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Sample records for photosynthetic electron chain

  1. Functional size of photosynthetic electron transport chain determined by radiation inactivation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pan, R.S.; Chen, L.F.; Wang, M.Y.; Tsal, M.Y.; Pan, R.L.; Hsu, B.D.

    1987-01-01

    Radiation inactivation technique was employed to determine the functional size of photosynthetic electron transport chain of spinach chloroplasts. The functional size for photosystem I+II(H 2 O to methylviologen) was 623 +/- 37 kilodaltons; for photosystem II (H 2 O to dimethylquinone/ferricyanide), 174 +/- 11 kilodaltons; and for photosystem I (reduced diaminodurene to methylviologen), 190 +/- 11 kilodaltons. The difference between 364 +/- 22 (the sum of 174 +/- 11 and 190 +/- 11) kilodaltons and 623 +/- 37 kilodaltons is partially explained to be due to the presence of two molecules of cytochrome b 6 /f complex of 280 kilodaltons. The molecular mass for other partial reactions of photosynthetic electron flow, also measured by radiation inactivation, is reported. The molecular mass obtained by this technique is compared with that determined by other conventional biochemical methods. A working hypothesis for the composition, stoichiometry, and organization of polypeptides for photosynthetic electron transport chain is proposed

  2. Specific Interaction between Redox Phospholipid Polymers and Plastoquinone in Photosynthetic Electron Transport Chain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Kenya; Kaneko, Masahiro; Ishikawa, Masahito; Kato, Souichiro; Ito, Hidehiro; Kamachi, Toshiaki; Kamiya, Kazuhide; Nakanishi, Shuji

    2017-04-19

    Redox phospholipid polymers added in culture media are known to be capable of extracting electrons from living photosynthetic cells across bacterial cell membranes with high cytocompatibility. In the present study, we identify the intracellular redox species that transfers electrons to the polymers. The open-circuit electrochemical potential of an electrolyte containing the redox polymer and extracted thylakoid membranes shift to positive (or negative) under light irradiation, when an electron transport inhibitor specific to plastoquinone is added upstream (or downstream) in the photosynthetic electron transport chain. The same trend is also observed for a medium containing living photosynthetic cells of Synechococcus elongatus PCC7942. These results clearly indicate that the phospholipid redox polymers extract photosynthetic electrons mainly from plastoquinone. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. Electrochemical studies of a reconstituted photosynthetic electron-transfer chain or towards a biomimetic photoproduction of hydrogen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fourmond, V.

    2007-04-01

    The aim of this work is to find an efficient process to convert solar energy into hydrogen. The electrons transfers in reconstituted photosynthetic chains have been particularly studied with the aims 1)in one hand, to better understand the interactions of the different molecules of the photosynthetic chain in order to optimize the changes of the entire organisms for hydrogen production 2)in another hand, to insert the hydrogenases in a photosynthetic chain and then to photo reduce them in order to obtain kinetic data to better understand how it works. (O.M.)

  4. In silico analysis of the regulation of the photosynthetic electron transport chain in C3 plants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Morales Sierra, A.; Yin, Xinyou; Harbinson, Jeremy; Driever, Steven Michiel; Molenaar, Jaap; Kramer, David M.; Struik, Paul

    2018-01-01

    We present a new simulation model of the reactions in the photosynthetic electron transport chain of C3 species. We show that including recent insights about the regulation of the thylakoid proton motive force, ATP/NADPH balancing mechanisms (cyclic and non-cyclic alternative electron transport),

  5. Electrochemical studies of a reconstituted photosynthetic electron-transfer chain or towards a biomimetic photoproduction of hydrogen; Etudes electrochimiques de chaines de transfert d'electrons photosynthetiques ou vers une photoproduction biomimetique d'hydrogene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fourmond, V

    2007-04-15

    The aim of this work is to find an efficient process to convert solar energy into hydrogen. The electrons transfers in reconstituted photosynthetic chains have been particularly studied with the aims 1)in one hand, to better understand the interactions of the different molecules of the photosynthetic chain in order to optimize the changes of the entire organisms for hydrogen production 2)in another hand, to insert the hydrogenases in a photosynthetic chain and then to photo reduce them in order to obtain kinetic data to better understand how it works. (O.M.)

  6. The Impacts of Phosphorus Deficiency on the Photosynthetic Electron Transport Chain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carstensen, Andreas; Herdean, Andrei; Schmidt, Sidsel Birkelund; Sharma, Anurag; Spetea, Cornelia; Pribil, Mathias; Husted, Søren

    2018-05-01

    Phosphorus (P) is an essential macronutrient, and P deficiency limits plant productivity. Recent work showed that P deficiency affects electron transport to photosystem I (PSI), but the underlying mechanisms are unknown. Here, we present a comprehensive biological model describing how P deficiency disrupts the photosynthetic machinery and the electron transport chain through a series of sequential events in barley ( Hordeum vulgare ). P deficiency reduces the orthophosphate concentration in the chloroplast stroma to levels that inhibit ATP synthase activity. Consequently, protons accumulate in the thylakoids and cause lumen acidification, which inhibits linear electron flow. Limited plastoquinol oxidation retards electron transport to the cytochrome b 6 f complex, yet the electron transfer rate of PSI is increased under steady-state growth light and is limited under high-light conditions. Under P deficiency, the enhanced electron flow through PSI increases the levels of NADPH, whereas ATP production remains restricted and, hence, reduces CO 2 fixation. In parallel, lumen acidification activates the energy-dependent quenching component of the nonphotochemical quenching mechanism and prevents the overexcitation of photosystem II and damage to the leaf tissue. Consequently, plants can be severely affected by P deficiency for weeks without displaying any visual leaf symptoms. All of the processes in the photosynthetic machinery influenced by P deficiency appear to be fully reversible and can be restored in less than 60 min after resupply of orthophosphate to the leaf tissue. © 2018 American Society of Plant Biologists. All Rights Reserved.

  7. The Impacts of Phosphorus Deficiency on the Photosynthetic Electron Transport Chain1[OPEN

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-01-01

    Phosphorus (P) is an essential macronutrient, and P deficiency limits plant productivity. Recent work showed that P deficiency affects electron transport to photosystem I (PSI), but the underlying mechanisms are unknown. Here, we present a comprehensive biological model describing how P deficiency disrupts the photosynthetic machinery and the electron transport chain through a series of sequential events in barley (Hordeum vulgare). P deficiency reduces the orthophosphate concentration in the chloroplast stroma to levels that inhibit ATP synthase activity. Consequently, protons accumulate in the thylakoids and cause lumen acidification, which inhibits linear electron flow. Limited plastoquinol oxidation retards electron transport to the cytochrome b6f complex, yet the electron transfer rate of PSI is increased under steady-state growth light and is limited under high-light conditions. Under P deficiency, the enhanced electron flow through PSI increases the levels of NADPH, whereas ATP production remains restricted and, hence, reduces CO2 fixation. In parallel, lumen acidification activates the energy-dependent quenching component of the nonphotochemical quenching mechanism and prevents the overexcitation of photosystem II and damage to the leaf tissue. Consequently, plants can be severely affected by P deficiency for weeks without displaying any visual leaf symptoms. All of the processes in the photosynthetic machinery influenced by P deficiency appear to be fully reversible and can be restored in less than 60 min after resupply of orthophosphate to the leaf tissue. PMID:29540590

  8. The sporulation of the green alga Ulva prolifera is controlled by changes in photosynthetic electron transport chain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hui; Lin, Apeng; Gu, Wenhui; Huan, Li; Gao, Shan; Wang, Guangce

    2016-04-22

    Sporulation and spore release are essential phases of the life cycle in algae and land plants. Ulva prolifera, which is an ideal organism for studying sporulation and spore release, was used as the experimental material in the present study. The determination of photosynthetic parameters, combined with microscopic observation, treatment with photosynthetic inhibitors, limitation of carbon acquisition, and protein mass spectrometry, was employed in this experiment. Cycle electron transport (CEF) was found enhanced at the onset of sporangia formation. The inhibition effect of dibromothymoquinone (DBMIB) towards sporulation was always strong during the sporulation process whereas the inhibition effect of 3-(3',4'-dichlorophenyl)-1,1-dimethylurea (DCMU) was continuously declined accompanied with the progress of sporulation. The changes of photosynthesis resulted from the limitation of CO2 acquisition could stimulate sporulation onset. Quantitative protein analysis showed that enzymes involved in carbon fixation, including RUBISCO and pyruvate orthophosphate dikinase, declined during sporogenesis, while proteins involved in sporulation, including tubulin and centrin, increased. These results suggest that enhanced cyclic electron flow (CEF) and oxidation of the plastoquinone pool are essential for sporangia formation onset, and changes in photosynthetic electron transport chain have significant impacts on sporulation of the green algae.

  9. Photosynthetic control of electron transport and the regulation of gene expression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Foyer, C.H.; Neukermans, J.; Queval, G.; Noctor, G.; Harbinson, J.

    2012-01-01

    The term ‘photosynthetic control’ describes the short- and long-term mechanisms that regulate reactions in the photosynthetic electron transport (PET) chain so that the rate of production of ATP and NADPH is coordinated with the rate of their utilization in metabolism. At low irradiances these

  10. VU-B radiation inhibits the photosynthetic electron transport chain in chlamydomonas reinhardtii

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cai, W.; Li, X.; Chen, L.

    2016-01-01

    UV radiation of sunlight is one of harmful factors for earth organisms, especially for photoautotrophs because they require light for energy and biomass production. A number of works have already been done regarding the effects of UV-B radiation at biochemical and molecular level, which showed that UV-B radiation could inhibit photosynthesis activity and reduce photosynthetic electron transport. However quite limited information can accurately make out inhibition site of UV-B radiation on photosynthetic electron transport. In this study, this issue was investigated through measuring oxygen evolution activity, chlorophyll a fluorescence and gene expression in a model unicellular green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. Our results indicated that UV-B radiation could evidently decrease photosynthesis activity and inhibit electron transport by blocking electron transfer process from the first plastoquinone electron acceptors QA to second plastoquinone electron acceptors QB, but not impair electron transfer from the water oxidizing complex to QA. The psbA gene expression was also altered by UV-B radiation, where up-regulation occurred at 2, 4 and 6h after exposure and down-regulation happened at 12 and 24 h after exposure. These results suggested that UV-B could affects D1 protein normal turnover, so there was not enough D1 for binding with QB, which may affect photosynthetic electron transport and photosynthesis activity. (author)

  11. Photosynthetic control of electron transport and the regulation of gene expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foyer, Christine H; Neukermans, Jenny; Queval, Guillaume; Noctor, Graham; Harbinson, Jeremy

    2012-02-01

    The term 'photosynthetic control' describes the short- and long-term mechanisms that regulate reactions in the photosynthetic electron transport (PET) chain so that the rate of production of ATP and NADPH is coordinated with the rate of their utilization in metabolism. At low irradiances these mechanisms serve to optimize light use efficiency, while at high irradiances they operate to dissipate excess excitation energy as heat. Similarly, the production of ATP and NADPH in ratios tailored to meet demand is finely tuned by a sophisticated series of controls that prevents the accumulation of high NAD(P)H/NAD(P) ratios and ATP/ADP ratios that would lead to potentially harmful over-reduction and inactivation of PET chain components. In recent years, photosynthetic control has also been extrapolated to the regulation of gene expression because mechanisms that are identical or similar to those that serve to regulate electron flow through the PET chain also coordinate the regulated expression of genes encoding photosynthetic proteins. This requires coordinated gene expression in the chloroplasts, mitochondria, and nuclei, involving complex networks of forward and retrograde signalling pathways. Photosynthetic control operates to control photosynthetic gene expression in response to environmental and metabolic changes. Mining literature data on transcriptome profiles of C(3) and C(4) leaves from plants grown under high atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO(2)) levels compared with those grown with ambient CO(2) reveals that the transition to higher photorespiratory conditions in C(3) plants enhances the expression of genes associated with cyclic electron flow pathways in Arabidopsis thaliana, consistent with the higher ATP requirement (relative to NADPH) of photorespiration.

  12. In Silico Analysis of the Regulation of the Photosynthetic Electron Transport Chain in C3 Plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales, Alejandro; Yin, Xinyou; Harbinson, Jeremy; Driever, Steven M; Molenaar, Jaap; Kramer, David M; Struik, Paul C

    2018-02-01

    We present a new simulation model of the reactions in the photosynthetic electron transport chain of C3 species. We show that including recent insights about the regulation of the thylakoid proton motive force, ATP/NADPH balancing mechanisms (cyclic and noncyclic alternative electron transport), and regulation of Rubisco activity leads to emergent behaviors that may affect the operation and regulation of photosynthesis under different dynamic environmental conditions. The model was parameterized with experimental results in the literature, with a focus on Arabidopsis ( Arabidopsis thaliana ). A dataset was constructed from multiple sources, including measurements of steady-state and dynamic gas exchange, chlorophyll fluorescence, and absorbance spectroscopy under different light intensities and CO 2 , to test predictions of the model under different experimental conditions. Simulations suggested that there are strong interactions between cyclic and noncyclic alternative electron transport and that an excess capacity for alternative electron transport is required to ensure adequate redox state and lumen pH. Furthermore, the model predicted that, under specific conditions, reduction of ferredoxin by plastoquinol is possible after a rapid increase in light intensity. Further analysis also revealed that the relationship between ATP synthesis and proton motive force was highly regulated by the concentrations of ATP, ADP, and inorganic phosphate, and this facilitated an increase in nonphotochemical quenching and proton motive force under conditions where metabolism was limiting, such as low CO 2 , high light intensity, or combined high CO 2 and high light intensity. The model may be used as an in silico platform for future research on the regulation of photosynthetic electron transport. © 2018 American Society of Plant Biologists. All Rights Reserved.

  13. In Silico Analysis of the Regulation of the Photosynthetic Electron Transport Chain in C3 Plants1[OPEN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, David M.

    2018-01-01

    We present a new simulation model of the reactions in the photosynthetic electron transport chain of C3 species. We show that including recent insights about the regulation of the thylakoid proton motive force, ATP/NADPH balancing mechanisms (cyclic and noncyclic alternative electron transport), and regulation of Rubisco activity leads to emergent behaviors that may affect the operation and regulation of photosynthesis under different dynamic environmental conditions. The model was parameterized with experimental results in the literature, with a focus on Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana). A dataset was constructed from multiple sources, including measurements of steady-state and dynamic gas exchange, chlorophyll fluorescence, and absorbance spectroscopy under different light intensities and CO2, to test predictions of the model under different experimental conditions. Simulations suggested that there are strong interactions between cyclic and noncyclic alternative electron transport and that an excess capacity for alternative electron transport is required to ensure adequate redox state and lumen pH. Furthermore, the model predicted that, under specific conditions, reduction of ferredoxin by plastoquinol is possible after a rapid increase in light intensity. Further analysis also revealed that the relationship between ATP synthesis and proton motive force was highly regulated by the concentrations of ATP, ADP, and inorganic phosphate, and this facilitated an increase in nonphotochemical quenching and proton motive force under conditions where metabolism was limiting, such as low CO2, high light intensity, or combined high CO2 and high light intensity. The model may be used as an in silico platform for future research on the regulation of photosynthetic electron transport. PMID:28924017

  14. Alternative oxidase: a respiratory electron transport chain pathway essential for maintaining photosynthetic performance during drought stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanlerberghe, Greg C; Martyn, Greg D; Dahal, Keshav

    2016-07-01

    Photosynthesis and respiration are the hubs of energy metabolism in plants. Drought strongly perturbs photosynthesis as a result of both diffusive limitations resulting from stomatal closure, and in some cases biochemical limitations that are associated with a reduced abundance of key photosynthetic components. The effects of drought on respiration, particularly respiration in the light (RL ), are less understood. The plant mitochondrial electron transport chain includes a non-energy conserving terminal oxidase called alternative oxidase (AOX). Several studies have shown that drought increases AOX transcript, protein and maximum capacity. Here we review recent studies comparing wild-type (WT) tobacco to transgenic lines with altered AOX protein amount. Specifically during drought, RL was compromised in AOX knockdown plants and enhanced in AOX overexpression plants, compared with WT. Significantly, these differences in RL were accompanied by dramatic differences in photosynthetic performance. Knockdown of AOX increased the susceptibility of photosynthesis to drought-induced biochemical limitations, while overexpression of AOX delayed the development of such biochemical limitations, compared with WT. Overall, the results indicate that AOX is essential to maintaining RL during drought, and that this non-energy conserving respiration maintains photosynthesis during drought by promoting energy balance in the chloroplast. This review also outlines several areas for future research, including the possibility that enhancement of non-energy conserving respiratory electron sinks may be a useful biotechnological approach to increase plant performance during stress. © 2016 Scandinavian Plant Physiology Society.

  15. Opinion: the red-light response of stomatal movement is sensed by the redox state of the photosynthetic electron transport chain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busch, Florian A

    2014-02-01

    Guard cells regulate CO2 uptake and water loss of a leaf by controlling stomatal movement in response to environmental factors such as CO2, humidity, and light. The mechanisms by which stomata respond to red light are actively debated in the literature, and even after decades of research it is still controversial whether stomatal movement is related to photosynthesis or not. This review summarizes the current knowledge of the red-light response of stomata. A comparison of published evidence suggests that stomatal movement is controlled by the redox state of photosynthetic electron transport chain components, in particular the redox state of plastoquinone. Potential consequences for the modeling of stomatal conductance are discussed.

  16. Respiratory processes in non-photosynthetic plastids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renato, Marta; Boronat, Albert; Azcón-Bieto, Joaquín

    2015-01-01

    Chlororespiration is a respiratory process located in chloroplast thylakoids which consists in an electron transport chain from NAD(P)H to oxygen. This respiratory chain involves the NAD(P)H dehydrogenase complex, the plastoquinone pool and the plastid terminal oxidase (PTOX), and it probably acts as a safety valve to prevent the over-reduction of the photosynthetic machinery in stress conditions. The existence of a similar respiratory activity in non-photosynthetic plastids has been less studied. Recently, it has been reported that tomato fruit chromoplasts present an oxygen consumption activity linked to ATP synthesis. Etioplasts and amyloplasts contain several electron carriers and some subunits of the ATP synthase, so they could harbor a similar respiratory process. This review provides an update on the study about respiratory processes in chromoplasts, identifying the major gaps that need to be addressed in future research. It also reviews the proteomic data of etioplasts and amyloplasts, which suggest the presence of a respiratory electron transport chain in these plastids. PMID:26236317

  17. Respiratory processes in non-photosynthetic plastids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta eRenato

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Chlororespiration is a respiratory process located in chloroplast thylakoids which consists in an electron transport chain from NAD(PH to oxygen. This respiratory chain involves the NAD(PH dehydrogenase complex, the plastoquinone pool and the plastid terminal oxidase (PTOX, and it probably acts as a safety valve to prevent the over-reduction of the photosynthetic machinery in stress conditions. The existence of a similar respiratory activity in non-photosynthetic plastids has been less studied. Recently, it has been reported that tomato fruit chromoplasts present an oxygen consumption activity linked to ATP synthesis. Etioplasts and amyloplasts contain several electron carriers and some subunits of the ATP synthase, so they could harbor a similar respiratory process. This review provides an update on the study about respiratory processes in chromoplasts, identifying the major gaps that need to be addressed in future research. It also reviews the proteomic data of etioplasts and amyloplasts, which suggest the presence of a respiratory electron transport chain in these plastids.

  18. The Mechanisms of Oxygen Reduction in the Terminal Reducing Segment of the Chloroplast Photosynthetic Electron Transport Chain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozuleva, Marina A; Ivanov, Boris N

    2016-07-01

    The review is dedicated to ascertainment of the roles of the electron transfer cofactors of the pigment-protein complex of PSI, ferredoxin (Fd) and ferredoxin-NADP reductase in oxygen reduction in the photosynthetic electron transport chain (PETC) in the light. The data regarding oxygen reduction in other segments of the PETC are briefly analyzed, and it is concluded that their participation in the overall process in the PETC under unstressful conditions should be insignificant. Data concerning the contribution of Fd to the oxygen reduction in the PETC are examined. A set of collateral evidence as well as results of direct measurements of the involvement of Fd in this process in the presence of isolated thylakoids led to the inference that this contribution in vivo is negligible. The increase in oxygen reduction rate in the isolated thylakoids in the presence of either Fd or Fd plus NADP + under increasing light intensity was attributed to the increase in oxygen reduction executed by the membrane-bound oxygen reductants. Data are presented which imply that a main reductant of the O 2 molecule in the terminal reducing segment of the PETC is the electron transfer cofactor of PSI, phylloquinone. The physiological significance of characteristic properties of oxygen reductants in this segment of the PETC is discussed. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Japanese Society of Plant Physiologists. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. Evaluation of the participation of ferredoxin in oxygen reduction in the photosynthetic electron transport chain of isolated pea thylakoids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozuleva, Marina A; Ivanov, Boris N

    2010-07-01

    The contribution to reduction of oxygen by ferredoxin (Fd) to the overall reduction of oxygen in isolated pea thylakoids was studied in the presence of Fd versus Fd + NADP(+). The overall rate of electron transport was measured using a determination of Photosystem II quantum yield from chlorophyll fluorescence parameters, and the rate of oxidation of Fd was measured from the light-induced redox changes of Fd. At low light intensity, increasing Fd concentration from 5 to 30 microM in the absence of NADP(+) increased the proportion of oxygen reduction by Fd from 25-35 to 40-60% in different experiments. This proportion decreased with increasing light intensity. When NADP(+) was added in the presence of 15 microM Fd, which was optimal for the NADP(+) reduction rate, the participation of Fd in the reduction of oxygen was low, no more than 10%, and it also decreased with increasing light intensity. At high light intensity, the overall oxygen reduction rates in the presence of Fd + NADP(+) and in the presence of Fd alone were comparable. The significance of reduction of dioxygen either by water-soluble Fd or by the membrane-bound carriers of the photosynthetic electron transport chain for redox signaling under different light intensities is discussed.

  20. Hydrogen production by using Rhodobacter capsulatus mutants with genetically modified electron transfer chains

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    OEztuerk, Yavuz; Yuecel, Meral; Guenduez, Ufuk [Department of Biology, Middle East Technical University, Ankara (Turkey); Daldal, Fevzi [Department of Biology, Plant Science Institute, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104-6018 (United States); Mandaci, Sevnur [TUEBITAK Research Institute for Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology, Gebze Kocaeli 41470 (Turkey); Tuerker, Lemi [Department of Chemistry, Middle East Technical University, Ankara (Turkey); Eroglu, Inci [Department of Chemical Engineering, Middle East Technical University, Ankara (Turkey)

    2006-09-15

    In Rhodobacter capsulatus excess reducing equivalents generated by organic acid oxidation is consumed to reduce protons into hydrogen by the activity of nitrogenase. Nitrogenase serves as a redox-balancing tool and is activated by the RegB/RegA global regulatory system during photosynthetic growth. The terminal cytochrome cbb{sub 3} oxidase and the redox state of the cyclic photosynthetic electron transfer chain serve redox signaling to the RegB/RegA regulatory systems in Rhodobacter. In this study, hydrogen production of various R. capsulatus strains harboring the genetically modified electron carrier cytochromes or lacking the cyt cbb{sub 3} oxidase or the quinol oxidase were compared with the wild type. The results indicated that hydrogen production of mutant strains with modified electron carrier cytochromes decreased 3- to 4-fold, but the rate of hydrogen production increased significantly in a cbb{sub 3}{sup -} mutant. Moreover, hydrogen production efficiency of various R. capsulatus strains further increased by inactivation of uptake hydrogenase genes. (author)

  1. Elucidating the design principles of photosynthetic electron-transfer proteins by site-directed spin labeling EPR spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishara Silva, K; Jagannathan, Bharat; Golbeck, John H; Lakshmi, K V

    2016-05-01

    Site-directed spin labeling electron paramagnetic resonance (SDSL EPR) spectroscopy is a powerful tool to determine solvent accessibility, side-chain dynamics, and inter-spin distances at specific sites in biological macromolecules. This information provides important insights into the structure and dynamics of both natural and designed proteins and protein complexes. Here, we discuss the application of SDSL EPR spectroscopy in probing the charge-transfer cofactors in photosynthetic reaction centers (RC) such as photosystem I (PSI) and the bacterial reaction center (bRC). Photosynthetic RCs are large multi-subunit proteins (molecular weight≥300 kDa) that perform light-driven charge transfer reactions in photosynthesis. These reactions are carried out by cofactors that are paramagnetic in one of their oxidation states. This renders the RCs unsuitable for conventional nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy investigations. However, the presence of native paramagnetic centers and the ability to covalently attach site-directed spin labels in RCs makes them ideally suited for the application of SDSL EPR spectroscopy. The paramagnetic centers serve as probes of conformational changes, dynamics of subunit assembly, and the relative motion of cofactors and peptide subunits. In this review, we describe novel applications of SDSL EPR spectroscopy for elucidating the effects of local structure and dynamics on the electron-transfer cofactors of photosynthetic RCs. Because SDSL EPR Spectroscopy is uniquely suited to provide dynamic information on protein motion, it is a particularly useful method in the engineering and analysis of designed electron transfer proteins and protein networks. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled Biodesign for Bioenergetics--the design and engineering of electronic transfer cofactors, proteins and protein networks, edited by Ronald L. Koder and J.L. Ross Anderson. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  2. Halogenated 1-Hydroxynaphthalene-2-Carboxanilides Affecting Photosynthetic Electron Transport in Photosystem II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomas Gonec

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Series of seventeen new multihalogenated 1-hydroxynaphthalene-2-carboxanilides was prepared and characterized. All the compounds were tested for their activity related to the inhibition of photosynthetic electron transport (PET in spinach (Spinacia oleracea L. chloroplasts. 1-Hydroxy-N-phenylnaphthalene-2-carboxamides substituted in the anilide part by 3,5-dichloro-, 4-bromo-3-chloro-, 2,5-dibromo- and 3,4,5-trichloro atoms were the most potent PET inhibitors (IC50 = 5.2, 6.7, 7.6 and 8.0 µM, respectively. The inhibitory activity of these compounds depends on the position and the type of halogen substituents, i.e., on lipophilicity and electronic properties of individual substituents of the anilide part of the molecule. Interactions of the studied compounds with chlorophyll a and aromatic amino acids present in pigment-protein complexes mainly in PS II were documented by fluorescence spectroscopy. The section between P680 and plastoquinone QB in the PET chain occurring on the acceptor side of PS II can be suggested as the site of action of the compounds. The structure-activity relationships are discussed.

  3. Influence of the variation potential on photosynthetic flows of light energy and electrons in pea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukhova, Ekaterina; Mudrilov, Maxim; Vodeneev, Vladimir; Sukhov, Vladimir

    2018-05-01

    Local damage (mainly burning, heating, and mechanical wounding) induces propagation of electrical signals, namely, variation potentials, which are important signals during the life of plants that regulate different physiological processes, including photosynthesis. It is known that the variation potential decreases the rate of CO 2 assimilation by the Calvin-Benson cycle; however, its influence on light reactions has been poorly investigated. The aim of our work was to investigate the influence of the variation potential on the light energy flow that is absorbed, trapped and dissipated per active reaction centre in photosystem II and on the flow of electrons through the chloroplast electron transport chain. We analysed chlorophyll fluorescence in pea leaves using JIP-test and PAM-fluorometry; we also investigated delayed fluorescence. The electrical signals were registered using extracellular electrodes. We showed that the burning-induced variation potential stimulated a nonphotochemical loss of energy in photosystem II under dark conditions. It was also shown that the variation potential gradually increased the flow of light energy absorbed, trapped and dissipated by photosystem II. These changes were likely caused by an increase in the fraction of absorbed light distributed to photosystem II. In addition, the variation potential induced a transient increase in electron flow through the photosynthetic electron transport chain. Some probable mechanisms for the influence of the variation potential on the light reactions of photosynthesis (including the potential role of intracellular pH decrease) are discussed in the work.

  4. Photosynthetic electron transport in thylakoid preparations from two marine red algae (Rhodophyta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, A C; Larkum, A W

    1983-01-01

    Thylakoid membrane preparations active in photosynthetic electron transport have been obtained from two marine red algae, Griffithsia monilis and Anotrichium tenue. High concentrations (0.5-1.0 M) of salts such as phosphate, citrate, succinate and tartrate stabilized functional binding of phycobilisomes to the membrane and also stabilized Photosystem II-catalysed electron-transport activity. High concentrations (1.0 M) of chloride and nitrate, or 30 mM-Tricine/NaOH buffer (pH 7.2) in the absence of salts, detached phycobilisomes and inhibited electron transport through Photosystem II. The O2-evolving system was identified as the electron-transport chain component that was inhibited under these conditions. Washing membranes with buffers containing 1.0-1.5 M-sorbitol and 5-50 mM concentrations of various salts removed the outer part of the phycobilisome but retained 30-70% of the allophycocyanin 'core' of the phycobilisome. These preparations were 30-70% active in O2 evolution compared with unwashed membranes. In the sensitivity of their O2-evolving apparatus to the composition of the medium in vitro, the red algae resembled blue-green algae and differed from other eukaryotic algae and higher plants. It is suggested that an environment of structured water may be essential for the functional integrity of Photosystem II in biliprotein-containing algae. PMID:6860312

  5. Communication: Coherences observed in vivo in photosynthetic bacteria using two-dimensional electronic spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dahlberg, Peter D.; Norris, Graham J.; Wang, Cheng; Viswanathan, Subha; Singh, Ved P.; Engel, Gregory S.

    2015-01-01

    Energy transfer through large disordered antenna networks in photosynthetic organisms can occur with a quantum efficiency of nearly 100%. This energy transfer is facilitated by the electronic structure of the photosynthetic antennae as well as interactions between electronic states and the surrounding environment. Coherences in time-domain spectroscopy provide a fine probe of how a system interacts with its surroundings. In two-dimensional electronic spectroscopy, coherences can appear on both the ground and excited state surfaces revealing detailed information regarding electronic structure, system-bath coupling, energy transfer, and energetic coupling in complex chemical systems. Numerous studies have revealed coherences in isolated photosynthetic pigment-protein complexes, but these coherences have not been observed in vivo due to the small amplitude of these signals and the intense scatter from whole cells. Here, we present data acquired using ultrafast video-acquisition gradient-assisted photon echo spectroscopy to observe quantum beating signals from coherences in vivo. Experiments were conducted on isolated light harvesting complex II (LH2) from Rhodobacter sphaeroides, whole cells of R. sphaeroides, and whole cells of R. sphaeroides grown in 30% deuterated media. A vibronic coherence was observed following laser excitation at ambient temperature between the B850 and the B850 ∗ states of LH2 in each of the 3 samples with a lifetime of ∼40-60 fs

  6. Communication: Coherences observed in vivo in photosynthetic bacteria using two-dimensional electronic spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dahlberg, Peter D. [Graduate Program in the Biophysical Sciences, Institute for Biophysical Dynamics, and The James Franck Institute, The University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois 60637 (United States); Norris, Graham J.; Wang, Cheng; Viswanathan, Subha; Singh, Ved P.; Engel, Gregory S., E-mail: gsengel@uchicago.edu [Department of Chemistry, Institute for Biophysical Dynamics, and The James Franck Institute, The University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois 60637 (United States)

    2015-09-14

    Energy transfer through large disordered antenna networks in photosynthetic organisms can occur with a quantum efficiency of nearly 100%. This energy transfer is facilitated by the electronic structure of the photosynthetic antennae as well as interactions between electronic states and the surrounding environment. Coherences in time-domain spectroscopy provide a fine probe of how a system interacts with its surroundings. In two-dimensional electronic spectroscopy, coherences can appear on both the ground and excited state surfaces revealing detailed information regarding electronic structure, system-bath coupling, energy transfer, and energetic coupling in complex chemical systems. Numerous studies have revealed coherences in isolated photosynthetic pigment-protein complexes, but these coherences have not been observed in vivo due to the small amplitude of these signals and the intense scatter from whole cells. Here, we present data acquired using ultrafast video-acquisition gradient-assisted photon echo spectroscopy to observe quantum beating signals from coherences in vivo. Experiments were conducted on isolated light harvesting complex II (LH2) from Rhodobacter sphaeroides, whole cells of R. sphaeroides, and whole cells of R. sphaeroides grown in 30% deuterated media. A vibronic coherence was observed following laser excitation at ambient temperature between the B850 and the B850{sup ∗} states of LH2 in each of the 3 samples with a lifetime of ∼40-60 fs.

  7. Photosynthetic fuel for heterologous enzymes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mellor, Silas Busck; Vavitsas, Konstantinos; Nielsen, Agnieszka Janina Zygadlo

    2017-01-01

    of reducing power. Recent work on the metabolic engineering of photosynthetic organisms has shown that the electron carriers such as ferredoxin and flavodoxin can be used to couple heterologous enzymes to photosynthetic reducing power. Because these proteins have a plethora of interaction partners and rely...... on electrostatically steered complex formation, they form productive electron transfer complexes with non-native enzymes. A handful of examples demonstrate channeling of photosynthetic electrons to drive the activity of heterologous enzymes, and these focus mainly on hydrogenases and cytochrome P450s. However......, competition from native pathways and inefficient electron transfer rates present major obstacles, which limit the productivity of heterologous reactions coupled to photosynthesis. We discuss specific approaches to address these bottlenecks and ensure high productivity of such enzymes in a photosynthetic...

  8. Response of Lemna minor L. to short-term cobalt exposure: The effect on photosynthetic electron transport chain and induction of oxidative damage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Begović, Lidija; Mlinarić, Selma; Antunović Dunić, Jasenka; Katanić, Zorana; Lončarić, Zdenko; Lepeduš, Hrvoje; Cesar, Vera

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Cobalt (Co"2"+) impaired the function of oxygen evolving complex (OEC) in L. minor L. • Electron transport through PSII components varied depending on Co"2"+ concentration. • K-band was proven to be suitable parameter for investigation of Co"2"+ toxicity. • Increased lipid peroxidation level showed early oxidative damage induced by Co"2"+. - Abstract: The effect of two concentrations of cobalt (Co"2"+) on photosynthetic activity and antioxidative response in Lemna minor L. were assessed 24, 48 and 72 h after the start of the exposure. Higher concentration of cobalt (1 mM) induced growth inhibition while lower concentration (0.01 mM) increased photosynthetic pigments content. Analysis of chlorophyll a fluorescence transients revealed high sensitivity of photosystem II primary photochemistry to excess of Co"2"+ especially at the higher concentration where decreased electron transport beyond primary quinone acceptor Q_A"− and impaired function of oxygen evolving complex (OEC) was observed. Due to impairment of OEC, oxygen production was decreased at higher Co"2"+ concentration. Activity of superoxide dismutase was mainly inhibited while lipid peroxidation increased, at both concentrations, indicating that cobalt-induced oxidative damage after short exposure and moreover, susceptibility of the membranes in the cell to cobalt toxicity. Results obtained in this study suggest possible application of used parameters as tools in assessment of early damage caused by metals.

  9. The Arabidopsis thylakoid chloride channel AtCLCe functions in chloride homeostasis and regulation of photosynthetic electron transport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrei eHerdean

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Chloride ions can be translocated across cell membranes through Cl− channels or Cl−/H+ exchangers. The thylakoid-located member of the Cl− channel CLC family in Arabidopsis thaliana (AtCLCe was hypothesized to play a role in photosynthetic regulation based on the initial photosynthetic characterization of clce mutant lines. The reduced nitrate content of Arabidopsis clce mutants suggested a role in regulation of plant nitrate homeostasis. In this study, we aimed to further investigate the role of AtCLCe in the regulation of ion homeostasis and photosynthetic processes in the thylakoid membrane. We report that the size and composition of proton motive force were mildly altered in two independent Arabidopsis clce mutant lines. Most pronounced effects in the clce mutants were observed on the photosynthetic electron transport of dark-adapted plants, based on the altered shape and associated parameters of the polyphasic OJIP kinetics of chlorophyll a fluorescence induction. Other alterations were found in the kinetics of state transition and in the macro-organisation of photosystem II supercomplexes, as indicated by circular dichroism measurements. Pre-treatment with KCl but not with KNO3 restored the wild-type photosynthetic phenotype. Analyses by transmission electron microscopy revealed a bow-like arrangement of the thylakoid network and a large thylakoid-free stromal region in chloroplast sections from the dark-adapted clce plants. Based on these data, we propose that AtCLCe functions in Cl− homeostasis after transition from light to dark, which affects chloroplast ultrastructure and regulation of photosynthetic electron transport.

  10. Response of Lemna minor L. to short-term cobalt exposure: The effect on photosynthetic electron transport chain and induction of oxidative damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Begović, Lidija; Mlinarić, Selma; Antunović Dunić, Jasenka; Katanić, Zorana; Lončarić, Zdenko; Lepeduš, Hrvoje; Cesar, Vera

    2016-06-01

    The effect of two concentrations of cobalt (Co(2+)) on photosynthetic activity and antioxidative response in Lemna minor L. were assessed 24, 48 and 72h after the start of the exposure. Higher concentration of cobalt (1mM) induced growth inhibition while lower concentration (0.01mM) increased photosynthetic pigments content. Analysis of chlorophyll a fluorescence transients revealed high sensitivity of photosystem II primary photochemistry to excess of Co(2+) especially at the higher concentration where decreased electron transport beyond primary quinone acceptor QA(-) and impaired function of oxygen evolving complex (OEC) was observed. Due to impairment of OEC, oxygen production was decreased at higher Co(2+) concentration. Activity of superoxide dismutase was mainly inhibited while lipid peroxidation increased, at both concentrations, indicating that cobalt-induced oxidative damage after short exposure and moreover, susceptibility of the membranes in the cell to cobalt toxicity. Results obtained in this study suggest possible application of used parameters as tools in assessment of early damage caused by metals. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. High-temperature sensitivity and its acclimation for photosynthetic electron reactions of desert succulents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chetti, M.B.; Nobel, P.S. (Univ. of California, Los Angeles (USA))

    1987-08-01

    Photosynthetic electron reactions of succulent plants from hot deserts are able to tolerate extremely high temperatures and to acclimate to seasonal increase in temperature. In this study, we report the influence of relatively long, in vivo, high-temperature treatments on electron transport reactions for two desert succulents, Agave deserti and Opuntia ficus-indica, species which can tolerate 60{degree}C. Whole chain electron transport averaged 3{degree}C more sensitive to a 1-hour high-temperature treatment than did PSII (Photosystem II) which in turn averaged 3{degree}C more sensitive than did PSI. For plants maintained at day/night air temperatures of 30{degree}C/20{degree}C, treatment at 50{degree}C cause these reactions to be inhibited an average of 39% during the first hour, an additional 31% during the next 4 hours, and 100% by 12 hours. Upon shifting the plants from 30{degree}C/20{degree}C to 45{degree}C/35{degree}C, the high temperatures where activity was inhibited 50% increased 3{degree}C to 8{degree}C for the three electron transport reactions, the half-times for acclimation averaging 5 days for A. deserti and 4 days for O. ficus-indica. For the 45{degree}C/35{degree}C plants treated at 60{degree}C for 1 hour, PSI activity was reduced by 54% for A. deserti and 36% for O. ficus-indica. Acclimation leads to a toleration of very high temperatures without substantial disruption of electron transport for these desert succulents, facilitating their survival in hot deserts. Indeed, the electron transport reactions of these species tolerate longer periods at higher temperatures than any other vascular plants so far reported.

  12. Response of Lemna minor L. to short-term cobalt exposure: The effect on photosynthetic electron transport chain and induction of oxidative damage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Begović, Lidija, E-mail: lbegovic@biologija.unios.hr [Josip Juraj Strossmayer University of Osijek, Department of Biology, Ulica cara Hadrijana 8/A, H R -31000 Osijek (Croatia); Mlinarić, Selma, E-mail: smlinaric@biologija.unios.hr [Josip Juraj Strossmayer University of Osijek, Department of Biology, Ulica cara Hadrijana 8/A, H R -31000 Osijek (Croatia); Antunović Dunić, Jasenka, E-mail: jantunovic@biologija.unios.hr [Josip Juraj Strossmayer University of Osijek, Department of Biology, Ulica cara Hadrijana 8/A, H R -31000 Osijek (Croatia); Katanić, Zorana, E-mail: zkatanic@biologija.unios.hr [Josip Juraj Strossmayer University of Osijek, Department of Biology, Ulica cara Hadrijana 8/A, H R -31000 Osijek (Croatia); Lončarić, Zdenko, E-mail: zdenko.loncaric@pfos.hr [Faculty of Agriculture, Josip Juraj Strossmayer University of Osijek, Ulica kralja Petra Svačića 1d, H R -31000 Osijek (Croatia); Lepeduš, Hrvoje, E-mail: hlepedus@yahoo.com [Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences, Josip Juraj Strossmayer University of Osijek, Lorenza Jägera 9, HR-31000 Osijek (Croatia); Cesar, Vera, E-mail: vcesarus@yahoo.com [Josip Juraj Strossmayer University of Osijek, Department of Biology, Ulica cara Hadrijana 8/A, H R -31000 Osijek (Croatia)

    2016-06-15

    Highlights: • Cobalt (Co{sup 2+}) impaired the function of oxygen evolving complex (OEC) in L. minor L. • Electron transport through PSII components varied depending on Co{sup 2+} concentration. • K-band was proven to be suitable parameter for investigation of Co{sup 2+} toxicity. • Increased lipid peroxidation level showed early oxidative damage induced by Co{sup 2+}. - Abstract: The effect of two concentrations of cobalt (Co{sup 2+}) on photosynthetic activity and antioxidative response in Lemna minor L. were assessed 24, 48 and 72 h after the start of the exposure. Higher concentration of cobalt (1 mM) induced growth inhibition while lower concentration (0.01 mM) increased photosynthetic pigments content. Analysis of chlorophyll a fluorescence transients revealed high sensitivity of photosystem II primary photochemistry to excess of Co{sup 2+} especially at the higher concentration where decreased electron transport beyond primary quinone acceptor Q{sub A}{sup −} and impaired function of oxygen evolving complex (OEC) was observed. Due to impairment of OEC, oxygen production was decreased at higher Co{sup 2+} concentration. Activity of superoxide dismutase was mainly inhibited while lipid peroxidation increased, at both concentrations, indicating that cobalt-induced oxidative damage after short exposure and moreover, susceptibility of the membranes in the cell to cobalt toxicity. Results obtained in this study suggest possible application of used parameters as tools in assessment of early damage caused by metals.

  13. Redox regulation of photosynthetic gene expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Queval, Guillaume; Foyer, Christine H

    2012-12-19

    Redox chemistry and redox regulation are central to the operation of photosynthesis and respiration. However, the roles of different oxidants and antioxidants in the regulation of photosynthetic or respiratory gene expression remain poorly understood. Leaf transcriptome profiles of a range of Arabidopsis thaliana genotypes that are deficient in either hydrogen peroxide processing enzymes or in low molecular weight antioxidant were therefore compared to determine how different antioxidant systems that process hydrogen peroxide influence transcripts encoding proteins targeted to the chloroplasts or mitochondria. Less than 10 per cent overlap was observed in the transcriptome patterns of leaves that are deficient in either photorespiratory (catalase (cat)2) or chloroplastic (thylakoid ascorbate peroxidase (tapx)) hydrogen peroxide processing. Transcripts encoding photosystem II (PSII) repair cycle components were lower in glutathione-deficient leaves, as were the thylakoid NAD(P)H (nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (phosphate)) dehydrogenases (NDH) mRNAs. Some thylakoid NDH mRNAs were also less abundant in tAPX-deficient and ascorbate-deficient leaves. Transcripts encoding the external and internal respiratory NDHs were increased by low glutathione and low ascorbate. Regulation of transcripts encoding specific components of the photosynthetic and respiratory electron transport chains by hydrogen peroxide, ascorbate and glutathione may serve to balance non-cyclic and cyclic electron flow pathways in relation to oxidant production and reductant availability.

  14. Nitrogen control of photosynthetic protein synthesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmidt, G.W.

    1986-09-01

    Plant growth is severely affected by impaired photosynthesis resulting from nitrogen deficiency. The molecular aspects of this effect are being studied in the green alga Chlamydomonas grown in continuous culture systems. Photosynthetic membranes of nitrogen-limited cells are dramatically depleted in chlorophylls, xanthophylls and proteins of the light-harvesting complexes. In contrast, enzymes of the reductive pentose phosphate cycle and electron transport chain complexes are reduced only 40 to 65% on a per cell basis comparison with nitrogen-sufficient cultures. From analyses of mRNA levels by in vitro translation and hybridization analyses with cloned DNA sequences for photosynthetic proteins, we have found there are rather minor effects of nitrogen deficiency on nuclear or chloroplast gene transcription. Maturation of a transcript of the nuclear-encoded small subunit of ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase is inhibited in nitrogen-deficient cells and causes accumulation of large amounts of mRNA precursors. Most of the effects of nitrogen deficiency on photosynthetic proteins appear to result from posttranscriptional regulatory processes: light-harvesting protein synthesis may be sustained but their import into chloroplasts or translocation to photosynthetic membranes is impaired. Nitrogen-deficient cells lack violaxanthin, a pigment that is essential for the structure, function and biogenesis of the major antenna complexes. The absence of this pigment may be a causative factor for the deficiency of light harvesting complexes. Finally, the accumulation of massive amounts of starch and triglycerides in nitrogen-limited cells indicate there are some genes whose maximal expression is dependent upon nitrogen-limiting conditions. 10 refs.

  15. Halogenated 1-Hydroxynaphthalene-2-Carboxanilides Affecting Photosynthetic Electron Transport in Photosystem II

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Goněc, T.; Kos, J.; Pesko, M.; Dohanosová, J.; Oravec, Michal; Liptaj, T.; Králová, K.; Jampílek, J.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 22, č. 10 (2017), č. článku 1709. ISSN 1420-3049 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LO1415 Institutional support: RVO:67179843 Keywords : hydroxynaphthalene-carboxamides * photosynthetic electron transport ( PET ) inhibition * spinach chloroplasts * structure-activity relationships Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry OBOR OECD: Biochemistry and molecular biology Impact factor: 2.861, year: 2016

  16. Mathematical Modeling of Acclimation Processes of the Photosynthetic Chain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Heidari

    2016-10-01

    and systematically analyze the dependence of system key characteristic such as rate constant and pool size. For medium and high light intensity, experimental evidence has been predicted with high accuracy by simulation. In low light intensity (100μE m-2s-1 in a few seconds the light phase, a temporary increase in the rate of NPQ was observed after about 60 seconds it reaches to a steady state level. Model simulation of the induction of NPQ relaxation is more accurate than previous predictions, due to the introduction of more stringent quenching agents (xanthophylls cycle and also the light-harvesting complex protonations. The results showed that the pH drop in the transition from darkness to light and high light intensity increases. For low light intensity quenching process occurs with a more gentle slope to the prediction model based on previous experiments is more realistic. In low light conditions, the proton concentration can easily be balanced by ATP synthase activity. This leads to a reduction in current proton-proton feedback gathered during few seconds is balanced. Thus, at high light intensities ATP levels remained stable in the new model is more consistent with reality. Conclusions A simple mathematical model which has been developed in this paper provides a more detailed description of this process and be able to predict the various components and parameters associated with it. Comparison of simulation results with experimental data revealed that protonated light harvesting complex and Zeaxanthin simultaneously induce NPQ quenching processes. The results can be seen as theoretical basis for developing more accurate models to study molecular mechanisms of acclimation processes of the photosynthetic chain.

  17. Regulation of photosynthetic electron flow in isolated chloroplasts by bicarbonate, formate and herbicides

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Snel, J.F.H.

    1985-01-01

    This thesis describes some efforts that were made to gain a better understanding of the processes involved in the regulation of photosynthetic electron flow by bicarbonate, formate and herbicides in chloroplasts. In the past decade a large amount of research has been devoted to get insight into the

  18. The mechanism of anthracene interaction with photosynthetic apparatus: A study using intact cells, thylakoid membranes and PS II complexes isolated from Chlamydomonas reinhardtii

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aksmann, Anna; Shutova, Tatiana; Samuelsson, Goeran; Tukaj, Zbigniew

    2011-01-01

    Intact cells of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii as well as isolated thylakoid membranes and photosystem II complexes were used to examine a possible mechanism of anthracene (ANT) interaction with the photosynthetic apparatus. Since ANT concentrations above 1 mM were required to significantly inhibit the rate of oxygen evolution in PS II membrane fragments it may indicate that the toxicant did not directly interact with this photosystem. On the other hand, stimulation of oxygen uptake by ANT-treated thylakoids suggested that ANT could either act as an artificial electron acceptor in the photosynthetic electron transport chain or function as an uncoupler. Electron transfer from excited chlorophyll to ANT is impossible due to the very low reduction potential of ANT and therefore we propose that toxic concentrations of ANT increase the thylakoid membrane permeability and thereby function as an uncoupler, enhancing electron transport in vitro. Hence, its unspecific interference with photosynthetic membranes in vitro suggests that the inhibitory effect observed on intact cell photosynthesis is caused by uncoupling of phosphorylation.

  19. Electrolyte control of photosynthetic electron transport in cyanobacteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Papageorgiou, G.C.

    1986-01-01

    Ion-permeable cells (permeaplasts) of the cyanobacterium Anacystis nidulans were prepared enzymatically and were characterized with respect to several structural and functional indices. The permeaplasts contain intact, ion-impermeable thylakoids and are photosynthetically active. The authors discuss how, employing these cells, they investigated the effects of cations, acting either on the outer, or on the inner thylakoid membrane surface, on photoinduced electron exchanges with anionic donors (Cyt c-550, plastocyanin, innersurface), or anionic acceptors (FeCN 3- ; outer surface). Cations accelerate such exchanges by accumulating near the solution-membrane interfaces and screening the negative surface charge of membranes. Electrostatic screening, however, is not the only contributing factor, and other electrolyte-linked influences must be invoked in order to interpret the experimental observations

  20. The impacts of phosphorus deficiency on the photosynthetic electron transport chain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carstensen, Andreas; Herdean, Andrei; Schmidt, Sidsel Birkelund

    2018-01-01

    light conditions. Under P deficiency, the enhanced electron flow through PSI increases the levels of NADPH, whereas ATP production remains restricted and hence reduces CO2 fixation. In parallel, lumen acidification activates the qE component of the non-photochemical quenching (NPQ) mechanism......Phosphorus (P) is an essential macronutrient, and P deficiency limits plant productivity. Recent work showed that P deficiency affects electron transport to photosystem I (PSI), but the underlying mechanisms are unknown. Here, we present a comprehensive biological model describing how P deficiency...... accumulate in the thylakoids and cause lumen acidification, which inhibits linear electron flow. Limited plastoquinol (PQH2) oxidation retards electron transport to the cytochrome (Cyt) b6f complex, yet the electron transfer rate of PSI is increased under steady-state growth light and is limited under high...

  1. Effects of water stress on photosynthetic electron transport, photophosphorylation, and metabolite levels of Xanthium strumarium mesophyll cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharkey, T D; Badger, M R

    1982-12-01

    Several component processes of photosynthesis were measured in osmotically stressed mesophyll cells of Xanthium strumarium L. The ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate regeneration capacity was reduced by water stress. Photophoshorylation was sensitive to water stress but photosynthetic electron transport was unaffected by water potentials down to-40 bar (-4 MPa). The concentrations of several intermediates of the photosynthetic carbon-reduction cycle remained relatively constant and did not indicate that ATP supply was limiting photosynthesis in the water-stressed cells.

  2. Modification of quinone electrochemistry by the proteins in the biological electron transfer chains: examples from photosynthetic reaction centers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunner, M. R.; Madeo, Jennifer; Zhu, Zhenyu

    2009-01-01

    Quinones such as ubiquinone are the lipid soluble electron and proton carriers in the membranes of mitochondria, chloroplasts and oxygenic bacteria. Quinones undergo controlled redox reactions bound to specific sites in integral membrane proteins such as the cytochrome bc1 oxidoreductase. The quinone reactions in bacterial photosynthesis are amongst the best characterized, presenting a model to understand how proteins modulate cofactor chemistry. The free energy of ubiquinone redox reactions in aqueous solution and in the QA and QB sites of the bacterial photosynthetic reaction centers (RCs) are compared. In the primary QA site ubiquinone is reduced only to the anionic semiquinone (Q•−) while in the secondary QB site the product is the doubly reduced, doubly protonated quinol (QH2). The ways in which the protein modifies the relative energy of each reduced and protonated intermediate are described. For example, the protein stabilizes Q•− while destabilizing Q= relative to aqueous solution through electrostatic interactions. In addition, kinetic and thermodynamic mechanisms for stabilizing the intermediate semiquinones are compared. Evidence for the protein sequestering anionic compounds by slowing both on and off rates as well as by binding the anion more tightly is reviewed. PMID:18979192

  3. Managing the cellular redox hub in photosynthetic organisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foyer, Christine H; Noctor, Graham

    2012-02-01

    Light-driven redox chemistry is a powerful source of redox signals that has a decisive input into transcriptional control within the cell nucleus. Like photosynthetic electron transport pathways, the respiratory electron transport chain exerts a profound control over gene function, in order to balance energy (reductant and ATP) supply with demand, while preventing excessive over-reduction or over-oxidation that would be adversely affect metabolism. Photosynthetic and respiratory redox chemistries are not merely housekeeping processes but they exert a controlling influence over every aspect of plant biology, participating in the control of gene transcription and translation, post-translational modifications and the regulation of assimilatory reactions, assimilate partitioning and export. The number of processes influenced by redox controls and signals continues to increase as do the components that are recognized participants in the associated signalling pathways. A step change in our understanding of the overall importance of the cellular redox hub to plant cells has occurred in recent years as the complexity of the management of the cellular redox hub in relation to metabolic triggers and environmental cues has been elucidated. This special issue describes aspects of redox regulation and signalling at the cutting edge of current research in this dynamic and rapidly expanding field. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  4. Porphyrin and fullerene-based artificial photosynthetic materials for photovoltaics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imahori, Hiroshi; Kashiwagi, Yukiyasu; Hasobe, Taku; Kimura, Makoto; Hanada, Takeshi; Nishimura, Yoshinobu; Yamazaki, Iwao; Araki, Yasuyuki; Ito, Osamu; Fukuzumi, Shunichi

    2004-01-01

    We have developed artificial photosynthetic systems in which porphyrins and fullerenes are self-assembled as building blocks into nanostructured molecular light-harvesting materials and photovoltaic devices. Multistep electron transfer strategy has been combined with our finding that porphyrin and fullerene systems have small reorganization energies, which are suitable for the construction of light energy conversion systems as well as artificial photosynthetic models. Highly efficient photosynthetic electron transfer reactions have been realized at ITO electrodes modified with self-assembled monolayers of porphyrin oligomers as well as porphyrin-fullerene linked systems. Porphyrin-modified gold nanoclusters have been found to have potential as artificial photosynthetic materials. These results provide basic information for the development of nanostructured artificial photosynthetic systems

  5. The End of the Line: Can Ferredoxin and Ferredoxin NADP(H) Oxidoreductase Determine the Fate of Photosynthetic Electrons?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goss, Tatjana; Hanke, Guy

    2014-01-01

    At the end of the linear photosynthetic electron transfer (PET) chain, the small soluble protein ferredoxin (Fd) transfers electrons to Fd:NADP(H) oxidoreductase (FNR), which can then reduce NADP+ to support C assimilation. In addition to this linear electron flow (LEF), Fd is also thought to mediate electron flow back to the membrane complexes by different cyclic electron flow (CEF) pathways: either antimycin A sensitive, NAD(P)H complex dependent, or through FNR located at the cytochrome b6f complex. Both Fd and FNR are present in higher plant genomes as multiple gene copies, and it is now known that specific Fd iso-proteins can promote CEF. In addition, FNR iso-proteins vary in their ability to dynamically interact with thylakoid membrane complexes, and it has been suggested that this may also play a role in CEF. We will highlight work on the different Fd-isoproteins and FNR-membrane association found in the bundle sheath (BSC) and mesophyll (MC) cell chloroplasts of the C4 plant maize. These two cell types perform predominantly CEF and LEF, and the properties and activities of Fd and FNR in the BSC and MC are therefore specialized for CEF and LEF respectively. A diversity of Fd isoproteins and dynamic FNR location has also been recorded in C3 plants, algae and cyanobacteria. This indicates that the principles learned from the extreme electron transport situations in the BSC and MC of maize might be usefully applied to understanding the dynamic transition between these states in other systems. PMID:24678667

  6. Effect of carbon limitation on photosynthetic electron transport in Nannochloropsis oculata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zavřel, Tomáš; Szabó, Milán; Tamburic, Bojan; Evenhuis, Christian; Kuzhiumparambil, Unnikrishnan; Literáková, Petra; Larkum, Anthony W D; Raven, John A; Červený, Jan; Ralph, Peter J

    2018-04-01

    This study describes the impacts of inorganic carbon limitation on the photosynthetic efficiency and operation of photosynthetic electron transport pathways in the biofuel-candidate microalga Nannochloropsis oculata. Using a combination of highly-controlled cultivation setup (photobioreactor), variable chlorophyll a fluorescence and transient spectroscopy methods (electrochromic shift (ECS) and P 700 redox kinetics), we showed that net photosynthesis and effective quantum yield of Photosystem II (PSII) decreased in N. oculata under carbon limitation. This was accompanied by a transient increase in total proton motive force and energy-dependent non-photochemical quenching as well as slightly elevated respiration. On the other hand, under carbon limitation the rapid increase in proton motive force (PMF, estimated from the total ECS signal) was also accompanied by reduced conductivity of ATP synthase to protons (estimated from the rate of ECS decay in dark after actinic illumination). This indicates that the slow operation of ATP synthase results in the transient build-up of PMF, which leads to the activation of fast energy dissipation mechanisms such as energy-dependent non-photochemical quenching. N. oculata also increased content of lipids under carbon limitation, which compensated for reduced NAPDH consumption during decreased CO 2 fixation. The integrated knowledge of the underlying energetic regulation of photosynthetic processes attained with a combination of biophysical methods may be used to identify photo-physiological signatures of the onset of carbon limitation in microalgal cultivation systems, as well as to potentially identify microalgal strains that can better acclimate to carbon limitation. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Improving Delivery of Photosynthetic Reducing Power to Cytochrome P450s

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mellor, Silas Busck

    at sustainable production of high-value and commodity products. Cytochrome P450 enzymes play key roles in the biosynthesis of important natural products. The electron carrier ferredoxin can couple P450s non-natively to photosynthetic electron supply, providing ample reducing power for catalysis. However......, photosynthetic reducing power feeds into both central and specialized metabolism, which leads to a fiercely competitive system from which to siphon reductant. This thesis explores the optimization of light-driven P450 activity, and proposes strategies to overcome the limitations imposed by competition...... for photosynthetic reducing power. Photosynthetic electron carrier proteins interact with widely different partners because they use relatively non-specific interactions. The mechanistic basis of these interactions and its impact on natural electron transfer complexes is discussed. This particular type...

  8. Effects of selected electron transport chain inhibitors on 24-h hydrogen production by Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burrows, Elizabeth H; Chaplen, Frank W R; Ely, Roger L

    2011-02-01

    One factor limiting biosolar hydrogen (H(2)) production from cyanobacteria is electron availability to the hydrogenase enzyme. In order to optimize 24-h H(2) production this study used Response Surface Methodology and Q2, an optimization algorithm, to investigate the effects of five inhibitors of the photosynthetic and respiratory electron transport chains of Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803. Over 3 days of diurnal light/dark cycling, with the optimized combination of 9.4 mM KCN (3.1 μmol 10(10) cells(-1)) and 1.5 mM malonate (0.5 μmol 10(10) cells(-1)) the H(2) production was 30-fold higher, in EHB-1 media previously optimized for nitrogen (N), sulfur (S), and carbon (C) concentrations (Burrows et al., 2008). In addition, glycogen concentration was measured over 24 h with two light/dark cycling regimes in both standard BG-11 and EHB-1 media. The results suggest that electron flow as well as glycogen accumulation should be optimized in systems engineered for maximal H(2) output. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Electron transport chains in organohalide-respiring bacteria and bioremediation implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shanquan; Qiu, Lan; Liu, Xiaowei; Xu, Guofang; Siegert, Michael; Lu, Qihong; Juneau, Philippe; Yu, Ling; Liang, Dawei; He, Zhili; Qiu, Rongliang

    2018-04-06

    In situ remediation employing organohalide-respiring bacteria represents a promising solution for cleanup of persistent organohalide pollutants. The organohalide-respiring bacteria conserve energy by utilizing H 2 or organic compounds as electron donors and organohalides as electron acceptors. Reductive dehalogenase (RDase), a terminal reductase of the electron transport chain in organohalide-respiring bacteria, is the key enzyme that catalyzes halogen removal. Accumulating experimental evidence thus far suggests that there are distinct models for respiratory electron transfer in organohalide-respirers of different lineages, e.g., Dehalococcoides, Dehalobacter, Desulfitobacterium and Sulfurospirillum. In this review, to connect the knowledge in organohalide-respiratory electron transport chains to bioremediation applications, we first comprehensively review molecular components and their organization, together with energetics of the organohalide-respiratory electron transport chains, as well as recent elucidation of intramolecular electron shuttling and halogen elimination mechanisms of RDases. We then highlight the implications of organohalide-respiratory electron transport chains in stimulated bioremediation. In addition, major challenges and further developments toward understanding the organohalide-respiratory electron transport chains and their bioremediation applications are identified and discussed. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Photosynthetic light reactions at the gold interface

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kamran, Muhammad

    2014-01-01

    In the project described in this thesis we studied a simple bio-electronic device for solar energy conversion by surface-assembly of photosynthetic pigment-protein complexes on a bare gold-electrode. Optical excitation of the photosynthetic pigments gives rise to charge separation in the so-called

  11. High rates of solar radiation - an important natural stress factor of the photosynthetic activity of mountainous norway spruce stands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sprtova, M.; Marek, M.V.

    1996-01-01

    Photosynthetic activity can be regarded as the basis of biomass productivity and vitality of forest trees, respectively. Moreover, this activity is under the strong influence of environment. Excess of photosynthetically active radiation (PhAR) can be a harmful factor of environment which is the reason of photoinhibition. Photoinhibition is demonstrated by a decrease of photosynthetic rate. An analysis of the influence of PhAR excess on function of the assimilatory apparatus of Norway spruce during summer days was done. The strong influence of PhAR excess on values of parameters of photosynthesis reflecting changes in the level of quanta capture and electron transport chain was observed. The comprehensive description of the method of chlorophyll a is given. Excess of PhAR caused rapid changes of assimilatory apparatus function and thus this PhAR excess can be regarded as a significant stress of productional activity of Norway spruce stands under field conditions

  12. Alternative photosynthetic electron transport pathways during anaerobiosis in the green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemschemeier, Anja; Happe, Thomas

    2011-08-01

    Oxygenic photosynthesis uses light as energy source to generate an oxidant powerful enough to oxidize water into oxygen, electrons and protons. Upon linear electron transport, electrons extracted from water are used to reduce NADP(+) to NADPH. The oxygen molecule has been integrated into the cellular metabolism, both as the most efficient electron acceptor during respiratory electron transport and as oxidant and/or "substrate" in a number of biosynthetic pathways. Though photosynthesis of higher plants, algae and cyanobacteria produces oxygen, there are conditions under which this type of photosynthesis operates under hypoxic or anaerobic conditions. In the unicellular green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, this condition is induced by sulfur deficiency, and it results in the production of molecular hydrogen. Research on this biotechnologically relevant phenomenon has contributed largely to new insights into additional pathways of photosynthetic electron transport, which extend the former concept of linear electron flow by far. This review summarizes the recent knowledge about various electron sources and sinks of oxygenic photosynthesis besides water and NADP(+) in the context of their contribution to hydrogen photoproduction by C. reinhardtii. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Regulation of Electron Transport in Chloroplasts. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Effects of ultraviolet radiation (UVA+UVB) on young gametophytes of Gelidium floridanum: growth rate, photosynthetic pigments, carotenoids, photosynthetic performance, and ultrastructure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simioni, Carmen; Schmidt, Eder C; Felix, Marthiellen R de L; Polo, Luz Karime; Rover, Ticiane; Kreusch, Marianne; Pereira, Debora T; Chow, Fungyi; Ramlov, Fernanda; Maraschin, Marcelo; Bouzon, Zenilda L

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of radiation (PAR+UVA+UVB) on the development and growth rates (GRs) of young gametophytes of Gelidium floridanum. In addition, photosynthetic pigments were quantified, carotenoids identified, and photosynthetic performance assessed. Over a period of 3 days, young gametophytes were cultivated under laboratory conditions and exposed to photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) at 80 μmol photons m(-2) s(-1) and PAR+UVA (0.70 W m(-2))+UVB (0.35 W m(-2)) for 3 h per day. The samples were processed for light and electron microscopy to analyze the ultrastructure features, as well as carry out metabolic studies of GRs, quantify the content of photosynthetic pigments, identify carotenoids and assess photosynthetic performance. PAR+UVA+UVB promoted increase in cell wall thickness, accumulation of floridean starch grains in the cytoplasm and disruption of chloroplast internal organization. Algae exposed to PAR+UVA+UVB also showed a reduction in GR of 97%. Photosynthetic pigments, in particular, phycoerythrin and allophycocyanin contents, decreased significantly from UV radiation exposure. This result agrees with the decrease in photosynthetic performance observed after exposure to ultraviolet radiation, as measured by a decrease in the electron transport rate (ETR), where values of ETRmax declined approximately 44.71%. It can be concluded that radiation is a factor that affects the young gametophytes of G. floridanum at this stage of development. © 2014 The American Society of Photobiology.

  14. Insights into the post-transcriptional regulation of the mitochondrial electron transport chain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirey, Tamara M; Ponting, Chris P

    2016-10-15

    The regulation of the mitochondrial electron transport chain is central to the control of cellular homeostasis. There are significant gaps in our understanding of how the expression of the mitochondrial and nuclear genome-encoded components of the electron transport chain are co-ordinated, and how the assembly of the protein complexes that constitute the electron transport chain are regulated. Furthermore, the role post-transcriptional gene regulation may play in modulating these processes needs to be clarified. This review summarizes the current knowledge regarding the post-transcriptional gene regulation of the electron transport chain and highlights how noncoding RNAs may contribute significantly both to complex electron transport chain regulatory networks and to mitochondrial dysfunction. © 2016 The Author(s).

  15. Hybrid system of semiconductor and photosynthetic protein

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Younghye; Shin, Seon Ae; Lee, Jaehun; Yang, Ki Dong; Nam, Ki Tae

    2014-01-01

    Photosynthetic protein has the potential to be a new attractive material for solar energy absorption and conversion. The development of semiconductor/photosynthetic protein hybrids is an example of recent progress toward efficient, clean and nanostructured photoelectric systems. In the review, two biohybrid systems interacting through different communicating methods are addressed: (1) a photosynthetic protein immobilized semiconductor electrode operating via electron transfer and (2) a hybrid of semiconductor quantum dots and photosynthetic protein operating via energy transfer. The proper selection of materials and functional and structural modification of the components and optimal conjugation between them are the main issues discussed in the review. In conclusion, we propose the direction of future biohybrid systems for solar energy conversion systems, optical biosensors and photoelectric devices. (topical reviews)

  16. Electronic Conduction through Atomic Chains, Quantum Well and Quantum Wire

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, A. C.

    2011-01-01

    Charge transport is dynamically and strongly linked with atomic structure, in nanostructures. We report our ab-initio calculations on electronic transport through atomic chains and the model calculations on electron-electron and electron-phonon scattering rates in presence of random impurity potential in a quantum well and in a quantum wire. We computed synthesis and ballistic transport through; (a) C and Si based atomic chains attached to metallic electrodes, (b) armchair (AC), zigzag (ZZ), mixed, rotated-AC and rotated-ZZ geometries of small molecules made of 2S, 6C and 4H atoms attaching to metallic electrodes, and (c) carbon atomic chain attached to graphene electrodes. Computed results show that synthesis of various atomic chains are practically possible and their transmission coefficients are nonzero for a wide energy range. The ab-initio calculations on electronic transport have been performed with the use of Landauer-type scattering formalism formulated in terms of Grben's functions in combination with ground-state DFT. The electron-electron and electron-phonon scattering rates have been calculated as function of excitation energy both at zero and finite temperatures for disordered 2D and 1D systems. Our model calculations suggest that electron scattering rates in a disordered system are mainly governed by effective dimensionality of a system, carrier concentration and dynamical screening effects.

  17. The Electron Transport Chain: An Interactive Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero, Chris; Choun, James

    2014-01-01

    This activity provides students an interactive demonstration of the electron transport chain and chemiosmosis during aerobic respiration. Students use simple, everyday objects as hydrogen ions and electrons and play the roles of the various proteins embedded in the inner mitochondrial membrane to show how this specific process in cellular…

  18. Cyclic electron flow provides acclimatory plasticity for the photosynthetic machinery under various environmental conditions and developmental stages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marjaana eSuorsa

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Photosynthetic electron flow operates in two modes, linear and cyclic. In cyclic electron flow (CEF, electrons are recycled around photosystem I. As a result, a transthylakoid proton gradient (ΔpH is generated, leading to the production of ATP without concomitant production of NADPH, thus increasing the ATP/NADPH ratio within the chloroplast. At least two routes for CEF exist: a PGR5-PGRL1–and a chloroplast NDH-like complex mediated pathway. This review focuses on recent findings concerning the characteristics of both CEF routes in higher plants, with special emphasis paid on the crucial role of CEF in under challenging environmental conditions and developmental stages.

  19. Electronic Markets Selection in Supply Chain with Uncertain Demand and Uncertain Price

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fengmei Yang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, more and more companies start online operation. Electronic market becomes a key component of some companies’ strategy. Supply chain management is another key component of the strategy as being adopted by an increasing number of companies. There are many interactions between electronic market and supply chain. One of the key questions is to select one type of electronic market from the view of supply chain. This paper develops some models to explore the issue of selection between public electronic market and private electronic market in three scenarios where electronic market is used for buying, for selling, and for both selling and buying, respectively. In a public electronic market, neither the supplier nor the retailer is the owner of the electronic market. However, in a private electronic market, there is an owner that is either the supplier or the retailer. Besides demand uncertainty, we take into account the price uncertainty in electronic market. We explore the conditions under which the agent of supply chain selects one certain type of electronic market by comparing expected profits of supply chain members in different scenarios. Some sensitivity analyses are conducted to explore the impact of the customer demand, electronic market retail price, and e-market use fee on the selection of electronic market. Finally, some interesting managerial and academic insights are obtained.

