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Sample records for photosynthetically effective radiation

  1. Effects of ultraviolet radiation (UVA+UVB) on young gametophytes of Gelidium floridanum: growth rate, photosynthetic pigments, carotenoids, photosynthetic performance, and ultrastructure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simioni, Carmen; Schmidt, Eder C; Felix, Marthiellen R de L; Polo, Luz Karime; Rover, Ticiane; Kreusch, Marianne; Pereira, Debora T; Chow, Fungyi; Ramlov, Fernanda; Maraschin, Marcelo; Bouzon, Zenilda L

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of radiation (PAR+UVA+UVB) on the development and growth rates (GRs) of young gametophytes of Gelidium floridanum. In addition, photosynthetic pigments were quantified, carotenoids identified, and photosynthetic performance assessed. Over a period of 3 days, young gametophytes were cultivated under laboratory conditions and exposed to photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) at 80 μmol photons m(-2) s(-1) and PAR+UVA (0.70 W m(-2))+UVB (0.35 W m(-2)) for 3 h per day. The samples were processed for light and electron microscopy to analyze the ultrastructure features, as well as carry out metabolic studies of GRs, quantify the content of photosynthetic pigments, identify carotenoids and assess photosynthetic performance. PAR+UVA+UVB promoted increase in cell wall thickness, accumulation of floridean starch grains in the cytoplasm and disruption of chloroplast internal organization. Algae exposed to PAR+UVA+UVB also showed a reduction in GR of 97%. Photosynthetic pigments, in particular, phycoerythrin and allophycocyanin contents, decreased significantly from UV radiation exposure. This result agrees with the decrease in photosynthetic performance observed after exposure to ultraviolet radiation, as measured by a decrease in the electron transport rate (ETR), where values of ETRmax declined approximately 44.71%. It can be concluded that radiation is a factor that affects the young gametophytes of G. floridanum at this stage of development. © 2014 The American Society of Photobiology.

  2. Assessing the effects of ultraviolet radiation on the photosynthetic potential in Archean marine environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avila-Alonso, Dailé; Baetens, Jan M.; Cardenas, Rolando; de Baets, Bernard

    2017-07-01

    In this work, the photosynthesis model presented by Avila et al. in 2013 is extended and more scenarios inhabited by ancient cyanobacteria are investigated to quantify the effects of ultraviolet (UV) radiation on their photosynthetic potential in marine environments of the Archean eon. We consider ferrous ions as blockers of UV during the Early Archean, while the absorption spectrum of chlorophyll a is used to quantify the fraction of photosynthetically active radiation absorbed by photosynthetic organisms. UV could have induced photoinhibition at the water surface, thereby strongly affecting the species with low light use efficiency. A higher photosynthetic potential in early marine environments was shown than in the Late Archean as a consequence of the attenuation of UVC and UVB by iron ions, which probably played an important role in the protection of ancient free-floating bacteria from high-intensity UV radiation. Photosynthetic organisms in Archean coastal and ocean environments were probably abundant in the first 5 and 25 m of the water column, respectively. However, species with a relatively high efficiency in the use of light could have inhabited ocean waters up to a depth of 200 m and show a Deep Chlorophyll Maximum near 60 m depth. We show that the electromagnetic radiation from the Sun, both UV and visible light, could have determined the vertical distribution of Archean marine photosynthetic organisms.

  3. Effect of gamma radiation on photosynthetic metabolism of Chlorella pyrenoidosa studied by 14CO2 assimilation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin Moreno, C.; Fernandez Gonzalez, J.

    1983-01-01

    The effect of five dose of gamma radiation (10, 100, 500, 1000 and 5000 Gy) on photosynthetic activity and metabolism of the primary products of photosynthesis has been studied, on Chlorella pyrenoidoBa cultures, by 14 C O 2 assimilation. The photosynthetic assimilation rate is remarkably depressed after irradiation at 500, 1000 and 5000 Gy dose, which also produce a significant change in radioactivity distribution pattern of primary compounds from photosynthesis. No significant effects have been observed on photosynthetic metabolism after irradiation at 10 and 100 Gy. (Author) 19 refs

  4. Ionizing radiation and photosynthetic ability of cyanobacteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agarwal, Rachna; Sainis, Jayashree K.

    2006-01-01

    Unicellular photoautotrophic cyanobacteria, Anacystis nidulans when exposed to lethal dose of 1.5 kGy of 60 Co γ- radiation (D 10 = 257.32 Gy) were as effective photosynthetical as unirradiated controls immediately after irradiation although level of ROS was higher by several magnitudes in these irradiated cells. The results suggested the preservation of the functional integrity of thylakoids even after exposure to lethal dose of ionizing radiation. (author)

  5. Investigating and comparing uranium and gamma radiation induced effects on photosynthetic parameters for Arabidopsis thaliana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vanhoudt, Nathalie; Horemans, Nele; Saenen, Eline; Biermans, Geert; Nauts, Robin; Wannijn, Jean; Van Hees, May; Vandenhove, Hildegarde [Belgian Nuclear Research Centre (SCK.CEN), Biosphere Impact Studies, 2400, Mol (Belgium)

    2014-07-01

    As the environment is inevitably exposed to radionuclides and ionizing radiation from natural and anthropogenic sources, it is important to study the effects induced by these stressors on plants. In addition, it is already known that photosynthesis can be affected under various metal exposure situations. The objective of this research is to compare uranium induced effects with gamma radiation induced effects on photosynthetic parameters in Arabidopsis thaliana. First, 18-day-old seedlings were exposed to 50 μM uranium during 4 days. Second, 14-day-old seedlings were exposed to gamma radiation for 7 days to a total dose of 6.7 Gy. By using chlorophyll fluorescence measurements, the photosynthetic performance was assessed. Based on the data obtained during the measurement of induction curves, parameters providing information on the photosynthetic efficiency and heat dissipation can be calculated. For uranium exposed leaves, it was observed that the potential photosynthetic efficiency (measured as Fv/Fm) remained maximal while the effective efficiency of photosystem II (φPSII), which is a measure for the proportion of light absorbed by PSII used in photochemistry, even increased. The increase of φPSII could be related to a decrease in non-photochemical quenching (NPQ), which reflects the protective mechanism against excess light intensity by converting energy into heat, but no alterations in non-regulated energy dissipation (NO). A high NO value would indicate the inefficiency of photochemistry and heat conversion and the plant's inability to regulate the radiation energy. In plants exposed to uranium, NO levels were similar to the control. Under gamma irradiation, the capacity of PSII remained intact and plants started optimizing their photosynthetic process by increasing φPSII and decreasing NPQ. When comparing the NPQ kinetic responses of gamma radiation and uranium exposure, a remarkable difference can be highlighted. While gamma radiation exposure

  6. Effects of the pear tree canopy on photosynthetically active radiation availability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rossi, F.; Baldini, E.; Baraldi, R.

    1984-01-01

    The relationships existing between radiant energy and photosynthesis have been extensively investigated on the apple /2/ but not on the other fruit trees, pear included. In addition, such information resists generalization, owing to the remarkable differences underlying tree morphology and physiology of the different species; furthermore, some disagreement arises regarding the terminology and the units used to evaluate the amount of radiant energy useful for the photosynthetic process. In general this evaluation is based on the readouts of illuminance (symbol Ev; unit: lux), in agreement with the photopic curve (fig. 1:A), i.e. with the human eye sensibility to the visible radiation(light). However, the relative response of the chloroplasts to the radiant flux, although included within the same spectral wavebands as the photopic curve, follows a different model (fig.1:B), that is, it has two peaks in connection with the spectral wavelenghts of blue (440–490 nm), and, particularly, of red (620–700 nm). Therefore, according to a number of authors /3/6/8/11/, the correct evaluation of the photosynthetically active radiation should be made using sensors calibrated to measure the photosynthetic photon lux density (symbol: PPFD; unit: μE m -2 s -1 ), and provided with a relative spectral response similar to that of the leaves. (author)

  7. Contrasting Responses of Marine and Freshwater Photosynthetic Organisms to UVB Radiation: A Meta-Analysis

    KAUST Repository

    Jin, Peng

    2017-03-14

    Ultraviolet-B (UVB) radiation is a global stressor that has profound impacts on freshwater and marine ecosystems. However, an analysis of the patterns of sensitivity to UVB radiation across aquatic photosynthetic organisms has not yet been published. Here, we performed a meta-analysis on results reported in 214 studies compiled from the published literature to quantify and compare the magnitude of responses of aquatic photosynthetic organisms to changes in UVB radiation. The meta-analysis was conducted on observations of marine (n = 893) and freshwater macroalgae (n = 126) and of marine (n = 1,087) and freshwater (n = 2,889) microalgae (total n = 4,995). Most of these studies (85%) analyzed the performance of organisms exposed to natural solar radiation when UVB was partially or totally reduced compared with the organismal performance under the full solar radiation spectrum, whereas the remaining 15% of the studies examined the responses of organisms to elevated UVB radiation mostly using artificial lamps. We found that marine photosynthetic organisms tend to be more sensitive than freshwater photosynthetic organisms to UVB radiation; responses to either decreased or increased UVB radiation vary among taxa; the mortality rate is the most sensitive of the trait responses to elevated UVB radiation, followed by changes in cellular and molecular traits; the sensitivity of microalgae to UVB radiation is dependent on size, with small-celled microalgae more sensitive than large-celled microalgae to UVB radiation. Thick macroalgae morphotypes were the less sensitive to UVB, but this effect could not be separated from phylogenetic differences. The high sensitivity of marine species, particularly the smallest photosynthetic organisms, to increased UVB radiation suggests that the oligotrophic ocean, a habitat comprising 70% of the world\\'s oceans with high UVB penetration and dominated by picoautotrophs, is extremely vulnerable to changes in UVB radiation.

  8. Effects of ultraviolet radiation on photosynthetic performance and N2 fixation in Trichodesmium erythraeum IMS 101

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Xiaoni; Hutchins, David A.; Fu, Feixue; Gao, Kunshan

    2017-10-01

    Biological effects of ultraviolet radiation (UVR; 280-400 nm) on marine primary producers are of general concern, as oceanic carbon fixers that contribute to the marine biological CO2 pump are being exposed to increasing UV irradiance due to global change and ozone depletion. We investigated the effects of UV-B (280-320 nm) and UV-A (320-400 nm) on the biogeochemically critical filamentous marine N2-fixing cyanobacterium Trichodesmium (strain IMS101) using a solar simulator as well as under natural solar radiation. Short exposure to UV-B, UV-A, or integrated total UVR significantly reduced the effective quantum yield of photosystem II (PSII) and photosynthetic carbon and N2 fixation rates. Cells acclimated to low light were more sensitive to UV exposure compared to high-light-grown ones, which had more UV-absorbing compounds, most likely mycosporine-like amino acids (MAAs). After acclimation under natural sunlight, the specific growth rate was lower (by up to 44 %), MAA content was higher, and average trichome length was shorter (by up to 22 %) in the full spectrum of solar radiation with UVR, than under a photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) alone treatment (400-700 nm). These results suggest that prior shipboard experiments in UV-opaque containers may have substantially overestimated in situ nitrogen fixation rates by Trichodesmium, and that natural and anthropogenic elevation of UV radiation intensity could significantly inhibit this vital source of new nitrogen to the current and future oligotrophic oceans.

  9. Photosynthetic carbon reduction by seagrasses exposed to ultraviolet A radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-01-01

    The seagrasses Halophila engelmannii, Halodule wrightii, and Syringodium filiforme were examined for their intrinsic sensitivity to ultraviolet-A-UV-A and ultraviolet-B-UV-B radiation. The effect of UV-A on photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) was also determined. Ultraviolet-A and ultraviolet-B were studied with emphasis on the greater respective environmental consequence in terms of seagrass distribution and abundance. Results indicate that an intrinsic sensitivity to UV-A alone is apparent only in Halophila, while net photosynthesis in Halodule and Syringodium seems unaffected by the level of UV-A provided. The sensitivity of Halophila to UV-A in the absense of (PAR) indicates that the photosynthetic reaction does not need to be in operation for damage to occur. Other significant results are reported.

  10. Effects of ultraviolet radiation on photosynthetic performance and N2 fixation in Trichodesmium erythraeum IMS 101

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X. Cai

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Biological effects of ultraviolet radiation (UVR; 280–400 nm on marine primary producers are of general concern, as oceanic carbon fixers that contribute to the marine biological CO2 pump are being exposed to increasing UV irradiance due to global change and ozone depletion. We investigated the effects of UV-B (280–320 nm and UV-A (320–400 nm on the biogeochemically critical filamentous marine N2-fixing cyanobacterium Trichodesmium (strain IMS101 using a solar simulator as well as under natural solar radiation. Short exposure to UV-B, UV-A, or integrated total UVR significantly reduced the effective quantum yield of photosystem II (PSII and photosynthetic carbon and N2 fixation rates. Cells acclimated to low light were more sensitive to UV exposure compared to high-light-grown ones, which had more UV-absorbing compounds, most likely mycosporine-like amino acids (MAAs. After acclimation under natural sunlight, the specific growth rate was lower (by up to 44 %, MAA content was higher, and average trichome length was shorter (by up to 22 % in the full spectrum of solar radiation with UVR, than under a photosynthetically active radiation (PAR alone treatment (400–700 nm. These results suggest that prior shipboard experiments in UV-opaque containers may have substantially overestimated in situ nitrogen fixation rates by Trichodesmium, and that natural and anthropogenic elevation of UV radiation intensity could significantly inhibit this vital source of new nitrogen to the current and future oligotrophic oceans.

  11. [Effects of reduced solar radiation on winter wheat flag leaf net photosynthetic rate].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, You-Fei; Ni, Yan-Li; Mai, Bo-Ru; Wu, Rong-Jun; Feng, Yan; Sun, Jian; Li, Jian; Xu, Jing-Xin

    2011-06-01

    Taking winter wheat Triticum aestivum L. (cv. Yangmai 13) as test material, a field experiment was conducted in Nanjing City to study the effects of simulated reduced solar radiation on the diurnal variation of winter wheat flag leaf photosynthetic rate and the main affecting factors. Five treatments were installed, i. e., 15% (T15), 20% (T20) , 40% (T40), 60% (T60), and 100% (CK) of total incident solar radiation. Reduced solar irradiance increased the chlorophyll and lutein contents significantly, but decreased the net photosynthetic rate (Pn). Under different solar irradiance, the diurnal variation of Pn had greater difference, and the daily maximum Pn was in the order of CK > T60 > T40 > T 20 > T15. In CK, the Pn exhibited a double peak diurnal curve; while in the other four treatments, the Pn showed a single peak curve, and the peak was lagged behind that of CK. Correlation analysis showed that reduced solar irradiance was the main factor affecting the diurnal variation of Pn, but the physiological parameters also played important roles in determining the diurnal variation of Pn. In treatments T60 and T40, the photosynthesis active radiation (PAR), leaf temperature (T1) , stomatal conductance (Gs) , and transpiration rate (Tr) were significantly positively correlated with Pn, suggesting their positive effects on Pn. The intercellular CO2 concentration (Ci) and stomatal limitation (Ls) had significant negative correlations with Pn in treatments T60 and T40 but significant positive correlations with Pn in treatments T20 and T15, implying that the Ci and Ls had negative (or positive) effects on Pn when the solar irradiance was higher (or lower) than 40% of incident solar irradiance.

  12. VU-B radiation inhibits the photosynthetic electron transport chain in chlamydomonas reinhardtii

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cai, W.; Li, X.; Chen, L.

    2016-01-01

    UV radiation of sunlight is one of harmful factors for earth organisms, especially for photoautotrophs because they require light for energy and biomass production. A number of works have already been done regarding the effects of UV-B radiation at biochemical and molecular level, which showed that UV-B radiation could inhibit photosynthesis activity and reduce photosynthetic electron transport. However quite limited information can accurately make out inhibition site of UV-B radiation on photosynthetic electron transport. In this study, this issue was investigated through measuring oxygen evolution activity, chlorophyll a fluorescence and gene expression in a model unicellular green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. Our results indicated that UV-B radiation could evidently decrease photosynthesis activity and inhibit electron transport by blocking electron transfer process from the first plastoquinone electron acceptors QA to second plastoquinone electron acceptors QB, but not impair electron transfer from the water oxidizing complex to QA. The psbA gene expression was also altered by UV-B radiation, where up-regulation occurred at 2, 4 and 6h after exposure and down-regulation happened at 12 and 24 h after exposure. These results suggested that UV-B could affects D1 protein normal turnover, so there was not enough D1 for binding with QB, which may affect photosynthetic electron transport and photosynthesis activity. (author)

  13. Calculation of the radiative properties of photosynthetic microorganisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dauchet, Jérémi; Blanco, Stéphane; Cornet, Jean-François; Fournier, Richard

    2015-01-01

    A generic methodological chain for the predictive calculation of the light-scattering and absorption properties of photosynthetic microorganisms within the visible spectrum is presented here. This methodology has been developed in order to provide the radiative properties needed for the analysis of radiative transfer within photobioreactor processes, with a view to enable their optimization for large-scale sustainable production of chemicals for energy and chemistry. It gathers an electromagnetic model of light-particle interaction along with detailed and validated protocols for the determination of input parameters: morphological and structural characteristics of the studied microorganisms as well as their photosynthetic-pigment content. The microorganisms are described as homogeneous equivalent-particles whose shape and size distribution is characterized by image analysis. The imaginary part of their refractive index is obtained thanks to a new and quite extended database of the in vivo absorption spectra of photosynthetic pigments (that is made available to the reader). The real part of the refractive index is then calculated by using the singly subtractive Kramers–Krönig approximation, for which the anchor point is determined with the Bruggeman mixing rule, based on the volume fraction of the microorganism internal-structures and their refractive indices (extracted from a database). Afterwards, the radiative properties are estimated using the Schiff approximation for spheroidal or cylindrical particles, as a first step toward the description of the complexity and diversity of the shapes encountered within the microbial world. Finally, these predictive results are confronted to experimental normal-hemispherical transmittance spectra for validation. This entire procedure is implemented for Rhodospirillum rubrum, Arthrospira platensis and Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, each representative of the main three kinds of photosynthetic microorganisms, i.e. respectively

  14. Calculation of the radiative properties of photosynthetic microorganisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dauchet, Jérémi; Blanco, Stéphane; Cornet, Jean-François; Fournier, Richard

    2015-08-01

    A generic methodological chain for the predictive calculation of the light-scattering and absorption properties of photosynthetic microorganisms within the visible spectrum is presented here. This methodology has been developed in order to provide the radiative properties needed for the analysis of radiative transfer within photobioreactor processes, with a view to enable their optimization for large-scale sustainable production of chemicals for energy and chemistry. It gathers an electromagnetic model of light-particle interaction along with detailed and validated protocols for the determination of input parameters: morphological and structural characteristics of the studied microorganisms as well as their photosynthetic-pigment content. The microorganisms are described as homogeneous equivalent-particles whose shape and size distribution is characterized by image analysis. The imaginary part of their refractive index is obtained thanks to a new and quite extended database of the in vivo absorption spectra of photosynthetic pigments (that is made available to the reader). The real part of the refractive index is then calculated by using the singly subtractive Kramers-Krönig approximation, for which the anchor point is determined with the Bruggeman mixing rule, based on the volume fraction of the microorganism internal-structures and their refractive indices (extracted from a database). Afterwards, the radiative properties are estimated using the Schiff approximation for spheroidal or cylindrical particles, as a first step toward the description of the complexity and diversity of the shapes encountered within the microbial world. Finally, these predictive results are confronted to experimental normal-hemispherical transmittance spectra for validation. This entire procedure is implemented for Rhodospirillum rubrum, Arthrospira platensis and Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, each representative of the main three kinds of photosynthetic microorganisms, i.e. respectively

  15. Contrasting Responses of Marine and Freshwater Photosynthetic Organisms to UVB Radiation: A Meta-Analysis

    KAUST Repository

    Jin, Peng; Duarte, Carlos M.; Agusti, Susana

    2017-01-01

    artificial lamps. We found that marine photosynthetic organisms tend to be more sensitive than freshwater photosynthetic organisms to UVB radiation; responses to either decreased or increased UVB radiation vary among taxa; the mortality rate is the most

  16. Sensitivity of the green algae Chlamydomonas reinhardtii to gamma radiation: Photosynthetic performance and ROS formation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomes, Tânia, E-mail: tania.gomes@niva.no [Norwegian Institute for Water Research (NIVA), Section of Ecotoxicology and Risk Assessment, Gaustadalléen 21, N-0349, Oslo (Norway); Centre for Environmental Radioactivity, Norwegian University of Life Sciences (NMBU), Post Box 5003, N-1432 Ås (Norway); Xie, Li [Norwegian Institute for Water Research (NIVA), Section of Ecotoxicology and Risk Assessment, Gaustadalléen 21, N-0349, Oslo (Norway); Centre for Environmental Radioactivity, Norwegian University of Life Sciences (NMBU), Post Box 5003, N-1432 Ås (Norway); Brede, Dag; Lind, Ole-Christian [Centre for Environmental Radioactivity, Norwegian University of Life Sciences (NMBU), Post Box 5003, N-1432 Ås (Norway); Department for Environmental Sciences, Faculty of Environmental Science & Technology, Norwegian University of Life Sciences (NMBU), Post Box 5003, N-1432, Ås (Norway); Solhaug, Knut Asbjørn [Centre for Environmental Radioactivity, Norwegian University of Life Sciences (NMBU), Post Box 5003, N-1432 Ås (Norway); Department of Ecology and Natural Resource Management, Norwegian University of Life Sciences (NMBU), Postbox 5003, N-1432, Ås (Norway); Salbu, Brit [Centre for Environmental Radioactivity, Norwegian University of Life Sciences (NMBU), Post Box 5003, N-1432 Ås (Norway); Department for Environmental Sciences, Faculty of Environmental Science & Technology, Norwegian University of Life Sciences (NMBU), Post Box 5003, N-1432, Ås (Norway); and others

    2017-02-15

    Highlights: • Chlorophyll fluorescence parameters affected at higher dose rates. • Changes in PSII associated with electron transport and energy dissipation pathways. • Dose-dependent ROS production in algae exposed to gamma radiation. • Decrease in photosynthetic efficiency connected to ROS formation. - Abstract: The aquatic environment is continuously exposed to ionizing radiation from both natural and anthropogenic sources, making the characterization of ecological and health risks associated with radiation of large importance. Microalgae represent the main source of biomass production in the aquatic ecosystem, thus becoming a highly relevant biological model to assess the impacts of gamma radiation. However, little information is available on the effects of gamma radiation on microalgal species, making environmental radioprotection of this group of species challenging. In this context, the present study aimed to improve the understanding of the effects and toxic mechanisms of gamma radiation in the unicellular green algae Chlamydomonas reinhardtii focusing on the activity of the photosynthetic apparatus and ROS formation. Algal cells were exposed to gamma radiation (0.49–1677 mGy/h) for 6 h and chlorophyll fluorescence parameters obtained by PAM fluorometry, while two fluorescent probes carboxy-H{sub 2}DFFDA and DHR 123 were used for the quantification of ROS. The alterations seen in functional parameters of C. reinhardtii PSII after 6 h of exposure to gamma radiation showed modifications of PSII energy transfer associated with electron transport and energy dissipation pathways, especially at the higher dose rates used. Results also showed that gamma radiation induced ROS in a dose-dependent manner under both light and dark conditions. The observed decrease in photosynthetic efficiency seems to be connected to the formation of ROS and can potentially lead to oxidative stress and cellular damage in chloroplasts. To our knowledge, this is the first

  17. Sensitivity of the green algae Chlamydomonas reinhardtii to gamma radiation: Photosynthetic performance and ROS formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomes, Tânia; Xie, Li; Brede, Dag; Lind, Ole-Christian; Solhaug, Knut Asbjørn; Salbu, Brit

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Chlorophyll fluorescence parameters affected at higher dose rates. • Changes in PSII associated with electron transport and energy dissipation pathways. • Dose-dependent ROS production in algae exposed to gamma radiation. • Decrease in photosynthetic efficiency connected to ROS formation. - Abstract: The aquatic environment is continuously exposed to ionizing radiation from both natural and anthropogenic sources, making the characterization of ecological and health risks associated with radiation of large importance. Microalgae represent the main source of biomass production in the aquatic ecosystem, thus becoming a highly relevant biological model to assess the impacts of gamma radiation. However, little information is available on the effects of gamma radiation on microalgal species, making environmental radioprotection of this group of species challenging. In this context, the present study aimed to improve the understanding of the effects and toxic mechanisms of gamma radiation in the unicellular green algae Chlamydomonas reinhardtii focusing on the activity of the photosynthetic apparatus and ROS formation. Algal cells were exposed to gamma radiation (0.49–1677 mGy/h) for 6 h and chlorophyll fluorescence parameters obtained by PAM fluorometry, while two fluorescent probes carboxy-H 2 DFFDA and DHR 123 were used for the quantification of ROS. The alterations seen in functional parameters of C. reinhardtii PSII after 6 h of exposure to gamma radiation showed modifications of PSII energy transfer associated with electron transport and energy dissipation pathways, especially at the higher dose rates used. Results also showed that gamma radiation induced ROS in a dose-dependent manner under both light and dark conditions. The observed decrease in photosynthetic efficiency seems to be connected to the formation of ROS and can potentially lead to oxidative stress and cellular damage in chloroplasts. To our knowledge, this is the first report

  18. Conversion Efficiency of Photosynthetically Active Radiation Into Acacia mearnsii Biomass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elder Eloy

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The objective of this experiment was to determine the conversion efficiency of intercepted photosynthetically active radiation into biomass of Acacia mearnsii De Wild. seedlings. A forest species, plastic tubes (90 cm3, and 11 evaluation periods (up to 180 days after emergence were used in this study. The leaf area index (LAI, total dry biomass (BIO, global solar radiation (GSR, cumulative intercepted photosynthetically active radiation (PARic, and conversion efficiency of radiation (εb were determined using a pyranometer (LI200X, LICOR. The value of εb in BIO seedlings of Acacia mearnsii was 7.76 g MJ-1. LAI was directly related to the efficiency of PARic, and this influenced the development, production potential and accumulation of BIO. The value of GSR flow was 11.81 MJ m-2 day-1, while the value inside the greenhouse was 6.26 MJ m-2 day-1.

  19. Diurnal changes of net photosynthetic rate (NPR) in leaves of Lonicera japonica Thunb. and the responding mathematical model of NPR to photosynthetic valid radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Dafu; Zhang Shengli; Li Dongfang

    2009-01-01

    [Objective] The study provided theoretical basis for production practice . [Method] With Lonicera japonica Thunb .as material, diurnal changes of net photosynthetic rate (NPR) in leaves of the plant and the responding mathematical model of NPR to photosynthetic valid radiation were studied using portable photosynthetic determinator system. [Result] Like most of C3 plants, the diurnal changes curve of NPR of Lonicera japonica Thunb .showed double peaks, but there were time difference in reaching the peak value between the study and previous ones . The responding mathematical model of NPR to photosynthetic valid radiation could be described by three mathematic functions, such as logarithm, linearity and binomial, but binomial function was more precise than the others. Light saturation point of Lonicera japonica Thunb. was figured out by binomial equation deduced in the study , and light saturation point was 1 086 .3 μmol/ (m2•s) . [Conclusion] The diurnal changes curve of NPR of Lonicera japonica Thunb .showed double peaks, and the responding mathematical model of NPR to photosynthetic valid radiation could be described by binomial functions

  20. Photosynthesis of a scots pine shoot: the effect of shoot inclination on the photosynthetic response of a shoot subjected to direct radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oker-Blom, P.; Kellomaki, S.; Smolander, H.

    1983-01-01

    A set of photosynthetic responses of a Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) shoot to light was derived from the shoot geometry and the photosynthetic response of a single needle. Computations showed that the shape of the photosynthesis light-curves varies substantially depending on the direction of radiation relative to the shoot position. Differences in the initial and maximum rates of photosynthesis were due to changes in the effective projection area and the irradiated fraction of the shoot, respectively

  1. Sensitivity of the green algae Chlamydomonas reinhardtii to gamma radiation: Photosynthetic performance and ROS formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, Tânia; Xie, Li; Brede, Dag; Lind, Ole-Christian; Solhaug, Knut Asbjørn; Salbu, Brit; Tollefsen, Knut Erik

    2017-02-01

    The aquatic environment is continuously exposed to ionizing radiation from both natural and anthropogenic sources, making the characterization of ecological and health risks associated with radiation of large importance. Microalgae represent the main source of biomass production in the aquatic ecosystem, thus becoming a highly relevant biological model to assess the impacts of gamma radiation. However, little information is available on the effects of gamma radiation on microalgal species, making environmental radioprotection of this group of species challenging. In this context, the present study aimed to improve the understanding of the effects and toxic mechanisms of gamma radiation in the unicellular green algae Chlamydomonas reinhardtii focusing on the activity of the photosynthetic apparatus and ROS formation. Algal cells were exposed to gamma radiation (0.49-1677mGy/h) for 6h and chlorophyll fluorescence parameters obtained by PAM fluorometry, while two fluorescent probes carboxy-H 2 DFFDA and DHR 123 were used for the quantification of ROS. The alterations seen in functional parameters of C. reinhardtii PSII after 6h of exposure to gamma radiation showed modifications of PSII energy transfer associated with electron transport and energy dissipation pathways, especially at the higher dose rates used. Results also showed that gamma radiation induced ROS in a dose-dependent manner under both light and dark conditions. The observed decrease in photosynthetic efficiency seems to be connected to the formation of ROS and can potentially lead to oxidative stress and cellular damage in chloroplasts. To our knowledge, this is the first report on changes in several chlorophyll fluorescence parameters associated with photosynthetic performance and ROS formation in microalgae after exposure to gamma radiation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Functional size of photosynthetic electron transport chain determined by radiation inactivation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pan, R.S.; Chen, L.F.; Wang, M.Y.; Tsal, M.Y.; Pan, R.L.; Hsu, B.D.

    1987-01-01

    Radiation inactivation technique was employed to determine the functional size of photosynthetic electron transport chain of spinach chloroplasts. The functional size for photosystem I+II(H 2 O to methylviologen) was 623 +/- 37 kilodaltons; for photosystem II (H 2 O to dimethylquinone/ferricyanide), 174 +/- 11 kilodaltons; and for photosystem I (reduced diaminodurene to methylviologen), 190 +/- 11 kilodaltons. The difference between 364 +/- 22 (the sum of 174 +/- 11 and 190 +/- 11) kilodaltons and 623 +/- 37 kilodaltons is partially explained to be due to the presence of two molecules of cytochrome b 6 /f complex of 280 kilodaltons. The molecular mass for other partial reactions of photosynthetic electron flow, also measured by radiation inactivation, is reported. The molecular mass obtained by this technique is compared with that determined by other conventional biochemical methods. A working hypothesis for the composition, stoichiometry, and organization of polypeptides for photosynthetic electron transport chain is proposed

  3. A theoretical approach to photosynthetically active radiation silicon sensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tamasi, M.J.L.; Martínez Bogado, M.G.

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a theoretical approach for the development of low cost radiometers to measure photosynthetically active radiation (PAR). Two alternatives are considered: a) glass optical filters attached to a silicon sensor, and b) dielectric coating on a silicon sensor. The devices proposed are based on radiometers previously developed by the Argentine National Atomic Energy Commission. The objective of this work is to adapt these low cost radiometers to construct reliable instruments for measuring PAR. The transmittance of optical filters and sensor response have been analyzed for different dielectric materials, number of layers deposited, and incidence angles. Uncertainties in thickness of layer deposition were evaluated. - Highlights: • Design of radiometers to measure photosynthetically active radiation • The study has used a filter and a Si sensor to modify spectral response. • Dielectric multilayers on glass and silicon sensor • Spectral response related to different incidence angles, materials and spectra

  4. Protective effect of UV-A radiation during acclimation of the photosynthetic apparatus to UV-B treatment

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Štroch, Michal; Materová, Z.; Vrábl, D.; Karlický, Václav; Šigut, Ladislav; Nezval, J.; Špunda, Vladimír

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 96, nov (2015), s. 90-96 ISSN 0981-9428 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LO1415; GA MŠk(CZ) LM2010007 Grant - others:EHP(CZ) EHP-CZ02-OV-1-014-2014 Program:CZ02 Institutional support: RVO:67179843 Keywords : barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) * chlorophyll fluorescence * photosynthesis * photosynthetic pigments * UV-A radiation * UV-B radiation Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics Impact factor: 2.928, year: 2015

  5. Impacts of Saharan dust on downward irradiance and photosynthetically available radiation in the water column

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Ohde

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available A semi-empirical approach was used to quantify the modification of the underwater light field in amplitude (magnitude effect and spectral distribution (spectral effect by different atmospheric conditions altering the incident light. The approach based on an optical model in connection with radiation measurements in the area off Northwest Africa. Key inputs of the model were parameterized magnitude and spectral effects. Various atmospheric conditions were considered: clear sky, dusty sky without clouds, cloudy sky without dust and skies with different ratios of dust and clouds. Their impacts were investigated concerning the modification of the downward irradiance and photosynthetically available radiation in the water column. The impact on downward irradiance depended on the wavelength, the water depth, the optical water properties, the dust and cloud properties, and the ratio of clouds to dust. The influence of clouds on the amplitude can be much higher than that of dust. Saharan dust reduced the photosynthetically available radiation in the water column. Ocean regions were more influenced than coastal areas. Compensations of the magnitude and spectral effects were observed at special water depths in ocean regions and at atmospheric conditions with definite cloud to dust ratios.

  6. Impact of UV-B radiation on photosynthetic assimilation of 14C-bicarbonate and inorganic 15N-compounds by cyanobacteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doehler, G.; Biermann, I.; Zink, J.

    1986-01-01

    The cyanobacteria Anabaena cylindrica and Synechococcus leopoliensis (=Anacystis nidulans) were grown at different levels of UV-B radiation (439, 717, 1230 and 1405 J m -2 d -1 , weighted according Caldwell, 1971) for 2 days. Dry weight was hardly affected but phycocyanin content of both species decreased linearly to the level of UV-B radiation. Contents of protein, carotenoids and chlorophyll a were reduced only after exposure to high doses (1230 J m -2 d -1 ) of UV-B radiation. Photosynthetic 14 CO 2 fixation of Anabaena cells was reduced linearly with increasing UV-B dose whereas no effect could be observed in Synechococcus. A depression of photosynthetic 15 N-nitrate uptake was found after UV-B stress in both species. UV-B irradiance caused an increase of 15 N-incorporation into glutamine, but no effect was noted for incorporation into alanine or aspartic acid. An increase of 15 N-excess in glutamic acid linear with the UV-B dose was observed in Synechococcus, only. Patterns of 14 C-labelled photosynthetic products were either less affected by UV-B radiation (Anabaena) or an enhancement of 14 C-label in total amino acids was detected (Synechococcus). The amount of total free amino acids increased parallel to the level of UV-B radiation. Only, the high dose of UV-B (1405 J m -2 d -1 , weighted) results in a decrease of the glutamine pool. Our results indicate an inhibition of glutamate synthase by UV-B irradiation in Anabaena, only. Results were discussed with reference to the damage of the photosynthetic apparatus. (orig.)

  7. Photosynthetically Available Radiation, Aqua MODIS, NPP, 0.125 degrees, East US

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — MODIS measures photosynthetically available radiation that may be used to mode primary productivity. THIS IS AN EXPERIMENTAL PRODUCT: intended strictly for...

  8. Photosynthetically Available Radiation, Aqua MODIS, NPP, 0.125 degrees, West US

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — MODIS measures photosynthetically available radiation that may be used to mode primary productivity. THIS IS AN EXPERIMENTAL PRODUCT: intended strictly for...

  9. Relationship of in-coming radiation with photosynthetically active, infra-red and net radiations in Brassica species and rocket salad (Eruca sativa)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nandwal, A.S.; Kuhad, M.S.

    1989-01-01

    Marked variation was observed among genotypes when the data for in-coming solar radiation were monitored horizontally. The regression equation for in-coming solar radiation versus photosynthetically active radiation and incoming solar radiation versus in-coming infra red radiation indicated linear relationship

  10. Photosynthetic Performance of the Red Alga Pyropia haitanensis During Emersion, With Special Reference to Effects of Solar UV Radiation, Dehydration and Elevated CO2 Concentration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Juntian; Gao, Kunshan

    2015-11-01

    Macroalgae distributed in intertidal zones experience a series of environmental changes, such as periodical desiccation associated with tidal cycles, increasing CO2 concentration and solar UVB (280-315 nm) irradiance in the context of climate change. We investigated how the economic red macroalga, Pyropia haitanensis, perform its photosynthesis under elevated atmospheric CO2 concentration and in the presence of solar UV radiation (280-400 nm) during emersion. Our results showed that the elevated CO2 (800 ppmv) significantly increased the photosynthetic carbon fixation rate of P. haitanensis by about 100% when the alga was dehydrated. Solar UV radiation had insignificant effects on the net photosynthesis without desiccation stress and under low levels of sunlight, but significantly inhibited it with increased levels of desiccation and sunlight intensity, to the highest extent at the highest levels of water loss and solar radiation. Presence of UV radiation and the elevated CO2 acted synergistically to cause higher inhibition of the photosynthetic carbon fixation, which exacerbated at higher levels of desiccation and sunlight. While P. haitanensis can benefit from increasing atmospheric CO2 concentration during emersion under low and moderate levels of solar radiation, combined effects of elevated CO2 and UV radiation acted synergistically to reduce its photosynthesis under high solar radiation levels during noon periods. © 2015 The American Society of Photobiology.

  11. Ocean acidification alters the photosynthetic responses of a coccolithophorid to fluctuating ultraviolet and visible radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Peng; Gao, Kunshan; Villafañe, Virginia E; Campbell, Douglas A; Helbling, E Walter

    2013-08-01

    Mixing of seawater subjects phytoplankton to fluctuations in photosynthetically active radiation (400-700 nm) and ultraviolet radiation (UVR; 280-400 nm). These irradiance fluctuations are now superimposed upon ocean acidification and thinning of the upper mixing layer through stratification, which alters mixing regimes. Therefore, we examined the photosynthetic carbon fixation and photochemical performance of a coccolithophore, Gephyrocapsa oceanica, grown under high, future (1,000 μatm) and low, current (390 μatm) CO₂ levels, under regimes of fluctuating irradiances with or without UVR. Under both CO₂ levels, fluctuating irradiances, as compared with constant irradiance, led to lower nonphotochemical quenching and less UVR-induced inhibition of carbon fixation and photosystem II electron transport. The cells grown under high CO₂ showed a lower photosynthetic carbon fixation rate but lower nonphotochemical quenching and less ultraviolet B (280-315 nm)-induced inhibition. Ultraviolet A (315-400 nm) led to less enhancement of the photosynthetic carbon fixation in the high-CO₂-grown cells under fluctuating irradiance. Our data suggest that ocean acidification and fast mixing or fluctuation of solar radiation will act synergistically to lower carbon fixation by G. oceanica, although ocean acidification may decrease ultraviolet B-related photochemical inhibition.

  12. Interactive effects of vertical mixing, nutrients and ultraviolet radiation: in situ photosynthetic responses of phytoplankton from high mountain lakes in Southern Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helbling, E. W.; Carrillo, P.; Medina-Sánchez, J. M.; Durán, C.; Herrera, G.; Villar-Argaiz, M.; Villafañe, V. E.

    2013-02-01

    Global change, together with human activities, has resulted in increasing amounts of organic material (including nutrients) that water bodies receive. This input further attenuates the penetration of solar radiation, leading to the view that opaque lakes are more "protected" from solar ultraviolet radiation (UVR) than clear ones. Vertical mixing, however, complicates this view as cells are exposed to fluctuating radiation regimes, for which the effects have, in general, been neglected. Furthermore, the combined impacts of mixing, together with those of UVR and nutrient inputs are virtually unknown. In this study, we carried out complex in situ experiments in three high mountain lakes of Spain (Lake Enol in the National Park Picos de Europa, Asturias, and lakes Las Yeguas and La Caldera in the National Park Sierra Nevada, Granada), used as model ecosystems to evaluate the joint impact of these climate change variables. The main goal of this study was to address the question of how short-term pulses of nutrient inputs, together with vertical mixing and increased UVR fluxes modify the photosynthetic responses of phytoplankton. The experimentation consisted in all possible combinations of the following treatments: (a) solar radiation: UVR + PAR (280-700 nm) versus PAR (photosynthetically active radiation) alone (400-700 nm); (b) nutrient addition (phosphorus (P) and nitrogen (N)): ambient versus addition (P to reach to a final concentration of 30 μg P L-1, and N to reach N:P molar ratio of 31); and (c) mixing: mixed (one rotation from surface to 3 m depth (speed of 1 m 4 min-1, total of 10 cycles)) versus static. Our findings suggest that under ambient nutrient conditions there is a synergistic effect between vertical mixing and UVR, increasing phytoplankton photosynthetic inhibition and excretion of organic carbon (EOC) from opaque lakes as compared to algae that received constant mean irradiance within the epilimnion. The opposite occurs in clear lakes where

  13. Interactive effects of vertical mixing, nutrients and ultraviolet radiation: in situ photosynthetic responses of phytoplankton from high mountain lakes in Southern Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. W. Helbling

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Global change, together with human activities, has resulted in increasing amounts of organic material (including nutrients that water bodies receive. This input further attenuates the penetration of solar radiation, leading to the view that opaque lakes are more "protected" from solar ultraviolet radiation (UVR than clear ones. Vertical mixing, however, complicates this view as cells are exposed to fluctuating radiation regimes, for which the effects have, in general, been neglected. Furthermore, the combined impacts of mixing, together with those of UVR and nutrient inputs are virtually unknown. In this study, we carried out complex in situ experiments in three high mountain lakes of Spain (Lake Enol in the National Park Picos de Europa, Asturias, and lakes Las Yeguas and La Caldera in the National Park Sierra Nevada, Granada, used as model ecosystems to evaluate the joint impact of these climate change variables. The main goal of this study was to address the question of how short-term pulses of nutrient inputs, together with vertical mixing and increased UVR fluxes modify the photosynthetic responses of phytoplankton. The experimentation consisted in all possible combinations of the following treatments: (a solar radiation: UVR + PAR (280–700 nm versus PAR (photosynthetically active radiation alone (400–700 nm; (b nutrient addition (phosphorus (P and nitrogen (N: ambient versus addition (P to reach to a final concentration of 30 μg P L−1, and N to reach N:P molar ratio of 31; and (c mixing: mixed (one rotation from surface to 3 m depth (speed of 1 m 4 min−1, total of 10 cycles versus static. Our findings suggest that under ambient nutrient conditions there is a synergistic effect between vertical mixing and UVR, increasing phytoplankton photosynthetic inhibition and excretion of organic carbon (EOC from opaque lakes as compared to algae that received constant mean irradiance within the epilimnion. The

  14. Photosynthetically Available Radiation, Aqua MODIS, NPP, 0.05 degrees, Global, Science Quality

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — MODIS measures photosynthetically available radiation that may be used to mode primary productivity. THIS IS AN EXPERIMENTAL PRODUCT: intended strictly for...

  15. Photosynthetically Available Radiation, Aqua MODIS, NPP, 0.125 degrees, Gulf of Mexico

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — MODIS measures photosynthetically available radiation that may be used to mode primary productivity. THIS IS AN EXPERIMENTAL PRODUCT: intended strictly for...

  16. DNA damage and photosynthetic inhibition induced by solar ultraviolet radiation in tropical phytoplankton (Lake Titicaca, Bolivia)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Helbling, EW; Villafane, VE; Buma, AGJ; Andrade, M; Zaratti, F

    Experiments were conducted during October 1998 in Lake Titicaca, Bolivia (16 degrees S, 68 degrees W, 3810 m a.s.l), to determine the effects of solar ultraviolet radiation (UVR) on phytoplankton photosynthetic rates and DNA damage. Water samples were taken daily and incubated ir? situ or in

  17. Estimating Photosynthetic Radiation Use Efficiency Using Incident Light and Photosynthesis of Individual Leaves

    OpenAIRE

    ROSATI, A.; DEJONG, T. M.

    2003-01-01

    It has been theorized that photosynthetic radiation use efficiency (PhRUE) over the course of a day is constant for leaves throughout a canopy if leaf nitrogen content and photosynthetic properties are adapted to local light so that canopy photosynthesis over a day is optimized. To test this hypothesis, ‘daily’ photosynthesis of individual leaves of Solanum melongena plants was calculated from instantaneous rates of photosynthesis integrated over the daylight hours. Instantaneous photosynthes...

  18. Responses of photosynthetic properties and chloroplast ultrastructure of two moss crusts from a desert biological soil crust to supplementary UV-B radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hui, Rong; Li, Xinrong; Zhao, Yang; Pan, Yanxia

    2016-04-01

    Our understanding of plant responses to supplementary ultraviolet-B (UV-B) radiation due to stratospheric ozone depletion has improved over recent decades. However, research on biological soil crusts (BSCs) is scarce and it remains controversial. Laboratory studies were conducted to investigate the influence of UV-B radiation on the Bryum argenteum and Didymodon vinealis isolated from BSCs, which are both dominant species in moss crusts found within patches of shrubs and herbs in the Tengger Desert of northern China. The aim of the current work was to evaluate whether supplementary UV-B radiation affected photosynthetic properties and chloroplast ultrastructure of two moss crusts and whether response differences were observed between the crusts. Four levels of UV-B radiation of 2.75 (control), 3.08, 3.25, and 3.41 W m-2 was achieved using fluorescence tube systems for 10 days, simulating 0, 6, 9, and 12% of stratospheric ozone at the latitude of Shapotou, respectively. We measured photosynthetic apparatus as assessed by chlorophyll a fluorescence parameters, photosynthetic pigment contents, and observations of chloroplast ultrastructure. Additionally, soluble proteins and UV-B absorbing compounds were simultaneously investigated. The results of this study showed that chlorophyll a fluorescence parameters (i.e., the maximal quantum yield of PSII photochemistry, the effective quantum yield of PSII photochemistry, and photochemical quenching coefficient), photosynthetic pigment contents, soluble protein contents, total flavonoid contents and the ultrastructure were negatively influenced by elevated UV-B radiation and the degree of detrimental effects significantly increased with the intensity of UV-B radiation. Moreover, results demonstrated that the negative effects on photosynthesis and chloroplast ultrastructure were more serious in B. argenteum than that in D. vinealis. These results may not only provide a potential mechanism for supplemental UV-B effects on

  19. Changes in epicuticular flavonoids and photosynthetic pigments as a plant response to UV-B radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cuadra, P.; Harborne, J. B. [Universidad de Magallances, Punta Arenas (Chile)

    1996-07-01

    Treatment of Gnaphalium vira-vira plants with UV-B radiation caused changes in plant growth and in plant chemistry. The leaf surface contained two O-methylated flavones, araneol and 7-O-methylaraneol. HPLC analysis showed that 20 days of UV-B radiation increased the synthesis of 7-O-methylaraneol at the expense of araneol. Spectrophotometric analysis of the photosynthetic pigments showed that UV-B radiation also increases the pigment content in treated plants. Another U V alteration is epidermal hair damage, as observed in SEM pictures of treated leaves. This combination of physiological and phytochemical effects may be interpreted as a plant response to UV-B stress.

  20. Changes in epicuticular flavonoids and photosynthetic pigments as a plant response to UV-B radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cuadra, P.; Harborne, J.B.

    1996-01-01

    Treatment of Gnaphalium vira-vira plants with UV-B radiation caused changes in plant growth and in plant chemistry. The leaf surface contained two O-methylated flavones, araneol and 7-O-methylaraneol. HPLC analysis showed that 20 days of UV-B radiation increased the synthesis of 7-O-methylaraneol at the expense of araneol. Spectrophotometric analysis of the photosynthetic pigments showed that UV-B radiation also increases the pigment content in treated plants. Another U V alteration is epidermal hair damage, as observed in SEM pictures of treated leaves. This combination of physiological and phytochemical effects may be interpreted as a plant response to UV-B stress

  1. Morphogenesis and tissue culture of sweet orange (Citrus sinensis (L.) Osb.): effect of temperature and photosynthetic radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duran-Vila, N.; Gogorcena, Y.; Ortega, V.; Ortiz, J.; Navarro, L.

    1992-01-01

    Both incubation temperature and photosynthetic radiation affected morphogenesis, callus culture and plantlet culture of sweet orange (Citrus sinensis) cultured in vitro. Bud culture from nodal stem segments, regeneration of shoots and buds from internode stem segments and induction of primary callus were near optimal at incubation temperatures between 21–30°C. The optimal temperature for root formation was 27°C with temperatures above and below being clearly deleterious. Incubation in the dark or under low photosynthetic photon flux density (PPFD) was beneficial for callus induction and growth and also favored the production of rooted plantlets from bud cultures. Incubation in the dark improved considerably the regeneration of shoots and buds from internode segments and the recovery of whole plants. No off-types, as determined by protein and isoenzyme analysis, were observed among plantlets recovered from bud cultures or from regeneration of shoots from internode stem segments

  2. Effect of maize seed laser irradiation on plant photosynthetic activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antonov, M.; Stanev, V.; Velichkov, D.; Tsonev, Ts.

    1986-01-01

    Investigations were made with the two hybrids, H-708 and P x -20. The seeds were irradiated by a helium-neon quantum generator (L'vov-1 Electronica) with output power of 24 MW and 632.8 nm wave length. Once and twice irradiated seeds were sown on the 2nd, 5th and 10th day post irradiation. Changes in leaf area, chlorophyll content in the leaves, photosynthetic rate and its dependence on temperature and light, transpiration, stomatal resistance to CO 2 and total dry matter of the overground plant part were traced. Seed irradiation with laser rays did not affect the chlorophyll content of the leaves. The photosynthetic rate did not depend on the cultivar characteristics of the crop. Single and repeated irradiation of the hybrid H-708 in most case enhanced photosynthetic rate, but a similar effect was not observed in P x -20. Transpiration and CO 2 stomatal resistance were not equally affected by radiation. Laser rays enhanced the ability of the photosynthetic apparatus of the entire plants to use more efficiently high light intensities. The leaf area and the total plant dry matter increased in case of sowing on the 2nd and 5th day and a single irradiation and in case of sowing on the 5th and 10th day and twice repeated irradiations

  3. Interactive effects of vertical mixing, nutrients and ultraviolet radiation: in situ photosynthetic responses of phytoplankton from high mountain lakes of Southern Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helbling, E. W.; Carrillo, P.; Medina-Sanchez, J. M.; Durán, C.; Herrera, G.; Villar-Argaiz, M.; Villafañe, V. E.

    2012-07-01

    Global change, together with human activities had resulted in increasing amounts of organic material (including nutrients) received by water bodies. This input further attenuates the penetration of solar radiation leading to the view that opaque lakes are more "protected" from solar ultraviolet radiation (UVR) than clear ones. Vertical mixing, however, complicates this view as cells are exposed to fluctuating radiation regimes, which effects have in general been neglected. Even more, the combined impacts of mixing, together with those of UVR and nutrients input are virtually unknown. In this study, we carried out in situ experiments in three high mountain lakes of Spain (Lake Enol in Asturias, and lakes Las Yeguas and La Caldera in Granada) to determine the combined effects of these three variables associated to global change on photosynthetic responses of natural phytoplankton communities. The experimentation consisted in all possible combinations of the following treatments: (a) solar radiation: UVR + PAR (280-700 nm) versus PAR alone (400-700 nm); (b) nutrient addition (phosphorus (P) and nitrogen (N)): ambient versus addition (P to reach to a final concentration of 30 μg P l-1, and N to reach a N : P molar ratio of 31) and, (c) mixing: mixed (one rotation from surface to 3 m depth (speed of 1 m every 4 min, total of 10 cycles) versus static. Our findings suggest that under in situ nutrient conditions there is a synergistic effect between vertical mixing and UVR, increasing phytoplankton photosynthetic inhibition and EOC from opaque lakes as compared to algae that received constant mean irradiance within the epilimnion. The opposite occurs in clear lakes where antagonistic effects were determined, with mixing partially counteracting the negative effects of UVR. Nutrients input mimicking atmospheric pulses from Saharan dust, reversed this effect and clear lakes became more inhibited during mixing, while opaque lakes benefited from the fluctuating irradiance

  4. Estimating photosynthetic radiation use efficiency using incident light and photosynthesis of individual leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosati, A; Dejong, T M

    2003-06-01

    It has been theorized that photosynthetic radiation use efficiency (PhRUE) over the course of a day is constant for leaves throughout a canopy if leaf nitrogen content and photosynthetic properties are adapted to local light so that canopy photosynthesis over a day is optimized. To test this hypothesis, 'daily' photosynthesis of individual leaves of Solanum melongena plants was calculated from instantaneous rates of photosynthesis integrated over the daylight hours. Instantaneous photosynthesis was estimated from the photosynthetic responses to photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) and from the incident PAR measured on individual leaves during clear and overcast days. Plants were grown with either abundant or scarce N fertilization. Both net and gross daily photosynthesis of leaves were linearly related to daily incident PAR exposure of individual leaves, which implies constant PhRUE over a day throughout the canopy. The slope of these relationships (i.e. PhRUE) increased with N fertilization. When the relationship was calculated for hourly instead of daily periods, the regressions were curvilinear, implying that PhRUE changed with time of the day and incident radiation. Thus, linearity (i.e. constant PhRUE) was achieved only when data were integrated over the entire day. Using average PAR in place of instantaneous incident PAR increased the slope of the relationship between daily photosynthesis and incident PAR of individual leaves, and the regression became curvilinear. The slope of the relationship between daily gross photosynthesis and incident PAR of individual leaves increased for an overcast compared with a clear day, but the slope remained constant for net photosynthesis. This suggests that net PhRUE of all leaves (and thus of the whole canopy) may be constant when integrated over a day, not only when the incident PAR changes with depth in the canopy, but also when it varies on the same leaf owing to changes in daily incident PAR above the canopy. The

  5. Photoinhibition and photosynthetic pigment reorganisation dynamics in light/darkness cycles as photoprotective mechanisms of Porphyra umbilicalis against damaging effects of UV radiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Aguilera

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Porphyra umbilicalis L. Kutzing collected from the upper intertidal zone at Helgoland, North Sea, was exposed to different spectral ranges of UV radiation under both 12/12 h light/dark cycles and continuous irradiation. In light/dark cycles, oscillations of the optimal quantum yield (Fv /Fm were observed during the experiments, reaching maximal values at the end of the light phase followed by lower values during the dark phase. Decreased Fv /Fm was observed in thalli illuminated with photosynthetic active radiation (PAR plus UV-A and PAR+UV-A+UV-B, compared with the PAR control, indicating a certain degree of UV-induced photoinhibition. In addition, a decrease in the percentage of change of the linear initial slope and maximum electron transport rate (ETR estimated from ETR vs. irradiance curves was induced by UV radiation during the light phase. Recovery during the 12 h dark phase was almost completed in UV-A treated plants. PAR+UV-A seemed not to affect the photosynthesis, measured as O2 production. However, a decrease in O2 production was observed in the PAR+UV-A+UV-B treatment, but it recovered to initial values after 48 h of culture. No changes in total content of photosynthetic pigments were observed. However, thallus absorptance and the in vivo absorption cross-section in the PAR range (400-700 nm normalised to Chl a (a* parameter fluctuated during light/dark cycles and were positively correlated with changes in the optimum quantum yield, thus indicating that daily pigment reorganisation in the light-harvesting complex may play a key role in the photosynthetic performance of the algae. Both UV-A and UV-B treatments under continuous irradiation induced a significant reduction in the optimal quantum yield, ETR efficiency and photosynthetic oxygen production during the first 36 h to values around 30% of the initial ones. Thus, different protective mechanisms against UV stress can be observed in P. umbilicalis: dynamic photoinhibition when

  6. Lipids and pigment-protein complexes of photosynthetic apparatus of Deschampsia antarctica Desv. plants under UV-B radiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svietlova N. B.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To investigate structural and functional modifications of major components of photosynthetic membranes of endemic antarctic species D. antarctica under UV-B radiation. Methods. For quantitative determination of photosynthetic membrane components we used Arnon’s method (for chlorophylls and carotenoids; separation of carotenoids was carried out by Merzlyak’s method; polar lipids were isolated by Zill and Harmon method in modification of Yakovenko and Mihno; glycolipids separation and identification we carried out by Yamamoto method; and sulfoquinovosyl diacylglycerol content was determined by Kean method. The separation, disintegration and determination of pigment-protein complexes of chloroplasts were carried out by Anderson method. Authenticity of differences between the mean arithmetic values of indices was set after the Student criterion. Differences were considered as reliable at p 0.05. Results. We determined structural and functional changes in lipids, carotenoids and pigment-protein complexes at the photosyntetic apparatus level in D. antarctica plants under UV-B radiation. Conclusions. Adaptation of D. antarctica plants to UV-B radiation is accompanied by a cascade of physiological and biochemical rearrangements at the level of photosynthetic apparatus, manifested as the changes in pigment, lipid and pigment-protein complexes content

  7. Effect of nitrogen supply on leaf growth, leaf nitrogen economy and photosynthetic capacity in potato

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vos, J.; Putten, van der P.E.L.

    1998-01-01

    Literature reports show little effect of nitrogen supply on radiation use efficiency in potato and in other dicotyledonous C3 species. This paper tests the hypothesis that potato reduces leaf size rather than leaf nitrogen concentration and photosynthetic capacity when nitrogen is in short supply.

  8. Effects of radiation quality, intensity, and duration on photosynthesis and growth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bugbee, B. [Utah State Univ., Logan, UT (United States)

    1994-12-31

    Differences in radiation quality from the six most common electric lamps have little effect on photosynthetic rate. Radiation quality primarily alters growth because of changes in branching or internode elongation, which change radiation absorption. Growth and yield in wheat appear to be insensitive to radiation quality. Growth and yield in soybeans can be slightly increased under high pressure sodium lamps compared to metal halide lamps, in spite of greatly reduced chlorophyll concentrations under HPS lamps. Daily integrated photosynthetic photon flux (mol m{sup -2} d{sup -1}) most directly determines leaf anatomy and growth. Photosynthetic photon flux levels of 800 {mu}mol m{sup -2} s{sup -1} are adequate to simulate field daily-integrated PPF levels for both short and long day plants, but plant canopies can benefit from much higher PPF levels.

  9. Effect of planting density on fruit size, light-interception and photosynthetic activity of vertically trained watermelon (Citrullus lanatus (Thunb.) Matsum. et Nakai) plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanabe, S.; Nakano, Y.; Okano, K.

    2003-01-01

    Summary The effect of planting density on fruit size of vertically trained watermelon (Citrullus lanatus (Thunb.) Matsum. et Nakai) plants was investigated with regard to light - interception characteristics and photosynthetic production. Watermelon plants, grafted on bottle gourd, were grown in a glasshouse at different planting densities. Two vines per plant were allowed to grow and trained vertically. One hand-pollinated fruit per plant was set around the 15th node on either vine. The solar radiation and photosynthetic rate of individual leaves during fruit development period were determined by an integrated solarimeter film and a portable photosynthesis system, respectively. Fruit size was significantly decreased as the planting density increased, whereas soluble solids content of the fruits was affected little. The solar radiation and the photosynthetic rate of the individual leaves gradually decreased as the leaf position became lower at all planting densities on account of shading; those at lower leaves tended to decrease as the planting density increased. Fruit size was closely related to both the total solar radiation and the photosynthetic production per plant. In conclusion, the difference in fruit size among the planting densities is attributed to the photosynthetic productivity of the whole plant, which is mainly a function of the total solar radiation. This paper appears to be the first trial relating the influence of light interception and photosynthetic rates in high density plantings of vertically trained watermelon plants on fruit size

  10. Effect of gamma radiation on photosynthetic metabolism of Chlorella pyrenoidosa studied by 14{sup C}O{sub 2} assimilation; Estudio del efecto de la radiacion gamma sobre el metabolismo fotosintetico de Chlorella pyrenoidosa mediante asimilacion de 14{sup C}O{sub 2}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, C; Fernandez, J

    1983-07-01

    The effect of five dose of gamma radiation (10, 100, 500, 1000 and 5000 Gy) on photosynthetic activity and metabolism of the primary products of photosynthesis has been studied, on Chlorella pyrenoidoBa cultures, by 14{sup C}O{sub 2} assimilation. The photosynthetic assimilation rate is remarkably depressed after irradiation at 500, 1000 and 5000 Gy dose, which also produce a significant change in radioactivity distribution pattern of primary compounds from photosynthesis. No significant effects have been observed on photosynthetic metabolism after irradiation at 10 and 100 Gy. (Author) 19 refs.

  11. Effect of solar radiation on photosynthesis and pigmentation in the cyanobacterium microcoleus chtihonoplastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Annan, J.N.; Galyuon, I. K. A.; Donkor, V.A.

    2007-01-01

    The effects of solar radiation on the photosynthetic oxygen production and pigmentation were investigated in the marine filamentous cyanobacterium. Microcoleus chthonoplastes harvested from the intertidal zone of the Biriwa coast in Ghana. The organism was exposed to unfiltered solar radiation (UV-B. UV-A and PAR) and solar radiation filtered through optical filters. WG320 (UV-A and PAR), GG400 (PAR only), and UG5 (only UV-B and UV-A), Photosynthetic oxygen production was impaired. The reduction in the rate of photosynthetic oxygen production took over 2 hours to occur. The photoinhibition due to unfiltered solar radiation and combined UV-A and PAR were most severe. Absorption spectra of the crude extracts of M. chthonoplastes, indicated the presence of chlorophyll a, carotenoids, phycoerythrin and phycocyanin as the photosynthetic pigments, which were significantly bleached under the various solar radiation wavelengths. Generally, the phycobilins were affected most. Fluorescence measurements showed peaks that decreased significantly in amplitude and also underwent a shift towards shorter wavelengths, with prolonged exposure time, indicating that energy transfer from the accessory pigments was adversely affected. The implication is that increased solar radiation may have severe consequences on the marine ecosystem. (au)

  12. Acclimation to UV-B radiation and visible light in Lactuca sativa involves up-regulation of photosynthetic performance and orchestration of metabolome-wide responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wargent, J J; Nelson, B C W; McGhie, T K; Barnes, P W

    2015-05-01

    UV-B radiation is often viewed as a source of stress for higher plants. In particular, photosynthetic function has been described as a common target for UV-B impairment; yet as our understanding of UV-B photomorphogenesis increases, there are opportunities to expand the emerging paradigm of regulatory UV response. Lactuca sativa is an important dietary crop species and is often subjected to rapid sunlight exposure at field transfer. Acclimation to UV-B and visible light conditions in L. sativa was dissected using gas exchange and chlorophyll fluorescence measurements, in addition to non-destructive assessments of UV epidermal shielding (SUV ). After UV-B treatment, seedlings were subjected to wide-range metabolomic analysis using liquid chromatography hybrid quadrupole time-of-flight high-resolution mass spectrometry (LC-QTOF-HRMS). During the acclimation period, net photosynthetic rate increased in UV-treated plants, epidermal UV shielding increased in both subsets of plants transferred to the acclimatory conditions (UV+/UV- plants) and Fv /Fm declined slightly in UV+/UV- plants. Metabolomic analysis revealed that a key group of secondary compounds was up-regulated by higher light conditions, yet several of these compounds were elevated further by UV-B radiation. In conclusion, acclimation to UV-B radiation involves co-protection from the effects of visible light, and responses to UV-B radiation at a photosynthetic level may not be consistently viewed as damaging to plant development. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Effects of solar PAR and UV radiation on tropical biofouling communities

    KAUST Repository

    Dobretsov, SV; Gosselin, L; Qian, P

    2010-01-01

    We investigated the effect of solar ultraviolet radiation (UVR) and photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) on the development of tropical micro- and macrofouling communities for 30 d. The experimental design involved 3 treatments: full spectrum

  14. Ultraviolet-B effects on transcript levels for photosynthetic genes are not mediated through carbohydrate metabolism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mackerness, S.A.H.; Surplus, S.L.; Jordan, B.R.; Thomas, B.

    1997-01-01

    The relationship between UV-B-induced changes in gene expression and carbohydrate levels in pea seedlings has been investigated. The effect of supplementary UV-B radiation on the transcript abundance for two photosynthetic genes, photosynthesis, respiration and the levels of carbohydrates was determined in fully expanded leaves of 17-d-old pea seedlings under high (HL: 350 μmol m −2 s −1 ) and low (LL: 150 μmol m −2 s 1 ) light. Supplementary UV-B caused down regulation of the photosynthetic genes in green leaves under LL and to a lesser extent under HL. In contrast to previous studies, UV-B radiation resulted in a decrease in glucose levels rather than an increase under LL. Sucrose and starch levels were not affected until longer exposure. Effects of UV-B on carbohydrate levels were, however, minimal under HL. The effects on transcript levels were most marked under LL and therefore could not be attributed to elevated carbohydrate levels. Comparison of UV-B effects on carbohydrates in source (leaf) and sink (green buds) organs indicated that changes in carbohydrates in response to UV-B are probably indirect and arise from effects of UV-B on photosynthesis in source organs. (author)

  15. Ameliorative effect of salicylic acid and theophylline on photosynthetic pigment content in gamma irradiated french bean varieties, using "6"0Co as a source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shukla, Pradeep K.; Vishwakarma, Kapil Kumar; Shukla, Saumya; Sharma, Richa; Ramteke, P.W.; Misra, Pragati

    2017-01-01

    Irradiation of seeds may cause genetic variability that enable plant breeders to select new genotypes with improved qualitative and quantitative characteristics. An experiment was conducted to study the protective role of salicylic acid and theophylline on photosynthetic pigments of gamma exposed french bean. Seeds of four French bean were treated by different doses of gamma radiation using "6"0Co as source. The results showed that the application of salicylic acid and theophylline significantly increased chlorophyll a content, chlorophyll b content, total chlorophyll content and carotenoid content. Salicylic acid was more effective than theophylline in overcoming the radiation effects and therefore, showed more protection to the photosynthetic pigments. (author)

  16. Effects of acute and sub-acute gamma radiation on photosynthetic release and respiration of three unicellular marine algae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ehrhardt, J P

    1974-12-31

    Thesis. Lethal doses of irradiation are required before a 50% inactivation of the photosynthetic release is achieved. The chloroplasts, after this treatment, are one and a half times more resistant than the nucleus. The delayed effect is irreversible when it corresponds to a dose in excess of that necessary for the immediate 10% inhibition of the photosynthetic release. A decrease is observed in the respiration during several days after the occurrence of an intermediate increase. This behavior may be considered to be a consequence of the irreversible destruction of the mitochondrial sites. (FR)

  17. Utilisation of total solar radiation energy in the photosynthetic production of radish, red beet and bean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wiesław Nowakowski

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Utilisation of total solar radiation energy in the photosynthetic production of radish, red beet and bean is expressed as per cent of solar radiation accumulated in the carbon of -the dry mass per 1 cm2 of the assimilation surface area. Utilisation of this energy ranges from 2.6 to 8.4 per cent in radish, from 1.7 to 7.5 per cent in beet and from 1.9 to 4.9 per cent in bean.

  18. Hyperspectral estimation of corn fraction of photosynthetically active radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Fei; Zhang Bai; Song Kaishan

    2008-01-01

    Fraction of absorbed photosynthetically active radiation (FPAR) is one of the important variables in many productivity and biomass estimation models, this analyzed the effect of FPAR estimation with hyperspectral information, which could provide the scientific support on the improvement of FPAR estimation, remote sensing data validation, and the other ecological models. Based on the field experiment of corn, this paper analyzed the correlations between FPAR and spectral reflectance or the differential coefficient, and discussed the mechanism of FPAR estimation, studied corn FPAR estimation with reflectance, first differential coefficient, NDVI and RVI. The reflectance of visible bands showed much better correlations with FPAR than near-infrared bands. The correlation curve between FPAR and differential coefficient varied more frequently and greatly than the curve of FPAR and reflectance. Reflectance and differential coefficient both had good regressions with FPAR of the typical single band, with the maximum R2 of 0.791 and 0.882. In a word, differential coefficient and vegetation index were much effective than reflectance for corn FPAR estimating, and the stepwised regression of multibands differential coefficient showed the best regression with R2 of 0.944. 375 nm purpled band and 950 nm near-infraed band absorbed by water showed prodigious potential for FPAR estimating precision. On the whole, vegetation index and differential coefficient have good relationships with FPAR, and could be used for FAPR estimation. It would be effective of choosing right bands and excavating the hyperspectral data to improve FPAR estimating precision

  19. Isoprenoids emission in Stipa tenacissima L.: Photosynthetic control and the effect of UV light

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guidolotti, Gabriele; Rey, Ana; Medori, Mauro; Calfapietra, Carlo

    2016-01-01

    Fluxes of CO_2 and isoprenoids were measured for the first time in Stipa tenacissima L (alfa grass), a perennial tussock grass dominant in the driest areas of Europe. In addition, we studied how those fluxes were influenced by environmental conditions, leaf ontogeny and UV radiation and compared emission rates in two contrasting seasons: summer when plants are mostly inactive and autumn, the growing season in this region. Leaf ontogeny significantly affected both photosynthesis and isoprenoids emission. Isoprene emission was positively correlated with photosynthesis, although a low isoprene emission was detected in brown leaves with a net carbon loss. Moreover, leaves with a significant lower photosynthesis emitted only monoterpenes, while at higher photosynthetic rates also isoprene was produced. Ambient UV radiation uncoupled photosynthesis and isoprene emission. It is speculated that alfa grass represent an exception from the general rules governing plant isoprenoid emitters. - Highlights: • Stipa tenacissima L. is a grass emitting either monoterpenes and isoprene. • The emission has reasonable rates even in senescent leaves. • Isoprene emission is positively correlated with CO_2 assimilation. • Ambient UV radiation uncouples photosynthesis and isoprene emission. • Leaves with lower photosynthetic rates emit only monoterpenes. - We proved for the first time that alfa grass emit both isoprene and monoterpene, and we provide some innovative aspects about the UV effect and the behavior of Stipa tenacissima.

  20. UV-B radiation and photosynthetic irradiance acclimate eggplant for outdoor exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Latimer, J.G.; Mitchell, G.A.

