WorldWideScience

Sample records for photon fragmentation function

  1. First Measurement of the Quark-to-Photon Fragmentation Function

    CERN Document Server

    Thompson, J

    1995-01-01

    Earlier measurements at LEP of isolated hard photons in hadronic $Z$ decays attributed to radiation from primary quark pairs, have been extended in the ALEPH experiment to include hard photon production {\\em inside} hadron jets. Events are selected where all particles combine democratically to form hadron jets, one of which contains a photon with a fractional energy $z\\geq 0.7$. After statistical subtraction of non-prompt photons, the quark- to-photon fragmentation function, $D(z)$, is extracted directly from the measured prompt production rate. By taking into account the perturbative contributions to $D(z)$ obtained from an $\\cal{O}(\\alpha \\alpha_S)$ QCD calculation, the unknown non-perturbative component of $D(z)$ is determined at high $z$. This measurement is compared with an earlier theoretical parametrisation widely used to determine the level of quark bremsstrahlung present in prompt photon production at the hadron colliders.

  2. First measurement of the quark-to-photon fragmentation function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buskulic, D.; Casper, D.; Bonis, I. de

    1996-01-01

    Earlier measurements at LEP of isolated hard photons in hadronic Z decays, attributed to radiation from primary quark pairs, have been extended in the ALEPH experiment to include hard photon production inside hadron jets. Events are selected where all particles combine democratically to form hadron jets, one of which contains a photon with a fractional energy z ≥ 0.7. After statistical subtraction of non-prompt photons, the quark-to-photon fragmentation function, D(z), is extracted directly from the measured 2-jet rate. By taking into account the perturbative contributions to D(z) obtained from an O(αα S ) QCD calculation, the unknown non-perturbative component of D(z) is then determined at high z. Provided due account is taken of hadronization effects near z = 1, a good description of the other event topologies is then found. (orig.)

  3. Measurement of the quark to photon fragmentation function through the inclusive production of prompt photons in hadronic $Z^0$ decays