  20. Okadaic acid inhibits cell growth and photosynthetic electron transport in the alga Dunaliella tertiolecta

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perreault, Francois; Matias, Marcelo Seleme; Oukarroum, Abdallah [Department of Chemistry, Universite du Quebec a Montreal, 2101, Rue Jeanne Mance, Montreal, QC, Canada H2X 2J6 (Canada); Matias, William Gerson [Department of Chemistry, Universite du Quebec a Montreal, 2101, Rue Jeanne Mance, Montreal, QC, Canada H2X 2J6 (Canada); Laboratorio de Toxicologia Ambiental, LABTOX, Depto. de Engenharia Sanitaria e Ambiental, Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, Campus Universitario, CEP: 88040-970, Florianopolis, SC (Brazil); Popovic, Radovan, E-mail: popovic.radovan@uqam.ca [Department of Chemistry, Universite du Quebec a Montreal, 2101, Rue Jeanne Mance, Montreal, QC, Canada H2X 2J6 (Canada)

    2012-01-01

    Okadaic acid (OA), which is produced by several dinoflagellate species, is a phycotoxin known to induce a decrease of biomass production in phytoplankton. However, the mechanisms of OA cytotoxicity are still unknown in microalgae. In this study, we exposed the green microalga Dunaliella tertiolecta to OA concentrations of 0.05 to 0.5 {mu}M in order to evaluate its effects on cell division, reactive oxygen species production and photosynthetic electron transport. After 72 h of treatment under continuous illumination, OA concentrations higher than 0.10 {mu}M decreased culture cell density, induced oxidative stress and inhibited photosystem II electron transport capacity. OA effect in D. tertiolecta was strongly light dependent since no oxidative stress was observed when D. tertiolecta was exposed to OA in the dark. In the absence of light, the effect of OA on culture cell density and photosystem II activity was also significantly reduced. Therefore, light appears to have a significant role in the toxicity of OA in microalgae. Our results indicate that the site of OA interaction on photosynthetic electron transport is likely to be at the level of the plastoquinone pool, which can lead to photo-oxidative stress when light absorbed by the light-harvesting complex of photosystem II cannot be dissipated via photochemical pathways. These findings allowed for a better understanding of the mechanisms of OA toxicity in microalgae. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Exposition of Dunaliella tertiolecta to okadaic acid in light conditions results in reactive oxygen species formation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Inhibition of photosystem II is dependent on oxidative stress and effects of okadaic acid on the plastoquinone pool. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Oxidative stress and inhibition of photosynthesis increase okadaic acid effect on cell density in light conditions. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Okadaic acid induces toxicity in algae via both light-dependent and light

  1. Metal-induced changes in photosynthetic electron transport in poplar Ieaves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kralova, K.; Gaplovsky, A.; Masarovicova, E.; Havranek, E.

    2001-01-01

    This study reports the effect of different toxic metals (Cu, Hg and Cd) on dark-induced changes in the photochemical activity of detached poplar leaves that were submersed in solutions of tested metals at different pH level, on the metal accumulation in poplar leaves as well as on fluorescence quenching ability of the tested metals. Cu and Hg inhibited the photosynthetic electron transport (PET) in chloroplast prepared from the leaves of P. nigra and the corresponding IC 50 values were 32.7 and 512.7 μmol dm -3 , respectively. We could not determine the IC 50 value for CdCl 2 due to its very low PET-inhibiting activity. These results are in agreement with previous findings concerning PET inhibition by the studied metals in spinach chloroplasts. The accumulated metal amounts in poplar leaves were determined using radionuclide X-ray fluorescence analysis. The accumulated metal amount increased with the increasing metal concentration and with the decreasing pH value of the applied metal solution. (authors)

  2. Mechanism of action of anions on the electron transport chain in thylakoid membranes of higher plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh-Rawal, Pooja; Zsiros, Ottó; Bharti, Sudhakar; Garab, Gyozo; Jajoo, Anjana

    2011-04-01

    With an aim to improve our understanding of the mechanisms behind specific anion effects in biological membranes, we have studied the effects of sodium salts of anions of varying valency in thylakoid membranes. Rates of electron transport of PS II and PS I, 77K fluorescence emission and excitation spectra, cyclic electron flow around PS I and circular dichroism (CD) spectra were measured in thylakoid membranes in order to elucidate a general mechanism of action of inorganic anions on photosynthetic electron transport chain. Re-distribution of absorbed excitation energy has been observed as a signature effect of inorganic anions. In the presence of anions, such as nitrite, sulphate and phosphate, distribution of absorbed excitation energy was found to be more in favor of Photosystem I (PS I). The amount of energy distributed towards PS I depended on the valency of the anion. In this paper, we propose for the first time that energy re-distribution and its valence dependence may not be the effect of anions per se. The entry of negative charge (anion) is accompanied by influx of positive charge (protons) to maintain a balance of charge across the thylakoid membranes. As reflected by the CD spectra, the observed energy re-distribution could be a result of structural rearrangements of the protein complexes of PS II caused by changes in the ionic environment of the thylakoid lumen.

  3. The role of energy losses in photosynthetic light harvesting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kruger, T. P. J.; van Grondelle, R.

    2017-01-01

    Photosynthesis operates at the bottom of the food chain to convert the energy of light into carbohydrates at a remarkable global rate of about 130 TW. Nonetheless, the overall photosynthetic process has a conversion efficiency of a few percent at best, significantly less than bottom-up photovoltaic

  4. The multiplicity of dehydrogenases in the electron transport chain of plant mitochondria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmusson, Allan G; Geisler, Daniela A; Møller, Ian Max

    2008-01-01

    The electron transport chain in mitochondria of different organisms contains a mixture of common and specialised components. The specialised enzymes form branches to the universal electron path, especially at the level of ubiquinone, and allow the chain to adjust to different cellular and metabolic...... and their consequences for the understanding of electron transport and redundancy of electron paths...... requirements. In plants, specialised components have been known for a long time. However, recently, the known number of plant respiratory chain dehydrogenases has increased, including both components specific to plants and those with mammalian counterparts. This review will highlight the novel branches...

  5. Seasonal response of photosynthetic electron transport and energy dissipation in the eighth year of exposure to elevated atmospheric CO2 (FACE) in Pinus taeda (loblolly pine)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Logan, B.A.; Combs, A.; Kent, R.; Stanley, L.; Myers, K.; Tissue, D.T.; Western Sydney Univ., Richmond, NSW

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated the biological adaptation of loblolly pine following long-term seasonal exposure to elevated carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) partial pressures (pCO 2 ). Exposure to elevated atmospheric CO 2 (pCO 2 ) usually results in significant stimulation in light-saturated rates of photosynthetic CO 2 assimilation. Plants are protected against photoinhibition by biochemical processes known as photoprotection, including energy dissipation, which converts excess absorbed light energy into heat. This study was conducted in the eighth year of exposure to elevated pCO 2 at the Duke FACE site. The effect of elevated pCO 2 on electron transport and energy dissipation in the pine trees was examined by coupling the analyses of the capacity for photosynthetic oxygen (O 2 ) evolution, chlorophyll fluorescence emission and photosynthetic pigment composition with measurements of net photosynthetic CO 2 assimilation (Asat). During the summer growing season, Asat was 50 per cent higher in current-year needles and 24 per cent higher in year-old needles in elevated pCO 2 in comparison with needles of the same age cohort in ambient pCO 2 . Thus, older needles exhibited greater photosynthetic down-regulation than younger needles in elevated pCO 2 . In the winter, Asat was not significantly affected by growth pCO 2 . Asat was lower in winter than in summer. Growth at elevated pCO 2 had no significant effect on the capacity for photosynthetic oxygen evolution, photosystem 2 efficiencies, chlorophyll content or the size and conversion state of the xanthophyll cycle, regardless of season or needle age. There was no evidence that photosynthetic electron transport or photoprotective energy dissipation responded to compensate for the effects of elevated pCO 2 on Calvin cycle activity. 73 refs., 4 figs

  6. Connection between the membrane electron transport system and Hyn hydrogenase in the purple sulfur bacterium, Thiocapsa roseopersicina BBS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tengölics, Roland; Mészáros, Lívia; Győri, E; Doffkay, Zsolt; Kovács, Kornél L; Rákhely, Gábor

    2014-10-01

    Thiocapsa. roseopersicina BBS has four active [NiFe] hydrogenases, providing an excellent opportunity to examine their metabolic linkages to the cellular redox processes. Hyn is a periplasmic membrane-associated hydrogenase harboring two additional electron transfer subunits: Isp1 is a transmembrane protein, while Isp2 is located on the cytoplasmic side of the membrane. In this work, the connection of HynSL to various electron transport pathways is studied. During photoautotrophic growth, electrons, generated from the oxidation of thiosulfate and sulfur, are donated to the photosynthetic electron transport chain via cytochromes. Electrons formed from thiosulfate and sulfur oxidation might also be also used for Hyn-dependent hydrogen evolution which was shown to be light and proton motive force driven. Hyn-linked hydrogen uptake can be promoted by both sulfur and nitrate. The electron flow from/to HynSL requires the presence of Isp2 in both directions. Hydrogenase-linked sulfur reduction could be inhibited by a QB site competitive inhibitor, terbutryne, suggesting a redox coupling between the Hyn hydrogenase and the photosynthetic electron transport chain. Based on these findings, redox linkages of Hyn hydrogenase are modeled. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Dissipation of excess photosynthetic energy contributes to salinity tolerance: a comparative study of salt-tolerant Ricinus communis and salt-sensitive Jatropha curcas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima Neto, Milton C; Lobo, Ana K M; Martins, Marcio O; Fontenele, Adilton V; Silveira, Joaquim Albenisio G

    2014-01-01

    The relationships between salt tolerance and photosynthetic mechanisms of excess energy dissipation were assessed using two species that exhibit contrasting responses to salinity, Ricinus communis (tolerant) and Jatropha curcas (sensitive). The salt tolerance of R. communis was indicated by unchanged electrolyte leakage (cellular integrity) and dry weight in leaves, whereas these parameters were greatly affected in J. curcas. The leaf Na+ content was similar in both species. Photosynthesis was intensely decreased in both species, but the reduction was more pronounced in J. curcas. In this species biochemical limitations in photosynthesis were more prominent, as indicated by increased C(i) values and decreased Rubisco activity. Salinity decreased both the V(cmax) (in vivo Rubisco activity) and J(max) (maximum electron transport rate) more significantly in J. curcas. The higher tolerance in R. communis was positively associated with higher photorespiratory activity, nitrate assimilation and higher cyclic electron flow. The high activity of these alternative electron sinks in R. communis was closely associated with a more efficient photoprotection mechanism. In conclusion, salt tolerance in R. communis, compared with J. curcas, is related to higher electron partitioning from the photosynthetic electron transport chain to alternative sinks. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  8. Effects of different algaecides on the photosynthetic capacity, cell integrity and microcystin-LR release of Microcystis aeruginosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Shiqing [State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resource Reuse, Tongji University, Shanghai 200092 (China); Shao, Yisheng, E-mail: yishengshao@163.com [State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resource Reuse, Tongji University, Shanghai 200092 (China); China Academy of Urban Planning and Design, Beijing 100037 (China); Gao, Naiyun [State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resource Reuse, Tongji University, Shanghai 200092 (China); Deng, Yang [Department of Earth and Environmental Studies, Montclair State University, Montclair NJ 07043 (United States); Qiao, Junlian; Ou, Huase; Deng, Jing [State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resource Reuse, Tongji University, Shanghai 200092 (China)

    2013-10-01

    Bench scale tests were conducted to study the effects of four common algaecides, including copper sulfate, hydrogen peroxide, diuron and ethyl 2-methylacetoacetate (EMA) on the photosynthetic capacity, cell integrity and microcystin-LR (MC-LR) release of Microcystis aeruginosa. The release of potassium (K{sup +}) from cell membrane during algaecide exposure was also analyzed. The three typical photosynthetic parameters, including the effective quantum yield (φ{sub e}), photosynthetic efficiency (α) and maximal electron transport rate (rETR{sub max}), were measured by a pulse amplitude modulated (PAM) fluorometry. Results showed that the photosynthetic capacity was all inhibited by the four algaecides, to different degrees, by limiting the energy capture in photosynthesis, and blocking the electron transfer chain in primary reaction. For example, at high diuron concentration (7.5 mg L{sup −1}), φ{sub e}, α and rETR{sub max} decreased from 0.46 to 0.19 (p < 0.01), from 0.20 to 0.01 (p < 0.01) μmol electrons m{sup −2} s{sup −1}/μmol photons m{sup −2} s{sup −1}, and from 160.7 to 0.1 (p < 0.001) μmol m{sup −2} s{sup −1} compared with the control group after 96 h of exposure, respectively. Furthermore, the increase of algaecide dose could lead to the cell lysis, as well as release of intracellular MC-LR that enhanced the accumulation of extracellular MC-LR. The order of MC-LR release potential for the four algaecides was CuSO{sub 4} > H{sub 2}O{sub 2} > diuron > EMA. Highlights: • PAM was used to investigate the effects of algaecides on Microcystis aeruginosa. • We estimate the release of potassium (K{sup +}) from cell membrane for cell lysis. • The risk of microcystin-LR release was evaluated after algaecides exposure. • The order of MC-LR release potential was copper sulfate > hydrogen peroxide > diuron > ethyl 2-methylacetoacetate.

  9. Engineering electronic states of periodic and quasiperiodic chains by buckling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukherjee, Amrita; Nandy, Atanu; Chakrabarti, Arunava

    2017-07-01

    The spectrum of spinless, non-interacting electrons on a linear chain that is buckled in a non-uniform, quasiperiodic manner is investigated within a tight binding formalism. We have addressed two specific cases, viz., a perfectly periodic chain wrinkled in a quasiperiodic Fibonacci pattern, and a quasiperiodic Fibonacci chain, where the buckling also takes place in a Fibonacci pattern. The buckling brings distant neighbors in the parent chain to close proximity, which is simulated by a tunnel hopping amplitude. It is seen that, in the perfectly ordered case, increasing the strength of the tunnel hopping (that is, bending the segments more) absolutely continuous density of states is retained towards the edges of the band, while the central portion becomes fragmented and host subbands of narrowing widths containing extended, current carrying states, and multiple isolated bound states formed as a result of the bending. A switching ;on; and ;off; of the electronic transmission can thus be engineered by buckling. On the other hand, in the second example of a quasiperiodic Fibonacci chain, imparting a quasiperiodic buckling is found to generate continuous subband(s) destroying the usual multifractality of the energy spectrum. We present exact results based on a real space renormalization group analysis, that is corroborated by explicit calculation of the two terminal electronic transport.

  10. Lateral electron transport in monolayers of short chains at interfaces: A Monte Carlo study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    George, Christopher B.; Szleifer, Igal; Ratner, Mark A.

    2010-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Electron hopping between electroactive sites in a monolayer composed of redox-active and redox-passive molecules. - Abstract: Using Monte Carlo simulations, we study lateral electronic diffusion in dense monolayers composed of a mixture of redox-active and redox-passive chains tethered to a surface. Two charge transport mechanisms are considered: the physical diffusion of electroactive chains and electron hopping between redox-active sites. Results indicate that by varying the monolayer density, the mole fraction of electroactive chains, and the electron hopping range, the dominant charge transport mechanism can be changed. For high density monolayers in a semi-crystalline phase, electron diffusion proceeds via electron hopping almost exclusively, leading to static percolation behavior. In fluid monolayers, the diffusion of chains may contribute more to the overall electronic diffusion, reducing the observed static percolation effects.

  11. Electron transport chains of lactic acid bacteria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brooijmans, R.J.W.

    2008-01-01

    Lactic acid bacteria are generally considered facultative anaerobic obligate fermentative bacteria. They are unable to synthesize heme. Some lactic acid bacteria are unable to form menaquinone as well. Both these components are cofactors of respiratory (electron transport) chains of prokaryotic

  12. Effects of different algaecides on the photosynthetic capacity, cell integrity and microcystin-LR release of Microcystis aeruginosa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, Shiqing; Shao, Yisheng; Gao, Naiyun; Deng, Yang; Qiao, Junlian; Ou, Huase; Deng, Jing

    2013-01-01

    Bench scale tests were conducted to study the effects of four common algaecides, including copper sulfate, hydrogen peroxide, diuron and ethyl 2-methylacetoacetate (EMA) on the photosynthetic capacity, cell integrity and microcystin-LR (MC-LR) release of Microcystis aeruginosa. The release of potassium (K + ) from cell membrane during algaecide exposure was also analyzed. The three typical photosynthetic parameters, including the effective quantum yield (φ e ), photosynthetic efficiency (α) and maximal electron transport rate (rETR max ), were measured by a pulse amplitude modulated (PAM) fluorometry. Results showed that the photosynthetic capacity was all inhibited by the four algaecides, to different degrees, by limiting the energy capture in photosynthesis, and blocking the electron transfer chain in primary reaction. For example, at high diuron concentration (7.5 mg L −1 ), φ e , α and rETR max decreased from 0.46 to 0.19 (p −2 s −1 /μmol photons m −2 s −1 , and from 160.7 to 0.1 (p −2 s −1 compared with the control group after 96 h of exposure, respectively. Furthermore, the increase of algaecide dose could lead to the cell lysis, as well as release of intracellular MC-LR that enhanced the accumulation of extracellular MC-LR. The order of MC-LR release potential for the four algaecides was CuSO 4 > H 2 O 2 > diuron > EMA. Highlights: • PAM was used to investigate the effects of algaecides on Microcystis aeruginosa. • We estimate the release of potassium (K + ) from cell membrane for cell lysis. • The risk of microcystin-LR release was evaluated after algaecides exposure. • The order of MC-LR release potential was copper sulfate > hydrogen peroxide > diuron > ethyl 2-methylacetoacetate

  13. Calculation of the radiative properties of photosynthetic microorganisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dauchet, Jérémi; Blanco, Stéphane; Cornet, Jean-François; Fournier, Richard

    2015-01-01

    A generic methodological chain for the predictive calculation of the light-scattering and absorption properties of photosynthetic microorganisms within the visible spectrum is presented here. This methodology has been developed in order to provide the radiative properties needed for the analysis of radiative transfer within photobioreactor processes, with a view to enable their optimization for large-scale sustainable production of chemicals for energy and chemistry. It gathers an electromagnetic model of light-particle interaction along with detailed and validated protocols for the determination of input parameters: morphological and structural characteristics of the studied microorganisms as well as their photosynthetic-pigment content. The microorganisms are described as homogeneous equivalent-particles whose shape and size distribution is characterized by image analysis. The imaginary part of their refractive index is obtained thanks to a new and quite extended database of the in vivo absorption spectra of photosynthetic pigments (that is made available to the reader). The real part of the refractive index is then calculated by using the singly subtractive Kramers–Krönig approximation, for which the anchor point is determined with the Bruggeman mixing rule, based on the volume fraction of the microorganism internal-structures and their refractive indices (extracted from a database). Afterwards, the radiative properties are estimated using the Schiff approximation for spheroidal or cylindrical particles, as a first step toward the description of the complexity and diversity of the shapes encountered within the microbial world. Finally, these predictive results are confronted to experimental normal-hemispherical transmittance spectra for validation. This entire procedure is implemented for Rhodospirillum rubrum, Arthrospira platensis and Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, each representative of the main three kinds of photosynthetic microorganisms, i.e. respectively

  14. Calculation of the radiative properties of photosynthetic microorganisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dauchet, Jérémi; Blanco, Stéphane; Cornet, Jean-François; Fournier, Richard

    2015-08-01

    A generic methodological chain for the predictive calculation of the light-scattering and absorption properties of photosynthetic microorganisms within the visible spectrum is presented here. This methodology has been developed in order to provide the radiative properties needed for the analysis of radiative transfer within photobioreactor processes, with a view to enable their optimization for large-scale sustainable production of chemicals for energy and chemistry. It gathers an electromagnetic model of light-particle interaction along with detailed and validated protocols for the determination of input parameters: morphological and structural characteristics of the studied microorganisms as well as their photosynthetic-pigment content. The microorganisms are described as homogeneous equivalent-particles whose shape and size distribution is characterized by image analysis. The imaginary part of their refractive index is obtained thanks to a new and quite extended database of the in vivo absorption spectra of photosynthetic pigments (that is made available to the reader). The real part of the refractive index is then calculated by using the singly subtractive Kramers-Krönig approximation, for which the anchor point is determined with the Bruggeman mixing rule, based on the volume fraction of the microorganism internal-structures and their refractive indices (extracted from a database). Afterwards, the radiative properties are estimated using the Schiff approximation for spheroidal or cylindrical particles, as a first step toward the description of the complexity and diversity of the shapes encountered within the microbial world. Finally, these predictive results are confronted to experimental normal-hemispherical transmittance spectra for validation. This entire procedure is implemented for Rhodospirillum rubrum, Arthrospira platensis and Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, each representative of the main three kinds of photosynthetic microorganisms, i.e. respectively

  15. Electronic structure and transport of a carbon chain between graphene nanoribbon leads

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, G P; Fang, X W; Yao, Y X; Wang, C Z; Ho, K M; Ding, Z J

    2011-01-01

    The electronic structure and transport property of a carbon chain between two graphene nanoribbon leads are studied using an ab initio tight-binding (TB) model and Landauer's formalism combined with a non-equilibrium Green's function. The TB Hamiltonian and overlap matrices are extracted from first-principles density functional calculations through the quasi-atomic minimal basis orbital scheme. The accuracy of the TB model is demonstrated by comparing the electronic structure from the TB model with that from first-principles density functional theory. The results of electronic transport on a carbon atomic chain connected to armchair and zigzag graphene ribbon leads, such as different transport characters near the Fermi level and at most one quantized conductance, reveal the effect of the electronic structure of the leads and the scattering from the atomic chain. In addition, bond length alternation and an interesting transmission resonance are observed in the atomic chain connected to zigzag graphene ribbon leads. Our approach provides a promising route to quantitative investigation of both the electronic structure and transport property of large systems.

  16. Photosynthesis and photosynthetic electron flow in the alpine evergreen species Quercus guyavifolia in winter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Huang

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Alpine evergreen broadleaf tree species must regularly cope with low night temperatures in winter. However, the effects of low night temperatures on photosynthesis in alpine evergreen broadleaf tree species are unclear. We measured the diurnal photosynthetic parameters before and after cold snap for leaves of Quercus guyavifolia growing in its native habitat at 3290 m. On 11 and 12 December 2013 (before cold snap, stomatal and mesophyll conductances (gs and gm, CO2 assimilation rate (An, and total electron flow through PSII (JPSII at daytime were maintained at high levels. The major action of alternative electron flow was to provide extra ATP for primary metabolisms. On 20 December 2013 (after cold snap, the diurnal values of gs, gm, An and JPSII at daytime largely decreased, mainly due to the large decrease in night air temperature. Meanwhile, the ratio of photorespiration and alternative electron flow to JPSII largely increased on 20 December. Furthermore, the high levels of alternative electron flow were accompanied with low rates of extra ATP production. A quantitative limitation analysis reveals that the gm limitation increased on 20 December with decreased night air temperature. Therefore, the night air temperature was an important determinant of stomatal/mesophyll conductance and photosynthesis. When photosynthesis is inhibited following freezing night temperatures, photorespiration and alternative electron flow are important electron sinks, which support the role of photorespiration and alternative electron flow in photoportection for alpine plants under low temperatures.

  17. Partitioning of electron flux between the respiratory chains of the yeast Candida parapsilosis: parallel working of the two chains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerin, M G; Camougrand, N M

    1994-02-08

    Partitioning of the electron flux between the classical and the alternative respiratory chains of the yeast Candida parapsilosis, was measured as a function of the oxidation rate and of the Q-pool redox poise. At low respiration rate, electrons from external NADH travelled preferentially through the alternative pathway as indicated by the antimycin A-insensitivity of electron flow. Inhibition of the alternative pathway by SHAM restored full antimycin A-sensitivity to the remaining electro flow. The dependence of the respiratory rate on the redox poise of the quinone pool was investigated when the electron flux was mediated either by the main respiratory chain (growth in the absence of antimycin A) or by the second respiratory chain (growth in the presence of antimycin A). In the former case, a linear relationship was found between these two parameters. In contrast, in the latter case, the relationship between Q-pool reduction level and electron flux was non-linear, but it could be resolved into two distinct curves. This second quinone is not reducible in the presence of antimycin A but only in the presence of high concentrations of myxothiazol or cyanide. Since two quinone species exist in C. parapsilosis, UQ9 and Qx (C33H54O4), we hypothesized that these two curves could correspond to the functioning of the second quinone engaged during the alternative pathway activity. Partitioning of electrons between both respiratory chains could occur upstream of complex III with the second chain functioning in parallel to the main one, and with the additional possibility of merging into the main one at the complex IV level.

  18. Methanol as an alternative electron donor in chain elongation for butyrate and caproate formation

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, W.S.; Ye, Y.; Steinbusch, K.J.J.; Strik, D.P.B.T.B.; Buisman, C.J.N.

    2016-01-01

    Chain elongation is an emerging mixed culture biotechnology converting acetate into valuable biochemicals by using ethanol as an external electron donor. In this study we proposed to test another potential electron donor, methanol, in chain elongation. Methanol can be produced through the thermochemical conversion of lignocellulosic biowaste. Use of methanol in chain elongation integrates the lignocellulosic feedstocks and the thermochemical platform technologies into chain elongation. After ...

  19. Structural and electronic properties of a single C chain doped zigzag BN nanoribbons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Ping; Wang, Qianwen; Cao, Gengyu; Tang, Fuling; Huang, Min

    2014-01-01

    The effects of single C-chain on the stability, structural and electronic properties of zigzag BN nanoribbons (ZBNNRs) were investigated by first-principles calculations. C-chain was expected to dope at B-edge for all the ribbon widths N z considered. The band gaps of C-chain doped N z -ZBNNR are narrower than that of perfect ZBNNR due to new localized states induced by C-chain. The band gaps of N z -ZBNNR-C(n) are direct except for the case of C-chain position n=2. Band gaps of BN nanoribbons are tunable by C-chain and its position n, which may endow the potential applications of BNNR in electronics.

  20. Electron transfer reactions in microporous solids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mallouk, T.E.

    1993-01-01

    Basic thrust the research program involves use of microporous solids (zeolites, clays, layered and tunnel structure oxide semiconductors) as organizing media for artificial photosynthetic systems. Purpose of the microporous solid is twofold. First, it induces spatial organization of photoactive and electroactive components (sensitizers, semiconductor particles, electron relays, and catalysts) at the solid-solution interface, enhancing the quantum efficiency of charge separation and separating physically the ultimate electron donor and acceptor in the electron transport chain. Second, since the microcrystalline solid admits only molecules of a certain charge and size, it is possible to achieve permanent charge separation by sieving chemical photoproducts (e.g., H[sub 2] and I[sub 3][sup [minus

  1. Elevated CO2 causes changes in the photosynthetic apparatus of a toxic cyanobacterium, Cylindrospermopsis raciborskii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierangelini, Mattia; Stojkovic, Slobodanka; Orr, Philip T; Beardall, John

    2014-07-15

    We studied the physiological acclimation of growth, photosynthesis and CO2-concentrating mechanism (CCM) in Cylindrospermopsis raciborskii exposed to low (present day; L-CO2) and high (1300ppm; H-CO2) pCO2. Results showed that under H-CO2 the cell specific division rate (μc) was higher and the CO2- and light-saturated photosynthetic rates (Vmax and Pmax) doubled. The cells' photosynthetic affinity for CO2 (K0.5CO2) was halved compared to L-CO2 cultures. However, no significant differences were found in dark respiration rates (Rd), pigment composition and light harvesting efficiency (α). In H-CO2 cells, non-photochemical quenching (NPQ), associated with state transitions of the electron transport chain (ETC), was negligible. Simultaneously, a reorganisation of PSII features including antenna connectivity (JconPSIIα), heterogeneity (PSIIα/β) and effective absorption cross sectional area (σPSIIα/β) was observed. In relation to different activities of the CCM, our findings suggest that for cells grown under H-CO2: (1) there is down-regulation of CCM activity; (2) the ability of cells to use the harvested light energy is altered; (3) the occurrence of state transitions is likely to be associated with changes of electron flow (cyclic vs linear) through the ETC; (4) changes in PSII characteristics are important in regulating state transitions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  2. Geometric stability and electronic structure of infinite and finite phosphorus atomic chains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qiao Jingsi; Zhou Linwei; Ji Wei

    2017-01-01

    One-dimensional mono- or few-atomic chains were successfully fabricated in a variety of two-dimensional materials, like graphene, BN, and transition metal dichalcogenides, which exhibit striking transport and mechanical properties. However, atomic chains of black phosphorus (BP), an emerging electronic and optoelectronic material, is yet to be investigated. Here, we comprehensively considered the geometry stability of six categories of infinite BP atomic chains, transitions among them, and their electronic structures. These categories include mono- and dual-atomic linear, armchair, and zigzag chains. Each zigzag chain was found to be the most stable in each category with the same chain width. The mono-atomic zigzag chain was predicted as a Dirac semi-metal. In addition, we proposed prototype structures of suspended and supported finite atomic chains. It was found that the zigzag chain is, again, the most stable form and could be transferred from mono-atomic armchair chains. An orientation dependence was revealed for supported armchair chains that they prefer an angle of roughly 35 ° –37 ° perpendicular to the BP edge, corresponding to the [110] direction of the substrate BP sheet. These results may promote successive research on mono- or few-atomic chains of BP and other two-dimensional materials for unveiling their unexplored physical properties. (special topic)

  3. Exact solution of a coupled spin–electron linear chain composed of localized Ising spins and mobile electrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Čisárová, Jana; Strečka, Jozef

    2014-01-01

    Exact solution of a coupled spin–electron linear chain composed of localized Ising spins and mobile electrons is found. The investigated spin–electron model is exactly solvable by the use of a transfer-matrix method after tracing out the degrees of freedom of mobile electrons delocalized over a couple of interstitial (decorating) sites. The exact ground-state phase diagram reveals an existence of five phases with different number of mobile electrons per unit cell, two of which are ferromagnetic, two are paramagnetic and one is antiferromagnetic. We have studied in particular the dependencies of compressibility and specific heat on temperature and electron density. - Highlights: • A coupled spin–electron chain composed of Ising spins and mobile electrons is exactly solved. • Quantum paramagnetic, ferromagnetic and antiferromagnetic ground states are found. • A compressibility shows a non-monotonous dependence on temperature and electron density. • Thermal dependences of specific heat display two distinct peaks

  4. The role of energy losses in photosynthetic light harvesting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krüger, T. P. J.; van Grondelle, R.

    2017-07-01

    Photosynthesis operates at the bottom of the food chain to convert the energy of light into carbohydrates at a remarkable global rate of about 130 TW. Nonetheless, the overall photosynthetic process has a conversion efficiency of a few percent at best, significantly less than bottom-up photovoltaic cells. The primary photosynthetic steps, consisting of light harvesting and charge separation, are often presented as having near-unity quantum efficiency but this holds only true under ideal conditions. In this review, we discuss the importance of energy loss mechanisms to establish robustness in photosynthetic light harvesting. Thermal energy dissipation of light-harvesting complexes (LHCs) in different environments is investigated and the relationships and contrasts between concentration quenching of high pigment concentrations, photoprotection (non-photochemical quenching), quenching due to protein aggregation, and fluorescence blinking are discussed. The role of charge-transfer states in light harvesting and energy dissipation is highlighted and the importance of controlled protein structural disorder to switch the light-harvesting antennae between effective light harvesters and efficient energy quenchers is underscored. The main LHC of plants, LHCII, is used as a prime example.

  5. Cytochrome b 6 f function and localization, phosphorylation state of thylakoid membrane proteins and consequences on cyclic electron flow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumas, Louis; Chazaux, Marie; Peltier, Gilles; Johnson, Xenie; Alric, Jean

    2016-09-01

    Both the structure and the protein composition of thylakoid membranes have an impact on light harvesting and electron transfer in the photosynthetic chain. Thylakoid membranes form stacks and lamellae where photosystem II and photosystem I localize, respectively. Light-harvesting complexes II can be associated to either PSII or PSI depending on the redox state of the plastoquinone pool, and their distribution is governed by state transitions. Upon state transitions, the thylakoid ultrastructure and lateral distribution of proteins along the membrane are subject to significant rearrangements. In addition, quinone diffusion is limited to membrane microdomains and the cytochrome b 6 f complex localizes either to PSII-containing grana stacks or PSI-containing stroma lamellae. Here, we discuss possible similarities or differences between green algae and C3 plants on the functional consequences of such heterogeneities in the photosynthetic electron transport chain and propose a model in which quinones, accepting electrons either from PSII (linear flow) or NDH/PGR pathways (cyclic flow), represent a crucial control point. Our aim is to give an integrated description of these processes and discuss their potential roles in the balance between linear and cyclic electron flows.

  6. Coupled motions direct electrons along human microsomal P450 Chains.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher R Pudney

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Protein domain motion is often implicated in biological electron transfer, but the general significance of motion is not clear. Motion has been implicated in the transfer of electrons from human cytochrome P450 reductase (CPR to all microsomal cytochrome P450s (CYPs. Our hypothesis is that tight coupling of motion with enzyme chemistry can signal "ready and waiting" states for electron transfer from CPR to downstream CYPs and support vectorial electron transfer across complex redox chains. We developed a novel approach to study the time-dependence of dynamical change during catalysis that reports on the changing conformational states of CPR. FRET was linked to stopped-flow studies of electron transfer in CPR that contains donor-acceptor fluorophores on the enzyme surface. Open and closed states of CPR were correlated with key steps in the catalytic cycle which demonstrated how redox chemistry and NADPH binding drive successive opening and closing of the enzyme. Specifically, we provide evidence that reduction of the flavin moieties in CPR induces CPR opening, whereas ligand binding induces CPR closing. A dynamic reaction cycle was created in which CPR optimizes internal electron transfer between flavin cofactors by adopting closed states and signals "ready and waiting" conformations to partner CYP enzymes by adopting more open states. This complex, temporal control of enzyme motion is used to catalyze directional electron transfer from NADPH→FAD→FMN→heme, thereby facilitating all microsomal P450-catalysed reactions. Motions critical to the broader biological functions of CPR are tightly coupled to enzyme chemistry in the human NADPH-CPR-CYP redox chain. That redox chemistry alone is sufficient to drive functionally necessary, large-scale conformational change is remarkable. Rather than relying on stochastic conformational sampling, our study highlights a need for tight coupling of motion to enzyme chemistry to give vectorial electron

  7. The fungal phytotoxin alternariol 9-methyl ether and some of its synthetic analogues inhibit the photosynthetic electron transport chain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demuner, Antonio Jacinto; Barbosa, Luiz Cláudio Almeida; Miranda, Ana Cristina Mendes; Geraldo, Guilherme Carvalho; da Silva, Cleiton Moreira; Giberti, Samuele; Bertazzini, Michele; Forlani, Giuseppe

    2013-12-27

    Alternariol and monomethylalternariol are natural phytotoxins produced by some fungal strains, such as Nimbya and Alternaria. These substances confer virulence to phytopathogens, yet no information is available concerning their mode of action. Here we show that in the micromolar range alternariol 9-methyl ether is able to inhibit the electron transport chain (IC50 = 29.1 ± 6.5 μM) in isolated spinach chloroplasts. Since its effectiveness is limited by poor solubility in water, several alternariol analogues were synthesized using different aromatic aldehydes. The synthesized 6H-benzo[c]cromen-6-ones, 5H-chromene[4,3-b]pyridin-5-one, and 5H-chromene[4,3-c]pyridin-5-one also showed inhibitory properties, and three 6H-benzo[c]cromen-6-ones were more effective (IC50 = 12.8-22.8 μM) than the lead compound. Their addition to the culture medium of a cyanobacterial model strain was found to inhibit algal growth, with a relative effectiveness that was consistent with their activity in vitro. In contrast, the growth of a nonphotosynthetic plant cell culture was poorly affected. These compounds may represent a novel lead for the development of new active principles targeting photosynthesis.

  8. Using Adobe Flash Animations of Electron Transport Chain to Teach and Learn Biochemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teplá, Milada; Klímová, Helena

    2015-01-01

    Teaching the subject of the electron transport chain is one of the most challenging aspects of the chemistry curriculum at the high school level. This article presents an educational program called "Electron Transport Chain" which consists of 14 visual animations including a biochemistry quiz. The program was created in the Adobe Flash…

  9. Oxidative stress in duckweed (Lemna minor L.) induced by glyphosate: Is the mitochondrial electron transport chain a target of this herbicide?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, Marcelo Pedrosa; Juneau, Philippe

    2016-11-01

    We investigated the physiological responses of Lemna minor plants exposed to glyphosate. The deleterious effects of this herbicide on photosynthesis, respiration, and pigment concentrations were related to glyphosate-induced oxidative stress through hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ) accumulation. By using photosynthetic and respiratory electron transport chain (ETC) inhibitors we located the primary site of reactive oxygen species (ROS) production in plants exposed to 500 mg glyphosate l -1 . Inhibition of mitochondrial ETC Complex I by rotenone reduced H 2 O 2 concentrations in glyphosate-treated plants. Complex III activity was very sensitive to glyphosate which appears to act much like antimycin A (an inhibitor of mitochondrial ETC Complex III) by shunting electrons from semiquinone to oxygen, with resulting ROS formation. Confocal evaluations for ROS localization showed that ROS are initially produced outside of the chloroplasts upon initial glyphosate exposure. Our results indicate that in addition to interfering with the shikimate pathway, glyphosate can induce oxidative stress in plants through H 2 O 2 formation by targeting the mitochondrial ETC, which would explain its observed effects on non-target organisms. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Exact many-electron ground states on diamond and triangle Hubbard chains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gulacsi, Zsolt; Kampf, Arno; Vollhardt, Dieter

    2009-01-01

    We construct exact ground states of interacting electrons on triangle and diamond Hubbard chains. The construction requires (1) a rewriting of the Hamiltonian into positive semidefinite form, (2) the construction of a many-electron ground state of this Hamiltonian, and (3) the proof of the uniqueness of the ground state. This approach works in any dimension, requires no integrability of the model, and only demands sufficiently many microscopic parameters in the Hamiltonian which have to fulfill certain relations. The scheme is first employed to construct exact ground state for the diamond Hubbard chain in a magnetic field. These ground states are found to exhibit a wide range of properties such as flat-band ferromagnetism and correlation induced metallic, half-metallic or insulating behavior, which can be tuned by changing the magnetic flux, local potentials, or electron density. Detailed proofs of the uniqueness of the ground states are presented. By the same technique exact ground states are constructed for triangle Hubbard chains and a one-dimensional periodic Anderson model with nearest-neighbor hybridization. They permit direct comparison with results obtained by variational techniques for f-electron ferromagnetism due to a flat band in CeRh 3 B 2 . (author)

  11. Using Adobe Flash animations of electron transport chain to teach and learn biochemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teplá, Milada; Klímová, Helena

    2015-01-01

    Teaching the subject of the electron transport chain is one of the most challenging aspects of the chemistry curriculum at the high school level. This article presents an educational program called "Electron Transport Chain" which consists of 14 visual animations including a biochemistry quiz. The program was created in the Adobe Flash CS3 Professional animation program and is designed for high school chemistry students. Our goal is to develop educational materials that facilitate the comprehension of this complex subject through dynamic animations which show the course of the electron transport chain and simultaneously explain its nature. We record the process of the electron transport chain, including connections with oxidative phosphorylation, in such a way as to minimize the occurrence of discrepancies in interpretation. The educational program was evaluated in high schools through the administration of a questionnaire, which contained 12 opened-ended items and which required participants to evaluate the graphics of the animations, chemical content, student preferences, and its suitability for high school biochemistry teaching. © 2015 The International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology.

  12. Evaluating the Role of Intermediaries in the Electronic Value Chain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janssen, Marijn; Sol, Henk G.

    2000-01-01

    Presents a business engineering methodology that supports the identification of electronic intermediary roles in the electronic value chain. The goal of this methodology is to give stakeholders insight into their current, and possible alternative, situations by means of visualization, to evaluate the added value of business models using…

  13. Methanol as an alternative electron donor in chain elongation for butyrate and caproate formation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen, W.S.; Ye, Y.; Steinbusch, K.J.J.; Strik, D.P.B.T.B.; Buisman, C.J.N.

    2016-01-01

    Chain elongation is an emerging mixed culture biotechnology converting acetate into valuable biochemicals by using ethanol as an external electron donor. In this study we proposed to test another potential electron donor, methanol, in chain elongation. Methanol can be produced through the

  14. Electron beam curable branched chain polyurethane acrylates for magnetic media coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ukachi, Takashi; Haga, Kei-ichi; Matsumura, Yoshio

    1989-01-01

    Electron beam curable binder resins have been studied to realize the high quality magnetic coatings. It was supposed that resins with a higher crosslink density could lead to magnetic coatings with higher abrasion resistance. Branched chain polyurethane acrylates show a higher degree of cure by irradiation with an electron beam in comparison with linear polyurethane acrylates. This paper describes the potential wear resistance between properties of magnetic coatings and the physical properties of the cured unpigmented branched chain polyurethane acrylates that were used as the binder resins. (author)

  15. The magnetism and spin-dependent electronic transport properties of boron nitride atomic chains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An, Yipeng; Zhang, Mengjun; Wang, Tianxing; Jiao, Zhaoyong; Wu, Dapeng; Fu, Zhaoming; Wang, Kun

    2016-01-01

    Very recently, boron nitride atomic chains were successively prepared and observed in experiments [O. Cretu et al., ACS Nano 8, 11950 (2015)]. Herein, using a first-principles technique, we study the magnetism and spin-dependent electronic transport properties of three types of BN atomic chains whose magnetic moment is 1 μ B for B n N n−1 , 2 μ B for B n N n , and 3 μ B for B n N n+1 type atomic chains, respectively. The spin-dependent electronic transport results demonstrate that the short B n N n+1 chain presents an obvious spin-filtering effect with high spin polarization ratio (>90%) under low bias voltages. Yet, this spin-filtering effect does not occur for long B n N n+1 chains under high bias voltages and other types of BN atomic chains (B n N n−1 and B n N n ). The proposed short B n N n+1 chain is predicted to be an effective low-bias spin filters. Moreover, the length-conductance relationships of these BN atomic chains were also studied.

  16. Diel tuning of photosynthetic systems in ice algae at Saroma-ko Lagoon, Hokkaido, Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aikawa, Shimpei; Hattori, Hiroshi; Gomi, Yasushi; Watanabe, Kentaro; Kudoh, Sakae; Kashino, Yasuhiro; Satoh, Kazuhiko

    Ice algae are the major primary producers in seasonally ice-covered oceans during the cold season. Diurnal change in solar radiation is inevitable for ice algae, even beneath seasonal sea ice in lower-latitude regions. In this work, we focused on the photosynthetic response of ice algae under diurnally changing irradiance in Saroma-ko Lagoon, Japan. Photosynthetic properties were assessed by pulse-amplitude modulation (PAM) fluorometry. The species composition remained almost the same throughout the investigation. The maximum electron transport rate ( rETRmax), which indicates the capacity of photosynthetic electron transport, increased from sunrise until around noon and decreased toward sunset, with no sign of the afternoon depression commonly observed in other photosynthetic organisms. The level of non-photochemical quenching, which indicates photoprotection activity by dissipating excess light energy via thermal processes, changed with diurnal variations in irradiance. The pigment composition appeared constant, except for xanthophyll cycle pigments, which changed irrespective of irradiance. These results indicate that ice algae tune their photosynthetic system harmonically to achieve efficient photosynthesis under diurnally changing irradiance, while avoiding damage to photosystems. This regulation system may be essential for productive photosynthesis in ice algae.

  17. The role of energy losses in photosynthetic light harvesting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krüger, T P J; Van Grondelle, R

    2017-01-01

    Photosynthesis operates at the bottom of the food chain to convert the energy of light into carbohydrates at a remarkable global rate of about 130 TW. Nonetheless, the overall photosynthetic process has a conversion efficiency of a few percent at best, significantly less than bottom-up photovoltaic cells. The primary photosynthetic steps, consisting of light harvesting and charge separation, are often presented as having near-unity quantum efficiency but this holds only true under ideal conditions. In this review, we discuss the importance of energy loss mechanisms to establish robustness in photosynthetic light harvesting. Thermal energy dissipation of light-harvesting complexes (LHCs) in different environments is investigated and the relationships and contrasts between concentration quenching of high pigment concentrations, photoprotection (non-photochemical quenching), quenching due to protein aggregation, and fluorescence blinking are discussed. The role of charge-transfer states in light harvesting and energy dissipation is highlighted and the importance of controlled protein structural disorder to switch the light-harvesting antennae between effective light harvesters and efficient energy quenchers is underscored. The main LHC of plants, LHCII, is used as a prime example. (topical review)

  18. Bias-dependent oscillatory electron transport of monatomic sulfur chains

    KAUST Repository

    Yu, Jing-Xin; Cheng, Yan; Sanvito, Stefano; Chen, Xiang-Rong

    2012-01-01

    The bias-dependent oscillatory electron transport of monatomic sulfur chains sandwiched between gold electrodes is investigated with density functional theory and non-equilibrium Green's function method. At zero bias, in contrast to the typical odd-even oscillations observed in most metallic chains, we find that the conductance oscillates with a period of four atoms. However, as the bias voltage is increased the current displays a two-atom periodicity. This emerges gradually, first for the longer chains and then, at voltages larger than 0.7 V, for lengths. The oscillatory behaviors are analyzed by the density of states and the energy-dependent and bias-dependent transmission coefficients. © 2012 American Institute of Physics.

  19. Bias-dependent oscillatory electron transport of monatomic sulfur chains

    KAUST Repository

    Yu, Jing-Xin

    2012-01-01

    The bias-dependent oscillatory electron transport of monatomic sulfur chains sandwiched between gold electrodes is investigated with density functional theory and non-equilibrium Green\\'s function method. At zero bias, in contrast to the typical odd-even oscillations observed in most metallic chains, we find that the conductance oscillates with a period of four atoms. However, as the bias voltage is increased the current displays a two-atom periodicity. This emerges gradually, first for the longer chains and then, at voltages larger than 0.7 V, for lengths. The oscillatory behaviors are analyzed by the density of states and the energy-dependent and bias-dependent transmission coefficients. © 2012 American Institute of Physics.

  20. Fragment molecular orbital study on electron tunneling mechanisms in bacterial photosynthetic reaction center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitoh-Nishioka, Hirotaka; Ando, Koji

    2012-11-01

    The tunneling mechanisms of electron transfers (ETs) in photosynthetic reaction center of Blastochloris viridis are studied by the ab initio fragment molecular orbital (FMO) method combined with the generalized Mulliken-Hush (GMH) and the bridge Green function (GF) calculations of the electronic coupling T(DA) and the tunneling current method for the ET pathway analysis at the fragment-based resolution. For the ET from batctriopheophytin (H(L)) to menaquinone (MQ), a major tunneling current through Trp M250 and a minor back flow via Ala M215, Ala M216, and His M217 are quantified. For the ET from MQ to ubiquinone, the major tunneling pathway via the nonheme Fe(2+) and His L190 is identified as well as minor pathway via His M217 and small back flows involving His L230, Glu M232, and His M264. At the given molecular structure from X-ray experiment, the spin state of the Fe(2+) ion, its replacement by Zn(2+), or its removal are found to affect the T(DA) value by factors within 2.2. The calculated T(DA) values, together with experimentally estimated values of the driving force and the reorganization energy, give the ET rates in reasonable agreement with experiments.

  1. Reversal of local spins in transport of electrons through a one-dimensional chain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu, D.-S.; Xiong, S.-J.

    2003-01-01

    We investigate the spin reversal of two coupled magnetic impurities in the transport processes of electrons in a one-dimensional chain. The impurities are side coupled to the chain and the electrons are injected and tunneling through it. The transmission coefficient of electrons and the polarization of impurities are calculated by the use of the equivalent single-particle network method for the correlated system. It is found that both the transmission coefficient and the polarization of impurities depend on the initial state of impurities and the impurity spins can be converted into the direction of electron spin if the injected electrons are polarized and the number of electrons is large enough. The evolution of the spin-reversal processes is studied in details

  2. Anticancer Drugs Targeting the Mitochondrial Electron Transport Chain

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Rohlena, Jakub; Dong, L.-F.; Ralph, S.J.; Neužil, Jiří

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 15, č. 12 (2011), s. 2951-2974 ISSN 1523-0864 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) KAN200520703 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50520701 Keywords : Targets for anticancer drugs * mitochondrial electron transport chain * mitocans Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 8.456, year: 2011

  3. Role of PufX protein in photosynthetic growth of Rhodobacter sphaeroides. 1. PufX is required for efficient light-driven electron transfer and photophosphorylation under anaerobic conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barz, W P; Francia, F; Venturoli, G; Melandri, B A; Verméglio, A; Oesterhelt, D

    1995-11-21

    The pufX gene is essential for photoheterotrophic growth of the purple bacterium Rhodobacter sphaeroides. In order to analyze the molecular function of the PufX membrane protein, we constructed a chromosomal pufX deletion mutant and phenotypically compared it to a pufX+ control strain and to two suppressor mutants which are able to grow photosynthetically in the absence of pufX. Using this genetic background, we confirmed that PufX is required for photoheterotrophic growth under anaerobic conditions, although all components of the photosynthetic apparatus were present in similar amounts in all strains investigated. We show that the deletion of PufX is not lethal for illuminated pufX- cells, suggesting that PufX is required for photosynthetic cell division. Since chromatophores isolated from the pufX- mutant were found to be unsealed vesicles, the role of PufX in photosynthetic energy transduction was studied in vivo. We show that PufX is essential for light-induced ATP synthesis (photophosphorylation) in anaerobically incubated cells. Measurements of absorption changes induced by a single turnover flash demonstrated that PufX is not required for electron flow through the reaction center and the cytochrome bc1 complex under anaerobic conditions. During prolonged illumination, however, PufX is essential for the generation of a sufficiently large membrane potential to allow photosynthetic growth. These in vivo results demonstrate that under anaerobic conditions PufX plays an essential role in facilitating effective interaction of the components of the photosynthetic apparatus.

  4. Short-term regulation and alternative pathways of photosynthetic electron transport in Hibiscus rosa-sinensis leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trubitsin, Boris V; Vershubskii, Alexey V; Priklonskii, Vladimir I; Tikhonov, Alexander N

    2015-11-01

    In this work, using the EPR and PAM-fluorometry methods, we have studied induction events of photosynthetic electron transport in Hibiscus rosa-sinensis leaves. The methods used are complementary, providing efficient tools for in situ monitoring of P700 redox transients and photochemical activity of photosystem II (PSII). The induction of P700(+) in dark-adapted leaves is characterized by the multiphase kinetics with a lag-phase, which duration elongates with the dark-adaptation time. Analyzing effects of the uncoupler monensin and artificial electron carrier methylviologen (MV) on photooxidation of P700 and slow induction of chlorophyll a fluorescence (SIF), we could ascribe different phases of transient kinetics of electron transport processes in dark-adapted leaves to the following regulatory mechanisms: (i) acceleration of electron transfer on the acceptor side of PSI, (ii) pH-dependent modulation of the intersystem electron flow, and (iii) re-distribution of electron fluxes between alternative (linear, cyclic, and pseudocyclic) pathways. Monensin significantly decreases a level of P700(+) and inhibits SIF. MV, which mediates electron flow from PSI to O2 with consequent formation of H2O2, promotes a rapid photooxidation of P700 without any lag-phase peculiar to untreated leaves. MV-mediated water-water cycle (H2O→PSII→PSI→MV→O2→H2O2→H2O) is accompanied by generation of ascorbate free radicals. This suggests that the ascorbate peroxidase system of defense against reactive oxygen species is active in chloroplasts of H. rosa-sinensis leaves. In DCMU-treated chloroplasts with inhibited PSII, the contribution of cyclic electron flow is insignificant as compared to linear electron flow. For analysis of induction events, we have simulated electron transport processes within the framework of our generalized mathematical model of oxygenic photosynthesis, which takes into account pH-dependent mechanisms of electron transport control and re-distribution of

  5. Strong-coupling behaviour of two t - J chains with interchain single-electron hopping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Guangming; Feng Shiping; Yu Lu.

    1994-01-01

    Using the fermion-spin transformation to implement spin-charge separation of constrained electrons, a model of two t - J chains with interchain single-electron hopping is studied by abelian bosonization. After spin-charge decoupling the charge dynamics can be trivially solved, while the spin dynamics is determined by a strong-coupling fixed point where the correlation functions can be calculated explicitly. This is a generalization of the Luther-Emery line for two-coupled t - J chains. The interchain single-electron hopping changes the asymptotic behaviour of the interchain spin-spin correlation functions and the electron Green function, but their exponents are independent of the coupling strength. (author). 25 refs

  6. Towards quantification of vibronic coupling in photosynthetic antenna complexes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, V. P.; Westberg, M.; Wang, C.; Gellen, T.; Engel, G. S., E-mail: gsengel@uchicago.edu [Department of Chemistry, The James Franck Institute and The Institute for Biophysical Dynamics, The University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois 60637 (United States); Dahlberg, P. D. [Graduate Program in the Biophysical Sciences, The James Franck Institute and The Institute for Biophysical Dynamics, The University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois 60637 (United States); Gardiner, A. T.; Cogdell, R. J. [Department of Botany, Institute of Molecular Cell and Systems Biology, University of Glasgow, Glasgow, Scotland (United Kingdom)

    2015-06-07

    Photosynthetic antenna complexes harvest sunlight and efficiently transport energy to the reaction center where charge separation powers biochemical energy storage. The discovery of existence of long lived quantum coherence during energy transfer has sparked the discussion on the role of quantum coherence on the energy transfer efficiency. Early works assigned observed coherences to electronic states, and theoretical studies showed that electronic coherences could affect energy transfer efficiency—by either enhancing or suppressing transfer. However, the nature of coherences has been fiercely debated as coherences only report the energy gap between the states that generate coherence signals. Recent works have suggested that either the coherences observed in photosynthetic antenna complexes arise from vibrational wave packets on the ground state or, alternatively, coherences arise from mixed electronic and vibrational states. Understanding origin of coherences is important for designing molecules for efficient light harvesting. Here, we give a direct experimental observation from a mutant of LH2, which does not have B800 chromophores, to distinguish between electronic, vibrational, and vibronic coherence. We also present a minimal theoretical model to characterize the coherences both in the two limiting cases of purely vibrational and purely electronic coherence as well as in the intermediate, vibronic regime.

  7. Disruption management in a two-period three-tier electronics supply chain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johannes Danusantoso

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available We study strategies to manage demand disruptions in a three-tier electronics supply chain consisting of an Electronics Manufacturing Services provider, an Original Equipment Manufacturer (OEM, and a Retailer. We model price sensitivity of consumer demand with the two functions commonly used for this purpose, linear and exponential, and introduce disruptions in the demand function. We assume each supply chain member faces an increasing marginal unit cost function. Our decentralized supply chain setting is governed by a wholesale price contract. The OEM possesses greater bargaining power and therefore is the Stackelberg leader. A penalty cost incurred by the Retailer is introduced to capture the cost of deviation from the original plan. We find exact analytical solutions of the effectiveness of managing the disruption when the consumer demand function is linear, and we provide numerical examples as an illustration when the consumer demand function is either linear or exponential. We show that the original production quantity exhibits some robustness under disruptions in both centralized and decentralized supply chains, while the original optimal pricing does not. We show that supply chain managers should not automatically react to an individual disruption, in certain cases it is best to leave the production plan unchanged.

  8. Electron detachment of the hydrogen-bonded amino acid side-chain guanine complexes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jing; Gu, Jiande; Leszczynski, Jerzy

    2007-07-01

    The photoelectron spectra of the hydrogen-bonded amino acid side-chain-guanine complexes has been studied at the partial third order (P3) self-energy approximation of the electron propagator theory. The correlation between the vertical electron detachment energy and the charge distributions on the guanine moiety reveals that the vertical electron detachment energy (VDE) increases as the positive charge distribution on the guanine increases. The low VDE values determined for the negatively charged complexes of the guanine-side-chain-group of Asp/Glu suggest that the influence of the H-bonded anionic groups on the VDE of guanine could be more important than that of the anionic backbone structure. The even lower vertical electron detachment energy for guanine is thus can be expected in the H-bonded protein-DNA systems.

  9. Mapping bright and dark modes in gold nanoparticle chains using electron energy loss spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrow, Steven J; Rossouw, David; Funston, Alison M; Botton, Gianluigi A; Mulvaney, Paul

    2014-07-09

    We present a scanning transmission electron microscopy-electron energy loss spectroscopy (STEM-EELS) investigation of gold nanosphere chains with lengths varying from 1 to 5 particles. We show localized EELS signals from the chains and identify energy-loss peaks arising due to l = 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5 plasmon modes through the use of EELS mapping. We also show the evolution of the energy of these modes as the length of a given chain increases, and we find that a chain containing N particles can accommodate at least N experimentally observable modes, in addition to the transverse mode. As the chain length is increased by the addition of one more gold particle to the chain, the new N + 1 mode becomes the highest energy mode, while the existing modes lower their energy and eventually asymptote as they delocalize along the chain. We also show that modes become increasingly difficult to detect with the EELS technique as l approaches N. The data are compared to numerical simulations.

  10. Accurate calculation of the differential cross section of compton scattering with electron mixed chain propagator in SM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Xuewen; Fang Zhenyun; Shi Chengye

    2012-01-01

    By using the electroweak standard model (SM), we analyzed the framework of electron mixed chain propagator which composed of serious of different physical loops participating in electroweak interaction and completed the relevant analytical calculation. Then, we obtained the analytical result of electron mixed chain propagator. By applying our result to Compton scattering, the differential cross section of Compton scattering dσ SM (chain) /dcosθ is counted accurately. This result is compared with the lowest order differential cross section dσ (tree) /dcosθ and the electronic chain propagator Compton scattering differential cross section dσ QED (chain) /dcosθ in quantum electrodynamics (QED). It can be seen that dσ SM (chain ) /dcosθ can show the radiation correction more subtly than dσ QED (chain) /dcosθ. (authors)

  11. Magnetic irone oxide nanoparticles in photosynthetic systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khalilov, R.I.; Nasibova, A.N.; Khomutov, G.B.

    2014-01-01

    Full text : It was found and studied the effect of biogenic formation of magnetic inclusions in photosynthetic systems - in various higher plants under the influence of some external stress factors (radiation impact, moisture deficit) and in a model system - a suspension of chloroplasts. For registration and characterization of magnetic nanoparticles in the samples used EPR spectrometer because superparamagnetic and ferromagnetic nanoparticles have a chcracteristic signals of electron magnetic resonance. For direct visualization of magnetic nanoparticles it was used the method of transmission electron microscopy

  12. Interference of Cd2+ in functioning of the photosynthetic apparatus of higher plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tadeusz Baszyński

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The actual opinions concerning the role of Cd2+ in inhibition of photosynthesis have been reviewed. The light phase of photosynthesis, particularly the site of Cd2+ action in the photosynthetic transport chain has been given the greatest attention. Cd2+-induced inhibition of Photosystem II activity as the result of thylakoid membrane degradation has been discussed. The present studies on Cd2+-inhibited dark reactions occurring in stroma has been analysed. Attention has been drawn to the fact that the results of studies in vitro are not always compatible with the changes found in the photosynthetic apparatus of higher plants growing in a Cd2 containing medium.

  13. Supply chain collaboration and responsiveness : a comparison between Thai automotive and electronics industries

    OpenAIRE

    Ueki, Yasushi

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines factors that promote firms to develop supply chain collaborations (SCC) with their partners and relationships between SCC and supply chain operational performances (SCOP), using a questionnaire survey on Thai automotive and electronics industries in 2012. This paper also carries out a comparative study on these questions between the electronics and automotive industries. Two-stage least squares (2SLS) regressions verifY that supplier evaluation and audit is a foundation fo...

  14. Electronic structures and band gaps of chains and sheets based on phenylacetylene units

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kondo, Masakazu; Nozaki, Daijiro; Tachibana, Masamitsu; Yumura, Takashi; Yoshizawa, Kazunari

    2005-01-01

    We investigate the electronic structures of polymers composed of π-conjugated phenylacetylene (PA) units, m-PA-based and p-PA-based wires, at the extended Hueckel level of theory. It is demonstrated that these conjugated systems should have a variety of electric conductance. All of the one-dimensional (1D) chains and the two-dimensional (2D) sheet based on the m-PA unit are insulators with large band gaps of 2.56 eV because there is no effective orbital interaction with neighboring chains. On the other hand, p-PA-based 1D chains have relatively small band gaps that decrease with an increase in chain width (1.17-1.74 eV) and are semiconductive. The p-PA-based sheet called 'graphyne', a 2D-limit of the p-PA-based 1D chains, shows a small band gap of 0.89 eV. The variety of band electronic structures is discussed in terms of frontier crystal orbitals

  15. 2D Spin-Dependent Diffraction of Electrons From Periodical Chains of Nanomagnets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teshome Senbeta

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The scattering of the unpolarized beams of electrons by nanomagnets in the vicinity of some scattering angles leads to complete spin polarized electrons. This result is obtained with the help of the perturbation theory. The dipole-dipole interaction between the magnetic moment of the nanomagnet and the magnetic moment of electron is treated as perturbation. This interaction is not spherically symmetric. Rather it depends on the electron spin variables. It in turn results in spinor character of the scattering amplitudes. Due to the smallness of the magnetic interactions, the scattering length of this process is very small to be proved experimentally. To enhance the relevant scattering lengths, we considered the diffraction of unpolarized beams of electrons by linear chains of nanomagnets. By tuning the distance between the scatterers it is possible to obtain the diffraction maximum of the scattered electrons at scattering angles which corresponds to complete spin polarization of electrons. It is shown that the total differential scattering length is proportional to N2 (N is a number of scatterers. Even small number of nanomagnets in the chain helps to obtain experimentally visible enhancement of spin polarization of the scattered electrons.

  16. Use of in vivo chlorophyll fluorescence to estimate photosynthetic activity and biomass productivity in microalgae grown in different culture systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Félix L Figueroa

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available In vivo chlorophyll fluorescence associated to Photosystem II is being used to evaluate photosynthetic activity of microalgae grown in different types of photobioreactors; however, controversy on methodology is usual. Several recommendations on the use of chlorophyll fluorescence to estimate electron transport rate and productivity of microalgae grown in thin-layer cascade cultivators and methacrylate cylindrical vessels are included. Different methodologies related to the measure of photosynthetic activity in microalgae are discussed: (1 measurement of light absorption, (2 determination of electron transport rates versus irradiance and (3 use of simplified devices based on pulse amplitude modulated (PAM fluorescence as Junior PAM or Pocket PAM with optical fiber and optical head as measuring units, respectively. Data comparisons of in vivo chlorophyll fluorescence by using these devices and other PAM fluorometers as Water-PAM in the microalga Chlorella sp. (Chlorophyta are presented. Estimations of carbon production and productivity by transforming electron transport rate to gross photosynthetic rate (as oxygen evolution using reported oxygen produced per photons absorbed values and carbon photosynthetic yield based on reported oxygen/carbon ratio are also shown. The limitation of ETR as estimator of photosynthetic and biomass productivity is discussed. Low cost:quality PAMs can promote monitoring of chlorophyll fluorescence in algal biotechnology to estimate the photosynthetic activity and biomass productivity.

  17. Traceability and Risk Analysis Strategies for Addressing Counterfeit Electronics in Supply Chains for Complex Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiMase, Daniel; Collier, Zachary A; Carlson, Jinae; Gray, Robin B; Linkov, Igor

    2016-10-01

    Within the microelectronics industry, there is a growing concern regarding the introduction of counterfeit electronic parts into the supply chain. Even though this problem is widespread, there have been limited attempts to implement risk-based approaches for testing and supply chain management. Supply chain risk management tends to focus on the highly visible disruptions of the supply chain instead of the covert entrance of counterfeits; thus counterfeit risk is difficult to mitigate. This article provides an overview of the complexities of the electronics supply chain, and highlights some gaps in risk assessment practices. In particular, this article calls for enhanced traceability capabilities to track and trace parts at risk through various stages of the supply chain. Placing the focus on risk-informed decision making through the following strategies is needed, including prioritization of high-risk parts, moving beyond certificates of conformance, incentivizing best supply chain management practices, adoption of industry standards, and design and management for supply chain resilience. © 2016 Society for Risk Analysis.

  18. Photovoltaic concepts inspired by coherence effects in photosynthetic systems

    KAUST Repository

    Bredas, Jean-Luc

    2016-12-20

    The past decade has seen rapid advances in our understanding of how coherent and vibronic phenomena in biological photosynthetic systems aid in the efficient transport of energy from light-harvesting antennas to photosynthetic reaction centres. Such coherence effects suggest strategies to increase transport lengths even in the presence of structural disorder. Here we explore how these principles could be exploited in making improved solar cells. We investigate in depth the case of organic materials, systems in which energy and charge transport stand to be improved by overcoming challenges that arise from the effects of static and dynamic disorder-structural and energetic-and from inherently strong electron-vibration couplings. We discuss how solar-cell device architectures can evolve to use coherence-exploiting materials, and we speculate as to the prospects for a coherent energy conversion system. We conclude with a survey of the impacts of coherence and bioinspiration on diverse solar-energy harvesting solutions, including artificial photosynthetic systems.

  19. Influence of weak vibrational-electronic couplings on 2D electronic spectra and inter-site coherence in weakly coupled photosynthetic complexes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monahan, Daniele M.; Whaley-Mayda, Lukas; Fleming, Graham R., E-mail: grfleming@lbl.gov [Department of Chemistry, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Physical Biosciences Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Kavli Energy NanoSciences Institute at Berkeley, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Ishizaki, Akihito [Institute for Molecular Science, National Institutes of Natural Sciences, Okazaki 444-8585 (Japan)

    2015-08-14

    Coherence oscillations measured in two-dimensional (2D) electronic spectra of pigment-protein complexes may have electronic, vibrational, or mixed-character vibronic origins, which depend on the degree of electronic-vibrational mixing. Oscillations from intrapigment vibrations can obscure the inter-site coherence lifetime of interest in elucidating the mechanisms of energy transfer in photosynthetic light-harvesting. Huang-Rhys factors (S) for low-frequency vibrations in Chlorophyll and Bacteriochlorophyll are quite small (S ≤ 0.05), so it is often assumed that these vibrations influence neither 2D spectra nor inter-site coherence dynamics. In this work, we explore the influence of S within this range on the oscillatory signatures in simulated 2D spectra of a pigment heterodimer. To visualize the inter-site coherence dynamics underlying the 2D spectra, we introduce a formalism which we call the “site-probe response.” By comparing the calculated 2D spectra with the site-probe response, we show that an on-resonance vibration with Huang-Rhys factor as small as S = 0.005 and the most strongly coupled off-resonance vibrations (S = 0.05) give rise to long-lived, purely vibrational coherences at 77 K. We moreover calculate the correlation between optical pump interactions and subsequent entanglement between sites, as measured by the concurrence. At 77 K, greater long-lived inter-site coherence and entanglement appear with increasing S. This dependence all but vanishes at physiological temperature, as environmentally induced fluctuations destroy the vibronic mixing.

  20. Photosynthetic water splitting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greenbaum, E.

    1981-01-01

    The photosynthetic unit of hydrogen evolution, the turnover time of photosynthetic hydrogen production, and hydrogenic photosynthesis are discussed in the section on previous work. Recent results are given on simultaneous photoproduction of hydrogen and oxygen, kinetic studies, microscopic marine algae-seaweeds, and oxygen profiles.

  1. Correlation between morphology, electron band structure, and resistivity of Pb atomic chains on the Si(5 5 3)-Au surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jałochowski, M; Kwapiński, T; Łukasik, P; Nita, P; Kopciuszyński, M

    2016-01-01

    Structural and electron transport properties of multiple Pb atomic chains fabricated on the Si(5 5 3)-Au surface are investigated using scanning tunneling spectroscopy, reflection high electron energy diffraction, angular resolved photoemission electron spectroscopy and in situ electrical resistance. The study shows that Pb atomic chains growth modulates the electron band structure of pristine Si(5 5 3)-Au surface and hence changes its sheet resistivity. Strong correlation between chains morphology, electron band structure and electron transport properties is found. To explain experimental findings a theoretical tight-binding model of multiple atomic chains interacting on effective substrate is proposed. (paper)

  2. Excitation of bond-alternating spin-1/2 Heisenberg chains by tunnelling electrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gauyacq, J-P; Lorente, N

    2014-01-01

    Inelastic electron tunneling spectra (IETS) are evaluated for spin-1/2 Heisenberg chains showing different phases of their spin ordering. The spin ordering is controlled by the value of the two different Heisenberg couplings on the two sides of each of the chain's atoms (bond-alternating chains). The perfect anti-ferromagnetic phase, i.e. a unique exchange coupling, marks a topological quantum phase transition (TQPT) of the bond-alternating chain. Our calculations show that the TQPT is recognizable in the excited states of the chain and hence that IETS is in principle capable of discriminating the phases. We show that perfectly symmetric chains, such as closed rings mimicking infinite chains, yield the same spectra on both sides of the TQPT and IETS cannot reveal the nature of the spin phase. However, for finite size open chains, both sides of the TQPT are associated with different IETS spectra, especially on the edge atoms, thus outlining the transition. (paper)

  3. A single origin of the photosynthetic organelle in different Paulinella lineages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ishida Ken-ichiro

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Gaining the ability to photosynthesize was a key event in eukaryotic evolution because algae and plants form the base of the food chain on our planet. The eukaryotic machines of photosynthesis are plastids (e.g., chloroplast in plants that evolved from cyanobacteria through primary endosymbiosis. Our knowledge of plastid evolution, however, remains limited because the primary endosymbiosis occurred more than a billion years ago. In this context, the thecate "green amoeba" Paulinella chromatophora is remarkable because it very recently (i.e., minimum age of ≈ 60 million years ago acquired a photosynthetic organelle (termed a "chromatophore"; i.e., plastid via an independent primary endosymbiosis involving a Prochlorococcus or Synechococcus-like cyanobacterium. All data regarding P. chromatophora stem from a single isolate from Germany (strain M0880/a. Here we brought into culture a novel photosynthetic Paulinella strain (FK01 and generated molecular sequence data from these cells and from four different cell samples, all isolated from freshwater habitats in Japan. Our study had two aims. The first was to compare and contrast cell ultrastructure of the M0880/a and FK01 strains using scanning electron microscopy. The second was to assess the phylogenetic diversity of photosynthetic Paulinella to test the hypothesis they share a vertically inherited plastid that originated in their common ancestor. Results Comparative morphological analyses show that Paulinella FK01 cells are smaller than M0880/a and differ with respect to the number of scales per column. There are more distinctive, multiple fine pores on the external surface of FK01 than in M0880/a. Molecular phylogenetic analyses using multiple gene markers demonstrate these strains are genetically distinct and likely comprise separate species. The well-supported monophyly of the Paulinella chromatophora strains analyzed here using plastid-encoded 16S rRNA suggests strongly

  4. Effects of gold nanoparticles on the photophysical and photosynthetic parameters of leaves and chloroplasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, Rocio; Diz, Virginia E; Lagorio, M Gabriela

    2018-04-18

    Effects of gold nanoparticles (average diameter: 10-14 nm) on leaves and chloroplasts have been studied. Gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) quenched significantly chlorophyll fluorescence when introduced both in intact leaves and isolated chloroplasts. Additionally, the fluorescence spectra corrected for light re-absorption processes showed a net decrease in the fluorescence ratio calculated as the quotient between the maximum fluorescence at 680 and 735 nm. This fact gave evidence for a reduction in the fluorescence emission of the PSII relative to that of the PSI. Strikingly, the photosynthetic parameters derived from the analysis of the slow phase of Kautsky's kinetics, the rate of oxygen evolution and the rate of photo-reduction of 2,6-dichlorophenolindophenol were increased in the presence of AuNPs indicating an apparent greater photosynthetic capacity. The observed results were consistent with an electron transfer process from the excited PSII, which was thermodynamically possible, and which competed with both the electron transport process that initiated photosynthesis and the deactivation of the excited PSII by fluorescence emission. Additionally, it is here explained, in terms of a completely rational kinetic scheme and their corresponding algebraic expressions, why the photosynthetic parameters and the variable and non-variable fluorescence of chlorophyll are modified in a photosynthetic tissue containing gold nanoparticles.