    1987-01-01

    Treatment of greenhouse-grown eggplant (Solanum melongena L. var. esculentum Nees. 'Burpee's Black Beauty') seedlings with supplemental photosynthetically active radiation from cool-white fluorescent lamps increased growth of plants subsequently transferred outdoors relative to growth of plants that received no supplemental radiation or were shaded to 45% of solar irradiation in the greenhouse before transfer outdoors. Eggplant seedlings transferred outdoors were placed under plastic tarps either to provide relative protection from solar ultraviolet-B (UV-B) radiation (280-315 nm) using Mylar film or to allow exposure to UV-B using cellulose acetate. Protection of seedlings from UV-B radiation resulted in greater leaf expansion than for UV-B-exposed seedlings, but no change in leaf or shoot dry weight occurred after 9 days of treatment. Specific leaf weight increased in response to UV-B exposure outdoors. Exposure of eggplant to UV-B radiation from fluorescent sunlamps in the greenhouse also decreased leaf expansion and leaf and shoot dry weight gain after 5 days of treatment. However, there were no differences in leaf or shoot dry weight relative to control plants after 12 days of UV-B treatment, indicating that UV-B treated plants had acclimated to the treatment and actually had caught up with non-UV-B-irradiated plants in terms of growth

  1. [Radiometers performance attenuation and data correction in long-term observation of total radiation and photosynthetically active radiation in typical forest ecosystems in China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Zhi-Lin; Sun, Xiao-Min; Yu, Gui-Rui; Wen, Xue-Fa; Zhang, Yi-Ping; Han, Shi-Jie; Yan, Jun-Hua; Wang, Hui-Min

    2011-11-01

    Based on the total radiation and photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) observations with net radiometer (CNR1) and quantum sensor (Li-190SB) in 4 ChinaFLUX forest sites (Changbaishan, Qianyanzhou, Dinghushan, and Xishuangbanna) in 2003-2008, this paper analyzed the uncertainties and the radiometers performance changes in long-term and continuous field observation. The results showed that the 98% accuracy of the total radiation measured with CNR1 (Q(cNR1)) could satisfy the technical criterion for the sites except Xishuangbanna where the Q(CNR1) was averagely about 7% lower than Q(CM11), the radiation measured with high accuracy pyranometer CM11. For most sites, though the temperature had definite effects on the performance of CNR1, the effects were still within the allowable range of the accuracy of the instrument. Besides temperature, the seasonal fog often occurred in tropical rain forests in Xishuangbanna also had effects on the performance of CNR1. Based on the long-term variations of PAR, especially its ratio to total radiation in the 4 sites, it was found that quantum sensor (Li-190SB) had obvious performance attenuation, with the mean annual attenuation rate being about 4%. To correct the observation error caused by Li-190SB, an attempt was made to give a post-correction of the PAR observations, which could basically eliminate the quantum sensor's performance attenuation due to long-term field measurement.

  2. Relationship of photosynthetic carbon fixation with environmental changes in the Jiulong River estuary of the South China Sea, with special reference to the effects of solar UV radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Gang; Gao Kunshan; Yuan Dongxing; Zheng Ying; Yang Guiyuan

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → C-fixation is the highest in turbidity front, though UV resulted in higher inhibition. → Increased availability of CO 2 appeared to stimulate photosynthetic machinery. → Osmotic stress made phytoplankton more sensitive to UV. - Abstract: Phytoplankton cells in estuary waters usually experience drastic changes in chemical and physical environments due to mixing of fresh and seawaters. In order to see their photosynthetic performance in such dynamic waters, we measured the photosynthetic carbon fixation by natural phytoplankton assemblages in the Jiulong River estuary of the South China Sea during April 24-26 and July 24-26 of 2008, and investigated its relationship with environmental changes in the presence or the absence of UV radiation. Phytoplankton biomass (Chl a) decreased sharply from the river-mouth to seawards (17.3-2.1 μg L -1 ), with the dominant species changed from chlorophytes to diatoms. The photosynthetic rate based on Chl a at noon time under PAR-alone increased from 1.9 μg C (μg Chl a) -1 L -1 in low salinity zone (SSS -1 L -1 in turbidity front (SSS within 10-20), and then decreased to 2.1 μg C (μg Chl a) -1 L -1 in mixohaline zone (SSS > 20); accordingly, the carbon fixation per volume of seawater increased from 12.8 to 149 μg C L -1 h -1 , and decreased to 14.3 μg C L -1 h -1 . Solar UVR caused the inhibition of carbon fixation in surface water of all the investigated zones, by 39% in turbidity area and 7-10% in freshwater or mixohaline zones. In the turbidity zone, higher availability of CO 2 could have enhanced the photosynthetic performance; while osmotic stress might be responsible for the higher sensitivity of phytoplankton assemblages to solar UV radiation.

  3. NOAA Climate Data Record (CDR) of Leaf Area Index (LAI) and Fraction of Absorbed Photosynthetically Active Radiation (FAPAR), Version 4

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset contains gridded daily Leaf Area Index (LAI) and Fraction of Absorbed Photosynthetically Active Radiation (FAPAR) derived from the NOAA Climate Data...

  4. Measures and modelling of PAR (photosynthetically-active radiation) for the Northeast of Brazil; Medidas e modelagem da radiacao PAR (photosynthetically-active radiation) para o nordeste do Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tiba, Chigueru; Leal, Sergio da S.A. [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Dept. de Energia Nuclear], e-mail: tiba@rce.neoline.com.br

    2004-07-01

    Photosynthetically active solar radiation, known by its acronym in the English language as PAR, is the principal driving force of innumerable biological and physical processes related to biomass production, such as, the evolution of vegetal covering, agricultural productivity, and countless environment aspects, among others. Unfortunately in Brazil and particularly in the Northeast of Brazil, the PAR radiation measures are not a routine part of meteorological station measures, and therefore are still rarer than solar irradiation measures. In this context, a station was installed in Recife, Pernambuco in 2003, to carry out simultaneous measures of daily solar irradiation and PAR irradiation, which permits the modelling and valuation of the relationship between these two parameters and thus makes the estimation of PAR radiation possible, where there used to be only information on solar irradiation. Three others stations are being installed, one on Fernando de Noronha-PE, another in Pesqueira-PE, and the other in Xingo-SE, which complete a group of 4 between Latitudes 8 deg and 10 deg South and Longitudes 34 deg to 38 deg West, each having differentiated Equatorial Climates: island maritime, continental maritime, sylvan (Agreste) and semi-arid. (author)

  5. Exclusion of solar UV radiation improves photosynthetic performance and yield of wheat varieties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kataria, Sunita; Guruprasad, K N

    2015-12-01

    Field studies were conducted to determine the potential for alterations in photosynthetic performance and grain yield of four wheat (Triticum aestivum) varieties of India- Vidisha, Purna, Swarna and Naveen Chandausi by ambient ultraviolet radiation (UV). The plants were grown in specially designed UV exclusion chambers, wrapped with filters that excluded UV-B (solar UV exclusion increased the leaf mass per area ratio, leaf weight ratio and chlorophylls per unit area of flag leaves in all the four varieties of wheat. Polyphasic chlorophyll a fluorescence transients from the flag leaves of UV excluded wheat plants gave a higher fluorescence yield. Exclusion of solar UV significantly enhanced photosynthetic performance as a consequence of increased efficiency of PS II, performance index (PIABS) and rate of photosynthesis in the flag leaves of wheat varieties along with a remarkable increase in carbonic anhydrase, Rubisco and nitrate reductase activities. This additional fixation of carbon and nitrogen by exclusion of UV was channelized towards the improvement in grain yield of wheat varieties as there was a decrease in the UV-B absorbing substances and an increase in soluble protein content in flag leaves of all the four varieties of wheat. The magnitude of response for UV exclusion for all the measured parameters was higher in two varieties of wheat Vidisha and Purna as compared to Swarna and Naveen Chandausi. Cumulative stress response index (CSRI) for each variety was developed from the cumulative sum of physiological and yield parameters such as leaf mass area ratio of flag leaf, total chlorophyll content, performance index at absorption basis, rate of photosynthesis and grain yield. All the varieties had a negative CSRI, demonstrating a negative impact of ambient UV radiation. Naveen Chandausi and Swarna are less sensitive to ambient UV radiation; Vidisha is more sensitive to both UV-A and UV-B and Purna is more sensitive to ambient UV-B radiation. Copyright

  6. Effect of space mutation on photosynthetic characteristics of soybean varieties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Xinlei; Ma Yansong; Luan Xiaoyan; Man Weiqun; Xu Dechun; Meng Lifen; Fu Lixin; Zhao Xiaonan; Liu Qi

    2011-01-01

    In order to elucidate the response of the photosynthetic traits of soybean to space mutation, three soybean varieties (lines) of Heinong 48, Heinong 44 and Ha 2291-Y were carried by artificial satellite in 2006 and the net photosynthetic rate (Pn), stomatal conductance (Cond), intercellular CO 2 concentration (Ci) and stomatal resistance (Rs) from SP 1 to SP 4 generation were determined. The results showed that space mutation affected photosynthesis traits of soybean. The photosynthetic rate of soybean varieties by space mutation occurred different levels of genetic variation and the positive mutation rate were higher. Coefficient of variation among generations were SP 2 > SP 3 > SP 4 > CK. Results suggest that space mutation can effectively create soybean materials with higher photosynthetic rate. (authors)

  7. Effects of increasing UV-B radiation and atmospheric CO2 on photosynthesis and growth: implications for terrestrial ecosystems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sullivan, J.H.

    1997-01-01

    Increases in UV-B radiation reaching the earth as a result of stratospheric ozone depletion will most likely accompany increases in atmospheric CO 2 concentrations. Many studies have examined the effects of each factor independently, but few have evaluated the combined effects of both UV-B radiation and elevated CO 2 . In general the results of such studies have shown independent effects on growth or seed yield. Although interspecific variation is large, high levels of UV-B radiation tends to reduce plant growth in sensitive species, while CO 2 enrichment tends to promote growth in most C 3 species. However, most previous studies have not looked at temporal effects or at the relationship between photosynthetic acclimation to CO 2 and possible photosynthetic limitations imposed by UV-B radiation. Elevated CO 2 may provide some protection against UV-B for some species. In contrast, UV-B radiation may limit the ability to exploit elevated CO 2 in other species. Interactions between the effects of CO 2 enrichment and UV-B radiation exposure have also been shown for biomass allocation. Effects on both biomass allocation and photosynthetic acclimation may be important to ecosystem structure in terms of seedling establishment, competition and reproductive output. Few studies have evaluated ecosystem processes such as decomposition or nutrient cycling. Interactive effects may be subtle and species specific but should not be ignored in the assessment of the potential impacts of increases in CO 2 and UV-B radiation on plants. (author)

  8. Ionizing radiation induced changes in phenotype, photosynthetic pigments and free polyamine levels in Vigna radiata (L.) Wilczek

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sengupta, Mandar; Chakraborty, Anindita; Raychaudhuri, Sarmistha Sen

    2013-01-01

    Effects of gamma rays on the free polyamine (PA) levels were studied in Vigna radiata (L.) Wilczek. Seeds exposed to different doses of gamma rays were checked for damage on phenotype, germination frequency and alteration in photosynthetic pigments. Free polyamine levels were estimated from seeds irradiated in dry and water imbibed conditions. Polyamine levels of seedlings grown from irradiated seeds, and irradiated seedlings from unexposed seeds were also measured. Damage caused by gamma irradiation resulted in decrease in final germination percentage and seedling height. Photosynthetic pigments decreased in a dose dependent manner as marker of stress. Polyamines decreased in irradiated dry seeds and in seedlings grown from irradiated seeds. Radiation stress induced increase in free polyamines was seen in irradiated imbibed seeds and irradiated seedlings. Response of polyamines towards gamma rays is dependent on the stage of the life cycle of the plant. - Highlights: ► Gamma irradiation of Vigna radiata (L.) Wilczek seeds and seedlings. ► Decrease in germination frequency. ► Increase in seedling injury with increased dosage of gamma rays. ► Decrease in chlorophyll and carotenoid pigments. ► Change in free polyamine levels

  9. High rates of solar radiation - an important natural stress factor of the photosynthetic activity of mountainous norway spruce stands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sprtova, M.; Marek, M.V.

    1996-01-01

    Photosynthetic activity can be regarded as the basis of biomass productivity and vitality of forest trees, respectively. Moreover, this activity is under the strong influence of environment. Excess of photosynthetically active radiation (PhAR) can be a harmful factor of environment which is the reason of photoinhibition. Photoinhibition is demonstrated by a decrease of photosynthetic rate. An analysis of the influence of PhAR excess on function of the assimilatory apparatus of Norway spruce during summer days was done. The strong influence of PhAR excess on values of parameters of photosynthesis reflecting changes in the level of quanta capture and electron transport chain was observed. The comprehensive description of the method of chlorophyll a is given. Excess of PhAR caused rapid changes of assimilatory apparatus function and thus this PhAR excess can be regarded as a significant stress of productional activity of Norway spruce stands under field conditions

  10. Photovoltaic concepts inspired by coherence effects in photosynthetic systems

    KAUST Repository

    Bredas, Jean-Luc

    2016-12-20

    The past decade has seen rapid advances in our understanding of how coherent and vibronic phenomena in biological photosynthetic systems aid in the efficient transport of energy from light-harvesting antennas to photosynthetic reaction centres. Such coherence effects suggest strategies to increase transport lengths even in the presence of structural disorder. Here we explore how these principles could be exploited in making improved solar cells. We investigate in depth the case of organic materials, systems in which energy and charge transport stand to be improved by overcoming challenges that arise from the effects of static and dynamic disorder-structural and energetic-and from inherently strong electron-vibration couplings. We discuss how solar-cell device architectures can evolve to use coherence-exploiting materials, and we speculate as to the prospects for a coherent energy conversion system. We conclude with a survey of the impacts of coherence and bioinspiration on diverse solar-energy harvesting solutions, including artificial photosynthetic systems.

  11. Measurement and modelling of the photosynthetically active radiation transmitted in a canopy of maritime pine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hassika, P.; Berbigier, P.; Bonnefond, J.M.

    1997-01-01

    Modelling the photosynthesis of a forest requires the evaluation of the quantity of photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) absorbed by the crowns and the understorey. In this article a semi-empirical model, based on Beer's law is used to study PAR absorption and its seasonal variation. Our purpose was to confirm that the PAR and the solar radiation follow the same interception laws for both the direct and diffuse part, using correct values of needle transmission and reflection coefficients. The model developed took into account the direct and the diffuse radiation. The radiation rescattered by the crowns was neglected following an estimation using the Kubelka-Munk equations, which indicated that the term was small. The model was calibrated and tested from the measurements taken in a maritime pine forest during the summer and autumn of 1995. The comparison between the results of the model and the measurements was satisfactory for the direct radiation as well as for the diffuse radiation. In conclusion, although the measurement wavebands are different, the penetration of the PAR can be estimated using the same simple semi-empirical model already established for solar radiation. (author) [fr

  12. Impacts of diurnal variation of ultraviolet-B and photosynthetically active radiation on phycobiliproteins of the hot-spring cyanobacterium Nostoc sp. strain HKAR-2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kannaujiya, Vinod K; Sinha, Rajeshwar P

    2017-01-01

    The effects of diurnal variation of photosynthetically active radiation (PAR; 400-700 nm) and ultraviolet-B (UV-B; 280-315 nm) radiation on phycobiliproteins (PBPs) and photosynthetic pigments (PP) have been studied in the hot-spring cyanobacterium Nostoc sp. strain HKAR-2. The variations in PBPs and PP were monitored by alternating light and dark under PAR, UV-B, and PAR + UV-B radiations over a period of 25 h. There was a decline in the amount of Chl a and PBPs during light periods of UV-B and PAR + UV-B and an increase during dark periods showing a circadian rhythm by destruction and resynthesis of pigment-protein complex. However, a marked induction in carotenoids was recorded during light periods of the same radiations. Moreover, the ratio of Chl a/PE and Chl a/PC was increased in dark periods showing the resynthesis of bleached Chl a. The wavelength shift in emission fluorescence of PBPs toward shorter wavelengths further indicated the bleaching and destruction of PBPs during light periods. Oxidative damage upon exposure to PAR, UV-B, and PAR + UV-B was alleviated by induction of antioxidative enzymes such as superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and ascorbate peroxidase (APX). The studied cyanobacterium exhibits a significant increase in the activities of SOD, CAT, and APX upon exposure to UV-B and PAR + UV-B radiations. The results indicate that pigment-protein composition of Nostoc sp. stain HKAR-2 was significantly altered during diurnal variation of light/radiation, which might play an important role in optimization for their productivity in a particular cyanobacterium.

  13. Photosynthetic recovery and acclimation to excess light intensity in the rehydrated lichen soil crusts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Wu

    Full Text Available As an important successional stage and main type of biological soil crusts (BSCs in Shapotou region of China (southeastern edge of Tengger Desert, lichen soil crusts (LSCs often suffer from many stresses, such as desiccation and excess light intensity. In this study, the chlorophyll fluorescence and CO2 exchange in the rehydrated LSCs were detected under a series of photosynthetically active radiation (PAR gradients to study the photosynthetic acclimation of LSCs. The results showed that although desiccation leaded to the loss of photosynthetic activity in LSCs, the fluorescence parameters including Fo, Fv and Fv/Fm of LSCs could be well recovered after rehydration. After the recovery of photosynthetic activity, the effective photosynthetic efficiency ΦPSII detected by Imaging PAM had declined to nearly 0 within both the lichen thallus upper and lower layers when the PAR increased to 200 μE m-2 s-1, however the net photosynthesis detected by the CO2 gas analyzer in the LSCs still appeared when the PAR increased to 1000 μE m-2 s-1. Our results indicate that LSCs acclimating to high PAR, on the one hand is ascribed to the special structure in crust lichens, making the incident light into the lichen thallus be weakened; on the other hand the massive accumulation of photosynthetic pigments in LSCs also provides a protective barrier for the photosynthetic organisms against radiation damage. Furthermore, the excessive light energy absorbed by crust lichens is also possibly dissipated by the increasing non-photochemical quenching, therefore to some extent providing some protection for LSCs.

  14. Seasonal evolution of diffusional limitations and photosynthetic capacity in olive under drought.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz-Espejo, Antonio; Nicolás, Emilio; Fernández, José Enrique

    2007-08-01

    This study tests the hypothesis that diffusional limitation of photosynthesis, rather than light, determines the distribution of photosynthetic capacity in olive leaves under drought conditions. The crowns of four olive trees growing in an orchard were divided into two sectors: one sector absorbed most of the radiation early in the morning (MS) while the other absorbed most in the afternoon (AS). When the peak of radiation absorption was higher in MS, air vapour pressure deficit (VPD) was not high enough to provoke stomatal closure. In contrast, peak radiation absorption in AS coincided with the daily peak in VPD. In addition, two soil water treatments were evaluated: irrigated trees (I) and non-irrigated trees (nI). The seasonal evolution of leaf water potential, leaf gas exchange and photosynthetic capacity were measured throughout the tree crowns in spring and summer. Results showed that stomatal conductance was reduced in nI trees in summer as a consequence of soil water stress, which limited their net assimilation rate. Olive leaves displayed isohydric behaviour and no important differences in the diurnal course of leaf water potentials among treatments and sectors were found. Seasonal diffusional limitation of photosynthesis was mainly increased in nI trees, especially as a result of stomatal limitation, although mesophyll conductance (g(m)) was found to decrease in summer in both treatments and sectors. A positive relationship between leaf nitrogen content with both leaf photosynthetic capacity and the daily integrated quantum flux density was found in spring, but not in summer. The relationship between photosynthetic capacity and g(m) was curvilinear. Leaf temperature also affected to g(m) with an optimum temperature at 29 degrees C. AS showed larger biochemical limitation than MS in August in both treatments. All these suggest that both diffusional limitation and the effect of leaf temperature could be involved in the seasonal reduction of photosynthetic

  15. Investigations on photosynthetic pigments of Lemnaceae, pt. 14: The effect of UV-B radiation on deetiolating and autotrophically growing plants of Lemna gibba L

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wejnar, R.; Döhler, D.

    1992-01-01

    In deetiolating plants of Lemma gibba L., the biosynthesis of photosynthetically active pigments (chlorophyll a and b, beta-carotene, lutein, violaxanthin and neoxanthin) was reduced by UV-B radiation (2,5 W cnt * m -2 ) in dependence on the exposure time (8-96-h). The biosynthesis of chlorophyll b was more inhibited than that of chlorophyll a, that of the chlorophylls more than that of the carotenoids and that of beta-carotene more than that of the xanthophylls notably lutein. In autotrophic plants. UV-B radiation (42, 72 and 120 h) causes a strong reduction of the pigment content. The alteration of the ratios between the pigments was the same as in deetiolating plants. In deetiolating as well as in autotropically cultivated plants of Lemma gibba, the termination of the UV-B radiation is followed by an approach to the original ratios

  16. Photosynthetically active radiation and comparison of methods for its estimation in equatorial Singapore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Puay Yok; Ismail, Mirza Rifqi Bin

    2016-02-01

    Photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) is an important input variable for urban climate, crop modelling and ecosystem services studies. Despite its importance, only a few empirical studies have been conducted on PAR, its relationship to global solar radiation and sky conditions and its estimation in the tropics. We report in this study, the characterisation of PAR in Singapore through direct measurements and development of models for its estimation using input variables of global solar radiation ( H), photometric radiation ( L), clearness index ( k t ) and sky view factor (SVF). Daily PAR showed a good correlation with daily H and had a comparatively small seasonal variation in PAR due to Singapore's equatorial position. The ratio of PAR to H ( PAR/ H) showed a slight depression in midyear from May to August, which correlated well with seasonal patterns in rainfall over the study period. Hourly PAR/ H increased throughout the day. Three empirical models developed in this study were able to predict daily PAR satisfactorily, with the most accurate model being one which included both H and k t as independent variables. A regression model for estimation of PAR under shaded conditions using SVF produced satisfactory estimation of daily PAR but was prone to high mean percentage error at low PAR levels.

  17. Effect of UV-B radiation on the marine diatom bellerochea yucatanensis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doehler, G.

    1982-01-01

    There exists no information about the UV-B fluence on several photosynthetic products and nitrogen metabolism. The present report describes the effect of low levels of UV-B radiation on pigments, 14 C- and 15 N-incorporation of the marine diatom Bellerochea yucatanensis. (orig./AJ)

  18. Effect of space mutation of photosynthetic characteristics of soybean varieties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Xinlei; Ma Yansong; Luan Xiaoyan; Man Weiqun; Xu Dechun; Meng Lifen; Fu Lixin; Zhao Xiao'nan; Liu Qi

    2012-01-01

    In order to elucidate the response of the photosynthetic traits of soybean to space mutation, three soybean varieties (lines) of Heinong 48, Heinong 44 and Ha 2291-Y were carried by artificial satellite in 2006 and the net photo synthetic rate (Pn), stomatal conductance (Cond), intercellular CO 2 concentration (Ci) and stomatal resistance (Rs) from SP 1 to SP 4 generation were determined. The results showed that space mutation affected photosynthesis traits of soy bean. The photosynthetic rate of soybean varieties by space mutation occurred different levels of genetic variation and the positive mutation rate were higher. Coefficient of variation among generations were SP 2 >SP 3 >SP 4 >CK. Results suggest that space mutation can effectively create soybean materials with higher photosynthetic rate. (authors)

  19. Effect of Photosynthetic Photon Flux Density on Carboxylation Efficiency 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, James A.; Tenhunen, John D.; Gates, David M.; Lange, Otto L.

    1987-01-01

    The effect of photosynthetic photon flux density (PPFD) on photosynthetic response (A) to CO2 partial pressures between 35 pascals and CO2 compensation point (Γ) was investigated, especially below PPFD saturation. Spinacia oleracea cv `Atlanta,' Glycine max cv `Clark,' and Arbutus unedo were studied in detail. The initial slope of the photosynthetic response to CO2 (∂A/∂C[Γ]) was constant above a PPFD of about 500 to 600 micromoles per square meter per second for all three species; but declined rapidly with PPFD below this critical level. For Γ there was also a critical PPFD (approximately 200 micromoles per square meter per second for S. oleracea and G. max; 100 for A. unedo) above which Γ was essentially constant, but below which Γ increased with decreasing PPFD. All three species showed a dependence of ∂A/∂C(Γ) on PPFD at low PPFD. Simulated photosynthetic responses obtained with a biochemically based model of whole-leaf photosynthesis were similar to measured responses. PMID:16665640

  20. Impact of Aerosols on Shortwave and Photosynthetically Active Radiation Balance over Sub-tropical Region in South Asia: Observational and Modeling Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subba, T.; Pathak, B.

    2016-12-01

    The North-East Indian Region (NER) (22-30ºN, 89-98ºE) in south Asia sandwiched between two global biodiversity hotspots namely, Himalaya and Indo-Burma, assumes significance owing to its unique topography with mountains in the north, east and south and densely populated Indo Gangetic plains (IGP) towards the west resulting in complex aerosol system. Multi-year (2010-2014) concurrent measurements of aerosol properties and the shortwave radiation budget are examined over four geographically distinct stations of NER operational under Indian Space Research organization's ARFINET (Aerosol Radiative Forcing over India NETwork). An attempt has been made to lessen the ambiguity of forcing estimation by validating the radiative transfer modelled ARF with the CNR4 net radiometer measured values (r2 0.98). The Normalized Difference Vegetation Index and its dependence on the extinction of the photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) due to aerosol are assessed. The spring time enhancement of aerosols in the column has shown significant surface cooling (ARF = -48 ± 5 Wm-2) over the region, while the very high Black Carbon (BC) mass concentrations near the surface (SSA > 0.8) leads to significant atmospheric warming (ARF = +41 ± 7 Wm-2) in the shortwave range. Radiative forcing estimates reveal that the atmospheric forcing by BC could be as high as +30Wm-2 over the western part, which are significantly higher than the eastern part with a consequent heating rate of 1.5 K day-1 revealing an east-west asymmetry over NER. The impact of BC aerosols on the photosynthetic rate varies among different locations ranging from -5±2 Wm-2 to -25±3 Wm-2. Almost 70% of the total atmospheric shortwave radiative absorption is attributed to just 10% contribution of Black Carbon (BC) to total mass concentration and causes a reduction of more than 30% of PAR reaching the surface over Brahmaputra valley due to direct radiative effect. Comparison of previous and the present study shows highest

  1. Solar PAR and UVR modify the community composition and photosynthetic activity of sea ice algae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enberg, Sara; Piiparinen, Jonna; Majaneva, Markus; Vähätalo, Anssi V; Autio, Riitta; Rintala, Janne-Markus

    2015-10-01

    The effects of increased photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) and ultraviolet radiation (UVR) on species diversity, biomass and photosynthetic activity were studied in fast ice algal communities. The experimental set-up consisted of nine 1.44 m(2) squares with three treatments: untreated with natural snow cover (UNT), snow-free (PAR + UVR) and snow-free ice covered with a UV screen (PAR). The total algal biomass, dominated by diatoms and dinoflagellates, increased in all treatments during the experiment. However, the smaller biomass growth in the top 10-cm layer of the PAR + UVR treatment compared with the PAR treatment indicated the negative effect of UVR. Scrippsiella complex (mainly Scrippsiella hangoei, Biecheleria baltica and Gymnodinium corollarium) showed UV sensitivity in the top 5-cm layer, whereas Heterocapsa arctica ssp. frigida and green algae showed sensitivity to both PAR and UVR. The photosynthetic activity was highest in the top 5-cm layer of the PAR treatment, where the biomass of the pennate diatom Nitzschia frigida increased, indicating the UV sensitivity of this species. This study shows that UVR is one of the controlling factors of algal communities in Baltic Sea ice, and that increased availability of PAR together with UVR exclusion can cause changes in algal biomass, photosynthetic activity and community composition. © FEMS 2015. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. Magnetic irone oxide nanoparticles in photosynthetic systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khalilov, R.I.; Nasibova, A.N.; Khomutov, G.B.

    2014-01-01

    Full text : It was found and studied the effect of biogenic formation of magnetic inclusions in photosynthetic systems - in various higher plants under the influence of some external stress factors (radiation impact, moisture deficit) and in a model system - a suspension of chloroplasts. For registration and characterization of magnetic nanoparticles in the samples used EPR spectrometer because superparamagnetic and ferromagnetic nanoparticles have a chcracteristic signals of electron magnetic resonance. For direct visualization of magnetic nanoparticles it was used the method of transmission electron microscopy

  3. A long-term time series of global and diffuse photosynthetically active radiation in the Mediterranean: interannual variability and cloud effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Trisolino

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Measurements of global and diffuse photosynthetically active radiation (PAR have been carried out on the island of Lampedusa, in the central Mediterranean Sea, since 2002. PAR is derived from observations made with multi-filter rotating shadowband radiometers (MFRSRs by comparison with a freshly calibrated PAR sensor and by relying on the on-site Langley plots. In this way, a long-term calibrated record covering the period 2002–2016 is obtained and is presented in this work. The monthly mean global PAR peaks in June, with about 160 W m−2, while the diffuse PAR reaches 60 W m−2 in spring or summer. The global PAR displays a clear annual cycle with a semi amplitude of about 52 W m−2. The diffuse PAR annual cycle has a semi amplitude of about 12 W m−2. A simple method to retrieve the cloud-free PAR global and diffuse irradiances in days characterized by partly cloudy conditions has been implemented and applied to the dataset. This method allows retrieval of the cloud-free evolution of PAR and calculation of the cloud radiative effect, CRE, for downwelling PAR. The cloud-free monthly mean global PAR reaches 175 W m−2 in summer, while the diffuse PAR peaks at about 40 W m−2. The cloud radiative effect, CRE, on global and diffuse PAR is calculated as the difference between all-sky and cloud-free measurements. The annual average CRE is about −14.7 W m−2 for the global PAR and +8.1 W m−2 for the diffuse PAR. The smallest CRE is observed in July, due to the high cloud-free condition frequency. Maxima (negative for the global, and positive for the diffuse component occur in March–April and in October, due to the combination of elevated PAR irradiances and high occurrence of cloudy conditions. Summer clouds appear to be characterized by a low frequency of occurrence, low altitude, and low optical thickness, possibly linked to the peculiar marine boundary layer structure. These properties also contribute

  4. Effect of nutrient supply on photosynthesis and pigmentation to short-term stress (UV radiation) in Gracilaria conferta (Rhodophyta)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Figueroa, F.L.; Israel, A.; Neori, A.; Martinez, B.; Malta, E.J.; Put, A.; Inken, S.; Marquardt, R.; Abdala, R.; Korbee, N.

    2010-01-01

    The effects of increased photosynthetic active radiation (PAR), UV radiation (UVR), and nutrient supply on photosynthetic activity, pigment content, C:N ratio and biomass yield were studied in tank cultivated Gracilaria conferta (Rhodophyta). Electron transport rate (ETR) and biliprotein content were higher under high nutrient supply (HNS), obtained from fishpond effluents, compared to low nutrient supply (LNS), in contrast to mycosporine-like amino acids (MAAs) dynamic. The high MAA content in LNS-algae could be explained by higher UVR penetration in the thallus and by the competition for the use of nutrients with other processes. Effective quantum yield decreased after short-term exposure to high irradiance whereas full recovery in shade was produced only under slightly heat shock. UVA radiation provoked an additional decrease in photosynthesis under high water temperature. UVB radiation reversed UVA's negative effect mainly with HNS. Results support that nutrient-sufficiency help G. conferta to resist environmental changes as short-term temperature increase.

  5. Low-cost sensor integrators for measuring the transmissivity of complex canopies to photosynthetically active radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Newman, S.M.

    1985-01-01

    A system has been designed, tested and evaluated for measuring the transmissivities of complex canopies to photosynthetically active radiation (PAR). The system consists of filtered silicon photocells in cosine corrected mounts with outputs integrated by the use of chemical coulometers. The reading accumulated by the coulometers was taken electronically by the use of microcomputers. The low-cost sensor integrators, which do not require batteries, performed as expected and proved ideal for the study of agroforestry systems in remote areas. Information on the PAR transmissivity of a temperate agroforestry system in the form of an intercropped orchard is also presented. (author)

  6. Responses of photosynthetic properties and chloroplast ultrastructure of Bryum argenteum from a desert biological soil crust to elevated ultraviolet-B radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hui, Rong; Li, Xinrong; Chen, Cuiyun; Zhao, Xin; Jia, Rongliang; Liu, Lichao; Wei, Yongping

    2013-04-01

    Our understanding of plant responses to enhanced ultraviolet-B (UV-B) radiation has improved over recent decades. However, research on cryptogams is scarce and it remains controversial whether UV-B radiation causes changes in physiology related to photosynthesis. To investigate the effects of supplementary UV-B radiation on photosynthesis and chloroplast ultrastructure in Bryum argenteum Hedw., specimens were cultured for 10 days under four UV-B treatments (2.75, 3.08, 3.25 and 3.41 W m(-2) ), simulating depletion of 0% (control), 6%, 9% and 12% of stratospheric ozone at the latitude of Shapotou, a temperate desert area of northwest China. Analyses showed malondialdehyde content significantly increased, whereas chlorophyll (Chl) fluorescence parameters and Chl contents decreased with increased UV-B intensity. These results corresponded with changes in thylakoid protein complexes and chloroplast ultrastructure. Overall, enhanced UV-B radiation leads to significant decreases in photosynthetic function and serious destruction of the chloroplast ultrastructure of B. argenteum. The degree of negative influences increased with the intensity of UV-B radiation. These results may not only provide a potential mechanism for supplemental UV-B effects on photosynthesis of moss crust, but also establish a theoretical basis for further studies of adaptation and response mechanisms of desert ecosystems under future ozone depletion. Copyright © Physiologia Plantarum 2012.

  7. On the photosynthetic potential in the very Early Archean oceans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avila, Daile; Cardenas, Rolando; Martin, Osmel

    2013-02-01

    In this work we apply a mathematical model of photosynthesis to quantify the potential for photosynthetic life in the very Early Archean oceans. We assume the presence of oceanic blockers of ultraviolet radiation, specifically ferrous ions. For this scenario, our results suggest a potential for photosynthetic life greater than or similar to that in later eras/eons, such as the Late Archean and the current Phanerozoic eon.

  8. Effect of temperature and light intensity on growth and photosynthetic activity of Chlamydomonas Reinhardtii

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alfonsel, M.; Fernandez Gonzalez, J.

    1986-01-01

    The effect of five temperatures (15, 20, 25, 30 and 35 0 C) and two levels of illumination on growth and photosynthetic activity of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii has been studied. The growth of the cultures was evaluated by optical density. Photosynthetic activity has been carried out studying either the assimilation rate of CO 2 labelled with C 14 or the oxygen evolution by means of polarographic measurements. The maximum photosynthetic rate has been obtained at 25 0 C for the lower lavel of illumination (2400 lux) and at 35 0 C for the higher one (13200 lux). These results suggest an interacton of temperature and illumination on photosynthetic activity. (author)

  9. Vegetative and reproductive plasticity of broccoli at three levels of incident photosynthetically active radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Francescangeli, N.; Martí, H.R.; Sangiacomo, M.A.

    2007-01-01

    To study the effects of shading on the growth, development, dry matter partitioning, and plant architecture of broccoli, ‘Legacy’ hybrid plants were grown in pots in a greenhouse under black shading meshes to generate different levels of photosynthetically active radiation (PAR). The average incident PAR was 23 mol PPF m –2 d –1 under control conditions, 15.2 under a 35% mesh, and 6.7 under a 70% mesh. The air temperature was within the range 15-22°C. As shading increased so did the duration of the growth cycle and the leaf area (LA). Shading did not affect the number of leaves, although the upper ones were more erect. The stem length and the accumulated intercepted PAR (IPAR) were negatively related. Inflorescence diameter and commercial fresh weight decreased only with the 70% mesh. Shading did not affect stem dry weight (DW) but altered dry matter allocation in the root and spear. The DW of the leaves maintained an average 45.7% of the total DW despite the greater LA developed under shade. The net assimilation rate diminished with the reduction of IPAR, and the LA increased; the plant relative growth rate was therefore practically constant. With increased shading, the leaves and the stem became the dominant photosynthate sinks. The commercial fresh weight achieved with 15.2 mol photosynthetic photon flux (PPF) m –2 d –1 was equivalent to that obtained with 23 mol PPF m –2 d –1 , but the cycle was extended for 4.5 days. With 6.7 mol PPF m –2 d –1 , yield diminished because of the lower DW produced in a cycle extended by 15 days, and because more dry matter was allocated to the stem than to the spear. Based on these results, broccoli could be considered a shade-tolerant plant. (author) [es

  10. Photosynthetically-active radiation: sky radiance distributions under clear and overcast conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grant, R.H.; Heisler, G.M.; Gao, W.

    1996-01-01

    The photosynthetically active radiation (PAR), defined as the wavelength band of 0.400 μm to 0.700 μm, represents most of the visible solar radiation. Although the proportion of global irradiance that originates from diffuse sky radiation is higher for PAR than for all solar shortwave radiation, it is often assumed that the PAR diffuse sky radiation is distributed identically to that of all shortwave solar radiation. This assumption has not been tested. PAR sky radiance measurements were made in a rural area over a wide range of solar zenith angles. The distribution of PAR sky radiance was modeled using physically-based, non-linear equations.For clear skies, the normalized sky radiance distribution (N) was best modeled using the scattering angle (ψ) and the zenith position in the sky (Θ) as N (Θ, ψ) = 0.0361 [6.3 + (1 + cos 2 Θ / (1 - cos ψ)] [1-e -0.31 sec ( Θ]. The angle Ψ is defined by cos ψ = cos Θ cos Θ * + sin Θ sin Θ * cos Φ, where solar zenith angle is Θ* and the difference in azimuth between the sun and the position in the sky is Φ. Modeling of the overcast sky depended on the visibility of the solar disk. The translucent middle/high cloud overcast conditions (cloud base greater than 300 m above ground level) were best modeled as: N(Θ∗, ψ) = 0.149 + 0.084Θ∗ + 1.305e −2.5ψ while the translucent low cloud overcast conditions (cloud base less than 300 m above ground level) were best modeled as: N(Θ∗, ψ) = 0.080 + 0.058Θ∗ + 0.652e −2.1ψ . The obscured overcast sky condition (solar disk obscured) was best modeled as: N(Θ) = 0.441 [1 + 4.6cos Θ] /[1 + 4.6]. The unit of N for all equations is π Sr −1 , so that integration of each function over the sky hemisphere yields 1.0.These equations can be applied directly to the sky diffuse irradiance on the horizontal, I diff , to provide radiance distributions for the sky. Estimates of actual sky radiance distribution can be estimated from N a (Θ, ψ) = I diff N(Θ,

  11. The effect of temperature on photosynthetic induction under fluctuating light in Chrysanthemum morifolium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Öztürk, Isik; Ottosen, Carl-Otto; Ritz, Christian

    2013-01-01

    for photosynthetic induction. Gas exchange measurements were used to investigate the rate of induction and the opening of stomata. It was determined that induction equilibrium for C. morifolium at varying temperatures under dynamic light conditions was reached within 15 to 45 minutes except at saturating light...... intensity. For the same photon irradiance, the momentary state of induction equilibrated was higher approximately at 30° C and it decreased as temperature increased. The interaction effect of irradiance and temperature on induction equilibrium was not significant. The rate of photosynthetic induction...... and the time that it reached its 90% value (t90) was influenced by irradiance significantly. The light history of a leaf had a significant effect on t90, which indicated that an equilibrium state of induction will not always be reached within the same time. The effect of temperature on photosynthetic induction...

  12. Ultraviolet-B radiation effects on leaf fluorescence characteristics in cultivars of soybean

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miles, D.

    1993-01-01

    Ultraviolet-B (UV-B; 280–320 nm)–emitting lamps unavoidably emit ultraviolet-A (UV-A; 320–400 nm) and ultraviolet-C (UV-C; <280 nm) radiation. Short-wavelength–blocking filters are generally used to limit the wave bands of UV under investigation. The widespread use of such filters means that all exposures to UV-B radiation will have a significant UV-A component. Therefore, the physiological effects unique to UV-B exposure are difficult to clearly isolate. This study presents a method to remove the UV-A and UV-C “contamination” using a liquid potassium chromate (K 2 CrO 4 ) filter, thus allowing more direct assessment of the effects of UV-B exposure. Cultures of the green marine alga Dunaliella tertiolecta were grown in the absence of UV radiation. Sunlamps supplied the UV radiation for a 24 h exposure (solar radiation was not used in this study). The UV radiation was filtered either by the standard method (i.e. cellulose acetate (CA) with polyester = Mylar controls) or by a liquid filter of potassium chromate. Photosynthetic responses were compared. Major decreases in the ratio of variable to maximal fluorescence in dark-adapted cells and photosynthetic capacity were observed in CA-filtered cultures, whereas no change was observed in cells exposed to the same UV-B flux with the UV-A removed by K 2 CrO 4 . The use of a CA filter with a Mylar control does not link results unequivocally to UV-B radiation. Such results should be interpreted with caution. (author)

  13. The effects of ultraviolet-B radiation on loblolly pine. 1: Growth, photosynthesis and pigment production in greenhouse-grown seedlings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sullivan, J.H.; Teramura, A.H.

    1989-01-01

    One-year old loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) seedlings were grown in an unshaded greenhouse for 7 months under 4 levels of ultraviolet-B (UV-B) radiation simulating stratospheric ozone reductions of 16, 25 and 40% and included a control with no UV-B radiation. Periodic measurements were made of growth and gas exchange characteristics and needle chlorophyll and UV-B-absorbing-compound concentrations. The effectiveness of UV-B radiation on seedling growth and physiology varied with the UV-B irradiance level. Seedlings receiving the lowest supplemental UV-B irradiance showed reductions in growth and photosynthetic capacity after only 1 month of irradiation. These reductions persisted and resulted in lower biomass production, while no increases in UV-B-absorbing compounds in needles were observed. Seedlings receiving UV-B radiation which simulated a 25% stratospheric ozone reduction showed an increase in UV-B-absorbing-compound concentrations after 6 months, which paralleled a recovery in photosynthesis and growth after an initial decrease in these characteristics. The seedlings grown at the highest UV-B irradiance (40% stratospheric ozone reduction) showed a more rapid increase in the concentration of UV-B-absorbing compounds and no effects of UV-B radiation on growth or photosynthetic capacity until after 4 months at this irradiance. Changes in photosynthetic capacity were probably the result of direct effects on light-dependent processes, since no effects were observed on either needle chlorophyll concentrations or stomatal conductance. Further studies are necessary to determine whether these responses persist and accumulate over subsequent years. (author)

  14. Inhibition of seagrass photosynthesis by ultraviolet-B radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trocine, R.P.; Rice, J.D.; Wells, G.N.

    1981-01-01

    Effects of ultraviolet-B radiation on the photosynthesis of seagrasses (Halophila engelmanni Aschers, Halodule wrightii Aschers, and Syringodium filiforme (Kuetz) were examined. The intrinsic tolerance of each seagrass to ultraviolet-B, the presence and effectiveness of photorepair mechanisms to ultraviolet-B-induced photosynthetic inhibition, and the role of epiphytic growth as a shield from ultraviolet-B were investigated. Halodule was found to possess the greatest photosynthetic tolerance for ultraviolet-B. Photosynthesis in Syringodium was slightly more sensitive to ultraviolet-B while Halophila showed relatively little photosynthetic tolerance. Evidence for a photorepair mechanism was found only in Halodule. Syringodium appeared to rely primarily on a thick epidermal cell layer to reduce photosynthetic damage. Halophila seemed to have no morphological or photorepair capabilities to deal with ultraviolet-B. This species appeared to rely on epiphytic and detrital shielding and the shade provided by other seagrasses to reduce ultraviolet-B irradiation to tolerable levels. The presence of epiphytes on leaf surfaces was found to reduce the extent of photosynthetic inhibition from ultraviolet-B exposure in all species. Halophila appears to obtain an increased photosynthetic tolerance to ultraviolet-B as an indirect benefit of chloroplast clumping to avoid photo-oxidation by intense levels of photosynthetically active radiation

  15. Ultraviolet-B and photosynthetically active radiation interactively affect yield and pattern of monoterpenes in leaves of peppermint (Mentha x piperita L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behn, Helen; Albert, Andreas; Marx, Friedhelm; Noga, Georg; Ulbrich, Andreas

    2010-06-23

    Solar radiation is a key environmental signal in regulation of plant secondary metabolism. Since metabolic responses to light and ultraviolet (UV) radiation exposure are known to depend on the ratio of spectral ranges (e.g., UV-B/PAR), we examined effects of different UV-B radiation (280-315 nm) and photosynthetically active radiation (PAR, 400-700 nm) levels and ratios on yield and pattern of monoterpenoid essential oil of peppermint. Experiments were performed in exposure chambers, technically equipped for realistic simulation of natural climate and radiation. The experimental design comprised four irradiation regimes created by the combination of two PAR levels including or excluding UV-B radiation. During flowering, the highest essential oil yield was achieved at high PAR (1150 micromol m(-2) s(-1)) and approximate ambient UV-B radiation (0.6 W m(-2)). Regarding the monoterpene pattern, low PAR (550 micromol m(-2) s(-1)) and the absence of UV-B radiation led to reduced menthol and increased menthone contents and thereby to a substantial decrease in oil quality. Essential oil yield could not be correlated with density or diameter of peltate glandular trichomes, the epidermal structures specialized on biosynthesis, and the accumulation of monoterpenes. The present results lead to the conclusion that production of high quality oils (fulfilling the requirements of the Pharmacopoeia Europaea) requires high levels of natural sunlight. In protected cultivation, the use of UV-B transmitting covering materials is therefore highly recommended.

  16. effect of ambient levels of ozone on photosynthetic components

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ACSS

    To clarify the long-term effects of ambient levels of tropospheric ozone (O3) on ... (Rubisco), thus contributing to the reduction in net photosynthetic rate at the .... USA). During the measurements, atmospheric. CO2 concentrations, air ...... productivity and implications for climate change. Annual Review of Plant Biology 63:.

  17. Inhibition of seagrass photosynthesis by ultraviolet-B radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trocine, R P; Rice, J D; Wells, G N

    1981-07-01

    Effects of ultraviolet-B radiation on the photosynthesis of seagrasses (Halophila engelmanni Aschers, Halodule wrightii Aschers, and Syringodium filiforme Kütz) were examined. The intrinsic tolerance of each seagrass to ultraviolet-B, the presence and effectiveness of photorepair mechanisms to ultraviolet-B-induced photosynthetic inhibition, and the role of epiphytic growth as a shield from ultraviolet-B were investigated.Halodule was found to possess the greatest photosynthetic tolerance for ultraviolet-B. Photosynthesis in Syringodium was slightly more sensitive to ultraviolet-B while Halophila showed relatively little photosynthetic tolerance. Evidence for a photorepair mechanism was found only in Halodule. This mechanism effectively attenuated photosynthetic inhibition induced by ultraviolet-B dose rates and dosages in excess of natural conditions. Syringodium appeared to rely primarily on a thick epidermal cell layer to reduce photosynthetic damage. Halophila seemed to have no morphological or photorepair capabilities to deal with ultraviolet-B. This species appeared to rely on epiphytic and detrital shielding and the shade provided by other seagrasses to reduce ultraviolet-B irradiation to tolerable levels. The presence of epiphytes on leaf surfaces was found to reduce the extent of photosynthetic inhibition from ultraviolet-B exposure in all species.Observations obtained in this study seem to suggest the possibility of anthocyanin and/or other flavonoid synthesis as an adaptation to long term ultraviolet-B irradiation by these species. In addition, Halophila appears to obtain an increased photosynthetic tolerance to ultraviolet-B as an indirect benefit of chloroplast clumping to avoid photo-oxidation by intense levels of photosynthetically active radiation.

  18. The Effects of UV Radiation on Chloroplast Clumping and Photosynthesis in the Seagrass Halophila stipulacea Grown under High-PAR Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoni Sharon

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Since potentially harmful ultraviolet radiation (UVR, 280–400 nm and high photosynthetically active radiation (PAR, 400–700 nm are present in the shallow waters of the Gulf of Aqaba where part of the seagrass Halophila stipulacea's population thrives, we examined the effects of high PAR with and without UVR on its photosynthesis and midday chloroplast “clumping phenomenon” (Sharon and Beer 2008. It was found that midday clumping occurred only under high PAR in the presence of UVR, which resulted in a 44% reduction in the absorption cross section (or absorption factor, AF of the leaves and, accordingly, a parallel lowering of midday electron transport rates (ETR. In addition, UVR had a direct effect on the photosynthetic apparatus by lowering quantum yields and, thus, ETRs, while pigment relations remained unaltered. We conclude that the potentially harmful effects of UVR and high PAR on the photosynthetic apparatus of Halophila stipulacea are mitigated by their activation of chloroplast clumping, which functions as a means of protecting most chloroplasts from high irradiances, including UVR.

  19. [Effects of low-light stress on photosynthetic characteristics of Paris polyphylla var. chinensis in artificial domestication cultivation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Shun-lin; Tian, Meng-liang; Liu, Jin-liang; Zhao, Ting-ting; Zhang, Zhong

    2014-09-01

    To decide on the optimum artificial domestication cultivation light environment for Paris polyphylla var. chinensis through investigating the effect of light intensity on leaf's gas exchange parameters, photosynthetic parameters, light saturation point and compensation point of Paris polyphylla var. chinensis. Different low-light stress gradients' effect on the growth of Paris polyphylla var. chinensis was compared with no low-light stress treatment through calculating leaf's gas exchange parameters, photosynthetic parameters, light saturation point and compensation point, and then all these parameters were statistically analyzed. Light intensity had significant influence on the photosynthetic characteristics of Paris polyphylla var. chinensis. With the strengthening of the low-light stress, chlorophyll content, gas exchange parameters, photosynthetic parameters P., AQY and light saturation point all gradually increased at first, and then decreased. However, both photosynthetic parameters Rd and light compensation point firstly decreased and then rose again. These results showed that too strong or too weak light intensity affected the optimization of photosynthetic parameters of Paris polyphylla var. chinensis. The optimal illuminance for each parameter was not completely same, but they could all reach a relative ideal state when the shading ranges between 40% and 60%. However, photosynthetic parameters deteriorated rapidly when the shading surpass 80%. For artificially cultivating Paris polyphylla var. chinensis in Baoxing,Sichuan or the similar ecological region, shading 40%-60% is the optimal light environment, which can enhance the photosynthesis of Paris polyphylla var. chinensis and promote the accumulation of photosynthetic products.

  20. Effect of Temperature and light intensity on growth and Photosynthetic Activity of Chlamydomonas reinhard II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alfonsel Jaen, M.; Fernandez Gonzalez, J.

    1985-01-01

    The effect of five temperatures (15,20,25,30 and 35 degree centigree) and two levels of illumination on growth and photosynthetic activity of Chlamydomonas reinhard II has been studied. The growth of the cultures was evaluated by optical density. Photosynthetic activity has been carried out studying either the assimilation rate of C0 2 labelled with C-14 or the oxygen evolution by means of polarographic measurements. The maximum photosynthetic rate has been obtained at 25 degree centigree for the lower level of illumination (2400 lux) and at 35 degree centigree for the higher one (13200 lux) and at 35 degree centigree for the higher ono (13200 lux). These results suggest an interaction of temperature and illumination on photosynthetic activity. (Author) 37 refs

  1. Climate controls photosynthetic capacity more than leaf nitrogen contents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, A. A.; Xu, C.; McDowell, N. G.

    2013-12-01

    Global vegetation models continue to lack the ability to make reliable predictions because the photosynthetic capacity varies a lot with growth conditions, season and among species. It is likely that vegetation models link photosynthetic capacity to concurrent changes in leaf nitrogen content only. To improve the predictions of the vegetation models, there is an urgent need to review species growth conditions and their seasonal response to changing climate. We sampled the global distribution of the Vcmax (maximum carboxylation rates) data of various species across different environmental gradients from the literature and standardized its value to 25 degree Celcius. We found that species explained the largest variation in (1) the photosynthetic capacity and (2) the proportion of nitrogen allocated for rubisco (PNcb). Surprisingly, climate variables explained more variations in photosynthetic capacity as well as PNcb than leaf nitrogen content and/or specific leaf area. The chief climate variables that explain variation in photosynthesis and PNcb were radiation, temperature and daylength. Our analysis suggests that species have the greatest control over photosynthesis and PNcb. Further, compared to leaf nitrogen content and/or specific leaf area, climate variables have more control over photosynthesis and PNcb. Therefore, climate variables should be incorporated in the global vegetation models when making predictions about the photosynthetic capacity.

  2. Cyanobacteria: photosynthetic factories combining biodiversity, radiation resistance, and genetics to facilitate drug discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassier-Chauvat, Corinne; Dive, Vincent; Chauvat, Franck

    2017-02-01

    Cyanobacteria are ancient, abundant, and widely diverse photosynthetic prokaryotes, which are viewed as promising cell factories for the ecologically responsible production of chemicals. Natural cyanobacteria synthesize a vast array of biologically active (secondary) metabolites with great potential for human health, while a few genetic models can be engineered for the (low level) production of biofuels. Recently, genome sequencing and mining has revealed that natural cyanobacteria have the capacity to produce many more secondary metabolites than have been characterized. The corresponding panoply of enzymes (polyketide synthases and non-ribosomal peptide synthases) of interest for synthetic biology can still be increased through gene manipulations with the tools available for the few genetically manipulable strains. In this review, we propose to exploit the metabolic diversity and radiation resistance of cyanobacteria, and when required the genetics of model strains, for the production and radioactive ( 14 C) labeling of bioactive products, in order to facilitate the screening for new drugs.

  3. Differences in the photosynthetic UV-B response between European beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) and Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.) saplings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Šprtová, M.; Marek, M.V.; Urban, O.; Kalina, J.; Špunda, V.

    2008-01-01

    Cloned saplings of Norway spruce (Picea abies (L) Karst.) and beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) (7 years old) were exposed to enhanced UV-B irradiation (+25%) continuously over three growing seasons (1999-2001). Selected parameters of variable chlorophyll alpha fluorescence and pigment composition were analysed in the late summer of the third growing season to evaluate the influence of long-term elevated UV-B irradiation on broadleaf and conifer tree species. To obtain information on the xanthophyll cycle, the de-epoxidation state (DEPS) was calculated. These tree species responded differentially to the long-term effects of enhanced UV-B radiation, Norway spruce was more sensitive compared to the European beech. The results show that in Norway spruce long-term exposure to enhanced UV-B radiation under field conditions caused negative changes at the level of primary photosynthetic reactions. Contrary to the beech, this had higher degree of UV-B protective responses. UV-B radiation is not effective stressor to its primary photosynthetic reaction

  4. Effect of ambient levels of ozone on photosynthetic components and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect of ambient levels of ozone on photosynthetic components and radical scavenging system in leaves of African cowpea varieties. ... The O3-induced significant reduction in catalase activity was observed in Blackeye at vegetative and reproductive growth stages; and in Asontem at reproductive growth stage. On the other ...

  5. Effects of 1-butanol, neomycin and calcium on the photosynthetic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ajl yemi

    Institute of Food Crops, Jiangsu High Quality Rice R&D Center, Jiangsu Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Nanjing,. Jiangsu Province, 210014, China. Accepted 31 October, 2011. The effects .... and blue light source under the open system, with the following conditions: 1200 µmol m-2s-1 photosynthetic photon flux density.

  6. Changes in chlorophyll fluorescence and photosynthetic activity of French bean leaves induced by gamma radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saakov, V.; Lang, M.; Schindler, C.; Stober, F.; Lichtenthaler, H.K.

    1992-01-01

    When exposed to gamma-radiation (12, 8 and 3.5 kGy), the growth of bean seedlings (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) was stopped and after some hours or days the plants began to wilt in a dose-dependent manner, starting from the leaf rim. The rate of the dark respiration (R) of leaves increased and that of net photosynthesis (P(N)) was strongly reduced. The regulation of stomata opening and closure was lost and the stomatal conductance (g(s)) of the gamma-ray exposed plants was strongly reduced. The reduced P(N) was only partly due to either the partial or almost full stomata closure. Chlorophyll (Chl) fluorescence measurements witha two-wavelength fluorometer and a PAM fluorometer showed an increasingly reduced variable fluorescence F(v), lower values of R(fd), of ground fluorescence F0, and of the fluorescence ratios F(v)/F(m) and F(v)/F(o). This indicated a damage to the photosynthetic apparatus. The increasing loss of photosynthetic pigments in the 350 krad exposed plants was also detected via an increase in the fluorescence ratio F690/F730. The performance of the light driven xanthophyll cycle (violaxanthin/zeaxanthin transformation) proceeded in the gamma-ray treated plants only at reduced rates. The gamma-ray damage of plants can best be detected by measurements of stomatal conductance, P(N) and various Chl fluorescence ratios such as R(fd), F(v)/F(o) and F(v)/F(m)

  7. Long-term effects of elevated UV-B radiation on photosynthesis and ultrastructure of Eriophorum russeolum and Warnstorfia exannulata

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haapala, Jaana K.; Moersky, Sami K.; Saarnio, Sanna; Suokanerva, Hanne; Kyroe, Esko; Silvola, Jouko; Holopainen, Toini

    2010-01-01

    The depletion of stratospheric ozone above the Arctic regions may increase the amount of UV-B radiation to which the northern ecosystems are exposed. In this paper, we examine the hypothesis that supplemental UV-B radiation may affect the growth rate and photosynthesis of boreal peatland plants and could thereby affect the carbon uptake of these ecosystems. In this study, we report the effects of 3-year exposure to elevated UV-B radiation (46% above ambient) on the photosynthetic performance and ultrastructure of a boreal sedge Eriophorum russeolum and a moss Warnstorfia exannulata. The experiment was conducted on a natural fen ecosystem at Sodankylae in northern Finland. The effects of UV-B radiation on the light response of E. russeolum CO 2 assimilation and the maximal photochemical efficiency of photosystem II in a dark-adapted state (F v /F m ) were measured in the field. In addition, the effect of supplemental UV-B radiation on organelles of photosynthetic cells was studied by electron microscopy. The UV-B treatment had no effect on the CO 2 assimilation rate of either species, nor did it affect the structure of the cell organelles. On chlorophyll fluorescence, the UV-B exposure had only a temporary effect during the third exposure year. Our results suggested that in a natural ecosystem, even long-term exposure to reasonably elevated UV-B radiation levels does not affect the photosynthesis of peatland plants. - Research highlights: →Eriophorum russeolum and Warnstorfia exannulata are resistant to UV-B radiation →UV-B exposure does not affect the growth or photosynthesis of E. russeolum →Long-term UV-B exposure has no effect on the ultrastructure of E. russeolum

  8. BIOREGENERATIVE LIFE SUPPORT SYSTEMS IN THE SPACE (BLSS: THE EFFECTS OF RADIATION ON PLANTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Arena

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The growth of plants in Space is a fundamental issue for Space exploration. Plants play an important role in the Bioregenerative Life Support Systems (BLSS to sustain human permanence in extraterrestrial environments. Under this perspective, plants are basic elements for oxygen and fresh food production as well as air regeneration and psychological support to the crew. The potentiality of plant survival and reproduction in space is limited by the same factors that act on the earth (e.g. light, temperature and relative humidity and by additional factors such as altered gravity and ionizing radiation. This paper analyzes plant responses to space radiation which is recognized as a powerful mutagen for photosynthetic organisms thus being responsible for morpho-structural, physiological and genetic alterations. Until now, many studies have evidenced how the response to ionizing radiation is influenced by several factors associated both to plant characteristics (e.g. cultivar, species, developmental stage, tissue structure and/or radiation features (e.g. dose, quality and exposure time. The photosynthetic machinery is particularly sensitive to ionizing radiation. The severity of the damages induced by ionizing radiation on plant cell and tissues may depend on the capability of plants to adopt protection mechanisms and/or repair strategies. In this paper a selection of results from studies on the effect of ionizing radiations on plants at anatomical and eco-physiological level is reported and some aspects related to radioresistance are explored.

  9. Effect of sodium chloride on photosynthetic 14CO2 assimilation in Portulaca oleracea Linn

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joshi, G.V.; Karadge, B.A.

    1979-01-01

    Effect of NaCl on ion uptake, photosynthetic rate and photosynthetic products in a C 4 non-CAM succulent, P. oleracea has been investigated. NaCl causes accumulation of Na as well as Cl ions with decrease in K and Ca contents. Chlorophylls and photosynthetic 14 CO 2 fixation rates are adversely affected due to sodium chloride salinity. Plants grown in the presence of NaCl show increase in C 4 acid percentage with increase in labelling of organic acids in light. Labelling of amino acids (particularly alanine) and sugars (sucrose) is affected by NaCl. Enzyme studies reveal that PEP-carboxylase is stimulated at all concentrations of NaCl but higher concentrations affected the activity of RuBP-Carboxylase. (author)

  10. Derivation of the Photosynthetically Available Radiation from METEOSAT data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schiller, K. [GKSS-Forschungszentrum Geesthacht GmbH (Germany). Inst. fuer Hydrophysik

    2001-07-01

    Two different models, a Physical Model and a Neural Net, are used for the derivation of the photosynthetically available radiation (PAR) from METEOSAT data in the German Bight. Both models are constructed for the calculation of PAR in the German Bight in terms of an easily accessible time series of PAR fields; advantages and disadvantages of both models are discussed. A software package was generated in IDL for the realisation on the computer, its structure is motivated and physic background informations are given. With slight modifications all programs can be applied for the calculation of PAR for arbitary regions (but not over land). A zip file containing all programs and classes used, the technical html documentation and this report can be obtained from http://gfesunl.gkss.de/software/meteosat2par. (orig.) [German] Zur Ableitung der zur Photosynthese zur Verfuegung stehenden Strahlung (PAR) in der Deutschen Bucht aus METEOSAT-Daten werden zwei verschiedene Modelle, ein Physikalisches Modell und ein Neuranales Netz, benutzt. Beide Modelle sind darauf ausgelegt, PAR in der Deutschen Bucht in Form einer einfach zugaenglichen Zeitreihe von PAR-Feldern zu berechnen; Vor- und Nachteile beider Modelle werden diskutiert. Zur Realisierung auf dem Computer wurde ein Programmpaket in IDL erstellt, dessen Struktur motiviert wird und physikalische Hintergruende erlaeutert werden. Alle Programme sind so angelegt, dass sie sich durch geringfuegige Modifikationen eignen, PAR auch fuer andere Gebiete (aber nicht ueber Land) zu berechnen. Ein Zip-File aller benutzter Programme, Klassen, der technischen Html-Dokumentation und dieses Berichtes kann bei http://gfesunl.gkss.de/software/meteosat2par bezogen werden. (orig.)

  11. The effect of nitrogen on the development and photosynthetic activity ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Whole plant net photosynthetic rates appeared to vary according to the units in which the activity is expressed. The optimum levels of photosynthetic activity differed with the stage of development, depending on the basis of expression. The form and concentration of nitrogen applied influenced morphological development ...

  12. System responses to equal doses of photosynthetically usable radiation of blue, green, and red light in the marine diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristin Collier Valle

    Full Text Available Due to the selective attenuation of solar light and the absorption properties of seawater and seawater constituents, free-floating photosynthetic organisms have to cope with rapid and unpredictable changes in both intensity and spectral quality. We have studied the transcriptional, metabolic and photo-physiological responses to light of different spectral quality in the marine diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum through time-series studies of cultures exposed to equal doses of photosynthetically usable radiation of blue, green and red light. The experiments showed that short-term differences in gene expression and profiles are mainly light quality-dependent. Transcription of photosynthesis-associated nuclear genes was activated mainly through a light quality-independent mechanism likely to rely on chloroplast-to-nucleus signaling. In contrast, genes encoding proteins important for photoprotection and PSII repair were highly dependent on a blue light receptor-mediated signal. Changes in energy transfer efficiency by light-harvesting pigments were spectrally dependent; furthermore, a declining trend in photosynthetic efficiency was observed in red light. The combined results suggest that diatoms possess a light quality-dependent ability to activate photoprotection and efficient repair of photodamaged PSII. In spite of approximately equal numbers of PSII-absorbed quanta in blue, green and red light, the spectral quality of light is important for diatom responses to ambient light conditions.

  13. Effects of silicon on photosynthetic characteristics of maize (Zea mays L.) on alluvial soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Zhiming; Song, Fengbin; Xu, Hongwen; Shao, Hongbo; Song, Ri

    2014-01-01

    The objectives of the study were to determine the effects of silicon on photosynthetic characteristics of maize on alluvial soil, including total chlorophyll contents, photosynthetic rate (P n), stomatal conductance (g s), transpiration rate (E), and intercellular CO2 concentration (C i ) using the method of field experiment, in which there were five levels (0, 45, 90, 150, and 225 kg · ha(-1)) of silicon supplying. The results showed that certain doses of silicon fertilizers can be used successfully in increasing the values of total chlorophyll contents, P n, and g s and decreasing the values of E and C i of maize leaves, which meant that photosynthetic efficiency of maize was significantly increased in different growth stages by proper doses of Si application on alluvial soil, and the optimal dose of Si application was 150 kg · ha(-1). Our results indicated that silicon in proper amounts can be beneficial in increasing the photosynthetic ability of maize, which would be helpful for the grain yield and growth of maize.

  14. Enhanced UV-B radiation alleviates the adverse effects of summer drought in two Mediterranean pines under field conditions [ozone depletion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petropoulou, Y.; Kyparissis, A.; Nikolopoulos, D.; Manetas, Y.

    1995-01-01

    The effects of enhanced UV-B (290-320 nm) radiation on two native Mediterranean pines (Pinus pinea L., Pinus halepensis Mill.) were recorded during a one-year field study. Plants received ambient or ambient plus supplemental UV-B radiation (simulating a 15% stratospheric ozone depletion over Patras. Greece, 38.3°N. 29.1°E) and only natural precipitation, i.e. they were simultaneously exposed to other natural stresses. particularly water stress during summer. Supplemental UV-B irradiation started in early February, 1993 and up to late June, no effects were observed on growth and photochemical efficiency of photosystem II, as measured by chlorophy II fluorescence induction. Water stress during the summer was manifested in the control plants as a decline in the ratio of variable to maximum fluorescence (F v /F m ), the apparent photon yield for oxygen evolution (φ I ) and the photosynthetic capacity at 5% CO 2 (P m ). In addition, a partial needle loss was evident. Under supplemental UV-B radiation, however, the decreases in F v /F m , φ i , and P m . as well as needle losses were significantly less. Soon after the first heavy autumn rains. photosynthetic parameters in both control and UV-B treated plants recovered to similar values. but the transient summer superiority of UV-B irradiated plants resulted in a significant increase in their dry weight measured at plant harvest. during late January. 1994. Plant height. UV-B absorbing compounds, photosynthetic pigments and relative water content measured at late spring. late summer and at plant harvest, were not significantly affected by supplemental UV-B radiation. The results indicate that enhanced UV-B radiation may be beneficial for Mediterranean pines through a partial alleviation of the adverse effects of summer drought. (author)

  15. Using a simple apparatus to measure direct and diffuse photosynthetically active radiation at remote locations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael J Cruse

    Full Text Available Plant canopy interception of photosynthetically active radiation (PAR drives carbon dioxide (CO2, water and energy cycling in the soil-plant-atmosphere system. Quantifying intercepted PAR requires accurate measurements of total incident PAR above canopies and direct beam and diffuse PAR components. While some regional data sets include these data, e.g. from Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM Program sites, they are not often applicable to local research sites because of the variable nature (spatial and temporal of environmental variables that influence incoming PAR. Currently available instrumentation that measures diffuse and direct beam radiation separately can be cost prohibitive and require frequent adjustments. Alternatively, generalized empirical relationships that relate atmospheric variables and radiation components can be used but require assumptions that increase the potential for error. Our goal here was to construct and test a cheaper, highly portable instrument alternative that could be used at remote field sites to measure total, diffuse and direct beam PAR for extended time periods without supervision. The apparatus tested here uses a fabricated, solar powered rotating shadowband and other commercially available parts to collect continuous hourly PAR data. Measurements of total incident PAR had nearly a one-to-one relationship with total incident radiation measurements taken at the same research site by an unobstructed point quantum sensor. Additionally, measurements of diffuse PAR compared favorably with modeled estimates from previously published data, but displayed significant differences that were attributed to the important influence of rapidly changing local environmental conditions. The cost of the system is about 50% less than comparable commercially available systems that require periodic, but not continual adjustments. Overall, the data produced using this apparatus indicates that this instrumentation has the

  16. Estimation of absorbed photosynthetically active radiation and vegetation net production efficiency using satellite data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanan, N.P.; Prince, S.D.; Begue, A.

    1995-01-01

    The amount of photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) absorbed by green vegetation is an important determinant of photosynthesis and growth. Methods for the estimation of fractional absorption of PAR (iff PAR ) for areas greater than 1 km 2 using satellite data are discussed, and are applied to sites in the Sahel that have a sparse herb layer and tree cover of less than 5%. Using harvest measurements of seasonal net production, net production efficiencies are calculated. Variation in estimates of seasonal PAR absorption (APAR) caused by the atmospheric correction method and relationship between surface reflectances and iff PAR is considered. The use of maximum value composites of satellite NDVI to reduce the effect of the atmosphere is shown to produce inaccurate APAR estimates. In this data set, however, atmospheric correction using average optical depths was found to give good approximations of the fully corrected data. A simulation of canopy radiative transfer using the SAIL model was used to derive a relationship between canopy NDVI and iff PAR . Seasonal APAR estimates assuming a 1:1 relationship between iff PAR and NDVI overestimated the SAIL modeled results by up to 260%. The use of a modified 1:1 relationship, where iff PAR was assumed to be linearly related to NDVI scaled between minimum (soil) and maximum (infinite canopy) values, underestimated the SAIL modeled results by up to 35%. Estimated net production efficiencies (ϵ n , dry matter per unit APAR) fell in the range 0.12–1.61 g MJ −1 for above ground production, and in the range 0.16–1.88 g MJ −1 for total production. Sites with lower rainfall had reduced efficiencies, probably caused by physiological constraints on photosynthesis during dry conditions. (author)

  17. BOREAS TE-9 NSA Photosynthetic Response Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Forrest G.; Curd, Shelaine (Editor); Dang, Qinglai; Margolis, Hank; Coyea, Marie

    2000-01-01

    The Boreal Ecosystem-Atmospheric Study (BOREAS) TE-9 (Terrestrial Ecology) team collected several data sets related to chemical and photosynthetic properties of leaves. This data set describes: (1) the response of leaf and shoot-level photosynthesis to ambient and intercellular CO2 concentration, temperature, and incident photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) for black spruce, jack pine, and aspen during the three intensive field campaigns (IFCs) in 1994 in the Northern Study Area (NSA); (2) the response of stomatal conductance to vapor pressure difference throughout the growing season of 1994; and (3) a range of shoot water potentials (controlled in the laboratory) for black spruce and jack pine. The data are stored in tabular ASCII files. The data files are available on a CD-ROM (see document number 20010000884), or from the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Distributed Active Archive Center (DAAC).

  18. A cost-effective microbial fuel cell to detect and select for photosynthetic electrogenic activity in algae and cyanobacteria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luimstra, V.M.; Kennedy, S.J.; Güttler, J.; Wood, S.A.; Williams, D.E.; Packer, M.A.

    2014-01-01

    This work describes the development of an easily constructed, cost-effective photosynthetic microbial fuel cell design with highly reproducible electrochemical characteristics that can be used to screen algae and cyanobacteria for photosynthetic electrogenic activity. It is especially suitable for

  19. Radiative transfer in shrub savanna sites in Niger: preliminary results from HAPEX-Sahel. 2. Photosynthetically active radiation interception of the woody layer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bégué, A.; Hanan, N.P.; Prince, S.D.