    CERN Document Server

    Ackerstaff, K; Allison, J; Altekamp, N; Anderson, K J; Anderson, S; Arcelli, S; Asai, S; Axen, D; Azuelos, Georges; Ball, A H; Barberio, E; Barlow, R J; Bartoldus, R; Batley, J R; Baumann, S; Bechtluft, J; Beeston, C; Behnke, T; Bell, A N; Bell, K W; Bella, G; Bentvelsen, S; Bethke, S; Biebel, O; Biguzzi, A; Bird, S D; Blobel, Volker; Bloodworth, I J; Bloomer, J E; Bobinski, M; Bock, P; Bonacorsi, D; Boutemeur, M; Bouwens, B T; Braibant, S; Brigliadori, L; Brown, R M; Burckhart, H J; Burgard, C; Bürgin, R; Capiluppi, P; Carnegie, R K; Carter, A A; Carter, J R; Chang, C Y; Charlton, D G; Chrisman, D; Clarke, P E L; Cohen, I; Conboy, J E; Cooke, O C; Cuffiani, M; Dado, S; Dallapiccola, C; Dallavalle, G M; Davis, R; De Jong, S; del Pozo, L A; Desch, K; Dienes, B; Dixit, M S; do Couto e Silva, E; Doucet, M; Duchovni, E; Duckeck, G; Duerdoth, I P; Eatough, D; Edwards, J E G; Estabrooks, P G; Evans, H G; Evans, M; Fabbri, F; Fanti, M; Faust, A A; Fiedler, F; Fierro, M; Fischer, H M; Fleck, I; Folman, R; Fong, D G; Foucher, M; Fürtjes, A; Futyan, D I; Gagnon, P; Gary, J W; Gascon, J; Gascon-Shotkin, S M; Geddes, N I; Geich-Gimbel, C; Geralis, T; Giacomelli, G; Giacomelli, P; Giacomelli, R; Gibson, V; Gibson, W R; Gingrich, D M; Glenzinski, D; Goldberg, J; Goodrick, M J; Gorn, W; Grandi, C; Gross, E; Grunhaus, J; Gruwé, M; Hajdu, C; Hanson, G G; Hansroul, M; Hapke, M; Hargrove, C K; Hart, P A; Hartmann, C; Hauschild, M; Hawkes, C M; Hawkings, R; Hemingway, R J; Herndon, M; Herten, G; Heuer, R D; Hildreth, M D; Hill, J C; Hillier, S J; Hobson, P R; Homer, R J; Honma, A K; Horváth, D; Hossain, K R; Howard, R; Hüntemeyer, P; Hutchcroft, D E; Igo-Kemenes, P; Imrie, D C; Ingram, M R; Ishii, K; Jawahery, A; Jeffreys, P W; Jeremie, H; Jimack, M; Joly, A; Jones, C R; Jones, G; Jones, M; Jost, U; Jovanovic, P; Junk, T R; Karlen, D; Kartvelishvili, V; Kawagoe, K; Kawamoto, T; Kayal, P I; Keeler, R K; Kellogg, R G; Kennedy, B W; Kirk, J; Klier, A; Kluth, S; Kobayashi, T; Kobel, M; Koetke, D S; Kokott, T P; Kolrep, M; Komamiya, S; Kress, T; Krieger, P; Von Krogh, J; Kyberd, P; Lafferty, G D; Lahmann, R; Lai, W P; Lanske, D; Lauber, J; Lautenschlager, S R; Layter, J G; Lazic, D; Lee, A M; Lefebvre, E; Lellouch, D; Letts, J; Levinson, L; Lloyd, S L; Loebinger, F K; Long, G D; Losty, M J; Ludwig, J; Macchiolo, A; MacPherson, A; Mannelli, M; Marcellini, S; Markus, C; Martin, A J; Martin, J P; Martínez, G; Mashimo, T; Mättig, P; McDonald, W J; McKenna, J; McKigney, E A; McMahon, T J; McPherson, R A; Meijers, F; Menke, S; Merritt, F S; Mes, H; Meyer, J; Michelini, A; Mikenberg, G; Miller, D J; Mincer, A; Mir, R; Mohr, W; Montanari, A; Mori, T; Morii, M; Müller, U; Mihara, S; Nagai, K; Nakamura, I; Neal, H A; Nellen, B; Nisius, R; O'Neale, S W; Oakham, F G; Odorici, F; Ögren, H O; Oh, A; Oldershaw, N J; Oreglia, M J; Orito, S; Plinks, J; Pásztor, G; Pater, J R; Patrick, G N; Patt, J; Pearce, M J; Pérez-Ochoa, R; Petzold, S; Pfeifenschneider, P; Pilcher, J E; Pinfold, J L; Plane, D E; Poffenberger, P; Poli, B; Posthaus, A; Rees, D L; Rigby, D; Robertson, S; Robins, S A; Rodning, N; Roney, J M; Rooke, A M; Ros, E; Rossi, A M; Routenburg, P; Rozen, Y; Runge, K; Runólfsson, O; Ruppel, U; Rust, D R; Rylko, R; Sachs, K; Saeki, T; Sarkisyan-Grinbaum, E; Sbarra, C; Schaile, A D; Schaile, O; Scharf, F; Scharff-Hansen, P; Schenk, P; Schieck, J; Schleper, P; Schmitt, B; Schmitt, S; Schöning, A; Schröder, M; Schultz-Coulon, H C; Schumacher, M; Schwick, C; Scott, W G; Shears, T G; Shen, B C; Shepherd-Themistocleous, C H; Sherwood, P; Siroli, G P; Sittler, A; Skillman, A; Skuja, A; Smith, A M; Snow, G A; Sobie, R J; Söldner-Rembold, S; Springer, R W; Sproston, M; Stephens, K; Steuerer, J; Stockhausen, o B; Stoll, K; Strom, D; Szymanski, P; Tafirout, R; Talbot, S D; Tanaka, S; Taras, P; Tarem, S; Teuscher, R; Thiergen, M; Thomson, M A; Von Törne, E; Towers, S; Trigger, I; Trócsányi, Z L; Tsur, E; Turcot, A S; Turner-Watson, M F; Utzat, P; Van Kooten, R; Verzocchi, M; Vikas, P; Vokurka, E H; Voss, H; Wckerle, F; Wagner, A; Ward, C P; Ward, D R; Watkins, P M; Watson, A T; Watson, a N K; Wells, P S; Wermes, N; White, J S; Wilkens, B; Wilson, G W; Wilson, J A; Wolf, G; Wyatt, T R; Yamashita, S; Yekutieli, G; Zacek, V; Zer-Zion, D

    1998-01-01

    The inclusive production of prompt photons with energy above 10 GeV is measured using the OPAL detector in hadronic Z^0 decays at LEP. In contrast to previous measurements, the prompt photons were not required to be isolated. The production rate and energy spectrum are found to be in agreement with QCD predictions for the quark-to-photon fragmentation function.