  5. Investigating and comparing uranium and gamma radiation induced effects on photosynthetic parameters for Arabidopsis thaliana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vanhoudt, Nathalie; Horemans, Nele; Saenen, Eline; Biermans, Geert; Nauts, Robin; Wannijn, Jean; Van Hees, May; Vandenhove, Hildegarde [Belgian Nuclear Research Centre (SCK.CEN), Biosphere Impact Studies, 2400, Mol (Belgium)

    2014-07-01

    resulted in a diminution of the saturating phase and is therefore suggested to be related to zeaxanthin production, uranium exposure caused a decrease of the transient phase and is thus suggested to be linked with the formation of antheraxanthin. NO values remained unaltered under gamma radiation exposure. A rapid light curve (RLC), which measures φPSII as a function of irradiance, can provide additional information on the saturation characteristics of the electron transport rate (ETR). In the first part of the RLC, the light-limited region, photosynthesis is limited by the light and the rate of this curve (α) is proportional to φPSII. Further on is the photosynthesis limited by the capacity of the electron transport chain and the curve reaches a plateau where the maximum electron transport rate occurs (ETR{sub max}). For uranium exposed leaves, ETR{sub max} remained unaltered but α increased. Under gamma radiation exposure the opposite pattern was visible as α remained unaltered, but ETR{sub max} increased. Based on these results it can be concluded that under both stress conditions plants start to increase φPSII and decrease NPQ while NO remains unaltered. The difference in response between uranium and gamma radiation lies within the NPQ kinetics and the RLC. (authors)

  6. Biochemical factors affecting the quantum efficiency of hydrogen production by membranes of green photosynthetic bacteria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernstein, J.D.; Olson, J.M.

    1981-01-01

    Photohydrogen production, 200-700 ..mu..mol H/sub 2/ h/sup -1/ (mg bacteriochlorophyll a)/sup -1/ has been obtained in a system containing unit membrane vesicles (Complex I) from the green photosynthetic bacterium Chlorobium limicola f. thiosulfatophilum, ascorbate, N,N,N',N'-tetramethyl-p-phenylenediamine, dithioerythritol, an oxygen scavenging mixture, either methyl viologen (MV) or clostridial ferredoxin (CPS Fd) as electron carrier, and either CPS hydrogenase or platinum asbestos as catalyst. All components are necessary for maximum activity, and spinach Fd cannot be substituted for CPS Fd. Higher rates of photohydrogen production are obtained using MV or CPS Fd with hydrogenase than with MV and Pt asbestos. The highest quantum efficiencies (7-10% at 0.2-0.9 mW absorbed light and over 20% at lower light) were obtained with CPS Fd, hydrogenase and non-saturating 812 nm light. With saturating white light, however, rates of photohydrogen production varied relatively little among the various combinations of electron carrier and catalyst tested. The reaction rate is unaffected by 0.03% Triton X-100, and is insensitive to treatment with antimycin a or m-chloro-carbonyl cyanide phenylhydrazone.This indicates that neither electron flow through an endogenous cyclic chain, nor maintenance of a proton gradient are involved in this process.

  7. Redox potential tuning through differential quinone binding in the photosynthetic reaction center of Rhodobacter sphaeroides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vermaas, Josh V; Taguchi, Alexander T; Dikanov, Sergei A; Wraight, Colin A; Tajkhorshid, Emad

    2015-03-31

    Ubiquinone forms an integral part of the electron transport chain in cellular respiration and photosynthesis across a vast number of organisms. Prior experimental results have shown that the photosynthetic reaction center (RC) from Rhodobacter sphaeroides is only fully functional with a limited set of methoxy-bearing quinones, suggesting that specific interactions with this substituent are required to drive electron transport and the formation of quinol. The nature of these interactions has yet to be determined. Through parameterization of a CHARMM-compatible quinone force field and subsequent molecular dynamics simulations of the quinone-bound RC, we have investigated and characterized the interactions of the protein with the quinones in the Q(A) and Q(B) sites using both equilibrium simulation and thermodynamic integration. In particular, we identify a specific interaction between the 2-methoxy group of ubiquinone in the Q(B) site and the amide nitrogen of GlyL225 that we implicate in locking the orientation of the 2-methoxy group, thereby tuning the redox potential difference between the quinones occupying the Q(A) and Q(B) sites. Disruption of this interaction leads to weaker binding in a ubiquinone analogue that lacks a 2-methoxy group, a finding supported by reverse electron transfer electron paramagnetic resonance experiments of the Q(A)⁻Q(B)⁻ biradical and competitive binding assays.

  8. Hydrogen is a preferred intermediate in the energy-conserving electron transport chain of Methanosarcina barkeri.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulkarni, Gargi; Kridelbaugh, Donna M; Guss, Adam M; Metcalf, William W

    2009-09-15

    Methanogens use an unusual energy-conserving electron transport chain that involves reduction of a limited number of electron acceptors to methane gas. Previous biochemical studies suggested that the proton-pumping F(420)H(2) dehydrogenase (Fpo) plays a crucial role in this process during growth on methanol. However, Methanosarcina barkeri Delta fpo mutants constructed in this study display no measurable phenotype on this substrate, indicating that Fpo plays a minor role, if any. In contrast, Delta frh mutants lacking the cytoplasmic F(420)-reducing hydrogenase (Frh) are severely affected in their ability to grow and make methane from methanol, and double Delta fpo/Delta frh mutants are completely unable to use this substrate. These data suggest that the preferred electron transport chain involves production of hydrogen gas in the cytoplasm, which then diffuses out of the cell, where it is reoxidized with transfer of electrons into the energy-conserving electron transport chain. This hydrogen-cycling metabolism leads directly to production of a proton motive force that can be used by the cell for ATP synthesis. Nevertheless, M. barkeri does have the flexibility to use the Fpo-dependent electron transport chain when needed, as shown by the poor growth of the Delta frh mutant. Our data suggest that the rapid enzymatic turnover of hydrogenases may allow a competitive advantage via faster growth rates in this freshwater organism. The mutant analysis also confirms the proposed role of Frh in growth on hydrogen/carbon dioxide and suggests that either Frh or Fpo is needed for aceticlastic growth of M. barkeri.

  9. Photosynthetic Reaction Centres-from Basic Research to Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    László NAGY

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available There is no doubt that studying the photosynthetic conversion of light into chemical energy is extremely important in many points of view; e.g., 1 technical-in order to improve the utilization of the solar energy; 2 food production-to improve the photosynthetic production of plants in agriculture; 3 ecology-keeping the primer production in ecosystems in the biosphere balanced, etc. In the photosynthetic reaction centre protein, RC, light energy is converted by a quantum yield of almost unity. There is no such a system designed by human which is able to do that. The RC purified from purple bacteria provides an extremely unique system for studying the requirements for high efficiency conversion of light into electrochemical energy. Thanks to the recent structural (e.g. crystallography (Nobel prize to Michel, Deisenhofer, Huber and functional (Nobel prize to Marcus results together with the works of molecular biology, computer- and electro-techniques, a wealth of information made a relatively clear picture about the kinetics, energetics and stabilization of electron transport within this protein that opens possibilities for new generation practical applications. In this paper we provide a short summary of fields in which the reaction centre protein can be important from practical points of view.

  10. Low-energy electron transmission and secondary-electron emission experiments on crystalline and molten long-chain alkanes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ueno, N.; Sugita, K.; Seki, K.; Inokuchi, H.

    1986-01-01

    This paper describes the results of low-energy electron transmission and secondary-electron emission experiments on thin films of long-chain alkanes deposited on metal substrates. The spectral changes due to crystal-melt phase transition were measured in situ in both experiments. The ground-state energy V 0 of the quasifree electron in crystalline state was determined to be 0.5 +- 0.1 eV. The value of V 0 for the molten state was found to be negative. Further, in the crystalline state evidence is found for a direct correspondence between the transmission maxima and the high value of the density of states in the conduction bands

  11. Photoprotection Conferred by Changes in Photosynthetic Protein Levels and Organization during Dehydration of a Homoiochlorophyllous Resurrection Plant1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charuvi, Dana; Nevo, Reinat; Shimoni, Eyal; Naveh, Leah; Zia, Ahmad; Adam, Zach; Farrant, Jill M.; Kirchhoff, Helmut; Reich, Ziv

    2015-01-01

    During desiccation, homoiochlorophyllous resurrection plants retain most of their photosynthetic apparatus, allowing them to resume photosynthetic activity quickly upon water availability. These plants rely on various mechanisms to prevent the formation of reactive oxygen species and/or protect their tissues from the damage they inflict. In this work, we addressed the issue of how homoiochlorophyllous resurrection plants deal with the problem of excessive excitation/electron pressures during dehydration using Craterostigma pumilum as a model plant. To investigate the alterations in the supramolecular organization of photosynthetic protein complexes, we examined cryoimmobilized, freeze-fractured leaf tissues using (cryo)scanning electron microscopy. These examinations revealed rearrangements of photosystem II (PSII) complexes, including a lowered density during moderate dehydration, consistent with a lower level of PSII proteins, as shown by biochemical analyses. The latter also showed a considerable decrease in the level of cytochrome f early during dehydration, suggesting that initial regulation of the inhibition of electron transport is achieved via the cytochrome b6f complex. Upon further dehydration, PSII complexes are observed to arrange into rows and semicrystalline arrays, which correlates with the significant accumulation of sucrose and the appearance of inverted hexagonal lipid phases within the membranes. As opposed to PSII and cytochrome f, the light-harvesting antenna complexes of PSII remain stable throughout the course of dehydration. Altogether, these results, along with photosynthetic activity measurements, suggest that the protection of retained photosynthetic components is achieved, at least in part, via the structural rearrangements of PSII and (likely) light-harvesting antenna complexes into a photochemically quenched state. PMID:25713340

  12. The Effect of Electronic Banking on the Performance of Supply Chain Management of Small Businesses

    OpenAIRE

    Fakhriyeh Hamidianpour; Majid Esmaeilpour; Ali Daryanavard

    2016-01-01

    In current age, e-commerce does not just imply online buying and selling, but implies an efficient business throughout business levels, in which supply chain management can be regarded as the major pillar. The aim of this survey is to study effect of use of electronic banking services and important instruments of e-banking on performance and dimensions of supply chain performance at the first level of the SCOR model in electronics businesses. The present study is an applied research type in t...

  13. One-electron propagation in Fermi, Pasta, Ulam disordered chains with Gaussian acoustic pulse pumping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, L. D. Da; Dos Santos, J. L. L.; Ranciaro Neto, A.; Sales, M. O.; de Moura, F. A. B. F.

    In this work, we consider a one-electron moving on a Fermi, Pasta, Ulam disordered chain under effect of electron-phonon interaction and a Gaussian acoustic pulse pumping. We describe electronic dynamics using quantum mechanics formalism and the nonlinear atomic vibrations using standard classical physics. Solving numerical equations related to coupled quantum/classical behavior of this system, we study electronic propagation properties. Our calculations suggest that the acoustic pumping associated with the electron-lattice interaction promote a sub-diffusive electronic dynamics.

  14. I-V characteristic of electronic transport through a quantum dot chain: The role of antiresonance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Yu; Zheng Yisong; Gong Weijiang; Lue Tianquan

    2006-01-01

    The I-V spectrum of electronic transport through a quantum dot chain is calculated by means of the nonequilibrium Green function technique. In such a system, two arbitrary quantum dots are connected with two electron reservoirs through leads. When the dot-lead coupling is very weak, a series of discrete resonant peaks in electron transmission function cause staircase-like I-V characteristic. On the contrary, in the relatively strong dot-lead coupling regime, stairs in the I-V spectrum due to resonance vanish. However, when there are some dangling quantum dots in the chain outside two leads, the antiresonance which corresponds to the zero points of electron transmission function brings about novel staircase characteristic in the I-V spectrum. Moreover, two features in the I-V spectrum arising from the antiresonance are pointed out, which are significant for possible device applications. One is the multiple negative differential conductance regions, and another is regarding to create a highly spin-polarized current through the quantum dot chain by the interplay of the resonance and antiresonance. Finally, we focus on the role that the many-body effect plays on the antiresonance. Our result is that the antiresonance remains when the electron interaction is considered to the second order approximation

  15. Toward understanding as photosynthetic biosignatures: light harvesting and energy transfer calculation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komatsu, Y.; Umemura, M.; Shoji, M.; Shiraishi, K.; Kayanuma, M.; Yabana, K.

    2014-03-01

    Among several proposed biosignatures, red edge is a direct evidence of photosynthetic life if it is detected (Kiang et al 2007). Red edge is a sharp change in reflectance spectra of vegetation in NIR region (about 700-750 nm). The sign of red edge is observed by Earthshine or remote sensing (Wolstencroft & Raven 2002, Woolf et al 2002). But, why around 700-750 nm? The photosynthetic organisms on Earth have evolved to optimize the sunlight condition. However, if we consider about photosynthetic organism on extrasolar planets, they should have developed to utilize the spectra of its principal star. Thus, it is not strange even if it shows different vegetation spectra. In this study, we focused on the light absorption mechanism of photosynthetic organisms on Earth and investigated the fundamental properties of the light harvesting mechanisms, which is the first stage for the light absorption. Light harvesting complexes contain photosynthetic pigments like chlorophylls. Effective light absorption and the energy transfer are accomplished by the electronic excitations of collective photosynthetic pigments. In order to investigate this mechanism, we constructed an energy transfer model by using a dipole-dipole approximation for the interactions between electronic excitations. Transition moments and transition energies of each pigment are calculated at the time-dependent density functional theory (TDDFT) level (Marques & Gross 2004). Quantum dynamics simulation for the excitation energy transfer was calculated by the Liouvelle's equation. We adopted the model to purple bacteria, which has been studied experimentally and known to absorb lower energy. It is meaningful to focus on the mechanism of this bacteria, since in the future mission, M planets will become a important target. We calculated the oscillator strengths in one light harvesting complex and confirmed the validity by comparing to the experimental data. This complex is made of an inner and an outer ring. The

  16. Detecting in-field variation in photosynthetic capacity of trangenically modifed plants with hyperspectral imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meacham, K.; Montes, C.; Pederson, T.; Wu, J.; Guan, K.; Bernacchi, C.

    2017-12-01

    Improved photosynthetic rates have been shown to increase crop biomass, making improved photosynthesis a focus for driving future grain yield increases. Improving the photosynthetic pathway offers opportunity to meet food demand, but requires high throughput measurement techniques to detect photosynthetic variation in natural accessions and transgenically modified plants. Gas exchange measurements are the most widely used method of measuring photosynthesis in field trials but this process is laborious and slow, and requires further modeling to estimate meaningful parameters and to upscale to the plot or canopy level. In field trials of tobacco with modifications made to the photosynthetic pathway, we infer the maximum carboxylation rate of Rubisco (Vcmax) and maximum electron transport rate (Jmax) and detect photosynthetic variation from hyperspectral imaging with a partial least squares regression technique. Ground-truth measurements from photosynthetic gas exchange, a full-range (400-2500nm) handheld spectroadiometer with leaf clip, hyperspectral indices, and extractions of leaf pigments support the model. The results from a range of wild-type cultivars and from genetically modified germplasm suggest that the opportunity for rapid selection of top performing genotypes from among thousands of plots. This research creates the opportunity to extend agroecosystem models from simplified "one-cultivar" generic parameterization to better represent a full suite of current and future crop cultivars for a wider range of environmental conditions.

  17. Sustained photosynthetic performance of Coffea spp. under long-term enhanced [CO2].

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José C Ramalho

    Full Text Available Coffee is one of the world's most traded agricultural products. Modeling studies have predicted that climate change will have a strong impact on the suitability of current cultivation areas, but these studies have not anticipated possible mitigating effects of the elevated atmospheric [CO2] because no information exists for the coffee plant. Potted plants from two genotypes of Coffea arabica and one of C. canephora were grown under controlled conditions of irradiance (800 μmol m(-2 s(-1, RH (75% and 380 or 700 μL CO2 L(-1 for 1 year, without water, nutrient or root development restrictions. In all genotypes, the high [CO2] treatment promoted opposite trends for stomatal density and size, which decreased and increased, respectively. Regardless of the genotype or the growth [CO2], the net rate of CO2 assimilation increased (34-49% when measured at 700 than at 380 μL CO2 L(-1. This result, together with the almost unchanged stomatal conductance, led to an instantaneous water use efficiency increase. The results also showed a reinforcement of photosynthetic (and respiratory components, namely thylakoid electron transport and the activities of RuBisCo, ribulose 5-phosphate kinase, malate dehydrogenase and pyruvate kinase, what may have contributed to the enhancements in the maximum rates of electron transport, carboxylation and photosynthetic capacity under elevated [CO2], although these responses were genotype dependent. The photosystem II efficiency, energy driven to photochemical events, non-structural carbohydrates, photosynthetic pigment and membrane permeability did not respond to [CO2] supply. Some alterations in total fatty acid content and the unsaturation level of the chloroplast membranes were noted but, apparently, did not affect photosynthetic functioning. Despite some differences among the genotypes, no clear species-dependent responses to elevated [CO2] were observed. Overall, as no apparent sign of photosynthetic down

  18. Sustained Photosynthetic Performance of Coffea spp. under Long-Term Enhanced [CO2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramalho, José C.; Rodrigues, Ana P.; Semedo, José N.; Pais, Isabel P.; Martins, Lima D.; Simões-Costa, Maria C.; Leitão, António E.; Fortunato, Ana S.; Batista-Santos, Paula; Palos, Isabel M.; Tomaz, Marcelo A.; Scotti-Campos, Paula; Lidon, Fernando C.; DaMatta, Fábio M.

    2013-01-01

    Coffee is one of the world’s most traded agricultural products. Modeling studies have predicted that climate change will have a strong impact on the suitability of current cultivation areas, but these studies have not anticipated possible mitigating effects of the elevated atmospheric [CO2] because no information exists for the coffee plant. Potted plants from two genotypes of Coffea arabica and one of C. canephora were grown under controlled conditions of irradiance (800 μmol m-2 s-1), RH (75%) and 380 or 700 μL CO2 L-1 for 1 year, without water, nutrient or root development restrictions. In all genotypes, the high [CO2] treatment promoted opposite trends for stomatal density and size, which decreased and increased, respectively. Regardless of the genotype or the growth [CO2], the net rate of CO2 assimilation increased (34-49%) when measured at 700 than at 380 μL CO2 L-1. This result, together with the almost unchanged stomatal conductance, led to an instantaneous water use efficiency increase. The results also showed a reinforcement of photosynthetic (and respiratory) components, namely thylakoid electron transport and the activities of RuBisCo, ribulose 5-phosphate kinase, malate dehydrogenase and pyruvate kinase, what may have contributed to the enhancements in the maximum rates of electron transport, carboxylation and photosynthetic capacity under elevated [CO2], although these responses were genotype dependent. The photosystem II efficiency, energy driven to photochemical events, non-structural carbohydrates, photosynthetic pigment and membrane permeability did not respond to [CO2] supply. Some alterations in total fatty acid content and the unsaturation level of the chloroplast membranes were noted but, apparently, did not affect photosynthetic functioning. Despite some differences among the genotypes, no clear species-dependent responses to elevated [CO2] were observed. Overall, as no apparent sign of photosynthetic down-regulation was found, our data

  19. Melatonin Improves the Photosynthetic Carbon Assimilation and Antioxidant Capacity in Wheat Exposed to Nano-ZnO Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiyu Zuo

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The release of nanoparticles into the environment is inevitable, which has raised global environmental concern. Melatonin is involved in various stress responses in plants. The present study investigated the effects of melatonin on photosynthetic carbon (C assimilation and plant growth in nano-ZnO stressed plants. It was found that melatonin improved the photosynthetic C assimilation in nano-ZnO stressed wheat plants, mainly due to the enhanced photosynthetic energy transport efficiency, higher chlorophyll concentration and higher activities of Rubisco and ATPases. In addition, melatonin enhanced the activities of antioxidant enzymes to protect the photosynthetic electron transport system in wheat leaves against the oxidative burst caused by nano-ZnO stress. These results suggest that melatonin could improve the tolerance of wheat plants to nano-ZnO stress.

  20. Photosynthetic temperature responses of tree species in Rwanda: evidence of pronounced negative effects of high temperature in montane rainforest climax species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vårhammar, Angelica; Wallin, Göran; McLean, Christopher M.; Dusenge, Mirindi Eric; Medlyn, Belinda E.; Hasper, Thomas B.; Nsabimana, Donat; Uddling, Johan

    2015-04-01

    The sensitivity of photosynthetic metabolism to temperature has been identified as a key uncertainty for projecting the magnitude of the terrestrial feedback on future climate change. While temperature responses of photosynthetic capacities have been comparatively well investigated in temperate species, the responses of tropical tree species remain unexplored. We compared the responses of seedlings of native cold-adapted tropical montane rainforest tree species to exotic warm-adapted plantation species, all growing in an intermediate temperature common garden in Rwanda. Leaf gas exchange responses to CO2 at different temperatures (20 - 40 C) were used to assess the temperature responses of biochemical photosynthetic capacities. Analyses revealed a lower optimum temperature for photosynthetic electron transport rates than for Rubisco carboxylation rates, along with lower electron transport optima in the native cold-adapted than in the exotic warm-adapted species. The photosynthetic optimum temperatures were generally exceeded by daytime peak leaf temperatures, in particular in the native montane rainforest climax species. This study thus provides evidence of pronounced negative effects of high temperature in tropical trees and indicates high susceptibility of montane rainforest climax species to future global warming. (Reference: New Phytologist, in press)

  1. Primary photosynthetic processes: from supercomplex to leaf

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broess, K.

    2009-01-01

    This thesis describes fluorescence spectroscopy experiments on photosynthetic complexes that cover the primary photosynthetic processes, from the absorption of light by photosynthetic pigments to a charge separation (CS) in the reaction center (RC). Fluorescence spectroscopy is a useful tool in

  2. Effects of salt and water stress on plant biomass and photosynthetic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Water deficit led to earlier peaks of net photosynthetic rate (PN) during the day. Relative rate of electron transport (ETR) decreased, but optimal quantum yield of photosystem II (Fv/Fm) showed no significant difference (P<0.05) with water deficit (from 60 to 20% FC); soil salt significantly decreased PN and transpiration rate ...

  3. Photosynthetic characteristics of Lycoris aurea and monthly ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The leaf photosynthetic characteristics of Lycoris aurea, the monthly dynamics in lycorine and galantamine contents in its bulb and the correlation among the photosynthetic characteristics and the lycorine and galantamine during the annual growth period were studied by using LI-6400 portable photosynthetic measurement ...

  4. Visualization of Excitonic Structure in the Fenna-Matthews-Olson Photosynthetic Complex by Polarization-Dependent Two-Dimensional Electronic Spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fleming, Graham; Read, Elizabeth L.; Schlau-Cohen, Gabriela S.; Engel, Gregory S.; Wen, Jianzhong; Blankenship, Robert E.; Fleming, Graham R.

    2008-01-01

    Photosynthetic light-harvesting proceeds by the collection and highly efficient transfer of energy through a network of pigment-protein complexes. Inter-chromophore electronic couplings and interactions between pigments and the surrounding protein determine energy levels of excitonic states and dictate the mechanism of energy flow. The excitonic structure (orientation of excitonic transition dipoles) of pigment-protein complexes is generally deduced indirectly from x-ray crystallography in combination with predictions of transition energies and couplings in the chromophore site basis. Here, we demonstrate that coarse-grained excitonic structural information in the form of projection angles between transition dipole moments can be obtained from polarization-dependent two-dimensional electronic spectroscopy of an isotropic sample, particularly when the nonrephasing or free polarization decay signal rather than the photon echo signal is considered. The method provides an experimental link between atomic and electronic structure and accesses dynamical information with femtosecond time resolution. In an investigation of the Fenna-Matthews-Olson complex from green sulfur bacteria, energy transfer connecting two particular exciton states in the protein is isolated as being the primary contributor to a cross peak in the nonrephasing 2D spectrum at 400 fs under a specific sequence of polarized excitation pulses. The results suggest the possibility of designing experiments using combinations of tailored polarization sequences to separate and monitor individual relaxation pathways

  5. The Philippines in the Electronics Global Value Chain: Upgrading Opportunities and Challenges

    OpenAIRE

    Rafaelita M. ALDABA

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines the extent and depth of participation of the Philippines in the electronics global value chains (GVC) using Trade in Value Added (TiVA) and extensive margin indicators. While the Philippines remains strong in semiconductors, it is lagging behind other ASEAN countries. According to the TiVA database, the level of participation of the Philippines in the electronics GVC increased substantially between 1995 and 2009. The extensive margins show that the Philippines has been reg...

  6. Self-lacing atom chains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zandvliet, Harold J W; Van Houselt, Arie; Poelsema, Bene

    2009-01-01

    The structural and electronic properties of self-lacing atomic chains on Pt modified Ge(001) surfaces have been studied using low-temperature scanning tunnelling microscopy and spectroscopy. The self-lacing chains have a cross section of only one atom, are perfectly straight, thousands of atoms long and virtually defect free. The atomic chains are composed of dimers that have their bonds aligned in a direction parallel to the chain direction. At low temperatures the atomic chains undergo a Peierls transition: the periodicity of the chains doubles from a 2 x to a 4 x periodicity and an energy gap opens up. Furthermore, at low temperatures (T<80 K) novel quasi-one-dimensional electronic states are found. These quasi-one-dimensional electronic states originate from an electronic state of the underlying terrace that is confined between the atomic chains.

  7. Electron beam irradiation of poly(perfluoro ethers): Identification of gaseous products as a result of main chain scission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pacansky, J.; Waltman, R.J.

    1991-01-01

    Several poly(perfluoro ethers) are exposed to electron beams to study the mechanism for main chain scission. Electron beam exposures were performed with the viscous poly(perfluoro ethers) under argon gas, and also at 9 K under vacuum, to determine mechanistic details for the chemical degradation. Here the authors report that, after main chain scission of the bulk poly(perfluoro ethers), sample weight loss is observed concomitant with evolution of gaseous products. Since this suggests that some unzipping of the polymer chain occurs, the products were identified and, most importantly, the efficiency for their formation was determined in terms of G values, and compared to known G values for main chain scission. The results show that COF 2 is the major gaseous product produced from unbranched ethers while CF 4 and COF 2 are the major products from branched polymers. The gaseous products were also exposed to the high-energy electron beam and the G values for decomposition are given

  8. Computation studies into architecture and energy transfer properties of photosynthetic units from filamentous anoxygenic phototrophs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Linnanto, Juha Matti [Institute of Physics, University of Tartu, Riia 142, 51014 Tartu (Estonia); Freiberg, Arvi [Institute of Physics, University of Tartu, Riia 142, 51014 Tartu, Estonia and Institute of Molecular and Cell Biology, University of Tartu, Riia 23, 51010 Tartu (Estonia)

    2014-10-06

    We have used different computational methods to study structural architecture, and light-harvesting and energy transfer properties of the photosynthetic unit of filamentous anoxygenic phototrophs. Due to the huge number of atoms in the photosynthetic unit, a combination of atomistic and coarse methods was used for electronic structure calculations. The calculations reveal that the light energy absorbed by the peripheral chlorosome antenna complex transfers efficiently via the baseplate and the core B808–866 antenna complexes to the reaction center complex, in general agreement with the present understanding of this complex system.

  9. UV resonance Raman finds peptide bond-Arg side chain electronic interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Bhavya; Asher, Sanford A

    2011-05-12

    We measured the UV resonance Raman excitation profiles and Raman depolarization ratios of the arginine (Arg) vibrations of the amino acid monomer as well as Arg in the 21-residue predominantly alanine peptide AAAAA(AAARA)(3)A (AP) between 194 and 218 nm. Excitation within the π → π* peptide bond electronic transitions result in UVRR spectra dominated by amide peptide bond vibrations. The Raman cross sections and excitation profiles indicate that the Arg side chain electronic transitions mix with the AP peptide bond electronic transitions. The Arg Raman bands in AP exhibit Raman excitation profiles similar to those of the amide bands in AP which are conformation specific. These Arg excitation profiles distinctly differ from the Arg monomer. The Raman depolarization ratios of Arg in monomeric solution are quite simple with ρ = 0.33 indicating enhancement by a single electronic transition. In contrast, we see very complex depolarization ratios of Arg in AP that indicate that the Arg residues are resonance enhanced by multiple electronic transitions.

  10. Electron transfer reactions in microporous solids. Progress report, September 1990--January 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mallouk, T.E.

    1993-01-01

    Basic thrust the research program involves use of microporous solids (zeolites, clays, layered and tunnel structure oxide semiconductors) as organizing media for artificial photosynthetic systems. Purpose of the microporous solid is twofold. First, it induces spatial organization of photoactive and electroactive components (sensitizers, semiconductor particles, electron relays, and catalysts) at the solid-solution interface, enhancing the quantum efficiency of charge separation and separating physically the ultimate electron donor and acceptor in the electron transport chain. Second, since the microcrystalline solid admits only molecules of a certain charge and size, it is possible to achieve permanent charge separation by sieving chemical photoproducts (e.g., H{sub 2} and I{sub 3}{sup {minus}}, or H{sub 2} and O{sub 2)} from each other. Spectroscopic and electrochemical methods are used to study the kinetics of electron transfer reactions in these hybrid molecular/solid state assemblies.

  11. Photosynthetic temperature responses of tree species in Rwanda: evidence of pronounced negative effects of high temperature in montane rainforest climax species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vårhammar, Angelica; Wallin, Göran; McLean, Christopher M; Dusenge, Mirindi Eric; Medlyn, Belinda E; Hasper, Thomas B; Nsabimana, Donat; Uddling, Johan

    2015-05-01

    The sensitivity of photosynthetic metabolism to temperature has been identified as a key uncertainty for projecting the magnitude of the terrestrial feedback on future climate change. While temperature responses of photosynthetic capacities have been comparatively well investigated in temperate species, the responses of tropical tree species remain unexplored. We compared the responses of seedlings of native cold-adapted tropical montane rainforest tree species with those of exotic warm-adapted plantation species, all growing in an intermediate temperature common garden in Rwanda. Leaf gas exchange responses to carbon dioxide (CO2 ) at different temperatures (20-40°C) were used to assess the temperature responses of biochemical photosynthetic capacities. Analyses revealed a lower optimum temperature for photosynthetic electron transport rates than for Rubisco carboxylation rates, along with lower electron transport optima in the native cold-adapted than in the exotic warm-adapted species. The photosynthetic optimum temperatures were generally exceeded by daytime peak leaf temperatures, in particular in the native montane rainforest climax species. This study thus provides evidence of pronounced negative effects of high temperature in tropical trees and indicates high susceptibility of montane rainforest climax species to future global warming. © 2015 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2015 New Phytologist Trust.

  12. Effect of Li Termination on the Electronic and Hydrogen Storage Properties of Linear Carbon Chains: A TAO-DFT Study

    OpenAIRE

    Seenithurai, Sonai; Chai, Jeng-Da

    2017-01-01

    Accurate prediction of the electronic and hydrogen storage properties of linear carbon chains (C n ) and Li-terminated linear carbon chains (Li2C n ), with n carbon atoms (n?=?5?10), has been very challenging for traditional electronic structure methods, due to the presence of strong static correlation effects. To meet the challenge, we study these properties using our newly developed thermally-assisted-occupation density functional theory (TAO-DFT), a very efficient electronic structure meth...

  13. Antimycobacterial and Photosynthetic Electron Transport Inhibiting Activity of Ring-Substituted 4-Arylamino-7-Chloroquinolinium Chlorides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alois Cizek

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available In this study, a series of twenty-five ring-substituted 4-arylamino-7-chloroquinolinium chlorides were prepared and characterized. The compounds were tested for their activity related to inhibition of photosynthetic electron transport (PET in spinach (Spinacia oleracea L. chloroplasts and also primary in vitro screening of the synthesized compounds was performed against mycobacterial species. 4-[(2-Bromophenylamino]-7-chloroquinolinium chloride showed high biological activity against M. marinum, M. kansasii, M. smegmatis and 7-chloro-4-[(2-methylphenylamino]quinolinium chloride demonstrated noteworthy biological activity against M. smegmatis and M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis. The most effective compounds demonstrated quite low toxicity (LD50 > 20 μmol/L against the human monocytic leukemia THP-1 cell line within preliminary in vitro cytotoxicity screening. The tested compounds were found to inhibit PET in photosystem II. The PET-inhibiting activity expressed by IC50 value of the most active compound 7-chloro-4-[(3-trifluoromethylphenylamino]quinolinium chloride was 27 μmol/L and PET-inhibiting activity of ortho-substituted compounds was significantly lower than this of meta- and para-substituted ones. The structure-activity relationships are discussed for all compounds.

  14. The potentials and challenges of electron microscopy in the study of atomic chains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banhart, Florian; Torre, Alessandro La; Romdhane, Ferdaous Ben; Cretu, Ovidiu

    2017-04-01

    The article is a brief review on the potential of transmission electron microscopy (TEM) in the investigation of atom chains which are the paradigm of a strictly one-dimensional material. After the progress of TEM in the study of new two-dimensional materials, microscopy of free-standing one-dimensional structures is a new challenge with its inherent potentials and difficulties. In-situ experiments in the TEM allowed, for the first time, to generate isolated atomic chains consisting of metals, carbon or boron nitride. Besides having delivered a solid proof for the existence of atomic chains, in-situ TEM studies also enabled us to measure the electrical properties of these fundamental linear structures. While ballistic quantum conductivity is observed in chains of metal atoms, electrical transport in chains of sp1-hybridized carbon is limited by resonant states and reflections at the contacts. Although substantial progress has been made in recent TEM studies of atom chains, fundamental questions have to be answered, concerning the structural stability of the chains, bonding states at the contacts, and the suitability for applications in nanotechnology. Contribution to the topical issue "The 16th European Microscopy Congress (EMC 2016)", edited by Richard Brydson and Pascale Bayle-Guillemaud

  15. Magnetic Grüneisen parameter and magnetocaloric properties of a coupled spin–electron double-tetrahedral chain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gálisová, Lucia; Strečka, Jozef

    2015-01-01

    Magnetocaloric effect in a double-tetrahedral chain, in which nodal lattice sites occupied by the localized Ising spins regularly alternate with three equivalent lattice sites available for mobile electrons, is exactly investigated by considering the one-third electron filling and the ferromagnetic Ising exchange interaction between the mobile electrons and their nearest Ising neighbours. The entropy and the magnetic Grüneisen parameter, which closely relate to the magnetocaloric effect, are exactly calculated in order to investigate the relation between the ground-state degeneracy and the cooling efficiency of the hybrid spin–electron system during the adiabatic demagnetization. - Highlights: • A double-tetrahedral chain of mobile electrons and localized Ising spins is studied. • Magnetic Grüneisen parameter for the system is exactly derived. • Macroscopically degenerate phases FRU and FM constitute the ground state. • MCE is three times higher nearby FRU–FM transition than in FRU phase at small fields

  16. Electronic transport through a quantum dot chain with strong dot-lead coupling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Yu; Zheng, Yisong; Gong, Weijiang; Gao, Wenzhu; Lue, Tianquan

    2007-01-01

    By means of the non-equilibrium Green function technique, the electronic transport through an N-quantum-dot chain is theoretically studied. By calculating the linear conductance spectrum and the local density of states in quantum dots, we find the resonant peaks in the spectra coincides with the eigen-energies of the N-quantum-dot chain when the dot-lead coupling is relatively weak. With the increase of the dot-lead coupling, such a correspondence becomes inaccurate. When the dot-lead coupling exceeds twice the interdot coupling, such a mapping collapses completely. The linear conductance turn to reflect the eigen-energies of the (N-2)- or (N-1)-quantum dot chain instead. The two peripheral quantum dots do not manifest themselves in the linear conductance spectrum. More interestingly, with the further increase of the dot-lead coupling, the system behaves just like an (N-2)- or (N-1)-quantum dot chain in weak dot-lead coupling limit, since the resonant peaks becomes narrower with the increase of dot-lead coupling

  17. Functional Mitochondrial Complex I Is Required by Tobacco Leaves for Optimal Photosynthetic Performance in Photorespiratory Conditions and during Transients1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutilleul, Christelle; Driscoll, Simon; Cornic, Gabriel; De Paepe, Rosine; Foyer, Christine H.; Noctor, Graham

    2003-01-01

    The importance of the mitochondrial electron transport chain in photosynthesis was studied using the tobacco (Nicotiana sylvestris) mutant CMSII, which lacks functional complex I. Rubisco activities and oxygen evolution at saturating CO2 showed that photosynthetic capacity in the mutant was at least as high as in wild-type (WT) leaves. Despite this, steady-state photosynthesis in the mutant was reduced by 20% to 30% at atmospheric CO2 levels. The inhibition of photosynthesis was alleviated by high CO2 or low O2. The mutant showed a prolonged induction of photosynthesis, which was exacerbated in conditions favoring photorespiration and which was accompanied by increased extractable NADP-malate dehydrogenase activity. Feeding experiments with leaf discs demonstrated that CMSII had a lower capacity than the WT for glycine (Gly) oxidation in the dark. Analysis of the postillumination burst in CO2 evolution showed that this was not because of insufficient Gly decarboxylase capacity. Despite the lower rate of Gly metabolism in CMSII leaves in the dark, the Gly to Ser ratio in the light displayed a similar dependence on photosynthesis to the WT. It is concluded that: (a) Mitochondrial complex I is required for optimal photosynthetic performance, despite the operation of alternative dehydrogenases in CMSII; and (b) complex I is necessary to avoid redox disruption of photosynthesis in conditions where leaf mitochondria must oxidize both respiratory and photorespiratory substrates simultaneously. PMID:12529534

  18. Electronic transport in large systems through a QUAMBO-NEGF approach: Application to atomic carbon chains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fang, X.W.; Zhang, G.P.; Yao, Y.X.; Wang, C.Z.; Ding, Z.J.; Ho, K.M.

    2011-01-01

    The conductance of single-atom carbon chain (SACC) between two zigzag graphene nanoribbons (GNR) is studied by an efficient scheme utilizing tight-binding (TB) parameters generated via quasi-atomic minimal basis set orbitals (QUAMBOs) and non-equilibrium Green's function (NEGF). Large systems (SACC contains more than 50 atoms) are investigated and the electronic transport properties are found to correlate with SACC's parity. The SACCs provide a stable off or on state in broad energy region (0.1-1 eV) around Fermi energy. The off state is not sensitive to the length of SACC while the corresponding energy region decreases with the increase of the width of GNR. -- Highlights: → Graphene has many superior electronic properties. → First-principles calculation are accurate but limited to system size. → QUAMBOs construct tight-binding parameters with spatial localization, and then use divide-and-conquer method. → SACC (single carbon atom chain): structure and transport show even-odd parity, and long chains are studied.

  19. Photosynthetic activity of young Ricinus communis L. plants under conditions of flooded soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davi Silva Dalberto

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Soil flooding is a stress condition that causes changes in hydric relationships and in the metabolism of crops, thereby affecting their productivity. To evaluate the effects of soil flooding on the chlorophyll a fluorescence transient, as well as gas exchange and Ricinus communis growth, young plants of the ‘AL Guarany 2002’ and ‘IAC Guarani’ cultivars, grown in a greenhouse, were subjected to flood conditions by maintaining a layer of water 2-3 cm above the soil. The stressed plants showed drastic reduction in net CO2 assimilation and growth variables. There was, however, an increase in performance index (PIABS e PITOTAL at different moments of stress between the two cultivars. In general, R. communis plants possess mechanisms to protect the electron transport chain during a period of stress, without causing damage and reducing functionality. However, this is not enough to maintain photosynthetic activity owing to the decrease in stomatal conductance and intrinsic carboxylation efficiency, which affects biomass accumulation in stressed plants. In summary, this study found that the ‘AL Guarany 2002’ was found to be more sensitive to stress than the ‘IAC Guarani’ was.

  20. Heptachlor induced mitochondria-mediated cell death via impairing electron transport chain complex III

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hong, Seokheon; Kim, Joo Yeon; Hwang, Joohyun; Shin, Ki Soon; Kang, Shin Jung

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: •Heptachlor inhibited mitochondrial electron transport chain complex III activity. •Heptachlor promoted generation of reactive oxygen species. •Heptachlor induced Bax activation. •Heptachlor induced mitochondria-mediated and caspase-dependent apoptosis. -- Abstract: Environmental toxins like pesticides have been implicated in the pathogenesis of Parkinson’s disease (PD). Epidemiological studies suggested that exposures to organochlorine pesticides have an association with an increased PD risk. In the present study, we examined the mechanism of toxicity induced by an organochlorine pesticide heptachlor. In a human dopaminergic neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells, heptachlor induced both morphological and functional damages in mitochondria. Interestingly, the compound inhibited mitochondrial electron transport chain complex III activity. Rapid generation of reactive oxygen species and the activation of Bax were then detected. Subsequently, mitochondria-mediated, caspase-dependent apoptosis followed. Our results raise a possibility that an organochlorine pesticide heptachlor can act as a neurotoxicant associated with PD

  1. Heptachlor induced mitochondria-mediated cell death via impairing electron transport chain complex III

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, Seokheon; Kim, Joo Yeon; Hwang, Joohyun [Department of Molecular Biology, Sejong University, Seoul 143-747 (Korea, Republic of); Shin, Ki Soon [Department of Biology, Department of Life and Nanopharmaceutical Sciences, Kyung Hee University, Seoul 130-701 (Korea, Republic of); Kang, Shin Jung, E-mail: sjkang@sejong.ac.kr [Department of Molecular Biology, Sejong University, Seoul 143-747 (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-08-09

    Highlights: •Heptachlor inhibited mitochondrial electron transport chain complex III activity. •Heptachlor promoted generation of reactive oxygen species. •Heptachlor induced Bax activation. •Heptachlor induced mitochondria-mediated and caspase-dependent apoptosis. -- Abstract: Environmental toxins like pesticides have been implicated in the pathogenesis of Parkinson’s disease (PD). Epidemiological studies suggested that exposures to organochlorine pesticides have an association with an increased PD risk. In the present study, we examined the mechanism of toxicity induced by an organochlorine pesticide heptachlor. In a human dopaminergic neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells, heptachlor induced both morphological and functional damages in mitochondria. Interestingly, the compound inhibited mitochondrial electron transport chain complex III activity. Rapid generation of reactive oxygen species and the activation of Bax were then detected. Subsequently, mitochondria-mediated, caspase-dependent apoptosis followed. Our results raise a possibility that an organochlorine pesticide heptachlor can act as a neurotoxicant associated with PD.

  2. Ferredoxin-thioredoxin reductase: a catalytically active dithiol group links photoreduced ferredoxin to thioredoxin functional in photosynthetic enzyme regulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Droux, M.; Miginiac-Maslow, M.; Jacquot, J.P.; Gadal, P.; Crawford, N.A.; Kosower, N.S.; Buchanan, B.B.

    1987-07-01

    The mechanism by which the ferredoxin-thioredoxin system activates the target enzyme, NADP-malate dehydrogenase, was investigated by analyzing the sulfhydryl status of individual protein components with (/sup 14/C)iodoacetate and monobromobimane. The data indicate that ferredoxin-thioredoxin reductase (FTR)--an iron-sulfur enzyme present in oxygenic photosynthetic organisms--is the first member of a thiol chain that links light to enzyme regulation. FTR possesses a catalytically active dithiol group localized on the 13 kDa (similar) subunit, that occurs in all species investigated and accepts reducing equivalents from photoreduced ferredoxin and transfers them stoichiometrically to the disulfide form of thioredoxin m. The reduced thioredoxin m, in turn, reduces NADP-malate dehydrogenase, thereby converting it from an inactive (S-S) to an active (SH) form. The means by which FTR is able to combine electrons (from photoreduced ferredoxin) with protons (from the medium) to reduce its active disulfide group remains to be determined.

  3. Ferredoxin-thioredoxin reductase: a catalytically active dithiol group links photoreduced ferredoxin to thioredoxin functional in photosynthetic enzyme regulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Droux, M.; Miginiac-Maslow, M.; Jacquot, J.P.; Gadal, P.; Crawford, N.A.; Kosower, N.S.; Buchanan, B.B.

    1987-01-01

    The mechanism by which the ferredoxin-thioredoxin system activates the target enzyme, NADP-malate dehydrogenase, was investigated by analyzing the sulfhydryl status of individual protein components with [ 14 C]iodoacetate and monobromobimane. The data indicate that ferredoxin-thioredoxin reductase (FTR)--an iron-sulfur enzyme present in oxygenic photosynthetic organisms--is the first member of a thiol chain that links light to enzyme regulation. FTR possesses a catalytically active dithiol group localized on the 13 kDa (similar) subunit, that occurs in all species investigated and accepts reducing equivalents from photoreduced ferredoxin and transfers them stoichiometrically to the disulfide form of thioredoxin m. The reduced thioredoxin m, in turn, reduces NADP-malate dehydrogenase, thereby converting it from an inactive (S-S) to an active (SH) form. The means by which FTR is able to combine electrons (from photoreduced ferredoxin) with protons (from the medium) to reduce its active disulfide group remains to be determined

  4. Construction of hybrid photosynthetic units using peripheral and core antennae from two different species of photosynthetic bacteria: detection of the energy transfer from bacteriochlorophyll a in LH2 to bacteriochlorophyll b in LH1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujii, Ritsuko; Shimonaka, Shozo; Uchida, Naoko; Gardiner, Alastair T; Cogdell, Richard J; Sugisaki, Mitsuru; Hashimoto, Hideki

    2008-01-01

    Typical purple bacterial photosynthetic units consist of supra-molecular arrays of peripheral (LH2) and core (LH1-RC) antenna complexes. Recent atomic force microscopy pictures of photosynthetic units in intact membranes have revealed that the architecture of these units is variable (Scheuring et al. (2005) Biochim Bhiophys Acta 1712:109-127). In this study, we describe methods for the construction of heterologous photosynthetic units in lipid-bilayers from mixtures of purified LH2 (from Rhodopseudomonas acidophila) and LH1-RC (from Rhodopseudomonas viridis) core complexes. The architecture of these reconstituted photosynthetic units can be varied by controlling ratio of added LH2 to core complexes. The arrangement of the complexes was visualized by electron-microscopy in combination with Fourier analysis. The regular trigonal array of the core complexes seen in the native photosynthetic membrane could be regenerated in the reconstituted membranes by temperature cycling. In the presence of added LH2 complexes, this trigonal symmetry was replaced with orthorhombic symmetry. The small lattice lengths for the latter suggest that the constituent unit of the orthorhombic lattice is the LH2. Fluorescence and fluorescence-excitation spectroscopy was applied to the set of the reconstituted membranes prepared with various proportions of LH2 to core complexes. Remarkably, even though the LH2 complexes contain bacteriochlorophyll a, and the core complexes contain bacteriochlorophyll b, it was possible to demonstrate energy transfer from LH2 to the core complexes. These experiments provide a first step along the path toward investigating how changing the architecture of purple bacterial photosynthetic units affects the overall efficiency of light-harvesting.

  5. Evaluation of functioning of mitochondrial electron transport chain with NADH and FAD autofluorescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danylovych, H V

    2016-01-01

    We prove the feasibility of evaluation of mitochondrial electron transport chain function in isolated mitochondria of smooth muscle cells of rats from uterus using fluorescence of NADH and FAD coenzymes. We found the inversely directed changes in FAD and NADH fluorescence intensity under normal functioning of mitochondrial electron transport chain. The targeted effect of inhibitors of complex I, III and IV changed fluorescence of adenine nucleotides. Rotenone (5 μM) induced rapid increase in NADH fluorescence due to inhibition of complex I, without changing in dynamics of FAD fluorescence increase. Antimycin A, a complex III inhibitor, in concentration of 1 μg/ml caused sharp increase in NADH fluorescence and moderate increase in FAD fluorescence in comparison to control. NaN3 (5 mM), a complex IV inhibitor, and CCCP (10 μM), a protonophore, caused decrease in NADH and FAD fluorescence. Moreover, all the inhibitors caused mitochondria swelling. NO donors, e.g. 0.1 mM sodium nitroprusside and sodium nitrite similarly to the effects of sodium azide. Energy-dependent Ca2+ accumulation in mitochondrial matrix (in presence of oxidation substrates and Mg-ATP2- complex) is associated with pronounced drop in NADH and FAD fluorescence followed by increased fluorescence of adenine nucleotides, which may be primarily due to Ca2+- dependent activation of dehydrogenases of citric acid cycle. Therefore, the fluorescent signal of FAD and NADH indicates changes in oxidation state of these nucleotides in isolated mitochondria, which may be used to assay the potential of effectors of electron transport chain.

  6. Basic regulatory principles of Escherichia coli's electron transport chain for varying oxygen conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Henkel, S.G.; Ter Beek, A.S.; Steinsiek, S.; Stagge, S.; Bettenbrock, K.; Teixeira De Mattos, M.J.; Sauter, T.; Sawodny, O.; Ederer, M.

    2014-01-01

    For adaptation between anaerobic, micro-aerobic and aerobic conditions Escherichia coli's metabolism and in particular its electron transport chain (ETC) is highly regulated. Although it is known that the global transcriptional regulators FNR and ArcA are involved in oxygen response it is unclear

  7. Electronic Information Systems Use in Residential Care Facilities: The Differential Effect of Ownership Status and Chain Affiliation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Jullet A; Zakoscielna, Karolina; Jacobs, Lindsey

    2016-03-01

    The use of electronic information systems (EISs) including electronic health records continues to increase in all sectors of the health care industry. Research shows that EISs may be useful for improving care delivery and decreasing medical errors. The purpose of this project is twofold: First, we describe the prevalence of EIS use among residential care facilities (RCFs), and second, we explore utilization differences by ownership status and chain affiliation. We anticipate that RCFs that are non-profit and non-chain will use more EIS than other categories of RCFs. Data for this project come from the 2010 National Survey of Residential Care Facilities. The sample consists of 2,300 facilities. Overall use of EIS was greatest among RCFs that are non-profit and chain-affiliated. Conversely, the use was lowest among for-profit RCFs that were also non-chain affiliated. This may suggest that these facilities lack the necessary resources or motivation to invest in information systems. © The Author(s) 2014.

  8. Photoelectrochemical cells based on photosynthetic systems: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roman A. Voloshin

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Photosynthesis is a process which converts light energy into energy contained in the chemical bonds of organic compounds by photosynthetic pigments such as chlorophyll (Chl a, b, c, d, f or bacteriochlorophyll. It occurs in phototrophic organisms, which include higher plants and many types of photosynthetic bacteria, including cyanobacteria. In the case of the oxygenic photosynthesis, water is a donor of both electrons and protons, and solar radiation serves as inexhaustible source of energy. Efficiency of energy conversion in the primary processes of photosynthesis is close to 100%. Therefore, for many years photosynthesis has attracted the attention of researchers and designers looking for alternative energy systems as one of the most efficient and eco-friendly pathways of energy conversion. The latest advances in the design of optimal solar cells include the creation of converters based on thylakoid membranes, photosystems, and whole cells of cyanobacteria immobilized on nanostructured electrode (gold nanoparticles, carbon nanotubes, nanoparticles of ZnO and TiO2. The mode of solar energy conversion in photosynthesis has a great potential as a source of renewable energy while it is sustainable and environmentally safety as well. Application of pigments such as Chl f and Chl d (unlike Chl a and Chl b, by absorbing the far red and near infrared region of the spectrum (in the range 700-750 nm, will allow to increase the efficiency of such light transforming systems. This review article presents the last achievements in the field of energy photoconverters based on photosynthetic systems.

  9. [In vivo and in vitro actions of biscarbamates on the photosynthetic activity of chloroplasts].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chueca, A; Barón, M; López-Gorgé, J

    1982-01-01

    The "photosynthetic inhibition" component in the whole context of plant toxicity, when different concentrations of the bis-carbamate phenmedipham are supplied through the roots or foliar application to spinach plants grown in hydroponic media have been determined. Chloroplasts were isolated after eight days of the herbicide addition, and then determined: electron transport H2O leads to NADP+, H2O leads to ferrycyanide and ascorbate/DPIP leads to NADP+, cyclic and non cyclic photophosphorilation, CO2 assimilation rate and intermediate patterns of CO2 fixation. We have also determined in foliar disks the O2 evolving and the CO2 assimilation capabilities. Type A and type B chloroplasts showed increased inhibition, respectively, of the Phot. II dependent electron transport chains H2O leads to NADP+ and H2O leads to ferricyanide, to the extent that the phenmedipham concentration increased in the hydroponic media and the spraying solution, so that a 50% inhibition of both processes was obtained at 100 microM and 10 microM, respectively, against 0.2 microM in the in vitro experiments. Non cyclic photophosphorylation showed a stronger inhibition than the cyclic one. Concerning the Phot. I dependent electron transport ascorbate/DPIP leads to NADP+, the chloroplast preparations showed a negligible inhibition. We have found a synergistic effect of the above two factors on the CO2 assimilation. The intermediate patterns of CO2 assimilation showed a decrease of the 3C-compounds P-glycerate and trioses-P, with a parallel increase of the sugar mono and diphosphates as well as disaccharides and amino acids.

  10. Photosynthetic limitation and mechanisms of photoprotection under drought and recovery of Calotropis procera, an evergreen C3 from arid regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivas, Rebeca; Frosi, Gabriella; Ramos, Diego G; Pereira, Silvia; Benko-Iseppon, Ana M; Santos, Mauro G

    2017-09-01

    Calotropis procera is a C 3 plant native from arid environmental zones. It is an evergreen, shrubby, non-woody plant with intense photosynthetic metabolism during the dry season. We measured photosynthetic parameters and leaf biochemical traits, such as gas exchange, photochemical parameters, A/C i analysis, organic solutes, and antioxidant enzymes under controlled conditions in potted plants during drought stress, and following recovery conditions to obtain a better insight in the drought stress responses of C. procera. Indeed, different processes contribute to the drought stress resilience of C. procera and to the fast recovery after rehydration. The parameters analyzed showed that C. procera has a high efficiency for energy dissipation. The photosynthetic machinery is protected by a robust antioxidant system and photoprotective mechanisms such as alternative pathways for electrons (photorespiration and day respiration). Under severe drought stress, increased stomatal limitation and decreased biochemical limitation permitted C. procera to maintain maximum rate of Rubisco carboxylation (V c,max ) and photosynthetic rate (A max ). On the other hand, limitation of stomatal or mesophyll CO 2 diffusion did not impair fast recovery, maintaining V c,max , chloroplast CO 2 concentration (C c ) and mesophyll conductance (g m ) unchanged while electron flow used for RuBP carboxylation (J c ) and A max increased. The ability to tolerate drought stress and the fast recovery of this evergreen C 3 species was also due to leaf anti-oxidative stress enzyme activity, and photosynthetic pigments. Thus, these different drought tolerance mechanisms allowed high performance of photosynthetic metabolism by drought stressed plants during the re-watering period. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  11. Divergent mitochondrial respiratory chains in phototrophic relatives of apicomplexan parasites

    KAUST Repository

    Flegontov, Pavel

    2015-02-06

    Four respiratory complexes and ATP-synthase represent central functional units in mitochondria. In some mitochondria and derived anaerobic organelles, a few or all of these respiratory complexes have been lost during evolution. We show that the respiratory chain of Chromera velia, a phototrophic relative of parasitic apicomplexans, lacks complexes I and III, making it a uniquely reduced aerobic mitochondrion. In Chromera, putative lactate:cytochrome c oxidoreductases are predicted to transfer electrons from lactate to cytochrome c, rendering complex III unnecessary. The mitochondrial genome of Chromera has the smallest known protein-coding capacity of all mitochondria, encoding just cox1 and cox3 on heterogeneous linear molecules. In contrast, another photosynthetic relative of apicomplexans, Vitrella brassicaformis, retains the same set of genes as apicomplexans and dinoflagellates (cox1, cox3, and cob). © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution.

  12. Divergent mitochondrial respiratory chains in phototrophic relatives of apicomplexan parasites

    KAUST Repository

    Flegontov, Pavel; Michá lek, Jan; Janouškovec, Jan; Lai, De Hua; Jirků, Milan; Hajdušková , Eva; Tomčala, Aleš; Otto, Thomas D.; Keeling, Patrick J.; Pain, Arnab; Oborní k, Miroslav; Lukeš, J.

    2015-01-01

    Four respiratory complexes and ATP-synthase represent central functional units in mitochondria. In some mitochondria and derived anaerobic organelles, a few or all of these respiratory complexes have been lost during evolution. We show that the respiratory chain of Chromera velia, a phototrophic relative of parasitic apicomplexans, lacks complexes I and III, making it a uniquely reduced aerobic mitochondrion. In Chromera, putative lactate:cytochrome c oxidoreductases are predicted to transfer electrons from lactate to cytochrome c, rendering complex III unnecessary. The mitochondrial genome of Chromera has the smallest known protein-coding capacity of all mitochondria, encoding just cox1 and cox3 on heterogeneous linear molecules. In contrast, another photosynthetic relative of apicomplexans, Vitrella brassicaformis, retains the same set of genes as apicomplexans and dinoflagellates (cox1, cox3, and cob). © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution.

  13. Ocean acidification alters the photosynthetic responses of a coccolithophorid to fluctuating ultraviolet and visible radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Peng; Gao, Kunshan; Villafañe, Virginia E; Campbell, Douglas A; Helbling, E Walter

    2013-08-01

    Mixing of seawater subjects phytoplankton to fluctuations in photosynthetically active radiation (400-700 nm) and ultraviolet radiation (UVR; 280-400 nm). These irradiance fluctuations are now superimposed upon ocean acidification and thinning of the upper mixing layer through stratification, which alters mixing regimes. Therefore, we examined the photosynthetic carbon fixation and photochemical performance of a coccolithophore, Gephyrocapsa oceanica, grown under high, future (1,000 μatm) and low, current (390 μatm) CO₂ levels, under regimes of fluctuating irradiances with or without UVR. Under both CO₂ levels, fluctuating irradiances, as compared with constant irradiance, led to lower nonphotochemical quenching and less UVR-induced inhibition of carbon fixation and photosystem II electron transport. The cells grown under high CO₂ showed a lower photosynthetic carbon fixation rate but lower nonphotochemical quenching and less ultraviolet B (280-315 nm)-induced inhibition. Ultraviolet A (315-400 nm) led to less enhancement of the photosynthetic carbon fixation in the high-CO₂-grown cells under fluctuating irradiance. Our data suggest that ocean acidification and fast mixing or fluctuation of solar radiation will act synergistically to lower carbon fixation by G. oceanica, although ocean acidification may decrease ultraviolet B-related photochemical inhibition.

  14. A Study on Photosynthetic Physiological Characteristics of Six Rare and Endangered Species

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tailin ZHONG; Guangwu ZHAO; Jiamiao CHU; Xiaomin GUO; Genyou LI

    2014-01-01

    The parameters of gas exchange and chlorophyl fluorescence in leaves of six rare and endangered species Neolitsea sericea, Cinnamomum japonicum var. cheni , Sinojackia microcarpa, Discocleidion glabrum var. trichocarpum, Parrotia sub-aequalis, Cercidiphyl um japonicum were measured in fields. The results showed that there were significant differences in photosynthetic capacity, intrinsic water use effi-ciency (WUEi ), the efficiency of primary conversion of light energy of PSⅡ and its potential activity, the quantum yield of PSⅡ electron transport, and the potential ca-pacity of heat dissipation among the six species. However, there was no significant difference in WUE. The highest values of net photosynthetic rate (Pn), transpiration rate (Tr) and stomatal conductance (gs) occurred in D. glabrum var. trichocarpum and the lowest in S. microcarpa. On the contrary, D. glabrum var. trichocarpum had the lowest WUE, intrinsic water use efficiency (WUEi ) and S. microcarpa had the highest. The results indicated that D. glabrum var. trichocarpum had higher photo-synthetic capacity and poorer WUE, while S. microcarpa had lower photosynthetic capacity and greater WUE. Furthermore, the mean values of maximal fluorescence (Fm), potential efficiency of primary conversion of light energy of PSⅡ (Fv/Fm),ΦPSⅡ, actual efficiency of primary conversion of light energy of PSⅡ (F′v/F′m) and non-photochemical quenching coefficient (NPQ) were the highest in S. micro-carpa, indicating that its PSⅡ had higher capacity of heat dissipation and could prevent photosynthetic apparatus from damage by excessive light energy. Correlation analysis showed that there were significant correlations among photosynthetic physi-ological parameters. However, the initial fluorescence (Fo) was not significantly cor-related with any other parameters. This study also revealed the extremely significant positive correlations between Pn and Tr, gs, apparent quantum yield (AQY), be-tween Tr and

  15. Travail, transparency and trust : a case study of computer-supported collaborative supply chain planning in high-tech electronics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Akkermans, H.A.; Bogerd, P.; van Doremalen, J.B.M.

    2004-01-01

    Describes a case study of supply chain collaboration facilitated by a decision support environment in a high-tech electronics supply chain with multiple independent companies. In a business process called collaborative planning, representatives from these companies jointly take decisions regarding

  16. A photosynthetic-plasmonic-voltaic cell: Excitation of photosynthetic bacteria and current collection through a plasmonic substrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samsonoff, Nathan; Ooms, Matthew D.; Sinton, David

    2014-01-01

    Excitation of photosynthetic biofilms using surface-confined evanescent light fields enables energy dense photobioreactors, while electrode-adhered biofilms can provide electricity directly. Here, we demonstrate concurrent light delivery and electron transport through a plasmonically excited metal film. Biofilms of cyanobacterium Synechococcus bacillaris on 50-nm gold films are excited via the Kretschmann configuration at λ = 670 nm. Cells show light/dark response to plasmonic excitation and grow denser biofilms, closer to the electrode surface, as compared to the direct irradiated case. Directly irradiated biofilms produced average electrical powers of 5.7 μW/m 2 and plasmonically excited biofilms produced average electrical powers of 5.8 μW/m 2 , with individual biofilms producing as much as 12 μW/m 2

  17. Development of a Photosynthetic Microbial Electrochemical Cell (PMEC Reactor Coupled with Dark Fermentation of Organic Wastes: Medium Term Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samir Bensaid

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this article the concept, the materials and the exploitation potential of a photosynthetic microbial electrochemical cell for the production of hydrogen driven by solar power are investigated. In a photosynthetic microbial electrochemical cell, which is based on photosynthetic microorganisms confined to an anode and heterotrophic bacteria confined to a cathode, water is split by bacteria hosted in the anode bioactive film. The generated electrons are conveyed through external “bio-appendages” developed by the bacteria to transparent nano-pillars made of indium tin oxide (ITO, Fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO or other conducting materials, and then transferred to the cathode. On the other hand, the generated protons diffuse to the cathode via a polymer electrolyte membrane, where they are reduced by the electrons by heterotrophic bacteria growing attached to a similar pillared structure as that envisaged for the anode and supplemented with a specific low cost substrate (e.g., organic waste, anaerobic digestion outlet. The generated oxygen is released to the atmosphere or stored, while the produced pure hydrogen leaves the electrode through the porous layers. In addition, the integration of the photosynthetic microbial electrochemical cell system with dark fermentation as acidogenic step of anaerobic digester, which is able to produce additional H2, and the use of microbial fuel cell, feed with the residues of dark fermentation (mainly volatile fatty acids, to produce the necessary extra-bias for the photosynthetic microbial electrochemical cell is here analyzed to reveal the potential benefits to this novel integrated technology.

  18. PS2013 Satellite Workshop on Photosynthetic Light-Harvesting Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Niederman, Robert A. [Rutgers Univ., New Brunswick, NJ (United States); Blankenship, Robert E. [Washington Univ., St. Louis, MO (United States); Frank, Harry A. [Univ. of Connecticut, Storrs, CT (United States)

    2015-02-07

    These funds were used for partial support of the PS2013 Satellite Workshop on Photosynthetic Light-Harvesting Systems, that was held on 8-11 August, 2013, at Washington University, St. Louis, MO. This conference, held in conjunction with the 16th International Congress on Photosynthesis/St. Louis, continued a long tradition of light-harvesting satellite conferences that have been held prior to the previous six international photosynthesis congresses. In this Workshop, the basis was explored for the current interest in replacing fossil fuels with energy sources derived form direct solar radiation, coupled with light-driven electron transport in natural photosynthetic systems and how they offer a valuable blueprint for conversion of sunlight to useful energy forms. This was accomplished through sessions on the initial light-harvesting events in the biological conversion of solar energy to chemically stored energy forms, and how these natural photosynthetic processes serve as a guide to the development of robust bio-hybrid and artificial systems for solar energy conversion into both electricity or chemical fuels. Organized similar to a Gordon Research Conference, a lively, informal and collegial setting was established, highlighting the exchange of exciting new data and unpublished results from ongoing studies. A significant amount of time was set aside for open discussion and interactive poster sessions, with a special session devoted to oral presentations by talented students and postdoctoral fellows judged to have the best posters. This area of research has seen exceptionally rapid progress in recent years, with the availability of a number of antenna protein structures at atomic resolution, elucidation of the molecular surface architecture of native photosynthetic membranes by atomic force microscopy and the maturing of ultrafast spectroscopic and molecular biological techniques for the investigation and manipulation of photosynthetic systems. The conferees

  19. The System Dynamics Model in Electronic Products Closed-Loop Supply Chain Distribution Network with Three-Way Recovery and the Old-for-New Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-qing Zhang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available With the technological developments and rapid changes in demand pattern, diverse varieties of electronic products are entering into the market with reduced lifecycle which leads to the environmental problems. The awareness of electronic products take-back and recovery has been increasing in electronic products supply chains. In this paper, we build a system dynamics model for electronic products closed-loop supply chain distribution network with the old-for-new policy and three electronic products recovery ways, namely, electronic products remanufacturing, electronic component reuse and remanufacturing, and electronic raw material recovery. In the simulation study, we investigate the significance of various factors including the old-for-new policy, collection and remanufacturing, their interactions and the type of their impact on bullwhip, and profitability through sensitivity analysis. Our results instruct that the old-for-new policy and three electronic products recovery ways can reduce the bullwhip effect in the retailers and the distributors and increases the profitability in the closed-loop supply chain distribution network.

  20. DOS cones along atomic chains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwapiński, Tomasz

    2017-01-01

    The electron transport properties of a linear atomic chain are studied theoretically within the tight-binding Hamiltonian and the Green’s function method. Variations of the local density of states (DOS) along the chain are investigated. They are crucial in scanning tunnelling experiments and give important insight into the electron transport mechanism and charge distribution inside chains. It is found that depending on the chain parity the local DOS at the Fermi level can form cone-like structures (DOS cones) along the chain. The general condition for the local DOS oscillations is obtained and the linear behaviour of the local density function is confirmed analytically. DOS cones are characterized by a linear decay towards the chain which is in contrast to the propagation properties of charge density waves, end states and Friedel oscillations in one-dimensional systems. We find that DOS cones can appear due to non-resonant electron transport, the spin–orbit scattering or for chains fabricated on a substrate with localized electrons. It is also shown that for imperfect chains (e.g. with a reduced coupling strength between two neighboring sites) a diamond-like structure of the local DOS along the chain appears. (paper)

  1. DOS cones along atomic chains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwapiński, Tomasz

    2017-03-01

    The electron transport properties of a linear atomic chain are studied theoretically within the tight-binding Hamiltonian and the Green’s function method. Variations of the local density of states (DOS) along the chain are investigated. They are crucial in scanning tunnelling experiments and give important insight into the electron transport mechanism and charge distribution inside chains. It is found that depending on the chain parity the local DOS at the Fermi level can form cone-like structures (DOS cones) along the chain. The general condition for the local DOS oscillations is obtained and the linear behaviour of the local density function is confirmed analytically. DOS cones are characterized by a linear decay towards the chain which is in contrast to the propagation properties of charge density waves, end states and Friedel oscillations in one-dimensional systems. We find that DOS cones can appear due to non-resonant electron transport, the spin-orbit scattering or for chains fabricated on a substrate with localized electrons. It is also shown that for imperfect chains (e.g. with a reduced coupling strength between two neighboring sites) a diamond-like structure of the local DOS along the chain appears.

  2. Electronic and transport properties of a carbon-atom chain in the core of semiconducting carbon nanotubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Jiangwei; Yang Linfeng; Yang Huatong; Dong Jinming

    2003-01-01

    Using the tight-binding calculations, we have studied electronic and transport properties of the semiconducting single-walled carbon nanotubes (SSWNTs) doped by a chain of carbon-atoms, which can be well controlled by density of the encapsulated carbon atoms. When it is lower, weak coupling between the chain atoms and the tube produces flat bands near the Fermi level, which means a great possibility of superconductivity and ferromagnetism for the combined system. The weak coupling also leads to a significant conductance at the Fermi level, which is contributed by both of the tube and the encapsulated carbon-atom chain. Increasing density of the chain carbon atoms, the flat bands near the Fermi level disappear, and the current may be carried only by the carbon-atom chain, thus making the system become an ideal one-dimensional quantum wire with its conducting chain enclosed by a SWNT insulator

  3. Simultaneous electrochemical-electron spin resonance studies of carotenoid cation radicals and dications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khaled, M.; Hadjipetrou, A.; Xinhai Chen; Kispert, L.

    1989-01-01

    Carotenoids are present in the chloroplasts of photosynthetic green plants and serve as photoprotect devices and antenna pigments, and active role in the photosynthetic electron-transport chain with the carotenoid cation radical as an integral part of the electron-transfer process. The research reported herein has confirmed that carotenoid cation radicals have a lifetime that is sensitive to solvent, being longest in CH 2 Cl 2 and are best prepared electrochemically. Semiempirical AM1 and INDO calculations of the trans and cis isomers of β-carotene, canthaxanthin and β-apo-8'-carotenal cation radicals predicted the unresolved EPR line whose linewidth varies to a measurable degree with carotenoid, which subsequent experimental observations affirmed. Simultaneous electrochemical - electron spin resonance studies of carotenoid cation radicals and dications have shown the radicals detected by EPR are formed by the one electron oxidation of the carotenoid, that dimers are not formed upon decay of the radical cations and an estimate of the rate of comproportionation as a function of carotenoid can be given. The formal rate constant K' for heterogenous electron transfer rate at the electrode surface has been deduced from rotating disc experiments. Upon deuteration, and in the presence of excess β-carotene, the half-life for decay of the carotenoid radical cation increased an order of magnitude due to the reaction between diffusion carotenoid dications and carotenoids to form additional radical cations. The carotenoid diffusion coefficients deduced by chronocoulometry substantiates this measurement. The produces formed upon electrochemical studies are being studied by HPLC and the isomers formed thermally are being separated. Additional radical reactions are currently being studied by EPR and electrochemical methods

  4. Correlation of paramagnetic states and molecular structure in bacterial photosynthetic reaction centers: The symmetry of the primary electron donor in Rhodopseudomonas viridis and Rhodobacter sphaeroides R-26

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Norris, J.R.; Budil, D.E.; Gast, P.; Chang, C.H.; El-Kabbani, O.; Schiffer, M.