    1994-01-01

    Interception by the woody layer of photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) was measured and calculated for two Guiera senegalensis J.F. Gmel, shrub savannas in Ouallam, Western Niger, in 1991 as part of the HAPEX-Sahel experiment. Two different scales were considered. At the plant scale, PAR interception was measured throughout the day with amorphous silicon sensors, together with detailed measurements of the structure of the shrubs (size of the ‘envelope’ of the shrub, area index, and angular distribution of the leaves and the branches). These data permitted us to develop and validate a simple radiative transfer model in which the shrubs are represented by porous cylinders; the total transmissivity (or porosity) of the shrubs estimated by the model was approximately 0.4. It indicates that semi-arid shrubs cannot be considered opaque objects and that the fraction of ground covered with plants is a poor indicator of the PAR interception efficiency of the canopy. The model was also applied at a landscape scale to calculate the daily PAR interception of two shrub savanna sites. This value is needed to model primary production in conjunction with remotely sensed and production data acquired simultaneously on the sites. (author)

  20. Non-linear direct effects of acid rain on leaf photosynthetic rate of terrestrial plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Dan; Du, Enzai; Sun, Zhengzhong; Zeng, Xuetong; de Vries, Wim

    2017-12-01

    Anthropogenic emissions of acid precursors have enhanced global occurrence of acid rain, especially in East Asia. Acid rain directly suppresses leaf function by eroding surface waxes and cuticle and leaching base cations from mesophyll cells, while the simultaneous foliar uptake of nitrates in rainwater may directly benefit leaf photosynthesis and plant growth, suggesting a non-linear direct effect of acid rain. By synthesizing data from literature on acid rain exposure experiments, we assessed the direct effects of acid rain on leaf photosynthesis across 49 terrestrial plants in China. Our results show a non-linear direct effect of acid rain on leaf photosynthetic rate, including a neutral to positive effect above pH 5.0 and a negative effect below that pH level. The acid rain sensitivity of leaf photosynthesis showed no significant difference between herbs and woody species below pH 5.0, but the impacts above that pH level were strongly different, resulting in a significant increase in leaf photosynthetic rate of woody species and an insignificant effect on herbs. Our analysis also indicates a positive effect of the molar ratio of nitric versus sulfuric acid in the acid solution on leaf photosynthetic rate. These findings imply that rainwater acidity and the composition of acids both affect the response of leaf photosynthesis and therefore result in a non-linear direct effect. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Scale dependence of absorption of photosynthetically active radiation in terrestrial ecosystems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asner, G.P.; Wessman, C.A.; Archer, S.

    1998-01-01

    The fraction of photosynthetically active radiation absorbed by plant canopies (fAPAR) is a critical biophysical variable for extrapolating ecophysiological measurements from the leaf to landscape scale. Quantification of fAPAR determinants at the landscape level is needed to improve the interpretation of remote sensing data, to facilitate its use in constraining ecosystem process models, and to improve synoptic-scale links between carbon and nutrient cycles. Most canopy radiation budget studies have focused on light attenuation in plant canopies, with little regard for the importance of the scale-dependent biophysical and structural factors (e.g., leaf and stem optical properties, leaf and stem area, and extent of vegetation structural types) that ultimately determine fAPAR at canopy and landscape scales. Most studies have also assumed that nonphotosynthetic vegetation (litter and stems) contributes little to fAPAR. Using a combined field measurement and radiative transfer modeling approach, we quantified (a) the relative role of the leaf-, canopy-, and landscape-level factors that determine fAPAR in terrestrial ecosystems and (b) the magnitude of PAR absorption by grass litter and woody plant stems. Variability in full spectral-range (400–2500 nm) reflectance/transmittance and PAR (400–700 nm) absorption at the level of individual leaf, stem, and litter samples was quantified for a wide array of broadleaf arborescent and grass species along a 900-km north–south Texas savanna transect. Among woody growth forms, leaf reflectance and transmittance spectra were statistically comparable between populations, species within a genus, and functional types (deciduous vs. evergreen, legume vs. nonlegume). Within the grass life-form, spectral properties were statistically comparable between species and C 3 /C 4 physiologies. We found that tissue-level PAR absorption among species, genera, functional groups, and growth forms and between climatologically diverse regions

  2. Analysis of Photosynthetic Characteristics and UV-B Absorbing Compounds in Mung Bean Using UV-B and Red LED Radiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fang-Min Li

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Mung bean has been reported to have antioxidant, antidiabetic, anti-inflammatory, and antitumor activities. Various factors have important effects on the types and contents of plant chemical components. In order to study quality of mung bean from different light sources, mung bean seedlings were exposed to red light-emitting diodes (LEDs and ultraviolet-B (UV-B. Changes in the growth parameters, photosynthetic characteristics, the concentrations of chlorophyll a and chlorophyll b and the content of UV-B absorbing compounds were measured. The results showed that photosynthetic characteristics and chlorophyll a and chlorophyll b concentrations were enhanced by red LEDs. The concentrations of UV-B absorbing compounds were enhanced by UV-B on the 20th day, while photosynthetic characteristics, plant length, and the concentrations of chlorophyll a and chlorophyll b were reduced by UV-B on the 40th day; at the same time the values of the stem diameter, plant fresh weight, dry weight, and the concentrations of UV-B absorbing compounds were enhanced. It is suggested that red LEDs promote the elongation of plant root growth and photosynthetic characteristics, while UV-B promotes horizontal growth of stems and the synthesis of UV-B absorbing compounds.

  3. Transmittance of young Norway spruce stand canopy for photosynthetically active radiation during the growing season

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Markova, I.; Kubasek, J.

    2013-01-01

    Analysis of transmittance of young Norway spruce stand canopy for photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) was made at the study site of Bily Kriz (the Moravian-Silesian Beskids Mts., the Czech Republic) at different sky conditions during the growing season in 2010. For the description of PAR transmittance different phenological phases of the spruce stand development in clear and overcast days were chosen. The mean daily PAR transmittance of the spruce canopy was significantly higher in overcast days compared with clear ones. Diffuse PAR thus penetrated into lower parts of the canopy more efficiently than direct one. PAR transmittance of young Norway spruce stand canopy was different in individual phenological phases of the spruce stand canopy which was caused by changes in the stand structure during the growing season. Thus monitoring of transmittance of young Norway spruce stand canopy for PAR can help to describe the development of spruce stand canopy

  4. Excitons in intact cells of photosynthetic bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freiberg, Arvi; Pajusalu, Mihkel; Rätsep, Margus

    2013-09-26

    Live cells and regular crystals seem fundamentally incompatible. Still, effects characteristic to ideal crystals, such as coherent sharing of excitation, have been recently used in many studies to explain the behavior of several photosynthetic complexes, especially the inner workings of the light-harvesting apparatus of the oldest known photosynthetic organisms, the purple bacteria. To this date, there has been no concrete evidence that the same effects are instrumental in real living cells, leaving a possibility that this is an artifact of unnatural study conditions, not a real effect relevant to the biological operation of bacteria. Hereby, we demonstrate survival of collective coherent excitations (excitons) in intact cells of photosynthetic purple bacteria. This is done by using excitation anisotropy spectroscopy for tracking the temperature-dependent evolution of exciton bands in light-harvesting systems of increasing structural complexity. The temperature was gradually raised from 4.5 K to ambient temperature, and the complexity of the systems ranged from detergent-isolated complexes to complete bacterial cells. The results provide conclusive evidence that excitons are indeed one of the key elements contributing to the energetic and dynamic properties of photosynthetic organisms.

  5. Physiological responses of macroalga Gracilaria lemaneiformis (Rhodophyta) to UV-B radiation exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Lin; Xiao, Hui; Wang, Ying; Jian, Xiaoyang; Zhang, Zhipeng; Zhang, Huanxin; Tang, Xuexi

    2015-03-01

    This paper aims to evaluate the effects of ultraviolet-B radiation (UVBR) on Gracilaria lemaneiformis, a commercial red macroalga and an important source of agar. To study the in-vitro effect of UVBR on G. lemaneiformis, this plant was cultivated and exposed to photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) at 40 μmol photons/(m2 ·s) and enhanced UVBR (0, 0.36, 0.72, 1.08, 1.44, and 1.80 kJ/(m2 ·d)) for 13 days. The samples were processed for histochemical analysis, and the growth rate, photosynthetic pigment contents, photosynthetic performance, reactive oxygen species levels, membrane permeability, malonyl dialdehyde contents and antioxidant capacity of G. lemaneiformis were investigated. After 13 days of exposure to PAR+UVBR, G. lemaneiformis showed photodamage and photoinhibition of photosynthetic pigments (chlorophyll a and phycoerythrin), leading to a decreased photosynthetic efficiency. Further, there was a corresponding decrease in the relative growth rates and depigmentation and partial necrosis of the apical segments were noted after exposure to PAR+UVBR. Additionally, UVBR induced excess production of superoxide radicals and hydrogen peroxide, eliciting a marked cellular membrane damage and antioxidative response.

  6. Cover materials excluding near infrared radiation: effect on greenhouse climate and plant processes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kempkes, F.L.K.; Stanghellini, C.; Hemming, S.; Dai, J.

    2008-01-01

    Only about half of the energy that enters a greenhouse as sun radiation is in the wavelength range that is useful for photosynthesis (PAR, Photosynthetically Active Radiation). Nearly all the remaining energy fraction is in the Near InfraRed range (NIR) and warms the greenhouse and crop and does

  7. Cathodic protection of carbon steel in natural seawater: Effect of sunlight radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benedetti, Alessandro [Istituto per l' Energetica e le Interfasi, IENI - CNR, Milano, via Roberto Cozzi 53 20125 Milano (Italy)], E-mail: alessandro.benedetti@cnr.it; Magagnin, Luca [Dip. Chimica, Materiali e Ing. Chimica G. Natta, Politecnico di Milano, via Mancinelli 7, 20131 Milano (Italy); Passaretti, Francesca [Istituto per l' Energetica e le Interfasi IENI - CNR, Lecco, c.so Promessi Sposi 29, 23900 Lecco (Italy); Chelossi, Elisabetta; Faimali, Marco [Istituto di Scienze Marine, ISMAR- CNR - Via De Marini 6, 16149, Genova (Italy); Montesperelli, Giampiero [Universita di Roma - Tor Vergata, Dipartimento di Scienze e Tecnologie Chimiche, Via della Ricerca Scientifica 00133, Roma (Italy)

    2009-11-01

    Cathodic protection of metals in seawater is known to be influenced by chemical-physical parameters affecting cathodic processes (oxygen discharge, hydrogen evolution and calcareous deposit precipitation). In shallow seawater, these parameters are influenced by sunlight photoperiod and photosynthetic activity. The results presented here represent the first step in studies dedicated to cathodic protection in shallow photic seawater. This paper reports on carbon steel protected at -850 mV vs. Ag/AgCl (oxygen limiting current regime) in the presence of sunlight radiation but in the absence of biological and photosynthetic activity, the role of which deserves future research. Comparison of results obtained by exposing electrochemical cells to daylight cycles in both biologically inactivated natural seawater and in NaCl 3.5 wt.% solutions showed that sunlight affects current densities and that calcareous deposit interfere with light-currents effects. Sunlight radiation and induced heating of the solution have been separated, highlighting results not otherwise obvious: (1) observed current waves concomitant with sunlight radiation depend fundamentally on solar radiation, (2) solar radiation can determine current enhancements from early to late phases of aragonite crystal growth, (3) a three-day-old CaCO{sub 3} layer reduces but does not eliminate the amplitude of the current waves. Theoretical calculations for oxygen limiting currents and additional field tests showed that sunlight, rather than bulk solution heating, is the main cause of daily current enhancements. This was confirmed by polarizations performed at -850 and -1000 mV vs. Ag/AgCl (constant bulk temperature), during which the electrode was irradiated with artificial lighting. This test also confirmed O{sub 2} discharge to be the cathodic process involved. A mechanism of radiation conversion to heat in the oxygen diffusion layer region is proposed.

  8. Effects of gold nanoparticles on the photophysical and photosynthetic parameters of leaves and chloroplasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, Rocio; Diz, Virginia E; Lagorio, M Gabriela

    2018-04-18

    Effects of gold nanoparticles (average diameter: 10-14 nm) on leaves and chloroplasts have been studied. Gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) quenched significantly chlorophyll fluorescence when introduced both in intact leaves and isolated chloroplasts. Additionally, the fluorescence spectra corrected for light re-absorption processes showed a net decrease in the fluorescence ratio calculated as the quotient between the maximum fluorescence at 680 and 735 nm. This fact gave evidence for a reduction in the fluorescence emission of the PSII relative to that of the PSI. Strikingly, the photosynthetic parameters derived from the analysis of the slow phase of Kautsky's kinetics, the rate of oxygen evolution and the rate of photo-reduction of 2,6-dichlorophenolindophenol were increased in the presence of AuNPs indicating an apparent greater photosynthetic capacity. The observed results were consistent with an electron transfer process from the excited PSII, which was thermodynamically possible, and which competed with both the electron transport process that initiated photosynthesis and the deactivation of the excited PSII by fluorescence emission. Additionally, it is here explained, in terms of a completely rational kinetic scheme and their corresponding algebraic expressions, why the photosynthetic parameters and the variable and non-variable fluorescence of chlorophyll are modified in a photosynthetic tissue containing gold nanoparticles.

  9. Incorporation of 14C in Biochemical constituents in pea plants U nder the interaction effect of salinity and gamma-Radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamel, H.A.

    2003-01-01

    Pea (Pistun sativtun, var, Licoln) plants were raised in a greenhouse in small pots and kept for 30 days at normal condition (control) or under the effect of soil salinity (89 ds/m) and /or gamma irradiated seeds (10 Gy). Photosynthetic activity in addition to the distribution of 1 4C-in soluble sugars total lipids and into other components was studied; also protein amino acids were analyzed. photosynthetic activity was reduced by salinity and vice versa gamma radiation relative to control. At first time the highest radioactivity was detected in soluble sugars, then decreased by the time, while, increased in either lipids or protein and other components up to 24 h following exposure to 1 4 CO 2 . Amino acid analysis shows that there is four common amino acids; the amino acid methionine responsible for peptide synthesis disappeared under salinity treatment, while arginine and phenylalanine occurred under the interaction effect of salinity and radiation

  10. Estimating hourly variation in photosynthetically active radiation across the UK using MSG SEVIRI data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pankaew, P; Milton, E J; Dash, J

    2014-01-01

    The amount of photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) reaching the Earth's surface is a key input variable in most gross primary productivity models. However, poor representation of PAR due to large pixel size or limited temporal sampling is one of the main sources of uncertainty in such models. This paper presents a method to estimate PAR at up to 1 km spatial resolution at a regional to global scale. The method uses broadband radiance data (400–1100nm) and per-pixel estimates of relative cloud cover from a geostationary satellite to estimate the amount of PAR reaching the Earth's surface at high spatial and temporal resolution (1–2 km and hourly). The method was validated using data from 54 pyranometers located at sites across the UK. Hourly averaged PAR over the range 400–1400 μmol m −2 s −1 was estimated with a mean bias error = 5.01 μmol m −2 s −1 (R 2 = 0.87), providing a source of accurate data for high resolution models of gross primary productivity

  11. Study the effect of insecticide dimethoate on photosynthetic pigments and photosynthetic activity of pigeon pea: Laser-induced chlorophyll fluorescence spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Jitendra Kumar; Dubey, Gunjan; Gopal, R

    2015-10-01

    Pigeon pea is one of the most important legume crops in India and dimethoate is a widely used insecticide in various crop plants. We studied the effect of dimethoate on growth and photosynthetic activity of pigeon pea plants over a short and long term exposure. Plant growth parameters, photosynthetic pigment content and chlorophyll fluorescence response of pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan L.) plants treated with various concentrations of the insecticide dimethoate (10, 20, 40 and 80 ppm) have been compared for 30 days at regular intervals of 10 days each. Laser induced chlorophyll fluorescence spectra and fluorescence-induction kinetics (FIK) curve of dimethoate treated pigeon pea plants were recorded after 10, 20 and 30 days of treatment. Fluorescence intensity ratio at the two fluorescence maxima (F685/F730) was calculated by evaluating curve-fitted parameters. The variable chlorophyll fluorescence decrease ratio (Rfd) was determined from the FIK curves. Our study revealed that after 10 days of treatment, 10 ppm of dimethoate showed stimulatory response whereas 20, 40 and 80 ppm of dimethoate showed inhibitory response for growth and photosynthetic activity of pigeon pea plants, but after 20 and 30 days of treatment all the tested concentrations of dimethoate became inhibitory. This study clearly shows that dimethoate is highly toxic to the pigeon pea plant, even at very low concentration (10 ppm), if used for a prolonged duration. Our study may thus be helpful in determining the optimal dose of dimethoate in agricultural practices. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Effect of chromone-substituted benzothiazolium halides on photosynthetic processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kralova, K.; Sersen, F.; Gasparova, R.; Lacova, M.

    1998-01-01

    The effects of 3-R 2 -2[2-(6-R 1 -chromone-3-yl)ethenyl]benzothiazolium halides (CBH) on photosynthetic electron transport in spinach chloroplasts and in the legal suspension of Chlorella vulgaris were investigated. Using EPR spectroscopy it was confirmed that these compounds containing in their molecules two heterocyclic skeletons, namely benzothiazole and chromone, interact with the intermediate D + , corresponding to the tyrosine radical Tyr D situated in D 2 protein on the donor side of photosystem 2. Consequently, higher concentrations of CBH inhibited oxygen evolution rate in Chlorella vulgaris and the inhibitory effectiveness depended on the lipophilicity of the of the compound. (authors)

  13. Interactions between heavy metals and photosynthetic materials studied by optical techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ventrella, Andrea; Catucci, Lucia; Piletska, Elena; Piletsky, Sergey; Agostiano, Angela

    2009-11-01

    In this work studies on rapid inhibitory interactions between heavy metals and photosynthetic materials at different organization levels were carried out by optical assay techniques, investigating the possibility of applications in the heavy metal detection field. Spinach chloroplasts, thylakoids and Photosystem II proteins were employed as biotools in combination with colorimetric assays based on dichlorophenol indophenole (DCIP) photoreduction and on fluorescence emission techniques. It was found that copper and mercury demonstrated a strong and rapid photosynthetic activity inhibition, that varied from proteins to membranes, while other metals like nickel, cobalt and manganese produced only slight inhibition effects on all tested photosynthetic materials. By emission measurements, only copper was found to rapidly influence the photosynthetic material signals. These findings give interesting information about the rapid effects of heavy metals on isolated photosynthetic samples, and are in addition to the literature data concerning the effects of growth in heavy metal enriched media.

  14. Photosynthetic water splitting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greenbaum, E.

    1981-01-01

    The photosynthetic unit of hydrogen evolution, the turnover time of photosynthetic hydrogen production, and hydrogenic photosynthesis are discussed in the section on previous work. Recent results are given on simultaneous photoproduction of hydrogen and oxygen, kinetic studies, microscopic marine algae-seaweeds, and oxygen profiles.

  15. Tree Species with Photosynthetic Stems Have Greater Nighttime Sap Flux

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xia Chen

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available An increasing body of evidence has shown that nighttime sap flux occurs in most plants, but the physiological implications and regulatory mechanism are poorly known. The significance of corticular photosynthesis has received much attention during the last decade, however, the knowledge of the relationship between corticular photosynthesis and nocturnal stem sap flow is limited at present. In this study, we divided seven tree species into two groups according to different photosynthetic capabilities: trees of species with (Castanopsis hystrix, Michelia macclurei, Eucalyptus citriodora, and Eucalyptus grandis × urophylla and without (Castanopsis fissa, Schima superba, and Acacia auriculiformis photosynthetic stems, and the sap flux (Js and chlorophyll fluorescence parameters for these species were measured. One-way ANOVA analysis showed that the Fv/Fm (Maximum photochemical quantum yield of PSII and ΦPSII (effective photochemical quantum yield of PSII values were lower in non-photosynthetic stem species compared to photosynthetic stem species. The linear regression analysis showed that Js,d (daytime sap flux and Js,n (nighttime sap flux of non-photosynthetic stem species was 87.7 and 60.9% of the stem photosynthetic species. Furthermore, for a given daytime transpiration water loss, total nighttime sap flux was higher in species with photosynthetic stems (SlopeSMA = 2.680 than in non-photosynthetic stems species (SlopeSMA = 1.943. These results mean that stem corticular photosynthesis has a possible effect on the nighttime water flow, highlighting the important eco-physiological relationship between nighttime sap flux and corticular photosynthesis.

  16. Tree Species with Photosynthetic Stems Have Greater Nighttime Sap Flux

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xia; Gao, Jianguo; Zhao, Ping; McCarthy, Heather R.; Zhu, Liwei; Ni, Guangyan; Ouyang, Lei

    2018-01-01

    An increasing body of evidence has shown that nighttime sap flux occurs in most plants, but the physiological implications and regulatory mechanism are poorly known. The significance of corticular photosynthesis has received much attention during the last decade, however, the knowledge of the relationship between corticular photosynthesis and nocturnal stem sap flow is limited at present. In this study, we divided seven tree species into two groups according to different photosynthetic capabilities: trees of species with (Castanopsis hystrix, Michelia macclurei, Eucalyptus citriodora, and Eucalyptus grandis × urophylla) and without (Castanopsis fissa, Schima superba, and Acacia auriculiformis) photosynthetic stems, and the sap flux (Js) and chlorophyll fluorescence parameters for these species were measured. One-way ANOVA analysis showed that the Fv/Fm (Maximum photochemical quantum yield of PSII) and ΦPSII (effective photochemical quantum yield of PSII) values were lower in non-photosynthetic stem species compared to photosynthetic stem species. The linear regression analysis showed that Js,d (daytime sap flux) and Js,n (nighttime sap flux) of non-photosynthetic stem species was 87.7 and 60.9% of the stem photosynthetic species. Furthermore, for a given daytime transpiration water loss, total nighttime sap flux was higher in species with photosynthetic stems (SlopeSMA = 2.680) than in non-photosynthetic stems species (SlopeSMA = 1.943). These results mean that stem corticular photosynthesis has a possible effect on the nighttime water flow, highlighting the important eco-physiological relationship between nighttime sap flux and corticular photosynthesis. PMID:29416547

  17. Destruction of pigments and lipids in isolated chloroplasts under the effect of visible radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merzlyak, M.N.; Pogosyan, S.I.

    1988-01-01

    The results of experiments on the effect of light radiation on lipid and pigment destruction in isolated chloroplasts are generalized. Substrates and products of oxidation destruction of lipid and pigments, the role of photosynthetic electron transport in photodestruction, the participation of activated oxygen and free-radical intermediate forms in it are considered. The role of antioxidants, carotenoids and enzymatic systems in protection of chloroplast membranes from destructive light effect is discussed. A general scheme of possible ways of photodestruction in chloroplasts is presented. 53 refs

  18. Nitrogen control of photosynthetic protein synthesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmidt, G.W.

    1986-09-01

    Plant growth is severely affected by impaired photosynthesis resulting from nitrogen deficiency. The molecular aspects of this effect are being studied in the green alga Chlamydomonas grown in continuous culture systems. Photosynthetic membranes of nitrogen-limited cells are dramatically depleted in chlorophylls, xanthophylls and proteins of the light-harvesting complexes. In contrast, enzymes of the reductive pentose phosphate cycle and electron transport chain complexes are reduced only 40 to 65% on a per cell basis comparison with nitrogen-sufficient cultures. From analyses of mRNA levels by in vitro translation and hybridization analyses with cloned DNA sequences for photosynthetic proteins, we have found there are rather minor effects of nitrogen deficiency on nuclear or chloroplast gene transcription. Maturation of a transcript of the nuclear-encoded small subunit of ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase is inhibited in nitrogen-deficient cells and causes accumulation of large amounts of mRNA precursors. Most of the effects of nitrogen deficiency on photosynthetic proteins appear to result from posttranscriptional regulatory processes: light-harvesting protein synthesis may be sustained but their import into chloroplasts or translocation to photosynthetic membranes is impaired. Nitrogen-deficient cells lack violaxanthin, a pigment that is essential for the structure, function and biogenesis of the major antenna complexes. The absence of this pigment may be a causative factor for the deficiency of light harvesting complexes. Finally, the accumulation of massive amounts of starch and triglycerides in nitrogen-limited cells indicate there are some genes whose maximal expression is dependent upon nitrogen-limiting conditions. 10 refs.

  19. Diel tuning of photosynthetic systems in ice algae at Saroma-ko Lagoon, Hokkaido, Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aikawa, Shimpei; Hattori, Hiroshi; Gomi, Yasushi; Watanabe, Kentaro; Kudoh, Sakae; Kashino, Yasuhiro; Satoh, Kazuhiko

    Ice algae are the major primary producers in seasonally ice-covered oceans during the cold season. Diurnal change in solar radiation is inevitable for ice algae, even beneath seasonal sea ice in lower-latitude regions. In this work, we focused on the photosynthetic response of ice algae under diurnally changing irradiance in Saroma-ko Lagoon, Japan. Photosynthetic properties were assessed by pulse-amplitude modulation (PAM) fluorometry. The species composition remained almost the same throughout the investigation. The maximum electron transport rate ( rETRmax), which indicates the capacity of photosynthetic electron transport, increased from sunrise until around noon and decreased toward sunset, with no sign of the afternoon depression commonly observed in other photosynthetic organisms. The level of non-photochemical quenching, which indicates photoprotection activity by dissipating excess light energy via thermal processes, changed with diurnal variations in irradiance. The pigment composition appeared constant, except for xanthophyll cycle pigments, which changed irrespective of irradiance. These results indicate that ice algae tune their photosynthetic system harmonically to achieve efficient photosynthesis under diurnally changing irradiance, while avoiding damage to photosystems. This regulation system may be essential for productive photosynthesis in ice algae.

  20. Seasonal changes in photosynthetic capacity of leaves of kiwifruit (Actinidia deliciosa) vines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buwalda, J.G.; Meekings, J.S.; Smith, G.S.

    1991-01-01

    The seasonal trend of photosynthetic capacity of leaves of kiwifruit (Actinidia deliciosa var. deliciosa) vines growing in the field was examined, by measuring the response of net photosynthesis (A) to irradiance (PAR) at monthly intervals for leaves that emerged at different stages of the growing season. A climate controlled minicuvette system was used, to ensure constant environmental conditions, apart from the controlled changes in leaf irradiance. Responses of A to irradiance were described using asymptotic exponential curves, providing estimates of the radiation saturated rate of A (A sat ), and the response of A to increasing incident PAR at low PAR levels (ϕ i ). The change in photosynthetic capacity with leaf age was similar for leaves emerging 1, 2, 3 or 4 months after bud burst. At 1 month after leaf emergence, when leaves were fully expanded, Asat was 9–11 μmol CO 2 m −2 s −1 . Maximum photosynthetic capacity was not attained until 3–5 months after leaf emergence, when Asat was 16–17 μmol CO 2 m −2 s −1 . The increasing photosynthetic capacity during 3–5 months after leaf emergence was closely related to concomitant changes in leaf N and chlorophyll contents. The possibility that N import to the leaf was a significant factor limiting the development of photosynthetic capacity is discussed. (author)

  1. Validation of photosynthetic-fluorescence parameters as biomarkers for isoproturon toxic effect on alga Scenedesmus obliquus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dewez, David; Didur, Olivier; Vincent-Heroux, Jonathan; Popovic, Radovan

    2008-01-01

    Photosynthetic-fluorescence parameters were investigated to be used as valid biomarkers of toxicity when alga Scenedesmus obliquus was exposed to isoproturon [3-(4-isopropylphenyl)-1,1-dimethylurea] effect. Chlorophyll fluorescence induction of algal cells treated with isoproturon showed inactivation of photosystem II (PSII) reaction centers and strong inhibition of PSII electron transport. A linear correlation was found (R 2 ≥ 0.861) between the change of cells density affected by isoproturon and the change of effective PSII quantum yield (Φ M' ), photochemical quenching (q P ) and relative photochemical quenching (q P(rel) ) values. The cells density was also linearly dependent (R 2 = 0.838) on the relative unquenched fluorescence parameter (UQF (rel) ). Non-linear correlation was found (R 2 = 0.937) only between cells density and the energy transfer efficiency from absorbed light to PSII reaction center (ABS/RC). The order of sensitivity determined by the EC-50% was: UQF (rel) > Φ M' > q P > q P(rel) > ABS/RC. Correlations between cells density and those photosynthetic-fluorescence parameters provide supporting evidence to use them as biomarkers of toxicity for environmental pollutants. - Photosynthetic-fluorescence parameters are reliable biomarkers of isoproturon toxicity

  2. Tree Species with Photosynthetic Stems Have Greater Nighttime Sap Flux.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xia; Gao, Jianguo; Zhao, Ping; McCarthy, Heather R; Zhu, Liwei; Ni, Guangyan; Ouyang, Lei

    2018-01-01

    An increasing body of evidence has shown that nighttime sap flux occurs in most plants, but the physiological implications and regulatory mechanism are poorly known. The significance of corticular photosynthesis has received much attention during the last decade, however, the knowledge of the relationship between corticular photosynthesis and nocturnal stem sap flow is limited at present. In this study, we divided seven tree species into two groups according to different photosynthetic capabilities: trees of species with ( Castanopsis hystrix, Michelia macclurei, Eucalyptus citriodora , and Eucalyptus grandis × urophylla ) and without ( Castanopsis fissa, Schima superba , and Acacia auriculiformis ) photosynthetic stems, and the sap flux ( J s ) and chlorophyll fluorescence parameters for these species were measured. One-way ANOVA analysis showed that the F v / F m (Maximum photochemical quantum yield of PSII) and Φ PSII (effective photochemical quantum yield of PSII) values were lower in non-photosynthetic stem species compared to photosynthetic stem species. The linear regression analysis showed that J s,d (daytime sap flux) and J s,n (nighttime sap flux) of non-photosynthetic stem species was 87.7 and 60.9% of the stem photosynthetic species. Furthermore, for a given daytime transpiration water loss, total nighttime sap flux was higher in species with photosynthetic stems (Slope SMA = 2.680) than in non-photosynthetic stems species (Slope SMA = 1.943). These results mean that stem corticular photosynthesis has a possible effect on the nighttime water flow, highlighting the important eco-physiological relationship between nighttime sap flux and corticular photosynthesis.

  3. Radiation hormesis in plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jae Sung; Lee, Young Keun; Lee, Sang Jae and others; Park, Youn Il; Kwon, Soon Tae

    2003-05-01

    This research was performed to investigate the effects of low dose gamma radiation on germination, early growth and yield in a wide range of vegetable crops. The stimulating effects of gamma radiation was evaluated through investigating germination rate, early growth and physiological activities such as enzyme activities, hormones and photosynthetic responses etc. Induction of increased shikonin production in the plants by low dose gamma radiation was challenged to open up the possibility of applying radiation hormesis to the industrial mass production system of the natural materials useful to humans. Effects of natural radiation emitted from solid ceramics was compared on the plants with those of low dose gamma radiation. Finally, activation of aged seeds by low dose gamma radiation, probably facilitating their commercial circulation in the agriculture, was challenged in association with an industrial seed company. Moreover, the shift in resistance of the crops to environmental stresses including UV and low temperature was addressed as well as DNA damage, repair and protein expression after gamma irradiation

  4. Optimum combinations of visible and near-infrared reflectances for estimating the fraction of photosynthetically available radiation absorbed by plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podaire, Alain; Deschamps, Pierre-Yves; Frouin, R.; Asrar, Ghassem

    1991-01-01

    A useful parameter to estimate terrestrial primary productivity, that can be sensed from space, is the daily averaged fraction of Photosynthetically Available Radiation (PAR) absorbed by plants. To evaluate this parameter, investigators have relied on the fact that the relative amount of radiation reflected by a vegetated surface in the visible and near infrared depends on the fraction of the surface covered by the vegetation and therefore, correlates with absorbed PAR. They have used vegetation indices, namely normalized difference and simple ratio, to derive absorbed PAR. The problem with normalized difference and simple ratio is first, they are non linear functions of radiance or reflectance and therefore, cannot be readily applied to heterogeneous targets, second, they are used in generally nonlinear relationships, which make time integrals of the indices not proportional to primary productivity, and third, the relationships depend strongly on the type of canopy and background. To remove these limitations, linear combinations of visible and near infrared reflectances at optimum (one or two) viewing zenith angles are proposed.

  5. Photosynthetic performance of restored and natural mangroves under different environmental constraints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rovai, André Scarlate; Barufi, José Bonomi; Pagliosa, Paulo Roberto; Scherner, Fernando; Torres, Moacir Aluísio; Horta, Paulo Antunes

    2013-01-01

    We hypothesized that the photosynthetic performance of mangrove stands restored by the single planting of mangroves species would be lowered due to residual stressors. The photosynthetic parameters of the vegetation of three planted mangrove stands, each with a different disturbance history, were compared to reference sites and correlated with edaphic environmental variables. A permutational analysis of variance showed significant interaction when the factors were compared, indicating that the photosynthetic parameters of the restoration areas differed from the reference sites. A univariate analysis of variance showed that all the photosynthetic parameters differed between sites and treatments, except for photosynthetic efficiency (α ETR ). The combination of environmental variables that best explained the variations observed in the photosynthetic performance indicators were Cu, Pb and elevation disruptions. Fluorescence techniques proved efficient in revealing important physiological differences, representing a powerful tool for rapid analysis of the effectiveness of initiatives aimed at restoring coastal environments. -- Highlights: •Photosynthetic efficiency of natural and restored mangroves are compared. •Natural stands present higher photosynthetic performance. •Photosynthetic performance of mangroves is reduced due to Cu and Pb contamination. •Chlorophyll a fluorescence is a useful indicator to assess short-term restoration. -- Photosynthetic performance of mangroves is reduced due to Cu and Pb contamination

  6. Photosynthetic performance of restored and natural mangroves under different environmental constraints

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rovai, André Scarlate, E-mail: rovaias@hotmail.com [Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, Departamento de Ecologia e Zoologia, Campus Universitário, Trindade, 88040-900 Florianópolis, SC (Brazil); Barufi, José Bonomi, E-mail: jose.bonomi@gmail.com [Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, Departamento de Botânica, Campus Universitário, Trindade, 88040-900 Florianópolis, SC (Brazil); Pagliosa, Paulo Roberto, E-mail: paulo.pagliosa@ufsc.br [Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, Departamento de Geociências, Campus Universitário, Trindade, 88040-900 Florianópolis, SC (Brazil); Scherner, Fernando [Universidade Federal Rural de Pernambuco, Laboratório de Ficologia, Campus Universitário, Dois Irmãos, 52171-900 Recife, PE (Brazil); Torres, Moacir Aluísio, E-mail: moatorres@cav.udesc.br [Universidade do Estado de Santa Catarina, Departamento de Engenharia Ambiental, Centro de Ciências Agroveterinárias, Av Luiz de Camões 2090, Conta Dinheiro, 88520-000 Lages, SC (Brazil); Horta, Paulo Antunes, E-mail: pahorta@ccb.ufsc.br [Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, Departamento de Botânica, Campus Universitário, Trindade, 88040-900 Florianópolis, SC (Brazil); others, and

    2013-10-15

    We hypothesized that the photosynthetic performance of mangrove stands restored by the single planting of mangroves species would be lowered due to residual stressors. The photosynthetic parameters of the vegetation of three planted mangrove stands, each with a different disturbance history, were compared to reference sites and correlated with edaphic environmental variables. A permutational analysis of variance showed significant interaction when the factors were compared, indicating that the photosynthetic parameters of the restoration areas differed from the reference sites. A univariate analysis of variance showed that all the photosynthetic parameters differed between sites and treatments, except for photosynthetic efficiency (α{sub ETR}). The combination of environmental variables that best explained the variations observed in the photosynthetic performance indicators were Cu, Pb and elevation disruptions. Fluorescence techniques proved efficient in revealing important physiological differences, representing a powerful tool for rapid analysis of the effectiveness of initiatives aimed at restoring coastal environments. -- Highlights: •Photosynthetic efficiency of natural and restored mangroves are compared. •Natural stands present higher photosynthetic performance. •Photosynthetic performance of mangroves is reduced due to Cu and Pb contamination. •Chlorophyll a fluorescence is a useful indicator to assess short-term restoration. -- Photosynthetic performance of mangroves is reduced due to Cu and Pb contamination.

  7. Effect of carbon limitation on photosynthetic electron transport in Nannochloropsis oculata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zavřel, Tomáš; Szabó, Milán; Tamburic, Bojan; Evenhuis, Christian; Kuzhiumparambil, Unnikrishnan; Literáková, Petra; Larkum, Anthony W D; Raven, John A; Červený, Jan; Ralph, Peter J

    2018-04-01

    This study describes the impacts of inorganic carbon limitation on the photosynthetic efficiency and operation of photosynthetic electron transport pathways in the biofuel-candidate microalga Nannochloropsis oculata. Using a combination of highly-controlled cultivation setup (photobioreactor), variable chlorophyll a fluorescence and transient spectroscopy methods (electrochromic shift (ECS) and P 700 redox kinetics), we showed that net photosynthesis and effective quantum yield of Photosystem II (PSII) decreased in N. oculata under carbon limitation. This was accompanied by a transient increase in total proton motive force and energy-dependent non-photochemical quenching as well as slightly elevated respiration. On the other hand, under carbon limitation the rapid increase in proton motive force (PMF, estimated from the total ECS signal) was also accompanied by reduced conductivity of ATP synthase to protons (estimated from the rate of ECS decay in dark after actinic illumination). This indicates that the slow operation of ATP synthase results in the transient build-up of PMF, which leads to the activation of fast energy dissipation mechanisms such as energy-dependent non-photochemical quenching. N. oculata also increased content of lipids under carbon limitation, which compensated for reduced NAPDH consumption during decreased CO 2 fixation. The integrated knowledge of the underlying energetic regulation of photosynthetic processes attained with a combination of biophysical methods may be used to identify photo-physiological signatures of the onset of carbon limitation in microalgal cultivation systems, as well as to potentially identify microalgal strains that can better acclimate to carbon limitation. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Understanding the Effects of Space Radiation on Living Organisms and its Implication for Astrobiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarter, Jill C.; Rothschild, Lynn J.

    2012-01-01

    The planetary environment around a star will be assaulted with various amounts of radiation. including solar and ionizing radiation. The amount and type varies with the type of star, the distance from the star, time of day, and other variables. While some radiation is critical to life on Earth, especially from 400-750 nm (so-called visible and photosynthetically active radiation), the effects of ultraviolet and ionizing radiation can be hazardous and even deadly. This is because life is based on organic carbon, which is susceptible to radiation damage. Radiation regimes in our own solar system address specifically radiation in our solar system with a main sequence star. The possibility remains of planets around red dwarfs. Such stars are much smaller in mass than the Sun (between 0.5 and .08 M(sub Sun), and so their temperature and stellar luminosity are low and peaked in the red. Since red dwarfs comprise about 75% of all stars in the galaxy, the possibility of life on planets around red dwarfs has been examined.

  9. Guard cell zeaxanthin tracks photosynthetically active radiation and stomatal apertures in Vicia faba leaves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Srivastava, A.; Zeiger, E.

    1995-01-01

    Zeaxanthin, antheraxanthin and violaxanthin concentrations in guard cells from sonicated abaxial epidermal peels of Vicia faba were measured from dawn to dusk, and compared with concentrations in mesophyll tissue of the same leaves. Measured changes in guard cell zeaxanthin and violaxanthin concentrations indicate that guard cells operate the xanthophyll cycle throughout the day. Mesophyll tissue had no detectable zeaxanthin at dawn, whereas guard cells had 30–50 mmol mol −1 chlorophyll a+b. On a chlorophyll basis, maximal zeaxanthin levels were 3–4 fold higher in guard cells than in mesophyll cells. Zeaxanthin concentrations tracked levels of photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) in both mesophyll and guard cells. In the mesophyll, most of the zeaxanthin changes occurred in mid-morning and mid-afternoon. In guard cells, zeaxanthin concentrations changed nearly linearly with PAR in the early morning and late afternoon, and closely tracked PAR levels throughout the day. Guard cell zeaxanthin concentrations were also closely correlated with stomatal apertures. The close relationship between zeaxanthin concentrations and PAR levels in guard cells indicates that zeaxanthin is well suited to function as a molecular photosensor in stomatal movements. (author)

  10. Evaluation of Protocols for Measuring Leaf Photosynthetic Properties of Field-Grown Rice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang Tian-gen

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Largely due to the heterogeneity of environmental parameters and the logistical difficulty of moving photosynthetic equipment in the paddy fields, effective measurement of lowland rice photosynthesis is still a challenge. In this study, we showed that measuring detached rice leaves in the laboratory can not effectively represent the parameters measured in situ. We further described a new indoor facility, high-efficiency all-weather photosynthetic measurement system (HAPS, and the associated measurement protocol to enable whole-weather measurement of photosynthetic parameters of rice grown in the paddy fields. Using HAPS, we can conduct photosynthetic measurements with a time span much longer than that appropriate for the outdoor measurements. Comparative study shows that photosynthetic parameters obtained with the new protocol can effectively represent the parameters in the fields. There was much less standard deviation for measurements using HAPS compared to the outdoor measurements, no matter for technical replications of each recording or for biological replications of each leaf position. This new facility and protocol enables rice photosynthetic physiology studies to be less tough but more efficient, and provides a potential option for large scale studies of rice leaf photosynthesis.

  11. Response of the photosynthetic system to altered protein composition and changes in environmental conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tóth, T.

    2014-01-01

    The photosynthetic thylakoid membrane has a hierarchically ordered structure containing pigment-protein complexes that capture solar radiation and convert it into chemical energy. Its highly dynamic structure is capable to continuously respond to the altered environmental conditions, e.g., light

  12. Dynamics of photosynthetic photon flux density (PPFD) and estimates in coastal northern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    The seasonal trends and diurnal patterns of Photosynthetically Active Radiation (PAR) were investigated in the San Francisco Bay Area of Northern California from March through August in 2007 and 2008. During these periods, the daily values of PAR flux density (PFD), energy loading with PAR (PARE), a...

  13. Validation of photosynthetic-fluorescence parameters as biomarkers for isoproturon toxic effect on alga Scenedesmus obliquus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dewez, David; Didur, Olivier; Vincent-Heroux, Jonathan [University of Quebec in Montreal, Department of Chemistry, Environmental Toxicology Research Center - TOXEN, 2101, Jeanne-Mance, Montreal, Quebec H2X 2J6 (Canada); Popovic, Radovan [University of Quebec in Montreal, Department of Chemistry, Environmental Toxicology Research Center - TOXEN, 2101, Jeanne-Mance, Montreal, Quebec H2X 2J6 (Canada)], E-mail: popovic.radovan@uqam.ca

    2008-01-15

    Photosynthetic-fluorescence parameters were investigated to be used as valid biomarkers of toxicity when alga Scenedesmus obliquus was exposed to isoproturon [3-(4-isopropylphenyl)-1,1-dimethylurea] effect. Chlorophyll fluorescence induction of algal cells treated with isoproturon showed inactivation of photosystem II (PSII) reaction centers and strong inhibition of PSII electron transport. A linear correlation was found (R{sup 2} {>=} 0.861) between the change of cells density affected by isoproturon and the change of effective PSII quantum yield ({phi}{sub M'}), photochemical quenching (q{sub P}) and relative photochemical quenching (q{sub P(rel)}) values. The cells density was also linearly dependent (R{sup 2} = 0.838) on the relative unquenched fluorescence parameter (UQF{sub (rel)}). Non-linear correlation was found (R{sup 2} = 0.937) only between cells density and the energy transfer efficiency from absorbed light to PSII reaction center (ABS/RC). The order of sensitivity determined by the EC-50% was: UQF{sub (rel)} > {phi}{sub M'} > q{sub P} > q{sub P(rel)} > ABS/RC. Correlations between cells density and those photosynthetic-fluorescence parameters provide supporting evidence to use them as biomarkers of toxicity for environmental pollutants. - Photosynthetic-fluorescence parameters are reliable biomarkers of isoproturon toxicity.

  14. Measurement and estimation of photosynthetically active radiation from 1961 to 2011 in Central China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Lunche; Gong, Wei; Li, Chen; Lin, Aiwen; Hu, Bo; Ma, Yingying

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • 6-Year observations were used to show the temporal variability of PAR and PAR/G. • Dependence of PAR on clearness index was studied in model development. • New developed models performed very well at different time scales. • The new all-weather model provided good estimates of PAR at two other sites. • Long-term variations of PAR from 1961 to 2011 in Central China were analyzed. - Abstract: Measurements of photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) and global solar radiation (G) at WHU, Central China during 2006–2011 were used to investigate the seasonal characteristics of PAR and PAR/G (PAR fraction). Both PAR and PAR fraction showed similar seasonal features that peaked in values during summer and reached their lowest in winter with annual mean values being 22.39 mol m −2 d −1 and 1.9 mol M J −1 respectively. By analyzing the dependence of PAR on cosine of solar zenith angle and clearness index at WHU, an efficient all-weather model was developed for estimating PAR values under various sky conditions, which also produced accepted estimations with high accuracy at Lhasa and Fukang. PAR dataset was then reconstructed from G for 1961–2011 through the new developed model. Annual mean daily PAR was about 23.12 mol m −2 d −1 , there was a significant decreasing trend (11.2 mol m −2 per decade) during the last 50 years in Central China, the decreases were sharpest in summer (−24.67 mol m −2 per decade) with relatively small decreases being observed in spring. Meanwhile, results also revealed that PAR began to increase at a rate of 0.1 mol m −2 per year from 1991 to 2011, which was in consistent with variation patterns of global solar radiation in the study area. The proposed all-weather PAR model would be of vital importance for ecological modeling, atmospheric environment, agricultural processes and solar energy application

  15. Growth enhancement of soybean (Glycine max) upon exclusion of UV-B and UV-B/A components of solar radiation: characterization of photosynthetic parameters in leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guruprasad, Kadur; Kadur, Guruprasad; Bhattacharjee, Swapan; Swapan, Bhattacharjee; Kataria, Sunita; Sunita, Kataria; Yadav, Sanjeev; Sanjeev, Yadav; Tiwari, Arjun; Arjun, Tiwari; Baroniya, Sanjay; Sanjay, Baroniya; Rajiv, Abhinav; Abhinav, Rajiv; Mohanty, Prasanna

    2007-01-01

    Exclusion of UV (280-380 nm) radiation from the solar spectrum can be an important tool to assess the impact of ambient UV radiation on plant growth and performance of crop plants. The effect of exclusion of UV-B and UV-A from solar radiation on the growth and photosynthetic components in soybean (Glycine max) leaves were investigated. Exclusion of solar UV-B and UV-B/A radiation, enhanced the fresh weight, dry weight, leaf area as well as induced a dramatic increase in plant height, which reflected a net increase in biomass. Dry weight increase per unit leaf area was quite significant upon both UV-B and UV-B/A exclusion from the solar spectrum. However, no changes in chlorophyll a and b contents were observed by exclusion of solar UV radiation but the content of carotenoids was significantly (34-46%) lowered. Analysis of chlorophyll (Chl) fluorescence transient parameters of leaf segments suggested no change in the F v/F m value due to UV-B or UV-B/A exclusion. Only a small reduction in photo-oxidized signal I (P700+)/unit Chl was noted. Interestingly the total soluble protein content per unit leaf area increased by 18% in UV-B/A and 40% in UV-B excluded samples, suggesting a unique upregulation of biosynthesis and accumulation of biomass. Solar UV radiation thus seems to primarily affect the photomorphogenic regulatory system that leads to an enhanced growth of leaves and an enhanced rate of net photosynthesis in soybean, a crop plant of economic importance. The presence of ultra-violet components in sunlight seems to arrest carbon sequestration in plants.

  16. Modeling Photosynthetically Active Radiation in Water of Tampa Bay, Florida, with Emphasis on the Geometry of Incident Irradiance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Ronald L.; McPherson, Benjamin F.

    1995-04-01

    Field studies that compare the spatial and temporal variation in light attenuation often neglect effects of solar elevation angle, yet these effects can be significant. To approximately correct for these angular effects, we developed a model that uses a simplified geometric description of incident direct solar beam and diffuse skylight. The model incorporates effects of solar elevation angle and cloudiness on the amount of in-air photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) that passes through the air-water interface and on K0in waters of relatively low turbidity. The model was calibrated with 3266 5-min averages of scalar PAR measured in air and at two depths in water and permits the value of K0to be adjusted approximately for the effects of time of day, season and cloudiness. The model was then used with 255 days of in-air PAR data (15-min averages) to evaluate irradiance that entered the water and attenuation in the water. On an annual basis, 49% of the incident scalar irradiance, or 380 μmol m -2s -1, was estimated to enter the water of Tampa Bay. The value of K0was estimated to vary as much as 41% on a clear summer day due to changes in solar elevation angle. The model was used to make estimates of the depth to which sea-grasses might receive adequate light for survival for a range of values of K0. This approach should be useful for projecting the effect of changes in water clarity on the depth of sea-grass survival and for comparing values of K0collected at different times of day and in different seasons.

  17. Effects of Kaolin Application on Light Absorption and Distribution, Radiation Use Efficiency and Photosynthesis of Almond and Walnut Canopies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosati, Adolfo; Metcalf, Samuel G.; Buchner, Richard P.; Fulton, Allan E.; Lampinen, Bruce D.

    2007-01-01

    Background and Aims Kaolin applied as a suspension to plant canopies forms a film on leaves that increases reflection and reduces absorption of light. Photosynthesis of individual leaves is decreased while the photosynthesis of the whole canopy remains unaffected or even increases. This may result from a better distribution of light within the canopy following kaolin application, but this explanation has not been tested. The objective of this work was to study the effects of kaolin application on light distribution and absorption within tree canopies and, ultimately, on canopy photosynthesis and radiation use efficiency. Methods Photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) incident on individual leaves within the canopy of almond (Prunus dulcis) and walnut (Juglans regia) trees was measured before and after kaolin application in order to study PAR distribution within the canopy. The PAR incident on, and reflected and transmitted by, the canopy was measured on the same day for kaolin-sprayed and control trees in order to calculate canopy PAR absorption. These data were then used to model canopy photosynthesis and radiation use efficiency by a simple method proposed in previous work, based on the photosynthetic response to incident PAR of a top-canopy leaf. Key Results Kaolin increased incident PAR on surfaces of inner-canopy leaves, although there was an estimated 20 % loss in PAR reaching the photosynthetic apparatus, due to increased reflection. Assuming a 20 % loss of PAR, modelled photosynthesis and photosynthetic radiation use efficiency (PRUE) of kaolin-coated leaves decreased by only 6·3 %. This was due to (1) more beneficial PAR distribution within the kaolin-sprayed canopy, and (2) with decreasing PAR, leaf photosynthesis decreases less than proportionally, due to the curvature of the photosynthesis response-curve to PAR. The relatively small loss in canopy PRUE (per unit of incident PAR), coupled with the increased incident PAR on the leaf surface on

  18. Effect of Mahanarva fimbriolata (Hemiptera: Cercopidae) Attack on Photosynthetic Parameters of Sugarcane Genotypes of Contrasting Susceptibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, Bruno Oliveira; Chaves, Vinicius de Vicente; Tomaz, Adriano Cirino; Kuki, Kacilda Naomi; Peternelli, Luiz Alexandre; Barbosa, Márcio Henrique Pereira

    2017-12-05

    The aim of this study was to compare the effect of spittlebug Mahanarva fimbriolata Stål (Hemiptera: Cercopidae) on photosynthetic parameters of both a susceptible (SP81-3250) and a resistant (H.Kawandang) sugarcane genotype. In the first assay, the susceptibility level of genotypes to spittlebug was confirmed by comparing damage score and chlorophyll content of the plants. In the second assay, the effect of spittlebug nymphs on photosynthetic characteristics was assessed using the following parameters: Net photosynthetic rate (A), carboxylation efficiency (A/Ci), stomata conductance (gS), transpiration (E), electron transport rate (ETR), maximum quantum yield of Photosystem 2 (PSII) (FV/FM), effective quantum yield (Y(II)), photochemical quenching (Y(NPQ)), and nonphotochemical quenching (Y(NO)). Spittlebug nymphs affected the photosynthetic process of the susceptible genotype SP81-3250 by decreasing the Chl content, ETR, FV/FM, and Y(II). However, this genotype was able to maintain A probably due to its ability to maintain stomata aperture, increase the carboxylation efficiency of Rubisco, and dissipate excess energy through the xanthophyll cycle, as Y(NPQ) increased under the spittlebug attack. On the other hand, the spittlebug did not affect Chl content and FV/FM of the H.Kawandang genotype. Furthermore, H.Kawandang increased A to compensate for the sink demand by the spittlebug by increasing stomatal aperture and carboxylation efficiency and increasing efficiency of the photochemical apparatus in converting light energy into chemical products. We can conclude that the feeding habits of spittlebug nymphs have different impacts on photosynthesis of susceptible and resistant sugarcane genotypes. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. Variability of photosynthetic parameters of Pinus sibirica Du Tour needles under changing climatic factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.P. Zotikova

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The air temperature and relative humidity and the intensity of photosynthetically active radiation are the basic ecological factors determining geographical distribution of a species. Wood plant adaptation depends on the intensity of physiological and biochemicalprocesses of plants as a response to changing environmental factors. Investigations to reveal (detect the variability of modification andgenetic components of the photosynthetic parameters in needles of the Siberian cedar (Pinus sibirica Du Tour mountain ecotypes, distributed in central part of the Altai Mountains, were carried out. Also, the survey was extended to some experiments with these ecotypes introduced to mild climate and flat regions from south-western of Siberia. The length and thickness of needles, the size of chloroplasts, content of the photosynthetic pigments, and the functional activity of chloroplastsat the level of photo system II were the evaluated traits. Growing under mountainous conditions (at about 2000m elevation, the two-year-old needles were shorter and thicker and contained very large in size chloroplasts while the content of chlorophylls and carotinoids was twice lower than that in the local ecotype growing in the lowlands. On the other hand, more green and yellow pigments were found in needles of mountain ecotypes planted in the lowlands compared to the local lowland ectype trees. A decrease in pool of the photosynthetic pigments in the highlands ecotypes is probably due to decreased biosynthesis andincreased photo-destruction caused by severe light and temperature conditions. These parameters are likely to be associated withmodifications due to intense insolation, low temperature, ozone concentration, UV radiation, and other negative factors that are morepronounced at high elevation. Despite the large pool of accumulated photosynthetic pigments, the functional activity of chloroplasts in themountain ecotype at the level

  20. Incorporating GOES Satellite Photosynthetically Active Radiation (PAR) Retrievals to Improve Biogenic Emission Estimates in Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Rui; White, Andrew T.; Pour Biazar, Arastoo; McNider, Richard T.; Cohan, Daniel S.

    2018-01-01

    This study examines the influence of insolation and cloud retrieval products from the Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES) system on biogenic emission estimates and ozone simulations in Texas. Compared to surface pyranometer observations, satellite-retrieved insolation and photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) values tend to systematically correct the overestimation of downwelling shortwave radiation in the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model. The correlation coefficient increases from 0.93 to 0.97, and the normalized mean error decreases from 36% to 21%. The isoprene and monoterpene emissions estimated by the Model of Emissions of Gases and Aerosols from Nature are on average 20% and 5% less, respectively, when PAR from the direct satellite retrieval is used rather than the control WRF run. The reduction in biogenic emission rates using satellite PAR reduced the predicted maximum daily 8 h ozone concentration by up to 5.3 ppbV over the Dallas-Fort Worth (DFW) region on some days. However, episode average ozone response is less sensitive, with a 0.6 ppbV decrease near DFW and 0.3 ppbV increase over East Texas. The systematic overestimation of isoprene concentrations in a WRF control case is partially corrected by using satellite PAR, which observes more clouds than are simulated by WRF. Further, assimilation of GOES-derived cloud fields in WRF improved CAMx model performance for ground-level ozone over Texas. Additionally, it was found that using satellite PAR improved the model's ability to replicate the spatial pattern of satellite-derived formaldehyde columns and aircraft-observed vertical profiles of isoprene.

  1. Photosynthetic performance of restored and natural mangroves under different environmental constraints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rovai, André Scarlate; Barufi, José Bonomi; Pagliosa, Paulo Roberto; Scherner, Fernando; Torres, Moacir Aluísio; Horta, Paulo Antunes; Simonassi, José Carlos; Quadros, Daiane Paula Cunha; Borges, Daniel Lázaro Gallindo; Soriano-Sierra, Eduardo Juan

    2013-10-01

    We hypothesized that the photosynthetic performance of mangrove stands restored by the single planting of mangroves species would be lowered due to residual stressors. The photosynthetic parameters of the vegetation of three planted mangrove stands, each with a different disturbance history, were compared to reference sites and correlated with edaphic environmental variables. A permutational analysis of variance showed significant interaction when the factors were compared, indicating that the photosynthetic parameters of the restoration areas differed from the reference sites. A univariate analysis of variance showed that all the photosynthetic parameters differed between sites and treatments, except for photosynthetic efficiency (αETR). The combination of environmental variables that best explained the variations observed in the photosynthetic performance indicators were Cu, Pb and elevation disruptions. Fluorescence techniques proved efficient in revealing important physiological differences, representing a powerful tool for rapid analysis of the effectiveness of initiatives aimed at restoring coastal environments. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Herbicide effects on the growth and photosynthetic efficiency of Cassiopea maremetens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowen, David J; Templeman, Michelle A; Kingsford, Michael J

    2017-09-01

    Herbicides from agricultural run-off have been measured in coastal systems of the Great Barrier Reef over many years. Non-target herbicide exposure, especially photosystem II herbicides has the potential to affect seagrasses and other marine species. The symbiotic benthic jellyfish Cassiopea maremetens is present in tropical/sub-tropical estuarine and marine environments. Jellyfish (n = 8 per treatment) were exposed to four separate concentrations of agricultural formulations of diuron or hexazinone to determine their sensitivity and potential for recovery to pulsed herbicide exposure. Jellyfish growth, symbiont photosynthetic activity and zooxanthellae density were analysed for herbicide-induced changes for 7 days followed by a 7 day recovery period. Both the jellyfish and endosymbiont were more sensitive to diuron than hexazinone. The 7-day EC 50 for jellyfish growth was 0.35 μg L -1 for Diuron and 17.5 μg L -1 for Hexazinone respectively. Diuron exposure caused a significant decrease (p diuron and hexazinone caused significant decreases in photosynthetic efficiency (effective quantum yield) in all treatment concentrations (0.1 μg L -1 and above) and this effect continued in the post-exposure period. As this species is frequently found in near-shore environments, they may be particularly vulnerable to herbicide run-off. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Effect of the Absorbed Photosynthetically Active Radiation Estimation Error on Net Primary Production Estimation - A Study with MODIS FPAR and TOMS Ultraviolet Reflective Products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobayashi, H.; Matsunaga, T.; Hoyano, A.

    2002-01-01

    Absorbed photosynthetically active radiation (APAR), which is defined as downward solar radiation in 400-700 nm absorbed by vegetation, is one of the significant variables for Net Primary Production (NPP) estimation from satellite data. Toward the reduction of the uncertainties in the global NPP estimation, it is necessary to clarify the APAR accuracy. In this paper, first we proposed the improved PAR estimation method based on Eck and Dye's method in which the ultraviolet (UV) reflectivity data derived from Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) at the top of atmosphere were used for clouds transmittance estimation. The proposed method considered the variable effects of land surface UV reflectivity on the satellite-observed UV data. Monthly mean PAR comparisons between satellite-derived and ground-based data at various meteorological stations in Japan indicated that the improved PAR estimation method reduced the bias errors in the summer season. Assuming the relative error of the fraction of PAR (FPAR) derived from Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) to be 10%, we estimated APAR relative errors to be 10-15%. Annual NPP is calculated using APAR derived from MODIS/ FPAR and the improved PAR estimation method. It is shown that random and bias errors of annual NPP in a 1 km resolution pixel are less than 4% and 6% respectively. The APAR bias errors due to the PAR bias errors also affect the estimated total NPP. We estimated the most probable total annual NPP in Japan by subtracting the bias PAR errors. It amounts about 248 MtC/yr. Using the improved PAR estimation method, and Eck and Dye's method, total annual NPP is 4% and 9% difference from most probable value respectively. The previous intercomparison study among using fifteen NPP models4) showed that global NPP estimations among NPP models are 44.4-66.3 GtC/yr (coefficient of variation = 14%). Hence we conclude that the NPP estimation uncertainty due to APAR estimation error is small

  4. Effect of Pot Size on Various Characteristics Related to Photosynthetic Matter Production in Soybean Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minobu Kasai

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite the wide uses of potted plants, information on how pot size affects plant photosynthetic matter production is still considerably limited. This study investigated with soybean plants how transplantation into larger pots affects various characteristics related to photosynthetic matter production. The transplantation was analyzed to increase leaf photosynthetic rate, transpiration rate, and stomatal conductance without affecting significantly leaf intercellular CO2 concentration, implicating that the transplantation induced equal increases in the rate of CO2 diffusion via leaf stomata and the rate of CO2 fixation in leaf photosynthetic cells. Analyses of Rubisco activity and contents of a substrate (ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate (RuBP for Rubisco and total protein in leaf suggested that an increase in leaf Rubisco activity, which is likely to result from an increase in leaf Rubisco content, could contribute to the transplantation-induced increase in leaf photosynthetic rate. Analyses of leaf major photosynthetic carbohydrates and dry weights of source and sink organs revealed that transplantation increased plant sink capacity that uses leaf starch, inducing a decrease in leaf starch content and an increase in whole plant growth, particularly, growth of sink organs. Previously, in the same soybean species, it was demonstrated that negative correlation exists between leaf starch content and photosynthetic rate and that accumulation of starch in leaf decreases the rate of CO2 diffusion within leaf. Thus, it was suggested that the transplantation-induced increase in plant sink capacity decreasing leaf starch content could cause the transplantation-induced increase in leaf photosynthetic rate by inducing an increase in the rate of CO2 diffusion within leaf and thereby substantiating an increase in leaf Rubisco activity in vivo. It was therefore concluded that transplantation of soybean plants into larger pots attempted in this study increased the

  5. Effects of water stress and high temperature on photosynthetic rates of two species of Prosopis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delatorre, Jose; Pinto, Manuel; Cardemil, Liliana

    2008-08-21

    The main aim of this research was to compare the photosynthetic responses of two species of Prosopis, Prosopis chilensis (algarrobo) and Prosopis tamarugo (tamarugo) subjected to heat and water stress, to determine how heat shock or water deficit, either individually or combined, affect the photosynthesis of these two species. The photosynthetic rates expressed as a function of photon flow density (PFD) were determined by the O(2) liberated, in seedlings of tamarugo and algarrobo subjected to two water potentials: -0.3 MPa and -2.5 MPa and to three temperatures: 25 degrees C, 35 degrees C and 40 degrees C. Light response curves were constructed to obtain light compensation and light saturation points, maximum photosynthetic rates, quantum yields and dark respiration rates. The photochemical efficiency as the F(v)/F(m) ratio and the amount of RUBISCO were also determined under heat shock, water deficit, and under the combined action of both stress. Photosynthetic rates at a light intensity higher than 500 micromole photons m(-2)s(-1) were not significantly different (P>0.05) between species when measured at 25 degrees C under the same water potential. The maximum photosynthetic rates decreased with temperature in both species and with water deficit in algarrobo. At 40 degrees C and -2.5 MPa, the photosynthetic rate of algarrobo fell to 72% of that of tamarugo. The quantum yield decreased in algarrobo with temperature and water deficit and it was reduced by 50% when the conditions were 40 degrees C and -2.5 MPa. Dark respiration increased by 62% respect to the control at 40 degrees C in tamarugo while remained unchanged in algarrobo. The photochemical efficiency decreased with both, high temperature and water deficit, without differences between species. RUBISCO content increased in algarrobo 35 degrees C. Water deficit reduced the amount of RUBISCO in both species. The results of this work support the conclusion that in both Prosopis species, the interaction between

  6. Effect of abscisic acid and blue radiation on photosynthesis and growth of pea plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siedlecka, M.; Romanowska, E.

    1993-01-01

    The effect of abscisic acid (ABA) on the net photosynthetic rate (PN), the ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase (RuBPC) and the phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEPC) activities, the chlorophyll (Chl) content and growth of pea plants (Pisum sativum) grown under ''white'' (WR) or blue radiation (BR), were investigated. BR as compared to WR enhanced PN, the activities of examined enzymes, and Chl content. In spite of higher PN of the plants grown under BR, dry matter of their shoots was lower in comparison with WR. ABA-treated plants grown under both WR and BR showed reduction in PN. ABA had no effect on the activities of both RuBPC and PEPC and the Chl content. Independent on the radiation quality, ABA reduced stem elongation, but did not affect the biomass of whole shoots

  7. Removal of Anabaena spiroides by potassium permanganate pre-oxidation: effect on photosynthetic capacity and molecular weight distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiao, Junlian; Zhang, Xiaodong; Lv, Liping

    2017-11-01

    Bench scale tests were conducted to investigate the effect of potassium permanganate pre-oxidation on the photosynthetic activity and molecular weight distribution of Anabaena spiroides. Different concentrations of potassium permanganate were added into the suspension of Anabaena spiroides, one of the dominant algae in water bloom, and after pre-oxidation of permanganate for 1 h, the results show that the removal rate significantly increases by 33.99~36.35% compared to direct coagulation. Then, the algal characteristics, including photosynthetic ability, the changes in extracellular organic matter three-dimensional fluorescence, and the distribution of molecular weight were conducted and the results show that along with increasing concentration of potassium permanganate, the photosynthetic ability of algae decreases, more extracellular organic matter is secreted, and large molecular weight matter (humic-like and fulvic-like substances) are generated. Therefore, this study demonstrates that potassium permanganate could be used in addressing the algae-rich water.

  8. Quantum transport in the FMO photosynthetic light-harvesting complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karafyllidis, Ioannis G

    2017-06-01

    The very high light-harvesting efficiency of natural photosynthetic systems in conjunction with recent experiments, which showed quantum-coherent energy transfer in photosynthetic complexes, raised questions regarding the presence of non-trivial quantum effects in photosynthesis. Grover quantum search, quantum walks, and entanglement have been investigated as possible effects that lead to this efficiency. Here we explain the near-unit photosynthetic efficiency without invoking non-trivial quantum effects. Instead, we use non-equilibrium Green's functions, a mesoscopic method used to study transport in nano-conductors to compute the transmission function of the Fenna-Matthews-Olson (FMO) complex using an experimentally derived exciton Hamiltonian. The chlorosome antenna and the reaction center play the role of input and output contacts, connected to the FMO complex. We show that there are two channels for which the transmission is almost unity. Our analysis also revealed a dephasing-driven regulation mechanism that maintains the efficiency in the presence of varying dephasing potentials.

  9. Photosynthetic fuel for heterologous enzymes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mellor, Silas Busck; Vavitsas, Konstantinos; Nielsen, Agnieszka Janina Zygadlo

    2017-01-01

    of reducing power. Recent work on the metabolic engineering of photosynthetic organisms has shown that the electron carriers such as ferredoxin and flavodoxin can be used to couple heterologous enzymes to photosynthetic reducing power. Because these proteins have a plethora of interaction partners and rely...... on electrostatically steered complex formation, they form productive electron transfer complexes with non-native enzymes. A handful of examples demonstrate channeling of photosynthetic electrons to drive the activity of heterologous enzymes, and these focus mainly on hydrogenases and cytochrome P450s. However......, competition from native pathways and inefficient electron transfer rates present major obstacles, which limit the productivity of heterologous reactions coupled to photosynthesis. We discuss specific approaches to address these bottlenecks and ensure high productivity of such enzymes in a photosynthetic...

  10. MVP: A Simple and Effective Model to Simulate the Mean and Variation of Photosynthetically Active Radiation Under Discrete Forest Canopies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, C.; Band, L. E.

    2003-12-01

    The spatial patterns of Photosynthetically Active Radiation (PAR) under forest canopies, including both its mean and spatial variation, are critical factors that determine numerous ecophysiological processes in plant ecosystems. Though numerous models have been developed that can accurately simulate PAR transmission through plant canopies, Beer's law remains the primary model used in ecological models to describe PAR transmission through plant canopies due to the fact that the more accurate models are too complicated to be used operationally. This study developed a simple and computationally efficient model to simulate both the Mean and Variation of PAR (MVP) under the forest canopy. The model provides a careful description of the effects of gaps on the variable light environment under forest canopy, while it simplifies the simulation of multiple scattering of photons. The model assumes that a forest canopy is composed of individual crowns distributed within upper and lower boundaries with two types of gaps: the between- and within-crown gaps. The inputs to the model are canopy structural parameters, including canopy depth, tree count density, tree crown shape, and foliage area volume density (m2/m3, leaf areas per unit crown volume). The between-crown gaps are simulated with geometric optics, and the within-crown gaps are described by Beer's law. The model accounts for the covariance of PAR in space through time, making it possible to simulate both instantaneous variation of PAR and variation of daily accumulated PAR. Validation with observed PAR using ten quantum sensors under the Old Black Spruce stand at the Southern Study Area of the BOREAS project indicates the model captures the mean and variation of PAR under forest canopy reasonably well. The model is simple enough that it can be used by other ecological models, such as ecosystem dynamics and carbon budget models. Further validation and testing of the model with other types forest are needed in the future.

  11. Rice Photosynthetic Productivity and PSII Photochemistry under Nonflooded Irrigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haibing He

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Nonflooded irrigation is an important water-saving rice cultivation technology, but little is known on its photosynthetic mechanism. The aims of this work were to investigate photosynthetic characteristics of rice during grain filling stage under three nonflooded irrigation treatments: furrow irrigation with plastic mulching (FIM, furrow irrigation with nonmulching (FIN, and drip irrigation with plastic mulching (DI. Compared with the conventional flooding (CF treatment, those grown in the nonflooded irrigation treatments showed lower net photosynthetic rate (PN, lower maximum quantum yield (Fv/Fm, and lower effective quantum yield of PSII photochemistry (ΦPSII. And the poor photosynthetic characteristics in the nonflooded irrigation treatments were mainly attributed to the low total nitrogen content (TNC. Under non-flooded irrigation, the PN, Fv/Fm, and ΦPSII significantly decreased with a reduction in the soil water potential, but these parameters were rapidly recovered in the DI and FIM treatments when supplementary irrigation was applied. Moreover, The DI treatment always had higher photosynthetic productivity than the FIM and FIN treatments. Grain yield, matter translocation, and dry matter post-anthesis (DMPA were the highest in the CF treatment, followed by the DI, FIM, and FIN treatments in turn. In conclusion, increasing nitrogen content in leaf of rice plants could be a key factor to improve photosynthetic capacity in nonflooded irrigation.

  12. Oxyfluorfen toxic effect on S. obliquus evaluated by different photosynthetic and enzymatic biomarkers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geoffroy, L; Dewez, D; Vernet, G; Popovic, R

    2003-11-01

    The effect of oxyfluorfen was investigated when alga Scenedesmus obliquus has been exposed to different concentrations (7.5, 15, and 22.5 microg x L(-1)) at 12, 24, and 48 hours of exposure. Toxicity test was done by using 13 biomarkers concerning growth rate, chlorophyll content and indicators of photosynthetic and antioxidant enzyme activities. The change of the 13 parameters showed a great variation of sensitivity indicating differences in parameters' suitability to be used as biomarkers when alga culture was exposed to oxyfluorfen toxicity. The order of sensitivity between those biomarkers was: Antenna size (ABS/RC) > Chlorophyll content > Catalase (CAT) > Operational PSII quantum yield (phiS(PSII)) > Glutathione S-transferase (GST) > Functional plastoquinone pool (Q(PQ)) > Glutathione reductase (GR) > Growth rate > Nonphotochemical quenching (QN) > Proton gradient quenching (Q(Emax)) > Ascorbate peroxidase (APX) > Photochemical quenching (Q(p)) > Maximum PSII quantum yield (Phi(PSII)). The effect of oxyfluorfen on the changes of those parameters was interpreted as a result of herbicide mode of action at molecular level of alga cellular system. This study indicated for some photosynthetic and enzymatic biomarkers to be useful indicators of toxicity effect induced in non-target alga species. Determination of biomarkers' sensitivity order may facilitate their selection to be used in environmental risk assessment of polluted water.