  4. Geometrical scaling of jet fragmentation photons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hattori, Koichi, E-mail: koichi.hattori@riken.jp [RIKEN BNL Research Center, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton NY 11973 (United States); Theoretical Research Division, Nishina Center, RIKEN, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); McLerran, Larry, E-mail: mclerran@bnl.gov [RIKEN BNL Research Center, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton NY 11973 (United States); Physics Dept., Bdg. 510A, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY-11973 (United States); Physics Dept., China Central Normal University, Wuhan (China); Schenke, Björn, E-mail: bschenke@bnl.gov [Physics Dept., Bdg. 510A, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY-11973 (United States)

    2016-12-15

    We discuss jet fragmentation photons in ultrarelativistic heavy-ion collisions. We argue that, if the jet distribution satisfies geometrical scaling and an anisotropic spectrum, these properties are transferred to photons during the jet fragmentation.

  5. Photon structure function - theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bardeen, W.A.

    1984-12-01

    The theoretical status of the photon structure function is reviewed. Particular attention is paid to the hadronic mixing problem and the ability of perturbative QCD to make definitive predictions for the photon structure function. 11 references

  6. Photon wave function

    OpenAIRE

    Bialynicki-Birula, Iwo

    2005-01-01

    Photon wave function is a controversial concept. Controversies stem from the fact that photon wave functions can not have all the properties of the Schroedinger wave functions of nonrelativistic wave mechanics. Insistence on those properties that, owing to peculiarities of photon dynamics, cannot be rendered, led some physicists to the extreme opinion that the photon wave function does not exist. I reject such a fundamentalist point of view in favor of a more pragmatic approach. In my view, t...

  7. Photon structure function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bardeen, W.A.

    1980-11-01

    Theoretical understanding of the photon structure function is reviewed. As an illustration of the pointlike component, the parton model is briefly discussed. However, the systematic study of the photon structure function is presented through the framework of the operator product expansion. Perturbative QCD is used as the theoretical basis for the calculation of leading contributions to the operator product expansion. The influence of higher order QCD effects on these results is discussed. Recent results for the polarized structure functions are discussed

  8. Photon-hadron fragmentation: theoretical situation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peschanski, R.

    1983-07-01

    Using a selection of new experimental results models of hadronic fragmentation and their phenomenological comparison are presented. Indeed a convenient theory of hadronic fragmentation -for instance based on Q.C.D.- does not exist: low transverse momentum fragmentation involves the badly known hadronic long-range forces. Models should clarify the situation in the prospect of an eventual future theory

  9. Photon strength functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergqvist, I.

    1976-01-01

    Methods for extracting photon strength functions are briefly discussed. We follow the Brink-Axel approach to relate the strength functions to the giant resonances observed in photonuclear work and summarize the available data on the E1, E2 and M1 resonances. Some experimental and theoretical problems are outlined. (author)

  10. Photon-photon collisions and photon structure functions at LEP

    CERN Document Server

    Patt, J

    2000-01-01

    The present knowledge of the structure of the photon based on measurements of photon structure functions is discussed. This review covers recent results on QED structure functions and on the hadronic structure function F/sub 2//sup gamma /. (13 refs).

  11. Recent progress on perturbative QCD fragmentation functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheung, K.

    1995-05-01

    The recent development of perturbative QCD (PQCD) fragmentation functions has strong impact on quarkonium production. I shall summarize B c meson production based on these PQCD fragmentation functions, as well as, the highlights of some recent activities on applying these PQCD fragmentation functions to explain anomalous J/ψ and ψ' production at the Tevatron. Finally, I discuss a fragmentation model based on the PQCD fragmentation functions for heavy quarks fragmenting into heavy-light mesons

  12. Inclusive electroproduction of hadrons in the fragmentation region of a virtual photon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiselev, A.V.; Petrov, V.A.; Taranov, A.Yu.

    1978-01-01

    The purpose of the article is to use Jost-Leh'ann-Dyson representation for asymptotic behaviour studying of adron deep-non-elastic electrobirth inclusive process in a current fragmentation field. It is shown that inclusive electrobirth process in the field of vertual photon fragmentation posesses automodel hehaviour with logarithm presision in case when spectral functions have polynominal asympthotics at lambdasub(1,2)sup(2)→infinity

  13. Evolution equations for extended dihadron fragmentation functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ceccopieri, F.A.; Bacchetta, A.

