WorldWideScience

Sample records for photonic crystal based

  1. Graphene-based photonic crystal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berman, Oleg L.; Boyko, Vladimir S.; Kezerashvili, Roman Ya.; Kolesnikov, Anton A.; Lozovik, Yurii E.

    2010-01-01

    A novel type of photonic crystal formed by embedding a periodic array of constituent stacks of alternating graphene and dielectric discs into a background dielectric medium is proposed. The photonic band structure and transmittance of such photonic crystal are calculated. The graphene-based photonic crystals can be used effectively as the frequency filters and waveguides for the far infrared region of electromagnetic spectrum. Due to substantial suppression of absorption of low-frequency radiation in doped graphene the damping and skin effect in the photonic crystal are also suppressed. The advantages of the graphene-based photonic crystal are discussed.

  2. Photonic crystal fiber based antibody detection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duval, A; Lhoutellier, M; Jensen, J B

    2004-01-01

    An original approach for detecting labeled antibodies based on strong penetration photonic crystal fibers is introduced. The target antibody is immobilized inside the air-holes of a photonic crystal fiber and the detection is realized by the means of evanescent-wave fluorescence spectroscopy...

  3. Photonic Crystal Sensors Based on Porous Silicon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Pacholski

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Porous silicon has been established as an excellent sensing platform for the optical detection of hazardous chemicals and biomolecular interactions such as DNA hybridization, antigen/antibody binding, and enzymatic reactions. Its porous nature provides a high surface area within a small volume, which can be easily controlled by changing the pore sizes. As the porosity and consequently the refractive index of an etched porous silicon layer depends on the electrochemial etching conditions photonic crystals composed of multilayered porous silicon films with well-resolved and narrow optical reflectivity features can easily be obtained. The prominent optical response of the photonic crystal decreases the detection limit and therefore increases the sensitivity of porous silicon sensors in comparison to sensors utilizing Fabry-Pérot based optical transduction. Development of porous silicon photonic crystal sensors which allow for the detection of analytes by the naked eye using a simple color change or the fabrication of stacked porous silicon photonic crystals showing two distinct optical features which can be utilized for the discrimination of analytes emphasize its high application potential.

  4. Photonic Crystal Sensors Based on Porous Silicon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacholski, Claudia

    2013-01-01

    Porous silicon has been established as an excellent sensing platform for the optical detection of hazardous chemicals and biomolecular interactions such as DNA hybridization, antigen/antibody binding, and enzymatic reactions. Its porous nature provides a high surface area within a small volume, which can be easily controlled by changing the pore sizes. As the porosity and consequently the refractive index of an etched porous silicon layer depends on the electrochemial etching conditions photonic crystals composed of multilayered porous silicon films with well-resolved and narrow optical reflectivity features can easily be obtained. The prominent optical response of the photonic crystal decreases the detection limit and therefore increases the sensitivity of porous silicon sensors in comparison to sensors utilizing Fabry-Pérot based optical transduction. Development of porous silicon photonic crystal sensors which allow for the detection of analytes by the naked eye using a simple color change or the fabrication of stacked porous silicon photonic crystals showing two distinct optical features which can be utilized for the discrimination of analytes emphasize its high application potential. PMID:23571671

  5. Optical microfiber-based photonic crystal cavity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, Yang; Sun, Yi-zhi; Li, Zhi-yuan; Ding, Wei; Andrews, Steve

    2016-01-01

    Using a focused ion beam milling technique, we fabricate broad stop band (∼10% wide) photonic crystal (PhC) cavities in adiabatically-tapered silica fibers. Abrupt structural design of PhC mirrors efficiently reduces radiation loss, increasing the cavity finesse to ∼7.5. Further experiments and simulations verify that the remaining loss is mainly due to Ga ion implantation. Such a microfiber PhC cavity probably has potentials in many light-matter interaction applications. (paper)

  6. Fano resonance in anodic aluminum oxide based photonic crystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shang, Guo Liang; Fei, Guang Tao; Zhang, Yao; Yan, Peng; Xu, Shao Hui; Ouyang, Hao Miao; Zhang, Li De

    2014-01-08

    Anodic aluminum oxide based photonic crystals with periodic porous structure have been prepared using voltage compensation method. The as-prepared sample showed an ultra-narrow photonic bandgap. Asymmetric line-shape profiles of the photonic bandgaps have been observed, which is attributed to Fano resonance between the photonic bandgap state of photonic crystal and continuum scattering state of porous structure. And the exhibited Fano resonance shows more clearly when the sample is saturated ethanol gas than air-filled. Further theoretical analysis by transfer matrix method verified these results. These findings provide a better understanding on the nature of photonic bandgaps of photonic crystals made up of porous materials, in which the porous structures not only exist as layers of effective-refractive-index material providing Bragg scattering, but also provide a continuum light scattering state to interact with Bragg scattering state to show an asymmetric line-shape profile.

  7. Opal-based photonic crystal with double photonic bandgap structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romanov, S. G.; Yates, H. M.; Pemble, M. E.; DeLa Rue, R. M.

    2000-09-01

    The interior surfaces of one part of a piece of artificial opal have been coated with GaP so that the remaining part of the opal crystal remains empty, thus forming a photonic heterostructure. Two Bragg resonances have been observed in the optical transmission and reflectance spectra. These two resonances were found to behave differently with changes in the polarization of the incident light and the angle of propagation of the light with respect to the (111) planes of opal. Depolarization of the light was observed to occur most effectively at frequencies within the stop-bands, apparently due to the re-coupling of the propagating electromagnetic wave to a different system of eigenmodes when it crosses the interface separating two parts of the double photonic crystal.

  8. Graphene-based one-dimensional photonic crystal

    OpenAIRE

    Berman, Oleg L.; Kezerashvili, Roman Ya.

    2011-01-01

    A novel type of one-dimensional (1D) photonic crystal formed by the array of periodically located stacks of alternating graphene and dielectric stripes embedded into a background dielectric medium is proposed. The wave equation for the electromagnetic wave propagating in such structure solved in the framework of the Kronig-Penney model. The frequency band structure of 1D graphene-based photonic crystal is obtained analytically as a function of the filling factor and the thickness of the diele...

  9. Photonic crystal based polarization insensitive flat lens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turduev, M; Bor, E; Kurt, H

    2017-01-01

    The paper proposes a new design of an inhomogeneous artificially created photonic crystal lens structure consisting of annular dielectric rods to efficiently focus both transverse electric and transverse magnetic polarizations of light into the same focal point. The locations of each individual cell that contains the annular dielectric rods are determined according to a nonlinear distribution function. The inner and outer radii of the annular photonic dielectric rods are optimized with respect to the polarization insensitive frequency response of the transmission spectrum of the lens structure. The physical background of the polarization insensitive focusing mechanism is investigated in both spatial and frequency domains. Moreover, polarization independent wavefront transformation/focusing has been explored in detail by investigating the dispersion relation of the structure. Corresponding phase index distribution of the lens is attained for polarization insensitive normalized frequency range of a / λ   =  0.280 and a / λ   =  0.300, where a denotes the lattice constant of the designed structure and λ denotes the wavelength of the incident light. We show the wave transformation performance and focal point movement dynamics for both polarizations of the lens structure by specially adjusting the length of the structure. The 3D finite-difference time domain numerical analysis is also performed to verifiy that the proposed design is able to focus the wave regardless of polarization into approximately the same focal point (difference between focal distances of both polarizations stays below 0.25 λ ) with an operating bandwidth of 4.30% between 1476 nm and 1541 nm at telecom wavelengths. The main superiorities of the proposed lens structure are being all dielectric and compact, and having flat front and back surfaces, rendering the proposed lens design more practical in the photonic integration process in various applications such as optical switch

  10. Spectroscopy of photonic band gaps in mesoporous one-dimensional photonic crystals based on aluminum oxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorelik, V.S.; Voinov, Yu.P.; Shchavlev, V.V.; Bi, Dongxue; Shang, Guo Liang; Fei, Guang Tao

    2017-01-01

    Mesoporous one-dimensional photonic crystals based on aluminum oxide have been synthesized by electrochemical etching method. Reflection spectra of the obtained mesoporous samples in a wide spectral range that covers several band gaps are presented. Microscopic parameters of photonic crystals are calculated and corresponding reflection spectra for the first six band gaps are presented.

  11. Thermally Driven Photonic Actuator Based on Silica Opal Photonic Crystal with Liquid Crystal Elastomer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Huihui; Li, Jun; Shi, Yang; Guo, Jinbao; Wei, Jie

    2016-04-13

    We have developed a novel thermoresponsive photonic actuator based on three-dimensional SiO2 opal photonic crystals (PCs) together with liquid crystal elastomers (LCEs). In the process of fabrication of such a photonic actuator, the LCE precursor is infiltrated into the SiO2 opal PC followed by UV light-induced photopolymerization, thereby forming the SiO2 opal PC/LCE composite film with a bilayer structure. We find that this bilayer composite film simultaneously exhibits actuation behavior as well as the photonic band gap (PBG) response to external temperature variation. When the SiO2 opal PC/LCE composite film is heated, it exhibits a considerable bending deformation, and its PBG shifts to a shorter wavelength at the same time. In addition, this actuation is quite fast, reversible, and highly repeatable. The thermoresponsive behavior of the SiO2 opal PC/LCE composite films mainly derives from the thermal-driven change of nematic order of the LCE layer which leads to the asymmetric shrinkage/expansion of the bilayer structure. These results will be of interest in designing optical actuator systems for environment-temperature detection.

  12. Tunable bandpass filter based on photonic crystal fiber filled with multiple liquid crystals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scolari, Lara; Tartarini, G.; Borelli, E.

    2007-01-01

    A tunable bandpass filter based on a photonic crystal fiber filled with two different liquid crystals is demonstrated. 130 nm bandwidth tunability is achieved by tuning the temperature from 30degC to 90degC.......A tunable bandpass filter based on a photonic crystal fiber filled with two different liquid crystals is demonstrated. 130 nm bandwidth tunability is achieved by tuning the temperature from 30degC to 90degC....

  13. Active Photonic Crystal Waveguides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ek, Sara

    This thesis deals with the fabrication and characterization of active photonic crystal waveguides, realized in III-V semiconductor material with embedded active layers. The platform offering active photonic crystal waveguides has many potential applications. One of these is a compact photonic...... due to photonic crystal dispersion. The observations are explained by the enhancement of net gain by light slow down. Another application based on active photonic crystal waveguides is micro lasers. Measurements on quantum dot micro laser cavities with different mirror configurations and photonic...

  14. Unidirectional transmission in 1D nonlinear photonic crystal based on topological phase reversal by optical nonlinearity

    OpenAIRE

    Chong Li; Xiaoyong Hu; Hong Yang; Qihuang Gong

    2017-01-01

    We propose a scheme of unidirectional transmission in a 1D nonlinear topological photonic crystal based on the topological edge state and three order optical nonlinearity. The 1D photonic crystals consists of a nonlinear photonic crystal L and a linear photonic crystal R. In the backward direction, light is totally reflected for the photons transmission prohibited by the bandgap. While in the forward direction, light interacts with the nonlinear photonic crystal L by optical Kerr effect, brin...

  15. Optical microcavities based on surface modes in two-dimensional photonic crystals and silicon-on-insulator photonic crystals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xiao, Sanshui; Qiu, M.

    2007-01-01

    Surface-mode optical microcavities based on two-dimensional photonic crystals and silicon-on-insulator photonic crystals are studied. We demonstrate that a high-quality-factor microcavity can be easily realized in these structures. With an increasing of the cavity length, the quality factor is gr...... is gradually enhanced and the resonant frequency converges to that of the corresponding surface mode in the photonic crystals. These structures have potential applications such as sensing.......Surface-mode optical microcavities based on two-dimensional photonic crystals and silicon-on-insulator photonic crystals are studied. We demonstrate that a high-quality-factor microcavity can be easily realized in these structures. With an increasing of the cavity length, the quality factor...

  16. Temperature dependence of photonic crystals based on thermoresponsive magnetic fluids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pu Shengli; Bai Xuekun; Wang Lunwei

    2011-01-01

    The influence mechanisms of temperature on the band gap properties of the magnetic fluids based photonic crystals are elaborated. A method has been developed to obtain the temperature-dependent structure information (A sol /A) from the existing experimental data and then two critical parameters, i.e. the structure ratio (d/a) and the refractive index contrast (Δn) of the magnetic fluids photonic crystals are deduced for band diagram calculations. The temperature-dependent band gaps are gained for z-even and z-odd modes. Band diagram calculations display that the mid frequencies and positions of the existing forbidden bands are not very sensitive to the temperature, while the number of the forbidden bands at certain strengths of magnetic field may change with the temperature variation. The results presented in this work give a guideline for designing the potential photonic devices based on the temperature characteristics of the magnetic fluids based photonic crystals and are helpful for improving their quality. - Highlights: → Mechanisms of temperature dependence of magnetic fluids based photonic crystals are elaborated. → Properties of existing forbidden bands have relatively fine temperature stability. → Disappearance of existing forbidden band is found for some magnetic fields. → Emergence of new forbidden band with temperature is found for some magnetic fields.

  17. Optical devices based on liquid crystal photonic bandgap fibers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alkeskjold, Thomas Tanggaard

    2005-01-01

    the waveguiding mechanism of LC filled PCFs. The principle of tunable fibers based on LCs is thereafter discussed and an alignment and coating study of LC in capillaries is presented. Next, the Liquid Crystal Photonic BandGap (LCPBG) fiber is presented and the waveguiding mechanism is analyzed through plane...... hole. The presence of a LC in the holes of the PCF transforms the fiber from a Total Internal Reflection (TIR) guiding type into a Photonic BandGap (PBG) guiding type, where light is confined to the silica core by coherent scattering from the LC-billed holes. The high dielectric and optical anisotropy...

  18. Photonic time crystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Lunwu; Xu, Jin; Wang, Chengen; Zhang, Jianhua; Zhao, Yuting; Zeng, Jing; Song, Runxia

    2017-12-07

    When space (time) translation symmetry is spontaneously broken, the space crystal (time crystal) forms; when permittivity and permeability periodically vary with space (time), the photonic crystal (photonic time crystal) forms. We proposed the concept of photonic time crystal and rewritten the Maxwell's equations. Utilizing Finite Difference Time Domain (FDTD) method, we simulated electromagnetic wave propagation in photonic time crystal and photonic space-time crystal, the simulation results show that more intensive scatter fields can obtained in photonic time crystal and photonic space-time crystal.

  19. Experimental demonstration of a Fano laser based on photonic crystals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yu, Yi; Semenova, Elizaveta; Yvind, Kresten

    2017-01-01

    Conventional semiconductor laser mirrors are based on Fresnel reflection [1], Bragg reflection [2, 3] or total internal reflection [4]. Here we demonstrate a new laser concept using photonic crystals (PhC), with a mirror based on Fano interference between a waveguide continuum and a discrete...... resonance of a nanocavity [5]. We show that the very narrowband feature of the Fano resonance [6] can lead to single mode lasing. In addition, when combined with optical nonlinearity, the highly dispersive feature of the Fano resonance can promote self-pulsations at gigahertz frequencies [7], which...

  20. Spatial filters on demand based on aperiodic Photonic Crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gailevicius, Darius; Purlys, Vytautas; Peckus, Martynas; Gadonas, Roaldas [Laser Research Center, Department of Quantum Electronics, Vilnius University (Lithuania); Staliunas, Kestutis [DONLL, Departament de Fisica, Universitat Politecnica de Catalunya (UPC), Terrassa (Spain); Institucio Catalana de Recerca i Estudis Avancats (ICREA), Barcelona (Spain)

    2017-08-15

    Photonic Crystal spatial filters, apart from stand-alone spatial filtering function, can also suppress multi-transverse-mode operation in laser resonators. Here it is shown that such photonic crystals can be designed by solving the inverse problem: for a given spatial filtering profile. Optimized Photonic Crystal filters were fabricated in photosensitive glass. Experiments have shown that such filters provide a more pronounced filtering effect for total and partial transmissivity conditions. (copyright 2017 by WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  1. Photonic Crystal Biosensor Based on Optical Surface Waves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni Dietler

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available A label-free biosensor device based on registration of photonic crystal surface waves is described. Angular interrogation of the optical surface wave resonance is used to detect changes in the thickness of an adsorbed layer, while an additional simultaneous detection of the critical angle of total internal reflection provides independent data of the liquid refractive index. The abilities of the device are demonstrated by measuring of biotin molecule binding to a streptavidin monolayer, and by measuring association and dissociation kinetics of immunoglobulin G proteins. Additionally, deposition of PSS / PAH polyelectrolytes is recorded in situ resulting calculation of PSS and PAH monolayer thicknesses separately.

  2. Optimization of photonic crystal cavities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Fengwen; Sigmund, Ole

    2017-01-01

    We present optimization of photonic crystal cavities. The optimization problem is formulated to maximize the Purcell factor of a photonic crystal cavity. Both topology optimization and air-hole-based shape optimization are utilized for the design process. Numerical results demonstrate...... that the Purcell factor of the photonic crystal cavity can be significantly improved through optimization....

  3. Strontium titanate/silicon-based terahertz photonic crystal multilayer stack

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xin, J.Z.; Jim, K.L.; Tsang, Y.H.; Chan, H.L.W.; Leung, C.W.; Yang, J.; Gong, X.J.; Chen, L.Q.; Gao, F.

    2012-01-01

    A one-dimensional photonic crystal working in the terahertz (THz) range was designed and implemented. To facilitate the design, the transmission properties of strontium titanate crystals were characterized by THz-time-domain spectroscopy. Relatively high refractive index (∝18.5) and transmission ratio (0.08) were observed between 0.2 to 1 THz. A stacked structure of (Si d Si /STO d STO ) N /Si d Si was then designed, with transmission spectra calculated by the transfer matrix method. The effects of the filling ratio (d STO /(d Si +d STO )), periodicity (d Si +d STO ) and the number of repeats N on the transmission of PC were investigated. The effect of introducing a defect layer was also studied. Based on these, Si/STO multilayers with STO defect thickness of 125 μm and 200 μm were measured. The shift of the defect mode was observed and compared with the calculations. (orig.)

  4. Unidirectional transmission in 1D nonlinear photonic crystal based on topological phase reversal by optical nonlinearity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chong Li

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available We propose a scheme of unidirectional transmission in a 1D nonlinear topological photonic crystal based on the topological edge state and three order optical nonlinearity. The 1D photonic crystals consists of a nonlinear photonic crystal L and a linear photonic crystal R. In the backward direction, light is totally reflected for the photons transmission prohibited by the bandgap. While in the forward direction, light interacts with the nonlinear photonic crystal L by optical Kerr effect, bringing a topological phase reversal and results the topological edge mode arising at the interface which could transmit photons through the bandgaps both of the photonic crystal L and R. When the signal power intensity larger than a moderate low threshold value of 10.0 MW/cm2, the transmission contrast ratio could remain at 30 steadily.

  5. Packaging consideration of two-dimensional polymer-based photonic crystals for laser beam steering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dou, Xinyuan; Chen, Xiaonan; Chen, Maggie Yihong; Wang, Alan Xiaolong; Jiang, Wei; Chen, Ray T.

    2009-02-01

    In this paper, we report the theoretical study of polymer-based photonic crystals for laser beam steering which is based on the superprism effect as well as the experiment fabrication of the two dimensional photonic crystals for the laser beam steering. Superprism effect, the principle for beam steering, was separately studied in details through EFC (Equifrequency Contour) analysis. Polymer based photonic crystals were fabricated through double exposure holographic interference method using SU8-2007. The experiment results were also reported.

  6. Self-collimation-based photonic crystal notch filters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Sun-Goo; Kim, Seong-Han; Kee, Chul-Sik; Kim, Kap-Joong

    2017-01-01

    We introduce a design concept of an optical notch filter (NF) utilizing two perfectly reflecting mirrors and a beam splitter. Based on the new design concept, a photonic crystal (PC)-NF based on the self-collimation phenomenon in a two-dimensional PC is proposed and studied through finite-difference time-domain simulations and experimental measurements in a microwave region. The transmission properties of the self-collimation-based PC-NF were demonstrated to be controlled by adjusting the values of parameters such as the radius of rods in the line-defect beam splitter, distance between the two perfectly reflecting mirrors, and radius of rods on the outermost surface of the perfectly reflecting mirrors. Our results indicate that the proposed design concept could provide a new approach to manipulate light propagation, and the PC-NF could increase the applicability of the self-collimation phenomenon in a PC. (paper)

  7. ARROW-based silicon-on-insulator photonic crystal waveguides with reduced losses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lavrinenko, Andrei; Novitsky, A.; Zhilko, V.V.

    2006-01-01

    We employ an antiresonant reflecting layers arrangement with silicon-on-insulator based photonic crystal waveguides. The 3D FDTD numerical modelling reveals improved transmission in such structures with a promising potential for their application in photonic circuits.......We employ an antiresonant reflecting layers arrangement with silicon-on-insulator based photonic crystal waveguides. The 3D FDTD numerical modelling reveals improved transmission in such structures with a promising potential for their application in photonic circuits....

  8. Ultracompact photonic crystal polarization beam splitter based on multimode interference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Ming-Feng; Liao, Shan-Mei; Huang, Yang-Tung

    2010-02-01

    We propose a theoretical design for a compact photonic crystal (PC) polarization beam splitter (PBS) based on the multimode interference (MMI) effect. The size of a conventional MMI device designed by the self-imaging principle is not compact enough; therefore, we design a compact PC PBS based on the difference of the interference effect between TE and TM modes. Within the MMI coupler, the dependence of interference of modes on propagation distance is weak for a TE wave and strong for a TM wave; as a result, the length of the MMI section can be only seven lattice constants. Simulation results show that the insertion losses are 0.32 and 0.89 dB, and the extinction ratios are 14.4 and 17.5 dB for Port 1 (TE mode) and Port 2 (TM mode), respectively.

  9. Photonic crystal ring resonator based optical filters for photonic integrated circuits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robinson, S.

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, a two Dimensional (2D) Photonic Crystal Ring Resonator (PCRR) based optical Filters namely Add Drop Filter, Bandpass Filter, and Bandstop Filter are designed for Photonic Integrated Circuits (PICs). The normalized output response of the filters is obtained using 2D Finite Difference Time Domain (FDTD) method and the band diagram of periodic and non-periodic structure is attained by Plane Wave Expansion (PWE) method. The size of the device is minimized from a scale of few tens of millimeters to the order of micrometers. The overall size of the filters is around 11.4 μm × 11.4 μm which is highly suitable of photonic integrated circuits

  10. One-dimensional position sensitive detector based on photonic crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xi Feng; Qin Lan; Xue Lian; Duan Ying

    2013-01-01

    Position sensitive detectors (PSDs) are an important class of optical sensors which utilizes the lateral photovoltaic effect (LPVE). According to the operation principle of PSD, we demonstrate that LPVE can be enhanced by lengthening the lifetime of photo-generated carriers. A PSD based on photonic crystals (PCs) composed of MgF 2 and InP is proposed and designed. The transmittances of the defect PC and the reflectance of the perfect PC in the PSD are obtained with transfer matrix method. The theoretical research on the designed device shows that LPVE is enhanced by improving the transmittance of the defect PC and the reflectance of the perfect PC to lengthen the lifetime of photo-generated carriers. (authors)

  11. Photonic Crystal Fibre SERS Sensors Based on Silver Nanoparticle Colloid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhi-Guo, Xie; Yong-Hua, Lu; Pei, Wang; Kai-Qun, Lin; Jie, Yan; Hai, Ming

    2008-01-01

    A photonic crystal fibre (PCF) surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) sensor is developed based on silver nanoparticle colloid. Analyte solution and silver nanoparticles are injected into the air holes of PCF by a simple modified syringe to overcome mass-transport constraints, allowing more silver nanoparticles involved in SERS activity. This sensor offers significant benefit over the conventional SERS sensor with high flexibility, easy manufacture. We demonstrate the detection of 4-mercaptobenzoic acid (4-MBA) molecules with the injecting way and the common dipping measurement. The injecting way shows obviously better results than the dipping one. Theoretical analysis indicates that this PCF SERS substrate offers enhancement of about 7 orders of magnitude in SERS active area

  12. Photonic crystal pioneer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anscombe, Nadya

    2011-08-01

    Over the past ten years, Crystal Fiber, now part of NKT Photonics, has been busy commercializing photonic crystal fibre. Nadya Anscombe finds out about the evolution of the technology and its applications.

  13. The dynamics of a photonic band gap in 2D Si-based photonic crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glushko, O.Je.; Karachevtseva, L.A.

    2006-01-01

    The theoretical investigations of the photonic band structure of two-dimensional photonic crystals for the off-plane propagation of electromagnetic waves and the influence of a surface layer on the position and width of photonic band gaps are carried out. The experimentally measured width of a photonic band gap and the dispersion for two-dimensional silicon structures at the off-plane propagation of an electromagnetic wave correlate with the theoretical band gap position and width

  14. Dual curved photonic crystal ring resonator based channel drop filter using two-dimensional photonic crystal structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chhipa, Mayur Kumar, E-mail: mayurchhipa1@gmail.com [Deptt. of Electronics and Communication Engineering, Government Engineering College Ajmer Rajasthan INDIA (India); Dusad, Lalit Kumar [Rajasthan Technical University Kota, Rajasthan (India)

    2016-05-06

    In this paper channel drop filter (CDF) is designed using dual curved photonic crystal ring resonator (PCRR). The photonic band gap (PBG) is calculated by plane wave expansion (PWE) method and the photonic crystal (PhC) based on two dimensional (2D) square lattice periodic arrays of silicon (Si) rods in air structure have been investigated using finite difference time domain (FDTD) method. The number of rods in Z and X directions is 21 and 20 respectively with lattice constant 0.540 nm and rod radius r = 0.1 µm. The channel drop filter has been optimized for telecommunication wavelengths λ = 1.591 µm with refractive indices 3.533. In the designed structure further analysis is also done by changing whole rods refractive index and it has been observed that this filter may be used for filtering several other channels also. The designed structure is useful for CWDM systems. This device may serve as a key component in photonic integrated circuits. The device is ultra compact with the overall size around 123 µm{sup 2}.

  15. Strontium titanate/silicon-based terahertz photonic crystal multilayer stack

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xin, J.Z.; Jim, K.L.; Tsang, Y.H.; Chan, H.L.W.; Leung, C.W. [Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Department of Applied Physics and Materials Research Centre, Kowloon, Hong Kong (China); Yang, J.; Gong, X.J.; Chen, L.Q.; Gao, F. [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Institute of Biomedical and Health Engineering, Shenzhen Institutes of Advanced Technology, Shenzhen (China)

    2012-04-15

    A one-dimensional photonic crystal working in the terahertz (THz) range was designed and implemented. To facilitate the design, the transmission properties of strontium titanate crystals were characterized by THz-time-domain spectroscopy. Relatively high refractive index ({proportional_to}18.5) and transmission ratio (0.08) were observed between 0.2 to 1 THz. A stacked structure of (Si d{sub Si}/STO d{sub STO}){sub N} /Si d{sub Si} was then designed, with transmission spectra calculated by the transfer matrix method. The effects of the filling ratio (d{sub STO}/(d{sub Si}+d{sub STO})), periodicity (d{sub Si}+d{sub STO}) and the number of repeats N on the transmission of PC were investigated. The effect of introducing a defect layer was also studied. Based on these, Si/STO multilayers with STO defect thickness of 125 {mu}m and 200 {mu}m were measured. The shift of the defect mode was observed and compared with the calculations. (orig.)

  16. Photonic crystal light source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleming, James G [Albuquerque, NM; Lin, Shawn-Yu [Albuquerque, NM; Bur, James A [Corrales, NM

    2004-07-27

    A light source is provided by a photonic crystal having an enhanced photonic density-of-states over a band of frequencies and wherein at least one of the dielectric materials of the photonic crystal has a complex dielectric constant, thereby producing enhanced light emission at the band of frequencies when the photonic crystal is heated. The dielectric material can be a metal, such as tungsten. The spectral properties of the light source can be easily tuned by modification of the photonic crystal structure and materials. The photonic crystal light source can be heated electrically or other heating means. The light source can further include additional photonic crystals that exhibit enhanced light emission at a different band of frequencies to provide for color mixing. The photonic crystal light source may have applications in optical telecommunications, information displays, energy conversion, sensors, and other optical applications.

  17. Photonic Crystal Fibers

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kristiansen, Rene E

    2005-01-01

    This report results from a contract tasking Crystal Fibre A/S as follows: Crystal Fibre will conduct research and development of large mode area, dual clad multi-core Yb-doped photonic crystal fiber...

  18. A composite hydrogels-based photonic crystal multi-sensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Cheng; Zhu, Zhigang; Zhu, Xiangrong; Yu, Wei; Liu, Mingju; Ge, Qiaoqiao; Shih, Wei-Heng

    2015-01-01

    A facile route to prepare stimuli-sensitive poly(vinyl alcohol)/poly(acrylic acid) (PVA/PAA) gelated crystalline colloidal array photonic crystal material was developed. PVA was physically gelated by utilizing an ethanol-assisted method, the resulting hydrogel/crystal composite film was then functionalized with PAA to form an interpenetrating hydrogel film. This sensor film is able to efficiently diffract the visible light and rapidly respond to various environmental stimuli such as solvent, pH and strain, and the accompanying structural color shift can be repeatedly changed and easily distinguished by naked eye. (paper)

  19. Applications of Random Nonlinear Photonic Crystals Based on Strontium Tetraborate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre I. Zaitsev

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Properties of strontium tetraborate (SBO and features of as-grown anti-parallel domains are summarized. From the point of view of nonlinear optics, these domains form nonlinear photonic crystals (NPC. Applications of NPC to the deep ultraviolet generation and fs pulse diagnostics are described. NPC and SBO are prospective media for the creation of a widely tunable source of fs pulses in the vacuum ultraviolet and for autocorrelation diagnostics of broadly tunable sources.

  20. Photonic crystal fiber based chloride chemical sensors for corrosion monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Heming; Tao, Chuanyi; Krishnaswamy, Sridhar

    2016-04-01

    Corrosion of steel is one of the most important durability issues in reinforced concrete (RC) structures because aggressive ions such as chloride ions permeate concrete and corrode steel, consequently accelerating the destruction of structures, especially in marine environments. There are many practical methods for corrosion monitoring in RC structures, mostly focusing on electrochemical-based sensors for monitoring the chloride ion which is thought as one of the most important factors resulting in steel corrosion. In this work, we report a fiber-optic chloride chemical sensor based on long period gratings inscribed in a photonic crystal fiber (PCF) with a chloride sensitive thin film. Numerical simulation is performed to determine the characteristics and resonance spectral response versus the refractive indices of the analyte solution flowing through into the holes in the PCF. The effective refractive index of the cladding mode of the LPGs changes with variations of the analyte solution concentration, resulting in a shift of the resonance wavelength, hence providing the sensor signal. This fiber-optic chemical sensor has a fast response, is easy to prepare and is not susceptible to electromagnetic environment, and can therefore be of use for structural health monitoring of RC structures subjected to such aggressive environments.

  1. Dataset on photonic crystal fiber based chemical sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Kawsar; Paul, Bikash Kumar; Chowdhury, Sawrab; Islam, Md Shadidul; Sen, Shuvo; Islam, Md Ibadul; Asaduzzaman, Sayed; Bahar, Ali Newaz; Miah, Mohammad Badrul Alam

    2017-06-01

    This article represents the data set of micro porous core photonic crystal fiber based chemical sensor. The suggested structure is folded cladding porous shaped with circular air hole. Here is investigated four distinctive parameters including relative sensitivity, confinement loss, numerical aperture (NA), and effective area ( A eff). The numerical outcomes are computed over the E+S+C+L+U communication band. The useable sensed chemicals are methanol, ethanol, propanol, butanol, and pentanol whose are lies in the alcohol series (Paul et al., 2017) [1]. Furthermore, V -parameter ( V ), Marcuse spot size (MSS), and beam divergence (BD) are also investigated rigorously. All examined results have been obtained using finite element method based simulation software COMSOL Multiphysics 4.2 versions with anisotropic circular perfectly matched layer (A-CPML). The proposed PCF shows the high NA from 0.35 to 0.36; the low CL from ~10 -11 to ~10 -7  dB/m; the high A eff from 5.50 to 5.66 µm 2 ; the MSS from 1.0 to 1.08 µm; the BD from 0.43 to 0.46 rad at the controlling wavelength λ = 1.55 µm for employing alcohol series respectively.

  2. Dataset on photonic crystal fiber based chemical sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kawsar Ahmed

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This article represents the data set of micro porous core photonic crystal fiber based chemical sensor. The suggested structure is folded cladding porous shaped with circular air hole. Here is investigated four distinctive parameters including relative sensitivity, confinement loss, numerical aperture (NA, and effective area (Aeff. The numerical outcomes are computed over the E+S+C+L+U communication band. The useable sensed chemicals are methanol, ethanol, propanol, butanol, and pentanol whose are lies in the alcohol series (Paul et al., 2017 [1]. Furthermore, V-parameter (V, Marcuse spot size (MSS, and beam divergence (BD are also investigated rigorously. All examined results have been obtained using finite element method based simulation software COMSOL Multiphysics 4.2 versions with anisotropic circular perfectly matched layer (A-CPML. The proposed PCF shows the high NA from 0.35 to 0.36; the low CL from ~10–11 to ~10−7 dB/m; the high Aeff from 5.50 to 5.66 µm2; the MSS from 1.0 to 1.08 µm; the BD from 0.43 to 0.46 rad at the controlling wavelength λ = 1.55 µm for employing alcohol series respectively.

  3. Large three-dimensional photonic crystals based on monocrystalline liquid crystal blue phases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chun-Wei; Hou, Chien-Tsung; Li, Cheng-Chang; Jau, Hung-Chang; Wang, Chun-Ta; Hong, Ching-Lang; Guo, Duan-Yi; Wang, Cheng-Yu; Chiang, Sheng-Ping; Bunning, Timothy J; Khoo, Iam-Choon; Lin, Tsung-Hsien

    2017-09-28

    Although there have been intense efforts to fabricate large three-dimensional photonic crystals in order to realize their full potential, the technologies developed so far are still beset with various material processing and cost issues. Conventional top-down fabrications are costly and time-consuming, whereas natural self-assembly and bottom-up fabrications often result in high defect density and limited dimensions. Here we report the fabrication of extraordinarily large monocrystalline photonic crystals by controlling the self-assembly processes which occur in unique phases of liquid crystals that exhibit three-dimensional photonic-crystalline properties called liquid-crystal blue phases. In particular, we have developed a gradient-temperature technique that enables three-dimensional photonic crystals to grow to lateral dimensions of ~1 cm (~30,000 of unit cells) and thickness of ~100 μm (~ 300 unit cells). These giant single crystals exhibit extraordinarily sharp photonic bandgaps with high reflectivity, long-range periodicity in all dimensions and well-defined lattice orientation.Conventional fabrication approaches for large-size three-dimensional photonic crystals are problematic. By properly controlling the self-assembly processes, the authors report the fabrication of monocrystalline blue phase liquid crystals that exhibit three-dimensional photonic-crystalline properties.

  4. Photonic crystal-based optical biosensor: a brief investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Divya, J.; Selvendran, S.; Sivanantha Raja, A.

    2018-06-01

    In this paper, a two-dimensional photonic crystal biosensor for medical applications based on two waveguides and a nanocavity was explored with different shoulder-coupled nanocavity structures. The most important biosensor parameters, like the sensitivity and quality factor, can be significantly improved. By injecting an analyte into a sensing hole, the refractive index of the hole was changed. This refractive index biosensor senses the changes and shifts its operating wavelength accordingly. The transmission characteristics of light in the biosensor under different refractive indices that correspond to the change in the analyte concentration are analyzed by the finite-difference time-domain method. The band gap for each structure is designed and observed by the plane wave expansion method. These proposed structures are designed to obtain an analyte refractive index variation of about 1–1.5 in an optical wavelength range of 1.250–1.640 µm. Accordingly, an improved sensitivity of 136.6 nm RIU‑1 and a quality factor as high as 3915 is achieved. An important feature of this structure is its very small dimensions. Such a combination of attributes makes the designed structure a promising element for label-free biosensing applications.

  5. Photonic crystal fibers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lægsgaard, Jesper; Hansen, K P; Nielsen, M D

    2003-01-01

    Photonic crystal fibers having a complex microstructure in the transverse plane constitute a new and promising class of optical fibers. Such fibers can either guide light through total internal reflection or the photonic bandgap effect, In this paper, we review the different types and applications...... of photonic crystal fibers with particular emphasis on recent advances in the field....

  6. Photonic crystal fiber sensing characteristics research based on alcohol asymmetry filling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Fu-quan; Luo, Yan; Li, Hai-tao; Peng, Bao-jin

    2018-02-01

    A new type of Sagnac fiber temperature sensor based on alcohol asymmetric filling photonic crystal fiber is proposed. First, the corrosion of photonic crystal fiber and the treatment of air hole collapse are carried out. Then, the asymmetric structure of photonic crystal fiber is filled with alcohol, and then the structure is connected to the Sagnac interference ring. When the temperature changes, the thermal expansion effect of filling alcohol will lead to the change of birefringence of photonic crystal fiber, so that the interference spectrum of the sensor will drift along with the change of temperature. The experimental results show that the interference red shift will occur with the increase of temperature, and the temperature sensitivity is 0.1864nm/ °C. The sensor has high sensitivity to temperature. At the same time, the structure has the advantages of high stability, anti electromagnetic interference and easy to build. It provides a new method for obtaining birefringence in ordinary photonic crystal fibers.

  7. Silicon-based photonic crystals fabricated using proton beam writing combined with electrochemical etching method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dang, Zhiya; Breese, Mark Bh; Recio-Sánchez, Gonzalo; Azimi, Sara; Song, Jiao; Liang, Haidong; Banas, Agnieszka; Torres-Costa, Vicente; Martín-Palma, Raúl José

    2012-07-23

    A method for fabrication of three-dimensional (3D) silicon nanostructures based on selective formation of porous silicon using ion beam irradiation of bulk p-type silicon followed by electrochemical etching is shown. It opens a route towards the fabrication of two-dimensional (2D) and 3D silicon-based photonic crystals with high flexibility and industrial compatibility. In this work, we present the fabrication of 2D photonic lattice and photonic slab structures and propose a process for the fabrication of 3D woodpile photonic crystals based on this approach. Simulated results of photonic band structures for the fabricated 2D photonic crystals show the presence of TE or TM gap in mid-infrared range.

  8. Optical Properties and Wave Propagation in Semiconductor-Based Two-Dimensional Photonic Crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mario Agio

    2002-01-01

    This work is a theoretical investigation on the physical properties of semiconductor-based two-dimensional photonic crystals, in particular for what concerns systems embedded in planar dielectric waveguides (GaAs/AlGaAs, GaInAsP/InP heterostructures, and self-standing membranes) or based on macro-porous silicon. The photonic-band structure of photonic crystals and photonic-crystal slabs is numerically computed and the associated light-line problem is discussed, which points to the issue of intrinsic out-of-lane diffraction losses for the photonic bands lying above the light line. The photonic states are then classified by the group theory formalism: each mode is related to an irreducible representation of the corresponding small point group. The optical properties are investigated by means of the scattering matrix method, which numerically implements a variable-angle-reflectance experiment; comparison with experiments is also provided. The analysis of surface reflectance proves the existence of selection rules for coupling an external wave to a certain photonic mode. Such rules can be directly derived from symmetry considerations. Lastly, the control of wave propagation in weak-index contrast photonic-crystal slabs is tackled in view of designing building blocks for photonic integrated circuits. The proposed designs are found to comply with the major requirements of low-loss propagation, high and single-mode transmission. These notions are then collected to model a photonic-crystal combiner for an integrated multi-wavelength-source laser

  9. Optical Properties and Wave Propagation in Semiconductor-Based Two-Dimensional Photonic Crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agio, Mario [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2002-12-31

    This work is a theoretical investigation on the physical properties of semiconductor-based two-dimensional photonic crystals, in particular for what concerns systems embedded in planar dielectric waveguides (GaAs/AlGaAs, GaInAsP/InP heterostructures, and self-standing membranes) or based on macro-porous silicon. The photonic-band structure of photonic crystals and photonic-crystal slabs is numerically computed and the associated light-line problem is discussed, which points to the issue of intrinsic out-of-lane diffraction losses for the photonic bands lying above the light line. The photonic states are then classified by the group theory formalism: each mode is related to an irreducible representation of the corresponding small point group. The optical properties are investigated by means of the scattering matrix method, which numerically implements a variable-angle-reflectance experiment; comparison with experiments is also provided. The analysis of surface reflectance proves the existence of selection rules for coupling an external wave to a certain photonic mode. Such rules can be directly derived from symmetry considerations. Lastly, the control of wave propagation in weak-index contrast photonic-crystal slabs is tackled in view of designing building blocks for photonic integrated circuits. The proposed designs are found to comply with the major requirements of low-loss propagation, high and single-mode transmission. These notions are then collected to model a photonic-crystal combiner for an integrated multi-wavelength-source laser.

  10. Integrable microwave filter based on a photonic crystal delay line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sancho, Juan; Bourderionnet, Jerome; Lloret, Juan; Combrié, Sylvain; Gasulla, Ivana; Xavier, Stephane; Sales, Salvador; Colman, Pierre; Lehoucq, Gaelle; Dolfi, Daniel; Capmany, José; De Rossi, Alfredo

    2012-01-01

    The availability of a tunable delay line with a chip-size footprint is a crucial step towards the full implementation of integrated microwave photonic signal processors. Achieving a large and tunable group delay on a millimetre-sized chip is not trivial. Slow light concepts are an appropriate solution, if propagation losses are kept acceptable. Here we use a low-loss 1.5 mm-long photonic crystal waveguide to demonstrate both notch and band-pass microwave filters that can be tuned over the 0-50-GHz spectral band. The waveguide is capable of generating a controllable delay with limited signal attenuation (total insertion loss below 10 dB when the delay is below 70 ps) and degradation. Owing to the very small footprint of the delay line, a fully integrated device is feasible, also featuring more complex and elaborate filter functions.

  11. Nonreciprocal optical isolation via graphene based photonic crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roshan Entezar, S.; Karimi Habil, M.

    2018-03-01

    The transmission properties of a one-dimensional photonic crystal containing graphene mono-layers are studied using the transfer matrix method. It is shown that the structure can be used as a polarization-selective nonreciprocal device which discriminates between the two circularly polarized waves with different handedness impinging in the same direction. This structure may be utilized in designing optical isolators for the circularly polarized waves due to the gyrotropic behavior of the graphene mono-layers under the perpendicularly applied external magnetic field. Moreover, the effect of an external magnetic field and the chemical potential of the graphene mono-layers on the band gap of the structure are investigated.

  12. Photonic Crystals: Enhancing the Light Output of Scintillation Based Detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Knapitsch, Arno Richard

    A scintillator is a material which emits light when excited by ionizing radiation. Such materials are used in a diverse range of applications; From high energy particle physics experiments, X-ray security, to nuclear cameras or positron emission tomography. Future high-energy physics (HEP) experiments as well as next generation medical imaging applications are more and more pushing towards better scintillation characteristics. One of the problems in heavy scintillating materials is related to their high index of refraction. As a consequence, most of the scintillation light produced in the bulk material is trapped inside the crystal due to total internal reflection. The same problem also occurs with light emitting diodes (LEDs) and has for a long time been considered as a limiting factor for their overall efficiency. Recent developments in the area of nanophotonics were showing now that those limitations can be overcome by introducing a photonic crystal (PhC) slab at the outcoupling surface of the substrate. P...

  13. Reconfigurable topological photonic crystal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shalaev, Mikhail I.; Desnavi, Sameerah; Walasik, Wiktor; Litchinitser, Natalia M.

    2018-02-01

    Topological insulators are materials that conduct on the surface and insulate in their interior due to non-trivial topology of the band structure. The edge states on the interface between topological (non-trivial) and conventional (trivial) insulators are topologically protected from scattering due to structural defects and disorders. Recently, it was shown that photonic crystals (PCs) can serve as a platform for realizing a scatter-free propagation of light waves. In conventional PCs, imperfections, structural disorders, and surface roughness lead to significant losses. The breakthrough in overcoming these problems is likely to come from the synergy of the topological PCs and silicon-based photonics technology that enables high integration density, lossless propagation, and immunity to fabrication imperfections. For many applications, reconfigurability and capability to control the propagation of these non-trivial photonic edge states is essential. One way to facilitate such dynamic control is to use liquid crystals (LCs), which allow to modify the refractive index with external electric field. Here, we demonstrate dynamic control of topological edge states by modifying the refractive index of a LC background medium. Background index is changed depending on the orientation of a LC, while preserving the topology of the system. This results in a change of the spectral position of the photonic bandgap and the topological edge states. The proposed concept might be implemented using conventional semiconductor technology, and can be used for robust energy transport in integrated photonic devices, all-optical circuity, and optical communication systems.

  14. Photonic Crystal Nanocavity Arrays

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Altug, Hatice; Vuckovic, Jelena

    2006-01-01

    We recently proposed two-dimensional coupled photonic crystal nanocavity arrays as a route to achieve a slow-group velocity of light in all crystal directions, thereby enabling numerous applications...

  15. Single-Photon Technologies Based on Quantum-Dots in Photonic Crystals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lehmann, Tau Bernstorff

    -photon purity under quasi-resonantexcitation. Furthermore the waveguide based platform demonstrates indistinguishable single-photonsat timescales up to 13 ns.A setup for active demultiplexing of single-photons to a three-fold single-photon state is proposed.Using a fast electro-optical modulator, single...

  16. ALICE photon spectrometer crystals

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2006-01-01

    Members of the mechanical assembly team insert the last few crystals into the first module of ALICE's photon spectrometer. These crystals are made from lead-tungstate, a crystal as clear as glass but with nearly four times the density. When a high-energy particle passes through one of these crystals it will scintillate, emitting a flash of light allowing the energy of photons, electrons and positrons to be measured.

  17. Light and gas confinement in hollow-core photonic crystal fibre based photonic microcells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benabid, F.; Roberts, John; Couny, F.

    2009-01-01

    guides via a photonic bandgap and the other guides by virtue of an inhibited coupling between core and cladding mode constituents. For the former fibre type, we explore how the bandgap is formed using a photonic analogue of the tight-binding model and how it is related to the anti-resonant reflection...... on electromagnetically induced transparency in a rubidium filled hollow-core photonic crystal fibre, the CW-pumped hydrogen Raman laser and the generation of multi-octave spanning stimulated Raman scattering spectral combs....

  18. A Polarization Maintaining Filter based on a Liquid-Crystal-Photonic-Bandgap-Fiber

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scolari, Lara; Olausson, Christina Bjarnal Thulin; Turchinovich, Dmitry

    2008-01-01

    A polarization maintaining filter based on a liquid-crystal-photonic-bandgap-fiber is demonstrated. Its polarization extinction ratio is 14 dB at 1550 nm. Its tunability is 150 nm.......A polarization maintaining filter based on a liquid-crystal-photonic-bandgap-fiber is demonstrated. Its polarization extinction ratio is 14 dB at 1550 nm. Its tunability is 150 nm....

  19. Random photonic crystal optical memory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wirth Lima Jr, A; Sombra, A S B

    2012-01-01

    Currently, optical cross-connects working on wavelength division multiplexing systems are based on optical fiber delay lines buffering. We designed and analyzed a novel photonic crystal optical memory, which replaces the fiber delay lines of the current optical cross-connect buffer. Optical buffering systems based on random photonic crystal optical memory have similar behavior to the electronic buffering systems based on electronic RAM memory. In this paper, we show that OXCs working with optical buffering based on random photonic crystal optical memories provides better performance than the current optical cross-connects. (paper)

  20. Tunable double-channel filter based on two-dimensional ferroelectric photonic crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang, Ping; Ding, Chengyuan; Hu, Xiaoyong; Gong, Qihuang

    2007-01-01

    A tunable double-channel filter is presented, which is based on a two-dimensional nonlinear ferroelectric photonic crystal made of cerium doped barium titanate. The filtering properties of the photonic crystal filter can be tuned by adjusting the defect structure or by a pump light. The influences of the structure disorders caused by the perturbations in the radius or the position of air holes on the filtering properties are also analyzed

  1. Tunable double-channel filter based on two-dimensional ferroelectric photonic crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiang, Ping [State Key Laboratory for Mesoscopic Physics, Department of Physics, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Ding, Chengyuan [State Key Laboratory for Mesoscopic Physics, Department of Physics, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Hu, Xiaoyong [State Key Laboratory for Mesoscopic Physics, Department of Physics, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China)]. E-mail: xiaoyonghu@pku.edu.cn; Gong, Qihuang [State Key Laboratory for Mesoscopic Physics, Department of Physics, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China)]. E-mail: qhgong@pku.edu.cn

    2007-04-02

    A tunable double-channel filter is presented, which is based on a two-dimensional nonlinear ferroelectric photonic crystal made of cerium doped barium titanate. The filtering properties of the photonic crystal filter can be tuned by adjusting the defect structure or by a pump light. The influences of the structure disorders caused by the perturbations in the radius or the position of air holes on the filtering properties are also analyzed.

  2. Electrothermally Driven Fluorescence Switching by Liquid Crystal Elastomers Based On Dimensional Photonic Crystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Changxu; Jiang, Yin; Tao, Cheng-An; Yin, Xianpeng; Lan, Yue; Wang, Chen; Wang, Shiqiang; Liu, Xiangyang; Li, Guangtao

    2017-04-05

    In this article, the fabrication of an active organic-inorganic one-dimensional photonic crystal structure to offer electrothermal fluorescence switching is described. The film is obtained by spin-coating of liquid crystal elastomers (LCEs) and TiO 2 nanoparticles alternatively. By utilizing the property of LCEs that can change their size and shape reversibly under external thermal stimulations, the λ max of the photonic band gap of these films is tuned by voltage through electrothermal conversion. The shifted photonic band gap further changes the matching degree between the photonic band gap of the film and the emission spectrum of organic dye mounting on the film. With rhodamine B as an example, the enhancement factor of its fluorescence emission is controlled by varying the matching degree. Thus, the fluorescence intensity is actively switched by voltage applied on the system, in a fast, adjustable, and reversible manner. The control chain of using the electrothermal stimulus to adjust fluorescence intensity via controlling the photonic band gap is proved by a scanning electron microscope (SEM) and UV-vis reflectance. This mechanism also corresponded to the results from the finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) simulation. The comprehensive usage of photonic crystals and liquid crystal elastomers opened a new possibility for active optical devices.

  3. [Research on increasing X-ray protection capability based on photonic crystal technology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ping; Zhao, Peng; Zhang, Rui

    2014-06-01

    Light cannot be propagated within the range of photonic crystal band gaps. Based on this unique property, we proposed a method to improve anti-radiation capability through one-dimensional photonic crystal coating. Using transmission matrix method, we determined the appropriate dielectric materials, thickness and periodic numbers of photonic crystals through Matlab programming simulation. Then, compound one-dimensional photonic crystal coating was designed which was of high anti-radiation rate within the range of X-ray. As is shown through simulation experiments, the reflection rate against X-ray was higher than 90 percent, and the desired anti-radiation effect was achieved. Thus, this method is able to help solve the technical problems facing the inorganic lead glass such as thickness, weightiness, costliness, high lead equivalent, low transparency and high cost. This method has won China's national invention patent approval, and the patent number is 201220228549.2.

  4. Experimental and numerical investigations of Si-based photonic crystals with ordered Ge quantum dots emitters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jannesari, R.