  13. Influence of photosynthetically active radiation and spectral quality on UV-B-induced polyamine accumulation in soybean

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kramer, G.F.; Krizek, D.T.; Mirecki, R.M.

    1992-01-01

    UV-B-sensitive (Essex) and -insensitive (Williams) cultivars of soybean (Glycine max) were grown in growth chambers at photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) levels of 300 or 600 μmol m −2 sec −1 provided by either red- and far-red-deficient (MH) or blue-deficient (HPS/DX) lamps or a combination of both. The combined treatment provided a balanced output, similar to that provided by fluorescent plus incandescent lighting across the visible spectrum. Under the combined lamps, plants were exposed to 12 kJ m −2 day −1 of biologically effective UV-B (UV-B BE ) with 6-hr irradiance periods centred midway through the photoperiod. This irradiance corresponded to a decrease in stratospheric ozone of ca 20% for clear sky conditions at Beltsville, MD on 21 June. Plant growth was significantly inhibited by UV-B at 300 but not at 600 μmol m −2 sec −1 PAR. No cultivar differences were noted in the UV-B-induced inhibition of growth, although visible injury was less in Williams than in Essex. PAR had a large effect on polyamine levels in leaves, with higher levels of putrescine (Put) and spermidine observed at 600 than at 300 μmol m −2 sec −1 in both cultivars. UV-B-induced polyamine accumulation was observed primarily in Williams. Under MH or HPS/DX lamps alone, plants were exposed to two different UV-B levels, 9.9 and 12 kJ m −2 day −1 , corresponding to stratospheric ozone reductions of ca 9 and 20%. UV-B inhibited growth at both 300 and 600 μmol m −2 sec −1 PAR under either radiation source. There was no effect of PAR on the UV-B-induced growth inhibition with the HPS/DX lamps, but a partial amelioration of this inhibition occurred in Williams at 600 μmol m −2 sec −1 PAR under MH lamps. Dose-dependent UV-B-induced polyamine accumulation was also observed in both cultivars. PAR increased Put levels under MH but not HPS/DX lamps. These results indicate that the inhibition of UV-B stress by high PAR may require a balance of red and blue

  14. An evaluation of the effects of exogenous ethephon, an ethylene releasing compound, on photosynthesis of mustard (Brassica juncea cultivars that differ in photosynthetic capacity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khan NA

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The stimulatory effect of CO2 on ethylene evolution in plants is known, but the extent to which ethylene controls photosynthesis is not clear. Studies on the effects of ethylene on CO2 metabolism have shown conflicting results. Increase or inhibition of photosynthesis by ethylene has been reported. To understand the physiological processes responsible for ethylene-mediated changes in photosynthesis, stomatal and mesophyll effects on photosynthesis and ethylene biosynthesis in response to ethephon treatment in mustard (Brassica juncea cultivars differing in photosynthetic capacity were studied. Results The effects of ethephon on photosynthetic rate (PN, stomatal conductance (gS, carbonic anhydrase (CA activity, 1-aminocyclopropane carboxylic acid synthase (ACS activity and ethylene evolution were similar in both the cultivars. Increasing ethephon concentration up to 1.5 mM increased PN, gS and CA maximally, whereas 3.0 mM ethephon proved inhibitory. ACS activity and ethylene evolution increased with increasing concentrations of ethephon. The corresponding changes in gs and CA activity suggest that the changes in photosynthesis in response to ethephon were triggered by altered stomatal and mesophyll processes. Stomatal conductance changed in parallel with changes in mesophyll photosynthetic properties. In both the cultivars ACS activity and ethylene increased up to 3.0 mM ethephon, but 1.5 mM ethephon caused maximum effects on photosynthetic parameters. Conclusion These results suggest that ethephon affects foliar gas exchange responses. The changes in photosynthesis in response to ethephon were due to stomatal and mesophyll effects. The changes in gS were a response maintaining stable intercellular CO2 concentration (Ci under the given treatment in both the cultivars. Also, the high photosynthetic capacity cultivar, Varuna responded less to ethephon than the low photosynthetic capacity cultivar, RH30. The photosynthetic

  15. Effects and mechanism of UV-B radiation on rice growth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao Xiaoxiao; Gao Zhaohua; Zu Yanqun

    2009-01-01

    The enhancement of UV-B radiation influences the growth of rice and physiology in different levels and this performances as changes in morphology destroyed photosynthetic system unstable anti-oxidation system changes of endogenous hormone content exacerbated rice diseases decreased biomass and developmental stage delay. Through the establishment of the response index we can evaluate the varietal differences in responses of the rice to UV-B radiation. Reasons for such varietal differences were differences in rice gene physiology and morphology developmental stage and environmental factors. The main mechanism in responses of the rice to UV-B radiation was induction of flavonoid compounds and accumulation of anthocyanins. Based on the analysis of the influence of enhanced UV-B radiation to rice and the varietal differences in responses to UV-B radiation and mechanism of rice the direction of the further research about the relationship between the rice and UV-B was put forward

  16. Primary photosynthetic processes: from supercomplex to leaf

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broess, K.

    2009-01-01

    This thesis describes fluorescence spectroscopy experiments on photosynthetic complexes that cover the primary photosynthetic processes, from the absorption of light by photosynthetic pigments to a charge separation (CS) in the reaction center (RC). Fluorescence spectroscopy is a useful tool in

  17. The effect of temperature on the photosynthesis and 14C-photosynthetic products transportation and distribution in cucumber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shi Yuelin; Sun Yiezhi; Xu Guimin; Cai Qiyun

    1991-01-01

    The optimum temperature of photosynthesis tended to become higher following the growth of cucumber. The optimum temperature was 30 deg C at the early growth stage and 35 deg C at the late growth stage. Stomatal resistance decreased and transpiration rate increased with increasing of the temperature. Most of the 14 C-photosynthetic products in leaves were transported out at 30 deg C during the day. After one night, more photosynthetic products were transported out under higher temperature. From the early to the middle growth stage, most of the 14 C-photosynthetic products were transported to fruits at 30 deg C. But caulis, leaves and apical point obtained most of the photosynthetic products at 35 deg C. At the late growth stage, most of the 14 C-photosynthetic products were transported to fruits at 35 deg c. At 25 deg C, caulis and leaves got more 14 C-photosynthetic products

  18. Effects of different algaecides on the photosynthetic capacity, cell integrity and microcystin-LR release of Microcystis aeruginosa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, Shiqing; Shao, Yisheng; Gao, Naiyun; Deng, Yang; Qiao, Junlian; Ou, Huase; Deng, Jing

    2013-01-01

    Bench scale tests were conducted to study the effects of four common algaecides, including copper sulfate, hydrogen peroxide, diuron and ethyl 2-methylacetoacetate (EMA) on the photosynthetic capacity, cell integrity and microcystin-LR (MC-LR) release of Microcystis aeruginosa. The release of potassium (K + ) from cell membrane during algaecide exposure was also analyzed. The three typical photosynthetic parameters, including the effective quantum yield (φ e ), photosynthetic efficiency (α) and maximal electron transport rate (rETR max ), were measured by a pulse amplitude modulated (PAM) fluorometry. Results showed that the photosynthetic capacity was all inhibited by the four algaecides, to different degrees, by limiting the energy capture in photosynthesis, and blocking the electron transfer chain in primary reaction. For example, at high diuron concentration (7.5 mg L −1 ), φ e , α and rETR max decreased from 0.46 to 0.19 (p −2 s −1 /μmol photons m −2 s −1 , and from 160.7 to 0.1 (p −2 s −1 compared with the control group after 96 h of exposure, respectively. Furthermore, the increase of algaecide dose could lead to the cell lysis, as well as release of intracellular MC-LR that enhanced the accumulation of extracellular MC-LR. The order of MC-LR release potential for the four algaecides was CuSO 4 > H 2 O 2 > diuron > EMA. Highlights: • PAM was used to investigate the effects of algaecides on Microcystis aeruginosa. • We estimate the release of potassium (K + ) from cell membrane for cell lysis. • The risk of microcystin-LR release was evaluated after algaecides exposure. • The order of MC-LR release potential was copper sulfate > hydrogen peroxide > diuron > ethyl 2-methylacetoacetate

  19. The importance of the photosynthetic Gibbs effect in the elucidation of the Calvin-Benson-Bassham cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebenhöh, Oliver; Spelberg, Stephanie

    2018-02-19

    The photosynthetic carbon reduction cycle, or Calvin-Benson-Bassham (CBB) cycle, is now contained in every standard biochemistry textbook. Although the cycle was already proposed in 1954, it is still the subject of intense research, and even the structure of the cycle, i.e. the exact series of reactions, is still under debate. The controversy about the cycle's structure was fuelled by the findings of Gibbs and Kandler in 1956 and 1957, when they observed that radioactive 14 CO 2 was dynamically incorporated in hexoses in a very atypical and asymmetrical way, a phenomenon later termed the 'photosynthetic Gibbs effect'. Now, it is widely accepted that the photosynthetic Gibbs effect is not in contradiction to the reaction scheme proposed by CBB, but the arguments given have been largely qualitative and hand-waving. To fully appreciate the controversy and to understand the difficulties in interpreting the Gibbs effect, it is illustrative to illuminate the history of the discovery of the CBB cycle. We here give an account of central scientific advances and discoveries, which were essential prerequisites for the elucidation of the cycle. Placing the historic discoveries in the context of the modern textbook pathway scheme illustrates the complexity of the cycle and demonstrates why especially dynamic labelling experiments are far from easy to interpret. We conclude by arguing that it requires sound theoretical approaches to resolve conflicting interpretations and to provide consistent quantitative explanations. © 2018 The Author(s).

  20. The effects of UV-B radiation on European heathland species

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Björn, L.O.; Callaghan, T.V.; Johnsen, I.; Lee, J.A.; Manetas, Y.; Paul, N.D.; Sonesson, M.; Wellburn, A.R.; Coop, D.; Heide-Jørgensen, H.S.; Gehrke, C.; Gwynn-Jones, D.; Johanson, U.; Kyparissis, A.; Levizou, E.; Nikolopoulos, D.; Petropoulou, Y.; Stephanou, M.

    1997-01-01

    The effects of enhanced UV-B radiation on three examples of European shrub-dominated vegetation were studied in situ. The experiments were in High Arctic Greenland, northern Sweden and Greece, and at all sites investigated the interaction of enhanced UV-B radiation (simulating a 15% reduction in the ozone layer) with artificially increased precipitation. The Swedish experiment also involved a study of the interaction between enhanced UV-B radiation and elevated CO 2 (600 ppm). These field studies were supported by an outdoor controlled environment study in the United Kingdom involving modulated enhancement of UV-B radiation in combination with elevated CO 2 (700 ppm). Effects of the treatments on plant growth, morphology, phenology and physiology were measured. The effects observed were species specific, and included both positive and negative responses to the treatments. In general the negative responses to UV-B treatments of up to three growing seasons were small, but included reductions in shoot growth and premature leaf senescence. Positive responses included a marked increase in flowering in some species and a stimulation of some photosynthetic processes. UV-B treatment enhanced the drought tolerance of Pinus pinea and Pinus halepensis by increasing leaf cuticle thickness. In general, there were few interactions between the elevated CO 2 and enhanced UV-B treatments. There was evidence to suggest that although the negative responses to the treatments were small, damage may be increasing with time in some long-lived woody perennials. There was also evidence in the third year of treatments for effects of UV-B on insect herbivory in Vaccinium species. The experiments point to the necessity for long-term field investigations to predict the likely ecological consequences of increasing UV-B radiation. (author)

  1. Long-term drought modifies the fundamental relationships between light exposure, leaf nitrogen content and photosynthetic capacity in leaves of the lychee tree (Litchi chinensis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damour, Gaëlle; Vandame, Marc; Urban, Laurent

    2008-09-08

    Drought has dramatic negative effects on plants' growth and crop productivity. Although some of the responses and underlying mechanisms are still poorly understood, there is increasing evidence that drought may have a negative effect on photosynthetic capacity. Biochemical models of leaf photosynthesis coupled with models of radiation transfer have been widely used in ecophysiological studies, and, more recently, in global change modeling. They are based on two fundamental relationships at the scale of the leaf: (i) nitrogen content-light exposure and (ii) photosynthetic capacity-nitrogen content. Although drought is expected to increase in many places across the world, such models are not adapted to drought conditions. More specifically, the effects of drought on the two fundamental relationships are not well documented. The objective of our study was to investigate the effects of a long-term drought imposed slowly on the nitrogen content and photosynthetic capacity of leaves similarly exposed to light, from 3-year-old lychee trees cv. Kwaï Mi. Leaf nitrogen and non-structural carbohydrate concentrations were measured along with gas exchanges and the light-saturated rate of photosynthetic electron transport (J(max)) after a 5.5-month-long period of drought. Leaf nitrogen content on a mass basis remained stable, while the leaf mass-to-area ratio (LMA) increased with increasing water stress. Consequently, the leaf nitrogen content on an area basis (N(a)) increased in a non-linear fashion. The starch content decreased, while the soluble sugar content increased. Stomata closed and net assimilation decreased to zero, while J(max) and the ratio J(max)/N(a) decreased with increasing water stress. The drought-associated decrease in photosynthetic capacity can be attributed to downregulation of photosynthetic electron transport and to reallocation of leaf nitrogen content. It is concluded that modeling photosynthesis in drought conditions will require, first, the modeling

  2. Photosynthetic characteristics of Lycoris aurea and monthly ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The leaf photosynthetic characteristics of Lycoris aurea, the monthly dynamics in lycorine and galantamine contents in its bulb and the correlation among the photosynthetic characteristics and the lycorine and galantamine during the annual growth period were studied by using LI-6400 portable photosynthetic measurement ...

  3. Seasonal Changes in Photosynthetic Energy Utilization in a Desert Shrub (Artemisia ordosica Krasch. during Its Different Phenophases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cai Ren

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Our understanding of the mechanisms of plant response to environment fluctuations during plants’ phenological phases (phenophases remains incomplete. Continuous chlorophyll fluorescence (ChlF measurements were acquired from the field to quantify the responses in a desert shrub species (i.e., Artemesia ordosica Krasch. (A. ordosica to environmental factors by assessing variation in several ChlF-linked parameters and to understand plant acclimation to environmental stresses. Maximal quantum yield of PSII photochemistry (Fv/Fm was shown to be reduced by environmental stressors and to be positively correlated to air temperature (Ta during the early and late plant-growing stages, indicating a low temperature-induced inhibition during the leaf expansion and coloration phases. Effective quantum yield of PSII photochemistry (ΦPSII was negatively correlated to incident photosynthetically active radiation (PAR irrespective of phenophase, suggesting excessive radiation-induced inhibition at all phenophases. The main mechanism for acclimating to environmental stress was the regulatory thermal dissipation (ΦNPQ and the long-term regulation of relative changes in Chl a to Chl b. The relative changes in photosynthetic energy utilization and dissipation in energy partitioning meant A. ordosica could acclimatize dynamically to environmental changes. This mechanism may enable plants in arid and semi-arid environments to acclimatize to increasingly extreme environmental conditions under future projected climate change.

  4. Photoelectrochemical cells based on photosynthetic systems: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roman A. Voloshin

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Photosynthesis is a process which converts light energy into energy contained in the chemical bonds of organic compounds by photosynthetic pigments such as chlorophyll (Chl a, b, c, d, f or bacteriochlorophyll. It occurs in phototrophic organisms, which include higher plants and many types of photosynthetic bacteria, including cyanobacteria. In the case of the oxygenic photosynthesis, water is a donor of both electrons and protons, and solar radiation serves as inexhaustible source of energy. Efficiency of energy conversion in the primary processes of photosynthesis is close to 100%. Therefore, for many years photosynthesis has attracted the attention of researchers and designers looking for alternative energy systems as one of the most efficient and eco-friendly pathways of energy conversion. The latest advances in the design of optimal solar cells include the creation of converters based on thylakoid membranes, photosystems, and whole cells of cyanobacteria immobilized on nanostructured electrode (gold nanoparticles, carbon nanotubes, nanoparticles of ZnO and TiO2. The mode of solar energy conversion in photosynthesis has a great potential as a source of renewable energy while it is sustainable and environmentally safety as well. Application of pigments such as Chl f and Chl d (unlike Chl a and Chl b, by absorbing the far red and near infrared region of the spectrum (in the range 700-750 nm, will allow to increase the efficiency of such light transforming systems. This review article presents the last achievements in the field of energy photoconverters based on photosynthetic systems.

  5. Seasonal photosynthetic activity in evergreen conifer leaves monitored with spectral reflectance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, C. Y.; Gamon, J. A.

    2013-12-01

    Boreal evergreen conifers must maintain photosynthetic systems in environments where temperatures vary greatly across seasons from high temperatures in the summer to freezing levels in the winter. This involves seasonal downregulation and photoprotection during periods of extreme temperatures. To better understand this downregulation, seasonal dynamics of photosynthesis of lodgepole (Pinus contorta D.) and ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa D.) were monitored in Edmonton, Canada over two years. Spectral reflectance at the leaf and stand scales was measured weekly and the Photochemical Reflectance Index (PRI), often used as a proxy for chlorophyll and carotenoid pigment levels and photosynthetic light-use efficiency (LUE), was used to track the seasonal dynamics of photosynthetic activity. Additional physiological measurements included leaf pigment content, chlorophyll fluorescence, and gas exchange. All the metrics indicate large seasonal changes in photosynthetic activity, with a sharp transition from winter downregulation to active photosynthesis in the spring and a more gradual fall transition into winter. The PRI was a good indicator of several other variables including seasonally changing photosynthetic activity, chlorophyll fluorescence, photosynthetic LUE, and pigment pool sizes. Over the two-year cycle, PRI was primarily driven by changes in constitutive (chlorophyll:carotenoid) pigment levels correlated with seasonal photosynthetic activity, with a much smaller variation caused by diurnal changes in xanthophyll cycle activity (conversion between violaxanthin & zeaxanthin). Leaf and canopy scale PRI measurements exhibited parallel responses during the winter-spring transition. Together, our findings indicate that evergreen conifers photosynthetic system possesses a remarkable degree of resilience in response to large temperature changes across seasons, and that optical remote sensing can be used to observe the seasonal effects on photosynthesis and

  6. Photosynthetic Energy Transfer at the Quantum/Classical Border.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keren, Nir; Paltiel, Yossi

    2018-06-01

    Quantum mechanics diverges from the classical description of our world when very small scales or very fast processes are involved. Unlike classical mechanics, quantum effects cannot be easily related to our everyday experience and are often counterintuitive to us. Nevertheless, the dimensions and time scales of the photosynthetic energy transfer processes puts them close to the quantum/classical border, bringing them into the range of measurable quantum effects. Here we review recent advances in the field and suggest that photosynthetic processes can take advantage of the sensitivity of quantum effects to the environmental 'noise' as means of tuning exciton energy transfer efficiency. If true, this design principle could be a base for 'nontrivial' coherent wave property nano-devices. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Effects of 1-butanol, neomycin and calcium on the photosynthetic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ajl yemi

    2011-10-31

    Oct 31, 2011 ... (Shanghai Jierui Bio-Engineering Co., Ltd.) were used in the total. RNA extraction of ..... PC and reverse through calcium removal agent. EGTA indicating .... Photosynthetic characteristics and tolerance to photo- oxidation of ...

  8. Photosynthetic, morphological, and reproductive variations in Cypripedium tibeticum in relation to different light regimes in a subalpine forest.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bao-Qiang Zheng

    Full Text Available Cypripedium tibeticum, a subalpine orchid species, inhabits various habitats of subalpine forests, mainly including the forest edge (FE, forest gap (FG, and understory (UST, which have significantly different light intensities (FE > FG > UST. However, the ecological and physiological influences caused by different light regimes in this species are still poorly understood. In the present study, photosynthetic, morphological, and reproductive characteristics were comprehensively studied in plants of C. tibeticum grown in three types of habitats. The photosynthetic capacities, such as the net photosynthetic rate, light-saturated photosynthesis (Pmax, and dry mass per unit leaf area (LMA, were higher in FE and FG than in UST according to light availability. Compared with FG, the populations in FE and UST suffer from excessively strong and inadequate radiation, respectively, which was further corroborated by the low Fv/Fm in FE and high apparent quantum yield (AQY in FG. The leaves of the orchids had various proportions of constituents, such as the leaf area, thickness and (or epidermal hair, to reduce damage from high radiation (including ultraviolet-b radiation in FE and capture more light in FG and UST. Although the flower rate (FR was positively correlated to both Pmax and the daily mean PAR, fruit-set only occurred in the populations in FG. The failures in FE and UST might be ascribed to changes in the floral functional structure and low biomass accumulation, respectively. Moreover, analysis of the demographic statistics showed that FG was an advantageous habitat for the orchid. Thus, C. tibeticum reacted to photosynthetic and morphological changes to adapt to different subalpine forest habitats, and neither full (under FE nor low (UST illumination was favorable for population expansion. These findings could serve as a guide for the protection and reintroduction of C. tibeticum and emphasize the importance of specific habitats for Cypripedium

  9. Photosynthetic, morphological, and reproductive variations in Cypripedium tibeticum in relation to different light regimes in a subalpine forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Bao-Qiang; Zou, Long-Hai; Li, Kui; Wan, Xiao; Wang, Yan

    2017-01-01

    Cypripedium tibeticum, a subalpine orchid species, inhabits various habitats of subalpine forests, mainly including the forest edge (FE), forest gap (FG), and understory (UST), which have significantly different light intensities (FE > FG > UST). However, the ecological and physiological influences caused by different light regimes in this species are still poorly understood. In the present study, photosynthetic, morphological, and reproductive characteristics were comprehensively studied in plants of C. tibeticum grown in three types of habitats. The photosynthetic capacities, such as the net photosynthetic rate, light-saturated photosynthesis (Pmax), and dry mass per unit leaf area (LMA), were higher in FE and FG than in UST according to light availability. Compared with FG, the populations in FE and UST suffer from excessively strong and inadequate radiation, respectively, which was further corroborated by the low Fv/Fm in FE and high apparent quantum yield (AQY) in FG. The leaves of the orchids had various proportions of constituents, such as the leaf area, thickness and (or) epidermal hair, to reduce damage from high radiation (including ultraviolet-b radiation) in FE and capture more light in FG and UST. Although the flower rate (FR) was positively correlated to both Pmax and the daily mean PAR, fruit-set only occurred in the populations in FG. The failures in FE and UST might be ascribed to changes in the floral functional structure and low biomass accumulation, respectively. Moreover, analysis of the demographic statistics showed that FG was an advantageous habitat for the orchid. Thus, C. tibeticum reacted to photosynthetic and morphological changes to adapt to different subalpine forest habitats, and neither full (under FE) nor low (UST) illumination was favorable for population expansion. These findings could serve as a guide for the protection and reintroduction of C. tibeticum and emphasize the importance of specific habitats for Cypripedium spp.

  10. Abscisic acid effects on water and photosynthetic characteristics of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this study is to compare the water and photosynthetic characteristics of two xerophilic ecotypes of Atriplex halimus (L.). Seeds collected from two different sites Djelfa and Oran are germinated in controlled greenhouse. After 6 months, the plantlets were treated 21 days with increasing concentrations of abscisic ...

  11. Photosynthetic Pigments in Diatoms

    OpenAIRE

    Kuczynska, Paulina; Jemiola-Rzeminska, Malgorzata; Strzalka, Kazimierz

    2015-01-01

    Photosynthetic pigments are bioactive compounds of great importance for the food, cosmetic, and pharmaceutical industries. They are not only responsible for capturing solar energy to carry out photosynthesis, but also play a role in photoprotective processes and display antioxidant activity, all of which contribute to effective biomass and oxygen production. Diatoms are organisms of a distinct pigment composition, substantially different from that present in plants. Apart from light-harvestin...

  12. A comparative analysis of simulated and observed photosynthetic CO2 uptake in two coniferous forest canopies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ibrom, A.; Jarvis, P.G.; Clement, R.

    2006-01-01

    -photosynthetically-active-radiation-induced biophysical variability in the simulated Pg. Analysis of residuals identified only small systematic differences between the modeled flux estimates and turbulent flux measurements at high vapor pressure saturation deficits. The merits and limitations of comparative analysis for quality evaluation of both...

  13. Photosynthetic temperature responses of tree species in Rwanda: evidence of pronounced negative effects of high temperature in montane rainforest climax species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vårhammar, Angelica; Wallin, Göran; McLean, Christopher M.; Dusenge, Mirindi Eric; Medlyn, Belinda E.; Hasper, Thomas B.; Nsabimana, Donat; Uddling, Johan

    2015-04-01

    The sensitivity of photosynthetic metabolism to temperature has been identified as a key uncertainty for projecting the magnitude of the terrestrial feedback on future climate change. While temperature responses of photosynthetic capacities have been comparatively well investigated in temperate species, the responses of tropical tree species remain unexplored. We compared the responses of seedlings of native cold-adapted tropical montane rainforest tree species to exotic warm-adapted plantation species, all growing in an intermediate temperature common garden in Rwanda. Leaf gas exchange responses to CO2 at different temperatures (20 - 40 C) were used to assess the temperature responses of biochemical photosynthetic capacities. Analyses revealed a lower optimum temperature for photosynthetic electron transport rates than for Rubisco carboxylation rates, along with lower electron transport optima in the native cold-adapted than in the exotic warm-adapted species. The photosynthetic optimum temperatures were generally exceeded by daytime peak leaf temperatures, in particular in the native montane rainforest climax species. This study thus provides evidence of pronounced negative effects of high temperature in tropical trees and indicates high susceptibility of montane rainforest climax species to future global warming. (Reference: New Phytologist, in press)

  14. Directed evolution and in silico analysis of reaction centre proteins reveal molecular signatures of photosynthesis adaptation to radiation pressure.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppina Rea

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Evolutionary mechanisms adopted by the photosynthetic apparatus to modifications in the Earth's atmosphere on a geological time-scale remain a focus of intense research. The photosynthetic machinery has had to cope with continuously changing environmental conditions and particularly with the complex ionizing radiation emitted by solar flares. The photosynthetic D1 protein, being the site of electron tunneling-mediated charge separation and solar energy transduction, is a hot spot for the generation of radiation-induced radical injuries. We explored the possibility to produce D1 variants tolerant to ionizing radiation in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii and clarified the effect of radiation-induced oxidative damage on the photosynthetic proteins evolution. In vitro directed evolution strategies targeted at the D1 protein were adopted to create libraries of chlamydomonas random mutants, subsequently selected by exposures to radical-generating proton or neutron sources. The common trend observed in the D1 aminoacidic substitutions was the replacement of less polar by more polar amino acids. The applied selection pressure forced replacement of residues more sensitive to oxidative damage with less sensitive ones, suggesting that ionizing radiation may have been one of the driving forces in the evolution of the eukaryotic photosynthetic apparatus. A set of the identified aminoacidic substitutions, close to the secondary plastoquinone binding niche and oxygen evolving complex, were introduced by site-directed mutagenesis in un-transformed strains, and their sensitivity to free radicals attack analyzed. Mutants displayed reduced electron transport efficiency in physiological conditions, and increased photosynthetic performance stability and oxygen evolution capacity in stressful high-light conditions. Finally, comparative in silico analyses of D1 aminoacidic sequences of organisms differently located in the evolution chain, revealed a higher ratio of residues

  15. Effect of earthworms on growth, photosynthetic efficiency and metal uptake in Brassica juncea L. plants grown in cadmium-polluted soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Parminder; Bali, Shagun; Sharma, Anket; Vig, Adarsh Pal; Bhardwaj, Renu

    2017-05-01

    The present study has been carried out to examine the role of earthworms in phytoremediation of Cd and its effect on growth, pigment content, expression of genes coding key enzymes of pigments, photosynthetic efficiency and osmoprotectants in Brassica juncea L. plants grown under cadmium (Cd) metal stress. The effect of different Cd concentrations (0.50, 0.75, 1.0, 1.25 mM) was studied in 30 and 60-day-old plants grown in soils containing earthworms. It was observed that earthworm inoculation showed stimulatory effect on phytoremediation capacity and Cd uptake has increased by 49% (in 30-day-old plants) and 35% (in 60-day-old plants) in shoots and 13.3% (in 30-day-old plants) and 10% (in 60-day-old plants) in roots in 30 and 60-day-old plants in Cd (1.25 mM) treatments. Plant growth parameters such as root and shoot length, relative water content and tolerance index were found to increase in the presence of earthworms. Recovery in photosynthetic pigments (chlorophyll and carotenoid) and gas exchange parameters, i.e. net photosynthetic rate (P n ), stomatal conductance (G s ), intercellular CO 2 concentration (C i ) and transpiration rate (E t ), was observed after earthworm's supplementation. Modulation in expression of key enzymes for pigment synthesis, i.e. chlorophyllase, phytoene synthase, chalcone synthase and phenylalanine ammonia lyase, was also observed. The results of our study revealed that earthworms help to mitigate the toxic effects produced by Cd on plant growth and photosynthetic efficiency along with enhanced phytoremediation capacity when co-inoculated with Cd in soil.

  16. Scattering of ultraviolet and photosynthetically active radiation by Sorghum bicolor: influence of epicuticular wax

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grant, R.H.; Jenks, M.A.; Rich, P.J.; Peters, P.J.; Ashworth, E.N.

    1995-01-01

    Near-isogenic mutants of Sorghum bicolor with genetic alterations affecting epicuticular wax (EW) structure but having similar canopy architecture provided a model system to examine the influence of EW on plant radiation scattering. Differences in canopies with two different sheath EW amounts showed differences in angular reflectance and transmittance. The differences varied with waveband of radiation. Canopy ultraviolet-B (UVB) and photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) backward reflectance in the principal solar plane were higher by wild-type plants (N-15) bearing reflective stalk EW filaments than mutant plants (bm-15) lacking stalk EW filaments. Between panicle emergence to anthesis the backward PAR reflectance increased more in the N-15 than bm-15 canopy. We suspect that the increase was a result of reflections from stalk facets emerging above the surface plane of the canopy foliage and exposing reflective EW. As panicles emerged above the foliage, canopy UVB and PAR forward reflectance by bm-15 increased while forward reflectance by N-15 decreased. The increased forward reflectance from bm-15 may be because of high specular reflectance from the microscopically smooth bm-15 stalk surfaces. Based on comparisons of probability distributions, significant differences in PAR and UVB canopy transmittance were detected between N-15 and bm-15. The median UVB transmittance was greater in the bm-15 canopy than the N-15 canopy, while the median PAR transmittance was the same for the two canopies. The greater transmittance in the N-15 canopy corresponded with lower EW load of the sheaths, but the difference between canopies was within the experimental error. Distinct influences of the stalk EW on canopy reflectance and transmittance were difficult to assess because of the relatively low proportion of surface area containing EW, the experimental errors associated with UVB irradiance field measurements. The optical properties of the S. bicolor canopy varied by waveband

  17. Energy transfer in real and artificial photosynthetic systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hindman, J.C.; Hunt, J.E.; Katz, J.J.

    1995-02-01

    Fluorescence emission from the photosynthetic organisms Tribonema aequale, Anacystis nidulau, and Chlorelia vulgais and from some chlorophyll model systems have been recorded as a function of excitation wavelength and temperature. Considerable similarity was observed in the effects of excitation wavelength and temperature on the fluorescence from intact photosynthetic organisms and the model systems. The parallelism in behavior suggest that self-assembly processes may occur in both the in vivo and in vitro systems that give rise to chlorophyll species at low temperature that may differ significantly from those present at ambient temperatures.

  18. Influence of Sky Conditions on Estimation of Photosynthetic Photon Flux Density for Agricultural Ecosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamashita, M.; Yoshimura, M.

    2018-04-01

    Photosynthetic photon flux density (PPFD: µmol m-2 s-1) is indispensable for plant physiology processes in photosynthesis. However, PPFD is seldom measured, so that PPFD has been estimated by using solar radiation (SR: W m-2) measured in world wide. In method using SR, there are two steps: first to estimate photosynthetically active radiation (PAR: W m-2) by the fraction of PAR to SR (PF) and second: to convert PAR to PPFD using the ratio of quanta to energy (Q / E: µmol J-1). PF and Q/E usually have been used as the constant values, however, recent studies point out that PF and Q / E would not be constants under various sky conditions. In this study, we use the numeric data of sky-conditions factors such cloud cover, sun appearance/hiding and relative sky brightness derived from whole-sky image processing and examine the influences of sky-conditions factors on PF and Q / E of global and diffuse PAR. Furthermore, we discuss our results by comparing with the existing methods.

  19. Sunlight mediated seasonality in canopy structure and photosynthetic activity of Amazonian rainforests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bi, Jian; Knyazikhin, Yuri; Choi, Sungho; Park, Taejin; Barichivich, Jonathan; Ciais, Philippe; Fu, Rong; Ganguly, Sangram; Hall, Forrest; Hilker, Thomas; Huete, Alfredo; Jones, Matthew; Kimball, John; Lyapustin, Alexei I; Mõttus, Matti; Nemani, Ramakrishna R; Piao, Shilong; Poulter, Benjamin; Saleska, Scott R

    2015-01-01

    Resolving the debate surrounding the nature and controls of seasonal variation in the structure and metabolism of Amazonian rainforests is critical to understanding their response to climate change. In situ studies have observed higher photosynthetic and evapotranspiration rates, increased litterfall and leaf flushing during the Sunlight-rich dry season. Satellite data also indicated higher greenness level, a proven surrogate of photosynthetic carbon fixation, and leaf area during the dry season relative to the wet season. Some recent reports suggest that rainforests display no seasonal variations and the previous results were satellite measurement artefacts. Therefore, here we re-examine several years of data from three sensors on two satellites under a range of sun positions and satellite measurement geometries and document robust evidence for a seasonal cycle in structure and greenness of wet equatorial Amazonian rainforests. This seasonal cycle is concordant with independent observations of solar radiation. We attribute alternative conclusions to an incomplete study of the seasonal cycle, i.e. the dry season only, and to prognostications based on a biased radiative transfer model. Consequently, evidence of dry season greening in geometry corrected satellite data was ignored and the absence of evidence for seasonal variation in lidar data due to noisy and saturated signals was misinterpreted as evidence of the absence of changes during the dry season. Our results, grounded in the physics of radiative transfer, buttress previous reports of dry season increases in leaf flushing, litterfall, photosynthesis and evapotranspiration in well-hydrated Amazonian rainforests. (letter)

  20. Overlapping toxic effect of long term thallium exposure on white mustard (Sinapis alba L.) photosynthetic activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazur, Radosław; Sadowska, Monika; Kowalewska, Łucja; Abratowska, Agnieszka; Kalaji, Hazem M; Mostowska, Agnieszka; Garstka, Maciej; Krasnodębska-Ostręga, Beata

    2016-09-02

    Heavy metal exposure affect plant productivity by interfering, directly and indirectly, with photosynthetic reactions. The toxic effect of heavy metals on photosynthetic reactions has been reported in wide-ranging studies, however there is paucity of data in the literature concerning thallium (Tl) toxicity. Thallium is ubiquitous natural trace element and is considered the most toxic of heavy metals; however, some plant species, such as white mustard (Sinapis alba L.) are able to accumulate thallium at very high concentrations. In this study we identified the main sites of the photosynthetic process inhibited either directly or indirectly by thallium, and elucidated possible detoxification mechanisms in S. alba. We studied the toxicity of thallium in white mustard (S. alba) growing plants and demonstrated that tolerance of plants to thallium (the root test) decreased with the increasing Tl(I) ions concentration in culture media. The root growth of plants exposed to Tl at 100 μg L(-1) for 4 weeks was similar to that in control plants, while in plants grown with Tl at 1,000 μg L(-1) root growth was strongly inhibited. In leaves, toxic effect became gradually visible in response to increasing concentration of Tl (100 - 1,000 μg L(-1)) with discoloration spreading around main vascular bundles of the leaf blade; whereas leaf margins remained green. Subsequent structural analyses using chlorophyll fluorescence, microscopy, and pigment and protein analysis have revealed different effects of varying Tl concentrations on leaf tissue. At lower concentration partial rearrangement of the photosynthetic complexes was observed without significant changes in the chloroplast structure and the pigment and protein levels. At higher concentrations, the decrease of PSI and PSII quantum yields and massive oxidation of pigments was observed in discolored leaf areas, which contained high amount of Tl. Substantial decline of the photosystem core proteins and disorder of the

  1. Nitrate limitation and ocean acidification interact with UV-B to reduce photosynthetic performance in the diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, W.; Gao, K.; Beardall, J.

    2015-04-01

    It has been proposed that ocean acidification (OA) will interact with other environmental factors to influence the overall impact of global change on biological systems. Accordingly we investigated the influence of nitrogen limitation and OA on the physiology of diatoms by growing the diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum Bohlin under elevated (1000 μatm; high CO2 - HC) or ambient (390 μatm; low CO2 - LC) levels of CO2 with replete (110 μmol L-1; high nitrate - HN) or reduced (10 μmol L-1; low nitrate - LN) levels of NO3- and subjecting the cells to solar radiation with or without UV irradiance to determine their susceptibility to UV radiation (UVR, 280-400 nm). Our results indicate that OA and UVB induced significantly higher inhibition of both the photosynthetic rate and quantum yield under LN than under HN conditions. UVA or/and UVB increased the cells' non-photochemical quenching (NPQ) regardless of the CO2 levels. Under LN and OA conditions, activity of superoxide dismutase and catalase activities were enhanced, along with the highest sensitivity to UVB and the lowest ratio of repair to damage of PSII. HC-grown cells showed a faster recovery rate of yield under HN but not under LN conditions. We conclude therefore that nutrient limitation makes cells more prone to the deleterious effects of UV radiation and that HC conditions (ocean acidification) exacerbate this effect. The finding that nitrate limitation and ocean acidification interact with UV-B to reduce photosynthetic performance of the diatom P. tricornutum implies that ocean primary production and the marine biological C pump will be affected by OA under multiple stressors.

  2. The effect of exposure to enhanced UV-B radiation on the penetration of monochromatic and polychromatic UV-B radiation in leaves of Brassica napus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cen, Y.-P.; Bornman, J.F.

    1993-01-01

    Using quartz optical fibres, penetration of both monochromatic (310 nm) and polychromatic UV-B (280–320 nm) radiation in leaves of Brassica napus L. (cv. Ceres) was measured. Plants were grown under either visible light (750 μmol m −2 s −1 photosynthetically active radiation) or with the addition of 8. 9 KJ m −2 day −1 biologically effective UV-B (UV-B BE ) radiation. Results showed that of the 310 nm radiation that penetreated the leaf, 90% was within the intial one third of the leaf with high attenuation in the leaf epidermis, especially in UV-treated plants. Polychromatic UV-B radiation, relative to incident radiation, showed a relatively uniform spectral distribution within the leaf, except for collimated radiation. Over 30% of the UV-screening pigments in the leaf, including flavonoids, were found in the adaxial epidermal layer, making this layer less transparent to UV-B radiation than the abaxial epidermis, which contained less than 12% of the UV-screening pigments. UV-screening pigments increased by 20% in UV-treated leaves relative to control leaves. Densely arranged epicuticular wax on the adaxial leaf surface of UV-treated plants may have further decreased penetration of UV-B radiation by reflectance. An increased leaf thickness, and decreases in leaf area and leaf dry weight were also found for UV-treated plants. (author)

  3. Photosynthesis, growth, and ultraviolet irradiance absorbance of Cucurbita pepo L. leaves exposed to ultraviolet-B radiation (280 to 315 nm)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sisson, W.B.

    1981-01-01

    Net photosynthesis, growth, and ultraviolet (uv) radiation absorbance were determined for the first leaf of Cucurbita pepo L. exposed to two levels of uv-B irradiation and a uv-B radiation-free control treatment. Absorbance by extracted flavonoid pigments and other uv-B radiation-absorbing compounds from the first leaves increased with time and level of uv-B radiation impinging on leaf surfaces. Although absorbance of uv-B radiation by extracted pigments increased substantially, uv-B radiation attenuation apparently was insufficient to protect completely the photosynthetic apparatus or leaf growth processes. Leaf expansion was repressed by daily exposure to 1365 Joules per meter per day of biologically effective uv-B radiation by not by exposure to 660 Joules per meter per day. Photosynthesis measured through ontogenesis of the first leaf was depressed by both uv-B radiation treatments. Repression of photosynthesis by uv-B radiation was especially evident during the ontogenetic period of maximum photosynthetic activity

  4. Solar irradiance changes and photobiological effects at earth's surface following astrophysical ionizing radiation events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Brian C; Neale, Patrick J; Snyder, Brock R

    2015-03-01

    Astrophysical ionizing radiation events have been recognized as a potential threat to life on Earth, primarily through depletion of stratospheric ozone and subsequent increase in surface-level solar ultraviolet radiation. Simulations of the atmospheric effects of a variety of events (such as supernovae, gamma-ray bursts, and solar proton events) have been previously published, along with estimates of biological damage at Earth's surface. In this work, we employed the Tropospheric Ultraviolet and Visible (TUV) radiative transfer model to expand and improve calculations of surface-level irradiance and biological impacts following an ionizing radiation event. We considered changes in surface-level UVB, UVA, and photosynthetically active radiation (visible light) for clear-sky conditions and fixed aerosol parameter values. We also considered a wide range of biological effects on organisms ranging from humans to phytoplankton. We found that past work overestimated UVB irradiance but that relative estimates for increase in exposure to DNA-damaging radiation are still similar to our improved calculations. We also found that the intensity of biologically damaging radiation varies widely with organism and specific impact considered; these results have implications for biosphere-level damage following astrophysical ionizing radiation events. When considering changes in surface-level visible light irradiance, we found that, contrary to previous assumptions, a decrease in irradiance is only present for a short time in very limited geographical areas; instead we found a net increase for most of the modeled time-space region. This result has implications for proposed climate changes associated with ionizing radiation events.

  5. Validation of photosynthetic-fluorescence parameters as biomarkers for isoproturon toxic effect on alga Scenedesmus obliquus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewez, David; Didur, Olivier; Vincent-Héroux, Jonathan; Popovic, Radovan

    2008-01-01

    Photosynthetic-fluorescence parameters were investigated to be used as valid biomarkers of toxicity when alga Scenedesmus obliquus was exposed to isoproturon [3-(4-isopropylphenyl)-1,1-dimethylurea] effect. Chlorophyll fluorescence induction of algal cells treated with isoproturon showed inactivation of photosystem II (PSII) reaction centers and strong inhibition of PSII electron transport. A linear correlation was found (R2>or=0.861) between the change of cells density affected by isoproturon and the change of effective PSII quantum yield (PhiM'), photochemical quenching (qP) and relative photochemical quenching (qP(rel)) values. The cells density was also linearly dependent (R2=0.838) on the relative unquenched fluorescence parameter (UQF(rel)). Non-linear correlation was found (R2=0.937) only between cells density and the energy transfer efficiency from absorbed light to PSII reaction center (ABS/RC). The order of sensitivity determined by the EC-50% was: UQF(rel)>PhiM'>qP>qP(rel)>ABS/RC. Correlations between cells density and those photosynthetic-fluorescence parameters provide supporting evidence to use them as biomarkers of toxicity for environmental pollutants.

  6. Effects of different algaecides on the photosynthetic capacity, cell integrity and microcystin-LR release of Microcystis aeruginosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Shiqing [State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resource Reuse, Tongji University, Shanghai 200092 (China); Shao, Yisheng, E-mail: yishengshao@163.com [State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resource Reuse, Tongji University, Shanghai 200092 (China); China Academy of Urban Planning and Design, Beijing 100037 (China); Gao, Naiyun [State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resource Reuse, Tongji University, Shanghai 200092 (China); Deng, Yang [Department of Earth and Environmental Studies, Montclair State University, Montclair NJ 07043 (United States); Qiao, Junlian; Ou, Huase; Deng, Jing [State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resource Reuse, Tongji University, Shanghai 200092 (China)

    2013-10-01

    Bench scale tests were conducted to study the effects of four common algaecides, including copper sulfate, hydrogen peroxide, diuron and ethyl 2-methylacetoacetate (EMA) on the photosynthetic capacity, cell integrity and microcystin-LR (MC-LR) release of Microcystis aeruginosa. The release of potassium (K{sup +}) from cell membrane during algaecide exposure was also analyzed. The three typical photosynthetic parameters, including the effective quantum yield (φ{sub e}), photosynthetic efficiency (α) and maximal electron transport rate (rETR{sub max}), were measured by a pulse amplitude modulated (PAM) fluorometry. Results showed that the photosynthetic capacity was all inhibited by the four algaecides, to different degrees, by limiting the energy capture in photosynthesis, and blocking the electron transfer chain in primary reaction. For example, at high diuron concentration (7.5 mg L{sup −1}), φ{sub e}, α and rETR{sub max} decreased from 0.46 to 0.19 (p < 0.01), from 0.20 to 0.01 (p < 0.01) μmol electrons m{sup −2} s{sup −1}/μmol photons m{sup −2} s{sup −1}, and from 160.7 to 0.1 (p < 0.001) μmol m{sup −2} s{sup −1} compared with the control group after 96 h of exposure, respectively. Furthermore, the increase of algaecide dose could lead to the cell lysis, as well as release of intracellular MC-LR that enhanced the accumulation of extracellular MC-LR. The order of MC-LR release potential for the four algaecides was CuSO{sub 4} > H{sub 2}O{sub 2} > diuron > EMA. Highlights: • PAM was used to investigate the effects of algaecides on Microcystis aeruginosa. • We estimate the release of potassium (K{sup +}) from cell membrane for cell lysis. • The risk of microcystin-LR release was evaluated after algaecides exposure. • The order of MC-LR release potential was copper sulfate > hydrogen peroxide > diuron > ethyl 2-methylacetoacetate.

  7. Simulation of the Unexpected Photosynthetic Seasonality in Amazonian Evergreen Forests by Using an Improved Diffuse Fraction-Based Light Use Efficiency Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Hao; Wang, Shao-Qiang; da Rocha, Humberto R.; Rap, Alexandru; Bonal, Damien; Butt, Nathalie; Coupe, Natalia Restrepo; Shugart, Herman H.

    2017-11-01

    Understanding the mechanism of photosynthetic seasonality in Amazonian evergreen forests is critical for its formulation in global climate and carbon cycle models. However, the control of the unexpected photosynthetic seasonality is highly uncertain. Here we use eddy-covariance data across a network of Amazonian research sites and a novel evapotranspiration (E) and two-leaf-photosynthesis-coupled model to investigate links between photosynthetic seasonality and climate factors on monthly scales. It reproduces the GPP seasonality (R2 = 0.45-0.69) with a root-mean-square error (RMSE) of 0.67-1.25 g C m-2 d-1 and a Bias of -0.03-1.04 g C m-2 d-1 for four evergreen forest sites. We find that the proportion of diffuse and direct sunlight governs the photosynthetic seasonality via their interaction with sunlit and shaded leaves, supported by a proof that canopy light use efficiency (LUE) has a strong linear relationship with the fraction of diffuse sunlight for Amazonian evergreen forests. In the transition from dry season to rainy season, incident total radiation (Q) decreased while LUE and diffuse fraction increased, which produced the large seasonal increase ( 34%) in GPP of evergreen forests. We conclude that diffuse radiation is an important environmental driver of the photosynthetic seasonality in tropical Amazon forests yet depending on light utilization by sunlit and shaded leaves. Besides, the GPP model simulates the precipitation-dominated GPP seasonality (R2 = 0.40-0.69) at pasture and savanna sites. These findings present an improved physiological method to relate light components with GPP in tropical Amazon.

  8. Morphological and photosynthetic adaptations of Tabebuia aurea seedlings in the nursery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo R Gonçalves

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Tabebuia aurea (Benth. & Hook. f. ex S. Moore (Bignoniaceae is a boreal species common in Brazil. It is used for ornamental parks and along sidewalks. Its timber is also used for furniture. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of nursery shading on the growth and photosynthesis of T. aurea and their photosynthetic adaptation after being transferred to direct sunlight. The T. aurea seedlings were grown under 0, 50, 70 or 95% shade. The photosynthetic active radiation and leaf gas exchange were measured over two distinct periods: 51 (young seedlings and 70 days after having been sown under each shade treatment. Immediately after the measurements were taken, the seedlings were transferred into full sunlight and the measurements were repeated two times after 15 min and 3 days under ambient sunlight. T. aurea seedlings showed satisfactory growth up to 50% shade in the nursery, which could be verified both by growth measurement and by total biomass accumulation. Shading greater than 70% reduced the number of leaves, the leaf area and the stem diameter in relation to plants exposed to full sunlight. The results suggest that T. aurea seedlings should be grown under full sunlight or under shading up to 50% to maximize their growth in the nursery and to minimize stress when transferring the seedlings to their final planting sites.

  9. Photosynthetic temperature responses of tree species in Rwanda: evidence of pronounced negative effects of high temperature in montane rainforest climax species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vårhammar, Angelica; Wallin, Göran; McLean, Christopher M; Dusenge, Mirindi Eric; Medlyn, Belinda E; Hasper, Thomas B; Nsabimana, Donat; Uddling, Johan

    2015-05-01

    The sensitivity of photosynthetic metabolism to temperature has been identified as a key uncertainty for projecting the magnitude of the terrestrial feedback on future climate change. While temperature responses of photosynthetic capacities have been comparatively well investigated in temperate species, the responses of tropical tree species remain unexplored. We compared the responses of seedlings of native cold-adapted tropical montane rainforest tree species with those of exotic warm-adapted plantation species, all growing in an intermediate temperature common garden in Rwanda. Leaf gas exchange responses to carbon dioxide (CO2 ) at different temperatures (20-40°C) were used to assess the temperature responses of biochemical photosynthetic capacities. Analyses revealed a lower optimum temperature for photosynthetic electron transport rates than for Rubisco carboxylation rates, along with lower electron transport optima in the native cold-adapted than in the exotic warm-adapted species. The photosynthetic optimum temperatures were generally exceeded by daytime peak leaf temperatures, in particular in the native montane rainforest climax species. This study thus provides evidence of pronounced negative effects of high temperature in tropical trees and indicates high susceptibility of montane rainforest climax species to future global warming. © 2015 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2015 New Phytologist Trust.

  10. Assimilation and water relations of dryland castor at different intensities of solar radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balasubramanian, V.; Venkateswarlu, S.

    1995-01-01

    Primary racemes of dryland castor develop during later part of rainy season and secondaries and tertiaries develop during post-rainy season. The reproductive phase is therefore subjected to variation in soil moisture availability and solar radiation intensity. The objective of the study was to find out the influence of fluctuation in solar radiation intensity on photosynthetic rate, transpiration rate, transpiration efficiency, stomatal conductance and leaf water potential during early and late reproductive phase of castor. When photosynthetically active radiation was less than 1000 mu-mol m-2s-1, transpiration efficiency decreased because reduction in photosynthesis rate was more than that in transpiration rate. Transpiration efficiency also decreased, when radiation was above 1500 mu-mol m-2s-1 because of increase only in transpiration rate. Leaf water potential was higher during early than during late reproductive phase at similar radiation intensity. Transpiration rate was lower and transpiration efficiency was more during early phase when radiation was above 1500 mu-mol m-2s-1. Photosynthetically active radiation and leaf water potential were inversely related

  11. Effect of different levels of air pollution on photosynthetic activity of some lichens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewa Niewiadomska

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Four lichen species: Hypogymnia physodes, Pseudevernia furfuracea, Parmelia saxatilis, and Platismatia glauca were collected from two sites (S. Poland with a different air pollution level: "Kamienica valley" (less polluted and "Kopa" (more polluted. The thalli were compared with respect to their: net photosynthetic rate (PN, fluorescence parameters (Fv/Fm, Fm, Fm/Fo, chlorophyll a+b content, and phaeophytinization quotient (O.D.435/O.D.415. PN intensity, chlorophyll a+b and O.D.435/O.D.415 were reduced only in Pa furfuracea collected from Kopa, which is in agreement with the Hawksworth-Rose scale of sensitivity of lichens to air pollution. Fluorescence parameters were significantly lowered in all lichens coming from the more polluted site (except of Fv/Fm and Fm/F0 in P. saxatilis. Parameters based on chlorophyll fluorescence measurements enable to reveal the very early signs of decreased photosynthetical capacity of the thalli, caused by air pollution, before changes in the other photosynthetic parameters become mesurable.

  12. Beneficial effects of enhanced UV-B radiation under field conditions: improvement of needle water relations and survival capacity of Pinus pinea L. seedlings during the dry Mediterranean summer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manetas, Y.; Petropoulou, Y.; Stamatakis, K.; Nikolopoulos, D.; Levizou, E.; Psaras, G.; Karabourniotis, G.

    1997-01-01

    The possible mechanism(s) by which supplemental UV-B radiation alleviates the adverse effects of summer drought in Mediterranean pines (Petropoulou et al. 1995) were investigated with seedlings of Pinus pinea. Plants received ambient or ambient plus supplemental UV-B radiation (biologically equivalent to a 15% ozone depletion over Patras, 38.3° N, 29.1° E) and natural precipitation or additional irrigation. Treatments started on 1 February, 1994 and lasted up to the end of the dry period (29 September). In well-watered plants, UV-B radiation had no influence on photosystem II photochemical efficiency and biomass accumulation. Water stressed plants suffered from needle loss and reduced photosystem II photochemical efficiency during the summer. These symptoms, however, were less pronounced in plants receiving supplemental UV-B radiation, resulting in higher total biomass at plant harvest. Laboratory tests showed that enhanced UV-B radiation did not improve the tolerance of photosystem II against drought, high light, high temperature and oxidative stress. Enhanced UV-B radiation, however, improved the water economy of water stressed plants, as judged by measurements of needle relative water content. In addition, it caused an almost two-fold increase of cuticle thickness. No such UV-B radiation effects were observed in well-watered pines. The results indicate that the combination of water stress and UV-B radiation may trigger specific responses, enabling the plants to avoid excessive water loss and, thereby, maintain a more efficient photosynthetic apparatus during the summer. The extent of this apparently positive UV-B radiation effect would depend on the amount of summer precipitation. Abbreviations: DW – dry weight, F v /F m – ratio of variable to maximum fluorescence, A 300 – absorbance at 300 nm, PAR – photosynthetically active radiation, PS II – photosystem II, RWC – relative water content, TCA – trichloroacetic acid, UV-B BE – biologically

  13. The influence of photosynthetically-active radiation and simulated shadelight on the control of leaf growth of Betula and Acer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, G.; Davies, W.J.

    1988-01-01

    The primary aim of the study was to quantify the effects of photosynthetically-active radiation (PAR) on extension of leaves of silver birch (Betula pendula Roth.) and sycamore (Acer pseudoplatanus L.). Plants grown at 250 μ mol m -2 s -1 were exposed to a range of fluence rates (0-680 μ mol m -2 s -1 ) whilst enclosed in Perspex chambers in which temperature, vapour pressure deficit and photoenvironment were all controlled. Measurements of leaf extension, water relations, and cell wall extensibility (WEX) were made at the end of a 3 h exposure period. For leaves of birch, reducing the fluence rate resulted in reduced leaf extension and a lowering of WEX. Exposure of sycamore seedlings for 3 h to different values of PAR had little effect on the growth of leaves and WEX remained constant. The characteristics of net photosynthesis also differed for the two species and photosynthesis and wall loosening may be linked. Since natural woodland shadelight, in addition to reduced PAR, also has a reduced R/FR ratio, a second group of seedlings were placed in a photoenvironment which simulated shadelight (low PAR, R/FR) for 28 d. This treatment reduced extension rate and final leaf size for both species. Measurements of extension, water relations and WEX made when seedlings were exposed to shadelight whilst held in the Perspex chambers revealed differences in the control of leaf growth for the two species. It is confirmed that leaves of birch are highly responsive to changes in PAR with cell wall loosening the most likely process controlling this response

  14. Alterations in architecture and metabolism induced by ultraviolet radiation-B in the carragenophyte Chondracanthus teedei (Rhodophyta, Gigartinales).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Eder C; Pereira, Beatriz; Pontes, Carime L Mansur; dos Santos, Rodrigo; Scherner, Fernando; Horta, Paulo A; de Paula Martins, Roberta; Latini, Alexandra; Maraschin, Marcelo; Bouzon, Zenilda L

    2012-04-01

    The in vivo effect of ultraviolet radiation-B (UVBR) in apical segments of Chondracanthus teedei was examined. Over a period of 7 days, the segments were cultivated and exposed to photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) at 80 μmol photons m(-2) s(-1) and PAR + UVBR at 1.6 W m(-2) for 3 h per day. The samples were processed for electron microscopy and histochemistry; also was analyzed growth rates, mitochondrial activity, protein levels, content of photosynthetic pigments and photosynthetic performance. UVBR elicited increased cell wall thickness and accumulation of plastoglobuli, changes in mitochondrial organization and destruction of chloroplast internal organization. Compared to controls, algae exposed to PAR + UVBR showed a growth rate reduction of 55%. The content of photosynthetic pigments, including chlorophyll a and phycobiliproteins, decreased after exposure to PAR + UVBR. This result agrees with the decreased photosynthetic performance observed after exposing algae to PAR + UVBR. Irradiation also elicited increased activity of the antioxidant enzyme glutathione peroxidase and decreased mitochondrial NADH dehydrogenase activity, which correlated with the decreased protein content in plants exposed to PAR + UVBR. Taken together, these findings strongly indicate that UVBR negatively affects the architecture and metabolism of the carragenophyte C. teedei.

  15. Comparison of Methods for Estimating Fractional Cover of Photosynthetic and Non-Photosynthetic Vegetation in the Otindag Sandy Land Using GF-1 Wide-Field View Data

    OpenAIRE

    Xiaosong Li; Guoxiong Zheng; Jinying Wang; Cuicui Ji; Bin Sun; Zhihai Gao

    2016-01-01

    Photosynthetic vegetation (PV) and non-photosynthetic vegetation (NPV) are important ground cover types for desertification monitoring and land management. Hyperspectral remote sensing has been proven effective for separating NPV from bare soil, but few studies determined fractional cover of PV (fpv) and NPV (fnpv) using multispectral information. The purpose of this study is to evaluate several spectral unmixing approaches for retrieval of fpv and fnpv in the Otindag Sandy Land using GF-1 wi...

  16. Distribution of 14C-photosynthetate in the shoot of Vitis vinifera L. cv Cabernet Sauvignon: Pt. II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hunter, J.J.; Visser, J.H.

    1988-01-01

    The effect of partial defoliation of Vitis vinifera L. cv Cabernet Sauvignon on the distribution of photosynthetates, originating in leaves in different positions on the shoot at berry set, pea size, veraison and ripeness stages, was investigated. Partial defoliation (33% and 66%) resulted in a higher apparent photosynthetic effectivity for all the remaining leaves on the shoot. The pattern of distribution of photosynthetates would seem to stay the same between the defoliation treatments. The control vines were found to carry excess foliage. Optimal photosynthetic activity of all the leaves on the vine was therefore not reached

  17. Photosynthetic Pigments in Diatoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuczynska, Paulina; Jemiola-Rzeminska, Malgorzata; Strzalka, Kazimierz

    2015-09-16

    Photosynthetic pigments are bioactive compounds of great importance for the food, cosmetic, and pharmaceutical industries. They are not only responsible for capturing solar energy to carry out photosynthesis, but also play a role in photoprotective processes and display antioxidant activity, all of which contribute to effective biomass and oxygen production. Diatoms are organisms of a distinct pigment composition, substantially different from that present in plants. Apart from light-harvesting pigments such as chlorophyll a, chlorophyll c, and fucoxanthin, there is a group of photoprotective carotenoids which includes β-carotene and the xanthophylls, diatoxanthin, diadinoxanthin, violaxanthin, antheraxanthin, and zeaxanthin, which are engaged in the xanthophyll cycle. Additionally, some intermediate products of biosynthetic pathways have been identified in diatoms as well as unusual pigments, e.g., marennine. Marine algae have become widely recognized as a source of unique bioactive compounds for potential industrial, pharmaceutical, and medical applications. In this review, we summarize current knowledge on diatom photosynthetic pigments complemented by some new insights regarding their physico-chemical properties, biological role, and biosynthetic pathways, as well as the regulation of pigment level in the cell, methods of purification, and significance in industries.

  18. Photosynthetic Pigments in Diatoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulina Kuczynska

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Photosynthetic pigments are bioactive compounds of great importance for the food, cosmetic, and pharmaceutical industries. They are not only responsible for capturing solar energy to carry out photosynthesis, but also play a role in photoprotective processes and display antioxidant activity, all of which contribute to effective biomass and oxygen production. Diatoms are organisms of a distinct pigment composition, substantially different from that present in plants. Apart from light-harvesting pigments such as chlorophyll a, chlorophyll c, and fucoxanthin, there is a group of photoprotective carotenoids which includes β-carotene and the xanthophylls, diatoxanthin, diadinoxanthin, violaxanthin, antheraxanthin, and zeaxanthin, which are engaged in the xanthophyll cycle. Additionally, some intermediate products of biosynthetic pathways have been identified in diatoms as well as unusual pigments, e.g., marennine. Marine algae have become widely recognized as a source of unique bioactive compounds for potential industrial, pharmaceutical, and medical applications. In this review, we summarize current knowledge on diatom photosynthetic pigments complemented by some new insights regarding their physico-chemical properties, biological role, and biosynthetic pathways, as well as the regulation of pigment level in the cell, methods of purification, and significance in industries.

  19. Difference in photosynthetic performance among three peach ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effects of low photosynthetic photon flux density (PPFD) on greenhouse grown peach trees ('Qingfeng': Prunus persica L. Batsch, 'NJN76': Prunus persica L. Batsch and 'Maixiang': P. persica var. nectarine) were investigated. Difference in photosynthesis rate (Pn) and stoma morphology among cultivars were studied.

  20. Hybrid system of semiconductor and photosynthetic protein

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Younghye; Shin, Seon Ae; Lee, Jaehun; Yang, Ki Dong; Nam, Ki Tae

    2014-01-01

    Photosynthetic protein has the potential to be a new attractive material for solar energy absorption and conversion. The development of semiconductor/photosynthetic protein hybrids is an example of recent progress toward efficient, clean and nanostructured photoelectric systems. In the review, two biohybrid systems interacting through different communicating methods are addressed: (1) a photosynthetic protein immobilized semiconductor electrode operating via electron transfer and (2) a hybrid of semiconductor quantum dots and photosynthetic protein operating via energy transfer. The proper selection of materials and functional and structural modification of the components and optimal conjugation between them are the main issues discussed in the review. In conclusion, we propose the direction of future biohybrid systems for solar energy conversion systems, optical biosensors and photoelectric devices. (topical reviews)

  1. PS2013 Satellite Workshop on Photosynthetic Light-Harvesting Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Niederman, Robert A. [Rutgers Univ., New Brunswick, NJ (United States); Blankenship, Robert E. [Washington Univ., St. Louis, MO (United States); Frank, Harry A. [Univ. of Connecticut, Storrs, CT (United States)

    2015-02-07

    These funds were used for partial support of the PS2013 Satellite Workshop on Photosynthetic Light-Harvesting Systems, that was held on 8-11 August, 2013, at Washington University, St. Louis, MO. This conference, held in conjunction with the 16th International Congress on Photosynthesis/St. Louis, continued a long tradition of light-harvesting satellite conferences that have been held prior to the previous six international photosynthesis congresses. In this Workshop, the basis was explored for the current interest in replacing fossil fuels with energy sources derived form direct solar radiation, coupled with light-driven electron transport in natural photosynthetic systems and how they offer a valuable blueprint for conversion of sunlight to useful energy forms. This was accomplished through sessions on the initial light-harvesting events in the biological conversion of solar energy to chemically stored energy forms, and how these natural photosynthetic processes serve as a guide to the development of robust bio-hybrid and artificial systems for solar energy conversion into both electricity or chemical fuels. Organized similar to a Gordon Research Conference, a lively, informal and collegial setting was established, highlighting the exchange of exciting new data and unpublished results from ongoing studies. A significant amount of time was set aside for open discussion and interactive poster sessions, with a special session devoted to oral presentations by talented students and postdoctoral fellows judged to have the best posters. This area of research has seen exceptionally rapid progress in recent years, with the availability of a number of antenna protein structures at atomic resolution, elucidation of the molecular surface architecture of native photosynthetic membranes by atomic force microscopy and the maturing of ultrafast spectroscopic and molecular biological techniques for the investigation and manipulation of photosynthetic systems. The conferees

  2. Electromagnetic Radiation Disturbed the Photosynthesis of Microcystis aeruginosa at the Proteomics Level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Chao; Yang, Chuanjun; Yu, Hui; Tian, Shen; Huang, Xiaomei; Wang, Weiyi; Cai, Peng

    2018-01-11

    Photosynthesis of Microcystis aeruginosa under Electromagnetic Radiation (1.8 GHz, 40 V/m) was studied by using the proteomics. A total of 30 differentially expressed proteins, including 15 up-regulated and 15 down-regulated proteins, were obtained in this study. The differentially expressed proteins were significantly enriched in the photosynthesis pathway, in which the protein expression levels of photosystems II cytochrome b559 α subunit, cytochrome C550, PsbY, and F-type ATP synthase (a, b) decreased. Our results indicated that electromagnetic radiation altered the photosynthesis-related protein expression levels, and aimed at the function of photosynthetic pigments, photosystems II potential activity, photosynthetic electron transport process, and photosynthetic phosphorylation process of M. aeruginosa. Based on the above evidence, that photoreaction system may be deduced as a target of electromagnetic radiation on the photosynthesis in cyanobacteria; the photoreaction system of cyanobacteria is a hypothetical "shared target effector" that responds to light and electromagnetic radiation; moreover, electromagnetic radiation does not act on the functional proteins themselves but their expression processes.

  3. Isotope effects associated with the anaerobic oxidation of sulfide by the purple photosynthetic bacterium, Chromatium vinosum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fry, B.; Gest, H.; Hayes, J.M.

    1984-01-01

    Small inverse isotope effects of 1-3 per thousand were consistently observed for the oxidation of sulfide to elemental sulfur during anaerobic photometabolism by Chromatium vinosum. The inverse fractionation can be accounted for by an equilibrium isotope effect between H 2 S and HS - , and may indicate that C. vinosum (and other photosynthetic bacteria) utilizes H 2 S rather than HS - as the substrate during sulfide oxidation. (Auth.)

  4. Effects of gibberellic acid on growth and photosynthetic pigments of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this study was to improve growth performance by enhancing the photosynthetic pigments and enzyme carbonic anhydrase (CA) activity of Hibiscus sabdariffa L. (cv. Sabahia 17) under NaCl stress. Under non-saline condition, application of GA3 enhanced growth parameters (shoot length, shoot fresh weight (FW) ...

  5. Interactive Effects of Temperature and UV Radiation on Photosynthesis of Chlorella Strains from Polar, Temperate and Tropical Environments: Differential Impacts on Damage and Repair

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Chiew-Yen; Teoh, Ming-Li; Phang, Siew-Moi; Lim, Phaik-Eem; Beardall, John

    2015-01-01

    Global warming and ozone depletion, and the resulting increase of ultraviolet radiation (UVR), have far-reaching impacts on biota, especially affecting the algae that form the basis of the food webs in aquatic ecosystems. The aim of the present study was to investigate the interactive effects of temperature and UVR by comparing the photosynthetic responses of similar taxa of Chlorella from Antarctic (Chlorella UMACC 237), temperate (Chlorella vulgaris UMACC 248) and tropical (Chlorella vulgaris UMACC 001) environments. The cultures were exposed to three different treatments: photosynthetically active radiation (PAR; 400–700 nm), PAR plus ultraviolet-A (320–400 nm) radiation (PAR + UV-A) and PAR plus UV-A and ultraviolet-B (280–320 nm) radiation (PAR + UV-A + UV-B) for one hour in incubators set at different temperatures. The Antarctic Chlorella was exposed to 4, 14 and 20°C. The temperate Chlorella was exposed to 11, 18 and 25°C while the tropical Chlorella was exposed to 24, 28 and 30°C. A pulse-amplitude modulated (PAM) fluorometer was used to assess the photosynthetic response of microalgae. Parameters such as the photoadaptive index (Ek) and light harvesting efficiency (α) were determined from rapid light curves. The damage (k) and repair (r) rates were calculated from the decrease in ΦPSIIeff over time during exposure response curves where cells were exposed to the various combinations of PAR and UVR, and fitting the data to the Kok model. The results showed that UV-A caused much lower inhibition than UV-B in photosynthesis in all Chlorella isolates. The three isolates of Chlorella from different regions showed different trends in their photosynthesis responses under the combined effects of UVR (PAR + UV-A + UV-B) and temperature. In accordance with the noted strain-specific characteristics, we can conclude that the repair (r) mechanisms at higher temperatures were not sufficient to overcome damage caused by UVR in the Antarctic Chlorella strain

  6. Interactive Effects of Temperature and UV Radiation on Photosynthesis of Chlorella Strains from Polar, Temperate and Tropical Environments: Differential Impacts on Damage and Repair.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiew-Yen Wong

    Full Text Available Global warming and ozone depletion, and the resulting increase of ultraviolet radiation (UVR, have far-reaching impacts on biota, especially affecting the algae that form the basis of the food webs in aquatic ecosystems. The aim of the present study was to investigate the interactive effects of temperature and UVR by comparing the photosynthetic responses of similar taxa of Chlorella from Antarctic (Chlorella UMACC 237, temperate (Chlorella vulgaris UMACC 248 and tropical (Chlorella vulgaris UMACC 001 environments. The cultures were exposed to three different treatments: photosynthetically active radiation (PAR; 400-700 nm, PAR plus ultraviolet-A (320-400 nm radiation (PAR + UV-A and PAR plus UV-A and ultraviolet-B (280-320 nm radiation (PAR + UV-A + UV-B for one hour in incubators set at different temperatures. The Antarctic Chlorella was exposed to 4, 14 and 20°C. The temperate Chlorella was exposed to 11, 18 and 25°C while the tropical Chlorella was exposed to 24, 28 and 30°C. A pulse-amplitude modulated (PAM fluorometer was used to assess the photosynthetic response of microalgae. Parameters such as the photoadaptive index (Ek and light harvesting efficiency (α were determined from rapid light curves. The damage (k and repair (r rates were calculated from the decrease in ΦPSIIeff over time during exposure response curves where cells were exposed to the various combinations of PAR and UVR, and fitting the data to the Kok model. The results showed that UV-A caused much lower inhibition than UV-B in photosynthesis in all Chlorella isolates. The three isolates of Chlorella from different regions showed different trends in their photosynthesis responses under the combined effects of UVR (PAR + UV-A + UV-B and temperature. In accordance with the noted strain-specific characteristics, we can conclude that the repair (r mechanisms at higher temperatures were not sufficient to overcome damage caused by UVR in the Antarctic Chlorella strain

  7. An Evaluation of Semiempirical Models for Partitioning Photosynthetically Active Radiation Into Diffuse and Direct Beam Components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliphant, Andrew J.; Stoy, Paul C.