    1989-01-01

    The orientation of the principal axes of the primary electron donor triplet state measured in single crystals of photosynthetic reaction centers is compared to the x-ray structures of the bacteria Rhodobacter (Rb.) sphaeroides R-26 and Rhodopseudomonas (Rps.) viridis. The primary donor of Rps. viridis is significantly different from that of Rb. sphaeroides. The measured directions of the axes indicate that triplet excitation is almost completely localized on the L-subunit half of the dimer in Rps. viridis but is more symmetrically distributed on the dimeric donor in Rb. sphaeroides R-26. The large reduction of the zero field splitting parameters relative to monomeric bacteriochlorophyll triplet in vitro suggests significant participation of asymmetrical charge transfer electronic configurations in the special pair triplet state of both organisms

  5. Electronic response and longitudinal phonons of a charge-density-wave distorted linear chain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giuliani, G.

    1978-01-01

    The longitudinal-phonon spectrum of an incommensurate charge-density-wave distorted linear chain at T = 0 K are calculated. This is done by direct numerical evaluation of the full static-electronic-response matrix. The electronic band structure assumed for this purpose is that of a mean-field theory 1-D Peierls insulator. The present results show how, within this simplified, but self-consistent picture, the phase and amplitude modes connect to, and interact with, the ordinary longitudinal-phonon branch. Effects due to our inclusion of (0,2ksub(F)) scattering along with the usual (-2ksub(F), 2ksub(F)) are also pointed out. An alternative approximate expression for the 1-D electronic-response matrix is also given. (author)

  6. Melatonin and the electron transport chain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardeland, Rüdiger

    2017-11-01

    Melatonin protects the electron transport chain (ETC) in multiple ways. It reduces levels of ·NO by downregulating inducible and inhibiting neuronal nitric oxide synthases (iNOS, nNOS), thereby preventing excessive levels of peroxynitrite. Both ·NO and peroxynitrite-derived free radicals, such as ·NO 2 , hydroxyl (·OH) and carbonate radicals (CO 3 · - ) cause blockades or bottlenecks in the ETC, by ·NO binding to irons, protein nitrosation, nitration and oxidation, changes that lead to electron overflow or even backflow and, thus, increased formation of superoxide anions (O 2 · - ). Melatonin improves the intramitochondrial antioxidative defense by enhancing reduced glutathione levels and inducing glutathione peroxidase and Mn-superoxide dismutase (Mn-SOD) in the matrix and Cu,Zn-SOD in the intermembrane space. An additional action concerns the inhibition of cardiolipin peroxidation. This oxidative change in the membrane does not only initiate apoptosis or mitophagy, as usually considered, but also seems to occur at low rate, e.g., in aging, and impairs the structural integrity of Complexes III and IV. Moreover, elevated levels of melatonin inhibit the opening of the mitochondrial permeability transition pore and shorten its duration. Additionally, high-affinity binding sites in mitochondria have been described. The assumption of direct binding to the amphipathic ramp of Complex I would require further substantiation. The mitochondrial presence of the melatonin receptor MT 1 offers the possibility that melatonin acts via an inhibitory G protein, soluble adenylyl cyclase, decreased cAMP and lowered protein kinase A activity, a signaling pathway shown to reduce Complex I activity in the case of a mitochondrial cannabinoid receptor.

  7. Interacting Effects of Light and Iron Availability on the Coupling of Photosynthetic Electron Transport and CO2-Assimilation in Marine Phytoplankton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuback, Nina; Schallenberg, Christina; Duckham, Carolyn; Maldonado, Maria T; Tortell, Philippe D

    2015-01-01

    Iron availability directly affects photosynthesis and limits phytoplankton growth over vast oceanic regions. For this reason, the availability of iron is a crucial variable to consider in the development of active chlorophyll a fluorescence based estimates of phytoplankton primary productivity. These bio-optical approaches require a conversion factor to derive ecologically-relevant rates of CO2-assimilation from estimates of electron transport in photosystem II. The required conversion factor varies significantly across phytoplankton taxa and environmental conditions, but little information is available on its response to iron limitation. In this study, we examine the role of iron limitation, and the interacting effects of iron and light availability, on the coupling of photosynthetic electron transport and CO2-assimilation in marine phytoplankton. Our results show that excess irradiance causes increased decoupling of carbon fixation and electron transport, particularly under iron limiting conditions. We observed that reaction center II specific rates of electron transport (ETR(RCII), mol e- mol RCII(-1) s(-1)) increased under iron limitation, and we propose a simple conceptual model for this observation. We also observed a strong correlation between the derived conversion factor and the expression of non-photochemical quenching. Utilizing a dataset from in situ phytoplankton assemblages across a coastal--oceanic transect in the Northeast subarctic Pacific, this relationship was used to predict ETR(RCII): CO2-assimilation conversion factors and carbon-based primary productivity from FRRF data, without the need for any additional measurements.

  8. Interacting Effects of Light and Iron Availability on the Coupling of Photosynthetic Electron Transport and CO2-Assimilation in Marine Phytoplankton.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nina Schuback

    Full Text Available Iron availability directly affects photosynthesis and limits phytoplankton growth over vast oceanic regions. For this reason, the availability of iron is a crucial variable to consider in the development of active chlorophyll a fluorescence based estimates of phytoplankton primary productivity. These bio-optical approaches require a conversion factor to derive ecologically-relevant rates of CO2-assimilation from estimates of electron transport in photosystem II. The required conversion factor varies significantly across phytoplankton taxa and environmental conditions, but little information is available on its response to iron limitation. In this study, we examine the role of iron limitation, and the interacting effects of iron and light availability, on the coupling of photosynthetic electron transport and CO2-assimilation in marine phytoplankton. Our results show that excess irradiance causes increased decoupling of carbon fixation and electron transport, particularly under iron limiting conditions. We observed that reaction center II specific rates of electron transport (ETR(RCII, mol e- mol RCII(-1 s(-1 increased under iron limitation, and we propose a simple conceptual model for this observation. We also observed a strong correlation between the derived conversion factor and the expression of non-photochemical quenching. Utilizing a dataset from in situ phytoplankton assemblages across a coastal--oceanic transect in the Northeast subarctic Pacific, this relationship was used to predict ETR(RCII: CO2-assimilation conversion factors and carbon-based primary productivity from FRRF data, without the need for any additional measurements.

  9. Interacting Effects of Light and Iron Availability on the Coupling of Photosynthetic Electron Transport and CO2-Assimilation in Marine Phytoplankton

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuback, Nina; Schallenberg, Christina; Duckham, Carolyn; Maldonado, Maria T.; Tortell, Philippe D.

    2015-01-01

    Iron availability directly affects photosynthesis and limits phytoplankton growth over vast oceanic regions. For this reason, the availability of iron is a crucial variable to consider in the development of active chlorophyll a fluorescence based estimates of phytoplankton primary productivity. These bio-optical approaches require a conversion factor to derive ecologically-relevant rates of CO2-assimilation from estimates of electron transport in photosystem II. The required conversion factor varies significantly across phytoplankton taxa and environmental conditions, but little information is available on its response to iron limitation. In this study, we examine the role of iron limitation, and the interacting effects of iron and light availability, on the coupling of photosynthetic electron transport and CO2-assimilation in marine phytoplankton. Our results show that excess irradiance causes increased decoupling of carbon fixation and electron transport, particularly under iron limiting conditions. We observed that reaction center II specific rates of electron transport (ETRRCII, mol e- mol RCII-1 s-1) increased under iron limitation, and we propose a simple conceptual model for this observation. We also observed a strong correlation between the derived conversion factor and the expression of non-photochemical quenching. Utilizing a dataset from in situ phytoplankton assemblages across a coastal – oceanic transect in the Northeast subarctic Pacific, this relationship was used to predict ETRRCII: CO2-assimilation conversion factors and carbon-based primary productivity from FRRF data, without the need for any additional measurements. PMID:26171963

  10. Overexpression of plastidial thioredoxins f and m differentially alters photosynthetic activity and response to oxidative stress in tobacco plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pascal eREY

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Plants display a remarkable diversity of thioredoxins (Trxs, reductases controlling the thiol redox status of proteins. The physiological function of many of them remains elusive, particularly for plastidial Trxs f and m, which are presumed based on biochemical data to regulate photosynthetic reactions and carbon metabolism. Recent reports revealed that Trxs f and m participate in vivo in the control of starch metabolism and cyclic photosynthetic electron transfer around photosystem I, respectively. To further delineate their in planta function, we compared the photosynthetic characteristics, the level and/or activity of various Trx targets and the responses to oxidative stress in transplastomic tobacco plants overexpressing either Trx f or Trx m. We found that plants overexpressing Trx m specifically exhibit altered growth, reduced chlorophyll content, impaired photosynthetic linear electron transfer and decreased pools of glutathione and ascorbate. In both transplastomic lines, activities of two enzymes involved in carbon metabolism, NADP-malate dehydrogenase and NADP-glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase are markedly and similarly altered. In contrast, plants overexpressing Trx m specifically display increased capacity for methionine sulfoxide reductases, enzymes repairing damaged proteins by regenerating methionine from oxidized methionine. Finally, we also observed that transplastomic plants exhibit distinct responses when exposed to oxidative stress conditions generated by methyl viologen or exposure to high light combined with low temperature, the plants overexpressing Trx m being notably more tolerant than Wt and those overexpressing Trx f. Altogether, these data indicate that Trxs f and m fulfill distinct physiological functions. They prompt us to propose that the m type is involved in key processes linking photosynthetic activity, redox homeostasis and antioxidant mechanisms in the chloroplast.

  11. A photosynthetic-plasmonic-voltaic cell: Excitation of photosynthetic bacteria and current collection through a plasmonic substrate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Samsonoff, Nathan; Ooms, Matthew D.; Sinton, David [Department of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering, and Institute for Sustainable Energy, University of Toronto, Toronto M5S 3G8 (Canada)

    2014-01-27

    Excitation of photosynthetic biofilms using surface-confined evanescent light fields enables energy dense photobioreactors, while electrode-adhered biofilms can provide electricity directly. Here, we demonstrate concurrent light delivery and electron transport through a plasmonically excited metal film. Biofilms of cyanobacterium Synechococcus bacillaris on 50-nm gold films are excited via the Kretschmann configuration at λ = 670 nm. Cells show light/dark response to plasmonic excitation and grow denser biofilms, closer to the electrode surface, as compared to the direct irradiated case. Directly irradiated biofilms produced average electrical powers of 5.7 μW/m{sup 2} and plasmonically excited biofilms produced average electrical powers of 5.8 μW/m{sup 2}, with individual biofilms producing as much as 12 μW/m{sup 2}.

  12. Ab initio electronic structure calculations for Mn linear chains deposited on CuN/Cu(001) surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barral, Maria Andrea; Weht, Ruben; Lozano, Gustavo; Maria Llois, Ana

    2007-01-01

    In a recent experiment, scanning tunneling microscopy has been used to obtain a direct probe of the magnetic interaction in linear manganese chains arranged by atomic manipulation on thin insulating copper nitride islands grown on Cu(001). The local spin excitation spectra of these chains have been measured with inelastic electron tunneling spectroscopy. Analyzing the spectroscopic results with a Heisenberg Hamiltonian the interatomic coupling strength within the chains has been obtained. It has been found that the coupling strength depends on the deposition sites of the Mn atoms on the islands. In this contribution, we perform ab initio calculations for different arrangements of infinite Mn chains on CuN in order to understand the influence of the environment on the value of the magnetic interactions

  13. Morning reduction of photosynthetic capacity before midday depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koyama, Kohei; Takemoto, Shuhei

    2014-03-17

    Midday depression of photosynthesis has important consequences for ecosystem carbon exchange. Recent studies of forest trees have demonstrated that latent reduction of photosynthetic capacity can begin in the early morning, preceding the midday depression. We investigated whether such early morning reduction also occurs in an herbaceous species, Oenothera biennis. Diurnal changes of the photosynthetic light response curve (measured using a light-emitting diode) and incident sunlight intensity were measured under field conditions. The following results were obtained: (1) the light-saturated photosynthetic rate decreased beginning at sunrise; (2) the incident sunlight intensity on the leaves increased from sunrise; and (3) combining (1) and (2), the net photosynthetic rate under natural sunlight intensity increased from sunrise, reached a maximum at mid-morning, and then showed midday depression. Our results demonstrate that the latent morning reduction of photosynthetic capacity begins at sunrise, preceding the apparent midday depression, in agreement with previous studies of forest trees.

  14. Dissolved natural organic matter (NOM) impacts photosynthetic oxygen production and electron transport in coontail Ceratophyllum demersum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pflugmacher, S.; Pietsch, C.; Rieger, W.; Steinberg, C.E.W.

    2006-01-01

    Dissolved natural organic matter (NOM) is dead organic matter exceeding, in freshwater systems, the concentration of organic carbon in all living organisms by far. 80-90% (w/w) of the NOM is made up of humic substances (HS). Although NOM possesses several functional groups, a potential effect on aquatic organisms has not been studied. In this study, direct effects of NOM from various origins on physiological and biochemical functions in the aquatic plant Ceratophyllum demersum are presented. Environmentally relevant concentrations of NOM cause inhibitory effects on the photosynthetic oxygen production of C. demersum. Various NOM sources and the synthetic humic substance HS1500 inhibit the photosynthetic oxygen production of the plant as observed with 1-amino-anthraquinone, a known inhibitor of plant photosynthesis. 1-Aminoanthraquinone may serve as an analogue for the quinoid structures in NOM and HS. Most likely, the effects of NOM may be related to quinoid structures and work downstream of photosynthesis at photosystem (PS) II

  15. Biological optimization systems for enhancing photosynthetic efficiency and methods of use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, Ryan W.; Chinnasamy, Senthil; Das, Keshav C.; de Mattos, Erico Rolim

    2012-11-06

    Biological optimization systems for enhancing photosynthetic efficiency and methods of use. Specifically, methods for enhancing photosynthetic efficiency including applying pulsed light to a photosynthetic organism, using a chlorophyll fluorescence feedback control system to determine one or more photosynthetic efficiency parameters, and adjusting one or more of the photosynthetic efficiency parameters to drive the photosynthesis by the delivery of an amount of light to optimize light absorption of the photosynthetic organism while providing enough dark time between light pulses to prevent oversaturation of the chlorophyll reaction centers are disclosed.

  16. The Agr quorum-sensing system regulates fibronectin binding but not hemolysis in the absence of a functional electron transport chain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pader, Vera; James, Ellen H; Painter, Kimberley L; Wigneshweraraj, Sivaramesh; Edwards, Andrew M

    2014-10-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is responsible for numerous chronic and recurrent infections, which are frequently associated with the emergence of small-colony variants (SCVs) that lack a functional electron transport chain. SCVs exhibit enhanced expression of fibronectin-binding protein (FnBP) and greatly reduced hemolysin production, although the basis for this is unclear. One hypothesis is that these phenotypes are a consequence of the reduced Agr activity of SCVs, while an alternative is that the lack of a functional electron transport chain and the resulting reduction in ATP production are responsible. Disruption of the electron transport chain of S. aureus genetically (hemB and menD) or chemically, using 2-n-heptyl-4-hydroxyquinoline N-oxide (HQNO), inhibited both growth and Agr activity and conferred an SCV phenotype. Supplementation of the culture medium with synthetic autoinducing peptide (sAIP) significantly increased Agr expression in both hemB mutant strains and S. aureus grown with HQNO and significantly reduced staphylococcal adhesion to fibronectin. However, sAIP did not promote hemolysin expression in hemB mutant strains or S. aureus grown with HQNO. Therefore, while Agr regulates fibronectin binding in SCVs, it cannot promote hemolysin production in the absence of a functional electron transport chain. Copyright © 2014, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  17. Research on spatial distribution of photosynthetic characteristics of Winter Wheat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Q. Q.; Zhou, Q. Y.; Zhang, B. Z.; Han, X.; Han, N. N.; Li, S. M.

    2018-03-01

    In order to explore the spatial distribution of photosynthetic characteristics of winter wheat leaf, the photosynthetic rate on different parts of leaf (leaf base-leaf middle-leaf apex) and that on each canopy (top layer-middle layer-bottom layer) leaf during the whole growth period of winter wheat were measured. The variation of photosynthetic rate with PAR and the spatial distribution of winter wheat leaf during the whole growth periods were analysed. The results showed that the photosynthetic rate of different parts of winter wheat increased with the increase of PAR, which was showed as leaf base>leaf middle>leaf apex. In the same growth period, photosynthetic rate in different parts of the tablet was showed as leaf middle>leaf base>leaf apex. For the different canopy layer of winter wheat, the photosynthetic rate of the top layer leaf was significantly greater than that of the middle layer and lower layer leaf. The photosynthetic rate of the top layer leaf was the largest in the leaf base position. The photosynthetic rate of leaf of the same canopy layer at different growth stages were showed as tasseling stage >grain filling stage > maturation stage.

  18. Targeting the Mitochondrial Electron Transport Chain Complexes for the Induction of Apoptosis and Cancer Treatment

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Rohlena, Jakub; Dong, L. F.; Neužil, Jiří

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 14, č. 3 (2013), s. 377-389 ISSN 1389-2010 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50520701 Keywords : Cancer * mitochondria * electron transport chain Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 2.511, year: 2013

  19. Hydrogen production by Chlamydomonas reinhardtii: an elaborate interplay of electron sources and sinks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hemschemeier, A; Happe, T.; Fouchard, S; Cournac, L; Peltier, G.

    2008-01-01

    The unicellular green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii possesses a [FeFe]-hydrogenase HydA1 (EC 1.12.7.2), which is coupled to the photosynthetic electron transport chain. Large amounts of H 2 are produced in a light-dependent reaction for several days when C. reinhardtii cells are deprived of sulfur. Under these conditions, the cells drastically change their physiology from aerobic photosynthetic growth to an anaerobic resting state. The understanding of the underlying physiological processes is not only important for getting further insights into the adaptability of photosynthesis, but will help to optimize the biotechnological application of algae as H 2 producers. Two of the still most disputed questions regarding H 2 generation by C. reinhardtii concern the electron source for H 2 evolution and the competition of the hydrogenase with alternative electron sinks. We analyzed the H 2 metabolism of S-depleted C. reinhardtii cultures utilizing a special mass spectrometer setup and investigated the influence of photosystem II (PSII)- or ribulose-bisphosphate-carboxylase/oxygenase (Rubisco)-deficiency. We show that electrons for H 2 -production are provided both by PSII activity and by a non-photochemical plastoquinone reduction pathway, which is dependent on previous PSII activity. In a Rubisco-deficient strain, which produces H 2 also in the presence of sulfur, H 2 generation seems to be the only significant electron sink for PSII activity and rescues this strain at least partially from a light-sensitive phenotype.The latter indicates that the down-regulation of assimilatory pathways in S-deprived C. reinhardtii cells is one of the important prerequisites for a sustained H 2 evolution. (authors)

  20. Visualizing changes in electron distribution in coupled chains of cytochrome bc(1) by modifying barrier for electron transfer between the FeS cluster and heme c(1).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cieluch, Ewelina; Pietryga, Krzysztof; Sarewicz, Marcin; Osyczka, Artur

    2010-02-01

    Cytochrome c(1) of Rhodobacter (Rba.) species provides a series of mutants which change barriers for electron transfer through the cofactor chains of cytochrome bc(1) by modifying heme c(1) redox midpoint potential. Analysis of post-flash electron distribution in such systems can provide useful information about the contribution of individual reactions to the overall electron flow. In Rba. capsulatus, the non-functional low-potential forms of cytochrome c(1) which are devoid of the disulfide bond naturally present in this protein revert spontaneously by introducing a second-site suppression (mutation A181T) that brings the potential of heme c(1) back to the functionally high levels, yet maintains it some 100 mV lower from the native value. Here we report that the disulfide and the mutation A181T can coexist in one protein but the mutation exerts a dominant effect on the redox properties of heme c(1) and the potential remains at the same lower value as in the disulfide-free form. This establishes effective means to modify a barrier for electron transfer between the FeS cluster and heme c(1) without breaking disulfide. A comparison of the flash-induced electron transfers in native and mutated cytochrome bc(1) revealed significant differences in the post-flash equilibrium distribution of electrons only when the connection of the chains with the quinone pool was interrupted at the level of either of the catalytic sites by the use of specific inhibitors, antimycin or myxothiazol. In the non-inhibited system no such differences were observed. We explain the results using a kinetic model in which a shift in the equilibrium of one reaction influences the equilibrium of all remaining reactions in the cofactor chains. It follows a rather simple description in which the direction of electron flow through the coupled chains of cytochrome bc(1) exclusively depends on the rates of all reversible partial reactions, including the Q/QH2 exchange rate to/from the catalytic sites

  1. Biotechnological Approaches to Enhance Halotolerance and Photosynthetic Efficacy in the Cyanobacterium, Fremyella diplosiphon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabatabai, Ben

    Growing concerns over dwindling energy supplies linked to nonrenewable fossil fuels have driven profound interest in biofuels as a clean and sustainable alternative. Cyanobacteria are a promising source of third-generation biofuel due to their fast generation time and high net biomass conversion. In this study, the effect of salinity stress on Fremyella diplosiphon, a model organism for studying photosynthetic pathways, was investigated and nanobiotechnological approaches undertaken to enhance its halotolerance and photosynthetic efficacy. Heat-induced mutagenesis resulted in a mutant strain that could survive in 20 g L-1 sodium chloride (NaCl) with no loss in pigmentation. To further enhance F. diplosiphon halotolerance, expression plasmids harboring the hlyB and mdh genes were overexpressed in the wild type resulting in two transformants that thrived in 35 g L-1 NaCl, the average salinity of sea water. In addition, no significant reduction in photosynthetic efficacy was detected in the halotolerant strains relative to the wild type. Total lipid content and fatty acid methyl ester composition of wild type and halotolerant strains were assessed for their potential as a production-scale biofuel agent. Methyl palmitate, the methyl ester of hexodeconoate (C16:0), was found to be most abundant in the wild type and transformants accounting for 60-70% of total FAMEs produced. Efforts to enhance the photosynthetic efficiency of the strains revealed that gold nanoparticle-derived surface plasmon resonance augmented culture growth and pigment accumulation. Cell-nanoparticles interactions were visualized using scanning and transmission electron microscopy. Our findings address two key challenges that cyanobacterial biofuel agents need to overcome: enhanced halotolerance and photosynthetic efficacy to minimize freshwater input and artificial light supply. These innovations have paved the way for an efficient cyanobacterial cultivation system for large-scale production of

  2. The Response of Photosynthetic Functions of F1 Cutting Seedlings From Physocarpus amurensis Maxim (♀ × Physocarpus opulifolius “Diabolo” (♂ and the Parental Seedlings to Salt Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu Nan

    2018-06-01

    high salt concentrations the degree of photoinhibition in P. amurensis and hybrid P. amurensis were reduced due to a relatively high NPQ. With the increase of salt concentration, the Vk of P. amurensis and hybrid P. amurensis leaves presented a decreasing trend. However, the Vk of P. opulifolius “Diabolo” leaves increased slightly. This suggested that the effects of salt stress on the oxygen-evolving complex (OEC of the three P. amurensis sample types were relatively limited and only the OEC of P.s opulifolius “Diabolo” leaves were slightly sensitive to salt stress. The VJ of all leaves from the three P. amurensis types increased under salt stress, and the VJ increased significantly when the salt concentration increased to 200 mmol⋅L-1, indicating that salt stress obviously impeded the electron transfer chain from QA to QB on the PSII receptor side. Moreover, high salt concentrations caused thylakoid membrane dissociation. The electron transfer and degree of damage to the thylakoid membrane of P. opulifolius “Diabolo” leaves were obviously higher than that of P. amurensis. However, the electron transfer capacity on the PSII receptor side as well as the degree of damage of the thylakoid membrane of hybrid P. amurensis leaves was obviously lower than those of P. opulifolius “Diabolo.” The salt tolerance of photosynthetic functions of hybrid P. amurensis (♀ × P. opulifolius “Diabolo” (♂ leaves was improved compared with that of parental P. opulifolius “Diabolo,” and the hybrid shows obvious hybrid vigor for photosynthesis.

  3. Redox Homeostasis in Plants under Abiotic Stress: Role of electron carriers, energy metabolism mediators and proteinaceous thiols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dhriti Kapoor

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Contemporaneous presence of both oxidized and reduced forms of electron carriers is mandatory in efficient flux by plant electron transport cascades. This requirement is considered as redox poising that involves the movement of electron from multiple sites in respiratory and photosynthetic electron transport chains to molecular oxygen. This flux triggers the formation of superoxide, consequently give rise to other reactive oxygen species (ROS under adverse environmental conditions like drought, high or low temperature, heavy metal stress etc. that plants owing during their life span. Plant cells synthesize ascorbate, an additional hydrophilic redox buffer, which protect the plants against oxidative challenge. Large pools of antioxidants also preside over the redox homeostasis. Besides, tocopherol is a liposoluble redox buffer, which efficiently scavenges the ROS like singlet oxygen. In addition, proteinaceous thiol members such as thioredoxin, peroxiredoxin and glutaredoxin, electron carriers and energy metabolism mediators phosphorylated (NADP and non-phosphorylated (NAD+ coenzyme forms interact with ROS, metabolize and maintain redox homeostasis.

  4. Photosynthetic performance of restored and natural mangroves under different environmental constraints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rovai, André Scarlate; Barufi, José Bonomi; Pagliosa, Paulo Roberto; Scherner, Fernando; Torres, Moacir Aluísio; Horta, Paulo Antunes

    2013-01-01

    We hypothesized that the photosynthetic performance of mangrove stands restored by the single planting of mangroves species would be lowered due to residual stressors. The photosynthetic parameters of the vegetation of three planted mangrove stands, each with a different disturbance history, were compared to reference sites and correlated with edaphic environmental variables. A permutational analysis of variance showed significant interaction when the factors were compared, indicating that the photosynthetic parameters of the restoration areas differed from the reference sites. A univariate analysis of variance showed that all the photosynthetic parameters differed between sites and treatments, except for photosynthetic efficiency (α ETR ). The combination of environmental variables that best explained the variations observed in the photosynthetic performance indicators were Cu, Pb and elevation disruptions. Fluorescence techniques proved efficient in revealing important physiological differences, representing a powerful tool for rapid analysis of the effectiveness of initiatives aimed at restoring coastal environments. -- Highlights: •Photosynthetic efficiency of natural and restored mangroves are compared. •Natural stands present higher photosynthetic performance. •Photosynthetic performance of mangroves is reduced due to Cu and Pb contamination. •Chlorophyll a fluorescence is a useful indicator to assess short-term restoration. -- Photosynthetic performance of mangroves is reduced due to Cu and Pb contamination

  5. Photosynthetic performance of restored and natural mangroves under different environmental constraints

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rovai, André Scarlate, E-mail: rovaias@hotmail.com [Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, Departamento de Ecologia e Zoologia, Campus Universitário, Trindade, 88040-900 Florianópolis, SC (Brazil); Barufi, José Bonomi, E-mail: jose.bonomi@gmail.com [Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, Departamento de Botânica, Campus Universitário, Trindade, 88040-900 Florianópolis, SC (Brazil); Pagliosa, Paulo Roberto, E-mail: paulo.pagliosa@ufsc.br [Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, Departamento de Geociências, Campus Universitário, Trindade, 88040-900 Florianópolis, SC (Brazil); Scherner, Fernando [Universidade Federal Rural de Pernambuco, Laboratório de Ficologia, Campus Universitário, Dois Irmãos, 52171-900 Recife, PE (Brazil); Torres, Moacir Aluísio, E-mail: moatorres@cav.udesc.br [Universidade do Estado de Santa Catarina, Departamento de Engenharia Ambiental, Centro de Ciências Agroveterinárias, Av Luiz de Camões 2090, Conta Dinheiro, 88520-000 Lages, SC (Brazil); Horta, Paulo Antunes, E-mail: pahorta@ccb.ufsc.br [Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, Departamento de Botânica, Campus Universitário, Trindade, 88040-900 Florianópolis, SC (Brazil); others, and

    2013-10-15

    We hypothesized that the photosynthetic performance of mangrove stands restored by the single planting of mangroves species would be lowered due to residual stressors. The photosynthetic parameters of the vegetation of three planted mangrove stands, each with a different disturbance history, were compared to reference sites and correlated with edaphic environmental variables. A permutational analysis of variance showed significant interaction when the factors were compared, indicating that the photosynthetic parameters of the restoration areas differed from the reference sites. A univariate analysis of variance showed that all the photosynthetic parameters differed between sites and treatments, except for photosynthetic efficiency (α{sub ETR}). The combination of environmental variables that best explained the variations observed in the photosynthetic performance indicators were Cu, Pb and elevation disruptions. Fluorescence techniques proved efficient in revealing important physiological differences, representing a powerful tool for rapid analysis of the effectiveness of initiatives aimed at restoring coastal environments. -- Highlights: •Photosynthetic efficiency of natural and restored mangroves are compared. •Natural stands present higher photosynthetic performance. •Photosynthetic performance of mangroves is reduced due to Cu and Pb contamination. •Chlorophyll a fluorescence is a useful indicator to assess short-term restoration. -- Photosynthetic performance of mangroves is reduced due to Cu and Pb contamination.

  6. Dynamic reorganization of photosynthetic supercomplexes during environmental acclimation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun eMinagawa

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Plants and algae have acquired the ability to acclimate to ever-changing environments in order to survive. During photosynthesis, light energy is converted by several membrane protein supercomplexes into electrochemical energy, which is eventually used to assimilate CO2. The efficiency of photosynthesis is modulated by many environmental factors such as quality and quantity of light, temperature, drought, and CO2 concentration, among others. Accumulating evidence indicates that photosynthetic supercomplexes undergo supramolecular reorganization within a short timeframe during acclimation to an environmental change. This reorganization includes state transitions that balance the excitation of photosystem I and II by shuttling peripheral antenna proteins between the two, thermal energy dissipation that occurs at energy-quenching sites within the light-harvesting antenna generated for negative feedback when excess light is absorbed, and cyclic electron flow that is facilitated between photosystem I and the cytochrome bf complex when cells demand more ATP and/or need to activate energy dissipation. This review will highlight the recent findings regarding these environmental acclimation events in model organisms with particular attention to the unicellular green alga C. reinhardtii and with reference to the vascular plant A. thaliana, which offers a glimpse into the dynamic behavior of photosynthetic machineries in nature.

  7. Synthesis, magnetic properties and electronic structure of the S  =  ½ uniform spin chain system InCuPO5

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koteswararao, B.; Hazra, Binoy K.; Rout, Dibyata; Srinivasarao, P. V.; Srinath, S.; Panda, S. K.

    2017-07-01

    We have studied the structural and magnetic properties and electronic structure of the compound InCuPO5 synthesized by a solid state reaction method. The structure of InCuPO5 comprises S  =  ½ uniform spin chains formed by corner-shared CuO4 units. Magnetic susceptibility (χ(T)) data show a broad maximum at about 65 K, a characteristic feature of one-dimensional (1D) magnetism. The χ(T) data are fitted to the coupled S  =  ½ Heisenberg antiferromagnetic (HAFM) uniform chain model that gives the intra-chain coupling (J/k B) between nearest-neighbor Cu2+ ions as  -100 K and the ratio of inter-chain to intra-chain coupling (J‧/J) as about 0.07. The exchange couplings estimated from the magnetic data analysis are in good agreement with the values computed from the electronic structure calculations based on the density functional theory  +  Hubbard U (DFT  +  U) approach. The combination of theoretical and experimental analysis confirms that InCuPO5 is a candidate material for weakly coupled S  = ½ uniform chains. A detailed theoretical analysis of the electronic structure further reveals that the system is insulating with a gap of 2.4 eV and a local moment of 0.70 µ B/Cu.

  8. Evolving a photosynthetic organelle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nakayama Takuro

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The evolution of plastids from cyanobacteria is believed to represent a singularity in the history of life. The enigmatic amoeba Paulinella and its 'recently' acquired photosynthetic inclusions provide a fascinating system through which to gain fresh insight into how endosymbionts become organelles. The plastids, or chloroplasts, of algae and plants evolved from cyanobacteria by endosymbiosis. This landmark event conferred on eukaryotes the benefits of photosynthesis - the conversion of solar energy into chemical energy - and in so doing had a huge impact on the course of evolution and the climate of Earth 1. From the present state of plastids, however, it is difficult to trace the evolutionary steps involved in this momentous development, because all modern-day plastids have fully integrated into their hosts. Paulinella chromatophora is a unicellular eukaryote that bears photosynthetic entities called chromatophores that are derived from cyanobacteria and has thus received much attention as a possible example of an organism in the early stages of organellogenesis. Recent studies have unlocked the genomic secrets of its chromatophore 23 and provided concrete evidence that the Paulinella chromatophore is a bona fide photosynthetic organelle 4. The question is how Paulinella can help us to understand the process by which an endosymbiont is converted into an organelle.

  9. Evolving a photosynthetic organelle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakayama, Takuro; Archibald, John M

    2012-04-24

    The evolution of plastids from cyanobacteria is believed to represent a singularity in the history of life. The enigmatic amoeba Paulinella and its 'recently' acquired photosynthetic inclusions provide a fascinating system through which to gain fresh insight into how endosymbionts become organelles.The plastids, or chloroplasts, of algae and plants evolved from cyanobacteria by endosymbiosis. This landmark event conferred on eukaryotes the benefits of photosynthesis--the conversion of solar energy into chemical energy--and in so doing had a huge impact on the course of evolution and the climate of Earth 1. From the present state of plastids, however, it is difficult to trace the evolutionary steps involved in this momentous development, because all modern-day plastids have fully integrated into their hosts. Paulinella chromatophora is a unicellular eukaryote that bears photosynthetic entities called chromatophores that are derived from cyanobacteria and has thus received much attention as a possible example of an organism in the early stages of organellogenesis. Recent studies have unlocked the genomic secrets of its chromatophore 23 and provided concrete evidence that the Paulinella chromatophore is a bona fide photosynthetic organelle 4. The question is how Paulinella can help us to understand the process by which an endosymbiont is converted into an organelle.

  10. Chain Assembly and Disassembly Processes Differently Affect the Conformational Space of Ubiquitin Chains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kniss, Andreas; Schuetz, Denise; Kazemi, Sina; Pluska, Lukas; Spindler, Philipp E; Rogov, Vladimir V; Husnjak, Koraljka; Dikic, Ivan; Güntert, Peter; Sommer, Thomas; Prisner, Thomas F; Dötsch, Volker

    2018-02-06

    Ubiquitination is the most versatile posttranslational modification. The information is encoded by linkage type as well as chain length, which are translated by ubiquitin binding domains into specific signaling events. Chain topology determines the conformational space of a ubiquitin chain and adds an additional regulatory layer to this ubiquitin code. In particular, processes that modify chain length will be affected by chain conformations as they require access to the elongation or cleavage sites. We investigated conformational distributions in the context of chain elongation and disassembly using pulsed electron-electron double resonance spectroscopy in combination with molecular modeling. Analysis of the conformational space of diubiquitin revealed conformational selection or remodeling as mechanisms for chain recognition during elongation or hydrolysis, respectively. Chain elongation to tetraubiquitin increases the sampled conformational space, suggesting that a high intrinsic flexibility of K48-linked chains may contribute to efficient proteasomal degradation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Diversity and abundance of photosynthetic sponges in temperate Western Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brümmer Franz

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Photosynthetic sponges are important components of reef ecosystems around the world, but are poorly understood. It is often assumed that temperate regions have low diversity and abundance of photosynthetic sponges, but to date no studies have investigated this question. The aim of this study was to compare the percentages of photosynthetic sponges in temperate Western Australia (WA with previously published data on tropical regions, and to determine the abundance and diversity of these associations in a range of temperate environments. Results We sampled sponges on 5 m belt transects to determine the percentage of photosynthetic sponges and identified at least one representative of each group of symbionts using 16S rDNA sequencing together with microscopy techniques. Our results demonstrate that photosynthetic sponges are abundant in temperate WA, with an average of 63% of sponge individuals hosting high levels of photosynthetic symbionts and 11% with low to medium levels. These percentages of photosynthetic sponges are comparable to those found on tropical reefs and may have important implications for ecosystem function on temperate reefs in other areas of the world. A diverse range of symbionts sometimes occurred within a small geographic area, including the three "big" cyanobacterial clades, Oscillatoria spongeliae, "Candidatus Synechococcus spongiarum" and Synechocystis species, and it appears that these clades all occur in a wide range of sponges. Additionally, spongin-permeating red algae occurred in at least 7 sponge species. This study provides the first investigation of the molecular phylogeny of rhodophyte symbionts in sponges. Conclusion Photosynthetic sponges are abundant and diverse in temperate WA, with comparable percentages of photosynthetic to non-photosynthetic sponges to tropical zones. It appears that there are three common generalist clades of cyanobacterial symbionts of sponges which occur in a wide

  12. Conformational regulation of charge recombination reactions in a photosynthetic bacterial reaction center

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Katona, Gergely; Snijder, Arjan; Gourdon, Pontus Emanuel

    2005-01-01

    In bright light the photosynthetic reaction center (RC) of Rhodobacter sphaeroides stabilizes the P(+)(870).Q(-)(A) charge-separated state and thereby minimizes the potentially harmful effects of light saturation. Using X-ray diffraction we report a conformational change that occurs within the cy...... the cytoplasmic domain of this RC in response to prolonged illumination with bright light. Our observations suggest a novel structural mechanism for the regulation of electron transfer reactions in photosynthesis....

  13. Reductive evolution of chloroplasts in non-photosynthetic plants, algae and protists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadariová, Lucia; Vesteg, Matej; Hampl, Vladimír; Krajčovič, Juraj

    2018-04-01

    Chloroplasts are generally known as eukaryotic organelles whose main function is photosynthesis. They perform other functions, however, such as synthesizing isoprenoids, fatty acids, heme, iron sulphur clusters and other essential compounds. In non-photosynthetic lineages that possess plastids, the chloroplast genomes have been reduced and most (or all) photosynthetic genes have been lost. Consequently, non-photosynthetic plastids have also been reduced structurally. Some of these non-photosynthetic or "cryptic" plastids were overlooked or unrecognized for decades. The number of complete plastid genome sequences and/or transcriptomes from non-photosynthetic taxa possessing plastids is rapidly increasing, thus allowing prediction of the functions of non-photosynthetic plastids in various eukaryotic lineages. In some non-photosynthetic eukaryotes with photosynthetic ancestors, no traces of plastid genomes or of plastids have been found, suggesting that they have lost the genomes or plastids completely. This review summarizes current knowledge of non-photosynthetic plastids, their genomes, structures and potential functions in free-living and parasitic plants, algae and protists. We introduce a model for the order of plastid gene losses which combines models proposed earlier for land plants with the patterns of gene retention and loss observed in protists. The rare cases of plastid genome loss and complete plastid loss are also discussed.

  14. Recent development in artificial photosynthetic model; Jinko kogosei no moderu ka kenkyu saikin no shinpo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaneko, M [Ibaraki Univ., Ibaraki (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1996-03-01

    In the conversion from solar energy into chemical energy (fuels) by photochemical conversion, an electron donor is necessary since all the fuels are reductive compounds. From the viewpoint of economic profit, water is the only one candidate as a cheap compound and existing impartially. In this paper, photosynthesis as well as the realization of its artificial model, and the relevant basic research executed recently aiming at the construction of an artificial photosynthetic system are explained. The main reaction of photosynthesis is the generation of carbohydrates by the reduction reaction of carbon dioxide with water as an electron donor and solar visual light as an energy resource. As a special example thereof, the UV photolysis of water due to the photocatalysis of a micro-particle system is introduced. The method of using a semiconductor and the method of using sensitizes are described as the photo excitation system when designing the artificial model. Additionally, as the research with respect to the construction of an artificial photosynthetic system, a photo-exciting charge transfer system is introduced. 27 refs., 1 fig.

  15. Photosynthetic carbon metabolism in freshwater phytoplankton

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Groeger, A.W.

    1986-01-01

    Photosynthetic carbon metabolism of natural assemblages of freshwater phytoplankton was measured by following the flow of inorganic 14 C into the photosynthetic end products polysaccharide protein, lipid, and soluble metabolites. Data were collected from a wide range of physical, chemical, and trophic conditions in six southern United States reservoirs, with the primary environmental variables of interest being light intensity and nutrient supply. Polysaccharide and protein were consistently the primary products of photosynthetic carbon metabolism, comprising an average of 70% of the total carbon fixation over a wide range of light intensities. Polysaccharide was quantitatively more important at higher light intensities, and protein at lower light intensities, as light intensity varied both with depth within the water column and over diurnal cycles. Polysaccharide synthesis was more variable over the diurnal period than was protein synthesis. Phytoplankton in the downlake epilimnion of Normandy Lake, a central Tennessee reservoir, responded to summer nitrogen (N) deficiency by increasing relative rates of lipid synthesis from 10-15% to 20-25% of the total photosynthetic carbon fixation. Phytoplankton in more nitrogen-sufficient areas of the reservoir maintained lower rates of lipid synthesis throughout the summer. These results document the occurrence in nature of a relationship between N-deficiency and increased lipid synthesis previously observed only in laboratory algal culture studies

  16. Long-distance photoinitiated electron transfer through polyene molecular wires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wasielewski, M.R.; Johnson, D.G.; Svec, W.A.; Kersey, K.M.; Cragg, D.E.; Minsek, D.W.

    1989-01-01

    Long-chain polyenes can be used as molecular wires to facilitate electron transfer between a photo-excited donor and an acceptor in an artificial photosynthetic system. The authors present data here on two Zn-porphyrin-polyene-anthraquinone molecules possessing either 5 or 9 all trans double bonds between the donor and acceptor, 1 and 2. The center-to-center distances between the porphyrin and the quinone in these relatively rigid molecules are 25 angstrom for 1 and 35 angstrom for 2. Selective picosecond laser excitation of the Zn-porphyrin and 1 and 2 results in the very rapid transfer of an electron to the anthraquinone in <2 ps and 10 ps, respectively. The resultant radical ion pairs recombine with τ = 10 ps for 1 and τ = 25 ps for 2. The electron transfer rates remain remarkably rapid over these long distances. The involvement of polyene radical cations in the mechanism of the radical ion pair recombination reaction is clear from the transient absorption spectra of 1 and 2, which show strong absorbances in the near-infrared. The strong electronic coupling between the Zn-porphyrin n the anthraquinone provided by low-lying states of the polyene make it possible to transfer an electron rapidly over very long distances

  17. Purchasing Consortia and Electronic Markets: a Procurement Direction in Integrated Supply Chain Management

    OpenAIRE

    Huber, Bernd; Sweeney, Edward; Smyth, Austin

    2004-01-01

    In supply chain management literature, there has been little empirical research investigation on purchasing consortium issues focusing on a detailed analysis of information and communication (ICT) based procurement strategies. Based on the exploration of academic literature and two surveys among purchasing organisations as well as e-Marketplaces / procurement service providers (PSPs) in the automotive and electronics industry sectors, the research methodology follows a positivistic approach i...

  18. Model-based confirmation of alternative substrates of mitochondrial electron transport chain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleessen, Sabrina; Araújo, Wagner L; Fernie, Alisdair R; Nikoloski, Zoran

    2012-03-30

    Discrimination of metabolic models based on high throughput metabolomics data, reflecting various internal and external perturbations, is essential for identifying the components that contribute to the emerging behavior of metabolic processes. Here, we investigate 12 different models of the mitochondrial electron transport chain (ETC) in Arabidopsis thaliana during dark-induced senescence in order to elucidate the alternative substrates to this metabolic pathway. Our findings demonstrate that the coupling of the proposed computational approach, based on dynamic flux balance analysis, with time-resolved metabolomics data results in model-based confirmations of the hypotheses that, during dark-induced senescence in Arabidopsis, (i) under conditions where the main substrate for the ETC are not fully available, isovaleryl-CoA dehydrogenase and 2-hydroxyglutarate dehydrogenase are able to donate electrons to the ETC, (ii) phytanoyl-CoA does not act even as an indirect substrate of the electron transfer flavoprotein/electron-transfer flavoprotein:ubiquinone oxidoreductase complex, and (iii) the mitochondrial γ-aminobutyric acid transporter has functional significance in maintaining mitochondrial metabolism. Our study provides a basic framework for future in silico studies of alternative pathways in mitochondrial metabolism under extended darkness whereby the role of its components can be computationally discriminated based on available molecular profile data.

  19. Effects of salinity and short-term elevated atmospheric CO2 on the chemical equilibrium between CO2 fixation and photosynthetic electron transport of Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussin, Sayed; Geissler, Nicole; El-Far, Mervat M M; Koyro, Hans-Werner

    2017-09-01

    The effect of water salinity on plant growth and photosynthetic traits of Stevia rebaudiana was investigated to determine its level and mechanisms of salinity tolerance. It was also attempted to assess how short-term elevated CO 2 concentration would influence the boundaries and mechanisms of its photosynthetic capacity. The plants were grown in gravel/hydroponic system under controlled greenhouse conditions and irrigated with four different salinity levels (0, 25, 50 and 100 mol m -3 NaCl). Low salinity did not significantly alter the plant fresh weight, which was substantially decreased by 67% at high salinity treatment. Salinity tolerance threshold was reached at 50 mol m -3  NaCl while C50 was between 50 and 100 mol m -3  NaCl, indicating that S. rebaudiana is a moderate salt tolerant species. Salt-induced growth reduction was apparently linked to a significant decline of about 47% in the photosynthetic rates (A net ) at high salinity treatment, leading consequently to a disequilibrium between CO 2 -assimilation and electron transport rates (indicated by enhanced ETR max /A gross ratio). Elevated atmospheric CO 2 enhanced CO 2 assimilation rates by 65% and 80% for control and high-salt-stressed plants respectively, likely due to significant increases in intercellular CO 2 concentration (indicated by enhanced C i /C a ). The priority for Stevia under elevated atmospheric CO 2 was not to save water but to maximize photosynthesis so that the PWUE was progressively improved and the threat of oxidative stress was diminished (decline in ETR max /A gross ). The results imply that elevated CO 2 level could ameliorate some of the detrimental effects of salinity, conferring higher tolerance and survival of S. rebaudiana, a highlydesired feature with the forthcoming era of global changes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  20. Production of bioplastics and hydrogen gas by photosynthetic microorganisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasuo, Asada; Masato, Miyake; Jun, Miyake

    1998-03-01

    Our efforts have been aimed at the technological basis of photosynthetic-microbial production of materials and an energy carrier. We report here accumulation of poly-(3-hydroxybutyrate) (PHB), a raw material of biodegradable plastics and for production of hydrogen gas, and a renewable energy carrier by photosynthetic microorganisms (tentatively defined as cyanobacteria plus photosynthetic bateria, in this report). A thermophilic cyanobacterium, Synechococcus sp. MA19 that accumulates PHB at more than 20% of cell dry wt under nitrogen-starved conditions was isolated and microbiologically identified. The mechanism of PHB accumulation was studied. A mesophilic Synechococcus PCC7942 was transformed with the genes encoding PHB-synthesizing enzymes from Alcaligenes eutrophus. The transformant accumulated PHB under nitrogen-starved conditions. The optimal conditions for PHB accumulation by a photosynthetic bacterium grown on acetate were studied. Hydrogen production by photosynthetic microorganisms was studied. Cyanobacteria can produce hydrogen gas by nitrogenase or hydrogenase. Hydrogen production mediated by native hydrogenase in cyanobacteria was revealed to be in the dark anaerobic degradation of intracellular glycogen. A new system for light-dependent hydrogen production was targeted. In vitro and in vivo coupling of cyanobacterial ferredoxin with a heterologous hydrogenase was shown to produce hydrogen under light conditions. A trial for genetic trasformation of Synechococcus PCC7942 with the hydrogenase gene from Clostridium pasteurianum is going on. The strong hydrogen producers among photosynthetic bacteria were isolated and characterized. Co-culture of Rhodobacter and Clostriumdium was applied to produce hydrogen from glucose. Conversely in the case of cyanobacteria, genetic regulation of photosynthetic proteins was intended to improve conversion efficiency in hydrogen production by the photosynthetic bacterium, Rhodobacter sphaeroides RV. A mutant acquired by

  1. The importance of the on-site electron-electron interaction for the magnetic coupling in the zigzag spin-chain compound In2VO5

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Hao

    2010-09-27

    We present first-principles electronic structure calculations for the zigzag spin-chain compound In2VO5 using the generalized gradient approximation both with and without inclusion of an on-site Coulomb interaction. It has been proposed that In2VO5 is characterized by itinerant V 3d electrons at high temperature and localized electrons at low temperature. Consequently, it is to be expected that electronic correlations play an important role for the magnetic transition from ferromagnetic to antiferromagnetic exchange around 120 K. In this context, we study the electronic and magnetic properties of a set of possible spin configurations. Our calculations show that inclusion of an on-site Coulomb interaction in fact changes the ground state from ferromagnetic to antiferromagnetic. © 2010 IOP Publishing Ltd.

  2. The importance of the on-site electron-electron interaction for the magnetic coupling in the zigzag spin-chain compound In2VO5

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Hao; Schwingenschlö gl, Udo

    2010-01-01

    We present first-principles electronic structure calculations for the zigzag spin-chain compound In2VO5 using the generalized gradient approximation both with and without inclusion of an on-site Coulomb interaction. It has been proposed that In2VO5

  3. Tree Species with Photosynthetic Stems Have Greater Nighttime Sap Flux

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xia Chen

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available An increasing body of evidence has shown that nighttime sap flux occurs in most plants, but the physiological implications and regulatory mechanism are poorly known. The significance of corticular photosynthesis has received much attention during the last decade, however, the knowledge of the relationship between corticular photosynthesis and nocturnal stem sap flow is limited at present. In this study, we divided seven tree species into two groups according to different photosynthetic capabilities: trees of species with (Castanopsis hystrix, Michelia macclurei, Eucalyptus citriodora, and Eucalyptus grandis × urophylla and without (Castanopsis fissa, Schima superba, and Acacia auriculiformis photosynthetic stems, and the sap flux (Js and chlorophyll fluorescence parameters for these species were measured. One-way ANOVA analysis showed that the Fv/Fm (Maximum photochemical quantum yield of PSII and ΦPSII (effective photochemical quantum yield of PSII values were lower in non-photosynthetic stem species compared to photosynthetic stem species. The linear regression analysis showed that Js,d (daytime sap flux and Js,n (nighttime sap flux of non-photosynthetic stem species was 87.7 and 60.9% of the stem photosynthetic species. Furthermore, for a given daytime transpiration water loss, total nighttime sap flux was higher in species with photosynthetic stems (SlopeSMA = 2.680 than in non-photosynthetic stems species (SlopeSMA = 1.943. These results mean that stem corticular photosynthesis has a possible effect on the nighttime water flow, highlighting the important eco-physiological relationship between nighttime sap flux and corticular photosynthesis.

  4. Tree Species with Photosynthetic Stems Have Greater Nighttime Sap Flux

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xia; Gao, Jianguo; Zhao, Ping; McCarthy, Heather R.; Zhu, Liwei; Ni, Guangyan; Ouyang, Lei

    2018-01-01

    An increasing body of evidence has shown that nighttime sap flux occurs in most plants, but the physiological implications and regulatory mechanism are poorly known. The significance of corticular photosynthesis has received much attention during the last decade, however, the knowledge of the relationship between corticular photosynthesis and nocturnal stem sap flow is limited at present. In this study, we divided seven tree species into two groups according to different photosynthetic capabilities: trees of species with (Castanopsis hystrix, Michelia macclurei, Eucalyptus citriodora, and Eucalyptus grandis × urophylla) and without (Castanopsis fissa, Schima superba, and Acacia auriculiformis) photosynthetic stems, and the sap flux (Js) and chlorophyll fluorescence parameters for these species were measured. One-way ANOVA analysis showed that the Fv/Fm (Maximum photochemical quantum yield of PSII) and ΦPSII (effective photochemical quantum yield of PSII) values were lower in non-photosynthetic stem species compared to photosynthetic stem species. The linear regression analysis showed that Js,d (daytime sap flux) and Js,n (nighttime sap flux) of non-photosynthetic stem species was 87.7 and 60.9% of the stem photosynthetic species. Furthermore, for a given daytime transpiration water loss, total nighttime sap flux was higher in species with photosynthetic stems (SlopeSMA = 2.680) than in non-photosynthetic stems species (SlopeSMA = 1.943). These results mean that stem corticular photosynthesis has a possible effect on the nighttime water flow, highlighting the important eco-physiological relationship between nighttime sap flux and corticular photosynthesis. PMID:29416547

  5. Chain scission and anti fungal effect of electron beam on cellulose membrane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wanichapichart, Pikul; Taweepreeda, Wirach; Nawae, Safitree; Choomgan, Pastraporn; Yasenchak, Dan

    2012-01-01

    Two types of bacterial cellulose (BC) membranes were produced under a modified H and S medium using sucrose as a carbon source, with (CCB) and without (SHB) coconut juice supplement. Both membranes showed similar crystallinity of 69.24 and 71.55%. After being irradiated with E-beams under oxygen limited and ambient condition, the results from water contact angle showed that only the irradiated membrane CCB was increased from 30 to 40 degrees, and irradiation under oxygen ambient condition provided the greatest value. Comparing with the control membranes, smaller water flux was the cases after electron beam irradiation which indicated a reduction of membrane pore area. However, the results from molecular weight cut off (MWCO) revealed that chain scission was greater for membrane SHB and its cut off was increased from 28,000 Da to more than 35,000 Da. FTIR analysis revealed some changes in membrane functional groups, corresponding with the above results. These changes initiated new property of cellulose membranes, an anti-fungal food wrap. - Highlights: ► Electron beam irradiation increased membrane hydrophobicity and molecular weight cut off. ► The irradiation caused chain scissoring and anti fungal property of cellulose membrane. ► FT-IR studies revealed changes in functional groups causing a decrease in membrane moisture. ► Anti fungal test of cellulose membrane showed the same shelf life as polyethylene sheet.

  6. Oxygen concentration inside a functioning photosynthetic cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kihara, Shigeharu; Hartzler, Daniel A; Savikhin, Sergei

    2014-05-06

    The excess oxygen concentration in the photosynthetic membranes of functioning oxygenic photosynthetic cells was estimated using classical diffusion theory combined with experimental data on oxygen production rates of cyanobacterial cells. The excess oxygen concentration within the plesiomorphic cyanobacterium Gloeobactor violaceus is only 0.025 μM, or four orders of magnitude lower than the oxygen concentration in air-saturated water. Such a low concentration suggests that the first oxygenic photosynthetic bacteria in solitary form could have evolved ∼2.8 billion years ago without special mechanisms to protect them against reactive oxygen species. These mechanisms instead could have been developed during the following ∼500 million years while the oxygen level in the Earth's atmosphere was slowly rising. Excess oxygen concentrations within individual cells of the apomorphic cyanobacteria Synechocystis and Synechococcus are 0.064 and 0.25 μM, respectively. These numbers suggest that intramembrane and intracellular proteins in isolated oxygenic photosynthetic cells are not subjected to excessively high oxygen levels. The situation is different for closely packed colonies of photosynthetic cells. Calculations show that the excess concentration within colonies that are ∼40 μm or larger in diameter can be comparable to the oxygen concentration in air-saturated water, suggesting that species forming colonies require protection against reactive oxygen species even in the absence of oxygen in the surrounding atmosphere. Copyright © 2014 Biophysical Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Photosynthetic antennas and reaction centers: Current understanding and prospects for improvement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blankenship, R.E. [Arizona State Univ., Tempe, AZ (United States)

    1996-09-01

    A brief introduction to the principles, structures and kinetic processes that take place in natural photosynthetic reaction center complexes is presented. Energy is first collected by an antenna system, and is transferred to a reaction center complex where primary electron transfer takes place. Secondary reactions lead to oxidation of water and reduction of CO{sub 2} in some classes of organisms. Antenna systems are highly regulated to maximize energy collection efficiency while avoiding photodamage. Some areas that are presently not well understood are listed.

  8. Sensitivity of the green algae Chlamydomonas reinhardtii to gamma radiation: Photosynthetic performance and ROS formation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomes, Tânia, E-mail: tania.gomes@niva.no [Norwegian Institute for Water Research (NIVA), Section of Ecotoxicology and Risk Assessment, Gaustadalléen 21, N-0349, Oslo (Norway); Centre for Environmental Radioactivity, Norwegian University of Life Sciences (NMBU), Post Box 5003, N-1432 Ås (Norway); Xie, Li [Norwegian Institute for Water Research (NIVA), Section of Ecotoxicology and Risk Assessment, Gaustadalléen 21, N-0349, Oslo (Norway); Centre for Environmental Radioactivity, Norwegian University of Life Sciences (NMBU), Post Box 5003, N-1432 Ås (Norway); Brede, Dag; Lind, Ole-Christian [Centre for Environmental Radioactivity, Norwegian University of Life Sciences (NMBU), Post Box 5003, N-1432 Ås (Norway); Department for Environmental Sciences, Faculty of Environmental Science & Technology, Norwegian University of Life Sciences (NMBU), Post Box 5003, N-1432, Ås (Norway); Solhaug, Knut Asbjørn [Centre for Environmental Radioactivity, Norwegian University of Life Sciences (NMBU), Post Box 5003, N-1432 Ås (Norway); Department of Ecology and Natural Resource Management, Norwegian University of Life Sciences (NMBU), Postbox 5003, N-1432, Ås (Norway); Salbu, Brit [Centre for Environmental Radioactivity, Norwegian University of Life Sciences (NMBU), Post Box 5003, N-1432 Ås (Norway); Department for Environmental Sciences, Faculty of Environmental Science & Technology, Norwegian University of Life Sciences (NMBU), Post Box 5003, N-1432, Ås (Norway); and others

    2017-02-15

    Highlights: • Chlorophyll fluorescence parameters affected at higher dose rates. • Changes in PSII associated with electron transport and energy dissipation pathways. • Dose-dependent ROS production in algae exposed to gamma radiation. • Decrease in photosynthetic efficiency connected to ROS formation. - Abstract: The aquatic environment is continuously exposed to ionizing radiation from both natural and anthropogenic sources, making the characterization of ecological and health risks associated with radiation of large importance. Microalgae represent the main source of biomass production in the aquatic ecosystem, thus becoming a highly relevant biological model to assess the impacts of gamma radiation. However, little information is available on the effects of gamma radiation on microalgal species, making environmental radioprotection of this group of species challenging. In this context, the present study aimed to improve the understanding of the effects and toxic mechanisms of gamma radiation in the unicellular green algae Chlamydomonas reinhardtii focusing on the activity of the photosynthetic apparatus and ROS formation. Algal cells were exposed to gamma radiation (0.49–1677 mGy/h) for 6 h and chlorophyll fluorescence parameters obtained by PAM fluorometry, while two fluorescent probes carboxy-H{sub 2}DFFDA and DHR 123 were used for the quantification of ROS. The alterations seen in functional parameters of C. reinhardtii PSII after 6 h of exposure to gamma radiation showed modifications of PSII energy transfer associated with electron transport and energy dissipation pathways, especially at the higher dose rates used. Results also showed that gamma radiation induced ROS in a dose-dependent manner under both light and dark conditions. The observed decrease in photosynthetic efficiency seems to be connected to the formation of ROS and can potentially lead to oxidative stress and cellular damage in chloroplasts. To our knowledge, this is the first

  9. Sensitivity of the green algae Chlamydomonas reinhardtii to gamma radiation: Photosynthetic performance and ROS formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomes, Tânia; Xie, Li; Brede, Dag; Lind, Ole-Christian; Solhaug, Knut Asbjørn; Salbu, Brit

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Chlorophyll fluorescence parameters affected at higher dose rates. • Changes in PSII associated with electron transport and energy dissipation pathways. • Dose-dependent ROS production in algae exposed to gamma radiation. • Decrease in photosynthetic efficiency connected to ROS formation. - Abstract: The aquatic environment is continuously exposed to ionizing radiation from both natural and anthropogenic sources, making the characterization of ecological and health risks associated with radiation of large importance. Microalgae represent the main source of biomass production in the aquatic ecosystem, thus becoming a highly relevant biological model to assess the impacts of gamma radiation. However, little information is available on the effects of gamma radiation on microalgal species, making environmental radioprotection of this group of species challenging. In this context, the present study aimed to improve the understanding of the effects and toxic mechanisms of gamma radiation in the unicellular green algae Chlamydomonas reinhardtii focusing on the activity of the photosynthetic apparatus and ROS formation. Algal cells were exposed to gamma radiation (0.49–1677 mGy/h) for 6 h and chlorophyll fluorescence parameters obtained by PAM fluorometry, while two fluorescent probes carboxy-H 2 DFFDA and DHR 123 were used for the quantification of ROS. The alterations seen in functional parameters of C. reinhardtii PSII after 6 h of exposure to gamma radiation showed modifications of PSII energy transfer associated with electron transport and energy dissipation pathways, especially at the higher dose rates used. Results also showed that gamma radiation induced ROS in a dose-dependent manner under both light and dark conditions. The observed decrease in photosynthetic efficiency seems to be connected to the formation of ROS and can potentially lead to oxidative stress and cellular damage in chloroplasts. To our knowledge, this is the first report

  10. First principles studies of the electronic properties and catalytic activity of single-walled carbon nanotube doped with Pt clusters and chains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayes, Kayla E.; Lee, Hee-Seung

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Electronic and magnetic properties of (5, 5)-SWNT doped with Pt clusters and chains. ► Pt-doping can change metallic (5, 5)-SWNT to semiconducting CNT. ► Oxygen adsorption on Pt-doped (5, 5)-SWNT is barrierless process. ► Pt-doping reduces the activation barrier of oxygen dissociation reaction. ► Adsorbed oxygen has 2 O 2 - – character. - Abstract: We report the results of density functional theory calculations on the electronic structures, geometrical parameters, and magnetic properties of a wide variety of Pt clusters/chains adsorbed on metallic (5,5) single-walled carbon nanotube (SWNT). It was found that the electronic band structures of Pt/CNT systems are very sensitive to the small changes in the geometries of Pt clusters and chains. In some cases, metallic (5, 5)-SWNT becomes a small-gap semiconducting nanotube with adsorbed Pt clusters and chains. We also investigated the dissociation of molecular oxygen on the (5, 5)-SWNT doped with a single Pt atom via the nudged elastic band (NEB) method. The NEB results showed that the activation barrier is lowered even with a single Pt atom compared to that of pristine SWNT. It was found that the electronic structure of molecular oxygen adsorbed on Pt-doped CNT resembles that of 2 O 2 - , which should facilitate the dissociation process.

  11. Leaf Characteristics and Photosynthetic Performance of Floating, Emergent and Terrestrial Leaves of Marsilea quadrifolia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chia-Hong Lin

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Individuals of Marsilea quadrifolia, an amphibious fern, experiencing extreme variation in environment develop heterophyll. In this study, we compared stomatal and trichome density on upper and lower surfaces, leaf and petiole area mass ratio, spectral properties and photosynthetic performance of floating, emergent and terrestrial leaves of M. quadrifolia, to explore the ecological advantages of producing different leaf types. Morphological measurement reveals that these three types of leaf display highly differences in stomatal density on lower epidermis, trichome density on both surfaces and petiole dry mass per length, and reflectance coefficient between 500 and 650 nm. In contrast, no significant difference was found in the PSII electron transport rate of the three types of leaves. The analysis of stable carbon isotope ratio of the three types of leaves indicates that they all use C3 photosynthetic pathway.

  12. A novel photosynthetic strategy for adaptation to low-iron aquatic environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chauhan, D.; Folea, I.M.; Jolley, C.C.; Kouril, R.; Lubner, C.E.; Lin, S.; Kolber, D.; Wolfe-Simon, Felisa; Golbeck, J.H.; Boekema, E.J.; Fromme, P.

    2011-01-01

    Iron (Fe) availability is a major limiting factor for primary production in aquatic environments. Cyanobacteria respond to Fe deficiency by derepressing the isiAB operon, which encodes the antenna protein IsiA and flavodoxin. At nanomolar Fe concentrations, a PSI-IsiA supercomplex forms, comprising a PSI trimer encircled by two complete IsiA rings. This PSI-IsiA supercomplex is the largest photosynthetic membrane protein complex yet isolated. This study presents a detailed characterization of this complex using transmission electron microscopy and ultrafast fluorescence spectroscopy. Excitation trapping and electron transfer are highly efficient, allowing cyanobacteria to avoid oxidative stress. This mechanism may be a major factor used by cyanobacteria to successfully adapt to modern low-Fe environments. ?? 2010 American Chemical Society.

  13. Perturbation theory for the bloch electrons on strongly coupled chains in both uniform electric and magnetic fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, X.G.; Chen, S.G.

    1992-01-01

    In this paper, the energy spectrum and the wave functions for a tight-binding Bloch electron on coupled chains under the action of both uniform electric and magnetic fields are studied in detail. Exact results are obtained for the case when the coupling between chains is large by using the perturbation theory, from which it is found that the spectrum is that of two interspaced Stark ladders. The magnetic field dependence of the energy spectrum is also discussed

  14. Tree Species with Photosynthetic Stems Have Greater Nighttime Sap Flux.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xia; Gao, Jianguo; Zhao, Ping; McCarthy, Heather R; Zhu, Liwei; Ni, Guangyan; Ouyang, Lei

    2018-01-01

    An increasing body of evidence has shown that nighttime sap flux occurs in most plants, but the physiological implications and regulatory mechanism are poorly known. The significance of corticular photosynthesis has received much attention during the last decade, however, the knowledge of the relationship between corticular photosynthesis and nocturnal stem sap flow is limited at present. In this study, we divided seven tree species into two groups according to different photosynthetic capabilities: trees of species with ( Castanopsis hystrix, Michelia macclurei, Eucalyptus citriodora , and Eucalyptus grandis × urophylla ) and without ( Castanopsis fissa, Schima superba , and Acacia auriculiformis ) photosynthetic stems, and the sap flux ( J s ) and chlorophyll fluorescence parameters for these species were measured. One-way ANOVA analysis showed that the F v / F m (Maximum photochemical quantum yield of PSII) and Φ PSII (effective photochemical quantum yield of PSII) values were lower in non-photosynthetic stem species compared to photosynthetic stem species. The linear regression analysis showed that J s,d (daytime sap flux) and J s,n (nighttime sap flux) of non-photosynthetic stem species was 87.7 and 60.9% of the stem photosynthetic species. Furthermore, for a given daytime transpiration water loss, total nighttime sap flux was higher in species with photosynthetic stems (Slope SMA = 2.680) than in non-photosynthetic stems species (Slope SMA = 1.943). These results mean that stem corticular photosynthesis has a possible effect on the nighttime water flow, highlighting the important eco-physiological relationship between nighttime sap flux and corticular photosynthesis.

  15. Chemical models of chains electron transfer in hydroxylating ferment systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akhrem, A.A.; Kiselev, P.A.; Metelitsa, D.I.

    1977-01-01

    The rate constants are measured of consumption of nicotineamidedinucleotide (NAD-N) during its oxidation by molecular oxygen with the participation of Ti 4+ , Sn 4+ , Cu 2+ , Fe 3+ , VO 2+ , and Ce 4+ ions in mixtures of acetonitrile with water and of dioxane with water taken in a volume ratio of 1:1 (46 deg C). The kinetics of oxidation of NAD-N with the participation of Ti 4+ at 37 deg C in a water-acetonitrile medium is studied in detail. The hydroxylating capacity of the system NAD-N - Ti 4+ - O 2 with respect to naphthalene is proved. The reaction mechanism and its relationship with the microsomal chains of electron transport are discussed

  16. Effect of chromone-substituted benzothiazolium halides on photosynthetic processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kralova, K.; Sersen, F.; Gasparova, R.; Lacova, M.

    1998-01-01

    The effects of 3-R 2 -2[2-(6-R 1 -chromone-3-yl)ethenyl]benzothiazolium halides (CBH) on photosynthetic electron transport in spinach chloroplasts and in the legal suspension of Chlorella vulgaris were investigated. Using EPR spectroscopy it was confirmed that these compounds containing in their molecules two heterocyclic skeletons, namely benzothiazole and chromone, interact with the intermediate D + , corresponding to the tyrosine radical Tyr D situated in D 2 protein on the donor side of photosystem 2. Consequently, higher concentrations of CBH inhibited oxygen evolution rate in Chlorella vulgaris and the inhibitory effectiveness depended on the lipophilicity of the of the compound. (authors)

  17. The rise of the photosynthetic rate when light intensity increases is delayed in ndh gene-defective tobacco at high but not at low CO2 concentrations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mercedes eMartin

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The 11 plastid ndh genes have hovered frequently on the edge of dispensability, being absent in the plastid DNA of many algae and certain higher plants. We have compared the photosynthetic activity of tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum, cv. Petit Havana with five transgenic lines (ndhF, pr-ndhF, T181D, T181A and ndhF FC and found that photosynthetic performance is impaired in transgenic ndhF-defective tobacco plants at rapidly fluctuating light intensities and higher than ambient CO2 concentrations. In contrast to wild type and ndhF FC, which reach the maximum photosynthetic rate in less than one min when light intensity suddenly increases, ndh defective plants (ndhF and T181A show up to a 5 min delay in reaching the maximum photosynthetic rate at CO2 concentrations higher than the ambient 360 ppm. Net photosynthesis was determined at different CO2 concentrations when sequences of 130, 870, 61, 870 and 130 μmol m−2 s−1 PAR sudden light changes were applied to leaves and photosynthetic efficiency and entropy production were determined as indicators of photosynthesis performance. The two ndh-defective plants, ndhF and T181A, had lower photosynthetic efficiency and higher entropy production than wt, ndhF FC and T181D tobacco plants, containing full functional ndh genes, at CO2 concentrations above 400 ppm. We propose that the Ndh complex improves cyclic electron transport by adjusting the redox level of transporters during the low light intensity stage. In ndhF-defective strains, the supply of electrons through the Ndh complex fails, transporters remain over-oxidized (specially at high CO2 concentrations and the rate of cyclic electron transport is low, impairing the ATP level required to rapidly reach high CO2 fixation rates in the following high light phase. Hence, ndh genes could be dispensable at low but not at high atmospheric concentrations of CO2.