    2014-01-01

    In recent years quasi-two-dimensional (2D) photonic crystals, also known as photonic crystal slabs, have been the subject of extensive research. The present work is based on photonic crystals where a hexagonal 2D lattice of air holes is etched through a silicon-on-insulator (SOI) slab. Light is guided in the horizontal plane using photonic band-gap properties, and index guiding provides the optical confinement in the third dimension. This work discusses photonic crystal slabs with Ge quantum dots (QDs) as internal sources. Ge quantum dots have luminescence around 1500nm, which is well suited for optical fiber communication in a way that is fully compatible with standard silicon technology. QD emission can be controlled by epitaxial growth on a pre-patterned SOI substrate. In this way the position of the QDs is controlled, as well as their homogeneity and spectral emission range. During this thesis, photonic crystal fabrication techniques together with techniques for the alignment of the photonic crystal holes with the QDs positions were developed. The employed techniques involve electron beam lithography (EBL) and inductively-coupled-plasma reactive ion etching (ICP-RIE). Perfect ordering of the QDs position was achieved by employing these techniques for pit patterning and the subsequent growth of Ge dots using molecular beam epitaxy (MBE). A second EBL step was then used for photonic crystal writing, which needed to be aligned with respect to the pit pattern with a precision of about ± 30nm. Micro-photoluminescence spectroscopy was used for the optical characterization of the photonic crystal. The emission from ordered quantum dots in different symmetry positions within a unit cell of photonic crystal was theoretically and experimentally investigated and compared with randomly distributed ones. Besides, different geometrical parameters of photonic crystals were studied. The theoretical investigations were mainly based on the rigorous coupled wave analysis (RCWA

  5. Optics of anisotropic metamaterial based structurally chiral photonic crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gevorgyan, A H; Rafayelyan, M S

    2013-01-01

    Light transmission through and reflection from a medium layer with dielectric and magnetic helicities are discussed. The axes of the dielectric permittivity tensor, ε-hat , and the magnetic permeability tensor, μ-hat , as well as the medium helix axis are all parallel to each other and they are perpendicular to the boundary surfaces. The possibilities of formation of some new types of photonic bandgaps (PBGs) are presented for large anisotropies of the medium—namely, direct and indirect nonselective PBGs (with respect to the incident light polarization, in contrast to the usual direct PBGs, which are selective with respect to the polarization of the incident light). It is shown that a transmission region can arise among the three types of PBGs, in certain conditions, of course. In this paper we generalize the concept of nihility for structurally chiral media, such as cholesteric liquid crystals (CLCs) and we identify two types of CLC nihilities. It is shown that, for certain characteristic parameters of the medium, superluminal light propagation is possible in the transmission band. The influence of the anisotropy of the medium on the reflection spectra is considered and it is shown that one can tune the width, number and frequency range of PBGs of this layer, at essentially large limits, tuning the parameters of the layer. The case of oblique light incidence on the CLC layer is also discussed. (paper)

  6. Agile Photonic Crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-03

    75, pp. 3253-3256, Oct. 1995. [24] F. Benabid, J. C. Knight, and P. S. J. Russell, “Particle levitation and guidance in hollow-core photonic crystal...B. Mizaikoff, “Midinfrared sensors meet nanotechnology: Trace gas sensing with quantum cascade lasers inside photonic band-gap hollow waveguides

  7. Photonic Crystal Fibres

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjarklev, Anders Overgaard; Broeng, Jes; Sanchez Bjarklev, Araceli

    Photonic crystal fibres represent one of the most active research areas today in the field of optics. The diversity of applications that may be addressed by these fibres and their fundamental appeal, by opening up the possibility of guiding light in a radically new way compared to conventional...... optical fibres, have spun an interest from almost all areas of optics and photonics. The aim of this book is to provide an understanding of the different types of photonic crystal fibres and to outline some of the many new and exciting applications that these fibres offer. The book is intended for both...

  8. Coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy with a photonic crystal fiber based light source

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paulsen, H.N.; Hilligsøe, Karen Marie; Thøgersen, J.

    2003-01-01

    A coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscope based on a Ti:sapphire femtosecond oscillator and a photonic crystal fiber is demonstrated. The nonlinear response of the fiber is used to generate the additional wavelength needed in the Raman process. The applicability of the setup is demonstra......A coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscope based on a Ti:sapphire femtosecond oscillator and a photonic crystal fiber is demonstrated. The nonlinear response of the fiber is used to generate the additional wavelength needed in the Raman process. The applicability of the setup...

  9. Numerical simulation of terahertz-wave propagation in photonic crystal waveguide based on sapphire shaped crystal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaytsev, Kirill I; Katyba, Gleb M; Mukhina, Elena E; Kudrin, Konstantin G; Karasik, Valeriy E; Yurchenko, Stanislav O; Kurlov, Vladimir N; Shikunova, Irina A; Reshetov, Igor V

    2016-01-01

    Terahertz (THz) waveguiding in sapphire shaped single crystal has been studied using the numerical simulations. The numerical finite-difference analysis has been implemented to characterize the dispersion and loss in the photonic crystalline waveguide containing hollow cylindrical channels, which form the hexagonal lattice. Observed results demonstrate the ability to guide the THz-waves in multi-mode regime in wide frequency range with the minimal power extinction coefficient of 0.02 dB/cm at 1.45 THz. This shows the prospectives of the shaped crystals for highly-efficient THz waveguiding. (paper)

  10. Flexible photonic-crystal Fano filters based on transferred semiconductor nanomembranes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou Weidong; Yang Hongjun; Qiang Zexuan; Chen Li; Yang Weiquan; Chuwongin, Santhad; Zhao Deyin [Department of Electrical Engineering, NanoFAB Center, University of Texas at Arlington, TX 76019 (United States); Ma Zhenqiang; Qin Guoxuan; Pang Huiqing, E-mail: wzhou@uta.ed, E-mail: mazq@engr.wisc.ed [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Wisconsin-Madison, WI 53706 (United States)

    2009-12-07

    Crystalline semiconductor nanomembranes (NMs), which are transferable, stackable, bondable and manufacturable, offer unprecedented opportunities for unique and novel device applications. We report and review here nanophotonic devices based on stacked semiconductor NMs that were built on Si, glass and flexible PET substrates. Photonic-crystal Fano resonance based surface-normal optical filters and broadband reflectors have been demonstrated with unique angle and polarization properties. Such a low temperature NM stacking process can lead to a paradigm shift on silicon photonic integration and inorganic flexible photonics.

  11. Perturbative modeling of Bragg-grating-based biosensors in photonic-crystal fibers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burani, Nicola; Lægsgaard, Jesper

    2005-01-01

    We present a modeling study carried out to support the design of a novel, to our knowledge, kind of photonic-crystal fiber (PCF)-based sensor. This device, based on a PCF Bragg grating, detects the presence of selected single-stranded DNA molecules, hybridized to a biofilm in the air holes of the...

  12. A Tunable Eight-Wavelength Terahertz Modulator Based on Photonic Crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, K.; Chen, H.; Zhou, W.; Zhuang, Y.; Wang, J.

    2017-11-01

    We propose a tunable eight-wavelength terahertz modulator based on a structure of triple triangular lattice photonic crystals by using photonic crystals in the terahertz regime. The triple triangular lattice was formed by nesting circular, square, and triangular dielectric cylinders. Three square point defects were introduced into the perfect photonic crystal to produce eight defect modes. GaAs was used as the point defects to realize tunability. We used a structure with a reflecting barrier to achieve modulation at high transmission rate. The insertion loss and extinction ratio were 0.122 and 38.54 dB, respectively. The modulation rate was 0.788 dB. The performance of the eightwavelength terahertz modulator showed great potential for use in future terahertz communication systems.

  13. Investigations and Simulations of All optical Switches in linear state Based on Photonic Crystal Directional Coupler

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Maktoobi

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Switching is a principle process in digital computers and signal processing systems. The growth of optical signal processing systems, draws particular attention to design of ultra-fast optical switches. In this paper, All Optical Switches in linear state Based On photonic crystal Directional coupler is analyzed and simulated. Among different methods, the finite difference time domain method (FDTD is a preferable method and is used. We have studied the application of photonic crystal lattices, the physics of optical switching and photonic crystal Directional coupler. In this paper, Electric field intensity and the power output that are two factors to improve the switching performance and the device efficiency are investigated and simulated. All simulations are performed by COMSOL software.

  14. Proposal of highly sensitive optofluidic sensors based on dispersive photonic crystal waveguides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xiao, Sanshui; Mortensen, Niels Asger

    2007-01-01

    Optofluidic sensors based on highly dispersive two-dimensional photonic crystal waveguides are studied theoretically. Results show that these structures are strongly sensitive to the refractive index of the infiltrated liquid (nl), which is used to tune dispersion of the photonic crystal waveguide....... The waveguide mode-gap edge shifts about 1.2 nm for δnl = 0.002. The shifts can be explained well by band structure theory combined with first-order perturbation theory. These devices are potentially interesting for chemical sensing applications....

  15. Enhancement of Faraday rotation at photonic-band-gap edge in garnet-based magnetophotonic crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhdanov, A.G.; Fedyanin, A.A.; Aktsipetrov, O.A.; Kobayashi, D.; Uchida, H.; Inoue, M.

    2006-01-01

    Spectral dependences of Faraday rotation angle in one-dimensional garnet-based magnetophotonic crystals are considered. The enhancement of Faraday angle is demonstrated at the photonic band gap (PBG) edge both theoretically and experimentally. It is shown to be associated with the optical field localization in the magnetic layers of the structure. The advantages of magnetophotonic crystals in comparison with traditional magnetic microcavities are discussed. The specially designed microcavity structures optimized for the Faraday effect enhancement at the PBG edge are suggested

  16. Investigation of 2D photonic crystal structure based channel drop filter using quad shaped photonic crystal ring resonator for CWDM system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chhipa, Mayur Kumar, E-mail: mayurchhipa1@gmail.com; Dusad, Lalit Kumar [Government Engineering College Ajmer, Rajasthan (India); Rajasthan Technical University, Kota, Rajasthan (India)

    2016-05-06

    In this paper, the design & performance of two dimensional (2-D) photonic crystal structure based channel drop filter is investigated using quad shaped photonic crystal ring resonator. In this paper, Photonic Crystal (PhC) based on square lattice periodic arrays of Gallium Indium Phosphide (GaInP) rods in air structure have been investigated using Finite Difference Time Domain (FDTD) method and photonic band gap is being calculated using Plane Wave Expansion (PWE) method. The PhC designs have been optimized for telecommunication wavelength λ= 1571 nm by varying the rods lattice constant. The number of rods in Z and X directions is 21 and 20, with lattice constant 0.540 nm it illustrates that the arrangement of Gallium Indium Phosphide (GaInP) rods in the structure which gives the overall size of the device around 11.4 µm × 10.8 µm. The designed filter gives good dropping efficiency using 3.298, refractive index. The designed structure is useful for CWDM systems. This device may serve as a key component in photonic integrated circuits. The device is ultra compact with the overall size around 123 µm{sup 2}.

  17. Tunable polarisation-maintaining filter based on liquid crystal photonic bandgap fibre

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scolari, Lara; Olausson, Christina Bjarnal Thulin; Weirich, Johannes

    2008-01-01

    A tunable and polarisation-maintaining all-in-fibre filter based on a liquid crystal photonic bandgap fibre is demonstrated. Its polarisation extinction ratio reaches 14 dB at 1550 nm wavelength. Its spectral tunability range spans over 250 nm in the temperature range 30–70°C. The measured...

  18. Photonic Crystals Towards Nanoscale Photonic Devices

    CERN Document Server

    Lourtioz, Jean-Michel; Berger, Vincent; Gérard, Jean-Michel; Maystre, Daniel; Tchelnokov, Alexei; Pagnoux, Dominique

    2008-01-01

    Just like the periodical crystalline potential in solid state crystals determines their properties for the conduction of electrons, the periodical structuring of photonic crystals leads to envisioning the possibility of achieving a control of the photon flux in dielectric and metallic materials. The use of photonic crystals as cages for storing, filtering or guiding light at the wavelength scale paves the way to the realization of optical and optoelectronic devices with ultimate properties and dimensions. This will contribute towards meeting the demands for greater miniaturization imposed by the processing of an ever increasing number of data. Photonic Crystals will provide students and researchers from different fields with the theoretical background required for modelling photonic crystals and their optical properties, while at the same time presenting the large variety of devices, ranging from optics to microwaves, where photonic crystals have found application. As such, it aims at building bridges between...

  19. Photonic Crystals Towards Nanoscale Photonic Devices

    CERN Document Server

    Lourtioz, Jean-Michel; Berger, Vincent; Gérard, Jean-Michel; Maystre, Daniel; Tchelnokov, Alexis

    2005-01-01

    Just like the periodical crystalline potential in solid-state crystals determines their properties for the conduction of electrons, the periodical structuring of photonic crystals leads to envisioning the possibility of achieving a control of the photon flux in dielectric and metallic materials. The use of photonic crystals as a cage for storing, filtering or guiding light at the wavelength scale thus paves the way to the realisation of optical and optoelectronic devices with ultimate properties and dimensions. This should contribute toward meeting the demands for a greater miniaturisation that the processing of an ever increasing number of data requires. Photonic Crystals intends at providing students and researchers from different fields with the theoretical background needed for modelling photonic crystals and their optical properties, while at the same time presenting the large variety of devices, from optics to microwaves, where photonic crystals have found applications. As such, it aims at building brid...

  20. Hybrid colloidal plasmonic-photonic crystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romanov, Sergei G; Korovin, Alexander V; Regensburger, Alois; Peschel, Ulf

    2011-06-17

    We review the recently emerged class of hybrid metal-dielectric colloidal photonic crystals. The hybrid approach is understood as the combination of a dielectric photonic crystal with a continuous metal film. It allows to achieve a strong modification of the optical properties of photonic crystals by involving the light scattering at electronic excitations in the metal component into moulding of the light flow in series to the diffraction resonances occurring in the body of the photonic crystal. We consider different realizations of hybrid plasmonic-photonic crystals based on two- and three-dimensional colloidal photonic crystals in association with flat and corrugated metal films. In agreement with model calculations, different resonance phenomena determine the optical response of hybrid crystals leading to a broadly tuneable functionality of these crystals. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. Efficient fiber-coupled single-photon source based on quantum dots in a photonic-crystal waveguide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Daveau, Raphaël S.; Balram, Krishna C.; Pregnolato, Tommaso

    2017-01-01

    Many photonic quantum information processing applications would benefit from a high brightness, fiber-coupled source of triggered single photons. Here, we present a fiber-coupled photonic-crystal waveguide (PCWG) singlephoton source relying on evanescent coupling of the light field from a tapered...

  2. Progress on photonic crystals

    CERN Document Server

    Lecoq, P; Gundacker, S; Hillemanns, H; Jarron, P; Knapitsch, A; Leclercq, J L; Letartre, X; Meyer, T; Pauwels, K; Powolny, F; Seassal, C

    2010-01-01

    The renewal of interest for Time of Flight Positron Emission Tomography (TOF PET) has highlighted the need for increasing the light output of scintillating crystals and in particular for improving the light extraction from materials with a high index of refraction. One possible solution to overcome the problem of total internal reflection and light losses resulting from multiple bouncing within the crystal is to improve the light extraction efficiency at the crystal/photodetector interface by means of photonic crystals, i.e. media with a periodic modulation of the dielectric constant at the wavelength scale. After a short reminder of the underlying principles this contribution proposes to present the very encouraging results we have recently obtained on LYSO pixels and the perspectives on other crystals such as BGO, LuYAP and LuAG. These results confirm the impressive predictions from our previously published Monte Carlo simulations. A detailed description of the sample preparation procedure is given as well ...

  3. Electrically tunable robust edge states in graphene-based topological photonic crystal slabs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Zidong; Liu, HongJun; Huang, Nan; Wang, ZhaoLu

    2018-03-01

    Topological photonic crystals are optical structures supporting topologically protected unidirectional edge states that exhibit robustness against defects. Here, we propose a graphene-based all-dielectric photonic crystal slab structure that supports two-dimensionally confined topological edge states. These topological edge states can be confined in the out-of-plane direction by two parallel graphene sheets. In the structure, the excitation frequency range of topological edge states can be dynamically and continuously tuned by varying bias voltage across the two parallel graphene sheets. Utilizing this kind of architecture, we construct Z-shaped channels to realize topological edge transmission with diffrerent frequencies. The proposal provides a new degree of freedom to dynamically control topological edge states and potential applications for robust integrated photonic devices and optical communication systems.

  4. Photonic crystals: towards nanoscale photonic devices

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lourtioz, J.-M

    2005-01-01

    .... From this point of view, the emergence of photonic bandgap materials and photonic crystals at the end of the 1980s can be seen as a revenge to the benefit this time of optics and electromagnetism. In the same way as the periodicity of solid state crystals determines the energy bands and the conduction properties of electrons, the periodical structur...

  5. Optimization and applications of planar silicon-based photonic crystal devices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borel, Peter Ingo; Frandsen, Lars Hagedorn; Burgos Leon, Juan

    2005-01-01

    such as topology optimization. We have also investigated a new device concept for coarse wavelength division de-multiplexing based on planar photonic crystal waveguides. The filtering of the wavelength channels has been realized by shifting the cut-off frequency of the fundamental photonic band gap mode...... in consecutive sections of the waveguide. Preliminary investigations show that this concepts allows coarse de-multiplexing to take place, but that optimization is required in order to reduce cross talk between adjacent channels and to increase the overall transmission. In this work the design, fabrication...

  6. Nonlinear Photonic Crystal Fibers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Kim Per

    2004-01-01

    Despite the general recession in the global economy and the collapse of the optical telecommunication market, research within specialty fibers is thriving. This is, more than anything else, due to the technology transition from standard all-glass fibers to photonic crystal fibers, which, instead....... The freedom to design the dispersion profile of the fibers is much larger and it is possible to create fibers, which support only a single spatial mode, regardless of wavelength. In comparison, the standard dispersion-shifted fibers are limited by a much lower index-contrast between the core and the cladding...... in 1996, and are today on their way to become the dominating technology within the specialty fiber field. Whether they will replace the standard fiber in the more traditional areas like telecommunication transmission, is not yet clear, but the nonlinear photonic crystal fibers are here to stay....

  7. Slotted Photonic Crystal Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scullion, Mark G.; Krauss, Thomas F.; Di Falco, Andrea

    2013-01-01

    Optical biosensors are increasingly being considered for lab-on-a-chip applications due to their benefits such as small size, biocompatibility, passive behaviour and lack of the need for fluorescent labels. The light guiding mechanisms used by many of them results in poor overlap of the optical field with the target molecules, reducing the maximum sensitivity achievable. This review article presents a new platform for optical biosensors, namely slotted photonic crystals, which provide higher sensitivities due to their ability to confine, spatially and temporally, the optical mode peak within the analyte itself. Loss measurements showed values comparable to standard photonic crystals, confirming their ability to be used in real devices. A novel resonant coupler was designed, simulated, and experimentally tested, and was found to perform better than other solutions within the literature. Combining with cavities, microfluidics and biological functionalization allowed proof-of-principle demonstrations of protein binding to be carried out. Higher sensitivities were observed in smaller structures than possible with most competing devices reported in the literature. This body of work presents slotted photonic crystals as a realistic platform for complete on-chip biosensing; addressing key design, performance and application issues, whilst also opening up exciting new ideas for future study. PMID:23503295

  8. Slotted Photonic Crystal Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Di Falco

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Optical biosensors are increasingly being considered for lab-on-a-chip applications due to their benefits such as small size, biocompatibility, passive behaviour and lack of the need for fluorescent labels. The light guiding mechanisms used by many of them results in poor overlap of the optical field with the target molecules, reducing the maximum sensitivity achievable. This review article presents a new platform for optical biosensors, namely slotted photonic crystals, which provide higher sensitivities due to their ability to confine, spatially and temporally, the optical mode peak within the analyte itself. Loss measurements showed values comparable to standard photonic crystals, confirming their ability to be used in real devices. A novel resonant coupler was designed, simulated, and experimentally tested, and was found to perform better than other solutions within the literature. Combining with cavities, microfluidics and biological functionalization allowed proof-of-principle demonstrations of protein binding to be carried out. Higher sensitivities were observed in smaller structures than possible with most competing devices reported in the literature. This body of work presents slotted photonic crystals as a realistic platform for complete on-chip biosensing; addressing key design, performance and application issues, whilst also opening up exciting new ideas for future study.

  9. Bloch Modes and Evanescent Modes of Photonic Crystals: Weak Form Solutions Based on Accurate Interface Triangulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthias Saba

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We propose a new approach to calculate the complex photonic band structure, both purely dispersive and evanescent Bloch modes of a finite range, of arbitrary three-dimensional photonic crystals. Our method, based on a well-established plane wave expansion and the weak form solution of Maxwell’s equations, computes the Fourier components of periodic structures composed of distinct homogeneous material domains from a triangulated mesh representation of the inter-material interfaces; this allows substantially more accurate representations of the geometry of complex photonic crystals than the conventional representation by a cubic voxel grid. Our method works for general two-phase composite materials, consisting of bi-anisotropic materials with tensor-valued dielectric and magnetic permittivities ε and μ and coupling matrices ς. We demonstrate for the Bragg mirror and a simple cubic crystal closely related to the Kelvin foam that relatively small numbers of Fourier components are sufficient to yield good convergence of the eigenvalues, making this method viable, despite its computational complexity. As an application, we use the single gyroid crystal to demonstrate that the consideration of both conventional and evanescent Bloch modes is necessary to predict the key features of the reflectance spectrum by analysis of the band structure, in particular for light incident along the cubic [111] direction.

  10. High performance electro-optical modulator based on photonic crystal and graphene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malekmohammad, M.; Asadi, R.

    2017-07-01

    An electro-optical modulator is demonstrated based on Fano-resonance effect in an out-of-plane illumination of one-dimensional slab photonic crystal composed of two graphene layers. It has been shown that high sensitivity of the Fano-resonance and electro-refractive tuning of graphene layers provides a suitable condition to obtain an electro-optical modulator with low energy consumption (8 pJ) with contrast of 0.4.

  11. Photonic crystals based on opals and inverse opals: synthesis and structural features

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klimonsky, S O; Abramova, Vera V; Sinitskii, Alexander S; Tretyakov, Yuri D

    2011-01-01

    Methods of synthesis of photonic crystals based on opals and inverse opals are considered. Their structural features are discussed. Data on different types of structural defects and their influence on the optical properties of opaline materials are systematized. The possibilities of investigation of structural defects by optical spectroscopy, electron microscopy, microradian X-ray diffraction, laser diffraction and using an analysis of Kossel ring patterns are described. The bibliography includes 253 references.

  12. The analysis of photon pair source at telecom wavelength based on the BBO crystal (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gajewski, Andrzej; Kolenderski, Piotr L.

    2016-10-01

    There are several problems that must be solved in order to increase the distance of quantum communication protocols based on photons as an information carriers. One of them is the dispersion, whose effects can be minimized by engineering spectral properties of transmitted photons. In particular, it is expected that positively correlated photon pairs can be very useful. We present the full characterization of a source of single photon pairs at a telecom wavelength based on type II spontaneous parametric down conversion (SPDC) process in a beta-barium borate (BBO) crystal. In the type II process, a pump photon, which is polarized extraordinarily, splits in a nonlinear medium into signal and idler photons, which are polarized perpendicularly to each other. In order for the process to be efficient a phase matching condition must be fulfilled. These conditions originate from momentum and energy conservation rules and put severe restrictions on source parameters. Seemingly, these conditions force the photon pair to be negatively correlated in their spectral domain. However, it is possible to achieve positive correlation for pulsed pumping. The experimentally available degrees of freedom of a source are the width of the pumping beam, the collected modes' widths, the length of the nonlinear crystal and the duration of the pumping pulse. In our numerical model we use the following figures of merit: the pair production rate, the efficiency of photon coupling into a single mode fiber, the spectral correlation of the coupled photon pair. The last one is defined as the Pearson correlation parameter for a joint spectral distribution. The aim here is to find the largest positive spectral correlation and the highest coupling efficiency. By resorting to the numerical model Ref. [1] we showed in Ref. [2], that by careful adjustment of the pump's and the collected modes' characteristics, one can optimize any of the source's parameters. Our numerical outcomes conform to the

  13. Asymmetric light transmission based on coupling between photonic crystal waveguides and L1/L3 cavity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jinqiannan; Chai, Hongyu; Yu, Zhongyuan; Cheng, Xiang; Ye, Han; Liu, Yumin

    2017-09-01

    A compact design of all-optical diode with mode conversion function based on a two-dimensional photonic crystal waveguide and an L1 or L3 cavity is theoretically investigated. The proposed photonic crystal structures comprise a triangular arrangement of air holes embedded in a silicon substrate. Asymmetric light propagation is achieved via the spatial mode match/mismatch in the coupling region. The simulations show that at each cavity's resonance frequency, the transmission efficiency of the structure with the L1 and L3 cavities reach 79% and 73%, while the corresponding unidirectionalities are 46 and 37 dB, respectively. The functional frequency can be controlled by simply adjusting the radii of specific air holes in the L1 and L3 cavities. The proposed structure can be used as a frequency filter, a beam splitter and has potential applications in all-optical integrated circuits.

  14. Photonic-crystal switch divider based on Ge2Sb2Te5 thin films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Beijiao; Zhang, Peiqing; Wang, Hui; Zhang, Tengyu; Zeng, Jianghui; Zhang, Qian; Wang, Guoxiang; Xu, Peipeng; Zhang, Wei; Dai, Shixun

    2016-11-10

    A three-port phase-change photonic-crystal switch divider based on Ge2Sb2Te5 chalcogenide thin film was proposed. The chalcogenide material used was determined to have a high refractive index and fast phase-change speed by using laser radiation. The structure with a T-junction cavity was used to achieve three switch functions: switching "ON" in only one output port, switching "OFF" in both output ports, and dividing signals into two output ports. The transmission properties of the designed device at 2.0 μm were studied by the finite difference time domain method, which showed that the switch divider can achieve very high switching efficiency by optimizing T-junction cavity parameters. The scaling laws of photonic crystals revealed that the operating wavelength of the designed structure can be easily extended to another wavelength in the midinfrared region.

  15. Fabrication of photonic crystal microprisms based on artificial opals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenollosa, Roberto; Ibisate, Marta; Rubio, Silvia; Lopez, Ceferino; Meseguer, Francisco; Sanchez-Dehesa, Jose

    2002-04-01

    This paper reports a new method for faceting artificial opals based on micromanipulation techniques. By this means it was possible to fabricate an opal prism in a single domain with different faces: (111), (110) and (100), which were characterized by Scanning Electron Microscopy and Optical Reflectance Spectroscopy. Their spectra exhibit different characteristics depending on the orientation of the facet. While (111)-oriented face gives rise to a high Bragg reflection peak at about a/(lambda) equals 0.66 (where a is the lattice parameter), (110) and (100) faces show much less intense peaks corresponding to features in the band structure at a/(lambda) equals 1.12 and a/(lambda) equals 1.07 respectively. Peaks at higher energies have less obvious explanation.

  16. Enhanced light extraction from GaN-based LEDs with a bottom-up assembled photonic crystal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gong Haibo; Hao Xiaopeng; Wu Yongzhong; Cao Bingqiang; Xia Wei; Xu Xiangang

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Polystyrene (PS) microspheres were employed as a template. → A noninvasive photonic crystal was fabricated on the surface of GaN-based LED. → Periodic arrangement of bowl-like holes served as a photonic crystal with gradually changed fill factors. → The electroluminescence intensity of LED with a photonic crystal was significantly enhanced. - Abstract: Photonic crystal (PhC) structure is an efficient tool for light extraction from light-emitting diodes (LEDs). The fabrication of a large area PhC structure on the light output surface of LEDs often involves sophisticated equipments such as nanoimprint lithography machine. In this study a monolayer of polystyrene (PS) microspheres was employed as a template to fabricate a noninvasive photonic crystal of indium tin oxide (ITO) on the surface of GaN-based LED. PS spheres can help to form periodic arrangement of bowl-like holes, a photonic crystal with gradually changed fill factors. Importantly, the electroluminescence intensity of LED with a photonic crystal was significantly enhanced by 1.5 times compared to that of the conventional one under various forward injection currents.

  17. Enhanced light extraction from GaN-based LEDs with a bottom-up assembled photonic crystal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gong Haibo [State Key Lab of Crystal Materials, Shandong University, Jinan, 250100 (China); School of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Jinan, Jinan, 250022 (China); Hao Xiaopeng, E-mail: xphao@sdu.edu.cn [State Key Lab of Crystal Materials, Shandong University, Jinan, 250100 (China); Wu Yongzhong [State Key Lab of Crystal Materials, Shandong University, Jinan, 250100 (China); Cao Bingqiang [School of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Jinan, Jinan, 250022 (China); Xia Wei [Shandong Huaguang Optoelectronics Company, Ltd., Jinan, 250101 (China); Xu Xiangang [State Key Lab of Crystal Materials, Shandong University, Jinan, 250100 (China); Shandong Huaguang Optoelectronics Company, Ltd., Jinan, 250101 (China)

    2011-08-15

    Highlights: > Polystyrene (PS) microspheres were employed as a template. > A noninvasive photonic crystal was fabricated on the surface of GaN-based LED. > Periodic arrangement of bowl-like holes served as a photonic crystal with gradually changed fill factors. > The electroluminescence intensity of LED with a photonic crystal was significantly enhanced. - Abstract: Photonic crystal (PhC) structure is an efficient tool for light extraction from light-emitting diodes (LEDs). The fabrication of a large area PhC structure on the light output surface of LEDs often involves sophisticated equipments such as nanoimprint lithography machine. In this study a monolayer of polystyrene (PS) microspheres was employed as a template to fabricate a noninvasive photonic crystal of indium tin oxide (ITO) on the surface of GaN-based LED. PS spheres can help to form periodic arrangement of bowl-like holes, a photonic crystal with gradually changed fill factors. Importantly, the electroluminescence intensity of LED with a photonic crystal was significantly enhanced by 1.5 times compared to that of the conventional one under various forward injection currents.

  18. Natural photonic crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vigneron, Jean Pol, E-mail: jean-pol.vigneron@fundp.ac.be [Research Center in Physics of Matter and Radiation (PMR), University of Namur (FUNDP), rue de Bruxelles, 61, B-5000 Namur (Belgium); Simonis, Priscilla [Research Center in Physics of Matter and Radiation (PMR), University of Namur (FUNDP), rue de Bruxelles, 61, B-5000 Namur (Belgium)

    2012-10-15

    Photonic structures appeared in nature several hundred millions years ago. In the living world, color is used for communication and this important function strongly impacts the individual chances of survival as well as the chances to reproduce. This has a statistical influence on species populations. Therefore, because they are involved in evolution, natural color-generating structures are - from some point of view - highly optimized. In this short review, a survey is presented of the development of natural photonic crystal-type structures occurring in insects, spiders, birds, fishes and other marine animals, in plants and more, from the standpoint of light-waves propagation. One-, two-, and three-dimensional structures will be reviewed with selected examples.

  19. Natural photonic crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vigneron, Jean Pol; Simonis, Priscilla

    2012-01-01

    Photonic structures appeared in nature several hundred millions years ago. In the living world, color is used for communication and this important function strongly impacts the individual chances of survival as well as the chances to reproduce. This has a statistical influence on species populations. Therefore, because they are involved in evolution, natural color-generating structures are - from some point of view - highly optimized. In this short review, a survey is presented of the development of natural photonic crystal-type structures occurring in insects, spiders, birds, fishes and other marine animals, in plants and more, from the standpoint of light-waves propagation. One-, two-, and three-dimensional structures will be reviewed with selected examples.

  20. Quartz substrate infrared photonic crystal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghadiri, Khosrow; Rejeb, Jalel; Vitchev, Vladimir N.

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents the fabrication of a planar photonic crystal (p2c) made of a square array of dielectric rods embedded in air, operating in the infrared spectrum. A quartz substrate is employed instead of the commonly used silicon or column III-V substrate. Our square structure has a normalized cylinder radius-to-pitch ratio of r/a = 0.248 and dielectric material contrast ɛr of 4.5. We choose a Z-cut synthetic quartz for its cut (geometry), and etching properties. Then a particular Z-axis etching process is employed in order to ensure the sharp-edged verticality of the rods and fast etching speed. We also present the computer simulations that allowed the establishment of the photonic band gaps (PBG) of our photonic crystal, as well as the actual measurements. An experimental measurement have been carried out and compared with different simulations. It was found that experimental results are in good agreement with different simulation results. Finally, a frequency selective device for optical communication based on the introduction of impurity sites in the photonic crystal is presented. With our proposed structure Optical System on a Chip (OsoC) with micro-cavity based active devices such as lasers, diodes, modulators, couplers, frequency selective emitters, add-drop filters, detectors, mux/demuxes and polarizers connected by passive waveguide links can be realized.

  1. Optics of globular photonic crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorelik, V S

    2007-01-01

    The results of experimental and theoretical studies of the optical properties of globular photonic crystals - new physical objects having a crystal structure with the lattice period exceeding considerably the atomic size, are presented. As globular photonic crystals, artificial opal matrices consisting of close-packed silica globules of diameter ∼200 nm were used. The reflection spectra of these objects characterising the parameters of photonic bands existing in these crystals in the visible spectral region are presented. The idealised models of the energy band structure of photonic crystals investigated in the review give analytic dispersion dependences for the group velocity and the effective photon mass in a globular photonic crystal. The characteristics of secondary emission excited in globular photonic crystals by monochromatic and broadband radiation are presented. The results of investigations of single-photon-excited delayed scattering of light observed in globular photonic crystals exposed to cw UV radiation and radiation from a repetitively pulsed copper vapour laser are presented. The possibilities of using globular photonic crystals as active media for lasing in different spectral regions are considered. It is proposed to use globular photonic crystals as sensitive sensors in optoelectronic devices for molecular analysis of organic and inorganic materials by the modern methods of laser spectroscopy. The results of experimental studies of spontaneous and stimulated globular scattering of light are discussed. The conditions for observing resonance and two-photon-excited delayed scattering of light are found. The possibility of accumulation and localisation of the laser radiation energy inside a globular photonic crystal is reported. (review)

  2. Fibonacci Sequences Quasiperiodic A5B6C7 Ferroelectric Based Photonic Crystal: FDTD analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Simsek

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we present an investigation of the optical properties and band structures for the conventional and Fibonacci photonic crystals (PCs based on some A5B6C7 ferroelectrics (SbSBr and BiTeCl. Here, we use one dimensional SbSBr and BiTeCl based layers in air background. We have theoretically calculated the photonic band structure and transmission spectra of SbSBr and BiTeCl based PC superlattices. The position of minima in the transmission spectrum correlates with the gaps obtained in the calculation. The intensity of the transmission depths is more intense in the case of higher refractive index contrast between the layers. In our simulation, we employed the finite-difference time domain  technique and the plane wave expansion method, which implies the solution of Maxwell equations with centered finite-difference expressions for the space and time derivatives.

  3. Continuously tunable devices based on electrical control of dual-frequency liquid crystal filled photonic bandgap fibers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scolari, Lara; Alkeskjold, Thomas Tanggaard; Riishede, Jesper

    2005-01-01

    We present an electrically controlled photonic bandgap fiber device obtained by infiltrating the air holes of a photonic crystal fiber (PCF) with a dual-frequency liquid crystal (LC) with pre-tilted molecules. Compared to previously demonstrated devices of this kind, the main new feature of this ...... in the same device. We investigate the dynamics of this device and demonstrate a birefringence controller based on this principle....

  4. Lasing cavities and ultra-fast switch based on self-collimation of photonic crystal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Deyin; Zhou Chuanhong; Gong Qian; Jiang Xunya

    2008-01-01

    The lasing cavities and ultra-fast switch based on the self-collimation (SC) of photonic crystal have been studied in this work. Some special properties of these devices are demonstrated, such as the higher quality factors and concise integration of the lasing cavities, the tolerance of the non-parallel reflectors in Fabry-Perot cavities. With nonlinearity, the ultra-fast switch can also be realized around the SC frequency. All these functional devices are designed based on the strong beam confinement of SC

  5. Lasing cavities and ultra-fast switch based on self-collimation of photonic crystal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao Deyin; Zhou Chuanhong; Gong Qian; Jiang Xunya [State Key Laboratory of Functional Materials for Informatics, Shanghai Institute of Microsystem and Information Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 200050 (China)], E-mail: xyjiang@mit.edu

    2008-06-07

    The lasing cavities and ultra-fast switch based on the self-collimation (SC) of photonic crystal have been studied in this work. Some special properties of these devices are demonstrated, such as the higher quality factors and concise integration of the lasing cavities, the tolerance of the non-parallel reflectors in Fabry-Perot cavities. With nonlinearity, the ultra-fast switch can also be realized around the SC frequency. All these functional devices are designed based on the strong beam confinement of SC.

  6. Investigation of the Band Structure of Graphene-Based Plasmonic Photonic Crystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Pingping; Qiu, Weibin; Lin, Zhili; Chen, Houbo; Tang, Yixin; Wang, Jia-Xian; Kan, Qiang; Pan, Jiao-Qing

    2016-09-09

    In this paper, one-dimensional (1D) and two-dimensional (2D) graphene-based plasmonic photonic crystals (PhCs) are proposed. The band structures and density of states (DOS) have been numerically investigated. Photonic band gaps (PBGs) are found in both 1D and 2D PhCs. Meanwhile, graphene-based plasmonic PhC nanocavity with resonant frequency around 175 THz, is realized by introducing point defect, where the chemical potential is from 0.085 to 0.25 eV, in a 2D PhC. Also, the bending wvaguide and the beam splitter are realized by introducing the line defect into the 2D PhC.

  7. Polarization Beam Splitter Based on a Self-Collimation Michelson Interferometer in a Silicon Photonic Crystal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Xi-Yao; Lin Gui-Min; Li Jun-Jun; Xu Xiao-Fu; Jiang Jun-Zhen; Qiang Ze-Xuan; Qiu Yi-Shen; Li Hui

    2012-01-01

    A polarization beam splitter based on a self-collimation Michelson interferometer (SMI) in a hole-type silicon photonic crystal is proposed and numerically demonstrated. Utilizing the polarization dependence of the transmission spectra of the SMI and polarization peak matching method, the SMI can work as a polarization beam splitter (PBS) by selecting an appropriate path length difference in the structure. Based on its novel polarization beam splitting mechanics, the polarization extinction ratios (PERs) for TM and TE modes are as high as 18.4 dB and 24.3 dB, respectively. Since its dimensions are only several operating wavelengths, the PBS may have practical applications in photonic integrated circuits. (fundamental areas of phenomenology(including applications))

  8. Black phosphorus-based one-dimensional photonic crystals and microcavities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kriegel, Ilka; Toffanin, Stefano; Scotognella, Francesco

    2016-11-10

    The latest achievements in the fabrication of thin layers of black phosphorus (BP), toward the technological breakthrough of a phosphorene atomically thin layer, are paving the way for their use in electronics, optics, and optoelectronics. In this work, we have simulated the optical properties of one-dimensional photonic structures, i.e., photonic crystals and microcavities, in which few-layer BP is one of the components. The insertion of the 5-nm black phosphorous layers leads to a photonic band gap in the photonic crystals and a cavity mode in the microcavity that is interesting for light manipulation and emission enhancement.

  9. Omnidirectional photonic band gap enlarged by one-dimensional ternary unmagnetized plasma photonic crystals based on a new Fibonacci quasiperiodic structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang Haifeng [College of Electronic and Information Engineering, Nanjing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Nanjing 210016 (China); Nanjing Artillery Academy, Nanjing 211132 (China); Liu Shaobin [College of Electronic and Information Engineering, Nanjing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Nanjing 210016 (China); State Key Laboratory of Millimeter Waves of Southeast University, Nanjing Jiangsu 210096 (China); Kong Xiangkun; Bian Borui; Dai Yi [College of Electronic and Information Engineering, Nanjing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Nanjing 210016 (China)

    2012-11-15

    In this paper, an omnidirectional photonic band gap realized by one-dimensional ternary unmagnetized plasma photonic crystals based on a new Fibonacci quasiperiodic structure, which is composed of homogeneous unmagnetized plasma and two kinds of isotropic dielectric, is theoretically studied by the transfer matrix method. It has been shown that such an omnidirectional photonic band gap originates from Bragg gap in contrast to zero-n gap or single negative (negative permittivity or negative permeability) gap, and it is insensitive to the incidence angle and the polarization of electromagnetic wave. From the numerical results, the frequency range and central frequency of omnidirectional photonic band gap can be tuned by the thickness and density of the plasma but cease to change with increasing Fibonacci order. The bandwidth of omnidirectional photonic band gap can be notably enlarged. Moreover, the plasma collision frequency has no effect on the bandwidth of omnidirectional photonic band gap. It is shown that such new structure Fibonacci quasiperiodic one-dimensional ternary plasma photonic crystals have a superior feature in the enhancement of frequency range of omnidirectional photonic band gap compared with the conventional ternary and conventional Fibonacci quasiperiodic ternary plasma photonic crystals.

  10. Frequency splitter based on the directional emission from surface modes in dielectric photonic crystal structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tasolamprou, Anna C; Zhang, Lei; Kafesaki, Maria; Koschny, Thomas; Soukoulis, Costas M

    2015-06-01

    We demonstrate the numerical design and the experimental validation of frequency dependent directional emission from a dielectric photonic crystal structure. The wave propagates through a photonic crystal line-defect waveguide, while a surface layer at the termination of the photonic crystal enables the excitation of surface modes and a subsequent grating layer transforms the surface energy into outgoing propagating waves of the form of a directional beam. The angle of the beam is controlled by the frequency and the structure operates as a frequency splitter in the intermediate and far field region.

  11. Butterfly wing color: A photonic crystal demonstration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proietti Zaccaria, Remo

    2016-01-01

    We have theoretically modeled the optical behavior of a natural occurring photonic crystal, as defined by the geometrical characteristics of the Teinopalpus Imperialis butterfly. In particular, following a genetic algorithm approach, we demonstrate how its wings follow a triclinic crystal geometry with a tetrahedron unit base. By performing both photonic band analysis and transmission/reflection simulations, we are able to explain the characteristic colors emerging by the butterfly wings, thus confirming their crystal form.

  12. Photonic-crystal fibers gyroscope

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Muse Haider

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we proposed to use of a photonic crystal fiber with an inner hollow defect. The use of such fibers is not affected by a material medium on the propagation of optical radiation. Photonic crystal fibers present special properties and capabilities that lead to an outstanding potential for sensing applications

  13. Fluid Sensor Based on Transmission Dip Caused by Mini Stop-Band in Photonic Crystal Slab

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lei, Cao; Yi-Dong, Huang; Xiao-Yu, Mao; Fei, Li; Wei, Zhang; Jiang-De, Peng

    2008-01-01

    We propose a fluid sensor based on transmission dip caused by mini stop-band in photonic crystal slabs. Simulation results show that this novel type of sensors has large detective range (more than 1.5) and relative high-sensitivity (4.3 × 10 −5 in certain conditions). The central frequency and bandwidth of the mini stop-bands depend on the structure parameters of PC waveguides, which makes it possible to optimize the detective range and detective sensitivity. (fundamental areas of phenomenology (including applications))

  14. Wideband absorption in one dimensional photonic crystal with graphene-based hyperbolic metamaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Yongqiang; Liu, Hongmei

    2018-02-01

    A broadband absorber which was proposed by one dimensional photonic crystal (1DPC) containing graphene-based hyperbolic metamaterials (GHMM) is theoretically investigated. For TM mode, it was demonstrated to absorb roughly 90% of all available electromagnetic waves at a 14 THz absorption bandwidth at normal incidence. The absorption bandwidth was affected by Fermi energy and thickness of dielectric layer. When the incident angle was increased, the absorption value decreased, and the absorption band had a gradual blue shift. These findings have potential applications for designing broadband optoelectronic devices at mid-infrared and THz frequency range.

  15. Study of Inverse Ni-based Photonic Crystal using the Microradian X-ray Diffraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasilieva, A. V.; Grigoryeva, N. A.; Mistonov, A. A.; Sapoletova, N. A.; Napolskii, K. S.; Eliseev, A. A.; Lukashin, A. V.; Tretyakov, Yu D.; Petukhov, A. V.; Byelov, D.; Chernyshov, D.; Okorokov, A. I.; Bouwman, W. G.; Grigoriev, S. V.

    2010-10-01

    Inverse photonic nickel-based crystal films formed by electrocrystallization of metal inside the voids of polymer artificial opal have been studied using the microradian X-ray diffraction. Analysis of the diffraction images agrees with an face-centred cubic (FCC) structure with the lattice constant a0 = 650 ± 10 nm and indicates two types of stacking sequences coexisting in the crystal (twins of ABCABC... and ACBACB... ordering motifs), the ratio between them being 4:5 The transverse structural correlation length Ltran is 2.4 ± 0.1 μm, which corresponds to a sample thickness of 6 layers. The in-plane structural correlation length Llong is 3.4 ± 0.2 μm, and the structure mosaic is of order of 10°.

  16. Study of Inverse Ni-based Photonic Crystal using the Microradian X-ray Diffraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasilieva, A V; Okorokov, A I; Grigoriev, S V; Grigoryeva, N A; Mistonov, A A; Sapoletova, N A; Napolskii, K S; Eliseev, A A; Lukashin, A V; Tretyakov, Yu D; Petukhov, A V; Byelov, D; Chernyshov, D; Bouwman, W G

    2010-01-01

    Inverse photonic nickel-based crystal films formed by electrocrystallization of metal inside the voids of polymer artificial opal have been studied using the microradian X-ray diffraction. Analysis of the diffraction images agrees with an face-centred cubic (FCC) structure with the lattice constant a 0 = 650 ± 10 nm and indicates two types of stacking sequences coexisting in the crystal (twins of ABCABC... and ACBACB... ordering motifs), the ratio between them being 4:5 The transverse structural correlation length L tran is 2.4 ± 0.1 μm, which corresponds to a sample thickness of 6 layers. The in-plane structural correlation length L long is 3.4 ± 0.2 μm, and the structure mosaic is of order of 10 0 .

  17. Study of Inverse Ni-based Photonic Crystal using the Microradian X-ray Diffraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vasilieva, A V; Okorokov, A I; Grigoriev, S V [Petersburg Nuclear Physics Institute, Gatchina, 188350, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Grigoryeva, N A; Mistonov, A A [Department of Physics, St. Petersburg State University, 198504, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Sapoletova, N A; Napolskii, K S; Eliseev, A A; Lukashin, A V; Tretyakov, Yu D [Department of Materials Science, Moscow State University, 119899, Moscow (Russian Federation); Petukhov, A V; Byelov, D [Debye Institute, Utrecht University, 3584 CH Utrecht (Netherlands); Chernyshov, D [SNBL European Synchrotron Radiation Facility (ESRF), 38043 Grenoble (France); Bouwman, W G, E-mail: vasilieva@lns.pnpi.spb.r [Delft Technical University, 2629 JB Delft (Netherlands)

    2010-10-01

    Inverse photonic nickel-based crystal films formed by electrocrystallization of metal inside the voids of polymer artificial opal have been studied using the microradian X-ray diffraction. Analysis of the diffraction images agrees with an face-centred cubic (FCC) structure with the lattice constant a{sub 0} = 650 {+-} 10 nm and indicates two types of stacking sequences coexisting in the crystal (twins of ABCABC... and ACBACB... ordering motifs), the ratio between them being 4:5 The transverse structural correlation length L{sub tran} is 2.4 {+-} 0.1 {mu}m, which corresponds to a sample thickness of 6 layers. The in-plane structural correlation length L{sub long} is 3.4 {+-} 0.2 {mu}m, and the structure mosaic is of order of 10{sup 0}.

  18. Photonic Crystal Laser-Driven Accelerator Structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cowan, B

    2004-01-01

    The authors discuss simulated photonic crystal structure designs for laser-driven particle acceleration. They focus on three-dimensional planar structures based on the so-called ''woodpile'' lattice, demonstrating guiding of a speed-of-light accelerating mode by a defect in the photonic crystal lattice. They introduce a candidate geometry and discuss the properties of the accelerating mode. They also discuss the linear beam dynamics in the structure present a novelmethod for focusing the beam. In addition they describe ongoing investigations of photonic crystal fiber-based structures

  19. Quasimetallic silicon micromachined photonic crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Temelkuran, B.; Bayindir, Mehmet; Ozbay, E.; Kavanaugh, J. P.; Sigalas, M. M.; Tuttle, G.

    2001-01-01

    We report on fabrication of a layer-by-layer photonic crystal using highly doped silicon wafers processed by semiconductor micromachining techniques. The crystals, built using (100) silicon wafers, resulted in an upper stop band edge at 100 GHz. The transmission and defect characteristics of these structures were found to be analogous to metallic photonic crystals. We also investigated the effect of doping concentration on the defect characteristics. The experimental results agree well with predictions of the transfer matrix method simulations

  20. Large-bandwidth planar photonic crystal waveguides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søndergaard, Thomas; Lavrinenko, Andrei

    2002-01-01

    A general design principle is presented for making finite-height photonic crystal waveguides that support leakage-free guidance of light over large frequency intervals. The large bandwidth waveguides are designed by introducing line defects in photonic crystal slabs, where the material in the line...... defect has appropriate dispersion properties relative to the photonic crystal slab material surrounding the line defect. A three-dimensional theoretical analysis is given for large-bandwidth waveguide designs based on a silicon-air photonic crystal slab suspended in air. In one example, the leakage......-free single-mode guidance is found for a large frequency interval covering 60% of the photonic band-gap....

  1. Photonic Crystal Fibers for Sensing Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana M. R. Pinto

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Photonic crystal fibers are a kind of fiber optics that present a diversity of new and improved features beyond what conventional optical fibers can offer. Due to their unique geometric structure, photonic crystal fibers present special properties and capabilities that lead to an outstanding potential for sensing applications. A review of photonic crystal fiber sensors is presented. Two different groups of sensors are detailed separately: physical and biochemical sensors, based on the sensor measured parameter. Several sensors have been reported until the date, and more are expected to be developed due to the remarkable characteristics such fibers can offer.

  2. Detection of Myoglobin with an Open-Cavity-Based Label-Free Photonic Crystal Biosensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Bailin; Tamez-Vela, Juan Manuel; Solis, Steven; Bustamante, Gilbert; Peterson, Ralph; Rahman, Shafiqur; Morales, Andres; Tang, Liang; Ye, Jing Yong

    2013-01-01

    The label-free detection of one of the cardiac biomarkers, myoglobin, using a photonic-crystal-based biosensor in a total-internal-reflection configuration (PC-TIR) is presented in this paper. The PC-TIR sensor possesses a unique open optical microcavity that allows for several key advantages in biomolecular assays. In contrast to a conventional closed microcavity, the open configuration allows easy functionalization of the sensing surface for rapid biomolecular binding assays. Moreover, the properties of PC structures make it easy to be designed and engineered for operating at any optical wavelength. Through fine design of the photonic crystal structure, biochemical modification of the sensor surface, and integration with a microfluidic system, we have demonstrated that the detection sensitivity of the sensor for myoglobin has reached the clinically significant concentration range, enabling potential usage of this biosensor for diagnosis of acute myocardial infarction. The real-time response of the sensor to the myoglobin binding may potentially provide point-of-care monitoring of patients and treatment effects.

  3. Detection of anthrax lef with DNA-based photonic crystal sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Bailin; Dallo, Shatha; Peterson, Ralph; Hussain, Syed; Weitao, Tao; Ye, Jing Yong

    2011-12-01

    Bacillus anthracis has posed a threat of becoming biological weapons of mass destruction due to its virulence factors encoded by the plasmid-borne genes, such as lef for lethal factor. We report the development of a fast and sensitive anthrax DNA biosensor based on a photonic crystal structure used in a total-internal-reflection configuration. For the detection of the lef gene, a single-stranded DNA lef probe was biotinylated and immobilized onto the sensor via biotin-streptavidin interactions. A positive control, lef-com, was the complementary strand of the probe, while a negative control was an unrelated single-stranded DNA fragment from the 16S rRNA gene of Acinetobacter baumannii. After addition of the biotinylated lef probe onto the sensor, significant changes in the resonance wavelength of the sensor were observed, resulting from binding of the probe to streptavidin on the sensor. The addition of lef-com led to another significant increase as a result of hybridization between the two DNA strands. The detection sensitivity for the target DNA reached as low as 0.1 nM. In contrast, adding the unrelated DNAs did not cause an obvious shift in the resonant wavelength. These results demonstrate that detection of the anthrax lef by the photonic crystal structure in a total-internal-reflection sensor is highly specific and sensitive.

  4. Tunable multi-wavelength polymer laser based on a triangular-lattice photonic crystal structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Wenbin; Pu, Donglin; Qiao, Wen; Wan, Wenqiang; Liu, Yanhua; Ye, Yan; Wu, Shaolong; Chen, Linsen

    2016-01-01

    A continuously tunable multi-wavelength polymer laser based on a triangular-lattice photonic crystal cavity is demonstrated. The triangular-lattice resonator was initially fabricated through multiple interference exposure and was then replicated into a low refractive index polymer via UV-nanoimprinting. The blend of a blue-emitting conjugated polymer and a red-emitting one was used as the gain medium. Three periods in the scalene triangular-lattice structure yield stable tri-wavelength laser emission (625.5 nm, 617.4 nm and 614.3 nm) in six different directions. A uniformly aligned liquid crystal (LC) layer was incorporated into the cavity as the top cladding layer. Upon heating, the orientation of LC molecules and thus the effective refractive index of the lasing mode changes which continuously shifts the lasing wavelength. A maximum tuning range of 12.2 nm was observed for the lasing mode at 625.5 nm. This tunable tri-wavelength polymer laser is simple constructed and cost-effective. It may find application in the fields of biosensors and photonic integrated circuits. (paper)

  5. Reversible thermochromic response based on photonic crystal structure in butterfly wing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wanlin; Wang, Guo Ping; Zhang, Wang; Zhang, Di

    2018-01-01

    Subtle responsive properties can be achieved by the photonic crystal (PC) nanostructures of butterfly based on thermal expansion effect. The studies focused on making the sample visually distinct. However, the response is restricted by limited thermal expansion coefficients. We herein report a new class of reversible thermochromic response achieved by controlling the ambient refractive index in butterfly PC structure. The photonic ethanol-filled nanoarchitecture sample is simply assembled by sealing liquid ethanol filling Papilio ulysses butterfly wing. Volatile ethanol is used to modulate the ambient refractive index. The sample is sealed with glasses to ensure reversibility. Liquid ethanol filling butterfly wing demonstrated significant allochroic response to ambient refractive index, which can be controlled by the liquefaction and vaporization of ethanol. This design is capable of converting thermal energy into visual color signals. The mechanism of this distinct response is simulated and proven by band theory. The response properties are performed with different filled chemicals and different structure parameters. Thus, the reversible thermochromic response design might have potential use in the fields such as detection, photonic switch, displays, and so forth.

