the basis of organic dyes and might benefit from a considerably improved lifetime when replacing the organic fluorescent substances by inorganic semiconductor nanocrystals, so-called quantum dots. Quantum dot containing nanocomposite thin films are synthesized at EPFL-LESO by a low cost sol-gel process. In order to study the potential of the use of quantum dot solar concentrators in photovoltaic solar energy conversion, reliable computer simulations are needed. A tool for ray tracing simulations of quantum dot solar concentrators has been developed at EPFL-LESO on the basis of Monte-Carlo methods that are applied to polarization-dependent reflection/transmission at interfaces, photon absorption by the semiconductor nanocrystals and photoluminescent re-emission. Together with the knowledge on the optoelectronical properties of suitable photovoltaic cells, such simulations allow to predict the total efficiency of the envisaged concentrating PV systems, and to optimize pane dimensions, photoluminescent emission frequencies, and choice of PV cell types. (author)

  3. Assessment of quantum dots concentrators for photovoltaic electricity production; Evaluation du potentiel de concentrateurs a quantum dots pour la production d'electricite photovoltaique. Rapport final

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schueler, A; Kostro, A; Huriet, B

    2006-07-01

    One of the most promising application of semiconductor nanostructures in the field of photovoltaics might be planar photoluminescent concentrators. Even for diffuse solar radiation, considerable concentration factors might be achieved. Such devices have originally been designed on the basis of organic dyes and might benefit from a considerably improved lifetime when replacing the organic fluorescent substances by inorganic semiconductor nanocrystals, so-called quantum dots. Quantum dot containing nanocomposite thin films are synthesized at EPFL-LESO by a low cost sol-gel process. In order to study the potential of the use of quantum dot solar concentrators in photovoltaic solar energy conversion, reliable computer simulations are needed. A tool for ray tracing simulations of quantum dot solar concentrators has been developed at EPFL-LESO on the basis of Monte-Carlo methods that are applied to polarization-dependent reflection/transmission at interfaces, photon absorption by the semiconductor nanocrystals and photoluminescent re-emission. Together with the knowledge on the optoelectronical properties of suitable photovoltaic cells, such simulations allow to predict the total efficiency of the envisaged concentrating PV systems, and to optimize pane dimensions, photoluminescent emission frequencies, and choice of PV cell types. (author)

  4. Models used to assess the performance of photovoltaic systems.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stein, Joshua S.; Klise, Geoffrey T.

    2009-12-01

    This report documents the various photovoltaic (PV) performance models and software developed and utilized by researchers at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) in support of the Photovoltaics and Grid Integration Department. In addition to PV performance models, hybrid system and battery storage models are discussed. A hybrid system using other distributed sources and energy storage can help reduce the variability inherent in PV generation, and due to the complexity of combining multiple generation sources and system loads, these models are invaluable for system design and optimization. Energy storage plays an important role in reducing PV intermittency and battery storage models are used to understand the best configurations and technologies to store PV generated electricity. Other researcher's models used by SNL are discussed including some widely known models that incorporate algorithms developed at SNL. There are other models included in the discussion that are not used by or were not adopted from SNL research but may provide some benefit to researchers working on PV array performance, hybrid system models and energy storage. The paper is organized into three sections to describe the different software models as applied to photovoltaic performance, hybrid systems, and battery storage. For each model, there is a description which includes where to find the model, whether it is currently maintained and any references that may be available. Modeling improvements underway at SNL include quantifying the uncertainty of individual system components, the overall uncertainty in modeled vs. measured results and modeling large PV systems. SNL is also conducting research into the overall reliability of PV systems.

  5. Control of Grid Connected Photovoltaic Systems with Microinverters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yahya, Abdelhafid; El Fadil, Hassan; Oulcaid, Mustapha

    2018-01-01

    This paper addresses the problem of controlling grid connected photovoltaic (PV) systems that are driven with microinverters. The systems to be controlled consist of a solar panel, a boost dc–dc converter, a DC link capacitor, a single-phase full-bridge inverter, a filter inductor, and an isolation...... transformer. We seek controllers that are able to simultaneously achieve four control objectives, namely: (i) asymptotic stability of the closed loop control system; (ii) maximum power point tracking (MPPT) of the PV module; (iii) tight regulation of the DC bus voltage; and (iv) unity power factor (PF...

  6. Automatic data acquisition system for a photovoltaic solar plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, A.; Barrio, C.L.; Guerra, A.G.

    1986-01-01

    An autonomous monitoring system for photovoltaic solar plants is described. The system is able to collect data about the plant's physical and electrical characteristics and also about the environmental conditions. It may present the results on a display, if requested, but its main function is measuring periodically a set of parameters, including several points in the panel I-V characteristics, in an unattended mode. The data are stored on a magnetic tape for later processing on a computer. The system hardware and software are described, as well as their main functions.

  7. Relative potentials of concentrating and two-axis tracking flat-plate photovoltaic arrays for central-station applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borden, C. S.; Schwartz, D. L.

    1984-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to assess the relative economic potentials of concenrating and two-axis tracking flat-plate photovoltaic arrays for central-station applications in the mid-1990's. Specific objectives of this study are to provide information on concentrator photovoltaic collector probabilistic price and efficiency levels to illustrate critical areas of R&D for concentrator cells and collectors, and to compare concentrator and flat-plate PV price and efficiency alternatives for several locations, based on their implied costs of energy. To deal with the uncertainties surrounding research and development activities in general, a probabilistic assessment of commercially achievable concentrator photovoltaic collector efficiencies and prices (at the factory loading dock) is performed. The results of this projection of concentrator photovoltaic technology are then compared with a previous flat-plate module price analysis (performed early in 1983). To focus this analysis on specific collector alternatives and their implied energy costs for different locations, similar two-axis tracking designs are assumed for both concentrator and flat-plate options.

  8. Novel simplified hourly energy flow models for photovoltaic power systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khatib, Tamer; Elmenreich, Wilfried

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • We developed an energy flow model for standalone PV system using MATLAB line code. • We developed an energy flow model for hybrid PV/wind system using MATLAB line code. • We developed an energy flow model for hybrid PV/diesel system using MATLAB line code. - Abstract: This paper presents simplified energy flow models for photovoltaic (PV) power systems using MATLAB. Three types of PV power system are taken into consideration namely standalone PV systems, hybrid PV/wind systems and hybrid PV/diesel systems. The logic of the energy flow for each PV power system is discussed first and then the MATLAB line codes for these models are provided and explained. The results prove the accuracy of the proposed models. Such models help modeling and sizing PV systems

  9. Design description of the Tangaye Village photovoltaic power system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martz, J. E.; Ratajczak, A. F.

    1982-01-01

    The engineering design of a stand alone photovoltaic (PV) powered grain mill and water pump for the village of Tangaye, Upper Volta is described. The socioeconomic effects of reducing the time required by women in rural areas for drawing water and grinding grain were studied. The suitability of photovoltaic technology for use in rural areas by people of limited technical training was demonstrated. The PV system consists of a 1.8-kW (peak) solar cell array, 540 ampere hours of battery storage, instrumentation, automatic controls, and a data collection and storage system. The PV system is situated near an improved village well and supplies d.c. power to a grain mill and a water pump. The array is located in a fenced area and the mill, battery, instruments, controls, and data system are in a mill building. A water storage tank is located near the well. The system employs automatic controls which provide battery charge regulation and system over and under voltage protection. This report includes descriptions of the engineering design of the system and of the load that it serves; a discussion of PV array and battery sizing methodology; descriptions of the mechanical and electrical designs including the array, battery, controls, and instrumentation; and a discussion of the safety features. The system became operational on March 1, 1979.

  10. Photovoltaic battery & charge controller market & applications survey. An evaluation of the photovoltaic system market for 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hammond, R.L.; Turpin, J.F.; Corey, G.P. [and others

    1996-12-01

    Under the sponsorship of the Department of Energy, Office of Utility Technologies, the Battery Analysis and Evaluation Department and the Photovoltaic System Assistance Center of Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) initiated a U.S. industry-wide PV Energy Storage System Survey. Arizona State University (ASU) was contracted by SNL in June 1995 to conduct the survey. The survey included three separate segments tailored to: (a) PV system integrators, (b) battery manufacturers, and (c) PV charge controller manufacturers. The overall purpose of the survey was to: (a) quantify the market for batteries shipped with (or for) PV systems in 1995, (b) quantify the PV market segments by battery type and application for PV batteries, (c) characterize and quantify the charge controllers used in PV systems, (d) characterize the operating environment for energy storage components in PV systems, and (e) estimate the PV battery market for the year 2000. All three segments of the survey were mailed in January 1996. This report discusses the purpose, methodology, results, and conclusions of the survey.

  11. Concentrator photovoltaic module architectures with capabilities for capture and conversion of full global solar radiation

    KAUST Repository

    Lee, Kyu Tae

    2016-12-06

    Emerging classes ofconcentrator photovoltaic (CPV) modules reach efficiencies that are far greater than those of even the highest performance flat-plate PV technologies, with architectures that have the potential to provide the lowest cost of energy in locations with high direct normal irradiance (DNI). A disadvantage is their inability to effectively use diffuse sunlight, thereby constraining widespread geographic deployment and limiting performance even under the most favorable DNI conditions. This study introduces a module design that integrates capabilities in flat-plate PV directly with the most sophisticated CPV technologies, for capture of both direct and diffuse sunlight, thereby achieving efficiency in PV conversion of the global solar radiation. Specific examples of this scheme exploit commodity silicon (Si) cells integrated with two different CPV module designs, where they capture light that is not efficiently directed by the concentrator optics onto large-scale arrays of miniature multijunction (MJ) solar cells that use advanced III-V semiconductor technologies. In this CPV scheme (

  12. EPRI 25kW high concentration photovoltaic integrated array concept and associated economics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gunn, J.A.; Dostalek, F.J.

    1993-01-01

    This paper describes a cost effective photovoltaic array design for the high concentration technology being developed by the Electric Power Research Institute for utility scale applications. The concept of an ''integrated array'' is to attach Fresnel lens parquets directly to the front of the tracker structure and PV panels directly to the back of the structure thereby eliminating redundant structural components. The concept also incorporates the maximum use of automated manufacturing techniques for all components thereby minimizing material waste, fabrication and assembly labor. This paper also describes the results of a first approach cost and economic study for the technology which shows the potential for levelized energy cost below $0.10/kWh for a 50 MW ac plant given a mature technology

  13. Concentrator photovoltaic module architectures with capabilities for capture and conversion of full global solar radiation

    KAUST Repository

    Lee, Kyu Tae; Yao, Yuan; He, Junwen; Fisher, Brent; Sheng, Xing; Lumb, Matthew; Xu, Lu; Anderson, Mikayla A.; Scheiman, David; Han, Seungyong; Kang, Yongseon; Gumus, Abdurrahman; Bahabry, Rabab R.; Lee, Jung Woo; Paik, Ungyu; Bronstein, Noah D.; Alivisatos, A. Paul; Meitl, Matthew; Burroughs, Scott; Hussain, Muhammad Mustafa; Lee, Jeong Chul; Nuzzo, Ralph G.; Rogers, John A.

    2016-01-01

    Emerging classes ofconcentrator photovoltaic (CPV) modules reach efficiencies that are far greater than those of even the highest performance flat-plate PV technologies, with architectures that have the potential to provide the lowest cost of energy in locations with high direct normal irradiance (DNI). A disadvantage is their inability to effectively use diffuse sunlight, thereby constraining widespread geographic deployment and limiting performance even under the most favorable DNI conditions. This study introduces a module design that integrates capabilities in flat-plate PV directly with the most sophisticated CPV technologies, for capture of both direct and diffuse sunlight, thereby achieving efficiency in PV conversion of the global solar radiation. Specific examples of this scheme exploit commodity silicon (Si) cells integrated with two different CPV module designs, where they capture light that is not efficiently directed by the concentrator optics onto large-scale arrays of miniature multijunction (MJ) solar cells that use advanced III-V semiconductor technologies. In this CPV scheme (

  14. A New Approach for Optimal Sizing of Standalone Photovoltaic Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Khatib, Tamer; Mohamed, Azah; Sopian, K.; Mahmoud, M.

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a new method for determining the optimal sizing of standalone photovoltaic (PV) system in terms of optimal sizing of PV array and battery storage. A standalone PV system energy flow is first analysed, and the MATLAB fitting tool is used to fit the resultant sizing curves in order to derive general formulas for optimal sizing of PV array and battery. In deriving the formulas for optimal sizing of PV array and battery, the data considered are based on five sites in Malaysia...

  15. Size-Prediction Analysis for Stand-Alone Photovoltaic System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erusiafe, N. E.; Chendo, M. A. C.

    2002-01-01

    The cost - effectiveness of photovoltaic (PV) generator depends, among others, on its ability to satisfy energy demand and the cost of achieving this. In this work a step - by - step procedure for predicting the size of the main components of a stand - alone PV system (array and storage) is presented. The results yield an expression which can he used lo determine the size of both components at optimum cost and desired reliability. The result from this work compare favourably with some earlier works in that, the system sizes shows some degree of agreement

  16. Availability model of stand-alone photovoltaic system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazurek, G.

    2017-08-01

    In this paper we present a simple, empirical model of stand-alone photovoltaic power system availability. The model is a final result of five-year long studies and ground measurements of solar irradiation carried out in Central Europe. The obtained results facilitate sizing of PV modules that have to be installed with taking into account system's availability level in each month of a year. The model can be extended to different geographical locations, with help of local meteorological data or solar irradiation datasets derived from satellite measurements.

  17. Residential Photovoltaic/Thermal Energy System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selcuk, M. K.

    1987-01-01

    Proposed system supplies house with both heat and electricity. Pair of reports describes concept for self-sufficient heating, cooling, and power-generating system for house. Panels on walls of house provide hot water, space heating, and heat to charge heat-storage system, and generate electricity for circulation pumps and fans. Roof panels generate electricity for household, operate heat pump for summer cooling, and provide supplementary winter heating via heat pump, using solar-cell cooling-fluid loop. Wall and roof panels used independently.