  18. Excitons in intact cells of photosynthetic bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freiberg, Arvi; Pajusalu, Mihkel; Rätsep, Margus

    2013-09-26

    Live cells and regular crystals seem fundamentally incompatible. Still, effects characteristic to ideal crystals, such as coherent sharing of excitation, have been recently used in many studies to explain the behavior of several photosynthetic complexes, especially the inner workings of the light-harvesting apparatus of the oldest known photosynthetic organisms, the purple bacteria. To this date, there has been no concrete evidence that the same effects are instrumental in real living cells, leaving a possibility that this is an artifact of unnatural study conditions, not a real effect relevant to the biological operation of bacteria. Hereby, we demonstrate survival of collective coherent excitations (excitons) in intact cells of photosynthetic purple bacteria. This is done by using excitation anisotropy spectroscopy for tracking the temperature-dependent evolution of exciton bands in light-harvesting systems of increasing structural complexity. The temperature was gradually raised from 4.5 K to ambient temperature, and the complexity of the systems ranged from detergent-isolated complexes to complete bacterial cells. The results provide conclusive evidence that excitons are indeed one of the key elements contributing to the energetic and dynamic properties of photosynthetic organisms.

  19. Energy transfer dynamics in an RC-LH1-PufX tubular photosynthetic membrane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hsin, J; Sener, M; Schulten, K; Struempfer, J; Qian, P; Hunter, C N

    2010-01-01

    Light absorption and the subsequent transfer of excitation energy are the first two steps in the photosynthetic process, carried out by protein-bound pigments, mainly bacteriochlorophylls (BChls), in photosynthetic bacteria. BChls are anchored in light-harvesting (LH) complexes, such as light-harvesting complex I (LH1), which directly associates with the reaction center (RC), forming the RC-LH1 core complex. In Rhodobacter sphaeroides, RC-LH1 core complexes contain an additional protein, PufX, and assemble into dimeric RC-LH1-PufX core complexes. In the absence of LH complex II (LH2), the former complexes can aggregate into a helically ordered tubular photosynthetic membrane. We have examined the excitation transfer dynamics in a single RC-LH1-PufX core complex dimer using the hierarchical equations of motion for dissipative quantum dynamics that accurately, yet in a computationally costly manner, treat the coupling between BChls and their protein environment. A widely employed description, the generalized Foerster (GF) theory, was also used to calculate the transfer rates of the same excitonic system in order to verify the accuracy of this computationally cheap method. Additionally, in light of the structural uncertainties in the Rba. sphaeroides RC-LH1-PufX core complex, geometrical alterations were introduced into the BChl organization. It is shown that the energy transfer dynamics are not affected by the considered changes in the BChl organization and that the GF theory provides accurate transfer rates. An all-atom model for a tubular photosynthetic membrane is then constructed on the basis of electron microscopy data, and the overall energy transfer properties of this membrane are computed.

  20. Energy transfer dynamics in an RC-LH1-PufX tubular photosynthetic membrane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hsin, J; Sener, M; Schulten, K [Department of Physics and Beckman Institute, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana (United States); Struempfer, J [Center for Biophysics and Computational Biology and Beckman Institute, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana (United States); Qian, P; Hunter, C N, E-mail: kschulte@ks.uiuc.ed [Department of Molecular Biology and Biotechnology, University of Sheffield, Sheffield S10 2TN (United Kingdom)

    2010-08-15

    Light absorption and the subsequent transfer of excitation energy are the first two steps in the photosynthetic process, carried out by protein-bound pigments, mainly bacteriochlorophylls (BChls), in photosynthetic bacteria. BChls are anchored in light-harvesting (LH) complexes, such as light-harvesting complex I (LH1), which directly associates with the reaction center (RC), forming the RC-LH1 core complex. In Rhodobacter sphaeroides, RC-LH1 core complexes contain an additional protein, PufX, and assemble into dimeric RC-LH1-PufX core complexes. In the absence of LH complex II (LH2), the former complexes can aggregate into a helically ordered tubular photosynthetic membrane. We have examined the excitation transfer dynamics in a single RC-LH1-PufX core complex dimer using the hierarchical equations of motion for dissipative quantum dynamics that accurately, yet in a computationally costly manner, treat the coupling between BChls and their protein environment. A widely employed description, the generalized Foerster (GF) theory, was also used to calculate the transfer rates of the same excitonic system in order to verify the accuracy of this computationally cheap method. Additionally, in light of the structural uncertainties in the Rba. sphaeroides RC-LH1-PufX core complex, geometrical alterations were introduced into the BChl organization. It is shown that the energy transfer dynamics are not affected by the considered changes in the BChl organization and that the GF theory provides accurate transfer rates. An all-atom model for a tubular photosynthetic membrane is then constructed on the basis of electron microscopy data, and the overall energy transfer properties of this membrane are computed.

  1. Validation of photosynthetic-fluorescence parameters as biomarkers for isoproturon toxic effect on alga Scenedesmus obliquus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dewez, David; Didur, Olivier; Vincent-Heroux, Jonathan; Popovic, Radovan

    2008-01-01

    Photosynthetic-fluorescence parameters were investigated to be used as valid biomarkers of toxicity when alga Scenedesmus obliquus was exposed to isoproturon [3-(4-isopropylphenyl)-1,1-dimethylurea] effect. Chlorophyll fluorescence induction of algal cells treated with isoproturon showed inactivation of photosystem II (PSII) reaction centers and strong inhibition of PSII electron transport. A linear correlation was found (R 2 ≥ 0.861) between the change of cells density affected by isoproturon and the change of effective PSII quantum yield (Φ M' ), photochemical quenching (q P ) and relative photochemical quenching (q P(rel) ) values. The cells density was also linearly dependent (R 2 = 0.838) on the relative unquenched fluorescence parameter (UQF (rel) ). Non-linear correlation was found (R 2 = 0.937) only between cells density and the energy transfer efficiency from absorbed light to PSII reaction center (ABS/RC). The order of sensitivity determined by the EC-50% was: UQF (rel) > Φ M' > q P > q P(rel) > ABS/RC. Correlations between cells density and those photosynthetic-fluorescence parameters provide supporting evidence to use them as biomarkers of toxicity for environmental pollutants. - Photosynthetic-fluorescence parameters are reliable biomarkers of isoproturon toxicity

  2. Drought-induced photosynthetic inhibition and autumn recovery in two Mediterranean oak species (Quercus ilex and Quercus suber).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaz, M; Pereira, J S; Gazarini, L C; David, T S; David, J S; Rodrigues, A; Maroco, J; Chaves, M M

    2010-08-01

    Responses of leaf water relations and photosynthesis to summer drought and autumn rewetting were studied in two evergreen Mediterranean oak species, Quercus ilex spp. rotundifolia and Quercus suber. The predawn leaf water potential (Ψ(lPD)), stomatal conductance (gs) and photosynthetic rate (A) at ambient conditions were measured seasonally over a 3-year period. We also measured the photosynthetic response to light and to intercellular CO₂ (A/PPFD and A/C(i) response curves) under water stress (summer) and after recovery due to autumn rainfall. Photosynthetic parameters, Vc(max), J(max) and triose phosphate utilization (TPU) rate, were estimated using the Farquhar model. RuBisCo activity, leaf chlorophyll, leaf nitrogen concentration and leaf carbohydrate concentration were also measured. All measurements were performed in the spring leaves of the current year. In both species, the predawn leaf water potential, stomatal conductance and photosynthetic rate peaked in spring, progressively declined throughout the summer and recovered upon autumn rainfall. During the drought period, Q. ilex maintained a higher predawn leaf water potential and stomatal conductance than Q. suber. During this period, we found that photosynthesis was not only limited by stomatal closure, but was also downregulated as a consequence of a decrease in the maximum carboxylation rate (Vc(max)) and the light-saturated rate of photosynthetic electron transport (J(max)) in both species. The Vc(max) and J(max) increased after the first autumnal rains and this increase was related to RuBisCo activity, leaf nitrogen concentration and chlorophyll concentration. In addition, an increase in the TPU rate and in soluble leaf sugar concentration was observed in this period. The results obtained indicate a high resilience of the photosynthetic apparatus to summer drought as well as good recovery in the following autumn rains of these evergreen oak species.

  3. Liver mitochondrial dysfunction and electron transport chain defect induced by high dietary copper in broilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Fan; Cao, Huabin; Su, Rongsheng; Guo, Jianying; Li, Chengmei; Pan, Jiaqiang; Tang, Zhaoxin

    2017-09-01

    Copper is an important trace mineral in the diet of poultry due to its biological activity. However, limited information is available concerning the effects of high copper on mitochondrial dysfunction. In this study, 72 broilers were used to investigate the effects of high dietary copper on liver mitochondrial dysfunction and electron transport chain defect. Birds were fed with different concentrations [11, 110, 220, and 330 mg of copper/kg dry matter (DM)] of copper from tribasic copper chloride (TBCC). The experiment lasted for 60 d. Liver tissues on d 60 were subjected to histopathological observation. Additionally, liver mitochondrial function was recorded on d 12, 36, and 60. Moreover, a site-specific defect in the electron transport chain in liver mitochondria was also identified by using various chemical inhibitors of mitochondrial respiration. The results showed different degrees of degeneration, mitochondrial swelling, and high-density electrons in hepatocytes. In addition, the respiratory control ratio (RCR) and oxidative phosphorylation rate (OPR) in liver mitochondria increased at first and then decreased in high-dose groups. Moreover, hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) generation velocity in treated groups was higher than that in control group, which were magnified by inhibiting electron transport at Complex IV. The results indicated that high dietary copper could decline liver mitochondrial function in broilers. The presence of a site-specific defect at Complex IV in liver mitochondria may be responsible for liver mitochondrial dysfunction caused by high dietary copper. © 2017 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  4. An Excel tool for deriving key photosynthetic parameters from combined gas exchange and chlorophyll fluorescence: theory and practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellasio, Chandra; Beerling, David J; Griffiths, Howard

    2016-06-01

    Combined photosynthetic gas exchange and modulated fluorometres are widely used to evaluate physiological characteristics associated with phenotypic and genotypic variation, whether in response to genetic manipulation or resource limitation in natural vegetation or crops. After describing relatively simple experimental procedures, we present the theoretical background to the derivation of photosynthetic parameters, and provide a freely available Excel-based fitting tool (EFT) that will be of use to specialists and non-specialists alike. We use data acquired in concurrent variable fluorescence-gas exchange experiments, where A/Ci and light-response curves have been measured under ambient and low oxygen. From these data, the EFT derives light respiration, initial PSII (photosystem II) photochemical yield, initial quantum yield for CO2 fixation, fraction of incident light harvested by PSII, initial quantum yield for electron transport, electron transport rate, rate of photorespiration, stomatal limitation, Rubisco (ribulose 1·5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase) rate of carboxylation and oxygenation, Rubisco specificity factor, mesophyll conductance to CO2 diffusion, light and CO2 compensation point, Rubisco apparent Michaelis-Menten constant, and Rubisco CO2 -saturated carboxylation rate. As an example, a complete analysis of gas exchange data on tobacco plants is provided. We also discuss potential measurement problems and pitfalls, and suggest how such empirical data could subsequently be used to parameterize predictive photosynthetic models. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Rice Photosynthetic Productivity and PSII Photochemistry under Nonflooded Irrigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haibing He

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Nonflooded irrigation is an important water-saving rice cultivation technology, but little is known on its photosynthetic mechanism. The aims of this work were to investigate photosynthetic characteristics of rice during grain filling stage under three nonflooded irrigation treatments: furrow irrigation with plastic mulching (FIM, furrow irrigation with nonmulching (FIN, and drip irrigation with plastic mulching (DI. Compared with the conventional flooding (CF treatment, those grown in the nonflooded irrigation treatments showed lower net photosynthetic rate (PN, lower maximum quantum yield (Fv/Fm, and lower effective quantum yield of PSII photochemistry (ΦPSII. And the poor photosynthetic characteristics in the nonflooded irrigation treatments were mainly attributed to the low total nitrogen content (TNC. Under non-flooded irrigation, the PN, Fv/Fm, and ΦPSII significantly decreased with a reduction in the soil water potential, but these parameters were rapidly recovered in the DI and FIM treatments when supplementary irrigation was applied. Moreover, The DI treatment always had higher photosynthetic productivity than the FIM and FIN treatments. Grain yield, matter translocation, and dry matter post-anthesis (DMPA were the highest in the CF treatment, followed by the DI, FIM, and FIN treatments in turn. In conclusion, increasing nitrogen content in leaf of rice plants could be a key factor to improve photosynthetic capacity in nonflooded irrigation.

  6. Seasonal photosynthetic activity in evergreen conifer leaves monitored with spectral reflectance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, C. Y.; Gamon, J. A.

    2013-12-01

    Boreal evergreen conifers must maintain photosynthetic systems in environments where temperatures vary greatly across seasons from high temperatures in the summer to freezing levels in the winter. This involves seasonal downregulation and photoprotection during periods of extreme temperatures. To better understand this downregulation, seasonal dynamics of photosynthesis of lodgepole (Pinus contorta D.) and ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa D.) were monitored in Edmonton, Canada over two years. Spectral reflectance at the leaf and stand scales was measured weekly and the Photochemical Reflectance Index (PRI), often used as a proxy for chlorophyll and carotenoid pigment levels and photosynthetic light-use efficiency (LUE), was used to track the seasonal dynamics of photosynthetic activity. Additional physiological measurements included leaf pigment content, chlorophyll fluorescence, and gas exchange. All the metrics indicate large seasonal changes in photosynthetic activity, with a sharp transition from winter downregulation to active photosynthesis in the spring and a more gradual fall transition into winter. The PRI was a good indicator of several other variables including seasonally changing photosynthetic activity, chlorophyll fluorescence, photosynthetic LUE, and pigment pool sizes. Over the two-year cycle, PRI was primarily driven by changes in constitutive (chlorophyll:carotenoid) pigment levels correlated with seasonal photosynthetic activity, with a much smaller variation caused by diurnal changes in xanthophyll cycle activity (conversion between violaxanthin & zeaxanthin). Leaf and canopy scale PRI measurements exhibited parallel responses during the winter-spring transition. Together, our findings indicate that evergreen conifers photosynthetic system possesses a remarkable degree of resilience in response to large temperature changes across seasons, and that optical remote sensing can be used to observe the seasonal effects on photosynthesis and

  7. Apparatus and method for measuring single cell and sub-cellular photosynthetic efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Ryan Wesley; Singh, Seema; Wu, Huawen

    2013-07-09

    Devices for measuring single cell changes in photosynthetic efficiency in algal aquaculture are disclosed that include a combination of modulated LED trans-illumination of different intensities with synchronized through objective laser illumination and confocal detection. Synchronization and intensity modulation of a dual illumination scheme were provided using a custom microcontroller for a laser beam block and constant current LED driver. Therefore, single whole cell photosynthetic efficiency, and subcellular (diffraction limited) photosynthetic efficiency measurement modes are permitted. Wide field rapid light scanning actinic illumination is provided for both by an intensity modulated 470 nm LED. For the whole cell photosynthetic efficiency measurement, the same LED provides saturating pulses for generating photosynthetic induction curves. For the subcellular photosynthetic efficiency measurement, a switched through objective 488 nm laser provides saturating pulses for generating photosynthetic induction curves. A second near IR LED is employed to generate dark adapted states in the system under study.

  8. Multilayer models of photosynthetic membranes. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brocklehurst, J R; Flanagan, M T

    1982-01-01

    The primary aim of this project has been to build an artificial membrane in which is incorporated, in a functional state, the protein bacteriorhodopsin responsible for generating an electrical potential difference across the membrane of the photosynthetic bacterium, halobacterium halobium, and to investigate the use of this artificial system as the basis of a solar cell. the bacteriorhodopsin has been incorporated into Langmuir-Blodgett multilayers. If ths supporting filter is then illuminated, a potential difference is generated between the two compartments. The lipid in the filter appears to act as a charge carrier for protons, the charge species that forms the electrochemical gradient generated by the bacteriorhodopsin when this molecule absorbs light. The internal resistances of such solar cells were determined and found to be so high that the cells could not be seriously considered as competitors with classical semiconductor cells. Multilayerswere deposited onto filters in which ion carriers that make the filters permeable to sodium ions had been dissolved in the paraffin. The photovoltage obtained indicated that protons transferred from one side of the filter to the other by the action of the bacteriorhodopsin were bing exchanged for sodium ions. A secondary aim of the project has been to examine the possibility of depositing mixed multilayers of a dye and a long chain quinone onto a semiconductor surface. A sensitizing multilayer has been prepared and the mobility of long chain quinones within the layers is high enough to warrant further research. However, it was found that, with the dyes and quinones used, quenched complexes were formed which would not act as sensitizers.

  9. Light Quality Affects Chloroplast Electron Transport Rates Estimated from Chl Fluorescence Measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, John R; Morgan, Patrick B; von Caemmerer, Susanne

    2017-10-01

    Chl fluorescence has been used widely to calculate photosynthetic electron transport rates. Portable photosynthesis instruments allow for combined measurements of gas exchange and Chl fluorescence. We analyzed the influence of spectral quality of actinic light on Chl fluorescence and the calculated electron transport rate, and compared this with photosynthetic rates measured by gas exchange in the absence of photorespiration. In blue actinic light, the electron transport rate calculated from Chl fluorescence overestimated the true rate by nearly a factor of two, whereas there was closer agreement under red light. This was consistent with the prediction made with a multilayer leaf model using profiles of light absorption and photosynthetic capacity. Caution is needed when interpreting combined measurements of Chl fluorescence and gas exchange, such as the calculation of CO2 partial pressure in leaf chloroplasts. © Crown copyright 2017.

  10. Green Supply Chain Collaboration for Fashionable Consumer Electronics Products under Third-Party Power Intervention—A Resource Dependence Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiuh-Biing Sheu

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Under third-party power intervention (TPPI, which increases uncertainty in task environments, complex channel power interplays and restructuring are indispensable among green supply chain members as they move toward sustainable collaborative relationships for increased viability and competitive advantage. From the resource dependence perspective, this work presents a novel conceptual model to investigate the influence of political and social power on channel power restructuring and induced green supply chain collaboration in brander-retailer bidirectional green supply chains of fashionable consumer electronics products (FCEPs. An FCEP refers to the consumer electronics product (e.g., personal computers, mobile phones, computer notebooks, and game consoles with the features of a well-known brand associated, a short product lifecycle, timely and fashionable design fit for market trends, and quick responsiveness to the variations of market demands. The proposed model is tested empirically using questionnaire data obtained from retailers in the FCEP brander-retailer distribution channels. Analytical results reveal that as an extension of political and social power, TPPI positively affects the reciprocal interdependence of dyadic members and reduces power asymmetry, thereby enhancing the collaborative relationship of dyadic members and leading to improved green supply chain performance. Therein, reciprocal interdependence underlying collaborative relationship is the key to reducing the external environmental uncertainties in the TPPI context.

  11. Theoretical modeling of the electronic structure and exchange interactions in a Cu(II)Pc one-dimensional chain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Wei; Fisher, A. J.; Harrison, N. M.

    2011-07-01

    We calculate the electronic structure and exchange interactions in a copper(II)phthalocyanine [Cu(II)Pc] crystal as a one-dimensional molecular chain using hybrid exchange density functional theory (DFT). In addition, the intermolecular exchange interactions are also calculated in a molecular dimer using Green’s function perturbation theory (GFPT) to illustrate the underlying physics. We find that the exchange interactions depend strongly on the stacking angle, but weakly on the sliding angle (defined in the text). The hybrid DFT calculations also provide an insight into the electronic structure of the Cu(II)Pc molecular chain and demonstrate that on-site electron correlations have a significant effect on the nature of the ground state, the band gap, and magnetic excitations. The exchange interactions predicted by our DFT calculations and GFPT calculations agree qualitatively with the recent experimental results on newly found η-Cu(II)Pc and the previous results for the α and β phases. This work provides a reliable theoretical basis for the further application of Cu(II)Pc to molecular spintronics and organic-based quantum information processing.

  12. Photosynthetic performance of restored and natural mangroves under different environmental constraints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rovai, André Scarlate; Barufi, José Bonomi; Pagliosa, Paulo Roberto; Scherner, Fernando; Torres, Moacir Aluísio; Horta, Paulo Antunes; Simonassi, José Carlos; Quadros, Daiane Paula Cunha; Borges, Daniel Lázaro Gallindo; Soriano-Sierra, Eduardo Juan

    2013-10-01

    We hypothesized that the photosynthetic performance of mangrove stands restored by the single planting of mangroves species would be lowered due to residual stressors. The photosynthetic parameters of the vegetation of three planted mangrove stands, each with a different disturbance history, were compared to reference sites and correlated with edaphic environmental variables. A permutational analysis of variance showed significant interaction when the factors were compared, indicating that the photosynthetic parameters of the restoration areas differed from the reference sites. A univariate analysis of variance showed that all the photosynthetic parameters differed between sites and treatments, except for photosynthetic efficiency (αETR). The combination of environmental variables that best explained the variations observed in the photosynthetic performance indicators were Cu, Pb and elevation disruptions. Fluorescence techniques proved efficient in revealing important physiological differences, representing a powerful tool for rapid analysis of the effectiveness of initiatives aimed at restoring coastal environments. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Oxygen Concentration Inside a Functioning Photosynthetic Cell

    OpenAIRE

    Kihara, Shigeharu; Hartzler, Daniel A.; Savikhin, Sergei

    2014-01-01

    The excess oxygen concentration in the photosynthetic membranes of functioning oxygenic photosynthetic cells was estimated using classical diffusion theory combined with experimental data on oxygen production rates of cyanobacterial cells. The excess oxygen concentration within the plesiomorphic cyanobacterium Gloeobactor violaceus is only 0.025 μM, or four orders of magnitude lower than the oxygen concentration in air-saturated water. Such a low concentration suggests that the first oxygenic...

  14. Electronic properties of linear carbon chains: Resolving the controversy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Backri, Amaal; Zólyomi, Viktor; Lambert, Colin J.

    2014-01-01

    Literature values for the energy gap of long one-dimensional carbon chains vary from as little as 0.2 eV to more than 4 eV. To resolve this discrepancy, we use the GW many-body approach to calculate the band gap E g of an infinite carbon chain. We also compute the energy dependence of the attenuation coefficient β governing the decay with chain length of the electrical conductance of long chains and compare this with recent experimental measurements of the single-molecule conductance of end-capped carbon chains. For long chains, we find E g = 2.16 eV and an upper bound for β of 0.21 Å −1

  15. Jatropha curcasand Ricinus communisdisplay contrasting photosynthetic mechanisms in response to environmental conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milton Costa Lima Neto

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Higher plants display different adaptive strategies in photosynthesis to cope with abiotic stress. In this study, photosynthetic mechanisms and water relationships displayed byJatropha curcasL. (physic nuts andRicinus communisL. (castor bean, in response to variations in environmental conditions, were assessed.R. communis showed higher CO2 assimilation, stomatal and mesophyll conductance thanJ. curcas as light intensity and intercellular CO2 pressure increased. On the other hand,R. communis was less effective in stomatal control in response to adverse environmental factors such as high temperature, water deficit and vapor pressure deficit, indicating lower water use efficiency. Conversely,J. curcas exhibited higher photosynthetic efficiency (gas exchange and photochemistry and water use efficiency under these adverse environmental conditions.R. communisdisplayed higher potential photosynthesis, but exhibited a lowerin vivo Rubisco carboxylation rate (Vcmax and maximum electron transport rate (Jmax. During the course of a typical day, in a semiarid environment, with high irradiation, high temperature and high vapor pressure deficit, but exposed to well-watered conditions, the two studied species presented similar photosynthesis. Losing potential photosynthesis, but maintaining favorable water status and increasing non-photochemical quenching to avoid photoinhibition, are important acclimation mechanisms developed byJ. curcas to cope with dry and hot conditions. We suggest thatJ. curcas is more tolerant to hot and dry environments thanR. communis but the latter species displays higher photosynthetic efficiency under well-watered and non-stressful conditions.

  16. Ultrafast fluorescence of photosynthetic crystals and light-harvesting complexes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oort, van B.F.

    2008-01-01

    This thesis focuses on the study of photosynthetic pigment protein complexes using time resolved fluorescence techniques. Fluorescence spectroscopy often requires attaching fluorescent labels to the proteins under investigation. With photosynthetic proteins this is not necessary, because these

  17. Nodal-chain metals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bzdušek, Tomáš; Wu, QuanSheng; Rüegg, Andreas; Sigrist, Manfred; Soluyanov, Alexey A

    2016-10-06

    The band theory of solids is arguably the most successful theory of condensed-matter physics, providing a description of the electronic energy levels in various materials. Electronic wavefunctions obtained from the band theory enable a topological characterization of metals for which the electronic spectrum may host robust, topologically protected, fermionic quasiparticles. Many of these quasiparticles are analogues of the elementary particles of the Standard Model, but others do not have a counterpart in relativistic high-energy theories. A complete list of possible quasiparticles in solids is lacking, even in the non-interacting case. Here we describe the possible existence of a hitherto unrecognized type of fermionic excitation in metals. This excitation forms a nodal chain-a chain of connected loops in momentum space-along which conduction and valence bands touch. We prove that the nodal chain is topologically distinct from previously reported excitations. We discuss the symmetry requirements for the appearance of this excitation and predict that it is realized in an existing material, iridium tetrafluoride (IrF 4 ), as well as in other compounds of this class of materials. Using IrF 4 as an example, we provide a discussion of the topological surface states associated with the nodal chain. We argue that the presence of the nodal-chain fermions will result in anomalous magnetotransport properties, distinct from those of materials exhibiting previously known excitations.

  18. [THE EFFECT OF ACID RAIN ON ULTRASTRUCTURE AND FUNCTIONAL PARAMETERS OF PHOTOSYNTHETIC APPARATUS OF PEA LEAVES].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polishchuk, A V; Vodka, M V; Belyavskaya, N A; Khomochkin, A P; Zolotareva, E K

    2016-01-01

    The effects of simulated acid rain (SAR) on the ultrastructure and functional parameters of the photosynthetic apparatus were studied using 14-day-old pea leaves as test system. Pea plants were sprayed with an aqueous solution containing NaNO₃(0.2 mM) and Na₂SO₄(0.2 mM) (pH 5.6, a control variant), or with the same solution, which was acidified to pH 2.5 (acid variant). Functional characteristics were determined by chlorophyll fluorescence analysis. Acid rain application caused reduction in the efficiency of the photosynthetic electron transport by 25%, which was accompanied by an increase by 85% in the quantum yield of thermal dissipation of excess light quanta. Ultrastructural changes in chloroplast were registered by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) after two days of the SAR-treatment of pea leaves. In this case, the changes in the structure of grana, heterogeneity of thylakoids packaging in granum, namely, the increase of intra-thylakoid gaps and thickness of granal thylakoids compared to the control were found. The migration of protein complexes in thylakoid membranes of chloroplasts isolated from leaves treated with SAR was suppressed. It was shown also that carbonic anhydrase activity was inhibited in chloroplast preparations isolated from SAR-treated pea leaves. We proposed a hypothesis on the possible inactivation of thylakoid carbonic anhydrase under SAR and its involvement in the inhibition of photochemical activity of chloroplasts. The data obtained allows to suggest that acid rains negatively affect the photosynthetic apparatus disrupting the membrane system of chloroplast.

  19. Electronic torsional sound in linear atomic chains: Chemical energy transport at 1000 km/s

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurnosov, Arkady A.; Rubtsov, Igor V.; Maksymov, Andrii O.; Burin, Alexander L., E-mail: aburin@tulane.edu [Department of Chemistry, Tulane University, New Orleans, Louisiana 70118 (United States)

    2016-07-21

    We investigate entirely electronic torsional vibrational modes in linear cumulene chains. The carbon nuclei of a cumulene are positioned along the primary axis so that they can participate only in the transverse and longitudinal motions. However, the interatomic electronic clouds behave as a torsion spring with remarkable torsional stiffness. The collective dynamics of these clouds can be described in terms of electronic vibrational quanta, which we name torsitons. It is shown that the group velocity of the wavepacket of torsitons is much higher than the typical speed of sound, because of the small mass of participating electrons compared to the atomic mass. For the same reason, the maximum energy of the torsitons in cumulenes is as high as a few electronvolts, while the minimum possible energy is evaluated as a few hundred wavenumbers and this minimum is associated with asymmetry of zero point atomic vibrations. Theory predictions are consistent with the time-dependent density functional theory calculations. Molecular systems for experimental evaluation of the predictions are proposed.

  20. Electronic torsional sound in linear atomic chains: Chemical energy transport at 1000 km/s

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurnosov, Arkady A.; Rubtsov, Igor V.; Maksymov, Andrii O.; Burin, Alexander L.

    2016-07-01

    We investigate entirely electronic torsional vibrational modes in linear cumulene chains. The carbon nuclei of a cumulene are positioned along the primary axis so that they can participate only in the transverse and longitudinal motions. However, the interatomic electronic clouds behave as a torsion spring with remarkable torsional stiffness. The collective dynamics of these clouds can be described in terms of electronic vibrational quanta, which we name torsitons. It is shown that the group velocity of the wavepacket of torsitons is much higher than the typical speed of sound, because of the small mass of participating electrons compared to the atomic mass. For the same reason, the maximum energy of the torsitons in cumulenes is as high as a few electronvolts, while the minimum possible energy is evaluated as a few hundred wavenumbers and this minimum is associated with asymmetry of zero point atomic vibrations. Theory predictions are consistent with the time-dependent density functional theory calculations. Molecular systems for experimental evaluation of the predictions are proposed.

  1. σ-Bond Electron Delocalization in Oligosilanes as Function of Substitution Pattern, Chain Length, and Spatial Orientation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johann Hlina

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Polysilanes are known to exhibit the interesting property of σ-bond electron delocalization. By employing optical spectroscopy (UV-vis, it is possible to judge the degree of delocalization and also differentiate parts of the molecules which are conjugated or not. The current study compares oligosilanes of similar chain length but different substitution pattern. The size of the substituents determines the spatial orientation of the main chain and also controls the conformational flexibility. The chemical nature of the substituents affects the orbital energies of the molecules and thus the positions of the absorption bands.

  2. Thermoluminescence as a complementary technique for the toxicological evaluation of chemicals in photosynthetic organisms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Repetto, Guillermo, E-mail: grepkuh@upo.es [Departamento de Biología Molecular e Ingeniería Bioquímica, Área de Toxicología, Universidad Pablo de Olavide, Carretera de Utrera km. 1, 41013 Seville (Spain); Zurita, Jorge L. [Departamento de Biología Molecular e Ingeniería Bioquímica, Área de Toxicología, Universidad Pablo de Olavide, Carretera de Utrera km. 1, 41013 Seville (Spain); Roncel, Mercedes; Ortega, José M. [Instituto de Bioquímica Vegetal y Fotosíntesis, Universidad de Sevilla-CSIC, Américo Vespucio 49, 41092 Seville (Spain)

    2015-01-15

    Highlights: • There are very few toxicological applications of thermoluminescence. • It is a luminescence emission induced by heating the sample in the dark. • It is useful for study the photosystem II function and the level of lipid peroxidation. - Abstract: Thermoluminescence is a simple technique very useful for studying electron transfer reactions on photosystem II (standard thermoluminescence) or the level of lipid peroxidation in membranes (high temperature thermoluminescence) in photosynthetic organisms. Both techniques were used to investigate the effects produced on Chlorella vulgaris cells by six compounds: the chemical intermediates bromobenzene and diethanolamine, the antioxidant propyl gallate, the semiconductor indium nitrate, the pesticide sodium monofluoroacetate and the antimalarial drug chloroquine. Electron transfer activity of the photosystem II significantly decreased after the exposure of Chlorella cells to all the six chemicals used. Lipid peroxidation was slightly decreased by the antioxidant propyl gallate, not changed by indium nitrate and very potently stimulated by diethanolamine, chloroquine, sodium monofluoroacetate and bromobenzene. For five of the chemicals studied (not bromobenzene) there is a very good correlation between the cytotoxic effects in Chlorella cells measured by the algal growth inhibition test, and the inhibition of photosystem II activity. The results suggest that one very important effect of these chemicals in Chlorella cells is the inhibition of photosynthetic metabolism by the blocking of photosystem II functionality. In the case of sodium monofluoroacetate, diethanolamine and chloroquine this inhibition seems to be related with the induction of high level of lipid peroxidation in cells that may alter the stability of photosystem II. The results obtained by both techniques supply information that can be used as a supplement to the growth inhibition test and allows a more complete assessment of the effects of

  3. Thermoluminescence as a complementary technique for the toxicological evaluation of chemicals in photosynthetic organisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Repetto, Guillermo; Zurita, Jorge L.; Roncel, Mercedes; Ortega, José M.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • There are very few toxicological applications of thermoluminescence. • It is a luminescence emission induced by heating the sample in the dark. • It is useful for study the photosystem II function and the level of lipid peroxidation. - Abstract: Thermoluminescence is a simple technique very useful for studying electron transfer reactions on photosystem II (standard thermoluminescence) or the level of lipid peroxidation in membranes (high temperature thermoluminescence) in photosynthetic organisms. Both techniques were used to investigate the effects produced on Chlorella vulgaris cells by six compounds: the chemical intermediates bromobenzene and diethanolamine, the antioxidant propyl gallate, the semiconductor indium nitrate, the pesticide sodium monofluoroacetate and the antimalarial drug chloroquine. Electron transfer activity of the photosystem II significantly decreased after the exposure of Chlorella cells to all the six chemicals used. Lipid peroxidation was slightly decreased by the antioxidant propyl gallate, not changed by indium nitrate and very potently stimulated by diethanolamine, chloroquine, sodium monofluoroacetate and bromobenzene. For five of the chemicals studied (not bromobenzene) there is a very good correlation between the cytotoxic effects in Chlorella cells measured by the algal growth inhibition test, and the inhibition of photosystem II activity. The results suggest that one very important effect of these chemicals in Chlorella cells is the inhibition of photosynthetic metabolism by the blocking of photosystem II functionality. In the case of sodium monofluoroacetate, diethanolamine and chloroquine this inhibition seems to be related with the induction of high level of lipid peroxidation in cells that may alter the stability of photosystem II. The results obtained by both techniques supply information that can be used as a supplement to the growth inhibition test and allows a more complete assessment of the effects of

  4. Diurnal changes of net photosynthetic rate (NPR) in leaves of Lonicera japonica Thunb. and the responding mathematical model of NPR to photosynthetic valid radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Dafu; Zhang Shengli; Li Dongfang

    2009-01-01

    [Objective] The study provided theoretical basis for production practice . [Method] With Lonicera japonica Thunb .as material, diurnal changes of net photosynthetic rate (NPR) in leaves of the plant and the responding mathematical model of NPR to photosynthetic valid radiation were studied using portable photosynthetic determinator system. [Result] Like most of C3 plants, the diurnal changes curve of NPR of Lonicera japonica Thunb .showed double peaks, but there were time difference in reaching the peak value between the study and previous ones . The responding mathematical model of NPR to photosynthetic valid radiation could be described by three mathematic functions, such as logarithm, linearity and binomial, but binomial function was more precise than the others. Light saturation point of Lonicera japonica Thunb. was figured out by binomial equation deduced in the study , and light saturation point was 1 086 .3 μmol/ (m2•s) . [Conclusion] The diurnal changes curve of NPR of Lonicera japonica Thunb .showed double peaks, and the responding mathematical model of NPR to photosynthetic valid radiation could be described by binomial functions

  5. Variations in morphology and PSII photosynthetic capabilities during the early development of tetraspores of Gracilaria vermiculophylla (Ohmi) Papenfuss (Gracilariales, Rhodophyta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Xiujun; Wang, Guangce; Pan, Guanghua; Gao, Shan; Xu, Pu; Zhu, Jianyi

    2010-04-28

    Red algae are primitive photosynthetic eukaryotes, whose spores are ideal subjects for studies of photosynthesis and development. Although the development of red alga spores has received considerable research attention, few studies have focused on the detailed morphological and photosynthetic changes that occur during the early development of tetraspores of Gracilaria vermiculophylla (Ohmi) Papenfuss (Gracilariales, Rhodophyta). Herein, we documented these changes in this species of red algae. In the tetraspores, we observed two types of division, cruciate and zonate, and both could develop into multicellular bodies (disks). During the first 84 hours, tetraspores divided several times, but the diameter of the disks changed very little; thereafter, the diameter increased significantly. Scanning electron microscopy observations and analysis of histological sections revealed that the natural shape of the disk remains tapered over time, and the erect frond grows from the central protrusion of the disk. Cultivation of tissue from excised disks demonstrated that the central protrusion of the disk is essential for initiation of the erect frond. Photosynthetic (i.e., PSII) activities were measured using chlorophyll fluorescence analysis. The results indicated that freshly released tetraspores retained limited PSII photosynthetic capabilities; when the tetraspores attached to a substrate, those capabilities increased significantly. In the disk, the PSII activity of both marginal and central cells was similar, although some degree of morphological polarity was present; the PSII photosynthetic capabilities in young germling exhibited an apico-basal gradient. Attachment of tetraspores to a substrate significantly enhanced their PSII photosynthetic capabilities, and triggered further development. The central protrusion of the disk is the growth point, may have transfer of nutritive material with the marginal cells. Within the young germling, the hetero-distribution of PSII

  6. Variations in morphology and PSII photosynthetic capabilities during the early development of tetraspores of Gracilaria vermiculophylla (Ohmi Papenfuss (Gracilariales, Rhodophyta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gao Shan

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Red algae are primitive photosynthetic eukaryotes, whose spores are ideal subjects for studies of photosynthesis and development. Although the development of red alga spores has received considerable research attention, few studies have focused on the detailed morphological and photosynthetic changes that occur during the early development of tetraspores of Gracilaria vermiculophylla (Ohmi Papenfuss (Gracilariales, Rhodophyta. Herein, we documented these changes in this species of red algae. Results In the tetraspores, we observed two types of division, cruciate and zonate, and both could develop into multicellular bodies (disks. During the first 84 hours, tetraspores divided several times, but the diameter of the disks changed very little; thereafter, the diameter increased significantly. Scanning electron microscopy observations and analysis of histological sections revealed that the natural shape of the disk remains tapered over time, and the erect frond grows from the central protrusion of the disk. Cultivation of tissue from excised disks demonstrated that the central protrusion of the disk is essential for initiation of the erect frond. Photosynthetic (i.e., PSII activities were measured using chlorophyll fluorescence analysis. The results indicated that freshly released tetraspores retained limited PSII photosynthetic capabilities; when the tetraspores attached to a substrate, those capabilities increased significantly. In the disk, the PSII activity of both marginal and central cells was similar, although some degree of morphological polarity was present; the PSII photosynthetic capabilities in young germling exhibited an apico-basal gradient. Conclusions Attachment of tetraspores to a substrate significantly enhanced their PSII photosynthetic capabilities, and triggered further development. The central protrusion of the disk is the growth point, may have transfer of nutritive material with the marginal cells. Within

  7. FdC1 and Leaf-Type Ferredoxins Channel Electrons From Photosystem I to Different Downstream Electron Acceptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Xiaoqian; Chen, Shuai; Voon, Chia Pao; Wong, Kam-Bo; Tikkanen, Mikko; Lim, Boon L

    2018-01-01

    Plant-type ferredoxins in Arabidopsis transfer electrons from the photosystem I to multiple redox-driven enzymes involved in the assimilation of carbon, nitrogen, and sulfur. Leaf-type ferredoxins also modulate the switch between the linear and cyclic electron routes of the photosystems. Recently, two novel ferredoxin homologs with extra C-termini were identified in the Arabidopsis genome (AtFdC1, AT4G14890; AtFdC2, AT1G32550). FdC1 was considered as an alternative electron acceptor of PSI under extreme ferredoxin-deficient conditions. Here, we showed that FdC1 could interact with some, but not all, electron acceptors of leaf-type Fds, including the ferredoxin-thioredoxin reductase (FTR), sulfite reductase (SiR), and nitrite reductase (NiR). Photoreduction assay on cytochrome c and enzyme assays confirmed its capability to receive electrons from PSI and donate electrons to the Fd-dependent SiR and NiR but not to the ferredoxin-NADP + oxidoreductase (FNR). Hence, FdC1 and leaf-type Fds may play differential roles by channeling electrons from photosystem I to different downstream electron acceptors in photosynthetic tissues. In addition, the median redox potential of FdC1 may allow it to receive electrons from FNR in non-photosynthetic plastids.

  8. Interface for Light-Driven Electron Transfer by Photosynthetic Complexes Across Block Copolymer Membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuang, Liangju; Olson, Tien L; Lin, Su; Flores, Marco; Jiang, Yunjiang; Zheng, Wan; Williams, JoAnn C; Allen, James P; Liang, Hongjun

    2014-03-06

    Incorporation of membrane proteins into nanodevices to mediate recognition and transport in a collective and scalable fashion remains a challenging problem. We demonstrate how nanoscale photovoltaics could be designed using robust synthetic nanomembranes with incorporated photosynthetic reaction centers (RCs). Specifically, RCs from Rhodobacter sphaeroides are reconstituted spontaneously into rationally designed polybutadiene membranes to form hierarchically organized proteopolymer membrane arrays via a charge-interaction-directed reconstitution mechanism. Once incorporated, the RCs are fully active for prolonged periods based upon a variety of spectroscopic measurements, underscoring preservation of their 3D pigment configuration critical for light-driven charge transfer. This result provides a strategy to construct solar conversion devices using structurally versatile proteopolymer membranes with integrated RC functions to harvest broad regions of the solar spectrum.

  9. Canopy profiles of photosynthetic parameters under elevated CO2 and N fertilization in a poplar plantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calfapietra, Carlo; Tulva, Ingmar; Eensalu, Eve; Perez, Marta; De Angelis, Paolo; Scarascia-Mugnozza, Giuseppe; Kull, Olevi

    2005-01-01

    A poplar plantation has been exposed to an elevated CO 2 concentration for 5 years using the free air CO 2 enrichment (FACE) technique. Even after such a long period of exposure, leaves of Populus x euramericana have not shown clear signs of photosynthetic acclimation. Only at the end of the growing season for shade leaves was a decrease of maximum velocity of carboxylation (V cmax ) observed. Maximum electron transport rate (J max ) was increased by FACE treatment in July. Assimilation rates at CO 2 partial pressure of 400 (A 400 ) and 600 (A 600 ) μmol mol -1 were not significantly different under FACE treatment. Most notably FACE significantly decreased stomatal conductance (g s ) both on upper and lower canopy leaves. N fertilization increased N content in the leaves on mass basis (N m ) and specific leaf area (SLA) in both CO 2 treatments but did not influence the photosynthetic parameters. These data show that in poplar plantations the long-term effects of elevated CO 2 on photosynthesis do not differ considerably from the short-term ones even with N deposition. - Photosynthetic acclimation occurred only marginally

  10. Coral bleaching independent of photosynthetic activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolleter, Dimitri; Seneca, François O; DeNofrio, Jan C; Krediet, Cory J; Palumbi, Stephen R; Pringle, John R; Grossman, Arthur R

    2013-09-23

    The global decline of reef-building corals is due in part to the loss of algal symbionts, or "bleaching," during the increasingly frequent periods of high seawater temperatures. During bleaching, endosymbiotic dinoflagellate algae (Symbiodinium spp.) either are lost from the animal tissue or lose their photosynthetic pigments, resulting in host mortality if the Symbiodinium populations fail to recover. The >1,000 studies of the causes of heat-induced bleaching have focused overwhelmingly on the consequences of damage to algal photosynthetic processes, and the prevailing model for bleaching invokes a light-dependent generation of toxic reactive oxygen species (ROS) by heat-damaged chloroplasts as the primary trigger. However, the precise mechanisms of bleaching remain unknown, and there is evidence for involvement of multiple cellular processes. In this study, we asked the simple question of whether bleaching can be triggered by heat in the dark, in the absence of photosynthetically derived ROS. We used both the sea anemone model system Aiptasia and several species of reef-building corals to demonstrate that symbiont loss can occur rapidly during heat stress in complete darkness. Furthermore, we observed damage to the photosynthetic apparatus under these conditions in both Aiptasia endosymbionts and cultured Symbiodinium. These results do not directly contradict the view that light-stimulated ROS production is important in bleaching, but they do show that there must be another pathway leading to bleaching. Elucidation of this pathway should help to clarify bleaching mechanisms under the more usual conditions of heat stress in the light. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. A Comparative Proteome Profile of Female Mouse Gonads Suggests a Tight Link between the Electron Transport Chain and Meiosis Initiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Cong; Li, Mingrui; Zhang, Pan; Guo, Yueshuai; Zhang, Hao; Zheng, Bo; Teng, Hui; Zhou, Tao; Guo, Xuejiang; Huo, Ran

    2018-01-01

    Generation of haploid gametes by meiosis is a unique property of germ cells and is critical for sexual reproduction. Leaving mitosis and entering meiosis is a key step in germ cell development. Several inducers or intrinsic genes are known to be important for meiotic initiation, but the regulation of meiotic initiation, especially at the protein level, is still not well understood. We constructed a comparative proteome profile of female mouse fetal gonads at specific time points (11.5, 12.5, and 13.5 days post coitum), spanning a critical window for initiation of meiosis in female germ cells. We identified 3666 proteins, of which 473 were differentially expressed. Further bioinformatics analysis showed that these differentially expressed proteins were enriched in the mitochondria, especially in the electron transport chain and, notably, 9 proteins in electron transport chain Complex I were differentially expressed. We disrupted the mitochondrial electron transport chain function by adding the complex I inhibitor, rotenone to 11.5 days post coitum female gonads cultured in vitro. This treatment resulted in a decreased proportion of meiotic germ cells, as assessed by staining for histone γH2AX. Rotenone treatment also caused decreased ATP levels, increased reactive oxygen species levels and failure of the germ cells to undergo premeiotic DNA replication. These effects were partially rescued by adding Coenzyme Q10. Taken together, our results suggested that a functional electron transport chain is important for meiosis initiation. Our characterization of the quantitative proteome of female gonads provides an inventory of proteins, useful for understanding the mechanisms of meiosis initiation and female fertility. © 2018 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  12. Physiological Evidence for Isopotential Tunneling in the Electron Transport Chain of Methane-Producing Archaea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duszenko, Nikolas; Buan, Nicole R

    2017-09-15

    Many, but not all, organisms use quinones to conserve energy in their electron transport chains. Fermentative bacteria and methane-producing archaea (methanogens) do not produce quinones but have devised other ways to generate ATP. Methanophenazine (MPh) is a unique membrane electron carrier found in Methanosarcina species that plays the same role as quinones in the electron transport chain. To extend the analogy between quinones and MPh, we compared the MPh pool sizes between two well-studied Methanosarcina species, Methanosarcina acetivorans C2A and Methanosarcina barkeri Fusaro, to the quinone pool size in the bacterium Escherichia coli We found the quantity of MPh per cell increases as cultures transition from exponential growth to stationary phase, and absolute quantities of MPh were 3-fold higher in M. acetivorans than in M. barkeri The concentration of MPh suggests the cell membrane of M. acetivorans , but not of M. barkeri , is electrically quantized as if it were a single conductive metal sheet and near optimal for rate of electron transport. Similarly, stationary (but not exponentially growing) E. coli cells also have electrically quantized membranes on the basis of quinone content. Consistent with our hypothesis, we demonstrated that the exogenous addition of phenazine increases the growth rate of M. barkeri three times that of M. acetivorans Our work suggests electron flux through MPh is naturally higher in M. acetivorans than in M. barkeri and that hydrogen cycling is less efficient at conserving energy than scalar proton translocation using MPh. IMPORTANCE Can we grow more from less? The ability to optimize and manipulate metabolic efficiency in cells is the difference between commercially viable and nonviable renewable technologies. Much can be learned from methane-producing archaea (methanogens) which evolved a successful metabolic lifestyle under extreme thermodynamic constraints. Methanogens use highly efficient electron transport systems and

  13. Screened ion-ion interaction in mercury-chain compounds: Single chain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohan, M.M.; Griffin, A.

    1985-01-01

    At room temperature, the mercury chains in Hg/sub 3-delta/AsF 6 exhibit phonons characteristic of a one-dimensional lattice. We calculate the screening of the Hg ion-ion interaction in a single chain by electrons moving in a cylindrical potential of finite radius, within the random-phase approximation. The resulting Bohm-Staver-type expression for the phonon velocity is (Z 2 mN/sub I//MN/sub e/)/sup 1/2/v/sub F/, where Z is the Hg ionic charge and N/sub I/ (N/sub e/) is the number of ions (electrons) per unit length. Use of the Tomonaga-Luttinger solution for the electronic response function (keeping only the small-momentum scattering processes) just renormalizes the Fermi velocity in this expression

  14. Effect of space mutation on photosynthetic characteristics of soybean varieties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Xinlei; Ma Yansong; Luan Xiaoyan; Man Weiqun; Xu Dechun; Meng Lifen; Fu Lixin; Zhao Xiaonan; Liu Qi

    2011-01-01

    In order to elucidate the response of the photosynthetic traits of soybean to space mutation, three soybean varieties (lines) of Heinong 48, Heinong 44 and Ha 2291-Y were carried by artificial satellite in 2006 and the net photosynthetic rate (Pn), stomatal conductance (Cond), intercellular CO 2 concentration (Ci) and stomatal resistance (Rs) from SP 1 to SP 4 generation were determined. The results showed that space mutation affected photosynthesis traits of soybean. The photosynthetic rate of soybean varieties by space mutation occurred different levels of genetic variation and the positive mutation rate were higher. Coefficient of variation among generations were SP 2 > SP 3 > SP 4 > CK. Results suggest that space mutation can effectively create soybean materials with higher photosynthetic rate. (authors)

  15. Climate controls photosynthetic capacity more than leaf nitrogen contents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, A. A.; Xu, C.; McDowell, N. G.

    2013-12-01

    Global vegetation models continue to lack the ability to make reliable predictions because the photosynthetic capacity varies a lot with growth conditions, season and among species. It is likely that vegetation models link photosynthetic capacity to concurrent changes in leaf nitrogen content only. To improve the predictions of the vegetation models, there is an urgent need to review species growth conditions and their seasonal response to changing climate. We sampled the global distribution of the Vcmax (maximum carboxylation rates) data of various species across different environmental gradients from the literature and standardized its value to 25 degree Celcius. We found that species explained the largest variation in (1) the photosynthetic capacity and (2) the proportion of nitrogen allocated for rubisco (PNcb). Surprisingly, climate variables explained more variations in photosynthetic capacity as well as PNcb than leaf nitrogen content and/or specific leaf area. The chief climate variables that explain variation in photosynthesis and PNcb were radiation, temperature and daylength. Our analysis suggests that species have the greatest control over photosynthesis and PNcb. Further, compared to leaf nitrogen content and/or specific leaf area, climate variables have more control over photosynthesis and PNcb. Therefore, climate variables should be incorporated in the global vegetation models when making predictions about the photosynthetic capacity.

  16. The photochemical reflectance index provides an optical indicator of spring photosynthetic activation in evergreen conifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Christopher Y S; Gamon, John A

    2015-04-01

    In evergreens, the seasonal down-regulation and reactivation of photosynthesis is largely invisible and difficult to assess with remote sensing. This invisible phenology may be changing as a result of climate change. To better understand the mechanism and timing of these hidden physiological transitions, we explored several assays and optical indicators of spring photosynthetic activation in conifers exposed to a boreal climate. The photochemical reflectance index (PRI), chlorophyll fluorescence, and leaf pigments for evergreen conifer seedlings were monitored over 1 yr of a boreal climate with the addition of gas exchange during the spring. PRI, electron transport rate, pigment levels, light-use efficiency and photosynthesis all exhibited striking seasonal changes, with varying kinetics and strengths of correlation, which were used to evaluate the mechanisms and timing of spring activation. PRI and pigment pools were closely timed with photosynthetic reactivation measured by gas exchange. The PRI provided a clear optical indicator of spring photosynthetic activation that was detectable at leaf and stand scales in conifers. We propose that PRI might provide a useful metric of effective growing season length amenable to remote sensing and could improve remote-sensing-driven models of carbon uptake in evergreen ecosystems. © 2015 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2015 New Phytologist Trust.

  17. Validation of photosynthetic-fluorescence parameters as biomarkers for isoproturon toxic effect on alga Scenedesmus obliquus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dewez, David; Didur, Olivier; Vincent-Heroux, Jonathan [University of Quebec in Montreal, Department of Chemistry, Environmental Toxicology Research Center - TOXEN, 2101, Jeanne-Mance, Montreal, Quebec H2X 2J6 (Canada); Popovic, Radovan [University of Quebec in Montreal, Department of Chemistry, Environmental Toxicology Research Center - TOXEN, 2101, Jeanne-Mance, Montreal, Quebec H2X 2J6 (Canada)], E-mail: popovic.radovan@uqam.ca

    2008-01-15

    Photosynthetic-fluorescence parameters were investigated to be used as valid biomarkers of toxicity when alga Scenedesmus obliquus was exposed to isoproturon [3-(4-isopropylphenyl)-1,1-dimethylurea] effect. Chlorophyll fluorescence induction of algal cells treated with isoproturon showed inactivation of photosystem II (PSII) reaction centers and strong inhibition of PSII electron transport. A linear correlation was found (R{sup 2} {>=} 0.861) between the change of cells density affected by isoproturon and the change of effective PSII quantum yield ({phi}{sub M'}), photochemical quenching (q{sub P}) and relative photochemical quenching (q{sub P(rel)}) values. The cells density was also linearly dependent (R{sup 2} = 0.838) on the relative unquenched fluorescence parameter (UQF{sub (rel)}). Non-linear correlation was found (R{sup 2} = 0.937) only between cells density and the energy transfer efficiency from absorbed light to PSII reaction center (ABS/RC). The order of sensitivity determined by the EC-50% was: UQF{sub (rel)} > {phi}{sub M'} > q{sub P} > q{sub P(rel)} > ABS/RC. Correlations between cells density and those photosynthetic-fluorescence parameters provide supporting evidence to use them as biomarkers of toxicity for environmental pollutants. - Photosynthetic-fluorescence parameters are reliable biomarkers of isoproturon toxicity.

  18. Cyanobacteria as photosynthetic biocatalysts: a systems biology perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gudmundsson, Steinn; Nogales, Juan

    2015-01-01

    The increasing need to replace oil-based products and to address global climate change concerns has triggered considerable interest in photosynthetic microorganisms. Cyanobacteria, in particular, have great potential as biocatalysts for fuels and fine-chemicals. During the last few years the biotechnological applications of cyanobacteria have experienced an unprecedented increase and the use of these photosynthetic organisms for chemical production is becoming a tangible reality. However, the field is still immature and many concerns about the economic feasibility of the biotechnological potential of cyanobacteria remain. In this review we describe recent successes in biofuel and fine-chemical production using cyanobacteria. We discuss the role of the photosynthetic metabolism and highlight the need for systems-level metabolic optimization in order to achieve the true potential of cyanobacterial biocatalysts.

  19. Superradiance Transition and Nonphotochemical Quenching in Photosynthetic Complexes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berman, Gennady Petrovich [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Nesterov, Alexander [Universidad de Guadalajara, Departamento de Fısica, Jalisco (Mexico); Lopez, Gustavo [Universidad de Guadalajara, Departamento de Fısica, Jalisco (Mexico); Sayre, Richard Thomas [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-04-23

    Photosynthetic organisms have evolved protective strategies to allow them to survive in cases of intense sunlight fluctuation with the development of nonphotochemical quenching (NPQ). This process allows light harvesting complexes to transfer the excess sunlight energy to non-damaging quenching channels. This report compares the NPQ process with the superradiance transition (ST). We demonstrated that the maximum of the NPQ efficiency is caused by the ST to the sink associated with the CTS. However, experimental verifications are required in order to determine whether or not the NPQ regime is associated with the ST transition for real photosynthetic complexes. Indeed, it can happen that, in the photosynthetic apparatus, the NPQ regime occurs in the “non-optimal” region of parameters, and it could be independent of the ST.

  20. A Sustainable Closed-Loop Supply Chain Decision Mechanism in the Electronic Sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiafu Su

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available In a closed-loop supply chain for electronic products, the manufacturer’s priority is to enhance the residual value of the collected end-of-use product and decide whether to outsource this business to a retailer, a third-party service, or retain it exclusively. In this paper, we constructed three models to study the decision mechanism in a closed-loop supply chain, with different players selected to collect the used product. By comparing the three models, we characterized the conditions under which the manufacturer will benefit most, and we then aimed to determine the best choice for the manufacturer. Our findings show that, when the retailer and the third-party service provider provide equal performance in collecting the used product, the manufacturer will give priority to the third-party service provider if they choose to outsource this business. If the reverse flows managed by the retailer result in a higher payoff for the manufacturer, then the manufacturer will choose to outsource this business to the retailer who will also benefit.

  1. Nitric Oxide is Required for Homeostasis of Oxygen and Reactive Oxygen Species in Barley Roots under Aerobic Conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gupta, Kapuganti J; Hebelstrup, Kim; Kruger, Nicholas J

    2014-01-01

    Oxygen, the terminal electron acceptor for mitochondrial electron transport, is vital for plants because of its role in the production of ATP by oxidative phosphorylation. While photosynthetic oxygen production contributes to the oxygen supply in leaves, reducing the risk of oxygen limitation of ...... electron transport chain (Gupta et al., 2011). Thus, NO could influence oxygen consumption under normal aerobic conditions in roots, and it is this specific function that is assessed here.......Oxygen, the terminal electron acceptor for mitochondrial electron transport, is vital for plants because of its role in the production of ATP by oxidative phosphorylation. While photosynthetic oxygen production contributes to the oxygen supply in leaves, reducing the risk of oxygen limitation...

  2. Photosynthetic capacities of mature tropical forest trees in Rwanda are linked to successional group identity rather than to leaf nutrient content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dusenge, Mirindi Eric; Wallin, Göran; Gårdesten, Johanna; Adolfsson, Lisa; Niyonzima, Felix; Nsabimana, Donat; Uddling, Johan

    2014-05-01

    Tropical forests are crucial in the global carbon balance, yet information required to estimate how much carbon that enter these ecosystems through photosynthesis is very limited, in particular for Africa and for tropical montane forests. In order to increases the knowledge of natural variability of photosynthetic capacities in tropical tree species in tropical Africa, measurements of leaf traits and gas exchange were conducted on sun and shade leaves of ten tree species growing in two tropical forests in Rwanda in central Africa. Seven species were studied in Ruhande Arboretum, a forest plantation at mid altitude (1700 m), and six species in Nyungwe National Park, a cooler and higher altitude (at 2500 m) montane rainforest. Three species were common to both sites. At Nyungwe, three species each belonged to the successional groups pioneer and climax species. Climax species had considerably lower maximum rates of photosynthetic carboxylation (Vcmax) and electron transport (Jmax) than pioneer species. This difference was not related to leaf nutrient content, but rather seemed to be caused by differences in within-leaf N allocation between the two successional groups. With respect to N, leaves of climax species invested less N into photosynthetic enzymes (as judged by lower Vcmax and Jmax values) and more N into chlorophyll (as judged by higher SPAD values). Photosynthetic capacities, (i.e., Jmax and Vcmax), Jmax to Vcmax ratio and P content were significantly higher in Nyungwe than in Arboretum. Sun leaves had higher photosynthetic capacities and nutrient content than shade leaves. Across the entire dataset, variation in photosynthetic capacities among species was not related to leaf nutrient content, although significant relationships were found within individual species. This study contributes critical tropical data for global carbon models and suggests that, for montane rainforest trees of different functional types, successional group identity is a better

  3. Photosynthetic production of diterpenoids in chloroplasts and cyanobacteria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vavitsas, Konstantinos

    Terpenoids are one of the largest classes of chemical compounds, some of them with industrial interest as nutraceuticals, biofuels, or chemical feedstocks. Diterpenoids are a large terpenoid subclass, and their chemical structure consists of a core skeleton of 20 carbon atoms. This skeleton can...... be further modified by cyclizing enzymes, and be decorated by the addition of chemical groups. Even though they are mainly plant-derived compounds, diterpenoid production in photosynthetic organisms is rather unexplored, with a few successful studies reported in the literature. In this thesis, I elaborate...... on the potential of using plant chloroplasts and cyanobacteria as biosynthetic vessels, with a focus on diterpenoid production, and on the potential direct linking of photosynthesis to drive electron-consuming enzymes, such as the monooxygenases cytochrome P450s. I subsequently present the full localization...

  4. Interactions between heavy metals and photosynthetic materials studied by optical techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ventrella, Andrea; Catucci, Lucia; Piletska, Elena; Piletsky, Sergey; Agostiano, Angela

    2009-11-01

    In this work studies on rapid inhibitory interactions between heavy metals and photosynthetic materials at different organization levels were carried out by optical assay techniques, investigating the possibility of applications in the heavy metal detection field. Spinach chloroplasts, thylakoids and Photosystem II proteins were employed as biotools in combination with colorimetric assays based on dichlorophenol indophenole (DCIP) photoreduction and on fluorescence emission techniques. It was found that copper and mercury demonstrated a strong and rapid photosynthetic activity inhibition, that varied from proteins to membranes, while other metals like nickel, cobalt and manganese produced only slight inhibition effects on all tested photosynthetic materials. By emission measurements, only copper was found to rapidly influence the photosynthetic material signals. These findings give interesting information about the rapid effects of heavy metals on isolated photosynthetic samples, and are in addition to the literature data concerning the effects of growth in heavy metal enriched media.

  5. Ferromagnetic pairing states on two-coupled chains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, Akinori

    2008-01-01

    We propose a concrete model which exhibits ferromagnetism and electron-pair condensation simultaneously. The model is defined on two chains and consists of the electron hopping term, the on-site Coulomb repulsion and a ferromagnetic interaction which describes ferromagnetic coupling between two electrons, one on a bond in a chain and the other on a site in the other chain. It is rigorously shown that the model has fully-polarized ferromagnetic pairing ground states. The higher dimensional version of the model is also presented

  6. Photosynthetic and nitrogen fixation capability in several soybean mutant lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gandanegara, S.; Hendratno, K.

    1987-01-01

    Photosynthetic and nitrogen fixation capability in several soybean mutant lines. A greenhouse experiment has been carried out to study photosynthetic and nitrogen fixation capability of five mutant lines and two soybean varieties. An amount of 330 uCi of 14 CO 2 was fed to the plants including of the non-fixing reference crop (Chippewa non-nodulating isoline). Nitrogen fixation measurements was carried out using 15 N isotope dilution technique according to A-value concept. Results showed that beside variety/mutant lines, plant growth also has important role in photosynthetic and N fixing capability. Better growth and a higher photosynthetic capability in Orba, mutant lines nos. 63 and 65 resulted in a greater amount of N 2 fixed (mg N/plant) than other mutant lines. (author). 12 refs.; 5 figs

  7. A taxonomy of green supply chain management capability among electronics-related manufacturing firms in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shang, Kuo-Chung; Lu, Chin-Shan; Li, Shaorui

    2010-05-01

    This study investigated crucial green supply chain management (GSCM) capability dimensions and firm performance based on electronics-related manufacturing firms in Taiwan. On the basis of a factor analysis, six green supply chain management dimensions were identified: green manufacturing and packaging, environmental participation, green marketing, green suppliers, green stock, and green eco-design. According to their factor scores in the GSCM dimensions, a cluster analysis subsequently assigned responding firms into four groups, namely, the weak GSCM oriented group, the green marketing oriented group, the green supplier oriented group, and the green stock oriented group. Differences in firm performance and GSCM dimensions among groups were examined. Results indicated that the green marketing oriented group performed best. Based on the resource-based view (RBV), the capability of the green marketing oriented group was considered to be the deployment of a collection of resources that enables it to successfully compete against rivals. The importance of green marketing as a GSCM capability and strategic asset/critical resources for electronics-related manufacturing firms to obtain a competitive edge is therefore highlighted in this study. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Tunnel current across linear homocatenated germanium chains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuura, Yukihito

    2014-01-01

    The electronic transport properties of germanium oligomers catenating into linear chains (linear Ge chains) have been theoretically studied using first principle methods. The conduction mechanism of a Ge chain sandwiched between gold electrodes was analyzed based on the density of states and the eigenstates of the molecule in a two-probe environment. Like that of silicon chains (Si chains), the highest occupied molecular orbital of Ge chains contains the extended σ-conjugation of Ge 4p orbitals at energy levels close to the Fermi level; this is in contrast to the electronic properties of linear carbon chains. Furthermore, the conductance of a Ge chain is expected to decrease exponentially with molecular length L. The decay constant β, which is defined as e −βL , of a Ge chain is similar to that of a Si chain, whereas the conductance of the Ge chains is higher than that of Si chains even though the Ge–Ge bond length is longer than the Si–Si bond length

  9. Electron ionization of open/closed chain isocarbonic molecules relevant in plasma processing: Theoretical cross sections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patel, Umang R.; Joshipura, K. N.; Pandya, Siddharth H.; Kothari, Harshit N.

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we report theoretical electron impact ionization cross sections from threshold to 2000 eV for isocarbonic open chain molecules C 4 H 6 , C 4 H 8 , C 4 F 6 including their isomers, and closed chain molecules c-C 4 H 8 and c-C 4 F 8 . Theoretical formalism employed presently, viz., Complex Scattering Potential-ionization contribution method has been used successfully for a variety of polyatomic molecules. The present ionization calculations are very important since results available for the studied targets are either scarce or none. Our work affords comparison of C 4 containing hydrocarbon versus fluorocarbon molecules. Comparisons of the present ionization cross sections are made wherever possible, and new ionization data are also presented

  10. Long-term drought modifies the fundamental relationships between light exposure, leaf nitrogen content and photosynthetic capacity in leaves of the lychee tree (Litchi chinensis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damour, Gaëlle; Vandame, Marc; Urban, Laurent

    2008-09-08

    Drought has dramatic negative effects on plants' growth and crop productivity. Although some of the responses and underlying mechanisms are still poorly understood, there is increasing evidence that drought may have a negative effect on photosynthetic capacity. Biochemical models of leaf photosynthesis coupled with models of radiation transfer have been widely used in ecophysiological studies, and, more recently, in global change modeling. They are based on two fundamental relationships at the scale of the leaf: (i) nitrogen content-light exposure and (ii) photosynthetic capacity-nitrogen content. Although drought is expected to increase in many places across the world, such models are not adapted to drought conditions. More specifically, the effects of drought on the two fundamental relationships are not well documented. The objective of our study was to investigate the effects of a long-term drought imposed slowly on the nitrogen content and photosynthetic capacity of leaves similarly exposed to light, from 3-year-old lychee trees cv. Kwaï Mi. Leaf nitrogen and non-structural carbohydrate concentrations were measured along with gas exchanges and the light-saturated rate of photosynthetic electron transport (J(max)) after a 5.5-month-long period of drought. Leaf nitrogen content on a mass basis remained stable, while the leaf mass-to-area ratio (LMA) increased with increasing water stress. Consequently, the leaf nitrogen content on an area basis (N(a)) increased in a non-linear fashion. The starch content decreased, while the soluble sugar content increased. Stomata closed and net assimilation decreased to zero, while J(max) and the ratio J(max)/N(a) decreased with increasing water stress. The drought-associated decrease in photosynthetic capacity can be attributed to downregulation of photosynthetic electron transport and to reallocation of leaf nitrogen content. It is concluded that modeling photosynthesis in drought conditions will require, first, the modeling

  11. SOUR CHERRY (Prunus cerasus L. GENETIC VARIABILITY AND PHOTOSYNTHETIC EFFICIENCY DURING DROUGHT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marija Viljevac

    2012-12-01

    , trapping excitons and the conversion of excitation energy due to charge separation that drives electron transport. Water deficiency generally caused certain decrease of PIABS, leaf relative water content, and photosynthetic pigments content depending on genotype. Accordingly, cv. Oblačinska, including all investigated genotypes with particular respect to OS, was proved to be the most tolerant one to drought stress compared to the cvs. Maraska, Cigančica and Kelleris 16.

  12. Cannabinoid-Induced Changes in the Activity of Electron Transport Chain Complexes of Brain Mitochondria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Namrata; Hroudová, Jana; Fišar, Zdeněk

    2015-08-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate changes in the activity of individual mitochondrial respiratory chain complexes (I, II/III, IV) and citrate synthase induced by pharmacologically different cannabinoids. In vitro effects of selected cannabinoids on mitochondrial enzymes were measured in crude mitochondrial fraction isolated from pig brain. Both cannabinoid receptor agonists, Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol, anandamide, and R-(+)-WIN55,212-2, and antagonist/inverse agonists of cannabinoid receptors, AM251, and cannabidiol were examined in pig brain mitochondria. Different effects of these cannabinoids on mitochondrial respiratory chain complexes and citrate synthase were found. Citrate synthase activity was decreased only by Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol and AM251. Significant increase in the complex I activity was induced by anandamide. At micromolar concentration, all the tested cannabinoids inhibited the activity of electron transport chain complexes II/III and IV. Stimulatory effect of anandamide on activity of complex I may participate on distinct physiological effects of endocannabinoids compared to phytocannabinoids or synthetic cannabinoids. Common inhibitory effect of cannabinoids on activity of complex II/III and IV confirmed a non-receptor-mediated mechanism of cannabinoid action on individual components of system of oxidative phosphorylation.

  13. Lysine desuccinylase SIRT5 binds to cardiolipin and regulates the electron transport chain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yuxun; Bharathi, Sivakama S; Rardin, Matthew J; Lu, Jie; Maringer, Katherine V; Sims-Lucas, Sunder; Prochownik, Edward V; Gibson, Bradford W; Goetzman, Eric S

    2017-06-16

    SIRT5 is a lysine desuccinylase known to regulate mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation and the urea cycle. Here, SIRT5 was observed to bind to cardiolipin via an amphipathic helix on its N terminus. In vitro , succinyl-CoA was used to succinylate liver mitochondrial membrane proteins. SIRT5 largely reversed the succinyl-CoA-driven lysine succinylation. Quantitative mass spectrometry of SIRT5-treated membrane proteins pointed to the electron transport chain, particularly Complex I, as being highly targeted for desuccinylation by SIRT5. Correspondingly, SIRT5 -/- HEK293 cells showed defects in both Complex I- and Complex II-driven respiration. In mouse liver, SIRT5 expression was observed to localize strictly to the periportal hepatocytes. However, homogenates prepared from whole SIRT5 -/- liver did show reduced Complex II-driven respiration. The enzymatic activities of Complex II and ATP synthase were also significantly reduced. Three-dimensional modeling of Complex II suggested that several SIRT5-targeted lysine residues lie at the protein-lipid interface of succinate dehydrogenase subunit B. We postulate that succinylation at these sites may disrupt Complex II subunit-subunit interactions and electron transfer. Lastly, SIRT5 -/- mice, like humans with Complex II deficiency, were found to have mild lactic acidosis. Our findings suggest that SIRT5 is targeted to protein complexes on the inner mitochondrial membrane via affinity for cardiolipin to promote respiratory chain function. © 2017 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  14. Animated Powerpoint Presentations for Teaching Operations and Supply Chain Management: Perceived Value and Electronic Exchange of Files

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treleven, Mark D.; Penlesky, Richard J.; Callarman, Thomas E.; Watts, Charles A.; Bragg, Daniel J.