  6. Patterned Colloidal Photonic Crystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Jue; Li, Mingzhu; Song, Yanlin

    2018-03-01

    Colloidal photonic crystals (PCs) have been well developed because they are easy to prepare, cost-effective, and versatile with regards to modification and functionalization. Patterned colloidal PCs contribute a novel approach to constructing high-performance PC devices with unique structures and specific functions. In this review, an overview of the strategies for fabricating patterned colloidal PCs, including patterned substrate-induced assembly, inkjet printing, and selective immobilization and modification, is presented. The advantages of patterned PC devices are also discussed in detail, for example, improved detection sensitivity and response speed of the sensors, control over the flow direction and wicking rate of microfluidic channels, recognition of cross-reactive molecules through an array-patterned microchip, fabrication of display devices with tunable patterns, well-arranged RGB units, and wide viewing-angles, and the ability to construct anti-counterfeiting devices with different security strategies. Finally, the perspective of future developments and challenges is presented. © 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. Spatial filtering with photonic crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maigyte, Lina [Departament de Física i Enginyeria Nuclear, Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya, Rambla Sant Nebridi 22, Terrassa 08222 (Spain); Staliunas, Kestutis [Departament de Física i Enginyeria Nuclear, Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya, Rambla Sant Nebridi 22, Terrassa 08222 (Spain); Institució Catalana de Recerca i Estudis Avançats (ICREA), Pg. Lluís Companys 23, Barcelona 08010 (Spain)

    2015-03-15

    Photonic crystals are well known for their celebrated photonic band-gaps—the forbidden frequency ranges, for which the light waves cannot propagate through the structure. The frequency (or chromatic) band-gaps of photonic crystals can be utilized for frequency filtering. In analogy to the chromatic band-gaps and the frequency filtering, the angular band-gaps and the angular (spatial) filtering are also possible in photonic crystals. In this article, we review the recent advances of the spatial filtering using the photonic crystals in different propagation regimes and for different geometries. We review the most evident configuration of filtering in Bragg regime (with the back-reflection—i.e., in the configuration with band-gaps) as well as in Laue regime (with forward deflection—i.e., in the configuration without band-gaps). We explore the spatial filtering in crystals with different symmetries, including axisymmetric crystals; we discuss the role of chirping, i.e., the dependence of the longitudinal period along the structure. We also review the experimental techniques to fabricate the photonic crystals and numerical techniques to explore the spatial filtering. Finally, we discuss several implementations of such filters for intracavity spatial filtering.

  8. Photon-phonon interaction in photonic crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ueta, T

    2010-01-01

    Photon-phonon interaction on the analogy of electron-phonon interaction is considered in one-dimensional photonic crystal. When lattice vibration is artificially introduced to the photonic crystal, a governing equation of electromagnetic field is derived. A simple model is numerically analysed and the following novel phenomena are found out. The lattice vibration generates the light of frequency which added the integral multiple of the vibration frequency to that of the incident wave and also amplifies the incident wave resonantly. On a resonance, the amplification factor increases very rapidly with the number of layers increases. Resonance frequencies change with the phases of lattice vibration. The amplification phenomenon is analytically discussed for low frequency of the lattice vibration.

  9. Geometric properties of optimal photonic crystals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sigmund, Ole; Hougaard, Kristian G.

    2008-01-01

    Photonic crystals can be designed to control and confine light. Since the introduction of the concept by Yablonovitch and John two decades ago, there has been a quest for the optimal structure, i.e., the periodic arrangement of dielectric and air that maximizes the photonic band gap. Based...

  10. Modeling of photonic Crystal Fibres

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjarklev, Anders Overgaard; Broeng, Jes; Barkou, Stig Eigil

    1999-01-01

    Diferent theoretical models for analysis of photonic crystal fibres are reviewed and compaired. The methods span from simple scalar approaches to full-vectorial models using different mode-field decompositions. The specific advantages of the methods are evaluated.......Diferent theoretical models for analysis of photonic crystal fibres are reviewed and compaired. The methods span from simple scalar approaches to full-vectorial models using different mode-field decompositions. The specific advantages of the methods are evaluated....

  11. Mode-based microparticle conveyor belt in air-filled hollow-core photonic crystal fiber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Oliver A; Euser, Tijmen G; Russell, Philip St J

    2013-12-02

    We show how microparticles can be moved over long distances and precisely positioned in a low-loss air-filled hollow-core photonic crystal fiber using a coherent superposition of two co-propagating spatial modes, balanced by a backward-propagating fundamental mode. This creates a series of trapping positions spaced by half the beat-length between the forward-propagating modes (typically a fraction of a millimeter). The system allows a trapped microparticle to be moved along the fiber by continuously tuning the relative phase between the two forward-propagating modes. This mode-based optical conveyor belt combines long-range transport of microparticles with a positional accuracy of 1 µm. The technique also has potential uses in waveguide-based optofluidic systems.

  12. Pressure-controlled terahertz filter based on 1D photonic crystal with a defective semiconductor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qinwen, XUE; Xiaohua, WANG; Chenglin, LIU; Youwen, LIU

    2018-03-01

    The tunable terahertz (THz) filter has been designed and studied, which is composed of 1D photonic crystal (PC) containing a defect layer of semiconductor GaAs. The analytical solution of 1D defective PC (1DDPC) is deduced based on the transfer matrix method, and the electromagnetic plane wave numerical simulation of this 1DDPC is performed by using the finite element method. The calculated and simulated results have confirmed that the filtering transmittance of this 1DDPC in symmetric structure of air/(Si/SiO2) N /GaAs/(SiO2/Si) N /air is far higher than in asymmetric structure of air/(Si/SiO2) N /GaAs/(Si/SiO2) N /air, where the filtering frequency can be tuned by the external pressure. It can provide a feasible route to design the external pressure-controlled THz filter based on 1DPC with a defective semiconductor.

  13. Self-assembled tunable photonic hyper-crystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smolyaninova, Vera N; Yost, Bradley; Lahneman, David; Narimanov, Evgenii E; Smolyaninov, Igor I

    2014-07-16

    We demonstrate a novel artificial optical material, the "photonic hyper-crystal", which combines the most interesting features of hyperbolic metamaterials and photonic crystals. Similar to hyperbolic metamaterials, photonic hyper-crystals exhibit broadband divergence in their photonic density of states due to the lack of usual diffraction limit on the photon wave vector. On the other hand, similar to photonic crystals, hyperbolic dispersion law of extraordinary photons is modulated by forbidden gaps near the boundaries of photonic Brillouin zones. Three dimensional self-assembly of photonic hyper-crystals has been achieved by application of external magnetic field to a cobalt nanoparticle-based ferrofluid. Unique spectral properties of photonic hyper-crystals lead to extreme sensitivity of the material to monolayer coatings of cobalt nanoparticles, which should find numerous applications in biological and chemical sensing.

  14. Design of tunable surface mode waveguide based on photonic crystal composite structure using organic liquid*

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Lan-Lan; Liu Wei; Li Ping; Yang Xi; Cao Xu

    2017-01-01

    With the method of replacing the surface layer of photonic crystal with tubes, a novel photonic crystal composite structure used as a tunable surface mode waveguide is designed. The tubes support tunable surface states. The tunable propagation capabilities of the structure are investigated by using the finite-difference time-domain. Simulation results show that the beam transmission distributions of the composite structure are sensitive to the frequency range of incident light and the surface morphology which can be modified by filling the tubes with different organic liquids. By adjusting the filler in tubes, the T-shaped, Y-shaped, and L-shaped propagations can be realized. The property can be applied to the tunable surface mode waveguide. Compared with a traditional single function photonic crystal waveguide, our designed structure not only has a small size, but also is a tunable device. (paper)

  15. Photonic crystal waveguides in artificial opals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lavrinenko, Andrei; Kiyan, Roman; Neumeister, Andrei

    2008-01-01

    3D photonic crystals based on Si inverted-opals are numerically explored as hosts for effective air-channel waveguides, which can serve as parts of photonic circuits. Two basic shapes of straight waveguides are considered: cylindrical and a chain of spheres. Modelling shows that transmission...... is heavily dependent on the lattice position of the waveguide and its direction. Our experiments of defect inscription by 2-photon polymerization for the production of straight and bent waveguides in opal templates are reported....

  16. Large Three-Dimensional Photonic Crystals Based on Monocrystalline Liquid Crystal Blue Phases (Postprint)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-09-28

    a pair of glass slides with plastic spacers to determine the cell gap: 100 and 300 μm for the polymer-free BPLCs and 12 μm for the polymer-stabilized...Nissan) and rubbed with cloth to induce uniform planar alignment. Measurements. Reflection and transmission spectra were taken using a spectro- meter...thermal recycles . Opt. Mater. Express 2, 1149–1155 (2012). 34. Onusseit, H. & Stegemeyer, H. Liquid single crystals of cholesteric blue phases. Z

  17. Liquid Crystal photonic Bandgap Fiber Devices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wei, Lei

    In this Ph.D. thesis, an experimental investigation of liquid crystal photonic bandgap (LCPBG) fiber devices and applications is presented. Photonic crystal fibers (PCFs) consist of a cladding microstructure with periodic index variations and a core defined by a defect of the structure. The prese......In this Ph.D. thesis, an experimental investigation of liquid crystal photonic bandgap (LCPBG) fiber devices and applications is presented. Photonic crystal fibers (PCFs) consist of a cladding microstructure with periodic index variations and a core defined by a defect of the structure...... of each LCPBG fiber. Finally, the applications for LCPBG fiber devices based on the on-chip platform design have been demonstrated in realizing microwave true-time delay and creating an electrically tunable fiber laser. Referatet mailes...

  18. Highly-stable monolithic femtosecond Yb-fiber laser system based on photonic crystal fibers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Xiaomin; Lægsgaard, Jesper; Turchinovich, Dmitry

    2010-01-01

    in the oscillator cavity for dispersion balancing and nonlinear optical limiting, and another one is used for low nonlinearity final pulse recompression. The chirped-pulse amplification and recompression of the 232-fs, 45-pJ/pulse oscillator output yields a final direct fiber-end delivery of 7.3-nJ energy pulses......A self-starting, passively stabilized, monolithic all polarizationmaintaining femtosecond Yb-fiber master oscillator / power amplifier with very high operational and environmental stability is demonstrated. The system is based on the use of two different photonic crystal fibers. One is used...... of around 297 fs duration. Our laser shows exceptional stability. No Q-switched modelocking events were detected during 4-days long observation. An average fluctuation of only 7.85 · 10−4 over the mean output power was determined as a result of more than 6-hours long measurement. The laser is stable towards...

  19. Ultrabroadband, Midinfrared Supercontinuum Generation in Dispersion Engineered As2Se3-Based Chalcogenide Photonic Crystal Fibers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rim Cherif

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Small core As2Se3-based photonic crystal fibers (PCFs are accurately characterized for compact, high power, ultrabroadband, and coherent supercontinuum generation within few millimeters fiber length. Bandwidths of ~5.3 μm, 5 μm, and 3.2 μm were calculated for hole-to-hole spacings Λ= 3.5 μm, 4.5 μm, and 5.5 μm, respectively. The spectral broadening in the chalcogenide PCF is mainly caused by self-phase modulation and Raman-induced soliton self-frequency shift. The results show that small core As2Se3 PCFs are a promising candidate for mid-IR SCG up to ~8 μm.

  20. Ultrabroadband polarization splitter based on three-core photonic crystal fiber with a modulation core.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Tongtong; Lou, Shuqin; Wang, Xin; Zhou, Min; Lian, Zhenggang

    2016-08-10

    We design an ultrabroadband polarization splitter based on three-core photonic crystal fiber (PCF). A modulation core and two fluorine-doped cores are introduced to achieve an ultrawide bandwidth. The properties of three-core PCF are modeled by using the full-vector finite element method along with the full-vector beam propagation method. Numerical results demonstrate that an ultrabroadband splitter with 320 nm bandwidth with an extinction ratio as low as -20  dB can be achieved by using 52.8 mm long three-core PCF. This splitter also has high compatibility with standard single-mode fibers as the input and output ports due to low splicing loss of 0.02 dB. All the air holes in the proposed structure are circular holes and arranged in a triangular lattice that makes it easy to fabricate.

  1. Design of a compact polarization beam splitter based on a deformed photonic crystal directional coupler

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ren Gang; Zheng Wanhua; Wang Ke; Du Xiaoyu; Xing Mingxin; Chen Lianghui

    2008-01-01

    In this paper a compact polarization beam splitter based on a deformed photonic crystal directional coupler is designed and simulated. The transverse-electric (TE) guided mode and transverse-magnetic (TM) guided mode are split due to different guiding mechanisms. The effect of the shape deformation of the air holes on the coupler is studied. It discovered that the coupling strength of the coupled waveguides is strongly enhanced by introducing elliptical airholes, which reduce the device length to less than 18.5μm. A finite-difference time-domain simulation is performed to evaluate the performance of the device, and the extinction ratios for both TE and TM polarized light are higher than 20 dB. (classical areas of phenomenology)

  2. Polarization splitter based on interference effects in all-solid photonic crystal fibers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Dong; Guan, Chunying; Yuan, Libo

    2010-07-01

    We propose a novel kind of polarization splitter in all-solid photonic crystal fibers based on the mode interference effects. Both the full-vector finite-element method and the semi-vector three-dimensional beam propagation method are employed to design and analyze the characteristics of the splitter. Numerical simulations show that x-polarized and y-polarized modes are split entirely along with 6.8 mm long propagation. An extinction ratio of more than 20 dB and a crosstalk of less than -20 dB are obtained within the wavelength range of 1.541-1.556 microm. The extinction ratio and the crosstalk at 1.55 microm are 28.9 and -29.0 dB for x polarization, while the extinction ratio and the crosstalk at 1.55 microm are 29.9 and -29.8 dB for y polarization, respectively.

  3. Design of single-polarization wavelength splitter based on photonic crystal fiber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shanshan; Zhang, Weigang; Geng, Pengcheng; Li, Xiaolan; Ruan, Juan

    2011-12-20

    A new single-polarization wavelength splitter based on the photonic crystal fiber (PCF) has been proposed. The full-vector finite-element method (FEM) is applied to analyze the single-polarization single-mode guiding properties. Splitting of two different wavelengths is realized by adjusting the structural parameters. The semi-vector three-dimensional beam propagation method is employed to confirm the wavelength splitting characteristics of the PCF. Numerical simulations show that the wavelengths of 1.3 μm and 1.55 μm are split for a fiber length of 10.7 mm with single-polarization guiding in each core. The crosstalk between the two cores is low over appreciable optical bandwidths.

  4. New design of a triplexer using ring resonator integrated with directional coupler based on photonic crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yaw-Dong; Shih, Tien-Tsorng; Lee, Jian-Jang

    2009-11-01

    In this paper, we proposed the design of directional coupler integrated with ring resonator based on two-dimensional photonic crystals (2D PCs) to develop a triplexer filter. It can be widely used as the fiber access network element for multiplexer-demultiplexer wavelength selective in fiber-to-the-home (FTTH) communication systems. The directional coupler is chosen to separate the wavelengths of 1490nm and 1310nm. The ring resonator separates the wavelength of 1550nm. The transmission efficiency is larger than 90%. Besides, the total size of propose triplexer is only 19μm×12μm. We present simulation results using the finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method for the proposed structure.

  5. Fluorescence-based remote irradiation sensor in liquid-filled hollow-core photonic crystal fiber

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zeltner, R.; Russell, P. St.J. [Max Planck Institute for the Science of Light, Guenther-Scharowsky-Str. 1, 91058 Erlangen (Germany); Department of Physics, University of Erlangen-Nuremberg, Guenther-Scharowsky-Str. 1, 91058 Erlangen (Germany); Bykov, D. S.; Xie, S. [Max Planck Institute for the Science of Light, Guenther-Scharowsky-Str. 1, 91058 Erlangen (Germany); Euser, T. G. [Max Planck Institute for the Science of Light, Guenther-Scharowsky-Str. 1, 91058 Erlangen (Germany); Cavendish Laboratory, University of Cambridge, J. J. Thomson Avenue, Cambridge CB3 0HE (United Kingdom)

    2016-06-06

    We report an irradiation sensor based on a fluorescent “flying particle” that is optically trapped and propelled inside the core of a water-filled hollow-core photonic crystal fiber. When the moving particle passes through an irradiated region, its emitted fluorescence is captured by guided modes of the fiber core and so can be monitored using a filtered photodiode placed at the fiber end. The particle speed and position can be precisely monitored using in-fiber Doppler velocimetry, allowing the irradiation profile to be measured to a spatial resolution of ∼10 μm. The spectral response can be readily adjusted by appropriate choice of particle material. Using dye-doped polystyrene particles, we demonstrate detection of green (532 nm) and ultraviolet (340 nm) light.

  6. Compact four-channel terahertz demultiplexer based on directional coupling photonic crystal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiu-Sheng, Li; Han, Liu; Le, Zhang

    2015-09-01

    Electromagnetic polarization conveys valuable information for signal processing. Manipulation of terahertz wavelength demultiplexer exhibits tremendous potential in developing application of terahertz science and technology. We propose an approach to separate efficiently four frequencies terahertz waves based on three cascaded directional coupling two-dimensional photonic crystal waveguides. Both plane wave expansion method and finite-difference time-domain method are used to calculate and analyze the characteristics of the proposed device. The simulation results show that the designed terahertz wavelength demultiplexer can split four different wavelengths of terahertz wave into different propagation directions with high transmittance and low crosstalk. The present device is very compact and the total size is 6.8×10.6 mm2. This enables the terahertz wavelength demultiplexer to be used in terahertz wave system and terahertz wave integrated circuit fields.

  7. All-optical switching based on a tunable Fano-like resonance in nonlinear ferroelectric photonic crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chai, Zhen; Hu, Xiaoyong; Gong, Qihuang

    2013-01-01

    A low-power all-optical switching is presented based on the all-optical tunable Fano-like resonance in a two-dimensional nonlinear ferroelectric photonic crystal made of polycrystalline lithium niobate. An asymmetric Fano-like line shape is achieved in the transmission spectrum by using two cascaded and uncoupled photonic crystal microcavities. The physical mechanism underlying the all-optical switching is attributed to the dynamic shift of the Fano-like resonance peak caused by variations in the dispersion relations of the photonic crystal structure induced by pump light. A large switching efficiency of 61% is reached under excitation of a weak pump light with an intensity as low as 1 MW cm −2 . (paper)

  8. Tunable microwave signal generation based on an Opto-DMD processor and a photonic crystal fiber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Tao; Sang Xin-Zhu; Yan Bin-Bin; Li Yan; Song Fei-Jun; Zhang Xia; Wang Kui-Ru; Yuan Jin-Hui; Yu Chong-Xiu; Ai Qi; Chen Xiao; Zhang Ying; Chen Gen-Xiang; Xiao Feng; Kamal Alameh

    2014-01-01

    Frequency-tunable microwave signal generation is proposed and experimentally demonstrated with a dual-wavelength single-longitudinal-mode (SLM) erbium-doped fiber ring laser based on a digital Opto-DMD processor and four-wave mixing (FWM) in a high-nonlinear photonic crystal fiber (PCF). The high-nonlinear PCF is employed for the generation of the FWM to obtain stable and uniform dual-wavelength oscillation. Two different short passive sub-ring cavities in the main ring cavity serve as mode filters to make SLM lasing. The two lasing wavelengths are electronically selected by loading different gratings on the Opto-DMD processor controlled with a computer. The wavelength spacing can be smartly adjusted from 0.165 nm to 1.08 nm within a tuning accuracy of 0.055 nm. Two microwave signals at 17.23 GHz and 27.47 GHz are achieved. The stability of the microwave signal is discussed. The system has the ability to generate a 137.36-GHz photonic millimeter signal at room temperature

  9. Two Octaves Supercontinuum Generation in Lead-Bismuth Glass Based Photonic Crystal Fiber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryszard Buczynski

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we report a two octave spanning supercontinuum generation in a bandwidth of 700–3000 nm in a single-mode photonic crystal fiber made of lead-bismuth-gallate glass. To our knowledge this is the broadest supercontinuum reported in heavy metal oxide glass based fibers. The fiber was fabricated using an in-house synthesized glass with optimized nonlinear, rheological and transmission properties in the range of 500–4800 nm. The photonic cladding consists of 8 rings of air holes. The fiber has a zero dispersion wavelength (ZDW at 1460 nm. Its dispersion is determined mainly by the first ring of holes in the cladding with a relative hole size of 0.73. Relative hole size of the remaining seven rings is 0.54, which allows single mode performance of the fiber in the infrared range and reduces attenuation of the fundamental mode. The fiber is pumped into anomalous dispersion with 150 fs pulses at 1540 nm. Observed spectrum of 700–3000 nm was generated in 2 cm of fiber with pulse energy below 4 nJ. A flatness of 5 dB was observed in 950–2500 nm range.

  10. Refractive Index Measurement within a Photonic Crystal Fibre Based on Short Wavelength Diffraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathaniel Groothoff

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available A new class of refractive index sensors using solid core photonic crystal fibres isdemonstrated. Coherent scattering at the cladding lattice is used to optically characterizematerials inserted into the fibre holes. The liquid to solid phase transition of water uponfreezing to ice 1h is characterized by determining the refractive index.

  11. Refractive index sensor based on a 1D photonic crystal in a microfluidic channel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rodrigues de Sousa Nunes, Pedro André; Mortensen, Asger; Kutter, Jörg Peter

    2010-01-01

    A refractive index sensor has been fabricated in silicon oxynitride by standard UV lithography and dry etching processes. The refractive index sensor consists of a 1D photonic crystal (PhC) embedded in a microfluidic channel addressed by fiber-terminated planar waveguides. Experimental...

  12. Luminescence-induced noise in single photon sources based on BBO crystals

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Machulka, R.; Lemr, Karel; Haderka, Ondřej; Lamperti, M.; Allevi, A.; Bondani, M.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 47, č. 21 (2014), s. 215501 ISSN 0953-4075 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP205/12/0382 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : luminescence * BBO crystal * photon source * noise * streak camera Subject RIV: BH - Optics , Masers, Lasers Impact factor: 1.975, year: 2014

  13. Photonic crystal fiber based evanescent-wave sensor for detection of biomolecules in aqueous solutions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jesper Bo Damm; Pedersen, Lars H.; Hoiby, Poul E.

    2004-01-01

    We demonstrate highly efficient evanescent-wave detection of fluorophore-labeled biomolecules in aqueous solutions positioned in the air holes of the microstructured part of a photonic crystal fiber. The air-suspended silica structures located between three neighboring air holes in the cladding c...

  14. Single-Photon Source for Quantum Information Based on Single Dye Molecule Fluorescence in Liquid Crystal Host

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lukishova, S.G.; Knox, R.P.; Freivald, P.; McNamara, A.; Boyd, R.W.; Stroud, Jr. C.R.; Schmid, A.W.; Marshall, K.L.

    2006-01-01

    This paper describes a new application for liquid crystals: quantum information technology. A deterministically polarized single-photon source that efficiently produces photons exhibiting antibunching is a pivotal hardware element in absolutely secure quantum communication. Planar-aligned nematic liquid crystal hosts deterministically align the single dye molecules which produce deterministically polarized single (antibunched) photons. In addition, 1-D photonic bandgap cholesteric liquid crystals will increase single-photon source efficiency. The experiments and challenges in the observation of deterministically polarized fluorescence from single dye molecules in planar-aligned glassy nematic-liquid-crystal oligomer as well as photon antibunching in glassy cholesteric oligomer are described for the first time

  15. Compact, low-loss and broadband photonic crystal circulator based on a star-type ferrite rod

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiang Xi

    Full Text Available We propose and investigate a compact, low-loss and broadband circulator based on a star-type ferrite rod in two-dimensional square-lattice photonic crystals. Only one ferrite rod is required to be inserted in our structure. Firstly, the performances of circulator based on the star-type, circle, and square ferrite rod are compared, showing that the circulator with the star-type ferrite rod performs better than the other two ones. And then, based on the star-type ferrite rod circulator, four cases of improvement, in which the background rods around the center ferrite rod are replaced respectively by the backward-triangle, forward-triangle, backward-semicircle, and forward-semicircle rods, are investigated to modulate the coupling between the center magneto-optical micro-cavity and the corresponding waveguides. The results show that, with proper parameters, all the four cases can greatly improve the output properties of the circulator, and different cases have its own advantages. The mechanism behind these improvements is also discussed. Finite-element method is used to calculate the characteristics of the circulator and Nelder-Mead optimization method is employed to obtain the optimized parameters. The ideas presented here are useful for designing broadband, low insertion loss, and high-isolation circulators which have potential application in integrated photonic crystal devices. Keywords: Photonic crystals, Circulator, Magneto-optical material, Photonic crystal waveguides

  16. Two-Dimentional Photonic Crystal Waveguides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søndergaard, Thomas; Dridi, Kim

    1999-01-01

    possible a novel class of optical microcavities, whereas line defects make possible a novel class of waveguides. In this paper we will analyze two-dimensional photonic crystal waveguides based on photonic crystals with rods arranged on a triangular and a square lattice using a plane-wave expansion method......In the recent years a new class of periodic high-index contrast dielectric structures, known as photonic bandgap structures, has been discovered. In these structures frequency intervals, known as photonic bandgaps, where propagation of electromagnetic waves is not allowed, exist due to the periodic...... dielectric function. This is analogous to semiconductors, where electronic bandgaps exist due to the periodic arrangement of atoms. As is also the case for semiconductor structures, photonic bandgap structures may become of even greater value when defects are introduced. In particular, point defects make...

  17. Large-area photonic crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruhl, Tilmann; Spahn, Peter; Hellmann, Gotz P.; Winkler, Holger

    2004-09-01

    Materials with a periodically modulated refractive index, with periods on the scale of light wavelengths, are currently attracting much attention because of their unique optical properties which are caused by Bragg scattering of the visible light. In nature, 3d structures of this kind are found in the form of opals in which monodisperse silica spheres with submicron diameters form a face-centered-cubic (fcc) lattice. Artificial opals, with the same colloidal-crystalline fcc structure, have meanwhile been prepared by crystallizing spherical colloidal particles via sedimentation or drying of dispersions. In this report, colloidal crystalline films are introduced that were produced by a novel technique based on shear flow in the melts of specially designed submicroscopic silica-polymer core-shell hybrid spheres: when the melt of these spheres flows between the plates of a press, the spheres crystallize along the plates, layer by layer, and the silica cores assume the hexagonal order corresponding to the (111) plane of the fcc lattice. This process is fast and yields large-area films, thin or thick. To enhance the refractive index contrast in these films, the colloidal crystalline structure was inverted by etching out the silica cores with hydrofluoric acid. This type of an inverse opal, in which the fcc lattice is formed by mesopores, is referred to as a polymer-air photonic crystal.

  18. Modelling of photonic crystal fibres

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Erik

    2003-01-01

    , as well as a honeycomb bandgap fibre and the first analysis of semi-periodic layered air-hole fibres. Using the modelling framework established as a basis, we provide an analysis of microbend loss, by regarding displacement of a fibre core as a stationary stochastic process, inducing mismatch between......In the presenta ph.d. work a theoretical study of aspects of modelling photonic crystal fibres was carried out. Photonic crystal fibres form a class of optical waveguides where guidance is no longer provided by a difference in refractive index between core and cladding. Instead, guidance...... is provided by an arrangement of air-holes running along the length of the fibre. Depending on the geometry of the fibre, the guiding mechanism may be either arising from the formation of a photonic bandgap in the cladding structure (photonic bandgap fibre), or by an effect resembling total internal...

  19. Progress in thin-film silicon solar cells based on photonic-crystal structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishizaki, Kenji; De Zoysa, Menaka; Tanaka, Yoshinori; Jeon, Seung-Woo; Noda, Susumu

    2018-06-01

    We review the recent progress in thin-film silicon solar cells with photonic crystals, where absorption enhancement is achieved by using large-area resonant effects in photonic crystals. First, a definitive guideline for enhancing light absorption in a wide wavelength range (600–1100 nm) is introduced, showing that the formation of multiple band edges utilizing higher-order modes confined in the thickness direction and the introduction of photonic superlattice structures enable significant absorption enhancement, exceeding that observed for conventional random scatterers. Subsequently, experimental evidence of this enhancement is demonstrated for a variety of thin-film Si solar cells: ∼500-nm-thick ultrathin microcrystalline silicon cells, few-µm-thick microcrystalline silicon cells, and ∼20-µm-thick thin single-crystalline silicon cells. The high short-circuit current densities and/or efficiencies observed for each cell structure confirm the effectiveness of using multiple band-edge resonant modes of photonic crystals for enhancing broadband absorption in actual solar cells.

  20. Hybrid photonic-crystal fiber

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Markos, Christos; Travers, John C.; Abdolvand, Amir

    2017-01-01

    This article offers an extensive survey of results obtained using hybrid photonic-crystal fibers (PCFs) which constitute one of the most active research fields in contemporary fiber optics. The ability to integrate novel and functional materials in solid- and hollow-core PCFs through various...... is reviewed from scientific and technological perspectives, focusing on how different fluids, solids, and gases can significantly extend the functionality of PCFs. The first part of this review discusses the efforts to develop tunable linear and nonlinear fiber-optic devices using PCFs infiltrated...... with various liquids, glasses, semiconductors, and metals. The second part concentrates on recent and state-of-the-art advances in the field of gas-filled hollow-core PCFs. Extreme ultrafast gas-based nonlinear optics toward light generation in the extreme wavelength regions of vacuum ultraviolet, pulse...

  1. The Orbital Angular Momentum Modes Supporting Fibers Based on the Photonic Crystal Fiber Structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hu Zhang

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The orbital angular momentum (OAM of light can be another physical dimension that we exploit to make multiplexing in the spatial domain. The design of the OAM mode supporting fiber attracts many attentions in the field of the space division multiplexing (SDM system. This paper reviews the recent progresses in photonic crystal fiber (PCF supporting OAM modes, and summarizes why a PCF structure can be used to support stable OAM transmission modes. The emphasis is on the circular PCFs, which possess many excellent features of transmission performance, such as good-quality OAM modes, enough separation of the effective indices, low confinement loss, flat dispersion, a large effective area, and a low nonlinear coefficient. We also compare the transmission properties between the circular PCF and the ring core fiber, as well as the properties between the OAM EDFA based on circular PCF and the OAM EDFA based on the ring core fiber. At last, the challenges and prospects of OAM fibers based on the PCF structure are also discussed.

  2. Deep-blue supercontinuum light sources based on tapered photonic crystal bres

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Simon Toft

    applications in areas such as spectroscopy and microscopy. In this work, we exploit the tremendous design freedom in air hole structured photonic crystal fibres to shape the supercontinuum spectrum. Specifically, the supercontinuum dynamics can be controlled by clever engineering of fibres with longitudinally...... varying air hole structures. Here we demonstrate supercontinuum generation into the commercially attractive deep-blue spectral region below 400 nm from an Yb laser in such fibres. In particular, we introduce the concept of a group acceleration mismatch that allows us to enhance the amount of light...... in the deep-blue by optimising the fibre structure. To this end, we fabricate the first single-mode high air-fill fraction photonic crystal fibre for blue-extended supercontinuum sources. The mechanisms of supercontinuum broadening are highly sensitive to noise, and the inherent shot-to-shot variations...

  3. Solvothermal synthesis of 3D photonic crystals based on ZnS/opal system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang Xin [Nanomaterials Research Institute, College of Material Science and Technology, Nanjing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Nanjing 210016 (China); Cao Jieming [Nanomaterials Research Institute, College of Material Science and Technology, Nanjing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Nanjing 210016 (China)]. E-mail: jmcao@nuaa.edu.cn; Ji Hongmei [Nanomaterials Research Institute, College of Material Science and Technology, Nanjing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Nanjing 210016 (China); Fang Baoqing [Nanomaterials Research Institute, College of Material Science and Technology, Nanjing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Nanjing 210016 (China); Feng Jie [Nanomaterials Research Institute, College of Material Science and Technology, Nanjing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Nanjing 210016 (China); Pan Lijia [Nanomaterials Research Institute, College of Material Science and Technology, Nanjing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Nanjing 210016 (China); Zhang Fang [Nanomaterials Research Institute, College of Material Science and Technology, Nanjing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Nanjing 210016 (China); Wang, Haiyan [Nanomaterials Research Institute, College of Material Science and Technology, Nanjing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Nanjing 210016 (China)

    2005-01-15

    We made photonic crystals composed of artificial opals infiltrated with ZnS semiconductor nanocrystals by using self-assembly and solvothermal methods. SEM images show that the silica spheres exhibit a well-ordered arrangement and the ZnS nanocrystals infiltrate within the opal templates by heterogeneous nucleation and growth processing, and the as-synthesized ZnS nanocrystals reveal a cubic phase from X-ray diffraction pattern. Furthermore, the optical properties of the infiltrated opals with different ZnS filling ratio are also studied by transmission spectroscopy, respectively. It is proposed that the position of the stop band can be easily designed by controlling the infiltration ratio of ZnS. These results demonstrate an easy-to-handle and efficient route to obtain high performance photonic crystal structures.

  4. Solvothermal synthesis of 3D photonic crystals based on ZnS/opal system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang Xin; Cao Jieming; Ji Hongmei; Fang Baoqing; Feng Jie; Pan Lijia; Zhang Fang; Wang, Haiyan

    2005-01-01

    We made photonic crystals composed of artificial opals infiltrated with ZnS semiconductor nanocrystals by using self-assembly and solvothermal methods. SEM images show that the silica spheres exhibit a well-ordered arrangement and the ZnS nanocrystals infiltrate within the opal templates by heterogeneous nucleation and growth processing, and the as-synthesized ZnS nanocrystals reveal a cubic phase from X-ray diffraction pattern. Furthermore, the optical properties of the infiltrated opals with different ZnS filling ratio are also studied by transmission spectroscopy, respectively. It is proposed that the position of the stop band can be easily designed by controlling the infiltration ratio of ZnS. These results demonstrate an easy-to-handle and efficient route to obtain high performance photonic crystal structures

  5. Optical control of light propagation in photonic crystal based on electromagnetically induced transparency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dan, Wang; Jin-Ze, Wu; Jun-Xiang, Zhang

    2016-06-01

    A kind of photonic crystal structure with modulation of the refractive index is investigated both experimentally and theoretically for exploiting electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT). The combination of EIT with periodically modulated refractive index medium gives rise to high efficiency reflection as well as forbidden transmission in a three-level atomic system coupled by standing wave. We show an accurate theoretical simulation via transfer-matrix theory, automatically accounting for multilayer reflections, thus fully demonstrate the existence of photonic crystal structure in atomic vapor. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 11574188) and the Project for Excellent Research Team of the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 61121064).

  6. Silicon nanocrystal-based photonic crystal slabs with broadband and efficient directional light emission

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ondič, Lukáš; Varga, Marián; Pelant, Ivan; Valenta, J.; Kromka, Alexander; Elliman, R. G.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 7, č. 1 (2017), s. 1-8, č. článku 5763. ISSN 2045-2322 R&D Projects: GA ČR GJ16-09692Y; GA MŠk(CZ) LD15003 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : photonic crystal slab * silicon nanocrystals * light emission Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism OBOR OECD: Condensed matter physics (including formerly solid state physics, supercond.) Impact factor: 4.259, year: 2016

  7. Photonic crystal fiber modal interferometer based on thin-core-fiber mode exciter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miao, Yinping; Ma, Xixi; Wu, Jixuan; Song, Binbin; Zhang, Hao; Liu, Bo; Yao, Jianquan

    2015-11-10

    A thin-core-fiber excited photonic crystal fiber modal interferometer has been proposed and experimentally demonstrated. By employing a thin-core fiber as the mode exciter, both of the core and cladding modes propagate in the photonic crystal fiber and interfere with each other. The experimental results show that the transmission dips corresponding to different-order modes have various strain responses with opposite shift directions. The strain sensitivity could be improved to 58.57  pm/με for the applied strain from 0 to 491 με by utilizing the wavelength interval between the dips with opposite shift directions. Moreover, due to the pure silica property of the employed photonic crystal fiber, the proposed fiber modal interferometer exhibits a low-temperature sensitivity of about 0.56  pm/°C within a temperature range from 26.4°C (room temperature) to 70°C. Additionally, the proposed fiber modal interferometer has several advantages, such as good stability, compact structure, and simple fabrication. Therefore, it is more applicable for strain measurement with reducing temperature cross-sensitivity.

  8. Ultrasensitive Sensing Material Based on Opal Photonic Crystal for Label-Free Monitoring of Transferrin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Enqi; Peng, Yuan; Zhang, Xihao; Bai, Jialei; Song, Yanqiu; He, Houluo; Fan, Longxing; Qu, Xiaochen; Gao, Zhixian; Liu, Ying; Ning, Baoan

    2017-02-22

    A new opal photonic crystal (PC) sensing material, allowing label-free detection of transferrin (TRF), is proposed in the current study. This photonic crystal was prepared via a vertical convective self-assembly method with monodisperse microspheres polymerized by methyl methacrylate (MMA) and 3-acrylamidophenylboronic acid (AAPBA). FTIR, TG, and DLS were used to characterize the components and particle size of the monodisperse microspheres. SEM was used to observe the morphology of the PC. The diffraction peak intensity decreases as the TRF concentration increase. This was due to the combination of TRF to the boronic acid group of the photonic crystal. After condition optimization, a standard curve was obtained and the linear range of TRF concentration was from 2 × 10 -3 ng/mL to 200 ng/mL. Measurement of TRF concentration in simulated urine sample was also investigated using the sensing material. The results indicated that the PC provided a cheap, label-free, and easy-to-use alternative for TRF determination in clinical diagnostics.

  9. Coronagraph Focal-Plane Phase Masks Based on Photonic Crystal Technology: Recent Progress and Observational Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murakami, Naoshi; Nishikawa, Jun; Sakamoto, Moritsugu; Ise, Akitoshi; Oka, Kazuhiko; Baba, Naoshi; Murakami, Hiroshi; Tamura, Motohide; Traub, Wesley A.; Mawet, Dimitri; hide

    2012-01-01

    Photonic crystal, an artificial periodic nanostructure of refractive indices, is one of the attractive technologies for coronagraph focal-plane masks aiming at direct imaging and characterization of terrestrial extrasolar planets. We manufactured the eight-octant phase mask (8OPM) and the vector vortex mask (VVM) very precisely using the photonic crystal technology. Fully achromatic phase-mask coronagraphs can be realized by applying appropriate polarization filters to the masks. We carried out laboratory experiments of the polarization-filtered 8OPM coronagraph using the High-Contrast Imaging Testbed (HCIT), a state-of-the-art coronagraph simulator at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL). We report the experimental results of 10-8-level contrast across several wavelengths over 10% bandwidth around 800nm. In addition, we present future prospects and observational strategy for the photonic-crystal mask coronagraphs combined with differential imaging techniques to reach higher contrast. We proposed to apply a polarization-differential imaging (PDI) technique to the VVM coronagraph, in which we built a two-channel coronagraph using polarizing beam splitters to avoid a loss of intensity due to the polarization filters. We also proposed to apply an angular-differential imaging (ADI) technique to the 8OPM coronagraph. The 8OPM/ADI mode avoids an intensity loss due to a phase transition of the mask and provides a full field of view around central stars. We present results of preliminary laboratory demonstrations of the PDI and ADI observational modes with the phase-mask coronagraphs.

  10. Amplified Photon Upconversion by Photonic Shell of Cholesteric Liquid Crystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Ji-Hwan; Kim, Shin-Hyun; Fernandez-Nieves, Alberto; Reichmanis, Elsa

    2017-04-26

    As an effective platform to exploit triplet-triplet-annihilation-based photon upconversion (TTA-UC), microcapsules composed of a fluidic UC core and photonic shell are microfluidically prepared using a triple emulsion as the template. The photonic shell consists of cholesteric liquid crystals (CLCs) with a periodic helical structure, exhibiting a photonic band gap. Combined with planar anchoring at the boundaries, the shell serves as a resonance cavity for TTA-UC emission and enables spectral tuning of the UC under low-power-density excitation. The CLC shell can be stabilized by introducing a polymerizable mesogen in the LC host. Because of the microcapsule spherical symmetry, spontaneous emission of the delayed fluorescence is omnidirectionally amplified at the edge of the stop band. These results demonstrate the range of opportunities provided by TTA-UC systems for the future design of low-threshold photonic devices.

  11. Photonic-crystal waveguide biosensor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skivesen, Nina; Têtu, Amélie; Kristensen, Martin

    2007-01-01

    A photonic-crystal waveguide sensor is presented for biosensing. The sensor is applied for refractive index measurements and detection of protein-concentrations. Concentrations around 10 μg/ml (0.15μMolar) are measured with excellent signal to noise ratio, and a broad, dynamic refractive index se...

  12. A Raman cell based on hollow core photonic crystal fiber for human breath analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chow, Kam Kong; Zeng, Haishan, E-mail: hzeng@bccrc.ca [Imaging Unit – Integrative Oncology Department, British Columbia Cancer Agency Research Centre, 675 West 10th Avenue, Vancouver, British Columbia V5Z 1L3, Canada and Medical Physics Program – Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of British Columbia, 6224 Agricultural Road, Vancouver, British Columbia V6T 1Z1 (Canada); Short, Michael; Lam, Stephen; McWilliams, Annette [Imaging Unit – Integrative Oncology Department, British Columbia Cancer Agency Research Centre, 675 West 10th Avenue, Vancouver, British Columbia V5Z 1L3 (Canada)

    2014-09-15

    Purpose: Breath analysis has a potential prospect to benefit the medical field based on its perceived advantages to become a point-of-care, easy to use, and cost-effective technology. Early studies done by mass spectrometry show that volatile organic compounds from human breath can represent certain disease states of our bodies, such as lung cancer, and revealed the potential of breath analysis. But mass spectrometry is costly and has slow-turnaround time. The authors’ goal is to develop a more portable and cost effective device based on Raman spectroscopy and hollow core-photonic crystal fiber (HC-PCF) for breath analysis. Methods: Raman scattering is a photon-molecular interaction based on the kinetic modes of an analyte which offers unique fingerprint type signals that allow molecular identification. HC-PCF is a novel light guide which allows light to be confined in a hollow core and it can be filled with a gaseous sample. Raman signals generated by the gaseous sample (i.e., human breath) can be guided and collected effectively for spectral analysis. Results: A Raman-cell based on HC-PCF in the near infrared wavelength range was developed and tested in a single pass forward-scattering mode for different gaseous samples. Raman spectra were obtained successfully from reference gases (hydrogen, oxygen, carbon dioxide gases), ambient air, and a human breath sample. The calculated minimum detectable concentration of this system was ∼15 parts per million by volume, determined by measuring the carbon dioxide concentration in ambient air via the characteristic Raman peaks at 1286 and 1388 cm{sup −1}. Conclusions: The results of this study were compared to a previous study using HC-PCF to trap industrial gases and backward-scatter 514.5 nm light from them. The authors found that the method presented in this paper has an advantage to enhance the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). This SNR advantage, coupled with the better transmission of HC-PCF in the near-IR than in the

  13. REVIEW: Optics of globular photonic crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorelik, V. S.

    2007-05-01

    The results of experimental and theoretical studies of the optical properties of globular photonic crystals - new physical objects having a crystal structure with the lattice period exceeding considerably the atomic size, are presented. As globular photonic crystals, artificial opal matrices consisting of close-packed silica globules of diameter ~200 nm were used. The reflection spectra of these objects characterising the parameters of photonic bands existing in these crystals in the visible spectral region are presented. The idealised models of the energy band structure of photonic crystals investigated in the review give analytic dispersion dependences for the group velocity and the effective photon mass in a globular photonic crystal. The characteristics of secondary emission excited in globular photonic crystals by monochromatic and broadband radiation are presented. The results of investigations of single-photon-excited delayed scattering of light observed in globular photonic crystals exposed to cw UV radiation and radiation from a repetitively pulsed copper vapour laser are presented. The possibilities of using globular photonic crystals as active media for lasing in different spectral regions are considered. It is proposed to use globular photonic crystals as sensitive sensors in optoelectronic devices for molecular analysis of organic and inorganic materials by the modern methods of laser spectroscopy. The results of experimental studies of spontaneous and stimulated globular scattering of light are discussed. The conditions for observing resonance and two-photon-excited delayed scattering of light are found. The possibility of accumulation and localisation of the laser radiation energy inside a globular photonic crystal is reported.

  14. Design of a compact polarizing beam splitter based on a photonic crystal ring resonator with a triangular lattice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Tianbao; Huang, Jiehui; Liu, Nianhua; Yang, Jianyi; Liao, Qinghua; Jiang, Xiaoqing

    2010-04-10

    We propose and simulate a new kind of compact polarizing beam splitter (PBS) based on a photonic crystal ring resonator (PCRR) with complete photonic bandgaps. The two polarized states are separated far enough by resonant and nonresonant coupling between the waveguide modes and the microring modes. Some defect holes are utilized to control the beam propagation. The simulated results obtained by the finite-difference time-domain method show that high transmission (over 95%) is obtained and the polarization separation is realized with a length as short as 3.1 microm. The design of the proposed PBS can be flexible, thanks to the advantages of PCRRs.

  15. Inkjet Printing Based Mono-layered Photonic Crystal Patterning for Anti-counterfeiting Structural Colors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nam, Hyunmoon; Song, Kyungjun; Ha, Dogyeong; Kim, Taesung

    2016-01-01

    Photonic crystal structures can be created to manipulate electromagnetic waves so that many studies have focused on designing photonic band-gaps for various applications including sensors, LEDs, lasers, and optical fibers. Here, we show that mono-layered, self-assembled photonic crystals (SAPCs) fabricated by using an inkjet printer exhibit extremely weak structural colors and multiple colorful holograms so that they can be utilized in anti-counterfeit measures. We demonstrate that SAPC patterns on a white background are covert under daylight, such that pattern detection can be avoided, but they become overt in a simple manner under strong illumination with smartphone flash light and/or on a black background, showing remarkable potential for anti-counterfeit techniques. Besides, we demonstrate that SAPCs yield different RGB histograms that depend on viewing angles and pattern densities, thus enhancing their cryptographic capabilities. Hence, the structural colorations designed by inkjet printers would not only produce optical holograms for the simple authentication of many items and products but also enable a high-secure anti-counterfeit technique. PMID:27487978

  16. Plasmonic-photonic crystal coupled nanolaser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Taiping; Callard, Ségolène; Jamois, Cécile; Chevalier, Céline; Feng, Di; Belarouci, Ali

    2014-01-01

    We propose and demonstrate a hybrid photonic-plasmonic nanolaser that combines the light harvesting features of a dielectric photonic crystal cavity with the extraordinary confining properties of an optical nano-antenna. For this purpose, we developed a novel fabrication method based on multi-step electron-beam lithography. We show that it enables the robust and reproducible production of hybrid structures, using a fully top-down approach to accurately position the antenna. Coherent coupling of the photonic and plasmonic modes is highlighted and opens up a broad range of new hybrid nanophotonic devices. (paper)

  17. Efficient Fluorescence Resonance Energy Transfer between Quantum Dots and Gold Nanoparticles Based on Porous Silicon Photonic Crystal for DNA Detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hongyan; Lv, Jie; Jia, Zhenhong

    2017-05-10

    A novel assembled biosensor was prepared for detecting 16S rRNA, a small-size persistent specific for Actinobacteria. The mechanism of the porous silicon (PS) photonic crystal biosensor is based on the fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) between quantum dots (QDs) and gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) through DNA hybridization, where QDs act as an emission donor and AuNPs serve as a fluorescence quencher. Results showed that the photoluminescence (PL) intensity of PS photonic crystal was drastically increased when the QDs-conjugated probe DNA was adhered to the PS layer by surface modification using a standard cross-link chemistry method. The PL intensity of QDs was decreased when the addition of AuNPs-conjugated complementary 16S rRNA was dropped onto QDs-conjugated PS. Based on the analysis of different target DNA concentration, it was found that the decrease of the PL intensity showed a good linear relationship with complementary DNA concentration in a range from 0.25 to 10 μM, and the detection limit was 328.7 nM. Such an optical FRET biosensor functions on PS-based photonic crystal for DNA detection that differs from the traditional FRET, which is used only in liquid. This method will benefit the development of a new optical FRET label-free biosensor on Si substrate and has great potential in biochips based on integrated optical devices.

  18. All-optical tunable photonic crystal cavity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pu, Minhao; Liu, Liu; Ou, Haiyan

    2010-01-01

    We demonstrate an ultra-small photonic crystal cavity with two resonant modes. An all-optical tuning operation based on the free-carrier plasma effect is, for the first time, realized utilizing a continuous wave light source. The termo-optical effect is minimized by isoproponal infiltration...

  19. Fabrication and Analysis of Photonic Crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Dean J.; Korte, Kylee E.; Xia, Younan

    2007-01-01

    These laboratory experiments are designed to explore aspects of nanoscale chemistry by constructing and spectroscopically analyzing thin films of photonic crystals. Films comprised of colloidal spheres and polydimethylsiloxane exhibit diffraction-based stop bands that shift reversibly upon exposure to some common solvents. Topics covered in these…

  20. All-optical analog-to-digital converter based on Kerr effect in photonic crystal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jafari, Dariush; Nurmohammadi, Tofiq; Asadi, Mohammad Javad; Abbasian, Karim

    2018-05-01

    In this paper, a novel all-optical analog-to-digital converter (AOADC) is proposed and simulated for proof of principle. This AOADC is designed to operate in the range of telecom wavelength (1550 nm). A cavity made of nonlinear Kerr material in photonic crystal (PhC), is designed to achieve an optical analog-to-digital conversion with 1 Tera sample per second (TS/s) and the total footprint of 42 μm2 . The simulation is done using finite-difference time domain (FDTD) method.

  1. Photonic Crystal Polarizing and Non-Polarizing Beam Splitters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chun-Ying, Guan; Jin-Hui, Shi; Li-Boo, Yuan

    2008-01-01

    A polarizing beam splitter (PBS) and a non-polarizing beam splitter (NPBS) based on a photonic crystal (PC) directional coupler are demonstrated. The photonic crystal directional coupler consists of a hexagonal lattice of dielectric pillars in air and has a complete photonic band gap. The photonic band structure and the band gap map are calculated using the plane wave expansion (PWE) method. The splitting properties of the splitter are investigated numerically using the finite difference time domain (FDTD) method

  2. Visible light dynamical diffraction in a 1-D photonic crystal-based interferometer with an extremely thin spacer layer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prudnikov, I.R.

    2016-01-01

    Properties of light diffraction in a Fabry–Pérot-like interferometer composed of two 1-D photonic crystals and a nanometer-thick spacer layer are analytically investigated. It is shown that the resonant enhancement of light wave intensity in such a layer is possible because of light dynamical diffraction from the photonic crystals of the interferometer. Numerical simulations of (i) light reflectivity and transmittance curves of the interferometer having an ultra-thin spacer layer (its thickness changes from less than 1 nm to about 10 nm) and (ii) the resonant distribution of the light wave intensity in the vicinity of the layer are performed. Based on the numerical simulations, potentialities for the determination of the structural parameters (e.g., thicknesses and refraction indexes) of ultra-thin spacer films are discussed. A difference is found to appear in resonant intensity enhancements inside the ultra-thin spacer layers between s- and p-polarized light waves.

  3. FDTD simulation for plasma photonic crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Shaobin; Zhu Chuanxi; Yuan Naichang

    2005-01-01

    Plasma photonic crystals are artificially periodic structures, which are composed of plasmas and dielectric structures (or vacuum). In this paper, the piecewise linear current density recursive convolution (PLCDRC) finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method is applied to study the plasma photonic crystals and those containing defects. In time-domain, the electromagnetic (EM) propagation process and reflection/transmission electric field of Gauss pulses passing through the plasma photonic crystals are investigated. In frequency-domain, the reflection and transmission coefficients of the pulses through the two kinds of crystals are computed. The results illustrate that the plasma photonic crystals mostly reflect for the EM wave of frequencies less than the plasma frequency, and mostly transmit for EM wave of frequencies higher than the plasma frequency. In high frequency domain, the plasma photonic crystals have photonic band gaps, which is analogous to the conventional photonic crystals. (authors)

  4. Optical Magnetometer Incorporating Photonic Crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulikov, Igor; Florescu, Lucia

    2007-01-01

    According to a proposal, photonic crystals would be used to greatly increase the sensitivities of optical magnetometers that are already regarded as ultrasensitive. The proposal applies, more specifically, to a state-of-the-art type of quantum coherent magnetometer that exploits the electromagnetically-induced-transparency (EIT) method for determining a small change in a magnetic field indirectly via measurement of the shift, induced by that change, in the hyperfine levels of resonant atoms exposed to the field.