    2007-03-01

    We consider dihadron fragmentation functions, describing the fragmentation of a parton in two unpolarized hadrons, and in particular extended dihadron fragmentation functions, explicitly dependent on the invariant mass, M h , of the hadron pair. We first rederive the known results on M h -integrated functions using Jet Calculus techniques, and then we present the evolution equations for extended dihadron fragmentation functions. Our results are relevant for the analysis of experimental measurements of two-particle-inclusive processes at different energies. (orig.)

  14. Fragmentation functions approach in pQCD fragmentation phenomena

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rolli, S.

    1996-07-01

    Next-to-leading order parton fragmentation functions into light mesons are presented. They have been extracted from real and simulated e + e - data and used to predict inclusive single particle distributions at different machines

  15. Experimental studies on the heavy quark fragmentation functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bethke, S.

    1985-07-01

    The influence of perturbative QCD gluon radiation and initial state photon radiation on the experimental determination of the heavy quark fragmentation functions is studied in order to extract , the mean of the charm fragmentation function, from the recent measurements of inclusive Dsup(*) production in e + e - annihilation processes. The result is =0.71+-0.014+-0.03, which is scale invariant in the c.m. energy range of 10 GeV to 34 GeV. This result is interpreted in terms of kinematical calculations on heavy quark fragmentation and also compared with results from ν-N-reactions and from investigations of inclusive lepton production in e + e - annihilation. Results of a QCD shower model are in good agreement with the data and offer an alternative description of phenomenological fragmentation functions. (orig.)

  16. Spin dependent photon structure functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manohar, A.V.; Massachusetts Inst. of Tech., Cambridge

    1989-01-01

    Spin dependent structure functions of the photon are studied using the operator product expansion. There are new twist-two photon and gluon operators which contribute. The structure functions g 1 and F 3 are calculable in QCD, but differ from their free quark values. The corrections to F 3 are suppressed by 1/log Q 2 . The calculation is an extension of the analysis of Witten for the spin averaged structure functions F 1 and F 2 . (orig.)

  17. Medium modification of fragmentation functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nezza, Pasquale Di

    2007-01-01

    Deep Inelastic Scattering is the cleanest process to investigate the space-time evolution of the hadronization. This was studied by the influence of the nuclear medium on lepto-production of hadrons at the Hermes experiment at DESY in semi-inclusive DIS of 27.6 GeV positrons off deuterium, nitrogen, krypton and xenon targets. The differential multiplicity for heavy targets relative to that of deuterium has been measured for the first time for various identified hadrons (φ + , φ - , φ 0 , k + , k - , p and anti-p) as a function of the virtual photon energy ?, the fraction z of this energy transferred to the hadron, and the hadron transverse momentum squared p 2 t . The distribution of the hadron transverse momentum is broadened towards high p 2 t in the nuclear medium, in a manner resembling the Cronin effect observed in collisions of heavy ions and protons with nuclei. The pt -broadening results give also important information about the pre-hadron formation time. Moreover, by studying the hadron attenuation of the leading and sub-leading hadrons, we report, for the first time, the possibility to better understand the hadron absorption and the energy loss contributions to the attenuation mechanism. (Author)

  18. Momentum sum rules for fragmentation functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meissner, S.; Metz, A.; Pitonyak, D.

    2010-01-01

    Momentum sum rules for fragmentation functions are considered. In particular, we give a general proof of the Schaefer-Teryaev sum rule for the transverse momentum dependent Collins function. We also argue that corresponding sum rules for related fragmentation functions do not exist. Our model-independent analysis is supplemented by calculations in a simple field-theoretical model.

  19. Nondiffraction photoproduction of vector mesons and the photon structure function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Badalyan, R.G.; Gulkanyan, H.R.