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents the innovation of sharing animated PowerPoint presentations used in teaching operations and supply chain management techniques and concepts through an international electronic exchange. The plan for the exchange is presented and discussed. The potential benefits to faculty and students of using PowerPoint animations in…

  15. Learning How the Electron Transport Chain Works: Independent and Interactive Effects of Instructional Strategies and Learners' Characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darabi, Aubteen; Arrastia-Lloyd, Meagan C.; Nelson, David W.; Liang, Xinya; Farrell, Jennifer

    2015-01-01

    In order to develop an expert-like mental model of complex systems, causal reasoning is essential. This study examines the differences between forward and backward instructional strategies in terms of efficiency, students' learning and progression of their mental models of the electronic transport chain in an undergraduate metabolism course…

  16. Investigation of the structure of photosynthetic reaction centers. Progress report, June 1, 1981-April 1, 1982

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    van Willigen, H.

    1982-04-01

    The investigation is concerned with the application of Electron Nuclear Double Resonance (ENDOR) and Electron Nuclear Triple Resonance (TRIPLE) in the study of the photo excited triplet state of photosynthetic resonance methods hyperfine interactions between unpaired electrons and nuclear spins can be measured, giving an insight in the electronic and geometric structure of paramagnetic systems. During this initial phase of the project, research has focused on the following areas. (1) Instrumental aspects associated with the application of ENDOR and TRIPLE on the photo excited triplets randomly oriented in solid solution. (2) Exploration of the conditions required for these studies employing ground state triplet systems. (3) Study of photo excited triplet states of model systems such as naphthylene, zinc and magnesium tetraphenyl-porphyrin in polymethylmethacrylate or polycrystalline benzophenone. Progress made in these areas is discussed

  17. A simple analytical model for electronic conductance in a one dimensional atomic chain across a defect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khater, Antoine; Szczesniak, Dominik

    2011-01-01

    An analytical model is presented for the electronic conductance in a one dimensional atomic chain across an isolated defect. The model system consists of two semi infinite lead atomic chains with the defect atom making the junction between the two leads. The calculation is based on a linear combination of atomic orbitals in the tight-binding approximation, with a single atomic one s-like orbital chosen in the present case. The matching method is used to derive analytical expressions for the scattering cross sections for the reflection and transmission processes across the defect, in the Landauer-Buttiker representation. These analytical results verify the known limits for an infinite atomic chain with no defects. The model can be applied numerically for one dimensional atomic systems supported by appropriate templates. It is also of interest since it would help establish efficient procedures for ensemble averages over a field of impurity configurations in real physical systems.

  18. Changes in mitochondrial electron transport chain activity during insect metamorphosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamberlin, M E

    2007-02-01

    The midgut of the tobacco hornworm (Manduca sexta) is a highly aerobic tissue that is destroyed by programmed cell death during larval-pupal metamorphosis. The death of the epithelium begins after commitment to pupation, and the oxygen consumption of isolated midgut mitochondria decreases soon after commitment. To assess the role of the electron transport chain in this decline in mitochondrial function, the maximal activities of complexes I-IV of the respiratory chain were measured in isolated midgut mitochondria. Whereas there were no developmental changes in the activity of complex I or III, activities of complexes II and IV [cytochrome c oxidase (COX)] were higher in mitochondria from precommitment than postcommitment larvae. This finding is consistent with a higher rate of succinate oxidation in mitochondria isolated from precommitment larvae and reveals that the metamorphic decline in mitochondrial respiration is due to the targeted destruction or inactivation of specific sites within the mitochondria, rather than the indiscriminate destruction of the organelles. The COX turnover number (e- x s(-1) x cytochrome aa3(-1)) was greater for the enzyme from precommitment than postcommitment larvae, indicating a change in the enzyme structure and/or its lipid environment during the early stages of metamorphosis. The turnover number of COX in the intact mitochondria (in organello COX) was also lower in postcommitment larvae. In addition to changes in the protein or membrane phospholipids, the metamorphic decline in this rate constant may be a result of the observed loss of endogenous cytochrome c.

  19. Revealing Linear Aggregates of Light Harvesting Antenna Proteins in Photosynthetic Membranes

    OpenAIRE

    He, Yufan; Zeng, Xiaohua; Mukherjee, Saptarshi; Rajapaksha, Suneth; Kaplan, Samuel; Lu, H. Peter

    2010-01-01

    How light energy is harvested in a natural photosynthetic membrane through energy transfer is closely related to the stoichiometry and arrangement of light harvesting antenna proteins in the membrane. The specific photosynthetic architecture facilitates a rapid and efficient energy transfer among the light harvesting proteins (LH2 and LH1) and to the reaction center. Here we report the identification of linear aggregates of light harvesting proteins, LH2, in the photosynthetic membranes under...

  20. The electronic spectrum of a quasiperiodic potential: From the Hofstadter butterfly to the Fibonacci chain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naumis, Gerardo G.; Lopez-Rodriguez, F.J.

    2008-01-01

    We show that an electronic tight-binding Hamiltonian, defined in a quasiperiodic chain with an on-site potential given by a Fibonacci sequence, can be obtained using a superposition of Harper potentials. Since the spectrum of the Harper equation as a function of the magnetic flux is a fractal set, known as the Hofstadter butterfly, we follow the transformation of the butterfly to a new one that contains the Fibonacci potential and related approximants. As a result, the equation in reciprocal space for the Fibonacci case has the form of a chain with long range interaction between Fourier components. Then, the structure of the resulting spectrum is analyzed by calculating the components in reciprocal space of the related potentials. As an application, the correlator of each potential and some localization properties are obtained

  1. Effect of alkyl chain length of imidazolium cations on the electron transport and recombination kinetics in ionic gel electrolytes based quasi-solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huo, Zhipeng; Tao, Li; Wang, Lu; Zhu, Jun; Chen, Shuanghong; Zhang, Changneng; Dai, Songyuan; Zhang, Bing

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: •A series of novel IGEs based on 12-hydroxystearicacid as LMOG were prepared. •The QS-DSSCs exhibit excellent stability during the accelerated aging tests. •The influence of Im + alkyl chain length on the electron kinetic process is investigated. -- Abstract: A series of stable quasi-solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells (QS-DSSCs) are prepared by the 12-hydroxystearicacid as low molecular mass organogelator (LMOG) to gelate the ionic liquid with different alkyl chain lengths (3, 4, and 7). The influence of alkyl chain length of imidazolium cations (Im + ) on the kinetic processes of electron transport and recombination are investigated by Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and intensity-modulated photocurrent spectroscopy/intensity-modulated photovoltage spectroscopy (IMPS/IMVS). It is found that the ionic gel electrolytes (IGEs) with different alkyl chain lengths of Im + can influence the competitive adsorption effects of imidazolium cations (Im + ) and Li + , and further affect the charge diffusion, the electron recombination/transport processes, the shift of TiO 2 conduction band edge and surface states distribution. The IGE with longer alkyl chain length of Im + can prolong the electron recombination lifetime, promote the incidental photon-to-electron conversion efficiency (IPCE) and the short circuit photocurrent density (J sc ). An excellent QS-DSSC based on the IGE with the longer alkyl chain of Im + gives the highest photoelectric conversion efficiency. Moreover, all the QS-DSSCs based on IGEs exhibit excellent durability without losing their photovoltaic performances during the accelerated thermal and light–soaking test. These results are very important to the researches on the electrochemical mechanism and application of QS-DSSCs based on IGEs

  2. Dynamics of electron wave packet in a disordered chain with delayed nonlinear response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Hongjun; Xiong Shijie

    2010-01-01

    We investigate the dynamics of one electron wave packet in a linear chain with random on-site energies and a nonadiabatic electron-phonon interaction which is described by a delayed cubic nonlinear term in the time-dependent Schroedinger equation. We show that in the regime where the wave packet is delocalized in the case with only the delayed nonlinearity, the wave packet becomes localized when the disorder is added and the localization is enhanced by increasing the disorder. In the regime where the self-trapping phenomenon occurs in the case with only the delayed nonlinearity, by adding the disorder the general dynamical features of the wave packet do not change if the nonlinearity parameter is small, but the dynamics shows the subdiffusive behavior if the nonlinearity parameter is large. The numerical results demonstrate complicated wave packet dynamics of systems with both the disorder and nonlinearity.

  3. The effect of nitrogen on the development and photosynthetic activity ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Whole plant net photosynthetic rates appeared to vary according to the units in which the activity is expressed. The optimum levels of photosynthetic activity differed with the stage of development, depending on the basis of expression. The form and concentration of nitrogen applied influenced morphological development ...

  4. Evaluation of Protocols for Measuring Leaf Photosynthetic Properties of Field-Grown Rice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang Tian-gen

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Largely due to the heterogeneity of environmental parameters and the logistical difficulty of moving photosynthetic equipment in the paddy fields, effective measurement of lowland rice photosynthesis is still a challenge. In this study, we showed that measuring detached rice leaves in the laboratory can not effectively represent the parameters measured in situ. We further described a new indoor facility, high-efficiency all-weather photosynthetic measurement system (HAPS, and the associated measurement protocol to enable whole-weather measurement of photosynthetic parameters of rice grown in the paddy fields. Using HAPS, we can conduct photosynthetic measurements with a time span much longer than that appropriate for the outdoor measurements. Comparative study shows that photosynthetic parameters obtained with the new protocol can effectively represent the parameters in the fields. There was much less standard deviation for measurements using HAPS compared to the outdoor measurements, no matter for technical replications of each recording or for biological replications of each leaf position. This new facility and protocol enables rice photosynthetic physiology studies to be less tough but more efficient, and provides a potential option for large scale studies of rice leaf photosynthesis.

  5. Using the Electronic Industry Code of Conduct to Evaluate Green Supply Chain Management: An Empirical Study of Taiwan’s Computer Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ching-Ching Liu

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Electronics companies throughout Asia recognize the benefits of Green Supply Chain Management (GSCM for gaining competitive advantage. A large majority of electronics companies in Taiwan have recently adopted the Electronic Industry Citizenship Coalition (EICC Code of Conduct for defining and managing their social and environmental responsibilities throughout their supply chains. We surveyed 106 Tier 1 suppliers to the Taiwanese computer industry to determine their environmental performance using the EICC Code of Conduct (EICC Code and performed Analysis of Variance (ANOVA on the 63/106 questionnaire responses collected. We test the results to determine whether differences in product type, geographic area, and supplier size correlate with different levels of environmental performance. To our knowledge, this is the first study to analyze questionnaire data on supplier adoption to optimize the implementation of GSCM. The results suggest that characteristic classification of suppliers could be employed to enhance the efficiency of GSCM.

  6. Special issue of photosynthetic research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Okamura, M.; Wraight, C.A.; van Grondelle, R.

    2014-01-01

    This Special Issue of Photosynthesis Research honors Louis M. N. Duysens, Roderick K. Clayton, and George Feher, three pioneering researchers whose work on bacterial photosynthesis laid much of the groundwork for our understanding of the role of the reaction center in photosynthetic light energy

  7. Ultrafast fluorescence of photosynthetic crystals and light-harvesting complexes

    OpenAIRE

    Oort, van, B.F.

    2008-01-01

    This thesis focuses on the study of photosynthetic pigment protein complexes using time resolved fluorescence techniques. Fluorescence spectroscopy often requires attaching fluorescent labels to the proteins under investigation. With photosynthetic proteins this is not necessary, because these proteins contain fluorescent pigments. Each pigment’s fluorescence is influenced by its environment, and thereby may provide information on structure and dynamics of pigment protein complexes in vitro a...

  8. Conversion of solar energy into electricity by using duckweed in Direct Photosynthetic Plant Fuel Cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubenova, Yolina; Mitov, Mario

    2012-10-01

    In the present study we demonstrate for the first time the possibility for conversion of solar energy into electricity on the principles of Direct Photosynthetic Plant Fuel Cell (DPPFC) technology by using aquatic higher plants. Lemna minuta duckweed was grown autotrophically in specially constructed fuel cells under sunlight irradiation and laboratory lighting. Current and power density up to 1.62±0.10 A.m(-2) and 380±19 mW.m(-2), respectively, were achieved under sunlight conditions. The influence of the temperature, light intensity and day/night sequencing on the current generation was investigated. The importance of the light intensity was demonstrated by the higher values of generated current (at permanently connected resistance) during daytime than those through the nights, indicating the participation of light-dependent photosynthetic processes. The obtained DPPFC outputs in the night show the contribution of light-independent reactions (respiration). The electron transfer in the examined DPPFCs is associated with a production of endogenous mediator, secreted by the duckweed. The plants' adaptive response to the applied polarization is also connected with an enhanced metabolism resulting in an increase of the protein and carbohydrate intracellular content. Further investigations aiming at improvement of the DPPFC outputs and elucidation of the electron transfer mechanism are required for practical application. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Photosynthetic rate, dry matter accumulation and yield inter-relationships jn genotypes of rice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Devendra, R.; Udaya Kumar, M.; Krishna Sastry, K.S.

    1980-01-01

    The relationship between photosynthetic efficiency, dry matter accumulation and yield in five genotypes of paddy derived from a single cross between Jaya X Halubbalu was studied. Photosynthetic efficiency of younger leaves, on the main tiller was higher than in the older leaves. A significant positive correlation between RuDPcase activity and photosynthetic efficiency was observed in these genotypes. Also a similar positive correlation between dry matter production and photosynthetic efficiency during vegetative period but not during post-anthesis period was observed. Genotypes with high photosynthetic efficiency and also the genotypes with high LAD produced higher dry matter. A reduction in LAD or in photosynthetic efficiency during the post-anthesis period and thus a reduction in source capacity which occurred specially in late types resulted in a lesser ratio between productive and total tillers and also higher percent sterility. Differences in yield amongst the genotypes were not significant, since in the late types MR. 333 and MR. 335, the post-anthesis dry matter production was low due to lesser source capacity. But in the early types, though the total dry matter was less, the post-anthesis source capacity was high. The importance of post-anthesis leaf area of photo-synthetic efficiency in productivity in genotypes of rice is highlighted. (author)

  10. The effect of triazine - and urea - type herbicides on photosynthetic apparatus in cucumber leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jolanta Jerzykiewicz

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available About a half of the herbicides used at present in agnculture inhibit the light reactions in photosynthesis. Triazines and phenylureas shut down the photosynthetic process in susceptible plants by binding to specific sites within the plants photosystem II (PS II complex. Both of them bind at the QB site on the Dl protein of PS II, and prevent the transport of electrons between the primary electron acceptor Q and the plastoquinone (PQ. Herbicides can be highly toxic to human and animal health (triazines are possible human carcinogens. Their indiscriminate use has serious environmental implications, for example pollution of soil and water. We compare two heibicides to investigate the one of lowest environmental toxicity but of high toxicity to weeds.

  11. Influence of sub-lethal crude oil concentration on growth, water relations and photosynthetic capacity of maize (Zea mays L.) plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Athar, Habib-Ur-Rehman; Ambreen, Sarah; Javed, Muhammad; Hina, Mehwish; Rasul, Sumaira; Zafar, Zafar Ullah; Manzoor, Hamid; Ogbaga, Chukwuma C; Afzal, Muhammad; Al-Qurainy, Fahad; Ashraf, Muhammad

    2016-09-01

    Maize tolerance potential to oil pollution was assessed by growing Zea mays in soil contaminated with varying levels of crude oil (0, 2.5 and 5.0 % v/w basis). Crude oil contamination reduced soil microflora which may be beneficial to plant growth. It was observed that oil pollution caused a remarkable decrease in biomass, leaf water potential, turgor potential, photosynthetic pigments, quantum yield of photosystem II (PSII) (Fv/Fm), net CO2 assimilation rate, leaf nitrogen and total free amino acids. Gas exchange characteristics suggested that reduction in photosynthetic rate was mainly due to metabolic limitations. Fast chlorophyll a kinetic analysis suggested that crude oil damaged PSII donor and acceptor sides and downregulated electron transport as well as PSI end electron acceptors thereby resulting in lower PSII efficiency in converting harvested light energy into biochemical energy. However, maize plants tried to acclimate to moderate level of oil pollution by increasing root diameter and root length relative to its shoot biomass, to uptake more water and mineral nutrients.

  12. Electron transfer and photophosphorylation in mitochondria of buckwheat after irradiation of seeds with. gamma. -rays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guseva, V A; Kurganova, L N; Gorlanova, T M [Gor' kovskij Gosudarstvennyj Univ. (USSR)

    1974-11-01

    Pre-sowing irradiation of seeds at 500 R activates the transfer of electrons by photosynthetic electron transfer path of isolated buchwheat chloroplasts in the ontogenesis and stimulates the conjugated photosynthetic phosphorilation. An increased content of NADPxH/sub 2/ is observed along with an elevated level of ATP production. Intensification of oxidative phosphorilation and growth of the P/O ratio of mitochondria has been shown in the ''irradiated'' plants, together with a concomitant increase of ATPhase activity in chloroplasts and mitochondria.

  13. Clarifying the supercomplex: the higher-order organization of the mitochondrial electron transport chain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Letts, James A; Sazanov, Leonid A

    2017-10-05

    The oxidative phosphorylation electron transport chain (OXPHOS-ETC) of the inner mitochondrial membrane is composed of five large protein complexes, named CI-CV. These complexes convert energy from the food we eat into ATP, a small molecule used to power a multitude of essential reactions throughout the cell. OXPHOS-ETC complexes are organized into supercomplexes (SCs) of defined stoichiometry: CI forms a supercomplex with CIII 2 and CIV (SC I+III 2 +IV, known as the respirasome), as well as with CIII 2 alone (SC I+III 2 ). CIII 2 forms a supercomplex with CIV (SC III 2 +IV) and CV forms dimers (CV 2 ). Recent cryo-EM studies have revealed the structures of SC I+III 2 +IV and SC I+III 2 . Furthermore, recent work has shed light on the assembly and function of the SCs. Here we review and compare these recent studies and discuss how they have advanced our understanding of mitochondrial electron transport.

  14. product chain collaboration and environmental innovations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Remmen, Arne; Mosgaard, Mette

    2004-01-01

    The paper  builds upon a case study from a number of electronic companies in Denmark and describes from an organisational perspective how organisations make environmental innovations in the product chain.......The paper  builds upon a case study from a number of electronic companies in Denmark and describes from an organisational perspective how organisations make environmental innovations in the product chain....

  15. Phytochromes in photosynthetically competent plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pratt, L.H.

    1990-07-01

    Plants utilize light as a source of information in photomorphogenesis and of free energy in photosynthesis, two processes that are interrelated in that the former serves to increase the efficiency with which plants can perform the latter. Only one pigment involved in photomorphogenesis has been identified unequivocally, namely phytochrome. The thrust of this proposal is to investigate this pigment and its mode(s) of action in photosynthetically competent plants. Our long term objective is to characterize phytochrome and its functions in photosynthetically competent plants from molecular, biochemical and cellular perspectives. It is anticipated that others will continue to contribute indirectly to these efforts at the physiological level. The ultimate goal will be to develop this information from a comparative perspective in order to learn whether the different phytochromes have significantly different physicochemical properties, whether they fulfill independent functions and if so what these different functions are, and how each of the different phytochromes acts at primary molecular and cellular levels.

  16. Differential sensitivity of light-harnessing photosynthetic events in wheat and sunflower to exogenously applied ionic and nanoparticulate silver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pardha-Saradhi, P; Shabnam, Nisha; Sharmila, P; Ganguli, Ashok K; Kim, Hyunook

    2018-03-01

    Potential impacts of inevitable leaks of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) into environment on human beings need attention. Owing to the vitality of photosynthesis in maintaining life and ecosystem functioning, impacts of exogenously applied nanoparticulate and Ag + on photosystem (PS)II function, which governs overall photosynthesis, in wheat and sunflower were evaluated. PSII efficiency and related Chl a fluorescence kinetics of these two plants remained unaffected by AgNPs. However, Ag + caused a significant decline in the PSII activity and related fluorescence steps in wheat, but not in sunflower. Electron flow between Q A and PQ pool was found most sensitive to Ag + . Number of active reaction centers, electron transport, trapping of absorbed light for photochemistry, and performance index declined, while dissipation of absorbed light energy as heat significantly increased in wheat exposed to Ag + . Total antioxidant activity in sunflower was least affected by both Ag and AgNPs. In contrast, in the case of wheat, the antioxidant activity was declined by Ag + but not by AgNPs. Further, the amount of silver absorbed by plants exposed to Ag + was higher than that absorbed by plants exposed to AgNPs. While wheat retained majority of Ag in its roots, sunflower showed major Ag accumulation in stem. Photosynthetic events in sunflower, unlike wheat, were least affected as no detectable Ag levels was recorded in their leaves. Our findings revealed that AgNPs seemed non/less-toxic to light harnessing photosynthetic machinery of wheat, compared to Ag + . Photosynthetic events in sunflower were not affected by Ag + , either, as its translocation to leaves was restricted. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  17. Photosynthetic Pigments in Diatoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuczynska, Paulina; Jemiola-Rzeminska, Malgorzata; Strzalka, Kazimierz

    2015-09-16

    Photosynthetic pigments are bioactive compounds of great importance for the food, cosmetic, and pharmaceutical industries. They are not only responsible for capturing solar energy to carry out photosynthesis, but also play a role in photoprotective processes and display antioxidant activity, all of which contribute to effective biomass and oxygen production. Diatoms are organisms of a distinct pigment composition, substantially different from that present in plants. Apart from light-harvesting pigments such as chlorophyll a, chlorophyll c, and fucoxanthin, there is a group of photoprotective carotenoids which includes β-carotene and the xanthophylls, diatoxanthin, diadinoxanthin, violaxanthin, antheraxanthin, and zeaxanthin, which are engaged in the xanthophyll cycle. Additionally, some intermediate products of biosynthetic pathways have been identified in diatoms as well as unusual pigments, e.g., marennine. Marine algae have become widely recognized as a source of unique bioactive compounds for potential industrial, pharmaceutical, and medical applications. In this review, we summarize current knowledge on diatom photosynthetic pigments complemented by some new insights regarding their physico-chemical properties, biological role, and biosynthetic pathways, as well as the regulation of pigment level in the cell, methods of purification, and significance in industries.

  18. Photosynthetic Pigments in Diatoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulina Kuczynska

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Photosynthetic pigments are bioactive compounds of great importance for the food, cosmetic, and pharmaceutical industries. They are not only responsible for capturing solar energy to carry out photosynthesis, but also play a role in photoprotective processes and display antioxidant activity, all of which contribute to effective biomass and oxygen production. Diatoms are organisms of a distinct pigment composition, substantially different from that present in plants. Apart from light-harvesting pigments such as chlorophyll a, chlorophyll c, and fucoxanthin, there is a group of photoprotective carotenoids which includes β-carotene and the xanthophylls, diatoxanthin, diadinoxanthin, violaxanthin, antheraxanthin, and zeaxanthin, which are engaged in the xanthophyll cycle. Additionally, some intermediate products of biosynthetic pathways have been identified in diatoms as well as unusual pigments, e.g., marennine. Marine algae have become widely recognized as a source of unique bioactive compounds for potential industrial, pharmaceutical, and medical applications. In this review, we summarize current knowledge on diatom photosynthetic pigments complemented by some new insights regarding their physico-chemical properties, biological role, and biosynthetic pathways, as well as the regulation of pigment level in the cell, methods of purification, and significance in industries.

  19. [Engineering photosynthetic cyanobacterial chassis: a review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Qin; Chen, Lei; Wang, Jiangxin; Zhang, Weiwen

    2013-08-01

    Photosynthetic cyanobacteria possess a series of good properties, such as their abilities to capture solar energy for CO2 fixation, low nutritional requirements for growth, high growth rate, and relatively simple genetic background. Due to the high oil price and increased concern of the global warming in recent years, cyanobacteria have attracted widespread attention because they can serve as an 'autotrophic microbial factory' for producing renewable biofuels and fine chemicals directly from CO2. Particularly, significant progress has been made in applying synthetic biology techniques and strategies to construct and optimize cyanobacteria chassis. In this article, we critically summarized recent advances in developing new methods to optimize cyanobacteria chassis, improving cyanobacteria photosynthetic efficiency, and in constructing cyanobacteria chassis tolerant to products or environmental stresses. In addition, various industrial applications of cyanobacteria chassis are also discussed.

  20. Effect of Photosynthetic Photon Flux Density on Carboxylation Efficiency 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, James A.; Tenhunen, John D.; Gates, David M.; Lange, Otto L.

    1987-01-01

    The effect of photosynthetic photon flux density (PPFD) on photosynthetic response (A) to CO2 partial pressures between 35 pascals and CO2 compensation point (Γ) was investigated, especially below PPFD saturation. Spinacia oleracea cv `Atlanta,' Glycine max cv `Clark,' and Arbutus unedo were studied in detail. The initial slope of the photosynthetic response to CO2 (∂A/∂C[Γ]) was constant above a PPFD of about 500 to 600 micromoles per square meter per second for all three species; but declined rapidly with PPFD below this critical level. For Γ there was also a critical PPFD (approximately 200 micromoles per square meter per second for S. oleracea and G. max; 100 for A. unedo) above which Γ was essentially constant, but below which Γ increased with decreasing PPFD. All three species showed a dependence of ∂A/∂C(Γ) on PPFD at low PPFD. Simulated photosynthetic responses obtained with a biochemically based model of whole-leaf photosynthesis were similar to measured responses. PMID:16665640

  1. Non-photosynthetic plastids as hosts for metabolic engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mellor, Silas Busck; Behrendorff, James B Y H; Nielsen, Agnieszka Zygadlo; Jensen, Poul Erik; Pribil, Mathias

    2018-04-13

    Using plants as hosts for production of complex, high-value compounds and therapeutic proteins has gained increasing momentum over the past decade. Recent advances in metabolic engineering techniques using synthetic biology have set the stage for production yields to become economically attractive, but more refined design strategies are required to increase product yields without compromising development and growth of the host system. The ability of plant cells to differentiate into various tissues in combination with a high level of cellular compartmentalization represents so far the most unexploited plant-specific resource. Plant cells contain organelles called plastids that retain their own genome, harbour unique biosynthetic pathways and differentiate into distinct plastid types upon environmental and developmental cues. Chloroplasts, the plastid type hosting the photosynthetic processes in green tissues, have proven to be suitable for high yield protein and bio-compound production. Unfortunately, chloroplast manipulation often affects photosynthetic efficiency and therefore plant fitness. In this respect, plastids of non-photosynthetic tissues, which have focused metabolisms for synthesis and storage of particular classes of compounds, might prove more suitable for engineering the production and storage of non-native metabolites without affecting plant fitness. This review provides the current state of knowledge on the molecular mechanisms involved in plastid differentiation and focuses on non-photosynthetic plastids as alternative biotechnological platforms for metabolic engineering. © 2018 The Author(s). Published by Portland Press Limited on behalf of the Biochemical Society.

  2. The effects of coal dust on photosynthetic performance of the mangrove, Avicennia marina in Richards Bay, South Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naidoo, G.; Chirkoot, D.

    2004-01-01

    Richards Bay, on the northern KwaZulu-Natal coast, is the largest coal exporting port in South Africa. The coal is stored at the Richards Bay Coal Terminal (RBCT) prior to export. Dust from coal operations is a major problem in the Richards Bay area. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that coal dust adversely affects photosynthetic performance of Avicennia marina (Forssk.) Vierh., the dominant mangrove species in the harbour. Photosynthetic performance was determined on 10 trees by measuring carbon dioxide uptake and chlorophyll fluorescence parameters at two elevation sites and on upper and lower leaf surfaces that were covered or uncovered with coal dust. Measurements were made on five clear, sunny days at saturating light (>1000 μmol m -2 s -1 ) and high temperature (28-30 deg. C). Coal dust significantly reduced carbon dioxide exchange of upper and lower leaf surfaces by 17-39%, the reduction being generally greater on the lower leaf surface that is covered by a dense mat of trichomes and salt glands. The reduction in carbon dioxide exchange by coal dust was higher at the high elevation site that supported isolated dwarfed trees. The chlorophyll fluorescence data indicated that leaves coated with dust exhibited significantly lower photosystem II (PS II) quantum yield, lower electron transport rate (ETR) through PSII and reduced quantum efficiency of PSII (F v F m ). The chlorophyll fluorescence data supported the gas exchange measurements and are consistent with reduced photosynthetic performance of leaves coated with coal dust. - Coal dust reduced photosynthetic performance of the mangrove, Avicennia marina

  3. Energy transfer in real and artificial photosynthetic systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hindman, J.C.; Hunt, J.E.; Katz, J.J.

    1995-02-01

    Fluorescence emission from the photosynthetic organisms Tribonema aequale, Anacystis nidulau, and Chlorelia vulgais and from some chlorophyll model systems have been recorded as a function of excitation wavelength and temperature. Considerable similarity was observed in the effects of excitation wavelength and temperature on the fluorescence from intact photosynthetic organisms and the model systems. The parallelism in behavior suggest that self-assembly processes may occur in both the in vivo and in vitro systems that give rise to chlorophyll species at low temperature that may differ significantly from those present at ambient temperatures.

  4. Separation, identification and quantification of photosynthetic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Thirty one photosynthetic pigments (chlorophylls, carotenoids and degradation products) from the seaweeds, Codium dwarkense, (Chlorophyta), , Laurencia obtusa , (Rhodophyta) and , Lobophora variegata, (Phaeophyta), were separated in a single-step procedure by reversed phase high-performance liquid ...

  5. Sun and Shade leaves, SIF, and Photosynthetic Capacity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, J. A.; Badgley, G.

    2016-12-01

    Recent advances in retrieval of solar induced chlorophyll fluorescence (SIF) have opened up new possibilities for remote sensing of canopy physiology and structure. To date most of the emphasis has been placed on SIF as an indicator of stress and photosynthetic capacity. However, it is clear that canopy structure can also have an influence. To this point, simulations of SIF in land surface models tend to under predict observed variation in SIF. Also, large, systematic differences in SIF from different canopy types seem to correlate well with the photosynthetic capacity of these canopies. SIF emissions from pampered crops can be several-fold that from evergreen, needle-leaf forests. Yet, these may have similar vegetation indices and absorb a similar fraction of incident PAR. SIF photons produced in a conifer canopy do have a lower probability of escaping its dense, clumped foliage. However, this does not explain the correlated differences in photosynthetic rate and SIF. It is useful, in this regard, to consider the separate contributions of sun and shade leaves to the SIF emitted by a canopy. Sun leaves tend to be displayed to intercept the direct solar beam, and these highly illuminated leaves are often visible from above the canopy. Sun leaves produce more SIF and a large fraction of it escapes. Therefore, the intensity of SIF may be a sensitive indicator of the partitioning of absorbed PAR to sun and shade leaves. Many models account tor the different photosynthetic capacity of sun and shade leaves in calculating canopy responses. However, the fraction of leaves in each category is usually parameterized by an assumed leaf angle distribution (e.g. spherical). In reality, the sun/shade fraction can vary over a wide range, and it has been difficult to measure. SIF and possibly near-IR reflectance of canopies can be used to specify this key parameter with obvious importance to understanding photosynthetic rate.

  6. Structural transformations of carbon chains inside nanotubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Warner, Jamie H.; Ruemmeli, Mark H.; Bachmatiuk, Alicja; Buechner, Bernd

    2010-01-01

    In situ aberration-corrected high-resolution transmission electron microscopy is used to examine the structural transformations of carbon chains that occur in the interior region of carbon nanotubes. We find electron-beam irradiation leads to the formation of two-dimensional carbon structures that are freely mobile inside the nanotube. The inner diameter of the nanotube influences the structural transformations of the carbon chains. As the diameter of the nanotube increases, electron-beam irradiation leads to curling of the chains and eventually the formation of closed looped structures. The closed looped structures evolve into spherical fullerenelike structures that exhibit translational motion inside the nanotubes and also coalesce to form larger nanotube structures. These results demonstrate the use of carbon nanotubes as test tubes for growing small carbon nanotubes within the interior by using only electron-beam irradiation at 80 kV.

  7. Effect of Mahanarva fimbriolata (Hemiptera: Cercopidae) Attack on Photosynthetic Parameters of Sugarcane Genotypes of Contrasting Susceptibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, Bruno Oliveira; Chaves, Vinicius de Vicente; Tomaz, Adriano Cirino; Kuki, Kacilda Naomi; Peternelli, Luiz Alexandre; Barbosa, Márcio Henrique Pereira

    2017-12-05

    The aim of this study was to compare the effect of spittlebug Mahanarva fimbriolata Stål (Hemiptera: Cercopidae) on photosynthetic parameters of both a susceptible (SP81-3250) and a resistant (H.Kawandang) sugarcane genotype. In the first assay, the susceptibility level of genotypes to spittlebug was confirmed by comparing damage score and chlorophyll content of the plants. In the second assay, the effect of spittlebug nymphs on photosynthetic characteristics was assessed using the following parameters: Net photosynthetic rate (A), carboxylation efficiency (A/Ci), stomata conductance (gS), transpiration (E), electron transport rate (ETR), maximum quantum yield of Photosystem 2 (PSII) (FV/FM), effective quantum yield (Y(II)), photochemical quenching (Y(NPQ)), and nonphotochemical quenching (Y(NO)). Spittlebug nymphs affected the photosynthetic process of the susceptible genotype SP81-3250 by decreasing the Chl content, ETR, FV/FM, and Y(II). However, this genotype was able to maintain A probably due to its ability to maintain stomata aperture, increase the carboxylation efficiency of Rubisco, and dissipate excess energy through the xanthophyll cycle, as Y(NPQ) increased under the spittlebug attack. On the other hand, the spittlebug did not affect Chl content and FV/FM of the H.Kawandang genotype. Furthermore, H.Kawandang increased A to compensate for the sink demand by the spittlebug by increasing stomatal aperture and carboxylation efficiency and increasing efficiency of the photochemical apparatus in converting light energy into chemical products. We can conclude that the feeding habits of spittlebug nymphs have different impacts on photosynthesis of susceptible and resistant sugarcane genotypes. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. Monitoring the vaccine cold chain.

    OpenAIRE

    Cheriyan, E

    1993-01-01

    Maintaining the vaccine cold chain is an essential part of a successful immunisation programme. A continuous electronic temperature monitor helped to identify breaks in the cold chain in the community and the study led to the issue of proper guidelines and replacement of faulty equipment.

  9. Light-Driven Reconfiguration of a Xanthophyll Violaxanthin in the Photosynthetic Pigment-Protein Complex LHCII: A Resonance Raman Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grudzinski, Wojciech; Janik, Ewa; Bednarska, Joanna; Welc, Renata; Zubik, Monika; Sowinski, Karol; Luchowski, Rafal; Gruszecki, Wieslaw I

    2016-05-19

    Resonance Raman analysis of the photosynthetic complex LHCII, immobilized in a polyacrylamide gel, reveals that one of the protein-bound xanthophylls, assigned as violaxanthin, undergoes light-induced molecular reconfiguration. The phototransformation is selectively observed in a trimeric structure of the complex and is associated with a pronounced twisting and a trans-cis molecular configuration change of the polyene chain of the carotenoid. Among several spectral effects accompanying the reconfiguration there are ones indicating a carotenoid triplet state. Possible physiological importance of the light-induced violaxanthin reconfiguration as a mechanism associated with making the pigment available for enzymatic deepoxidation in the xanthophyll cycle is discussed.

  10. Electron microscopy of cyanobacterial membrane proteins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Folea, Ioana Mihaela

    2008-01-01

    The main focus of this thesis is photosynthetic protein complexes, and their organization within the membrane of cyanobacteria. In cyanobacteria large proteins catalyze the light reactions of photosynthesis. One of the key proteins is photosystem II. We have found for the first time by electron

  11. Density functional theory study of silodithiophene thiophenepyrrolopyrroledion-based small molecules: The effect of alkyl side chain length in electron donor materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seo, Dong Kyun; Yeo, Hak; Kwak, Kyung Won [Dept. of Chemistry, Chung-Ang University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Yoon, Young Woon; Kim, Bong Soo [Photo-electronic Hybrids Research Center, Korea Institute of Science and Technology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Kyung Koo [Dept. of Chemistry, Kunsan National University, Gunsan (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-02-15

    Push–pull small molecules are promising electron-donor materials for organic solar cells. Thus, precise prediction of their electronic structures is of paramount importance to control the optical and electrical properties of the solar cells. Various types of alkyl chains are usually introduced to increase solubility and modify the morphology of the resulting molecular films. Here, using density functional theory (DFT) and time-dependent DFT (TD-DFT), we report the precise effect of increasing the length of the alkyl chain on the electronic structure of an electron donor molecule 6,60-((4,4-dialkyl-4H-silolo[3,2-b:4,5-b′]-dithiophene-2,6-diyl) bis(thiophene-5,2-diyl))bis(2,5-alkyl-3-(thiophen-2-yl) -2,5-dihydropyrrolo[3,4-c]pyrrole-1,4-dione) (DTS1TDPP). Alkyl groups were attached to the bridging position (silicon atom) of the fused rings and nitrogen atom of the pyrrolopyrroledione groups. We demonstrate that the alkyl groups do not perturb the highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO) and lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (LUMO) energy levels, π-delocalized backbone structure, and UV–Vis absorption spectrum when they are placed at the least steric effect positions.

  12. Validation of photosynthetic-fluorescence parameters as biomarkers for isoproturon toxic effect on alga Scenedesmus obliquus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewez, David; Didur, Olivier; Vincent-Héroux, Jonathan; Popovic, Radovan

    2008-01-01

    Photosynthetic-fluorescence parameters were investigated to be used as valid biomarkers of toxicity when alga Scenedesmus obliquus was exposed to isoproturon [3-(4-isopropylphenyl)-1,1-dimethylurea] effect. Chlorophyll fluorescence induction of algal cells treated with isoproturon showed inactivation of photosystem II (PSII) reaction centers and strong inhibition of PSII electron transport. A linear correlation was found (R2>or=0.861) between the change of cells density affected by isoproturon and the change of effective PSII quantum yield (PhiM'), photochemical quenching (qP) and relative photochemical quenching (qP(rel)) values. The cells density was also linearly dependent (R2=0.838) on the relative unquenched fluorescence parameter (UQF(rel)). Non-linear correlation was found (R2=0.937) only between cells density and the energy transfer efficiency from absorbed light to PSII reaction center (ABS/RC). The order of sensitivity determined by the EC-50% was: UQF(rel)>PhiM'>qP>qP(rel)>ABS/RC. Correlations between cells density and those photosynthetic-fluorescence parameters provide supporting evidence to use them as biomarkers of toxicity for environmental pollutants.

  13. Flow of light energy in benthic photosynthetic microbial mats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Najjar, Mohammad Ahmad A.

    2010-12-15

    The work in this thesis demonstrates the assessment of the energy budget inside microbial mat ecosystems, and the factors affecting light utilization efficiency. It presents the first balanced light energy budget for benthic microbial mat ecosystems, and shows how the budget and the spatial distribution of the local photosynthetic efficiencies within the euphotic zone depend on the absorbed irradiance (Jabs). The energy budget was dominated by heat dissipation on the expense of photosynthesis. The maximum efficiency of photosynthesis was at light limiting conditions When comparing three different marine benthic photosynthetic ecosystems (originated from Abu-Dhabi, Arctic, and Exmouth Gulf in Western Australia), differences in the efficiencies were calculated. The results demonstrated that the maximum efficiency depended on mat characteristics affecting light absorption and scattering; such as, photopigments ratio and distribution, and the structural organization of the photosynthetic organisms relative to other absorbing components of the ecosystem (i.e., EPS, mineral particles, detritus, etc.). The maximum efficiency decreased with increasing light penetration depth, and increased with increasing the accessory pigments (phycocyanin and fucoxanthin)/chlorophyll ratio. Spatial heterogeneity in photosynthetic efficiency, pigment distribution, as well as light acclimation in microbial mats originating from different geographical locations was investigated. We used a combined pigment imaging approach (variable chlorophyll fluorescence and hyperspectral imaging), and fingerprinting approach. For each mat, the photosynthetic activity was proportional to the local pigment concentration in the photic zone, but not for the deeper layers and between different mats. In each mat, yield of PSII and E1/2 (light acclimation) generally decreased in parallel with depth, but the gradients in both parameters varied greatly between samples. This mismatch between pigments concentration

  14. Photosynthetic Pigments in Diatoms

    OpenAIRE

    Kuczynska, Paulina; Jemiola-Rzeminska, Malgorzata; Strzalka, Kazimierz

    2015-01-01

    Photosynthetic pigments are bioactive compounds of great importance for the food, cosmetic, and pharmaceutical industries. They are not only responsible for capturing solar energy to carry out photosynthesis, but also play a role in photoprotective processes and display antioxidant activity, all of which contribute to effective biomass and oxygen production. Diatoms are organisms of a distinct pigment composition, substantially different from that present in plants. Apart from light-harvestin...

  15. Effect of space mutation of photosynthetic characteristics of soybean varieties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Xinlei; Ma Yansong; Luan Xiaoyan; Man Weiqun; Xu Dechun; Meng Lifen; Fu Lixin; Zhao Xiao'nan; Liu Qi

    2012-01-01

    In order to elucidate the response of the photosynthetic traits of soybean to space mutation, three soybean varieties (lines) of Heinong 48, Heinong 44 and Ha 2291-Y were carried by artificial satellite in 2006 and the net photo synthetic rate (Pn), stomatal conductance (Cond), intercellular CO 2 concentration (Ci) and stomatal resistance (Rs) from SP 1 to SP 4 generation were determined. The results showed that space mutation affected photosynthesis traits of soy bean. The photosynthetic rate of soybean varieties by space mutation occurred different levels of genetic variation and the positive mutation rate were higher. Coefficient of variation among generations were SP 2 >SP 3 >SP 4 >CK. Results suggest that space mutation can effectively create soybean materials with higher photosynthetic rate. (authors)

  16. Electron transport chain in a thermotolerant yeast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mejía-Barajas, Jorge A; Martínez-Mora, José A; Salgado-Garciglia, Rafael; Noriega-Cisneros, Ruth; Ortiz-Avila, Omar; Cortés-Rojo, Christian; Saavedra-Molina, Alfredo

    2017-04-01

    Yeasts capable of growing and surviving at high temperatures are regarded as thermotolerant. For appropriate functioning of cellular processes and cell survival, the maintenance of an optimal redox state is critical of reducing and oxidizing species. We studied mitochondrial functions of the thermotolerant Kluyveromyces marxianus SLP1 and the mesophilic OFF1 yeasts, through the evaluation of its mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨ m ), ATPase activity, electron transport chain (ETC) activities, alternative oxidase activity, lipid peroxidation. Mitochondrial membrane potential and the cytoplasmic free Ca 2+ ions (Ca 2+ cyt) increased in the SLP1 yeast when exposed to high temperature, compared with the mesophilic yeast OFF1. ATPase activity in the mesophilic yeast diminished 80% when exposed to 40° while the thermotolerant SLP1 showed no change, despite an increase in the mitochondrial lipid peroxidation. The SLP1 thermotolerant yeast exposed to high temperature showed a diminution of 33% of the oxygen consumption in state 4. The uncoupled state 3 of oxygen consumption did not change in the mesophilic yeast when it had an increase of temperature, whereas in the thermotolerant SLP1 yeast resulted in an increase of 2.5 times when yeast were grown at 30 o , while a decrease of 51% was observed when it was exposed to high temperature. The activities of the ETC complexes were diminished in the SLP1 when exposed to high temperature, but also it was distinguished an alternative oxidase activity. Our results suggest that the mitochondria state, particularly ETC state, is an important characteristic of the thermotolerance of the SLP1 yeast strain.

  17. Integrated planning in supply chains with buy-side and sell-side

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Supply chain management; dynamic pricing; partner selection; supply chain planning; electronic marketplaces. Abstract. In this paper we develop a quadratic programming model for partner selection and planning in integrated supply chain networks embedded with both sell-side and buy-side electronic marketplaces.

  18. Spectral properties of chlorines and electron transfer with their participation in the photosynthetic reaction center of photosystem II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shchupak, E. E.; Ivashin, N. V.

    2014-02-01

    Structural factors that provide localization of excited states and determine the properties of primary donor and acceptor of electron in the reaction center of photosystem II (PSII RC) are studied. The results of calculations using stationary and time-dependent density functional theory indicate an important role of protein environments of chlorophylls PA, PB, BA, and BB and pheophytins HA and HB in the area with a radius of no greater than ≤10 Å in the formation of excitonic states of PSII RC. When the neighboring elements are taken into account, the wavelength of long-wavelength Q y transition of chlorophyll molecules is varied by about 10 nm. The effect is less developed for pheophytin molecules (Δλ ≅ 2 nm). The following elements strongly affect energy of the transition: HisA198 and HisD197 amino-acid residues that serve as ligands of magnesium atoms affect PA and PB, respectively; MetA183 affects PA; MetA172 and MetD198 affect BA; water molecules that are located above the planes of the BA and BB macrocycles form H bonds with carbonyl groups; and phytol chains of PA and PB affect BA, BB, HA, and HB. The analysis of excitonic states, mutual positions of molecular orbitals of electron donors and acceptors, and matrix elements of electron transfer reaction shows that (i) charge separation between BA and HA and PB and BA is possible in the active A branch of cofactors of PSII RC and (ii) electron transfer is blocked at the BB - HB fragment in inactive B branch of PSII RC.

  19. Excitation energy transfer in natural photosynthetic complexes and chlorophyll trefoils: hole-burning and single complex/trefoil spectroscopic studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryszard Jankowiak, Kansas State University, Department of Chemistry, CBC Bldg., Manhattan KS, 66505; Phone: (785) 532-6785

    2012-09-12

    In this project we studied both natural photosynthetic antenna complexes and various artificial systems (e.g. chlorophyll (Chl) trefoils) using high resolution hole-burning (HB) spectroscopy and excitonic calculations. Results obtained provided more insight into the electronic (excitonic) structure, inhomogeneity, electron-phonon coupling strength, vibrational frequencies, and excitation energy (or electron) transfer (EET) processes in several antennas and reaction centers. For example, our recent work provided important constraints and parameters for more advanced excitonic calculations of CP43, CP47, and PSII core complexes. Improved theoretical description of HB spectra for various model systems offers new insight into the excitonic structure and composition of low-energy absorption traps in very several antenna protein complexes and reaction centers. We anticipate that better understanding of HB spectra obtained for various photosynthetic complexes and their simultaneous fits with other optical spectra (i.e. absorption, emission, and circular dichroism spectra) provides more insight into the underlying electronic structures of these important biological systems. Our recent progress provides a necessary framework for probing the electronic structure of these systems via Hole Burning Spectroscopy. For example, we have shown that the theoretical description of non-resonant holes is more restrictive (in terms of possible site energies) than those of absorption and emission spectra. We have demonstrated that simultaneous description of linear optical spectra along with HB spectra provides more realistic site energies. We have also developed new algorithms to describe both nonresonant and resonant hole-burn spectra using more advanced Redfield theory. Simultaneous description of various optical spectra for complex biological system, e.g. artificial antenna systems, FMO protein complexes, water soluble protein complexes, and various mutants of reaction centers

  20. Transverse transport in coupled strongly correlated electronic chains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Capponi, S.; Poilblanc, D.

    1997-01-01

    One-particle interchain hopping in a system of coupled Luttinger liquids is investigated by use of exact diagonalizations techniques. We give numerical evidence that inter-chain coherent hopping (defined by a non-vanishing splitting) can be totally suppressed for the Luttinger liquid exponent α ∝ 0.4 or even smaller α values. The transverse conductivity is shown to exhibit a strong incoherent part even when coherent inter-chain hopping is believed to occur. Implications for the optical experiments in quasi-1D organic or high-T c superconductors is outlined. (orig.)

  1. Influence of stomatic aperture on photosynthetic activity of bean-seedlings leaves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suarez Moya, J.; Fernandez Gonzalez, J.

    1984-01-01

    The present paper contains the data of photosynthetic activity and stomatic aperture of bean-seedlings Ieaves, and the relations obtained with both results. It has been observed that the product of photosynthetic activity by the resistance; to transpiration measured by a promoter ia a constant, between some limits. (Author) 45 refs

  2. A novel potassium channel in photosynthetic cyanobacteria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuela Zanetti

    Full Text Available Elucidation of the structure-function relationship of a small number of prokaryotic ion channels characterized so far greatly contributed to our knowledge on basic mechanisms of ion conduction. We identified a new potassium channel (SynK in the genome of the cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC6803, a photosynthetic model organism. SynK, when expressed in a K(+-uptake-system deficient E. coli strain, was able to recover growth of these organisms. The protein functions as a potassium selective ion channel when expressed in Chinese hamster ovary cells. The location of SynK in cyanobacteria in both thylakoid and plasmamembranes was revealed by immunogold electron microscopy and Western blotting of isolated membrane fractions. SynK seems to be conserved during evolution, giving rise to a TPK (two-pore K(+ channel family member which is shown here to be located in the thylakoid membrane of Arabidopsis. Our work characterizes a novel cyanobacterial potassium channel and indicates the molecular nature of the first higher plant thylakoid cation channel, opening the way to functional studies.

  3. On the photosynthetic potential in the very Early Archean oceans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avila, Daile; Cardenas, Rolando; Martin, Osmel

    2013-02-01

    In this work we apply a mathematical model of photosynthesis to quantify the potential for photosynthetic life in the very Early Archean oceans. We assume the presence of oceanic blockers of ultraviolet radiation, specifically ferrous ions. For this scenario, our results suggest a potential for photosynthetic life greater than or similar to that in later eras/eons, such as the Late Archean and the current Phanerozoic eon.

  4. [Potential Carbon Fixation Capability of Non-photosynthetic Microbial Community at Different Depth of the South China Sea and Its Response to Different Electron Donors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Feng; Wang, Lei; Xi, Xue-fei; Hu, Jia-jun; Fu, Xiao-hua; Lu, Bing; Xu, Dian-sheng

    2015-05-01

    The seawater samples collected from many different areas with different depth in the South China Sea were cultivated using different electron donors respectively. And the variation in the potential carbon fixation capability ( PCFC ) of non-photosynthetic microbial community (NPMC) in seawater with different depth was determined after a cycle of cultivation through the statistic analysis. In addition, the cause for the variation was clarified through analyzing key gene abundance regarding CO2 fixation and characteristics of seawater with different depth. The result showed that the PCFCs of NPMC in seawater with different depth were generally low and had no significant difference when using NaNO2 as the electron donor. The PCFC of NPMC in surface seawater was higher than that in deep seawater when using H2 as the electron donor, on the contrary, the PCFC of NPMC in deep seawater was higher than that in surface seawater when using Na2S2O3 as the electron donor. The abundance of the main CO2 fixation gene cbbL in surface seawater was higher than that in deep seawater while the cbbM gene abundance in deep seawater was higher than that in surface seawater. Most hydrogen-oxidizing bacteria had the cbbL gene, and most sulfur bacteria had the cbbM gene. The tendency of seawater cbbL/cbbM gene abundance with the change of depth revealed that there were different kinds of bacteria accounting for the majority in NPMC fixing CO2 at different depth of ocean, which led to different response of PCFC of NPMC at different depth of the sea to different electron donors. The distributions of dissolved oxygen and inorganic carbon concentration with the change of the depth of the sea might be an important reason leading to the difference of NPMC structure and even the difference of PCFC at different depth of the sea.

  5. Collisionless magnetic reconnection in a plasmoid chain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Markidis

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The kinetic features of plasmoid chain formation and evolution are investigated by two dimensional Particle-in-Cell simulations. Magnetic reconnection is initiated in multiple X points by the tearing instability. Plasmoids form and grow in size by continuously coalescing. Each chain plasmoid exhibits a strong out-of plane core magnetic field and an out-of-plane electron current that drives the coalescing process. The disappearance of the X points in the coalescence process are due to anti-reconnection, a magnetic reconnection where the plasma inflow and outflow are reversed with respect to the original reconnection flow pattern. Anti-reconnection is characterized by the Hall magnetic field quadrupole signature. Two new kinetic features, not reported by previous studies of plasmoid chain evolution, are here revealed. First, intense electric fields develop in-plane normally to the separatrices and drive the ion dynamics in the plasmoids. Second, several bipolar electric field structures are localized in proximity of the plasmoid chain. The analysis of the electron distribution function and phase space reveals the presence of counter-streaming electron beams, unstable to the two stream instability, and phase space electron holes along the reconnection separatrices.

  6. Mn K-edge XANES spectroscopy of photosynthetic water oxidation enzyme in the S0-, S1-, S2- and S3-states induced by flash excitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ono, Taka-aki; Noguchi, Takumi; Inoue, Yorinao; Kusunoki, Masami; Matsushita, Tadashi; Oyanagi, Hiroyuki.

    1993-01-01

    Electronic and structural rearrangement of the Mn-cluster during the four step oxidation of water in photosynthetic oxygen evolution was studied by XANES spectroscopy. The Mn K-edge energy of the spectrum was changed with flash number to show a clear quadruple oscillation, indicating a periodic change in oxidation and electronic state of the Mn-cluster depending on Joliot and Kok's oxygen clock. (author)

  7. Side chain effect on electronic structure of spin-coated films of [6,6]-phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester and its bis-adduct

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akaike, Kouki; Kanai, Kaname; Ouchi, Yukio; Seki, Kazuhiko

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Electronic structure of spin-coated films of PCBM and bis-PCBM was investigated. ► Ionization energy and electron affinity of bis-PCBM are smaller than those of PCBM. ► Electron donation from the side chain to C 60 -backbone raises the HOMO and LUMO. ► Open circuit voltages of PCBM-based solar cells relates to electron affinities. - Abstract: We investigated the electronic structure of spin-coated films of two soluble fullerenes; [6,6]-phenyl-C 61 -butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM) and its bis-adduct (bis-PCBM) using ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy, inverse photoemission spectroscopy and molecular orbital calculations. The ionization energy and electron affinity of spin-coated films of bis-PCBM were determined to be 6.01 eV and 3.4 eV, respectively. Analysis of electron density suggested the stronger electron donation from the two side chains to fullerene-backbone in a bis-PCBM molecule, compared with PCBM. The electron donation raises the energies of the frontier orbitals of bis-PCBM, which mainly consist of π-orbitals of fullerene-backbone. As a result, the ionization energy and electron affinity of bis-PCBM are smaller than those of PCBM. Moreover, we also concluded that the larger open circuit voltage observed for bis-PCBM based organic photovoltaics was explained by the higher-lying unoccupied molecular orbital of bis-PCBM

  8. Constrained parameterisation of photosynthetic capacity causes significant increase of modelled tropical vegetation surface temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kattge, J.; Knorr, W.; Raddatz, T.; Wirth, C.

    2009-04-01

    Photosynthetic capacity is one of the most sensitive parameters of terrestrial biosphere models whose representation in global scale simulations has been severely hampered by a lack of systematic analyses using a sufficiently broad database. Due to its coupling to stomatal conductance changes in the parameterisation of photosynthetic capacity may potentially influence transpiration rates and vegetation surface temperature. Here, we provide a constrained parameterisation of photosynthetic capacity for different plant functional types in the context of the photosynthesis model proposed by Farquhar et al. (1980), based on a comprehensive compilation of leaf photosynthesis rates and leaf nitrogen content. Mean values of photosynthetic capacity were implemented into the coupled climate-vegetation model ECHAM5/JSBACH and modelled gross primary production (GPP) is compared to a compilation of independent observations on stand scale. Compared to the current standard parameterisation the root-mean-squared difference between modelled and observed GPP is substantially reduced for almost all PFTs by the new parameterisation of photosynthetic capacity. We find a systematic depression of NUE (photosynthetic capacity divided by leaf nitrogen content) on certain tropical soils that are known to be deficient in phosphorus. Photosynthetic capacity of tropical trees derived by this study is substantially lower than standard estimates currently used in terrestrial biosphere models. This causes a decrease of modelled GPP while it significantly increases modelled tropical vegetation surface temperatures, up to 0.8°C. These results emphasise the importance of a constrained parameterisation of photosynthetic capacity not only for the carbon cycle, but also for the climate system.

  9. Compromised Photosynthetic Electron Flow And H2O2 Generation Correlate with Genotype-Specific Stomatal Dysfunctions During Resistance Against Powdery Mildew In Oats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Sánchez-Martín

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Stomatal dysfunction known as locking has been linked to the elicitation of a hypersensitive response (HR following attack of fungal pathogens in cereals. We here assess how spatial and temporal patterns of different resistance mechanisms, such as HR and penetration resistance influence stomatal and photosynthetic parameters in oat (Avena sativa and the possible involvement of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2 in the dysfunctions observed. Four oat cultivars with differential resistance responses (i.e. penetration resistance, early and late HR to powdery mildew (Blumeria graminis f. sp. avenae, Bga were used. Results demonstrated that stomatal dysfunctions were genotype but not response-type dependent since genotypes with similar resistance responses when assessed histologically showed very different locking patterns. Maximum quantum yield (Fv/Fm of photosystem II were compromised in most Bga–oat interactions and photoinhibition increased. However, the extent of the photosynthetic alterations was not directly related to the extent of HR. H2O2 generation is triggered during the execution of resistance responses and can influence stomatal function. Artificially increasing H2O2 by exposing plants to increased light intensity further reduced Fv/Fm ratios and augmented the patterns of stomatal dysfunctions previously observed. The latter results suggest that the observed dysfunctions and hence a cost of resistance may be linked with oxidative stress occurring during defence induced photosynthetic disruption.

  10. Quantum transport in the FMO photosynthetic light-harvesting complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karafyllidis, Ioannis G

    2017-06-01

    The very high light-harvesting efficiency of natural photosynthetic systems in conjunction with recent experiments, which showed quantum-coherent energy transfer in photosynthetic complexes, raised questions regarding the presence of non-trivial quantum effects in photosynthesis. Grover quantum search, quantum walks, and entanglement have been investigated as possible effects that lead to this efficiency. Here we explain the near-unit photosynthetic efficiency without invoking non-trivial quantum effects. Instead, we use non-equilibrium Green's functions, a mesoscopic method used to study transport in nano-conductors to compute the transmission function of the Fenna-Matthews-Olson (FMO) complex using an experimentally derived exciton Hamiltonian. The chlorosome antenna and the reaction center play the role of input and output contacts, connected to the FMO complex. We show that there are two channels for which the transmission is almost unity. Our analysis also revealed a dephasing-driven regulation mechanism that maintains the efficiency in the presence of varying dephasing potentials.

  11. Structural, theoretical and experimental models of photosynthetic antennas, donors and acceptors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barkigia, K.M.; Chantranupong, L.; Fajer, J.; Kehres, L.A.; Smith, K.M.

    1989-01-01

    Theoretical calculations, based on recent x-ray studies of bacterial reaction centers, suggest that the light-absorption properties of the special pair phototraps in bacteria are controlled by the interplanar spacing between the bacteriochlorophyll subunits that constitute the special pairs. The calculations offer attractively simple explanations for the range of absorption spectra exhibited by photosynthetic bacteria. The wide range of (bacterio)chlorophyll skeletal conformations revealed by x-ray diffraction studies raise the intriguing possibility that different conformations, imposed by protein constraints, can modulate the light-absorption and redox properties of the chromophores in vivo. Electron-nuclear double resonance data obtained for the primary acceptors in green plants suggest specific substituent orientations and hydrogen bonding that may help optimize the orientations of the acceptors relative to the donors

  12. Temperature responses of photosynthetic capacity parameters were not affected by foliar nitrogen content in mature Pinus sylvestris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarvainen, Lasse; Lutz, Martina; Räntfors, Mats; Näsholm, Torgny; Wallin, Göran

    2018-03-01

    A key weakness in current Earth System Models is the representation of thermal acclimation of photosynthesis in response to changes in growth temperatures. Previous studies in boreal and temperate ecosystems have shown leaf-scale photosynthetic capacity parameters, the maximum rates of carboxylation (V cmax ) and electron transport (J max ), to be positively correlated with foliar nitrogen (N) content at a given reference temperature. It is also known that V cmax and J max exhibit temperature optima that are affected by various environmental factors and, further, that N partitioning among the foliar photosynthetic pools is affected by N availability. However, despite the strong recent anthropogenic influence on atmospheric temperatures and N deposition to forests, little is known about the role of foliar N contents in controlling the photosynthetic temperature responses. In this study, we investigated the temperature dependencies of V cmax and J max in 1-year-old needles of mature boreal Pinus sylvestris (Scots pine) trees growing under low and high N availabilities in northern Sweden. We found that needle N status did not significantly affect the temperature responses of V cmax or J max when the responses were fitted to a peaked function. If such N insensitivity is a common tree trait it will simplify the interpretation of the results from gradient and multi-species studies, which commonly use sites with differing N availabilities, on temperature acclimation of photosynthetic capacity. Moreover, it will simplify modeling efforts aimed at understanding future carbon uptake by precluding the need to adjust the shape of the temperature response curves to variation in N availability. © 2017 Scandinavian Plant Physiology Society.

  13. How well do growing season dynamics of photosynthetic capacity correlate with leaf biochemistry and climate fluctuations?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Way, Danielle A; Stinziano, Joseph R; Berghoff, Henry; Oren, Ram

    2017-07-01

    Accurate values of photosynthetic capacity are needed in Earth System Models to predict gross primary productivity. Seasonal changes in photosynthetic capacity in these models are primarily driven by temperature, but recent work has suggested that photoperiod may be a better predictor of seasonal photosynthetic capacity. Using field-grown kudzu (Pueraria lobata (Willd.) Ohwi), a nitrogen-fixing vine species, we took weekly measurements of photosynthetic capacity, leaf nitrogen, and pigment and photosynthetic protein concentrations and correlated these with temperature, irradiance and photoperiod over the growing season. Photosynthetic capacity was more strongly correlated with photoperiod than with temperature or daily irradiance, while the growing season pattern in photosynthetic capacity was uncoupled from changes in leaf nitrogen, chlorophyll and Rubisco. Daily estimates of the maximum carboxylation rate of Rubisco (Vcmax) based on either photoperiod or temperature were correlated in a non-linear manner, but Vcmax estimates from both approaches that also accounted for diurnal temperature fluctuations were similar, indicating that differences between these models depend on the relevant time step. We advocate for considering photoperiod, and not just temperature, when estimating photosynthetic capacity across the year, particularly as climate change alters temperatures but not photoperiod. We also caution that the use of leaf biochemical traits as proxies for estimating photosynthetic capacity may be unreliable when the underlying relationships between proxy leaf traits and photosynthetic capacity are established outside of a seasonal framework. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. Effects of side-chain and electron exchange correlation on the band structure of perylene diimide liquid crystals: a density functional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arantes, J T; Lima, M P; Fazzio, A; Xiang, H; Wei, Su-Huai; Dalpian, G M

    2009-04-23

    The structural and electronic properties of perylene diimide liquid crystal PPEEB are studied using ab initio methods based on the density functional theory (DFT). Using available experimental crystallographic data as a guide, we propose a detailed structural model for the packing of solid PPEEB. We find that due to the localized nature of the band edge wave function, theoretical approaches beyond the standard method, such as hybrid functional (PBE0), are required to correctly characterize the band structure of this material. Moreover, unlike previous assumptions, we observe the formation of hydrogen bonds between the side chains of different molecules, which leads to a dispersion of the energy levels. This result indicates that the side chains of the molecular crystal not only are responsible for its structural conformation but also can be used for tuning the electronic and optical properties of these materials.

  15. Photosynthetic carbon metabolism in the submerged aquatic angiosperm Scirpus subterminalis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beer, S; Wetzel, R G

    1981-01-01

    Scirpus subterminalis Torr., a submerged angiosperm abundant in many hardwater lakes of the Great Lakes region, was investigated for various photosynthetic carbon fixation properties in relation to available inorganic carbon and levels of carbon fixing enzymes. Photosynthetic experiments were CO/sub 2/ and HCO/sub 3//sup -/ were supplied at various concentrations showed that Scirpus was able to utilize HCO/sub 3//sup -/ at those concentrations close to natural conditions. However, when CO/sub 2/ concentrations were increased above ambient, photosynthetic rates increased markedly. It was concluded that the photosynthetic potential of this plant in many natural situations may be limited by inorganic carbon uptake in the light. Phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEPcase)/ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase (ruBPcase) ratios of the leaves varied between 0.5 and 0.9 depending on substrate concentration during assay. The significance of PEP-mediated carbon fixation of Scirpus (basically a C/sub 3/ plant) in the dark was investigated. Malate accumulated in the leaves during the dark period of a 24-h cycle and malate levels decreased significantly during the following light period. The accumulation was not due to transport of malate from the roots. Carbon uptake rates in the dark by the leaves of Scirpus were lower than malate accumulation rates. Therefore, part of the malate was likely derived from respired CO/sub 2/. Carbon uptake rates in the light were much higher than malate turnover rates. It was estimated that carbon fixation via malate could contribute up to 12% to net photosynthetic rates. The ecological significance of this type of metabolism in submerged aquatics is discussed.

  16. Effect of temperature and light intensity on growth and photosynthetic activity of Chlamydomonas Reinhardtii

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alfonsel, M.; Fernandez Gonzalez, J.

    1986-01-01

    The effect of five temperatures (15, 20, 25, 30 and 35 0 C) and two levels of illumination on growth and photosynthetic activity of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii has been studied. The growth of the cultures was evaluated by optical density. Photosynthetic activity has been carried out studying either the assimilation rate of CO 2 labelled with C 14 or the oxygen evolution by means of polarographic measurements. The maximum photosynthetic rate has been obtained at 25 0 C for the lower lavel of illumination (2400 lux) and at 35 0 C for the higher one (13200 lux). These results suggest an interacton of temperature and illumination on photosynthetic activity. (author)

  17. [Correlation research of photosynthetic characteristics and medicinal materials production with 4 Uncariae Cum Uncis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Min; Song, Zhi-Qin; Yang, Ping-Fei; Liu, Hai; Yang, Zai-Gang; Wu, Ming-Kai

    2017-01-01

    Using four Uncariae Cum Uncis materials including Uncaria sinensis (HGT), U. hirsutea (MGT), Jianhe U. rhynchophylla (JHGT) and U. rhynchophylla(GT) as the research objects, the correlations between medicinal materials' yield and photosynthetic ecophysiology-factors in the plant exuberant growth period were studied. Results showed that the Uncaria plants net photosynthetic rate (Pn) changed by unimodal curve. There was not "midday depression" phenomenon. There was a different relationship among the photosynthetic ecophysiology-factors and between photosynthetic ecophysiology-factors and medicinal materials' yield. Pn,Tl,Gs had a significant correlation with medicinal materials' yield(M)and were the most important factors of growth. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

  18. The Future of Resilient Supply Chains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Donadoni, Mattia; Roden, Sinéad; Scholten, Kirstin

    This research aims to advance theoretical understanding around the management of supply chain disruptions through a multi-stage Delphi study on supply chain resilience. Stage one focused on polling academic experts followed by a second stage with practitioners from automotive, electronics and food...

  19. Geographic variation in the photosynthetic responses and life history of Mastocarpus papillatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zupan, J.R.

    1985-01-01

    Population differentiation in Mastocarpus papillatus, a red alga occurring from Baja California to Alaska, was assessed by (1) characterizing the geographic pattern of variation in reproductive behavior and (2) determining the range of variation in photosynthesis and respiration. Examining these two aspects of the biology of M. papillatus yielded different estimates of population differentiation. Carpospores of females collected from 8 locations between Baja California and northern California were grown in laboratory culture and their subsequent development followed. The 8 locations could be divided into 3 groups based on life history patterns. Photosynthetic responses to temperature and photon flux density were measured foliose gametophytes and crustose tetrasporophytes from 4 locations. Gametophytes had maximal net photosynthetic rates 4-5 times higher than tetrasporophytes. Tetrasporophyte populations were uniform in photosynthetic responses to temperature. Maximal rates occurred at 15 0 C Gametophyte populations appeared to be slightly differentiated. The photosynthetic temperature optima were between 20 0 C and 25 0 C for 3 populations and between 15 0 C and 20 0 C for 1 population. A preliminary study of carbon metabolism in M. papillatus gametophytes was conducted using 14 C. Partitioning of early products of photosynthetic carbon fixation between low molecular weight and polymeric, high molecular weight compounds appeared to differ under emerged and submerged conditions

  20. First-principles study of the stability, magnetic and electronic properties of Fe and Co monoatomic chains encapsulated into copper nanotube

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Liang-Cai; Ma, Ling; Zhang, Jian-Min

    2017-07-01

    By using first-principles calculations based on density-functional theory, the stability, magnetic and electronic properties of Fe and Co monoatomic chains encapsulated into copper nanotube are systematically investigated. The binding energies of the hybrid structures are remarkably higher than those of corresponding freestanding TM chains, indicating the TM chains are significantly stabilized after encapsulating into copper nanotube. The formed bonds between outer Cu and inner TM atoms show some degree of covalent bonding character. The magnetic ground states of Fe@CuNW and Co@CuNW hybrid structures are ferromagnetic, and both spin and orbital magnetic moments of inner TM atoms have been calculated. The magnetocrystalline anisotropy energies (MAE) of the hybrid structures are enhanced by nearly fourfold compared to those of corresponding freestanding TM chains, indicating that the hybrid structures can be used in ultrahigh density magnetic storage. Furthermore, the easy magnetization axis switches from that along the axis in freestanding Fe chain to that perpendicular to the axis in Fe@CuNT hybrid structure. The large spin polarization at the Fermi level also makes the hybrid systems interesting as good potential materials for spintronic devices.

  1. Photosystem II excitation pressure and photosynthetic carbon metabolism in Chlorella vulgaris

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Savitch, L.V.; Maxwell, D.P.; Huner, N.P.A.

    1996-01-01

    Chlorella vulgaris grown at 5 degrees C/150 micromoles m -2 s -1 mimics cells grown under high irradiance (27 degrees C/2200 micromoles m -2 s -1 ). This has been rationalized through the suggestion that both populations of cells were exposed to comparable photosystem II (PSII) excitation pressures measured as the chlorophyll a fluorescence quenching parameter, 1 - qP (D.P. Maxwell, S. Falk, N.P.A. Huner [1995] Plant Physiol 107: 687-694). To assess the possible role(s) of feedback mechanisms on PSII excitation pressure, stromal and cytosolic carbon metabolism were examined. Sucrose phosphate synthase and fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase activities as well as the ratios of fructose-1,6-bisphosphate/fructose-6 phosphate and sucrose/starch indicated that cells grown at 27 degrees C/2200 micromoles m -2 s -1 appeared to exhibit a restriction in starch metabolism. In contrast, cells grown at 5 degrees C/150 micromoles-1 m -2 s -1 appeared to exhibit a restriction in the sucrose metabolism based on decreased cytosolic fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase and sucrose phosphate synthase activities as well as a low sucrose/starch ratio. These metabolic restrictions may feedback on photosynthetic electron transport and, thus, contribute to the observed PSII excitation pressure. We conclude that, although PSII excitation pressure may reflect redox regulation of photosynthetic acclimation to light and temperature in C. vulgaris, it cannot be considered the primary redox signal. Alternative metabolic sensing/signaling mechanisms are discussed

  2. Effects of light, food availability and temperature stress on the function of photosystem II and photosystem I of coral symbionts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mia O Hoogenboom

    Full Text Available Reef corals are heterotrophic coelenterates that achieve high productivity through their photosynthetic dinoflagellate symbionts. Excessive seawater temperature destabilises this symbiosis and causes corals to "bleach," lowering their photosynthetic capacity. Bleaching poses a serious threat to the persistence of coral reefs on a global scale. Despite expanding research on the causes of bleaching, the mechanisms remain a subject of debate.This study determined how light and food availability modulate the effects of temperature stress on photosynthesis in two reef coral species. We quantified the activities of Photosystem II, Photosystem I and whole chain electron transport under combinations of normal and stressful growth temperatures, moderate and high light levels and the presence or absence of feeding of the coral hosts. Our results show that PS1 function is comparatively robust against temperature stress in both species, whereas PS2 and whole chain electron transport are susceptible to temperature stress. In the symbiotic dinoflagellates of Stylophora pistillata the contents of chlorophyll and major photosynthetic complexes were primarily affected by food availability. In Turbinaria reniformis growth temperature was the dominant influence on the contents of the photosynthetic complexes. In both species feeding the host significantly protected photosynthetic function from high temperature stress.Our findings support the photoinhibition model of coral bleaching and demonstrate that PS1 is not a major site for thermal damage during bleaching events. Feeding mitigates bleaching in two scleractinian corals, so that reef responses to temperature stresses will likely be influenced by the coinciding availabilities of prey for the host.