  18. Application of the DTC control in the photovoltaic pumping system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moulay-Idriss, Chergui; Mohamed, Bourahla

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► To improve the efficiency of PV systems, under different temperature and irradiance conditions. ► The MPPT and different control method for the induction motor were applied. ► The DTC in PV pumping system introduced and performance studied. ► The introductions of DTC in PV systems are very promising. ► Optimizing the water pumping system speed response characteristic by DTC. - Abstract: We aim to find a better control and optimization among the different functions of a solar pumping system. The photovoltaic panel can provide a maximum power only for defined output voltage and current. In addition, the operation to get the maximum power depends on the terminals of load, mostly a non-linear load like induction motor. In this work, we propose an intelligent control method for the maximum power point tracking of a photovoltaic system under variable temperature and irradiance conditions. The system was tested without maximum power point tracking, with the use of Scalar-Based control motor, but we cannot maintain the speed optimal. Next, we developed several methods for the control. Finally, we have chosen the Direct Torque Control.

  19. Design of boat powered photovoltaic systems

    OpenAIRE

    Syafaruddin; Dionisius Galla; Willy A.F.A Ajami

    2014-01-01

    The solar energy has high potential applications in Indonesia since the country is located close to the equatorial region that makes the sun is almost bright along the day. In this paper, the boat power photo voltaic system is proposed. Such design may promote new innovations technically and economically in water transportation system since the country demography is almost 75% surrounded by water. The electricity energy is harvested from the sun through the PV panel then stored i...

  20. Design Of Photovoltaic Powered Cathodic Protection System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Golina Samir Adly

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The corrosion caused by chemical reaction between metallic structures and surrounding mediums such as soil or water .the CP cathodic protection system is used to protect metallic structure against corrosion. Cathodic protection CP used to minimize corrosion by utilizing an external source of electrical current which forces the entire structure to become a cathode. There are two Types of cathodic protection system Galvanic current Impressed current.the Galvanic current is called a sacrificial anode is connected to the protected structure cathode through a DC power supply. In Galvanic current system a current passes from the sacrificing anode to the protected structure .the sacrificial anode is corroded rather than causing the protected structure corrosion .protected structure requires a constant current to stop the corrosion which determined by area structure metal and the surrounding medium. The rains humidity are decrease soil resistivity and increase the DC current .The corrosion and over protection resulting from increase in the DC current is harmful for the metallic structure. This problem can be solved by conventional cathodic protection system by manual adjustment of DC voltage periodically to obtain a constant current .the manual adjustment of DC voltage depends on experience of the technician and using the accuracy of the measuring equipment. The errors of measuring current depend on error from the technician or error from the measuring equipment. the corrosion of structure may occur when the interval between two successive adjustment is long .An automatically regulated cathodic protection system is used to overcome problems from conventional cathodic protection system .the regulated cathodic protection system adjust the DC voltage of the system automatically when it senses the variations of surrounding medium resistivity so the DC current is constant at the required level.

  1. Overview of Single-Phase Grid-Connected Photovoltaic Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Yongheng; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2017-01-01

    A continuous booming installation of solar photovoltaic (PV) systems has been witnessed worldwide. It is mainly driven by the imperative demand of “clean” power generation from renewables. Grid-connected PV systems will thus become an even more active player in the future mixed power systems, which...... systems. This chapter thus gives an overview of the advancement of power electronics converters in single-phase grid-connected PV systems, being commonly used in residential applications. Demands to single-phase grid-connected PV systems and the general control strategies are also addressed...... are linked together by a vast of power electronics converters and the power grid. In order to achieve a reliable and efficient power generation from PV systems, more stringent demands have been imposed on the entire PV system. It, in return, advances the development of the power converter technology in PV...

  2. Statistical fault detection in photovoltaic systems

    KAUST Repository

    Garoudja, Elyes; Harrou, Fouzi; Sun, Ying; Kara, Kamel; Chouder, Aissa; Silvestre, Santiago

    2017-01-01

    and efficiency. Here, an innovative model-based fault-detection approach for early detection of shading of PV modules and faults on the direct current (DC) side of PV systems is proposed. This approach combines the flexibility, and simplicity of a one-diode model

  3. Power conditioning unit for photovoltaic power systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beghin, G.; Nguyen Phuoc, V. T.

    Operational features and components of a power conditioning unit for interconnecting solar cell module powers with a utility grid are outlined. The two-stage unit first modifies the voltage to desired levels on an internal dc link, then inverts the current in 2 power transformers connected to a vector summation control to neutralize harmonic distortion up to the 11th harmonic. The system operates in parallel with the grid with extra inductors to absorb line-to-line voltage and phase differences, and permits peak power use from the PV array. Reactive power is gained internally, and a power system controller monitors voltages, frequencies, and currents. A booster preregulator adjusts the input voltage from the array to provide voltage regulation for the inverter, and can commutate 450 amps. A total harmonic distortion of less than 5 percent is claimed, with a rating of 5 kVA, 50/60 Hz, 3-phase, and 4-wire.

  4. River Debris Management System using Off-Grid Photovoltaic Module

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saadon Intan Mastura

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In Malaysia, Malacca River has long been the tourism attraction in Malacca. However, due to negligence, the river has been polluted by the litters thrown by tourists and even local residents, thus reflects a negative perception on Malacca. Therefore, this paper discusses about a fully automated river debris management system development using a stand-alone photovoltaic system. The concept design is to be stand alone in the river and automatically pull debris towards it for disposal. An off-grid stand-alone photovoltaic solar panel is used as renewable energy source connected to water pump and Arduino Uno microcontroller. The water pump rotates a water wheel and at the same time moves a conveyor belt; which is connected to the water wheel by a gear for debris collection. The solar system sizing suitable for the whole system is shown in this paper. The dumpster barge is equipped with an infrared sensor to monitor maximum height for debris, and instruct Arduino Uno to turn off the water pump. This system is able to power up using solar energy on sunny days and using battery otherwise.

  5. Grid-Connected Photovoltaic System with Active Power Filtering Functionality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joaquín Vaquero

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Solar panels are an attractive and growing source of renewable energy in commercial and residential applications. Its use connected to the grid by means of a power converter results in a grid-connected photovoltaic system. In order to optimize this system, it is interesting to integrate several functionalities into the power converter, such as active power filtering and power factor correction. Nonlinear loads connected to the grid generate current harmonics, which deteriorates the mains power quality. Active power filters can compensate these current harmonics. A photovoltaic system with added harmonic compensation and power factor correction capabilities is proposed in this paper. A sliding mode controller is employed to control the power converter, implemented on the CompactRIO digital platform from National Instruments Corporation, allowing user friendly operation and easy tuning. The power system consists of two stages, a DC/DC boost converter and a single-phase inverter, and it is able to inject active power into the grid while compensating the current harmonics generated by nonlinear loads at the point of common coupling. The operation, design, simulation, and experimental results for the proposed system are discussed.

  6. Photovoltaic generating systems in rural schools in Neuquen Province, Argentina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lawand, T.A.; Campbell, J. [Brace Research Institute, Quebec (Canada)

    1997-12-01

    During the period 1994-95, solar photovoltaic systems were installed at a number of schools in Neuquen Province, Argentina, by the Provincial electric utility, Ente Provincial de Energia del Neuquen. This was undertaken with funds provided by the Inter-American Development Bank. In all, there are 12 schools that have had photovoltaic generating systems installed. These generating systems are designed to provide electricity for the basic needs at the schools: primarily for lighting, and to operate small electrical appliances such as communication radios, televisions, VCR`s, AM/FM and short-wave radios. They do not provide enough energy to operate large consumption appliances such as washing machines, microwaves, refrigerators, power tools, etc. The program of provision of PV systems was supplemented with training on simple systems for cooking food or drying fruit, etc. These techniques are primarily intended for demonstration at the schools thus serving an educational role with the hope that they will be transmitted in time to the families of the students where the need is manifested the most.

  7. Summary of third international executive conference on photovoltaic power systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gillett, W.

    2001-07-01

    towards sustainable buildings fully into account. A further aim was to share the lessons learned from recent market experience on the full range of additional values that arise from the use of photovoltaic power systems and how those values impact on customer choice. Further, the promotion of international co-operation between the private and public sectors on policies for the removal of key constraints and for the promotion, financing and implementation of solar photovoltaic electricity projects was discussed. The conference was expected to achieve the following outcomes: Stronger relationships and networks between the participants and, through them, also between the sectors represented; A better definition of the added values of PV which influence customer choice; Recommendations which can be implemented by each of the business sectors represented at the conference for the orderly future development of the most important future PV markets; Recommendations to the IEA for ways in which it could enhance collaboration with both governments and industry, using its unique position to assist the future development of PV markets.

  8. Application of Circuit Model for Photovoltaic Energy Conversion System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natarajan Pandiarajan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Circuit model of photovoltaic (PV module is presented in this paper that can be used as a common platform by material scientists and power electronic circuit designers to develop better PV power plant. Detailed modeling procedure for the circuit model with numerical dimensions is presented using power system blockset of MATLAB/Simulink. The developed model is integrated with DC-DC boost converter with closed-loop control of maximum power point tracking (MPPT algorithm. Simulation results are validated with the experimental setup.

  9. Control Issues in Single-Stage Photovoltaic Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    A. Mastromauro, Rosa; Liserre, Marco; Dell’Aquila, Antonio

    2012-01-01

    Photovoltaic Systems (PVS) can be easily integrated in residential buildings hence they will be the main responsible of making low-voltage grid power flow bidirectional. Control issues on both the PV side and on the grid side have received much attention from manufacturers, competing for efficiency...... and low distortion and academia proposing new ideas soon become state-of-the-art. This paper aims at reviewing part of these topics (MPPT, current and voltage control) leaving to a future paper to complete the scenario. Implementation issues on Digital Signal Processor (DSP), the mandatory choice...

  10. Temperature dependence of photovoltaic cells, modules, and systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Emery, K.; Burdick, J.; Caiyem, Y. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States)] [and others

    1996-05-01

    Photovoltaic (PV) cells and modules are often rated in terms of a set of standard reporting conditions defined by a temperature, spectral irradiance, and total irradiance. Because PV devices operates over a wide range of temperatures and irradiances, the temperature and irradiance related behavior must be known. This paper surveys the temperature dependence of crystalline and thin-film, state-of-the-art, research-size cells, modules, and systems measured by a variety of methods. The various error sources and measurement methods that contribute to cause differences in the temperature coefficient for a given cell or module measured with various methods are discussed.

  11. System Advisor Model: Flat Plate Photovoltaic Performance Modeling Validation Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freeman, Janine [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Whitmore, Jonathan [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Kaffine, Leah [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Blair, Nate [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Dobos, Aron P. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2013-12-01

    The System Advisor Model (SAM) is a free software tool that performs detailed analysis of both system performance and system financing for a variety of renewable energy technologies. This report provides detailed validation of the SAM flat plate photovoltaic performance model by comparing SAM-modeled PV system generation data to actual measured production data for nine PV systems ranging from 75 kW to greater than 25 MW in size. The results show strong agreement between SAM predictions and field data, with annualized prediction error below 3% for all fixed tilt cases and below 8% for all one axis tracked cases. The analysis concludes that snow cover and system outages are the primary sources of disagreement, and other deviations resulting from seasonal biases in the irradiation models and one axis tracking issues are discussed in detail.

  12. The rural areas electrification with a hybrid photovoltaic systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kocev, Kiril I.; Dimitrov, Dimitar; Tudzharov, Gjorgji

    2001-01-01

    Depending on a daily load demand, distance from the utility grid and the available solar energy, the rural villages electrification with a hybrid photovoltaic (PV) system can be a cheaper solution than the classic electrification, by connecting them to the utility grid. Besides PV generator, the considered hybrid system is consisted of a battery and a diesel gen set. For the concrete case - rural village with estimated daily load demand of 15.5 kWh/day, with the computer program PVFORM, which is modified for such hybrid system, were simulated a few hundreds PV systems, with different sizes of the PV generator and of the battery capacity. Analyzing the obtained results, it can be foreseen the influence of the component size on the system functionality. From the mass of possible system combinations, it is chosen one that has 42 % lower initial investment, than the initial investment for connection of the village to the utility grid. (Original)

  13. The value of residential photovoltaic systems: A comprehensive assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borden, C. S.

    1983-01-01

    Utility-interactive photovoltaic (PV) arrays on residential rooftops appear to be a potentially attractive, large-scale application of PV technology. Results of a comprehensive assessment of the value (i.e., break-even cost) of utility-grid connected residential photovoltaic power systems under a variety of technological and economic assumptions are presented. A wide range of allowable PV system costs are calculated for small (4.34 kW (p) sub ac) residential PV systems in various locales across the United States. Primary factor in this variation are differences in local weather conditions, utility-specific electric generation capacity, fuel types, and customer-load profiles that effect purchase and sell-back rates, and non-uniform state tax considerations. Additional results from this analysis are: locations having the highest insolation values are not necessary the most economically attractive sites; residential PV systems connected in parallel to the utility demonstrate high percentages of energy sold back to the grid, and owner financial and tax assumptions cause large variations in break-even costs. Significant cost reduction and aggressive resolution of potential institutional impediments (e.g., liability, standards, metering, and technical integration) are required for a residential PV marker to become a major electric-grid-connected energy-generation source.

  14. Solar Photovoltaic DC Systems: Basics and Safety: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McNutt, Peter F [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Sekulic, William R [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Dreifuerst, Gary [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory - retired

    2018-04-02

    Solar Photovoltaic (PV) systems are common and growing with 42.4 GW installed capacity in U.S. (almost 15 GW added in 2016). This paper will help electrical workers, and emergency responders understand the basic operating principles and hazards of PV DC arrays. We briefly discuss the following aspects of solar photovoltaic (PV) DC systems: the effects of solar radiation and temperature on output power; PV module testing standards; common system configurations; a simple PV array sizing example; NEC guidelines and other safety features; DC array commissioning, periodic maintenance and testing; arc-flash hazard potential; how electrical workers and emergency responders can and do work safely around PV arrays; do moonlight and artificial lighting pose a real danger; typical safe operating procedures; and other potential DC-system hazards to be aware of. We also present some statistics on PV DC array electrical incidents and injuries. Safe PV array operation is possible with a good understanding of PV DC arrays basics and having good safe operating procedures in place.