  5. Photonic crystals, amorphous materials, and quasicrystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edagawa, Keiichi

    2014-06-01

    Photonic crystals consist of artificial periodic structures of dielectrics, which have attracted much attention because of their wide range of potential applications in the field of optics. We may also fabricate artificial amorphous or quasicrystalline structures of dielectrics, i.e. photonic amorphous materials or photonic quasicrystals. So far, both theoretical and experimental studies have been conducted to reveal the characteristic features of their optical properties, as compared with those of conventional photonic crystals. In this article, we review these studies and discuss various aspects of photonic amorphous materials and photonic quasicrystals, including photonic band gap formation, light propagation properties, and characteristic photonic states.

  6. Computational Modeling of Photonic Crystal Microcavity Single-Photon Emitters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saulnier, Nicole A.

    Conventional cryptography is based on algorithms that are mathematically complex and difficult to solve, such as factoring large numbers. The advent of a quantum computer would render these schemes useless. As scientists work to develop a quantum computer, cryptographers are developing new schemes for unconditionally secure cryptography. Quantum key distribution has emerged as one of the potential replacements of classical cryptography. It relics on the fact that measurement of a quantum bit changes the state of the bit and undetected eavesdropping is impossible. Single polarized photons can be used as the quantum bits, such that a quantum system would in some ways mirror the classical communication scheme. The quantum key distribution system would include components that create, transmit and detect single polarized photons. The focus of this work is on the development of an efficient single-photon source. This source is comprised of a single quantum dot inside of a photonic crystal microcavity. To better understand the physics behind the device, a computational model is developed. The model uses Finite-Difference Time-Domain methods to analyze the electromagnetic field distribution in photonic crystal microcavities. It uses an 8-band k · p perturbation theory to compute the energy band structure of the epitaxially grown quantum dots. We discuss a method that combines the results of these two calculations for determining the spontaneous emission lifetime of a quantum dot in bulk material or in a microcavity. The computational models developed in this thesis are used to identify and characterize microcavities for potential use in a single-photon source. The computational tools developed are also used to investigate novel photonic crystal microcavities that incorporate 1D distributed Bragg reflectors for vertical confinement. It is found that the spontaneous emission enhancement in the quasi-3D cavities can be significantly greater than in traditional suspended slab

  7. Photonic band gap engineering in 2D photonic crystals

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Department of Applied Physics, Delhi College of Engineering, Faculty of Technology. (University of ... Photonic crystal; photonic band gap; plane-wave expansion method. PACS Nos 71.20 .... Numerical analysis and results. To obtain the ...

  8. Design and realization of transparent solar modules based on luminescent solar concentrators integrating nanostructured photonic crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez‐Solano, Alberto; Delgado‐Sánchez, José‐Maria; Calvo, Mauricio E.; Miranda‐Muñoz, José M.; Lozano, Gabriel; Sancho, Diego; Sánchez‐Cortezón, Emilio

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Herein, we present a prototype of a photovoltaic module that combines a luminescent solar concentrator integrating one‐dimensional photonic crystals and in‐plane CuInGaSe2 (CIGS) solar cells. Highly uniform and wide‐area nanostructured multilayers with photonic crystal properties were deposited by a cost‐efficient and scalable liquid processing amenable to large‐scale fabrication. Their role is to both maximize light absorption in the targeted spectral range, determined by the fluorophore employed, and minimize losses caused by emission at angles within the escape cone of the planar concentrator. From a structural perspective, the porous nature of the layers facilitates the integration with the thermoplastic polymers typically used to encapsulate and seal these modules. Judicious design of the module geometry, as well as of the optical properties of the dielectric mirrors employed, allows optimizing light guiding and hence photovoltaic performance while preserving a great deal of transparency. Optimized in‐plane designs like the one herein proposed are of relevance for building integrated photovoltaics, as ease of fabrication, long‐term stability and improved performance are simultaneously achieved. © 2015 The Authors. Progress in Photovoltaics: Research and Applications published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. PMID:27656090

  9. Design and realization of transparent solar modules based on luminescent solar concentrators integrating nanostructured photonic crystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez-Solano, Alberto; Delgado-Sánchez, José-Maria; Calvo, Mauricio E; Miranda-Muñoz, José M; Lozano, Gabriel; Sancho, Diego; Sánchez-Cortezón, Emilio; Míguez, Hernán

    2015-12-01

    Herein, we present a prototype of a photovoltaic module that combines a luminescent solar concentrator integrating one-dimensional photonic crystals and in-plane CuInGaSe 2 (CIGS) solar cells. Highly uniform and wide-area nanostructured multilayers with photonic crystal properties were deposited by a cost-efficient and scalable liquid processing amenable to large-scale fabrication. Their role is to both maximize light absorption in the targeted spectral range, determined by the fluorophore employed, and minimize losses caused by emission at angles within the escape cone of the planar concentrator. From a structural perspective, the porous nature of the layers facilitates the integration with the thermoplastic polymers typically used to encapsulate and seal these modules. Judicious design of the module geometry, as well as of the optical properties of the dielectric mirrors employed, allows optimizing light guiding and hence photovoltaic performance while preserving a great deal of transparency. Optimized in-plane designs like the one herein proposed are of relevance for building integrated photovoltaics, as ease of fabrication, long-term stability and improved performance are simultaneously achieved. © 2015 The Authors. Progress in Photovoltaics: Research and Applications published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Laser guiding of cold atoms in photonic crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tarasishin, A V; Magnitskiy, Sergey A; Shuvaev, V A; Zheltikov, Aleksei M

    2000-01-01

    The possibility of using photonic crystals with a lattice defect for the laser guiding of cold atoms is analysed. We have found a configuration of a photonic-crystal lattice and a defect ensuring the distribution of a potential in the defect mode of the photonic crystal allowing the guiding of cold atoms along the defect due to the dipole force acting on atoms. Based on quantitative estimates, we have demonstrated that photonic crystals with a lattice defect permit the guiding of atoms with much higher transverse temperatures and a much higher transverse localisation degree than in the case of hollow-core fibres. (laser applications and other topics in quantum electronics)

  11. Photonic crystals: role of architecture and disorder on spectral properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Rupesh; Audhkhasi, Romil; Thyagarajan, Krishna; Banerjee, Varsha

    2018-03-01

    Many of the present-day optical devices use photonic crystals. These are multilayers of dielectric media that control the reflection and transmission of light falling on them. In this paper, we study the optical properties of periodic, fractal, and aperiodic photonic crystals and compare them based on their attributes. Our calculations of the band reflectivity and degree of robustness reveal novel features, e.g., fractal photonic crystals are found to reflect the maximum amount of incident light. On the other hand, aperiodic photonic crystals have the largest immunity to disorder. We believe that such properties will be useful in a variety of applications in the field of optical communication.

  12. Hybrid photonic-crystal fiber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markos, Christos; Travers, John C.; Abdolvand, Amir; Eggleton, Benjamin J.; Bang, Ole

    2017-10-01

    This article offers an extensive survey of results obtained using hybrid photonic-crystal fibers (PCFs) which constitute one of the most active research fields in contemporary fiber optics. The ability to integrate novel and functional materials in solid- and hollow-core PCFs through various postprocessing methods has enabled new directions toward understanding fundamental linear and nonlinear phenomena as well as novel application aspects, within the fields of optoelectronics, material and laser science, remote sensing, and spectroscopy. Here the recent progress in the field of hybrid PCFs is reviewed from scientific and technological perspectives, focusing on how different fluids, solids, and gases can significantly extend the functionality of PCFs. The first part of this review discusses the efforts to develop tunable linear and nonlinear fiber-optic devices using PCFs infiltrated with various liquids, glasses, semiconductors, and metals. The second part concentrates on recent and state-of-the-art advances in the field of gas-filled hollow-core PCFs. Extreme ultrafast gas-based nonlinear optics toward light generation in the extreme wavelength regions of vacuum ultraviolet, pulse propagation, and compression dynamics in both atomic and molecular gases, and novel soliton-plasma interactions are reviewed. A discussion of future prospects and directions is also included.

  13. Topological photonic crystals with zero Berry curvature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Feng; Deng, Hai-Yao; Wakabayashi, Katsunori

    2018-02-01

    Topological photonic crystals are designed based on the concept of Zak's phase rather than the topological invariants such as the Chern number and spin Chern number, which rely on the existence of a nonvanishing Berry curvature. Our photonic crystals (PCs) are made of pure dielectrics and sit on a square lattice obeying the C4 v point-group symmetry. Two varieties of PCs are considered: one closely resembles the electronic two-dimensional Su-Schrieffer-Heeger model, and the other continues as an extension of this analogy. In both cases, the topological transitions are induced by adjusting the lattice constants. Topological edge modes (TEMs) are shown to exist within the nontrivial photonic band gaps on the termination of those PCs. The high efficiency of these TEMs transferring electromagnetic energy against several types of disorders has been demonstrated using the finite-element method.

  14. The polarization modulation and fabrication method of two dimensional silica photonic crystals based on UV nanoimprint lithography and hot imprint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Shuai; Niu, Chunhui; Liang, Liang; Chai, Ke; Jia, Yaqing; Zhao, Fangyin; Li, Ya; Zou, Bingsuo; Liu, Ruibin

    2016-10-04

    Based on a silica sol-gel technique, highly-structurally ordered silica photonic structures were fabricated by UV lithography and hot manual nanoimprint efforts, which makes large-scale fabrication of silica photonic crystals easy and results in low-cost. These photonic structures show perfect periodicity, smooth and flat surfaces and consistent aspect ratios, which are checked by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). In addition, glass substrates with imprinted photonic nanostructures show good diffraction performance in both transmission and reflection mode. Furthermore, the reflection efficiency can be enhanced by 5 nm Au nanoparticle coating, which does not affect the original imprint structure. Also the refractive index and dielectric constant of the imprinted silica is close to that of the dielectric layer in nanodevices. In addition, the polarization characteristics of the reflected light can be modulated by stripe nanostructures through changing the incident light angle. The experimental findings match with theoretical results, making silica photonic nanostructures functional integration layers in many optical or optoelectronic devices, such as LED and microlasers to enhance the optical performance and modulate polarization properties in an economical and large-scale way.

  15. Resonant Photonic States in Coupled Heterostructure Photonic Crystal Waveguides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabarinathan J

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In this paper, we study the photonic resonance states and transmission spectra of coupled waveguides made from heterostructure photonic crystals. We consider photonic crystal waveguides made from three photonic crystals A, B and C, where the waveguide heterostructure is denoted as B/A/C/A/B. Due to the band structure engineering, light is confined within crystal A, which thus act as waveguides. Here, photonic crystal C is taken as a nonlinear photonic crystal, which has a band gap that may be modified by applying a pump laser. We have found that the number of bound states within the waveguides depends on the width and well depth of photonic crystal A. It has also been found that when both waveguides are far away from each other, the energies of bound photons in each of the waveguides are degenerate. However, when they are brought close to each other, the degeneracy of the bound states is removed due to the coupling between them, which causes these states to split into pairs. We have also investigated the effect of the pump field on photonic crystal C. We have shown that by applying a pump field, the system may be switched between a double waveguide to a single waveguide, which effectively turns on or off the coupling between degenerate states. This reveals interesting results that can be applied to develop new types of nanophotonic devices such as nano-switches and nano-transistors.

  16. A novel optical beam splitter based on photonic crystal with hybrid lattices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Qing-Yi; Fu Yong-Qi; Zhang Zhi-Min; Hu De-Qing

    2012-01-01

    A novel optical beam splitter constructed on the basis of photonic crystal (PC) with hybrid lattices is proposed in this paper. The band gap of square-lattice PC is so designed that the incident light is divided into several branch beams. Triangular-lattice graded-index PCs are combined for focusing each branch. Computational calculations are carried out on the basis of finite-different time-domain algorithm to prove the feasibility of our design. The waveguide is unnecessary in the design. Thus the device has functions of both splitting and focusing beams. Size of the divided beam at site of full-width at half-maximum is of the order of λ/2. The designed splitter has the advantages that it has a small volume and can be integrated by conventional semiconductor manufacturing process. (electromagnetism, optics, acoustics, heat transfer, classical mechanics, and fluid dynamics)

  17. An Integrative Biosensor Based on Contra-Directional Coupling Two-dimensional Photonic Crystal Waveguides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiao-Yu, Mao; Di-Bi, Yao; Ling-Yun, Zhao; Yi-Dong, Huang; Wei, Zhang; Jiang-De, Peng

    2008-01-01

    We propose an integrative biochemical sensor utilizing the dip in the transmission spectrum of a normal single-line defect photonic crystal (PC) waveguide, which has a contra-directional coupling with another PC waveguide. When the air holes in the PC slab are filled with a liquid analyte with different refractive indices, the dip has a wavelength shift By detecting the output power variation at a certain fixed wavelength, a sensitivity of 1.2 × 10 −4 is feasible. This structure is easy for integration due to its plane waveguide structure and omissible pump source. In addition, high signal to noise ratio can be expected because signal transmits via a normal single-line defect PC waveguide instead of the PC hole area or analyte

  18. 16-channel DWDM based on 1D defect mode nonlinear photonic crystal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalhan, Abhishek; Sharma, Sanjeev; Kumar, Arun

    2018-05-01

    We propose a sixteen-channel Dense Wavelength Division Multiplexer (DWDM), using the 1-D defect mode nonlinear photonic crystal which is a function of intensity as well as wavelength. Here, we consider an alternate layer of two semiconductor materials in which we found the bandgap of materials when defect layer is introduced then 16-channel dense wavelength division multiplexer is obtained within bandgap. From the theoretical analysis, we can achieve average quality factor of 7800.4, the uniform spectral line-width of 0.2 nm, crosstalk of -31.4 dB, central wavelength changes 0.07 nm/(1GW/cm2) and 100% transmission efficiency. Thus, Sixteen-channel DWDM has very high quality factor, low crosstalk, near 100% power transmission efficiency and small channel spacing (1.44 nm).

  19. Photonic-Crystal-Based Thin Film Sensor for Detecting Volatile Organic Compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Hyung Kwan; Park, Jung Yul [Sogang Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-03-15

    Early detection of toxic gases, such as volatile organic compounds (VOCs), is important for safety and environmental protection. However, the conventional detection methods require long-term measurement times and expensive equipment. In this study, we propose a thin-film-type chemical sensor for VOCs, which consists of self assembled monosize nanoparticles for 3-D photonic crystal structures and polydimthylsiloxane (PDMS) film. It is operated without any external power source, is truly portable, and has a fast response time. The structure color of the sensor changes when it is exposed to VOCs, because VOCs induce a swelling of the PDMS. Therefore, using this principle of color change, we can create a thin-film sensor for immediate detection of various types of VOCs. The proposed device evidences that a fast response time of just seconds, along with a clear color change, are successfully observed when the sensor is exposed to gas-phase VOCs.

  20. Tunable dual-channel filter based on the photonic crystal with air defects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xiaodan; Yang, Yibiao; Wen, Jianhua; Chen, Zhihui; Zhang, Mingda; Fei, Hongming; Hao, Yuying

    2017-07-01

    We propose a tuning filter containing two channels by inserting a defect layer (Air/Si/Air/Si/Air) into a one-dimensional photonic crystal of Si/SiO 2 , which is on the symmetry of the defect. Two transmission peaks (1528.98 and 1564.74 nm) appear in the optical communication S-band and C-band, and the transmittance of these two channels is up to 100%. In addition, this design realizes multi-channel filtering to process large dynamic range or multiple independent signals in the near-infrared band by changing the structure. The tuning range will be enlarged, and the channels can be moved in this range through the easy control of air thickness and incident angle.

  1. Tunable omnidirectional absorber and mode splitter based on semiconductor photonic crystal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ding, Guo-Wen; Liu, Shao-Bin; Zhang, Hai-Feng; Kong, Xiang-Kun; Li, Hai-Ming

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, the properties of one-dimensional (1D) photonic crystals (PCs) composed of the semiconductor (GaAs) and dielectric layers are theoretically investigated by the transfer matrix method (TMM). The absorption of semiconductor layers is investigated theoretically. Due to the magneto-optical Voigt effect, the dielectric constant of the semiconductor is modified differently in different modes and frequency ranges. If the frequency range of the incident wave is larger than the plasma frequency, TE and TM modes of the incident wave will be absorbed in a wide incident angle. TM wave will be absorbed but TE wave will be reflected while the frequency range is less than the plasma frequency. The absorption of semiconductor can also be tuned by varying the external magnetic field. The proposed PCs have a reconfigurable application to design a tunable omnidirectional absorber and mode splitter at same time

  2. Harmonic Mode-Locked Fiber Laser based on Photonic Crystal Fiber Filled with Topological Insulator Solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Shan Chen

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available We reported that the photonic crystal fiber (PCF filled with TI:Bi2Te3 nanosheets solution could act as an effective saturable absorber (SA. Employing this TI-PCF SA device; we constructed an ytterbium-doped all-fiber laser oscillator and achieved the evanescent wave mode-locking operation. Due to the large cavity dispersion; the fundamental mode-locking pulse had the large full width at half maximum (FWHM of 2.33 ns with the repetition rate of ~1.11 MHz; and the radio frequency (RF spectrum with signal-to-noise ratio (SNR of 61 dB. In addition; the transition dynamics from a bunched state of pulses to harmonic mode-locking (HML was also observed; which was up to 26th order.

  3. Vectorial near-field imaging of a GaN based photonic crystal cavity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    La China, F.; Intonti, F.; Caselli, N.; Lotti, F.; Vinattieri, A.; Gurioli, M.; Vico Triviño, N.; Carlin, J.-F.; Butté, R.; Grandjean, N.

    2015-01-01

    We report a full optical deep sub-wavelength imaging of the vectorial components of the electric local density of states for the confined modes of a modified GaN L3 photonic crystal nanocavity. The mode mapping is obtained with a scanning near-field optical microscope operating in a resonant forward scattering configuration, allowing the vectorial characterization of optical passive samples. The optical modes of the investigated cavity emerge as Fano resonances and can be probed without the need of embedded light emitters or evanescent light coupling into the nanocavity. The experimental maps, independently measured in the two in-plane polarizations, turn out to be in excellent agreement with numerical predictions

  4. Soliton-based ultrafast multi-wavelength nonlinear switching in dual-core photonic crystal fibre

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stajanca, P; Pysz, D; Michalka, M; Bugar, I; Andriukaitis, G; Balciunas, T; Fan, G; Baltuska, A

    2014-01-01

    Systematic experimental study of ultrafast multi-wavelength all-optical switching performance in a dual-core photonic crystal fibre is presented. The focus is on nonlinearly induced switching between the two output ports at non-excitation wavelengths, which are generated during nonlinear propagation of femtosecond pulses in the anomalous dispersion region of a dual-core photonic crystal fibre made of multicomponent glass. Spatial and spectral characteristics of the fibre output radiation were measured separately for both fibre cores under various polarization and intensity conditions upon selective, individual excitation of each fibre core. Polarization-controlled nonlinear switching performance at multiple non-excitation wavelengths was demonstrated in the long-wavelength optical communication bands and beyond. Depending on the input pulse polarization, narrowband switching operation at 1560 nm and 1730 nm takes place with double core extinction ratio contrasts of 9 dB and 14.5 dB, respectively. Moreover, our approach allows switching with simultaneous wavelength shift from 1650 to 1775 nm with extinction ratio contrast larger than 18 dB. In addition, non-reciprocal behaviour of the soliton fission process under different fibre core excitations was observed and its effect on the multi-wavelength nonlinear switching performance was explained, taking into account the slight dual-core structure asymmetry. The obtained results represent ultrafast all-optical switching with an extended dimension of wavelength shift, controllable with both the input radiation intensity and the polarization by simple propagation along a 14 mm long fibre. (paper)

  5. Photonic crystal fiber design for broadband directional coupling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lægsgaard, Jesper; Bang, Ole; Bjarklev, Anders Overgaard

    2004-01-01

    A novel design for a broadband directional coupler based on a photonic crystal fiber is investigated numerically. It is shown that suitable index-depressing doping of the core regions in an index-guiding twin-core photonic crystal fiber can stabilize the coupling coefficient between the cores over...

  6. Rare-Earth Doped Photonic Crystal Fibre Lasers and Amplifiers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hougaard, Kristian G.

    2005-01-01

    In this thesis, a theoretical and numerical study of the use of rare-earthdoped photonic crystal fibres as optical amplifiers and lasers, has been performed. Photonic crystal fibres or microstructured optical fibres is a new kind of optical fibre in which the cladding region typically consist....... Their novel properties allow for design of optical fibre amplifiers and fibre lasers with superior performance, compared to solutions based on conventional fibres. The primary applications considered are high efficiency fibre amplifiers based on index guiding photonic crystal fibres, and cladding pumped....... The thesis also presents the basic properties of optical amplification, and describes the numerical model developed to model the behaviour of lasers and amplifiers based on photonic crystal fibres. The developed numerical tools are then used to investigate specific applications of photonic crystal fibres...

  7. Photonic crystals: A novel approach to enhance the light output of scintillation based detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Knapitsch, A; Leclercq, J L; Letartre, X; Auffray, E; Fabjan, C W

    2011-01-01

    Future high-energy physics (HEP) experiments as well as next generation medical imaging applications are more and more pushing towards better scintillation characteristics. One of the problems in heavy scintillating materials is related to their high electronic density, resulting in a large index of refraction. As a consequence, most of the scintillation light produced in the bulk material is trapped inside the crystal due to total internal reflection. The same problem also occurs with light emitting diodes (LEDs) and has for a long time been considered as a limiting factor for their overall efficiency. Recent studies have shown that those limits can be overcome by means of light scattering effects of photonic crystals (PhCs). In our simulations we could show light yield improvements between 90\\% and 110\\% when applying PhC structures to different scintillator materials. To evaluate the results, a PhC modified scintillator was produced in cooperation with the NIL (Nanotechnology Institute of Lyon). By using s...

  8. Design and Development of a Robot-Based Automation System for Cryogenic Crystal Sample Mounting at the Advanced Photon Source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shu, D.; Preissner, C.; Nocher, D.; Han, Y.; Barraza, J.; Lee, P.; Lee, W.-K.; Cai, Z.; Ginell, S.; Alkire, R.; Lazarski, K.; Schuessler, R.; Joachimiak, A.

    2004-01-01

    X-ray crystallography is the primary method to determine the 3D structures of complex macromolecules at high resolution. In the years to come, the Advanced Photon Source (APS) and similar 3rd-generation synchrotron sources elsewhere will become the most powerful tools for studying atomic structures of biological molecules. One of the major bottlenecks in the x-ray data collection process is the constant need to change and realign the crystal sample. This is a very time- and manpower-consuming task. An automated sample mounting system will help to solve this bottleneck problem. We have developed a novel robot-based automation system for cryogenic crystal sample mounting at the APS. Design of the robot-based automation system, as well as its on-line test results at the Argonne Structural Biology Center (SBC) 19-BM experimental station, are presented in this paper

  9. Design of a Novel Polarized Beam Splitter Based on a Two-Dimensional Photonic Crystal Resonator Cavity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Xuan; Chen Shu-Wen; Liao Qing-Hua; Yu Tian-Bao; Liu Nian-Hua; Huang Yong-Zhen

    2011-01-01

    We propose and analyze a novel ultra-compact polarization beam splitter based on a resonator cavity in a two-dimensional photonic crystal. The two polarizations can be separated efficiently by the strong coupling between the microcavities and the waveguides occurring around the resonant frequency of the cavities. The transmittance of two polarized light around 1.55 μm can be more than 98.6%, and the size of the device is less than 15 μm×13 μm, so these features will play an important role in future integrated optical circuits. (fundamental areas of phenomenology(including applications))

  10. In-line microfluidic refractometer based on C-shaped fiber assisted photonic crystal fiber Sagnac interferometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Chuang; Tse, Ming-Leung Vincent; Liu, Zhengyong; Guan, Bai-Ou; Lu, Chao; Tam, Hwa-Yaw

    2013-09-01

    We propose and demonstrate a highly sensitive in-line photonic crystal fiber (PCF) microfluidic refractometer. Ultrathin C-shaped fibers are spliced in-between the PCF and standard single-mode fibers. The C-shaped fibers provide openings for liquid to flow in and out of the PCF. Based on a Sagnac interferometer, the refractive index (RI) response of the device is investigated theoretically and experimentally. A high sensitivity of 6621 nm/RIU for liquid RI from 1.330 to 1.333 is achieved in the experiment, which agrees well with the theoretical analysis.

  11. Lithographic wavelength control of an external cavity laser with a silicon photonic crystal cavity-based resonant reflector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liles, Alexandros A; Debnath, Kapil; O'Faolain, Liam

    2016-03-01

    We report the experimental demonstration of a new design for external cavity hybrid lasers consisting of a III-V semiconductor optical amplifier (SOA) with fiber reflector and a photonic crystal (PhC)-based resonant reflector on SOI. The silicon reflector is composed of an SU8 polymer bus waveguide vertically coupled to a PhC cavity and provides a wavelength-selective optical feedback to the laser cavity. This device exhibits milliwatt-level output power and side-mode suppression ratios of more than 25 dB.

  12. Photonic Crystals: Physics and Technology

    CERN Document Server

    Sibilia, Concita; Marciniak, Marian; Szoplik, Tomasz

    2008-01-01

    The aim of the work is give an overview of the activity in the field of Photonic Crystal developed in the frame of COST P11 action . The main objective of the COST P11 action was to unify and coordinate national efforts aimed at studying linear and nonlinear optical interactions with Photonic Crystals (PCs), without neglecting an important aspect related to the material research as idea and methods of realizations of 3D PC, together with the development and implementation of measurement techniques for the experimental evaluation of their potential applications in different area, as for example telecommunication with novel optical fibers, lasers, nonlinear multi-functionality, display devices , opto-electronics, sensors. The book contain contributions from authors who gave their lecture at the Cost P11 Training School. Training School was held at the Warsaw University (2007) and National Institute of Telecommunications (May 23), Warsaw. It was attended by 23 students. The focus of the School was on the work of...

  13. Angular shaping of fluorescence from synthetic opal-based photonic crystal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boiko, Vitalii; Dovbeshko, Galyna; Dolgov, Leonid; Kiisk, Valter; Sildos, Ilmo; Loot, Ardi; Gorelik, Vladimir

    2015-01-01

    Spectral, angular, and temporal distributions of fluorescence as well as specular reflection were investigated for silica-based artificial opals. Periodic arrangement of nanosized silica globules in the opal causes a specific dip in the defect-related fluorescence spectra and a peak in the reflectance spectrum. The spectral position of the dip coincides with the photonic stop band. The latter is dependent on the size of silica globules and the angle of observation. The spectral shape and intensity of defect-related fluorescence can be controlled by variation of detection angle. Fluorescence intensity increases up to two times at the edges of the spectral dip. Partial photobleaching of fluorescence was observed. Photonic origin of the observed effects is discussed.

  14. Theory of fluorescence in photonic crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vats, Nipun; John, Sajeev; Busch, Kurt

    2002-01-01

    We present a formalism for the description of fluorescence from optically active materials embedded in a photonic crystal structure possessing a photonic band gap or pseudogap. An electromagnetic field expansion in terms of Bloch modes of the crystal is used to develop the equations for fluorescence in terms of the local density of photon modes available to the emitting atoms in either the high or low dielectric regions of the crystal. We then obtain expressions for fluorescence spectra and emission dynamics for luminescent materials in photonic crystals. The validity of our formalism is demonstrated through the calculation of relevant quantities for model photon densities of states. The connection of our calculations to the description of realistic systems is discussed. We also describe the consequences of these analyses on the accurate description of the interaction between radiative systems and the electromagnetic reservoir within photonic crystals

  15. Spatial solitons in nonlinear photonic crystals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Corney, Joel Frederick; Bang, Ole

    2000-01-01

    We study solitons in one-dimensional quadratic nonlinear photonic crystals with periodic linear and nonlinear susceptibilities. We show that such crystals support stable bright and dark solitons, even when the effective quadratic nonlinearity is zero.......We study solitons in one-dimensional quadratic nonlinear photonic crystals with periodic linear and nonlinear susceptibilities. We show that such crystals support stable bright and dark solitons, even when the effective quadratic nonlinearity is zero....

  16. Negative Refraction Angular Characterization in One-Dimensional Photonic Crystals

    OpenAIRE

    Lugo, Jesus Eduardo; Doti, Rafael; Faubert, Jocelyn

    2011-01-01

    Background Photonic crystals are artificial structures that have periodic dielectric components with different refractive indices. Under certain conditions, they abnormally refract the light, a phenomenon called negative refraction. Here we experimentally characterize negative refraction in a one dimensional photonic crystal structure; near the low frequency edge of the fourth photonic bandgap. We compare the experimental results with current theory and a theory based on the group velocity de...

  17. Transmission character of general function photonic crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xiang-Yao; Zhang, Bo-Jun; Yang, Jing-Hai; Zhang, Si-Qi; Liu, Xiao-Jing; Wang, Jing; Ba, Nuo; Hua, Zhong; Yin, Xin-Guo

    2012-08-01

    In the paper, we present a new general function photonic crystals (GFPCs), whose refractive index of medium is a arbitrary function of space position. Unlike conventional photonic crystals (PCs), whose structure grows from two mediums A and B, with different constant refractive indexes na and nb. Based on the Fermat principle, we give the motion equations of light in one-dimensional GFPCs, and calculate its transfer matrix, which is different from the conventional PCs. We choose the linearity refractive index function for two mediums A and B, and find the transmissivity of one-dimensional GFPCs can be much larger or smaller than 1 for different slope linearity refractive index functions, which are different from the transmissivity of conventional PCs (its transmissivity is in the range of 0 and 1). Otherwise, we study the effect of different incident angles, the number of periods and optical thickness on the transmissivity, and obtain some new results different from the conventional PCs.

  18. Giant photonic Hall effect in magnetophotonic crystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merzlikin, A M; Vinogradov, A P; Inoue, M; Granovsky, A B

    2005-10-01

    We have considered a simple, square, two-dimensional (2D) PC built of a magneto-optic matrix with square holes. It is shown that using such a magnetophotonic crystal it is possible to deflect a light beam at very large angles by applying a nonzero external magnetic field. The effect is called the giant photonic Hall effect (GPHE) or the magnetic superprism effect. The GPHE is based on magneto-optical properties, as is the photonic Hall effect [B. A. van Tiggelen and G. L. J. A. Rikken, in, edited by V. M. Shalaev (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 2002), p. 275]; however GPHE is not caused by asymmetrical light scattering but rather by the influence of an external magnetic field on the photonic band structure.

  19. Photonic crystal based sensor for organic solvents and for solvent-water mixtures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenzl, Christoph; Hirsch, Thomas; Wolfbeis, Otto S

    2012-12-12

    Monodisperse polystyrene nanoparticles with a diameter of 173 nm were incorporated into a polydimethylsiloxane matrix where they display an iridescent color that can be attributed to the photonic crystal effect. The film is of violet color if placed in plain water, but turns to red in the presence of the non-polar solvent n-hexane. Several solvents were studied in some detail. We show that such films are capable of monitoring the water content of ethanol/water mixtures, where only 1% (v/v) of water leads to a shift of the peak wavelength of reflected light by 5 nm. The method also can be applied to determine, both visually and instrumentally, the fraction of methanol in ethanol/methanol mixtures. Here, a fraction of 1% of methanol (v/v) results in a wavelength shift of 2 nm. The reflected wavelength is not influenced by temperature changes nor impeded by photobleaching. The signal changes are fully reversible and response times are <1 s.

  20. Photonic Crystal Based Sensor for Organic Solvents and for Solvent-Water Mixtures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Otto S. Wolfbeis

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Monodisperse polystyrene nanoparticles with a diameter of 173 nm were incorporated into a polydimethylsiloxane matrix where they display an iridescent color that can be attributed to the photonic crystal effect. The film is of violet color if placed in plain water, but turns to red in the presence of the non-polar solvent n-hexane. Several solvents were studied in some detail. We show that such films are capable of monitoring the water content of ethanol/water mixtures, where only 1% (v/v of water leads to a shift of the peak wavelength of reflected light by 5 nm. The method also can be applied to determine, both visually and instrumentally, the fraction of methanol in ethanol/methanol mixtures. Here, a fraction of 1% of methanol (v/v results in a wavelength shift of 2 nm. The reflected wavelength is not influenced by temperature changes nor impeded by photobleaching. The signal changes are fully reversible and response times are <1 s.

  1. Ultracompact 1×4 TM-polarized beam splitter based on photonic crystal surface mode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Bin; Zhang, Yejin; Wang, Yufei; Liu, Anjin; Zheng, Wanhua

    2012-05-01

    We provide an improved surface-mode photonic crystal (PhC) T-junction waveguide, combine it with an improved PhC bandgap T-junction waveguide, and then provide an ultracompact 1×4 TM-polarized beam splitter. The energy is split equally into the four output waveguides. The maximal transmission ratio of each output waveguide branch equals 24.7%, and the corresponding total transmission ratio of the ultracompact 1×4 beam splitter equals 98.8%. The normalized frequency of maximal transmission ratio is 0.397(2πc/a), and the bandwidth of the ultracompact 1×4 TM-polarized beam splitter is 0.0106(2πc/a). To the best of our knowledge, this is the first time such a high-efficiency 1×4 beam splitter exploiting the nonradiative surface mode as a guided mode has been proposed. Although we only employed a 1×4 beam splitter, our design can easily be extended to other 1×n beam splitters.

  2. Research on Distributed Gas Detection Based on Hollow-core Photonic Crystal Fiber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gui XIN

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available We have demonstrated a distributed gas detection system by using hollow-core photonic crystal fiber (HC-PCF as a gas chamber. The HC-PCF gas chamber has several lateral micro- channels fabricated by the femtosecond laser. The HC-PCF is connected to the single mode fiber by thermal splicing, and gas can diffuse in hollow-core of PCF via micro-channels. Compared to the traditional gas chamber, the HC-PCF gas chamber has relatively simpler construction and quite stability. According to experiment results, the system response time of 15 s has been achieved for a 5 cm HC-PCF which has ten channels with 4mm channel distance. It would construct long sensing length fiber gas sensor that the side holes and the splicer have introduced very little loss. Thus make it possible to achieve highly sensitive sensing system without influencing the response time. By using self-reference demodulation algorithm and space division multiplexing technique, distributed gas detection system with fast response was achieved.

  3. Two-dimensional photonic-crystal-based double switch-divider.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dmitriev, Victor; Martins, Leno

    2016-05-01

    We propose and investigate a new multifunctional component, consisting of a T-junction of three waveguides in 2D photonic crystal with a square lattice. One waveguide is the input port, while the other two serve as output ports. This component can fulfil three functions: First, it can switch OFF the two output ports; second, our component can be used as a 3 dB divider of the input power; and third, it can switch ON any one of the two output ports. Changing the regime is achieved by a DC magnetic field that magnetizes a cylindrical ferrite resonator placed in the T-junction. We present an analysis of the scattering matrices of the component and calculated frequency characteristics in the low terahertz region. In the frequency band of about 1 GHz with a central frequency of f=98.46  GHz, the device has the following parameters: isolation of the output ports from the input port in the first regime is better than -30  dB, division of the input signal is about (-3.8±1.0)  dB in the second regime, and isolation in the regime switch ON, where any one of the two output ports is higher than -15  dB and the insertion loss is lower than -2.0  dB.

  4. A novel Zeonex based oligoporous-core photonic crystal fiber for polarization preserving terahertz applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Md. Saiful; Sultana, Jakeya; Dinovitser, Alex; Ng, Brian W.-H.; Abbott, Derek

    2018-04-01

    A novel waveguide consisting of oligo-porous core photonic crystal fiber (PCF) with a kagome lattice cladding has been designed for highly birefringent and near zero dispersion flattened applications of terahertz waves. The wave guiding properties of the designed PCF including birefringence, dispersion, effective material loss (EML), core power fraction, confinement loss, and modal effective area are investigated using a full vector Finite Element Method (FEM) with Perfectly Matched Layer (PML) absorbing boundary condition. Simulation results demonstrate that an ultra-high birefringence of 0.079, low EML of 0.05 cm-1, higher core power fraction of 44% and negligible confinement loss of 7 . 24 × 10-7 cm-1 can be achieved at 1 THz. Furthermore, for the y-polarization mode a near zero flattened dispersion of 0 . 49 ± 0 . 05 ps/THz/cm is achieved within a broad frequency range of 0.8-1.7 THz. The fabrication of the proposed fiber is feasible using the existing fabrication technology. Due to favorable wave-guiding properties, the proposed fiber has potential for terahertz imaging, sensing and polarization maintaining applications in the terahertz frequency range.

  5. Dispersion properties of photonic crystal fibres

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjarklev, Anders Overgaard; Broeng, Jes; Dridi, Kim

    1998-01-01

    Approximate dispersion and bending properties of all-silica two-dimensional photonic crystal fibres are characterised by the combination of an effective-index model and classical analysis tools for optical fibres. We believe for the first time to have predicted the dispersion properties of photonic...... crystal fibres. The results strongly indicate that these fibres have potential applications as dispersion managing components...

  6. Precursors in photonic crystals - art. no. 618218

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Uitham, R.; Hoenders, B. J.; DeLaRue, RM; Viktorovitch, P; Lopez, C; Midrio, M

    2006-01-01

    We derive the Sommerfeld precursor and present the first calculations for the Brillouin precursor that result from the transmission of a pulse through a photonic crystal. The photonic crystal is modelled by a one-dimensional N-layer medium and the pulse is a generic electromagnetic plane wave packet

  7. Nanoimprinted polymer photonic crystal dye lasers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Mads Brøkner; Smith, Cameron; Buss, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    Optically pumped polymer photonic crystal band-edge dye lasers are presented. The photonic crystal is a rectangular lattice providing laser feedback as well as an optical resonance for the pump light. The lasers are defined in a thin film of photodefinable Ormocore hybrid polymer, doped...

  8. Selective filling of Photonic Crystal Fibres

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Kristian; Noordegraaf, Danny; Sørensen, Thorkild

    2005-01-01

    A model for calculating the time necessary for filling one or more specific holes in a photonic crystal fibre is made. This model is verified for water, and its enabling potential is illustrated by a polymer application. Selective filling of the core in an air-guide photonic crystal fibre...

  9. Photonic crystal scintillators and methods of manufacture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, Ricardo D.; Sexton, Lindsay T.; Fuentes, Roderick E.; Cortes-Concepcion, Jose

    2015-08-11

    Photonic crystal scintillators and their methods of manufacture are provided. Exemplary methods of manufacture include using a highly-ordered porous anodic alumina membrane as a pattern transfer mask for either the etching of underlying material or for the deposition of additional material onto the surface of a scintillator. Exemplary detectors utilizing such photonic crystal scintillators are also provided.

  10. Optical Properties of Metal-Dielectric Structures Based on Photon-Crystal Opal Matrices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanin, A. I.; Lukin, A. E.; Romanov, S. G.; Solovyev, V. G.; Khanin, S. D.; Yanikov, M. V.

    2018-04-01

    Optical properties of novel metal-dielectric nanocomposite materials based on opal matrices have been investigated. The position of optical resonances of nanocomposites, obtained by embedding of silver into the opal matrix by the electrothermodiffusion method, is explained by the Bragg diffraction, and an asymmetric form of resonance curves is attributed to the Fano resonance. An anomalous transmission and absorption of light by hybrid plasmon-photonic layered heterostructures, which is apparently associated with excitation of surface plasmon-polaritons, propagating along "metal-dielectric" interfaces, was revealed.

  11. Application of structural symmetries in the plane-wave-based transfer-matrix method for three-dimensional photonic crystal waveguides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Zhiyuan; Ho Kaiming

    2003-01-01

    The plane-wave-based transfer-matrix method (TMM) exhibits a peculiar advantage of being capable of solving eigenmodes involved in an infinite photonic crystal and electromagnetic (EM) wave propagation in finite photonic crystal slabs or even semi-infinite photonic crystal structures within the same theoretical framework. In addition, this theoretical approach can achieve much improved numerical convergency in solution of photonic band structures than the conventional plane-wave expansion method. In this paper we employ this TMM in combination with a supercell technique to handle two important kinds of three-dimensional (3D) photonic crystal waveguide structures. The first one is waveguides created in a 3D layer-by-layer photonic crystal that possesses a complete band gap, the other more popular one is waveguides built in a two-dimensional photonic crystal slab. These waveguides usually have mirror-reflection symmetries in one or two directions perpendicular to their axis. We have taken advantage of these structural symmetries to reduce the numerical burden of the TMM solution of the guided modes. The solution to the EM problems under these mirror-reflection symmetries in both the real space and the plane-wave space is discussed in a systematic way and in great detail. Both the periodic boundary condition and the absorbing boundary condition are employed to investigate structures with or without complete 3D optical confinement. The fact that the EM field components investigated in the TMM are collinear with the symmetric axes of the waveguide brings great convenience and clarity in exploring the eigenmode symmetry in both the real space and the plane-wave space. The classification of symmetry involved in the guided modes can help people to better understand the coupling of the photonic crystal waveguides with external channels such as dielectric slab or wire waveguides

  12. Development of photonic-crystal-fiber-based optical coupler with a broad operating wavelength range of 800 nm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoon, Min-Seok; Kwon, Oh-Jang; Kim, Hyun-Joo; Chu, Su-Ho; Kim, Gil-Hwan; Lee, Sang-Bae; Han, Young-Geun

    2010-01-01

    We developed a broadband optical coupler based on a photonic crystal fiber (PCF), which is very useful for applications to optical coherence tomography (OCT). The PCF-based coupler is fabricated by using a fused biconical tapering (FBT) method. The PCF has six hexagonally-stacked layers of air holes. The PCF-based coupler has a nearly-flat 50/50 coupling ratio in a broad bandwidth range of 800 nm, which is much wider than that previously reported for a PCF-based coupler and a singlemode-fiber-based coupler. The bandwidth and the bandedge wavelength of the broadband coupler are controlled by changing the elongation length. The fabricated broadband optical coupler has great potential for realizing a broadband interferogram with a high resolution in an OCT system.

  13. Coupled Photonic Crystal Cavity Array Laser

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schubert, Martin

    in the quadratic lattice. Processing techniques are developed and optimized in order fabricate photonic crystals membranes in gallium arsenide with quantum dots as gain medium and in indium gallium arsenide phosphide with quantum wells as gain medium. Several key issues in process to ensure good quality....... The results are in good agreement with standard coupled mode theory. Also a novel type of photonic crystal structure is proposed called lambda shifted cavity which is a twodimensional photonic crystal laser analog of a VCSEL laser. Detailed measurements of the coupled modes in the photonic crystals...... with quantum dots are carried out. In agreement with a simple gain model the structures do not show stimulated emission. The spectral splitting due to the coupling between single cavities as well as arrays of cavities is studied theoretically and experimentally. Lasing is observed for photonic crystal cavity...

  14. Photonic crystals physics, fabrication and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Ohtaka, Kazuo

    2004-01-01

    "Photonic Crystals" details recent progress in the study of photonic crystals, ranging from fundamental aspects to up-to-date applications, in one unified treatment It covers most of the worldwide frontier fields in photonic crystals, including up-to-date fabrication techniques, recent and future technological applications, and our basic understanding of the various optical properties of photonic crystals Brand-new theoretical and experimental data are also presented The book is intended for graduate course students and specialists actively working in this field, but it will also be useful for newcomers, especially the extensive chapter dealing with fundamental aspects of photonic crystals, which paves the way to a full appreciation of the other topics addressed

  15. Surface states in photonic crystals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vojtíšek P.

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Among many unusual and interesting physical properties of photonic crystals (PhC, in recent years, the propagation of surface electromagnetic waves along dielectric PhC boundaries have attracted considerable attention, also in connection to their possible applications. Such surfaces states, produced with the help of specialized defects on PhC boundaries, similarly to surfaces plasmons, are localized surfaces waves and, as such, can be used in various sensing applications. In this contribution, we present our recent studies on numerical modelling of surface states (SS for all three cases of PhC dimensionality. Simulations of these states were carried out by the use of plane wave expansion (PWE method via the MIT MPB package.

  16. Photonic Paint Developed with Metallic Three-Dimensional Photonic Crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Po; Williams, John D.

    2012-01-01

    This work details the design and simulation of an inconspicuous photonic paint that can be applied onto an object for anticounterfeit and tag, track, and locate (TTL) applications. The paint consists of three-dimensional metallic tilted woodpile photonic crystals embedded into a visible and infrared transparent polymer film, which can be applied to almost any surface. The tilted woodpile photonic crystals are designed with a specific pass band detectable at nearly all incident angles of light. When painted onto a surface, these crystals provide a unique reflective infra-red optical signature that can be easily observed and recorded to verify the location or contents of a package.

  17. Capsize of polarization in dilute photonic crystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gevorkian, Zhyrair; Hakhoumian, Arsen; Gasparian, Vladimir; Cuevas, Emilio

    2017-11-29

    We investigate, experimentally and theoretically, polarization rotation effects in dilute photonic crystals with transverse permittivity inhomogeneity perpendicular to the traveling direction of waves. A capsize, namely a drastic change of polarization to the perpendicular direction is observed in a one-dimensional photonic crystal in the frequency range 10 ÷ 140 GHz. To gain more insights into the rotational mechanism, we have developed a theoretical model of dilute photonic crystal, based on Maxwell's equations with a spatially dependent two dimensional inhomogeneous dielectric permittivity. We show that the polarization's rotation can be explained by an optical splitting parameter appearing naturally in Maxwell's equations for magnetic or electric fields components. This parameter is an optical analogous of Rashba like spin-orbit interaction parameter present in quantum waves, introduces a correction to the band structure of the two-dimensional Bloch states, creates the dynamical phase shift between the waves propagating in the orthogonal directions and finally leads to capsizing of the initial polarization. Excellent agreement between theory and experiment is found.

  18. Optical nose based on porous silicon photonic crystal infiltrated with ionic liquids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Haijuan; Lin, Leimiao; Liu, Dong; Chen, Qiaofen; Wu, Jianmin

    2017-02-08

    A photonic-nose for the detection and discrimination of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) was constructed. Each sensing element on the photonic sensor array was formed by infiltrating a specific type of ionic liquid (IL) into the pore channel of a patterned porous silicon (PSi) chip. Upon exposure to VOC, the density of IL dramatically decreased due to the nano-confinement effect. As a result, the IL located in pore channel expanded its volume and protrude out of the pore channel, leading to the formation of microdroplets on the PSi surface. These VOC-stimulated microdroplets could scatter the light reflected from the PSi rugate filter, thereby producing an optical response to VOC. The intensity of the optical response produced by IL/PSi sensor mainly depends on the size and shape of microdroplets, which is related to the concentration of VOC and the physi-chemical propertied of ILs. For ethanol vapor, the optical response has linear relationship with its relative vapor pressure within 0-60%. The LOD of the IL/PSi sensor for ethanol detection is calculated to be 1.3 ppm. It takes around 30 s to reach a full optical response, while the time for recovery is less than 1 min. In addition, the sensor displayed good stability and reproducibility. Owing to the different molecular interaction between IL and VOC, the ILs/PSi sensor array can generate a unique cross-reactive "fingerprint" in response to a specific type of VOC analyte. With the assistance of image technologies and principle components analysis (PCA), rapid discrimination of VOC analyte could be achieved based on the pattern recognition of photonic sensor array. The technology established in this work allows monitoring in-door air pollution in a visualized way. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Plasmonic and Photonic Modes Excitation in Graphene on Silicon Photonic Crystal Membrane

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andryieuski, Andrei; Gu, Tingyi; Hao, Yufeng

    . Being deposited on a silicon photonic crystal membrane graphene serves as a highly promising system for modern optoelectronics with rich variety of possible regimes. Depending on the relation between the photonic crystal lattice constant and wavelengths (plasmonic, photonic and free-space) we identify...... characterization. Measured data are well correlated with the numerical analysis. Combined graphene – silicon photonic crystal membranes can find applications for infrared absorbers, modulators, filters, sensors and photodetectors....... four different interaction schemes. We refer to them as metamaterial, plasmonic, photonic and diffraction grating regimes based on the principle character of light interactions with the graphene deposited on the Si photonic crystal membrane. The optimal configurations for resonant excitation of modes...

  20. Photon management assisted by surface waves on photonic crystals

    CERN Document Server

    Angelini, Angelo

    2017-01-01

    This book illustrates original pathways to manipulate light at the nanoscale by means of surface electromagnetic waves (here, Bloch surface waves, BSWs) on planar dielectric multilayers, also known as one-dimensional photonic crystals. This approach is particularly valuable as it represents an effective alternative to the widely exploited surface plasmon paradigm. After a brief overview on the fundamentals of BSWs, several significant applications of BSW-sustaining structures are described. Particular consideration is given to the propagation, guiding, and diffraction of BSW-coupled radiation. Further, the interaction of organic emitters with BSWs on planar and corrugated multilayers is investigated, including fluorescence beaming in free space. To provide greater insight into sensing applications, an illustrative example of fluorescent microarray-based detection is presented. The book is intended for scientists and researchers working on photon management opportunities in fields such as biosensing, optical c...

  1. Photonic band gap engineering in 2D photonic crystals

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    -dimensional photonic crystals with square lattices composed of air holes in dielectric and vice versa i.e., dielectric rods in air, using the plane-wave expansion method are investigated. We then study, how the photonic band gap size is ...

  2. Sidewall roughness measurement of photonic wires and photonic crystals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svalgaard, Mikael; Frandsen, Lars Hagedorn; Garnæs, Jørgen

    2007-01-01

    The performance of nanophotonic building blocks such as photonic wires and photonic crystals are rapidly improving, with very low propagation loss and very high cavity Q-factors being reported. In order to facilitate further improvements in performance the ability to quantitatively measure...

  3. High-contrast controllable switching based on polystyrene nonlinear cavities in 2D hole-type photonic crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paghousi, Roohollah; Fasihi, Kiazand

    2018-05-01

    We present a new high-contrast controllable switch, which is based on a polystyrene nonlinear cavity, and is implemented in a two dimensional (2D) hole-type photonic crystal (PC). We show that by applying a control signal, the input power can be transmitted to the output waveguide with a high contrast ratio. The operation of the proposed device is investigated through the use of coupled-mode theory (CMT) and finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method. The contrast ratio of the proposed device varies between 18 and 23, which is higher than the corresponding value in the previous investigations. Based on the simulation results, with increasing the control power the range of operating power will be increased, while the contrast ratio will be decreased. It has been shown that in a modified structure, at the expense of the range of operating power and the contrast ratio, the control power can be decreased, considerably.

  4. Optical nose based on porous silicon photonic crystal infiltrated with ionic liquids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Haijuan [Institute of Microanalytical System, Department of Chemistry, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, 3100058 (China); Zhejiang Academy of Medical Sciences, Hangzhou, 310013 (China); Lin, Leimiao; Liu, Dong; Chen, Qiaofen [Institute of Microanalytical System, Department of Chemistry, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, 3100058 (China); Wu, Jianmin, E-mail: wjm-st1@zju.edu.cn [Institute of Microanalytical System, Department of Chemistry, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, 3100058 (China)

    2017-02-08

    A photonic-nose for the detection and discrimination of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) was constructed. Each sensing element on the photonic sensor array was formed by infiltrating a specific type of ionic liquid (IL) into the pore channel of a patterned porous silicon (PSi) chip. Upon exposure to VOC, the density of IL dramatically decreased due to the nano-confinement effect. As a result, the IL located in pore channel expanded its volume and protrude out of the pore channel, leading to the formation of microdroplets on the PSi surface. These VOC-stimulated microdroplets could scatter the light reflected from the PSi rugate filter, thereby producing an optical response to VOC. The intensity of the optical response produced by IL/PSi sensor mainly depends on the size and shape of microdroplets, which is related to the concentration of VOC and the physi-chemical propertied of ILs. For ethanol vapor, the optical response has linear relationship with its relative vapor pressure within 0–60%. The LOD of the IL/PSi sensor for ethanol detection is calculated to be 1.3 ppm. It takes around 30 s to reach a full optical response, while the time for recovery is less than 1 min. In addition, the sensor displayed good stability and reproducibility. Owing to the different molecular interaction between IL and VOC, the ILs/PSi sensor array can generate a unique cross-reactive “fingerprint” in response to a specific type of VOC analyte. With the assistance of image technologies and principle components analysis (PCA), rapid discrimination of VOC analyte could be achieved based on the pattern recognition of photonic sensor array. The technology established in this work allows monitoring in-door air pollution in a visualized way. - Highlights: • Ionic liquids confined in the pore channel of porous silicon (PSi) can form microdroplets on the PSi surface upon exposure to VOCs. • These VOC-stimulated microdroplets could scattered the light reflected from the PSi rugate

  5. Compact Design of an Electrically Tunable and Rotatable Polarizer Based on a Liquid Crystal Photonic Bandgap Fiber

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wei, Lei; Alkeskjold, Thomas Tanggaard; Bjarklev, Anders Overgaard

    2009-01-01

    In this letter, a compact electrically controlled broadband liquid crystal (LC) photonic bandgap fiber polarizer is designed and fabricated. A good fiber coupling quality between two single-mode fibers and one 10-mm-long LC-filled photonic crystal fiber is obtained and protected by using SU-8 fiber...... fixing structures during the device assembly. The total insertion loss of this all-in-fiber device is 2.7 dB. An electrically tunable polarization extinction ratio of 21.3 dB is achieved with 45$^{circ}$ rotatable transmission axis as well as switched on and off in the wavelength range of 1300–1600 nm....