    2018-03-01

    Photosynthesis is more efficient under diffuse than direct beam photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) per unit PAR, but diffuse PAR is infrequently measured at research sites. We examine four commonly used semiempirical models (Erbs et al., 1982, https://doi.org/10.1016/0038-092X(82)90302-4; Gu et al., 1999, https://doi.org/10.1029/1999JD901068; Roderick, 1999, https://doi.org/10.1016/S0168-1923(99)00028-3; Weiss & Norman, 1985, https://doi.org/10.1016/0168-1923(85)90020-6) that partition PAR into diffuse and direct beam components based on the negative relationship between atmospheric transparency and scattering of PAR. Radiation observations at 58 sites (140 site years) from the La Thuille FLUXNET data set were used for model validation and coefficient testing. All four models did a reasonable job of predicting the diffuse fraction of PAR (ϕ) at the 30 min timescale, with site median r2 values ranging between 0.85 and 0.87, model efficiency coefficients (MECs) between 0.62 and 0.69, and regression slopes within 10% of unity. Model residuals were not strongly correlated with astronomical or standard meteorological variables. We conclude that the Roderick (1999, https://doi.org/10.1016/S0168-1923(99)00028-3) and Gu et al. (1999, https://doi.org/10.1029/1999JD901068) models performed better overall than the two older models. Using the basic form of these models, the data set was used to find both individual site and universal model coefficients that optimized predictive accuracy. A new universal form of the model is presented in section 5 that increased site median MEC to 0.73. Site-specific model coefficients increased median MEC further to 0.78, indicating usefulness of local/regional training of coefficients to capture the local distributions of aerosols and cloud types.

  8. Relationship between incident radiation, leaf area and dry-matter yield in wheat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saini, A.D.; Nanda, R.

    1986-01-01

    Light-utilization efficiency was evaluated between 20 and 50 days of crop growth period in 'Kalyansona', 'Sonalika' (semi-dwarf), 'Hindi 62' (tall) varieties of bread-wheat (Triticum aestivum Linn. emend., Fiori and Paol.) and semi-dwarf 'HD 4502' variety of macaroni wheat (T. durum Desf.). In the first model, the relationship between absorbed photosynthetic radiation and crop growth rates showed above-ground dry matter of 2.9 g in 'Sonalika', 2.5 g each in 'Kalyansona' and 'HD 4502' and 1.8 g in 'Hindi 62' were produced for each megajoule of absorbed photosynthetic radiation corresponding to the growth efficiency of 5.1, 4.4 and 3.1% respectively. In the second model of partial regression analysis, the rate of change in dry matter due to mean green area index as well as photosynthetic radiation was low in 'Hindi 62'. However, the dry matter changes due to mean green area index were similar in 'Kalyansona', 'HD4502' and 'Sonalika', but was high due to photosynthetic radiation in 'Sonalika' only. Both models gave similar conclusion

  9. Effects of differnt juvenile mixed plantations on growth and photosynthetic physiology of pinus yunnanensis franch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng, Y.; Ou, G. L.; Chen, D. D.; Liu, G. Y.; Li, Q. Q.; Zhang, S. H.; Han, M. Y.; Chen, J. L.

    2017-01-01

    The growth characteristics, photosynthetic gas exchange features, physiological and biochemical resistance, and soil nutrition contents of different juvenile mixed plantations were analyzed. Moreover, the synergic effect mechanism of the different species was elucidated to improve the stand quality of Pinus yunnanensis Franch. plantations and guide the screening of P. yunnanensis mixed plantations. The mixed plantations were P. yunnanensis-Alnus nepalensis-Quercus acutissima, P. yunnanensis-A. nepalensis-Cyclobalanopsis glaucoides, and P. yunnanensis-Q. acutissima-C. glaucoides. Individual juvenile plantations of pure P. yunnanensis, A. nepalensis, Q. acutissima, and C. glaucoides were used as control groups. Results showed that pure P. yunnanensis juvenile plantation consumed more soil organic matter, total nitrogen (TN), total phosphorus (TP), and total potassium (TK) than the other plantations. This plantation also showed poorer growth characteristics, poorer photosynthetic capability, lower water utilization efficiency (WUE), and biochemical resistance in infertile soil, as shown by the nutrition and water competition. Increasing soil organic matters, TN, TP, and TK of the different mixed plantations evidently enhanced height, ground diameter growth rate, net photosynthetic rate (Pn), transpiration rate (Tr), WUE, carboxylation efficiency (CE), soluble sugar (SS) content, and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity. Moreover, different mixed forests slightly influenced the characteristics of photosynthetic gas exchange and physiological and biochemical resistance of A. nepalensis. All stand types facilitated growth of tree height and basal diameter of Q. acutissima sapling. Although Q. acutissima inhibited physiological and biochemical resistance of leaves to a certain extent, they increased WUE significantly. Different stand types slightly influenced growth features, Pn, Tr, and WUE of C. glaucoides sapling. Moreover, they inhibited the osmotic adjustment system

  10. Modelling three-dimensional distribution of photosynthetically active radiation in sloping coniferous stands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knyazikhin, Yu.; Kranigk, J.; Miessen, G.; Panfyorov, O.; Vygodskaya, N.; Gravenhorst, G.

    1996-01-01

    Solar irradiance is a major environmental factor governing biological and physiological processes in a vegetation canopy. Solar radiation distribution in a canopy and its effect are three-dimensional in nature. However, most of the radiation models up to now have been one-dimensional. They can be successfully applied to large-scale studies of forest functioning. The one-dimensional modelling technique, however, does not provide adequate interpretation of small scale processes leading to forest growth. In this article we discuss a modelling strategy for the simulation of three-dimensional radiation distribution in a vegetation canopy of a small area (about 0.25–0.3 ha). We demonstrate its realisation to predict the three-dimensional radiative regime of phytosynthetically active radiation in a real coniferous stand located on hilly surroundings. Our model can be used to investigate the influence of different climatic conditions, forest management methods and field sites on the solar energy available for forest growth in small heterogeneous areas. Further, a three-dimensional process-oriented model helps to derive global variables affecting bio-physiological processes in a vegetation canopy shifting from small scale studies of the functioning of forests to regional, continental, and global scale problems. (author)

  11. Does ultraviolet radiation affect the xanthophyll cycle in marine phytoplankton?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Poll, W.H.; Buma, A.G.J.

    2009-01-01

    This Perspective summarizes the state of knowledge of the impact of ultraviolet radiation on the photoprotective xanthophyll cycle in marine phytoplankton. Excess photosynthetically active radiation (PAR; 400-700 nm) and ultraviolet radiation (UVR; 280-400 nm) affect various cellular processes and

  12. Nanophase Iron Oxides as an Ultraviolet Sunscreen for Ancient Photosynthetic Microbes: A Possible Link Between Early Organisms, Banded-Iron Formations, and the Oxygenation of the Atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishop, Janice L.; Rothschild, Lynn J.; Rothschild, Lynn J.; Rogoff, Dana A.

    2006-01-01

    We propose that nanophase iron oxide-bearing materials provided important niches for ancient photosynthetic microbes on the early Earth that ultimately led to the oxygenation of the Earth s atmosphere and the formation of iron oxide deposits. Atmospheric oxygen and ozone attenuate UV radiation on the Earth today providing substantial protection for photosynthetic organisms. With ultraviolet radiation fluxes likely to have been even higher on the early Earth than today, accessing solar radiation was particularly risky for early organisms. Yet, we know that photosynthesis arose then and played a critical role in subsequent evolution. Of primary importance was protection at approx.250-290 nm, where peak nucleic acid (approx.260 nm) and protein (approx.280 nm) absorptions occur. Nanophase ferric oxide/oxyhydroxide minerals absorb, and thus block, the lethal UV radiation, while transmitting light through much of the visible and near-infrared regions of interest to photosynthesis (400 to 1100 nm). Further, they were available in early environments, and are synthesized by many organisms. Based on ferric oxide/oxyhydroxide spectral properties, likely geologic processes, and the results of experiments with the photosynthetic organisms, Euglena sp. and Chlumydomonus reinhardtii, we propose a scenario where photosynthesis, and ultimately the oxygenation of the atmosphere, depended on the protection of early microbes by nanophase ferric oxides/oxyhydroxides. The results of this study are also applicable to other potentially habitable iron-bearing planetary bodies because of the evolutionary pressure to utilize solar radiation when available as an energy source.

  13. Porphyrin and fullerene-based artificial photosynthetic materials for photovoltaics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imahori, Hiroshi; Kashiwagi, Yukiyasu; Hasobe, Taku; Kimura, Makoto; Hanada, Takeshi; Nishimura, Yoshinobu; Yamazaki, Iwao; Araki, Yasuyuki; Ito, Osamu; Fukuzumi, Shunichi

    2004-01-01

    We have developed artificial photosynthetic systems in which porphyrins and fullerenes are self-assembled as building blocks into nanostructured molecular light-harvesting materials and photovoltaic devices. Multistep electron transfer strategy has been combined with our finding that porphyrin and fullerene systems have small reorganization energies, which are suitable for the construction of light energy conversion systems as well as artificial photosynthetic models. Highly efficient photosynthetic electron transfer reactions have been realized at ITO electrodes modified with self-assembled monolayers of porphyrin oligomers as well as porphyrin-fullerene linked systems. Porphyrin-modified gold nanoclusters have been found to have potential as artificial photosynthetic materials. These results provide basic information for the development of nanostructured artificial photosynthetic systems

  14. Morning reduction of photosynthetic capacity before midday depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koyama, Kohei; Takemoto, Shuhei

    2014-03-17

    Midday depression of photosynthesis has important consequences for ecosystem carbon exchange. Recent studies of forest trees have demonstrated that latent reduction of photosynthetic capacity can begin in the early morning, preceding the midday depression. We investigated whether such early morning reduction also occurs in an herbaceous species, Oenothera biennis. Diurnal changes of the photosynthetic light response curve (measured using a light-emitting diode) and incident sunlight intensity were measured under field conditions. The following results were obtained: (1) the light-saturated photosynthetic rate decreased beginning at sunrise; (2) the incident sunlight intensity on the leaves increased from sunrise; and (3) combining (1) and (2), the net photosynthetic rate under natural sunlight intensity increased from sunrise, reached a maximum at mid-morning, and then showed midday depression. Our results demonstrate that the latent morning reduction of photosynthetic capacity begins at sunrise, preceding the apparent midday depression, in agreement with previous studies of forest trees.

  15. Biological optimization systems for enhancing photosynthetic efficiency and methods of use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, Ryan W.; Chinnasamy, Senthil; Das, Keshav C.; de Mattos, Erico Rolim

    2012-11-06

    Biological optimization systems for enhancing photosynthetic efficiency and methods of use. Specifically, methods for enhancing photosynthetic efficiency including applying pulsed light to a photosynthetic organism, using a chlorophyll fluorescence feedback control system to determine one or more photosynthetic efficiency parameters, and adjusting one or more of the photosynthetic efficiency parameters to drive the photosynthesis by the delivery of an amount of light to optimize light absorption of the photosynthetic organism while providing enough dark time between light pulses to prevent oversaturation of the chlorophyll reaction centers are disclosed.

  16. Photosynthetic pigments and stomatal conductance in ecotypes of copoazu (Theobroma grandi orum Willd. Ex. Spreng K. Schum..

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Carlos Suárez-Salazar

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate the variability of photosynthetic pigment content and daily stomatal conductance was evaluated in relation to environmental variables in Copoazú (Theobroma grandi orum ecotypes. The ecotypes used were part of the germoplasm bank of the University of the Amazon (Colombia. The study was carried out during the year 2015. Four leaves of the average stratum of four plants were collected for each ecotype, to extract and read at different levels of absorbance and determine the content of photosynthetic pigments. During the hours of 04:00 a.m. to 6:00 p.m., the stomatal conductance (gs was monitored for environmental variables (relative humidity, air temperature, radiation and vapor pressure de cit (VPD. An analysis of variance was made using the Tukey test, correlations and regressions were made between gs and environmental variables. The contents of chlorophyll a, b, total and carotenoids among ecotypes were different (P<0.0001, the ecotype UA-31 presented the highest values, contrasting with the ecotype UA-37. Concerning gs, the interaction ecotype*hour showed signi cant differences (P<0.0001 .The ecotypes that presented the highest values of gs were UA-67 and UA-039, (P<0.0001, radiation (-0.91, P<0.0001 and DPV (-0.94; P<0.0001 0.0001.The results suggest that ecotypes UA-039 and UA-31 were the most suitable in terms of gaseous exchange and content of photosynthetic pigments.

  17. Research on spatial distribution of photosynthetic characteristics of Winter Wheat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Q. Q.; Zhou, Q. Y.; Zhang, B. Z.; Han, X.; Han, N. N.; Li, S. M.

    2018-03-01

    In order to explore the spatial distribution of photosynthetic characteristics of winter wheat leaf, the photosynthetic rate on different parts of leaf (leaf base-leaf middle-leaf apex) and that on each canopy (top layer-middle layer-bottom layer) leaf during the whole growth period of winter wheat were measured. The variation of photosynthetic rate with PAR and the spatial distribution of winter wheat leaf during the whole growth periods were analysed. The results showed that the photosynthetic rate of different parts of winter wheat increased with the increase of PAR, which was showed as leaf base>leaf middle>leaf apex. In the same growth period, photosynthetic rate in different parts of the tablet was showed as leaf middle>leaf base>leaf apex. For the different canopy layer of winter wheat, the photosynthetic rate of the top layer leaf was significantly greater than that of the middle layer and lower layer leaf. The photosynthetic rate of the top layer leaf was the largest in the leaf base position. The photosynthetic rate of leaf of the same canopy layer at different growth stages were showed as tasseling stage >grain filling stage > maturation stage.

  18. UV radiation and primary production in the Antarctic waters

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    LokaBharathi, P.A.; Krishnakumari, L.; Bhattathiri, P.M.A.; Chandramohan, D.

    at 683 nm), scalar irradiance (photosynthetically active radiation (PAR), computed primary production (pp), diffuse attenuation coefficient, and UVB (308 and 320 nm) and UVA (340 and 380 nm) radiation and ocean temperature all measured as a function...

  19. Solar Irradiance Changes And Photobiological Effects At Earth's Surface Following Astrophysical Ionizing Radiation Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Brian; Neale, Patrick

    2016-01-01

    Astrophysical ionizing radiation events have been recognized as a potential threat to life on Earth for decades. Although there is some direct biological damage on the surface from redistributed radiation several studies have indicated that the greatest long term threat is from ozone depletion and subsequent heightened solar ultraviolet (UV) radiation. It is known that organisms exposed to this irradiation experience harmful effects such as sunburn and even direct damage to DNA, proteins, or other cellular structures. Simulations of the atmospheric effects of a variety of events (such as supernovae, gamma-ray bursts, and solar proton events) have been previously published, along with estimates of biological damage at Earth's surface. In the present work, we employed a radiative transfer model to expand and improve calculations of surface-level irradiance and biological impacts following an ionizing radiation event. We considered changes in surface-level UVB, UVA, and photosynthetically active radiation (visible light). Using biological weighting functions we have considered a wide range of effects, including: erythema and skin cancer in humans; inhibition of photosynthesis in the diatom Phaeodactylum sp. and dinoflagellate Prorocentrum micans inhibition of carbon fixation in Antarctic phytoplankton; inhibition of growth of oat (Avena sativa L. cv. Otana) seedlings; and cataracts. We found that past work overestimated UVB irradiance, but that relative estimates for increase in exposure to DNA damaging radiation are still similar to our improved calculations. We also found that the intensity of biologically damaging radiation varies widely with organism and specific impact considered; these results have implications for biosphere-level damage following astrophysical ionizing radiation events. When considering changes in surface-level visible light irradiance, we found that, contrary to previous assumptions, a decrease in irradiance is only present for a short time in

  20. Photosynthetic capacity of 'Niagara Rosada' grapes grown under transparent plastic covering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruna Corrêa da Silva de Deus

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: New techniques in tropical regions such as use of transparent plastic covering (TPC, have been employed in grapes to avoid the wetting leaves and fruits, which can reduce the occurrence of fungal diseases, reduce the use of sprays, and reduce damage caused by hail and high winds. TPC may significantly affect the photosynthetic rates of grapevines cultivated in tropical regions, and thus have strong effects on plant productivity and improve fruit quality. However, in the North of Rio de Janeiro region there are lacks of studies related to TPC effects on photosynthetic capacity. The objective of this study was to evaluate the photosynthetic capacity in 'Niagara Rosada' vines grown under TPC and without transparent plastic covering (WTPC. The experiment was conducted between April and June 2013, on Tabuinha farm, located in the 3rd district of São Fidélis, Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil. A completely randomized block design was used with two treatments (TPC and WTPC and twelve replications. Evaluations consisted of climatological variables, gas exchange and maximum quantum efficiency of open photosystem II centers-quantum yield (Fv/Fm It was possible to observe that under TPC maximum temperature increase of 2.3°C, relative humidity reduced 1.5%, vapor pressure deficit increase 0.4kPa, and light intensity reduced 47.7%. These changes did not cause photochemical damage to the leaves. The TPC promoted higher net photosynthetic rate at 800h, which was associated with higher stomatal conductance. Thus, the TPC used in the northern region of Rio de Janeiro State did not impair the photosynthetic capacity of 'Niagara Rosada' vines.

  1. Effects of solar ultraviolet-B radiation, temperature and CO2 on growth and physiology of sunflower and maize seedlings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mark, U.; Tevini, M.

    1997-01-01

    The effects of solar UV-B radiation, in combination with elevated temperature (4 °C) and CO 2 (680 μL L -1 ) concentration, on sunflower and maize seedlings were studied from May to August in 1991 at the research station Quinta de São Pedro in Portugal (38.7°N). The ambient solar radiation of Portugal was reduced to levels of Central European latitudes by using the ozone filter technique. This radiation served as control, while the ambient solar radiation of Portugal was to simulate intense UV-B treatment (+30%). All plants were grown up to 18 days in 4 climate controlled growth chambers simulating a daily course of temperature with T max = 28 °C or 32 °C, resp., and ambient CO 2 concentrations (340 μL L -1 ); in one chamber the CO 2 concentration was twice as high (680 μL L-1). Under intense UV-B and at 28 °C (T max ) all growth parameters (height, leaf area, fresh and dry weight, stem elongation rate, relative growth rate) of sunflower and maize seedlings were reduced down to 35% as compared to controls. An increase in growing temperature by 4 °C, alone or in combination with doubled CO 2 , compensated or even overcompensated the UV-B effect so that the treated plants were comparable to controls. Chlorophyll content, on a leaf area basis, increased under intense UV-B radiation. This increase was compensated by lower leaf areas, resulting in comparable chlorophyll contents. Similar to growth, also the net photosynthetic rates of sunflower and maize seedlings were reduced down to 29% by intense UV-B calculated on a chlorophyll basis. This reduction was compensated by an increased temperature. Doubling of CO 2 concentration had effects only on sunflower seedlings in which the photosynthetic rates were higher than in the controls. Dark respiration rates of the seedlings were not influenced by any experimental condition. Transpiration and water use efficiency (wue) were not influenced by intense UV-B. Higher temperatures led to higher transpiration rates and

  2. [Effect of magnesium deficiency on photosynthetic physiology and triacylglyceride (TAG) accumulation of Chlorella vulgaris].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shan; Zhao, Shu-Xin; Wei, Chang-Long; Yu, Shui-Yan; Shi, Ji-Ping; Zhang, Bao-Guo

    2014-04-01

    As an excellent biological resource, Chlorella has wide applications for production of biofuel, bioactive substances and water environment restoration. Therefore, it is very important to understand the photosynthetic physiology characteristics of Chlorella. Magnesium ions play an important role in the growth of microalgae, not only the central atom of chlorophyll, but also the cofactor of some key enzyme in the metabolic pathway. A laboratory study was conducted to evaluate the effects of magnesium deficiency on several photosynthetic and physiological parameters and the triacylglyceride (TAG) accumulation of the green alga, Chlorella vulgaris, in the photoautotrophic culture process. Chlorella vulgaris biomass, protein, chlorophyll a and chlorophyll b contents decreased by 20%, 43.96%, 27.52% and 28.07% in response to magnesium deficiency, while the total oil content increased by 19.60%. Moreover, magnesium deficiency decreased the maximal photochemical efficiency F(v)/F(m) by 22.54%, but increased the non-photochemical quenching parameters qN. Our results indicated the decline of chlorophyll caused by magnesium, which affected the photosynthesis efficiency, lead to the growth inhibition of Chlorella vulgaris and affected the protein synthesis and increased the triacylglyceride (TAG) accumulation.

  3. Effect of herbicide and soil amendment on growth and photosynthetic responses in olive crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redondo-Gómez, Susana; Mateos-Naranjo, Enrique; Cox, Lucía; Cornejo, Juan; Figueroa, Enrique

    2007-01-01

    Diuron [3-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)- = 1,1-dimethylurea] and simazine (6-chloro-N(2), N(4)-diethyl-1,3,5-triazine-2,4-diamine) are soil-applied herbicides used in olive crops. The objective of this study is to investigate the combined effect of these herbicides and the amendment of soil with an organic waste (OW) from the olive oil production industry on the growth and photosynthetic apparatus of adult olive trees and to compare the results with those obtained by Redondo-Gómez et al. for two-year-old trees. For this purpose, growth rate, gas exchange and chlorophyll fluorescence parameters were measured in 38-year-old olive trees, after one and two months of soil herbicide treatment and/or OW amendment. Soil co-application of OW and herbicide increases the quantum efficiency of Photosystem II (PSII) and the assimilation of CO(2) in olive trees, which led to a higher relative growth rate of the branches and leaves in length. Herbicide treatment reduced the photosynthetic efficiency in olive trees after two months of soil application, while this reduction is evident from week one in younger trees.

  4. Ozone Effects on Fruit Productivity and Photosynthetic Response of Two Tomato Cultivars in Relation to Stomatal Fluxes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giacomo Gerosa

    Full Text Available An Open-Top Chamber experiment on two tomato cultivars (cv. Oxheart and cv. San Marzano was carried out in Curno (Northern Italy between June and September 2007. Two ozone treatments were applied for a 3.5 months period: Non-Filtered OTC (NF-OTC, 95% of ambient ozone and Charcoal-Filtered OTC (CF-OTC, 50% of ambient ozone. Diurnal cycles of porometry measurements were performed during the season and allowed to draw a stomatal conductance model for each cultivar in order to calculate the ozone stomatal fluxes taken up by plants. Assessments on fruits yield were performed during the season, taking into account the number of fruits, their fresh weight and their marketability. In addition, measurements on the chlorophyll fluorescence of photosystems were carried out to assess possible negative effects on photosynthetic efficiency. Despite the two cultivars absorbed a similar ozone stomatal dose during the season (with an 8% difference, their responses to ozone treatments were totally divergent in relation to both fruits yield and photosynthetic efficiency. Plants of cv. Oxheart grown in NF-OTCs showed significant yield loss in the total weight of fruits (-35.9% which is exclusively related to a decrease in the number of fruits produced (-35.7% of total fruits; -30.6% of marketable fruits, since mean fresh weight of fruits remained unaffected. Moreover the same plants displayed low values (in comparison to CF-OTCs plants of the photosynthetic efficiency index (PIabs during the most intense period of ozone stress (July occurred in the flowering stage of plants and at the beginning of fructification. Plants of the cv. San Marzano had an opposite response behaviour with an increase of the mean fresh weight of fruits in plants grown in NF-OTC (even if not statistically significant and no difference in the number of fruits produced and in the values of photosynthetic efficiency.

  5. Zooxanthellae Harvested by Ciliates Associated with Brown Band Syndrome of Corals Remain Photosynthetically Competent▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulstrup, Karin E.; Kühl, Michael; Bourne, David G.

    2007-01-01

    Brown band syndrome is a new coral affliction characterized by a local accumulation of yet-unidentified ciliates migrating as a band along the branches of coral colonies. In the current study, morphologically intact zooxanthellae (= Symbiodinium) were observed in great numbers inside the ciliates (>50 dinoflagellates per ciliate). Microscale oxygen measurements and variable chlorophyll a fluorescence analysis along with microscopic observations demonstrated that zooxanthellae within the ciliates are photosynthetically competent and do not become compromised during the progression of the brown band zone. Zooxanthellae showed similar trends in light acclimation in a comparison of rapid light curve and steady-state light curve measures of variable chlorophyll a fluorescence. Extended light exposure of steady-state light curves resulted in higher quantum yields of photosystem II. The brown band tissue exhibited higher photosynthetically active radiation absorptivity, indicating more efficient light absorption due to a higher density of zooxanthellae in the ciliate-dominated zone. This caused relatively higher gross photosynthesis rates in the zone with zooxanthella-containing ciliates compared to healthy coral tissue. The observation of photosynthetically active intracellular zooxanthellae in the ciliates suggests that the latter can benefit from photosynthates produced by ingested zooxanthellae and from photosynthetic oxygen production that alleviates diffusion limitation of oxic respiration in the densely populated brown band tissue. It remains to be shown whether the zooxanthellae form a stable symbiotic association with the ciliate or are engulfed incidentally during grazing on coral tissue and then maintained as active inside the ciliate for a period before being digested and replaced by new zooxanthellae. PMID:17259357

  6. Zooxanthellae harvested by ciliates associated with brown band syndrome of corals remain photosynthetically competent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulstrup, Karin E; Kühl, Michael; Bourne, David G

    2007-03-01

    Brown band syndrome is a new coral affliction characterized by a local accumulation of yet-unidentified ciliates migrating as a band along the branches of coral colonies. In the current study, morphologically intact zooxanthellae (= Symbiodinium) were observed in great numbers inside the ciliates (>50 dinoflagellates per ciliate). Microscale oxygen measurements and variable chlorophyll a fluorescence analysis along with microscopic observations demonstrated that zooxanthellae within the ciliates are photosynthetically competent and do not become compromised during the progression of the brown band zone. Zooxanthellae showed similar trends in light acclimation in a comparison of rapid light curve and steady-state light curve measures of variable chlorophyll a fluorescence. Extended light exposure of steady-state light curves resulted in higher quantum yields of photosystem II. The brown band tissue exhibited higher photosynthetically active radiation absorptivity, indicating more efficient light absorption due to a higher density of zooxanthellae in the ciliate-dominated zone. This caused relatively higher gross photosynthesis rates in the zone with zooxanthella-containing ciliates compared to healthy coral tissue. The observation of photosynthetically active intracellular zooxanthellae in the ciliates suggests that the latter can benefit from photosynthates produced by ingested zooxanthellae and from photosynthetic oxygen production that alleviates diffusion limitation of oxic respiration in the densely populated brown band tissue. It remains to be shown whether the zooxanthellae form a stable symbiotic association with the ciliate or are engulfed incidentally during grazing on coral tissue and then maintained as active inside the ciliate for a period before being digested and replaced by new zooxanthellae.

  7. Effects of shading on the photosynthetic characteristics and mesophyll cell ultrastructure of summer maize.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Baizhao; Cui, Haiyan; Camberato, James J; Dong, Shuting; Liu, Peng; Zhao, Bin; Zhang, Jiwang

    2016-08-01

    A field experiment was conducted to study the effects of shading on the photosynthetic characteristics and mesophyll cell ultrastructure of two summer maize hybrids Denghai605 (DH605) and Zhengdan958 (ZD958). The ambient sunlight treatment was used as control (CK) and shading treatments (40 % of ambient sunlight) were applied at different growth stages from silking (R1) to physiological maturity (R6) (S1), from the sixth leaf stage (V6) to R1 (S2), and from seeding to R6 (S3), respectively. The net photosynthetic rate (P n) was significantly decreased after shading. The greatest reduction of P n was found at S3 treatment, followed by S1 and S2 treatments. P n of S3 was decreased by 59 and 48 % for DH605, and 39 and 43 % for ZD958 at tasseling and milk-ripe stages, respectively, compared to that of CK. Additionally, leaf area index (LAI) and chlorophyll content decreased after shading. In terms of mesophyll cell ultrastructure, chloroplast configuration of mesophyll cells dispersed, and part of chloroplast swelled and became circular. Meanwhile, the major characteristics of chloroplasts showed poorly developed thylakoid structure at the early growth stage, blurry lamellar structure, loose grana, and a large gap between slices and warping granum. Then, plasmolysis occurred in mesophyll cells and the endomembrane system was destroyed, which resulted in the dissolution of cell membrane, karyotheca, mitochondria, and some membrane structures. The damaged mesophyll cell ultrastructure led to the decrease of photosynthetic capacity, and thus resulted in significant yield reduction by 45, 11, and 84 % in S1, S2, and S3 treatments, respectively, compared to that of CK.

  8. Photosynthetic light reactions at the gold interface

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kamran, Muhammad

    2014-01-01

    In the project described in this thesis we studied a simple bio-electronic device for solar energy conversion by surface-assembly of photosynthetic pigment-protein complexes on a bare gold-electrode. Optical excitation of the photosynthetic pigments gives rise to charge separation in the so-called

  9. The role of energy losses in photosynthetic light harvesting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krüger, T. P. J.; van Grondelle, R.

    2017-07-01

    Photosynthesis operates at the bottom of the food chain to convert the energy of light into carbohydrates at a remarkable global rate of about 130 TW. Nonetheless, the overall photosynthetic process has a conversion efficiency of a few percent at best, significantly less than bottom-up photovoltaic cells. The primary photosynthetic steps, consisting of light harvesting and charge separation, are often presented as having near-unity quantum efficiency but this holds only true under ideal conditions. In this review, we discuss the importance of energy loss mechanisms to establish robustness in photosynthetic light harvesting. Thermal energy dissipation of light-harvesting complexes (LHCs) in different environments is investigated and the relationships and contrasts between concentration quenching of high pigment concentrations, photoprotection (non-photochemical quenching), quenching due to protein aggregation, and fluorescence blinking are discussed. The role of charge-transfer states in light harvesting and energy dissipation is highlighted and the importance of controlled protein structural disorder to switch the light-harvesting antennae between effective light harvesters and efficient energy quenchers is underscored. The main LHC of plants, LHCII, is used as a prime example.

  10. Effects of silicon application on diurnal variations of physiological properties of rice leaves of plants at the heading stage under elevated UV-B radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lou, Yun-sheng; Wu, Lei; Lixuan, Ren; Meng, Yan; Shidi, Zhao; Huaiwei, Zhu; Yiwei, Zhang

    2016-02-01

    We investigated the effects of silicon (Si) application on diurnal variations of photosynthetic and transpiration physiological parameters in potted rice ( Oryza sativa L. cv Nanjing 45) at the heading stage. The plants were subjected to two UV-B radiation levels, i.e., reference UV-B (A, ambient, 12.0 kJ m-2 day-1) and elevated UV-B radiation (E, a 20 % higher dose of UV-B than the reference, 14.4 kJ m-2 day-1), and four Si application levels, i.e., Si0 (no silicon supplementation, 0 kg SiO2 ha-1), Si1 (sodium silicate, 100 kg SiO2 ha-1), Si2 (sodium silicate, 200 kg SiO2 ha-1), and Si3 (slag silicon fertilizer, 200 kg SiO2 ha-1). Compared with the reference, elevated UV-B radiation decreased the diurnal mean values of the net photosynthetic rate ( Pn), intercellular carbon dioxide (CO2) concentration ( Ci), transpiration rate ( Tr), stomatal conductivity ( Gs), and water use efficiency (WUE) by 11.3, 5.5, 10.4, 20.3, and 6.3 %, respectively, in plants not supplemented with silicon (Si0), and decreased the above parameters by 3.8-5.5, 0.7-4.8, 4.0-8.7, 7.4-20.2, and 0.7-5.9 %, respectively, in plants treated with silicon (Si1, Si2, and Si3), indicating that silicon application mitigates the negative effects of elevated UV-B radiation. Under elevated UV-B radiation, silicon application (Si1, Si2, and Si3) increased the diurnal mean values of Pn, Ci, Gs, and WUE by 16.9-28.0, 3.5-14.3, 16.8-38.7, and 29.0-51.2 %, respectively, but decreased Tr by 1.9-10.8 %, compared with plants not treated with silicon (E+Si0), indicating that silicon application mitigates the negative effects of elevated UV-B radiation by significantly increasing the P n, C i, G s, and WUE and decreasing the T r of rice. Evident differences existed in mitigating the depressive effects of elevated UV-B radiation on diurnal variations of physiological parameters among different silicon application treatments, exhibiting as Si3>Si2>Si1>Si0. In addition to recycling steel industrial wastes, the

  11. Effects of silicon application on diurnal variations of physiological properties of rice leaves of plants at the heading stage under elevated UV-B radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lou, Yun-sheng; Wu, Lei; Lixuan, Ren; Meng, Yan; Shidi, Zhao; Huaiwei, Zhu; Yiwei, Zhang

    2016-02-01

    We investigated the effects of silicon (Si) application on diurnal variations of photosynthetic and transpiration physiological parameters in potted rice (Oryza sativa L. cv Nanjing 45) at the heading stage. The plants were subjected to two UV-B radiation levels, i.e., reference UV-B (A, ambient, 12.0 kJ m(-2) day(-1)) and elevated UV-B radiation (E, a 20% higher dose of UV-B than the reference, 14.4 kJ m(-2) day(-1)), and four Si application levels, i.e., Si0 (no silicon supplementation, 0 kg SiO2 ha(-1)), Si1 (sodium silicate, 100 kg SiO2 ha(-1)), Si2 (sodium silicate, 200 kg SiO2 ha(-1)), and Si3 (slag silicon fertilizer, 200 kg SiO2 ha(-1)). Compared with the reference, elevated UV-B radiation decreased the diurnal mean values of the net photosynthetic rate (Pn), intercellular carbon dioxide (CO2) concentration (Ci), transpiration rate (Tr), stomatal conductivity (Gs), and water use efficiency (WUE) by 11.3, 5.5, 10.4, 20.3, and 6.3%, respectively, in plants not supplemented with silicon (Si0), and decreased the above parameters by 3.8-5.5, 0.7-4.8, 4.0-8.7, 7.4-20.2, and 0.7-5.9%, respectively, in plants treated with silicon (Si1, Si2, and Si3), indicating that silicon application mitigates the negative effects of elevated UV-B radiation. Under elevated UV-B radiation, silicon application (Si1, Si2, and Si3) increased the diurnal mean values of Pn, Ci, Gs, and WUE by 16.9-28.0, 3.5-14.3, 16.8-38.7, and 29.0-51.2%, respectively, but decreased Tr by 1.9-10.8%, compared with plants not treated with silicon (E+Si0), indicating that silicon application mitigates the negative effects of elevated UV-B radiation by significantly increasing the P n, C i, G s, and WUE and decreasing the T r of rice. Evident differences existed in mitigating the depressive effects of elevated UV-B radiation on diurnal variations of physiological parameters among different silicon application treatments, exhibiting as Si3>Si2>Si1>Si0. In addition to recycling steel industrial wastes, the

  12. The Effect of Static Magnetic Forces on Water Contents and Photosynthetic Pigments in Sweet Basil Ocimum basilicum L. (Lamiaceae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taia, Wafaa K; Kotbi, Abeer M [Alexandria Univ., Faculty of Science, Botany Dept., Alexandria (Egypt); AlZahrani, Hassan S [Faculty of Science, King AbdulAziz Univ., Biology Dept., Jeddah (Saudi Arabia)

    2007-07-01

    Three different magnetic regimes; aerial, surface and buried; each with three different forces, have been used to investigate their effects on the water contents and photosynthetic pigments of sweet basil plants (Ocimum basilicum L.). Two groups of sweet basil seeds, Ocimum basilicum L. have been cultivated, one under normal conditions and the second has been subdivided into three portion (aerial, surface and buried) to examine the effect of different magnetic forces coming from the three directions on the resulted plants. At all directions of magnets, water contents have been significantly affected by the magnetic forces. Chlorophyll A and carotene contents have been affected, as well, according to the three magnetic forces coming from soil surface regime only. Chlorophyll B did not significantly affected by differences magnetic forces in the three regimes, but it is affected by magnetism wherever its direction or force. But all the photosynthetic pigments contents (Chlorophyll A, B and Carotenes) decreased significantly than the control in the three magnetic regimes., but without any effect according to differences in the magnetic force in the aerial and burried regimes of magnetism. It was concluded that magnetism affects both water absorption and retention , the most influenced regime was the aerial magnets followed by the surface and buried ones. This result can be interpreted by the ionization of water which makes water ions respond to magnetic forces. Photosynthetic pigments have been decreased significantly by the exposure to magnetic fields, irrespective to its direction or force and this may be due to the effect of magnetic fields on the reduction in plastids inside the cells. (author)

  13. The Effect of Static Magnetic Forces on Water Contents and Photosynthetic Pigments in Sweet Basil Ocimum basilicum L. (Lamiaceae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taia, Wafaa K; Kotbi, Abeer M; AlZahrani, Hassan S

    2007-01-01

    Three different magnetic regimes; aerial, surface and buried; each with three different forces, have been used to investigate their effects on the water contents and photosynthetic pigments of sweet basil plants (Ocimum basilicum L.). Two groups of sweet basil seeds, Ocimum basilicum L. have been cultivated, one under normal conditions and the second has been subdivided into three portion (aerial, surface and buried) to examine the effect of different magnetic forces coming from the three directions on the resulted plants. At all directions of magnets, water contents have been significantly affected by the magnetic forces. Chlorophyll A and carotene contents have been affected, as well, according to the three magnetic forces coming from soil surface regime only. Chlorophyll B did not significantly affected by differences magnetic forces in the three regimes, but it is affected by magnetism wherever its direction or force. But all the photosynthetic pigments contents (Chlorophyll A, B and Carotenes) decreased significantly than the control in the three magnetic regimes., but without any effect according to differences in the magnetic force in the aerial and burried regimes of magnetism. It was concluded that magnetism affects both water absorption and retention , the most influenced regime was the aerial magnets followed by the surface and buried ones. This result can be interpreted by the ionization of water which makes water ions respond to magnetic forces. Photosynthetic pigments have been decreased significantly by the exposure to magnetic fields, irrespective to its direction or force and this may be due to the effect of magnetic fields on the reduction in plastids inside the cells. (author)

  14. Evolving a photosynthetic organelle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nakayama Takuro

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The evolution of plastids from cyanobacteria is believed to represent a singularity in the history of life. The enigmatic amoeba Paulinella and its 'recently' acquired photosynthetic inclusions provide a fascinating system through which to gain fresh insight into how endosymbionts become organelles. The plastids, or chloroplasts, of algae and plants evolved from cyanobacteria by endosymbiosis. This landmark event conferred on eukaryotes the benefits of photosynthesis - the conversion of solar energy into chemical energy - and in so doing had a huge impact on the course of evolution and the climate of Earth 1. From the present state of plastids, however, it is difficult to trace the evolutionary steps involved in this momentous development, because all modern-day plastids have fully integrated into their hosts. Paulinella chromatophora is a unicellular eukaryote that bears photosynthetic entities called chromatophores that are derived from cyanobacteria and has thus received much attention as a possible example of an organism in the early stages of organellogenesis. Recent studies have unlocked the genomic secrets of its chromatophore 23 and provided concrete evidence that the Paulinella chromatophore is a bona fide photosynthetic organelle 4. The question is how Paulinella can help us to understand the process by which an endosymbiont is converted into an organelle.

  15. Evolving a photosynthetic organelle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakayama, Takuro; Archibald, John M

    2012-04-24

    The evolution of plastids from cyanobacteria is believed to represent a singularity in the history of life. The enigmatic amoeba Paulinella and its 'recently' acquired photosynthetic inclusions provide a fascinating system through which to gain fresh insight into how endosymbionts become organelles.The plastids, or chloroplasts, of algae and plants evolved from cyanobacteria by endosymbiosis. This landmark event conferred on eukaryotes the benefits of photosynthesis--the conversion of solar energy into chemical energy--and in so doing had a huge impact on the course of evolution and the climate of Earth 1. From the present state of plastids, however, it is difficult to trace the evolutionary steps involved in this momentous development, because all modern-day plastids have fully integrated into their hosts. Paulinella chromatophora is a unicellular eukaryote that bears photosynthetic entities called chromatophores that are derived from cyanobacteria and has thus received much attention as a possible example of an organism in the early stages of organellogenesis. Recent studies have unlocked the genomic secrets of its chromatophore 23 and provided concrete evidence that the Paulinella chromatophore is a bona fide photosynthetic organelle 4. The question is how Paulinella can help us to understand the process by which an endosymbiont is converted into an organelle.

  16. Composition and functional property of photosynthetic pigments under circadian rhythm in the cyanobacterium Spirulina platensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Deepak; Kannaujiya, Vinod K; Richa; Pathak, Jainendra; Sundaram, Shanthy; Sinha, Rajeshwar P

    2018-05-01

    Circadian rhythm is an important endogenous biological signal for sustainable growth and development of cyanobacteria in natural ecosystems. Circadian effects of photosynthetically active radiation (PAR), ultraviolet-A (UV-A) and ultraviolet-B (UV-B) radiations on pigment composition have been studied in the cyanobacterium Spirulina platensis under light (L)/dark (D) oscillation with a combination of 4/20, 8/16, 12/12, 16/8, 20/4 and 24/24 h time duration. Circadian exposure of PAR + UV-A (PA) and PAR + UV-A + UV-B (PAB) showed more than twofold decline in Chl a, total protein and phycocyanin (PC) in light phase and significant recovery was achieved in dark phase. The fluorescence emission wavelength of PC was shifted towards lower wavelengths in the light phase of PAB in comparison to P and PA whereas the same wavelength was retrieved in the dark phase. The production of free radicals was accelerated twofold in the light phase (24 h L) whereas the same was retrieved to the level of control during the dark phase. Oxidatively induced damage was alleviated by antioxidative enzymes such as catalase (CAT), peroxidase (POD), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and ascorbate peroxidase (APX) in the light phase (0-24-h L) whereas the dark phase showed significant inhibition of the same enzymes. Similar characteristic inhibition of free radicals and recovery of PC was observed inside cellular filament after circadian rhythm of 24/24 h (L/D). Circadian exposure of P, PA and PAB significantly altered the synthesis and recovery of pigments that could be crucial for optimization and sustainable production of photosynthetic products for human welfare.

  17. Interactive effects of copper stress and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi on photosynthetic characteristics and chlorphyl fluorescence parameters of elsholtzia splendens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Y.; Jin, Z.; Li, J.

    2017-01-01

    To determine interactive effects of added copper (Cu) and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) inoculation on the photosynthesis of Elsholtzia splendens, a greenhouse pot experiment was conducted. Four treatments were used, including -Cu-AMF (no Cu addition and no AMF inoculation), +Cu-AMF (Cu addition but no AMF inoculation), -Cu+AMF (no Cu addition and AMF inoculation), and +Cu+AMF (Cu addition and AMF inoculation). Cu addition did not change diurnal variation curves of the net photosynthetic rate(PN), the intercellular CO/sub 2/ concentration (Ci), the stomatal conductance (gs), or the transpiration rate (E); however, it significantly decreased the daily mean PN, gs, E, light-use efficiency (LUE), and carboxylation efficiency (CE). Furthermore, AMF inoculation significantly increased the daily mean PN, gs, LUE, and CE of E. splendens. In response to light, Cu addition significantly decreased the light-saturated net photosynthetic rate (PNmax), the light saturation point (LSP), the light compensation point (LCP), and the apparent quantum yield (AQY), while AMF inoculation significantly increased PNmax and AQY. In response to the CO/sub 2/ concentration, Cu addition significantly decreased PNmax and the CO/sub 2/ saturation point (CSP), while AMF inoculation significantly increased PNmax. Both Cu addition and AMF inoculation significantly decreased the relative chlorophyll content. Compared to the negative control treatment (-Cu-AMF), Cu addition significantly increased the minimal fluorescence, but significantly decreased maximal fluorescence, variable fluorescence,and maximum photochemical efficiency of PSII. These results suggest that AMF inoculations alleviate the inhibitory effect of copper stress on E. splendens plants by weakening its toxic effects on the photosynthetic apparatus and pigments. (author)

  18. Effects of ultraviolet light on photosynthesis and pigments of Antarctic marine phytoplankton

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stephens, F.C.

    1989-01-01

    This field study was conducted at Palmer Station, Anvers Island, Antarctica, during November-December, 1987. The main objectives were to quantify the effects on photosynthetic rates and pigmentation of short-term and long-term exposures of Antarctic phytoplankton to different levels of UV radiation. Phytoplankton and ice algae were exposed to four levels of UV radiation in outdoor incubation chambers: near ambient UV; UV enhanced by approximately 5% over ambient levels; reduced UV-B; and essentially no UV. Results of 4-hour studies showed that rates of phytoplankton photosynthesis were generally inversely related to UV exposure. Higher photosynthetic rates were maintained over a greater range of irradiance levels when UV was removed in photosynthesis-irradiance studies. Photosynthetic pigments did not change with variations in either visible or UV light. After adaptation for 24 hours, photosynthetic rate measured under conditions of essentially no UV was approximately twice that measured under near ambient UV conditions. Results of photosynthesis-irradiance experiments indicate that photosynthetic efficiencies (α), maximum photosynthetic rates (P max ) and the index of inhibition (I b ) were inversely related to UV levels, probably due at least in part to the loss of chlorophyll a

  19. Effect of ultraviolet radiation on growth and photosynthetic ability of turnip (Brassica campestris L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inagaki, N.; Maekawa, S.; Terabun, M.

    1986-01-01

    Two experimental plots were prepared to investigate the effect of near-ultraviolet (UV) radiation on the growth and photosynthesis of turnip (Brassica cam pestris L.). They were treated by covering with UV-transmitting vinyl film (UVT) or UV-eliminating vinyl film (UVE) (Fig.1). The results were summarized as follows. 1. UV energy in UVE plot was 3 to 4% of that in UVT plot (Table 1). The temperature of UVE plot was similar to that of UVT plot throughout the growth period (Fig.2). The daily mean temperature throughout the growth period was about 19°C. 2. UVE plot was superior to UVT plot in all the characters investigated on growth (Table 2). Particularly plant length and fresh weight were significant at 5% level throughout the growth period. The growth pattern of each character was almost common to each other between the two experimental plots, except that the relative growth rate during exponential growth period of UVE plot was higher than that of UVT plot (Fig.3-1-Fig.6). 3. Apparent photosynthesis rate per unit of leaf area in UVE plot was higher than that in UVT plot at 24 days after sowing, but at 42, 48 and 70 days of after sowing the result was reversed (Fig.8). From this experiment, the effect UV on photosynthesis was not clearly observed. (author)

  20. Effect of ultraviolet radiation on growth and photosynthetic ability of turnip (Brassica campestris L.)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Inagaki, N.; Maekawa, S.; Terabun, M.

    1986-07-01

    Two experimental plots were prepared to investigate the effect of near-ultraviolet (UV) radiation on the growth and photosynthesis of turnip (Brassica cam pestris L.). They were treated by covering with UV-transmitting vinyl film (UVT) or UV-eliminating vinyl film (UVE) (Fig.1). The results were summarized as follows. 1. UV energy in UVE plot was 3 to 4% of that in UVT plot (Table 1). The temperature of UVE plot was similar to that of UVT plot throughout the growth period (Fig.2). The daily mean temperature throughout the growth period was about 19°C. 2. UVE plot was superior to UVT plot in all the characters investigated on growth (Table 2). Particularly plant length and fresh weight were significant at 5% level throughout the growth period. The growth pattern of each character was almost common to each other between the two experimental plots, except that the relative growth rate during exponential growth period of UVE plot was higher than that of UVT plot (Fig.3-1-Fig.6). 3. Apparent photosynthesis rate per unit of leaf area in UVE plot was higher than that in UVT plot at 24 days after sowing, but at 42, 48 and 70 days of after sowing the result was reversed (Fig.8). From this experiment, the effect UV on photosynthesis was not clearly observed. (author)

  1. Diversity and abundance of photosynthetic sponges in temperate Western Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brümmer Franz

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Photosynthetic sponges are important components of reef ecosystems around the world, but are poorly understood. It is often assumed that temperate regions have low diversity and abundance of photosynthetic sponges, but to date no studies have investigated this question. The aim of this study was to compare the percentages of photosynthetic sponges in temperate Western Australia (WA with previously published data on tropical regions, and to determine the abundance and diversity of these associations in a range of temperate environments. Results We sampled sponges on 5 m belt transects to determine the percentage of photosynthetic sponges and identified at least one representative of each group of symbionts using 16S rDNA sequencing together with microscopy techniques. Our results demonstrate that photosynthetic sponges are abundant in temperate WA, with an average of 63% of sponge individuals hosting high levels of photosynthetic symbionts and 11% with low to medium levels. These percentages of photosynthetic sponges are comparable to those found on tropical reefs and may have important implications for ecosystem function on temperate reefs in other areas of the world. A diverse range of symbionts sometimes occurred within a small geographic area, including the three "big" cyanobacterial clades, Oscillatoria spongeliae, "Candidatus Synechococcus spongiarum" and Synechocystis species, and it appears that these clades all occur in a wide range of sponges. Additionally, spongin-permeating red algae occurred in at least 7 sponge species. This study provides the first investigation of the molecular phylogeny of rhodophyte symbionts in sponges. Conclusion Photosynthetic sponges are abundant and diverse in temperate WA, with comparable percentages of photosynthetic to non-photosynthetic sponges to tropical zones. It appears that there are three common generalist clades of cyanobacterial symbionts of sponges which occur in a wide

  2. Oxidative stress and enzymatic scavenging of superoxide radicals induced by solar UV-B radiation in Ulva canopies from southern Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai Bischof

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available The generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS and scavenging of the superoxide radical by superoxide dismutase (SOD was studied in mat-like canopies of the green macroalga Ulva rotundata Bliding in a tidal brine pond system in southern Spain. Artificial canopies were covered with different cut-off filters, generating different radiation conditions. ROS and SOD were assessed after three days of exposure. ROS induced lipid peroxidation depended on the position of individual thalli within the canopy and on radiation conditions. Samples exposed to the full solar spectrum were most affected, whereas samples either exposed to photosynthetically active radiation (PAR alone or UV radiation without PAR exhibited fewer peroxidation products. The activity of SOD appeared to be controlled by the impinging UV-A and UV-B radiation and also increased in response to oxidative stress. The results provide evidence for additive effects of high PAR and UV-B under field conditions and support the previously proposed hypothesis that UV-B effects are mediated by an inhibition of the xanthophyll cycle, which increases ROS production and, consequently, causes oxidative damage to components of the photosynthetic machinery, such as proteins and pigments.

  3. Determination of photosynthetic and enzymatic biomarkers sensitivity used to evaluate toxic effects of copper and fludioxonil in alga Scenedesmus obliquus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dewez, David [Departement de Chimie et de Biochimie, Centre TOXEN, Universite du Quebec a Montreal, CP 8888, Succursale Centre-Ville, Montreal, Quebec, H3C 3P8 (Canada); Geoffroy, Laure [Laboratoire d' Eco-Toxicologie, Unite de recherche ' Vignes et Vins de Champagne' , UPRES-EA 2069, Universite de Reims Champagne-Ardenne BP 1039, F51687 REIMS CEDEX 2 (France); Vernet, Guy [Laboratoire d' Eco-Toxicologie, Unite de recherche ' Vignes et Vins de Champagne' , UPRES-EA 2069, Universite de Reims Champagne-Ardenne BP 1039, F51687 REIMS CEDEX 2 (France); Popovic, Radovan [Departement de Chimie et de Biochimie, Centre TOXEN, Universite du Quebec a Montreal, CP 8888, Succursale Centre-Ville, Montreal, Quebec, H3C 3P8 (Canada)]. E-mail: popovic.radovan@uqam.ca

    2005-08-30

    Modulated PAM fluorometry and Plant Efficiency Analyser methods were used to investigate photosynthetic fluorescence parameters of alga Scenedesmus obliquus exposed to inhibitory effect of fungicides copper sulphate and fludioxonil (N-(4-nitrophenyl)-N'-propyl-uree). The change of those parameters were studied when alga S. obliquus have been exposed during 48 h to different concentrations of fungicides (1, 2 and 3 mg l{sup -1}). Under the same condition, enzymatic activities of catalase, ascorbate peroxidase, glutathione reductase and glutathione S-transferase were investigated to evaluate antioxidative response to fungicides effects. The change of sensitivity of those parameters was dependent to the mode of fungicide action, their concentration and time of exposure. For copper effects, the most indicative photosynthetic biomarkers were parameters Q {sub N} as non-photochemical fluorescence quenching, Q {sub Emax} as the proton induced fluorescence quenching and ABS/RC as the antenna size per photosystem II reaction center. Copper induced oxidative stress was indicated by increased activity of catalase serving as the most sensitive and valuable enzymatic biomarker. On the other hand, fludioxonil effect on photosynthetic parameters was very negligible and consequently not very useful as biomarkers. However, fludioxonil induced strong antioxidative activities associated with cytosol enzymes, as we found for catalase, ascorbate peroxidase and glutathione S-transferase activities. By obtained results, we may suggest for the activation of those enzymes to be sensitive and valuable biomarkers of oxidative stress induced by fludioxonil. Determination of biomarkers sensitivity may offer advantages in providing real criteria to use them for ecotoxicological diagnostic studies.

  4. Determination of photosynthetic and enzymatic biomarkers sensitivity used to evaluate toxic effects of copper and fludioxonil in alga Scenedesmus obliquus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dewez, David; Geoffroy, Laure; Vernet, Guy; Popovic, Radovan

    2005-01-01

    Modulated PAM fluorometry and Plant Efficiency Analyser methods were used to investigate photosynthetic fluorescence parameters of alga Scenedesmus obliquus exposed to inhibitory effect of fungicides copper sulphate and fludioxonil (N-(4-nitrophenyl)-N'-propyl-uree). The change of those parameters were studied when alga S. obliquus have been exposed during 48 h to different concentrations of fungicides (1, 2 and 3 mg l -1 ). Under the same condition, enzymatic activities of catalase, ascorbate peroxidase, glutathione reductase and glutathione S-transferase were investigated to evaluate antioxidative response to fungicides effects. The change of sensitivity of those parameters was dependent to the mode of fungicide action, their concentration and time of exposure. For copper effects, the most indicative photosynthetic biomarkers were parameters Q N as non-photochemical fluorescence quenching, Q Emax as the proton induced fluorescence quenching and ABS/RC as the antenna size per photosystem II reaction center. Copper induced oxidative stress was indicated by increased activity of catalase serving as the most sensitive and valuable enzymatic biomarker. On the other hand, fludioxonil effect on photosynthetic parameters was very negligible and consequently not very useful as biomarkers. However, fludioxonil induced strong antioxidative activities associated with cytosol enzymes, as we found for catalase, ascorbate peroxidase and glutathione S-transferase activities. By obtained results, we may suggest for the activation of those enzymes to be sensitive and valuable biomarkers of oxidative stress induced by fludioxonil. Determination of biomarkers sensitivity may offer advantages in providing real criteria to use them for ecotoxicological diagnostic studies

  5. Reductive evolution of chloroplasts in non-photosynthetic plants, algae and protists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadariová, Lucia; Vesteg, Matej; Hampl, Vladimír; Krajčovič, Juraj

    2018-04-01

    Chloroplasts are generally known as eukaryotic organelles whose main function is photosynthesis. They perform other functions, however, such as synthesizing isoprenoids, fatty acids, heme, iron sulphur clusters and other essential compounds. In non-photosynthetic lineages that possess plastids, the chloroplast genomes have been reduced and most (or all) photosynthetic genes have been lost. Consequently, non-photosynthetic plastids have also been reduced structurally. Some of these non-photosynthetic or "cryptic" plastids were overlooked or unrecognized for decades. The number of complete plastid genome sequences and/or transcriptomes from non-photosynthetic taxa possessing plastids is rapidly increasing, thus allowing prediction of the functions of non-photosynthetic plastids in various eukaryotic lineages. In some non-photosynthetic eukaryotes with photosynthetic ancestors, no traces of plastid genomes or of plastids have been found, suggesting that they have lost the genomes or plastids completely. This review summarizes current knowledge of non-photosynthetic plastids, their genomes, structures and potential functions in free-living and parasitic plants, algae and protists. We introduce a model for the order of plastid gene losses which combines models proposed earlier for land plants with the patterns of gene retention and loss observed in protists. The rare cases of plastid genome loss and complete plastid loss are also discussed.

  6. Photosynthetic carbon metabolism in freshwater phytoplankton

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Groeger, A.W.

    1986-01-01

    Photosynthetic carbon metabolism of natural assemblages of freshwater phytoplankton was measured by following the flow of inorganic 14 C into the photosynthetic end products polysaccharide protein, lipid, and soluble metabolites. Data were collected from a wide range of physical, chemical, and trophic conditions in six southern United States reservoirs, with the primary environmental variables of interest being light intensity and nutrient supply. Polysaccharide and protein were consistently the primary products of photosynthetic carbon metabolism, comprising an average of 70% of the total carbon fixation over a wide range of light intensities. Polysaccharide was quantitatively more important at higher light intensities, and protein at lower light intensities, as light intensity varied both with depth within the water column and over diurnal cycles. Polysaccharide synthesis was more variable over the diurnal period than was protein synthesis. Phytoplankton in the downlake epilimnion of Normandy Lake, a central Tennessee reservoir, responded to summer nitrogen (N) deficiency by increasing relative rates of lipid synthesis from 10-15% to 20-25% of the total photosynthetic carbon fixation. Phytoplankton in more nitrogen-sufficient areas of the reservoir maintained lower rates of lipid synthesis throughout the summer. These results document the occurrence in nature of a relationship between N-deficiency and increased lipid synthesis previously observed only in laboratory algal culture studies

  7. Coral skeletons defend against ultraviolet radiation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruth Reef

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Many coral reef organisms are photosynthetic or have evolved in tight symbiosis with photosynthetic symbionts. As such, the tissues of reef organisms are often exposed to intense solar radiation in clear tropical waters and have adapted to trap and harness photosynthetically active radiation (PAR. High levels of ultraviolet radiation (UVR associated with sunlight, however, represent a potential problem in terms of tissue damage. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: By measuring UVR and PAR reflectance from intact and ground bare coral skeletons we show that the property of calcium carbonate skeletons to absorb downwelling UVR to a significant extent, while reflecting PAR back to the overlying tissue, has biological advantages. We placed cnidarians on top of bare skeletons and a UVR reflective substrate and showed that under ambient UVR levels, UVR transmitted through the tissues of cnidarians placed on top of bare skeletons were four times lower compared to their counterparts placed on a UVR reflective white substrate. In accordance with the lower levels of UVR measured in cnidarians on top of coral skeletons, a similar drop in UVR damage to their DNA was detected. The skeletons emitted absorbed UVR as yellow fluorescence, which allows for safe dissipation of the otherwise harmful radiation. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our study presents a novel defensive role for coral skeletons and reveals that the strong UVR absorbance by the skeleton can contribute to the ability of corals, and potentially other calcifiers, to thrive under UVR levels that are detrimental to most marine life.

  8. Photosynthetic behaviour of Arabidopsis thaliana (Pa-1 accession ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The growth reduction observed in many plants caused by salinity is often associated with a decrease in their photosynthetic capacity. This effect could be associated with the partial stomatal closure and/or the non-stomatal limitation which involves the decrease in ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase oxygenase ...

  9. Increased exposure to UV-B radiation during early development leads to enhanced photoprotection and improved long-term performance in Lactuca sativa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wargent, Jason J; Elfadly, Eslam M; Moore, Jason P; Paul, Nigel D

    2011-08-01

    Plant responses to solar UV radiation are numerous and have often been considered from a perspective of negative outcomes for plant productivity. In this study, we used two experimental approaches consisting of: (1) field-based spectrally modifying filters in addition to (2) controlled indoor exposure to UV-B, to examine the effects of UV radiation on growth and photosynthetic performance of lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) seedlings. Various aspects of growth were affected in plants grown under a UV-inclusive environment compared to a UV-depleted environment, including reductions in leaf expansion, increases in leaf thickness and the rate of net photosynthesis. After transplantation to a uniform field environment, lettuce plants initially propagated under the UV-inclusive environment exhibited higher harvestable yields than those from a UV-depleted environment. In controlled conditions, photosynthetic rates were higher in plants grown in the presence of UV-B radiation, and relative growth of plants pre-acclimatized to UV-B was also increased, in addition to higher maximum photochemical efficiency of photosystem II (PSII) (F(v) /F(m) ) following subsequent exposure to high photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) and temperature stress. Our findings are discussed within the context of sustainability in agriculture and the paradigm shift in photobiology which such beneficial responses to UV radiation could represent. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  10. Far-red enrichment and photosynthetically active radiation level influence leaf senescence in field-grown sunflower

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rousseaux, M.C.; Hall, A.J.; Sánchez, R.A.

    1996-01-01

    Basal leaves frequently senesce before anthesis in high population density crops. This paper evaluates the hypothesis that quantitative and qualitative changes in the light environment associated with a high leaf area index (LAI) trigger leaf senescence in sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) canopies. Mean leaf duration (LD, time from achievement of maximum leaf area) of leaf 8 was significantly (P < 0.05) reduced from 51 to 19 days as crop population density was increased from 0.47 to 4.76 plants m−2. High compared to low plant population density was associated with earlier reduction in the photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) and red/far-red ratio (R/FR) reaching the target leaf. However the changes in R/FR preceded those in PAR. When the light environment of individual leaves of isolated plants growing under field conditions was manipulated using filters and FR-reflecting mirrors, LD was positively and linearly related with the mean daily PAR (MDR) received in the FR- (no FR enrichment) treatments. FR enrichment of light reaching the abaxial surface of the leaf significantly (P < 0.05) reduced LD by 9 days at intermediate PAR levels with respect to FR-controls, but did not affect LD at the maximum PAR used in these experiments. However, when light reaching both leaf surfaces was enriched with FR, LD (for leaves receiving maximum PAR) was 13 days shorter than that of the FR- control. These results show that basal leaf senescence in sunflower is enhanced both by a decrease in PAR and by a decrease in R/FR. (author)

  11. Ground based remote sensing and physiological measurements provide novel insights into canopy photosynthetic optimization in arctic shrubs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magney, T. S.; Griffin, K. L.; Boelman, N.; Eitel, J.; Greaves, H.; Prager, C.; Logan, B.; Oliver, R.; Fortin, L.; Vierling, L. A.

    2014-12-01

    Because changes in vegetation structure and function in the Arctic are rapid and highly dynamic phenomena, efforts to understand the C balance of the tundra require repeatable, objective, and accurate remote sensing methods for estimating aboveground C pools and fluxes over large areas. A key challenge addressing the modelling of aboveground C is to utilize process-level information from fine-scale studies. Utilizing information obtained from high resolution remote sensing systems could help to better understand the C source/sink strength of the tundra, which will in part depend on changes in photosynthesis resulting from the partitioning of photosynthetic machinery within and among deciduous shrub canopies. Terrestrial LiDAR and passive hyperspectral remote sensing measurements offer an effective, repeatable, and scalable method to understand photosynthetic performance and partitioning at the canopy scale previously unexplored in arctic systems. Using a 3-D shrub canopy model derived from LiDAR, we quantified the light regime of leaves within shrub canopies to gain a better understanding of how light interception varies in response to the Arctic's complex radiation regime. This information was then coupled with pigment sampling (i.e., xanthophylls, and Chl a/b) to evaluate the optimization of foliage photosynthetic capacity within shrub canopies due to light availability. In addition, a lab experiment was performed to validate evidence of canopy level optimization via gradients of light intensity and leaf light environment. For this, hyperspectral reflectance (photochemical reflectance index (PRI)), and solar induced fluorescence (SIF)) was collected in conjunction with destructive pigment samples (xanthophylls) and chlorophyll fluorescence measurements in both sunlit and shaded canopy positions.

  12. Effects of salt and water stress on plant biomass and photosynthetic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Water deficit led to earlier peaks of net photosynthetic rate (PN) during the day. Relative rate of electron transport (ETR) decreased, but optimal quantum yield of photosystem II (Fv/Fm) showed no significant difference (P<0.05) with water deficit (from 60 to 20% FC); soil salt significantly decreased PN and transpiration rate ...

  13. Towards Remote Estimation of Radiation Use Efficiency in Maize Using UAV-Based Low-Cost Camera Imagery

    OpenAIRE

    Andreas Tewes; Jürgen Schellberg

    2018-01-01

    Radiation Use Efficiency (RUE) defines the productivity with which absorbed photosynthetically active radiation (APAR) is converted to plant biomass. Readily used in crop growth models to predict dry matter accumulation, RUE is commonly determined by elaborate static sensor measurements in the field. Different definitions are used, based on total absorbed PAR (RUEtotal) or PAR absorbed by the photosynthetically active leaf tissue only (RUEgreen). Previous studies have shown that the fraction ...

  14. [THE EFFECT OF ACID RAIN ON ULTRASTRUCTURE AND FUNCTIONAL PARAMETERS OF PHOTOSYNTHETIC APPARATUS OF PEA LEAVES].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polishchuk, A V; Vodka, M V; Belyavskaya, N A; Khomochkin, A P; Zolotareva, E K

    2016-01-01

    The effects of simulated acid rain (SAR) on the ultrastructure and functional parameters of the photosynthetic apparatus were studied using 14-day-old pea leaves as test system. Pea plants were sprayed with an aqueous solution containing NaNO₃(0.2 mM) and Na₂SO₄(0.2 mM) (pH 5.6, a control variant), or with the same solution, which was acidified to pH 2.5 (acid variant). Functional characteristics were determined by chlorophyll fluorescence analysis. Acid rain application caused reduction in the efficiency of the photosynthetic electron transport by 25%, which was accompanied by an increase by 85% in the quantum yield of thermal dissipation of excess light quanta. Ultrastructural changes in chloroplast were registered by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) after two days of the SAR-treatment of pea leaves. In this case, the changes in the structure of grana, heterogeneity of thylakoids packaging in granum, namely, the increase of intra-thylakoid gaps and thickness of granal thylakoids compared to the control were found. The migration of protein complexes in thylakoid membranes of chloroplasts isolated from leaves treated with SAR was suppressed. It was shown also that carbonic anhydrase activity was inhibited in chloroplast preparations isolated from SAR-treated pea leaves. We proposed a hypothesis on the possible inactivation of thylakoid carbonic anhydrase under SAR and its involvement in the inhibition of photochemical activity of chloroplasts. The data obtained allows to suggest that acid rains negatively affect the photosynthetic apparatus disrupting the membrane system of chloroplast.

  15. Protective Effect of Nitric Oxide (NO against Oxidative Damage in Larix gmelinii Seedlings under Ultraviolet-B Irradiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haiqing Hu

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Ultraviolet-B (UV-B stress appears to be more striking than other research works because of the thin ozone layer. The protective influence of an exogenous nitric oxide donor and sodium nitroprusside (SNP on the growth properties of Larix gmelinii seedlings was investigated under ultraviolet-B radiation conditions. The results indicated that 0.1 mM SNP could effectively alleviate the damage caused by ultraviolet-B radiation, and improved the seedling growth properties, the relative water content, and photosynthetic pigment content in leaves. Additionally, the photosynthetic capacity and antioxidant enzyme activity were increased during the exposure. On the contrary, the damage caused by active oxygen was decreased in SNP-treated seedling leaves. The damage caused by ultraviolet-B radiation was slightly reduced after treating with 0.01 mM SNP. Nevertheless, treatment with 0.5 mM SNP had a negative effect under ultraviolet-B radiation. Furthermore, supplementing NO (nitric oxide improved the photosynthetic capacity and antioxidant enzyme activity and alleviated the damage of caused by active oxygen. The best effective concentration of SNP was 0.1 mM. Therefore, a suitable amount of exogenous NO can protect the Larix gmelinii seedlings and increase their tolerance to ultraviolet-B radiation.

  16. Improving the representation of radiation interception and photosynthesis for climate model applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mercado, Lina M.; Huntingford, Chris; Gash, John H.C.; Cox, Peter M.; Jogireddy, Venkata

    2007-01-01

    The Joint UK Land Environment Simulator (JULES) (which is based on Met Office Surface Exchange Scheme MOSES), the land surface scheme of the Hadley Centre General Circulation Models (GCM) has been improved to contain an explicit description of light interception for different canopy levels, which consequently leads to a multilayer approach to scaling from leaf to canopy level photosynthesis. We test the improved JULES model at a site in the Amazonian rainforest by comparing against measurements of vertical profiles of radiation through the canopy, eddy covariance measurements of carbon and energy fluxes, and also measurements of carbon isotopic fractionation from top canopy leaves. Overall, the new light interception formulation improves modelled photosynthetic carbon uptake compared to the standard big leaf approach used in the original JULES formulation. Additional model improvement was not significant when incorporating more realistic vertical variation of photosynthetic capacity. Even with the improved representation of radiation interception, JULES simulations of net carbon uptake underestimate eddy covariance measurements by 14%. This discrepancy can be removed by either increasing the photosynthetic capacity throughout the canopy or by explicitly including light inhibition of leaf respiration. Along with published evidence of such inhibition of leaf respiration, our study suggests this effect should be considered for inclusion in other GCMs

  17. Production of bioplastics and hydrogen gas by photosynthetic microorganisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasuo, Asada; Masato, Miyake; Jun, Miyake

    1998-03-01

    Our efforts have been aimed at the technological basis of photosynthetic-microbial production of materials and an energy carrier. We report here accumulation of poly-(3-hydroxybutyrate) (PHB), a raw material of biodegradable plastics and for production of hydrogen gas, and a renewable energy carrier by photosynthetic microorganisms (tentatively defined as cyanobacteria plus photosynthetic bateria, in this report). A thermophilic cyanobacterium, Synechococcus sp. MA19 that accumulates PHB at more than 20% of cell dry wt under nitrogen-starved conditions was isolated and microbiologically identified. The mechanism of PHB accumulation was studied. A mesophilic Synechococcus PCC7942 was transformed with the genes encoding PHB-synthesizing enzymes from Alcaligenes eutrophus. The transformant accumulated PHB under nitrogen-starved conditions. The optimal conditions for PHB accumulation by a photosynthetic bacterium grown on acetate were studied. Hydrogen production by photosynthetic microorganisms was studied. Cyanobacteria can produce hydrogen gas by nitrogenase or hydrogenase. Hydrogen production mediated by native hydrogenase in cyanobacteria was revealed to be in the dark anaerobic degradation of intracellular glycogen. A new system for light-dependent hydrogen production was targeted. In vitro and in vivo coupling of cyanobacterial ferredoxin with a heterologous hydrogenase was shown to produce hydrogen under light conditions. A trial for genetic trasformation of Synechococcus PCC7942 with the hydrogenase gene from Clostridium pasteurianum is going on. The strong hydrogen producers among photosynthetic bacteria were isolated and characterized. Co-culture of Rhodobacter and Clostriumdium was applied to produce hydrogen from glucose. Conversely in the case of cyanobacteria, genetic regulation of photosynthetic proteins was intended to improve conversion efficiency in hydrogen production by the photosynthetic bacterium, Rhodobacter sphaeroides RV. A mutant acquired by

  18. Remotely Assessing Fraction of Photosynthetically Active Radiation (FPAR for Wheat Canopies Based on Hyperspectral Vegetation Indexes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Changwei Tan

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Fraction of photosynthetically active radiation (FPAR, as an important index for evaluating yields and biomass production, is key to providing the guidance for crop management. However, the shortage of good hyperspectral data can frequently result in the hindrance of accurate and reliable FPAR assessment, especially for wheat. In the present research, aiming at developing a strategy for accurate FPAR assessment, the relationships between wheat canopy FPAR and vegetation indexes derived from concurrent ground-measured hyperspectral data were explored. FPAR revealed the most strongly correlation with normalized difference index (NDI, and scaled difference index (N*. Both NDI and N* revealed the increase as the increase of FPAR; however, NDI value presented the stagnation as FPAR value beyond 0.70. On the other hand, N* showed a decreasing tendency when FPAR value was higher than 0.70. This special relationship between FPAR and vegetation index could be employed to establish a piecewise FPAR assessment model with NDI as a regression variable during FPAR value lower than 0.70, or N* as the regression variable during FPAR value higher than 0.70. The model revealed higher assessment accuracy up to 16% when compared with FPAR assessment models based on a single vegetation index. In summary, it is feasible to apply NDI and N* for accomplishing wheat canopy FPAR assessment, and establish an FPAR assessment model to overcome the limitations from vegetation index saturation under the condition with high FPAR value.