  15. Distribution Grid Integration of Photovoltaic Systems in Germany – Implications on Grid Planning and Grid Operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stetz, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    Photovoltaic is the most dispersed renewable energy source in Germany, typically interconnected to low and medium voltage systems. In recent years, cost-intensive grid reinforcements had to be undertaken all across Germany’s distribution grids in order to increase their hosting capacity for these photovoltaic installations. This paper presents an overview on research results which show that photovoltaic itself can provide ancillary services to reduce its cost of interconnection. Especially the provision of reactive power turned out to be a technically effective and economically efficient method to increase a grid’s hosting capacity for photovoltaic capacity. Different reactive power control methods were investigated, revealing significant differences with regards to their grid operation implications. Business cases for residential-scale photovoltaic applications have shifted from feed-in-tariff based active power feed-in to self-consumption. However, increasing the photovoltaic self-consumption by additional battery-storage systems is still not economically reliable in Germany. (author)

  16. Standalone Photovoltaic System Sizing using Peak Sun Hour Method and Evaluation by TRNSYS Simulation

    OpenAIRE

    Riza, Dimas Firmanda Al; Gilani, Syed Ihtshamul-Haq

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents sizing and evaluation of a standalone photovoltaic system for residential load. Peak Sun Hour method is used to determine photovoltaic panel and battery capacity, then the sizing results is tested and evaluated using hourly time-step transient simulation model by using TRNSYS 16.0. The results shows for typical Malaysian terraced house that have about 6 kWh daily electricity load, the photovoltaic system requirement consist of 1.9 kWp photovoltaic panel and 2200 Ah battery...

  17. Environmental assessment of batteries for photovoltaic systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brouwer, J.M.; Lindeijer, E.W.

    1993-10-01

    A life cycle analysis (LCA) on 4 types of batteries for PV systems has been performed. in order to assess the environmental impacts of the various battery types, leading to recommendations for improvements in the production and use of batteries. The different battery types are compared on the basis of a functional unit: 240 kWh electric energy from PV modules delivered for household applications by one flat-plate lead-acid battery. An important product characteristic is the performance; in the study a Ni-Cd battery is taken to deliver 4 times as much energy as a flat plate battery (Pb-flat), a rod plate battery (Pb-rod) 3.4 times as much and a tubular plate battery (Pb-tube) 2.8 times as much. Environmental data was gathered from recent primary and secondary data in a database under internal quality control. Calculations were performed with an updated version of SIMAKOZA, a programme developed by the Centre of Environmental Science (CML), University of Leiden, Leiden, Netherlands. Of the types investigated, the Pb tube battery is to be preferred environmentally. Using one allocation method for recycling, the NiCd battery scores best on ozone depletion since no PVC is used (PVC production demands cooling with CFCs), on non-toxic waste and on disruption of ecosystems. The lead-bearing batteries score better on other aspects due to lower energy consumption during production and no emissions of cadmium. Using another allocation method for recycling the NiCd battery scores best on almost all environmental topics. Both allocation methods supplement each other. For resource depletion, regarding cadmium as an unavoidable by-product of zinc production renders NiCd batteries as much less problematic than lead/acid batteries, but taking account of the physical resources available would make the use of cadmium much more problematic than the use of lead. 37 figs., 20 tabs., 8 appendices, 109 refs

  18. Novel TPPO Based Maximum Power Point Method for Photovoltaic System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ABBASI, M. A.

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Photovoltaic (PV system has a great potential and it is installed more when compared with other renewable energy sources nowadays. However, the PV system cannot perform optimally due to its solid reliance on climate conditions. Due to this dependency, PV system does not operate at its maximum power point (MPP. Many MPP tracking methods have been proposed for this purpose. One of these is the Perturb and Observe Method (P&O which is the most famous due to its simplicity, less cost and fast track. But it deviates from MPP in continuously changing weather conditions, especially in rapidly changing irradiance conditions. A new Maximum Power Point Tracking (MPPT method, Tetra Point Perturb and Observe (TPPO, has been proposed to improve PV system performance in changing irradiance conditions and the effects on characteristic curves of PV array module due to varying irradiance are delineated. The Proposed MPPT method has shown better results in increasing the efficiency of a PV system.

  19. Stimulating the diffusion of photovoltaic systems: A behavioural perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jager, Wander

    2006-01-01

    This paper first discusses consumer motives for adopting photovoltaic systems (PV systems) from a behavioural-theoretical perspective. Different motives are discussed within a framework of underlying needs and the time sensitivity of various outcomes. Next, empirical data are presented concerning the motives of buyers of PV systems after a promotional and support campaign in the city of Groningen (the Netherlands). Financial support and general problem awareness are found to be critical motives, but the (strong) positive effects of information meetings, technical support meetings and social networks are also identified. Conclusions focus on the critical motives for adopting a PV system, and suggestions are presented concerning policy measures to stimulate the further diffusion of PV systems

  20. Distributed photovoltaic system evaluation by Arizona Public Service Company

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lambeth, R.; Lepley, T.

    1993-01-01

    Arizona Public Service Company (APS) has performed a study of the APS system to (1) determine whether APS has high-value distributed applications of photovoltaics (PV), (2) quantify the value of a distributed PV system, (3) compare the APS results with the earlier PG ampersand E results and (4) estimate whether there will be significant market for these applications at APS. The study confirmed that there is a value to distributing PV generation throughout the utility distribution system. The breakeven cost for a PV system in APS' best location is $3.44/watt, in 1996 dollars. Feeders which meet all the criteria and which will be eligible for full benefits are relatively rare. However, a PV system will usually have more value if it is distributed rather than installed at a central station site

  1. Adaptive fuzzy controller based MPPT for photovoltaic systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guenounou, Ouahib; Dahhou, Boutaib; Chabour, Ferhat

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • We propose a fuzzy controller with adaptive output scaling factor as a maximum power point tracker of photovoltaic system. • The proposed controller integrates two different rule bases defined on error and change of error. • Our controller can track the maximum power point with better performances when compared to its conventional counterpart. - Abstract: This paper presents an intelligent approach to optimize the performances of photovoltaic systems. The system consists of a PV panel, a DC–DC boost converter, a maximum power point tracker controller and a resistive load. The key idea of the proposed approach is the use of a fuzzy controller with an adaptive gain as a maximum power point tracker. The proposed controller integrates two different rule bases. The first is used to adjust the duty cycle of the boost converter as in the case of a conventional fuzzy controller while the second rule base is designed for an online adjusting of the controller’s gain. The performances of the adaptive fuzzy controller are compared with those obtained using a conventional fuzzy controllers with different gains and in each case, the proposed controller outperforms its conventional counterpart

  2. ENERGY MANAGEMENT OF PHOTOVOLTAIC SYSTEMS USING FUEL CELLS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristian MIRON

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Renewable energy generators show an accelerated growth both in terms of production wise, as well as in research fields. Focusing only on photovoltaic panels, the generated energy has the disadvantage of being strongly oscillatory in evolution. The classical solution is to create a network between photovoltaic farms spanning on large distances, in order to share the total energy before sending it to the clients. A solution that was recently proposed is going to use hydrogen in order to store the energy surplus. Fuel Cells (FCs represent energy generators whose energy vector is usually hydrogen. These have already started the transition from the laboratory context towards commercialization. Due to their high energy density, as well as their theoretical infinite storage capacity through hydrogen, configurations based on electrolyzers and FCs are seen as high potential storage systems, both for vehicle and for stationary applications. Therefore, a study on such distributed control systems is of high importance. This paper analyses the existing solutions, with emphasis on a particular case where a supervisory system is developed and tested in a specialised simulation software.

  3. Impact Analysis of Peng-Hu Power System Connected with a Photovoltaic System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Li; Nguyen, Ha Thi; Yan, Chih-Hao

    2014-01-01

    With the rapid increase of photovoltaic (PV) systems installed in power systems in the recent years, the negative impacts on power quality of distribution networks due to highpenetration PV systems can be increased. This paper presents the system-impact analyzed results of a 0.6-MW PV system conn...

  4. Defect design of insulation systems for photovoltaic modules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mon, G. R.

    1981-01-01

    A defect-design approach to sizing electrical insulation systems for terrestrial photovoltaic modules is presented. It consists of gathering voltage-breakdown statistics on various thicknesses of candidate insulation films where, for a designated voltage, module failure probabilities for enumerated thickness and number-of-layer film combinations are calculated. Cost analysis then selects the most economical insulation system. A manufacturing yield problem is solved to exemplify the technique. Results for unaged Mylar suggest using fewer layers of thicker films. Defect design incorporates effects of flaws in optimal insulation system selection, and obviates choosing a tolerable failure rate, since the optimization process accomplishes that. Exposure to weathering and voltage stress reduces the voltage-withstanding capability of module insulation films. Defect design, applied to aged polyester films, promises to yield reliable, cost-optimal insulation systems.

  5. Photovoltaic-wind hybrid system for permanent magnet DC motor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasir, M. N. M.; Lada, M. Y.; Baharom, M. F.; Jaafar, H. I.; Ramani, A. N.; Sulaima, M. F.

    2015-05-01

    Hybrid system of Photovoltaic (PV) - Wind turbine (WT) generation has more advantages and reliable compared to PV or wind turbine system alone. The aim of this paper is to model and design hybrid system of PV-WT supplying 100W permanent-magnet dc motor. To achieve the objective, both of PV and WT are connected to converter in order to get the same source of DC supply. Then both sources were combined and straightly connected to 100W permanent magnet dc motor. All the works in this paper is only applied in circuit simulator by using Matlab Simulink. The output produced from each converter is expected to be suit to the motor specification. The output produced from each renewable energy system is as expected to be high as it can support the motor if one of them is breakdown

  6. Model-based fault detection algorithm for photovoltaic system monitoring

    KAUST Repository

    Harrou, Fouzi

    2018-02-12

    Reliable detection of faults in PV systems plays an important role in improving their reliability, productivity, and safety. This paper addresses the detection of faults in the direct current (DC) side of photovoltaic (PV) systems using a statistical approach. Specifically, a simulation model that mimics the theoretical performances of the inspected PV system is designed. Residuals, which are the difference between the measured and estimated output data, are used as a fault indicator. Indeed, residuals are used as the input for the Multivariate CUmulative SUM (MCUSUM) algorithm to detect potential faults. We evaluated the proposed method by using data from an actual 20 MWp grid-connected PV system located in the province of Adrar, Algeria.

  7. Performance Analysis of 14 MW Grid-Connected Photovoltaic System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kagilik, Ahmed S.; Tawel, Abduraouf M.

    2015-01-01

    Many Libyan authorities proposed to investigate the possibility of utilizing a suitable terrain in Libya to add generation capacity of large-scale photovoltaic power plants. In this paper, the first grid-connected PV plant of 14 MWp which will be executed in Hoon city and supported by the Renewable Energy Authority of Libya (REAOL) is presented. To understand and improve the operational behavior of PV system, a comprehensive study including the plant design and detailed performance analysis under a local climate conditions is performed. Using polycrystalline silicon technology, the first year energy yield is estimated and the monthly system output for this plant is calculated. The performance ratio and various power losses (temperature, irradiance, power electronics, interconnection, etc.) are determined. The PV system supplied 24964 MWh to the grid during the first year giving an average annual overall yield factor 1783 kWh/kWp and average annual performance ratio of the system of 76.9%.(author)

  8. Comprehensive geographic analysis of current photovoltaic industry in Slovakia, focusing on building systems; Komplexna geograficka analyza fotovoltickeho priemyslu na Slovensku so zameranim na pozemne systemy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chovanec, M. [Univerzita Komenskeho, Prirodovedecka fakulta, Katedra regionalnej geografie, ochrany a planovania krajiny, 84215 Bratislava (Slovakia)

    2013-04-16

    Terrestrial photovoltaic power plants were built in Slovakia, only 1 and a half years, until legislative action this rapidly growing industry stopped. The largest concentration of these plants were built in districts that are along the border with Hungary. Terrestrial photovoltaic systems are evaluated in this work for spatial level by various indicators, as well as from the pedogeographic view, in which climatic regions and soil types, these plants are located. (authors)

  9. Prismatic TIR (total internal reflection) low-concentration PV (photovoltaics)-integrated façade for low latitudes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sabry, Mohamed

    2016-01-01

    Low-concentration Façade-integrated Photovoltaic system in the form of TIR (total internal reflection) prismatic segmented façade could play an effective role in reducing the direct component of solar radiation transmitting through buildings, hence reducing both cooling and artificial lighting load on such buildings. A prismatic segmented façade is capable of allowing diffused skylight to transmit through it to the building interior, while preventing most of the direct solar radiation and converting it into clean energy by means of the integrated PV (​photovoltaics) cells. A range of prismatic TIR segmented façades with different head angles has been designed based on the geographical latitude of the chosen location. Each façade configuration is simulated by ray-tracing technique and its performance is investigated against realistic direct solar radiation data in two clear sky days representing summer and winter of the targeted location. Ray tracing simulations revealed that all of the selected configurations could collect most of the direct solar radiation in summer. In contrary, larger head angle of the segmented façade could collect wider intervals around the noon time till reaching a head angle of 23° at which most of the incident direct solar radiation could be collected. - Highlights: • 5 different head angles of prismatic segmented PV-integrated Façade are ray-traced. • Transmitted and PV-collected solar radiation percentages are determined. • DNI daily profiles with associated solar altitudes and azimuth data are simulated. • Expected transmitted and PV collected solar radiation are calculated for the proposed segments.