  3. Acute toxicity of excess mercury on the photosynthetic performance of cyanobacterium, S. platensis--assessment by chlorophyll fluorescence analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, C M; Chau, C W; Zhang, J H

    2000-07-01

    Measurement of chlorophyll fluorescence has been shown to be a rapid, non-invasive, and reliable method to assess photosynthetic performance in a changing environment. In this study, acute toxicity of excess Hg on the photosynthetic performance of the cyanobacterium S. platensis, was investigated by use of chlorophyll fluorescence analysis after cells were exposed to excess Hg (up to 20 microM) for 2 h. The results determined from the fast fluorescence kinetics showed that Hg induced a significant increase in the proportion of the Q(B)-non-reducing PSII reaction centers. The fluorescence parameters measured under the steady state of photosynthesis demonstrated that the increase of Hg concentration led to a decrease in the maximal efficiency of PSII photochemistry, the efficiency of excitation energy capture by the open PSII reaction centers, and the quantum yield of PSII electron transport. Mercury also resulted in a decrease in the coefficients of photochemical and non-photochemical quenching. Mercury may have an acute toxicity on cyanobacteria by inhibiting the quantum yield of photosynthesis sensitively and rapidly. Such changes occurred before any other visible damages that may be evaluated by other conventional measurements. Our results also demonstrated that chlorophyll fluorescence analysis can be used as a useful physiological tool to assess early stages of change in photosynthetic performance of algae in response to heavy metal pollution.

  4. Light-dependent electrogenic activity of cyanobacteria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John M Pisciotta

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Cyanobacteria account for 20-30% of Earth's primary photosynthetic productivity and convert solar energy into biomass-stored chemical energy at the rate of approximately 450 TW [1]. These single-cell microorganisms are resilient predecessors of all higher oxygenic phototrophs and can be found in self-sustaining, nitrogen-fixing communities the world over, from Antarctic glaciers to the Sahara desert [2].Here we show that diverse genera of cyanobacteria including biofilm-forming and pelagic strains have a conserved light-dependent electrogenic activity, i.e. the ability to transfer electrons to their surroundings in response to illumination. Naturally-growing biofilm-forming photosynthetic consortia also displayed light-dependent electrogenic activity, demonstrating that this phenomenon is not limited to individual cultures. Treatment with site-specific inhibitors revealed the electrons originate at the photosynthetic electron transfer chain (P-ETC. Moreover, electrogenic activity was observed upon illumination only with blue or red but not green light confirming that P-ETC is the source of electrons. The yield of electrons harvested by extracellular electron acceptor to photons available for photosynthesis ranged from 0.05% to 0.3%, although the efficiency of electron harvesting likely varies depending on terminal electron acceptor.The current study illustrates that cyanobacterial electrogenic activity is an important microbiological conduit of solar energy into the biosphere. The mechanism responsible for electrogenic activity in cyanobacteria appears to be fundamentally different from the one exploited in previously discovered electrogenic bacteria, such as Geobacter, where electrons are derived from oxidation of organic compounds and transported via a respiratory electron transfer chain (R-ETC [3], [4]. The electrogenic pathway of cyanobacteria might be exploited to develop light-sensitive devices or future technologies that convert solar

  5. Side chain effect on electronic structure of spin-coated films of [6,6]-phenyl-C{sub 61}-butyric acid methyl ester and its bis-adduct

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akaike, Kouki, E-mail: akaike@riken.jp [Department of Chemistry, Graduate School of Science, Nagoya University, Furo-cho, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya 464-8602 (Japan); Kanai, Kaname [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science and Technology, Tokyo University of Science, Yamazaki 2641, Noda 278-8510 (Japan); Ouchi, Yukio; Seki, Kazuhiko [Department of Chemistry, Graduate School of Science, Nagoya University, Furo-cho, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya 464-8602 (Japan)

    2013-03-29

    Highlights: ► Electronic structure of spin-coated films of PCBM and bis-PCBM was investigated. ► Ionization energy and electron affinity of bis-PCBM are smaller than those of PCBM. ► Electron donation from the side chain to C{sub 60}-backbone raises the HOMO and LUMO. ► Open circuit voltages of PCBM-based solar cells relates to electron affinities. - Abstract: We investigated the electronic structure of spin-coated films of two soluble fullerenes; [6,6]-phenyl-C{sub 61}-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM) and its bis-adduct (bis-PCBM) using ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy, inverse photoemission spectroscopy and molecular orbital calculations. The ionization energy and electron affinity of spin-coated films of bis-PCBM were determined to be 6.01 eV and 3.4 eV, respectively. Analysis of electron density suggested the stronger electron donation from the two side chains to fullerene-backbone in a bis-PCBM molecule, compared with PCBM. The electron donation raises the energies of the frontier orbitals of bis-PCBM, which mainly consist of π-orbitals of fullerene-backbone. As a result, the ionization energy and electron affinity of bis-PCBM are smaller than those of PCBM. Moreover, we also concluded that the larger open circuit voltage observed for bis-PCBM based organic photovoltaics was explained by the higher-lying unoccupied molecular orbital of bis-PCBM.

  6. Multiple mobility edges in a 1D Aubry chain with Hubbard interaction in presence of electric field: Controlled electron transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, Srilekha; Maiti, Santanu K.; Karmakar, S. N.

    2016-09-01

    Electronic behavior of a 1D Aubry chain with Hubbard interaction is critically analyzed in presence of electric field. Multiple energy bands are generated as a result of Hubbard correlation and Aubry potential, and, within these bands localized states are developed under the application of electric field. Within a tight-binding framework we compute electronic transmission probability and average density of states using Green's function approach where the interaction parameter is treated under Hartree-Fock mean field scheme. From our analysis we find that selective transmission can be obtained by tuning injecting electron energy, and thus, the present model can be utilized as a controlled switching device.

  7. Comparison of Methods for Estimating Fractional Cover of Photosynthetic and Non-Photosynthetic Vegetation in the Otindag Sandy Land Using GF-1 Wide-Field View Data

    OpenAIRE

    Xiaosong Li; Guoxiong Zheng; Jinying Wang; Cuicui Ji; Bin Sun; Zhihai Gao

    2016-01-01

    Photosynthetic vegetation (PV) and non-photosynthetic vegetation (NPV) are important ground cover types for desertification monitoring and land management. Hyperspectral remote sensing has been proven effective for separating NPV from bare soil, but few studies determined fractional cover of PV (fpv) and NPV (fnpv) using multispectral information. The purpose of this study is to evaluate several spectral unmixing approaches for retrieval of fpv and fnpv in the Otindag Sandy Land using GF-1 wi...

  8. Linear-chain assemblies of iron oxide nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dhak, Prasanta; Kim, Min-Kwan; Lee, Jae Hyeok; Kim, Miyoung; Kim, Sang-Koog, E-mail: sangkoog@snu.ac.kr

    2017-07-01

    Highlights: • Hydrothermal synthesis of pure phase 200 nm Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanoparticles. • Studies of linear-chain assemblies of iron oxide nanosphere by FESEM. • Micromagnetic simulations showed the presence of 3D vortex states. • The B.E. for different numbers of particles in linear chain assemblies were calculated. - Abstract: We synthesized iron oxide nanoparticles using a simple hydrothermal approach and found several types of segments of their linear-chain self-assemblies as observed by field emission scanning electron microscopy. X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy measurements confirm a well-defined single-phase FCC structure. Vibrating sample magnetometry measurements exhibit a ferromagnetic behavior. Micromagnetic numerical simulations show magnetic vortex states in the nanosphere model. Also, calculations of binding energies for different numbers of particles in the linear-chain assemblies explain a possible mechanism responsible for the self-assemblies of segments of the linear chains of nanoparticles. This work offers a step towards linear-chain self-assemblies of iron oxide nanoparticles and the effect of magnetic vortex states in individual nanoparticles on their binding energy.

  9. Electronic energy transfer through non-adiabatic vibrational-electronic resonance. II. 1D spectra for a dimer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiwari, Vivek; Jonas, David M.

    2018-02-01

    Vibrational-electronic resonance in photosynthetic pigment-protein complexes invalidates Förster's adiabatic framework for interpreting spectra and energy transfer, thus complicating determination of how the surrounding protein affects pigment properties. This paper considers the combined effects of vibrational-electronic resonance and inhomogeneous variations in the electronic excitation energies of pigments at different sites on absorption, emission, circular dichroism, and hole-burning spectra for a non-degenerate homodimer. The non-degenerate homodimer has identical pigments in different sites that generate differences in electronic energies, with parameters loosely based on bacteriochlorophyll a pigments in the Fenna-Matthews-Olson antenna protein. To explain the intensity borrowing, the excited state vibrational-electronic eigenvectors are discussed in terms of the vibrational basis localized on the individual pigments, as well as the correlated/anti-correlated vibrational basis delocalized over both pigments. Compared to those in the isolated pigment, vibrational satellites for the correlated vibration have the same frequency and precisely a factor of 2 intensity reduction through vibrational delocalization in both absorption and emission. Vibrational satellites for anti-correlated vibrations have their relaxed emission intensity reduced by over a factor 2 through vibrational and excitonic delocalization. In absorption, anti-correlated vibrational satellites borrow excitonic intensity but can be broadened away by the combination of vibronic resonance and site inhomogeneity; in parallel, their vibronically resonant excitonic partners are also broadened away. These considerations are consistent with photosynthetic antenna hole-burning spectra, where sharp vibrational and excitonic satellites are absent. Vibrational-excitonic resonance barely alters the inhomogeneously broadened linear absorption, emission, and circular dichroism spectra from those for a

  10. Natural strategies for photosynthetic light harvesting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Croce, R.; van Amerongen, H.

    2014-01-01

    Photosynthetic organisms are crucial for life on Earth as they provide food and oxygen and are at the basis of most energy resources. They have a large variety of light-harvesting strategies that allow them to live nearly everywhere where sunlight can penetrate. They have adapted their pigmentation

  11. Metabolic Engineering and Modeling of Metabolic Pathways to Improve Hydrogen Production by Photosynthetic Bacteria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiao, Y. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Navid, A. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2014-12-19

    Rising energy demands and the imperative to reduce carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions are driving research on biofuels development. Hydrogen gas (H2) is one of the most promising biofuels and is seen as a future energy carrier by virtue of the fact that 1) it is renewable, 2) does not evolve the “greenhouse gas” CO2 in combustion, 3) liberates large amounts of energy per unit weight in combustion (having about 3 times the energy content of gasoline), and 4) is easily converted to electricity by fuel cells. Among the various bioenergy strategies, environmental groups and others say that the concept of the direct manufacture of alternative fuels, such as H2, by photosynthetic organisms is the only biofuel alternative without significant negative criticism [1]. Biological H2 production by photosynthetic microorganisms requires the use of a simple solar reactor such as a transparent closed box, with low energy requirements, and is considered as an attractive system to develop as a biocatalyst for H2 production [2]. Various purple bacteria including Rhodopseudomonas palustris, can utilize organic substrates as electron donors to produce H2 at the expense of solar energy. Because of the elimination of energy cost used for H2O oxidation and the prevention of the production of O2 that inhibits the H2-producing enzymes, the efficiency of light energy conversion to H2 by anoxygenic photosynthetic bacteria is in principle much higher than that by green algae or cyanobacteria, and is regarded as one of the most promising cultures for biological H2 production [3]. Here implemented a simple and relatively straightforward strategy for hydrogen production by photosynthetic microorganisms using sunlight, sulfur- or iron-based inorganic substrates, and CO2 as the feedstock. Carefully selected microorganisms with bioengineered beneficial

  12. Hafnium carbide nanocrystal chains for field emitters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tian, Song; Li, Hejun; Zhang, Yulei; Ren, Jincui; Qiang, Xinfa; Zhang, Shouyang

    2014-01-01

    A hafnium carbide (HfC) nanostructure, i.e., HfC nanocrystal chain, was synthesized by a chemical vapor deposition (CVD) method. X-ray diffractometer, field-emission scanning electron microscope, transmission electron microscope, and energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometer were employed to characterize the product. The synthesized one-dimensional (1D) nanostructures with many faceted octahedral nanocrystals possess diameters of tens of nanometers to 500 nm and lengths of a few microns. The chain-like structures possess a single crystalline structure and preferential growth direction along the [1 0 0] crystal orientation. The growth of the chains occurred through the vapor–liquid–solid process along with a negative-feedback mechanism. The field emission (FE) properties of the HfC nanocrystal chains as the cold cathode emitters were examined. The HfC nanocrystal chains display good FE properties with a low turn-on field of about 3.9 V μm −1 and a high field enhancement factor of 2157, implying potential applications in vacuum microelectronics.

  13. Artemisinin inhibits chloroplast electron transport activity: mode of action.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adyasha Bharati

    Full Text Available Artemisinin, a secondary metabolite produced in Artemisia plant species, besides having antimalarial properties is also phytotoxic. Although, the phytotoxic activity of the compound has been long recognized, no information is available on the mechanism of action of the compound on photosynthetic activity of the plant. In this report, we have evaluated the effect of artemisinin on photoelectron transport activity of chloroplast thylakoid membrane. The inhibitory effect of the compound, under in vitro condition, was pronounced in loosely and fully coupled thylakoids; being strong in the former. The extent of inhibition was drastically reduced in the presence of uncouplers like ammonium chloride or gramicidin; a characteristic feature described for energy transfer inhibitors. The compound, on the other hand, when applied to plants (in vivo, behaved as a potent inhibitor of photosynthetic electron transport. The major site of its action was identified to be the Q(B; the secondary quinone moiety of photosystemII complex. Analysis of photoreduction kinetics of para-benzoquinone and duroquinone suggest that the inhibition leads to formation of low pool of plastoquinol, which becomes limiting for electron flow through photosystemI. Further it was ascertained that the in vivo inhibitory effect appeared as a consequence of the formation of an unidentified artemisinin-metabolite rather than by the interaction of the compound per se. The putative metabolite of artemisinin is highly reactive in instituting the inhibition of photosynthetic electron flow eventually reducing the plant growth.

  14. Newton's Cradle and Entanglement Transport in a Flexible Rydberg Chain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wuester, S.; Ates, C.; Eisfeld, A.; Rost, J. M.

    2010-01-01

    In a regular, flexible chain of Rydberg atoms, a single electronic excitation localizes on two atoms that are in closer mutual proximity than all others. We show how the interplay between excitonic and atomic motion causes electronic excitation and diatomic proximity to propagate through the Rydberg chain as a combined pulse. In this manner entanglement is transferred adiabatically along the chain, reminiscent of momentum transfer in Newton's cradle.

  15. Photosynthetic recovery and acclimation to excess light intensity in the rehydrated lichen soil crusts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Wu

    Full Text Available As an important successional stage and main type of biological soil crusts (BSCs in Shapotou region of China (southeastern edge of Tengger Desert, lichen soil crusts (LSCs often suffer from many stresses, such as desiccation and excess light intensity. In this study, the chlorophyll fluorescence and CO2 exchange in the rehydrated LSCs were detected under a series of photosynthetically active radiation (PAR gradients to study the photosynthetic acclimation of LSCs. The results showed that although desiccation leaded to the loss of photosynthetic activity in LSCs, the fluorescence parameters including Fo, Fv and Fv/Fm of LSCs could be well recovered after rehydration. After the recovery of photosynthetic activity, the effective photosynthetic efficiency ΦPSII detected by Imaging PAM had declined to nearly 0 within both the lichen thallus upper and lower layers when the PAR increased to 200 μE m-2 s-1, however the net photosynthesis detected by the CO2 gas analyzer in the LSCs still appeared when the PAR increased to 1000 μE m-2 s-1. Our results indicate that LSCs acclimating to high PAR, on the one hand is ascribed to the special structure in crust lichens, making the incident light into the lichen thallus be weakened; on the other hand the massive accumulation of photosynthetic pigments in LSCs also provides a protective barrier for the photosynthetic organisms against radiation damage. Furthermore, the excessive light energy absorbed by crust lichens is also possibly dissipated by the increasing non-photochemical quenching, therefore to some extent providing some protection for LSCs.

  16. The inter-relationship of ascorbate transport, metabolism and mitochondrial, plastidic respiration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szarka, András; Bánhegyi, Gábor; Asard, Han

    2013-09-20

    Ascorbate, this multifaceted small molecular weight carbohydrate derivative, plays important roles in a range of cellular processes in plant cells, from the regulation of cell cycle, through cell expansion and senescence. Beyond these physiological functions, ascorbate has a critical role in responses to abiotic stresses, such as high light, high salinity, or drought. The biosynthesis, recycling, and intracellular transport are important elements of the balancing of ascorbate level to the always-changing conditions and demands. A bidirectional tight relationship was described between ascorbate biosynthesis and the mitochondrial electron transfer chain (mETC), since L-galactono-1,4-lactone dehydrogenase (GLDH), the enzyme catalyzing the ultimate step of ascorbate biosynthesis, uses oxidized cytochrome c as the only electron acceptor and has a role in the assembly of Complex I. A similar bidirectional relationship was revealed between the photosynthetic apparatus and ascorbate biosynthesis since the electron flux through the photosynthetic ETC affects the biosynthesis of ascorbate and the level of ascorbate could affect photosynthesis. The details of this regulatory network of photosynthetic electron transfer, respiratory electron transfer, and ascorbate biosynthesis are still not clear, as are the potential regulatory role and the regulation of intracellular ascorbate transport and fluxes. The elucidation of the role of ascorbate as an important element of the network of photosynthetic, respiratory ETC and tricarboxylic acid cycle will contribute to understanding plant cell responses to different stress conditions.

  17. Seasonal changes in photosynthetic capacity of leaves of kiwifruit (Actinidia deliciosa) vines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buwalda, J.G.; Meekings, J.S.; Smith, G.S.

    1991-01-01

    The seasonal trend of photosynthetic capacity of leaves of kiwifruit (Actinidia deliciosa var. deliciosa) vines growing in the field was examined, by measuring the response of net photosynthesis (A) to irradiance (PAR) at monthly intervals for leaves that emerged at different stages of the growing season. A climate controlled minicuvette system was used, to ensure constant environmental conditions, apart from the controlled changes in leaf irradiance. Responses of A to irradiance were described using asymptotic exponential curves, providing estimates of the radiation saturated rate of A (A sat ), and the response of A to increasing incident PAR at low PAR levels (ϕ i ). The change in photosynthetic capacity with leaf age was similar for leaves emerging 1, 2, 3 or 4 months after bud burst. At 1 month after leaf emergence, when leaves were fully expanded, Asat was 9–11 μmol CO 2 m −2 s −1 . Maximum photosynthetic capacity was not attained until 3–5 months after leaf emergence, when Asat was 16–17 μmol CO 2 m −2 s −1 . The increasing photosynthetic capacity during 3–5 months after leaf emergence was closely related to concomitant changes in leaf N and chlorophyll contents. The possibility that N import to the leaf was a significant factor limiting the development of photosynthetic capacity is discussed. (author)

  18. UV-B photoreceptor-mediated protection of the photosynthetic machinery in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allorent, Guillaume; Lefebvre-Legendre, Linnka; Chappuis, Richard; Kuntz, Marcel; Truong, Thuy B.; Niyogi, Krishna K.; Goldschmidt-Clermont, Michel

    2016-01-01

    Life on earth is dependent on the photosynthetic conversion of light energy into chemical energy. However, absorption of excess sunlight can damage the photosynthetic machinery and limit photosynthetic activity, thereby affecting growth and productivity. Photosynthetic light harvesting can be down-regulated by nonphotochemical quenching (NPQ). A major component of NPQ is qE (energy-dependent nonphotochemical quenching), which allows dissipation of light energy as heat. Photodamage peaks in the UV-B part of the spectrum, but whether and how UV-B induces qE are unknown. Plants are responsive to UV-B via the UVR8 photoreceptor. Here, we report in the green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii that UVR8 induces accumulation of specific members of the light-harvesting complex (LHC) superfamily that contribute to qE, in particular LHC Stress-Related 1 (LHCSR1) and Photosystem II Subunit S (PSBS). The capacity for qE is strongly induced by UV-B, although the patterns of qE-related proteins accumulating in response to UV-B or to high light are clearly different. The competence for qE induced by acclimation to UV-B markedly contributes to photoprotection upon subsequent exposure to high light. Our study reveals an anterograde link between photoreceptor-mediated signaling in the nucleocytosolic compartment and the photoprotective regulation of photosynthetic activity in the chloroplast. PMID:27930292

  19. UV-B photoreceptor-mediated protection of the photosynthetic machinery in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allorent, Guillaume; Lefebvre-Legendre, Linnka; Chappuis, Richard; Kuntz, Marcel; Truong, Thuy B; Niyogi, Krishna K; Ulm, Roman; Goldschmidt-Clermont, Michel

    2016-12-20

    Life on earth is dependent on the photosynthetic conversion of light energy into chemical energy. However, absorption of excess sunlight can damage the photosynthetic machinery and limit photosynthetic activity, thereby affecting growth and productivity. Photosynthetic light harvesting can be down-regulated by nonphotochemical quenching (NPQ). A major component of NPQ is qE (energy-dependent nonphotochemical quenching), which allows dissipation of light energy as heat. Photodamage peaks in the UV-B part of the spectrum, but whether and how UV-B induces qE are unknown. Plants are responsive to UV-B via the UVR8 photoreceptor. Here, we report in the green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii that UVR8 induces accumulation of specific members of the light-harvesting complex (LHC) superfamily that contribute to qE, in particular LHC Stress-Related 1 (LHCSR1) and Photosystem II Subunit S (PSBS). The capacity for qE is strongly induced by UV-B, although the patterns of qE-related proteins accumulating in response to UV-B or to high light are clearly different. The competence for qE induced by acclimation to UV-B markedly contributes to photoprotection upon subsequent exposure to high light. Our study reveals an anterograde link between photoreceptor-mediated signaling in the nucleocytosolic compartment and the photoprotective regulation of photosynthetic activity in the chloroplast.

  20. Effect of maize seed laser irradiation on plant photosynthetic activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antonov, M.; Stanev, V.; Velichkov, D.; Tsonev, Ts.

    1986-01-01

    Investigations were made with the two hybrids, H-708 and P x -20. The seeds were irradiated by a helium-neon quantum generator (L'vov-1 Electronica) with output power of 24 MW and 632.8 nm wave length. Once and twice irradiated seeds were sown on the 2nd, 5th and 10th day post irradiation. Changes in leaf area, chlorophyll content in the leaves, photosynthetic rate and its dependence on temperature and light, transpiration, stomatal resistance to CO 2 and total dry matter of the overground plant part were traced. Seed irradiation with laser rays did not affect the chlorophyll content of the leaves. The photosynthetic rate did not depend on the cultivar characteristics of the crop. Single and repeated irradiation of the hybrid H-708 in most case enhanced photosynthetic rate, but a similar effect was not observed in P x -20. Transpiration and CO 2 stomatal resistance were not equally affected by radiation. Laser rays enhanced the ability of the photosynthetic apparatus of the entire plants to use more efficiently high light intensities. The leaf area and the total plant dry matter increased in case of sowing on the 2nd and 5th day and a single irradiation and in case of sowing on the 5th and 10th day and twice repeated irradiations

  1. A remotely sensed pigment index reveals photosynthetic phenology in evergreen conifers

    OpenAIRE

    Gamon, John A.

    2016-01-01

    In evergreen conifers, where the foliage amount changes little with season, accurate detection of the underlying “photosynthetic phenology” from satellite remote sensing has been difficult, presenting challenges for global models of ecosystem carbon uptake. Here, we report a close correspondence between seasonally changing foliar pigment levels, expressed as chlorophyll/carotenoid ratios, and evergreen photosynthetic activity, leading to a “chlorophyll/carotenoid index” (CCI) that tracks ever...

  2. Automated side-chain model building and sequence assignment by template matching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terwilliger, Thomas C

    2003-01-01

    An algorithm is described for automated building of side chains in an electron-density map once a main-chain model is built and for alignment of the protein sequence to the map. The procedure is based on a comparison of electron density at the expected side-chain positions with electron-density templates. The templates are constructed from average amino-acid side-chain densities in 574 refined protein structures. For each contiguous segment of main chain, a matrix with entries corresponding to an estimate of the probability that each of the 20 amino acids is located at each position of the main-chain model is obtained. The probability that this segment corresponds to each possible alignment with the sequence of the protein is estimated using a Bayesian approach and high-confidence matches are kept. Once side-chain identities are determined, the most probable rotamer for each side chain is built into the model. The automated procedure has been implemented in the RESOLVE software. Combined with automated main-chain model building, the procedure produces a preliminary model suitable for refinement and extension by an experienced crystallographer.

  3. Antioxidant defense in quiescent cells determines selectivity of electron transport chain inhibition-induced cell death

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Blecha, Jan; Novais, Silvia Magalhaes; Rohlenová, Kateřina; Novotná, Eliška; Lettlová, Sandra; Schmitt, S.; Zischka, H.; Neužil, Jiří; Rohlena, Jakub

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 112, NOV 2017 (2017), s. 253-266 ISSN 0891-5849 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA16-22823S; GA ČR GA17-20904S; GA ČR GA16-12719S; GA MZd(CZ) NV16-31604A; GA MŠk(CZ) LM2015062; GA MŠk(CZ) LQ1604; GA MŠk(CZ) ED1.1.00/02.0109 Institutional support: RVO:86652036 Keywords : Electron transport chain * Supercomplexes * Antioxidant defense * SOD2 Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology OBOR OECD: Biochemistry and molecular biology Impact factor: 5.606, year: 2016

  4. BOREAS TE-9 NSA Photosynthetic Response Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Forrest G.; Curd, Shelaine (Editor); Dang, Qinglai; Margolis, Hank; Coyea, Marie

    2000-01-01

    The Boreal Ecosystem-Atmospheric Study (BOREAS) TE-9 (Terrestrial Ecology) team collected several data sets related to chemical and photosynthetic properties of leaves. This data set describes: (1) the response of leaf and shoot-level photosynthesis to ambient and intercellular CO2 concentration, temperature, and incident photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) for black spruce, jack pine, and aspen during the three intensive field campaigns (IFCs) in 1994 in the Northern Study Area (NSA); (2) the response of stomatal conductance to vapor pressure difference throughout the growing season of 1994; and (3) a range of shoot water potentials (controlled in the laboratory) for black spruce and jack pine. The data are stored in tabular ASCII files. The data files are available on a CD-ROM (see document number 20010000884), or from the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Distributed Active Archive Center (DAAC).

  5. Low-cost sensor integrators for measuring the transmissivity of complex canopies to photosynthetically active radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Newman, S.M.

    1985-01-01

    A system has been designed, tested and evaluated for measuring the transmissivities of complex canopies to photosynthetically active radiation (PAR). The system consists of filtered silicon photocells in cosine corrected mounts with outputs integrated by the use of chemical coulometers. The reading accumulated by the coulometers was taken electronically by the use of microcomputers. The low-cost sensor integrators, which do not require batteries, performed as expected and proved ideal for the study of agroforestry systems in remote areas. Information on the PAR transmissivity of a temperate agroforestry system in the form of an intercropped orchard is also presented. (author)

  6. Still acting green: continued expression of photosynthetic genes in the heterotrophic Dinoflagellate Pfiesteria piscicida (Peridiniales, Alveolata.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gwang Hoon Kim

    Full Text Available The loss of photosynthetic function should lead to the cessation of expression and finally loss of photosynthetic genes in the new heterotroph. Dinoflagellates are known to have lost their photosynthetic ability several times. Dinoflagellates have also acquired photosynthesis from other organisms, either on a long-term basis or as "kleptoplastids" multiple times. The fate of photosynthetic gene expression in heterotrophs can be informative into evolution of gene expression patterns after functional loss, and the dinoflagellates ability to acquire new photosynthetic function through additional endosymbiosis. To explore this we analyzed a large-scale EST database consisting of 151,091 unique sequences (29,170 contigs, 120,921 singletons obtained from 454 pyrosequencing of the heterotrophic dinoflagellate Pfiesteria piscicida. About 597 contigs from P. piscicida showed significant homology (E-value photosynthetic function. Most of the genes involved in the Calvin-Benson cycle were found, genes of the light-dependent reaction were also identified. Also genes of associated pathways including the chorismate pathway and genes involved in starch metabolism were discovered. BLAST searches and phylogenetic analysis suggest that these plastid-associated genes originated from several different photosynthetic ancestors. The Calvin-Benson cycle genes are mostly associated with genes derived from the secondary plastids of peridinin-containing dinoflagellates, while the light-harvesting genes are derived from diatoms, or diatoms that are tertiary plastids in other dinoflagellates. The continued expression of many genes involved in photosynthetic pathways indicates that the loss of transcriptional regulation may occur well after plastid loss and could explain the organism's ability to "capture" new plastids (i.e. different secondary endosymbiosis or tertiary symbioses to renew photosynthetic function.

  7. Still acting green: continued expression of photosynthetic genes in the heterotrophic Dinoflagellate Pfiesteria piscicida (Peridiniales, Alveolata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Gwang Hoon; Jeong, Hae Jin; Yoo, Yeong Du; Kim, Sunju; Han, Ji Hee; Han, Jong Won; Zuccarello, Giuseppe C

    2013-01-01

    The loss of photosynthetic function should lead to the cessation of expression and finally loss of photosynthetic genes in the new heterotroph. Dinoflagellates are known to have lost their photosynthetic ability several times. Dinoflagellates have also acquired photosynthesis from other organisms, either on a long-term basis or as "kleptoplastids" multiple times. The fate of photosynthetic gene expression in heterotrophs can be informative into evolution of gene expression patterns after functional loss, and the dinoflagellates ability to acquire new photosynthetic function through additional endosymbiosis. To explore this we analyzed a large-scale EST database consisting of 151,091 unique sequences (29,170 contigs, 120,921 singletons) obtained from 454 pyrosequencing of the heterotrophic dinoflagellate Pfiesteria piscicida. About 597 contigs from P. piscicida showed significant homology (E-value photosynthetic function. Most of the genes involved in the Calvin-Benson cycle were found, genes of the light-dependent reaction were also identified. Also genes of associated pathways including the chorismate pathway and genes involved in starch metabolism were discovered. BLAST searches and phylogenetic analysis suggest that these plastid-associated genes originated from several different photosynthetic ancestors. The Calvin-Benson cycle genes are mostly associated with genes derived from the secondary plastids of peridinin-containing dinoflagellates, while the light-harvesting genes are derived from diatoms, or diatoms that are tertiary plastids in other dinoflagellates. The continued expression of many genes involved in photosynthetic pathways indicates that the loss of transcriptional regulation may occur well after plastid loss and could explain the organism's ability to "capture" new plastids (i.e. different secondary endosymbiosis or tertiary symbioses) to renew photosynthetic function.

  8. Adjusted light and dark cycles can optimize photosynthetic efficiency in algae growing in photobioreactors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleonora Sforza

    Full Text Available Biofuels from algae are highly interesting as renewable energy sources to replace, at least partially, fossil fuels, but great research efforts are still needed to optimize growth parameters to develop competitive large-scale cultivation systems. One factor with a seminal influence on productivity is light availability. Light energy fully supports algal growth, but it leads to oxidative stress if illumination is in excess. In this work, the influence of light intensity on the growth and lipid productivity of Nannochloropsis salina was investigated in a flat-bed photobioreactor designed to minimize cells self-shading. The influence of various light intensities was studied with both continuous illumination and alternation of light and dark cycles at various frequencies, which mimic illumination variations in a photobioreactor due to mixing. Results show that Nannochloropsis can efficiently exploit even very intense light, provided that dark cycles occur to allow for re-oxidation of the electron transporters of the photosynthetic apparatus. If alternation of light and dark is not optimal, algae undergo radiation damage and photosynthetic productivity is greatly reduced. Our results demonstrate that, in a photobioreactor for the cultivation of algae, optimizing mixing is essential in order to ensure that the algae exploit light energy efficiently.

  9. Automated side-chain model building and sequence assignment by template matching

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terwilliger, Thomas C.

    2002-01-01

    A method for automated macromolecular side-chain model building and for aligning the sequence to the map is described. An algorithm is described for automated building of side chains in an electron-density map once a main-chain model is built and for alignment of the protein sequence to the map. The procedure is based on a comparison of electron density at the expected side-chain positions with electron-density templates. The templates are constructed from average amino-acid side-chain densities in 574 refined protein structures. For each contiguous segment of main chain, a matrix with entries corresponding to an estimate of the probability that each of the 20 amino acids is located at each position of the main-chain model is obtained. The probability that this segment corresponds to each possible alignment with the sequence of the protein is estimated using a Bayesian approach and high-confidence matches are kept. Once side-chain identities are determined, the most probable rotamer for each side chain is built into the model. The automated procedure has been implemented in the RESOLVE software. Combined with automated main-chain model building, the procedure produces a preliminary model suitable for refinement and extension by an experienced crystallographer

  10. Supply chain strategies, issues and models

    CERN Document Server

    Ramanathan, Ramakrishnan

    2014-01-01

    In the 21st century, supply chain operations and relationships among supply chain partners have become highly challenging, necessitating new approaches, e.g., the development of new models. Supply Chain Strategies, Issues and Models discusses supply chain issues and models with examples from actual industrial cases. Expert authors with a wide spectrum of knowledge working in various areas of supply chain management from various geographical locations offer refreshing, novel and insightful ideas and address possible solutions using established theories and models. Supply Chain Strategies, Issues and Models features studies that have used mathematical modeling, statistical analyses and also descriptive qualitative studies. The chapters cover many relevant themes related to supply chains and logistics including supply chain complexity, information sharing, quality (six sigma), electronic Kanbans, inventory models, scheduling, purchasing and contracts. To facilitate easy reading, the chapters that deal with suppl...

  11. The Buccaneer software for automated model building. 1. Tracing protein chains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowtan, Kevin

    2006-09-01

    A new technique for the automated tracing of protein chains in experimental electron-density maps is described. The technique relies on the repeated application of an oriented electron-density likelihood target function to identify likely C(alpha) positions. This function is applied both in the location of a few promising ;seed' positions in the map and to grow those initial C(alpha) positions into extended chain fragments. Techniques for assembling the chain fragments into an initial chain trace are discussed.

  12. Electron uptake and delivery sites on plastocyanin in its reactions with the photosynthetic electron transport system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Farver, O; Shahak, Y; Pecht, I

    1982-01-01

    French bean plastocyanin is stoichiometrically and specifically labeled upon reduction by Cr(II)aq ions, yielding a substitution-inert (Cr(III) adduct at the protein surface. The effect of the modification on the activity of plastocyanin in electron transfer between photosystems II and I has been...... and Cr-labeled plastocyanin were indistinguishable, the rates of photooxidation of the modified protein were markedly attenuated relative to those of the native one. This difference in reactivity clearly reflects the perturbation of the electron transfer pathway to P700. These findings, in conjunction...... with the structure of plastocyanin and the locus of CR(III) binding on its surface, lead to the following interpretation: (a) There are most probably two physiologically significant, electron transfer sites on plastocyanin. (b) The site involved in the electron transfer to P700 is most likely in the region...

  13. Assessing the effects of ultraviolet radiation on the photosynthetic potential in Archean marine environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avila-Alonso, Dailé; Baetens, Jan M.; Cardenas, Rolando; de Baets, Bernard

    2017-07-01

    In this work, the photosynthesis model presented by Avila et al. in 2013 is extended and more scenarios inhabited by ancient cyanobacteria are investigated to quantify the effects of ultraviolet (UV) radiation on their photosynthetic potential in marine environments of the Archean eon. We consider ferrous ions as blockers of UV during the Early Archean, while the absorption spectrum of chlorophyll a is used to quantify the fraction of photosynthetically active radiation absorbed by photosynthetic organisms. UV could have induced photoinhibition at the water surface, thereby strongly affecting the species with low light use efficiency. A higher photosynthetic potential in early marine environments was shown than in the Late Archean as a consequence of the attenuation of UVC and UVB by iron ions, which probably played an important role in the protection of ancient free-floating bacteria from high-intensity UV radiation. Photosynthetic organisms in Archean coastal and ocean environments were probably abundant in the first 5 and 25 m of the water column, respectively. However, species with a relatively high efficiency in the use of light could have inhabited ocean waters up to a depth of 200 m and show a Deep Chlorophyll Maximum near 60 m depth. We show that the electromagnetic radiation from the Sun, both UV and visible light, could have determined the vertical distribution of Archean marine photosynthetic organisms.

  14. Effect of Pot Size on Various Characteristics Related to Photosynthetic Matter Production in Soybean Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minobu Kasai

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite the wide uses of potted plants, information on how pot size affects plant photosynthetic matter production is still considerably limited. This study investigated with soybean plants how transplantation into larger pots affects various characteristics related to photosynthetic matter production. The transplantation was analyzed to increase leaf photosynthetic rate, transpiration rate, and stomatal conductance without affecting significantly leaf intercellular CO2 concentration, implicating that the transplantation induced equal increases in the rate of CO2 diffusion via leaf stomata and the rate of CO2 fixation in leaf photosynthetic cells. Analyses of Rubisco activity and contents of a substrate (ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate (RuBP for Rubisco and total protein in leaf suggested that an increase in leaf Rubisco activity, which is likely to result from an increase in leaf Rubisco content, could contribute to the transplantation-induced increase in leaf photosynthetic rate. Analyses of leaf major photosynthetic carbohydrates and dry weights of source and sink organs revealed that transplantation increased plant sink capacity that uses leaf starch, inducing a decrease in leaf starch content and an increase in whole plant growth, particularly, growth of sink organs. Previously, in the same soybean species, it was demonstrated that negative correlation exists between leaf starch content and photosynthetic rate and that accumulation of starch in leaf decreases the rate of CO2 diffusion within leaf. Thus, it was suggested that the transplantation-induced increase in plant sink capacity decreasing leaf starch content could cause the transplantation-induced increase in leaf photosynthetic rate by inducing an increase in the rate of CO2 diffusion within leaf and thereby substantiating an increase in leaf Rubisco activity in vivo. It was therefore concluded that transplantation of soybean plants into larger pots attempted in this study increased the

  15. Direct observation of multistep energy transfer in LHCII with fifth-order 3D electronic spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhengyang; Lambrev, Petar H; Wells, Kym L; Garab, Győző; Tan, Howe-Siang

    2015-07-31

    During photosynthesis, sunlight is efficiently captured by light-harvesting complexes, and the excitation energy is then funneled towards the reaction centre. These photosynthetic excitation energy transfer (EET) pathways are complex and proceed in a multistep fashion. Ultrafast two-dimensional electronic spectroscopy (2DES) is an important tool to study EET processes in photosynthetic complexes. However, the multistep EET processes can only be indirectly inferred by correlating different cross peaks from a series of 2DES spectra. Here we directly observe multistep EET processes in LHCII using ultrafast fifth-order three-dimensional electronic spectroscopy (3DES). We measure cross peaks in 3DES spectra of LHCII that directly indicate energy transfer from excitons in the chlorophyll b (Chl b) manifold to the low-energy level chlorophyll a (Chl a) via mid-level Chl a energy states. This new spectroscopic technique allows scientists to move a step towards mapping the complete complex EET processes in photosynthetic systems.

  16. Supply chain integration in the South African conveyancing environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthea P. Amadi-Echendu

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Although conveyancing is a legal term, business management and specifically operations management principles also apply to the processes involved in conveyancing. From a business perspective, each organisation is usually concerned with its own profit margins and processes. In our global market, however, organisations now realise that they can no longer compete successfully on the basis of their internal operational efficiencies alone. They are therefore constantly aware of the need to improve not only their internal processes but also their alignment with other supply chain linkages in an effort to optimise the performance of the whole supply chain. Such alignment, in the conveyancing environment, includes government departments that are generally less willing to adopt business principles, which in turn makes optimisation of the whole supply chain more difficult. Objectives: The article describes a supply chain perspective of the conveyancing processes in South Africa and reports some of the factors that influence and delay conveyancing transactions. It explores possibilities of collaborative relationships between different role players in the conveyancing supply chain. It aims to show that a supply chain approach, as opposed to a singular organisational approach, can help to reduce process bottlenecks and delays in order to improve overall process efficiency. Method: The research, on which the findings are based, was exploratory in nature and followed a mixed-methods (quantitative or qualitative approach and included both structured questionnaires and personal interviews. Results: The results of the study revealed that many different types of delays occur at various entities across the whole supply chain involved in property transfers. These delays are presented in a table and diagram. Conclusion: It is recommended that greater adoption of electronic technology across the whole supply chain would improve overall efficiency

  17. Modelling the effect of nonplanarity on charge transport along conjugated polymer chains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Correia, Helena M.G.; Ramos, Marta M.D.

    2007-01-01

    Conjugated polymers show interesting properties that make them appropriated for nanoelectronics. Several studies of poly(p-phenylene vinylene) (PPV) have suggested that each polymer chain consists of several planar segments, with conjugation length of nanoscale dimension, linked by twists or kinks. A pronounced twist between two planar segments in a PPV chain not only causes loss of main-chain conjugation but it may also alter electron and hole mobility along the chain, which has further implications for the percolation of charge through the polymer film. We used self-consistent quantum molecular dynamics calculations to provide information on the electric field needed to move the injected charges (either electrons or holes) along the planar segments of PPV and to cross the twist between two planar segments perpendicular to each other. Field-dependent charge mobility was also estimated for conjugated segments of various lengths. Our results suggest that electrons can cross the twist between adjacent planar segments for lower applied electric fields than holes if there is no more than one electronic charge (electron or hole) on the PPV chain, otherwise similar fields are needed

  18. Photosynthetic Energy Transfer at the Quantum/Classical Border.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keren, Nir; Paltiel, Yossi

    2018-06-01

    Quantum mechanics diverges from the classical description of our world when very small scales or very fast processes are involved. Unlike classical mechanics, quantum effects cannot be easily related to our everyday experience and are often counterintuitive to us. Nevertheless, the dimensions and time scales of the photosynthetic energy transfer processes puts them close to the quantum/classical border, bringing them into the range of measurable quantum effects. Here we review recent advances in the field and suggest that photosynthetic processes can take advantage of the sensitivity of quantum effects to the environmental 'noise' as means of tuning exciton energy transfer efficiency. If true, this design principle could be a base for 'nontrivial' coherent wave property nano-devices. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Non-photosynthetic plastids as hosts for metabolic engineering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mellor, Silas Busck; Behrendorff, James Bruce Yarnton H; Nielsen, Agnieszka Janina Zygadlo

    2018-01-01

    Using plants as hosts for production of complex, high-value compounds and therapeutic proteins has gained increasing momentum over the past decade. Recent advances in metabolic engineering techniques using synthetic biology have set the stage for production yields to become economically attractive......, but more refined design strategies are required to increase product yields without compromising development and growth of the host system. The ability of plant cells to differentiate into various tissues in combination with a high level of cellular compartmentalization represents so far the most...... in green tissues, have proven to be suitable for high yield protein and bio-compound production. Unfortunately, chloroplast manipulation often affects photosynthetic efficiency and therefore plant fitness. In this respect, plastids of non-photosynthetic tissues, which have focused metabolisms for synthesis...

  20. Photosynthetic capacity of 'Niagara Rosada' grapes grown under transparent plastic covering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruna Corrêa da Silva de Deus

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: New techniques in tropical regions such as use of transparent plastic covering (TPC, have been employed in grapes to avoid the wetting leaves and fruits, which can reduce the occurrence of fungal diseases, reduce the use of sprays, and reduce damage caused by hail and high winds. TPC may significantly affect the photosynthetic rates of grapevines cultivated in tropical regions, and thus have strong effects on plant productivity and improve fruit quality. However, in the North of Rio de Janeiro region there are lacks of studies related to TPC effects on photosynthetic capacity. The objective of this study was to evaluate the photosynthetic capacity in 'Niagara Rosada' vines grown under TPC and without transparent plastic covering (WTPC. The experiment was conducted between April and June 2013, on Tabuinha farm, located in the 3rd district of São Fidélis, Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil. A completely randomized block design was used with two treatments (TPC and WTPC and twelve replications. Evaluations consisted of climatological variables, gas exchange and maximum quantum efficiency of open photosystem II centers-quantum yield (Fv/Fm It was possible to observe that under TPC maximum temperature increase of 2.3°C, relative humidity reduced 1.5%, vapor pressure deficit increase 0.4kPa, and light intensity reduced 47.7%. These changes did not cause photochemical damage to the leaves. The TPC promoted higher net photosynthetic rate at 800h, which was associated with higher stomatal conductance. Thus, the TPC used in the northern region of Rio de Janeiro State did not impair the photosynthetic capacity of 'Niagara Rosada' vines.

  1. Structure of single-chain single crystals of isotactic polystyrene and their radiation resistance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bu Haishan; Cao Jie; Xu Shengyong; Zhang Ze

    1997-01-01

    The structure of the single-chain single crystals of isotactic polystyrene (i-PS) was investigated by electron diffraction (ED) and high resolution electron microscopy (HREM). The nano-scale single-chain single crystals were found to be very stable to electron irradiation. According to the unit cell of i-PS crystals, the reflection rings in ED pattern and the lattice fringes in HREM images could be indexed, but the lower-index diffractions were not found. It is proposed that the single-chain single crystals are very small, thus secondary electrons may be allowed to escape and radiation damage is highly reduced, and that there are less lower-index lattice planes in the single-chain single crystals to provide sufficient diffraction intensity for recording. HREM images can be achieved at room temperature in the case of single-chain single crystals because of its stability to electron irradiation, therefore, this might be a novel experimental approach to the study of crystal structure of macromolecules

  2. Photosynthetic electron-transfer reactions in the gametophyte of Pteris multifida reveal the presence of allelopathic interference from the invasive plant species Bidens pilosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Kai-Mei; Shen, Yu; Zhou, Xiao-Qi; Fang, Yan-Ming; Liu, Ying; Ma, Lena Q

    2016-05-01

    To date, the response of the fern gametophyte to its environment has received considerable attention. However, studies on the influence of plant invasion on the fern gametophyte are fewer. Allelopathy has been hypothesized to play an important role in biological invasion. Hence, it is necessary to study the allelopathy of invasive plant species to the fern gametophyte and elucidate the mechanisms by which invasive plants cause phytotoxicity. As one of the main invasive plants in China, Bidens pilosa exhibits allelopathic effects on the gametophytic growth of Pteris multifida. The root exudate plays an important role among various allelochemical delivery mechanisms in B. pilosa. The effect invasive plant species has on photosynthesis in native species is poorly understood. To elucidate this effect, the changes in photosynthesis in the gametophytes of P. multifida are analyzed to examine the mechanisms of the root exudates of B. pilosa. Meanwhile, a non-invasive plant, Coreopsis basalis, was also applied to investigate the effects on fluorescence and pigments in P. multifida gametophytes. We found that gametophytes exposed to both B. pilosa and C. basalis had decreased fluorescence parameters in comparison with the control, except for non-photochemical quenching. Furthermore, it was found that these parameters were markedly affected from day 2 to day 10 in the presence of both exudates at a concentration of 25% or above. B. pilosa exudate had a negative dose-dependent effect on chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b, carotenoid, and the total chlorophyll in the gametophyte. The inhibitory effects increased with increasing exudate concentrations of both species, exhibiting the greatest inhibition at day 10. In conclusion, B. pilosa irreversibly affected the photosynthesis of P. multifida on both PS I and PS II. Root exudates caused the primary damage with respect to the decrease of the acceptors and donors of photon and electron in photosynthetic units and the production and

  3. Electron transport through monovalent atomic wires

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lee, Y. J.; Brandbyge, Mads; Puska, M. J.

    2004-01-01

    at the chain determine the conductance. As a result, the conductance for noble-metal chains is close to one quantum of conductance, and it oscillates moderately so that an even number of chain atoms yields a higher value than an odd number. The conductance oscillations are large for alkali-metal chains......Using a first-principles density-functional method we model electron transport through linear chains of monovalent atoms between two bulk electrodes. For noble-metal chains the transport resembles that for free electrons over a potential barrier whereas for alkali-metal chains resonance states...... and their phase is opposite to that of noble-metal chains....

  4. The effect of temperature on the photosynthesis and 14C-photosynthetic products transportation and distribution in cucumber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shi Yuelin; Sun Yiezhi; Xu Guimin; Cai Qiyun

    1991-01-01

    The optimum temperature of photosynthesis tended to become higher following the growth of cucumber. The optimum temperature was 30 deg C at the early growth stage and 35 deg C at the late growth stage. Stomatal resistance decreased and transpiration rate increased with increasing of the temperature. Most of the 14 C-photosynthetic products in leaves were transported out at 30 deg C during the day. After one night, more photosynthetic products were transported out under higher temperature. From the early to the middle growth stage, most of the 14 C-photosynthetic products were transported to fruits at 30 deg C. But caulis, leaves and apical point obtained most of the photosynthetic products at 35 deg C. At the late growth stage, most of the 14 C-photosynthetic products were transported to fruits at 35 deg c. At 25 deg C, caulis and leaves got more 14 C-photosynthetic products

  5. Distribution of 14C-photosynthetate in the shoot of Vitis vinifera L. cv Cabernet Sauvignon: Pt. I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hunter, J.J.; Visser, J.H.

    1988-01-01

    The distribution of photosynthetates, originating in leaves of different parts of the shoot of Vitis vinifera L. cv Cabernet Sauvignon at berry set, pea size, veraison and ripeness stages, was investigated. Specific photosynthetic activity of the 14 CO 2 -treated leaves gradually decreased during the season. Photosynthetates were hoarded in the leaves at berry set, but were increasingly diverted to the bunches after that. The apical leaves displayed the highest photosynthesis. The leaves opposite and below the bunches accumulated very little photosynthetates, especially from veraison to ripeness. Redistribution of photosynthetates among the basal, middle and apical leaves was generally very restricted at all stages. Multidirectional distribution from the site of application of 14 CO 2 occurred at berry set stage, while from pea size to ripeness photosynthetates were mainly translocated basipetally. Highest accumulation in the bunches occurred at veraison, while the basal leaves were primarily used to nourish the bunch

  6. On the photosynthetic and devlopmental responses of leaves to the spectral composition of light

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hogewoning, S.W.

    2010-01-01

    Key words: action spectrum, artificial solar spectrum, blue light, Cucumis sativus, gas-exchange, light-emitting diodes (LEDs), light interception, light quality, non-photosynthetic pigments, photo-synthetic capacity, photomorphogenesis, photosystem excitation balance, quantum yield, red light.

  7. Nature of the electronic transitions in thiacarbocyanines with a long polymethine chain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lepkowicz, Richard S.; Przhonska, Olga V.; Hales, Joel M.; Fu Jie; Hagan, David J.; Van Stryland, Eric W.; Bondar, Mikhail V.; Slominsky, Yuriy L.; Kachkovski, Alexei D.

    2004-01-01

    A detailed experimental investigation and quantum-chemical analysis of symmetric cyanines of different conjugation lengths have been performed with the goal of understanding the nature of the electronic transitions in molecules that possess a long chromophore. The nature of electronic transitions in cyanines with a relatively short chromophore (inside the cyanine limit) has already been investigated and many properties of these molecules are well understood. However, little is known about the nature of the transitions beyond the cyanine limit. Their unusual properties, which were proposed by Tolbert and Zhao to be connected with symmetry breaking, still remain unexplored. The analysis of the spectral data in various solvents and results of femtosecond pump-probe saturable absorption measurements enable us to conclude that an increase in the length of the chain leads to a symmetry breaking and the appearance of two forms with symmetrical and asymmetrical distributions of the charge density in the ground state. For thiacarbocyanines, symmetry breaking is predicted and observed for a pentacarbocyanine dye. Quantum-chemical calculations provide additional proof of this hypothesis. The excited-state absorption properties of a pentacarbocyanine in the visible region are also reported. For the first time we have observed an excited-state cross-section that is larger (∼3x) than the ground state cross-section at the peak spectral position

  8. Photosynthetic capacity of tropical montane tree species in relation to leaf nutrients, successional strategy and growth temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dusenge, Mirindi Eric; Wallin, Göran; Gårdesten, Johanna; Niyonzima, Felix; Adolfsson, Lisa; Nsabimana, Donat; Uddling, Johan

    2015-04-01

    Photosynthetic capacity of tree leaves is typically positively related to nutrient content and little affected by changes in growth temperature. These relationships are, however, often poorly supported for tropical trees, for which interspecific differences may be more strongly controlled by within-leaf nutrient allocation than by absolute leaf nutrient content, and little is known regarding photosynthetic acclimation to temperature. To explore the influence of leaf nutrient status, successional strategy and growth temperature on the photosynthetic capacity of tropical trees, we collected data on photosynthetic, chemical and morphological leaf traits of ten tree species in Rwanda. Seven species were studied in a forest plantation at mid-altitude (~1,700 m), whereas six species were studied in a cooler montane rainforest at higher altitude (~2,500 m). Three species were common to both sites, and, in the montane rainforest, three pioneer species and three climax species were investigated. Across species, interspecific variation in photosynthetic capacity was not related to leaf nutrient content. Instead, this variation was related to differences in within-leaf nitrogen allocation, with a tradeoff between investments into compounds related to photosynthetic capacity (higher in pioneer species) versus light-harvesting compounds (higher in climax species). Photosynthetic capacity was significantly lower at the warmer site at 1,700 m altitude. We conclude that (1) within-leaf nutrient allocation is more important than leaf nutrient content per se in controlling interspecific variation in photosynthetic capacity among tree species in tropical Rwanda, and that (2) tropical montane rainforest species exhibit decreased photosynthetic capacity when grown in a warmer environment.

  9. Reactive Oxygen Species Production by Forward and Reverse Electron Fluxes in the Mitochondrial Respiratory Chain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selivanov, Vitaly A.; Votyakova, Tatyana V.; Pivtoraiko, Violetta N.; Zeak, Jennifer; Sukhomlin, Tatiana; Trucco, Massimo; Roca, Josep; Cascante, Marta

    2011-01-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) produced in the mitochondrial respiratory chain (RC) are primary signals that modulate cellular adaptation to environment, and are also destructive factors that damage cells under the conditions of hypoxia/reoxygenation relevant for various systemic diseases or transplantation. The important role of ROS in cell survival requires detailed investigation of mechanism and determinants of ROS production. To perform such an investigation we extended our rule-based model of complex III in order to account for electron transport in the whole RC coupled to proton translocation, transmembrane electrochemical potential generation, TCA cycle reactions, and substrate transport to mitochondria. It fits respiratory electron fluxes measured in rat brain mitochondria fueled by succinate or pyruvate and malate, and the dynamics of NAD+ reduction by reverse electron transport from succinate through complex I. The fitting of measured characteristics gave an insight into the mechanism of underlying processes governing the formation of free radicals that can transfer an unpaired electron to oxygen-producing superoxide and thus can initiate the generation of ROS. Our analysis revealed an association of ROS production with levels of specific radicals of individual electron transporters and their combinations in species of complexes I and III. It was found that the phenomenon of bistability, revealed previously as a property of complex III, remains valid for the whole RC. The conditions for switching to a state with a high content of free radicals in complex III were predicted based on theoretical analysis and were confirmed experimentally. These findings provide a new insight into the mechanisms of ROS production in RC. PMID:21483483

  10. Contrasting Responses of Marine and Freshwater Photosynthetic Organisms to UVB Radiation: A Meta-Analysis

    KAUST Repository

    Jin, Peng; Duarte, Carlos M.; Agusti, Susana

    2017-01-01

    artificial lamps. We found that marine photosynthetic organisms tend to be more sensitive than freshwater photosynthetic organisms to UVB radiation; responses to either decreased or increased UVB radiation vary among taxa; the mortality rate is the most

  11. Difference in photosynthetic performance among three peach ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effects of low photosynthetic photon flux density (PPFD) on greenhouse grown peach trees ('Qingfeng': Prunus persica L. Batsch, 'NJN76': Prunus persica L. Batsch and 'Maixiang': P. persica var. nectarine) were investigated. Difference in photosynthesis rate (Pn) and stoma morphology among cultivars were studied.

  12. Engineering of cyanobacteria for the photosynthetic production of limonene from CO2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiyota, Hiroshi; Okuda, Yukiko; Ito, Michiho; Hirai, Masami Yokota; Ikeuchi, Masahiko

    2014-09-20

    Isoprenoids, major secondary metabolites in many organisms, are utilized in various applications. We constructed a model photosynthetic production system for limonene, a volatile isoprenoid, using a unicellular cyanobacterium that expresses the plant limonene synthase. This system produces limonene photosynthetically at a nearly constant rate and that can be efficiently recovered using a gas-stripping method. This production does not affect the growth of the cyanobacteria and is markedly enhanced by overexpression of three enzymes in the intrinsic pathway to provide the precursor of limonene, geranyl pyrophosphate. The photosynthetic production of limonene in our system is more or less sustained from the linear to stationary phase of cyanobacterial growth for up to 1 month. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Atomic carbon chains as spin-transmitters: An ab initio transport study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fürst, Joachim Alexander; Brandbyge, Mads; Jauho, Antti-Pekka

    2010-01-01

    An atomic carbon chain joining two graphene flakes was recently realized in a ground-breaking experiment by Jin et al. (Phys. Rev. Lett., 102 (2009) 205501). We present ab initio results for the electron transport properties of such chains and demonstrate complete spin-polarization of the transmi......An atomic carbon chain joining two graphene flakes was recently realized in a ground-breaking experiment by Jin et al. (Phys. Rev. Lett., 102 (2009) 205501). We present ab initio results for the electron transport properties of such chains and demonstrate complete spin...

  14. Cyanobacteria in Sulfidic Spring Microbial Mats Can Perform Oxygenic and Anoxygenic Photosynthesis Simultaneously during an Entire Diurnal Period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klatt, Judith M; de Beer, Dirk; Häusler, Stefan; Polerecky, Lubos

    2016-01-01

    We used microsensors to study the regulation of anoxygenic and oxygenic photosynthesis (AP and OP, respectively) by light and sulfide in a cyanobacterium dominating microbial mats from cold sulfidic springs. Both photosynthetic modes were performed simultaneously over all H 2 S concentrations (1-2200 μM) and irradiances (4-52 μmol photons m -2 s -1 ) tested. AP increased with H 2 S concentration while the sum of oxygenic and anoxygenic photosynthetic rates was constant at each light intensity. Thus, the total photosynthetically driven electron transport rate was solely controlled by the irradiance level. The partitioning between the rates of these two photosynthetic modes was regulated by both light and H 2 S concentration. The plastoquinone pool (PQ) receives electrons from sulfide:quinone:reductase (SQR) in AP and from photosystem II (PSII) in OP. It is thus the link in the electron transport chain where both pathways intersect, and the compound that controls their partitioning. We fitted our data with a model of the photosynthetic electron transport that includes the kinetics of plastoquinone reduction and oxidation. The model results confirmed that the observed partitioning between photosynthetic modes can be explained by a simple kinetic control based on the affinity of SQR and PSII toward PQ. The SQR enzyme and PSII have similar affinities toward PQ, which explains the concurrent OP and AP over an astonishingly wide range of H 2 S concentrations and irradiances. The elegant kinetic control of activity makes the cyanobacterium successful in the fluctuating spring environment. We discuss how these specific regulation mechanisms may have played a role in ancient H 2 S-rich oceans.

  15. Cyanobacteria in sulfidic spring microbial mats can perform oxygenic and anoxygenic photosynthesis simultaneously during an entire diurnal period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judith M Klatt

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available We used microsensors to study the regulation of oxygenic and anoxygenic photosynthesis by light and sulfide in a cyanobacterium dominating microbial mats from cold sulfidic springs. Both photosynthetic modes were performed simultaneously over all H2S concentrations (1–2200 µM and irradiances (4–52 µmol photons m-2 s-1 tested. Anoxygenic photosynthesis increased with H2S concentration while the sum of oxygenic and anoxygenic photosynthetic rates was constant at each light intensity. Thus, the total photosynthetically driven electron transport rate was solely controlled by the irradiance level. The partitioning between the rates of these two photosynthetic modes was regulated by both light and H2S concentration. The plastoquinone pool (PQ receives electrons from sulfide:quinone:reductase (SQR in anoxygenic photosynthesis and from photosystem II (PSII in oxygenic photosynthesis. It is thus the link in the electron transport chain where both pathways intersect, and the compound that controls their partitioning. We fitted our data with a model of the photosynthetic electron transport that includes the kinetics of plastoquinone reduction and oxidation. The model results confirmed that the observed partitioning between photosynthetic modes can be explained by a simple kinetic control based on the affinity of SQR and PSII towards PQ. The SQR enzyme and PSII have similar affinities towards PQ, which explains the concurrent oxygenic and anoxygenic photosynthesis over an astonishingly wide range of H2S concentrations and irradiances. The elegant kinetic control of activity makes the cyanobacterium successful in the fluctuating spring environment. We discuss how these specific regulation mechanisms may have played a role in ancient H2S-rich oceans.

  16. Geometric phase and quantum interference in photosynthetic reaction center: Regulation of electron transfer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Yuming, E-mail: ymsun@ytu.edu.cn; Su, Yuehua; Dai, Zhenhong; Wang, WeiTian

    2016-10-20

    Photosynthesis is driven by electron transfer in reaction centers in which the functional unit is composed of several simple molecules C{sub 2}-symmetrically arranged into two branches. In view of quantum mechanism, both branches are possible pathways traversed by the transferred electron. Due to different evolution of spin state along two pathways in transmembrane electric potential (TEP), quantum state of the transferred electron at the bridged site acquires a geometric phase difference dependent on TEP, the most efficient electron transport takes place in a specific range of TEP beyond which electron transfer is dramatically suppressed. What’s more, reaction center acts like elaborately designed quantum device preparing polarized spin dependent on TEP for the transferred electron to regulate the reduction potential at bridged site. In brief, electron transfer generates the TEP, reversely, TEP modulates the efficiency of electron transfer. This may be an important approach to maintaining an appreciable pH environment in photosynthesis.

  17. A remotely sensed pigment index reveals photosynthetic phenology in evergreen conifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamon, John A; Huemmrich, K Fred; Wong, Christopher Y S; Ensminger, Ingo; Garrity, Steven; Hollinger, David Y; Noormets, Asko; Peñuelas, Josep

    2016-11-15

    In evergreen conifers, where the foliage amount changes little with season, accurate detection of the underlying "photosynthetic phenology" from satellite remote sensing has been difficult, presenting challenges for global models of ecosystem carbon uptake. Here, we report a close correspondence between seasonally changing foliar pigment levels, expressed as chlorophyll/carotenoid ratios, and evergreen photosynthetic activity, leading to a "chlorophyll/carotenoid index" (CCI) that tracks evergreen photosynthesis at multiple spatial scales. When calculated from NASA's Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer satellite sensor, the CCI closely follows the seasonal patterns of daily gross primary productivity of evergreen conifer stands measured by eddy covariance. This discovery provides a way of monitoring evergreen photosynthetic activity from optical remote sensing, and indicates an important regulatory role for carotenoid pigments in evergreen photosynthesis. Improved methods of monitoring photosynthesis from space can improve our understanding of the global carbon budget in a warming world of changing vegetation phenology.

  18. Effect of Temperature and light intensity on growth and Photosynthetic Activity of Chlamydomonas reinhard II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alfonsel Jaen, M.; Fernandez Gonzalez, J.

    1985-01-01

    The effect of five temperatures (15,20,25,30 and 35 degree centigree) and two levels of illumination on growth and photosynthetic activity of Chlamydomonas reinhard II has been studied. The growth of the cultures was evaluated by optical density. Photosynthetic activity has been carried out studying either the assimilation rate of C0 2 labelled with C-14 or the oxygen evolution by means of polarographic measurements. The maximum photosynthetic rate has been obtained at 25 degree centigree for the lower level of illumination (2400 lux) and at 35 degree centigree for the higher one (13200 lux) and at 35 degree centigree for the higher ono (13200 lux). These results suggest an interaction of temperature and illumination on photosynthetic activity. (Author) 37 refs

  19. The occurrence and control of nitric oxide generation by the plant mitochondrial electron transport chain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alber, Nicole A; Sivanesan, Hampavi; Vanlerberghe, Greg C

    2017-07-01

    The plant mitochondrial electron transport chain (ETC) is bifurcated such that electrons from ubiquinol are passed to oxygen via the usual cytochrome path or through alternative oxidase (AOX). We previously showed that knockdown of AOX in transgenic tobacco increased leaf concentrations of nitric oxide (NO), implying that an activity capable of generating NO had been effected. Here, we identify the potential source of this NO. Treatment of leaves with antimycin A (AA, Q i -site inhibitor of Complex III) increased NO amount more than treatment with myxothiazol (Myxo, Q o -site inhibitor) despite both being equally effective at inhibiting respiration. Comparison of nitrate-grown wild-type with AOX knockdown and overexpression plants showed a negative correlation between AOX amount and NO amount following AA. Further, Myxo fully negated the ability of AA to increase NO amount. With ammonium-grown plants, neither AA nor Myxo strongly increased NO amount in any plant line. When these leaves were supplied with nitrite alongside the AA or Myxo, then the inhibitor effects across lines mirrored that of nitrate-grown plants. Hence the ETC, likely the Q-cycle of Complex III generates NO from nitrite, and AOX reduces this activity by acting as a non-energy-conserving electron sink upstream of Complex III. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Sensitivity of the green algae Chlamydomonas reinhardtii to gamma radiation: Photosynthetic performance and ROS formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, Tânia; Xie, Li; Brede, Dag; Lind, Ole-Christian; Solhaug, Knut Asbjørn; Salbu, Brit; Tollefsen, Knut Erik

    2017-02-01

    The aquatic environment is continuously exposed to ionizing radiation from both natural and anthropogenic sources, making the characterization of ecological and health risks associated with radiation of large importance. Microalgae represent the main source of biomass production in the aquatic ecosystem, thus becoming a highly relevant biological model to assess the impacts of gamma radiation. However, little information is available on the effects of gamma radiation on microalgal species, making environmental radioprotection of this group of species challenging. In this context, the present study aimed to improve the understanding of the effects and toxic mechanisms of gamma radiation in the unicellular green algae Chlamydomonas reinhardtii focusing on the activity of the photosynthetic apparatus and ROS formation. Algal cells were exposed to gamma radiation (0.49-1677mGy/h) for 6h and chlorophyll fluorescence parameters obtained by PAM fluorometry, while two fluorescent probes carboxy-H 2 DFFDA and DHR 123 were used for the quantification of ROS. The alterations seen in functional parameters of C. reinhardtii PSII after 6h of exposure to gamma radiation showed modifications of PSII energy transfer associated with electron transport and energy dissipation pathways, especially at the higher dose rates used. Results also showed that gamma radiation induced ROS in a dose-dependent manner under both light and dark conditions. The observed decrease in photosynthetic efficiency seems to be connected to the formation of ROS and can potentially lead to oxidative stress and cellular damage in chloroplasts. To our knowledge, this is the first report on changes in several chlorophyll fluorescence parameters associated with photosynthetic performance and ROS formation in microalgae after exposure to gamma radiation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Phosphorylation of Cytochrome c Threonine 28 Regulates Electron Transport Chain Activity in Kidney: IMPLICATIONS FOR AMP KINASE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahapatra, Gargi; Varughese, Ashwathy; Ji, Qinqin; Lee, Icksoo; Liu, Jenney; Vaishnav, Asmita; Sinkler, Christopher; Kapralov, Alexandr A; Moraes, Carlos T; Sanderson, Thomas H; Stemmler, Timothy L; Grossman, Lawrence I; Kagan, Valerian E; Brunzelle, Joseph S; Salomon, Arthur R; Edwards, Brian F P; Hüttemann, Maik

    2017-01-06

    Mammalian cytochrome c (Cytc) plays a key role in cellular life and death decisions, functioning as an electron carrier in the electron transport chain and as a trigger of apoptosis when released from the mitochondria. However, its regulation is not well understood. We show that the major fraction of Cytc isolated from kidneys is phosphorylated on Thr 28 , leading to a partial inhibition of respiration in the reaction with cytochrome c oxidase. To further study the effect of Cytc phosphorylation in vitro, we generated T28E phosphomimetic Cytc, revealing superior behavior regarding protein stability and its ability to degrade reactive oxygen species compared with wild-type unphosphorylated Cytc Introduction of T28E phosphomimetic Cytc into Cytc knock-out cells shows that intact cell respiration, mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨ m ), and ROS levels are reduced compared with wild type. As we show by high resolution crystallography of wild-type and T28E Cytc in combination with molecular dynamics simulations, Thr 28 is located at a central position near the heme crevice, the most flexible epitope of the protein apart from the N and C termini. Finally, in silico prediction and our experimental data suggest that AMP kinase, which phosphorylates Cytc on Thr 28 in vitro and colocalizes with Cytc to the mitochondrial intermembrane space in the kidney, is the most likely candidate to phosphorylate Thr 28 in vivo We conclude that Cytc phosphorylation is mediated in a tissue-specific manner and leads to regulation of electron transport chain flux via "controlled respiration," preventing ΔΨ m hyperpolarization, a known cause of ROS and trigger of apoptosis. © 2017 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  2. Variability of photosynthetic pigments in the Colombian Pacific ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R. Narasimhan (Krishtel eMaging) 1461 1996 Oct 15 13:05:22

    Picture series of surface chlorophyll,. SST, wind ... photosynthetic pigments during the time of inten- sification of ... calculation of Ekman pumping (We) using finite- differencing to ..... Legeckis R 1986 A satellite time series sea surface tempera-.

  3. Photosynthetic Rates of Citronella and Lemongrass 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herath, H. M. Walter; Ormrod, Douglas P.