  19. Evaluation of sea-surface photosynthetically available radiation algorithms under various sky conditions and solar elevations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somayajula, Srikanth Ayyala; Devred, Emmanuel; Bélanger, Simon; Antoine, David; Vellucci, V; Babin, Marcel

    2018-04-20

    In this study, we report on the performance of satellite-based photosynthetically available radiation (PAR) algorithms used in published oceanic primary production models. The performance of these algorithms was evaluated using buoy observations under clear and cloudy skies, and for the particular case of low sun angles typically encountered at high latitudes or at moderate latitudes in winter. The PAR models consisted of (i) the standard one from the NASA-Ocean Biology Processing Group (OBPG), (ii) the Gregg and Carder (GC) semi-analytical clear-sky model, and (iii) look-up-tables based on the Santa Barbara DISORT atmospheric radiative transfer (SBDART) model. Various combinations of atmospheric inputs, empirical cloud corrections, and semi-analytical irradiance models yielded a total of 13 (11 + 2 developed in this study) different PAR products, which were compared with in situ measurements collected at high frequency (15 min) at a buoy site in the Mediterranean Sea (the "BOUée pour l'acquiSition d'une Série Optique à Long termE," or, "BOUSSOLE" site). An objective ranking method applied to the algorithm results indicated that seven PAR products out of 13 were well in agreement with the in situ measurements. Specifically, the OBPG method showed the best overall performance with a root mean square difference (RMSD) (bias) of 19.7% (6.6%) and 10% (6.3%) followed by the look-up-table method with a RMSD (bias) of 25.5% (6.8%) and 9.6% (2.6%) at daily and monthly scales, respectively. Among the four methods based on clear-sky PAR empirically corrected for cloud cover, the Dobson and Smith method consistently underestimated daily PAR while the Budyko formulation overestimated daily PAR. Empirically cloud-corrected methods using cloud fraction (CF) performed better under quasi-clear skies (CF0.7), however, all methods showed larger RMSD differences (biases) ranging between 32% and 80.6% (-54.5%-8.7%). Finally, three methods tested for low sun elevations revealed

  20. Studying the Effect of Ionization Radiation of 60Co on the Spirulina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ai, Weidang; Guo, Shuang-Sheng; Ai, Weidang; Dong, Wen-Ping; Qin, Li-Feng; Tang, Yong-Kang

    It studied the effect of ionization radiation on the Spirulina plastensis(No.6) by using the γ-rays of 60 Co. In the experiment, Spirulina were irradiated, and the dose of the ionization radiation covered 0, 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0, 2.5, 3.0kGy. After irradiating, these Spirulina were cultured under the same conditions. During the course of the experiment, the growth rate, photosynthetic efficiency and nutrition quality of the Spirulina, were analyzed. From the results, low dose of γ-rays (less than 1.5kGy) could improve the content of phycobilin and protein of Spirulina. Only small changes in the morphology of algae filament were found at dose less than 1.0kGy. But with the increase of the dose of γ-rays (more than 1.5kGy), the filaments would break up or even disintegrate. Spirulina had stronger ionization radiation proof and self-rehabilitation capacity, but the growth of Spirulina was stagnated. The LD50 (i.e. the dose resulted in 50% death of the Spirulina) of the colony was 2.0kGy. Considering the capacity of being resistant to γ-rays irradiation, Spirulina can be considered as one of the key biological components in the Controlled Ecological Life Support System (CELSS) for future long-term space missions. Keywords: Controlled Ecological Life Support System (CELSS); Spirulina; ionization radiation; biological component

  1. Oxygen concentration inside a functioning photosynthetic cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kihara, Shigeharu; Hartzler, Daniel A; Savikhin, Sergei

    2014-05-06

    The excess oxygen concentration in the photosynthetic membranes of functioning oxygenic photosynthetic cells was estimated using classical diffusion theory combined with experimental data on oxygen production rates of cyanobacterial cells. The excess oxygen concentration within the plesiomorphic cyanobacterium Gloeobactor violaceus is only 0.025 μM, or four orders of magnitude lower than the oxygen concentration in air-saturated water. Such a low concentration suggests that the first oxygenic photosynthetic bacteria in solitary form could have evolved ∼2.8 billion years ago without special mechanisms to protect them against reactive oxygen species. These mechanisms instead could have been developed during the following ∼500 million years while the oxygen level in the Earth's atmosphere was slowly rising. Excess oxygen concentrations within individual cells of the apomorphic cyanobacteria Synechocystis and Synechococcus are 0.064 and 0.25 μM, respectively. These numbers suggest that intramembrane and intracellular proteins in isolated oxygenic photosynthetic cells are not subjected to excessively high oxygen levels. The situation is different for closely packed colonies of photosynthetic cells. Calculations show that the excess concentration within colonies that are ∼40 μm or larger in diameter can be comparable to the oxygen concentration in air-saturated water, suggesting that species forming colonies require protection against reactive oxygen species even in the absence of oxygen in the surrounding atmosphere. Copyright © 2014 Biophysical Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. A framework for consistent estimation of leaf area index, fraction of absorbed photosynthetically active radiation, and surface albedo from MODIS time-series data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xiao, Zhiqiang; Liang, Shunlin; Wang, Jindi

    2015-01-01

    -series MODerate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) surface reflectance data. If the reflectance data showed snow-free areas, an ensemble Kalman filter (EnKF) technique was used to estimate leaf area index (LAI) for a two-layer canopy reflectance model (ACRM) by combining predictions from a phenology...... model and the MODIS surface reflectance data. The estimated LAI values were then input into the ACRM to calculate the surface albedo and the fraction of absorbed photosynthetically active radiation (FAPAR). For snow-covered areas, the surface albedo was calculated as the underlying vegetation canopy...... albedo plus the weighted distance between the underlying vegetation canopy albedo and the albedo over deep snow. The LAI/FAPAR and surface albedo values estimated using this framework were compared with MODIS collection 5 eight-day 1-km LAI/FAPAR products (MOD15A2) and 500-m surface albedo product (MCD43...

  3. The effect of triazole induced photosynthetic pigments and biochemical constituents of Zea mays L. (Maize) under drought stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajasekar, Mahalingam; Rabert, Gabriel Amalan; Manivannan, Paramasivam

    2016-06-01

    In this investigation, pot culture experiment was carried out to estimate the ameliorating effect of triazole compounds, namely Triadimefon (TDM), Tebuconazole (TBZ), and Propiconazole (PCZ) on drought stress, photosynthetic pigments, and biochemical constituents of Zea mays L. (Maize). From 30 days after sowing (DAS), the plants were subjected to 4 days interval drought (DID) stress and drought with TDM at 15 mg l-1, TBZ at 10 mg l-1, and PCZ at 15 mg l-1. Irrigation at 1-day interval was kept as control. Irrigation performed on alternative day. The plant samples were collected on 40, 50, and 60 DAS and separated into root, stem, and leaf for estimating the photosynthetic pigments and biochemical constituents. Drought and drought with triazole compounds treatment increased the biochemical glycine betaine content, whereas the protein and the pigments contents chlorophyll-a, chlorophyll-b, total chlorophyll, carotenoid, and anthocyanin decreased when compared to control. The triazole treatment mitigated the adverse effects of drought stress by increasing the biochemical potentials and paved the way to overcome drought stress in corn plant.

  4. Biological radiation effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomes, R.A.

    1976-01-01

    The stages of processes leading to radiation damage are studied, as well as, the direct and indirect mechanics of its production. The radiation effects on nucleic acid and protein macro moleculas are treated. The physical and chemical factors that modify radiosensibility are analysed, in particular the oxygen effects, the sensibilization by analogues of nitrogen bases, post-effects, chemical protection and inherent cell factors. Consideration is given to restoration processes by excision of injured fragments, the bloching of the excision restoration processes, the restoration of lesions caused by ionizing radiations and to the restoration by genetic recombination. Referring to somatic effects of radiation, the early ones and the acute syndrome of radiation are discussed. The difference of radiosensibility observed in mammalian cells and main observable alterations in tissues and organs are commented. Referring to delayed radiation effects, carcinogeneses, alterations of life span, effects on growth and development, as well as localized effects, are also discussed [pt

  5. The effect of leaf age on the photosynthetic rate of Themeda triandra ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The apparent photosynthesis of progressively older leaves of Themeda triandra was recorded in a controlled environment by means of gas exchange measurements. Photosynthetic rate increased with increasing leaf age and was maximal in the third fully expanded leaf. Thereafter, photosynthesis dropped sharply, but the ...

  6. Mycorrhiza Symbiosis Increases the Surface for Sunlight Capture in Medicago truncatula for Better Photosynthetic Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adolfsson, Lisa; Keresztes, Áron; Uddling, Johan; Schoefs, Benoît; Spetea, Cornelia

    2015-01-01

    Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi play a prominent role in plant nutrition by supplying mineral nutrients, particularly inorganic phosphate (Pi), and also constitute an important carbon sink. AM stimulates plant growth and development, but the underlying mechanisms are not well understood. In this study, Medicago truncatula plants were grown with Rhizophagus irregularis BEG141 inoculum (AM), mock inoculum (control) or with Pi fertilization. We hypothesized that AM stimulates plant growth through either modifications of leaf anatomy or photosynthetic activity per leaf area. We investigated whether these effects are shared with Pi fertilization, and also assessed the relationship between levels of AM colonization and these effects. We found that increased Pi supply by either mycorrhization or fertilization led to improved shoot growth associated with increased nitrogen uptake and carbon assimilation. Both mycorrhized and Pi-fertilized plants had more and longer branches with larger and thicker leaves than the control plants, resulting in an increased photosynthetically active area. AM-specific effects were earlier appearance of the first growth axes and increased number of chloroplasts per cell section, since they were not induced by Pi fertilization. Photosynthetic activity per leaf area remained the same regardless of type of treatment. In conclusion, the increase in growth of mycorrhized and Pi-fertilized Medicago truncatula plants is linked to an increase in the surface for sunlight capture, hence increasing their photosynthetic production, rather than to an increase in the photosynthetic activity per leaf area. PMID:25615871

  7. Mycorrhiza symbiosis increases the surface for sunlight capture in Medicago truncatula for better photosynthetic production.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa Adolfsson

    Full Text Available Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM fungi play a prominent role in plant nutrition by supplying mineral nutrients, particularly inorganic phosphate (Pi, and also constitute an important carbon sink. AM stimulates plant growth and development, but the underlying mechanisms are not well understood. In this study, Medicago truncatula plants were grown with Rhizophagus irregularis BEG141 inoculum (AM, mock inoculum (control or with P(i fertilization. We hypothesized that AM stimulates plant growth through either modifications of leaf anatomy or photosynthetic activity per leaf area. We investigated whether these effects are shared with P(i fertilization, and also assessed the relationship between levels of AM colonization and these effects. We found that increased P(i supply by either mycorrhization or fertilization led to improved shoot growth associated with increased nitrogen uptake and carbon assimilation. Both mycorrhized and P(i-fertilized plants had more and longer branches with larger and thicker leaves than the control plants, resulting in an increased photosynthetically active area. AM-specific effects were earlier appearance of the first growth axes and increased number of chloroplasts per cell section, since they were not induced by P(i fertilization. Photosynthetic activity per leaf area remained the same regardless of type of treatment. In conclusion, the increase in growth of mycorrhized and P(i-fertilized Medicago truncatula plants is linked to an increase in the surface for sunlight capture, hence increasing their photosynthetic production, rather than to an increase in the photosynthetic activity per leaf area.

  8. The role of energy losses in photosynthetic light harvesting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krüger, T P J; Van Grondelle, R

    2017-01-01

    Photosynthesis operates at the bottom of the food chain to convert the energy of light into carbohydrates at a remarkable global rate of about 130 TW. Nonetheless, the overall photosynthetic process has a conversion efficiency of a few percent at best, significantly less than bottom-up photovoltaic cells. The primary photosynthetic steps, consisting of light harvesting and charge separation, are often presented as having near-unity quantum efficiency but this holds only true under ideal conditions. In this review, we discuss the importance of energy loss mechanisms to establish robustness in photosynthetic light harvesting. Thermal energy dissipation of light-harvesting complexes (LHCs) in different environments is investigated and the relationships and contrasts between concentration quenching of high pigment concentrations, photoprotection (non-photochemical quenching), quenching due to protein aggregation, and fluorescence blinking are discussed. The role of charge-transfer states in light harvesting and energy dissipation is highlighted and the importance of controlled protein structural disorder to switch the light-harvesting antennae between effective light harvesters and efficient energy quenchers is underscored. The main LHC of plants, LHCII, is used as a prime example. (topical review)

  9. Lettuce irrigated with contaminated water: Photosynthetic effects, antioxidative response and bioaccumulation of microcystin congeners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bittencourt-Oliveira, Maria do Carmo; Cordeiro-Araújo, Micheline Kézia; Chia, Mathias Ahii; Arruda-Neto, João Dias de Toledo; de Oliveira, Ênio Tiago; dos Santos, Flávio

    2016-06-01

    The use of microcystins (MCs) contaminated water to irrigate crop plants represents a human health risk due to their bioaccumulation potential. In addition, MCs cause oxidative stress and negatively influence photosynthetic activities in plants. The present study was aimed at investigating the effect of MCs on photosynthetic parameters and antioxidative response of lettuce. Furthermore, the bioaccumulation factor (BAF) of total MCs, MC-LR and MC-RR in the vegetable after irrigation with contaminated water was determined. Lettuce crops were irrigated for 15 days with water containing cyanobacterial crude extracts (Microcystis aeruginosa) with MC-LR (0.0, 0.5, 2.0, 5.0 and 10.0 µg L(-1)), MC-RR (0.0, 0.15, 0.5, 1.5 and 3.0 µg L(-1)) and total MCs (0.0, 0.65, 2.5, 6.5 and 13.0 µg L(-1)). Increased net photosynthetic rate, stomatal conductance, leaf tissue transpiration and intercellular CO2 concentration were recorded in lettuce exposed to different MCs concentrations. Antioxidant response showed that glutathione S-transferase activity was down-regulated in the presence of MCs. On the other hand, superoxide dismutase, catalase and peroxidase activities were upregulated with increasing MCs concentrations. The bioaccumulation factor (BAF) of total MCs and MC-LR was highest at 6.50 and 5.00 µg L(-1), respectively, while for MC-RR, the highest BAF was recorded at 1.50 µg L(-1) concentration. The amount of total MCs, MC-LR and MC-RR bioacumulated in lettuce was highest at the highest exposure concentrations. However, at the lowest exposure concentration, there were no detectable levels of MC-LR, MC-RR and total MCs in lettuce. Thus, the bioaccumulation of MCs in lettuce varies according to the exposure concentration. In addition, the extent of physiological response of lettuce to the toxins relies on exposure concentrations. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Photosynthetic responses of pea plants (Pisum sativum L. cv. Little ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-08-04

    Aug 4, 2008 ... (O3) have fundamental effects on CO2 exchange by plants. ... produce responses such as reduced photosynthetic rates and earlier senescence .... quality localities treatments and two soil regimes in Riyadh city, KSA. Pn rates.

  11. Spectral effects of light-emitting diodes on photosynthetic characteristics and secondary metabolism in greenhouse plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ouzounis, Theoharis

    2014-01-01

    , photo-synthetic performance, and secondary metabolism of different plants. As model plants we used rose (Rosa hybrida), chrysanthemum (Chrysanthemum morifolium), campanula (Campanula portenschlagiana), orchid (Phalaenopsis), and lettuce (Lactuca sativa). In our first experiment, by growing roses......; lettuce plants increased both their phenolic and pigment content. The effects were not observed in the same way in all plants, highlighting the fact that plant responses to blue and red LED lighting are species and/or cultivar dependent. LED-based systems are a promising alternative choice for greenhouse...

  12. Importance of the green color, absorption gradient, and spectral absorption of chloroplasts for the radiative energy balance of leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kume, Atsushi

    2017-05-01

    Terrestrial green plants absorb photosynthetically active radiation (PAR; 400-700 nm) but do not absorb photons evenly across the PAR waveband. The spectral absorbance of photosystems and chloroplasts is lowest for green light, which occurs within the highest irradiance waveband of direct solar radiation. We demonstrate a close relationship between this phenomenon and the safe and efficient utilization of direct solar radiation in simple biophysiological models. The effects of spectral absorptance on the photon and irradiance absorption processes are evaluated using the spectra of direct and diffuse solar radiation. The radiation absorption of a leaf arises as a consequence of the absorption of chloroplasts. The photon absorption of chloroplasts is strongly dependent on the distribution of pigment concentrations and their absorbance spectra. While chloroplast movements in response to light are important mechanisms controlling PAR absorption, they are not effective for green light because chloroplasts have the lowest spectral absorptance in the waveband. With the development of palisade tissue, the incident photons per total palisade cell surface area and the absorbed photons per chloroplast decrease. The spectral absorbance of carotenoids is effective in eliminating shortwave PAR (solar radiation. However, most of the near infrared radiation is unabsorbed and heat stress is greatly reduced. The incident solar radiation is too strong to be utilized for photosynthesis under the current CO 2 concentration in the terrestrial environment. Therefore, the photon absorption of a whole leaf is efficiently regulated by photosynthetic pigments with low spectral absorptance in the highest irradiance waveband and through a combination of pigment density distribution and leaf anatomical structures.

  13. Apparatus and method for measuring single cell and sub-cellular photosynthetic efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Ryan Wesley; Singh, Seema; Wu, Huawen

    2013-07-09

    Devices for measuring single cell changes in photosynthetic efficiency in algal aquaculture are disclosed that include a combination of modulated LED trans-illumination of different intensities with synchronized through objective laser illumination and confocal detection. Synchronization and intensity modulation of a dual illumination scheme were provided using a custom microcontroller for a laser beam block and constant current LED driver. Therefore, single whole cell photosynthetic efficiency, and subcellular (diffraction limited) photosynthetic efficiency measurement modes are permitted. Wide field rapid light scanning actinic illumination is provided for both by an intensity modulated 470 nm LED. For the whole cell photosynthetic efficiency measurement, the same LED provides saturating pulses for generating photosynthetic induction curves. For the subcellular photosynthetic efficiency measurement, a switched through objective 488 nm laser provides saturating pulses for generating photosynthetic induction curves. A second near IR LED is employed to generate dark adapted states in the system under study.

  14. Effect of Low pH and Aluminum Toxicity on the Photosynthetic Characteristics of Different Fast-Growing Eucalyptus Vegetatively Propagated Clones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Mei; Tan, Ling; Xu, Yuanyuan; Zhao, Yihui; Cheng, Fei; Ye, Shaoming; Jiang, Weixin

    2015-01-01

    Knowing how acid soils and aluminum in soils may limit the growth of Eucalyptus trees in plantations is important because these plantations grow in many tropical and subtropical regions. Seedlings of four vegetatively propagated Eucalyptus clones, E. grandis × E. urophylla 'GLGU9'(G9), E. grandis × E. urophylla 'GLGU12' (G12), E. urophylla × E. camaldulensis 'GLUC3' (G3) and E. urophylla 'GLU4'(G4), were subjected to liquid culture with Hoagland nutrient solution for 40 days, then treated with four different treatments of acid and aluminum for 1 day. The four treatments used either pH 3.0 or 4.0 with or without added aluminum (4.4 mM) in all possible combinations; a control used no added aluminum at pH 4.8. Subsequently, the photosynthetic parameters and morphology of leaves from eucalypt seedlings were determined and observed. The results showed that the tested chlorophyll content, net photosynthetic rate, transpiration rate and water use efficiency were apparently inhibited by aluminum. Under uniform Al concentration (4.4 mM), the Al-induced limitation to photosynthetic parameters increased with pH, indicating acid stimulation to Al toxicity. Among all treatments, the most significant reduction was found in the combination of pH 3.0 and 4.4 mM Al. The photosynthetic and transpiration rates showed similar trends with G9 > G12 > G3 > G4, suggesting that G9 and G12 had higher Al-tolerance than other two clones. Microscopic observation revealed changes in leaf morphology when exposed to Al stress; for example, a reduced thickness of leaf epidermis and palisade tissue, the descendant palisade tissue/spongy tissue ratio and leaf tissue looseness. Overall, the acid and aluminum stress exerted negative effects on the photosynthetic activity of eucalypt seedlings, but the differences in tolerance to Al toxicity between the clones were favorable, offering potential to improve Eucalyptus plantation productivity by selecting Al tolerant clones.

  15. Effect of Low pH and Aluminum Toxicity on the Photosynthetic Characteristics of Different Fast-Growing Eucalyptus Vegetatively Propagated Clones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Mei; Tan, Ling; Xu, Yuanyuan; Zhao, Yihui; Cheng, Fei; Ye, Shaoming; Jiang, Weixin

    2015-01-01

    Knowing how acid soils and aluminum in soils may limit the growth of Eucalyptus trees in plantations is important because these plantations grow in many tropical and subtropical regions. Seedlings of four vegetatively propagated Eucalyptus clones, E. grandis × E. urophylla ‘GLGU9’(G9), E. grandis × E. urophylla ‘GLGU12’ (G12), E. urophylla × E. camaldulensis ‘GLUC3’ (G3) and E. urophylla ‘GLU4’(G4), were subjected to liquid culture with Hoagland nutrient solution for 40 days, then treated with four different treatments of acid and aluminum for 1 day. The four treatments used either pH 3.0 or 4.0 with or without added aluminum (4.4 mM) in all possible combinations; a control used no added aluminum at pH 4.8. Subsequently, the photosynthetic parameters and morphology of leaves from eucalypt seedlings were determined and observed. The results showed that the tested chlorophyll content, net photosynthetic rate, transpiration rate and water use efficiency were apparently inhibited by aluminum. Under uniform Al concentration (4.4 mM), the Al-induced limitation to photosynthetic parameters increased with pH, indicating acid stimulation to Al toxicity. Among all treatments, the most significant reduction was found in the combination of pH 3.0 and 4.4 mM Al. The photosynthetic and transpiration rates showed similar trends with G9 > G12 > G3 > G4, suggesting that G9 and G12 had higher Al-tolerance than other two clones. Microscopic observation revealed changes in leaf morphology when exposed to Al stress; for example, a reduced thickness of leaf epidermis and palisade tissue, the descendant palisade tissue/spongy tissue ratio and leaf tissue looseness. Overall, the acid and aluminum stress exerted negative effects on the photosynthetic activity of eucalypt seedlings, but the differences in tolerance to Al toxicity between the clones were favorable, offering potential to improve Eucalyptus plantation productivity by selecting Al tolerant clones. PMID

  16. Effect of Low pH and Aluminum Toxicity on the Photosynthetic Characteristics of Different Fast-Growing Eucalyptus Vegetatively Propagated Clones.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mei Yang

    Full Text Available Knowing how acid soils and aluminum in soils may limit the growth of Eucalyptus trees in plantations is important because these plantations grow in many tropical and subtropical regions. Seedlings of four vegetatively propagated Eucalyptus clones, E. grandis × E. urophylla 'GLGU9'(G9, E. grandis × E. urophylla 'GLGU12' (G12, E. urophylla × E. camaldulensis 'GLUC3' (G3 and E. urophylla 'GLU4'(G4, were subjected to liquid culture with Hoagland nutrient solution for 40 days, then treated with four different treatments of acid and aluminum for 1 day. The four treatments used either pH 3.0 or 4.0 with or without added aluminum (4.4 mM in all possible combinations; a control used no added aluminum at pH 4.8. Subsequently, the photosynthetic parameters and morphology of leaves from eucalypt seedlings were determined and observed. The results showed that the tested chlorophyll content, net photosynthetic rate, transpiration rate and water use efficiency were apparently inhibited by aluminum. Under uniform Al concentration (4.4 mM, the Al-induced limitation to photosynthetic parameters increased with pH, indicating acid stimulation to Al toxicity. Among all treatments, the most significant reduction was found in the combination of pH 3.0 and 4.4 mM Al. The photosynthetic and transpiration rates showed similar trends with G9 > G12 > G3 > G4, suggesting that G9 and G12 had higher Al-tolerance than other two clones. Microscopic observation revealed changes in leaf morphology when exposed to Al stress; for example, a reduced thickness of leaf epidermis and palisade tissue, the descendant palisade tissue/spongy tissue ratio and leaf tissue looseness. Overall, the acid and aluminum stress exerted negative effects on the photosynthetic activity of eucalypt seedlings, but the differences in tolerance to Al toxicity between the clones were favorable, offering potential to improve Eucalyptus plantation productivity by selecting Al tolerant clones.

  17. Near-UV radiation acts as a beneficial factor for physiological responses in cucumber plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitani-Sano, Makiko; Tezuka, Takafumi

    2013-11-05

    Effects of near-UV radiation on the growth and physiological activity of cucumber plants were investigated morphologically, physiologically and biochemically using 3-week-old seedlings grown under polyvinyl chloride films featuring transmission either above 290 nm or above 400 nm in growth chambers. The hypocotyl length and leaf area of cucumber seedlings were reduced but the thickness of leaves was enhanced by near-UV radiation, due to increased upper/lower epidermis thickness, palisade parenchyma thickness and volume of palisade parenchyma cells. Photosynthetic and respiratory activities were also promoted by near-UV radiation, associated with general enhancement of physiological/biochemical responses. Particularly, metabolic activities in the photosynthetic system of chloroplasts and the respiratory system of mitochondria were analyzed under the conditions of visible light with and without near-UV radiation. For example, the activities of NAD(P)-dependent enzymes such as glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (G3PDH) in chloroplasts and isocitrate dehydrogenase (ICDH) in mitochondria were elevated, along with levels of pyridine nucleotides (nicotinamide coenzymes) [NAD(H) and NADP(H)] and activity of NAD kinase (NADP forming enzyme). Taken together, these data suggest that promotion of cucumber plant growth by near-UV radiation involves activation of carbon and nitrogen metabolism in plants. The findings of this research showed that near-UV radiation reaching the Earth's surface is a beneficial factor for plant growth. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  18. Effects of solar PAR and UV radiation on tropical biofouling communities

    KAUST Repository

    Dobretsov, SV

    2010-03-08

    We investigated the effect of solar ultraviolet radiation (UVR) and photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) on the development of tropical micro- and macrofouling communities for 30 d. The experimental design involved 3 treatments: full spectrum (PAR+UVR), PAR only, and minimal light (reduced PAR and UVR). Terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis demonstrated that different light conditions resulted in the formation of highly different microbial communities. The lowest densities of bacteria were found under the full spectrum treatment, while the lowest densities of diatoms were found in the minimal light treatment. Macrofouling communities consisted of 13 species and differed among light treatments. In the presence of UVR, communities had low species diversity, evenness, and richness, while in minimal light and PAR treatments, communities had high species diversity, evenness, and richness. Similarity percentage (SIMPER) analysis revealed that the tubeworm Hydroides elegans, the alga Ulva (Enteromorpha) sp., and the bivalve Perna viridis were the species responsible for most of the dissimilarities in macrofouling communities among treatments. While densities of H. elegans were similar in the PAR and minimal light treatments, this polychaete had higher growth rates under minimal light conditions. We conclude that UVR and PAR directly control the development of shallow micro- and macrofouling communities by inhibiting the recruitment and growth of sensitive species and promoting the growth of resistant species, but also that these forms of solar radiation influence the surface cues available to competent larvae by altering the development of the microbial community.

  19. In vivo measurements of the seasonal photosynthetic fluorescence of the Mediterranean coral Cladocora caespitosa (L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Peirano

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available In situ photosynthetic fluorescence of the zooxanthellate Mediterranean coral Cladocora caespitosa (L. was measured seasonally on colonies from 5 to 27 m depth using an INF-300 Integrating Natural Fluorometer (Biospherical Instrument Inc.. This oceanographic instrument, used to measure the in vivo phytoplankton chlorophyll a (Chl a fluorescence, was adapted to record the natural fluorescence of C. caespitosa by SCUBA divers. The resulting curves of natural fluorescence of Chl a vs photosynthetically active radiation (PAR 400-700 nm showed that: (1 natural fluorescence was limited by light availability in both deep and shallow colonies in all seasons; (2 photosynthesis occurred in C. caespitosa also in winter, when temperature is low and seawater turbidity contributes significantly to PAR attenuation; and (3 the efficiency of the Chl a fluorescence increased from summer to winter. This last finding outlines the winter coupling between zooxanthellae activity and calcification processes and is consistent with the formation of the high density band in the coral skeleton.

  20. Remote sensing of photosynthetic-light-use efficiency of a Siberian boreal forest

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nichol, C.J.; Grace, J.; Shibistova, O.; Matsubara, S.

    2002-01-01

    The relationship between a physiological index called the photochemical reflectance index (PRI) and photosynthetic light-use-efficiency (LUE) of a Siberian boreal forest during the winter-spring transition, or green-up period, was investigated in 2000. During this time the photosynthetic apparatus was considered under stress as a result of extremes of temperature (from -20 to 35 deg C) coupled with a high radiation load. Reflectance measurements of four stands were made from a helicopter-mounted spectro radiometer and PRI was calculated from these data. Eddy covariance towers were operating at the four stands and offered a means to calculate LUE. A significant linear relationship was apparent between PRI, calculated from the helicopter spectral data, and LUE, calculated from the eddy covariance data, for the four sites sampled. Reflectance measurements were also made of a Scots pine stand from the eddy covariance tower. Needles were also sampled during the time of spectral data acquisition for xanthophyll pigment determination. Strong linear relationships were observed among PRI, the epoxidation state of the xanthophyll cycle (EPS) and LUE over the green-up period and the diurnal cycle at the canopy scale

  1. Oxygen Concentration Inside a Functioning Photosynthetic Cell

    OpenAIRE

    Kihara, Shigeharu; Hartzler, Daniel A.; Savikhin, Sergei

    2014-01-01

    The excess oxygen concentration in the photosynthetic membranes of functioning oxygenic photosynthetic cells was estimated using classical diffusion theory combined with experimental data on oxygen production rates of cyanobacterial cells. The excess oxygen concentration within the plesiomorphic cyanobacterium Gloeobactor violaceus is only 0.025 μM, or four orders of magnitude lower than the oxygen concentration in air-saturated water. Such a low concentration suggests that the first oxygenic...

  2. Ultrafast fluorescence of photosynthetic crystals and light-harvesting complexes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oort, van B.F.

    2008-01-01

    This thesis focuses on the study of photosynthetic pigment protein complexes using time resolved fluorescence techniques. Fluorescence spectroscopy often requires attaching fluorescent labels to the proteins under investigation. With photosynthetic proteins this is not necessary, because these

  3. Insensitivity of soybean photosynthesis to ultraviolet-B radiation under phosphorus deficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murali, N.S.; Teramura, A.H.

    1987-01-01

    Soybean [Glycinemax (L.) Merr. cv Essex] was grown in sand in a greenhouse under 2 levels of biologically effective ultraviolet‐B radiation (effective daily dose: 0 and 11.5 kJ/m UV‐BBE and 2 levels of P (6.5 and 52 μM). Plants were grown in each treatment combination up to the fifth trifoliolate stage. UV‐B radiation had no affect on plant growth and net photosynthesis at 6.5 μM P supply but decreased both these parameters when grown in the higher P concentration. Reductions in net photosynthesis were apparently due to direct effects on the photosynthetic machinery, since chlorophyll concentration and stanatal conductance were unaffected by UV‐B radiation. Both UV‐B radiation and reduced P supply increased the level of UV‐B absorbing compounds in leaf tissues and their effects were additive. The reduced sensitivity of P deficient plants to UV‐B radiation may be the result of this increase in UV absorbing compounds and possibly uv protective mechanisms associated with growth inhibition

  4. Physical, biochemical and physiological effects of ultraviolet radiation on Brassica napus and Phaseolus vulgaris

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cen Yan-Ping.

    1993-01-01

    In order to follow some of the changes induced by ultraviolet-B (UV-B, 280-320 nm) radiation in Phaseolus vulgaris and Brassica napus, experiments were designed to localize sites of changes in leaves and to correlate some of the physiological and biochemical changes with penetration of UV-B radiation. B.napus was exposed to 8.9 kJ m -2 day -1 biologically effective UV-B radiation (UV-B BE ). The penetration of UV-B radiation into the leaf was followed using a quartz fibre optic microprobe. Monochromatic radiation at 310 nm was decreased by ca 50 and 34% in the adaxial and abaxial epidermis, respectively, in plants not exposed to UV-B, whereas the radiation was decreased by ca 70 and 42%, respectively, in the same region in UV-treated plants. Polychromatic radiation showed a wavelength dependent change mainly for the collimated radiation. The results correlated with the distribution of phenolic compounds analysed from 40 μm paradermal leaf sections. The first adaxial section (40μm) contained 35% of the whole leaf sample flavonoid glycosides in control plants, and 66% in UV-treated plants. Hydroxycinnamic acid derivatives increased by 26% in UV-treated plants relative to controls. The ratio of quercetin to kaempferol derivatives increased from 0.11 in controls to 0.91 in leaves of UV-treated plants. The leaf epidermis protected the inner leaf tissue where most of the photosynthetic apparatus is located. P. vulgaris was subjected to 6.17 kJ m -2 day -1 UV-B BE with different levels of visible light. The largest UV-induced changes in photosynthesis, chlorophyll, carotenoids, UV-screening pigments, and surface leaf reflectance occurred under growth conditions of low levels of visible light together with UV radiation

  5. Physical, biochemical and physiological effects of ultraviolet radiation on Brassica napus and Phaseolus vulgaris

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cen Yan-Ping

    1993-12-31

    In order to follow some of the changes induced by ultraviolet-B (UV-B, 280-320 nm) radiation in Phaseolus vulgaris and Brassica napus, experiments were designed to localize sites of changes in leaves and to correlate some of the physiological and biochemical changes with penetration of UV-B radiation. B.napus was exposed to 8.9 kJ m{sup -2} day{sup -1} biologically effective UV-B radiation (UV-B{sub BE}). The penetration of UV-B radiation into the leaf was followed using a quartz fibre optic microprobe. Monochromatic radiation at 310 nm was decreased by ca 50 and 34% in the adaxial and abaxial epidermis, respectively, in plants not exposed to UV-B, whereas the radiation was decreased by ca 70 and 42%, respectively, in the same region in UV-treated plants. Polychromatic radiation showed a wavelength dependent change mainly for the collimated radiation. The results correlated with the distribution of phenolic compounds analysed from 40 {mu}m paradermal leaf sections. The first adaxial section (40{mu}m) contained 35% of the whole leaf sample flavonoid glycosides in control plants, and 66% in UV-treated plants. Hydroxycinnamic acid derivatives increased by 26% in UV-treated plants relative to controls. The ratio of quercetin to kaempferol derivatives increased from 0.11 in controls to 0.91 in leaves of UV-treated plants. The leaf epidermis protected the inner leaf tissue where most of the photosynthetic apparatus is located. P. vulgaris was subjected to 6.17 kJ m{sup -2} day{sup -1} UV-B{sub BE} with different levels of visible light. The largest UV-induced changes in photosynthesis, chlorophyll, carotenoids, UV-screening pigments, and surface leaf reflectance occurred under growth conditions of low levels of visible light together with UV radiation.

  6. Effect of micronutrients (zn, cu and b) on photosynthetic and fruit yield attributes of citrus reticulata blanco var. kinnow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ilyas, A.; Hussain, M.

    2015-01-01

    In this investigation, influence of foliar application of micronutrients (Zn, Cu and B) was studied on the improvement in photosynthetic and fruit yield attributes of citrus (Kinnow) plants. Experiments were conducted in two districts of Punjab (Sargodha and Toba Tek Singh), Pakistan varying in soil properties and agro-climatic conditions. Plants at both sites were subjected to foliar spray of three different levels (i.e. 0.1, 0.2 and 0.3%) of each Zn, Cu and B at three different fruit developmental stages while macronutrients (NPK) were applied at recommended rates as soil amendment. Micronutrients (Zn, Cu and B) application caused a significant improvement in net photosynthetic rate (A), transpiration rate (E), stomatal conductance (gs), Chlorophyll a, b, total, and caroteniods in both the citrus orchards. However, effect of micronutrients i.e. Zn, Cu and B was more pronounced at the levels of 0.3, 0.1 and 0.2%, respectively. These levels of nutrients were also effective in improving fruit yield with better fruit quality. (author)

  7. Photoprotection by carotenoids of Plantago media photosynthetic apparatus in natural conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golovko, Tamara; Dymova, Olga; Zakhozhiy, Ilya; Dalke, Igor; Tabalenkova, Galina

    2012-01-01

    The study of daily changes in photosynthetic rate, of energy used in photochemical and non-photochemical processes, and of carotenoid composition aimed at evaluating the role of xanthophyll cycle (XC) in protection of hoary plantain plants (Plantago media) in nature. The leaves of sun plants differed from shade plants in terms of CO(2) exchange rate and photosynthetic pigments content. The total pool XC pigments and the conversion state increased from morning to midday in sun plants. An increase in zeaxanthin content occurred concomitantly with the violaxanthin decrease. About 80% violaxanthin was involved in conversion. The maximum of zeaxanthin in XC pigments pool was 60%. The conversion state of XC was twice as lower in shade plants than that in sun plants. The photosynthesis of sun leaves was depressed strongly at midday, but changes of maximum quantum yield of PS2 (F(v)/F(m)) were not apparent at that time. The coefficient qN (non-photochemical quenching) in the sun leaves changed strongly, from 0.3 to 0.9 as irradiance increased. The direct relation between heat dissipation and the conversion state of XC in plantain leaves was revealed. Thus, plantain leaves were found to be resistant to excess solar radiation due to activation of qN mechanisms associated with the XC de-epoxidation.

  8. Biophysical radiation effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fidorra, J.

    1982-07-01

    The biological effectiveness of ionizing radiation is based upon the absorption of energy in molecular structures of a cell. Because of the quantum nature of radiation large fluctuations of energy concentration in subcellulare regions has to be considered. In addition both the spatial distribution of a sensitive molecular target and cellulare repair processes has to be taken into consideration for an assessment of radiation action. In radiation protection the difference between the quality factor and the Relative Biological Effectiveness has a fundamental meaning and will be discussed in more detail. The present report includes a short review on some relevant models on radiation action and a short discussion on effects of low dose irradiation. (orig.) [de

  9. Biological diversity of photosynthetic reaction centers and the solid-state photo-CIDNP effect

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roy, Esha

    2007-01-01

    Photosynthetic reaction centers (RCs) from plants, heliobacteria and green sulphur bacteria has been investigated with photochemically induced dynamic nuclear polarization (photo-CIDNP) MAS NMR. In photosystem (PS) I of spinach, all signals appear negative which is proposed by a predominance of the

  10. A Simple Semi-Empirical Model for the Estimation of Photosynthetically Active Radiation from Satellite Data in the Tropics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Janjai

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a simple semi-empirical model for estimating global photosynthetically active radiation (PAR under all sky conditions. The model expresses PAR as a function of cloud index, aerosol optical depth, total ozone column, solar zenith angle, and air mass. The formulation of the model was based on a four-year period (2008–2011 of PAR data obtained from the measurements at four solar monitoring stations in a tropical environment of Thailand. These are Chiang Mai (18.78°N, 98.98°E, Ubon Ratchathani (15.25°N, 104.87°E, Nakhon Pathom (13.82°N, 100.04°E, and Songkhla (7.20°N, 100.60°E. The cloud index was derived from MTSAT-1R satellite, whereas the aerosol optical depth was obtained from MODIS/Terra satellite. For the total ozone column, it was retrieved from OMI/Aura satellite. The model was validated against independent data set from the four stations. It was found that hourly PAR estimated from the proposed model and that obtained from the measurements were in reasonable agreement, with the root mean square difference (RMSD and mean bias difference (MBD of 14.3% and −5.8%, respectively. In addition, for the case of monthly average hourly PAR, RMSD and MBD were reduced to 11.1% and −5.1%, respectively.

  11. Effects of water stress on photosynthetic electron transport, photophosphorylation, and metabolite levels of Xanthium strumarium mesophyll cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharkey, T D; Badger, M R

    1982-12-01

    Several component processes of photosynthesis were measured in osmotically stressed mesophyll cells of Xanthium strumarium L. The ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate regeneration capacity was reduced by water stress. Photophoshorylation was sensitive to water stress but photosynthetic electron transport was unaffected by water potentials down to-40 bar (-4 MPa). The concentrations of several intermediates of the photosynthetic carbon-reduction cycle remained relatively constant and did not indicate that ATP supply was limiting photosynthesis in the water-stressed cells.

  12. Coral bleaching independent of photosynthetic activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolleter, Dimitri; Seneca, François O; DeNofrio, Jan C; Krediet, Cory J; Palumbi, Stephen R; Pringle, John R; Grossman, Arthur R

    2013-09-23

    The global decline of reef-building corals is due in part to the loss of algal symbionts, or "bleaching," during the increasingly frequent periods of high seawater temperatures. During bleaching, endosymbiotic dinoflagellate algae (Symbiodinium spp.) either are lost from the animal tissue or lose their photosynthetic pigments, resulting in host mortality if the Symbiodinium populations fail to recover. The >1,000 studies of the causes of heat-induced bleaching have focused overwhelmingly on the consequences of damage to algal photosynthetic processes, and the prevailing model for bleaching invokes a light-dependent generation of toxic reactive oxygen species (ROS) by heat-damaged chloroplasts as the primary trigger. However, the precise mechanisms of bleaching remain unknown, and there is evidence for involvement of multiple cellular processes. In this study, we asked the simple question of whether bleaching can be triggered by heat in the dark, in the absence of photosynthetically derived ROS. We used both the sea anemone model system Aiptasia and several species of reef-building corals to demonstrate that symbiont loss can occur rapidly during heat stress in complete darkness. Furthermore, we observed damage to the photosynthetic apparatus under these conditions in both Aiptasia endosymbionts and cultured Symbiodinium. These results do not directly contradict the view that light-stimulated ROS production is important in bleaching, but they do show that there must be another pathway leading to bleaching. Elucidation of this pathway should help to clarify bleaching mechanisms under the more usual conditions of heat stress in the light. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Enhancement of photosynthesis in Sorghum bicolor by ultraviolet radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, G.A.; Day, T.A.

    2002-01-01

    We assessed the influence of ultraviolet radiation (UV) on net photosynthetic CO 2 assimilation rate (Pn) in Sorghum bicolor, with particular attention to examining whether UV can enhance Pn via direct absorption of UV and absorption of UV-induced blue fluorescence by photosynthetic pigments. A polychromatic UV response spectrum of leaves was constructed by measuring Pn under different UV supplements using filters that had sharp transmission cut-offs from 280 to 382 nm, against a background of non-saturating visible light. When the abaxial surface was irradiated, P n averaged 4.6% higher with the UV supplement that cut-off UV at 311 nm, compared to lower and higher UV wavelength supplements. This former supplement differed from higher wavelength supplements by primarily providing more UV between 320 and 350 nm. To assess the possibility of direct absorption of UV by photosynthetic pigments, we measured the absorbance of extracted chlorophylls. Chlorophyll a had absorbance peaks at 340 and 389 nm that were 49 and 72% of that at the sorét peak. Chlorophyll b had absorbance peaks at 315 and 346 nm that were both 35% of that at the sorét peak. Since the epidermis transmits some UV, the strong UV absorbance of chlorophyll implies a potential role for irradiance beyond the bounds of the conventionally defined photosynthetically active radiation waveband (400–700 nm). To assess the role of absorption of UV-induced blue fluorescence, we measured the UV-induced fluorescence excitation and emission spectra of leaves. Abaxial excitation peaked at 328 nm, while emission peaked at 446 nm. In this analysis, we used our abaxial fluorescence excitation spectrum and the UV photosynthetic inhibition spectrum of Caldwell et al. (1986) to weight the UV irradiance with each cut-off filter, thereby estimating the potential contribution of UV-induced blue fluorescence to photosynthesis and the inhibitory effects of UV irradiance on photosynthesis, respectively. With a non

  14. Difference in leaf water use efficiency/photosynthetic nitrogen use efficiency of Bt-cotton and its conventional peer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Ruqing; Sun, Shucun; Liu, Biao

    2016-09-15

    This study is to test the effects of Bt gene introduction on the foliar water/nitrogen use efficiency in cotton. We measured leaf stomatal conductance, photosynthetic rate, and transpiration rate under light saturation condition at different stages of a conventional cultivar (zhongmian no. 16) and its counterpart Bt cultivar (zhongmian no. 30) that were cultured on three levels of fertilization, based on which leaf instantaneous water use efficiency was derived. Leaf nitrogen concentration was measured to calculate leaf photosynthetic nitrogen use efficiency, and leaf δ(13)C was used to characterize long term water use efficiency. Bt cultivar was found to have lower stomatal conductance, net photosynthetic rates and transpiration rates, but higher instantaneous and long time water use efficiency. In addition, foliar nitrogen concentration was found to be higher but net photosynthetic rate was lower in the mature leaves of Bt cultivar, which led to lower photosynthetic nitrogen use efficiency. This might result from the significant decrease of photosynthetic rate due to the decrease of stomatal conductance. In conclusion, our findings show that the introduction of Bt gene should significantly increase foliar water use efficiency but decrease leaf nitrogen use efficiency in cotton under no selective pressure.

  15. The Influence of Distribution Nitrogen Fertilizer Management on Absorbed and Radiation Use Efficiency in Forage Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    alireza beheshti

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Dry matter production is a function of photosynthesis active radiation absorption (APAR and radiation use efficiency. Sorghum genotypes are different in total dry matter, but the reason of these different is not clear. Producing dry matter is affected by nitrogen distributing method, but the way of this effectiveness on producing of dry matter in sorghum genotypes is not also specified. This paper focused on evaluation of receiving and absorbing PAR, which is affected by nitrogen usage method in forage sorghum genotypes, and reasons of the differences between these genotypes in production of dry matter. The variation in efficiency of APAR depends on two chemical and morphological characteristics of the vegetation, including canopy nitrogen content (NCANOPY and the canopy average for mass per unit of area (Merea. Material and Methods In order to investigate the cumulative photosynthetically active radiation (CPAR and radiation use efficiency (RUE under distributing of nitrogen side dressing and non-distributing conditions, an experiment was conducted at Khorasan Razavei Agriculture and Natural Resources , Research Center Mashhad , Iran. The statical method was according to spilt plots base on randomized complete block design with three replicates. The main plots were fifteen forage sorghum genotypes (Promising lines kfs1, kfs2, kfs3, kfs6, kfs7, kfs8, kfs9, kfs10, kfs11, kfs12, kfs13, kfs15, kfs16, kfs17, kfs18 and the subplots consisted of distributing of nitrogen side dressing and non-distributing. The samples were obtained 5 times during the growing season for determination of some characteristics including dry matter (TDM, leaf area index (LAI and Photosynthetically active radiation (PAR. Then total dry matter (TDM, cumulative Photosynthetically active radiation (CPAR and radiation use efficiency (RUE were calculated by these traits. Absorbed radiation measured by Sub Scan model SSI-UM-1.05 on five location of each plot on bottom

  16. Cyanobacteria as photosynthetic biocatalysts: a systems biology perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gudmundsson, Steinn; Nogales, Juan

    2015-01-01

    The increasing need to replace oil-based products and to address global climate change concerns has triggered considerable interest in photosynthetic microorganisms. Cyanobacteria, in particular, have great potential as biocatalysts for fuels and fine-chemicals. During the last few years the biotechnological applications of cyanobacteria have experienced an unprecedented increase and the use of these photosynthetic organisms for chemical production is becoming a tangible reality. However, the field is still immature and many concerns about the economic feasibility of the biotechnological potential of cyanobacteria remain. In this review we describe recent successes in biofuel and fine-chemical production using cyanobacteria. We discuss the role of the photosynthetic metabolism and highlight the need for systems-level metabolic optimization in order to achieve the true potential of cyanobacterial biocatalysts.

  17. Superradiance Transition and Nonphotochemical Quenching in Photosynthetic Complexes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berman, Gennady Petrovich [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Nesterov, Alexander [Universidad de Guadalajara, Departamento de Fısica, Jalisco (Mexico); Lopez, Gustavo [Universidad de Guadalajara, Departamento de Fısica, Jalisco (Mexico); Sayre, Richard Thomas [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-04-23

    Photosynthetic organisms have evolved protective strategies to allow them to survive in cases of intense sunlight fluctuation with the development of nonphotochemical quenching (NPQ). This process allows light harvesting complexes to transfer the excess sunlight energy to non-damaging quenching channels. This report compares the NPQ process with the superradiance transition (ST). We demonstrated that the maximum of the NPQ efficiency is caused by the ST to the sink associated with the CTS. However, experimental verifications are required in order to determine whether or not the NPQ regime is associated with the ST transition for real photosynthetic complexes. Indeed, it can happen that, in the photosynthetic apparatus, the NPQ regime occurs in the “non-optimal” region of parameters, and it could be independent of the ST.

  18. Biological effects of ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heribanova, A.

    1995-01-01

    The basic principles and pathways of effects of ionizing radiation on living organisms and cells are outlined. The following topics are covered: effects of radiation on living matter (direct effects, radical or indirect effects, dual radiation action, and molecular biological theories); effects of radiation on cells and tissues (cell depletion, changes in the cytogenetic information, reparation mechanisms), dose-response relationship (deterministic effects, stochastic effects), and the effects of radiation on man (acute radiation sickness, acute local changes, fetus injuries, non-tumorous late injuries, malignant tumors, genetic changes). (P.A.). 3 tabs., 2 figs., 5 refs

  19. Effect of UV-B and high visual radiation on photosynthesis in freshwater (nostoc spongiaeforme) and marine (Phormidium corium) cyanobacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhandari, Rupali; Sharma, Prabhat Kumar

    2007-08-01

    Human activity is causing depletion of ozone in stratosphere, resulting in increased UV-B radiation and global warming. However, impact of these climatic changes on the aquatic organism (especially marine) is not fully understood. Here, we have studied the effect of excess UV-B and visible radiation on photosynthetic pigments, fatty acids content, lipid peroxidation, nitrogen content, nitrogen reductase activity and membrane proteins, induction of mycosporine-like amino acids (MAAs) and antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD) and ascorbate peroxidase (APX) in freshwater (Nostoc spongiaeform) and marine (Phormidium corium) cyanobacteria. UV-B treatment resulted in an increase in photosynthetic pigments in Nostoc and decrease in Phormidium, but high light treatment caused photobleaching of most of the pigments in both the species. Unsaturation level of fatty acids of both total and glycolipids remained unchanged in both the cyanobacteria, as a result of UV-B and high light treatments. Saturated fatty acids of total and glycolipids declined slightly in Nostoc by both the treatments. but remained unchanged in Phormidium. No changes in the unsaturated lipid content in our study probably suggested adaptation of the organism to the treatments. However, both treatments resulted in peroxidation of membrane lipids, indicating oxidative damage to lipids without any change in the level of unsaturation of fatty acid in the cell membrane. Qualitative and quantitative changes were observed in membrane protein profile due to the treatments. Cyanobacteria were able to synthesize MAAs in response to the UV-B treatment. Both treatments also increased the activities of SOD and APX. In conclusion, the study demonstrated induction of antioxidants such as SOD and APX under visible light treatment and screening pigment (MAAs) under UV-B treatment, which might protect the cyanobacteria from oxidative damage caused by high light and UV-B radiation.

  20. Retrieval of Leaf Area Index (LAI and Fraction of Absorbed Photosynthetically Active Radiation (FAPAR from VIIRS Time-Series Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiqiang Xiao

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Long-term high-quality global leaf area index (LAI and fraction of absorbed photosynthetically active radiation (FAPAR products are urgently needed for the study of global change, climate modeling, and many other problems. As the successor of the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS sensor, the Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS will continue to provide global environmental measurements. This paper aims to generate longer time series Global LAnd Surface Satellite (GLASS LAI and FAPAR products after the era of the MODIS sensor. To ensure spatial and temporal consistencies between GLASS LAI/FAPAR values retrieved from different satellite observations, the GLASS LAI/FAPAR retrieval algorithms were adapted in this study to retrieve LAI and FAPAR values from VIIRS surface reflectance time-series data. After reprocessing of the VIIRS surface reflectance to remove remaining effects of cloud contamination and other factors, a database generated from the GLASS LAI product and the reprocessed VIIRS surface reflectance for all Benchmark Land Multisite Analysis and Intercomparison of Products (BELMANIP sites was used to train general regression neural networks (GRNNs. The reprocessed VIIRS surface reflectance data from an entire year were entered into the trained GRNNs to estimate the one-year LAI values, which were then used to calculate FAPAR values. A cross-comparison indicates that the LAI and FAPAR values retrieved from VIIRS surface reflectance were generally consistent with the GLASS, MODIS and Geoland2/BioPar version 1 (GEOV1 LAI/FAPAR values in their spatial patterns. The LAI/FAPAR values retrieved from VIIRS surface reflectance achieved good agreement with the GLASS LAI/FAPAR values (R2 = 0.8972 and RMSE = 0.3054; and R2 = 0.9067 and RMSE = 0.0529, respectively. However, validation of the LAI and FAPAR values derived from VIIRS reflectance data is now limited by the scarcity of LAI/FAPAR ground measurements.

  1. The mechanisms of protection of antioxidants on Nostoc sphaeroides against UV-B radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, G. H.

    UV radiation is one of space harmful factor for earth organisms in space exploration In the present work we studied on the role of antioxidant system in Nostoc sphaeroides K u tz Cyanobacteria and the effects of exogenous antioxidant molecules on its photosynthetic rate under UV-B radiation It was found that UV-B radiation decreased the photosynthetic activity of cyanobacterium but promoted the activity of antioxidant system to protect photosystem II PSII and exogenous antioxidant sodium nitroprusside SNP N-acetylcysteine NAC had an obvious protection on PSII activity under UV-B radiation The activity of SOD Superoxide Dismutase EC 1 15 1 1 CAT Catalase EC 1 11 1 6 POD Peroxidase EC 1 11 1 7 and content of MDA and ASC were improved by 0 5mM and 1mM SNP but 0 1mM SNP decreased the activity of antioxide system Exogenous NAC addition decreased the activity of SOD POD CAT and the content MDA and ASC but exogenous NAC addition increased the content of GSH The results suggested that exogenous SNP and NAC may protect algae by different mechanisms in which SNP maybe play double roles as sources of reactive free radicals or ROS scavengers in formation of algae s protection of PSII under UV-B radiation while NAC does function as antioxidant reagent or precursor of glutathione which could protect PSII directly from UV-B radiation Keyword antioxidant system exogenous or endogenous antioxidant Nostoc sphaeroides photosynthesis UV-B radiation

  2. Influence of soybean pubescence type on radiation balance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nielsen, D.C.; Blad, B.I.; Verma, S.B.; Rosenberg, N.J.; Specht, J.E.

    1984-01-01

    Increasing the density of pubescence on the leaves and stems of soybeans (Glycine max L.) should influence the radiation balance of the soybean canopy and affect the evapotranspiration and photosynthetic rates. This study was undertaken to evaluate the influence of increased pubescence density on various components of the radiation balance. Near-isogenic lines of two soybean cultivars (Clark and Harosoy) were grown in four adjacent small plots (18 m · 18 m) during the 1980, 1981, and 1982 growing seasons near Mead, Nebr. The soil at this site is classified as a Typic Argiudoll. The isolines of each cultivar varied only in the amount of pubescence (dense vs. normal pubescence). Measurements of albedo, reflected photosynthetically active radiation (PAR), emitted longwave radiation, and net radiation were made over the crop surfaces with instruments mounted on a rotating boom located at the intersection of the four plots. Radiative canopy temperatures were measured with a handheld infrared thermometer (IRT). Results show that dense pubescence increased reflection of shortwave radiation and PAR by 3 to 5% and 8 to 11%, respectively. Emitted longwave radiation and radiative canopy temperature were not significantly affected by increased pubescence, although there was a slight tendency for the dense pubescent canopy to be cooler. Increased pubescence decreased net radiation over the canopy by 0.5 to 1.5%. These results suggest that soybeans with dense pubescence may be slightly better adapted to the high radiation, high temperature, and limited moisture conditions of the eastern Great Plains than are those with normal pubescence

  3. Melatonin Improves the Photosynthetic Carbon Assimilation and Antioxidant Capacity in Wheat Exposed to Nano-ZnO Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiyu Zuo

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The release of nanoparticles into the environment is inevitable, which has raised global environmental concern. Melatonin is involved in various stress responses in plants. The present study investigated the effects of melatonin on photosynthetic carbon (C assimilation and plant growth in nano-ZnO stressed plants. It was found that melatonin improved the photosynthetic C assimilation in nano-ZnO stressed wheat plants, mainly due to the enhanced photosynthetic energy transport efficiency, higher chlorophyll concentration and higher activities of Rubisco and ATPases. In addition, melatonin enhanced the activities of antioxidant enzymes to protect the photosynthetic electron transport system in wheat leaves against the oxidative burst caused by nano-ZnO stress. These results suggest that melatonin could improve the tolerance of wheat plants to nano-ZnO stress.

  4. Photoperiodic controls on ecosystem-level photosynthetic capacity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoy, P. C.; Trowbridge, A. M.; Bauerle, W.

    2012-12-01

    Most models of photosynthesis at the leaf or canopy level assume that temperature is the dominant control on the variability of photosynthetic parameters. Recent studies, however, have found that photoperiod is a better descriptor of the seasonal variability of photosynthetic function at the leaf and plant scale, and that spectral indices of leaf functionality are poor descriptors of this seasonality. We explored the variability of photosynthesic parameters at the ecosystem scale using over 100 site-years of air temperature and gross primary productivity (GPP) data from non-tropical forested sites in the Free/Fair Use LaThuille FLUXNET database (www.fluxdata.org), excluding sites that were classified as dry and/or with savanna vegetation, where we expected GPP to be driven by moisture availability. Both GPP and GPP normalized by daily photosynthetic photon flux density (GPPn) were considered, and photoperiod was calculated from eddy covariance tower coordinates. We performed a Granger causality analysis, a method based on the understanding that causes precede effects, on both the GPP and GPPn. Photoperiod Granger-caused GPP (GPPn) in 95% (87%) of all site-years. While temperature Granger-caused GPP in a mere 23% of site years, it Granger-caused GPPn 73% of the time. Both temperature values are significantly less than the percent of cases in which day length Granger-caused GPP (p<0.05, Student's t-test). An inverse analysis was performed for completeness, and it was found that GPP Granger-caused photoperiod (temperature) in 39% (78%) of all site years. Results demonstrate that incorporating simple photoperiod controls may be a logical step in improving ecosystem and global model output.

  5. Asymmetrical effects of mesophyll conductance on fundamental photosynthetic parameters and their relationships estimated from leaf gas exchange measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Ying; Gu, Lianhong; Dickinson, Robert E; Pallardy, Stephen G; Baker, John; Cao, Yonghui; DaMatta, Fábio Murilo; Dong, Xuejun; Ellsworth, David; Van Goethem, Davina; Jensen, Anna M; Law, Beverly E; Loos, Rodolfo; Martins, Samuel C Vitor; Norby, Richard J; Warren, Jeffrey; Weston, David; Winter, Klaus

    2014-04-01

    Worldwide measurements of nearly 130 C3 species covering all major plant functional types are analysed in conjunction with model simulations to determine the effects of mesophyll conductance (g(m)) on photosynthetic parameters and their relationships estimated from A/Ci curves. We find that an assumption of infinite g(m) results in up to 75% underestimation for maximum carboxylation rate V(cmax), 60% for maximum electron transport rate J(max), and 40% for triose phosphate utilization rate T(u) . V(cmax) is most sensitive, J(max) is less sensitive, and T(u) has the least sensitivity to the variation of g(m). Because of this asymmetrical effect of g(m), the ratios of J(max) to V(cmax), T(u) to V(cmax) and T(u) to J(max) are all overestimated. An infinite g(m) assumption also limits the freedom of variation of estimated parameters and artificially constrains parameter relationships to stronger shapes. These findings suggest the importance of quantifying g(m) for understanding in situ photosynthetic machinery functioning. We show that a nonzero resistance to CO2 movement in chloroplasts has small effects on estimated parameters. A non-linear function with gm as input is developed to convert the parameters estimated under an assumption of infinite gm to proper values. This function will facilitate gm representation in global carbon cycle models. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Biome-specific effects of nitrogen and phosphorus on the photosynthetic characteristics of trees at a forest-savanna boundary in Cameroon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domingues, Tomas Ferreira; Ishida, F Yoko; Feldpausch, Ted R; Grace, John; Meir, Patrick; Saiz, Gustavo; Sene, Olivier; Schrodt, Franziska; Sonké, Bonaventure; Taedoumg, Herman; Veenendaal, Elmar M; Lewis, Simon; Lloyd, Jon

    2015-07-01

    Photosynthesis/nutrient relationships of proximally growing forest and savanna trees were determined in an ecotonal region of Cameroon (Africa). Although area-based foliar N concentrations were typically lower for savanna trees, there was no difference in photosynthetic rates between the two vegetation formation types. Opposite to N, area-based P concentrations were-on average-slightly lower for forest trees; a dependency of photosynthetic characteristics on foliar P was only evident for savanna trees. Thus savanna trees use N more efficiently than their forest counterparts, but only in the presence of relatively high foliar P. Along with some other recent studies, these results suggest that both N and P are important modulators of woody tropical plant photosynthetic capacities, influencing photosynthetic metabolism in different ways that are also biome specific. Attempts to find simple unifying equations to describe woody tropical vegetation photosynthesis-nutrient relationships are likely to meet with failure, with ecophysiological distinctions between forest and savanna requiring acknowledgement.

  7. Changes of Photosynthetic Behaviors in Kappaphycus alvarezii Infected by Epiphyte

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tong Pang

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Epiphytic filamentous algae (EFA were noted as a serious problem to reduce the production and quality of K. alvarezii. The morphological studies revealed that the main epiphyte on K. alvarezii was Neosiphonia savatieri in China. Though the harmful effects of EFA on the production of K. alvarezii have been reported, the detailed mechanism of the N. savatieri in limiting the production of K. alvarezii has not been studied yet. The present paper studied the effects of N. savatieri infection on photosynthetic behaviors in K. alvarezii by detecting chlorophyll fluorescence transient in vivo. The results revealed that damage of oxygen-evolving complex (OEC, decrease of active reaction centers (RCs, and the plastoquinone (PQ pool as well as significant reduction in the performance indexes (PI of PSII were caused by the infection of N. savatieri. The influence of N. savatieri on photosynthetic activity of K. alvarezii should be one of the important reasons to reduce the production of K. alvarezii infected by N. savatieri.

  8. Changes of Photosynthetic Behaviors in Kappaphycus alvarezii Infected by Epiphyte.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, Tong; Liu, Jianguo; Liu, Qian; Lin, Wei

    2011-01-01

    Epiphytic filamentous algae (EFA) were noted as a serious problem to reduce the production and quality of K. alvarezii. The morphological studies revealed that the main epiphyte on K. alvarezii was Neosiphonia savatieri in China. Though the harmful effects of EFA on the production of K. alvarezii have been reported, the detailed mechanism of the N. savatieri in limiting the production of K. alvarezii has not been studied yet. The present paper studied the effects of N. savatieri infection on photosynthetic behaviors in K. alvarezii by detecting chlorophyll fluorescence transient in vivo. The results revealed that damage of oxygen-evolving complex (OEC), decrease of active reaction centers (RCs), and the plastoquinone (PQ) pool as well as significant reduction in the performance indexes (PI) of PSII were caused by the infection of N. savatieri. The influence of N. savatieri on photosynthetic activity of K. alvarezii should be one of the important reasons to reduce the production of K. alvarezii infected by N. savatieri.

  9. Photosynthetic and nitrogen fixation capability in several soybean mutant lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gandanegara, S.; Hendratno, K.

    1987-01-01

    Photosynthetic and nitrogen fixation capability in several soybean mutant lines. A greenhouse experiment has been carried out to study photosynthetic and nitrogen fixation capability of five mutant lines and two soybean varieties. An amount of 330 uCi of 14 CO 2 was fed to the plants including of the non-fixing reference crop (Chippewa non-nodulating isoline). Nitrogen fixation measurements was carried out using 15 N isotope dilution technique according to A-value concept. Results showed that beside variety/mutant lines, plant growth also has important role in photosynthetic and N fixing capability. Better growth and a higher photosynthetic capability in Orba, mutant lines nos. 63 and 65 resulted in a greater amount of N 2 fixed (mg N/plant) than other mutant lines. (author). 12 refs.; 5 figs

  10. Yields, photosynthetic efficiencies, and proximate chemical composition of dense cultures of marine microalgae. A subcontract report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, W.H.; Seibert, D.L.R.; Alden, M.; Eldridge, P.; Neori, A.

    1983-07-01

    The yields, photosynthetic efficiencies, and proximate composition of several microalgae were compared in dense cultures grown at light intensities up to 70% sunlight. Yields ranged from 3.4 to 21.7 g dry weight/m/sup 2/ day. The highest yield was obtained with Phaeodactylum; the lowest in Botryococcus cultures. The same species had the highest and lowest efficiencies of utilization of photosynthetically active radiation. In nitrogen-sufficient cells of all but one species, most of the dry weight consisted of protein. Lipid content of all species was 20 to 29%, and carbohydrate content 11 to 23%. Lipid content increased somewhat in N-deficient Phaeodactylum and Isochrysis cells, but decreased in deficient Monallanthus cells. Because the overall dry weight yield was reduced by deficiency, lipid yields did not increase. However, since the carbohydrate content increased to about 65% in N-deficient Dunaliella and Tetraselmis cells, the carbohydrate yield increased. In Phaeodactylum the optimum light intensity was about 40% of full sunlight. Most experimets with this alga included a CUSO/sub 4/ filter to decrease infrared irradiance. When this filter was removed, the yield increased because more red light in the photosynthetically active spectral range was included. These results should prove useful to workers attempting to maximize yields and efficiencies, but additional studies are needed. 69 references, 27 figures, 18 tables.

  11. The adaptive response of lichens to mercury exposure involves changes in the photosynthetic machinery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nicolardi, Valentina; Cai, Giampiero; Parrotta, Luigi; Puglia, Michele; Bianchi, Laura; Bini, Luca; Gaggi, Carlo

    2012-01-01

    Lichens are an excellent model to study the bioaccumulation of heavy metals but limited information is available on the molecular mechanisms occurring during bioaccumulation. We investigated the changes of the lichen proteome during exposure to constant concentrations of mercury. We found that most of changes involves proteins of the photosynthetic pathway, such as the chloroplastic photosystem I reaction center subunit II, the oxygen-evolving protein and the chloroplastic ATP synthase β-subunit. This suggests that photosynthesis is a target of the toxic effects of mercury. These findings are also supported by changes in the content of photosynthetic pigments (chlorophyll a and b, and β-carotene). Alterations to the photosynthetic machinery also reflect on the structure of thylakoid membranes of algal cells. Response of lichens to mercury also involves stress-related proteins (such as Hsp70) but not cytoskeletal proteins. Results suggest that lichens adapt to mercury exposure by changing the metabolic production of energy. - Highlights: ► Lichens exposed to Hg° vapors accumulate this metal irreversibly. ► Hg° interferes with physiological processes of the epiphytic lichen Evernia prunastri. ► Hg° promotes changes in the concentration of photosynthetic pigments. ► Hg° treatment causes changes in the ultrastructure of the photobiont plastids. ► Hg° induces changes in the protein machinery involved in the photosynthesis pathway. - Mercury affects the photosynthetic protein machinery of lichens.