  10. System tradeoffs in siting a solar photovoltaic material recovery infrastructure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goe, Michele; Gaustad, Gabrielle; Tomaszewski, Brian

    2015-09-01

    The consumption and disposal of rare and hazardous metals contained in electronics and emerging technologies such as photovoltaics increases the material complexity of the municipal waste stream. Developing effective waste policies and material recovery systems is required to inhibit landfilling of valuable and finite resources. This work developed a siting and waste infrastructure configuration model to inform the management and recovery of end-of-life photovoltaics. This model solves the siting and waste location-allocation problem for a New York State case study by combining multi-criteria decision methods with spatial tools, however this methodology is generalizable to any geographic area. For the case study, the results indicate that PV installations are spatially statistically significant (i.e., clustered). At least 9 sites, which are co-located with landfills and current MRFs, were 'highly' suitable for siting according to our criteria. After combining criteria in an average weighted sum, 86% of the study area was deemed unsuitable for siting while less than 5% is characterized as highly suitable. This method implicitly prioritized social and environmental concerns and therefore, these concerns accounted for the majority of siting decisions. As we increased the priority of economic criteria, the likelihood of siting near ecologically sensitive areas such as coastline or socially vulnerable areas such as urban centers increased. The sensitivity of infrastructure configurations to land use and waste policy are analyzed. The location allocation model results suggest current tip fees are insufficient to avoid landfilling of photovoltaics. Scenarios where tip fees were increased showed model results where facilities decide to adopt limited recycling technologies that bypass compositionally complex materials; a result with strong implications for global PV installations as well as other waste streams. We suggest a multi-pronged approach that lowers technology cost

  11. Novel double-stage high-concentrated solar hybrid photovoltaic/thermal (PV/T) collector with nonimaging optics and GaAs solar cells reflector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdelhamid, Mahmoud; Widyolar, Bennett K.; Jiang, Lun; Winston, Roland; Yablonovitch, Eli; Scranton, Gregg; Cygan, David; Abbasi, Hamid; Kozlov, Aleksandr

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • A novel hybrid concentrating photovoltaic thermal (PV/T) collector is developed. • Thermal component achieves 60× concentration using nonimaging optics. • GaAs solar cells used as spectrally selective mirrors for low energy photons. • Thermal efficiencies of 37% at 365 °C and electrical efficiencies of 8% achieved. • Combined electric efficiency reaches 25% of DNI for system cost of $283.10/m"2". - Abstract: A novel double stage high-concentration hybrid solar photovoltaic thermal (PV/T) collector using nonimaging optics and world record thin film single-junction gallium arsenide (GaAs) solar cells has been developed. We present a detailed design and simulation of the system, experimental setup, prototype, system performance, and economic analysis. The system uses a parabolic trough (primary concentrator) to focus sunlight towards a secondary nonimaging compound parabolic concentrator (CPC) to simultaneously generate electricity from single junction GaAs solar cells, as well as high temperature dispatchable heat. This study is novel in that (a) the solar cells inside the vacuum tube act as spectrally selective mirrors for lower energy photons to maximize the system exergy, and (b) secondary concentrator allows the thermal component to reach a concentration ratio ∼60×, which is significantly higher than conventional PV/T concentration ratios. The maximum outlet temperature reached was 365 °C, and on average the thermal efficiency of the experiment was around 37%. The maximum electrical efficiency was around 8%. The total system electricity generation is around 25% of incoming DNI, by assuming the high temperature stream is used to power a steam turbine. The installed system cost per unit of parabolic trough aperture area is $283.10 per m"2.

  12. Roof Photovoltaic Test Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — In order to accurately predict the annual energy production of photovoltaic systems for any given geographical location, building orientation, and photovoltaic cell...

  13. Boost converter with combined control loop for a stand-alone photovoltaic battery charge system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mira Albert, Maria del Carmen; Knott, Arnold; Thomsen, Ole Cornelius

    2013-01-01

    frequency avoids perturbations in the load being propagated to the photovoltaic panel and thus deviating the operating point. Linearization of the photovoltaic panel and converter state-space modeling is performed. In order to achieve stable operation under all operating conditions, the photovoltaic panel......The converter control scheme plays an important role in the performance of maximum power point tracking (MPPT) algorithms. In this paper, an input voltage control with double loop for a stand-alone photovoltaic system is designed and tested. The inner current control loop with high crossover...

  14. The performance and economical analysis of grid-connected photovoltaic systems in Daegu, Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Ju-Young; Jeon, Gyu-Yeob; Hong, Won-Hwa

    2009-01-01

    The distribution of the photovoltaic systems is faced with technological and economic problems, and the businesses and corporations feel burdened by the photovoltaic system's dubious economic value and high construction costs. Thus, not too many enterprises or private citizens have been participating in the business of installing photovoltaic systems. Moreover, because of lack of skills in integrating engineering and architectural design, they are experiencing difficulties even in using the technologies that have already been developed and available for application. To provide the basic information and specific data required for making the guidelines for developing photovoltaic technologies, this paper evaluates the system types, the actual state of operation, and performance of the two photovoltaic systems that are installed in Kiemyung University's Osan Building and Dongho Elementary School in Daegu Metropolitan City

  15. A New Approach for Optimal Sizing of Standalone Photovoltaic Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamer Khatib

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a new method for determining the optimal sizing of standalone photovoltaic (PV system in terms of optimal sizing of PV array and battery storage. A standalone PV system energy flow is first analysed, and the MATLAB fitting tool is used to fit the resultant sizing curves in order to derive general formulas for optimal sizing of PV array and battery. In deriving the formulas for optimal sizing of PV array and battery, the data considered are based on five sites in Malaysia, which are Kuala Lumpur, Johor Bharu, Ipoh, Kuching, and Alor Setar. Based on the results of the designed example for a PV system installed in Kuala Lumpur, the proposed method gives satisfactory optimal sizing results.

  16. Behavior of Photovoltaic System during Solar Eclipse in Prague

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Libra

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available PV power plants have been recently installed in very large scale. So the effects of the solar eclipse are of big importance especially for grid connected photovoltaic (PV systems. There was a partial solar eclipse in Prague on 20th March 2015. We have evaluated the data from our facility in order to monitor the impact of this natural phenomenon on the behavior of PV system, and these results are presented in the paper. The behavior of PV system corresponds with the theoretical assumption. The power decrease of the PV array corresponds with the relative size of the solar eclipse. I-V characteristics of the PV panel correspond to the theoretical model presented in our previous work.

  17. The protection of photovoltaic power systems from lightning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, C. B.

    Lightning protection techniques at nine prototype photovoltaic power system sites with outputs from 18-225 kW are described. Noting that protection schemes are devised to fit isokeraunic data for specific sites, grounding is cited as a common feature for all systems. The grounds are, in separate instances, connected to junction boxes, frames of the solar cell panels, lead from the dc center, from the dc negative terminal, from the frames and equipment, at the array turntable, or from the building rebar frames. The dc power cables are protected by either metal conduit, metal conduit ground wire, direct burial, by rigid metal conduit, ground conductors, or by ground conductors at the ends of the conduit run. Costs run from 0.01-0.28$/W, with all the systems outfitted with bypass and blocking diodes. Direct stroke protection is viewed as less important than isokeraunic data.

  18. Solar photovoltaic (PV) energy; latest developments in the building integrated and hybrid PV systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zahedi, A.

    2006-01-01

    Environmental concerns are growing and interest in environmental issues is increasing and the idea of generating electricity with less pollution is becoming more and more attractive. Unlike conventional generation systems, fuel of the solar photovoltaic energy is available at no cost. And solar photovoltaic energy systems generate electricity pollution-free and can easily be installed on the roof of residential as well as on the wall of commercial buildings as grid-connected PV application. In addition to grid-connected rooftop PV systems, solar photovoltaic energy offers a solution for supplying electricity to remote located communities and facilities, those not accessible by electricity companies. The interest in solar photovoltaic energy is growing worldwide. Today, more than 3500MW of photovoltaic systems have been installed all over the world. Since 1970, the PV price has continuously dropped [8]. This price drop has encouraged worldwide application of small-scale residential PV systems. These recent developments have led researchers concerned with the environment to undertake extensive research projects for harnessing renewable energy sources including solar energy. The usage of solar photovoltaic as a source of energy is considered more seriously making future of this technology looks promising. The objective of this contribution is to present the latest developments in the area of solar photovoltaic energy systems. A further objective of this contribution is to discuss the long-term prospect of the solar photovoltaic energy as a sustainable energy supply. [Author

  19. Contribution to the optimal sizing of the hybrid photovoltaic systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dimitrov, Dimitar

    2009-01-01

    In this thesis, hybrid photovoltaic (HPV) systems are considered, in which the electricity is generated by a photovoltaic generator, and additionally by a diesel genset. Within this, a software tool for optimal sizing and designing was developed, which was used for optimization of HPV systems, aimed for supplying a small rural village. For optimization, genetic algorithms were used, optimizing 10 HPV system parameters (rated power of the components, battery capacity, dispatching strategy parameters etc.). The optimization objective is to size and design systems that continuously supply the load, with the lowest net electricity cost. In order to speed up the optimization process, the most suitable genetic algorithm settings were chosen by an in-depth previous analysis. Using measurements, the characteristics of PV generator working in real conditions were obtained. According to this, input values for the PV generator simulation model were adapted. It is introduced a quasi-steady battery simulation model, which avoid the voltage and state-of-the-charge value variation problems, when constant current charging/discharging, within a time step interval, is used. This model takes into account the influence of the battery temperature to its operational characteristics. There were also introduced simulation model improvements to the other components in the HPV systems. Using long-term measurement records, validity of solar radiation and air temperature data was checked. It was also analyzed the sensitivity of the obtained optimized HPV systems to the variation of the prices of the: components, fuel and economic rates. Based on the values of multi-decade records for more locations in the Balkan region, it was estimated the occurrence probability of the solar radiation values. This was used for analysing the sensitivity of some HPV performances to the expected stochastic variations of the solar radiation values. (Author)

  20. System design optimization for stand-alone photovoltaic systems sizing by using superstructure model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azau, M A M; Jaafar, S; Samsudin, K

    2013-01-01

    Although the photovoltaic (PV) systems have been increasingly installed as an alternative and renewable green power generation, the initial set up cost, maintenance cost and equipment mismatch are some of the key issues that slows down the installation in small household. This paper presents the design optimization of stand-alone photovoltaic systems using superstructure model where all possible types of technology of the equipment are captured and life cycle cost analysis is formulated as a mixed integer programming (MIP). A model for investment planning of power generation and long-term decision model are developed in order to help the system engineer to build a cost effective system.

  1. Characterization of new multilayered composites for photovoltaic systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weps, M.; Kretzschmar, T. [Fraunhofer Institute for Mechanics of Materials, Halle (Saale) (Germany)

    2010-07-01

    The reduction of manufacturing costs and efficient usage of materials have highest priority in the solar industry and are a prerequisite for its further positive development. Common aluminum framed modules and double glass modules have a series of disadvantages. In context of a group project a new construction variant of lightweight photovoltaic modules and its realization with efficient manufacturing technologies is currently developed. An essential component of these new photovoltaic modules is an injection molded frame of fiber reinforced plastics. It serves to absorb mechanical loads caused by wind and snow loads. Thus, the usual aluminum frames can be omitted. Additionally, the stiff construction of the plastic frame allows the substitution of the glass pane by a lightweight plastic pane. The coupling between plastic frame and pane is achieved by a transparent chemical reactive system in which the solar cells are embedded. The characterization of this material combination is executed on multilayered composites. The used types of plastics for frame and pane are in the form of plates and glued together in a special tool. The adhesion between the layers is evaluated by different test methods and FEM-models. In this case the compression shear test plays an important role. An especially developed device is used to evaluate shear behavior of the multilayered composites. Based on the carried out tests statements about effects of surface modification of the plastic pane are given. (orig.)

  2. A novel open-loop tracking strategy for photovoltaic systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexandru, Cătălin

    2013-01-01

    This paper approaches a dual-axis equatorial tracking system that is used to increase the photovoltaic efficiency by maximizing the degree of use of the solar radiation. The innovative aspect in the solar tracker design consists in considering the tracking mechanism as a perturbation for the DC motors. The goal is to control the DC motors, which are perturbed with the motor torques whose computation is based on the dynamic model of the mechanical structure on which external forces act. The daily and elevation angles of the PV module represent the input parameters in the mechanical device, while the outputs transmitted to the controller are the motor torques. The controller tuning is approached by a parametric optimization process, using design of experiments and response surface methodology techniques, in a multiple regression. The simulation and experimental results demonstrate the operational performance of the tracking system.

  3. Advanced Control of Photovoltaic and Wind Turbines Power Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Yongheng; Chen, Wenjie; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2014-01-01

    Much more efforts have been made on the integration of renewable energies into the grid in order to meet the imperative demand of a clean and reliable electricity generation. In this case, the grid stability and robustness may be violated due to the intermittency and interaction of the solar...... and wind renewables. Thus, in this chapter, advanced control strategies, which can enable the power conversion efficiently and reliably, for both photovoltaic (PV) and wind turbines power systems are addressed in order to enhance the integration of those technologies. Related grid demands have been...... presented firstly, where much more attention has been paid on specific requirements, like Low Voltage Ride-Through (LVRT) and reactive power injection capability. To perform the functions of those systems, advanced control strategies are presented with much more emphasis on the LVRT operation with reactive...

  4. A Novel Open-Loop Tracking Strategy for Photovoltaic Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cătălin Alexandru

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper approaches a dual-axis equatorial tracking system that is used to increase the photovoltaic efficiency by maximizing the degree of use of the solar radiation. The innovative aspect in the solar tracker design consists in considering the tracking mechanism as a perturbation for the DC motors. The goal is to control the DC motors, which are perturbed with the motor torques whose computation is based on the dynamic model of the mechanical structure on which external forces act. The daily and elevation angles of the PV module represent the input parameters in the mechanical device, while the outputs transmitted to the controller are the motor torques. The controller tuning is approached by a parametric optimization process, using design of experiments and response surface methodology techniques, in a multiple regression. The simulation and experimental results demonstrate the operational performance of the tracking system.