    1988-01-01

    In the framework of the recombination model of hadron production a self-consistent description of the available data on the inclusive spectra of the nondiffraction photoproduction of vector mesons in the fragmentation region of photons at high energies is obtained. The parameters of parton distribution in the hadron component of a photon are estimated and its structure is compared with the measurements of the photon structure function in γγ-interactions at low Q 2 . 15 refs.; 2 figs.; 1 tab

  20. The photon structure function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berger, C.

    1984-01-01

    In principle we have to distinguish between three cases: In no-tag experiments, none of the outgoing leptons e + e - is detected. The photon flux is completely dominated by transversely polarized photons, which are practically on-mass-shell. In single-tag experiments, either the outgoing e - or e + is detected in a forward spectrometer. Sometimes the tagging information is only used for separating a multihadronic twophoton final state from e + e - annihilation states. On the other hand, the information from the forward detectors can be used to investigate the Q 2 behaviour of the cross-section. A combination of tagging on one side with antitagging on the other allows an easy interpretation of the results in terms of electron scattering off a real photon target. In double-tag experiments, both outgoing leptons are measured. In principle, the full kinematical structure of the process can be studied, but we are still a long way from starting to tackle this difficult task

  1. Dihadron fragmentation function and its evolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Majumder, A.; Wang Xinnian

    2004-01-01

    Dihadron fragmentation functions and their evolution are studied in the process of e + e - annihilation. Under the collinear factorization approximation and facilitated by the cut-vertex technique, the two hadron inclusive cross section at leading order is shown to factorize into a short distance parton cross section and a long distance dihadron fragmentation function. We provide the definition of such a dihadron fragmentation function in terms of parton matrix elements and derive its Dokshitzer-Gribov-Lipatov-Altarelli-Parisi evolution equation at leading log. The evolution equation for the nonsinglet quark fragmentation function is solved numerically with a simple ansatz for the initial condition and results are presented for cases of physical interest

  2. Baculovirus display of functional antibody Fab fragments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takada, Shinya; Ogawa, Takafumi; Matsui, Kazusa; Suzuki, Tasuku; Katsuda, Tomohisa; Yamaji, Hideki

    2015-08-01

    The generation of a recombinant baculovirus that displays antibody Fab fragments on the surface was investigated. A recombinant baculovirus was engineered so that the heavy chain (Hc; Fd fragment) of a mouse Fab fragment was expressed as a fusion to the N-terminus of baculovirus gp64, while the light chain of the Fab fragment was simultaneously expressed as a secretory protein. Following infection of Sf9 insect cells with the recombinant baculovirus, the culture supernatant was analyzed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay using antigen-coated microplates and either an anti-mouse IgG or an anti-gp64 antibody. A relatively strong signal was obtained in each case, showing antigen-binding activity in the culture supernatant. In western blot analysis of the culture supernatant using the anti-gp64 antibody, specific protein bands were detected at an electrophoretic mobility that coincided with the molecular weight of the Hc-gp64 fusion protein as well as that of gp64. Flow cytometry using a fluorescein isothiocyanate-conjugated antibody specific to mouse IgG successfully detected the Fab fragments on the surface of the Sf9 cells. These results suggest that immunologically functional antibody Fab fragments can be displayed on the surface of baculovirus particles, and that a fluorescence-activated cell sorter with a fluorescence-labeled antigen can isolate baculoviruses displaying specific Fab fragments. This successful baculovirus display of antibody Fab fragments may offer a novel approach for the efficient selection of specific antibodies.

  3. Phenomenological relation between distribution and fragmentation functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma Boqiang; Schmidt, Ivan; Soffer, Jacques; Yang Jianjun

    2002-01-01

    We study the relation between the quark distribution function q(x) and the fragmentation function D q (z) based on a general form D q (x)=C(z)z α q(z) for valence and sea quarks. By adopting two known parametrizations of quark distributions for the proton, we find three simple options for the fragmentation functions that can provide a good description of the available experimental data on proton production in e + e - inelastic annihilation. These three options support the revised Gribov-Lipatov relation D q (z)=zq(z) at z→1, as an approximate relation for the connection between distribution and fragmentation functions. The three options differ in the sea contributions and lead to distinct predictions for antiproton production in the reaction p+p→p-bar+X, thus they are distinguishable in future experiments at RHIC-BNL

  4. Observation of medium induced modifications of jet fragmentation in PbPb collisions using isolated-photon-tagged jets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sirunyan, Albert M; et al.