    1979-01-01

    Ten selections of citronella (Cymbopogon nardus [L.] Rendle) were grown at 32/27, 27/21, or 15/10 C day/night temperatures, and plants from three populations of lemongrass (Cymbopogon citratus [D.C.] Stapf from Japan or Sri Lanka and Cymbopogon flexuosus [D.C.] Stapf from India) were grown at 8- or 15-hour photoperiods. Net photosynthetic rates of mature leaves were measured in a controlled environment at 25 C and 260 microeinsteins per meter2 per second. Rates declined with increasing leaf age, and from the tip to the base of the leaf blade. Rates for citronella leaves grown at 15/10 C were extremely low for all selections. Highest rates of net photosynthesis were recorded for four selections grown at 27/21 C and for two selections grown at 32/27 C. Lemongrass grown at 8-hour photoperiod had higher photosynthetic rates than that grown at 15-hour photoperiod. PMID:16660737

  4. [Effects of low-light stress on photosynthetic characteristics of Paris polyphylla var. chinensis in artificial domestication cultivation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Shun-lin; Tian, Meng-liang; Liu, Jin-liang; Zhao, Ting-ting; Zhang, Zhong

    2014-09-01

    To decide on the optimum artificial domestication cultivation light environment for Paris polyphylla var. chinensis through investigating the effect of light intensity on leaf's gas exchange parameters, photosynthetic parameters, light saturation point and compensation point of Paris polyphylla var. chinensis. Different low-light stress gradients' effect on the growth of Paris polyphylla var. chinensis was compared with no low-light stress treatment through calculating leaf's gas exchange parameters, photosynthetic parameters, light saturation point and compensation point, and then all these parameters were statistically analyzed. Light intensity had significant influence on the photosynthetic characteristics of Paris polyphylla var. chinensis. With the strengthening of the low-light stress, chlorophyll content, gas exchange parameters, photosynthetic parameters P., AQY and light saturation point all gradually increased at first, and then decreased. However, both photosynthetic parameters Rd and light compensation point firstly decreased and then rose again. These results showed that too strong or too weak light intensity affected the optimization of photosynthetic parameters of Paris polyphylla var. chinensis. The optimal illuminance for each parameter was not completely same, but they could all reach a relative ideal state when the shading ranges between 40% and 60%. However, photosynthetic parameters deteriorated rapidly when the shading surpass 80%. For artificially cultivating Paris polyphylla var. chinensis in Baoxing,Sichuan or the similar ecological region, shading 40%-60% is the optimal light environment, which can enhance the photosynthesis of Paris polyphylla var. chinensis and promote the accumulation of photosynthetic products.

  5. Managing the Microbial Ecology of a Cyanobacteria-Based Photosynthetic Factory Direct!, Final Report for EE0006100

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rittmann, Bruce [Arizona State Univ., Tempe, AZ (United States); Krajmalnik‐Brown, Rosa [Arizona State Univ., Tempe, AZ (United States); Zevin, Alexander [Arizona State Univ., Tempe, AZ (United States); Nguyen, Binh [Arizona State Univ., Tempe, AZ (United States); Patel, Megha [Arizona State Univ., Tempe, AZ (United States)

    2015-02-28

    The grandest challenge facing human society today is providing large amounts of energy and industrial chemicals that are renewable and carbon-neutral. An outstanding opportunity lies in employing photosynthetic microorganisms, which have the potential to generate energy and chemical feedstock from sunlight and CO2 at rates 10 to 100 times greater than plants. Major challenges for solar-powered production using photosynthetic microorganisms are associated with the harvesting and downstream processing of biomass to yield the usable energy or material feedstock e.g. The technical challenges and costs of downstream processing could be avoided if, powered by solar energy, the photosynthetic microorganisms were to convert CO2 directly to the desired product, which they release for direct harvesting. This approach creates a true photosynthetic factory, our goal for Photosynthetic Factory Direct! Our team is able to genetically modify the cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 so that it produces and excretes a range of renewable energy and chemical products directly from CO2 and sunlight. Essential to realizing the potential of the photosynthetic factory is an engineered Advanced Photobioreactor (APBR) for reliable synthesis and harvest of the products.

  6. Does low stomatal conductance or photosynthetic capacity enhance growth at elevated CO2 in Arabidopsis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Easlon, Hsien Ming; Carlisle, Eli; McKay, John K; Bloom, Arnold J

    2015-03-01

    The objective of this study was to determine if low stomatal conductance (g) increases growth, nitrate (NO3 (-)) assimilation, and nitrogen (N) utilization at elevated CO2 concentration. Four Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) near isogenic lines (NILs) differing in g were grown at ambient and elevated CO2 concentration under low and high NO3 (-) supply as the sole source of N. Although g varied by 32% among NILs at elevated CO2, leaf intercellular CO2 concentration varied by only 4% and genotype had no effect on shoot NO3 (-) concentration in any treatment. Low-g NILs showed the greatest CO2 growth increase under N limitation but had the lowest CO2 growth enhancement under N-sufficient conditions. NILs with the highest and lowest g had similar rates of shoot NO3 (-) assimilation following N deprivation at elevated CO2 concentration. After 5 d of N deprivation, the lowest g NIL had 27% lower maximum carboxylation rate and 23% lower photosynthetic electron transport compared with the highest g NIL. These results suggest that increased growth of low-g NILs under N limitation most likely resulted from more conservative N investment in photosynthetic biochemistry rather than from low g. © 2015 American Society of Plant Biologists. All Rights Reserved.

  7. Seasonal evolution of diffusional limitations and photosynthetic capacity in olive under drought.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz-Espejo, Antonio; Nicolás, Emilio; Fernández, José Enrique

    2007-08-01

    This study tests the hypothesis that diffusional limitation of photosynthesis, rather than light, determines the distribution of photosynthetic capacity in olive leaves under drought conditions. The crowns of four olive trees growing in an orchard were divided into two sectors: one sector absorbed most of the radiation early in the morning (MS) while the other absorbed most in the afternoon (AS). When the peak of radiation absorption was higher in MS, air vapour pressure deficit (VPD) was not high enough to provoke stomatal closure. In contrast, peak radiation absorption in AS coincided with the daily peak in VPD. In addition, two soil water treatments were evaluated: irrigated trees (I) and non-irrigated trees (nI). The seasonal evolution of leaf water potential, leaf gas exchange and photosynthetic capacity were measured throughout the tree crowns in spring and summer. Results showed that stomatal conductance was reduced in nI trees in summer as a consequence of soil water stress, which limited their net assimilation rate. Olive leaves displayed isohydric behaviour and no important differences in the diurnal course of leaf water potentials among treatments and sectors were found. Seasonal diffusional limitation of photosynthesis was mainly increased in nI trees, especially as a result of stomatal limitation, although mesophyll conductance (g(m)) was found to decrease in summer in both treatments and sectors. A positive relationship between leaf nitrogen content with both leaf photosynthetic capacity and the daily integrated quantum flux density was found in spring, but not in summer. The relationship between photosynthetic capacity and g(m) was curvilinear. Leaf temperature also affected to g(m) with an optimum temperature at 29 degrees C. AS showed larger biochemical limitation than MS in August in both treatments. All these suggest that both diffusional limitation and the effect of leaf temperature could be involved in the seasonal reduction of photosynthetic

  8. Factors affecting the adoption of supply chain management practices: Evidence from the Brazilian electro-electronic sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Beatriz Lopes de Sousa Jabbour

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This study on the factors affecting the adoption of supply chain management (SCM practices develops four hypotheses based on a literature review, and tests them using survey data of Brazilian electro-electronic firms. The results reveal the big picture of the SCM practices in the sector and suggest that contextual factors such as size, position and bargaining power affect the adoption of SCM practices, which are also more customer oriented. Sector characteristics are very important in analysing SCM practices. Contrary to the findings of literature, the relationship between competitive priorities and SCM practices was not supported statistically.

  9. Policy design in closed-loop supply chains for the integrated management of component recycling and spare parts supply in the electronics industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroeter, Marcus; Spengler, Thomas

    2004-02-01

    The strategy to recover components from discarded electrical and electronic equipment to obtain spare parts is promising, especially during the final service phase. In that phase, the original product is no longer produced and the sources of new parts are often limited. Controlling those closed-loop supply chains is challenging. Decision makers have to choose when to acquire discarded equipment, when to recover used parts, and when to produce new parts. We developed a generic system dynamics model that provides a test for various proposed policies to control closed-loop supply chains with parts recovery and spare-parts supply.

  10. Photosynthetic pathway types of evergreen rosette plants (Liliaceae) of the Chihuahuan desert.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemp, Paul R; Gardetto, Pietra E

    1982-11-01

    Diurnal patterns of CO 2 exchange and titratable acidity were monitored in six species of evergreen rosette plants growing in controlled environment chambers and under outdoor environmental conditions. These patterns indicated that two of the species, Yucca baccata and Y. torreyi, were constituitive CAM plants while the other species, Y. elata, Y. campestris, Nolina microcarpa and Dasylirion wheeleri, were C 3 plants. The C 3 species did not exhibit CAM when grown in any of several different temperature, photoperiod, and moisture regimes. Both photosynthetic pathway types appear adapted to desert environments and all species show environmentally induced changes in their photosynthetic responses consistent with desert adaptation. The results of this study do not indicate that changes in the photosynthetic pathway type are an adaptation in any of these species.

  11. Electron Transfer in Chemistry and Biology - The Primary Events in ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    transfers, occurs in a cascade in many biological processes, including photosynthesis. ... the model reactions of photosynthetic ... biological relevance. GENERAL I ARTICLE of electrons, respectively. This has entirely changed the earlier framework of interpreting reactions in chemistry and biology. This shift in emphasis ...

  12. Photoperiodic controls on ecosystem-level photosynthetic capacity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoy, P. C.; Trowbridge, A. M.; Bauerle, W.

    2012-12-01

    Most models of photosynthesis at the leaf or canopy level assume that temperature is the dominant control on the variability of photosynthetic parameters. Recent studies, however, have found that photoperiod is a better descriptor of the seasonal variability of photosynthetic function at the leaf and plant scale, and that spectral indices of leaf functionality are poor descriptors of this seasonality. We explored the variability of photosynthesic parameters at the ecosystem scale using over 100 site-years of air temperature and gross primary productivity (GPP) data from non-tropical forested sites in the Free/Fair Use LaThuille FLUXNET database (www.fluxdata.org), excluding sites that were classified as dry and/or with savanna vegetation, where we expected GPP to be driven by moisture availability. Both GPP and GPP normalized by daily photosynthetic photon flux density (GPPn) were considered, and photoperiod was calculated from eddy covariance tower coordinates. We performed a Granger causality analysis, a method based on the understanding that causes precede effects, on both the GPP and GPPn. Photoperiod Granger-caused GPP (GPPn) in 95% (87%) of all site-years. While temperature Granger-caused GPP in a mere 23% of site years, it Granger-caused GPPn 73% of the time. Both temperature values are significantly less than the percent of cases in which day length Granger-caused GPP (p<0.05, Student's t-test). An inverse analysis was performed for completeness, and it was found that GPP Granger-caused photoperiod (temperature) in 39% (78%) of all site years. Results demonstrate that incorporating simple photoperiod controls may be a logical step in improving ecosystem and global model output.

  13. DAILY BUDGETS OF PHOTOSYNTHETICALLY FIXED CARBON IN SYMBIOTIC ZOANTHIDS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steen, R Grant; Muscatine, L

    1984-10-01

    We tested the hypothesis that some zoanthids are able to meet a portion of their daily respiratory carbon requirement with photosynthetic carbon from symbiotic algal cells (= zooxanthellae). A daily budget was constructed for carbon (C) photosynthetically fixed by zooxanthellae of the Bermuda zoanthids Zoanthus sociatus and Palythoa variabilis. Zooxanthellae have an average net photosynthetic C fixation of 7.48 and 15.56 µgC·polyp -1 ·day -1 for Z. sociatus and P. variabilis respectively. The C-specific growth rate (µ c ) was 0.215·day -1 for Z. sociatus and 0.152·day -1 for P. variabilis. The specific growth rate (µ) of zooxanthellae in the zoanthids was measured to be 0.011 and 0.017·day -1 for Z. sociatus and P. variabilis zooxanthellae respectively. Z. sociatus zooxanthellae translocated 95.1% of the C assimilated in photosynthesis, while P. variabilis zooxanthellae translocated 88.8% of their fixed C. As the animal tissue of a polyp of Z. sociatus required 14.75 µgC·day -1 for respiration, and one of P. variabiis required 105.54 µgC·day -1 , the contribution of zooxanthellae to animal respiration (CZAR) was 48.2% for Z. sociatus and 13.1% for P. variabilis.

  14. Dependence of the product chain-length on detergents for long-chain E-polyprenyl diphosphate synthases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Jian-Jung; Ramamoorthy, Gurusankar; Poulter, C. Dale

    2013-01-01

    Long-chain E-polyprenyl diphosphate synthases (E-PDS) catalyze repetitive addition of isopentenyl diphosphate (IPP) to the growing prenyl chain of an allylic diphosphate. The polyprenyl diphosphate products are required for the biosynthesis of ubiquinones and menaquinones required for electron transport during oxidative phosphorylation to generate ATP. In vitro, the long-chain PDSs require addition of phospholipids or detergents to the assay buffer to enhance product release and maintain efficient turnover. During preliminary assays of product chain-length with anionic, zwitterionic, and non-ionic detergents, we discovered considerable variability. Examination of a series of non-ionic PEG detergents with several long-chain E-PDSs from different organisms revealed that in vitro incubations with nonaethylene glycol monododecyl ether or Triton X-100 typically gave chain lengths that corresponded to those of the isoprenoid moieties in respiratory quinones synthesized in vivo. In contrast incubations in buffer with n-butanol, CHAPS, DMSO, n-octyl-β-glucopyranoside, or β-cyclodextrin or in buffer without detergent typically proceeded more slowly and gave a broad range of chain lengths. PMID:23802587

  15. Photosynthetic pathways of some aquatic plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hough, R A [Wayne State Univ., Detroit; Wetzel, R G

    1977-12-01

    Over 40 species of aquatic angiosperms, including submersed, floating and emergent types, have been examined for photosynthetic status as part of a search for possible aquatic C/sub 4/ species. The C/sub 4/ system is viewed as potentially of adaptive value in certain aquatic situations, although evidence for its occurrence there is not conclusive. Emphasis was on plants from North-temperate softwater and hardwater lakes to explore both possibilities of CO/sub 2/ limitation, i.e., low total inorganic carbon in softwater vs. low free CO/sub 2/ in hardwater lakes. On the basis of leaf cross-section anatomy, all plants examined, with one exception, clearly did not show evidence of C/sub 4/ ''Krantz anatomy.'' In the submersed plant Potamogeton praelongus Wulf, large starch-producing chloroplasts were concentrated in cells surrounding vascular bundles and in a narrow band of cells between vascular bundles. The in situ photosynthetic rate of this plant was twice that of a related species, but other evidence including PEP carboxylase content and photorespiratory response to high O/sub 2/ did not confirm the presence of the C/sub 4/ photosynthesis.

  16. Ascorbate Biosynthesis in Mitochondria Is Linked to the Electron Transport Chain between Complexes III and IV1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartoli, Carlos G.; Pastori, Gabriela M.; Foyer, Christine H.

    2000-01-01

    Ascorbic acid is synthesized from galactono-γ-lactone (GL) in plant tissues. An improved extraction procedure involving ammonium sulfate precipitation of membrane proteins from crude leaf homogenates yielded a simple, quick method for determining tissue activities of galactono-γ-lactone dehydrogenase (GLDH). Total foliar ascorbate and GLDH activity decreased with leaf age. Subcellular fractionation experiments using marker enzymes demonstrated that 80% of the total GLDH activity was located on the inner mitochondrial membrane, and 20% in the microsomal fraction. Specific antibody raised against potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) tuber GLDH recognized a 56-kD polypeptide in extracts from the mitochondrial membranes but failed to detect the equivalent polypeptide in microsomes. We demonstrate that isolated intact mitochondria synthesize ascorbate in the presence of GL. GL stimulated mitochondrial electron transport rates. The respiration inhibitor antimycin A stimulated ascorbate biosynthesis, while cyanide inhibited both respiration and ascorbate production. GL-dependent oxygen uptake was observed in isolated intact mitochondria. This evidence suggests that GLDH delivers electrons to the mitochondrial electron transport chain between complexes III and IV. PMID:10806250

  17. Photosynthetic efficiency of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii in flashing light

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vejrazka, C.; Janssen, M.G.J.; Streefland, M.; Wijffels, R.H.

    2011-01-01

    Efficient light to biomass conversion in photobioreactors is crucial for economically feasible microalgae production processes. It has been suggested that photosynthesis is enhanced in short light path photobioreactors by mixing-induced flashing light regimes. In this study, photosynthetic

  18. Distribution of 14C-photosynthetate in the shoot of Vitis vinifera L. cv Cabernet Sauvignon: Pt. II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hunter, J.J.; Visser, J.H.

    1988-01-01

    The effect of partial defoliation of Vitis vinifera L. cv Cabernet Sauvignon on the distribution of photosynthetates, originating in leaves in different positions on the shoot at berry set, pea size, veraison and ripeness stages, was investigated. Partial defoliation (33% and 66%) resulted in a higher apparent photosynthetic effectivity for all the remaining leaves on the shoot. The pattern of distribution of photosynthetates would seem to stay the same between the defoliation treatments. The control vines were found to carry excess foliage. Optimal photosynthetic activity of all the leaves on the vine was therefore not reached

  19. Photosynthetic Responses of Seedlings of two Indigenous Plants ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bheema

    ABSTRACT. The potential role of exotic tree plantations in facilitating successional processes on degraded areas was evaluated in southern Ethiopia, Munessa-Shashemene forest, by examining photosynthetic responses of Bersamaabyssinica Fres. and Croton macrostachyusDel. seedlings naturally grown inside ...

  20. Terrestrial biosphere models underestimate photosynthetic capacity and CO2 assimilation in the Arctic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Alistair; Serbin, Shawn P; Ely, Kim S; Sloan, Victoria L; Wullschleger, Stan D

    2017-12-01

    Terrestrial biosphere models (TBMs) are highly sensitive to model representation of photosynthesis, in particular the parameters maximum carboxylation rate and maximum electron transport rate at 25°C (V c,max.25 and J max.25 , respectively). Many TBMs do not include representation of Arctic plants, and those that do rely on understanding and parameterization from temperate species. We measured photosynthetic CO 2 response curves and leaf nitrogen (N) content in species representing the dominant vascular plant functional types found on the coastal tundra near Barrow, Alaska. The activation energies associated with the temperature response functions of V c,max and J max were 17% lower than commonly used values. When scaled to 25°C, V c,max.25 and J max.25 were two- to five-fold higher than the values used to parameterize current TBMs. This high photosynthetic capacity was attributable to a high leaf N content and the high fraction of N invested in Rubisco. Leaf-level modeling demonstrated that current parameterization of TBMs resulted in a two-fold underestimation of the capacity for leaf-level CO 2 assimilation in Arctic vegetation. This study highlights the poor representation of Arctic photosynthesis in TBMs, and provides the critical data necessary to improve our ability to project the response of the Arctic to global environmental change. No claim to original US Government works. New Phytologist © 2017 New Phytologist Trust.

  1. Study the effect of insecticide dimethoate on photosynthetic pigments and photosynthetic activity of pigeon pea: Laser-induced chlorophyll fluorescence spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Jitendra Kumar; Dubey, Gunjan; Gopal, R

    2015-10-01

    Pigeon pea is one of the most important legume crops in India and dimethoate is a widely used insecticide in various crop plants. We studied the effect of dimethoate on growth and photosynthetic activity of pigeon pea plants over a short and long term exposure. Plant growth parameters, photosynthetic pigment content and chlorophyll fluorescence response of pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan L.) plants treated with various concentrations of the insecticide dimethoate (10, 20, 40 and 80 ppm) have been compared for 30 days at regular intervals of 10 days each. Laser induced chlorophyll fluorescence spectra and fluorescence-induction kinetics (FIK) curve of dimethoate treated pigeon pea plants were recorded after 10, 20 and 30 days of treatment. Fluorescence intensity ratio at the two fluorescence maxima (F685/F730) was calculated by evaluating curve-fitted parameters. The variable chlorophyll fluorescence decrease ratio (Rfd) was determined from the FIK curves. Our study revealed that after 10 days of treatment, 10 ppm of dimethoate showed stimulatory response whereas 20, 40 and 80 ppm of dimethoate showed inhibitory response for growth and photosynthetic activity of pigeon pea plants, but after 20 and 30 days of treatment all the tested concentrations of dimethoate became inhibitory. This study clearly shows that dimethoate is highly toxic to the pigeon pea plant, even at very low concentration (10 ppm), if used for a prolonged duration. Our study may thus be helpful in determining the optimal dose of dimethoate in agricultural practices. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Complete plastid genome sequences suggest strong selection for retention of photosynthetic genes in the parasitic plant genus Cuscuta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNeal, Joel R; Kuehl, Jennifer V; Boore, Jeffrey L; de Pamphilis, Claude W

    2007-10-24

    Plastid genome content and protein sequence are highly conserved across land plants and their closest algal relatives. Parasitic plants, which obtain some or all of their nutrition through an attachment to a host plant, are often a striking exception. Heterotrophy can lead to relaxed constraint on some plastid genes or even total gene loss. We sequenced plastid genomes of two species in the parasitic genus Cuscuta along with a non-parasitic relative, Ipomoea purpurea, to investigate changes in the plastid genome that may result from transition to the parasitic lifestyle. Aside from loss of all ndh genes, Cuscuta exaltata retains photosynthetic and photorespiratory genes that evolve under strong selective constraint. Cuscuta obtusiflora has incurred substantially more change to its plastid genome, including loss of all genes for the plastid-encoded RNA polymerase. Despite extensive change in gene content and greatly increased rate of overall nucleotide substitution, C. obtusiflora also retains all photosynthetic and photorespiratory genes with only one minor exception. Although Epifagus virginiana, the only other parasitic plant with its plastid genome sequenced to date, has lost a largely overlapping set of transfer-RNA and ribosomal genes as Cuscuta, it has lost all genes related to photosynthesis and maintains a set of genes which are among the most divergent in Cuscuta. Analyses demonstrate photosynthetic genes are under the highest constraint of any genes within the plastid genomes of Cuscuta, indicating a function involving RuBisCo and electron transport through photosystems is still the primary reason for retention of the plastid genome in these species.

  3. Complete plastid genome sequences suggest strong selection for retention of photosynthetic genes in the parasitic plant genus Cuscuta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuehl Jennifer V

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Plastid genome content and protein sequence are highly conserved across land plants and their closest algal relatives. Parasitic plants, which obtain some or all of their nutrition through an attachment to a host plant, are often a striking exception. Heterotrophy can lead to relaxed constraint on some plastid genes or even total gene loss. We sequenced plastid genomes of two species in the parasitic genus Cuscuta along with a non-parasitic relative, Ipomoea purpurea, to investigate changes in the plastid genome that may result from transition to the parasitic lifestyle. Results Aside from loss of all ndh genes, Cuscuta exaltata retains photosynthetic and photorespiratory genes that evolve under strong selective constraint. Cuscuta obtusiflora has incurred substantially more change to its plastid genome, including loss of all genes for the plastid-encoded RNA polymerase. Despite extensive change in gene content and greatly increased rate of overall nucleotide substitution, C. obtusiflora also retains all photosynthetic and photorespiratory genes with only one minor exception. Conclusion Although Epifagus virginiana, the only other parasitic plant with its plastid genome sequenced to date, has lost a largely overlapping set of transfer-RNA and ribosomal genes as Cuscuta, it has lost all genes related to photosynthesis and maintains a set of genes which are among the most divergent in Cuscuta. Analyses demonstrate photosynthetic genes are under the highest constraint of any genes within the plastid genomes of Cuscuta, indicating a function involving RuBisCo and electron transport through photosystems is still the primary reason for retention of the plastid genome in these species.

  4. Dynamics of photosynthetic activity of cyanobacteria after gut ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journal of Biotechnology ... carp and goldfish, whereas there was a significant stimulation of photosynthetic activity of diatom and green algae following the depressed cyanobacteria during cultivation. The mainly stimulated eukaryotic algae species were Fragilariaceae and Scenedesmus obliquus by microscopy.

  5. Counting viruses and bacteria in photosynthetic microbial mats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carreira, C; Staal, M.; Middelboe, M.; Brussaard, C.P.D.

    2015-01-01

    Viral abundances in benthic environments are the highest found in aquatic systems. Photosynthetic microbial mats represent benthic environments with high microbial activity and possibly high viral densities, yet viral abundances have not been examined in such systems. Existing extraction procedures

  6. Fusion chain reaction - a chain reaction with charged particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peres, A.; Shvarts, D.

    1975-01-01

    When a DT-plasma is compressed to very high density, the particles resulting from nuclear reactions give their energy mostly to D and T ions, by nuclear collisions, rather than to electrons as usual. Fusion can thus proceed as a chain reaction, without the need of thermonuclear temperatures. In this paper, we derive relations for the suprathermal ion population created by a fusion reaction. Numerical integration of these equations shows that a chain reaction can proceed in a cold infinite DT-plasma at densities above 8.4x10 27 ions.cm -3 . Seeding the plasma with a small amount of 6 Li reduces the critical density to 7.2x10 27 ions.cm -3 (140000times the normal solid density). (author)

  7. Effect of Severe Winter Cold on the Photosynthetic Potentials of Three Co-occurring Evergreen Woody Species in a Mediterranean Forest, Catalonia (Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sperlich, Dominik; Gracia, Carlos; Peñuelas, Josep; Sabaté, Santi

    2013-04-01

    Evergreen tree species in the Mediterranean region have to cope with a wide range of environmental stress conditions from summer drought to winter cold. The winter period can lead to photoinhibition due to a combination of high solar irradiances and chilling temperatures which can reduce the light saturation point. However, Mediterranean winter mildness can lead periodically to favourable environmental conditions above the threshold for positive carbon balance benefitting evergreen woody species in contrast to winter deciduous species. The advantage of being able to photosynthesis all year round with a significant fraction in the winter month is compensating for the lower photosynthetic potentials during spring and summer in comparison to deciduous species. In this work, we investigated the physiological behaviour of three evergreen tree species (Quercus ilex, Pinus halepensis, Arbutus undeo) co-occurring in a natural and mature Mediterranean forest after a period of mild winter conditions and their response to a sudden period of intense cold weather. Therefore, we examined in each period the photosynthetic potentials by estimating the maximum carboxylation rate (Vcmax) and the maximum electron transport rate (Jmax) through gas exchange measurements. The results indicate that all species exhibited extraordinary high photosynthetic potentials during the first period of measurement as a response to the mild conditions. However, the sudden cold period affected negatively the photosynthetic potentials of Quercus ilex and A. unedo with reduction ranging between 37 to 45 %, whereas they were observed to be only insignificantly reduced in Pinus halepensis. Our results can be explained by previous classifications into photoinhibition-avoiding (P. halpensis) and photoinhibition-tolerant (Q. ilex, A. undeo) species on the basis of their susceptibility to dynamic photoinhibition (Martinez Ferri 2000). Photoinhibition tolerant species are characterised with a more dynamic

  8. Electronic structure of charge carriers in a polysilane quantum wire

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumagai, J.; Yoshida, H.; Ichikawa, T.

    1997-01-01

    The ESR, ESEEM and spectrophotometric studies on polysilane radical ions revealed that charge carriers, hole and conducting electrons, are not delocalized all over the Si-Si main chain but confined to a part of the chain composed of only six Si atoms, probably near the branch on the main chain. Comparison of the ESR spectra of the radical cations and anions revealed that the hole can migrate from the main chain to an adjacent polymer chain via the side chains, whereas the conducting electron can not migrate since the side chains act as good intermolecular insulators for the electron. (author)

  9. Magnetization behavior of ferrofluids with cryogenically imaged dipolar chains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klokkenburg, M; Erne, B H; Mendelev, V; Ivanov, A O

    2008-01-01

    Theories and simulations have demonstrated that field-induced dipolar chains affect the static magnetic properties of ferrofluids. Experimental verification, however, has been complicated by the high polydispersity of the available ferrofluids, and the morphology of the dipolar chains was left to the imagination. We now present the concentration- and field-dependent magnetization of particularly well-defined ferrofluids, with a low polydispersity, three different average particle sizes, and with dipolar chains that were imaged with and without magnetic field using cryogenic transmission electron microscopy. At low concentrations, the magnetization curves obey the Langevin equation for noninteracting dipoles. Magnetization curves for the largest particles strongly deviate from the Langevin equation but quantitatively agree with a recently developed mean-field model that incorporates the field-dependent formation and alignment of flexible dipolar chains. The combination of magnetic results and in situ electron microscopy images provides original new evidence for the effect of dipolar chains on the field-dependent magnetization of ferrofluids

  10. Photosynthetic efficiency of Pedunculate oak seedlings under simulated water stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Popović Zorica

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Photosynthetic performance of seedlings of Quercus robur exposed to short-term water stress in the laboratory conditions was assessed through the method of induced fluorometry. The substrate for seedlings was clayey loam, with the dominant texture fraction made of silt, followed by clay and fine sand, with total porosity 68.2%. Seedlings were separated in two groups: control (C (soil water regime in pots was maintained at the level of field water capacity and treated (water-stressed, WS (soil water regime was maintained in the range of wilting point and lentocapillary capacity. The photosynthetic efficiency was 0.642±0.25 and 0.522±0.024 (WS and C, respectively, which was mostly due to transplantation disturbances and sporadic leaf chlorosis. During the experiment Fv/Fm decreased in both groups (0.551±0.0100 and 0.427±0.018 in C and WS, respectively. Our results showed significant differences between stressed and control group, in regard to both observed parameters (Fv/Fm and T½. Photosynthetic efficiency of pedunculate oak seedlings was significantly affected by short-term water stress, but to a lesser extent than by sufficient watering.

  11. Long-term water stress leads to acclimation of drought sensitivity of photosynthetic capacity in xeric but not riparian Eucalyptus species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Shuang-Xi; Medlyn, Belinda E; Prentice, Iain Colin

    2016-01-01

    Experimental drought is well documented to induce a decline in photosynthetic capacity. However, if given time to acclimate to low water availability, the photosynthetic responses of plants to low soil moisture content may differ from those found in short-term experiments. This study aims to test whether plants acclimate to long-term water stress by modifying the functional relationships between photosynthetic traits and water stress, and whether species of contrasting habitat differ in their degree of acclimation. Three Eucalyptus taxa from xeric and riparian habitats were compared with regard to their gas exchange responses under short- and long-term drought. Photosynthetic parameters were measured after 2 and 4 months of watering treatments, namely field capacity or partial drought. At 4 months, all plants were watered to field capacity, then watering was stopped. Further measurements were made during the subsequent 'drying-down', continuing until stomata were closed. Two months of partial drought consistently reduced assimilation rate, stomatal sensitivity parameters (g1), apparent maximum Rubisco activity (V'(cmax)) and maximum electron transport rate (J'(max)). Eucalyptus occidentalis from the xeric habitat showed the smallest decline in V'(cmax) and J'(max); however, after 4 months, V'(cmax) and J'(max) had recovered. Species differed in their degree of V'(cmax) acclimation. Eucalyptus occidentalis showed significant acclimation of the pre-dawn leaf water potential at which the V'(cmax) and 'true' V(cmax) (accounting for mesophyll conductance) declined most steeply during drying-down. The findings indicate carbon loss under prolonged drought could be over-estimated without accounting for acclimation. In particular, (1) species from contrasting habitats differed in the magnitude of V'(cmax) reduction in short-term drought; (2) long-term drought allowed the possibility of acclimation, such that V'(cmax) reduction was mitigated; (3) xeric species showed a

  12. Mitochondrial electron transport chain functions in long-lived Ames dwarf mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choksi, Kashyap B.; Nuss, Jonathan E.; DeFord, James H.; Papaconstantinou, John

    2011-01-01

    The age-associated decline in tissue function has been attributed to ROS-mediated oxidative damage due to mitochondrial dysfunction. The long-lived Ames dwarf mouse exhibits resistance to oxidative stress, a physiological characteristic of longevity. It is not known, however, whether there are differences in the electron transport chain (ETC) functions in Ames tissues that are associated with their longevity. In these studies we analyzed enzyme activities of ETC complexes, CI-CV and the coupled CI-CII and CII-CIII activities of mitochondria from several tissues of young, middle aged and old Ames dwarf mice and their corresponding wild type controls to identify potential mitochondrial prolongevity functions. Our studies indicate that post-mitotic heart and skeletal muscle from Ames and wild-type mice show similar changes in ETC complex activities with aging, with the exception of complex IV. Furthermore, the kidney, a slowly proliferating tissue, shows dramatic differences in ETC functions unique to the Ames mice. Our data show that there are tissue specific mitochondrial functions that are characteristic of certain tissues of the long-lived Ames mouse. We propose that this may be a factor in the determination of extended lifespan of dwarf mice. PMID:21934186

  13. Photoinduced electron transfer involving eosin-tryptophan conjugates. Long-lived radical pair states for systems incorporating aromatic amino acid side chains

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, G. II; Farahat, C.W.; Oh, C. (Boston Univ., MA (United States))

    1994-07-14

    The electron-transfer photochemistry of the covalent derivatives of the dye eosin, in which the xanthene dye is covalently attached to the amino acid L-tryptophan via the thiohydantoin derivative, the tryptophan dipeptide, and an ethyl ester derivative, has been investigated. The singlet excited state of the dye is significantly quenched on attachment of the aromatic amino acid residue. Dye triplet states are also intercepted through intramolecular interaction of excited dye and amino acid pendants. Flash photolysis experiments verify that this interaction involves electron transfer from the indole side chains of tryptophan. Rate constants for electron transfer are discussed in terms of the distance relationships for the eosin chromophore and aromatic redox sites on peptide derivatives, the pathway for [sigma]-[pi] through-bond interaction between redox sites, and the multiplicity and state of protonation for electron-transfer intermediates. Selected electron-transfer photoreactions were studied under conditions of binding of the peptide derivatives in a high molecular weight, water-soluble, globular polymer, poly(vinyl-2-pyrrolidinone). 28 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  14. Relationship between photosynthetic pigments and chlorophyll fluorescence in soybean under varying phosphorus nutrition at ambient and elevated CO2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Photosynthetic pigments such as chlorophyll (Chl) a, Chl b and carotenoids concentration, and chlorophyll fluorescence (CF) have widely been used as indicators of stress and photosynthetic performance in plants. Although photosynthetic pigments and CF are partly interdependent due to absorption and ...

  15. Difference in leaf water use efficiency/photosynthetic nitrogen use efficiency of Bt-cotton and its conventional peer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Ruqing; Sun, Shucun; Liu, Biao

    2016-09-15

    This study is to test the effects of Bt gene introduction on the foliar water/nitrogen use efficiency in cotton. We measured leaf stomatal conductance, photosynthetic rate, and transpiration rate under light saturation condition at different stages of a conventional cultivar (zhongmian no. 16) and its counterpart Bt cultivar (zhongmian no. 30) that were cultured on three levels of fertilization, based on which leaf instantaneous water use efficiency was derived. Leaf nitrogen concentration was measured to calculate leaf photosynthetic nitrogen use efficiency, and leaf δ(13)C was used to characterize long term water use efficiency. Bt cultivar was found to have lower stomatal conductance, net photosynthetic rates and transpiration rates, but higher instantaneous and long time water use efficiency. In addition, foliar nitrogen concentration was found to be higher but net photosynthetic rate was lower in the mature leaves of Bt cultivar, which led to lower photosynthetic nitrogen use efficiency. This might result from the significant decrease of photosynthetic rate due to the decrease of stomatal conductance. In conclusion, our findings show that the introduction of Bt gene should significantly increase foliar water use efficiency but decrease leaf nitrogen use efficiency in cotton under no selective pressure.

  16. The adaptive response of lichens to mercury exposure involves changes in the photosynthetic machinery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nicolardi, Valentina; Cai, Giampiero; Parrotta, Luigi; Puglia, Michele; Bianchi, Laura; Bini, Luca; Gaggi, Carlo

    2012-01-01

    Lichens are an excellent model to study the bioaccumulation of heavy metals but limited information is available on the molecular mechanisms occurring during bioaccumulation. We investigated the changes of the lichen proteome during exposure to constant concentrations of mercury. We found that most of changes involves proteins of the photosynthetic pathway, such as the chloroplastic photosystem I reaction center subunit II, the oxygen-evolving protein and the chloroplastic ATP synthase β-subunit. This suggests that photosynthesis is a target of the toxic effects of mercury. These findings are also supported by changes in the content of photosynthetic pigments (chlorophyll a and b, and β-carotene). Alterations to the photosynthetic machinery also reflect on the structure of thylakoid membranes of algal cells. Response of lichens to mercury also involves stress-related proteins (such as Hsp70) but not cytoskeletal proteins. Results suggest that lichens adapt to mercury exposure by changing the metabolic production of energy. - Highlights: ► Lichens exposed to Hg° vapors accumulate this metal irreversibly. ► Hg° interferes with physiological processes of the epiphytic lichen Evernia prunastri. ► Hg° promotes changes in the concentration of photosynthetic pigments. ► Hg° treatment causes changes in the ultrastructure of the photobiont plastids. ► Hg° induces changes in the protein machinery involved in the photosynthesis pathway. - Mercury affects the photosynthetic protein machinery of lichens.

  17. Influence of thermal light correlations on photosynthetic structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Mendoza, Adriana; Manrique, Pedro; Caycedo-Soler, Felipe; Johnson, Neil F.; Rodríguez, Ferney J.; Quiroga, Luis

    2014-03-01

    The thermal light from the sun is characterized by both classical and quantum mechanical correlations. These correlations have left a fingerprint on the natural harvesting structures developed through five billion years of evolutionary pressure, specially in photosynthetic organisms. In this work, based upon previous extensive studies of spatio-temporal correlations of light fields, we hypothesize that structures involving photosensitive pigments like those present in purple bacteria vesicles emerge as an evolutionary response to the different properties of incident light. By using burstiness and memory as measures that quantify higher moments of the photon arrival statistics, we generate photon-time traces. They are used to simulate absorption on detectors spatially extended over regions comparable to these light fields coherence length. Finally, we provide some insights into the connection between these photo-statistical features with the photosynthetic membrane architecture and the lights' spatial correlation. Facultad de Ciencias Uniandes.

  18. Anisotropic Transport of Electrons in a Novel FET Channel with Chains of InGaAs Nano-Islands Embedded along Quasi-Periodic Multi-Atomic Steps on Vicinal (111)B GaAs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akiyama, Y.; Kawazu, T.; Noda, T.; Sakaki, H.

    2010-01-01

    We have studied electron transport in n-AlGaAs/GaAs heterojunction FET channels, in which chains of InGaAs nano-islands are embedded along quasi-periodic steps. By using two samples, conductance G para (V g ) parallel to the steps and G perp (V g ) perpendicular to them were measured at 80 K as functions of gate voltage V g . At sufficiently high V g , G para at 80 K is several times as high as G perp , which manifests the anisotropic two-dimensional transport of electrons. When V g is reduced to -0.7 V, G perp almost vanishes, while Gpara stays sizable unless V g is set below -0.8 V. These results indicate that 'inter-chain' barriers play stronger roles than 'intra-chain' barriers.

  19. Fiber-optic fluorometer for microscale mapping of photosynthetic pigments in microbial communities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thar, Roland Matthias; Kühl, Michael; Holst, Gerhard

    2001-01-01

    Microscale fluorescence measurements were performed in photosynthetic biofilms at a spatial resolution of 100 to 200 µm with a new fiber-optic fluorometer which allowed four different excitation and emission wavelengths and was configured for measuring phycobiliproteins, chlorophylls, and bacteri......Microscale fluorescence measurements were performed in photosynthetic biofilms at a spatial resolution of 100 to 200 µm with a new fiber-optic fluorometer which allowed four different excitation and emission wavelengths and was configured for measuring phycobiliproteins, chlorophylls...

  20. Photosynthetic responses to heat treatments at different temperatures and following recovery in grapevine (Vitis amurensis L.) leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Hai-Bo; Ma, Ling; Xi, Hui-Feng; Duan, Wei; Li, Shao-Hua; Loescher, Wayne; Wang, Jun-Fang; Wang, Li-Jun

    2011-01-01

    The electron transport chain, Rubisco and stomatal conductance are important in photosynthesis. Little is known about their combined responses to heat treatment at different temperatures and following recovery in grapevines (Vitis spp.) which are often grown in climates with high temperatures. The electron transport function of photosystem II, the activation state of Rubisco and the influence of stomatal behavior were investigated in grapevine leaves during heat treatments and following recovery. High temperature treatments included 35, 40 and 45°C, with 25°C as the control and recovery temperature. Heat treatment at 35°C did not significantly (P>0.05) inhibit net photosynthetic rate (P(n)). However, with treatments at 40 and 45°C, P(n) was decreased, accompanied by an increase in substomatal CO(2) concentration (C(i)), decreases in stomatal conductance (g(s)) and the activation state of Rubisco, and inhibition of the donor side and the reaction center of PSII. The acceptor side of PSII was inhibited at 45°C but not at 40°C. When grape leaves recovered following heat treatment, P(n), g(s) and the activation state of Rubisco also increased, and the donor side and the reaction center of PSII recovered. The increase in P(n) during the recovery period following the second 45°C stress was slower than that following the 40°C stress, and these increases corresponded to the donor side of PSII and the activation state of Rubisco. Heat treatment at 35°C did not significantly (P>0.05) influence photosynthesis. The decrease of P(n) in grape leaves exposed to more severe heat stress (40 or 45°C) was mainly attributed to three factors: the activation state of Rubisco, the donor side and the reaction center of PSII. However, the increase of P(n) in grape leaves following heat stress was also associated with a stomatal response. The acceptor side of PSII in grape leaves was responsive but less sensitive to heat stress.

  1. Adaptive changes in chlorophyll content and photosynthetic features to low light in Physocarpus amurensis Maxim and Physocarpus opulifolius "Diabolo".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Huihui; Zhong, Haixiu; Wang, Jifeng; Sui, Xin; Xu, Nan

    2016-01-01

    The present study aims to investigate the differences in leaf pigment content and the photosynthetic characteristics under natural and low light intensities between the Chinese native Physocarpus amurensis Maxim and the imported Physocarpus opulifolius "Diabolo" from North America. We aim to discuss the responses and the adaptive mechanism of these two cultivars of Physocarpus to a low light environment. The results show that the specific leaf area (SLA) and the chlorophyll content were significantly increased in the leaves of both Physocarpus cultivars in response to a low light intensity, and the SLA and chlorophyll content were higher in the leaves of low light-treated P. opulifolius "Diabolo" compared with the leaves of low light-treated P. amurensis Maxim. Moreover, the content of anthocyanin was markedly reduced in the leaves of P. opulifolius "Diabolo" under low light intensity, which allowed for a greater capacity of photon capture under the low light condition. Under natural light, the photosynthetic carbon assimilation capacity was greater in the leaves of P. amurensis Maxim compared with the leaves of P. opulifolius "Diabolo" that were rich with anthocyanin. However, in response to low light, AQY, P max, LCP and LSP decreased to a lesser extent in the leaves of P. opulifolius "Diabolo" compared with the leaves of P. amurensis Maxim. These results suggest that P. opulifolius "Diabolo" exhibits a greater ability in adaption to low light, and it is probably related to the relatively higher chlorophyll content and the smaller SLA in the leaves of P. opulifolius "Diabolo." In addition, the low light intensity resulted in a reduced photochemical activity of photosystem (PS) II in the leaves of both Physocarpus, as evidenced by increased values of the relative variable fluorescence at point J and point I on the OJIP curve. This result suggests that the electron acceptor in PS II was the major responsive site to the low light stress in the leaves of both

  2. Structure of conduction electrons on polysilanes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ichikawa, Tsuneki [Hokkaido Univ., Sapporo (Japan); Kumagai, Jun

    1998-10-01

    The orbital structures of conduction electrons on permethylated oligosilane, Si{sub 2n}(CH{sub 3}){sub 2n+2}(n = 2 - 8), and poly(cyclohexylmethylsilane) have been determined by the electron spin-echo envelope modulation signals of the radical anions of these silanes in a deuterated rigid matrix at 77 K. The conduction electron on permethylated oligosilane is delocalized over the entire main chain, whereas that on poly(cyclohexylmethylsilane) is localized on a part of the main chain composed of about six Si atoms. Quantum-chemical calculations suggest that Anderson localization due to fluctuation of {sigma} conjugation by conformational disorder of the main chain is responsible for the localization of both the conduction electron and the hole. (author)

  3. A screening method for the isolation of polyhydroxyalkanoate-producing purple non-sulfur photosynthetic bacteria from natural seawater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mieko Higuchi-Takeuchi

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs are a family of biopolyesters accumulated by a variety of microorganisms as carbon and energy storage under starvation conditions. We focused on marine purple non-sulfur photosynthetic bacteria as host microorganisms for PHA production and developed a method for their isolation from natural seawater. To identify novel PHA-producing marine purple non-sulfur photosynthetic bacteria, natural seawaters were cultured in nutrient-rich medium for purple non-sulfur photosynthetic bacteria, and twelve pink- or red-pigmented colonies were picked up. Gas chromatography mass spectrometry analysis revealed that four isolates synthesized PHA at levels ranging from 0.5 to 24.4 wt% of cell dry weight. The 16S ribosomal RNA sequence analysis revealed that one isolate (HM2 showed 100% identity to marine purple non-sulfur photosynthetic bacteria. In conclusion, we have demonstrated in this study that PHA-producing marine purple non-sulfur photosynthetic bacteria can be isolated from natural seawater under nutrient-rich conditions.

  4. Chain Dynamics in Magnetorheological Suspensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gast, A. P.; Furst, E. M.

    1999-01-01

    Magnetorheological (MR) suspensions are composed of colloidal particles which acquire dipole moments when subjected to an external magnetic field. At sufficient field strengths and concentrations, the dipolar particles rapidly aggregate to form long chains. Subsequent lateral cross-linking of the dipolar chains is responsible for a rapid liquid-to-solid-like rheological transition. The unique, magnetically-activated rheological properties of MR suspensions make them ideal for interfacing mechanical systems to electronic controls. Additionally, the ability to experimentally probe colloidal suspensions interacting through tunable anisotropic potentials is of fundamental interest. Our current experimental work has focused on understanding the fluctuations of dipolar chains. It has been proposed by Halsey and Toor (HT) that the strong Landau-Peierls thermal fluctuations of dipolar chains could be responsible for long-range attractions between chains. Such interactions will govern the long-time relaxation of MR suspensions. We have synthesized monodisperse neutrally buoyant MR suspensions by density matching stabilized ferrofluid emulsion droplets with D2O. This allows us to probe the dynamics of the dipolar chains using light scattering without gravitational, interfacial, and polydispersity effects to resolve the short-wavelength dynamics of the dipolar chains. We used diffusing wave spectroscopy to measure these dynamics. The particle displacements at short times that show an independence to the field strength, but at long times exhibit a constrained, sub-diffusive motion that slows as the dipole strength is increased. The experiments are in good qualitative agreement with Brownian dynamics simulations of dipolar chains. Although there have been several important and detailed studies of the structure and interactions in MR suspensions, there has not been conclusive evidence that supports or contradicts the HT model prediction that long-range interactions exist between

  5. Non-destructive determination of photosynthetic rates of eight varieties of cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amadu, A. A.

    2015-07-01

    Cassava is an important food security crop in Ghana and in the wake of climate change there is the need for plant breeders to develop varieties with high water use efficiency as well as high photosynthetic rate in order to adapt to the changing climate. Thus, the photosynthetic rates of eight cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) varieties were non-destructively evaluated using photosynthesis meter miniPPM300, from June 2014 to May 2015, with the aim of selecting varieties with high photosynthetic rate for future breeding programmes. The mean photosynthetic rate varied depending on the varieties ranging from 40.5 μmol/m 2 s in Bosom nsia to 45.2 μmol/m 2 s in Gbenze. However, the presence of African cassava mosaic disease (ACMD) marginally reduced the photosynthetic rate to below 40 μmol/m 2 s in all the varieties. Similarly, the chlorophyll content index (CCI) as measured by chlorophyll meter and spectrophotometer also varied from one variety to another; it was low in Nandom (17.9 CCI) and high in Gbenze (39.93 CCI) using the chlorophyll meter and was also reduced by the presence of the virus. Although, the stomatal density varied between the varieties it was not influenced by virus infection. Furthermore, ACMD significantly decreased the leaf surface area from 5705.8mm 2 in uninfected plants to 1251.6mm 2 in infected plants, consequently reducing the number and weight of tubers produced 11 month after planting (MAP). Molecular Testing of the viruses using virus specific primers JSP001/JSP002, EAB555F/EAB555R, EACMV1e/EACMV2e at 6 MAP and 11MAP, showed that the mosaic symptoms were caused by African Cassava Mosaic virus disease. Cassava varieties with high photosynthetic efficiency and low virus infection can be used in cassava improvement programmes in Ghana. (au)

  6. Electronic and magnetic properties of infinite 1D chains of paddlewheel carboxylates M2(COOR)4 (M = Mo, W, Ru, Rh, Ir, Cu)

    KAUST Repository

    Peskov, Maxim

    2013-03-14

    Dinuclear complexes of transition metals bridged by four carboxylate-groups are examples of stable atomic configurations serving as fundamental building blocks of catalysts and prototypical molecular electronic devices. The electronic structure and magnetic properties of many molecular tetracarboxylate complexes were meticulously studied; however, the properties of the one-dimensional (1D) polymeric chain of associated tetracarboxylates have so far evaded much attention. Using periodic density-functional theory calculations, we analyze the electronic structure of condensed tetracarboxylates Mo(II), W(II), Ru(II), Rh(II), Ir(II), and Cu(II). The relationship between crystal structure of the polymerized tetracarboxylates and the electronic properties of the metal-metal bond in the M24+ core is studied. The electronic effects emanating from the association of dinuclear transition metal tetracarboxylates are important for designing molecular electronic devices. In this study, its influence on both direct and indirect metal-metal interactions, and the electronic structure, in particular transport properties, is discussed. © 2013 American Chemical Society.

  7. Importance of structure and density of macroalgae communities (Fucus serratus) for photosynthetic production and light utilisation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Binzer, Thomas; Sand-Jensen, Kaj

    2002-01-01

    at high light depended on community density. Therefore, while the determination of the production of individual algal thalli is useful for evaluating differences in acclimatisation and adaptation between species and stands, it is not useful for evaluating production rates for entire plants and communities......Determination of photosynthetic production in plant communities is essential for evaluating plant growth rates and carbon fluxes in ecosystems, but it cannot easily be derived from the photosynthetic response of individual leaves or thalli, which has been the focus of virtually all previous aquatic...... studies. To evaluate the regulation of aquatic community production, we measured the photosynthetic production of thallus parts and entire communities of Fucus serratus (L.) of different density and spatial structure exposed to varying photon flux density and dissolved CO2 concentration. Photosynthetic...

  8. Effects of silicon on photosynthetic characteristics of maize (Zea mays L.) on alluvial soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Zhiming; Song, Fengbin; Xu, Hongwen; Shao, Hongbo; Song, Ri

    2014-01-01

    The objectives of the study were to determine the effects of silicon on photosynthetic characteristics of maize on alluvial soil, including total chlorophyll contents, photosynthetic rate (P n), stomatal conductance (g s), transpiration rate (E), and intercellular CO2 concentration (C i ) using the method of field experiment, in which there were five levels (0, 45, 90, 150, and 225 kg · ha(-1)) of silicon supplying. The results showed that certain doses of silicon fertilizers can be used successfully in increasing the values of total chlorophyll contents, P n, and g s and decreasing the values of E and C i of maize leaves, which meant that photosynthetic efficiency of maize was significantly increased in different growth stages by proper doses of Si application on alluvial soil, and the optimal dose of Si application was 150 kg · ha(-1). Our results indicated that silicon in proper amounts can be beneficial in increasing the photosynthetic ability of maize, which would be helpful for the grain yield and growth of maize.

  9. Study of γ-irradiated lithographic polymers by electron spin resonance and electron nuclear double resonance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schlick, S.; Kevan, L.

    1982-01-01

    The room temperature gamma irradiation degradation of the lithographic polymers, poly(methylmethacrylate) (PMMA), poly(methyl-α-chloroacrylate) (PMCA), poly(methyl-α-fluoroacrylate) (PMFA), and poly(methylacrylonitrile) (PMCN), have been studied by electron spin resonance and electron nuclear double resonance (ENDOR) to assess their molecular degradation processes of relevance to electron beam lithography. Two classes of radicals are found, chain radicals and chain scission radicals. PMMA and PMCA mainly form chain scission radicals consistent with degradation while for PMCN the resolution is poorer, and this is only probable. PMFA forms mainly chain radicals consistent with predominant crosslinking. The total radical yield is greatest in PMCA and PMCN. ENDOR is used to assess the compactness of the radiation degradation region for PMMA and PMCA and hence the potential resolution of the resist; this appears to be about the same for these methacrylate polymers

  10. Continuous high and low temperature induced a decrease of photosynthetic activity and changes in the diurnal fluctuations of organic acids in Opuntia streptacantha.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaida Zarely Ojeda-Pérez

    Full Text Available Opuntia plants grow naturally in areas where temperatures are extreme and highly variable in the day during the entire year. These plants survive through different adaptations to respond to adverse environmental conditions. Despite this capability, it is unknown how CAM photosynthetic activity and growth in Opuntia plantlets is affected by constant heat or cold. Therefore, the main objective of this research was to evaluate the short-term effect of high (40°C and low (4°C continuous temperatures on the photosynthetic efficiency, the organic acid content (malic acid and the relative growth rate (RGR in seven-month-old Opuntia streptacantha plantlets during 5, 10, and 15 days. Chlorophyll fluorescence analysis allowed us to determine that high temperatures negatively impact the photosynthetic efficiency of O. streptacantha plantlets, which exhibited the lowest values of maximum quantum efficiency of the photosystem II (Fv/Fm = 52%, Fv/F0 = 85%, operational quantum yield of PS (ΦPSII = 65% and relative electron transport rate (rETR = 65%, as well as highest values of basal fluorescence (F0 = 226% during 15 days of treatment. Similarly, low temperatures decreased Fv/Fm (16%, Fv/F0 (50%, ΦPSII and rETR (16%. High temperatures also decreased nocturnal acidification in approximately 34-50%, whereas low temperatures increased it by 30-36%. Additionally, both continuous temperatures affected drastically diurnal consumption of malic acid, which was related to a significant RGR inhibition, where the specific photosynthetic structure area component was the most affected. Our results allowed determining that, despite the high tolerance to extreme temperatures described for Opuntia plants, young individuals of O. streptacantha suffered photosynthetic impairment that led to the inhibition of their growth. Thus, the main findings reported in this study can help to predict the potential impact of climatic change on the establishment and survival of succulent

  11. Phosphorylation of Cytochrome c Threonine 28 Regulates Electron Transport Chain Activity in Kidney: IMPLICATIONS FOR AMP KINASE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahapatra, Gargi; Varughese, Ashwathy; Ji, Qinqin; Lee, Icksoo; Liu, Jenney; Vaishnav, Asmita; Sinkler, Christopher; Kapralov, Alexandr A.; Moraes, Carlos T.; Sanderson, Thomas H.; Stemmler, Timothy L.; Grossman, Lawrence I.; Kagan, Valerian E.; Brunzelle, Joseph S.; Salomon, Arthur R.; Edwards, Brian F. P.; Hüttemann, Maik

    2016-10-07

    Mammalian cytochrome c (Cytc) plays a key role in cellular life and death decisions, functioning as an electron carrier in the electron transport chain and as a trigger of apoptosis when released from the mitochondria. However, its regulation is not well understood. We show that the major fraction of Cytc isolated from kidneys is phosphorylated on Thr28, leading to a partial inhibition of respiration in the reaction with cytochrome c oxidase. To further study the effect of Cytc phosphorylation in vitro, we generated T28E phosphomimetic Cytc, revealing superior behavior regarding protein stability and its ability to degrade reactive oxygen species compared with wild-type unphosphorylated Cytc. Introduction of T28E phosphomimetic Cytc into Cytc knock-out cells shows that intact cell respiration, mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm), and ROS levels are reduced compared with wild type. As we show by high resolution crystallography of wild-type and T28E Cytc in combination with molecular dynamics simulations, Thr28 is located at a central position near the heme crevice, the most flexible epitope of the protein apart from the N and C termini. Finally, in silico prediction and our experimental data suggest that AMP kinase, which phosphorylates Cytc on Thr28 in vitro and colocalizes with Cytc to the mitochondrial intermembrane space in the kidney, is the most likely candidate to phosphorylate Thr28 in vivo. We conclude that Cytc phosphorylation is mediated in a tissue-specific manner and leads to regulation of electron transport chain flux via “controlled respiration,” preventing ΔΨm hyperpolarization, a known cause of ROS and trigger of apoptosis.

  12. SLC25 Family Member Genetic Interactions Identify a Role for HEM25 in Yeast Electron Transport Chain Stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dufay, J Noelia; Fernández-Murray, J Pedro; McMaster, Christopher R

    2017-06-07

    The SLC25 family member SLC25A38 (Hem25 in yeast) was recently identified as a mitochondrial glycine transporter that provides substrate to initiate heme/hemoglobin synthesis. Mutations in the human SLC25A38 gene cause congenital sideroblastic anemia. The full extent to which SLC25 family members coregulate heme synthesis with other mitochondrial functions is not clear. In this study, we surveyed 29 nonessential SLC25 family members in Saccharomyces cerevisiae for their ability to support growth in the presence and absence of HEM25 Six SLC25 family members were identified that were required for growth or for heme synthesis in cells lacking Hem25 function. Importantly, we determined that loss of function of the SLC25 family member Flx1, which imports FAD into mitochondria, together with loss of function of Hem25, resulted in inability to grow on media that required yeast cells to supply energy using mitochondrial respiration. We report that specific components of complexes of the electron transport chain are decreased in the absence of Flx1 and Hem25 function. In addition, we show that mitochondria from flx1 Δ hem25 Δ cells contain uncharacterized Cox2-containing high molecular weight aggregates. The functions of Flx1 and Hem25 provide a facile explanation for the decrease in heme level, and in specific electron transport chain complex components. Copyright © 2017 Dufay et al.

  13. SLC25 Family Member Genetic Interactions Identify a Role for HEM25 in Yeast Electron Transport Chain Stability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Noelia Dufay

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The SLC25 family member SLC25A38 (Hem25 in yeast was recently identified as a mitochondrial glycine transporter that provides substrate to initiate heme/hemoglobin synthesis. Mutations in the human SLC25A38 gene cause congenital sideroblastic anemia. The full extent to which SLC25 family members coregulate heme synthesis with other mitochondrial functions is not clear. In this study, we surveyed 29 nonessential SLC25 family members in Saccharomyces cerevisiae for their ability to support growth in the presence and absence of HEM25. Six SLC25 family members were identified that were required for growth or for heme synthesis in cells lacking Hem25 function. Importantly, we determined that loss of function of the SLC25 family member Flx1, which imports FAD into mitochondria, together with loss of function of Hem25, resulted in inability to grow on media that required yeast cells to supply energy using mitochondrial respiration. We report that specific components of complexes of the electron transport chain are decreased in the absence of Flx1 and Hem25 function. In addition, we show that mitochondria from flx1Δ hem25Δ cells contain uncharacterized Cox2-containing high molecular weight aggregates. The functions of Flx1 and Hem25 provide a facile explanation for the decrease in heme level, and in specific electron transport chain complex components.

  14. Induction of the 'in vivo' chlorophyll fluorescence excited by CW and pulse-periodical laser radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zakhidov, Eh.A.; Zakhidov, M.A.; Kasymdzhanov, M.A.; Khabibullaev, P.K.

    1996-01-01

    Inductional changes of fluorescence of the native chlorophyll molecules in plant leaves excited by CW and pulse-periodical laser radiation are studied. The opportunity of controlling of the photosynthesis efficiency through fluorescence response at different rates of the electron flow in charge transfer chain of the photosynthetic apparatus of plant is shown. (author). 13 refs.; 4 refs

  15. Electronic structure and transport properties of monatomic Fe chains in a vacuum and anchored to a graphene nanoribbon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen, N B; Lebon, A; Vega, A; García-Fuente, A; Gallego, L J

    2012-01-01

    The electronic structure and transport properties of monatomic Fe wires of different characteristics are studied within the density functional theory. In both equidistant and dimerized (more stable) isolated wires, magnetism plays an important role since it leads to different shapes of the transmission coefficients for each spin component. In equidistant wires, electron localization around the Fermi level leads to symmetry breaking between d xy and d x 2 -y 2 bands. The main effect of the structural dimerization is to decrease the number of channels available for the minority spin component. When anchored to the edges of a graphene nanoribbon, the dimerization of the chain is preserved, despite the hybridization of the d states of Fe with the C atoms which gives way to a reduction in the number of d channels around the Fermi level. Most conduction is then led by an electronic channel from the ribbon and the sp z bands from the Fe wires. Suggestions to improve the spintronic ability of Fe wires are proposed.

  16. Successful use of e‐procurement in supply chains

    OpenAIRE

    Puschmann, Thomas; Alt, Rainer

    2005-01-01

    Purpose – Electronic support of internal supply chains for direct or production goods has been a major element during the implementation of enterprise resource planning (ERP) systems that has taken place since the late 1980s. However, supply chains to indirect material suppliers were not usually included due to low transaction volumes, low product values and low strategic importance of these goods. Dedicated information systems for streamlining indirect goods supply chains have emerged...

  17. The influence of leaf anatomy on the internal light environment and photosynthetic electron transport rate: exploration with a new leaf ray tracing model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Yi; Tholen, Danny; Zhu, Xin-Guang

    2016-11-01

    Leaf photosynthesis is determined by biochemical properties and anatomical features. Here we developed a three-dimensional leaf model that can be used to evaluate the internal light environment of a leaf and its implications for whole-leaf electron transport rates (J). This model includes (i) the basic components of a leaf, such as the epidermis, palisade and spongy tissues, as well as the physical dimensions and arrangements of cell walls, vacuoles and chloroplasts; and (ii) an efficient forward ray-tracing algorithm, predicting the internal light environment for light of wavelengths between 400 and 2500nm. We studied the influence of leaf anatomy and ambient light on internal light conditions and J The results show that (i) different chloroplasts can experience drastically different light conditions, even when they are located at the same distance from the leaf surface; (ii) bundle sheath extensions, which are strips of parenchyma, collenchyma or sclerenchyma cells connecting the vascular bundles with the epidermis, can influence photosynthetic light-use efficiency of leaves; and (iii) chloroplast positioning can also influence the light-use efficiency of leaves. Mechanisms underlying leaf internal light heterogeneity and implications of the heterogeneity for photoprotection and for the convexity of the light response curves are discussed. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology.

  18. Study and realisation of chaining operators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, Mohd Solaiman

    1970-01-01

    Within the frame of researches in the field of binary analysis performed in the nuclear instrumentation department of the Saclay Nuclear Centre, this research thesis belongs to the field of applications of binary analysis theories, and more particularly to the development and study of a chaining operator (chaining operators are used to develop complex automatic systems with a clear separation between information processing and program-based management of this processing). The author first recalls some notions of binary analysis: algebraic binary sets, products and their specific properties, and practical realisation of binary functions by means of logical circuits. He recalls methods for the general study of sequential systems; generalities, base functions, elementary reflex functions, graphical study of sequential systems, search for and removal of commutation variations. He discusses the present organisation of electronic computers: software, hardware, synchronous and asynchronous control. He presents chaining operators: generalities, computation of a chaining operator, static aspect of chaining operators. He reports and comments the practical realisation of chaining operators: components, measurements performed on elaborated chaining operators, simulation experimental set-up [fr

  19. Effects of lindane on the photosynthetic apparatus of the cyanobacterium Anabaena: fluorescence induction studies and immunolocalization of ferredoxin-NADP+ reductase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bueno, Marta; Fillat, Maria F; Strasser, Reto J; Maldonado-Rodriguez, Ronald; Marina, Nerea; Smienk, Henry; Gómez-Moreno, Carlos; Barja, Francisco

    2004-01-01

    Cyanobacteria have the natural ability to degrade moderate amounts of organic pollutants. However, when pollutant concentration exceeds the level of tolerance, bleaching of the cells and death occur within 24 hours. Under stress conditions, cyanobacterial response includes the short-term adaptation of the photosynthetic apparatus to light quality, named state transitions. Moreover, prolonged stresses produce changes in the functional organization of phycobilisomes and in the core-complexes of both photosystems, which can result in large changes in the PS II fluorescence yield. The localization of ferredoxin-NADP+ reductase (FNR) at the ends of some peripheral rods of the cyanobacterial phycobilisomes, makes this protein a useful marker to check phycobilisome integrity. The goal of this work is to improve the knowledge of the mechanism of action of a very potent pesticide, lindane (gamma-hexaclorociclohexane), in the cyanobacterium Anabaena sp., which can be considered a potential candidate for bioremediation of pesticides. We have studied the effect of lindane on the photosynthetic apparatus of Anabaena using fluorescence induction studies. As ferredoxin-NADP+ reductase plays a key role in the response to oxidative stress in several systems, changes in synthesis, degradation and activity of FNR were analyzed. Immunolocalization of this enzyme was used as a marker of phycobilisome integrity. The knowledge of the changes caused by lindane in the photosynthetic apparatus is essential for rational further design of genetically-modified cyanobacteria with improved biorremediation abilities. Polyphasic chlorophyll a fluorescence rise measurements (OJIP) have been used to evaluate the vitality and stress adaptation of the nitrogen-fixing cyanobacterium Anabaena PCC 7119 in the presence of increasing concentrations of lindane. Effects of the pesticide on the ultrastructure have been investigated by electron microscopy, and FNR has been used as a marker of phycobilisome

  20. Variability of photosynthetic pigments in the Colombian Pacific ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Earth System Science; Volume 111; Issue 3. Variability of photosynthetic pigments in the Colombian Pacific Ocean and its relationship with the wind field using ADEOS-I data. Efrain Rodriguez-Rubio Jose Stuardo. Volume 111 Issue 3 September 2002 pp 227-236 ...

  1. Supercomplexes of the mitochondrial electron transport chain decline in the aging rat heart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez, Luis A; Monette, Jeffrey S; Chavez, Juan D; Maier, Claudia S; Hagen, Tory M

    2009-10-01

    Accumulation of mitochondrial electron transport chain (ETC) defects is a recognized hallmark of the age-associated decline in cardiac bioenergetics; however, the molecular events involved are only poorly understood. In the present work, we hypothesized that age-related ETC deterioration stemmed partly from disassociation of large solid-state macromolecular assemblies termed "supercomplexes". Mitochondrial proteins from young and old rat hearts were separated by blue native-PAGE, protein bands analyzed by LC-MALDI-MS/MS, and protein levels quantified by densitometry. Results showed that supercomplexes comprised of various stoichiometries of complexes I, III and IV were observed, and declined significantly (p<0.05, n=4) with age. Supercomplexes displaying the highest molecular masses were the most severely affected. Considering that certain diseases (e.g. Barth Syndrome) display similar supercomplex destabilization as our results for aging, the deterioration in ETC supercomplexes may be an important underlying factor for both impaired mitochondrial function and loss of cardiac bioenergetics with age.

  2. Complementation of mitochondrial electron transport chain by manipulation of the NAD+/NADH ratio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Titov, Denis V; Cracan, Valentin; Goodman, Russell P; Peng, Jun; Grabarek, Zenon; Mootha, Vamsi K

    2016-04-08

    A decline in electron transport chain (ETC) activity is associated with many human diseases. Although diminished mitochondrial adenosine triphosphate production is recognized as a source of pathology, the contribution of the associated reduction in the ratio of the amount of oxidized nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD(+)) to that of its reduced form (NADH) is less clear. We used a water-forming NADH oxidase from Lactobacillus brevis (LbNOX) as a genetic tool for inducing a compartment-specific increase of the NAD(+)/NADH ratio in human cells. We used LbNOX to demonstrate the dependence of key metabolic fluxes, gluconeogenesis, and signaling on the cytosolic or mitochondrial NAD(+)/NADH ratios. Expression of LbNOX in the cytosol or mitochondria ameliorated proliferative and metabolic defects caused by an impaired ETC. The results underscore the role of reductive stress in mitochondrial pathogenesis and demonstrate the utility of targeted LbNOX for direct, compartment-specific manipulation of redox state. Copyright © 2016, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  3. Light harvesting complexes of Chromera velia, photosynthetic relative of apicomplexan parasites

    KAUST Repository

    Tichý, Josef

    2013-06-01

    The structure and composition of the light harvesting complexes from the unicellular alga Chromera velia were studied by means of optical spectroscopy, biochemical and electron microscopy methods. Two different types of antennae systems were identified. One exhibited a molecular weight (18-19 kDa) similar to FCP (fucoxanthin chlorophyll protein) complexes from diatoms, however, single particle analysis and circular dichroism spectroscopy indicated similarity of this structure to the recently characterized XLH antenna of xanthophytes. In light of these data we denote this antenna complex CLH, for "Chromera Light Harvesting" complex. The other system was identified as the photosystem I with bound Light Harvesting Complexes (PSI-LHCr) related to the red algae LHCI antennae. The result of this study is the finding that C. velia, when grown in natural light conditions, possesses light harvesting antennae typically found in two different, evolutionary distant, groups of photosynthetic organisms. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. MX chains: 1-D analog of CuO planes?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gammel, J.T.; Batistic, I.; Bishop, A.R.; Loh, E.Y. Jr.; Marianer, S.

    1989-01-01

    We study a two-band Peierls-Hubbard model for halogen-bridged mixed-valence transition metal linear chain complexes (MX chains). We include electron-electron correlations (both Hubbard and PPP-like expressions) using several techniques including calculations in the zero-hopping limit, exact diagonalization of small systems, mean field approximation, and a Gutzwiller-like Ansatz for quantum phonons. The adiabatic optical absorption and phonon spectra for both photo-excited and doping induced defects (kinks, polarons, bipolarons, and excitons) are discussed. A long period phase which occurs even at commensurate filling for certain parameter values may be related to twinning. The effect of including the electron-phonon in addition to the electron-electron interaction on the polaron/bipolaron (pairing) competition is especially interesting when this class of compounds is viewed as a 1-D analog of high-temperature superconductors. 6 refs., 4 figs

  5. Photosynthetic Characteristics of Flag Leaves in Rice White Stripe Mutant 6001 During Senescence Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-hui ZHEN

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Physiological, biochemical and electron microscopy analyses were used to investigate the photosynthetic performance of flag leaves in rice white stripe mutant 6001 during the senescence process. Results showed that the chlorophyll content at the heading and milk-ripe stages in rice mutant 6001 were about 34.78% and 3.00% less than those in wild type 6028, respectively. However, the chlorophyll content at the fully-ripe stage in rice mutant 6001 was higher than that in wild type 6028. At the heading stage, the net photosynthetic rate (Pn in rice mutant 6001 was lower than that in wild type 6028. Rice mutant 6001 also exhibited a significantly slower decrease rate of Pn than wild type 6028 during the senescence progress, especially at the later stage. Furthermore, Ca2+-ATPase, Mg2+-ATPase and photophosphorylation activities exhibited the similar trends as the Pn. During the senescence process, the 68 kDa polypeptide concentrations in the thylakoid membrane proteins exhibited a significant change, which was one of the critical factors that contributed to the observed change in photosynthesis. We also observed that the chloroplasts of rice mutant 6001 exhibited higher integrity than those of wild type 6028, and the chloroplast membrane of rice mutant 6001 disintegrated more slow during the senescence process. In general, rice mutant 6001 had a relatively slower senescence rate than wild type 6028, and exhibited anti-senescence properties.