  5. A comparative study on three types of solar utilization technologies for buildings: Photovoltaic, solar thermal and hybrid photovoltaic/thermal systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huide, Fu; Xuxin, Zhao; Lei, Ma; Tao, Zhang; Qixing, Wu; Hongyuan, Sun

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Models of Solar thermal, Photovoltaic and Photovoltaic/thermal systems are developed. • Experiments are performed to validate the simulation results. • Annual performances of the three solar systems used in china are predicted. • Energy comparison between the three solar systems is analyzed. - Abstract: Buildings need energy including heat and electricity, and both of them can be provided by the solar systems. Solar thermal and photovoltaic systems absorb the solar energy and can supply the heat and electricity for buildings, respectively. However, for the urban residential buildings, the limited available area makes installation of the solar thermal collectors and photovoltaic modules together impossible. A hybrid photovoltaic/thermal system can simultaneously generate heat and electricity, which is deemed to be quite suitable for the urban residential buildings application. And yet, for a rural house of China, the available area for installation of the solar collectors is large but daily domestic hot water demand of a rural family is generally not exceeded 300 L. If only the hybrid photovoltaic/thermal collectors are installed on the whole available area, this will lead to an overproduction of the thermal energy, especially in summer. Moreover, buildings requiring for the heat and electricity are different in different regions and different seasons. In this paper, simulation models of the solar thermal, photovoltaic and hybrid photovoltaic/thermal systems are presented, and experiments are also performed to validate the simulation results. Using the validated models, performances of the three solar systems for residential applications were predicted. And energy comparison between the three solar systems used in Hongkong, Lhasa, Shanghai and Beijing of China, respectively, were also studied. Results show that, for the urban residential building with limited available installation space, a hybrid photovoltaic/thermal system may have the

  6. Storage systems for improved grid integration of photovoltaic systems; Speichersysteme fuer eine verbesserte Netzintegration von Photovoltaikanlagen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ying, Shaoqing [Brandenburgische Technische Univ. Cottbus (Germany). CEBra-Research

    2013-07-15

    Since the enactment of the Renewable Energy Law in the year 2000 Germany has seen a massive increase in capacity for energy production from renewable resources. Of these, wind power and photovoltaics show heavily fluctuating supply profiles, with significant impact on energy supply grids. One approach to lessening the load on power grids, aside from their expansion, is to install energy storage systems. Recent studies on the use of such storage systems for improved grid integration of photovoltaic systems have shown the viability of this approach for ground-mounted plants connected to the medium or high voltage level as well as for roof-mounted plants for the low-voltage level.

  7. EXERGY AND CARBON CREDITS FOR SERIES CONNECTED N PHOTOVOLTAIC THERMAL - COMPOUND PARABOLIC CONCENTRATOR (PVT-CPC) COLLECTOR: AT CONSTANT OUTLET TEMPERATURE

    OpenAIRE

    Rohit Tripathi 1,*, G. N. Tiwari 2

    2017-01-01

    In the present study, overall energy and exergy performance of partially covered N photovoltaic thermal - compound parabolic concentrators (PVT-CPC) (25% covered by glass to glass PV module) collector connected in series have been carried out at constant outlet temperature mode. Further, comparison in performance for partially covered N photovoltaic thermal - compound parabolic concentrators (PVT-CPC) [case (i)] and N compound parabolic concentrators (CPC) collector [case (ii)] connected in s...

  8. Optimal concentrations in transport systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Kaare H.; Kim, Wonjung; Holbrook, N. Michele; Bush, John W. M.

    2013-01-01

    Many biological and man-made systems rely on transport systems for the distribution of material, for example matter and energy. Material transfer in these systems is determined by the flow rate and the concentration of material. While the most concentrated solutions offer the greatest potential in terms of material transfer, impedance typically increases with concentration, thus making them the most difficult to transport. We develop a general framework for describing systems for which impedance increases with concentration, and consider material flow in four different natural systems: blood flow in vertebrates, sugar transport in vascular plants and two modes of nectar drinking in birds and insects. The model provides a simple method for determining the optimum concentration copt in these systems. The model further suggests that the impedance at the optimum concentration μopt may be expressed in terms of the impedance of the pure (c = 0) carrier medium μ0 as μopt∼2αμ0, where the power α is prescribed by the specific flow constraints, for example constant pressure for blood flow (α = 1) or constant work rate for certain nectar-drinking insects (α = 6). Comparing the model predictions with experimental data from more than 100 animal and plant species, we find that the simple model rationalizes the observed concentrations and impedances. The model provides a universal framework for studying flows impeded by concentration, and yields insight into optimization in engineered systems, such as traffic flow. PMID:23594815

  9. CALCULATION OF OPERATING PARAMETERS OF HIGH-VOLTAGE POWER TAKE-OFF SYSTEM FOR THE PHOTOVOLTAIC FACILITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.V. Zaitsev

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To ensure maximum production of electric power by photovoltaic vacilities, in addition to using highly efficient photovoltaic modules equipped with solar radiation concentrators must use a highly effective power take-off system. This paper is inscribed to solving the problem of a highly efficient and economic power take-off system development. Methodology. To solving the problem, we implemented three stages. On the first stage examines the dependence of electrical power from the intensity of the incident solar radiation. Based on this, the second stage is calculated the DC-DC converter resonant circuit and its working parameters, and developed circuit diagram of DC-DC converter. On the third stage, we carry out an analysis of power take-off system with step up DC-DC converter working. Results. In this paper, we carry out the analysis of working efficiency for photovoltaic facility power take-off system with step-up boost converter. The result of such analysis show that the efficiency of such system in a wide range of photovoltaic energy module illumination power is at 0.92, whereas the efficiency of classic power take-off systems does not exceed 0.70. Achieved results allow designing a circuit scheme of a controlled bridge resonant step-up converter with digital control. Proposed scheme will ensure reliable operation, fast and accurate location point of maximum power and conversion efficiency up to 0.96. Originality. Novelty of proposed power take-off system solution constitute in implementation of circuit with DC-DC converters, which as it shown by results of carrying out modeling is the most effective. Practical value. Practical implementation of proposed power take-off system design will allow reducing losses in connective wires and increasing the efficiency of such a system up to 92.5% in wide range of photovoltaic energy modules illumination.

  10. Opinion leadership and willingness to pay for residential photovoltaic systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamamoto, Yoshihiro

    2015-01-01

    According to diffusion theory, opinion leaders play an important role in the diffusion of new technologies through interpersonal communication with potential adopters. This study investigates the role and utility of opinion leadership in photovoltaic (PV) system diffusion. Specifically, the study proposes, examines, and considers the implications of the hypothesis that there is a positive relationship between willingness to pay (WTP) for a PV system and opinion leadership on PV-system adoption. The investigation employed an internet-based questionnaire to assess the use of interpersonal communication in decision-making on adoption, to identify opinion leaders on adoption, and to characterize their WTP. The response pool consisted of 488 individuals who lived in a detached house, owned a residential PV system, and were responsible for making the decision to adopt the system. The results support the hypothesis. Considering that subsidization preferentially incentivizes households with greater WTP to adopt PV systems, this suggests that subsidization is more effective than purchases of PV power under feed-in tariffs in promoting the diffusion of residential PV systems through interpersonal communication. -- Highlights: •Interpersonal communication about the adoption of PV systems is analyzed. •A questionnaire survey is conducted. •Opinion leaders on PV-system adoption are identified. •A relationship is confirmed between willingness to pay and opinion leadership. •Subsidization is more essential than feed-in tariffs from this point of view

  11. EFFECTIVE USE OF PHOTOVOLTAIC SYSTEMS IN POLISH CONDITIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marek Niechaj

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Photovoltaic (PV systems form two groups: grid-connected ones and stand-alone ones. The first group can be divided into: centralised systems with large power (PV farms, and decentralised systems with low-power (especially prosumer ones. The second group includes systems with electric buffer sources (especially with electrochemical batteries, and those without electric buffer sources (possibly with non-electric buffer sources. Due to significant decline in price of PV modules, both of these groups are becoming increasingly common in Poland, especially grid-connected ones. Additional factor for prosumer systems is economic and legal support in a form of exemption from fees for connection to grid, lack of additional required licenses for such connection, and possible support in a form of guaranteed sale prices to grid (feed-in tariffs of electrical energy generated in system. However, in case of systems not covered by economic benefits, increasing, or even ensuring, their cost-effectiveness, requires the number of ventures regarding areas of proper installation and operation rules of PV generator from installer/user/owner of system, as well as selection of suitable tariff and rational restructuring of energy demands. Detailed analysis and conclusions of these ventures, especially for prosumer systems, is discussed in paper.

  12. Task 5. Grid interconnection of building integrated and other dispersed photovoltaic power systems. Grid-connected photovoltaic power systems: power value and capacity value of PV systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Groppi, F.

    2002-02-15

    This report for the International Energy Agency (IEA) made by Task 5 of the Photovoltaic Power Systems (PVPS) programme takes a look at the power value and capacity value of photovoltaic power systems. The mission of the Photovoltaic Power Systems Programme is to enhance the international collaboration efforts which accelerate the development and deployment of photovoltaic solar energy. Task 5 deals with issues concerning grid-interconnection and dispersed PV power systems. This report summarises the results of a study aimed to assess the benefits that may be obtained when distributed PV production systems are present in a low-voltage grid. The basic aspects concerning the power-value and those related to the capacity-value are discussed. Data obtained from simulations are presented and discussed. A simple concept shows that great variation occurs if varying load patterns are taken into account. The power-value of PV generation in the grid varies instant by instant depending on the current level of power production and on the surrounding load conditions. Although the three case-studies considered do not cover all the possibilities of coupling between PV and loads, the results obtained show a good differentiation among users with PV production which leads to interesting conclusions.

  13. Concentrator photovoltaic module architectures with capabilities for capture and conversion of full global solar radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kyu-Tae; Yao, Yuan; He, Junwen; Fisher, Brent; Sheng, Xing; Lumb, Matthew; Xu, Lu; Anderson, Mikayla A.; Scheiman, David; Han, Seungyong; Kang, Yongseon; Gumus, Abdurrahman; Bahabry, Rabab R.; Lee, Jung Woo; Paik, Ungyu; Bronstein, Noah D.; Alivisatos, A. Paul; Meitl, Matthew; Burroughs, Scott; Mustafa Hussain, Muhammad; Lee, Jeong Chul; Nuzzo, Ralph G.; Rogers, John A.

    2016-12-01

    Emerging classes of concentrator photovoltaic (CPV) modules reach efficiencies that are far greater than those of even the highest performance flat-plate PV technologies, with architectures that have the potential to provide the lowest cost of energy in locations with high direct normal irradiance (DNI). A disadvantage is their inability to effectively use diffuse sunlight, thereby constraining widespread geographic deployment and limiting performance even under the most favorable DNI conditions. This study introduces a module design that integrates capabilities in flat-plate PV directly with the most sophisticated CPV technologies, for capture of both direct and diffuse sunlight, thereby achieving efficiency in PV conversion of the global solar radiation. Specific examples of this scheme exploit commodity silicon (Si) cells integrated with two different CPV module designs, where they capture light that is not efficiently directed by the concentrator optics onto large-scale arrays of miniature multijunction (MJ) solar cells that use advanced III-V semiconductor technologies. In this CPV+ scheme (“+” denotes the addition of diffuse collector), the Si and MJ cells operate independently on indirect and direct solar radiation, respectively. On-sun experimental studies of CPV+ modules at latitudes of 35.9886° N (Durham, NC), 40.1125° N (Bondville, IL), and 38.9072° N (Washington, DC) show improvements in absolute module efficiencies of between 1.02% and 8.45% over values obtained using otherwise similar CPV modules, depending on weather conditions. These concepts have the potential to expand the geographic reach and improve the cost-effectiveness of the highest efficiency forms of PV power generation.

  14. Low-cost data acquisition systems for photovoltaic system monitoring and usage statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fanourakis, S.; Wang, K.; McCarthy, P.; Jiao, L.

    2017-11-01

    This paper presents the design of a low-cost data acquisition system for monitoring a photovoltaic system’s electrical quantities, battery temperatures, and state of charge of the battery. The electrical quantities are the voltages and currents of the solar panels, the battery, and the system loads. The system uses an Atmega328p microcontroller to acquire data from the photovoltaic system’s charge controller. It also records individual load information using current sensing resistors along with a voltage amplification circuit and an analog to digital converter. The system is used in conjunction with a wall power data acquisition system for the recording of regional power outages. Both data acquisition systems record data in micro SD cards. The data has been successfully acquired from both systems and has been used to monitor the status of the PV system and the local power grid. As more data is gathered it can be used for the maintenance and improvement of the photovoltaic system through analysis of the photovoltaic system’s parameters and usage statistics.

  15. Optimal system sizing in grid-connected photovoltaic applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simoens, H. M.; Baert, D. H.; de Mey, G.

    A costs/benefits analysis for optimizing the combination of photovoltaic (PV) panels, batteries and an inverter for grid interconnected systems at a 500 W/day Belgian residence is presented. It is assumed that some power purchases from the grid will always be necessary, and that excess PV power can be fed into the grid. A minimal value for the cost divided by the performance is defined for economic optimization. Shortages and excesses are calculated for PV panels of 0.5-10 kWp output, with consideration given to the advantages of a battery back-up. The minimal economic value is found to increase with the magnitude of PV output, and an inverter should never be rated at more than half the array maximum output. A maximum panel size for the Belgian residence is projected to be 6 kWp.