  6. Simultaneous generation of tunable giant dispersive waves in the visible and mid-infrared regions based on photonic crystal fibers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Lei; Yang, Si-Gang; Chen, Hong-Wei; Chen, Ming-Hua; Xie, Shi-Zhong; Han, Ying

    2013-01-01

    Cherenkov radiation (CR) in both the visible and mid-infrared regions is simultaneously generated experimentally based on a photonic crystal fiber with two zero-dispersion wavelengths. The generation of CR in the visible region originates from solitons located in the anomalous group velocity dispersion (GVD) regime which are perturbed by positive third order dispersion. Conversely, the generation of CR in the mid-infrared region requires that the solitons in the anomalous GVD regime are perturbed by negative third order dispersion. The peak wavelength of the CR in the visible region can be tuned from 498 to 425 nm by increasing the average input pump power from 70 to 400 mW, while the peak wavelength of the CR in the mid-infrared region can be tuned from 1986 to 2279 nm by increasing the average input pump power from 70 to 320 mW. (paper)

  7. Photon statistics in scintillation crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bora, Vaibhav Joga Singh

    Scintillation based gamma-ray detectors are widely used in medical imaging, high-energy physics, astronomy and national security. Scintillation gamma-ray detectors are eld-tested, relatively inexpensive, and have good detection eciency. Semi-conductor detectors are gaining popularity because of their superior capability to resolve gamma-ray energies. However, they are relatively hard to manufacture and therefore, at this time, not available in as large formats and much more expensive than scintillation gamma-ray detectors. Scintillation gamma-ray detectors consist of: a scintillator, a material that emits optical (scintillation) photons when it interacts with ionization radiation, and an optical detector that detects the emitted scintillation photons and converts them into an electrical signal. Compared to semiconductor gamma-ray detectors, scintillation gamma-ray detectors have relatively poor capability to resolve gamma-ray energies. This is in large part attributed to the "statistical limit" on the number of scintillation photons. The origin of this statistical limit is the assumption that scintillation photons are either Poisson distributed or super-Poisson distributed. This statistical limit is often dened by the Fano factor. The Fano factor of an integer-valued random process is dened as the ratio of its variance to its mean. Therefore, a Poisson process has a Fano factor of one. The classical theory of light limits the Fano factor of the number of photons to a value greater than or equal to one (Poisson case). However, the quantum theory of light allows for Fano factors to be less than one. We used two methods to look at the correlations between two detectors looking at same scintillation pulse to estimate the Fano factor of the scintillation photons. The relationship between the Fano factor and the correlation between the integral of the two signals detected was analytically derived, and the Fano factor was estimated using the measurements for SrI2:Eu, YAP

  8. Real-time amyloid aggregation monitoring with a photonic crystal-based approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santi, Sara; Musi, Valeria; Descrovi, Emiliano; Paeder, Vincent; Di Francesco, Joab; Hvozdara, Lubos; van der Wal, Peter; Lashuel, Hilal A; Pastore, Annalisa; Neier, Reinhard; Herzig, Hans Peter

    2013-10-21

    We propose the application of a new label-free optical technique based on photonic nanostructures to real-time monitor the amyloid-beta 1-42 (Aβ(1-42)) fibrillization, including the early stages of the aggregation process, which are related to the onset of the Alzheimer's Disease (AD). The aggregation of Aβ peptides into amyloid fibrils has commonly been associated with neuronal death, which culminates in the clinical features of the incurable degenerative AD. Recent studies revealed that cell toxicity is determined by the formation of soluble oligomeric forms of Aβ peptides in the early stages of aggregation. At this phase, classical amyloid detection techniques lack in sensitivity. Upon a chemical passivation of the sensing surface by means of polyethylene glycol, the proposed approach allows an accurate, real-time monitoring of the refractive index variation of the solution, wherein Aβ(1-42) peptides are aggregating. This measurement is directly related to the aggregation state of the peptide throughout oligomerization and subsequent fibrillization. Our findings open new perspectives in the understanding of the dynamics of amyloid formation, and validate this approach as a new and powerful method to screen aggregation at early stages. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. Photonic crystal fibres and effective index approaches

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riishede, Jesper; Libori, Stig E. Barkou; Bjarklev, Anders Overgaard

    2001-01-01

    Photonic crystal fibres are investigated with an effective index approach. The effective index of both core and cladding is found to be wavelength dependent. Accurate modelling must respect the rich topology of these fibres.......Photonic crystal fibres are investigated with an effective index approach. The effective index of both core and cladding is found to be wavelength dependent. Accurate modelling must respect the rich topology of these fibres....

  10. High-birefringent photonic crystal fiber

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Libori, Stig E. Barkou; Broeng, Jes; Knudsen, Erik

    2001-01-01

    A highly birefringent photonic crystal fiber design is analysed. Birefringence up to 10-3 is found. Random fluctuations in the cladding design are analysed, and the fiber is found to be a feasible polarization maintaining fiber.......A highly birefringent photonic crystal fiber design is analysed. Birefringence up to 10-3 is found. Random fluctuations in the cladding design are analysed, and the fiber is found to be a feasible polarization maintaining fiber....

  11. Quarter-lambda-shifted photonic crystal lasers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schubert, Martin; Skovgård, Troels Suhr; Ek, Sara

    A new design for photonic crystal lasers is proposed and realised. It allows an intuitive design for ultralow mode volume and high Q cavities which can be realized in a connected membrane structure.......A new design for photonic crystal lasers is proposed and realised. It allows an intuitive design for ultralow mode volume and high Q cavities which can be realized in a connected membrane structure....

  12. Selective gas sensing for photonic crystal lasers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smith, Cameron; Christiansen, Mads Brøkner; Buss, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    We facilitate photonic crystal lasers to sense gases via an additional swelling polymer film. We describe the transduction transfer function and experimentally demonstrate an enhanced ethanol vapor sensitivity over 15 dB with low humidity crosstalk.......We facilitate photonic crystal lasers to sense gases via an additional swelling polymer film. We describe the transduction transfer function and experimentally demonstrate an enhanced ethanol vapor sensitivity over 15 dB with low humidity crosstalk....

  13. Manipulating light with strongly modulated photonic crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Notomi, Masaya

    2010-01-01

    Recently, strongly modulated photonic crystals, fabricated by the state-of-the-art semiconductor nanofabrication process, have realized various novel optical properties. This paper describes the way in which they differ from other optical media, and clarifies what they can do. In particular, three important issues are considered: light confinement, frequency dispersion and spatial dispersion. First, I describe the latest status and impact of ultra-strong light confinement in a wavelength-cubic volume achieved in photonic crystals. Second, the extreme reduction in the speed of light is reported, which was achieved as a result of frequency dispersion management. Third, strange negative refraction in photonic crystals is introduced, which results from their unique spatial dispersion, and it is clarified how this leads to perfect imaging. The last two sections are devoted to applications of these novel properties. First, I report the fact that strong light confinement and huge light-matter interaction enhancement make strongly modulated photonic crystals promising for on-chip all-optical processing, and present several examples including all-optical switches/memories and optical logics. As a second application, it is shown that the strong light confinement and slow light in strongly modulated photonic crystals enable the adiabatic tuning of light, which leads to various novel ways of controlling light, such as adiabatic frequency conversion, efficient optomechanics systems, photon memories and photons pinning.

  14. Temperature Compensated Strain Sensor Based on Cascaded Sagnac Interferometers and All-Solid Birefringent Hybrid Photonic Crystal Fibers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gu, Bobo; Yuan, Wu; He, Sailing

    2012-01-01

    We demonstrate a temperature compensated strain sensor with two cascaded Sagnac interferometers, that provide strain sensing and temperature compensation, respectively. The Sagnac interferometers use an all-solid hybrid photonic crystal fiber with stress-induced birefringence. The stress-induced ...

  15. Gold Nanoparticles in Photonic Crystals Applications: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venditti, Iole

    2017-01-24

    This review concerns the recently emerged class of composite colloidal photonic crystals (PCs), in which gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) are included in the photonic structure. The use of composites allows achieving a strong modification of the optical properties of photonic crystals by involving the light scattering with electronic excitations of the gold component (surface plasmon resonance, SPR) realizing a combination of absorption bands with the diffraction resonances occurring in the body of the photonic crystals. Considering different preparations of composite plasmonic-photonic crystals, based on 3D-PCs in presence of AuNPs, different resonance phenomena determine the optical response of hybrid crystals leading to a broadly tunable functionality of these crystals. Several chemical methods for fabrication of opals and inverse opals are presented together with preparations of composites plasmonic-photonic crystals: the influence of SPR on the optical properties of PCs is also discussed. Main applications of this new class of composite materials are illustrated with the aim to offer the reader an overview of the recent advances in this field.

  16. Gold Nanoparticles in Photonic Crystals Applications: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iole Venditti

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This review concerns the recently emerged class of composite colloidal photonic crystals (PCs, in which gold nanoparticles (AuNPs are included in the photonic structure. The use of composites allows achieving a strong modification of the optical properties of photonic crystals by involving the light scattering with electronic excitations of the gold component (surface plasmon resonance, SPR realizing a combination of absorption bands with the diffraction resonances occurring in the body of the photonic crystals. Considering different preparations of composite plasmonic-photonic crystals, based on 3D-PCs in presence of AuNPs, different resonance phenomena determine the optical response of hybrid crystals leading to a broadly tunable functionality of these crystals. Several chemical methods for fabrication of opals and inverse opals are presented together with preparations of composites plasmonic-photonic crystals: the influence of SPR on the optical properties of PCs is also discussed. Main applications of this new class of composite materials are illustrated with the aim to offer the reader an overview of the recent advances in this field.

  17. Room-temperature single-photon sources with definite circular and linear polarizations based on single-emitter fluorescence in liquid crystal hosts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winkler, Justin M; Lukishova, Svetlana G; Bissell, Luke J

    2013-01-01

    Definite circular and linear polarizations of room-temperature single-photon sources, which can serve as polarization bases for quantum key distribution, are produced by doping planar-aligned liquid crystal hosts with single fluorescence emitters. Chiral 1-D photonic bandgap microcavities for a single handedness of circularly polarized light were prepared from both monomeric and oligomeric cholesteric liquid crystals. Fluorescent emitters, such as nanocrystal quantum dots, nitrogen vacancy color centers in nanodiamonds, and rare-earth ions in nanocrystals, were doped into these microcavity structures and used to produce circularly polarized fluorescence of definite handedness. Additionally, we observed circularly polarized resonances in the spectrum of nanocrystal quantum dot fluorescence at the edge of the cholesteric microcavity's photonic stopband. For this polarization we obtained a ∼4.9 enhancement of intensity compared to the polarization of the opposite handedness that propagates without photonic bandgap microcavity effects. Such a resonance is indicative of coupling of quantum dot fluorescence to the cholesteric microcavity mode. We have also used planar-aligned nematic liquid crystal hosts to align DiI dye molecules doped into the host, thereby providing a single-photon source of linear polarization of definite direction. Antibunching is demonstrated for fluorescence of nanocrystal quantum dots, nitrogen vacancy color centers, and dye molecules in these liquid crystal structures.

  18. Graded photonic crystals by optical interference holography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, Chunrui; Tam, Wing Yim

    2012-01-01

    We report on the fabrication of graded photonic crystals in dye doped dichromate gelatin emulsions using an optical interference holographic technique. The gradedness is achieved by imposing a gradient form factor in the interference intensity resulting from the absorption of the dye in the dichromate gelatin. Wider and deeper photonic bandgaps are observed for the dyed samples as compared to the un-dyed samples. Our method could open up a new direction in fabricating graded photonic crystals which cannot be achieved easily using other techniques. (paper)

  19. Extreme group index measured and calculated in 2D SOI-based photonic crystal waveguides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lavrinenko, Andrei; Jacobsen, Rune Shim; Fage-Pedersen, Jacob

    2005-01-01

    lattice of air-holes in the 216-nm thick silicon layer in an SOI material. Experimental transmission spectra show a mode cut-off around 1562.5 nm for the fundamental photonic bandgap mode. In order to measure and model the group index of modes in the PCW, a time-of-flight (ToF) method is applied....

  20. Nonreciprocal frequency doubler of electromagnetic waves diode based on a photonic crystal

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Konotop, V. V.; Kuzmiak, Vladimír

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 7, č. 2 (2003), s. - Grant - others:NATO-Linkadge(US) PST.CLG.978177 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z2067918 Keywords : harmonic generation * nonlinear media * photonic band gap Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Lasers http://www.vjnano.org

  1. Nonreciprocal frequency doubler of electromagnetic waves based on a photonic crystal

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Konotop, V. V.; Kuzmiak, Vladimír

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 66, č. 23 (2003), s. 2352081-2352085 ISSN 0163-1829 Grant - others:NATO-Linkadge(US) PST.CLG.978177 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z2067918 Keywords : harmonic generation * nonlinear media * photonic band gap Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Lasers Impact factor: 2.962, year: 2003

  2. Kinetics of Antibody Binding to Membranes of Living Bacteria Measured by a Photonic Crystal-Based Biosensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ekaterina Rostova

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Optical biosensors based on photonic crystal surface waves (PC SWs offer a possibility to study binding interactions with living cells, overcoming the limitation of rather small evanescent field penetration depth into a sample medium that is characteristic for typical optical biosensors. Besides this, simultaneous excitation of s- and p-polarized surface waves with different penetration depths is realized here, permitting unambiguous separation of surface and volume contributions to the measured signal. PC-based biosensors do not require a bulk signal correction, compared to widely used surface plasmon resonance-based devices. We developed a chitosan-based protocol of PC chip functionalization for bacterial attachment and performed experiments on antibody binding to living bacteria measured in real time by the PCSW-based biosensor. Data analysis reveals specific binding and gives the value of the dissociation constant for monoclonal antibodies (IgG2b against bacterial lipopolysaccharides equal to KD = 6.2 ± 3.4 nM. To our knowledge, this is a first demonstration of antibody-binding kinetics to living bacteria by a label-free optical biosensor.

  3. Ultra-compact and wide-spectrum-range thermo-optic switch based on silicon coupled photonic crystal microcavities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Xingyu; Chung, Chi-Jui; Pan, Zeyu; Yan, Hai; Chakravarty, Swapnajit; Chen, Ray T.

    2015-01-01

    We design, fabricate, and experimentally demonstrate a compact thermo-optic gate switch comprising a 3.78 μm-long coupled L0-type photonic crystal microcavities on a silicon-on-insulator substrate. A nanohole is inserted in the center of each individual L0 photonic crystal microcavity. Coupling between identical microcavities gives rise to bonding and anti-bonding states of the coupled photonic molecules. The coupled photonic crystal microcavities are numerically simulated and experimentally verified with a 6 nm-wide flat-bottom resonance in its transmission spectrum, which enables wider operational spectrum range than microring resonators. An integrated micro-heater is in direct contact with the silicon core to efficiently drive the device. The thermo-optic switch is measured with an optical extinction ratio of 20 dB, an on-off switching power of 18.2 mW, a thermo-optic tuning efficiency of 0.63 nm/mW, a rise time of 14.8 μs, and a fall time of 18.5 μs. The measured on-chip loss on the transmission band is as low as 1 dB

  4. On-chip steering of entangled photons in nonlinear photonic crystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leng, H Y; Yu, X Q; Gong, Y X; Xu, P; Xie, Z D; Jin, H; Zhang, C; Zhu, S N

    2011-08-16

    One promising technique for working toward practical photonic quantum technologies is to implement multiple operations on a monolithic chip, thereby improving stability, scalability and miniaturization. The on-chip spatial control of entangled photons will certainly benefit numerous applications, including quantum imaging, quantum lithography, quantum metrology and quantum computation. However, external optical elements are usually required to spatially control the entangled photons. Here we present the first experimental demonstration of on-chip spatial control of entangled photons, based on a domain-engineered nonlinear photonic crystal. We manipulate the entangled photons using the inherent properties of the crystal during the parametric downconversion, demonstrating two-photon focusing and beam-splitting from a periodically poled lithium tantalate crystal with a parabolic phase profile. These experimental results indicate that versatile and precise spatial control of entangled photons is achievable. Because they may be operated independent of any bulk optical elements, domain-engineered nonlinear photonic crystals may prove to be a valuable ingredient in on-chip integrated quantum optics.

  5. Mode conversion in magneto photonic crystal fibre

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otmani, Hamza; Bouchemat, Mohamed; Hocini, Abdesselam; Boumaza, Touraya; Benmerkhi, Ahlem

    2017-01-01

    The first concept of an integrated isolator was based on nonreciprocal TE–TM mode conversion, the nonreciprocal coupling between these modes is caused by the Faraday rotation if the magnetization is aligned along the z–axis, parallel to mode propagation. We propose to study this magneto-optical phenomenon, by the simulation of magneto photonic crystal fibre (MPCF), it consists of a periodic triangular lattice of air-holes filled with magnetic fluid which consists of magnetic nanoparticles into a BIG (Bismuth Iron Garnet) fibre. We simulated the influence of gyrotropy and the wavelength, and calculated Faraday rotation and modal birefringence. In this fibre the light is guided by internal total reflection, like classical fibres. However it was shown that they could function on a mode conversion much stronger than conventional fibres. - Highlights: • We propose to study mode conversion TE–TM, by the simulation of magneto photonic crystal fibre (MPCF). • We simulated the influence of gyrotropy. • We simulated the wavelength. • We calculated Faraday rotation. • We calculated modal birefringence.

  6. Photonic Crystal Laser-Driven Accelerator Structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cowan, Benjamin M.

    2007-01-01

    Laser-driven acceleration holds great promise for significantly improving accelerating gradient. However, scaling the conventional process of structure-based acceleration in vacuum down to optical wavelengths requires a substantially different kind of structure. We require an optical waveguide that (1) is constructed out of dielectric materials, (2) has transverse size on the order of a wavelength, and (3) supports a mode with speed-of-light phase velocity in vacuum. Photonic crystals---structures whose electromagnetic properties are spatially periodic---can meet these requirements. We discuss simulated photonic crystal accelerator structures and describe their properties. We begin with a class of two-dimensional structures which serves to illustrate the design considerations and trade-offs involved. We then present a three-dimensional structure, and describe its performance in terms of accelerating gradient and efficiency. We discuss particle beam dynamics in this structure, demonstrating a method for keeping a beam confined to the waveguide. We also discuss material and fabrication considerations. Since accelerating gradient is limited by optical damage to the structure, the damage threshold of the dielectric is a critical parameter. We experimentally measure the damage threshold of silicon for picosecond pulses in the infrared, and determine that our structure is capable of sustaining an accelerating gradient of 300 MV/m at 1550 nm. Finally, we discuss possibilities for manufacturing these structures using common microfabrication techniques

  7. Analysis of photonic band gap in novel piezoelectric photonic crystal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malar Kodi, A.; Doni Pon, V.; Joseph Wilson, K. S.

    2018-03-01

    The transmission properties of one-dimensional novel photonic crystal having silver-doped novel piezoelectric superlattice and air as the two constituent layers have been investigated by means of transfer matrix method. By changing the appropriate thickness of the layers and filling factor of nanocomposite system, the variation in the photonic band gap can be studied. It is found that the photonic band gap increases with the filling factor of the metal nanocomposite and with the thickness of the layer. These structures possess unique characteristics enabling one to operate as optical waveguides, selective filters, optical switches, integrated piezoelectric microactuators, etc.

  8. Flat super-continuum generation based on normal dispersion nonlinear photonic crystal fibre

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chow, K.K.; Takushima, Y.; Lin, C.

    2006-01-01

    Flat super-continuum generation spanning over the whole telecommunication band using a passively modelocked fibre laser source at 1550 nm together with a dispersion-flattened nonlinear photoinc crystal fibre is demonstrated. Since the pulses propagate in the normal dispersion regime of the fibre...

  9. Nanoscale characterization of local structures and defects in photonic crystals using synchrotron-based transmission soft X-ray microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nho, Hyun Woo; Kalegowda, Yogesh; Shin, Hyun-Joon; Yoon, Tae Hyun

    2016-01-01

    For the structural characterization of the polystyrene (PS)-based photonic crystals (PCs), fast and direct imaging capabilities of full field transmission X-ray microscopy (TXM) were demonstrated at soft X-ray energy. PS-based PCs were prepared on an O2-plasma treated Si3N4 window and their local structures and defects were investigated using this label-free TXM technique with an image acquisition speed of ~10 sec/frame and marginal radiation damage. Micro-domains of face-centered cubic (FCC (111)) and hexagonal close-packed (HCP (0001)) structures were dominantly found in PS-based PCs, while point and line defects, FCC (100), and 12-fold symmetry structures were also identified as minor components. Additionally, in situ observation capability for hydrated samples and 3D tomographic reconstruction of TXM images were also demonstrated. This soft X-ray full field TXM technique with faster image acquisition speed, in situ observation, and 3D tomography capability can be complementally used with the other X-ray microscopic techniques (i.e., scanning transmission X-ray microscopy, STXM) as well as conventional characterization methods (e.g., electron microscopic and optical/fluorescence microscopic techniques) for clearer structure identification of self-assembled PCs and better understanding of the relationship between their structures and resultant optical properties. PMID:27087141

  10. Transverse angular momentum in topological photonic crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Wei-Min; Chen, Xiao-Dong; Zhao, Fu-Li; Dong, Jian-Wen

    2018-01-01

    Engineering local angular momentum of structured light fields in real space enables applications in many fields, in particular, the realization of unidirectional robust transport in topological photonic crystals with a non-trivial Berry vortex in momentum space. Here, we show transverse angular momentum modes in silicon topological photonic crystals when considering transverse electric polarization. Excited by a chiral external source with either transverse spin angular momentum or transverse phase vortex, robust light flow propagating along opposite directions is observed in several kinds of sharp-turn interfaces between two topologically-distinct silicon photonic crystals. A transverse orbital angular momentum mode with alternating phase vortex exists at the boundary of two such photonic crystals. In addition, unidirectional transport is robust to the working frequency even when the ring size or location of the pseudo-spin source varies in a certain range, leading to the superiority of the broadband photonic device. These findings enable one to make use of transverse angular momentum, a kind of degree of freedom, to achieve unidirectional robust transport in the telecom region and other potential applications in integrated photonic circuits, such as on-chip robust delay lines.

  11. Photonic quasi-crystal terahertz lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitiello, Miriam Serena; Nobile, Michele; Ronzani, Alberto; Tredicucci, Alessandro; Castellano, Fabrizio; Talora, Valerio; Li, Lianhe; Linfield, Edmund H.; Davies, A. Giles

    2014-12-01

    Quasi-crystal structures do not present a full spatial periodicity but are nevertheless constructed starting from deterministic generation rules. When made of different dielectric materials, they often possess fascinating optical properties, which lie between those of periodic photonic crystals and those of a random arrangement of scatterers. Indeed, they can support extended band-like states with pseudogaps in the energy spectrum, but lacking translational invariance, they also intrinsically feature a pattern of ‘defects’, which can give rise to critically localized modes confined in space, similar to Anderson modes in random structures. If used as laser resonators, photonic quasi-crystals open up design possibilities that are simply not possible in a conventional periodic photonic crystal. In this letter, we exploit the concept of a 2D photonic quasi crystal in an electrically injected laser; specifically, we pattern the top surface of a terahertz quantum-cascade laser with a Penrose tiling of pentagonal rotational symmetry, reaching 0.1-0.2% wall-plug efficiencies and 65 mW peak output powers with characteristic surface-emitting conical beam profiles, result of the rich quasi-crystal Fourier spectrum.

  12. Effect of the defect on the focusing in a two-dimensional photonic-crystal-based flat lens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng Zhifang; Wang Xiuguo; Li Zhiyuan; Zhang Daozhong

    2008-01-01

    We have investigated in detail the influence of defect on the focusing of electromagnetic waves in a two-dimensional photonic-crystal flat lens by using the finite-difference time-domain method. The result shows that many focusings can be observed at the symmetrical positions when a defect is introduced into the lens. Furthermore, the wave-guides in the lens can confine the transmission wave effectively and improve the quality of the focusing

  13. A highly-sensitive label-free biosensor based on two dimensional photonic crystals with negative refraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malmir, Narges; Fasihi, Kiazand

    2017-11-01

    In this work, we present a novel high-sensitive optical label-free biosensor based on a two-dimensional photonic crystal (2D PC). The suggested structure is composed of a negative refraction structure in a hexagonal lattice PC, along with a positive refraction structure which is arranged in a square lattice PC. The frequency shift of the transmission peak is measured respect to the changes of refractive indices of the studied materials (the blood plasma, water, dry air and normal air). The studied materials are filled into a W1 line-defect waveguide which is located in the PC structure with positive refraction (the microfluidic nanochannel). Our numerical simulations, which are based on finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method, show that in the proposed structure, a sensitivity about 1100 nm/RIU and a transmission efficiency more than 75% can be achieved. With this design, to the best of our knowledge, the obtained sensitivity and the transmission efficiency are one of the highest values in the reported PC label-free biosensors.

  14. Optical Effects Accompanying the Dynamical Bragg Diffraction in Linear 1D Photonic Crystals Based on Porous Silicon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anton Maydykovskiy

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available We survey our recent results on the observation and studies of the effects accompanying the dynamical Bragg diffraction in one-dimensional photonic crystals (PhC. Contrary to the kinematic Bragg diffraction, the dynamical one considers a continuous interaction between the waves travelling within a spatially-periodic structure and is the most pronounced in the so called Laue geometry, leading to a number of exciting phenomena. In the described experiments, we study the PhC based on porous silicon or porous quartz, made by the electrochemical etching of crystalline silicon with the consequent thermal annealing. Importantly, these PhC are approximately hundreds of microns thick and contain a few hundreds of periods, so that the experiments in the Laue diffraction scheme are available. We discuss the effect of the temporal splitting of femtosecond laser pulses and show that the effect is quite sensitive to the polarization and the phase of a femtosecond laser pulse. We also show the experimental realization of the Pendular effect in porous quartz PhC and demonstrate the experimental conditions for the total spatial switching of the output radiation between the transmitted and diffracted directions. All described effects are of high interest for the control over the light propagation based on PhC structures.

  15. Quantum Dots in Photonic Crystal Waveguides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sollner, Immo Nathanael

    This Thesis is focused on the study of quantum electrodynamics in photonic crystal waveguides. We investigate the interplay between a single quantum dot and the fundamental mode of the photonic crystal waveguide. We demonstrate experimental coupling eciencies for the spontaneous emission...... into the mode exceeding 98% for emitters spectrally close to the band-edge of the waveguide mode. In addition we illustrate the broadband nature of the underlying eects, by obtaining coupling eciencies above 90% for quantum dots detuned from the band edge by as far as 20nm. These values are in good agreement...... with numerical simulations. Such a high coupling eciency implies that the system can be considered an articial 1D-atom, and we theoretically show that this system can generate strong photon-photon interaction, which is an essential functionality for deterministic optical quantum information processing. We...

  16. Inverse opal photonic crystal of chalcogenide glass by solution processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohoutek, Tomas; Orava, Jiri; Sawada, Tsutomu; Fudouzi, Hiroshi

    2011-01-15

    Chalcogenide opal and inverse opal photonic crystals were successfully fabricated by low-cost and low-temperature solution-based process, which is well developed in polymer films processing. Highly ordered silica colloidal crystal films were successfully infilled with nano-colloidal solution of the high refractive index As(30)S(70) chalcogenide glass by using spin-coating method. The silica/As-S opal film was etched in HF acid to dissolve the silica opal template and fabricate the inverse opal As-S photonic crystal. Both, the infilled silica/As-S opal film (Δn ~ 0.84 near λ=770 nm) and the inverse opal As-S photonic structure (Δn ~ 1.26 near λ=660 nm) had significantly enhanced reflectivity values and wider photonic bandgaps in comparison with the silica opal film template (Δn ~ 0.434 near λ=600 nm). The key aspects of opal film preparation by spin-coating of nano-colloidal chalcogenide glass solution are discussed. The solution fabricated "inorganic polymer" opal and the inverse opal structures exceed photonic properties of silica or any organic polymer opal film. The fabricated photonic structures are proposed for designing novel flexible colloidal crystal laser devices, photonic waveguides and chemical sensors. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. One-Dimensional Photonic Crystal Superprisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ting, David

    2005-01-01

    Theoretical calculations indicate that it should be possible for one-dimensional (1D) photonic crystals (see figure) to exhibit giant dispersions known as the superprism effect. Previously, three-dimensional (3D) photonic crystal superprisms have demonstrated strong wavelength dispersion - about 500 times that of conventional prisms and diffraction gratings. Unlike diffraction gratings, superprisms do not exhibit zero-order transmission or higher-order diffraction, thereby eliminating cross-talk problems. However, the fabrication of these 3D photonic crystals requires complex electron-beam substrate patterning and multilayer thin-film sputtering processes. The proposed 1D superprism is much simpler in structural complexity and, therefore, easier to design and fabricate. Like their 3D counterparts, the 1D superprisms can exhibit giant dispersions over small spectral bands that can be tailored by judicious structure design and tuned by varying incident beam direction. Potential applications include miniature gas-sensing devices.

  18. Optical properties of photonic crystals

    CERN Document Server

    Sakoda, Kazuaki

    2001-01-01

    The interaction between the radiation field and matter is the most fundamen­ tal source of dynamics in nature. It brings about the absorption and emission of photons, elastic and inelastic light scattering, the radiative lifetime of elec­ tronic excited states, and so on. The huge amount of energy carried from the sun by photons is the source of all activities of creatures on the earth. The absorption of photons by chlorophylls and the successive electronic excita­ tion initiate a series of chemical reactions that are known as photosynthesis, which support all life on the earth. Radiative energy is also the main source of all meteorological phenomena. The fundamentals of the radiation field and its interaction with matter were clarified by classical electromagnetism and quantum electrodynamics. These theories, we believe, explain all electromagnetic phenomena. They not only provide a firm basis for contemporary physics but also generate a vast range of technological applications. These include television, ...

  19. Ultra compact spectrometer apparatus and method using photonic crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ting, David Z. (Inventor); Hill, Cory J. (Inventor); Bandara, Sumith V. (Inventor); Gunapala, Sarath D. (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    The present invention is directed to methods of photonic crystal formation, and to methods and apparatus for using such photonic crystals, particularly in conjunction with detector arrays. Photonic crystal parameters and detector array parameters are compared to optimize the selection and orientation of a photonic crystal shape. A photonic crystal is operatively positioned relative to a plurality of light sensors. The light sensors can be separated by a pitch distance and positioned within one half of the pitch distance of an exit surface of the photonic crystals.

  20. Light propagation in two-dimensional photonic crystals based on uniaxial polar materials: results on polaritonic spectrum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Urrea, H. A.; Duque, C. A.; Pérez-Quintana, I. V.; Mora-Ramos, M. E.

    2017-03-01

    The dispersion relations of two-dimensional photonic crystals made of uniaxial polaritonic cylinders arranged in triangular lattice are calculated. The particular case of the transverse magnetic polarization is taken into account. Three different uniaxial materials showing transverse phonon-polariton excitations are considered: aluminum nitride, gallium nitride, and indium nitride. The study is carried out by means of the finite-difference time-domain technique for the solution of Maxwell equations, together with the method of the auxiliary differential equation. It is shown that changing the filling fraction can result in the modification of both the photonic and polaritonic bandgaps in the optical dispersion relations. Wider gaps appear for smaller filling fraction values, whereas a larger number of photonic bandgaps will occur within the frequency range considered when a larger filling fraction is used. The effect of including the distinct wurtzite III-V nitride semiconductors as core materials in the cylinders embedded in the air on the photonic properties is discussed as well, highlighting the effect of the dielectric anisotropy on the properties of the polaritonic part of the photonic spectrum.

  1. Two-dimensional photonic crystal accelerator structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin M. Cowan

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available Photonic crystals provide a method of confining a synchronous speed-of-light mode in an all-dielectric structure, likely a necessary feature in any optical accelerator. We explore computationally a class of photonic crystal structures with translational symmetry in a direction transverse to the electron beam. We demonstrate synchronous waveguide modes and discuss relevant parameters of such modes. We then explore how accelerator parameters vary as the geometry of the structure is changed and consider trade-offs inherent in the design of an accelerator of this type.

  2. Giant Lamb shift in photonic crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Xuehua; Kivshar, Yuri S.; Gu Benyuan

    2004-01-01

    We obtain a general result for the Lamb shift of excited states of multilevel atoms in inhomogeneous electromagnetic structures and apply it to study atomic hydrogen in inverse-opal photonic crystals. We find that the photonic-crystal environment can lead to very large values of the Lamb shift, as compared to the case of vacuum. We also suggest that the position-dependent Lamb shift should extend from a single level to a miniband for an assembly of atoms with random distribution in space, similar to the velocity-dependent Doppler effect in atomic/molecular gases

  3. Highly-nonlinear polarization-maintaining As2Se3-based photonic quasi-crystal fiber for supercontinuum generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Tongtong; Lian, Zhenggang; Benson, Trevor; Wang, Xin; Zhang, Wan; Lou, Shuqin

    2017-11-01

    We propose an As2Se3-based photonic quasi-crystal fiber (PQF) with high nonlinearity and birefringence. By optimizing the structure parameters, a nonlinear coefficient up to 2079 W-1km-1 can be achieved at the wavelength of 2 μm; the birefringence reaches up to the order of 10-2 due to the introduction of large circular air holes in the cladding. Using an optical pulse with a peak power of 6 kW, a pulse width of 150 fs, and a central wavelength of 2.94 μm as the pump pulse, a mid-infrared polarized supercontinuum is obtained by using a 15 mm long PQF. The spectral width for x- and y-polarizations covers 1 μm-10.2 μm and 1 μm-12.5 μm, respectively. The polarization state can be well maintained when the incident angle of the input pulse changes within ±2°. The proposed PQF, with high nonlinear coefficient and birefringence, has potential applications in mid-infrared polarization-maintaining supercontinuum generation.

  4. 3D holographic polymer photonic crystal for superprism application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jiaqi; Jiang, Wei; Chen, Xiaonan; Wang, Li; Zhang, Sasa; Chen, Ray T.

    2007-02-01

    Photonic crystal based superprism offers a new way to design new optical components for beam steering and DWDM application. 3D photonic crystals are especially attractive as they could offer more control of the light beam based on the needs. A polygonal prism based holographic fabrication method has been demonstrated for a three-dimensional face-centered-cubic (FCC)-type submicron polymer photonic crystal using SU8 as the photo-sensitive material. Therefore antivibration equipment and complicated optical alignment system are not needed and the requirement for the coherence of the laser source is relaxed compared with the traditional holographic setup. By changing the top-cut prism structure, the polarization of the laser beam, the exposure and development conditions we can achieve different kinds of triclinic or orthorhombic photonic crystals on demand. Special fabrication treatments have been introduced to ensure the survivability of the fabricated large area (cm2) nano-structures. Scanning electron microscopy and diffraction results proved the good uniformity of the fabricated structures. With the proper design of the refraction prism we have achieved a partial bandgap for S+C band (1460-1565nm) in the [111] direction. The transmission and reflection spectra obtained by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) are in good agreement with simulated band structure. The superprism effects around 1550nm wavelength for the fabricated 3D polymer photonic crystal have been theoretically calculated and such effects can be used for beam steering purpose.

  5. Diffusion Based Photon Mapping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schjøth, Lars; Fogh Olsen, Ole; Sporring, Jon

    2007-01-01

    . To address this problem we introduce a novel photon mapping algorithm based on nonlinear anisotropic diffusion. Our algorithm adapts according to the structure of the photon map such that smoothing occurs along edges and structures and not across. In this way we preserve the important illumination features......, while eliminating noise. We call our method diffusion based photon mapping....

  6. Diffusion Based Photon Mapping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schjøth, Lars; Olsen, Ole Fogh; Sporring, Jon

    2006-01-01

    . To address this problem we introduce a novel photon mapping algorithm based on nonlinear anisotropic diffusion. Our algorithm adapts according to the structure of the photon map such that smoothing occurs along edges and structures and not across. In this way we preserve the important illumination features......, while eliminating noise. We call our method diffusion based photon mapping....

  7. Structuring β-Ga2O3 photonic crystal photocatalyst for efficient degradation of organic pollutants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaofang; Zhen, Xiuzheng; Meng, Sugang; Xian, Jiangjun; Shao, Yu; Fu, Xianzhi; Li, Danzhen

    2013-09-03

    Coupling photocatalysts with photonic crystals structure is based on the unique property of photonic crystals in confining, controlling, and manipulating the incident photons. This combination enhances the light absorption in photocatalysts and thus greatly improves their photocatalytic performance. In this study, Ga2O3 photonic crystals with well-arranged skeleton structures were prepared via a dip-coating infiltration method. The positions of the electronic band absorption for Ga2O3 photonic crystals could be made to locate on the red edge, on the blue edge, and away from the edge of their photonic band gaps by changing the pore sizes of the samples, respectively. Particularly, the electronic band absorption of the Ga2O3 photonic crystal with a pore size of 135 nm was enhanced more than other samples by making it locate on the red edge of its photonic band gap, which was confirmed by the higher instantaneous photocurrent and photocatalytic activity for the degradation of various organic pollutants under ultraviolet light irradiation. Furthermore, the degradation mechanism over Ga2O3 photonic crystals was discussed. The design of Ga2O3 photonic crystals presents a prospective application of photonic crystals in photocatalysis to address light harvesting and quantum efficiency problems through manipulating photons or constructing photonic crystal structure as groundwork.

  8. Photonic Crystals on the Wing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-01

    studying animal photonics; notably for the study of the optical properties of 3D structures [38]. Fig. 3. The Diamond Weevil, Entimus imperialis...Groningen/Exeter 3 August 2011 D.G. Stavenga Computational Physics Zernike Institute for Advanced Materials University of Groningen The

  9. One-dimensional photonic crystal design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mee, Cornelis van der; Contu, Pietro; Pintus, Paolo

    2010-01-01

    In this article we present a method to determine the band spectrum, band gaps, and discrete energy levels, of a one-dimensional photonic crystal with localized impurities. For one-dimensional crystals with piecewise constant refractive indices we develop an algorithm to recover the refractive index distribution from the period map. Finally, we derive the relationship between the period map and the scattering matrix containing the information on the localized modes.

  10. The study of electromagnetic wave propagation in photonic crystals via planewave based transfer (scattering) matrix method with active gain material applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ming

    In this dissertation, a set of numerical simulation tools are developed under previous work to efficiently and accurately study one-dimensional (1D), two-dimensional (2D), 2D slab and three-dimensional (3D) photonic crystal structures and their defects effects by means of spectrum (transmission, reflection, absorption), band structure (dispersion relation), and electric and/or magnetic fields distribution (mode profiles). Further more, the lasing property and spontaneous emission behaviors are studied when active gain materials are presented in the photonic crystal structures. First, the planewave based transfer (scattering) matrix method (TMM) is described in every detail along with a brief review of photonic crystal history (Chapter 1 and 2). As a frequency domain method, TMM has the following major advantages over other numerical methods: (1) the planewave basis makes Maxwell's Equations a linear algebra problem and there are mature numerical package to solve linear algebra problem such as Lapack and Scalapack (for parallel computation). (2) Transfer (scattering) matrix method make 3D problem into 2D slices and link all slices together via the scattering matrix (S matrix) which reduces computation time and memory usage dramatically and makes 3D real photonic crystal devices design possible; and this also makes the simulated domain no length limitation along the propagation direction (ideal for waveguide simulation). (3) It is a frequency domain method and calculation results are all for steady state, without the influences of finite time span convolution effects and/or transient effects. (4) TMM can treat dispersive material (such as metal at visible light) naturally without introducing any additional computation; and meanwhile TMM can also deal with anisotropic material and magnetic material (such as perfectly matched layer) naturally from its algorithms. (5) Extension of TMM to deal with active gain material can be done through an iteration procedure with gain

  11. Photonic Crystal Nanocavity Devices for Nonlinear Signal Processing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yu, Yi

    , membranization of InP/InGaAs structure and wet etching. Experimental investigation of the switching dynamics of InP photonic crystal nanocavity structures are carried out using short-pulse homodyne pump-probe techniques, both in the linear and nonlinear region where the cavity is perturbed by a relatively small......This thesis deals with the investigation of InP material based photonic crystal cavity membrane structures, both experimentally and theoretically. The work emphasizes on the understanding of the physics underlying the structures’ nonlinear properties and their applications for all-optical signal...... processing. Based on the previous fabrication recipe developed in our III-V platform, several processing techniques are developed and optimized for the fabrication of InP photonic crystal membrane structures. Several key issues are identified to ensure a good device quality such as air hole size control...

  12. Chaotic behaviour of photonic crystals resonators

    KAUST Repository

    Di Falco, A.; Liu, C.; Krauss, T. F.; Fratalocchi, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    We show here theoretically and experimentally how chaotic Photonic Crystal resonators can be used for en- ergy harvesting applications and the demonstration of fundamental theories, like the onset of superradiance in quantum systems. © (2015) COPYRIGHT Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE). Downloading of the abstract is permitted for personal use only.

  13. Supercontinuum noise in tapered photonic crystal fibers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Uffe; Sørensen, Simon Toft; Moselund, Peter Morten

    Supercontinuum generation (SCG) in highly nonlinear photonic crystal fibers (PCF) has drawn a lot of attention for the last decade. Pumping such PCFs with high-power picosecond laser pulses enables the creation of broadband and intense light. Picosecond SCG is initiated by modulation instability ...

  14. Chaotic behaviour of photonic crystals resonators

    KAUST Repository

    Di Falco, A.

    2015-02-08

    We show here theoretically and experimentally how chaotic Photonic Crystal resonators can be used for en- ergy harvesting applications and the demonstration of fundamental theories, like the onset of superradiance in quantum systems. © (2015) COPYRIGHT Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE). Downloading of the abstract is permitted for personal use only.

  15. All-polymer photonic crystal slab sensor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hermannsson, Pétur Gordon; Sørensen, Kristian Tølbøl; Vannahme, Christoph

    2015-01-01

    An all-polymer photonic crystal slab sensor is presented, and shown to exhibit narrow resonant reflection with a FWHM of less than 1 nm and a sensitivity of 31 nm/RIU when sensing media with refractive indices around that of water. This results in a detection limit of 4.5x10-6 RIU when measured...

  16. Photonic crystal Fano lasers and Fano switches

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mørk, Jesper; Yu, Yi; Bekele, Dagmawi Alemayehu

    2017-01-01

    We show that Fano resonances can be realized in photonic crystal membrane structures by coupling line-defect waveguides and point-defect nanocavities. The Fano resonance can be exploited to realize optical switches with very small switching energy, as well as Fano lasers, that can generate short...

  17. Fabrication of Nanoimprint stamps for photonic crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kouba, J; Kubenz, M; Mai, A; Ropers, G; Eberhardt, W; Loechel, B

    2006-01-01

    We report on fabrication of nanoimprint stamps for fabrication of two dimensional photonic crystals in visible range of spectra. Nanoimprint stamps made of silicon and/or nickel were successfully fabricated using electron beam lithography and advanced dry etching techniques. The quality of the stamps was evaluated using scanning electron microscopy. The fabricated stamps were also evaluated by imprinting them into suitable polymer materials

  18. The Sommerfeld precursor in photonic crystals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Uitham, R; Hoenders, BJ

    2006-01-01

    We calculate the Sommerfeld precursor that results after transmission of a generic electromagnetic plane wave pulse with transverse electric polarization, through a one-dimensional rectangular N-layer photonic crystal with two slabs per layer. The shape of this precursor equals the shape of the

  19. Vectorial analysis of dielectric photonic crystal VCSEL

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chung, Il-Sug; Mørk, Jesper

    2009-01-01

    A new vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser structure employing a dielectric photonic crystal mirror has been suggested and been numerically investigated. The new structure has a smaller threshold gain, a moderate strength of single-transverse-mode operation, a high quality of emission beam free...

  20. Lambda shifted photonic crystal cavity laser

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schubert, Martin; Skovgård, Troels Suhr; Ek, Sara

    2010-01-01

    We propose and demonstrate an alternative type of photonic crystal laser design that shifts all the holes in the lattice by a fixed fraction of the targeted emission wavelength. The structures are realized in InGaAsP =1.15 with InGaAsP quantum wells =1.52 as gain material. Cavities with shifts of...

  1. Photonic crystal nanostructures for optical biosensing applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dorfner, D.; Zabel, T.; Hürlimann, T.

    2009-01-01

    We present the design, fabrication and optical investigation of photonic crystal (PhC) nanocavity drop filters for use as optical biosensors. The resonant cavity mode wavelength and Q-factor are studied as a function of the ambient refractive index and as a function of adsorbed proteins (bovine...

  2. Realization of a complementary medium using dielectric photonic crystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Tao; Fang, Anan; Jia, Ziyuan; Ji, Liyu; Hang, Zhi Hong

    2017-12-01

    By exploiting the scaling invariance of photonic band diagrams, a complementary photonic crystal slab structure is realized by stacking two uniformly scaled double-zero-index dielectric photonic crystal slabs together. The space cancellation effect in complementary photonic crystals is demonstrated in both numerical simulations and microwave experiments. The refractive index dispersion of double-zero-index dielectric photonic crystal is experimentally measured. Using pure dielectrics, our photonic crystal structure will be an ideal platform to explore various intriguing properties related to a complementary medium.

  3. Magnetic assembly of nonmagnetic particles into photonic crystal structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Le; Hu, Yongxing; Kim, Hyoki; Ge, Jianping; Kwon, Sunghoon; Yin, Yadong

    2010-11-10

    We report the rapid formation of photonic crystal structures by assembly of uniform nonmagnetic colloidal particles in ferrofluids using external magnetic fields. Magnetic manipulation of nonmagnetic particles with size down to a few hundred nanometers, suitable building blocks for producing photonic crystals with band gaps located in the visible regime, has been difficult due to their weak magnetic dipole moment. Increasing the dipole moment of magnetic holes has been limited by the instability of ferrofluids toward aggregation at high concentration or under strong magnetic field. By taking advantage of the superior stability of highly surface-charged magnetite nanocrystal-based ferrofluids, in this paper we have been able to successfully assemble 185 nm nonmagnetic polymer beads into photonic crystal structures, from 1D chains to 3D assemblies as determined by the interplay of magnetic dipole force and packing force. In a strong magnetic field with large field gradient, 3D photonic crystals with high reflectance (83%) in the visible range can be rapidly produced within several minutes, making this general strategy promising for fast creation of large-area photonic crystals using nonmagnetic particles as building blocks.

  4. Band structure and optical properties of opal photonic crystals

    OpenAIRE

    Pavarini, E.; Andreani, L. C.; Soci, C.; Galli, M.; Marabelli, F.; Comoretto, D.

    2005-01-01

    A theoretical approach for the interpretation of reflectance spectra of opal photonic crystals with fcc structure and (111) surface orientation is presented. It is based on the calculation of photonic bands and density of states corresponding to a specified angle of incidence in air. The results yield a clear distinction between diffraction in the direction of light propagation by (111) family planes (leading to the formation of a stop band) and diffraction in other directions by higher-order...

  5. Tunable and rotatable birefringence controller based on electrical control of liquid crystal filled photonic bandgap fibers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wei, Lei; Alkeskjold, Thomas Tanggaard; Bjarklev, Anders Overgaard

    2009-01-01

    We demonstrate the first compact electrically tunable and rotatable birefringence controller based on LCPBG fibers. The birefringence can be tuned electrically to work as a quarter-wave or a half-wave plate in the wavelength range 1520nm-1600nm.......We demonstrate the first compact electrically tunable and rotatable birefringence controller based on LCPBG fibers. The birefringence can be tuned electrically to work as a quarter-wave or a half-wave plate in the wavelength range 1520nm-1600nm....

  6. Density of states functions for photonic crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McPhedran, R.C.; McOrist, J.; Sterke, C.M. de; Nicorovici, N.A.; Botten, L.C.; Asatryan, A.A.

    2004-01-01

    We discuss density of states functions for photonic crystals, in the context of the two-dimensional problem for arrays of cylinders of arbitrary cross section. We introduce the mutual density of states (MDOS), and show that this function can be used to calculate both the local density of states (LDOS), which gives position information for emission of radiation from photonic crystals, and the spectral density of states (SDOS), which gives angular information. We establish the connection between MDOS, LDOS, SDOS and the conventional density of states, which depends only on frequency. We relate all four functions to the band structure and propagating states within the crystal, and give numerical examples of the relation between band structure and density of states functions

  7. Terahertz gas sensing based on a simple one-dimensional photonic crystal cavity with high-quality factors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, T.; Han, Z. H.; Liu, J. J.

    2014-01-01

    We report in this paper terahertz gas sensing using a simple 1D photonic crystal cavity. The resonant frequencies of the cavity depend linearly on the refractive index of the ambient gas, which can then be measured by monitoring the resonance shift. Although quite easy to manufacture, this cavity...... exhibits high-quality factors, facilitating the realization of high sensitivity in the gas refractive index sensing. In our experiment, 6% of the change of hydrogen concentration in air, which corresponds to a refractive index change of 1.4 x 10(-5), can be steadily detected, and different gas samples can...

  8. Band structure and optical properties of opal photonic crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavarini, E.; Andreani, L. C.; Soci, C.; Galli, M.; Marabelli, F.; Comoretto, D.

    2005-07-01

    A theoretical approach for the interpretation of reflectance spectra of opal photonic crystals with fcc structure and (111) surface orientation is presented. It is based on the calculation of photonic bands and density of states corresponding to a specified angle of incidence in air. The results yield a clear distinction between diffraction in the direction of light propagation by (111) family planes (leading to the formation of a stop band) and diffraction in other directions by higher-order planes (corresponding to the excitation of photonic modes in the crystal). Reflectance measurements on artificial opals made of self-assembled polystyrene spheres are analyzed according to the theoretical scheme and give evidence of diffraction by higher-order crystalline planes in the photonic structure.

  9. Thermo-tunable hybrid photonic crystal fiber based on solution-processed chalcogenide glass nanolayers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Markos, Christos

    2016-01-01

    the air-capillaries of the fiber based on a solution-processed glass approach. The deposited high-index layers revealed antiresonant transmission windows from similar to 500 nm up to similar to 1300 nm. We experimentally demonstrate for the first time the possibility to thermally-tune the revealed....../degrees C at 1300 nm. The proposed fiber device could potentially constitute an efficient route towards realization of monolithic tunable fiber filters or sensing elements....

  10. Electrically tunable liquid crystal photonic bandgap fiber laser

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olausson, Christina Bjarnal Thulin; Scolari, Lara; Wei, Lei

    2010-01-01

    We demonstrate electrical tunability of a fiber laser by using a liquid crystal photonic bandgap fiber. Tuning of the laser is achieved by combining the wavelength filtering effect of a liquid crystal photonic bandgap fiber device with an ytterbium-doped photonic crystal fiber. We fabricate an al...

  11. Liquid filling of photonic crystal fibres for grating writing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Henrik Rokkjær; Canning, John; Lægsgaard, Jesper

    2007-01-01

    liquid filling of photonic crystal fibres reduces the scattering from air–glass interfaces during Bragg grating writing in many layered photonic crystal fibres. Within experimental uncertainty, the grating index modulation of a grating written in germanium-doped photonic crystal fibre with 10 rings...

  12. Repeatability and Reversibility of the Humidity Sensor Based on Photonic Crystal Fiber Interferometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hindal, S. S.; Taher, H. J.

    2018-05-01

    The RH sensor operation based on water vapor adsorption and desorption at the silica-air interface within the PCF. Sensor fabrication is simple; it includes splicing and cleaving the PCF with SMF only. PCF (LMA-10) with a certain length spliced to SMF (Corning-28). The PCFI spectrum exhibits good sensitivity to the variations of humidity. The PCFI response is observed for range of relative humidity values from (27% RH to 85% RH), the interference peaks position is found to be shifted to longer wavelength as the humidity increases. In this work, a 6cm length of PCFs is used, and it shows a sensitivity of (2.41pm / %RH), good repeatability, and reversible in nature. This humidity sensor has distinguished features as that the sensor does not require the use of a hygroscopic material, robust, compact size, immunity to electromagnetic interference, and it has potential applications for high humidity environments.