  12. Radiation effects and radioprotectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Purohit, R.K., E-mail: dr_rajendra_purohit@yahoo.co.in [Radiation Biology Laboratory, Department of Zoology, Govt. Dungar College, Bikaner (India); Bugalia, Saroj [Department of Zoology, S.K. Kalyan College, Sikar (India); Dakshene, Monika [Department of Chemistry, Govt. College, Kota (India)

    2012-07-01

    Radiation exposure causes damage to biological systems and these damages are mediated by the generation of free radicals and reactive oxygen species targeting vital cellular components such as DNA and membranes. DNA repair systems and the endogenous cellular biochemical defense mechanisms against reactive oxygen species and antioxidants enzymes like reduced Glutathione (GSH), Superoxide dismutase, Glutathione peroxidase catalase etc. fail upon exposures to higher as well as chronic radiation doses leading to alterations in cell functions, cell death or mutations. Radioprotectors prevent these alterations and protect cells and tissues from the deleterious effects of radiations. Radioprotectors are of great importance due to their possible and potential application during planned radiation exposures such as radiotherapy, diagnostic scanning, clean up operations in nuclear accidents, space expeditions etc. and Unplanned radiations exposures such as accidents in nuclear industry, nuclear terrorism, natural background radiation etc. Many of the available synthetic radioprotectors are toxic to mammalian system at doses required to be effective as radioprotector. Increasing uses of ionizing radiation have drawn the attention of many radiobiologists towards their undesired side effects produced in various tissues and for modifying them to facilitate the beneficial uses of radiation. Modification of radiation response is obtained by means of chemical substances that can significantly decrease the magnitude of response when present in a biological system during irradiation. Radioprotectors are chemicals that modify a cell's response to radiation. Radioprotectors are drugs that protect normal (non cancerous) cells from the damage caused by radiation therapy. These agents promote the repair of normal cells that are exposed to radiation. Various chemicals, like Cysteamine, MPG , WR-2721 have been tested for the protection against harmful effects of radiation. These radio

  13. Radiation effects and radioprotectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purohit, R.K.; Bugalia, Saroj; Dakshene, Monika

    2012-01-01

    Radiation exposure causes damage to biological systems and these damages are mediated by the generation of free radicals and reactive oxygen species targeting vital cellular components such as DNA and membranes. DNA repair systems and the endogenous cellular biochemical defense mechanisms against reactive oxygen species and antioxidants enzymes like reduced Glutathione (GSH), Superoxide dismutase, Glutathione peroxidase catalase etc. fail upon exposures to higher as well as chronic radiation doses leading to alterations in cell functions, cell death or mutations. Radioprotectors prevent these alterations and protect cells and tissues from the deleterious effects of radiations. Radioprotectors are of great importance due to their possible and potential application during planned radiation exposures such as radiotherapy, diagnostic scanning, clean up operations in nuclear accidents, space expeditions etc. and Unplanned radiations exposures such as accidents in nuclear industry, nuclear terrorism, natural background radiation etc. Many of the available synthetic radioprotectors are toxic to mammalian system at doses required to be effective as radioprotector. Increasing uses of ionizing radiation have drawn the attention of many radiobiologists towards their undesired side effects produced in various tissues and for modifying them to facilitate the beneficial uses of radiation. Modification of radiation response is obtained by means of chemical substances that can significantly decrease the magnitude of response when present in a biological system during irradiation. Radioprotectors are chemicals that modify a cell's response to radiation. Radioprotectors are drugs that protect normal (non cancerous) cells from the damage caused by radiation therapy. These agents promote the repair of normal cells that are exposed to radiation. Various chemicals, like Cysteamine, MPG , WR-2721 have been tested for the protection against harmful effects of radiation. These radio

  14. Investigation of the non-photochemical processes in photosynthetic bacteria and higher plants using interference of coherent radiation - a new approach

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Roháček, Karel; Kloz, M.; Bína, David; Batysta, F.; Vácha, František

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 91, 2-3 (2007), s. 301 ISSN 0166-8595. [International Congress of Photosynthesis/14./. 22.07.2007-27.07.2007, Glasgow] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50510513 Keywords : photosynthetic bacteria Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry

  15. Effects of UV-B radiation on microcystin production of a toxic strain of Microcystis aeruginosa and its competitiveness against a non-toxic strain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Zhen; Kong, Fanxiang; Shi, Xiaoli; Yu, Yang; Zhang, Min

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • UV-B radiation showed higher inhibition to non-toxin producing than toxin-producing strains on growth and photosynthetic activity. • Both intracellular and extracellular MC contents decreased markedly under UV-B radiation. • Higher resistance to UV-B radiation helped toxin-producing M. aeruginosa to predominate in the competition. - Abstract: Microcystins (MCs) produced by toxic cyanobacteria pose a health hazard to humans and animals. Some environmental factors can alter the MC concentrations by affecting the abundance of toxin-producing strains in a cyanobacteria population and/or their toxin production. In this study, we designed a monoculture and competition experiment to investigate the impacts of UV-B radiation on MC production and the competition between toxin and non-toxin producing strains of Microcystis aeruginosa. UV-B radiation resulted in higher inhibition of the growth and photosynthetic activity of the non-toxin producing strain relative to that observed for the toxin-producing strain. Both intracellular and extracellular MC contents decreased markedly when the toxin-producing strain was exposed to UV-B radiation. In addition, a quantitative real-time PCR assay revealed that the ratio of toxin-producing M. aeruginosa under UV-B exposure was higher than that under PAR alone at an early stage of the experiment. However, its abundance under UV-B exposure was lower compared with the PAR alone treatment after day 12. Our study demonstrated that UV-B radiation has a great impact on the abundance of the toxin-producing strain in the Microcystis population and their toxin production, which suggests that the fluctuation of UV-B radiation affects the MC level of cyanobacteria blooms

  16. Effects of UV-B radiation on microcystin production of a toxic strain of Microcystis aeruginosa and its competitiveness against a non-toxic strain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Zhen, E-mail: zhyang@niglas.ac.cn; Kong, Fanxiang, E-mail: fxkong@niglas.ac.cn; Shi, Xiaoli; Yu, Yang; Zhang, Min

    2015-02-11

    Highlights: • UV-B radiation showed higher inhibition to non-toxin producing than toxin-producing strains on growth and photosynthetic activity. • Both intracellular and extracellular MC contents decreased markedly under UV-B radiation. • Higher resistance to UV-B radiation helped toxin-producing M. aeruginosa to predominate in the competition. - Abstract: Microcystins (MCs) produced by toxic cyanobacteria pose a health hazard to humans and animals. Some environmental factors can alter the MC concentrations by affecting the abundance of toxin-producing strains in a cyanobacteria population and/or their toxin production. In this study, we designed a monoculture and competition experiment to investigate the impacts of UV-B radiation on MC production and the competition between toxin and non-toxin producing strains of Microcystis aeruginosa. UV-B radiation resulted in higher inhibition of the growth and photosynthetic activity of the non-toxin producing strain relative to that observed for the toxin-producing strain. Both intracellular and extracellular MC contents decreased markedly when the toxin-producing strain was exposed to UV-B radiation. In addition, a quantitative real-time PCR assay revealed that the ratio of toxin-producing M. aeruginosa under UV-B exposure was higher than that under PAR alone at an early stage of the experiment. However, its abundance under UV-B exposure was lower compared with the PAR alone treatment after day 12. Our study demonstrated that UV-B radiation has a great impact on the abundance of the toxin-producing strain in the Microcystis population and their toxin production, which suggests that the fluctuation of UV-B radiation affects the MC level of cyanobacteria blooms.

  17. Effect of Temperature and light intensity on growth and Photosynthetic Activity of Chlamydomonas reinhard II; Efecto de la temperatura e intensidad luminosa sobre el crecimiento y actividad fotosintetica del alga Chlamydomonas Reinhardt II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alfonsel Jaen, M; Fernandez Gonzalez, J

    1985-07-01

    The effect of five temperatures (15,20,25,30 and 35 degree centigree) and two levels of illumination on growth and photosynthetic activity of Chlamydomonas reinhard II has been studied. The growth of the cultures was evaluated by optical density. Photosynthetic activity has been carried out studying either the assimilation rate of C0{sub 2} labelled with C-14 or the oxygen evolution by means of polarographic measurements. The maximum photosynthetic rate has been obtained at 25 degree centigree for the lower level of illumination (2400 lux) and at 35 degree centigree for the higher one (13200 lux) and at 35 degree centigree for the higher ono (13200 lux). These results suggest an interaction of temperature and illumination on photosynthetic activity. (Author) 37 refs.

  18. Effect of post-Chernobyl chronic irradiation on some important plant processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goncharova, N.

    1994-01-01

    The efficiency of photosynthetic plant apparatus characterized by photochemical activity of chloroplasts (the Hill reaction), cyclic photophosphorylation and activity of ribulosebiphosphate carboxylase (RuBC) is investigated. These characteristics are used to show the state of plant growing under increased background radiation. There is a trend towards increase of chlorophyll content per unit wet weight of a leaf and reduction in the concentration of soluble protein in irradiated plants. However, the photochemical reactions, as indicated by RuBC activity, are similar. The low hydrolytic activity of chlorophyllase, an enzyme of chlorophyll degradation, indicates a high activity of the photosynthetic apparatus of plants growing under increased background radiation conditions. Thus, the observed resistance of photosynthetic apparatus to ionizing radiation and stimulation of pigment metabolism and activity of photochemical and enzyme reactions reveals a high adaptive ability of plants. Under conditions of elevated radiation background, the processes of photosynthesis in plants may become more active. This in turn may favour the accumulation of green mass and the crop raising. The prolonged chronic action of radionuclides on plants in contaminated zones will be determined by their specific accumulation in individual plant species, their radiosensitivity and factors connected with their growth - type of soil, kind of radionuclide fallout, chemical and physical effects. (author)

  19. Revealing Linear Aggregates of Light Harvesting Antenna Proteins in Photosynthetic Membranes

    OpenAIRE

    He, Yufan; Zeng, Xiaohua; Mukherjee, Saptarshi; Rajapaksha, Suneth; Kaplan, Samuel; Lu, H. Peter

    2010-01-01

    How light energy is harvested in a natural photosynthetic membrane through energy transfer is closely related to the stoichiometry and arrangement of light harvesting antenna proteins in the membrane. The specific photosynthetic architecture facilitates a rapid and efficient energy transfer among the light harvesting proteins (LH2 and LH1) and to the reaction center. Here we report the identification of linear aggregates of light harvesting proteins, LH2, in the photosynthetic membranes under...

  20. Effects of CO2 on the tolerance of photosynthesis to heat stress can be affected by photosynthetic pathway and nitrogen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Dan; Heckathorn, Scott A; Hamilton, E William; Frantz, Jonathan

    2014-01-01

    Determining effects of elevated CO2 and N on photosynthetic thermotolerance is critical for predicting plant responses to global warming. We grew Hordeum vulgare (barley, C3) and Zea mays (corn, C4) at current or elevated CO2 (370, 700 ppm) and limiting or optimal soil N (0.5, 7.5 mmol/L). We assessed thermotolerance of net photosynthesis (Pn), photosystem II efficiency in the light (Fv'/Fm'), photochemical quenching (qp), carboxylation efficiency (CE), and content of rubisco activase and major heat-shock proteins (HSPs). For barley, elevated CO2 had no effect on Pn, qp, and CE at both high and low N and only a positive effect on Fv'/Fm' at high N. However, for corn, Pn, Fv'/Fm', qp, and CE were decreased substantially by elevated CO2 under high and low N, with greater decreases at high N for all but qp. The negative effects of high CO2 during heat stress on photosynthesis were correlated with rubisco activase and HSPs content, which decreased with heat stress, especially for low-N corn. These results indicate that stimulatory effects of elevated CO2 at normal temperatures on photosynthesis and growth (only found for high-N barley) may be partly offset by neutral or negative effects during heat stress, especially for C4 species. Thus, CO2 and N effects on photosynthetic thermotolerance may contribute to changes in plant productivity, distribution, and diversity in future.

  1. Improving Delivery of Photosynthetic Reducing Power to Cytochrome P450s

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mellor, Silas Busck

    at sustainable production of high-value and commodity products. Cytochrome P450 enzymes play key roles in the biosynthesis of important natural products. The electron carrier ferredoxin can couple P450s non-natively to photosynthetic electron supply, providing ample reducing power for catalysis. However......, photosynthetic reducing power feeds into both central and specialized metabolism, which leads to a fiercely competitive system from which to siphon reductant. This thesis explores the optimization of light-driven P450 activity, and proposes strategies to overcome the limitations imposed by competition...... for photosynthetic reducing power. Photosynthetic electron carrier proteins interact with widely different partners because they use relatively non-specific interactions. The mechanistic basis of these interactions and its impact on natural electron transfer complexes is discussed. This particular type...

  2. Biological effects of ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marko, A.M.

    1981-05-01

    In this review radiation produced by the nuclear industry is placed into context with other sources of radiation in our world. Human health effects of radiation, derivation of standards and risk estimates are reviewed in this document. The implications of exposing the worker and the general population to radiation generated by nuclear power are assessed. Effects of radiation are also reviewed. Finally, gaps in our knowledge concerning radiation are identified and current research on biological effects, on environmental aspects, and on dosimetry of radiation within AECL and Canada is documented in this report. (author)

  3. Effect of low-dose 60Co gamma irradiation on the photosynthetic activity of maize seedlings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turcsanyi, G.

    1979-01-01

    Photosynthesis investigations were carried out on maize seedlings treated with 1000 rad of 60 Co gamma irradiation prior to sowing. The aim of the work was to find out, to what degree the individual processes of photosynthesis are affected by small doses of irradiation. The increase in weight, the chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b and carotinoid content as well as the photosynthetic O 2 -evolution and 14 CO 2 -fixation of the seedlings were measured. The results indicate that, in contradiction to the data given in the literature, the occasional increase in weight caused by small-dose irradiation is not in connection with the membrane-bound part of the photosynthetic apparatus, but it is the consequence of the increased activity of the Calvin-cycle enzymes in the stroma of the chloroplasts. (author)

  4. Biological Effects of Ionizing Radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingram, M.; Mason, W. B.; Whipple, G. H.; Howland, J. W.

    1952-04-07

    This report presents a review of present knowledge and concepts of the biological effects of ionizing radiations. Among the topics discussed are the physical and chemical effects of ionizing radiation on biological systems, morphological and physiological changes observed in biological systems subjected to ionizing radiations, physiological changes in the intact animal, latent changes following exposure of biological systems to ionizing radiations, factors influencing the biological response to ionizing radiation, relative effects of various ionizing radiations, and biological dosimetry.

  5. Effects of radiation-counselling convergence education on radiation awareness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seoung, Youl Hun

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of study was to analysis on the effects of radiation-counselling convergence education on radiation awareness. The survey objects were students of radiation-counselling convergence education from 12th May to 22th June in 2016. The questionnaires were education satisfactions and radiation awareness (risk, benefit, control) by Likert-type 5 scales. The analysis results revealed that education satisfactions of men students showed a significant higher female students and correlation coefficient of education satisfactions were the best high in the benefit and control of radiation. Finally radiation-counselling convergence education had a significant effect on radiation benefit. This convergence education influenced positive recognition on radiation benefit and it was indicated that radiation-counselors could treat clients on the basis of radiation benefit

  6. Effects of radiation-counselling convergence education on radiation awareness

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seoung, Youl Hun [Dept. of Radiological Science, College of Health Science, Cheongju University, Cheongju (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-06-15

    The purpose of study was to analysis on the effects of radiation-counselling convergence education on radiation awareness. The survey objects were students of radiation-counselling convergence education from 12th May to 22th June in 2016. The questionnaires were education satisfactions and radiation awareness (risk, benefit, control) by Likert-type 5 scales. The analysis results revealed that education satisfactions of men students showed a significant higher female students and correlation coefficient of education satisfactions were the best high in the benefit and control of radiation. Finally radiation-counselling convergence education had a significant effect on radiation benefit. This convergence education influenced positive recognition on radiation benefit and it was indicated that radiation-counselors could treat clients on the basis of radiation benefit.

  7. UVR-induced photosynthetic inhibition dominates over DNA damage in marine dinoflagellates exposed to fluctuating solar radiation regimes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Helbling, E. Walter; Buma, Anita G. J.; van de Poll, Willem; Fernandez Zenoff, M. Veronica; Villafane, Virginia E.

    2008-01-01

    The combined effect of solar radiation (UV-B (280-315 nm), UWA (315-400 nm) and PAR (400-700 nm)) and vertical mixing (i.e., fluctuating radiation regimes) on the marine dinoflagellates Gymnodinium chlorophorum, Heterocapsa triquetra and Prorocentrum micans was investigated during the austral spring

  8. Effect of some commonly used pesticides on seed germination, biomass production and photosynthetic pigments in tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shakir, Shakirullah Khan; Kanwal, Memoona; Murad, Waheed; Zia ur Rehman; Shafiq ur Rehman; Daud, M K; Azizullah, Azizullah

    2016-03-01

    Pesticides are highly toxic substances. Their toxicity may not be absolutely specific to the target organisms but can adversely affect different processes in the non-target host plants. In the present study, the effect of over application of four commonly used pesticides (emamectin benzoate, alpha-cypermethrin, lambda-cyhalothrin and imidacloprid) was evaluated on the germination, seedling vigor and photosynthetic pigments in tomato. The obtained results revealed that seed germination was decreased by the pesticides and this effect was more prominent at early stages of exposure. All the tested pesticides reduced the growth of tomato when applied in higher concentration than the recommended dose, but at lower doses the pesticides had some stimulatory effects on growth as compared to the control. A similar effect of pesticides was observed on the photosynthetic pigments, i.e. a decrease in pigments concentrations was caused at higher doses but an increase was observed at lower doses of pesticides. The calculation of EC50 values for different parameters revealed the lowest EC50 values for emamectin (ranged as 51-181 mg/L) followed by alpha-cypermethrin (191.74-374.39), lambda-cyhalothrin (102.43-354.28) and imidacloprid (430.29-1979.66 mg/L). A comparison of the obtained EC50 values for different parameters of tomato with the recommended doses revealed that over application of these pesticides can be harmful to tomato crop. In a few cases these pesticides were found toxic even at the recommended doses. However, a field based study in this regard should be conducted to further verify these results.

  9. Light affects the chloroplast ultrastructure and post-storage photosynthetic performance of watermelon (Citrullus lanatus) plug seedlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Qingqing; Jiang, Wu; Ding, Ming; Lin, Ye; Huang, Danfeng

    2014-01-01

    Watermelon [Citrullus lanatus (Thunb.) Matsum. and Nakai] plug seedlings were stored at 15°C in the light at a photosynthetic photon flux density of 15 µmol·m(-2)·s(-1) or in darkness for 6 days, to evaluate their chloroplast ultrastructure, and associated photosynthetic characteristics. Storage in the dark caused swelling, disordered granal arrangement, and starch grain disappearance in the chloroplasts. In contrast, the chloroplasts stored in the light were relatively normal. As a result, the light-stored seedlings had a significantly higher chlorophyll content, Fv/Fm, and Pn than did dark-stored seedlings. Regardless of whether the seedlings were stored in light or darkness, the Gs and Ls of the seedlings significantly decreased, while the Ci obviously increased when the Pn decreased after 6 days of storage. This result suggests that the decreased Pn is not solely a stomatal effect, as the effects on the chloroplasts contributed to this photosynthetic inhibition. Six days after transplanting, seedlings that were stored in the light or darkness for 2 or 4 days showed complete recovery of chloroplast ultrastructure, chlorophyll content, Fv/Fm, Gs and Pn. When the storage period increased to 6 days, the dark-stored seedlings had a significantly lower Fv/Fm and Pn than the light-stored and control seedlings 6 days after transplanting, which was mainly ascribed to incomplete recovery of chloroplast ultrastructure. Furthermore, the light-stored seedlings exhibited a significantly higher shoot dry weight during storage and a higher percentage dry weight increase after transplanting than the dark-stored seedlings. These effects were enhanced by prolonged storage (4 to 6 days). This study demonstrated that dim light during storage is beneficial for maintaining chloroplast ultrastructure as well as photosynthetic efficiency in watermelon seedlings, thus contributing to the rapid recovery of post-storage photosynthetic performance, which ensures the transplant quality

  10. Biological radiation effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiefer, J.

    1989-01-01

    The book covers all aspects of biological radiation effects. The physical basis is dealt with in some detail, and the effects at the subcellular and the cellular level are discussed, taking into account modern developments and techniques. The effects on the human organism are reviewed, both from the point of view of applications in medicine as well as with regard to radiation hazards (teratogenic, gonadal and carcinogenic effects)

  11. Autumn photosynthetic decline and growth cessation in seedlings of white spruce are decoupled under warming and photoperiod manipulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stinziano, Joseph R; Way, Danielle A

    2017-08-01

    Climate warming is expected to increase the seasonal duration of photosynthetic carbon fixation and tree growth in high-latitude forests. However, photoperiod, a crucial cue for seasonality, will remain constant, which may constrain tree responses to warming. We investigated the effects of temperature and photoperiod on weekly changes in photosynthetic capacity, leaf biochemistry and growth in seedlings of a boreal evergreen conifer, white spruce [Picea glauca (Moench) Voss]. Warming delayed autumn declines in photosynthetic capacity, extending the period when seedlings had high carbon uptake. While photoperiod was correlated with photosynthetic capacity, short photoperiods did not constrain the maintenance of high photosynthetic capacity under warming. Rubisco concentration dynamics were affected by temperature but not photoperiod, while leaf pigment concentrations were unaffected by treatments. Respiration rates at 25 °C were stimulated by photoperiod, although respiration at the growth temperatures was increased in warming treatments. Seedling growth was stimulated by increased photoperiod and suppressed by warming. We demonstrate that temperature is a stronger control on the seasonal timing of photosynthetic down-regulation than is photoperiod. Thus, while warming can stimulate carbon uptake in boreal conifers, the extra carbon may be directed towards respiration rather than biomass, potentially limiting carbon sequestration under climate change. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. The Protective Roles of the Antioxidant Enzymes Superoxide Dismutase and Catalase in the Green Photosynthetic Bacterium Chloroflexus Aurantiacus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blankenship, Robert E.; Rothschild, Lynn (Technical Monitor)

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the biochemical response of the green thermophilic photosynthetic bacterium Chloroflexus aurantiacus to oxidative stress. Lab experiments focused primarily on characterizing the antioxidant enzyme superoxide dismutase and the response of this organism to oxidative stress. Experiments in the field at the hotsprings in Yellowstone National Park focused on the changes in the level of these enzymes during the day in response to oxidants and to the different types of ultraviolet radiation.

  13. Changes in growth, photosynthetic activities, biochemical parameters and amino acid profile of Thompson Seedless grapes (Vitis vinifera L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somkuwar, R G; Bahetwar, Anita; Khan, I; Satisha, J; Ramteke, S D; Itroutwar, Prerna; Bhongale, Aarti; Oulkar, Dashrath

    2014-11-01

    The study on photosynthetic activity and biochemical parameters in Thompson Seedless grapes grafted on Dog Ridge rootstock and its impact on growth, yield and amino acid profile at various stages of berry development was conducted during the year 2012-2013. Leaf and berry samples from ten year old vines of Thompson Seedless were collected at different growth and berry developmental stages. The analysis showed difference in photosynthetic activity, biochemical parameters and amino acid status with the changes in berry development stage. Higher photosynthetic rate of 17.39 umol cm(-2) s(-1) was recorded during 3-4mm berry size and the lowest (10.08 umol cm(-2) s(-1)) was recorded during the veraison stage. The photosynthetic activity showed gradual decrease with the onset of harvest while the different biochemical parameters showed increase and decrease from one stage to another in both berry and leaves. Changes in photosynthetic activity and biochemical parameters thereby affected the growth, yield and amino acid content of the berry. Positive correlation of leaf area and photosynthetic rate was recorded during the period of study. Reducing sugar (352.25 mg g(-1)) and total carbohydrate (132.52 mg g(-1)) was more in berries as compared to leaf. Amino acid profile showed variations in different stages of berry development. Marked variations in photosynthetic as well as biochemical and amino acid content at various berry development stages was recorded and thereby its cumulative effect on the development of fruit quality.

  14. Adverse Effects of UV-B Radiation on Plants Growing at Schirmacher Oasis, East Antarctica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Jaswant; Singh, Rudra P

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to assess the impacts of ultraviolet-B (UV-B) radiation over a 28-day period on the levels of pigments of Umbilicaria aprina and Bryum argenteum growing in field. The depletion of stratospheric ozone is most prominent over Antarctica, which receives more UV-B radiation than most other parts of the planet. Although UV-B radiation adversely affects all flora, Antarctic plants are better equipped to survive the damaging effects of UV-B owing to defenses provided by UV-B absorbing compounds and other screening pigments. The UV-B radiations and daily average ozone values were measured by sun photometer and the photosynthetic pigments were analyzed by the standard spectrophotometric methods of exposed and unexposed selected plants. The daily average atmospheric ozone values were recorded from 5 January to 2 February 2008. The maximum daily average for ozone (310.7 Dobson Units (DU)) was recorded on 10 January 2008. On that day, average UV-B spectral irradiances were 0.016, 0.071, and 0.186 W m(-2) at wavelengths of 305, 312, and 320 nm, respectively. The minimum daily average ozone value (278.6 DU) was recorded on 31 January 2008. On that day, average UV-B spectral irradiances were 0.018, 0.085, and 0.210 W m(-2) at wavelengths of 305, 312, and 320 nm, respectively. Our results concludes that following prolonged UV-B exposure, total chlorophyll levels decreased gradually in both species, whereas levels of UV-B absorbing compounds, phenolics, and carotenoids gradually increased.

  15. Photosynthetic responses of C3 and C4 species to seasonal water variability and competition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Shuli; Yuan, Zhiyou; Zhang, Yanfang; Liu, Weixing; Zhang, Lei; Huang, Jianhui; Wan, Shiqiang

    2005-11-01

    This study examined the impacts of seasonal water variability and interspecific competition on the photosynthetic characteristics of a C3 (Leymus chinensis) and a C4 (Chloris virgata) grass species. Plants received the same amount of water but in three seasonal patterns, i.e. the one-peak model (more water in the summer than in the spring and autumn), the two-peak model (more water in the spring and autumn than in the summer), and the average model (water evenly distributed over the growing season). The effects of water variability on the photosynthetic characteristics of the C3 and C4 species were dependent on season. There were significant differences in the photosynthetic characteristics of the C4 species in the summer and the C3 species in the autumn among the three water treatments. Interspecific competition exerted negative impacts on the C3 species in August and September but had no effects on the C4 species in any of the four measuring dates. The relative competitive capability of the two species was not altered by water availability. The assimilation rate, the maximum quantum yield of net CO2 assimilation, and the maximum rate of carboxylation of the C3 species were 13-56%, 5-11%, and 11-48% greater, respectively, in a monoculture than in a mixture in August and September. The results demonstrated that the photosynthetic characteristics of the C3 and C4 species were affected by water availability, but the effects varied considerably with season.

  16. Comparative Study on the Effect of Water Stress and Rootstock on Photosynthetic Function in Pistachio (Pistacia vera L. Trees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abolfazl Ranjbar

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to evaluate the  effects of water deficit stress on chlorophyll fluorescence (CF characteristics of photosystem II (PSII and pigment contents in two rootstock seedlings (Pistacia atlantica L. and P. khinjuk L.. Three levels of soil water potential (Ψs was used, including WWD (-0.05 MPa, MWD (-0.7 MPa and SWD (-1.5 MPa. It was found that water stress increased the minimal fluorescence (F0, quantum yield baseline (F0/Fm and decreased the maximal fluorescence (Fm and maximum quantum yield of PSII photochemistry (Fv/Fm parameters in dark adapted leaves. In light adapted leaves, a significant increase in non-photochemical quenching (NPQ and thermal dissipation of light energy to heat (D and a decrease in electron transport rate (ETR and photochemical efficiency of photosystem II (ΦPSII occurred. The results demonstrated a decline in photosynthetic pigments (Chla, (Chlb and carotenoids (Car content with increasing water stress, whereas there was no significant effect on Chl (a/b and Car/(a+b ratios. Our data revealed there was no different in terms of performance between the two rootstocks in the alteration rate of pigment contents and photosynthetic features against soil water deficit conditions.

  17. Biological effects of particle radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakamoto, Kiyohiko

    1988-01-01

    Conventional radiations such as photons, gamma rays or electrons show several physical or biological disadvantages to bring tumors to cure, therefore, more and more attentions is being paid to new modalitie such as fast neutrons, protons, negative pions and heavy ions, which are expected to overcome some of the defects of the conventional radiations. Except for fast neutrons, these particle radiations show excellet physical dose localization in tissue, moreover, in terms of biological effects, they demonstrate several features compared to conventional radiations, namely low oxygen enhancement ratio, high value of relative biological effectiveness, smaller cellular recovery, larger therapeutic gain factor and less cell cycle dependency in radiation sensitivity. In present paper the biological effects of particle radiations are shown comparing to the effects of conventional radiations. (author)

  18. Toward understanding as photosynthetic biosignatures: light harvesting and energy transfer calculation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komatsu, Y.; Umemura, M.; Shoji, M.; Shiraishi, K.; Kayanuma, M.; Yabana, K.

    2014-03-01

    Among several proposed biosignatures, red edge is a direct evidence of photosynthetic life if it is detected (Kiang et al 2007). Red edge is a sharp change in reflectance spectra of vegetation in NIR region (about 700-750 nm). The sign of red edge is observed by Earthshine or remote sensing (Wolstencroft & Raven 2002, Woolf et al 2002). But, why around 700-750 nm? The photosynthetic organisms on Earth have evolved to optimize the sunlight condition. However, if we consider about photosynthetic organism on extrasolar planets, they should have developed to utilize the spectra of its principal star. Thus, it is not strange even if it shows different vegetation spectra. In this study, we focused on the light absorption mechanism of photosynthetic organisms on Earth and investigated the fundamental properties of the light harvesting mechanisms, which is the first stage for the light absorption. Light harvesting complexes contain photosynthetic pigments like chlorophylls. Effective light absorption and the energy transfer are accomplished by the electronic excitations of collective photosynthetic pigments. In order to investigate this mechanism, we constructed an energy transfer model by using a dipole-dipole approximation for the interactions between electronic excitations. Transition moments and transition energies of each pigment are calculated at the time-dependent density functional theory (TDDFT) level (Marques & Gross 2004). Quantum dynamics simulation for the excitation energy transfer was calculated by the Liouvelle's equation. We adopted the model to purple bacteria, which has been studied experimentally and known to absorb lower energy. It is meaningful to focus on the mechanism of this bacteria, since in the future mission, M planets will become a important target. We calculated the oscillator strengths in one light harvesting complex and confirmed the validity by comparing to the experimental data. This complex is made of an inner and an outer ring. The

  19. Biological effects of ionising radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1987-01-01

    The paper reports the proceedings of a conference organised jointly by Friends of the Earth (U.K.) and Greenpeace (International). The aim of the conference was to discuss the effects of low level radiation, particularly on man, within the terms of dose/risk relationships. The topics discussed included: sources of radiation, radiation discharges from nuclear establishments, predictive modelling of radiation hazards, radiation effects at Hiroshima, low dose effects and ICRP dose limits, variation in sensitivity to radiation, and the link between childhood cancer and nuclear power. (U.K.)

  20. Special issue of photosynthetic research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Okamura, M.; Wraight, C.A.; van Grondelle, R.

    2014-01-01

    This Special Issue of Photosynthesis Research honors Louis M. N. Duysens, Roderick K. Clayton, and George Feher, three pioneering researchers whose work on bacterial photosynthesis laid much of the groundwork for our understanding of the role of the reaction center in photosynthetic light energy

  1. Ultrafast fluorescence of photosynthetic crystals and light-harvesting complexes

    OpenAIRE

    Oort, van, B.F.

    2008-01-01

    This thesis focuses on the study of photosynthetic pigment protein complexes using time resolved fluorescence techniques. Fluorescence spectroscopy often requires attaching fluorescent labels to the proteins under investigation. With photosynthetic proteins this is not necessary, because these proteins contain fluorescent pigments. Each pigment’s fluorescence is influenced by its environment, and thereby may provide information on structure and dynamics of pigment protein complexes in vitro a...

  2. Effects of temperature and salinity on survival rate of cultured corals and photosynthetic efficiency of zooxanthellae in coral tissues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuanui, Pataporn; Chavanich, Suchana; Viyakarn, Voranop; Omori, Makoto; Lin, Chiahsin

    2015-06-01

    This study investigated the effects of temperature and salinity on growth, survival, and photosynthetic efficiency of three coral species, namely, Pocillopora damicornis, Acropora millepora and Platygyra sinensis of different ages (6 and 18 months old). The experimental corals were cultivated via sexual propagation. Colonies were exposed to 5 different temperatures (18, 23, 28, 33, and 38°C) and 5 different salinities (22, 27, 32, 37, and 42 psu). Results showed that temperature significantly affected photosynthetic efficiency (Fv/Fm) (p < 0.05) compared to salinity. The maximum quantum yield of corals decreased ranging from 5% to 100% when these corals were exposed to different temperatures and salinities. Temperature also significantly affected coral growth and survival. However, corals exposed to changes in salinity showed higher survivorship than those exposed to changes in temperature. Results in this study also showed that corals of different ages and of different species did not display the same physiological responses to changes in environmental conditions. Thus, the ability of corals to tolerate salinity and temperature stresses depends on several factors.

  3. Photosynthetic rate, dry matter accumulation and yield inter-relationships jn genotypes of rice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Devendra, R.; Udaya Kumar, M.; Krishna Sastry, K.S.

    1980-01-01

    The relationship between photosynthetic efficiency, dry matter accumulation and yield in five genotypes of paddy derived from a single cross between Jaya X Halubbalu was studied. Photosynthetic efficiency of younger leaves, on the main tiller was higher than in the older leaves. A significant positive correlation between RuDPcase activity and photosynthetic efficiency was observed in these genotypes. Also a similar positive correlation between dry matter production and photosynthetic efficiency during vegetative period but not during post-anthesis period was observed. Genotypes with high photosynthetic efficiency and also the genotypes with high LAD produced higher dry matter. A reduction in LAD or in photosynthetic efficiency during the post-anthesis period and thus a reduction in source capacity which occurred specially in late types resulted in a lesser ratio between productive and total tillers and also higher percent sterility. Differences in yield amongst the genotypes were not significant, since in the late types MR. 333 and MR. 335, the post-anthesis dry matter production was low due to lesser source capacity. But in the early types, though the total dry matter was less, the post-anthesis source capacity was high. The importance of post-anthesis leaf area of photo-synthetic efficiency in productivity in genotypes of rice is highlighted. (author)

  4. Continuous cultivation of photosynthetic microorganisms: Approaches, applications and future trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Bruno D; Mota, Andre; Teixeira, Jose A; Vicente, Antonio A

    2015-11-01

    The possibility of using photosynthetic microorganisms, such as cyanobacteria and microalgae, for converting light and carbon dioxide into valuable biochemical products has raised the need for new cost-efficient processes ensuring a constant product quality. Food, feed, biofuels, cosmetics and pharmaceutics are among the sectors that can profit from the application of photosynthetic microorganisms. Biomass growth in a photobioreactor is a complex process influenced by multiple parameters, such as photosynthetic light capture and attenuation, nutrient uptake, photobioreactor hydrodynamics and gas-liquid mass transfer. In order to optimize productivity while keeping a standard product quality, a permanent control of the main cultivation parameters is necessary, where the continuous cultivation has shown to be the best option. However it is of utmost importance to recognize the singularity of continuous cultivation of cyanobacteria and microalgae due to their dependence on light availability and intensity. In this sense, this review provides comprehensive information on recent breakthroughs and possible future trends regarding technological and process improvements in continuous cultivation systems of microalgae and cyanobacteria, that will directly affect cost-effectiveness and product quality standardization. An overview of the various applications, techniques and equipment (with special emphasis on photobioreactors) in continuous cultivation of microalgae and cyanobacteria are presented. Additionally, mathematical modeling, feasibility, economics as well as the applicability of continuous cultivation into large-scale operation, are discussed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Effect of Salinity Stress and Foliar Application of Methyl Jasmonate on Photosynthetic Rate, Stomatal Conductance, Water Use Efficiency and Yield of German Chamomile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    fatemeh Salimi

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Jasmonate is new plant growth regulator that plays an essential role at increasing plants resistance to the environmental stresses like salinity stress. Hence, in this research the effect of foliar application of methyl jasmonate on some physiological indices and yield of German chamomile under salinity conditions was studied. A factorial experiment was laid out based on randomized complete block design (RCBD with three replications in the greenhouse condition. Foliar application of methyl jasmonate was five levels (MJ1; 0, MJ2; 75, MJ3; 150, MJ4; 225 and MJ5; 300 μM and salinity stress was four levels (S1; 2, S2; 6, S3; 10, S4; 14 dS m-1. The effect of methyl jasmonate, salinity condition treatments and their interaction was significant for traits of photosynthesis rate, stomata conductance, transpiration rate, carboxylation efficiency, intercellular CO2 concentration and yield of flower. The highest values of photosynthetic rate, stomata conductance, transpiration rate, carboxylation efficiency and yield of flower (3.76 g pot-1 and the lowest intercellular CO2 concentration were achieved at MJ×S treatment. Maximum value of photosynthetic water use efficiency was revealed at MJ5×S2 treatment. With decreasing stomata conductance, photosynthetic water use efficiency and intercellular CO2 concentration were increased. In general, it seems that application of methyl jasmonate by lower dose (MJ2 under salinity conditions especially mild salinity stress (S2 can improve physiological indices and yield of chamomile.

  6. Short-term light and leaf photosynthetic dynamics affect estimates of daily understory photosynthesis in four tree species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naumburg, Elke; Ellsworth, David S

    2002-04-01

    Instantaneous measurements of photosynthesis are often implicitly or explicitly scaled to longer time frames to provide an understanding of plant performance in a given environment. For plants growing in a forest understory, results from photosynthetic light response curves in conjunction with diurnal light data are frequently extrapolated to daily photosynthesis (A(day)), ignoring dynamic photosynthetic responses to light. In this study, we evaluated the importance of two factors on A(day) estimates: dynamic physiological responses to photosynthetic photon flux density (PPFD); and time-resolution of the PPFD data used for modeling. We used a dynamic photosynthesis model to investigate how these factors interact with species-specific photosynthetic traits, forest type, and sky conditions to affect the accuracy of A(day) predictions. Increasing time-averaging of PPFD significantly increased the relative overestimation of A(day) similarly for all study species because of the nonlinear response of photosynthesis to PPFD (15% with 5-min PPFD means). Depending on the light environment characteristics and species-specific dynamic responses to PPFD, understory tree A(day) can be overestimated by 6-42% for the study species by ignoring these dynamics. Although these overestimates decrease under cloudy conditions where direct sunlight and consequently understory sunfleck radiation is reduced, they are still significant. Within a species, overestimation of A(day) as a result of ignoring dynamic responses was highly dependent on daily sunfleck PPFD and the frequency and irradiance of sunflecks. Overall, large overestimates of A(day) in understory trees may cause misleading inferences concerning species growth and competition in forest understories with sunlight. We conclude that comparisons of A(day) among co-occurring understory species in deep shade will be enhanced by consideration of sunflecks by using high-resolution PPFD data and understanding the physiological

  7. Health effects of radiation and the implications for radiation safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez, A.J.; Anderer, J.

    1991-01-01

    In this Paper two elements of a multiphase analysis of radiation exposures in the living environment - the human health effects of ionizing radiation and the implications for radiation safety policy and practices - are presented. Part 1 draws together the current state of scientific knowledge and insight about the human health effects of radiation, describing these in terms of known cause-related deterministic effects and of the estimated incidence of stochastic effects as defined by biostatistics and biological models. The 1988 UNSCEAR report provides an authoritative basis for such an examination. Part 2 explores some of the major implications that the state-of-the-art of radiation biology has - or should have - for radiation safety policy and practices. (author)

  8. Effects of lindane on the photosynthetic apparatus of the cyanobacterium Anabaena: fluorescence induction studies and immunolocalization of ferredoxin-NADP+ reductase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bueno, Marta; Fillat, Maria F; Strasser, Reto J; Maldonado-Rodriguez, Ronald; Marina, Nerea; Smienk, Henry; Gómez-Moreno, Carlos; Barja, Francisco

    2004-01-01

    Cyanobacteria have the natural ability to degrade moderate amounts of organic pollutants. However, when pollutant concentration exceeds the level of tolerance, bleaching of the cells and death occur within 24 hours. Under stress conditions, cyanobacterial response includes the short-term adaptation of the photosynthetic apparatus to light quality, named state transitions. Moreover, prolonged stresses produce changes in the functional organization of phycobilisomes and in the core-complexes of both photosystems, which can result in large changes in the PS II fluorescence yield. The localization of ferredoxin-NADP+ reductase (FNR) at the ends of some peripheral rods of the cyanobacterial phycobilisomes, makes this protein a useful marker to check phycobilisome integrity. The goal of this work is to improve the knowledge of the mechanism of action of a very potent pesticide, lindane (gamma-hexaclorociclohexane), in the cyanobacterium Anabaena sp., which can be considered a potential candidate for bioremediation of pesticides. We have studied the effect of lindane on the photosynthetic apparatus of Anabaena using fluorescence induction studies. As ferredoxin-NADP+ reductase plays a key role in the response to oxidative stress in several systems, changes in synthesis, degradation and activity of FNR were analyzed. Immunolocalization of this enzyme was used as a marker of phycobilisome integrity. The knowledge of the changes caused by lindane in the photosynthetic apparatus is essential for rational further design of genetically-modified cyanobacteria with improved biorremediation abilities. Polyphasic chlorophyll a fluorescence rise measurements (OJIP) have been used to evaluate the vitality and stress adaptation of the nitrogen-fixing cyanobacterium Anabaena PCC 7119 in the presence of increasing concentrations of lindane. Effects of the pesticide on the ultrastructure have been investigated by electron microscopy, and FNR has been used as a marker of phycobilisome

  9. A new empirical model to estimate hourly diffuse photosynthetic photon flux density

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foyo-Moreno, I.; Alados, I.; Alados-Arboledas, L.

    2018-05-01

    Knowledge of the photosynthetic photon flux density (Qp) is critical in different applications dealing with climate change, plant physiology, biomass production, and natural illumination in greenhouses. This is particularly true regarding its diffuse component (Qpd), which can enhance canopy light-use efficiency and thereby boost carbon uptake. Therefore, diffuse photosynthetic photon flux density is a key driving factor of ecosystem-productivity models. In this work, we propose a model to estimate this component, using a previous model to calculate Qp and furthermore divide it into its components. We have used measurements in urban Granada (southern Spain), of global solar radiation (Rs) to study relationships between the ratio Qpd/Rs with different parameters accounting for solar position, water-vapour absorption and sky conditions. The model performance has been validated with experimental measurements from sites having varied climatic conditions. The model provides acceptable results, with the mean bias error and root mean square error varying between - 0.3 and - 8.8% and between 9.6 and 20.4%, respectively. Direct measurements of this flux are very scarce so that modelling simulations are needed, this is particularly true regarding its diffuse component. We propose a new parameterization to estimate this component using only measured data of solar global irradiance, which facilitates its use for the construction of long-term data series of PAR in regions where continuous measurements of PAR are not yet performed.

  10. Radiation effects and radiation risks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lengfelder, E.; Forst, D.; Feist, H.; Pratzel, H.

    1988-01-01

    The book presents the facts and the principles of assessment and evaluation of biological radiation effects in general and also with particular reference to the reactor accident of Chernobyl, reviewing the consequences and the environmental situation on the basis of current national and international literature, including research work by the authors. The material compiled in this book is intended especially for physicians, but will also prove useful for persons working in the public health services, in administration, or other services taking care of people. The authors tried to find an easily comprehensible way of presenting and explaining the very complex processes and mechanisms of biological radiation effects and carcinogenesis, displaying the physical primary processes and the mechanisms of the molecular radiation effects up to the effects of low-level radiation, and present results of comparative epidemiologic studies. This section has been given considerable space, in proportion to its significance. It also contains literature references for further reading, offering more insight and knowledge of aspects of special subject fields. The authors also present less known results and data and discuss them against the background of well-known research results and approaches. Apart from the purpose of presenting comprehensive information, the authors intend to give an impact for further thinking about the problems, and helpful tools for independent decisions and action on the basis of improved insight and assessment, and in this context particularly point to the problems induced by the Chernobyl reactor accident. (orig./MG) With 8 maps in appendix [de

  11. Biological effects of radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    This fourth chapter presents: cell structure and metabolism; radiation interaction with biological tissues; steps of the production of biological effect of radiation; radiosensitivity of tissues; classification of biological effects; reversibility, transmissivity and influence factors; pre-natal biological effects; biological effects in therapy and syndrome of acute irradiation

  12. The response of antioxidant systems in Nostoc sphaeroides against UV-B radiation and the protective effects of exogenous antioxidants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Gaohong; Hu, Chunxiang; Li, Dunhai; Zhang, Delu; Li, Xiaoyan; Chen, Kun; Liu, Yongding

    UV radiation is one of many harmful factors found in space that are detrimental to organisms on earth in space exploration. In the present work, we examined the role of antioxidant system in Nostoc sphaeroides Kütz (Cyanobacterium) and the effects of exogenously applied antioxidant molecules on its photosynthetic rate under UV-B radiation. It was found that UV-B radiation promoted the activity of antioxidant system to protect photosystem II (PSII) and exogenously applied antioxidant: sodium nitroprusside (SNP) and N-acetylcysteine (NAC) had an obvious protection on PSII activity under UV-B radiation. The activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD, EC 1.15.1.1), catalase (CAT, EC 1.11.1.6), peroxidase (POD, EC 1.11.1.7) and content of MDA (malondialdehyde) and ASC (ascorbate) were improved by 0.5 mM and 1 mM SNP, but 0.1 mM SNP decreased the activity of antioxidant system. Addition of exogenous NAC decreased the activity of SOD, POD, CAT and the content MDA and ASC. In contrast, exogenously applied NAC increased GSH content. The results suggest that exogenous SNP and NAC may protect algae by different mechanisms: SNP may play double roles as both sources of reactive free radicals as well as ROS scavengers in mediating the protective role of PSII on algae under UV-B radiation. On the other hand, NAC functions as an antioxidant or precursor of glutathione, which could protect PSII directly from UV-B radiation.

  13. Phytochromes in photosynthetically competent plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pratt, L.H.

    1990-07-01

    Plants utilize light as a source of information in photomorphogenesis and of free energy in photosynthesis, two processes that are interrelated in that the former serves to increase the efficiency with which plants can perform the latter. Only one pigment involved in photomorphogenesis has been identified unequivocally, namely phytochrome. The thrust of this proposal is to investigate this pigment and its mode(s) of action in photosynthetically competent plants. Our long term objective is to characterize phytochrome and its functions in photosynthetically competent plants from molecular, biochemical and cellular perspectives. It is anticipated that others will continue to contribute indirectly to these efforts at the physiological level. The ultimate goal will be to develop this information from a comparative perspective in order to learn whether the different phytochromes have significantly different physicochemical properties, whether they fulfill independent functions and if so what these different functions are, and how each of the different phytochromes acts at primary molecular and cellular levels.

  14. Effect of fluoride on the cell viability, cell organelle potential, and photosynthetic capacity of freshwater and soil algae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chae, Yooeun; Kim, Dokyung; An, Youn-Joo

    2016-12-01

    Although fluoride occurs naturally in the environment, excessive amounts of fluoride in freshwater and terrestrial ecosystems can be harmful. We evaluated the toxicity of fluoride compounds on the growth, viability, and photosynthetic capacity of freshwater (Chlamydomonas reinhardtii and Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata) and terrestrial (Chlorococcum infusionum) algae. To measure algal growth inhibition, a flow cytometric method was adopted (i.e., cell size, granularity, and auto-fluorescence measurements), and algal yield was calculated to assess cell viability. Rhodamine123 and fluorescein diacetate were used to evaluate mitochondrial membrane potential (MMA, ΔΨ m ) and cell permeability. Nine parameters related to the photosynthetic capacity of algae were also evaluated. The results indicated that high concentrations of fluoride compounds affected cell viability, cell organelle potential, and photosynthetic functions. The cell viability measurements of the three algal species decreased, but apoptosis was only observed in C. infusionum. The MMA (ΔΨ m ) of cells exposed to fluoride varied among species, and the cell permeability of the three species generally decreased. The decrease in the photosynthetic activity of algae may be attributable to the combination of fluoride ions (F - ) with magnesium ions (Mg 2+ ) in chlorophyll. Our results therefore provide strong evidence for the potential risks of fluoride compounds to microflora and microfauna in freshwater and terrestrial ecosystems. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Notes on radiation effects on materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anno, J.N.

    1984-01-01

    The effects of radiation from nuclear reactions on various classes of materials are examined in an introductory textbook for students of nuclear engineering. Topics discussed include the units and general scale of radiation damage, fundamental interactions of neutrons and gamma rays with materials, transient radiation effects on electrical components, radiation effects on organic materials and on steels, nuclear fission effects, surface effects of nuclear radiations, radiation effects on biological material, and neutron and gamma-ray dosimetry. Graphs, diagrams, tables of numerical data, and problems for each chapter are provided. 122 references

  16. REPEATED MEASURES ANALYSIS OF CHANGES IN PHOTOSYNTHETIC EFFICIENCY IN SOUR CHERRY DURING WATER DEFICIT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marija Viljevac

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to investigate changes in photosynthetic efficiency applying repeated measures ANOVA using the photosynthetic performance index (PIABS of the JIP-test as a vitality parameter in seven genotypes of sour cherry (Prunus cerasus, L. during 10 days of continuous water deficit. Both univariate and multivariate ANOVA repeated measures revealed highly significant time effect (Days and its subsequent interactions with genotype and water deficit. However, the multivariate Pillai’s trace test detected the interaction Time × Genotype × Water deficit as not significant. According to the Tukey’s Studentized Range (HSD test, differences between the control and genotypes exposed to water stress became significant on the fourth day of the experiment, indicating that the plants on the average, began to lose their photosynthetic efficiency four days after being exposed to water shortage. It corroborates previous findings in other species that PIABS is very sensitive tool for detecting drought stress.

  17. Warming delays autumn declines in photosynthetic capacity in a boreal conifer, Norway spruce (Picea abies).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stinziano, Joseph R; Hüner, Norman P A; Way, Danielle A

    2015-12-01

    Climate change, via warmer springs and autumns, may lengthen the carbon uptake period of boreal tree species, increasing the potential for carbon sequestration in boreal forests, which could help slow climate change. However, if other seasonal cues such as photoperiod dictate when photosynthetic capacity declines, warmer autumn temperatures may have little effect on when carbon uptake capacity decreases in these species. We investigated whether autumn warming would delay photosynthetic decline in Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) H. Karst.) by growing seedlings under declining weekly photoperiods and weekly temperatures either at ambient temperature or a warming treatment 4 °C above ambient. Photosynthetic capacity was relatively constant in both treatments when weekly temperatures were >8 °C, but declined rapidly at lower temperatures, leading to a delay in the autumn decline in photosynthetic capacity in the warming treatment. The decline in photosynthetic capacity was not related to changes in leaf nitrogen or chlorophyll concentrations, but was correlated with a decrease in the apparent fraction of leaf nitrogen invested in Rubisco, implicating a shift in nitrogen allocation away from the Calvin cycle at low autumn growing temperatures. Our data suggest that as the climate warms, the period of net carbon uptake will be extended in the autumn for boreal forests dominated by Norway spruce, which could increase total carbon uptake in these forests. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. [Engineering photosynthetic cyanobacterial chassis: a review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Qin; Chen, Lei; Wang, Jiangxin; Zhang, Weiwen

    2013-08-01

    Photosynthetic cyanobacteria possess a series of good properties, such as their abilities to capture solar energy for CO2 fixation, low nutritional requirements for growth, high growth rate, and relatively simple genetic background. Due to the high oil price and increased concern of the global warming in recent years, cyanobacteria have attracted widespread attention because they can serve as an 'autotrophic microbial factory' for producing renewable biofuels and fine chemicals directly from CO2. Particularly, significant progress has been made in applying synthetic biology techniques and strategies to construct and optimize cyanobacteria chassis. In this article, we critically summarized recent advances in developing new methods to optimize cyanobacteria chassis, improving cyanobacteria photosynthetic efficiency, and in constructing cyanobacteria chassis tolerant to products or environmental stresses. In addition, various industrial applications of cyanobacteria chassis are also discussed.

  19. Space radiation effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Shiqing; Yan Heping

    1995-01-01

    The authors briefly discusses the radiation environment in near-earth space and it's influences on material, and electronic devices using in space airship, also, the research developments in space radiation effects are introduced

  20. The effect of gibberellic acid on some photosynthetic products in the leaves of grapes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kismali, I.; Kilinc, R.

    1976-01-01

    In the research work set up to examine the effect of giberellic acid on the some photosynthetic products formed in the leaves of cabernet souvignon grapes. A series of tests were performed by applying 0, 25, 50 ppm of giberellic acid to the leaves. The fractions of sugar, soluble amino acid and organic acid all labelled by C 14 O 2 , are determined by radioactivite counts and using the results obtained. The total amounts were calculated. The fresh weight of leaves subject to GA application increases considerably, on the other hand no significant effect of giberellic acid on the dry weight was detected. Increasing the amount of giberellic acid from 25 ppm to 50 ppm does not cause any change neither on fresh weight nor on dry weight of leaves. It is noted that the application of giberellic acid not change the amount of sugar present in the leaves, however, the amount of soluble amino acid decreases while the amount of organic acid increases. Still increasing the amount of giberellic acid has no effect on the amount of these fractions

  1. Non-photosynthetic plastids as hosts for metabolic engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mellor, Silas Busck; Behrendorff, James B Y H; Nielsen, Agnieszka Zygadlo; Jensen, Poul Erik; Pribil, Mathias

    2018-04-13

    Using plants as hosts for production of complex, high-value compounds and therapeutic proteins has gained increasing momentum over the past decade. Recent advances in metabolic engineering techniques using synthetic biology have set the stage for production yields to become economically attractive, but more refined design strategies are required to increase product yields without compromising development and growth of the host system. The ability of plant cells to differentiate into various tissues in combination with a high level of cellular compartmentalization represents so far the most unexploited plant-specific resource. Plant cells contain organelles called plastids that retain their own genome, harbour unique biosynthetic pathways and differentiate into distinct plastid types upon environmental and developmental cues. Chloroplasts, the plastid type hosting the photosynthetic processes in green tissues, have proven to be suitable for high yield protein and bio-compound production. Unfortunately, chloroplast manipulation often affects photosynthetic efficiency and therefore plant fitness. In this respect, plastids of non-photosynthetic tissues, which have focused metabolisms for synthesis and storage of particular classes of compounds, might prove more suitable for engineering the production and storage of non-native metabolites without affecting plant fitness. This review provides the current state of knowledge on the molecular mechanisms involved in plastid differentiation and focuses on non-photosynthetic plastids as alternative biotechnological platforms for metabolic engineering. © 2018 The Author(s). Published by Portland Press Limited on behalf of the Biochemical Society.

  2. Growth, photosynthetic pigments and production of essential oil of long-pepper under different light conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VANDIMILLI A. LIMA

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Piper hispidinervum C. DC. is popularly known as long-pepper and it owns a commercial value due to the essential oil it produces. Long-pepper oil is rich in safrole and eugenoln components that have insecticidal, fungicidal and bactericidal activity. It has been establish that to medicinal plants light influences not only growth but also essential oil production. The growth, the content of photosynthetic pigments and the essential oil production of Piper hispidinervum at greenhouses with different light conditions was evaluated. The treatments were characterized by cultivation of plants for 180 days under different light conditions, produced by shading greenhouses with 50% and 30% of natural incident irradiance, two colored shading nets red (RN and blue (BN both blocking 50% of the incident radiation and one treatment at full-sun (0% of shade. The results showed that the treatments of 50% shade and RN and BN were the ones which stimulated the greater growth. Blue and red light also had the best production of photosynthetic pigments. Essential oil yielded more under full sun therefore this is the most indicated condition to produce seedlings for the chemical and pharmaceutical industry.

  3. Growth, photosynthetic pigments and production of essential oil of long-pepper under different light conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, Vandimilli A; Pacheco, Fernanda V; Avelar, Rafaella P; Alvarenga, Ivan C A; Pinto, José Eduardo B P; Alvarenga, Amauri A DE

    2017-01-01

    Piper hispidinervum C. DC. is popularly known as long-pepper and it owns a commercial value due to the essential oil it produces. Long-pepper oil is rich in safrole and eugenoln components that have insecticidal, fungicidal and bactericidal activity. It has been establish that to medicinal plants light influences not only growth but also essential oil production. The growth, the content of photosynthetic pigments and the essential oil production of Piper hispidinervum at greenhouses with different light conditions was evaluated. The treatments were characterized by cultivation of plants for 180 days under different light conditions, produced by shading greenhouses with 50% and 30% of natural incident irradiance, two colored shading nets red (RN) and blue (BN) both blocking 50% of the incident radiation and one treatment at full-sun (0% of shade). The results showed that the treatments of 50% shade and RN and BN were the ones which stimulated the greater growth. Blue and red light also had the best production of photosynthetic pigments. Essential oil yielded more under full sun therefore this is the most indicated condition to produce seedlings for the chemical and pharmaceutical industry.

  4. Seasonal variation of solar radiation and underwater irradiance in the Seto inland sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Endo, T.; Matsuda, O.; Imabayashi, H.

    1983-01-01

    The recent rapid eutrophication of the coastal seas of Japan has had a remarkable effect on the turbidity and transparency of the sea water, hence on the attenuation of underwater irradiance, which in turn influences the phytoplankton communities and primary productivity of the area. The present study deals with the continuous three years observation of the total short-wave radiation, direct short-wave radiation, diffused short-wave radiation and photosynthetically active radiation of tlle Seto Inland Sea. Along with these observations, reflected short-wave radiation from the sea and transmitted short-wave radiation into the sea were determined. The availability of solar radiation for primary production, vertical distribution of spectral irradiance and attenuation coefficient were also discussed in relation to the optical water type of the region. 1. A typical seasonal variation in the monthly mean daily solar radiation (total short-wave radiation) was observed, with a maximal value of 17.0 MJ 2 in July and minimal values of 7.4 to 7.5 MJ 2 through November to January. 2. Seasonal variation of direct short-wave radiation was nearly identical to that of total short-wave radiation, with 9.3 MJ 2 at maximum and 4.1MJ 2 at minimum. Diffused short-wave radiation increased in June and decreased in January. The ratio of diffused short-wave radiation to total short-wave radiation ranged from 394000 62% with an average of 49%.0 3. Seasonal variation of photosynthetically active radiation was very similar to that of direct short-wave radiation, with values of 7.3 MJ 2 in July and of 3.3 MJ 2 in December 4. The albedo at the sea surface changed according to the incidence angle and surface conditions. Average daily values ranged from 2.9% on a fine summer day to 10% on an overcasted day in winter. 5. Underwater irradiance at a depth of 50cm varied widely according to such parameters as turbidity and the surface condition of the water. Observation revealed a remarkable decrease

  5. The effects of coal dust on photosynthetic performance of the mangrove, Avicennia marina in Richards Bay, South Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naidoo, G.; Chirkoot, D.

    2004-01-01

    Richards Bay, on the northern KwaZulu-Natal coast, is the largest coal exporting port in South Africa. The coal is stored at the Richards Bay Coal Terminal (RBCT) prior to export. Dust from coal operations is a major problem in the Richards Bay area. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that coal dust adversely affects photosynthetic performance of Avicennia marina (Forssk.) Vierh., the dominant mangrove species in the harbour. Photosynthetic performance was determined on 10 trees by measuring carbon dioxide uptake and chlorophyll fluorescence parameters at two elevation sites and on upper and lower leaf surfaces that were covered or uncovered with coal dust. Measurements were made on five clear, sunny days at saturating light (>1000 μmol m -2 s -1 ) and high temperature (28-30 deg. C). Coal dust significantly reduced carbon dioxide exchange of upper and lower leaf surfaces by 17-39%, the reduction being generally greater on the lower leaf surface that is covered by a dense mat of trichomes and salt glands. The reduction in carbon dioxide exchange by coal dust was higher at the high elevation site that supported isolated dwarfed trees. The chlorophyll fluorescence data indicated that leaves coated with dust exhibited significantly lower photosystem II (PS II) quantum yield, lower electron transport rate (ETR) through PSII and reduced quantum efficiency of PSII (F v F m ). The chlorophyll fluorescence data supported the gas exchange measurements and are consistent with reduced photosynthetic performance of leaves coated with coal dust. - Coal dust reduced photosynthetic performance of the mangrove, Avicennia marina

  6. Bioaccumulation and effect of cadmium in the photosynthetic apparatus of Prosopis juliflora

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Yared Michel-López

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available In the present study Prosopis juliflora plants grown in hydroponics solution were exposed to 50,100 and 1000 μM CdCl2. The cadmium uptake, transport and toxicity on the photosynthetic activities in the plants were measured at 48 h after starting cadmium treatments. The results showed that the concentration of Cd2+ in P. juliflora tended to increase with addition of Cd2+ to hydroponics solution. However, the increase of Cd2+ in roots and leaves varied largely. In this sense, the accumulation of Cd2+ in P. juliflora roots increased significantly in proportion with the addition of this metal. In contrast a relatively low level of Cd2+ transportation index, and bioaccumulation factor were found in P. juliflora at 48 h after of treatments. On the other hand the maximum photochemical efficiency of photosystem II (Fv/Fm and the activity of photosystem II (Fv/Fo ratios in P. juliflora leaf treated with Cd2+ not showed significantly changes during the experiment. These results suggested that the photosynthetic apparatus of P. juliflora was not the primary target of the Cd2+ action. Further studies will be focused in understanding the participation of the root system in Prosopis plants with the rhizosphere activation and root adsorption to soil Cd2+ under natural conditions.

  7. Biotechnological Approaches to Enhance Halotolerance and Photosynthetic Efficacy in the Cyanobacterium, Fremyella diplosiphon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabatabai, Ben

    Growing concerns over dwindling energy supplies linked to nonrenewable fossil fuels have driven profound interest in biofuels as a clean and sustainable alternative. Cyanobacteria are a promising source of third-generation biofuel due to their fast generation time and high net biomass conversion. In this study, the effect of salinity stress on Fremyella diplosiphon, a model organism for studying photosynthetic pathways, was investigated and nanobiotechnological approaches undertaken to enhance its halotolerance and photosynthetic efficacy. Heat-induced mutagenesis resulted in a mutant strain that could survive in 20 g L-1 sodium chloride (NaCl) with no loss in pigmentation. To further enhance F. diplosiphon halotolerance, expression plasmids harboring the hlyB and mdh genes were overexpressed in the wild type resulting in two transformants that thrived in 35 g L-1 NaCl, the average salinity of sea water. In addition, no significant reduction in photosynthetic efficacy was detected in the halotolerant strains relative to the wild type. Total lipid content and fatty acid methyl ester composition of wild type and halotolerant strains were assessed for their potential as a production-scale biofuel agent. Methyl palmitate, the methyl ester of hexodeconoate (C16:0), was found to be most abundant in the wild type and transformants accounting for 60-70% of total FAMEs produced. Efforts to enhance the photosynthetic efficiency of the strains revealed that gold nanoparticle-derived surface plasmon resonance augmented culture growth and pigment accumulation. Cell-nanoparticles interactions were visualized using scanning and transmission electron microscopy. Our findings address two key challenges that cyanobacterial biofuel agents need to overcome: enhanced halotolerance and photosynthetic efficacy to minimize freshwater input and artificial light supply. These innovations have paved the way for an efficient cyanobacterial cultivation system for large-scale production of

  8. Effects of ultraviolet radiation on viability of isolated Beta vulgaris and Hordeum vulgare protoplasts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bornman, J.F.; Bjoern, L.O.; Bornman, C.H.

    1982-01-01

    Estimates of viability as measured by vital straining with fluorescein diacetate were carried out on freshly isolated and partially aged (16-hour-old) Beta vulgaris and Hordeum vulgare mesophyll protoplasts following irradiation with UV-B. Damage to the photosynthetic system by UV-B was determined by delayed light emission (DLE). In the case of freshly isolated Protoplasts Beta was approximately 30% more susceptible than Hordeum following 3h irradiation, with viability decreasing from 90% to 40%. After storage of protoplasts on ice for 16 h UV-B radiation markedly depressed viability in both species, but in the case of Hordeum there was a substantial initial loss of nearly 70% in viability over the first hour of irradiation. The first 10 min of UV-B radiation decreased the intensity of DLE by 40% without appreciably affecting the decay rate. Longer treatment times did not give a proportional effect so that even after 60 min of UV-B the inhibition did not exceed 60%. This suggested that although the enzyme system responsible for FDA hydrolysis may be partially inactivated (viability was 75-80% as compared with 90% in the control), the UV-B did not penetrate the innermost parts of the chloroplasts, but left some thylakoids undamaged. (orig.)

  9. Research on radiation effect and radiation protection at JAEA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saito, Kimiaki

    2007-01-01

    Researches on radiation effect and radiation protection at JAEA have been carried out in different sections. In recent years, the organizations were rearranged to attain better research circumstances, and new research programs started. At present, radiation effect studies focus on radiation effect mechanisms at atomic, molecular and cellular levels including simulation studies, and protection studies focus on dosimetry for conditions difficult to cover with currently used methods and data as well as the related basic studies. The outlines of the whole studies and also some descriptions on selected subjects will be given in this paper. (author)

  10. Separation, identification and quantification of photosynthetic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Thirty one photosynthetic pigments (chlorophylls, carotenoids and degradation products) from the seaweeds, Codium dwarkense, (Chlorophyta), , Laurencia obtusa , (Rhodophyta) and , Lobophora variegata, (Phaeophyta), were separated in a single-step procedure by reversed phase high-performance liquid ...

  11. EFFECTS OF NITROGEN NUTRIENT ON THE PHOTOSYNTHETIC PIGMENTS ACCUMULATION AND YIELD OF SOLANUM LYCOPERSICUM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adekunle Ajayi ADELUSI

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated photosynthetic pigment accumulation and yield of Solanum lycopersicum so as to ascertain the maximum concentration of nitrogen needed for optimum production. Seeds of S. lycopersicum tagged with VG-TH-017 were firstly raised in nursery bed. At the end of 28th day after sowing, the seedlings with uniform height were transplanted into experimental pots with 4 seedlings per pot under greenhouse. All the experimental pots were 40 in total, 4 levels of nitrogen (KNO3 and NH4NO3 treatment (n, N, 5N, 10N with 10 replicates. All the plants in the four treatments received 200ml of distilled water at 6a.m. in the morning every day. At 6p.m. in the evening, 100 ml of the differential treatments were applied. The photosynthetic pigments were determined spectrophotometrically. The number of flowers and fruits per plant per pot were counted and recorded. The fruit lengths and fruit diameters in each treatment were determined with the use of a Vernier Caliper. The fruits biomass were also determined. The 10N-plants and 5N-plants had leaves with deep-green colouration indicating an increase in chlorophyll content as well as an increase in the photosynthetic capacity. The highest number of flowers and early flowering discovered in 10N-plants and 5N-plants. The best yield was obtained in the treatments for the 5N-plants in which the concentration of nitrogen in the nutrient solution had been increased to a factor of 5. It is therefore suggested that when the seeds of tomato plants VG-TH-017 are to be grown, the 5N treatment is the most suitable level of application.

  12. A-bomb radiation effects digest

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shigematsu, Itsuzo; Akiyama, Mitoshi; Sasaki, Hideo; Ito, Chikako; Kamada, Nanao.

    1993-01-01

    This publication is the digest of the book 'Genbaku Hoshasen no Jintai Eikyo (Effects of A-bomb Radiation on the Human Body)' (365p.), published in Japanese by Hiroshima International Council for Medical Care of the Radiation-Exposed. Following a brief description on the damage of the atomic bomb, the subjects of malignant tumors, endocrine and metabolic deseases, ocular lesions, dermatologic effects, prenatal exposure, chromosoal aberrations, mutations, sensitivity to radiation, immune function, genetic effects and other effects of radiation are summarized. (J.P.N.)

  13. Sun and Shade leaves, SIF, and Photosynthetic Capacity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, J. A.; Badgley, G.

    2016-12-01

    Recent advances in retrieval of solar induced chlorophyll fluorescence (SIF) have opened up new possibilities for remote sensing of canopy physiology and structure. To date most of the emphasis has been placed on SIF as an indicator of stress and photosynthetic capacity. However, it is clear that canopy structure can also have an influence. To this point, simulations of SIF in land surface models tend to under predict observed variation in SIF. Also, large, systematic differences in SIF from different canopy types seem to correlate well with the photosynthetic capacity of these canopies. SIF emissions from pampered crops can be several-fold that from evergreen, needle-leaf forests. Yet, these may have similar vegetation indices and absorb a similar fraction of incident PAR. SIF photons produced in a conifer canopy do have a lower probability of escaping its dense, clumped foliage. However, this does not explain the correlated differences in photosynthetic rate and SIF. It is useful, in this regard, to consider the separate contributions of sun and shade leaves to the SIF emitted by a canopy. Sun leaves tend to be displayed to intercept the direct solar beam, and these highly illuminated leaves are often visible from above the canopy. Sun leaves produce more SIF and a large fraction of it escapes. Therefore, the intensity of SIF may be a sensitive indicator of the partitioning of absorbed PAR to sun and shade leaves. Many models account tor the different photosynthetic capacity of sun and shade leaves in calculating canopy responses. However, the fraction of leaves in each category is usually parameterized by an assumed leaf angle distribution (e.g. spherical). In reality, the sun/shade fraction can vary over a wide range, and it has been difficult to measure. SIF and possibly near-IR reflectance of canopies can be used to specify this key parameter with obvious importance to understanding photosynthetic rate.

  14. Gradients of the content of photosynthetic pigments and radiation as manifestations of the health condition of Norway spruce (Picea abies [L.] Karst.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zemánek, T.; Martinková, M.; Štěrbová, D.

    2004-01-01

    The distribution and quantities of chlorophyll a + b and carotenoids were determined in a sample tree of Picea abies in order to evaluate its health condition. The content of photosynthetic pigments (PhP) was determined by spectrophotometric analysis. The sample tree was situated at the Rajec nad Svitavou locality, the Drahany Upland, Czech Republic (altitude 625 to 640 m). It was shown that the inner coordination of the content of PhP in the crown in relation to the age of needles and their insolation was sufficient. Thus, the tree did not show impaired health condition and its growth retardation resulted from the short crown. The extent of the photosynthetic apparatus and stability of the tree would be increased particularly after elongation of the lower part of a crown, the so-called compensating part

  15. Gradients of the content of photosynthetic pigments and radiation as manifestations of the health condition of Norway spruce (Picea abies [L.] Karst.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zemánek, T.; Martinková, M.; Štěrbová, D.

    2004-01-01

    The distribution and quantities of chlorophyll a + b and carotenoids were determined in a sample tree of Picea abies in order to evaluate its health condition. The content of photosynthetic pigments (PhP) was determined by spectrophotometric analysis. The sample tree was situated at the Rajec nad Svitavou locality, the Drahany Upland, Czech Republic (altitude 625 to 640 m). It was shown that the inner coordination of the content of PhP in the crown in relation to the age of needles and their insolation was sufficient. Thus, the tree did not show impaired health condition and its growth retardation resulted from the short crown. The extent of the photosynthetic apparatus and stability of the tree would be increased particularly after elongation of the lower part of a crown, the so-called compensating part. (author)

  16. Electrostatic dominoes: long distance propagation of mutational effects in photosynthetic reaction centers of Rhodobacter capsulatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sebban, P; Maróti, P; Schiffer, M; Hanson, D K

    1995-07-04

    Two point mutants from the purple bacterium Rhodobacter capsulatus, both modified in the M protein of the photosynthetic reaction center, have been studied by flash-induced absorbance spectroscopy. These strains carry either the M231Arg --> Leu or M43ASN --> Asp mutations, which are located 9 and 15 A, respectively, from the terminal electron acceptor QB. In the wild-type Rb. sphaeroides structure, M231Arg is involved in a conserved salt bridge with H125Glu and H232Glu and M43Asn is located among several polar residues that form or surround the QB binding site. These substitutions were originally uncovered in phenotypic revertants isolated from the photosynthetically incompetent L212Glu-L213Asp --> Ala-Ala site-specific double mutant. As second-site suppressor mutations, they have been shown to restore the proton transfer function that is interrupted in the L212Ala-L213Ala double mutant. The electrostatic effects that are induced in reaction centers by the M231Arg --> Leu and M43Asn --> Asp substitutions are roughly the same in either the double-mutant or wild-type backgrounds. In a reaction center that is otherwise wild type in sequence, they decrease the free energy gap between the QA- and QB- states by 24 +/- 5 and 45 +/- 5 meV, respectively. The pH dependences of K2, the QA-QB QAQB- equilibrium constant, are altered in reaction centers that carry either of these substitutions, revealing differences in the pKas of titratable groups compared to the wild type.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  17. Nitrogen-addition effects on leaf traits and photosynthetic carbon gain of boreal forest understory shrubs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmroth, Sari; Bach, Lisbet Holm; Nordin, Annika; Palmqvist, Kristin

    2014-06-01

    Boreal coniferous forests are characterized by fairly open canopies where understory vegetation is an important component of ecosystem C and N cycling. We used an ecophysiological approach to study the effects of N additions on uptake and partitioning of C and N in two dominant understory shrubs: deciduous Vaccinium myrtillus in a Picea abies stand and evergreen Vaccinium vitis-idaea in a Pinus sylvestris stand in northern Sweden. N was added to these stands for 16 and 8 years, respectively, at rates of 0, 12.5, and 50 kg N ha(-1) year(-1). N addition at the highest rate increased foliar N and chlorophyll concentrations in both understory species. Canopy cover of P. abies also increased, decreasing light availability and leaf mass per area of V. myrtillus. Among leaves of either shrub, foliar N content did not explain variation in light-saturated CO2 exchange rates. Instead photosynthetic capacity varied with stomatal conductance possibly reflecting plant hydraulic properties and within-site variation in water availability. Moreover, likely due to increased shading under P. abies and due to water limitations in the sandy soil under P. sylvestris, individuals of the two shrubs did not increase their biomass or shift their allocation between above- and belowground parts in response to N additions. Altogether, our results indicate that the understory shrubs in these systems show little response to N additions in terms of photosynthetic physiology or growth and that changes in their performance are mostly associated with responses of the tree canopy.