  16. Artificial intelligence techniques for sizing photovoltaic systems. A review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mellit, A. [Department of Electronics, Faculty of Science Engineering, LAMEL Laboratory, Jijel University, P.O. Box 98, Oulad Aissa, Jijel 18000 (Algeria); Kalogirou, S.A. [Department of Mechanical Engineering and Materials Science and Engineering, Cyprus University of Technology, P.O. Box 50329, Limassol 3603 (Cyprus); Hontoria, L. [Grupo Investigacion y Desarrollo en Energia Solar y Automatica, Dpto. de Electronica, E.P.S. Jaen, Universidad de Jaen, Avda., Madrid, 35, 23071 Jaen (Spain); Shaari, S. [Faculty of Applied Sciences, Universiti Teknologi MARA 40450 Shah Alam, Selangor (Malaysia)

    2009-02-15

    Artificial intelligence (AI) techniques are becoming useful as alternate approaches to conventional techniques or as components of integrated systems. They have been used to solve complicated practical problems in various areas and are becoming more and more popular nowadays. AI-techniques have the following features: can learn from examples; are fault tolerant in the sense that they are able to handle noisy and incomplete data; are able to deal with non-linear problems; and once trained can perform prediction and generalization at high speed. AI-based systems are being developed and deployed worldwide in a myriad of applications, mainly because of their symbolic reasoning, flexibility and explanation capabilities. AI have been used and applied in different sectors, such as engineering, economics, medicine, military, marine, etc. They have also been applied for modeling, identification, optimization, prediction, forecasting, and control of complex systems. The main objective of this paper is to present an overview of the AI-techniques for sizing photovoltaic (PV) systems: stand-alone PVs, grid-connected PV systems, PV-wind hybrid systems, etc. Published literature presented in this paper show the potential of AI as a design tool for the optimal sizing of PV systems. Additionally, the advantage of using an AI-based sizing of PV systems is that it provides good optimization, especially in isolated areas, where the weather data are not always available. (author)

  17. Efficient scale for photovoltaic systems and Florida's solar rebate program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burkart, Christopher S.; Arguea, Nestor M.

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a critical view of Florida's photovoltaic (PV) subsidy system and proposes an econometric model of PV system installation and generation costs. Using information on currently installed systems, average installation cost relations for residential and commercial systems are estimated and cost-efficient scales of installation panel wattage are identified. Productive efficiency in annual generating capacity is also examined under flexible panel efficiency assumptions. We identify potential gains in efficiency and suggest changes in subsidy system constraints, providing important guidance for the implementation of future incentive programs. Specifically, we find that the subsidy system discouraged residential applicants from installing at the cost-efficient scale but over-incentivized commercial applicants, resulting in inefficiently sized installations. - Highlights: ► Describe a PV solar incentive system in the U.S. state of Florida. ► Combine geocoded installation site data with a detailed irradiance map. ► Estimate installation and production costs across a large sample. ► Identify inefficiencies in the incentive system. ► Suggest changes to policy that would improve economic efficiency.

  18. Power electronics and control techniques for maximum energy harvesting in photovoltaic systems

    CERN Document Server

    Femia, Nicola

    2012-01-01

    Incentives provided by European governments have resulted in the rapid growth of the photovoltaic (PV) market. Many PV modules are now commercially available, and there are a number of power electronic systems for processing the electrical power produced by PV systems, especially for grid-connected applications. Filling a gap in the literature, Power Electronics and Control Techniques for Maximum Energy Harvesting in Photovoltaic Systems brings together research on control circuits, systems, and techniques dedicated to the maximization of the electrical power produced by a photovoltaic (PV) so

  19. Solar photovoltaic reflective trough collection structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Benjamin J.; Sweatt, William C.; Okandan, Murat; Nielson, Gregory N.

    2015-11-19

    A photovoltaic (PV) solar concentration structure having at least two troughs encapsulated in a rectangular parallelepiped optical plastic structure, with the troughs filled with an optical plastic material, the troughs each having a reflective internal surface and approximately parabolic geometry, and the troughs each including photovoltaic cells situated so that light impinging on the optical plastic material will be concentrated onto the photovoltaic cells. Multiple structures can be connected to provide a solar photovoltaic collection system that provides portable, efficient, low-cost electrical power.

  20. Systematic procedures for sizing photovoltaic pumping system, using water tank storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamidat, A.; Benyoucef, B.

    2009-01-01

    In this work, the performances of the photovoltaic pumping destined to supply drinking water in remote and scattered small villages have been studied. The methodology adopted proposes various procedures based on the water consumption profiles, total head, tank capacity and photovoltaic array peak power. A method of the load losses probability (LLP) has been used to optimize sizing of the photovoltaic pumping systems with a similarity between the storage energy in batteries and water in tanks. The results were carried out using measured meteorological data for four localities in Algeria: Algiers and Oran in the north, Bechar and Tamanrasset in the south. The results show that the performance of the photovoltaic pumping system depends deeply on the pumping total head and the peak power of the photovoltaic array. Also, for the southern localities, the LLP method shows that the size of the photovoltaic array varies versus LLP on a small scale. On the other hand, for the northern localities, the sizing of the photovoltaic array is situated on a large scale power. Because of the current high crud-oil price, the photovoltaic pumping still to be the best adopted energy resource to supply drinking water in remote and scattered villages

  1. Small photovoltaic setup for the air conditioning system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masiukiewicz, Maciej

    2017-10-01

    The increasing interest in air conditioning systems for residential applications in Poland will certainly increase the demand for electricity during the summer period. Due to this fact a growing interest in solutions that help to lower the electricity consumption in this sector is observed. The problem of increased energy demand for air conditioning purposes can be solved by transfer the consumption of electricity from the grid system to renewable energy sources (RES). The greatest demand for cooling occurs during the biggest sunlight. This is the basis for the analysis of technical power system based on photovoltaic cells (PV) to power the split type air conditioner. The object of the study was the commercial residential airconditioning inverter units with a capacity of 2.5kW. A network electricity production system for their own use with the possibility of buffering energy in batteries (OFF-GRID system). Currently, on the Polish market, there are no developed complete solutions dedicated to air conditioning systems based on PV. In Poland, solar energy is mainly used for heat production in solar collectors. The proposed solution will help to increase the popularity of PV systems in the Polish market as an alternative to other RES. The basic conclusion is that the amount of PV energy generated was sufficient to cover the daily energy requirement of the air conditioner.

  2. Small photovoltaic setup for the air conditioning system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masiukiewicz Maciej

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The increasing interest in air conditioning systems for residential applications in Poland will certainly increase the demand for electricity during the summer period. Due to this fact a growing interest in solutions that help to lower the electricity consumption in this sector is observed. The problem of increased energy demand for air conditioning purposes can be solved by transfer the consumption of electricity from the grid system to renewable energy sources (RES. The greatest demand for cooling occurs during the biggest sunlight. This is the basis for the analysis of technical power system based on photovoltaic cells (PV to power the split type air conditioner. The object of the study was the commercial residential airconditioning inverter units with a capacity of 2.5kW. A network electricity production system for their own use with the possibility of buffering energy in batteries (OFF-GRID system. Currently, on the Polish market, there are no developed complete solutions dedicated to air conditioning systems based on PV. In Poland, solar energy is mainly used for heat production in solar collectors. The proposed solution will help to increase the popularity of PV systems in the Polish market as an alternative to other RES. The basic conclusion is that the amount of PV energy generated was sufficient to cover the daily energy requirement of the air conditioner.

  3. Comparative Study Between Wind and Photovoltaic (PV) Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taha, Wesam

    This paper reviews two renewable energy systems; wind and photovoltaic (PV) systems. The common debate between the two of them is to conclude which one is better, in terms of cost and efficiency. Therefore, comparative study, in terms of cost and efficiency, is attempted. Regarding total cost of both, wind and PV systems, many parameters must be taken into consideration such as availability of energy (either wind or solar), operation and maintenance, availability of costumers, political influence, and the components used in building the system. The main components and parameters that play major role in determining the overall efficiency of wind systems are the wind turbine generator (WTG), gearbox and control technologies such as power, and speed control. On the other hand, in grid-connected PV systems (GCPVS), converter architecture along with maximum power point tracking (MPPT) algorithm and inverter topologies are the issues that affects the efficiency significantly. Cost and efficiency analyses of both systems have been carried out based on the statistics available till today and would be useful in the progress of renewable energy penetration throughout the world.

  4. Reconfiguration of photovoltaic panels for reducing the hydrogen consumption in fuel cells of hybrid systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel González-Montoya

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Hybrid generation combines advantages from fuel cell systems with non-predictable generation approaches, such as photovoltaic and wind generators. In such hybrid systems, it is desirable to minimize as much as possible the fuel consumption, for the sake of reducing costs and increasing the system autonomy. This paper proposes an optimization algorithm, referred to as population-based incremental learning, in order to maximize the produced power of a photovoltaic generator. This maximization reduces the fuel consumption in the hybrid aggregation. Moreover, the algorithm's speed enables the real-time computation of the best configuration for the photovoltaic system, which also optimizes the fuel consumption in the complementary fuel cell system. Finally, a system experimental validation is presented considering 6 photovoltaic modules and a NEXA 1.2KW fuel cell. Such a validation demonstrates the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm to reduce the hydrogen consumption in these hybrid systems.

  5. Task 5. Grid interconnection of building integrated and other dispersed photovoltaic power systems. Risk analysis of islanding of photovoltaic power systems within low voltage distribution networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cullen, N. [Freelance Consultant, Hillside House, Swindon SN1 3QA (United Kingdom); Thornycroft, J. [Halcrow Group Ltd, Burderop Park, Swindon SN4 0QD (United Kingdom); Collinson, A. [EA Technology, Capenhurst Technology Park, Chester CH1 6ES (United Kingdom)

    2002-03-15

    This report for the International Energy Agency (IEA) made by Task 5 of the Photovoltaic Power Systems (PVPS) programme presents the results of a risk analysis concerning photovoltaic power systems islanding in low-voltage distribution networks. The mission of the Photovoltaic Power Systems Programme is to enhance the international collaboration efforts which accelerate the development and deployment of photovoltaic solar energy. Task 5 deals with issues concerning grid-interconnection and distributed PV power systems. The purpose of this study was to apply formal risk analysis techniques to the issue of islanding of photovoltaic power systems within low voltage distribution networks. The aim was to determine the additional level of risk that islanding could present to the safety of customers and network maintenance staff. The study identified the reliability required for islanding detection and control systems based on standard procedures for developing a safety assurance strategy. The main conclusions are presented and discussed and recommendations are made. The report is concluded with an appendix that lists the relative risks involved.

  6. A methodology for the design of photovoltaic water supply systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vilela, O.C.; Fraidenraich, N.

    2001-01-01

    Photovoltaic pumping systems are used nowadays as a valuable alternative to supply water to communities living in remote rural areas. Owing to the seasonal variation and the stochastic behavior of solar radiation, at certain times the supply of water may not be able to meet demand. A study has been made of the relationship between water pumping capacity, reservoir size and water demand, for a given water deficit. As a result, curves of equal water deficit (iso-deficit lines) can be obtained for various combinations of PV pumping capacity and reservoir size. A methodology to generate those curves is described, using as its main tool the characteristic curve of the system, that is, the relationship between water flow and collected solar radiation. The characteristic curve represents the combined behavior of the water pumping system and the well. The influence of the minimum collected solar radiation level, necessary to start the system's operation (the critical radiation level I C ). is also analyzed. Results show that PV pumping systems with different characteristic curves, but with the same critical levels, yield the same set of iso-deficit lines. This drastically reduces the number of necessary solutions to those corresponding to a few values of I C . Iso-deficit lines, calculated for the locality of Recife (PE), Brazil, are used to illustrate the sizing procedure PV water supply systems. (author)

  7. Analysis of the economics of photovoltaic-diesel-battery energy systems for remote applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brainard, W. A.

    1983-01-01

    Computer simulations were conducted to analyze the performance and operating cost of a photovoltaic energy source combined with a diesel generator system and battery storage. The simulations were based on the load demand profiles used for the design of an all photovoltaic energy system installed in the remote Papago Indian Village of Schuchuli, Arizona. Twenty year simulations were run using solar insolation data from Phoenix SOLMET tapes. Total energy produced, energy consumed, operation and maintenance costs were calculated. The life cycle and levelized energy costs were determined for a variety of system configurations (i.e., varying amounts of photovoltaic array and battery storage).

  8. Photovoltaic module quality in the Kenyan solar home systems market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duke, R.D.; Jacobson, A.; Kammen, D.M.

    2002-01-01

    As one of the largest unsubsidized markets for solar home systems (SHSs) in the world, Kenya represents a promising model for rural electrification based on private purchases of clean decentralized photovoltaic technologies. Small amorphous-silicon modules dominate the market and most brands provide high quality and affordable service. Product quality varies widely, however, and the public has limited capacity to distinguish among competing brands. This imposes direct hardships on households with the misfortune to purchase low-quality equipment, and it constrains sales as some customers refrain from purchasing solar equipment due to the associated performance uncertainty. This article analyzes market failure associated with photovoltaic module quality in the Kenyan SHS market and develops strategies to address the problem - emphasizing that similar quality problems may exist for other SHS components and in other markets. The principal conclusion is that domestic product testing with public disclosure represents an inexpensive low-risk strategy, but it may prove inadequate. Mandatory product quality standards based on international testing regimes (e.g. IEC standards), augmented with a basic domestic testing option, would provide stronger assurance, but the risks associated with this intervention suggest caution. An emerging multilateral SHS market support effort (PVMTI) should ensure quality for the credit-based sales it promotes in Kenya; however, the long-term impact of this approach is not yet clear and it is unlikely to address quality problems associated with the unsubsidized sales-based markets for SHSs. Finally, fee-for-service models would decisively address quality problems, but launching this model in the Kenyan market would likely require large subsidies. (author)

  9. Design of a photovoltaic-hydrogen-fuel cell energy system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lehman, P A; Chamberlin, C E [Humboldt State Univ., Arcata, CA (US). Dept. of Environmental Resources Engineering

    1991-01-01

    The design of a stand-alone renewable energy system using hydrogen (H{sub 2}) as the energy storage medium and a fuel cell as the regeneration technology is reported. The system being installed at the Humboldt State University Telonicher Marine Laboratory consists of a 9.2 kW photovoltaic (PV) array coupled to a high pressure, bipolar alkaline electrolyser. The array powers the Laboratory's air compressor system whenever possible; excess power is shunted to the electrolyser for hydrogen and oxygen (O{sub 2}) production. When the array cannot provide sufficient power, stored hydrogen and oxygen are furnished to a proton exchange membrane fuel cell which, smoothly and without interruption, supplies the load. In reporting the design, details of component selection, sizing, and integration, control system logic and implementation, and safety considerations are discussed. Plans for a monitoring network to chronicle system performance are presented, questions that will be addressed through the monitoring program are included, and the present status of the project is reported. (Author).