  13. Photonic crystal microprisms obtained by carving artificial opals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenollosa, R.; Ibisate, M.; Rubio, S.; López, C.; Meseguer, F.; Sánchez-Dehesa, J.

    2003-01-01

    A method for fabrication of photonic crystal prisms is demonstrated. The procedure is based on micromanipulation techniques, here applied to artificial opals. By means of a microgrinder an opal prism comprising a single crystal (several tens of microns in size) has been carved with three different faces: (111), (110), and (100). The faces were morphologically characterized by scanning electron microscopy and their optical reflectance spectra measured and compared with the theoretical band structure.

  14. Photonic crystal waveguides in PECVD glass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Haoling; Frandsen, Lars Hagedorn; Têtu, Amélie

    Silicon oxynitride (SiON) on silicon has found wide use as a robust and versatileplatform for integrated, optical devices. With plasma-enhanced chemical vapourdeposition (PECVD) the refractive index can be varied all the way from 1.5 (pure silica,SiO2) to 2.0 (pure silicon nitride, Si3N4). We have...... fabricated glasses with refractive indexup to approximately 1.75, with which value it is possible to fabricate photonic crystalwaveguides. These structures have the advantage of being transparent in the whole of thevisible region, which makes them different from photonic crystals made...

  15. Breakdown of Bose-Einstein distribution in photonic crystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, Ping-Yuan; Xiong, Heng-Na; Zhang, Wei-Min

    2015-03-30

    In the last two decades, considerable advances have been made in the investigation of nano-photonics in photonic crystals. Previous theoretical investigations of photon dynamics were carried out at zero temperature. Here, we investigate micro/nano cavity photonics in photonic crystals at finite temperature. Due to photonic-band-gap-induced localized long-lived photon dynamics, we discover that cavity photons in photonic crystals do not obey Bose-Einstein statistical distribution. Within the photonic band gap and in the vicinity of the band edge, cavity photons combine the long-lived non-Markovain dynamics with thermal fluctuations together to form photon states that memorize the initial cavity state information. As a result, Bose-Einstein distribution is completely broken down in these regimes, even if the thermal energy is larger or much larger than the cavity detuning energy. In this investigation, a crossover phenomenon from equilibrium to nonequilibrium steady states is also revealed.

  16. Soliton fission and supercontinuum generation in photonic crystal

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2015-10-17

    Oct 17, 2015 ... We present a practical design of novel photonic crystal fibre (PCF) to investigate the nonlinear propagation of femtosecond pulses for the application of optical coherence tomography (OCT) based on supercontinuum generation (SCG) process. In addition, this paper contains a brief introduction of the ...

  17. Analysis of Indexed-Guided Highly Birefringent Photonic Crystal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this paper, a comparative study of three geometries of highly birefringent photonic crystal fibers (HB PCF) is presented. The proposed geometries are: V type PCF, Pseudo-Panda PCF and selectively liquid-filled PCF. Based on the famous Finite Difference Time Domain (FDTD) method with the perfectly matched layer ...

  18. Slow light in quantum dot photonic crystal waveguides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Torben Roland; Lavrinenko, Andrei; Mørk, Jesper

    2009-01-01

    A theoretical analysis of pulse propagation in a semiconductor quantum dot photonic crystal waveguide in the regime of electromagnetically induced transparency is presented. The slow light mechanism considered here is based on both material and waveguide dispersion. The group index n...

  19. Switching dynamics in InP photonic-crystal nanocavity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yu, Yi; Palushani, Evarist; Heuck, Mikkel

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we presented switching dynamic investigations on an InP photonic-crystal (PhC) nanocavity structure using homodyne pump-probe measurements. The measurements were compared with simulations based on temporal nonlinear coupled mode theory and carrier rate equations for the dynamics of...

  20. Photonic crystal resonator integrated in a microfluidic system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rodrigues de Sousa Nunes, Pedro André; Mortensen, Niels Asger; Kutter, Jörg Peter

    2008-01-01

    We report on a novel optofluidic system consisting of a silica-based 1D photonic crystal, integrated planar waveguides, and electrically insulated fluidic channels. An array of pillars in a microfluidic channel designed for electrochromatography is used as a resonator for on-column label...

  1. Tunable multichannel filter in photonic crystal heterostructure containing permeability-negative materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu Xiaoyong; Liu Zheng; Gong Qihuang

    2008-01-01

    A tunable multichannel filter is demonstrated theoretically based on a one-dimensional photonic crystal heterostructure containing permeability-negative material. The filtering properties of the photonic crystal filter, including the channel number and frequency, can be tuned by adjusting the structure parameters or by a pump laser. The angular response of the photonic crystal filter and the influences of the losses on the filtering properties are also analyzed

  2. Tunable multichannel filter in photonic crystal heterostructure containing permeability-negative materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu Xiaoyong [State Key Laboratory for Mesoscopic Physics, Department of Physics, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China)], E-mail: xiaoyonghu@pku.edu.cn; Liu Zheng [State Key Laboratory for Mesoscopic Physics, Department of Physics, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Gong Qihuang [State Key Laboratory for Mesoscopic Physics, Department of Physics, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China)], E-mail: qhgong@pku.edu.cn

    2008-01-14

    A tunable multichannel filter is demonstrated theoretically based on a one-dimensional photonic crystal heterostructure containing permeability-negative material. The filtering properties of the photonic crystal filter, including the channel number and frequency, can be tuned by adjusting the structure parameters or by a pump laser. The angular response of the photonic crystal filter and the influences of the losses on the filtering properties are also analyzed.

  3. Negative refraction at infrared wavelengths in a two-dimensional photonic crystal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berrier, A.; Mulot, M.; Swillo, M.; Qiu, M.; Thylen, L.; Anand, S.; Talneau, A.

    2004-01-01

    We report on the first experimental evidence of negative refraction at telecommunication wavelengths by a two-dimensional photonic crystal field. Samples were fabricated by chemically assisted ion beam etching in the InP-based low-index constrast system. Experiments of beam imaging and light collection show light focusing by the photonic crystal field. Finite-difference time-domain simulations confirm that the observed focusing is due to negative refraction in the photonic crystal area

  4. Limits of slow light in photonic crystals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Jesper Goor; Xiao, Sanshui; Mortensen, N. Asger

    2008-01-01

    in the group velocity acquiring a finite value above zero at the band-gap edges while attaining uperluminal values within the band gap. Simple scalings of the minimum and maximum group velocities with the imaginary part of the dielectric function or, equivalently, the linewidth of the broadened states......While ideal photonic crystals would support modes with a vanishing group velocity, state-of-the-art structures have still only provided a slow down by roughly two orders of magnitude. We find that the induced density of states caused by lifetime broadening of the electromagnetic modes results...... are presented. The results obtained are entirely general and may be applied to any effect which results in a broadening of the electromagnetic states, such as loss, disorder, and finite-size effects. This significantly limits the reduction in group velocity attainable via photonic crystals....

  5. Energy flow in photonic crystal waveguides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søndergaard, Thomas; Dridi, Kim

    2000-01-01

    Theoretical and numerical investigations of energy flow in photonic crystal waveguides made of line defects and branching points are presented. It is shown that vortices of energy flow may occur, and the net energy flow along: the line defect is described via the effective propagation velocity....... Single-mode and multimode operations are studied, and dispersion relations are computed for different waveguide widths. Both strong positive, strong negative, and zero dispersion an possible. It is shown that geometric parameters such as the nature of the lattice, the line defect orientation, the defect...... width, and the branching-point geometry have a significant influence on the electrodynamics. These are important issues for the fabrication of photonic crystal structures....

  6. Photonic crystal geometry for organic solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Doo-Hyun; Tumbleston, John R; Zhang, Lei; Williams, Stuart; DeSimone, Joseph M; Lopez, Rene; Samulski, Edward T

    2009-07-01

    We report organic solar cells with a photonic crystal nanostructure embossed in the photoactive bulk heterojunction layer, a topography that exhibits a 3-fold enhancement of the absorption in specific regions of the solar spectrum in part through multiple excitation resonances. The photonic crystal geometry is fabricated using a materials-agnostic process called PRINT wherein highly ordered arrays of nanoscale features are readily made in a single processing step over wide areas (approximately 4 cm(2)) that is scalable. We show efficiency improvements of approximately 70% that result not only from greater absorption, but also from electrical enhancements. The methodology is generally applicable to organic solar cells and the experimental findings reported in our manuscript corroborate theoretical expectations.

  7. Study on sensing property of one-dimensional ring mirror-defect photonic crystal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ying; Luo, Pei; Cao, Huiying; Zhao, Zhiyong; Zhu, Qiguang

    2018-02-01

    Based on the photon localization and the photonic bandgap characteristics of photonic crystals (PCs), one-dimensional (1D) ring mirror-defect photonic crystal structure is proposed. Due to the introduction of mirror structure, a defect cavity is formed in the center of the photonic crystal, and then the resonant transmission peak can be obtained in the bandgap of transmission spectrum. The transfer matrix method is used to establish the relationship model between the resonant transmission peak and the structure parameters of the photonic crystals. Using the rectangular air gate photonic crystal structure, the dynamic monitoring of the detected gas sample parameters can be achieved from the shift of the resonant transmission peak. The simulation results show that the Q-value can attain to 1739.48 and the sensitivity can attain to 1642 nm ṡ RIU-1, which demonstrates the effectiveness of the sensing structure. The structure can provide certain theoretical reference for air pollution monitoring and gas component analysis.

  8. Electrically Driven Photonic Crystal Nanocavity Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    material, here gallium arsenide and indium arsenide self- assembled quantum dots (QDs). QDs are preferred for the gain medium because they can have...blue points ) and 150 K (green points ). The black lines are linear fits to the above threshold output power of the lasers, which are used to find the...SHAMBAT et al.: ELECTRICALLY DRIVEN PHOTONIC CRYSTAL NANOCAVITY DEVICES 1707 Fig. 13. (a) Tilted SEM picture of a fabricated triple cavity device. The in

  9. Enhanced Gain in Photonic Crystal Amplifiers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ek, Sara; Semenova, Elizaveta; Hansen, Per Lunnemann

    2012-01-01

    We experimentally demonstrate enhanced gain in the slow-light regime of quantum well photonic crystal amplifiers. A strong gain enhancement is observed with the increase of the group refractive index, due to light slow-down. The slow light enhancement is shown in a amplified spontaneous emission....... These results are promising for short and efficient semiconductor optical amplifiers. This effect will also benefit other devices, such as mode locked lasers....

  10. Rabi oscillations in bidimensional photonic crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Centeno, E.; Felbacq, D.

    2000-01-01

    We theoretically and numerically investigate transient phenomena in finite two-dimensional photonic crystals doped by single-mode microcavities. We show that for antisymmetric defect modes, there are Rabi oscillations between the microcavities. We develop a spectral analysis which permits us to compute the Rabi frequencies of these oscillations as well as the Q factor of the microcavities. We present a method allowing the computation of the coupling factor between localized modes

  11. Butterflies: Photonic Crystals on the Wing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-03-22

    green hairstreak , Callophrys rubi, suggested that the scales have a 3D cubic network organization (Fig. 9). An extensive analysis of the scales of a...Fig. 9. a Ventral side of the wings of the green hairstreak , Callophrys rubi. b Transmission electron micrograph of a small area of a single...Report 3. DATES COVERED (From – To) 15 March 2006 - 08-Jun-07 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Butterflies : Photonic Crystals on the Wing 5a. CONTRACT

  12. Photonic crystal fibres in the market

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Broeng, Jes; Laurila, Marko; Noordegraaf, Danny

    2011-01-01

    Photonic crystal fibres (PCFs) emerged as a research topic in the mid 1990'ies [1]. Today, 15 years later, these fibres are increasing deployed in various commercial markets. Here, we will address three of these markets; medical imaging, materials processing and sensors. We will describe how...... the PCFs provide radical improvements and illustrate the strong diversity in the evolution of PCFs to serve these different markets....

  13. Solitons in quadratic nonlinear photonic crystals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Corney, Joel Frederick; Bang, Ole

    2001-01-01

    We study solitons in one-dimensional quadratic nonlinear photonic crystals with modulation of both the linear and nonlinear susceptibilities. We derive averaged equations that include induced cubic nonlinearities, which can be defocusing, and we numerically find previously unknown soliton families....... Because of these induced cubic terms, solitons still exist even when the effective quadratic nonlinearity vanishes and conventional theory predicts that there can be no soliton. We demonstrate that both bright and dark forms of these solitons can propagate stably....

  14. Thermal properties photonic crystal fiber transducers with ferromagnetic nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Przybysz, N.; Marć, P.; Kisielewska, A.; Jaroszewicz, L. R.

    2015-12-01

    The main aim of the research is to design new types of fiber optic transducers based on filled photonic crystal fibers for sensor applications. In our research we propose to use as a filling material nanoparticles' ferrofluids (Fe3O4 NPs). Optical properties of such transducers are studied by measurements of spectral characteristics' changes when transducers are exposed to temperature and magnetic field changes. From synthesized ferrofluid several mixtures with different NPs' concentrations were prepared. Partially filled commercially available photonic crystal fiber LMA 10 (NKT Photonics) was used to design PCF transducers. Their thermo-optic properties were tested in a temperature chamber. Taking into account magnetic properties of synthetized NPs the patch cords based on a partially filled PM 1550 PCF were measured.

  15. Intravitreal properties of porous silicon photonic crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, L; Anglin, E; Cunin, F; Kim, D; Sailor, M J; Falkenstein, I; Tammewar, A; Freeman, W R

    2009-01-01

    Aim To determine the suitability of porous silicon photonic crystals for intraocular drug-delivery. Methods A rugate structure was electrochemically etched into a highly doped p-type silicon substrate to create a porous silicon film that was subsequently removed and ultrasonically fractured into particles. To stabilise the particles in aqueous media, the silicon particles were modified by surface alkylation (using thermal hydrosilylation) or by thermal oxidation. Unmodified particles, hydrosilylated particles and oxidised particles were injected into rabbit vitreous. The stability and toxicity of each type of particle were studied by indirect ophthalmoscopy, biomicroscopy, tonometry, electroretinography (ERG) and histology. Results No toxicity was observed with any type of the particles during a period of >4 months. Surface alkylation led to dramatically increased intravitreal stability and slow degradation. The estimated vitreous half-life increased from 1 week (fresh particles) to 5 weeks (oxidised particles) and to 16 weeks (hydrosilylated particles). Conclusion The porous silicon photonic crystals showed good biocompatibility and may be used as an intraocular drug-delivery system. The intravitreal injectable porous silicon photonic crystals may be engineered to host a variety of therapeutics and achieve controlled drug release over long periods of time to treat chronic vitreoretinal diseases. PMID:18441177

  16. Plasmonic photonic crystals realized through DNA-programmable assembly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Daniel J; Zhang, Chuan; Ku, Jessie C; Zhou, Yu; Schatz, George C; Mirkin, Chad A

    2015-01-27

    Three-dimensional dielectric photonic crystals have well-established enhanced light-matter interactions via high Q factors. Their plasmonic counterparts based on arrays of nanoparticles, however, have not been experimentally well explored owing to a lack of available synthetic routes for preparing them. However, such structures should facilitate these interactions based on the small mode volumes associated with plasmonic polarization. Herein we report strong light-plasmon interactions within 3D plasmonic photonic crystals that have lattice constants and nanoparticle diameters that can be independently controlled in the deep subwavelength size regime by using a DNA-programmable assembly technique. The strong coupling within such crystals is probed with backscattering spectra, and the mode splitting (0.10 and 0.24 eV) is defined based on dispersion diagrams. Numerical simulations predict that the crystal photonic modes (Fabry-Perot modes) can be enhanced by coating the crystals with a silver layer, achieving moderate Q factors (∼10(2)) over the visible and near-infrared spectrum.

  17. Photonic crystal fiber interferometric pH sensor based on polyvinyl alcohol/polyacrylic acid hydrogel coating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Pengbing; Dong, Xinyong; Wong, Wei Chang; Chen, Li Han; Ni, Kai; Chan, Chi Chiu

    2015-04-01

    We present a simple photonic crystal fiber interferometer (PCFI) that operates in reflection mode for pH measurement. The sensor is made by coating polyvinyl alcohol/polyacrylic acid (PVA/PAA) hydrogel onto the surface of the PCFI, constructed by splicing a stub of PCF at the distal end of a single-mode fiber with its free end airhole collapsed. The experimental results demonstrate a high average sensitivity of 0.9 nm/pH unit for the 11 wt.% PVA/PAA coated sensor in the pH range from 2.5 to 6.5. The sensor also displays high repeatability and stability and low cross-sensitivity to temperature. Fast, reversible rise and fall times of 12 s and 18 s, respectively, are achieved for the sensor time response.

  18. Analyzing the photonic band gaps in two-dimensional plasma photonic crystals with fractal Sierpinski gasket structure based on the Monte Carlo method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Hai-Feng, E-mail: hanlor@163.com [College of Optoelectronic Engineering, Nanjing University of Posts and Telecommunications, Nanjing, 210023 ,China (China); Key Laboratory of Radar Imaging and Microwave Photonics (Nanjing Univ. Aeronaut. Astronaut.), Ministry of Education, Nanjing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Nanjing, 210016 (China); Liu, Shao-Bin [Key Laboratory of Radar Imaging and Microwave Photonics (Nanjing Univ. Aeronaut. Astronaut.), Ministry of Education, Nanjing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Nanjing, 210016 (China)

    2016-08-15

    In this paper, the properties of photonic band gaps (PBGs) in two types of two-dimensional plasma-dielectric photonic crystals (2D PPCs) under a transverse-magnetic (TM) wave are theoretically investigated by a modified plane wave expansion (PWE) method where Monte Carlo method is introduced. The proposed PWE method can be used to calculate the band structures of 2D PPCs which possess arbitrary-shaped filler and any lattice. The efficiency and convergence of the present method are discussed by a numerical example. The configuration of 2D PPCs is the square lattices with fractal Sierpinski gasket structure whose constituents are homogeneous and isotropic. The type-1 PPCs is filled with the dielectric cylinders in the plasma background, while its complementary structure is called type-2 PPCs, in which plasma cylinders behave as the fillers in the dielectric background. The calculated results reveal that the enough accuracy and good convergence can be obtained, if the number of random sampling points of Monte Carlo method is large enough. The band structures of two types of PPCs with different fractal orders of Sierpinski gasket structure also are theoretically computed for a comparison. It is demonstrate that the PBGs in higher frequency region are more easily produced in the type-1 PPCs rather than in the type-2 PPCs. Sierpinski gasket structure introduced in the 2D PPCs leads to a larger cutoff frequency, enhances and induces more PBGs in high frequency region. The effects of configurational parameters of two types of PPCs on the PBGs are also investigated in detail. The results show that the PBGs of the PPCs can be easily manipulated by tuning those parameters. The present type-1 PPCs are more suitable to design the tunable compacted devices.

  19. The method of impedance transformation for electromagnetic waves propagating in one-dimension plasma photonic crystal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yao, Jingfeng; Yuan, Chengxun, E-mail: yuancx@hit.edu.cn, E-mail: zhouzx@hit.edu.cn; Gao, Ruilin; Jia, Jieshu; Wang, Ying; Zhou, Zhongxiang, E-mail: yuancx@hit.edu.cn, E-mail: zhouzx@hit.edu.cn; Wang, Xiaoou [Department of Physics, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001 (China); Wu, Jian [National Key Laboratory of Electromagnetic Environment (LEME), China Research Institute of Radio Wave Propagation, Beijing 102206 (China); Li, Hui [Department of Physics, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001 (China); National Key Laboratory of Electromagnetic Environment (LEME), China Research Institute of Radio Wave Propagation, Beijing 102206 (China)

    2016-08-15

    This study focuses on the transmission of normal-incidence electromagnetic waves in one-dimensional plasma photonic crystals. Using the Maxwell's equations in a medium, a method that is based on the concept of impendence is employed to perform the simulation. The accuracy of the method was evaluated by simulating a one-layer plasma and conventional photonic crystal. In frequency-domain, the transmission and reflection coefficients in the unmagnetized plasma photonic crystal were calculated, and the influence factors on plasma photonic crystals including dielectric constants of dielectric, spatial period, filling factor, plasma frequency, and collision frequency were studied.

  20. Amplifying and compressing optical filter based on one-dimensional ternary photonic crystal structure containing gain medium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jamshidi-Ghaleh, Kazem, E-mail: k-jamshidi@azaruinv.ac.ir [Department of Physics, Azarbaijan Shahid Madani University, Tabriz (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Ebrahimpour, Zeinab [Department of Physics, Shahid Beheshti University, Evin 19839 Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Moslemi, Fatemeh [Department of Physics, Azarbaijan Shahid Madani University, Tabriz (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2015-07-15

    The transmission spectrum properties of the one-dimensional ternary photonic crystal (1DTPC) structure, composed of dielectric (D), metal (M) and gain (G) materials, with three different arrangements of (DGM){sup N}, (GDM){sup N} and (DMG){sup N}, where N is the number of periodicity, were investigated. Two full photonic band gaps and N−1 resonant peaks, localized between them, were observed on transmittance spectra on near-UV spectrum region. When the gained layer was placed in front of the metal, the peaks appeared with higher resolution. There is a peak, localized on the higher band-edge of the first gap, which shows very interesting property than the other peaks. Thus, it amplifies and compresses faster with increase in the N and strength of the gain coefficient. The effects of the gain coefficient and periodicity number are graphically illustrated. This communication presents a PC structure that can be a good candidate to design an amplifying and compressing single or multi-channel optical filter in the UV region.

  1. Amplifying and compressing optical filter based on one-dimensional ternary photonic crystal structure containing gain medium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamshidi-Ghaleh, Kazem; Ebrahimpour, Zeinab; Moslemi, Fatemeh

    2015-07-01

    The transmission spectrum properties of the one-dimensional ternary photonic crystal (1DTPC) structure, composed of dielectric (D), metal (M) and gain (G) materials, with three different arrangements of (DGM)N, (GDM)N and (DMG)N, where N is the number of periodicity, were investigated. Two full photonic band gaps and N-1 resonant peaks, localized between them, were observed on transmittance spectra on near-UV spectrum region. When the gained layer was placed in front of the metal, the peaks appeared with higher resolution. There is a peak, localized on the higher band-edge of the first gap, which shows very interesting property than the other peaks. Thus, it amplifies and compresses faster with increase in the N and strength of the gain coefficient. The effects of the gain coefficient and periodicity number are graphically illustrated. This communication presents a PC structure that can be a good candidate to design an amplifying and compressing single or multi-channel optical filter in the UV region.

  2. Two-dimensional plasma photonic crystals in dielectric barrier discharge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fan Weili; Dong Lifang; Zhang Xinchun

    2010-01-01

    A series of two-dimensional plasma photonic crystals have been obtained by filaments' self-organization in atmospheric dielectric barrier discharge with two water electrodes, which undergo the transition from square to square superlattice and finally to the hexagon. The spatio-temporal behaviors of the plasma photonic crystals in nanosecond scale have been studied by optical method, which show that the plasma photonic crystal is actually an integration of different transient sublattices. The photonic band diagrams of the transverse electric (TE) mode and transverse magnetic mode for each sublattice of these plasma photonic crystals have been investigated theoretically. A wide complete band gap is formed in the hexagonal plasma photonic crystal with the TE mode. The changes of the band edge frequencies and the band gap widths in the evolvement of different structures are studied. A kind of tunable plasma photonic crystal which can be controlled both in space and time is suggested.

  3. Amorphous photonic crystals with only short-range order.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Lei; Zhang, Yafeng; Dong, Biqin; Zhan, Tianrong; Liu, Xiaohan; Zi, Jian

    2013-10-04

    Distinct from conventional photonic crystals with both short- and long-range order, amorphous photonic crystals that possess only short-range order show interesting optical responses owing to their unique structural features. Amorphous photonic crystals exhibit unique light scattering and transport, which lead to a variety of interesting phenomena such as isotropic photonic bandgaps or pseudogaps, noniridescent structural colors, and light localization. Recent experimental and theoretical advances in the study of amorphous photonic crystals are summarized, focusing on their unique optical properties, artificial fabrication, bionspiration, and potential applications. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. Diffusion Based Photon Mapping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schjøth, Lars; Sporring, Jon; Fogh Olsen, Ole

    2008-01-01

    . To address this problem, we introduce a photon mapping algorithm based on nonlinear anisotropic diffusion. Our algorithm adapts according to the structure of the photon map such that smoothing occurs along edges and structures and not across. In this way, we preserve important illumination features, while...

  5. Fractional decay of quantum dots in real photonic crystals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Philip Trøst; Koenderink, A. Femius; Lodahl, Peter

    2008-01-01

    We show that fractional decay may be observable in experiments using quantum dots and photonic crystals with parameters that are currently achievable. We focus on the case of inverse opal photonic crystals and locate the position in the crystal where the effect is most pronounced. Furthermore, we...

  6. Study of thermally-induced optical bistability and the role of surface treatments in Si-based mid-infrared photonic crystal cavities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shankar, Raji; Bulu, Irfan; Leijssen, Rick; Lončar, Marko

    2011-11-21

    We report the observation of optical bistability in Si-based photonic crystal cavities operating around 4.5 µm. Time domain measurements indicate that the source of this optical bistability is thermal, with a time constant on the order of 5 µs. Quality (Q) factor improvement is shown by the use of surface treatments (wet processes and annealing), resulting in a significant increase in Q-factor, which in our best devices is on the order of ~45,000 at 4.48 µm. After annealing in a N(2) environment, optical bistability is no longer seen in our cavities. © 2011 Optical Society of America

  7. Lead-Tungstate Crystal of the ALICE Photon Spectrometer (PHOS)

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    The photon spectrometer (PHOS) is designed to measure the temperature of collisions by detecting photons emerging from them. It will be made of lead tungstate crystals like these. When high-energy photons strike lead tungstate, they make it glow, or scintillate, and this glow can be measured. Lead tungstate is extremely dense (denser than iron), stopping most photons that reach it.

  8. Three-dimensional function photonic crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hai-Feng

    2017-11-01

    In this paper, the properties of the photonic band gaps (PBGs) of three-dimensional (3D) function photonic crystals (PCs) are theoretically investigated by a modified plane wave expansion (PWE) method, whose equations for computations are deduced. The configuration of 3D function PCs is the dielectric spheres inserted in the air background with simple-cubic (SC) lattices whose dielectric constants are the functions of space coordinates, which can be realized by the electro-optical or optical Kerr effect in the practice. The influences of the parameter for 3D function PCs on the PBGs also are discussed. The calculated results show that the bandwidths and number of PBGs can be tuned with different distributions of function dielectrics. Compared with the conventional 3D dielectric PCs with SC lattices, the larger and more PBGs can be obtained in the 3D function PCs. Those results provide a new way to design the novel practical devices.

  9. Photonic Crystal Emitters for Thermophotovoltaic Energy Conversion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stelmakh, Veronika; Chan, Walker R; Joannopoulos, John D; Celanovic, Ivan; Ghebrebrhan, Michael; Soljacic, Marin

    2015-01-01

    This paper reports the design, fabrication, and characterization of 2D photonic crystal (PhC) thermal emitters for a millimeter-scale hydrocarbon TPV microgenerator as a possible replacement for batteries in portable microelectronics, robotics, etc. In our TPV system, combustion heats a PhC emitter to incandescence and the resulting radiation is converted by a low-bandgap TPV cell. The PhC tailors the photonic density of states to produce spectrally confined thermal emission that matches the bandgap of the TPV cell, enabling high heat-to-electricity conversion efficiency. The work builds on a previously developed fabrication process to produce a square array of cylindrical cavities in a metal substrate. We will present ongoing incremental improvements in the optical and thermo-mechanical properties, the fabrication process, and the system integration, as recently combined with fabrication using novel materials, such as sputtered coatings, to enable a monolithic system. (paper)

  10. Fabrication and optical characteristics of silicon-based two-dimensional wavelength division multiplexing splitter with photonic crystal directional waveguide couplers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Cheng-Yang

    2011-01-01

    Photonic crystals have many potential applications because of their ability to control lightwave propagation. We report on the fabrication and optical properties of quasi-two-dimensional photonic crystals with triangular lattice of dielectric rods in air. Rod-type photonic crystal structures were fabricated in silicon by electron beam lithography and dry-etching techniques. Wavelength division multiplexing splitters were fabricated from two-dimensional photonic crystal directional waveguide couplers. Transmission spectra were measured and device operation was shown to be in agreement with theoretical calculations. The splitters can be used in visible light region. Such an approach to photonic element systems should enable new applications for designing components in photonic integrated circuits. -- Highlights: → We report the fabrication and optical properties of rod-type photonic crystal. → The splitter was fabricated by electron beam lithography and dry-etching techniques. → The splitter was composed of directional waveguide couplers. → Measured transmission spectra are in agreement with theoretical calculations. → The splitters can be used in visible light region.

  11. Dirac directional emission in anisotropic zero refractive index photonic crystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Xin-Tao; Zhong, Yao-Nan; Zhou, You; Zhong, Zhi-Chao; Dong, Jian-Wen

    2015-08-14

    A certain class of photonic crystals with conical dispersion is known to behave as isotropic zero-refractive-index medium. However, the discrete building blocks in such photonic crystals are limited to construct multidirectional devices, even for high-symmetric photonic crystals. Here, we show multidirectional emission from low-symmetric photonic crystals with semi-Dirac dispersion at the zone center. We demonstrate that such low-symmetric photonic crystal can be considered as an effective anisotropic zero-refractive-index medium, as long as there is only one propagation mode near Dirac frequency. Four kinds of Dirac multidirectional emitters are achieved with the channel numbers of five, seven, eleven, and thirteen, respectively. Spatial power combination for such kind of Dirac directional emitter is also verified even when multiple sources are randomly placed in the anisotropic zero-refractive-index photonic crystal.

  12. Quasiperiodic one-dimensional photonic crystals with adjustable multiple photonic bandgaps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vyunishev, Andrey M; Pankin, Pavel S; Svyakhovskiy, Sergey E; Timofeev, Ivan V; Vetrov, Stepan Ya

    2017-09-15

    We propose an elegant approach to produce photonic bandgap (PBG) structures with multiple photonic bandgaps by constructing quasiperiodic photonic crystals (QPPCs) composed of a superposition of photonic lattices with different periods. Generally, QPPC structures exhibit both aperiodicity and multiple PBGs due to their long-range order. They are described by a simple analytical expression, instead of quasiperiodic tiling approaches based on substitution rules. Here we describe the optical properties of QPPCs exhibiting two PBGs that can be tuned independently. PBG interband spacing and its depth can be varied by choosing appropriate reciprocal lattice vectors and their amplitudes. These effects are confirmed by the proof-of-concept measurements made for the porous silicon-based QPPC of the appropriate design.

  13. Entangled, guided photon generation in (1+1)-dimensional photonic crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sciscione, L.; Centini, M.; Sibilia, C.; Bertolotti, M.; Scalora, M.

    2006-01-01

    A scheme based on photonic crystal technology is proposed as an ultrabright source of entangled photons on a miniaturized scale. The geometry consists of a multilayer microcavity, excited by a resonant pump frequency, such that the emitted photons are guided transversally to the direction of the incident pump. The entanglement occurs in direction, frequency, and polarization, and the bandwidth of the emitted photons is of the order of 1 nm. We propose a feasible design based on Al 0.3 Ga 0.7 As/Al 2 O 3 structures and predict an emission rate 10 5 pairs per second with 100 mW pump power. These results are promising for realization of chip and future quantum computer applications

  14. Negative refraction angular characterization in one-dimensional photonic crystals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesus Eduardo Lugo

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Photonic crystals are artificial structures that have periodic dielectric components with different refractive indices. Under certain conditions, they abnormally refract the light, a phenomenon called negative refraction. Here we experimentally characterize negative refraction in a one dimensional photonic crystal structure; near the low frequency edge of the fourth photonic bandgap. We compare the experimental results with current theory and a theory based on the group velocity developed here. We also analytically derived the negative refraction correctness condition that gives the angular region where negative refraction occurs.By using standard photonic techniques we experimentally determined the relationship between incidence and negative refraction angles and found the negative refraction range by applying the correctness condition. In order to compare both theories with experimental results an output refraction correction was utilized. The correction uses Snell's law and an effective refractive index based on two effective dielectric constants. We found good agreement between experiment and both theories in the negative refraction zone.Since both theories and the experimental observations agreed well in the negative refraction region, we can use both negative refraction theories plus the output correction to predict negative refraction angles. This can be very useful from a practical point of view for space filtering applications such as a photonic demultiplexer or for sensing applications.

  15. Negative refraction angular characterization in one-dimensional photonic crystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lugo, Jesus Eduardo; Doti, Rafael; Faubert, Jocelyn

    2011-04-06

    Photonic crystals are artificial structures that have periodic dielectric components with different refractive indices. Under certain conditions, they abnormally refract the light, a phenomenon called negative refraction. Here we experimentally characterize negative refraction in a one dimensional photonic crystal structure; near the low frequency edge of the fourth photonic bandgap. We compare the experimental results with current theory and a theory based on the group velocity developed here. We also analytically derived the negative refraction correctness condition that gives the angular region where negative refraction occurs. By using standard photonic techniques we experimentally determined the relationship between incidence and negative refraction angles and found the negative refraction range by applying the correctness condition. In order to compare both theories with experimental results an output refraction correction was utilized. The correction uses Snell's law and an effective refractive index based on two effective dielectric constants. We found good agreement between experiment and both theories in the negative refraction zone. Since both theories and the experimental observations agreed well in the negative refraction region, we can use both negative refraction theories plus the output correction to predict negative refraction angles. This can be very useful from a practical point of view for space filtering applications such as a photonic demultiplexer or for sensing applications.

  16. Supercontinuum Generation in a Photonic Crystal Fibre

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAN Pei-Guang; RUAN Shuang-Chen; LIN Hao-Jia; DU Chen-Lin; YU Yong-Qin; LU Ke-Cheng; YAO Jian-Quan

    2004-01-01

    @@ Nearly 1000-nm broad continuum from 390nm to 1370nm is generated in a 2-m long photonic crystal fibre. The maximum total power of supercontinuum is measured to be 60mW with the pumping power of 800mW output from a 200-fs Ti:sapphire laser. The evolution of the pumping light into supercontinuum is experimentally studied in detail. It is found that the mechanism for supercontinuum generation has direct relations with Raman effect and soliton effect, and the four-wave mixing plays an important role in the last phase of the supercontinuum generation.

  17. Maximizing the Optical Band Gap in 2D Photonic Crystals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hougaard, Kristian G.; Sigmund, Ole

    Topology optimization is used to find the 2D photonic crystal designs with the largest relative photonic band gaps. Starting points for the topology optimization are found with an exhaustive binary search on a low resolution grid.......Topology optimization is used to find the 2D photonic crystal designs with the largest relative photonic band gaps. Starting points for the topology optimization are found with an exhaustive binary search on a low resolution grid....

  18. Massive photon properties in 3D photonic crystals, filled by dielectrics or metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorelik, V S

    2009-01-01

    The optical properties of 3D photonic crystals-artificial opals, consisting of monosized silica globules-have been investigated. The volume between globules was filled by various dielectrics or metals. The dispersion law of electromagnetic waves of this type of crystal has been obtained. It was shown that the sign of photonic mass in globular photonic crystals may be positive or negative for different points on dispersion curves. The value of the effective mass of photons depends on the refractive index of the substance infiltrated into the globular photonic crystal.

  19. Optimized dipole antennas on photonic band gap crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng, S.D.; Biswas, R.; Ozbay, E.; McCalmont, S.; Tuttle, G.; Ho, K.

    1995-01-01

    Photonic band gap crystals have been used as a perfectly reflecting substrate for planar dipole antennas in the 12--15 GHz regime. The position, orientation, and driving frequency of the dipole antenna on the photonic band gap crystal surface, have been optimized for antenna performance and directionality. Virtually no radiated power is lost to the photonic crystal resulting in gains and radiation efficiencies larger than antennas on other conventional dielectric substrates. copyright 1995 American Institute of Physics

  20. Switchable Photonic Crystals Using One-Dimensional Confined Liquid Crystals for Photonic Device Application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryu, Seong Ho; Gim, Min-Jun; Lee, Wonsuk; Choi, Suk-Won; Yoon, Dong Ki

    2017-01-25

    Photonic crystals (PCs) have recently attracted considerable attention, with much effort devoted to photonic bandgap (PBG) control for varying the reflected color. Here, fabrication of a modulated one-dimensional (1D) anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) PC with a periodic porous structure is reported. The PBG of the fabricated PC can be reversibly changed by switching the ultraviolet (UV) light on/off. The AAO nanopores contain a mixture of photoresponsive liquid crystals (LCs) with irradiation-activated cis/trans photoisomerizable azobenzene. The resultant mixture of LCs in the porous AAO film exhibits a reversible PBG, depending on the cis/trans configuration of azobenzene molecules. The PBG switching is reliable over many cycles, suggesting that the fabricated device can be used in optical and photonic applications such as light modulators, smart windows, and sensors.

  1. Ultra-wide tuning single channel filter based on one-dimensional photonic crystal with an air cavity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xiaodan; Yang, Yibiao; Chen, Zhihui; Wang, Yuncai; Fei, Hongming; Deng, Xiao

    2017-02-01

    By inserting an air cavity into a one-dimensional photonic crystal of LiF/GaSb, a tunable filter covering the whole visible range is proposed. Following consideration of the dispersion of the materials, through modulating the thickness of the air cavity, we demonstrate that a single resonant peak can shift from 416.1 to 667.3 nm in the band gap at normal incidence by means of the transfer matrix method. The research also shows that the transmittance of the channel can be maximized when the number of periodic LiF/GaSb layers on one side of the air defect layer is equal to that of the other side. When adding a period to both sides respectively, the full width at half maximum of the defect mode is reduced by one order of magnitude. This structure will provide a promising approach to fabricate practical tunable filters in the visible region with ultra-wide tuning range. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Nos. 61575138, 61307069, 51205273), and the Top Young Academic Leaders and the Outstanding Innovative Teams of Higher Learning Institutions of Shanxi.

  2. Design optimization of a compact photonic crystal microcavity based on slow light and dispersion engineering for the miniaturization of integrated mode-locked lasers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malik Kemiche

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available We exploit slow light (high ng modes in planar photonic crystals in order to design a compact cavity, which provides an attractive path towards the miniaturization of near-infrared integrated fast pulsed lasers. By applying dispersion engineering techniques, we can design structures with a low dispersion, as needed by mode-locking operation. Our basic InP SiO2 heterostructure is robust and well suited to integrated laser applications. We show that an optimized 30 μm long cavity design yields 9 frequency-equidistant modes with a FSR of 178 GHz within a 11.5 nm bandwidth, which could potentially sustain the generation of optical pulses shorter than 700 fs. In addition, the numerically calculated quality factors of these modes are all above 10,000, making them suitable for reaching laser operation. Thanks to the use of a high group index (28, this cavity design is almost one order of magnitude shorter than standard rib-waveguide based mode-locked lasers. The use of slow light modes in planar photonic crystal based cavities thus relaxes the usual constraints that tightly link the device size and the quality (peak power, repetition rate of the pulsed laser signal.

  3. Design optimization of a compact photonic crystal microcavity based on slow light and dispersion engineering for the miniaturization of integrated mode-locked lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemiche, Malik; Lhuillier, Jérémy; Callard, Ségolène; Monat, Christelle

    2018-01-01

    We exploit slow light (high ng) modes in planar photonic crystals in order to design a compact cavity, which provides an attractive path towards the miniaturization of near-infrared integrated fast pulsed lasers. By applying dispersion engineering techniques, we can design structures with a low dispersion, as needed by mode-locking operation. Our basic InP SiO2 heterostructure is robust and well suited to integrated laser applications. We show that an optimized 30 μm long cavity design yields 9 frequency-equidistant modes with a FSR of 178 GHz within a 11.5 nm bandwidth, which could potentially sustain the generation of optical pulses shorter than 700 fs. In addition, the numerically calculated quality factors of these modes are all above 10,000, making them suitable for reaching laser operation. Thanks to the use of a high group index (28), this cavity design is almost one order of magnitude shorter than standard rib-waveguide based mode-locked lasers. The use of slow light modes in planar photonic crystal based cavities thus relaxes the usual constraints that tightly link the device size and the quality (peak power, repetition rate) of the pulsed laser signal.

  4. Porous photonic crystal external cavity laser biosensor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Qinglan [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, Illinois 61801 (United States); Peh, Jessie; Hergenrother, Paul J. [Department of Chemistry, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, Illinois 61801 (United States); Cunningham, Brian T. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, Illinois 61801 (United States); Department of Bioengineering, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, Illinois 61801 (United States)

    2016-08-15

    We report the design, fabrication, and testing of a photonic crystal (PC) biosensor structure that incorporates a porous high refractive index TiO{sub 2} dielectric film that enables immobilization of capture proteins within an enhanced surface-area volume that spatially overlaps with the regions of resonant electromagnetic fields where biomolecular binding can produce the greatest shifts in photonic crystal resonant wavelength. Despite the nanoscale porosity of the sensor structure, the PC slab exhibits narrowband and high efficiency resonant reflection, enabling the structure to serve as a wavelength-tunable element of an external cavity laser. In the context of sensing small molecule interactions with much larger immobilized proteins, we demonstrate that the porous structure provides 3.7× larger biosensor signals than an equivalent nonporous structure, while the external cavity laser (ECL) detection method provides capability for sensing picometer-scale shifts in the PC resonant wavelength caused by small molecule binding. The porous ECL achieves a record high figure of merit for label-free optical biosensors.

  5. Novel fluorescence adjustable photonic crystal materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Cheng; Liu, Xiaoxia; Ni, Yaru; Fang, Jiaojiao; Fang, Liang; Lu, Chunhua; Xu, Zhongzi

    2017-11-01

    Novel photonic crystal materials (PCMs) with adjustable fluorescence were fabricated by distributing organic fluorescent powders of Yb0.2Er0.4Tm0.4(TTA)3Phen into the opal structures of self-assembled silica photonic crystals (PCs). Via removing the silica solution in a constant speed, PCs with controllable thicknesses and different periodic sizes were obtained on glass slides. Yb0.2Er0.4Tm0.4(TTA)3Phen powders were subsequently distributed into the opal structures. The structures and optical properties of the prepared PCMs were investigated. Finite-difference-time-domain (FDTD) calculation was used to further analyze the electric field distributions in PCs with different periodic sizes while the relation between periodic sizes and fluorescent spectra of PCMs was discussed. The results showed that the emission color of the PCMs under irradiation of 980 nm laser can be easily adjusted from green to blue by increasing the periodic size from 250 to 450 nm.

  6. Two-photon excited UV fluorescence for protein crystal detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Madden, Jeremy T.; DeWalt, Emma L.; Simpson, Garth J.

    2011-01-01

    Complementary measurements using SONICC and TPE-UVF allow the sensitive and selective detection of protein crystals. Two-photon excited ultraviolet fluorescence (TPE-UVF) microscopy is explored for sensitive protein-crystal detection as a complement to second-order nonlinear optical imaging of chiral crystals (SONICC). Like conventional ultraviolet fluorescence (UVF), TPE-UVF generates image contrast based on the intrinsic fluorescence of aromatic residues, generally producing higher fluorescence emission within crystals than the mother liquor by nature of the higher local protein concentration. However, TPE-UVF has several advantages over conventional UVF, including (i) insensitivity to optical scattering, allowing imaging in turbid matrices, (ii) direct compatibility with conventional optical plates and windows by using visible light for excitation, (iii) elimination of potentially damaging out-of-plane UV excitation, (iv) improved signal to noise through background reduction from out-of-plane excitation and (v) relatively simple integration into instrumentation developed for SONICC

  7. Modeling photonic crystal waveguides with noncircular geometry using green function method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uvarovaa, I.; Tsyganok, B.; Bashkatov, Y.; Khomenko, V.

    2012-01-01

    Currently in the field of photonics is an acute problem fast and accurate simulation photonic crystal waveguides with complex geometry. This paper describes an improved method of Green's functions for non-circular geometries. Based on comparison of selected efficient numerical method for finding the eigenvalues for the Green's function method for non-circular holes chosen effective method for our purposes. Simulation is realized in Maple environment. The simulation results confirmed experimentally. Key words: photonic crystal, waveguide, modeling, Green function, complex geometry

  8. Photonic crystal borax competitive binding carbohydrate sensing motif†

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Qingzhou; Muscatello, Michelle M. Ward; Asher, Sanford A.

    2009-01-01

    We developed a photonic crystal sensing method for diol containing species such as carbohydrates based on a poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) hydrogel containing an embedded crystalline colloidal array (CCA). The polymerized CCA (PCCA) diffracts visible light. We show that in the presence of borax the diffraction wavelength shifts as the concentration of glucose changes. The diffraction shifts result from the competitive binding of glucose to borate, which reduces the concentration of borate bound to the PVA diols. PMID:19381378

  9. Photonic crystal borax competitive binding carbohydrate sensing motif.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Qingzhou; Ward Muscatello, Michelle M; Asher, Sanford A

    2009-05-01

    We developed a photonic crystal sensing method for diol containing species such as carbohydrates based on a poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) hydrogel containing an embedded crystalline colloidal array (CCA). The polymerized CCA (PCCA) diffracts visible light. We show that in the presence of borax the diffraction wavelength shifts as the concentration of glucose changes. The diffraction shifts result from the competitive binding of glucose to borate, which reduces the concentration of borate bound to the PVA diols.

  10. Anomalous transparency in photonic crystals and its application to point-by-point grating inscription in photonic crystal fibers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baghdasaryan, Tigran; Geernaert, Thomas; Chah, Karima; Caucheteur, Christophe; Schuster, Kay; Kobelke, Jens; Thienpont, Hugo; Berghmans, Francis

    2018-04-03

    It is common belief that photonic crystals behave similarly to isotropic and transparent media only when their feature sizes are much smaller than the wavelength of light. Here, we counter that belief and we report on photonic crystals that are transparent for anomalously high normalized frequencies up to 0.9, where the crystal's feature sizes are comparable with the free space wavelength. Using traditional photonic band theory, we demonstrate that the isofrequency curves can be circular in the region above the first stop band for triangular lattice photonic crystals. In addition, by simulating how efficiently a tightly focused Gaussian beam propagates through the photonic crystal slab, we judge on the photonic crystal's transparency rather than on isotropy only. Using this approach, we identified a wide range of photonic crystal parameters that provide anomalous transparency. Our findings indicate the possibility to scale up the features of photonic crystals and to extend their operational wavelength range for applications including optical cloaking and graded index guiding. We applied our result in the domain of femtosecond laser micromachining, by demonstrating what we believe to be the first point-by-point grating inscribed in a multi-ring photonic crystal fiber.

  11. Three-dimensional photonic crystals created by single-step multi-directional plasma etching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Katsuyoshi; Kitano, Keisuke; Ishizaki, Kenji; Noda, Susumu

    2014-07-14

    We fabricate 3D photonic nanostructures by simultaneous multi-directional plasma etching. This simple and flexible method is enabled by controlling the ion-sheath in reactive-ion-etching equipment. We realize 3D photonic crystals on single-crystalline silicon wafers and show high reflectance (>95%) and low transmittance (photonic bandgap. Moreover, our method simply demonstrates Si-based 3D photonic crystals that show the photonic bandgap effect in a shorter wavelength range around 0.6 μm, where further fine structures are required.

  12. Photonic crystals: features and applications (physics research and technology)

    CERN Document Server

    2013-01-01

    The present book is focused on the study of unprecedented control and manipulation of light by photonic crystals (PCs) and their applications. These are micro- or usually nano-structures composed of periodic indexes of refraction of dielectrics with high refractive index contrast. They exhibit optical frequency band gaps in analogy to electronic bands for a periodic potential of a semiconductor crystal lattice. The gemstone opal and butterflys feathers colours are already referred to as natural examples of photonic crystals. The characteristics of such supper-lattices were first reported by Yablonovitch in 1987. The exploitation of photonic crystals is a promising tool in communication, sensors, optical computing, and nanophotonics. Discussed are the various features of one-dimensional (1D) and two-dimensional (2D) photonic crystals, photonic quasi crystals, heterostuctures and PC fibres under a variety of conditions using several materials, and metamaterials. It also focuses on the applications of PCs in opt...

  13. Extended-Range Ultrarefractive 1D Photonic Crystal Prisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ting, David Z.

    2007-01-01

    A proposal has been made to exploit the special wavelength-dispersive characteristics of devices of the type described in One-Dimensional Photonic Crystal Superprisms (NPO-30232) NASA Tech Briefs, Vol. 29, No. 4 (April 2005), page 10a. A photonic crystal is an optical component that has a periodic structure comprising two dielectric materials with high dielectric contrast (e.g., a semiconductor and air), with geometrical feature sizes comparable to or smaller than light wavelengths of interest. Experimental superprisms have been realized as photonic crystals having three-dimensional (3D) structures comprising regions of amorphous Si alternating with regions of SiO2, fabricated in a complex process that included sputtering. A photonic crystal of the type to be exploited according to the present proposal is said to be one-dimensional (1D) because its contrasting dielectric materials would be stacked in parallel planar layers; in other words, there would be spatial periodicity in one dimension only. The processes of designing and fabricating 1D photonic crystal superprisms would be simpler and, hence, would cost less than do those for 3D photonic crystal superprisms. As in 3D structures, 1D photonic crystals may be used in applications such as wavelength-division multiplexing. In the extended-range configuration, it is also suitable for spectrometry applications. As an engineered structure or artificially engineered material, a photonic crystal can exhibit optical properties not commonly found in natural substances. Prior research had revealed several classes of photonic crystal structures for which the propagation of electromagnetic radiation is forbidden in certain frequency ranges, denoted photonic bandgaps. It had also been found that in narrow frequency bands just outside the photonic bandgaps, the angular wavelength dispersion of electromagnetic waves propagating in photonic crystal superprisms is much stronger than is the angular wavelength dispersion obtained

  14. Liquid crystal parameter analysis for tunable photonic bandgap fiber devices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weirich, Johannes; Lægsgaard, Jesper; Wei, Lei

    2010-01-01

    We investigate the tunability of splay-aligned liquid crystals for the use in solid core photonic crystal fibers. Finite element simulations are used to obtain the alignment of the liquid crystals subject to an external electric field. By means of the liquid crystal director field the optical...

  15. Extraordinary wavelength reduction in terahertz graphene-cladded photonic crystal slabs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williamson, Ian A. D.; Mousavi, S. Hossein; Wang, Zheng

    2016-01-01

    Photonic crystal slabs have been widely used in nanophotonics for light confinement, dispersion engineering, nonlinearity enhancement, and other unusual effects arising from their structural periodicity. Sub-micron device sizes and mode volumes are routine for silicon-based photonic crystal slabs, however spectrally they are limited to operate in the near infrared. Here, we show that two single-layer graphene sheets allow silicon photonic crystal slabs with submicron periodicity to operate in the terahertz regime, with an extreme 100× wavelength reduction from graphene’s large kinetic inductance. The atomically thin graphene further leads to excellent out-of-plane confinement, and consequently photonic-crystal-slab band structures that closely resemble those of ideal two-dimensional photonic crystals, with broad band gaps even when the slab thickness approaches zero. The overall photonic band structure not only scales with the graphene Fermi level, but more importantly scales to lower frequencies with reduced slab thickness. Just like ideal 2D photonic crystals, graphene-cladded photonic crystal slabs confine light along line defects, forming waveguides with the propagation lengths on the order of tens of lattice constants. The proposed structure opens up the possibility to dramatically reduce the size of terahertz photonic systems by orders of magnitude. PMID:27143314

  16. Manipulation of photons at the surface of three-dimensional photonic crystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishizaki, Kenji; Noda, Susumu

    2009-07-16

    In three-dimensional (3D) photonic crystals, refractive-index variations with a periodicity comparable to the wavelength of the light passing through the crystal give rise to so-called photonic bandgaps, which are analogous to electronic bandgaps for electrons moving in the periodic electrostatic potential of a material's crystal structure. Such 3D photonic bandgap crystals are envisioned to become fundamental building blocks for the control and manipulation of photons in optical circuits. So far, such schemes have been pursued by embedding artificial defects and light emitters inside the crystals, making use of 3D bandgap directional effects. Here we show experimentally that photons can be controlled and manipulated even at the 'surface' of 3D photonic crystals, where 3D periodicity is terminated, establishing a new and versatile route for photon manipulation. By making use of an evanescent-mode coupling technique, we demonstrate that 3D photonic crystals possess two-dimensional surface states, and we map their band structure. We show that photons can be confined and propagate through these two-dimensional surface states, and we realize their localization at arbitrary surface points by designing artificial surface-defect structures through the formation of a surface-mode gap. Surprisingly, the quality factors of the surface-defect mode are the largest reported for 3D photonic crystal nanocavities (Q up to approximately 9,000). In addition to providing a new approach for photon manipulation by photonic crystals, our findings are relevant for the generation and control of plasmon-polaritons in metals and the related surface photon physics. The absorption-free nature of the 3D photonic crystal surface may enable new sensing applications and provide routes for the realization of efficient light-matter interactions.