  18. Effect of Azospirillum brasilense and Burkholderia unamae Bacteria on Maize Photosynthetic Activity Evaluated Using the Photoacoustic Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordillo-Delgado, F.; Marín, E.; Calderón, A.

    2016-09-01

    In this work, the photosynthetic process of maize plants ( Zea mays), which were grown using seeds inoculated with plant growth promoting bacteria Azospirillum brasilense and Burkholderia unamae, was monitored. Photothermal and photobaric signals obtained by a time-resolved photoacoustic measurement configuration were used for measuring the oxygen evolution rate in situ. A frequency-resolved configuration of the method was utilized to determine the oxygen diffusion coefficient and the thermal diffusivity of the maize leaves. The latter parameters, which can be used as indicators of the photosynthetic activity of maize, are found to vary according to the plant-microbe interaction. Treatment with plant growth promoting bacteria induced a decrease in the oxygen diffusion coefficient of about 20 %.

  19. Biological effects of ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gisone, Pablo; Perez, Maria R.

    2001-01-01

    It has been emphasised the importance of DNA as the main target for ionizing radiation, that can induce damage by its direct action on this molecule or by an indirect effect mediated by free-radicals generated by water radiolysis. Biological effects of ionizing radiation are influenced not only by the dose but also by the dose-rate and the radiation quality. Radiation induced damage, mainly DNA single and double strand breaks, is detected by molecular sensors which in turn trigger signalling cascades leading to cell cycle arrest to allow DNA repair or programmed cell death (apoptosis). Those effects related with cell death, named deterministic, exhibits a dose-threshold below which they are not observed. Acute radiation syndrome and radiological burns are examples of this kind of effects. Other radiation induced effects, called stochastic, are the consequence of cell transformation and do not exhibit a dose-threshold. This is the case of cancer induction and hereditary effects. The aim of this presentation is briefly describe the main aspects of deterministic and stochastic effects from the point of view of radiobiology and radio pathology. (author)

  20. Radiation effects at ISABELLE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanger, P.A.; Danby, G.T.

    1975-01-01

    Shielding, radiation damage, and radiation heating at the planned ISABELLE storage rings were considered. Radiation shielding studies were reviewed and were found to be adequate for present day dosage limits. Radiation damage could be encountered in some extreme cases, but is not expected to limit the performance of the superconducting magnets. Experiments to study the effect of radiation heating on actual magnets are recommended

  1. Solar Irradiance Changes and Phytoplankton Productivity in Earth's Ocean Following Astrophysical Ionizing Radiation Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neale, Patrick J.; Thomas, Brian C.

    2016-04-01

    Two atmospheric responses to simulated astrophysical ionizing radiation events significant to life on Earth are production of odd-nitrogen species, especially NO2, and subsequent depletion of stratospheric ozone. Ozone depletion increases incident short-wavelength ultraviolet radiation (UVB, 280-315 nm) and longer (>600 nm) wavelengths of photosynthetically available radiation (PAR, 400-700 nm). On the other hand, the NO2 haze decreases atmospheric transmission in the long-wavelength UVA (315-400 nm) and short-wavelength PAR. Here, we use the results of previous simulations of incident spectral irradiance following an ionizing radiation event to predict changes in terran productivity focusing on photosynthesis of marine phytoplankton. The prediction is based on a spectral model of photosynthetic response, which was developed for the dominant genera in central regions of the ocean (Synechococcus and Prochlorococcus), and on remote-sensing-based observations of spectral water transparency, temperature, wind speed, and mixed layer depth. Predicted productivity declined after a simulated ionizing event, but the effect integrated over the water column was small. For integrations taking into account the full depth range of PAR transmission (down to 0.1% of utilizable PAR), the decrease was at most 2-3% (depending on strain), with larger effects (5-7%) for integrations just to the depth of the surface mixed layer. The deeper integrations were most affected by the decreased utilizable PAR at depth due to the NO2 haze, whereas shallower integrations were most affected by the increased surface UV. Several factors tended to dampen the magnitude of productivity responses relative to increases in surface-damaging radiation, for example, most inhibition in the modeled strains is caused by UVA and PAR, and the greatest relative increase in damaging exposure is predicted to occur in the winter when UV and productivity are low.

  2. Sustained photosynthetic performance of Coffea spp. under long-term enhanced [CO2].

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José C Ramalho

    Full Text Available Coffee is one of the world's most traded agricultural products. Modeling studies have predicted that climate change will have a strong impact on the suitability of current cultivation areas, but these studies have not anticipated possible mitigating effects of the elevated atmospheric [CO2] because no information exists for the coffee plant. Potted plants from two genotypes of Coffea arabica and one of C. canephora were grown under controlled conditions of irradiance (800 μmol m(-2 s(-1, RH (75% and 380 or 700 μL CO2 L(-1 for 1 year, without water, nutrient or root development restrictions. In all genotypes, the high [CO2] treatment promoted opposite trends for stomatal density and size, which decreased and increased, respectively. Regardless of the genotype or the growth [CO2], the net rate of CO2 assimilation increased (34-49% when measured at 700 than at 380 μL CO2 L(-1. This result, together with the almost unchanged stomatal conductance, led to an instantaneous water use efficiency increase. The results also showed a reinforcement of photosynthetic (and respiratory components, namely thylakoid electron transport and the activities of RuBisCo, ribulose 5-phosphate kinase, malate dehydrogenase and pyruvate kinase, what may have contributed to the enhancements in the maximum rates of electron transport, carboxylation and photosynthetic capacity under elevated [CO2], although these responses were genotype dependent. The photosystem II efficiency, energy driven to photochemical events, non-structural carbohydrates, photosynthetic pigment and membrane permeability did not respond to [CO2] supply. Some alterations in total fatty acid content and the unsaturation level of the chloroplast membranes were noted but, apparently, did not affect photosynthetic functioning. Despite some differences among the genotypes, no clear species-dependent responses to elevated [CO2] were observed. Overall, as no apparent sign of photosynthetic down

  3. Sustained Photosynthetic Performance of Coffea spp. under Long-Term Enhanced [CO2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramalho, José C.; Rodrigues, Ana P.; Semedo, José N.; Pais, Isabel P.; Martins, Lima D.; Simões-Costa, Maria C.; Leitão, António E.; Fortunato, Ana S.; Batista-Santos, Paula; Palos, Isabel M.; Tomaz, Marcelo A.; Scotti-Campos, Paula; Lidon, Fernando C.; DaMatta, Fábio M.

    2013-01-01

    Coffee is one of the world’s most traded agricultural products. Modeling studies have predicted that climate change will have a strong impact on the suitability of current cultivation areas, but these studies have not anticipated possible mitigating effects of the elevated atmospheric [CO2] because no information exists for the coffee plant. Potted plants from two genotypes of Coffea arabica and one of C. canephora were grown under controlled conditions of irradiance (800 μmol m-2 s-1), RH (75%) and 380 or 700 μL CO2 L-1 for 1 year, without water, nutrient or root development restrictions. In all genotypes, the high [CO2] treatment promoted opposite trends for stomatal density and size, which decreased and increased, respectively. Regardless of the genotype or the growth [CO2], the net rate of CO2 assimilation increased (34-49%) when measured at 700 than at 380 μL CO2 L-1. This result, together with the almost unchanged stomatal conductance, led to an instantaneous water use efficiency increase. The results also showed a reinforcement of photosynthetic (and respiratory) components, namely thylakoid electron transport and the activities of RuBisCo, ribulose 5-phosphate kinase, malate dehydrogenase and pyruvate kinase, what may have contributed to the enhancements in the maximum rates of electron transport, carboxylation and photosynthetic capacity under elevated [CO2], although these responses were genotype dependent. The photosystem II efficiency, energy driven to photochemical events, non-structural carbohydrates, photosynthetic pigment and membrane permeability did not respond to [CO2] supply. Some alterations in total fatty acid content and the unsaturation level of the chloroplast membranes were noted but, apparently, did not affect photosynthetic functioning. Despite some differences among the genotypes, no clear species-dependent responses to elevated [CO2] were observed. Overall, as no apparent sign of photosynthetic down-regulation was found, our data

  4. Radiation-induced polymerization and radiation effect on polymers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seguchi, Tadao

    1977-12-01

    The processes of radiation-induced polymerization of monomers and also radiation effects on polymers have been studied by instrumental analyses of electron spin resonance (ESR), nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and electron microscopy. In radiation-induced polymerization, graft-copolymerization and absorbed state polymerization were taken up. For graft-copolymerization, monomers such as methylmethacrylate and butadiene were made to react with irradiated polyethylene, and behaviors of the initiating radicals and propagating radicals were followed under the reaction by ESR. For absorbed state polymerization, acrylonitrile/zeolite and methylmethacrylate/zeolite were chosen. Absorbed monomers were irradiated at 77 0 K and polymerized at room temperature. Active species and the concentrations were measured by ESR and the yields of polymer were observed by NMR. In radiation effect on polymers, polyvinylfluoride, polyvinylidenfluoride and polytetrafluoroethylene were taken up. Active species trapped in the polymer matrixes were identified and decay and reactivity of the species were also studied. On the basis of information from the electron microscopy and x-ray analysis, radiation effects on these polymers are described. In polytetrafluoroethylene produced by radiation polymerization, the relation between morphology and polymerization conditions and also the process of crystallization during polymerization were studied. (auth.)

  5. Spatio-Temporal Convergence of Maximum Daily Light-Use Efficiency Based on Radiation Absorption by Canopy Chlorophyll

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yao; Xiao, Xiangming; Wolf, Sebastian; Wu, Jin; Wu, Xiaocui; Gioli, Beniamino; Wohlfahrt, Georg; Cescatti, Alessandro; van der Tol, Christiaan; Zhou, Sha; Gough, Christopher M.; Gentine, Pierre; Zhang, Yongguang; Steinbrecher, Rainer; Ardö, Jonas

    2018-04-01

    Light-use efficiency (LUE), which quantifies the plants' efficiency in utilizing solar radiation for photosynthetic carbon fixation, is an important factor for gross primary production estimation. Here we use satellite-based solar-induced chlorophyll fluorescence as a proxy for photosynthetically active radiation absorbed by chlorophyll (APARchl) and derive an estimation of the fraction of APARchl (fPARchl) from four remotely sensed vegetation indicators. By comparing maximum LUE estimated at different scales from 127 eddy flux sites, we found that the maximum daily LUE based on PAR absorption by canopy chlorophyll (ɛmaxchl), unlike other expressions of LUE, tends to converge across biome types. The photosynthetic seasonality in tropical forests can also be tracked by the change of fPARchl, suggesting the corresponding ɛmaxchl to have less seasonal variation. This spatio-temporal convergence of LUE derived from fPARchl can be used to build simple but robust gross primary production models and to better constrain process-based models.

  6. Spectral data based vegetation indices to characterise crop growth parameters and radiation interception in brassica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kar, G.; Chakravarty, N.V.K.

    2001-01-01

    Four spectral data based vegetation indices viz., infra-red/red (IR/R) ratio, normalized difference (N.D.), greenness index (GNI) and brightness index (BNI) were derived to characterise leaf area index, above ground biomass production and intercepted photosynthetically active radiation in Brassica oilseed crop. It was found from correlation study among different spectral indices, plant growth parameters and radiation interception that there was strong relationship between infrared/red and normalized difference with green area index for all the three Brassica cultivars whereas these spectral were not significantly correlated with above ground biomass. On the other hand, the brightness and greenness indices were closely correlated with above groundry biomass as compared to infrared/red ratio and normalized difference. All the four spectral indices were correlated with intercepted photosynthetically active radiation (IP AR). The best fit equations relating them were derived, which can be incorporated in the algorithms of crop growth simulation model to estimate plant growth parameters and radiation interception using spectral indices

  7. Photosynthetic control of electron transport and the regulation of gene expression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Foyer, C.H.; Neukermans, J.; Queval, G.; Noctor, G.; Harbinson, J.

    2012-01-01

    The term ‘photosynthetic control’ describes the short- and long-term mechanisms that regulate reactions in the photosynthetic electron transport (PET) chain so that the rate of production of ATP and NADPH is coordinated with the rate of their utilization in metabolism. At low irradiances these

  8. The effect of Nitrogen on Radiation Use Efficiency and Growth indices of Maize Hybrids (Zea mays L. under Kermanshah Condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Ahmadi

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Dry matter produced by crops is a function of absorbed radiation and radiation use efficiency. Radiation use efficiency is an effective approach to quantify total dry matter accumulation. It is defined as biomass produced by plant for solar radiation absorbed during growing season. Radiation use efficiency is often calculated from the linear regression slope between total dry matter accumulation and cumulative solar radiation absorbed. It is affected by species, weather conditions, crop management, plant development stages, and the production of photosynthesis compounds. Among the factors of agronomic management, nitrogen fertilizer and crop species are the most important aspects that affect the radiation use efficiency. Therefore, by considering the fact that Kermanshah province has favorable condition in terms of more natural resources such as solar radiation, the aims of the present study were evaluation of nitrogen effect on radiation use efficiency, growth indices and yield of some current maize hybrids. Materials and Methods A split plot experiment was done based on randomized complete block design with 4 replications at 2014. Treatments were 4 levels of nitrogen fertilizer application (40%, 70%, 100% and 140% of the maize demand to nitrogen which based on the amount recommended by soil experiment equivalent to 138, 238, 350 and 483 kg.ha-1 of urea as main plots and 3 maize hybrids KSC-704, BC-678 and Simon as sub plots. Leaf area index and total dry matter yield measured during growing season. Crop growth rate and relative growth ratio calculated by differentiation from fitted equation on total dry matter yield data. In order to calculate radiation use efficiency, sunny hours for Kermanshah latitude obtained from the nearest weather station. Daily solar radiation simulated by the method cited by Goudriaan and Van Laar (1993 for growing season. The absorbed radiation in each stage obtained through the multiplication simulated

  9. Adjusted light and dark cycles can optimize photosynthetic efficiency in algae growing in photobioreactors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleonora Sforza

    Full Text Available Biofuels from algae are highly interesting as renewable energy sources to replace, at least partially, fossil fuels, but great research efforts are still needed to optimize growth parameters to develop competitive large-scale cultivation systems. One factor with a seminal influence on productivity is light availability. Light energy fully supports algal growth, but it leads to oxidative stress if illumination is in excess. In this work, the influence of light intensity on the growth and lipid productivity of Nannochloropsis salina was investigated in a flat-bed photobioreactor designed to minimize cells self-shading. The influence of various light intensities was studied with both continuous illumination and alternation of light and dark cycles at various frequencies, which mimic illumination variations in a photobioreactor due to mixing. Results show that Nannochloropsis can efficiently exploit even very intense light, provided that dark cycles occur to allow for re-oxidation of the electron transporters of the photosynthetic apparatus. If alternation of light and dark is not optimal, algae undergo radiation damage and photosynthetic productivity is greatly reduced. Our results demonstrate that, in a photobioreactor for the cultivation of algae, optimizing mixing is essential in order to ensure that the algae exploit light energy efficiently.

  10. Flow of light energy in benthic photosynthetic microbial mats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Najjar, Mohammad Ahmad A.

    2010-12-15

    The work in this thesis demonstrates the assessment of the energy budget inside microbial mat ecosystems, and the factors affecting light utilization efficiency. It presents the first balanced light energy budget for benthic microbial mat ecosystems, and shows how the budget and the spatial distribution of the local photosynthetic efficiencies within the euphotic zone depend on the absorbed irradiance (Jabs). The energy budget was dominated by heat dissipation on the expense of photosynthesis. The maximum efficiency of photosynthesis was at light limiting conditions When comparing three different marine benthic photosynthetic ecosystems (originated from Abu-Dhabi, Arctic, and Exmouth Gulf in Western Australia), differences in the efficiencies were calculated. The results demonstrated that the maximum efficiency depended on mat characteristics affecting light absorption and scattering; such as, photopigments ratio and distribution, and the structural organization of the photosynthetic organisms relative to other absorbing components of the ecosystem (i.e., EPS, mineral particles, detritus, etc.). The maximum efficiency decreased with increasing light penetration depth, and increased with increasing the accessory pigments (phycocyanin and fucoxanthin)/chlorophyll ratio. Spatial heterogeneity in photosynthetic efficiency, pigment distribution, as well as light acclimation in microbial mats originating from different geographical locations was investigated. We used a combined pigment imaging approach (variable chlorophyll fluorescence and hyperspectral imaging), and fingerprinting approach. For each mat, the photosynthetic activity was proportional to the local pigment concentration in the photic zone, but not for the deeper layers and between different mats. In each mat, yield of PSII and E1/2 (light acclimation) generally decreased in parallel with depth, but the gradients in both parameters varied greatly between samples. This mismatch between pigments concentration

  11. Epigenetic effects of ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    EI-Naggar, A.M.

    2007-01-01

    Data generated during the last three decades provide evidence of Epigenetic Effects that ave-induced by ionizing radiation, particularly those of high LET values, and low level dose exposures. Epigenesist is defined as the stepwise process by which genetic information, as modified by environmental influences, is translated into the substance and behavior of cells, tissues, organism.The epigenetic effects cited in the literature are essentially classified into fine types depending on the type and nature of the effect induced.The most accepted postulation, for the occurrence of these epigenetic effects, is a radiation induced bio electric disturbances in the environment of the non-irradiated cellular volume. This will trigger signals that will induce effects in the unirradiated cells.The epigenetic effects referenced in the literature up to date are five types; namely, Genomic Instability, Bystander. Effects, Clastogenic Plasma Factors,, Abscopal Effects, and Tran generational Effects.The demonstration of Epigenetic Effects associated with exposure to ionizing radiation indicates the need to re- examine the concept of radiation dose and target size. Also an improved understanding of qualifiring and quantifying radiation risk estimates may be attained. Also, a more logical means to understand the underlying mechanisms of radiation induced carcinogenic transformation of cells

  12. Effects of Arbuscular Mycorrhiza on Osmotic Adjustment and Photosynthetic Physiology of Maize Seedlings in Black Soils Region of Northeast China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongwen Xu

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT To investigate the effect of arbuscular mycorrhiza fungi on maize growth, osmoregulation substances and photosynthetic physiology, a popular maize variety ZD 958 was measured under potted condition. Arbuscular mycorrhiza (AM symbiosis promoted plant growth, and enhanced plant height, leaf length, mean leaf width and dry weight. Higher soluble sugar and protein, but lower proline concentrations were detected in AM seedlings than corresponding non-AM seedlings. Quantum yield of PSII photochemistry and potential photochemical efficiency increased by arbuscular mycorrhiza fungi, meanwhile, AM plants had lower primary fluorescence but higher maximal fluorescence and variable fluorescence than non-AM plants. AM enhanced apparent quantum efficiency, maximum net photosynthetic rate, dark respiration rate and light saturation point, but reduced light compensation point. The conclusion was that, after the seedling inoculated with Glomus. tortuosum, AM symbioses could protect cell from being hurt through regulating substances related to osmotic adjustment, besides, the efficiency of light utilization, the capacity of using low light and the capacity of fitting and using high light were all increased by AM symbiosis.

  13. Radiation effect on implanted pacemakers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pourhamidi, A.H.

    1983-01-01

    It was previously thought that diagnostic or therapeutic ionizing radiation did not have an adverse effect on the function of cardiac pacemakers. Recently, however, some authors have reported damaging effect of therapeutic radiation on cardiac pulse generators. An analysis of a recently-extracted pacemaker documented the effect of radiation on the pacemaker pulse generator

  14. The Arabidopsis thylakoid chloride channel AtCLCe functions in chloride homeostasis and regulation of photosynthetic electron transport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrei eHerdean

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Chloride ions can be translocated across cell membranes through Cl− channels or Cl−/H+ exchangers. The thylakoid-located member of the Cl− channel CLC family in Arabidopsis thaliana (AtCLCe was hypothesized to play a role in photosynthetic regulation based on the initial photosynthetic characterization of clce mutant lines. The reduced nitrate content of Arabidopsis clce mutants suggested a role in regulation of plant nitrate homeostasis. In this study, we aimed to further investigate the role of AtCLCe in the regulation of ion homeostasis and photosynthetic processes in the thylakoid membrane. We report that the size and composition of proton motive force were mildly altered in two independent Arabidopsis clce mutant lines. Most pronounced effects in the clce mutants were observed on the photosynthetic electron transport of dark-adapted plants, based on the altered shape and associated parameters of the polyphasic OJIP kinetics of chlorophyll a fluorescence induction. Other alterations were found in the kinetics of state transition and in the macro-organisation of photosystem II supercomplexes, as indicated by circular dichroism measurements. Pre-treatment with KCl but not with KNO3 restored the wild-type photosynthetic phenotype. Analyses by transmission electron microscopy revealed a bow-like arrangement of the thylakoid network and a large thylakoid-free stromal region in chloroplast sections from the dark-adapted clce plants. Based on these data, we propose that AtCLCe functions in Cl− homeostasis after transition from light to dark, which affects chloroplast ultrastructure and regulation of photosynthetic electron transport.

  15. The effects and control of radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saunders, P.A.H.

    1982-12-01

    The subject is discussed under the headings: introduction; ionising radiation (alpha and beta particles, gamma- and X-radiation, neutrons, half-life, sources of radiation); biological effects; risk estimates (somatic) (early effects, delayed effects); risk estimates (hereditary); control of radiation; risk estimates (accidents). (U.K.)

  16. Radiation Therapy Side Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radiation therapy has side effects because it not only kills or slows the growth of cancer cells, it can also affect nearby healthy cells. Many people who get radiation therapy experience fatigue. Other side effects depend on the part of the body that is being treated. Learn more about possible side effects.

  17. Photosynthetic control of electron transport and the regulation of gene expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foyer, Christine H; Neukermans, Jenny; Queval, Guillaume; Noctor, Graham; Harbinson, Jeremy

    2012-02-01

    The term 'photosynthetic control' describes the short- and long-term mechanisms that regulate reactions in the photosynthetic electron transport (PET) chain so that the rate of production of ATP and NADPH is coordinated with the rate of their utilization in metabolism. At low irradiances these mechanisms serve to optimize light use efficiency, while at high irradiances they operate to dissipate excess excitation energy as heat. Similarly, the production of ATP and NADPH in ratios tailored to meet demand is finely tuned by a sophisticated series of controls that prevents the accumulation of high NAD(P)H/NAD(P) ratios and ATP/ADP ratios that would lead to potentially harmful over-reduction and inactivation of PET chain components. In recent years, photosynthetic control has also been extrapolated to the regulation of gene expression because mechanisms that are identical or similar to those that serve to regulate electron flow through the PET chain also coordinate the regulated expression of genes encoding photosynthetic proteins. This requires coordinated gene expression in the chloroplasts, mitochondria, and nuclei, involving complex networks of forward and retrograde signalling pathways. Photosynthetic control operates to control photosynthetic gene expression in response to environmental and metabolic changes. Mining literature data on transcriptome profiles of C(3) and C(4) leaves from plants grown under high atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO(2)) levels compared with those grown with ambient CO(2) reveals that the transition to higher photorespiratory conditions in C(3) plants enhances the expression of genes associated with cyclic electron flow pathways in Arabidopsis thaliana, consistent with the higher ATP requirement (relative to NADPH) of photorespiration.

  18. Effects of radiation on man

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saunders, P.A.H.

    1981-01-01

    The available evidence on the effects of radiation on man and the predictions that have been made of possible low level effects are reviewed. Data from United Nations Scientific Committee of the Effects of Atomic Radiation (UNSCEAR) and the committee on the Biological Effects of Ionising Radiation (BEIR) is used to illustrate the acute, delayed and hereditary effects of high dose levels. The effects of low dose levels are discussed on the assumption that both somatic and hereditary effects can be predicted on the basis of linear extrapolation from high dose effects. (U.K.)

  19. Influence of stomatic aperture on photosynthetic activity of bean-seedlings leaves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suarez Moya, J.; Fernandez Gonzalez, J.

    1984-01-01

    The present paper contains the data of photosynthetic activity and stomatic aperture of bean-seedlings Ieaves, and the relations obtained with both results. It has been observed that the product of photosynthetic activity by the resistance; to transpiration measured by a promoter ia a constant, between some limits. (Author) 45 refs

  20. Negative effects of UVB-irradiated phytoplankton on life history traits and fitness of Daphnia magna

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lange, de H.J.; Reeuwijk, van P.L.

    2003-01-01

    1. We tested the effect of ultraviolet-B (UVB)-irradiated phytoplankton on life history characteristics of Daphnia magna . Two phytoplankton species were used, Chlamydomonas reinhardtii and Cryptomonas pyrenoidifera . The phytoplankton species were cultured under photosynthetically active radiation

  1. Constrained parameterisation of photosynthetic capacity causes significant increase of modelled tropical vegetation surface temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kattge, J.; Knorr, W.; Raddatz, T.; Wirth, C.

    2009-04-01

    Photosynthetic capacity is one of the most sensitive parameters of terrestrial biosphere models whose representation in global scale simulations has been severely hampered by a lack of systematic analyses using a sufficiently broad database. Due to its coupling to stomatal conductance changes in the parameterisation of photosynthetic capacity may potentially influence transpiration rates and vegetation surface temperature. Here, we provide a constrained parameterisation of photosynthetic capacity for different plant functional types in the context of the photosynthesis model proposed by Farquhar et al. (1980), based on a comprehensive compilation of leaf photosynthesis rates and leaf nitrogen content. Mean values of photosynthetic capacity were implemented into the coupled climate-vegetation model ECHAM5/JSBACH and modelled gross primary production (GPP) is compared to a compilation of independent observations on stand scale. Compared to the current standard parameterisation the root-mean-squared difference between modelled and observed GPP is substantially reduced for almost all PFTs by the new parameterisation of photosynthetic capacity. We find a systematic depression of NUE (photosynthetic capacity divided by leaf nitrogen content) on certain tropical soils that are known to be deficient in phosphorus. Photosynthetic capacity of tropical trees derived by this study is substantially lower than standard estimates currently used in terrestrial biosphere models. This causes a decrease of modelled GPP while it significantly increases modelled tropical vegetation surface temperatures, up to 0.8°C. These results emphasise the importance of a constrained parameterisation of photosynthetic capacity not only for the carbon cycle, but also for the climate system.

  2. Temperature Effects on the Growth Rates and Photosynthetic Activities of Symbiodinium Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Widiastuti Karim

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Coral bleaching is caused by environmental stress and susceptibility to bleaching stress varies among types of coral. The physiological properties of the algal symbionts (Symbiodinium spp., especially extent of damage to PSII and its repair capacity, contribute importantly to this variability in stress susceptibility. The objective of the present study was to investigate the relationship between the growth rates and photosynthetic activities of six cultured strains of Symbiodinium spp. (clades A, B, C, D, and F at elevated temperature (33 °C. We also observed the recovery of photodamaged-PSII in the presence or absence of a chloroplast protein synthesis inhibitor (lincomycin. The growth rates and photochemical efficiencies of PSII (Fv/Fm decreased in parallel at high temperature in thermally sensitive strains, B-K100 (clade B followed by culture name and A-Y106, but not in thermally tolerant strains, F-K102 and D-K111. In strains A-KB8 and C-Y103, growth declined markedly at high temperature, but Fv/Fm decreased only slightly. These strains may reallocate energy from growth to the repair of damaged photosynthetic machineries or protection pathways. Alternatively, since recoveries of photo-damaged PSII at 33 °C were modest in strains A-KB8 and C-Y103, thermal stressing of other metabolic pathways may have reduced growth rates in these two strains. This possibility should be explored in future research efforts.

  3. He-Ne laser treatment improves the photosynthetic efficiency of wheat exposed to enhanced UV-B radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Huize; Han, Rong

    2014-01-01

    The level of ultraviolet-B (UV-B) radiation on the Earth’s surface has increased due to depletion of the ozone layer. Here, we explored the effects of continuous wave He-Ne laser irradiation (632 nm, 5 mW mm –2 , 2 min d –1 ) on the physiological indexes of wheat seedlings exposed to enhanced UV-B radiation (10 KJ m –2 d –1 ) at the early growth stages. Wheat seedlings were irradiated with enhanced UV-B, He-Ne laser treatment or a combination of the two. Enhanced UV-B radiation had deleterious effects on wheat photosynthesis parameters including photosystem II (chlorophyll content, Hill reaction, chlorophyll fluorescence parameters, electron transport rate (ETR), and yield), the thylakoid (optical absorption ability, cyclic photophosphorylation, Mg 2+ -ATPase, and Ca 2+ -ATPase) and some enzymes in the dark reaction (phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEPC), carbonic anhydrase (CA), malic dehydrogenase (MDH), and chlorophyllase). These parameters were improved in UV-B-exposed wheat treated with He-Ne laser irradiation; the parameters were near control levels and the enzyme activities increased, suggesting that He-Ne laser treatment partially alleviates the injury caused by enhanced UV-B irradiation. Furthermore, the use of He-Ne laser alone had a favourable effect on seedling photosynthesis compared with the control. Therefore, He-Ne laser irradiation can enhance the adaptation capacity of crops. (paper)

  4. PAR and UVBR effects on photosynthesis, viability, growth and DNA in different life stages of two coexisting Gigartinales : implications for recruitment and zonation pattern

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roleda, MY; van de Poll, WH; Hanelt, D; Wiencke, C

    2004-01-01

    The effects that ultraviolet radiation (UVR, 280 to 400 nm) and photosynthetically active radiation (PAR, 400 to 700 nm) had on early life stages of Mastocarpus stellatus and Chondrus crispus were studied to determine if differences in UVR tolerance could influence their recruitment success on the

  5. Biomass and pigments production in photosynthetic bacteria wastewater treatment: effects of light sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Qin; Zhang, Panyue; Zhang, Guangming

    2015-03-01

    This study is aimed at enhancing biomass and pigments production together with pollution removal in photosynthetic bacteria (PSB) wastewater treatment via different light sources. Red, yellow, blue, white LED and incandescent lamp were used. Results showed different light sources had great effects on the PSB. PSB had the highest biomass production, COD removal and biomass yield with red LED. The corresponding biomass, COD removal and biomass yield reached 2580 mg/L, 88.6% and 0.49 mg-biomass/mg-COD-removal, respectively. The hydraulic retention time of wastewater treatment could be shortened to 72 h with red LED. Mechanism analysis showed higher ATP was produced with red LED than others. Light sources could significantly affect the pigments production. The pigments productions were greatly higher with LED than incandescent lamp. Yellow LED had the highest pigments production while red LED produced the highest carotenoid/bacteriochlorophyll ratio. Considering both efficiency and energy cost, red LED was the optimal light source. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. The biological effects of radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sykes, D.A.

    1979-01-01

    The hazards of radiations to man are briefly covered in this paper. The natural background sources of radiations are stated and their resulting doses are compared to those received voluntarily by man. The basis of how radiations cause biological damage is given and the resulting somatic effects are shown for varying magnitude of dose. Risk estimates are given for cancer induction and genetic effects are briefly discussed. Finally four case studies of radiation damage to humans are examined exemplifying the symptoms of large doses of radiations [af

  7. A molecular genetic analysis of carotenoid biosynthesis and the effects of carotenoid mutations on other photosynthetic genes in Rhodobacter capsulatus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Armstrong, G.A.

    1989-04-01

    The nine known R. capsulatus carotenoid genes are contained within the 46 kilobase (kb) photosynthesis gene cluster. An 11 kb subcluster containing eight of these genes has been cloned and its nucleotide sequence determined. A new gene, crtK, has been located in the middle of the subcluster. The carotenoid gene cluster contains sequences homologous to Escherichia coli ..omega../sup 70/ promoters, rho-independent transcription terminators, and prokaryotic transcriptional factor binding sites. The phenotypes and genotypes of ten transposon Tn5.7 insertion mutations within the carotenoid gene cluster have been analyzed, by characterization of the carotenoids accumulated and high resolution mapping of the Tn5.7 insertions. The enzymatic blockages in previously uncharacterized early carotenoid mutants have been determined using a new in vitro synthesis system, suggesting specific roles for the CrtB and CrtE gene products. The expression of six of the eight carotenoid genes in the cluster is induced upon the shift from dark chemoheterotrophic to anaerobic photosynthetic growth. The magnitude of the induction is equivalent to that of genes encoding structural photosynthesis polypeptides, although the carotenoid genes are induced earlier after the growth shift. Different means of regulating photosynthesis genes in R. capsulatus are discussed, and a rationale for the temporal pattern of expression of the carotenoid genes during photosynthetic adaptation is presented. Comparison of the deduced amino acid sequences of the two dehydrogenases of the R. capsulatus carotenoid biosynthesis pathway reveals two regions of strong similarity. The effect of carotenoid mutations on the photosynthetic phenotype has been studied by examining growth rates, pigments, pigment-protein complexes and gene expression for a complete set of carotenoid mutants. 161 refs.

  8. A molecular genetic analysis of carotenoid biosynthesis and the effects of carotenoid mutations on other photosynthetic genes in Rhodobacter capsulatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Armstrong, G.A.

    1989-04-01

    The nine known R. capsulatus carotenoid genes are contained within the 46 kilobase (kb) photosynthesis gene cluster. An 11 kb subcluster containing eight of these genes has been cloned and its nucleotide sequence determined. A new gene, crtK, has been located in the middle of the subcluster. The carotenoid gene cluster contains sequences homologous to Escherichia coli ω 70 promoters, rho-independent transcription terminators, and prokaryotic transcriptional factor binding sites. The phenotypes and genotypes of ten transposon Tn5.7 insertion mutations within the carotenoid gene cluster have been analyzed, by characterization of the carotenoids accumulated and high resolution mapping of the Tn5.7 insertions. The enzymatic blockages in previously uncharacterized early carotenoid mutants have been determined using a new in vitro synthesis system, suggesting specific roles for the CrtB and CrtE gene products. The expression of six of the eight carotenoid genes in the cluster is induced upon the shift from dark chemoheterotrophic to anaerobic photosynthetic growth. The magnitude of the induction is equivalent to that of genes encoding structural photosynthesis polypeptides, although the carotenoid genes are induced earlier after the growth shift. Different means of regulating photosynthesis genes in R. capsulatus are discussed, and a rationale for the temporal pattern of expression of the carotenoid genes during photosynthetic adaptation is presented. Comparison of the deduced amino acid sequences of the two dehydrogenases of the R. capsulatus carotenoid biosynthesis pathway reveals two regions of strong similarity. The effect of carotenoid mutations on the photosynthetic phenotype has been studied by examining growth rates, pigments, pigment-protein complexes and gene expression for a complete set of carotenoid mutants. 161 refs

  9. How well do growing season dynamics of photosynthetic capacity correlate with leaf biochemistry and climate fluctuations?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Way, Danielle A; Stinziano, Joseph R; Berghoff, Henry; Oren, Ram

    2017-07-01

    Accurate values of photosynthetic capacity are needed in Earth System Models to predict gross primary productivity. Seasonal changes in photosynthetic capacity in these models are primarily driven by temperature, but recent work has suggested that photoperiod may be a better predictor of seasonal photosynthetic capacity. Using field-grown kudzu (Pueraria lobata (Willd.) Ohwi), a nitrogen-fixing vine species, we took weekly measurements of photosynthetic capacity, leaf nitrogen, and pigment and photosynthetic protein concentrations and correlated these with temperature, irradiance and photoperiod over the growing season. Photosynthetic capacity was more strongly correlated with photoperiod than with temperature or daily irradiance, while the growing season pattern in photosynthetic capacity was uncoupled from changes in leaf nitrogen, chlorophyll and Rubisco. Daily estimates of the maximum carboxylation rate of Rubisco (Vcmax) based on either photoperiod or temperature were correlated in a non-linear manner, but Vcmax estimates from both approaches that also accounted for diurnal temperature fluctuations were similar, indicating that differences between these models depend on the relevant time step. We advocate for considering photoperiod, and not just temperature, when estimating photosynthetic capacity across the year, particularly as climate change alters temperatures but not photoperiod. We also caution that the use of leaf biochemical traits as proxies for estimating photosynthetic capacity may be unreliable when the underlying relationships between proxy leaf traits and photosynthetic capacity are established outside of a seasonal framework. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. Radiation effects on polyaniline

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oki, Yuichi; Kondo, Kenjiro; Suzuki, Takenori; Numajiri, Masaharu; Miura, Taichi; Doi, Shuji; Ohnishi, Toshihiro.

    1992-01-01

    Effects of γ-irradiation on electrical conductivity of polyaniline were investigated. A drastic increase of the conductivity due to radiation-induced doping was observed in combined systems of polyaniline films and halogen-containing polymers. This effect can be applied to measure an integrated radiation dose. (author)

  11. Untargeted effects of ionizing radiation: Implications for radiation pathology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wright, Eric G; Coates, Philip J

    2006-01-01

    The dogma that genetic alterations are restricted to directly irradiated cells has been challenged by observations in which effects of ionizing radiation, characteristically associated with the consequences of energy deposition in the cell nucleus, arise in non-irradiated cells. These, so called, untargeted effects are demonstrated in cells that have received damaging signals produced by irradiated cells (radiation-induced bystander effects) or that are the descendants of irradiated cells (radiation-induced genomic instability). Radiation-induced genomic instability is characterized by a number of delayed adverse responses including chromosomal abnormalities, gene mutations and cell death. Similar effects, as well as responses that may be regarded as protective, have been attributed to bystander mechanisms. Whilst the majority of studies to date have used in vitro systems, some adverse non-targeted effects have been demonstrated in vivo. However, at least for haemopoietic tissues, radiation-induced genomic instability in vivo may not necessarily be a reflection of genomically unstable cells. Rather the damage may reflect responses to ongoing production of damaging signals; i.e. bystander responses, but not in the sense used to describe the rapidly induced effects resulting from direct interaction of irradiated and non-irradiated cells. The findings are consistent with a delayed and long-lived tissue reaction to radiation injury characteristic of an inflammatory response with the potential for persisting bystander-mediated damage. An important implication of the findings is that contrary to conventional radiobiological dogma and interpretation of epidemiologically-based risk estimates, ionizing radiation may contribute to malignancy and particularly childhood leukaemia by promoting initiated cells rather than being the initiating agent. Untargeted mechanisms may also contribute to other pathological consequences

  12. Topical Day on Biological Effects of Radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baatout, S.; Jacquet, P.

    1997-05-15

    The topical day has been focussed on the potential effects of ionizing radiation on human health. A general overview on molecular and biophysical aspects of radiation, its effects on cells and organisms, and the contribution of radiobiology to radiation protection and risk assessment is given. The genetic effects of radiation and its effects on the developing organism, the effects of radiation on the cell cycle and the mechanisms of radiation induced apoptosis were also discussed.

  13. Topical Day on Biological Effects of Radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baatout, S.; Jacquet, P.

    1997-01-01

    The topical day has been focussed on the potential effects of ionizing radiation on human health. A general overview on molecular and biophysical aspects of radiation, its effects on cells and organisms, and the contribution of radiobiology to radiation protection and risk assessment is given. The genetic effects of radiation and its effects on the developing organism, the effects of radiation on the cell cycle and the mechanisms of radiation induced apoptosis were also discussed

  14. Effects of solar UV-B radiation on aquatic ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Häder, D.-P.

    phytoplankton will be exposed to solar ultraviolet radiation. This radiation has been shown to affect growth, photosynthesis, nitrogen incorporation and enzyme activity. Other targets of solar UV irradiation are proteins and pigments involved in photosynthesis. Whether or not screening pigments can be induced in phytoplankton to effectively shield the organisms from excessive UV irradiation needs to be determined. Macroalgae show a distinct pattern of vertical distribution in their habitat. They have developed mechanisms to regulate their photosynthetic activity to adapt to the changing light regime and protect themselves from excessive radiation. A broad survey was carried out to understand photosynthesis in aquatic ecosystems and the different adaptation strategies to solar radiation of ecologically important species of green, red and brown algae from the North Sea, Baltic Sea, Mediterranean, Atlantic, polar and tropical oceans. Photoinhibition was quantified by oxygen exchange and by PAM (pulse amplitude modulated) fluorescence measurements based on transient changes of chlorophyll fluorescence.

  15. EFFICIENCY OF THE USE OF SOLAR RADIATION FOR PLANTS Ilex paraguariensis A. ST. HIL. CULTIVATED UNDER SHADOW AND FULL SUN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Braulio Otomar Caron

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5902/1980509814563The efficiency of conversion of the solar radiation in biomass is a variable frequently used in models of simulation the culture growth, because the biomass production is related with the efficiency of which a plant converts radiant energy in chemistry, given by the process of the photosynthesis. The objective of this work was to determine the efficiency of conversion of the photosynthetically active and intercepted solar radiation (RFAi in Ilex paraguariensis biomass, cultivated in consortium (Ilex paraguariensis A. St. Hil. e Pinus elliottii Engelm and single. For so much, it was determined the photosynthetically active and intercepted solar radiation (RFAi, the index of leaf area and the biomass dries of the seedlings, being then, the efficiency of conversion of RFAi in biomass dries of the cultivated in consortium and single. For a same radiation value RFAi, is obtained larger efficiency of use of the radiation in the accumulation in matter dries when Ilex paraguariensis is cultivated in consortium. The conversion efficiency (εb of biomass total drought of Ilex paraguariensis plants in relation to the amount of the photosynthetically active and intercepted solar radiation (RFAi accumulated is of 0.83 g MJ-1 in the system consortium and of 0.23 g MJ-1 in the single system. In spite of that, the production of aerial biomass for plant was larger in the single system. 

  16. Biological effects of ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1991-01-01

    Experiments with small animals, tissue cultures, and inanimate materials help with understanding the effects of ionizing radiation that occur at the molecular level and cause the gross effects observed in man. Topics covered in this chapter include the following: Radiolysis of Water; Radiolysis of Organic Compounds; Radiolysis in Cells; Radiation Exposure and Dose Units; Dose Response Curves; Radiation Effects in Animals; Factors Affecting Health Risks. 8 refs., 3 figs., 5 tabs

  17. Photosynthetic carbon metabolism in the submerged aquatic angiosperm Scirpus subterminalis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beer, S; Wetzel, R G

    1981-01-01

    Scirpus subterminalis Torr., a submerged angiosperm abundant in many hardwater lakes of the Great Lakes region, was investigated for various photosynthetic carbon fixation properties in relation to available inorganic carbon and levels of carbon fixing enzymes. Photosynthetic experiments were CO/sub 2/ and HCO/sub 3//sup -/ were supplied at various concentrations showed that Scirpus was able to utilize HCO/sub 3//sup -/ at those concentrations close to natural conditions. However, when CO/sub 2/ concentrations were increased above ambient, photosynthetic rates increased markedly. It was concluded that the photosynthetic potential of this plant in many natural situations may be limited by inorganic carbon uptake in the light. Phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEPcase)/ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase (ruBPcase) ratios of the leaves varied between 0.5 and 0.9 depending on substrate concentration during assay. The significance of PEP-mediated carbon fixation of Scirpus (basically a C/sub 3/ plant) in the dark was investigated. Malate accumulated in the leaves during the dark period of a 24-h cycle and malate levels decreased significantly during the following light period. The accumulation was not due to transport of malate from the roots. Carbon uptake rates in the dark by the leaves of Scirpus were lower than malate accumulation rates. Therefore, part of the malate was likely derived from respired CO/sub 2/. Carbon uptake rates in the light were much higher than malate turnover rates. It was estimated that carbon fixation via malate could contribute up to 12% to net photosynthetic rates. The ecological significance of this type of metabolism in submerged aquatics is discussed.

  18. [Correlation research of photosynthetic characteristics and medicinal materials production with 4 Uncariae Cum Uncis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Min; Song, Zhi-Qin; Yang, Ping-Fei; Liu, Hai; Yang, Zai-Gang; Wu, Ming-Kai

    2017-01-01

    Using four Uncariae Cum Uncis materials including Uncaria sinensis (HGT), U. hirsutea (MGT), Jianhe U. rhynchophylla (JHGT) and U. rhynchophylla(GT) as the research objects, the correlations between medicinal materials' yield and photosynthetic ecophysiology-factors in the plant exuberant growth period were studied. Results showed that the Uncaria plants net photosynthetic rate (Pn) changed by unimodal curve. There was not "midday depression" phenomenon. There was a different relationship among the photosynthetic ecophysiology-factors and between photosynthetic ecophysiology-factors and medicinal materials' yield. Pn,Tl,Gs had a significant correlation with medicinal materials' yield(M)and were the most important factors of growth. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

  19. Radiation hazards and biological effects of ionising radiation on man

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siti Najila Mohd Janib

    2004-01-01

    The contents of this chapter are follows - Mechanism of damage: direct action of radiation, indirect action of radiation. Classification of effects: somatic effect, induction of cancer, factors, affecting somatic effects, genetic effect, inherited abnormalities, induced effects, early effects, late effects, deterministic effect, stochastic effect. Effect of specific group: development abnormality, childhood Cancer, fertile women, risk and uncertainty, comparison of risk

  20. Photosynthethic carbon reduction by seagrasses exposed to ultraviolet B radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-01-01

    The species of seagrasses were selected on the basis of their dominance in the marine system, contribution to total productivity, and importance to the life histories of organisms in the Indian River lagoon system along the central Florida east coast. The three seagrasses were Halophilia engelmannii, Halodule wrightii, and Syringodium filiforme. These seagrasses form an excellent experimental system as their areas of dominance fall more or less along a natural gradient of UV-B and photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) penetration. The sensitivity of photosynthesis in the seagrasses was determined and their photosynthetic response to levels of UV-B simulating atmospheric ozone depletion was monitored. Further experiments explore the possible attenuation or repair of UV-B induced photosynthetic inhibition by PAR, the role of epiphytic growth upon seagrasses as a protective UV-B shield, and the inhibition of photosynthesis in response to UV-A is studied.

  1. Design and development of an instrument to measure radiative absorption of seawater. Sumarad

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fasano, G.; Materassi, A.

    2003-01-01

    In the present work, a low-cost instrument is presented that provides the ratio between underwater radiation and radiation outside water for the four spectral ranges fundamental for photosynthetic activity (Sub Marine Radiometer). The instrument essentially consists of two radiometers which operate in the same four bands: one acquires radiation outside the water, the other underwater radiation at a pre-established depth. The two acquisition systems are synchronized when the instrument is turned on and then, in the course of data elaboration, the ratio is obtained between underwater and outside water radiation for each spectral band, at any determined moment, at a predetermined depth. This ratio, in accordance with the Beer-Lambert equation, represents the transmittance of the medium crossed by radiation. By applying the Linke equation to collected data, it is also possible to determine the turbidity of the considered medium. The system can acquire as many as 1,472 data, with programmable temporal scanning, and can operate at depths up to 50 meters. Applications of this instrument are already in progress in studies concerning the relationship between solar radiation and photosynthetic activity of Posidonia oceanica. The proposed instrument has a relatively low cost, when compared with that of other instruments currently on the market, making it particularly suitable for applications that require numerous instruments to monitor sea, lacustrine or fluvial water in various points at the same time [it

  2. Geographic variation in the photosynthetic responses and life history of Mastocarpus papillatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zupan, J.R.

    1985-01-01

    Population differentiation in Mastocarpus papillatus, a red alga occurring from Baja California to Alaska, was assessed by (1) characterizing the geographic pattern of variation in reproductive behavior and (2) determining the range of variation in photosynthesis and respiration. Examining these two aspects of the biology of M. papillatus yielded different estimates of population differentiation. Carpospores of females collected from 8 locations between Baja California and northern California were grown in laboratory culture and their subsequent development followed. The 8 locations could be divided into 3 groups based on life history patterns. Photosynthetic responses to temperature and photon flux density were measured foliose gametophytes and crustose tetrasporophytes from 4 locations. Gametophytes had maximal net photosynthetic rates 4-5 times higher than tetrasporophytes. Tetrasporophyte populations were uniform in photosynthetic responses to temperature. Maximal rates occurred at 15 0 C Gametophyte populations appeared to be slightly differentiated. The photosynthetic temperature optima were between 20 0 C and 25 0 C for 3 populations and between 15 0 C and 20 0 C for 1 population. A preliminary study of carbon metabolism in M. papillatus gametophytes was conducted using 14 C. Partitioning of early products of photosynthetic carbon fixation between low molecular weight and polymeric, high molecular weight compounds appeared to differ under emerged and submerged conditions

  3. Methodology and measurement of radiation interception by quantum sensor of the oil palm plantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johari Endan

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Interception of light by a canopy is a fundamental requirement for crop growth and is important for biomass production and plant growth modeling. Solar radiation is an important parameter for photosynthesis and evapotranspiration. These two phenomena are dependent not only on the intensity of radiation but also on the distribution of intercepted radiation within the canopy. In this study, two operational methods for estimating the amount of photosynthetically active radiation (PAR intercepted by a canopy of the oil palm are presented. LICOR radiation sensors, model LI-190SA and model LI-191SA were used for photosynthetically active radiation (PAR measurement above and below the canopy. We developed two methods, namely "Triangular" method and "Circular" method for PAR measurement. Results show that both methods were suitable for oil palm PAR measurement. The triangular method is recommended for PAR measurements with respect to the whole plantation and the circular method is recommended for specific purposes, such as growth analysis or growth modeling of the oil palm. However, practical considerations such as equipment availability, purpose of the measurement, age of the palm, and the number of measuring points to be sampled should be taken into account in the selection of a suitable method for a particular study. The results indicate that the interception of radiation was affected by spatial variation, and the radiation transmission decreased towards the frond tips.

  4. Radiation effects on materials in high-radiation environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weber, W.J.; Mansur, L.K.; Clinard, F.W. Jr.; Parkin, D.M.

    1991-01-01

    A workshop on Radiation Effects on Materials in High-Radiation Environments was held in Salt Lake City, Utah (USA) from August 13 to 15, 1990 under the auspices of the Division of Materials Sciences, Office of Basic Energy Sciences, US Department of Energy. The workshop focused on ceramics, alloys, and intermetallics and covered research needs and capabilities, recent experimental data, theory, and computer simulations. It was concluded that there is clearly a continuing scientific and technological need for fundamental knowledge on the underlying causes of radiation-induced property changes in materials. Furthermore, the success of many current and emerging nuclear-related technologies critically depend on renewed support for basic radiation-effects research, irradiation facilities, and training of scientists. The highlights of the workshop are reviewed and specific recommendations are made regarding research needs. (orig.)

  5. Effect of Nitrogen Nutritional Stress on some Mineral Nutrients and Photosynthetic Apparatus of Zea mays L. and Vigna unguiculata L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akinbode Foluso OLOGUNDUDU

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The study investigated the responses of maize (Zea mays L. and cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp. seedlings metabolic activities and photosynthetic apparatus to nitrogen nutritional stress. Germination of seeds was done using treated sand in sixty plastic pots and the seedlings were divided into four nutrient regimes. A group of the seedlings was nutrient stressed by administering 200 ml of complete nutrient solution minus nitrogen (-N while the other groups were fed with five times (X5N and ten times (X10N the optimal concentration of nitrogen and the last regime was fed with full nutrient solution (FN. The photosynthetic parameters studied included chlorophylls ‘a’ and ‘b’ respectively; carotenes and xanthophyll while the mineral elements investigated include potassium, calcium and magnesium. The result of the growth analysis showed that nitrogen deficiency promotes an increase in the content of abscisic acid (ABA, causing stomatal closure and a reduction in photosynthesis. This explains the higher rate of leaf abscission in -N plants. A comparison of calcium ion and magnesium ion concentrations in both optimal and stressed conditions reveals that the two ions show antagonism in uptake. There is a correlation between nitrogen and magnesium accumulation as magnesium ion plays a vital role in chlorophyll biosynthesis, protein synthesis and photosynthesis. The pattern of accumulation of photosynthetic apparatus in both maize and cowpea follow a similar pattern. Chlorophyll a dictated the growth pattern of other photosynthetic apparatus in both Zea mays and Vigna unguiculata.

  6. Multiple stressor effects in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii--toward understanding mechanisms of interaction between effects of ultraviolet radiation and chemical pollutants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korkaric, Muris; Behra, Renata; Fischer, Beat B; Junghans, Marion; Eggen, Rik I L

    2015-05-01

    The effects of chemical pollutants and environmental stressors, such as ultraviolet radiation (UVR), can interact when organisms are simultaneously exposed, resulting in higher (synergistic) or lower (antagonistic) multiple stressor effects than expected based on the effects of single stressors. Current understanding of interactive effects is limited due to a lack of mechanism-based multiple stressor studies. It has been hypothesized that effect interactions may generally occur if chemical and non-chemical stressors cause similar physiological effects in the organism. To test this hypothesis, we exposed the model green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii to combinations of UVR and single chemicals displaying modes of action (MOA) similar or dissimilar to the impact of UVR on photosynthesis. Stressor interactions were analyzed based on the independent action model. Effect interactions were found to depend on the MOA of the chemicals, and also on their concentrations, the exposure time and the measured endpoint. Indeed, only chemicals assumed to cause effects on photosynthesis similar to UVR showed interactions with UVR on photosynthetic yield: synergistic in case of Cd(II) and paraquat and antagonistic in case of diuron. No interaction on photosynthesis was observed for S-metolachlor, which acts dissimilarly to UVR. However, combined effects of S-metolachlor and UVR on algal reproduction were synergistic, highlighting the importance of considering additional MOA of UVR. Possible mechanisms of stressor effect interactions are discussed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Respiratory processes in non-photosynthetic plastids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renato, Marta; Boronat, Albert; Azcón-Bieto, Joaquín

    2015-01-01

    Chlororespiration is a respiratory process located in chloroplast thylakoids which consists in an electron transport chain from NAD(P)H to oxygen. This respiratory chain involves the NAD(P)H dehydrogenase complex, the plastoquinone pool and the plastid terminal oxidase (PTOX), and it probably acts as a safety valve to prevent the over-reduction of the photosynthetic machinery in stress conditions. The existence of a similar respiratory activity in non-photosynthetic plastids has been less studied. Recently, it has been reported that tomato fruit chromoplasts present an oxygen consumption activity linked to ATP synthesis. Etioplasts and amyloplasts contain several electron carriers and some subunits of the ATP synthase, so they could harbor a similar respiratory process. This review provides an update on the study about respiratory processes in chromoplasts, identifying the major gaps that need to be addressed in future research. It also reviews the proteomic data of etioplasts and amyloplasts, which suggest the presence of a respiratory electron transport chain in these plastids. PMID:26236317

  8. Respiratory processes in non-photosynthetic plastids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta eRenato

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Chlororespiration is a respiratory process located in chloroplast thylakoids which consists in an electron transport chain from NAD(PH to oxygen. This respiratory chain involves the NAD(PH dehydrogenase complex, the plastoquinone pool and the plastid terminal oxidase (PTOX, and it probably acts as a safety valve to prevent the over-reduction of the photosynthetic machinery in stress conditions. The existence of a similar respiratory activity in non-photosynthetic plastids has been less studied. Recently, it has been reported that tomato fruit chromoplasts present an oxygen consumption activity linked to ATP synthesis. Etioplasts and amyloplasts contain several electron carriers and some subunits of the ATP synthase, so they could harbor a similar respiratory process. This review provides an update on the study about respiratory processes in chromoplasts, identifying the major gaps that need to be addressed in future research. It also reviews the proteomic data of etioplasts and amyloplasts, which suggest the presence of a respiratory electron transport chain in these plastids.

  9. Specific Interaction between Redox Phospholipid Polymers and Plastoquinone in Photosynthetic Electron Transport Chain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Kenya; Kaneko, Masahiro; Ishikawa, Masahito; Kato, Souichiro; Ito, Hidehiro; Kamachi, Toshiaki; Kamiya, Kazuhide; Nakanishi, Shuji

    2017-04-19

    Redox phospholipid polymers added in culture media are known to be capable of extracting electrons from living photosynthetic cells across bacterial cell membranes with high cytocompatibility. In the present study, we identify the intracellular redox species that transfers electrons to the polymers. The open-circuit electrochemical potential of an electrolyte containing the redox polymer and extracted thylakoid membranes shift to positive (or negative) under light irradiation, when an electron transport inhibitor specific to plastoquinone is added upstream (or downstream) in the photosynthetic electron transport chain. The same trend is also observed for a medium containing living photosynthetic cells of Synechococcus elongatus PCC7942. These results clearly indicate that the phospholipid redox polymers extract photosynthetic electrons mainly from plastoquinone. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. Non-targeted effects of ionising radiation - Implications for radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sisko Salomaa

    2006-01-01

    The universality of the target theory of radiation-induced effects is challenged by observations on non-targeted effects such as bystander effects, genomic instability and adaptive response. Essential features of non-targeted effects are that they do not require direct nuclear exposure by radiation and they are particularly significant at low doses. This new evidence suggests a need for a new paradigm in radiation biology. The new paradigm should cover both the classical (targeted) and the non-targeted effects. New aspects include the role of cellular communication and tissue-level responses. A better understanding of non-targeted effects may have important consequences for health risk assessment and, consequently, on radiation protection. Non-targeted effects may contribute to the estimation of cancer risk from occupational, medical and environmental exposures. In particular, they may have implications for the applicability of the Linear-No-Threshold (LNT) model in extrapolating radiation risk data into the low-dose region. This also means that the adequacy of the concept of dose to estimate risk is challenged by these findings. Moreover, these effects may provide new mechanistic explanations for the development of non-cancer diseases. Further research is required to determine if these effects, typically measured in cell cultures, are applicable in tissue level, whole animals, and ultimately in humans. (author)

  11. Non-targeted effects of ionising radiation - Implications for radiation protection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sisko Salomaa [STUK - Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority, Helsinki (Finland)

    2006-07-01

    The universality of the target theory of radiation-induced effects is challenged by observations on non-targeted effects such as bystander effects, genomic instability and adaptive response. Essential features of non-targeted effects are that they do not require direct nuclear exposure by radiation and they are particularly significant at low doses. This new evidence suggests a need for a new paradigm in radiation biology. The new paradigm should cover both the classical (targeted) and the non-targeted effects. New aspects include the role of cellular communication and tissue-level responses. A better understanding of non-targeted effects may have important consequences for health risk assessment and, consequently, on radiation protection. Non-targeted effects may contribute to the estimation of cancer risk from occupational, medical and environmental exposures. In particular, they may have implications for the applicability of the Linear-No-Threshold (LNT) model in extrapolating radiation risk data into the low-dose region. This also means that the adequacy of the concept of dose to estimate risk is challenged by these findings. Moreover, these effects may provide new mechanistic explanations for the development of non-cancer diseases. Further research is required to determine if these effects, typically measured in cell cultures, are applicable in tissue level, whole animals, and ultimately in humans. (author)

  12. Higher absorbed solar radiation partly offset the negative effects of water stress on the photosynthesis of Amazon forests during the 2015 drought

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xing; Xiao, Jingfeng; He, Binbin

    2018-04-01

    Amazon forests play an important role in the global carbon cycle and Earth’s climate. The vulnerability of Amazon forests to drought remains highly controversial. Here we examine the impacts of the 2015 drought on the photosynthesis of Amazon forests to understand how solar radiation and precipitation jointly control forest photosynthesis during the severe drought. We use a variety of gridded vegetation and climate datasets, including solar-induced chlorophyll fluorescence (SIF), photosynthetic active radiation (PAR), the fraction of absorbed PAR (APAR), leaf area index (LAI), precipitation, soil moisture, cloud cover, and vapor pressure deficit (VPD) in our analysis. Satellite-derived SIF observations provide a direct diagnosis of plant photosynthesis from space. The decomposition of SIF to SIF yield (SIFyield) and APAR (the product of PAR and fPAR) reveals the relative effects of precipitation and solar radiation on photosynthesis. We found that the drought significantly reduced SIFyield, the emitted SIF per photon absorbed. The higher APAR resulting from lower cloud cover and higher LAI partly offset the negative effects of water stress on the photosynthesis of Amazon forests, leading to a smaller reduction in SIF than in SIFyield and precipitation. We further found that SIFyield anomalies were more sensitive to precipitation and VPD anomalies in the southern regions of the Amazon than in the central and northern regions. Our findings shed light on the relative and combined effects of precipitation and solar radiation on photosynthesis, and can improve our understanding of the responses of Amazon forests to drought.

  13. Differential responses of growth and photosynthesis in Cyamopsis tetragonoloba grown under ultraviolet-B and supplemental long-wavelength radiations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lingakumar, K.; Kulandaivelu, G.

    1998-01-01

    Cyamopsis tetragonoloba seedlings were subjected to continuous ultraviolet (UV)B radiation for 18 h and post-irradiated with 'white light' (WL) and UV-A enhanced fluorescent radiations. UV-B treatment alone reduced plant growth, pigment content, and photosynthetic activities. Supplementation of UV-A promoted the overall seedling growth and enhanced the synthesis of chlorophyll and carotenoids with a relatively high photosystem 1 activity. Post UV-B irradiation under WL failed to photoreactivate the LTV-B damage whereas a positive photoregulatory effect of UV-A was noticed in electron transport rates and low temperature fluorescence emission spectra

  14. Effects after prenatal radiation exposures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Streffer, C.

    2001-01-01

    The mammalian organism is highly radiosensitive during all prenatal developmental periods. For most effects a dose relationship with a threshold is observed. These threshold doses are generally above the exposures from medical diagnostic procedures. The quality and extent of radiation effects are very much dependent on the developmental stage during which an exposure takes place and on the radiation dose. An exposure during the preimplantation period will cause lethality. Malformations are usually induced after exposures during the major organogenesis. Growth retardation is also possible during the late organogenesis and foetal periods. The lower limits of threshold doses for these effects are in the range of 100 mGy. A radiation exposure during the early foetal period can lead to severe mental retardation and impairment of intelligence. There are very serious effects with radiation doses above 0.3 Gy. Carcinogenesis can apparently occur after radiation exposures during the total prenatal development period. The radiation risk factor up to now has not been clear, but it seems that it is in the range of risk factors for cancer that are observed after exposures during childhood. For radiation doses that are used in radiological diagnostics the risk is zero or very low. A termination of pregnancy after doses below 100 mGy should not be considered. (author)

  15. Photosynthetic assimilation of 14C in isolated chloroplasts in the presence of NO3-, SO4- and NH4+

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsenova, M.

    1977-01-01

    Quantitative changes in carbon photosynthesis assimilation occurring as an effect of varying nitrate, sulfate and ammonia ions in the incubation medium were studied in isolated chloroplasts of spinach. Carbon photosynthetic assimilation is enhanced under the influence of rising nitrate anion concentrations to a certain level. The percentage of 14 C concent in the insoluble products is also raised while in glycolic acid it is reduced. The nitrate anion has an effect similar to that of the bicarbonic anion the same processes. Ammonium and sulfate ions have the opposite effect. It can be assumed that the established effect of the ions studied is due to the influence they have on photosynthetic phosphorylation. (author)

  16. Radiation interception and radiation use efficiency of potato affected by different N fertigation and irrigation regimes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhenjiang, Zhou; Andersen, Mathias Neumann; Plauborg, Finn

    2016-01-01

    Three years of field experiments were carried out to explore the response of potato dry matter production, accumulated intercepted photosynthetic active radiation (Aipar) and radiation use efficiency (RUE) to five N levels providing 0, 60, 100, 140 and 180 kg N ha−1 and three drip irrigation...... strategies, which were full, deficit and none irrigation. Results showed that, irrespective of years, dry matter production and Aipar were increased by prolonged N fertigation, even though N fertigation was carried out from middle to late growing season. The highest total and tuber dry matter and accumulated...... fertilization occurred when most N was applied early in the growing season and the latest N fertilization should be applied no later than 41–50 days after emergence. Deficit irrigation, which received ca.70% of irrigation applied to full irrigation, did not reduce radiation interception and radiation use...

  17. Ionising radiation - physical and biological effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holter, Oe.; Ingebretsen, F.; Parr, H.

    1979-01-01

    The physics of ionising radiation is briefly presented. The effects of ionising radiation on biological cells, cell repair and radiosensitivity are briefly treated, where after the effects on man and mammals are discussed and related to radiation doses. Dose limits are briefly discussed. The genetic effects are discussed separately. Radioecology is also briefly treated and a table of radionuclides deriving from reactors, and their radiation is given. (JIW)

  18. Natural strategies for photosynthetic light harvesting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Croce, R.; van Amerongen, H.

    2014-01-01

    Photosynthetic organisms are crucial for life on Earth as they provide food and oxygen and are at the basis of most energy resources. They have a large variety of light-harvesting strategies that allow them to live nearly everywhere where sunlight can penetrate. They have adapted their pigmentation

  19. Endosulfan induced changes in growth rate, pigment composition and photosynthetic activity of mosquito fern Azolla microphylla

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raja W.

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper is the first in a series reporting a study on the effects of different concentrations of insecticide, Endosulfan (0-600ppm was premeditated on 5th day after insecticide exposure with respect to growth rate, pigment composition and photosynthetic activity of Azolla microphylla under laboratory conditions which become non-target organism in the rice fields. Endosulfan inhibited the relative growth rate, pigment content and photosynthetic O2 evolution. Phycocyanin was main target followed by carotenoid and total chlorophyll. Significant increase in pigment, flavonoid and Anthocyanin was noticed after six days of treatment. In contrast to the photosynthetic activity, the rate of respiration in Azolla microphylla was increased significantly. Our results show that Endosulfan at normally recommended field rates and intervals are seldom deleterious to the beneficial and Eco friendly Azolla microphylla and their activities and thus in turn suppress plant growth and development. Phytotoxity of Azolla microphylla can be minimized by restrictions on application, timing, method and rate of application.

  20. Radiation effects in space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fry, R.J.M.

    1986-01-01

    The paper discusses the radiation environment in space that astronauts are likely to be exposed to. Emphasis is on proton and HZE particle effects. Recommendations for radiation protection guidelines are presented

  1. Molecular adaptation during adaptive radiation in the Hawaiian endemic genus Schiedea.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maxim V Kapralov

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available "Explosive" adaptive radiations on islands remain one of the most puzzling evolutionary phenomena. The rate of phenotypic and ecological adaptations is extremely fast during such events, suggesting that many genes may be under fairly strong selection. However, no evidence for adaptation at the level of protein coding genes was found, so it has been suggested that selection may work mainly on regulatory elements. Here we report the first evidence that positive selection does operate at the level of protein coding genes during rapid adaptive radiations. We studied molecular adaptation in Hawaiian endemic plant genus Schiedea (Caryophyllaceae, which includes closely related species with a striking range of morphological and ecological forms, varying from rainforest vines to woody shrubs growing in desert-like conditions on cliffs. Given the remarkable difference in photosynthetic performance between Schiedea species from different habitats, we focused on the "photosynthetic" Rubisco enzyme, the efficiency of which is known to be a limiting step in plant photosynthesis.We demonstrate that the chloroplast rbcL gene, encoding the large subunit of Rubisco enzyme, evolved under strong positive selection in Schiedea. Adaptive amino acid changes occurred in functionally important regions of Rubisco that interact with Rubisco activase, a chaperone which promotes and maintains the catalytic activity of Rubisco. Interestingly, positive selection acting on the rbcL might have caused favorable cytotypes to spread across several Schiedea species.We report the first evidence for adaptive changes at the DNA and protein sequence level that may have been associated with the evolution of photosynthetic performance and colonization of new habitats during a recent adaptive radiation in an island plant genus. This illustrates how small changes at the molecular level may change ecological species performance and helps us to understand the molecular bases of extremely

  2. Non-linear mixed-effects modeling for photosynthetic response of Rosa hybrida L. under elevated CO2 in greenhouses - Short communication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Öztürk, I.; Ottosen, C.O.; Ritz, C.

    2011-01-01

    Photosynthetic response to light was measured on the leaves of two cultivars of Rosa hybrida L. (Escimo and Mercedes) in the greenhouse to obtain light-response curves and their parameters. Th e aim was to use a model to simulate leaf photosynthetic carbon gain with respect to environmental condi...

  3. Photosynthetic Performance of the Imidazolinone Resistant Sunflower Exposed to Single and Combined Treatment by the Herbicide Imazamox and an Amino Acid Extract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dobrinka Anastasova Balabanova

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The herbicide imazamox may provoke temporary yellowing and growth retardation in IMI-R sunflower hybrids, more often under stressful environmental conditions. Although photosynthetic processes are not the primary sites of imazamox action, they might be influenced; therefore, more information about the photosynthetic performance of the herbicide-treated plants could be valuable for a further improvement of the Clearfield technology. Plant biostimulants have been shown to ameliorate damages caused by different stress factors on plants, but very limited information exists about their effects on herbicide-stressed plants. In order to characterize photosynthetic performance of imazamox-treated sunflower IMI-R plants, we carried out experiments including both single and combined treatments by imazamox and a plant biostimulants containing amino acid extract. We found that imazamox application in a rate of 132 μg per plant (equivalent of 40 g active ingredient ha-1 induced negative effects on both light-light dependent photosynthetic redox reactions and leaf gas exchange processes, which was much less pronounced after the combined application of imazamox and amino acid extract.

  4. Photosynthetically available radiation in the central and eastern Arabian Sea

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Suresh, T.; Desa, E.; Desai, R.G.P.; Jayaraman, A.; Mehra, P.

    of Gregg and Carder, and Frouin et al. were used to investigate the relationship between the quantum and energy of solar radiation available in the PAR region. The avarage ratio of this quanta per energy was found to be about 4.2 mu mole W sup(-1) s sup(-1...

  5. Adverse effects of automobiles related PB/sup 2+/ pollution on photosynthetic attributes and water relations of roadside vegetation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmad, I.; Hussain, M.; Hameed, M.; Ahmad, R.

    2018-01-01

    This research was designed for the phyto-monitoring of Pb2+ pollution emitted from automobiles running along Motorway (M-2) and G.T. road and its effects on photosynthetic attributes and water relations of selected plant species growing along these roads. The data were collected from specified sites at different time intervals during all four seasons of the year. The results revealed significantly (p<0.05) higher Pb2+ content plant leaves growing in the vicinity of roadside (0 m distance) as compared to plant leaves collected from 50 m distance (Control) along both roads (M-2 and G.T. road). The leaves of Nerium oleander (2.45 mg kg-1 dry wt.) collected from M-2 trapped the higher amount of Pb2+ (p<0.001) at Kalar Kahar in Summer and Calotropis procera (2.78 mg kg-1 dry wt.) had the highest (p<0.05) Pb2+ deposition at Bahyria Town during summer. Photosynthetic rate, transpiration rate and stomatal conductance decreased significantly (p<0.01) in plants along roadsides; whereas, inconsistent results in water use efficiency were perceived in plants at 0 m distance as compared to those collected from 50 m distance. These outcomes are important to identify the existence of roadside vehicular pollutants on plants and to its ecological hazards. (author)

  6. Rescuing ethanol photosynthetic production of cyanobacteria in non-sterilized outdoor cultivations with a bicarbonate-based pH-rising strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Zhi; Luan, Guodong; Tan, Xiaoming; Zhang, Haocui; Lu, Xuefeng

    2017-01-01

    -consuming biocontamination pattern in cyanobacteria cultivations, causing devastated ethanol photosynthetic production, was identified and characterized. Physiological analysis of the essential ethanol-consuming contaminant directed the design and application of a pH-rising strategy, which effectively and selectively controlled the contamination and rescued ethanol photosynthetic production. Our work demonstrated the importance of reliable contamination control systems and strategies for large scale outdoor cultivations of cyanobacteria, and provided an inspiring p