  10. Sizing and modelling of photovoltaic water pumping system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Badi, A.; Yousef, H.; Al Mahmoudi, T.; Al-Shammaki, M.; Al-Abri, A.; Al-Hinai, A.

    2018-05-01

    With the decline in price of the photovoltaics (PVs) their use as a power source for water pumping is the most attractive solution instead of using diesel generators or electric motors driven by a grid system. In this paper, a method to design a PV pumping system is presented and discussed, which is then used to calculate the required size of the PV for an existing farm. Furthermore, the amount of carbon dioxide emissions saved by the use of PV water pumping system instead of using diesel-fuelled generators or electrical motor connected to the grid network is calculated. In addition, an experimental set-up is developed for the PV water pumping system using both DC and AC motors with batteries. The experimental tests are used to validate the developed MATLAB model. This research work demonstrates that using the PV water pumping system is not only improving the living conditions in rural areas but it is also protecting the environment and can be a cost-effective application in remote locations.

  11. Studies of a photovoltaic-thermal solar during system for rural applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Othman, Y.; Yatim, B.; Bakar, N.A. [Kebangsaan Malaysia Univ., Bangi, Selangor (Malaysia). Center for Applied Physics Studies; Sopian, K. [Kebangsaan Malaysia Univ., Bangi, Selangor (Malaysia). Dept. of Mechanical and Material Engineering

    2007-07-01

    The use of solar drying is increasing in areas where the use of abundant, renewable and clean solar energy is advantageous. Particularly in developing countries and in rural areas, the traditional open-air drying methods are being substituted by the more effective and more economic solar drying technologies. Since the air collector is the most important component of a solar food drying system, improvement of the design of collectors would lead to better performance of the system. This paper presented a new design of a photovoltaic-thermal (PVT) solar drying system. In order to achieve an efficient design of an air collector suitable for a solar dryer, the results of an experimental study of PVT solar air collector was conducted and presented. The paper presented the methodology and discussed a series of experiments that were conducted under Malaysian climatic conditions. The paper discussed the design of a double pass photovoltaic-thermal solar air collector with compound parabolic concentrator (CPC) and fins. The collector design concept and the collector array were demonstrated. The performance of the collector was examined over a wide range of operating conditions. Results of the test were then presented and discussed. It was concluded that the performance of the solar collector was satisfactory. The quality attributes such as colour, flavour, and taste were significantly improved since it was protected from rain, dust, and insects, in contrast to sun drying. 10 refs., 8 figs.

  12. Experimental study on a hybrid photovoltaic/heat pump system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Hongbing; Riffat, Saffa B.; Fu Yu

    2011-01-01

    Several studies have found that the decrease of photovoltaic (PV) cell temperature would increase the solar-to-electricity conversion efficiency. Different working fluids such as air and water have been used for the cooling of PV modules, but the improvement in energy performance has been found to be small. In this paper, R134a refrigerant was employed to cool the PV modules. With its low evaporating temperature, it was expected to achieve better cooling effect and electrical performance of the PV modules than using air and water working fluids. An experimental rig of a hybrid micro PV panel-based heat pump system was constructed for the performance testing in a laboratory at University of Nottingham. A small PV panel was made of 6 glass vacuum tube - PV module - aluminium sheet - cooper tube (GPAC) sandwiches connected in series, acting as the evaporator. This was coupled with a small heat pump system. The glass vacuum tubes reduced the heat loss from the PV panel to the ambient, resulting in the improvement of thermal performance. Three testing modes were proposed to investigate the effect of solar radiation, condenser water flow rate and condenser water supply temperature on energy performance. The testing results showed that an averaged COP reached 3.8, 4.3 and 4.0 under the three testing modes with variable radiation, condenser water supply water temperature and water flow rate, respectively, but this could be much higher for a large capacity heat pump system using large PV panels on building roofs. The COP increased with the increasing solar radiation, but decreased with the increasing condenser water supply temperature and water flow rate. The electrical efficiency of PV panel was improved by up to 1.9% based on a reference PV efficiency of 3.9%, compared with that without cooling. The condenser water supply temperature and water flow rate had little effect on the electrical performance. - Highlights: → R134a refrigerant was used for cooling of PV modules

  13. Maximum Power Point Tracking of Photovoltaic System for Traffic Light Application

    OpenAIRE

    Muhida, Riza; Mohamad, Nor Hilmi; Legowo, Ari; Irawan, Rudi; Astuti, Winda

    2013-01-01

    Photovoltaic traffic light system is a significant application of renewable energy source. The development of the system is an alternative effort of local authority to reduce expenditure for paying fees to power supplier which the power comes from conventional energy source. Since photovoltaic (PV) modules still have relatively low conversion efficiency, an alternative control of maximum power point tracking (MPPT) method is applied to the traffic light system. MPPT is intended to catch up th...

  14. Control aspects of the Schuchuli Village stand-alone photovoltaic power system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groumpos, P. P.; Culler, J. E.; Delombard, R.

    1984-11-01

    A photovoltaic power system in an Arizona Indian village was installed. The control subsystem of this photovoltaic power system was analyzed. The four major functions of the control subsystem are: (1) voltage regulation; (2) load management; (3) water pump control; and (4) system protection. The control subsystem functions flowcharts for the control subsystem operation, and a computer program that models the control subsystem are presented.

  15. Field installation versus local integration of photovoltaic systems and their effect on energy evaluation metrics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halasah, Suleiman A.; Pearlmutter, David; Feuermann, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    In this study we employ Life-Cycle Assessment to evaluate the energy-related impacts of photovoltaic systems at different scales of integration, in an arid region with especially high solar irradiation. Based on the electrical output and embodied energy of a selection of fixed and tracking systems and including concentrator photovoltaic (CPV) and varying cell technology, we calculate a number of energy evaluation metrics, including the energy payback time (EPBT), energy return factor (ERF), and life-cycle CO 2 emissions offset per unit aperture and land area. Studying these metrics in the context of a regionally limited setting, it was found that utilizing existing infrastructure such as existing building roofs and shade structures does significantly reduce the embodied energy requirements (by 20–40%) and in turn the EPBT of flat-plate PV systems due to the avoidance of energy-intensive balance of systems (BOS) components like foundations. Still, high-efficiency CPV field installations were found to yield the shortest EPBT, the highest ERF and the largest life-cycle CO 2 offsets—under the condition that land availability is not a limitation. A greater life-cycle energy return and carbon offset per unit land area is yielded by locally-integrated non-concentrating systems, despite their lower efficiency per unit module area. - Highlights: ► We evaluate life-cycle energy impacts of PV systems at different scales. ► We calculate the energy payback time, return factor and CO 2 emissions offset. ► Utilizing existing structures significantly improves metrics of flat-plate PV. ► High-efficiency CPV installations yield best return and offset per aperture area. ► Locally-integrated flat-plate systems yield best return and offset per land area.

  16. Technical analysis of photovoltaic/wind systems with hydrogen storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bakić Vukman V.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The technical analysis of a hybrid wind-photovoltaic energy system with hydrogen gas storage was studied. The market for the distributed power generation based on renewable energy is increasing, particularly for the standalone mini-grid applications. The main design components of PV/Wind hybrid system are the PV panels, the wind turbine and an alkaline electrolyzer with tank. The technical analysis is based on the transient system simulation program TRNSYS 16. The study is realized using the meteorological data for a Typical Metrological Year (TMY for region of Novi Sad, Belgrade cities and Kopaonik national park in Serbia. The purpose of the study is to design a realistic energy system that maximizes the use of renewable energy and minimizes the use of fossil fuels. The reduction in the CO2 emissions is also analyzed in the paper. [Acknowledgment. This paper is the result of the investigations carried out within the scientific project TR33036 supported by the Ministry of Science of the Republic of Serbia.

  17. Enhanced power quality based single phase photovoltaic distributed generation system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panda, Aurobinda; Pathak, M. K.; Srivastava, S. P.

    2016-08-01

    This article presents a novel control strategy for a 1-ϕ 2-level grid-tie photovoltaic (PV) inverter to enhance the power quality (PQ) of a PV distributed generation (PVDG) system. The objective is to obtain the maximum benefits from the grid-tie PV inverter by introducing current harmonics as well as reactive power compensation schemes in its control strategy, thereby controlling the PV inverter to achieve multiple functions in the PVDG system such as: (1) active power flow control between the PV inverter and the grid, (2) reactive power compensation, and (3) grid current harmonics compensation. A PQ enhancement controller (PQEC) has been designed to achieve the aforementioned objectives. The issue of underutilisation of the PV inverter in nighttime has also been addressed in this article and for the optimal use of the system; the PV inverter is used as a shunt active power filter in nighttime. A prototype model of the proposed system is developed in the laboratory, to validate the effectiveness of the control scheme, and is tested with the help of the dSPACE DS1104 platform.

  18. Photovoltaic Powering And Control System For Electrochromic Windows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulz, Stephen C.; Michalski, Lech A.; Volltrauer, Hermann N.; Van Dine, John E.

    2000-04-25

    A sealed insulated glass unit is provided with an electrochromic device for modulating light passing through the unit. The electrochromic device is controlled from outside the unit by a remote control electrically unconnected to the device. Circuitry within the unit may be magnetically controlled from outside. The electrochromic device is powered by a photovoltaic cells. The photovoltaic cells may be positioned so that at least a part of the light incident on the cell passes through the electrochromic device, providing a form of feedback control. A variable resistance placed in parallel with the electrochromic element is used to control the response of the electrochromic element to changes in output of the photovoltaic cell.

  19. Development of Probabilistic Reliability Models of Photovoltaic System Topologies for System Adequacy Evaluation

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmad Alferidi; Rajesh Karki

    2017-01-01

    The contribution of solar power in electric power systems has been increasing rapidly due to its environmentally friendly nature. Photovoltaic (PV) systems contain solar cell panels, power electronic converters, high power switching and often transformers. These components collectively play an important role in shaping the reliability of PV systems. Moreover, the power output of PV systems is variable, so it cannot be controlled as easily as conventional generation due to the unpredictable na...

  20. New energy storage systems for photovoltaic supplied consumer products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burges, K.; Blok, K.

    1993-12-01

    In a previous study attention was paid to the possibility of reducing battery wastes in the Netherlands by means of integration of photovoltaic (PV) cells in small, electric consumer products. The result of that study was that only two environment-friendly applications could be used: capacitors in calculators or watches. However, new types of energy storage systems have been developed and commercialized, so that the above-mentioned study is updated. First, the technical, economic and environmental parameters of several energy storage systems are compared. Next, a number of products, in which PV-cells can be integrated, has been selected and the economic and environmental effects are calculated and analyzed. The energy storage systems discussed are primary alkaline batteries, NiCd batteries, Ni-Metal-Hydride (NiMH) batteries, Li-Solid-State (LiSS) batteries, and capacitors. It is estimated that by means of the proposed integration of PV-cells in specific consumer products the amount of battery wastes can be reduced by 50%. 33 tabs., 1 appendix, 50 refs

  1. PVUSA model technical specification for a turnkey photovoltaic power system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dows, R.N.; Gough, E.J.

    1995-11-01

    One of the five objectives of PVUSA is to offer U.S. utilities hands-on experience in designing, procuring, and operating PV systems. The procurement process included the development of a detailed set of technical requirements for a PV system. PVUSA embodied its requirements in a technical specification used as an attachment to its contracts for four utility-scale PV systems in the 200 kW to 500 kW range. The technical specification has also been adapted and used by several utilities. The PVUSA Technical Specification has now been updated and is presented here as a Model Technical Specification (MTS) for utility use. The MTS text is also furnished on a computer disk in Microsoft Word 6.0 so that it may be conveniently adapted by each user. The text includes guidance in the form of comments and by the use of parentheses to indicate where technical information must be developed and inserted. Commercial terms and conditions will reflect the procurement practice of the buyer. The reader is referred to PG&E Report Number 95-3090000. 1, PVUSA Procurement, Acceptance and Rating Practices for Photovoltaic Power Plants (1995) for PVUSA experience and practice. The MTS is regarded by PVUSA as a use-proven document, but needs to be adapted with care and attention to detail.

  2. Advanced Photonic Processes for Photovoltaic and Energy Storage Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sygletou, Maria; Petridis, Constantinos; Kymakis, Emmanuel; Stratakis, Emmanuel

    2017-10-01

    Solar-energy harvesting through photovoltaic (PV) conversion is the most promising technology for long-term renewable energy production. At the same time, significant progress has been made in the development of energy-storage (ES) systems, which are essential components within the cycle of energy generation, transmission, and usage. Toward commercial applications, the enhancement of the performance and competitiveness of PV and ES systems requires the adoption of precise, but simple and low-cost manufacturing solutions, compatible with large-scale and high-throughput production lines. Photonic processes enable cost-efficient, noncontact, highly precise, and selective engineering of materials via photothermal, photochemical, or photophysical routes. Laser-based processes, in particular, provide access to a plethora of processing parameters that can be tuned with a remarkably high degree of precision to enable innovative processing routes that cannot be attained by conventional approaches. The focus here is on the application of advanced light-driven approaches for the fabrication, as well as the synthesis, of materials and components relevant to PV and ES systems. Besides presenting recent advances on recent achievements, the existing limitations are outlined and future possibilities and emerging prospects discussed. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. Photovoltaic power generating system; Sanso zetsuengata taiyoko inverter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nojima, T; Nakashima, T; Muta, Y; Takase, K; Hirayama, K [Nishimu Electronics Industries Co. Ltd., Saga (Japan)

    1996-10-27

    Nishimu Electronics Industries Co., Ltd. has developed a new series of inverters of three phase photovoltaic power generating system with the output ranging from 10 kVA to 50 kVA. For these inverters, the inverter and the system interconnection protector were integrated to make them smaller, lighter and cheaper. Stand-alone operation function was also added. The DC input voltage ranges were between 240 and 400 V for the crystalline solar cell, and between 170 and 400 V for the amorphous one. From the viewpoint of control of inverters, the inverters are generally controlled by the voltage-type current control method during the interconnection operation, while they must be controlled by the voltage-type voltage control method during the stand-alone operation which is the same as the UPS usually operated alone. For the present inverters, two control circuits for the interconnection operation and for the stand-alone operation were prepared. The control circuits for interconnection and stand-alone operations were switched using a cam-operation switch for change-over of operation. The results of the system interconnection verification tests satisfied the criteria of Japan`s Electronic Products Test Center. 3 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  4. Optimizing electrical load pattern in Kuwait using grid connected photovoltaic systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Hasan, A.Y.; Ghoneim, A.A.; Abdullah, A.H.