  17. Photonic crystal fibre enables short-wavelength two-photon laser scanning fluorescence microscopy with fura-2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McConnell, Gail; Riis, Erling

    2004-01-01

    We report on a novel and compact reliable laser source capable of short-wavelength two-photon laser scanning fluorescence microscopy based on soliton self-frequency shift effects in photonic crystal fibre. We demonstrate the function of the system by performing two-photon microscopy of smooth muscle cells and cardiac myocytes from the rat pulmonary vein and Chinese hamster ovary cells loaded with the fluorescent calcium indicator fura-2/AM

  18. Fine tuning of optical signals in nanoporous anodic alumina photonic crystals by apodized sinusoidal pulse anodisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Abel; Law, Cheryl Suwen; Chin Lei, Dominique Wong; Pereira, Taj; Losic, Dusan

    2016-11-03

    In this study, we present an advanced nanofabrication approach to produce gradient-index photonic crystal structures based on nanoporous anodic alumina. An apodization strategy is for the first time applied to a sinusoidal pulse anodisation process in order to engineer the photonic stop band of nanoporous anodic alumina (NAA) in depth. Four apodization functions are explored, including linear positive, linear negative, logarithmic positive and logarithmic negative, with the aim of finely tuning the characteristic photonic stop band of these photonic crystal structures. We systematically analyse the effect of the amplitude difference (from 0.105 to 0.840 mA cm -2 ), the pore widening time (from 0 to 6 min), the anodisation period (from 650 to 950 s) and the anodisation time (from 15 to 30 h) on the quality and the position of the characteristic photonic stop band and the interferometric colour of these photonic crystal structures using the aforementioned apodization functions. Our results reveal that a logarithmic negative apodisation function is the most optimal approach to obtain unprecedented well-resolved and narrow photonic stop bands across the UV-visible-NIR spectrum of NAA-based gradient-index photonic crystals. Our study establishes a fully comprehensive rationale towards the development of unique NAA-based photonic crystal structures with finely engineered optical properties for advanced photonic devices such as ultra-sensitive optical sensors, selective optical filters and all-optical platforms for quantum computing.

  19. Optical characterisation of photonic wire and photonic crystal waveguides fabricated using nanoimprint lithography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borel, Peter Ingo; Frandsen, Lars Hagedorn; Lavrinenko, Andrei

    2006-01-01

    We have characterised photonic-crystal and photonic-wire waveguides fabricated by thermal nanoimprint lithography. The structures, with feature sizes down below 20 nm, are benchmarked against similar structures defined by direct electron beam lithography.......We have characterised photonic-crystal and photonic-wire waveguides fabricated by thermal nanoimprint lithography. The structures, with feature sizes down below 20 nm, are benchmarked against similar structures defined by direct electron beam lithography....

  20. Experimental Study of Electronic Quantum Interference, Photonic Crystal Cavity, Photonic Band Edge Effects for Optical Amplification

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-26

    AFRL-RV-PS- AFRL-RV-PS- TR-2016-0003 TR-2016-0003 EXPERIMENTAL STUDY OF ELECTRONIC QUANTUM INTERFERENCE , PHOTONIC CRYSTAL CAVITY, PHOTONIC BAND...EDGE EFFECTS FOR OPTICAL AMPLIFICATION Shawn-Yu Lin Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute 110 8th Street Troy, New York 12180 26 Jan 2016 Final Report...2014 – 11 Jan 2016 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Experimental Study of Electronic Quantum Interference , Photonic Crystal Cavity, Photonic Band Edge Effects

  1. A dark hollow beam from a selectively liquid-filled photonic crystal fibre

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mei-Yan, Zhang; Shu-Guang, Li; Yan-Yan, Yao; Bo, Fu; Lei, Zhang

    2010-01-01

    This paper reports that, based on the electromagnetic scattering theory of the multipole method, a high-quality hollow beam is produced through a selectively liquid-filled photonic crystal fibre. Instead of a doughnut shape, a typical hollow beam is produced by other methods; the mode-field images of the hollow-beam photonic crystal fibre satisfy sixth-order rotation symmetry, according to the symmetry of the photonic crystal fibre (PCF) structure. A dark spot size of the liquid-filled photonic crystal fibre-generated hollow beam can be tuned by inserting liquid into the cladding region and varying the photonic crystal fibre structure parameters. The liquid-filled PCF makes a convenient and flexible tool for the guiding and trapping of atoms and the creation of all-fibre optical tweezers. (condensed matter: electronic structure, electrical, magnetic, and optical properties)

  2. Full 3D FDTD analysis of Electromagnetic Field in Photonic Crystal VCSEL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Fa; Xu Chen; Xie Yiyang; Zhao Zhenbo; Zhou Kang; Wang Baoqiang; Liu Yingming; Shen Guangdi

    2011-01-01

    The effect of etch damage to the mode characteristics of photonic crystal vertical cavity surface emitting lasers was simulated in this paper. The devices simulated in this paper are 850-nm GaAs-based VCSELs with photonic crystal. And the devices were simulated by using finite difference time domain (FDTD) method. Limited to the computer resource, the top DBR was simulated only, and the traverse size was smaller than the real size. In order to highlight the impact of the etch damage, several kinds of light sources and photonic crystal structures were simulated separately, and each situation is calculated in the condition of ideal photonic crystal and photonic crystal with etch damage respectively. All parameters of device and light feature are referred to the real condition.

  3. Full 3D FDTD analysis of Electromagnetic Field in Photonic Crystal VCSEL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu Fa; Xu Chen; Xie Yiyang; Zhao Zhenbo; Zhou Kang; Wang Baoqiang; Liu Yingming; Shen Guangdi, E-mail: liufa20719@126.com [Key Laboratory of Opto-electronics Technology (Beijing University of Technology), Ministry of Education, Beijing University of Technology, 100 Ping Le Yuan, Chaoyang District, Beijing 100124 (China)

    2011-02-01

    The effect of etch damage to the mode characteristics of photonic crystal vertical cavity surface emitting lasers was simulated in this paper. The devices simulated in this paper are 850-nm GaAs-based VCSELs with photonic crystal. And the devices were simulated by using finite difference time domain (FDTD) method. Limited to the computer resource, the top DBR was simulated only, and the traverse size was smaller than the real size. In order to highlight the impact of the etch damage, several kinds of light sources and photonic crystal structures were simulated separately, and each situation is calculated in the condition of ideal photonic crystal and photonic crystal with etch damage respectively. All parameters of device and light feature are referred to the real condition.

  4. High-brightness tapered laser diodes with photonic crystal structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yi; Du, Weichuan; Kun, Zhou; Gao, Songxin; Ma, Yi; Tang, Chun

    2018-02-01

    Beam quality of tapered laser diodes is limited by higher order lateral mode. On purpose of optimizing the brightness of tapered laser diodes, we developed a novel design of tapered diodes. This devices based on InGaAs/AlGaAs asymmetry epitaxial structure, containing higher order lateral mode filtering schemes especially photonic crystal structures, which fabricated cost effectively by using standard photolithography and dry etch processes. Meanwhile, the effects of photonic crystal structures on mode control are also investigated theoretically by FDBPM (Finite-Difference Beam Propagation Method) calculation. We achieved a CW optical output power of 6.9W at 940nm for a single emitter with 4 mm cavity length. A nearly diffraction limited beam of M2 ≍1.9 @ 0.5W has been demonstrated, and a highest brightness of β =75MW/(cm2 ·sr) was reached.

  5. Alcohol sensing over O+E+S+C+L+U transmission band based on porous cored octagonal photonic crystal fiber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Bikash Kumar; Islam, Md. Shadidul; Ahmed, Kawsar; Asaduzzaman, Sayed

    2017-06-01

    A micro structure porous cored octagonal photonic crystal fiber (P-OPCF) has been proposed to sense aqueous analysts (alcohol series) over a wavelength range of 0.80 μm to 2.0 μm. By implementing a full vectorial finite element method (FEM), the numerical simulation on the proposed O-PCF has been analyzed. Numerical investigation shows that high sensitivity can be gained by changing the structural parameters. The obtained result shows the sensitivities of 66.78%, 67.66%, 68.34%, 68.72%, and 69.09%, and the confinement losses of 2.42×10-10 dB/m, 3.28×10-11 dB/m, 1.21×10-6 dB/m, 4.79×10-10 dB/m, and 4.99×10-9 dB/m at the 1.33 μm wavelength for methanol, ethanol, propanol, butanol, and pentanol, respectively can satisfy the condition of much legibility to install an optical system. The effects of the varying core and cladding diameters, pitch distance, operating wavelength, and effective refractive index are also reported here. It reflects that a significant sensitivity and low confinement loss can be achieved by the proposed P-OPCF. The proposed P-OPCF also covers the wavelength band (O+E+S+C+L+U). The investigation also exhibits that the sensitivity increases when the wavelength increases like S O-bandsensor.

  6. Observation of soliton compression in silicon photonic crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanco-Redondo, A.; Husko, C.; Eades, D.; Zhang, Y.; Li, J.; Krauss, T.F.; Eggleton, B.J.

    2014-01-01

    Solitons are nonlinear waves present in diverse physical systems including plasmas, water surfaces and optics. In silicon, the presence of two photon absorption and accompanying free carriers strongly perturb the canonical dynamics of optical solitons. Here we report the first experimental demonstration of soliton-effect pulse compression of picosecond pulses in silicon, despite two photon absorption and free carriers. Here we achieve compression of 3.7 ps pulses to 1.6 ps with photonic crystal waveguide and an ultra-sensitive frequency-resolved electrical gating technique to detect the ultralow energies in the nanostructured device. Strong agreement with a nonlinear Schrödinger model confirms the measurements. These results further our understanding of nonlinear waves in silicon and open the way to soliton-based functionalities in complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor-compatible platforms. PMID:24423977

  7. A new approach to low loss photonic crystal waveguides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krüger, Asger Christian; Zhang, Min; Groothoff, Nathaniel

    Photonic crystal waveguides allow ultra-compact realization of integrated optical components because they have high group index. However, they also induce significant losses in effect reducing the scope of their applications. We find that by increasing the photonic crystal hole to pitch ratio r...

  8. Passive integrated circuits utilizing slow light in photonic crystal waveguides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lavrinenko, Andrei; Têtu, Amélie; Yang, Lirong

    2006-01-01

    We report thorough investigations of photonic crystal waveguide properties in the slow light regime. The transmission and the group index near the cutoff wavelengths oscillate in phase in close analogy with the ID photonic crystal behavior. The influence of having a finite number of periods...

  9. Fractional decay of quantum dots in photonic crystals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Philip Trøst; Koenderink, Femius; Lodahl, Peter

    2008-01-01

    We define a practical measure for the degree of fractional decay and establish conditions for the effect to be observable for quantum dots in photonic crystals exhibiting absorptive losses.......We define a practical measure for the degree of fractional decay and establish conditions for the effect to be observable for quantum dots in photonic crystals exhibiting absorptive losses....

  10. Investigations on the parity of Fano resonances in photonic crystals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østerkryger, Andreas Dyhl; de Lasson, Jakob Rosenkrantz; Yu, Yi

    We investigate the relation between the parity of Fano resonances and field distribution in a photonic crystal structure using Fourier modal method, establishing a correlation between Fano parity and field profile.......We investigate the relation between the parity of Fano resonances and field distribution in a photonic crystal structure using Fourier modal method, establishing a correlation between Fano parity and field profile....

  11. Control of exceptional points in photonic crystal slabs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaminski, Piotr Marek; Taghizadeh, Alireza; Breinbjerg, Olav

    2017-01-01

    Various ways of controlling the extent of the ring of exceptional points in photonic crystal slabs are investigated. The extent of the ring in photonic crystal slabs is found to vary with the thickness of the slab. This enables recovery of Dirac cones in open, non-Hermitian systems, such as a pho...

  12. Numerical characterization of nanopillar photonic crystal waveguides and directional couplers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chigrin, Dmitry N.; Lavrinenko, Andrei; Sotomayor Torres, Clivia M.

    2005-01-01

    We numerically characterize a novel type of a photonic crystal waveguide, which consists of several rows of periodically arranged dielectric cylinders. In such a nanopillar photonic crystal waveguide, light confinement is due to the total internal reflection. A nanopillar waveguide is a multimode...

  13. Fabrication and Measurements on Coupled Photonic Crystal Cavities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schubert, Martin

    Quasi-three dimensional photonic crystals can be realized by fabricating thin membranes of high index material hanging in air patterned with sub-micron holes to create a photonic band gap for optical confinement in plane and total internal reflection for out of plane confinement. Introducing...... defects into the photonic crystal gives rise to defect states in the form of small confined modes. By embedding an active gain medium like quantum dots into the membrane makes it possible to realize lasers with ultra-small mode volumes and low thresholds. Unfortunately single cavity photonic crystal...

  14. Heteroplasmon hybridization in stacked complementary plasmo-photonic crystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwanaga, Masanobu; Choi, Bongseok

    2015-03-11

    We constructed plasmo-photonic crystals in which efficient light-trapping, plasmonic resonances couple with photonic guided resonances of large density of states and high-quality factor. We have numerically and experimentally shown that heteroplasmon hybrid modes emerge in stacked complementary (SC) plasmo-photonic crystals. The resonant electromagnetic-field distributions evidence that the two hybrid modes originate from two different heteroplasmons, exhibiting a large energy splitting of 300 meV. We further revealed a series of plasmo-photonic modes in the SC crystals.

  15. Ultra-compact laser beam steering device using holographically formed two dimensional photonic crystal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dou, Xinyuan; Chen, Xiaonan; Chen, Maggie Yihong; Wang, Alan Xiaolong; Jiang, Wei; Chen, Ray T

    2010-03-01

    In this paper, we report the theoretical study of polymer-based photonic crystals for laser beam steering which is based on the superprism effect as well as the experiment fabrication of the two dimensional photonic crystals for the laser beam steering. Superprism effect, the principle for beam steering, was separately studied in details through EFC (Equifrequency Contour) analysis. Polymer based photonic crystals were fabricated through double exposure holographic interference method using SU8-2007. The experiment results showed a beam steering angle of 10 degree for 30 nm wavelength variation.

  16. Strongly-Refractive One-Dimensional Photonic Crystal Prisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ting, David Z. (Inventor)

    2004-01-01

    One-dimensional (1D) photonic crystal prisms can separate a beam of polychromatic electromagnetic waves into constituent wavelength components and can utilize unconventional refraction properties for wavelength dispersion over significant portions of an entire photonic band rather than just near the band edges outside the photonic band gaps. Using a ID photonic crystal simplifies the design and fabrication process and allows the use of larger feature sizes. The prism geometry broadens the useful wavelength range, enables better optical transmission, and exhibits angular dependence on wavelength with reduced non-linearity. The properties of the 1 D photonic crystal prism can be tuned by varying design parameters such as incidence angle, exit surface angle, and layer widths. The ID photonic crystal prism can be fabricated in a planar process, and can be used as optical integrated circuit elements.

  17. Cavity quantum electrodynamics with three-dimensional photonic bandgap crystals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vos, Willem L.; Woldering, L.A.; Ghulinyan, M.; Pavesi, L.

    2015-01-01

    This paper is Chapter 8 of the book "Light Localisation and Lasing: Random and Pseudorandom Photonic Structures", edited by Mher Ghulinyan and Lorenzo Pavesi (Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 2015). It provides an overview of much recent work on 3D photonic crystals with a complete photonic

  18. Controlling spontaneous emission of light by photonic crystals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lodahl, Peter

    2005-01-01

    Photonic bandgap crystals were proposed almost two decades ago as a unique tool for controlling propagation and emission of light. Since then the research field of photonic crystals has exploded and many beautiful demonstrations of the use of photonic crystals and fibers for molding light...... propagation have appeared that hold great promises for integrated optics. These major achievements solidly demonstrate the ability to control propagation of light. In contrast, an experimental demonstration of the use of photonic crystals for timing the emission of light has so far lacked. In a recent...... publication in Nature, we have demonstrated experimentally that both the direction and time of spontaneous emission can be controlled, thereby confirming the original proposal by Eli Yablonovich that founded the field of photonic crystals. We believe that this work opens new opportunities for solid...

  19. Optical tuning of photonic bandgaps in dye-doped nematic liquid crystal photonic crystal fibers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alkeskjold, Thomas Tanggaard; Bjarklev, Anders Overgaard; Hermann, David Sparre

    2005-01-01

    An all-optical modulator is demonstrated, which utilizes a pulsed 532 nm laser to modulate the spectral position of the bandgaps in a photonic crystal fiber infiltrated with a dye-doped nematic liquid crystal. In order to investigate the time response of the LCPBG fiber device, a low-power CW probe...... laser was coupled into the fiber together with the pulsed pump laser of 2.3 mW and we have demonstrated a modulation frequency of up to 2 kHz....

  20. Quantum Electrodynamics in Photonic Crystal Waveguides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Henri Thyrrestrup

    In this thesis we have performed quantum electrodynamics (QED) experiments in photonic crystal (PhC) waveguides and cavity QED in the Anderson localized regime in disordered PhC waveguides. Decay rate measurements of quantum dots embedded in PhC waveguides has been used to map out the variations...... in the local density of states (LDOS) in PhC waveguides. From decay rate measurements on quantum dot lines temperature tuned in the vicinity of the waveguide band edge, a β-factor for a single quantum dot of more then 85% has been extracted. Finite difference time domain simulations (FDTD) for disordered Ph...... is shown to increase from 3 − 7 um for no intentional disorder to 25 um for 6% disorder. A distribution of losses is seen to be necessary to explain the measured Q-factor distributions. Finally we have performed a cavity QED experiment between single quantum dots and an Anderson localized mode, where a β...

  1. Liquid Photonic Crystals for Mesopore Detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Biting; Fu, Qianqian; Chen, Ke; Ge, Jianping

    2018-01-02

    Nitrogen adsorption-desorption for mesopore characterization requires the using of expensive instrumentation, time-consuming processes, and the consumption of liquid nitrogen. Herein, a new method is developed to measure the pore parameters through mixing a mesoporous substance with a supersaturated SiO 2 colloidal solution at different temperatures, and subsequent rapid measurement of reflection changes of the precipitated liquid photonic crystals. The pore volumes and diameters of mesoporous silica were measured according to the positive correlation between unit mass reflection change (Δλ/m) and pore volume (V), and the negative correlation between average absorption temperature (T) and pore diameter (D). This new approach may provide an alternative method for fast, convenient and economical characterization of mesoporous materials. © 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. High-resolution 3D imaging of polymerized photonic crystals by lab-based x-ray nanotomography with 50-nm resolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Leilei; Chen, Ying-Chieh; Gelb, Jeff; Stevenson, Darren M.; Braun, Paul A.

    2010-09-01

    High resolution x-ray computed tomography is a powerful non-destructive 3-D imaging method. It can offer superior resolution on objects that are opaque or low contrast for optical microscopy. Synchrotron based x-ray computed tomography systems have been available for scientific research, but remain difficult to access for broader users. This work introduces a lab-based high-resolution x-ray nanotomography system with 50nm resolution in absorption and Zernike phase contrast modes. Using this system, we have demonstrated high quality 3-D images of polymerized photonic crystals which have been analyzed for band gap structures. The isotropic volumetric data shows excellent consistency with other characterization results.

  3. Structural Color Patterns by Electrohydrodynamic Jet Printed Photonic Crystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Haibo; Zhu, Cun; Tian, Lei; Liu, Cihui; Fu, Guangbin; Shang, Luoran; Gu, Zhongze

    2017-04-05

    In this work, we demonstrate the fabrication of photonic crystal patterns with controllable morphologies and structural colors utilizing electrohydrodynamic jet (E-jet) printing with colloidal crystal inks. The final shape of photonic crystal units is controlled by the applied voltage signal and wettability of the substrate. Optical properties of the structural color patterns are tuned by the self-assembly of the silica nanoparticle building blocks. Using this direct printing technique, it is feasible to print customized functional patterns composed of photonic crystal dots or photonic crystal lines according to relevant printing mode and predesigned tracks. This is the first report for E-jet printing with colloidal crystal inks. Our results exhibit promising applications in displays, biosensors, and other functional devices.

  4. Transient Plasma Photonic Crystals for High-Power Lasers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehmann, G; Spatschek, K H

    2016-06-03

    A new type of transient photonic crystals for high-power lasers is presented. The crystal is produced by counterpropagating laser beams in plasma. Trapped electrons and electrically forced ions generate a strong density grating. The lifetime of the transient photonic crystal is determined by the ballistic motion of ions. The robustness of the photonic crystal allows one to manipulate high-intensity laser pulses. The scheme of the crystal is analyzed here by 1D Vlasov simulations. Reflection or transmission of high-power laser pulses are predicted by particle-in-cell simulations. It is shown that a transient plasma photonic crystal may act as a tunable mirror for intense laser pulses. Generalizations to 2D and 3D configurations are possible.

  5. Design of integrated all optical digital to analog converter (DAC) using 2D photonic crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moniem, Tamer A.; El-Din, Eman S.

    2017-11-01

    A novel design of all optical 3 bit digital to analog (DAC) converter will be presented in this paper based on 2 Dimension photonic crystals (PhC). The proposed structure is based on the photonic crystal ring resonators (PCRR) with combining the nonlinear Kerr effect on the PCRR. The total size of the proposed optical 3 bit DAC is equal to 44 μm × 37 μm of 2D square lattice photonic crystals of silicon rods with refractive index equal to 3.4. The finite different time domain (FDTD) and Plane Wave Expansion (PWE) methods are used to back the overall operation of the proposed optical DAC.

  6. Saturation and stability of nonlinear photonic crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franco-Ortiz, M; Corella-Madueño, A; Rosas-Burgos, R A; Adrian Reyes, J; Avendaño, Carlos G

    2017-01-01

    We consider a one-dimensional photonic crystal made by an infinite set of nonlinear nematic films immersed in a linear dielectric medium. The thickness of each equidistant film is negligible and its refraction index depends continuously on the electric field intensity, giving rise to all the involved nonlinear terms, which joints from a starting linear index for negligible amplitudes to a final saturation index for extremely large field intensities. We show that the nonlinear exact solutions of this system form an intensity-dependent band structure which we calculate and analyze. Next, we ponder a finite version of this system; that is, we take a finite array of linear dielectric stacks of the same size separated by the same nonlinear extremely thin nematic slabs and find the reflection coefficients for this arrangement and obtain the dependence on the wave number and intensity of the incident wave. As a final step we analyze the stability of the analytical solutions of the nonlinear crystal by following the evolution of an additive amplitude to the analytical nonlinear solution we have found here. We discuss our results and state our conclusions. (paper)

  7. Novel variational approach for analysis of photonic crystal slabs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aram, Mohammad Hasan; Khorasani, Sina

    2015-01-01

    We propose a new method, based on variational principle, for the analysis of photonic crystal (PC) slabs. Most of the methods used today treat PC slabs as three-dimensional (3D) crystal, and this makes these methods very time and/or memory consuming. In our proposed method, we use the Bloch theorem to expand the field on infinite plane waves, whose amplitudes depend on the component perpendicular to the slab surface. By approximating these amplitudes with appropriate functions, we can find modes of PC slabs almost as fast as we can find modes of two-dimensional crystals. In addition to this advantage, we can also calculate radiation modes with this method, which is not feasible with the 3D plane wave expansion method. (paper)

  8. Optical properties of opal photonic crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eradat-Oskouei, Nayer

    2001-10-01

    Photonic crystals (PC) are a class of artificial structures with a periodic dielectric function in one, two, or three dimensions, in which the propagation of electromagnetic waves within a certain frequency band is forbidden. This forbidden frequency band has been dubbed photonic band gap (PBG). The position, width, depth, and shape of the PBG strongly depend on the periodicity, symmetry properties, dielectric constant contrast, and internal lattice structure of the unit cell. There is a common belief that PCs will perform many functions with light that ordinary crystals do with electrons. At the same time, PCs are of great promise to become a laboratory for testing fundamental processes involving interactions of radiation with matter in novel conditions. We have studied the optical properties of opal PCs that are infiltrated with metals, laser dyes, π-conjugated polymers, and J-aggregates. Opals are self-assembled structures of silica (SiO2) spheres mostly packed in a face centered cubic (fcc) lattice. Our research is summarized in the following six chapters. Chapter 1 is a review on the concepts related to PBG and PC, eigenvalue problem of electromagnetism, material systems that exhibit PBG. Chapter 2 covers all the fabrication and measurement techniques including angle resolved reflectivity, transmission, photoluminescence, photo-induced absorption, and coherent backscattering. Chapter 3 focuses on the relationship between a polaritonic gap and a photonic stop-band when they resonantly coexist in the same structure. Infiltration of opal with polarizable molecules combines the polaritonic and Bragg diffractive effects. The experimental results on reflectivity and its dependence on the impinging angle and concentration of the polarizable medium are in agreement with the theoretical calculations. In Chapter 4, the optical studies of three-dimensional metallic mesh composites are reported. Photonic and electronic properties of these PCs strongly depend on their

  9. A Gas Cell Based on Hollow-Core Photonic Crystal Fiber (PCF and Its Application for the Detection of Greenhouse Gas (GHG: Nitrous Oxide (N2O

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonas K. Valiunas

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The authors report the detection of nitrous oxide gas using intracavity fiber laser absorption spectroscopy. A gas cell based on a hollow-core photonic crystal fiber was constructed and used inside a fiber ring laser cavity as an intracavity gas cell. The fiber laser in the 1.55 μm band was developed using a polarization-maintaining erbium-doped fiber as the gain medium. The wavelength of the laser was selected by a fiber Bragg grating (FBG, and it matches one of the absorption lines of the gas under investigation. The laser wavelength contained multilongitudinal modes, which increases the sensitivity of the detection system. N2O gas has overtones of the fundamental absorption bands and rovibrational transitions in the 1.55 μm band. The system was operated at room temperature and was capable of detecting nitrous oxide gas at sub-ppmv concentration level.

  10. Ultra-fast analog-to-digital converter based on a nonlinear triplexer and an optical coder with a photonic crystal structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehdizadeh, Farhad; Soroosh, Mohammad; Alipour-Banaei, Hamed; Farshidi, Ebrahim

    2017-03-01

    In this paper, we propose what we believe is a novel all-optical analog-to-digital converter (ADC) based on photonic crystals. The proposed structure is composed of a nonlinear triplexer and an optical coder. The nonlinear triplexer is for creating discrete levels in the continuous optical input signal, and the optical coder is for generating a 2-bit standard binary code out of the discrete levels coming from the nonlinear triplexer. Controlling the resonant mode of the resonant rings through optical intensity is the main objective and working mechanism of the proposed structure. The maximum delay time obtained for the proposed structure was about 5 ps and the total footprint is about 1520  μm2.

  11. A compact, all-optical, THz wave generator based on self-modulation in a slab photonic crystal waveguide with a single sub-nanometer graphene layer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asadi, R; Ouyang, Z; Mohammd, M M

    2015-07-14

    We design a compact, all-optical THz wave generator based on self-modulation in a 1-D slab photonic crystal (PhC) waveguide with a single sub-nanometer graphene layer by using enhanced nonlinearity of graphene. It has been shown that at the bandgap edge of higher bands of a 1-D slab PhC, through only one sub-nanometer graphene layer we can obtain a compact, high modulation factor (about 0.98 percent), self-intensity modulator at a high frequency (about 0.6 THz) and low threshold intensity (about 15 MW per square centimeter), and further a compact, all-optical THz wave generator by integrating the self-modulator with a THz photodiode or photonic mixer. Such a THz source is expected to have a relatively high efficiency compared with conventional sources based on optical methods. The proposed THz source can find wide applications in THz science and technology, e.g., in THz imaging, THz sensors and detectors, THz communication systems, and THz optical integrated logic circuits.

  12. Reflectance properties of one-dimensional metal-dielectric ternary photonic crystal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pandey, G. N., E-mail: gnpandey2009@gmail.com [Department of Physics, Amity Institute of Applied Sciences, AmityUniversity, Noida (U.P.) (India); Kumar, Narendra [Department of Physics (CASH), Modi University of Science and Technology, Lakshmangarh, Sikar, Rajsthan (India); Thapa, Khem B. [Department of Physics, U I E T, ChhatrapatiShahu Ji Maharaj University, Kanpur- (UP) (India); Ojha, S. P. [Department of Physics IIT, Banaras Hindu University (India)

    2016-05-06

    Metallic photonic crystal has a very important application in absorption enhancement in solar cells. It has been found that an ultra-thin metallic layer becomes transparent due to internal scattering of light through the each interface of the dielectric and metal surfaces. The metal has absorption due to their surface plasmon and the plasmon has important parameters for changing optical properties of the metal. We consider ternary metallic-dielectric photonic crystal (MDPC) for having large probabilities to change the optical properties of the MDPC and the photonic crystals may be changed by changing dimensionality, symmetry, lattice parameters, Filling fraction and effective refractive index refractive index contrast. In this present communication, we try to show that the photonic band gap in ternary metal-dielectric photonic crystal can be significantly enlarged when air dielectric constant is considered. All the theoretical analyses are made based on the transfer matrix method together with the Drude model of metal.

  13. Optical switching in nonlinear photonic crystals lightly doped with nanostructures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, Mahi R [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Western Ontario, London, ON N6A 3K7 (Canada); Lipson, R H [Department of Chemistry, University of Western Ontario, London, ON N6A 5B7 (Canada)

    2008-01-14

    A possible switching mechanism has been investigated for nonlinear photonic crystals doped with an ensemble of non-interacting three-level nanoparticles. In this scheme, an intense pump laser field is used to change the refractive index of the nonlinear photonic crystal while a weaker probe field monitors an absorption transition in the nanoparticles. In the absence of the strong laser field the system transmits the probe field when the resonance energy of the nanoparticles lies near the edge of the photonic band gap due to strong coupling between the photonic crystal and the nanoparticles. However, upon application of an intense pump laser field the system becomes absorbing due to a band edge frequency shift that arises due to a nonlinear Kerr effect which changes the refractive index of the crystal. It is anticipated that the optical switching mechanism described in this work can be used to make new types of photonic devices.

  14. Fabrication of Refractive Index Tunable Polydimethylsiloxane Photonic Crystal for Biosensor Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raman, Karthik; Murthy, T. R. Srinivasa; Hegde, G. M.

    Photonic crystal based nanostructures are expected to play a significant role in next generation nanophotonic devices. Recent developments in two-dimensional (2D) photonic crystal based devices have created widespread interest as such planar photonic structures are compatible with conventional microelectronic and photonic devices. Various optical components such as waveguides, resonators, modulators and demultiplexers have been designed and fabricated based on 2D photonic crystal geometry. This paper presents the fabrication of refractive index tunable Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) polymer based photonic crystals. The advantages of using PDMS are mainly its chemical stability, bio-compatibility and the stack reduces sidewall roughness scattering. The PDMS structure with square lattice was fabricated by using silicon substrate patterned with SU8-2002 resist. The 600 nm period grating of PDMS is then fabricated using Nano-imprinting. In addition, the refractive index of PDMS is modified using certain additive materials. The resulting photonic crystals are suitable for application in photonic integrated circuits and biological applications such as filters, cavities or microlaser waveguides.

  15. One-Dimensional Tunable Photonic-Crystal IR Filter, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — MetroLaser proposes to design and develop an innovative narrowband tunable IR filter based on the properties of a one-dimensional photonic crystal structure with a...

  16. One-Dimensional Tunable Photonic-Crystal IR Filter, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — MetroLaser proposes to design and develop an innovative narrowband tunable IR filter based on the properties of a one-dimensional photonic crystal structure with a...

  17. Photonic and plasmonic guided modes in graphene-silicon photonic crystals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gu, Tingyi; Andryieuski, Andrei; Hao, Yufeng

    2016-01-01

    We report the results of systematic studies of plasmonic and photonic guided modes in large-area single-layer graphene integrated into a nanostructured silicon substrate. The interaction of light with graphene and substrate photonic crystals can be classified in distinct regimes of plasmonic...... and photonic modes....

  18. The study of nonlinear two-photon phenomenon in photonic crystals doped with nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, Mahi R [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Western Ontario, London, N6A 3K7 (Canada)

    2007-02-28

    A theory of the nonlinear two-photon absorption has been developed in a photonic crystal doped with an ensemble of four-level nanoparticles. We have considered that the nanoparticles are interacting with the photonic crystal. An expression of two-photon absorption has been obtained by using the density matrix method. The effect of the dipole-dipole interaction has also been included in the formulation. Interesting new phenomena have been predicted. For example, it is found that the inhibition of two-photon absorption can be turned on and off when the decay resonance energies of the four-level nanoparticles are moved within the energy band.

  19. Photonic and Plasmonic Guided Modes in Graphene-Silicon Photonic Crystals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gu, Tingyi; Andryieuski, Andrei; Hao, Yufeng

    2015-01-01

    We report the results of systematic studies of plasmonic and photonic guided modes in large-area single-layer graphene integrated into a nanostructured silicon substrate. The interaction of light with graphene and substrate photonic crystals can be classified in distinct regimes depending......, filters, sensors, and photodetectors utilizing silicon photonic platforms....... on the relation of the photonic crystal lattice constant and the relevant modal wavelengths, that is, plasmonic, photonic, and free-space. By optimizing the design of the substrate, these resonant modes can increase the absorption of graphene in the infrared, facilitating enhanced performance of modulators...

  20. Systematic and robust design of photonic crystal waveguides by topology optimization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Fengwen; Jensen, Jakob Søndergaard; Sigmund, Ole

    2010-01-01

    on a threshold projection. The objective is formulated to minimize the maximum error between actual group indices and a prescribed group index among these three designs. Novel photonic crystal waveguide facilitating slow light with a group index of n(g) = 40 is achieved by the robust optimization approach......A robust topology optimization method is presented to consider manufacturing uncertainties in tailoring dispersion properties of photonic crystal waveguides. The under, normal and over-etching scenarios in manufacturing process are represented by dilated, intermediate and eroded designs based....... The numerical result illustrates that the robust topology optimization provides a systematic and robust design methodology for photonic crystal waveguide design....

  1. High-Q silicon-on-insulator slot photonic crystal cavity infiltrated by a liquid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caër, Charles; Le Roux, Xavier; Cassan, Eric

    2013-01-01

    We report the experimental realization of a high-Q slot photonic crystal cavity in Silicon-On-Insulator (SOI) configuration infiltrated by a liquid. Loaded Q-factor of 23 000 is measured at telecom wavelength. The intrinsic quality factor inferred from the transmission spectrum is higher than 200 000, which represents a record value for slot photonic crystal cavities on SOI, whereas the maximum of intensity of the cavity is roughly equal to 20% of the light transmitted in the waveguide. This result makes filled slot photonic crystal cavities very promising for silicon-based light emission and ultrafast nonlinear optics

  2. Numerical study on characteristic of two-dimensional metal/dielectric photonic crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zong, Yi-Xin; Xia, Jian-Bai; Wu, Hai-Bin

    2017-04-01

    An improved plan-wave expansion method is adopted to theoretically study the photonic band diagrams of two-dimensional (2D) metal/dielectric photonic crystals. Based on the photonic band structures, the dependence of flat bands and photonic bandgaps on two parameters (dielectric constant and filling factor) are investigated for two types of 2D metal/dielectric (M/D) photonic crystals, hole and cylinder photonic crystals. The simulation results show that band structures are affected greatly by these two parameters. Flat bands and bandgaps can be easily obtained by tuning these parameters and the bandgap width may reach to the maximum at certain parameters. It is worth noting that the hole-type photonic crystals show more bandgaps than the corresponding cylinder ones, and the frequency ranges of bandgaps also depend strongly on these parameters. Besides, the photonic crystals containing metallic medium can obtain more modulation of photonic bands, band gaps, and large effective refractive index, etc. than the dielectric/dielectric ones. According to the numerical results, the needs of optical devices for flat bands and bandgaps can be met by selecting the suitable geometry and material parameters. Project supported by the National Basic Research Program of China (Grant No. 2011CB922200) and the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 605210010).

  3. Numerical study on characteristic of two-dimensional metal/dielectric photonic crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zong Yi-Xin; Xia Jian-Bai; Wu Hai-Bin

    2017-01-01

    An improved plan-wave expansion method is adopted to theoretically study the photonic band diagrams of two-dimensional (2D) metal/dielectric photonic crystals. Based on the photonic band structures, the dependence of flat bands and photonic bandgaps on two parameters (dielectric constant and filling factor) are investigated for two types of 2D metal/dielectric (M/D) photonic crystals, hole and cylinder photonic crystals. The simulation results show that band structures are affected greatly by these two parameters. Flat bands and bandgaps can be easily obtained by tuning these parameters and the bandgap width may reach to the maximum at certain parameters. It is worth noting that the hole-type photonic crystals show more bandgaps than the corresponding cylinder ones, and the frequency ranges of bandgaps also depend strongly on these parameters. Besides, the photonic crystals containing metallic medium can obtain more modulation of photonic bands, band gaps, and large effective refractive index, etc. than the dielectric/dielectric ones. According to the numerical results, the needs of optical devices for flat bands and bandgaps can be met by selecting the suitable geometry and material parameters. (paper)

  4. Tunable diffraction and self-defocusing in liquid-filled photonic crystal fibers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosberg, Christian Romer; Bennet, Francis H.; Neshev, Dragomir N.

    2007-01-01

    We suggest and demonstrate a novel platform for the study of tunable nonlinear light propagation in two-dimensional discrete systems, based on photonic crystal fibers filled with high index nonlinear liquids. Using the infiltrated cladding region of a photonic crystal fiber as a nonlinear waveguide...... array, we experimentally demonstrate highly tunable beam diffraction and thermal self-defocusing, and realize a compact all-optical power limiter based on a tunable nonlinear response....

  5. Dispersion-tailored, low-loss photonic crystal fibers for the THz range

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Kristian; Rasmussen, Henrik K.; Adam, Aurèle J.L.

    2009-01-01

    We have fabricated a new type of photonic crystal fibers based on a cyclic olefin copolymer, transparent in the THz range. We characterize the propagation loss, dispersion, and spatial beam profile in fibers designed for low and high dispersion.......We have fabricated a new type of photonic crystal fibers based on a cyclic olefin copolymer, transparent in the THz range. We characterize the propagation loss, dispersion, and spatial beam profile in fibers designed for low and high dispersion....

  6. Two-dimensionally confined topological edge states in photonic crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barik, Sabyasachi; Miyake, Hirokazu; DeGottardi, Wade; Waks, Edo; Hafezi, Mohammad

    2016-01-01

    We present an all-dielectric photonic crystal structure that supports two-dimensionally confined helical topological edge states. The topological properties of the system are controlled by the crystal parameters. An interface between two regions of differing band topologies gives rise to topological edge states confined in a dielectric slab that propagate around sharp corners without backscattering. Three-dimensional finite-difference time-domain calculations show these edges to be confined in the out-of-plane direction by total internal reflection. Such nanoscale photonic crystal architectures could enable strong interactions between photonic edge states and quantum emitters. (paper)

  7. Absorption in one-dimensional metallic-dielectric photonic crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Junfei; Shen Yifeng; Liu Xiaohan; Fu Rongtang; Zi Jian; Zhu Zhiqiang

    2004-01-01

    We show theoretically that the absorption of one-dimensional metallic-dielectric photonic crystals can be enhanced considerably over the corresponding constituent metal. By properly choosing the structural and material parameters, the absorption of one-dimensional metallic-dielectric photonic crystals can be enhanced by one order of magnitude in the visible and in the near infrared regions. It is found that the absorptance of such photonic crystals increases with increasing number of periods. Rules on how to obtain a absorption enhancement in a certain frequency range are discussed. (letter to the editor)

  8. Tunable topological phases in photonic and phononic crystals

    KAUST Repository

    Chen, Zeguo

    2018-02-18

    Topological photonics/phononics, inspired by the discovery of topological insulators, is a prosperous field of research, in which remarkable one-way propagation edge states are robust against impurities or defect without backscattering. This dissertation discusses the implementation of multiple topological phases in specific designed photonic and phononic crystals. First, it reports a tunable quantum Hall phase in acoustic ring-waveguide system. A new three-band model focused on the topological transitions at the Γ point is studied, which gives the functionality that nontrivial topology can be tuned by changing the strengths of the couplings and/or the broken time-reversal symmetry. The resulted tunable topological edge states are also numerically verified. Second, based on our previous studied acoustic ring-waveguide system, we introduce anisotropy by tuning the couplings along different directions. We find that the bandgap topology is related to the frequency and directions. We report our proposal on a frequency filter designed from such an anisotropic topological phononic crystal. Third, motivated by the recent progress on quantum spin Hall phases, we propose a design of time-reversal symmetry broken quantum spin Hall insulators in photonics, in which a new quantum anomalous Hall phase emerges. It supports a chiral edge state with certain spin orientations, which is robust against the magnetic impurities. We also report the realization of the quantum anomalous Hall phase in phononics.

  9. Photonic-crystal lasers light up

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faist, Jerome [Institute of Physics, University of Neuchatel (Switzerland)

    2004-03-01

    Every laptop computer, PDA or mobile phone contains a microprocessor in which millions of interconnected transistors perform complex logical functions. Optical circuits, in contrast, are still at the pre-integrated- circuit stage. The optical fibres that form the backbone of the Internet, for example, are mostly connected individually between sources and detectors. Direct optical signal routing, on the other hand, would provide a reconfigurable network that fulfils the requirements of today's bandwidth-hungry applications, such as video-on-demand. Optical routing could even be used inside computers to connect the central processing unit to its peripherals. Now researchers in the US have brought the dream of all-optical circuits a little closer. Raffaele Colombelli of Bell Labs and co-workers at the California Institute of Technology and Harvard University have developed a new type of light source by combining a quantum cascade laser with a photonic crystal (Science 302 1374). The team used lithography to etch an array of holes in the semiconductor laser, which allowed the spectral and spatial properties of the output radiation to be controlled. The marriage of these two devices could form miniature chemical sensors for medical or environmental applications. (author)

  10. Photonic crystal-adaptive optical devices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buss, Thomas

    This Ph.D. thesis presents methods for enhancing the optical functionality of transparent glass panes by introduction of invisible nanoscale surface structures, such as gratings and planar photonic cyrstals. In this way the primary functionality of the glass - transparancy - may be enhanced...... been designed, fabricated and analyzed. First a solar harvesting method, based on nanoscale gratings which are imprinted in a thin-film which is deposited on the window pane is discussed. Free-space light which is incident onto a window is coupled to guided modes in the thin-film or the substrate...

  11. Ultracompact multiway beam splitters using multiple coupled photonic crystal waveguides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Tianbao; Zhou Haifeng; Yang Jianyi; Jiang Xiaoqing; Wang Minghua; Gong Zhao

    2008-01-01

    Ultracompact 1 x N (N > 2) beam splitters based on coupling of multiple photonic crystal waveguides (PCWs) are numerically demonstrated. The operation of the devices is on the basis of the self-imaging phenomenon. Variation of the effective index of modified rods induces the transverse redistribution of the N-fold images with the same coupling length, and uniform or free splitting can be achieved. The devices with three and four output channels are discussed in details as examples. Results show that this kind of beam splitters are very short. At the operating wavelength of 1.55 μm, the splitting length of the devices is only 35 μm even if the output channel number reaches 20. It provides a new method and a compact model to export freely the beam to N channels in PCW devices and can find practical applications in future photonic integrated circuits

  12. Ultracompact multiway beam splitters using multiple coupled photonic crystal waveguides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu Tianbao; Zhou Haifeng; Yang Jianyi; Jiang Xiaoqing; Wang Minghua [Department of Information Science and Electronic Engineering, Zhejiang University, 310027 Hangzhou (China); Gong Zhao [Zhejiang University City College, 310027 Hangzhou (China)

    2008-05-07

    Ultracompact 1 x N (N > 2) beam splitters based on coupling of multiple photonic crystal waveguides (PCWs) are numerically demonstrated. The operation of the devices is on the basis of the self-imaging phenomenon. Variation of the effective index of modified rods induces the transverse redistribution of the N-fold images with the same coupling length, and uniform or free splitting can be achieved. The devices with three and four output channels are discussed in details as examples. Results show that this kind of beam splitters are very short. At the operating wavelength of 1.55 {mu}m, the splitting length of the devices is only 35 {mu}m even if the output channel number reaches 20. It provides a new method and a compact model to export freely the beam to N channels in PCW devices and can find practical applications in future photonic integrated circuits.

  13. Photonic crystal materials and their application in biomedicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Huadong; Lou, Rong; Chen, Yanxiao; Chen, Lili; Lu, Jingya; Dong, Qianqian

    2017-11-01

    Photonic crystal (PC) materials exhibit unique structural colors that originate from their intrinsic photonic band gap. Because of their highly ordered structure and distinct optical characteristics, PC-based biomaterials have advantages in the multiplex detection, biomolecular screening and real-time monitoring of biomolecules. In addition, PCs provide good platforms for drug loading and biomolecule modification, which could be applied to biosensors and biological carriers. A number of methods are now available to fabricate PC materials with variable structure colors, which could be applied in biomedicine. Emphasis is given to the description of various applications of PC materials in biomedicine, including drug delivery, biodetection and tumor screening. We believe that this article will promote greater communication among researchers in the fields of chemistry, material science, biology, medicine and pharmacy.

  14. Time evolution of absorption process in nonlinear metallic photonic crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, Mahi R.; Hatef, Ali [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Western Ontario, London (Canada)

    2009-05-15

    The time evolution of the absorption coefficient in metallic photonic crystals has been studied numerically. These crystals are made from metallic spheres which are arranged periodically in air. The refractive index of the metallic spheres depends on the plasma frequency. Probe and pump fields are applied to monitor the absorption process. Ensembles of three-level particles are embedded in the crystal. Nanoparticles are interacting with the metallic crystals via the electron-photon interaction. It is found that when the resonance states lie away from the band edges system goes to transparent state. (copyright 2009 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  15. Engineering topological edge states in two dimensional magnetic photonic crystal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Bing; Wu, Tong; Zhang, Xiangdong

    2017-01-01

    Based on a perturbative approach, we propose a simple and efficient method to engineer the topological edge states in two dimensional magnetic photonic crystals. The topological edge states in the microstructures can be constructed and varied by altering the parameters of the microstructure according to the field-energy distributions of the Bloch states at the related Bloch wave vectors. The validity of the proposed method has been demonstrated by exact numerical calculations through three concrete examples. Our method makes the topological edge states "designable."

  16. Optofluidic tuning of photonic crystal band edge lasers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bernal, Felipe; Christiansen, Mads Brøkner; Gersborg-Hansen, Morten

    2007-01-01

    We demonstrate optofluidic tuning of polymer photonic crystal band edge lasers with an imposed rectangular symmetry. The emission wavelength depends on both lattice constant and cladding refractive index. The emission wavelength is shown to change 1 nm with a cladding refractive index change of 10......−2. The rectangular symmetry modification alters the emission characteristics of the devices and the relative emission intensities along the symmetry axes depend on cladding refractive index, suggesting a sensor concept based on detection of intensity rather than wavelength....

  17. Thermal analysis of line-defect photonic crystal lasers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xue, Weiqi; Ottaviano, Luisa; Chen, Yaohui

    2015-01-01

    under CW optical pumping, whereas InGaAsP membranes only lase under pulsed conditions. By varying the duty cycle of the pump beam, we quantify the heating induced by optical pumping in the two material platforms and compare their thermal properties. Full 3D finite element simulations show the spatial......We report a systematic study of thermal effects in photonic crystal membrane lasers based on line-defect cavities. Two material platforms, InGaAsP and InP, are investigated experimentally and numerically. Lasers with quantum dot layers embedded in an InP membrane exhibit lasing at room temperature...

  18. Theory of Self-pulsing in Photonic Crystal Fano Lasers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Thorsten Svend; Yu, Yi; Mørk, Jesper

    2017-01-01

    -dispersive Fano mirror, the laser frequency and the threshold gain. The model is based upon a combination of conventional laser rate equations and coupled-mode theory. The dynamical model is used to demonstrate how the laser has two regimes of operation, continuous-wave output and self-pulsing, and these regimes......Laser self-pulsing was a phenomenon exclusive to macroscopic lasers until recently, where self-starting laser pulsation in a microscopic photonic crystal Fano laser was reported. In this paper a theoretical model is developed to describe the Fano laser, including descriptions of the highly...

  19. Spectrum of a one-atom laser in photonic crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Florescu, Lucia

    2006-01-01

    The emission spectrum of a single-emitter laser in a photonic crystal is presented. We consider a coherently pumped two-level emitter strongly coupled to a high-quality microcavity engineered within a photonic crystal. We show that the cavity spectrum consists of both elastic and inelastic components, for which we derive analytical expressions. Our study reveals enhanced, spectrally narrower emission resulting from the radiation reservoir of the photonic crystal. The cavity field spectral characteristics are fundamentally distinct from those of a corresponding microcavity in ordinary vacuum. At high pump intensities and for large discontinuities in the photon density of states between Mollow spectral components of atomic resonance fluorescence, the emitted intensity originating from the elastic spectral component increases with the intensity of the pump and the elastic component dominates the spectrum. In the case of a vanishing photon density of states in the spectral range surrounding the lower Mollow sideband and no dipolar dephasing, the cavity spectrum is elastic

  20. Numerical demonstration of neuromorphic computing with photonic crystal cavities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laporte, Floris; Katumba, Andrew; Dambre, Joni; Bienstman, Peter

    2018-04-02

    We propose a new design for a passive photonic reservoir computer on a silicon photonics chip which can be used in the context of optical communication applications, and study it through detailed numerical simulations. The design consists of a photonic crystal cavity with a quarter-stadium shape, which is known to foster interesting mixing dynamics. These mixing properties turn out to be very useful for memory-dependent optical signal processing tasks, such as header recognition. The proposed, ultra-compact photonic crystal cavity exhibits a memory of up to 6 bits, while simultaneously accepting bitrates in a wide region of operation. Moreover, because of the inherent low losses in a high-Q photonic crystal cavity, the proposed design is very power efficient.

  1. Tapered photonic crystal fibers for blue-enhanced supercontinuum generation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Uffe; Sørensen, Simon Toft; Larsen, Casper

    2012-01-01

    Tapering of photonic crystal fibers is an effective way of shifting the blue edge of a supercontinuum spectrum down in the deep-blue. We discuss the optimum taper profile for enhancing the power in the blue edge....

  2. Metallic dielectric photonic crystals and methods of fabrication

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chou, Jeffrey Brian; Kim, Sang-Gook

    2016-12-20

    A metallic-dielectric photonic crystal is formed with a periodic structure defining a plurality of resonant cavities to selectively absorb incident radiation. A metal layer is deposited on the inner surfaces of the resonant cavities and a dielectric material fills inside the resonant cavities. This photonic crystal can be used to selectively absorb broadband solar radiation and then reemit absorbed radiation in a wavelength band that matches the absorption band of a photovoltaic cell. The photonic crystal can be fabricated by patterning a sacrificial layer with a plurality of holes, into which is deposited a supporting material. Removing the rest of the sacrificial layer creates a supporting structure, on which a layer of metal is deposited to define resonant cavities. A dielectric material then fills the cavities to form the photonic crystal.

  3. Metallic dielectric photonic crystals and methods of fabrication

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chou, Jeffrey Brian; Kim, Sang-Gook

    2017-12-05

    A metallic-dielectric photonic crystal is formed with a periodic structure defining a plurality of resonant cavities to selectively absorb incident radiation. A metal layer is deposited on the inner surfaces of the resonant cavities and a dielectric material fills inside the resonant cavities. This photonic crystal can be used to selectively absorb broadband solar radiation and then reemit absorbed radiation in a wavelength band that matches the absorption band of a photovoltaic cell. The photonic crystal can be fabricated by patterning a sacrificial layer with a plurality of holes, into which is deposited a supporting material. Removing the rest of the sacrificial layer creates a supporting structure, on which a layer of metal is deposited to define resonant cavities. A dielectric material then fills the cavities to form the photonic crystal.

  4. Active Photonic crystal fibers for high power applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olausson, Christina Bjarnal Thulin

    The photonic crystal ber technology provides means to realize bers optimized for high power operation, due to the large single-mode cores and the unique design exibility of the microstructure. The work presented in this thesis focuses on improving the properties of active photonic crystal bers...... contributed to the compounding of new and improved material compositions. The second part is an investigation of pump absorption in photonic crystal bers, demonstrating that the microstructure in photonic crystal bers improves the pump absorption by up to a factor of two compared to step-index bers....... This plays an important role in high power lasers and ampliers with respect to efficiency, packaging, and thermal handling. The third part of the work has involved developing tools for characterizing the mode quality and stability of large core bers. Stable, single-mode bers with larger cores are essential...

  5. Comprehensive FDTD modelling of photonic crystal waveguide components

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lavrinenko, Andrei; Borel, Peter Ingo; Frandsen, Lars Hagedorn

    2004-01-01

    Planar photonic crystal waveguide structures have been modelled using the finite-difference-time-domain method and perfectly matched layers have been employed as boundary conditions. Comprehensive numerical calculations have been performed and compared to experimentally obtained transmission...

  6. A 2D Rods-in-Air Square-Lattice Photonic Crystal Optical Switch

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-03-01

    4] Tao Chu, Hirohito Yamada, Satomi Ishida, Yasuhiko Arakawa, Thermooptic switch based on photonic-crystal line-defect waveguides, IEEE Photon...Ishida, Yasuhiko Arakawa, Hiroyuki Fujita, Hiroshi Toshiyoshi, Design and fabrication on MEMS optical mod- ulators integrated with Phc waveguide, in

  7. Low crosstalk waveguide intersections in honeycomb lattice photonic crystals for TM-polarized light

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma, P; Jäckel, H

    2011-01-01

    We present the design of a low crosstalk, high throughput waveguide intersection for transverse-magnetic-polarized light. The design is based on two orthogonal photonic crystal waveguides and a resonant photonic crystal cavity in honeycomb lattice geometry. The results of our numerical simulation validate the concept of the design and demonstrate a crosstalk smaller than 0.1% and throughput transmission of more than 80% for both orthogonal waveguide branches

  8. Control of Dispersion in Hollow Core Photonic Crystal Fibers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roberts, John

    2007-01-01

    The dispersion of hollow core photonic crystal fibers can be tailored by modifying a single ring of holes in the cladding. The dispersion can be lowered and flattened, or alternatively greatly increased, in a controlled manner.......The dispersion of hollow core photonic crystal fibers can be tailored by modifying a single ring of holes in the cladding. The dispersion can be lowered and flattened, or alternatively greatly increased, in a controlled manner....

  9. Sub-threshold investigation of two coupled photonic crystal cavities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schubert, Martin; Frandsen, Lars Hagedorn; Skovgård, Troels Suhr

    2009-01-01

    The behavior of two coupled photonic crystal membrane cavities with quantum dots separated by different number of holes is investigated. The measured spectral splitting with increased coupling is verified by 3D calculations and discussed.......The behavior of two coupled photonic crystal membrane cavities with quantum dots separated by different number of holes is investigated. The measured spectral splitting with increased coupling is verified by 3D calculations and discussed....

  10. A novel method for polarization squeezing with Photonic Crystal Fibers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Milanovic, Josip; Lassen, Mikael Østergaard; Andersen, Ulrik Lund

    2010-01-01

    Photonic Crystal Fibers can be tailored to increase the effective Kerr nonlinearity, while producing smaller amounts of excess noise compared to standard silicon fibers. Using these features of Photonic Crystal Fibers we create polarization squeezed states with increased purity compared to standa...... Stokes parameter squeezing of −3.9 ±0.3dB and anti-squeezing of 16.2 ±0.3dB....

  11. Numerical modeling in photonic crystals integrated technology: the COPERNICUS Project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malaguti, Stefania; Armaroli, Andrea; Bellanca, Gaetano

    2011-01-01

    Photonic crystals will play a fundamental role in the future of optical communications. The relevance of the numerical modeling for the success of this technology is assessed by using some examples concerning the experience of the COPERNICUS Project.......Photonic crystals will play a fundamental role in the future of optical communications. The relevance of the numerical modeling for the success of this technology is assessed by using some examples concerning the experience of the COPERNICUS Project....

  12. Highly efficient fluorescence sensing with hollow core photonic crystal fibers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smolka, Stephan; Barth, Michael; Benson, Oliver

    2008-01-01

    We investigate hollow core photonic crystal fibers for ultra-sensitive fluorescence detection by selectively infiltrating the central hole with fluorophores. Dye concentrations down to 10(-9) M can be detected using only nanoliter sample volumes.......We investigate hollow core photonic crystal fibers for ultra-sensitive fluorescence detection by selectively infiltrating the central hole with fluorophores. Dye concentrations down to 10(-9) M can be detected using only nanoliter sample volumes....

  13. Slow-light effects in photonic crystal membrane lasers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xue, Weiqi; Yu, Yi; Ottaviano, Luisa

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we present a systematic investigation of photonic crystal cavity laser operating in the slow-light regime. The dependence of lasing threshold on the effect of slow-light will be particularly highlighted.......In this paper, we present a systematic investigation of photonic crystal cavity laser operating in the slow-light regime. The dependence of lasing threshold on the effect of slow-light will be particularly highlighted....

  14. Enhancement of polymer dye lasers by multifunctional photonic crystal lattice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Mads Brøkner; Xiao, Sanshui; Mortensen, Asger

    2009-01-01

    The light output of dye doped hybrid polymer band-edge lasers is increased more than 100 times by using a rectangular lattice photonic crystal, which provides both feedback and couples more pump light into the laser.......The light output of dye doped hybrid polymer band-edge lasers is increased more than 100 times by using a rectangular lattice photonic crystal, which provides both feedback and couples more pump light into the laser....

  15. Nonlinear Gain Saturation in Active Slow Light Photonic Crystal Waveguides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Yaohui; Mørk, Jesper

    2013-01-01

    We present a quantitative three-dimensional analysis of slow-light enhanced traveling wave amplification in an active semiconductor photonic crystal waveguides. The impact of slow-light propagation on the nonlinear gain saturation of the device is investigated.......We present a quantitative three-dimensional analysis of slow-light enhanced traveling wave amplification in an active semiconductor photonic crystal waveguides. The impact of slow-light propagation on the nonlinear gain saturation of the device is investigated....

  16. Studying The Effect of Various Parameters on The Characteristics of The Dielectric and Metallic Photonic Crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ismail, M.; Badawy, Z.M.; Abdel-Rahman, E.

    2015-01-01

    Transmittance characteristics of two types of photonic crystals have been analysed using the transfer matrix method. The first one is the dielectric photonic crystal (DPC), and the second is the metallic photonic crystal (MPC). The effect of the most parameters on the transmission spectra of the dielectric and metallic photonic crystals has been studied

  17. Micromachined millimeter-wave photonic band-gap crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oezbay, E.; Michel, E.; Tuttle, G.; Biswas, R.; Sigalas, M.; Ho, K.

    1994-01-01

    We have developed a new technique for fabricating three-dimensional photonic band-gap crystals. Our method utilizes an orderly stacking of micromachined (110) silicon wafers to build the periodic structure. A structure with a full three-dimensional photonic band gap centered near 100 GHz was measured, with experimental results in good agreement with theoretical predictions. This basic approach described should be extendable to build structures with photonic band-gap frequencies ranging from 30 GHz to 3 THz

  18. Magnetoresponsive discoidal photonic crystals toward active color pigments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hye Soo; Kim, Ju Hyeon; Lee, Joon-Seok; Sim, Jae Young; Seo, Jung Yoon; Oh, You-Kwan; Yang, Seung-Man; Kim, Shin-Hyun

    2014-09-03

    Photonic microdisks with a multilayered structure are designed from photocurable suspensions by step-by-step photolithography. In each step of photolithography, either a colloidal photonic crystal or a magnetic-particle-laden layer is stacked over the windows of a photomask. Sequential photolithography enables the creation of multilayered photonic microdisks that have brilliant structural colors that can be switched by an external magnetic field. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. Study of nonlinear effects in photonic crystals doped with nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, Mahi R [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Western Ontario, London, N6A 3K7 Ontario (Canada)

    2008-07-14

    A theory of nonlinear phenomena has been developed for a photonic crystal in the presence of a pump and a coupling laser field. The crystal is doped with an ensemble of four-level nanoparticle impurities. It is considered that the impurity particles are not only interacting with the photonic crystal but also with each other via dipole-dipole interaction. An expression for the susceptibility has been obtained using the density matrix method. The nonlinear effects due to the coupling and the pump fields have been included in the formulation. The absorption spectrum has been calculated in the presence of the strong coupling and pump fields for an isotropic photonic crystal made from dielectric spheres. The photonic crystal has a gap to midgap ratio of about 21%. It is predicted that the absorption spectrum in the photonic crystal can have zero, one, two or three absorptionless states by tuning one of the transition energies within the bands. This is an interesting phenomenon which can be used to make photonic switching devices. We have also calculated the absorption spectrum in the presence of the dipole-dipole interaction. It is found that a symmetric absorption spectrum changes to an asymmetric one due to this interaction. It is also found that there is a large enhancement in the absorption and the dispersion simultaneously for certain values of the detuning and concentration.

  20. Study of nonlinear effects in photonic crystals doped with nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Mahi R

    2008-01-01

    A theory of nonlinear phenomena has been developed for a photonic crystal in the presence of a pump and a coupling laser field. The crystal is doped with an ensemble of four-level nanoparticle impurities. It is considered that the impurity particles are not only interacting with the photonic crystal but also with each other via dipole-dipole interaction. An expression for the susceptibility has been obtained using the density matrix method. The nonlinear effects due to the coupling and the pump fields have been included in the formulation. The absorption spectrum has been calculated in the presence of the strong coupling and pump fields for an isotropic photonic crystal made from dielectric spheres. The photonic crystal has a gap to midgap ratio of about 21%. It is predicted that the absorption spectrum in the photonic crystal can have zero, one, two or three absorptionless states by tuning one of the transition energies within the bands. This is an interesting phenomenon which can be used to make photonic switching devices. We have also calculated the absorption spectrum in the presence of the dipole-dipole interaction. It is found that a symmetric absorption spectrum changes to an asymmetric one due to this interaction. It is also found that there is a large enhancement in the absorption and the dispersion simultaneously for certain values of the detuning and concentration

  1. Emulation of two-dimensional photonic crystal defect modes in a photonic crystal with a three-dimensional photonic band gap

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Povinelli, M. L.; Johnson, Steven G.; Fan, Shanhui; Joannopoulos, J. D.

    2001-01-01

    Using numerical simulations, we demonstrate the construction of two-dimensional- (2D-) like defect modes in a recently proposed 3D photonic crystal structure. These modes, which are confined in all three dimensions by a complete photonic band gap, bear a striking similarity to those in 2D photonic crystals in terms of polarization, field profile, and projected band structures. It is expected that these results will greatly facilitate the observation of widely studied 2D photonic-crystal phenomena in a realistic, 3D physical system

  2. Emulation of two-dimensional photonic crystal defect modes in a photonic crystal with a three-dimensional photonic band gap

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Povinelli, M. L.; Johnson, Steven G.; Fan, Shanhui; Joannopoulos, J. D.

    2001-08-15

    Using numerical simulations, we demonstrate the construction of two-dimensional- (2D-) like defect modes in a recently proposed 3D photonic crystal structure. These modes, which are confined in all three dimensions by a complete photonic band gap, bear a striking similarity to those in 2D photonic crystals in terms of polarization, field profile, and projected band structures. It is expected that these results will greatly facilitate the observation of widely studied 2D photonic-crystal phenomena in a realistic, 3D physical system.

  3. Robust photonic differentiator employing slow light effect in photonic crystal waveguide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yan, Siqi; Cheng, Ziwei; Frandsen, Lars Hagedorn

    2017-01-01

    A robust photonic DIFF exploiting the slow light effect in a photonic crystal waveguide is proposed and experimentally demonstrated. Input Gaussian pulses with full-width halfmaximums ranging from 2.7 ps to 81.4 ps can be accurately differentiated.......A robust photonic DIFF exploiting the slow light effect in a photonic crystal waveguide is proposed and experimentally demonstrated. Input Gaussian pulses with full-width halfmaximums ranging from 2.7 ps to 81.4 ps can be accurately differentiated....

  4. A novel method of rapidly modeling optical properties of actual photonic crystal fibres

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li-Wen, Wang; Shu-Qin, Lou; Wei-Guo, Chen; Hong-Lei, Li

    2010-01-01

    The flexible structure of photonic crystal fibre not only offers novel optical properties but also brings some difficulties in keeping the fibre structure in the fabrication process which inevitably cause the optical properties of the resulting fibre to deviate from the designed properties. Therefore, a method of evaluating the optical properties of the actual fibre is necessary for the purpose of application. Up to now, the methods employed to measure the properties of the actual photonic crystal fibre often require long fibre samples or complex expensive equipments. To our knowledge, there are few studies of modeling an actual photonic crystal fibre and evaluating its properties rapidly. In this paper, a novel method, based on the combination model of digital image processing and the finite element method, is proposed to rapidly model the optical properties of the actual photonic crystal fibre. Two kinds of photonic crystal fibres made by Crystal Fiber A/S are modeled. It is confirmed from numerical results that the proposed method is simple, rapid and accurate for evaluating the optical properties of the actual photonic crystal fibre without requiring complex equipment. (rapid communication)

  5. Hydrogenated amorphous silicon nitride photonic crystals for improved-performance surface electromagnetic wave biosensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinibaldi, Alberto; Descrovi, Emiliano; Giorgis, Fabrizio; Dominici, Lorenzo; Ballarini, Mirko; Mandracci, Pietro; Danz, Norbert; Michelotti, Francesco

    2012-10-01

    We exploit the properties of surface electromagnetic waves propagating at the surface of finite one dimensional photonic crystals to improve the performance of optical biosensors with respect to the standard surface plasmon resonance approach. We demonstrate that the hydrogenated amorphous silicon nitride technology is a versatile platform for fabricating one dimensional photonic crystals with any desirable design and operating in a wide wavelength range, from the visible to the near infrared. We prepared sensors based on photonic crystals sustaining either guided modes or surface electromagnetic waves, also known as Bloch surface waves. We carried out for the first time a direct experimental comparison of their sensitivity and figure of merit with surface plasmon polaritons on metal layers, by making use of a commercial surface plasmon resonance instrument that was slightly adapted for the experiments. Our measurements demonstrate that the Bloch surface waves on silicon nitride photonic crystals outperform surface plasmon polaritons by a factor 1.3 in terms of figure of merit.

  6. Hierarchically structured photonic crystals for integrated chemical separation and colorimetric detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Qianqian; Zhu, Biting; Ge, Jianping

    2017-02-16

    A SiO 2 colloidal photonic crystal film with a hierarchical porous structure is fabricated to demonstrate an integrated separation and colorimetric detection of chemical species for the first time. This new photonic crystal based thin layer chromatography process requires no dyeing, developing and UV irradiation compared to the traditional TLC. The assembling of mesoporous SiO 2 particles via a supersaturation-induced-precipitation process forms uniform and hierarchical photonic crystals with micron-scale cracks and mesopores, which accelerate the diffusion of developers and intensify the adsorption/desorption between the analytes and silica for efficient separation. Meanwhile, the chemical substances infiltrated to the voids of photonic crystals cause an increase of the refractive index and a large contrast of structural colors towards the unloaded part, so that the sample spots can be directly recognized with the naked eye before and after separation.

  7. Electro-optical modulator in a polymerinfiltrated silicon slotted photonic crystal waveguide heterostructure resonator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wülbern, Jan Hendrik; Petrov, Alexander; Eich, Manfred

    2009-01-05

    We present a novel concept of a compact, ultra fast electro-optic modulator, based on photonic crystal resonator structures that can be realized in two dimensional photonic crystal slabs of silicon as core material employing a nonlinear optical polymer as infiltration and cladding material. The novel concept is to combine a photonic crystal heterostructure cavity with a slotted defect waveguide. The photonic crystal lattice can be used as a distributed electrode for the application of a modulation signal. An electrical contact is hence provided while the optical wave is kept isolated from the lossy metal electrodes. Thereby, well known disadvantages of segmented electrode designs such as excessive scattering are avoided. The optical field enhancement in the slotted region increases the nonlinear interaction with an external electric field resulting in an envisaged switching voltage of approximately 1 V at modulation speeds up to 100 GHz.

  8. Alignment of crystal orientations of the multi-domain photonic crystals in Parides sesostris wing scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshioka, S.; Fujita, H.; Kinoshita, S.; Matsuhana, B.

    2014-01-01

    It is known that the wing scales of the emerald-patched cattleheart butterfly, Parides sesostris, contain gyroid-type photonic crystals, which produce a green structural colour. However, the photonic crystal is not a single crystal that spreads over the entire scale, but it is separated into many small domains with different crystal orientations. As a photonic crystal generally has band gaps at different frequencies depending on the direction of light propagation, it seems mysterious that the scale is observed to be uniformly green under an optical microscope despite the multi-domain structure. In this study, we have carefully investigated the structure of the wing scale and discovered that the crystal orientations of different domains are not perfectly random, but there is a preferred crystal orientation that is aligned along the surface normal of the scale. This finding suggests that there is an additional factor during the developmental process of the microstructure that regulates the crystal orientation. PMID:24352678

  9. Temperature-modified photonic bandgap in colloidal photonic crystals fabricated by vinyl functionalized silica spheres

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deng Tiansong; Zhang Junyan; Zhu Kongtao; Zhang Qifeng; Wu Jinlei

    2011-01-01

    Graphical abstract: A thermal annealing procedure was described for fine modifying the photonic bandgap properties of colloidal photonic crystals, which were self-assembled from vinyl-functionalized silica spheres by a gravity sedimentation process. Highlights: → We described a thermal annealing procedure for fine modifying the photonic bandgap properties of colloidal photonic crystals. → The position of its stop band had more than 25% blue shift by annealing the sample from 60 to 600 deg. C. → The annealing temperature and the Bragg peak values have a linear relationship in the 120-440 deg. C range. → The effects provide a simple and controllable method for modifying the photonic bandgap properties of colloidal photonic crystals. - Abstract: A thermal annealing procedure for fine modifying the photonic bandgap properties of colloidal photonic crystals was described. The colloidal photonic crystals were assembled from monodisperse vinyl functionalized silica spheres by a gravity sedimentation process. The samples diffract light following Bragg's law combined with Snell's law. By annealing the sample at temperatures in the range of 60-600 deg. C, the position of its stop band shifted from 943 to 706 nm. It had more than 25% blue shift. In addition, the annealing temperature and the Bragg peak values have a linear relationship in the 120-440 deg. C range. Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectra and thermo-gravimetric analysis (TGA) curves of vinyl functionalized silica spheres confirmed the above results. The effects provide a simple and controllable method for modifying the photonic bandgap properties of colloidal photonic crystals.

  10. Experimental investigation of photonic band gap in one-dimensional photonic crystals with metamaterials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Yihang; Wang, Xinggang; Yong, Zehui; Zhang, Yunjuan; Chen, Zefeng; He, Lianxing; Lee, P.F.; Chan, Helen L.W.; Leung, Chi Wah; Wang, Yu

    2012-01-01

    Composite right/left-handed transmission lines with lumped element series capacitors and shunt inductors are used to experimentally realize the one-dimensional photonic crystals composed of single-negative metamaterials. The simulated and experimental results show that a special photonic band gap corresponding to zero-effective-phase (zero-φ eff ) may appear in the microwave regime. In contrast to the Bragg gap, by changing the length ratio of the two component materials, the width and depth of the zero-φ eff gap can be conveniently adjusted while keeping the center frequency constant. Furthermore, the zero-φ eff gap vanishes when both the phase-matching and impedance-matching conditions are satisfied simultaneously. These transmission line structures provide a good way for realizing microwave devices based on the zero-φ eff gap. -- Highlights: ► 1D photonic crystals with metamaterials were investigated experimentally. ► Both Bragg gap and zero-φ eff gap were observed in the microwave regime. ► The width and depth of the zero-φ eff gap were experimentally adjusted. ► Zero-φ eff gap was observed to be close when two match conditions were satisfied.

  11. Experimental investigation of photonic band gap in one-dimensional photonic crystals with metamaterials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Yihang, E-mail: eon.chen@yahoo.com.cn [Department of Applied Physics, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Kowloon, Hong Kong (China); Laboratory of Quantum Information Technology, School of Physics and Telecommunication Engineering, South China Normal University, Guangzhou (China); Wang, Xinggang [Laboratory of Quantum Information Technology, School of Physics and Telecommunication Engineering, South China Normal University, Guangzhou (China); Yong, Zehui; Zhang, Yunjuan [Department of Applied Physics, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Kowloon, Hong Kong (China); Chen, Zefeng [Laboratory of Quantum Information Technology, School of Physics and Telecommunication Engineering, South China Normal University, Guangzhou (China); He, Lianxing; Lee, P.F.; Chan, Helen L.W.; Leung, Chi Wah [Department of Applied Physics, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Kowloon, Hong Kong (China); Wang, Yu, E-mail: apywang@inet.polyu.edu.hk [Department of Applied Physics, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Kowloon, Hong Kong (China)

    2012-03-19

    Composite right/left-handed transmission lines with lumped element series capacitors and shunt inductors are used to experimentally realize the one-dimensional photonic crystals composed of single-negative metamaterials. The simulated and experimental results show that a special photonic band gap corresponding to zero-effective-phase (zero-φ{sub eff}) may appear in the microwave regime. In contrast to the Bragg gap, by changing the length ratio of the two component materials, the width and depth of the zero-φ{sub eff} gap can be conveniently adjusted while keeping the center frequency constant. Furthermore, the zero-φ{sub eff} gap vanishes when both the phase-matching and impedance-matching conditions are satisfied simultaneously. These transmission line structures provide a good way for realizing microwave devices based on the zero-φ{sub eff} gap. -- Highlights: ► 1D photonic crystals with metamaterials were investigated experimentally. ► Both Bragg gap and zero-φ{sub eff} gap were observed in the microwave regime. ► The width and depth of the zero-φ{sub eff} gap were experimentally adjusted. ► Zero-φ{sub eff} gap was observed to be close when two match conditions were satisfied.

  12. Results on the Coherent Interaction of High Energy Electrons and Photons in Oriented Single Crystals

    CERN Document Server

    Apyan, A.; Badelek, B.; Ballestrero, S.; Biino, C.; Birol, I.; Cenci, P.; Connell, S.H.; Eichblatt, S.; Fonseca, T.; Freund, A.; Gorini, B.; Groess, R.; Ispirian, K.; Ketel, T.J.; Kononets, Yu.V.; Lopez, A.; Mangiarotti, A.; van Rens, B.; Sellschop, J.P.F.; Shieh, M.; Sona, P.; Strakhovenko, V.; Uggerhoj, E.; Uggerhj, Ulrik Ingerslev; Unel, G.; Velasco, M.; Vilakazi, Z.Z.; Wessely, O.; Kononets, Yu.V.

    2005-01-01

    The CERN-NA-59 experiment examined a wide range of electromagnetic processes for multi-GeV electrons and photons interacting with oriented single crystals. The various types of crystals and their orientations were used for producing photon beams and for converting and measuring their polarisation. The radiation emitted by 178 GeV unpolarised electrons incident on a 1.5 cm thick Si crystal oriented in the Coherent Bremsstrahlung (CB) and the String-of-Strings (SOS) modes was used to obtain multi-GeV linearly polarised photon beams. A new crystal polarimetry technique was established for measuring the linear polarisation of the photon beam. The polarimeter is based on the dependence of the Coherent Pair Production (CPP) cross section in oriented single crystals on the direction of the photon polarisation with respect to the crystal plane. Both a 1 mm thick single crystal of Germanium and a 4 mm thick multi-tile set of synthetic Diamond crystals were used as analyzers of the linear polarisation. A birefringence ...

  13. Photonic crystals, light manipulation, and imaging in complex nematic structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravnik, Miha; Å timulak, Mitja; Mur, Urban; Čančula, Miha; Čopar, Simon; Žumer, Slobodan

    2016-03-01

    Three selected approaches for manipulation of light by complex nematic colloidal and non-colloidal structures are presented using different own custom developed theoretical and modelling approaches. Photonic crystals bands of distorted cholesteric liquid crystal helix and of nematic colloidal opals are presented, also revealing distinct photonic modes and density of states. Light propagation along half-integer nematic disclinations is shown with changes in the light polarization of various winding numbers. As third, simulated light transmission polarization micrographs of nematic torons are shown, offering a new insight into the complex structure characterization. Finally, this work is a contribution towards using complex soft matter in optics and photonics for advanced light manipulation.

  14. Enhancement of the fluorescence intensity of DNA intercalators using nano-imprinted 2-dimensional photonic crystal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Endo, Tatsuro; Ueda, China; Hisamoto, Hideaki; Kajita, Hiroshi; Okuda, Norimichi; Tanaka, Satoru

    2013-01-01

    We have fabricated polymer-based 2-dimensional photonic crystals that play a key role in enhancing the fluorescence of DNA intercalators. Highly ordered 2-dimensional photonic crystals possessing triangle-shaped and nm-sized hole arrays were fabricated on a 100 μm thick polymer film using nano-imprint lithography. Samples of double-stranded DNAs (sizes: 4361 and 48502 bp; concentration: 1 pM to 10 nM) were adsorbed on the surface of the 2-dimensional photonic crystal by electrostatic interactions and then treated with intercalators. It is found that the fluorescence intensity of the intercalator is enhanced by a factor of up to 10 compared to the enhancement in the absence of the 2-dimensional photonic crystal. Fluorescence intensity increases with increasing length and concentration of the DNAs. If the 2-dimensional photonic crystal is used as a Bragg reflection mirror, the enhancement of fluorescence intensity can be easily observed using a conventional spectrofluorometer. These results suggest that the printed photonic crystal offers a great potential for highly sensitive intercalator-based fluorescent detection of DNAs. (author)

  15. Tunable Channel Drop Filter in a Two-Dimensional Photonic Crystal Modulated by a Nematic Liquid Crystal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Photonic crystals (PCs have many potential applications because of their ability to control light-wave propagation and because PC-based waveguides may be integrated into optical circuits. We propose a novel tunable PC channel drop filter based on nematic liquid crystals and investigate its properties numerically by using the finite-difference time-domain (FDTD method. The refractive indices of liquid crystals can be actively modulated after infiltrating nematic liquid crystals into the microcavity in PC waveguides with square lattices. Then we can control light propagation in a PC waveguide. We analyze the Q -factors and resonance frequencies of a tunable PC channel drop filter by considering various indices modulation of liquid crystals. The novel component can be used as wavelength division multiplexing in photonic integrated circuits.

  16. Chiral-nematic liquid crystals as one dimensional photonic materials in optical sensors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mulder, D.J.; Schenning, A.P.H.J.; Bastiaansen, C.W.M.

    2014-01-01

    Current developments in the field of thermotropic chiral-nematic liquid crystals as sensors are discussed. These one dimensional photonic materials are based on low molecular weight liquid crystals and chiral-nematic polymeric networks. For both low molecular weight LCs and polymer networks,

  17. The Study of Electromagnetic Wave Propogation in Photonic Crystals Via Planewave Based Transfer (Scattering) Matrix Method with Active Gain Material Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LI, Ming [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2007-01-01

    In this dissertation, a set of numerical simulation tools are developed under previous work to efficiently and accurately study one-dimensional (1D), two-dimensional(2D), 2D slab and three-dimensional (3D) photonic crystal structures and their defects effects by means of spectrum (transmission, reflection, absorption), band structure (dispersion relation), and electric and/or magnetic fields distribution (mode profiles). Furthermore, the lasing property and spontaneous emission behaviors are studied when active gain materials are presented in the photonic crystal structures. Various physical properties such as resonant cavity quality factor, waveguide loss, propagation group velocity of electromagnetic wave and light-current curve (for lasing devices) can be obtained from the developed software package.

  18. A study on new types of metallic photonic crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed, M.I.

    2013-01-01

    In this thesis, I tried to synthesize a one dimension dielectric photonic crystal. I have succeeded in depositing single layers of zinc oxide and magnesium oxide on glass substrates. Each single layer was characterized by a scanning electron microscope, X-ray diffraction, A Mirue interferometer, and a spectrophotometer. The refractive indices, extinction coefficients, and absorption coefficients of each single layer were calculated from the measured transmittance, reflectance, and thickness data. Using the calculated parameters (refractive indices) and measured parameters (thicknesses) the transmission spectrum of the one dimension photonic crystal composed of zinc oxide and magnesium oxide was modelled. Using the transfer matrix method, a comparative study of the one dimension-dielectric and metallic photonic crystals was done. Effect of the refractive index difference, filling factor, number of periods, Plasmon frequency, damping coefficient, and incidence angle on the transmittance of the dielectric and metallic photonic crystal was carried out. A multilayered structure composed of Silver and Gallium Nitride was designed to transmit in the visible region, block UV frequencies, and reflect the IR and microwave frequencies. Using a combination of MaxwellGarnett Approximation and the transfer matrix method; the properties of a nanocomposite photonic crystal consisting of Cryolite and spherical nanoparticles of silver distributed in a dielectric matrix of titanium dioxide was studied. Effect of the nanoparticle concentration, lattice constant and incidence angle on the polaritonic and structure photonic band gap were studied.

  19. Photonic Crystal Structures with Tunable Structure Color as Colorimetric Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hui; Zhang, Ke-Qin

    2013-01-01

    Colorimetric sensing, which transduces environmental changes into visible color changes, provides a simple yet powerful detection mechanism that is well-suited to the development of low-cost and low-power sensors. A new approach in colorimetric sensing exploits the structural color of photonic crystals (PCs) to create environmentally-influenced color-changeable materials. PCs are composed of periodic dielectrics or metallo-dielectric nanostructures that affect the propagation of electromagnetic waves (EM) by defining the allowed and forbidden photonic bands. Simultaneously, an amazing variety of naturally occurring biological systems exhibit iridescent color due to the presence of PC structures throughout multi-dimensional space. In particular, some kinds of the structural colors in living organisms can be reversibly changed in reaction to external stimuli. Based on the lessons learned from natural photonic structures, some specific examples of PCs-based colorimetric sensors are presented in detail to demonstrate their unprecedented potential in practical applications, such as the detections of temperature, pH, ionic species, solvents, vapor, humidity, pressure and biomolecules. The combination of the nanofabrication technique, useful design methodologies inspired by biological systems and colorimetric sensing will lead to substantial developments in low-cost, miniaturized and widely deployable optical sensors. PMID:23539027

  20. Photonic Crystal Structures with Tunable Structure Color as Colorimetric Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ke-Qin Zhang

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Colorimetric sensing, which transduces environmental changes into visible color changes, provides a simple yet powerful detection mechanism that is well-suited to the development of low-cost and low-power sensors. A new approach in colorimetric sensing exploits the structural color of photonic crystals (PCs to create environmentally-influenced color-changeable materials. PCs are composed of periodic dielectrics or metallo-dielectric nanostructures that affect the propagation of electromagnetic waves (EM by defining the allowed and forbidden photonic bands. Simultaneously, an amazing variety of naturally occurring biological systems exhibit iridescent color due to the presence of PC structures throughout multi-dimensional space. In particular, some kinds of the structural colors in living organisms can be reversibly changed in reaction to external stimuli. Based on the lessons learned from natural photonic structures, some specific examples of PCs-based colorimetric sensors are presented in detail to demonstrate their unprecedented potential in practical applications, such as the detections of temperature, pH, ionic species, solvents, vapor, humidity, pressure and biomolecules. The combination of the nanofabrication technique, useful design methodologies inspired by biological systems and colorimetric sensing will lead to substantial developments in low-cost, miniaturized and widely deployable optical sensors.

  1. Nonlinear performance of asymmetric coupler based on dual-core photonic crystal fiber: Towards sub-nanojoule solitonic ultrafast all-optical switching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curilla, L.; Astrauskas, I.; Pugzlys, A.; Stajanca, P.; Pysz, D.; Uherek, F.; Baltuska, A.; Bugar, I.

    2018-05-01

    We demonstrate ultrafast soliton-based nonlinear balancing of dual-core asymmetry in highly nonlinear photonic crystal fiber at sub-nanojoule pulse energy level. The effect of fiber asymmetry was studied experimentally by selective excitation and monitoring of individual fiber cores at different wavelengths between 1500 nm and 1800 nm. Higher energy transfer rate to non-excited core was observed in the case of fast core excitation due to nonlinear asymmetry balancing of temporal solitons, which was confirmed by the dedicated numerical simulations based on the coupled generalized nonlinear Schrödinger equations. Moreover, the simulation results correspond qualitatively with the experimentally acquired dependences of the output dual-core extinction ratio on excitation energy and wavelength. In the case of 1800 nm fast core excitation, narrow band spectral intensity switching between the output channels was registered with contrast of 23 dB. The switching was achieved by the change of the excitation pulse energy in sub-nanojoule region. The performed detailed analysis of the nonlinear balancing of dual-core asymmetry in solitonic propagation regime opens new perspectives for the development of ultrafast nonlinear all-optical switching devices.

  2. Topological Valley Transport in Two-dimensional Honeycomb Photonic Crystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yuting; Jiang, Hua; Hang, Zhi Hong

    2018-01-25

    Two-dimensional photonic crystals, in analogy to AB/BA stacking bilayer graphene in electronic system, are studied. Inequivalent valleys in the momentum space for photons can be manipulated by simply engineering diameters of cylinders in a honeycomb lattice. The inequivalent valleys in photonic crystal are selectively excited by a designed optical chiral source and bulk valley polarizations are visualized. Unidirectional valley interface states are proved to exist on a domain wall connecting two photonic crystals with different valley Chern numbers. With the similar optical vortex index, interface states can couple with bulk valley polarizations and thus valley filter and valley coupler can be designed. Our simple dielectric PC scheme can help to exploit the valley degree of freedom for future optical devices.

  3. Slow-light-enhanced gain in active photonic crystal waveguides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ek, Sara; Hansen, Per Lunnemann; Chen, Yaohui

    2014-01-01

    Passive photonic crystals have been shown to exhibit a multitude of interesting phenomena, including slow-light propagation in line-defect waveguides. It was suggested that by incorporating an active material in the waveguide, slow light could be used to enhance the effective gain of the material......, which would have interesting application prospects, for example enabling ultra-compact optical amplifiers for integration in photonic chips. Here we experi- mentally investigate the gain of a photonic crystal membrane structure with embedded quantum wells. We find that by solely changing the photonic...... crystal structural parameters, the maximum value of the gain coefficient can be increased compared with a ridge waveguide structure and at the same time the spectral position of the peak gain be controlled. The experimental results are in qualitative agreement with theory and show that gain values similar...

  4. Analysis of a photon number resolving detector based on fluorescence readout of an ion Coulomb crystal quantum memory inside an optical cavity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Christoph; Sangouard, N.; Drewsen, M.

    2013-01-01

    The ability to detect single photons with a high efficiency is a crucial requirement for various quantum information applications. By combining the storage process of a quantum memory for photons with fluorescence-based quantum state measurement, it is, in principle, possible to achieve high......-efficiency photon counting in large ensembles of atoms. The large number of atoms can, however, pose significant problems in terms of noise stemming from imperfect initial state preparation and off-resonant fluorescence. We identify and analyse a concrete implementation of a photon number resolving detector based...... larger than 93%. Moderate experimental parameters allow for repetition rates of about 3 kHz, limited by the time needed for fluorescence collection and re-cooling of the ions between trials. Our analysis may lead to the first implementation of a photon number resolving detector in atomic ensembles....

  5. Photonic molecules for improving the optical response of macroporous silicon photonic crystals for gas sensing purposes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardador, D; Segura, D; Rodríguez, A

    2018-02-19

    In this paper, we report the benefits of working with photonic molecules in macroporous silicon photonic crystals. In particular, we theoretically and experimentally demonstrate that the optical properties of a resonant peak produced by a single photonic atom of 2.6 µm wide can be sequentially improved if a second and a third cavity of the same length are introduced in the structure. As a consequence of that, the base of the peak is reduced from 500 nm to 100 nm, while its amplitude remains constant, increasing its Q-factor from its initial value of 25 up to 175. In addition, the bandgap is enlarged almost twice and the noise within it is mostly eliminated. In this study we also provide a way of reducing the amplitude of one or two peaks, depending whether we are in the two- or three-cavity case, by modifying the length of the involved photonic molecules so that the remainder can be used to measure gas by spectroscopic methods.

  6. Passive Temperature Stabilization of Silicon Photonic Devices Using Liquid Crystals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Ptasinski

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In this work we explore the negative thermo-optic properties of liquid crystal claddings for passive temperature stabilization of silicon photonic integrated circuits. Photonic circuits are playing an increasing role in communications and computing, but they suffer from temperature dependent performance variation. Most existing techniques aimed at compensation of thermal effects rely on power hungry Joule heating. We show that integrating a liquid crystal cladding helps to minimize the effects of a temperature dependent drift. The advantage of liquid crystals lies in their high negative thermo-optic coefficients in addition to low absorption at the infrared wavelengths.

  7. High-Q microwave resonators with a photonic crystal structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schuster, M.

    2001-08-01

    The localisation of electromagnetic energy at a defect in a photonic crystal is similar to a well known effect employed to construct high-Q microwave resonators: In a whispering gallery (WHG-) mode resonator the high Q-factor is achieved by localisation of the electromagnetic field energy by total reflection inside a disk made of dielectric material. The topic of this work is to demonstrate, that WHG-like modes can exist in an air defect in a photonic crystal that extends over several lattice periods; and that a high-Q microwave resonator can be made, utilizing these resonant modes. In numerical simulations, the transmission properties of a photonic crystal structure with hexagonal lattice symmetry have been investigated with a transfer-matrix-method. The eigenmodes of a defect structure in a photonic crystal have been calculated with a quasi-3d finite element integration technique. Experimental results confirm the simulated transmission properties and show the existence of modes inside the band gap, when a defect is introduced in the crystal. Resonator measurements show that a microwave resonator can be operated with those defect modes. It was found out that the main losses of the resonator were caused by bad microwave properties of the used dielectric material and by metal losses on the top and bottom resonator walls. Furthermore, it turned out that the detection of the photonic crystal defect mode was difficult because of a lack of simulation possibilities and high housing mode density in the resonator. (orig.)

  8. Lead tungstate crystal of the ALICE Photon Spectrometer (PHOS)

    CERN Document Server

    Patrice Loïez

    2002-01-01

    A consignment of 500 lead tungstate crystals arrived at CERN from the northern Russian town of Apatity in May. Destined for the ALICE heavy-ion experiment in preparation for the Large Hadron Collider, each crystal is an 18 cm long rod with a 2.2 cm square section, and weighs some 750 g. A total of 17 000 crystals will make up the experiment's photon spectrometer.

  9. Fabrication and properties of gallium metallic photonic crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kozhevnikov, V.F.; Diwekar, M.; Kamaev, V.P.; Shi, J.; Vardeny, Z.V.

    2003-01-01

    Gallium metallic photonic crystals with 100% filling factor have been fabricated via infiltration of liquid gallium into opals of 300-nm silica spheres using a novel high pressure-high temperature technique. The electrical resistance of the Ga-opal crystals was measured at temperatures from 10 to 280 K. The data obtained show that Ga-opal crystals are metallic network with slightly smaller temperature coefficient of resistivity than that for bulk gallium. Optical reflectivity of bulk gallium, plain opal and several Ga-opal crystals were measured at photon energies from 0.3 to 6 eV. A pronounced photonic stop band in the visible spectral range was found in both the plain and Ga infiltrated opals. The reflectivity spectra also show increase in reflectivity below 0.6 eV; which we interpret as a significantly lower effective plasma frequency of the metallic mesh in the infiltrated opal compare to the plasma frequency in the pure metal

  10. Analysis of thin-film photonic crystal microstructures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pottage, John Mark

    2003-01-01

    Optical-scale microstructures containing thin-film photonic crystals (TFPCs) are modelled by transfer/scattering matrix methods, based on Fourier-series expansion of the optical Bloch eigenmodes. The majority of the TFPCs considered consist of 2D arrays of holes arranged in a triangular lattice, etched into high-index Al x Ga 1-x As and placed on a low-index oxidised substrate. These TFPCs can be easily fabricated by standard electron-beam lithography techniques. Unlike most photonic crystal devices that have been proposed, our 'intra-pass-band' TFPCs would work by exploiting the somewhat surprising properties of propagating optical Bloch waves rather than directly relying on photonic bandgaps. By numerical modelling, it is demonstrated that 2D-patterned TFPCs can support highly dispersive high-Q quasi-guided and truly-guided resonant modes, and the unusual properties of these modes are explained in terms of their Bloch-wave compositions. Modal dispersion diagrams of TFPCs, showing the loci of the resonant modes in in-plane wavevector space at fixed frequency, are calculated. These so-called 'resonance diagrams' and variants thereof, are shown to be a useful design tool for TFPC-based integrated optical components. It is suggested that TFPCs may be a viable alternative to distributed Bragg reflectors in semiconductor vertical cavity surface-emitting lasers, possessing potential advantages in terms of compactness and ease of fabrication. The high angular and spectral dispersion of the resonant modes implies that TFPCs could form the basis of a new family of compact devices for performing such functions as wavelength-division multiplexing/demultiplexing, beam-steering and frequency-selective filtering. Enhancement of nonlinear effects could also be achieved in TFPC resonators, because in them a high cavity Q-factor and a low in-plane group-velocity can be attained simultaneously. (author)

  11. Specific and ultrasensitive ciprofloxacin detection by responsive photonic crystal sensor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Rong; Wang, Yong [Department of Chemistry, School of Science, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China); Yu, Li-Ping, E-mail: lipingyu@tju.edu.cn [Department of Chemistry, School of Science, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China); State Key Laboratory of Medicinal Chemical Biology, Nankai University, Tianjin 300071 (China)

    2014-09-15

    Highlights: • Sensor was designed by integrating complexes into responsive photonic crystal. • Ternary tryptophan–zinc(II)–ciprofloxacin complexes were chosen for sensing. • Excellent sensing of ciprofloxacin was achieved in aqueous media. - Abstract: A new approach for specific and ultrasensitive measurement of ciprofloxacin has been developed by integrating ternary complexes into responsive photonic crystal (RPC). Tryptophan was first immobilized within the polyacrylamide hydrogel substrates of RPC. The determination of ciprofloxacin was via the existence of zinc(II) ions that function as a ‘bridge’ to form specific tryptophan–zinc(II)–ciprofloxacin complexes step by step, which resulted in a stepwise red-shift of the diffraction wavelength. A maximum wavelength shift from 798 to 870 nm for ciprofloxacin was observed when the RPC film was immersed in 10{sup −4} M ciprofloxacin. A linear relationship has been obtained between the Δλ of diffraction peak and logarithm of ciprofloxacin concentration at pH 5.0 in the range of 10{sup −10} to 10{sup −4} M. And the least detectable concentration in present work is about 5 × 10{sup −11} M. The results demonstrated that the as-designed ternary complexes-based RPC sensor exhibited high sensitivity, satisfactory specificity and excellent recoverability for sensing of ciprofloxacin in aqueous media and were validated by detecting ciprofloxacin in the eye-drop sample.

  12. Chromatic dispersion of liquid crystal infiltrated capillary tubes and photonic crystal fibers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Per Dalgaard; Lægsgaard, Jesper; Bang, Ole

    2006-01-01

    We consider chromatic dispersion of capillary tubes and photonic crystal fibers infiltrated with liquid crystals. A perturbative scheme for inclusion of material dispersion of both liquid crystal and the surrounding waveguide material is derived. The method is used to calculate the chromatic...

  13. Nanostructured Porous Silicon Photonic Crystal for Applications in the Infrared

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Recio-Sánchez

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In the last decades great interest has been devoted to photonic crystals aiming at the creation of novel devices which can control light propagation. In the present work, two-dimensional (2D and three-dimensional (3D devices based on nanostructured porous silicon have been fabricated. 2D devices consist of a square mesh of 2 μm wide porous silicon veins, leaving 5×5 μm square air holes. 3D structures share the same design although multilayer porous silicon veins are used instead, providing an additional degree of modulation. These devices are fabricated from porous silicon single layers (for 2D structures or multilayers (for 3D structures, opening air holes in them by means of 1 KeV argon ion bombardment through the appropriate copper grids. For 2D structures, a complete photonic band gap for TE polarization is found in the thermal infrared range. For 3D structures, there are no complete band gaps, although several new partial gaps do exist in different high-symmetry directions. The simulation results suggest that these structures are very promising candidates for the development of low-cost photonic devices for their use in the thermal infrared range.

  14. Wavelength conversion, time demultiplexing and multicasting based on cross-phase modulation and four-wave mixing in dispersion-flattened highly nonlinear photonic crystal fiber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hui, Zhan-Qiang; Zhang, Jian-Guo

    2012-01-01

    We propose the use of cross-phase modulation (XPM) and four-wave mixing (FWM) in dispersion-flattened highly nonlinear photonic crystal fibers (HNL-PCFs) to implement the functionalities of wavelength conversion, simultaneous time demultiplexing and wavelength multicasting in optical time-division multiplexing (OTDM) systems. The experiments on wavelength conversion at 80 Gbit s −1 and OTDM demultiplexing from 80 to 10 Gbit s −1 with wavelength multicasting of two channels are successfully demonstrated to validate the proposed scheme, which are carried out by using two segments of dispersion-flattened HNL-PCFs with lengths of 100 and 50 m, respectively. Moreover, the bit error rate (BER) performance is also measured. The results show that our designed system can achieve a power penalty of less than 4.6 dB for two multicasting channels with a 24 nm wavelength span at the BER of 10 −9 when compared with the 10 Gbit/s back-to-back measurement. The proposed system is transparent to bit rate since only an ultrafast third-order nonlinear effect is used. The resulting configuration is compact, robust and reliable, benefiting from the use of dispersion-flattened HNL-PCFs with short lengths. This also makes the proposed system more flexible in the operational wavelengths than those based on dispersion-shifted fibers and traditional highly nonlinear fibers. (paper)

  15. An All-Fiber Gas Raman Light Source Based on a Hydrogen-Filled Hollow-Core Photonic Crystal Fiber Pumped with a Q-Switched Fiber Laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Xiao-Dong; Mao Qing-He; Sun Qing; Zhao Jia-Sheng; Li Pan; Feng Su-Juan

    2011-01-01

    A gas Raman light source based on a H 2 -filled hollow-core photonic-crystal-fiber cell with a Q-switched fiber laser followed by a fiber amplifier as the Raman pump source is demonstrated. The Stokes frequency-shift lasing line is observed at 1135.7 nm with the Q-switched pump pulses at 1064.7 nm. Our experimental results show that the generated Stokes pulse is much narrower than the pump pulse, and the generated Stokes pulse duration is increased with the single pulse energy for the same duration pump pulses. For the 125 ns pump pulses with a repetition rate of 5 kHz, the Raman threshold pump energy and the conversion efficiency at the Raman threshold are 2.13 μJ and 9.82%. Moreover, by choosing narrower pump pulses, the Raman threshold pump energy may be reduced and the conversion efficiency may be improved. (fundamental areas of phenomenology(including applications))

  16. Designing analysis of the polarization beam splitter in two communication bands based on a gold-filled dual-core photonic crystal fiber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fan Zhen-Kai; Li Shu-Guang; Fan Yu-Qiu; Zhang Wan; An Guo-Wen; Bao Ya-Jie

    2014-01-01

    We design a novel kind of polarization beam splitter based on a gold-filled dual-core photonic crystal fiber (DC-PCF). Owing to filling with two gold wires in this DC-PCF, its coupling characteristics can be changed greatly by the second-order surface plasmon polariton (SPP) and the resonant coupling between the surface plasmon modes and the fiber-core guided modes can enhance the directional power transfer in the two fiber-cores. Numerical results by using the finite element method show the extinction ratio at the wavethlengths of 1.327 μm and 1.55 μm can reach −58 dB and −60 dB and the bandwidths as the extinction ratio better than −12 dB are about 54 nm and 47 nm, respectively. Compared with the gold-unfilled DC-PCF, a 1.746-mm-long gold-filled DC-PCF is better applied to the polarization beam splitter in the two communication bands of λ = 1.327 μm and 1.55 μm. (electromagnetism, optics, acoustics, heat transfer, classical mechanics, and fluid dynamics)

  17. Photonic crystal ring resonator-based four-channel dense wavelength division multiplexing demultiplexer on silicon on insulator platform: design and analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sreenivasulu, Tupakula; Bhowmick, Kaustav; Samad, Shafeek A.; Yadunath, Thamerassery Illam R.; Badrinarayana, Tarimala; Hegde, Gopalkrishna; Srinivas, Talabattula

    2018-04-01

    A micro/nanofabrication feasible compact photonic crystal (PC) ring-resonator-based channel drop filter has been designed and analyzed for operation in C and L bands of communication window. The four-channel demultiplexer consists of ring resonators of holes in two-dimensional PC slab. The proposed assembly design of dense wavelength division multiplexing setup is shown to achieve optimal quality factor, without altering the lattice parameters or resonator size or inclusion of scattering holes. Transmission characteristics are analyzed using the three-dimensional finite-difference time-domain simulation approach. The radiation loss of the ring resonator was minimized by forced cancelation of radiation fields by fine-tuning the air holes inside the ring resonator. An average cross talk of -34 dB has been achieved between the adjacent channels maintaining an average quality factor of 5000. Demultiplexing is achieved by engineering only the air holes inside the ring, which makes it a simple and tolerant design from the fabrication perspective. Also, the device footprint of 500 μm2 on silicon on insulator platform makes it easy to fabricate the device using e-beam lithography technique.

  18. Optimization of planar self-collimating photonic crystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rumpf, Raymond C; Pazos, Javier J

    2013-07-01

    Self-collimation in photonic crystals has received a lot of attention in the literature, partly due to recent interest in silicon photonics, yet no performance metrics have been proposed. This paper proposes a figure of merit (FOM) for self-collimation and outlines a methodical approach for calculating it. Performance metrics include bandwidth, angular acceptance, strength, and an overall FOM. Two key contributions of this work include the performance metrics and identifying that the optimum frequency for self-collimation is not at the inflection point. The FOM is used to optimize a planar photonic crystal composed of a square array of cylinders. Conclusions are drawn about how the refractive indices and fill fraction of the lattice impact each of the performance metrics. The optimization is demonstrated by simulating two spatially variant self-collimating photonic crystals, where one has a high FOM and the other has a low FOM. This work gives optical designers tremendous insight into how to design and optimize robust self-collimating photonic crystals, which promises many applications in silicon photonics and integrated optics.

  19. Dispersive photonic crystals from the plane wave method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guevara-Cabrera, E.; Palomino-Ovando, M.A. [Facultad de Ciencias Físico Matemáticas, Benemérita Universidad Autónoma de Puebla, Apdo. Post. 165, Puebla, Pue. 72000, México (Mexico); Flores-Desirena, B., E-mail: bflores@fcfm.buap.mx [Facultad de Ciencias Físico Matemáticas, Benemérita Universidad Autónoma de Puebla, Apdo. Post. 165, Puebla, Pue. 72000, México (Mexico); Gaspar-Armenta, J.A. [Departamento de Investigación en Física de la Universidad de Sonora Apdo, Post 5-088, Hermosillo Sonora 83190, México (Mexico)

    2016-03-01

    Nowadays photonic crystals are widely used in many different applications. One of the most used methods to compute their band structure is the plane wave method (PWM). However, it can only be applied directly to non-dispersive media and be extended to systems with a few model dielectric functions. We explore an extension of the PWM to photonic crystals containing dispersive materials, that solves an eigenvalue equation for the Bloch wave vectors. First we compare our calculation with analytical results for one dimensional photonic crystals containing Si using experimental values of its optical parameters, and obtainig very well agreement, even for the spectrum region with strong absorption. Then, using the same method, we computed the band structure for a two dimensional photonic crystal without absorption, formed by an square array of MgO cylinders in air. The optical parameters for MgO were modeled with the Lorentz dielectric function. Finally, we studied an array of MgO cylinders in a metal, using Drude model without absorption, for the metal dielectric function. For this last case, we study the gap–midgap ratio as a function of the filling fraction for both the square and triangular lattice. The gap–midgap ratio is larger for the triangular lattice, with a maximum value of 10% for a filling fraction of 0.6. Our results show that the method can be applied to dispersive materials, and then to a wide range of applications where photonic crystals can be used.

  20. Terahertz detection of alcohol using a photonic crystal fiber sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sultana, Jakeya; Islam, Md Saiful; Ahmed, Kawsar; Dinovitser, Alex; Ng, Brian W-H; Abbott, Derek

    2018-04-01

    Ethanol is widely used in chemical industrial processes as well as in the food and beverage industry. Therefore, methods of detecting alcohol must be accurate, precise, and reliable. In this content, a novel Zeonex-based photonic crystal fiber (PCF) has been modeled and analyzed for ethanol detection in terahertz frequency range. A finite-element-method-based simulation of the PCF sensor shows a high relative sensitivity of 68.87% with negligible confinement loss of 7.79×10 -12    cm -1 at 1 THz frequency and x -polarization mode. Moreover, the core power fraction, birefringence, effective material loss, dispersion, and numerical aperture are also determined in the terahertz frequency range. Owing to the simple fiber structure, existing fabrication methods are feasible. With the outstanding waveguiding properties, the proposed sensor can potentially be used in ethanol detection, as well as polarization-preserving applications of terahertz waves.