    2004-01-01

    Grid connected photovoltaic systems is one of the most promising applications of photovoltaic systems. These systems are employed in applications where utility service is already available. In this case, there is no need for battery storage because grid power may be used to supplement photovoltaic systems (PV) when the load exceeds available PV generation. The load receives electricity from both the photovoltaic array and the utility grid. In this system, the load is the total electrical energy consumption. The main objective of the present work is to optimize the electrical load pattern in Kuwait using grid connected PV systems. In this situation, the electric load demand can be satisfied from both the photovoltaic array and the utility grid. The performance of grid connected photovoltaic systems in the Kuwait climate has been evaluated. It was found that the peak load matches the maximum incident solar radiation in Kuwait, which would emphasize the role of using the PV station to minimize the electrical load demand. In addition, a significant reduction in peak load can be achieved with grid connected PV systems

  5. Metamaterial-based integrated plasmonic absorber/emitter for solar thermo-photovoltaic systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Chihhui; Neuner III, Burton; Shvets, Gennady; John, Jeremy; Milder, Andrew; Zollars, Byron; Savoy, Steve

    2012-01-01

    We present the concept of a solar thermo-photovoltaic (STPV) collection system based on a large-area, nanoimprint-patterned film of plasmonic structures acting as an integrated solar absorber/narrow-band thermal emitter (SANTE). The SANTE film concept is based on integrating broad-band solar radiation absorption with selective narrow-band thermal IR radiation which can be efficiently coupled to a photovoltaic (PV) cell for power generation. By employing a low reflectivity refractory metal (e.g., tungsten) as a plasmonic material, we demonstrate that the absorption spectrum of the SANTE film can be designed to be broad-band in the visible range and narrow-band in the infrared range. A detailed balance calculation demonstrates that the total STPV system efficiency exceeds the Shockley–Queisser limit for emitter temperatures above T e = 1200 K, and achieves an efficiency as high as 41% for T e = 2300 K. Emitter temperatures in this range are shown to be achievable under modest sun concentrations (less than 1000 suns) due to the thermal insulation provided by the SANTE film. An experimental demonstration of the wide-angle, frequency-selective absorptivity is presented

  6. Robust Controller to Extract the Maximum Power of a Photovoltaic System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    OULD CHERCHALI Noureddine

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a technique of intelligent control to track the maximum power point (MPPT of a photovoltaic system . The PV system is non-linear and it is exposed to external perturbations like temperature and solar irradiation. Fuzzy logic control is known for its stability and robustness. FLC is adopted in this work for the improvement and optimization of control performance of a photovoltaic system. Another technique called perturb and observe (P & O is studied and compared with the FLC technique. The PV system is constituted of a photovoltaic panel (PV, a DC-DC converter (Boost and a battery like a load. The simulation results are developed in MATLAB / Simulink software. The results show that the controller based on fuzzy logic is better and faster than the conventional controller perturb and observe (P & O and gives a good maximum power of a photovoltaic generator under different changes of weather conditions.

  7. SIMWEST: A simulation model for wind and photovoltaic energy storage systems (CDC user's manual), volume 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, A. W.; Esinger, A. W.

    1979-01-01

    Procedures are given for using the SIMWEST program on CDC 6000 series computers. This expanded software package includes wind and/or photovoltaic systems utilizing any combination of five types of storage (pumped hydro, battery, thermal, flywheel, and pneumatic).

  8. Reliable fault detection and diagnosis of photovoltaic systems based on statistical monitoring approaches

    KAUST Repository

    Harrou, Fouzi; Sun, Ying; Taghezouit, Bilal; Saidi, Ahmed; Hamlati, Mohamed-Elkarim

    2017-01-01

    This study reports the development of an innovative fault detection and diagnosis scheme to monitor the direct current (DC) side of photovoltaic (PV) systems. Towards this end, we propose a statistical approach that exploits the advantages of one

  9. Photovoltaic system costs using local labor and materials in developing countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson, E.; Fletcher, G.; Hein, G.

    1980-05-01

    The use of photovoltaic (PV) technology in countries that do not presently have high technology industrial capacity was investigated. The relative cost of integrating indigenous labor (and manufacturing where available) into the balance of the system industry of seven countries (Egypt, Haiti, the Ivory Coast, Kenya, Mexico, Nepal, and the Phillipines) was determined. The results were then generalized to other countries, at most levels of development. The results of the study imply several conclusions: (1) the cost of installing and maintaining comparable photovoltaic systems in developing countries is less than in the United States; (2) skills and some materials are available in the seven subject countries that may be applied to constructing and maintaining PV systems; (3) there is an interest in foreign countries in photovoltaics; and (4) conversations with foreign nationals suggest that photovoltaics must be introduced in foreign markets as an appropriate technology with high technology components rather than as a high technology system.

  10. Model of a photovoltaic system design; Modelo de um projeto de um sistema fotovoltaico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leva, Flavia Fernandes de; Salerno, Carlos Henrique; Camacho, Jose Roberto; Guimaraes, Sebastiao Camargo [Universidade Federal de Uberlandia (UFU), MG (Brazil). Fac. de Engenharia Eletrica. Nucleo de Eletricidade Rural e Fontes Alternativas de Energia

    2004-07-01

    All over the world it has happened an increase in interest for photovoltaic systems, mainly motivated by cost reduction of solar cells and by the growing environmental problems caused by traditional forms of generating energy. The use of photovoltaic systems has slowly gained space, mainly in areas where the access to the conventional electrical energy is still economically unviable, however, it can be used also where conventional energy is extensively used, in order to make electricity bills less expensive. Avoiding excesses is an important factor to be considered in the photovoltaic systems dimensioning, the use of electrical and should present a low energy consumption. Therefore, the last of this paper is to show the main calculation and analysis that should be make in order to get a more precise dimensioning of the photovoltaic system. (author)

  11. Photovoltaic array with minimally penetrating rooftop support system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenox, Carl J.S.

    2012-10-23

    A photovoltaic array including a plurality of photovoltaic assemblies and a plurality of mounting units. The mounting units each include an elongate rail and a plurality of leg assemblies. The rail is sized and configured to maintain a portion of at least two of the photovoltaic assemblies, with the leg assemblies extending from the rail in a spaced-apart fashion and terminating in a foot for placement against a rooftop structure for minimally penetration installation. Further, at least one of the leg assemblies can include a retractable leg. When the photovoltaic array is installed to a rooftop structure including a membrane intermittently secured to a rooftop deck, the retractable leg accommodates upward billowing of the membrane under windy conditions.

  12. Photovoltaic energy systems: Program summary fiscal year 1983

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-01-01

    An overview of government funded activities in photovoltaic energy conversion research is given. Introductory information, a list of directing organizations, a list of acronyms and abbreviations, and an index of current contractors are given.

  13. Enhanced Reliability of Photovoltaic Systems with Energy Storage and Controls

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manz, D.; Schelenz, O.; Chandra, R.; Bose, S.; de Rooij, M.; Bebic, J.

    2008-02-01

    This report summarizes efforts to reconfigure loads during outages to allow individual customers the opportunity to enhance the reliability of their electric service through the management of their loads, photovoltaics, and energy storage devices.

  14. Photovoltaic power systems market identification and analysis. Final report, January 1977--February 1978

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-05-01

    This report summarizes the work done by InterTechnology/Solar Corporation, its consultants, Mobil Tyco Solar Energy Corporation and the University of Delaware Institute for Energy Conversion, and its consultants, during the marketing analysis of near and intermediate term photovoltaic power applications. To obtain estimates of the domestic and foreign market potential for photovoltaically powered devices two approaches were used. First, the study was identifying then screening all possible photovoltaic power supply applications. This approach encompassed the first two tasks of the study: (1) a survey of the current uses of photovoltaic systems, both domestic and international, and a projection of the usage of those systems into the future; and (2) a new idea generation task which attempted to come up with new ways of using photovoltaic power. Second, the study required in-depth analysis of key near-term and intermediate-term photovoltaic applications identified during the first phase to obtain reasonable estimates of photovoltaic market potential. This process encompassed the third and fourth tasks of the analysis: (3) refinement of ideas generated in Task 2 so that certain products/applications could be identified, the product defined and a market survey carried out; and (4) development of a detailed product scenario which forecasts sales, barriers to market acceptance, and technical innovationsrequired for proper introduction of the products. The work performed and findings of each task are presented.

  15. Technical and economic assessment of photovoltaic-driven desalination systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Karaghouli, Ali; Renne, David; Kazmerski, Lawrence L.

    2010-01-01

    Solar desalination systems are approaching technical and cost viability for producing fresh-water, a commodity of equal importance to energy in many arid and coastal regions worldwide. Solar photovoltaics (PV) represent an ideal, clean alternative to fossil fuels, especially for remote communities such as grid-limited villages or isolated islands. These applications for water production in remote areas are the first to be nearing cost-competitiveness due to decreasing PV prices and increasing fossil fuel prices over the last five years. The electricity produced from PV systems for desalination applications can be used for electro-mechanical devices such as pumps or in direct-current (DC) devices. Reverse osmosis (RO) and electrodialysis (ED) desalination units are the most favorable alternatives to be coupled with PV systems. RO usually operates on alternating current (AC) for the pumps, thus requiring a DC/AC inverter. In contrast, electrodialysis uses DC for the electrodes at the cell stack, and hence, it can use the energy supplied from the PV panels with some minor power conditioning. Energy storage is critical and batteries are required for sustained operation. In this paper, we discuss the operational features and system designs of typical PV-RO and PV-ED systems in terms of their suitability and optimization for PV operation. For PV-RO and PV-ED systems, we evaluate their electricity need, capital and operational costs, and fresh-water production costs. We cover ongoing and projected research and development activities, with estimates of their potential economics. We discuss the feasibility of future solar desalination based on expected (or predicted) improvements in technology of the desalination and PV systems. Examples are provided for Middle East and other parts of the World. (author)

  16. An autonomous photovoltaic system sizing program for office applications in Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Herteleer, Bert; Cappelle, Jan; Driesen, Johan

    2012-01-01

    A spreadsheet tool and underlying model was developed to aid non-expert users in sizing off- or on-grid photovoltaic systems with battery back-up for office applications in Africa. The tool offers the user a number of choices which help in the decision process. The model is based on the concept of energy equivalence and extended by taking into account non-ideal behaviours of photovoltaic system components, modelled as efficiency deviations. The spreadsheet tool uses freely available dat...

  17. Review of Consensus Standard Spectra for Flat Plate and Concentrating Photovoltaic Performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Myers, D.

    2011-09-01

    Consensus standard reference terrestrial solar spectra are used to establish nameplate ratings for photovoltaic device performance at standard reporting conditions. This report describes reference solar spectra developed in the United States and international consensus standards community which are widely accepted as of this writing (June 2011).

  18. Performance evaluation of solar photovoltaic panel driven refrigeration system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajoria, C. S.; Singh, Dharmendra; Gupta, Pankaj Kumar

    2018-03-01

    The solar photovoltaic (PV) panel driven refrigeration system employs solar PV panel and play a vital role when combined with storage batteries. The variation in performance of solar PV panel driven refrigeration system has been experimentally investigated in this paper. The change in battery voltage is analyzed with respect to panel size. Different series and parallel combinations have been applied on four solar PV panels of 35W each to get 24V. With the above combination a current in the range of 3-5 ampere has been obtained depending upon the solar intensity. A refrigerator of 110 W and 50 liters is used in the present investigation which requires 0.80 ampere AC at 230 V. The required current and voltage has been obtained from an inverter which draws about 7 ampere DC from the battery bank at 24V. The compressor of the refrigerator consumed 110W which required a PV panel size of 176 W approximately. It is important to note that the compressor consumed about 300W for first 50 milliseconds, 130 W for next five seconds and gradually comes to 110 W in 65 seconds. Thus panel size should be such that it may compensate for the initial load requirement.

  19. Photovoltaic System Equipped with Digital Command Control and Acquisition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khalil Kassmi

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we present results concerning the design, the realization and the characterization of a photovoltaic system (PV, equipped with a digital controls: Power Point Tracking (MPPT, charge/discharge lead acid batteries, sun tracker and supervision. These different functions are performed with a microcontroller that has capabilities and functions to the reliability of PV systems (signal generation Pulses Width Modulation (PWM, speed etc.. Concerning the MPPT control operation, we improved the accuracy and reliability of research by improving the search algorithm “Hill Climbing” taking into account the optimal operation of PV panels depending on weather conditions (temperature and light.The experiment of each block shows that the MPPT control converges instantly the operating point of the PV panels around the maximum power point, independently of sudden changes of the illumination or the load. The control blocks charge/discharge battery and sun tracking show good control of charge/discharge lead acid batteries and the need of sun tracker to increase the power supplied by the PV panel. By using the improved MPPT control, loss of power supplied by the PV panels are very low (below 5%.

  20. MAXIMUM POWEWR POINT TRACKING SYSTEM FOR PHOTOVOLTAIC STATION: A REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Elzein

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years there has been a growing attention towards the use of renewable energy sources. Among them solar energy is one of the most promising green energy resources due to its environment sustainability and inexhaustibility. However photovoltaic systems (PhV suffer from big cost of equipment and low efficiency. Moreover, the solar cell V-I characteristic is nonlinear and varies with irradiation and temperature. In general, there is a unique point of PhV operation, called the Maximum Power Point (MPP, in which the PV system operates with maximum efficiency and produces its maximum output power. The location of the MPP is not known in advance, but can be located, either through calculation models or by search algorithms. Therefore MPPT techniques are important to maintain the PV array’s high efficiency. Many different techniques for MPPT are discussed. This review paper hopefully will serve as a convenient tool for future work in PhV power conversion.