    2018-01-15

    Measurements of fragmentation functions for jets associated with an isolated photon are presented for the first time in pp and PbPb collisions. The analysis uses data collected with the CMS detector at the CERN LHC at a nucleon-nucleon center-of-mass energy of 5.02 TeV. Fragmentation functions are obtained for jets with p$_\\mathrm{T}^\\text{jet} >$ 30 GeV in events containing an isolated photon with p$_\\mathrm{T}^\\gamma>$ 60 GeV, using charged tracks with transverse momentum p$_\\mathrm{T}^\\text{trk} >$ 1 GeV in a cone around the jet axis. The association with an isolated photon constrains the initial p$_\\mathrm{T}$ and azimuthal angle of the parton whose shower produced the jet. For central PbPb collisions, modifications of the jet fragmentation functions are observed when compared to those measured in pp collisions, while no significant differences are found in the 50% most peripheral collisions. Jets in central PbPb events show an excess (depletion) of low (high) p$_\\mathrm{T}$ particles, with a transition around 3 GeV.

  5. Observation of medium induced modifications of jet fragmentation in PbPb collisions using isolated-photon-tagged jets

    CERN Document Server

    Sirunyan, Albert M; CMS Collaboration; Adam, Wolfgang; Ambrogi, Federico; Asilar, Ece; Bergauer, Thomas; Brandstetter, Johannes; Brondolin, Erica; Dragicevic, Marko; Erö, Janos; Escalante Del Valle, Alberto; Flechl, Martin; Friedl, Markus; Fruehwirth, Rudolf; Ghete, Vasile Mihai; Grossmann, Johannes; Hrubec, Josef; Jeitler, Manfred; König, Axel; Krammer, Natascha; Krätschmer, Ilse; Liko, Dietrich; Madlener, Thomas; Mikulec, Ivan; Pree, Elias; Rad, Navid; Rohringer, Herbert; Schieck, Jochen; Schöfbeck, Robert; Spanring, Markus; Spitzbart, Daniel; Taurok, Anton; Waltenberger, Wolfgang; Wittmann, Johannes; Wulz, Claudia-Elisabeth; Zarucki, Mateusz; Chekhovsky, Vladimir; Mossolov, Vladimir; Suarez Gonzalez, Juan; De Wolf, Eddi A; Di Croce, Davide; Janssen, Xavier; Lauwers, Jasper; Van De Klundert, Merijn; Van Haevermaet, Hans; Van Mechelen, Pierre; Van Remortel, Nick; Abu Zeid, Shimaa; Blekman, Freya; D'Hondt, Jorgen; De Bruyn, Isabelle; De Clercq, Jarne; Deroover, Kevin; Flouris, Giannis; Lontkovskyi, Denys; Lowette, Steven; Marchesini, Ivan; Moortgat, Seth; Moreels, Lieselotte; Python, Quentin; Skovpen, Kirill; Tavernier, Stefaan; Van Doninck, Walter; Van Mulders, Petra; Van Parijs, Isis; Beghin, Diego; Bilin, Bugra; Brun, Hugues; Clerbaux, Barbara; De Lentdecker, Gilles; Delannoy, Hugo; Dorney, Brian; Fasanella, Giuseppe; Favart, Laurent; Goldouzian, Reza; Grebenyuk, Anastasia; Kalsi, Amandeep Kaur; Lenzi, Thomas; Luetic, Jelena; Maerschalk, Thierry; Marinov, Andrey; Seva, Tomislav; Starling, Elizabeth; Vander Velde, Catherine; Vanlaer, Pascal; Vannerom, David; Yonamine, Ryo; Zenoni, Florian; Cornelis, Tom; Dobur, Didar; Fagot, Alexis; Gul, Muhammad; Khvastunov, Illia; Poyraz, Deniz; Roskas, Christos; Salva Diblen, Sinem; Trocino, Daniele; Tytgat, Michael; Verbeke, Willem; Vit, Martina; Zaganidis, Nicolas; Bakhshiansohi, Hamed; Bondu, Olivier; Brochet, Sébastien; Bruno, Giacomo; Caputo, Claudio; Caudron, Adrien; David, Pieter; De Visscher, Simon; Delaere, Christophe; Delcourt, Martin; Francois, Brieuc; Giammanco, Andrea; Komm, Matthias; Krintiras, Georgios; Lemaitre, Vincent; Magitteri, Alessio; Mertens, Alexandre; Musich, Marco; Piotrzkowski, Krzysztof; Quertenmont, Loic; Saggio, Alessia; Vidal Marono, Miguel; Wertz, Sébastien; Zobec, Joze; Aldá Júnior, Walter Luiz; Alves, Fábio Lúcio; Alves, Gilvan; Brito, Lucas; Correia Silva, Gilson; Hensel, Carsten; Moraes, Arthur; Pol, Maria Elena; Rebello Teles, Patricia; Belchior Batista Das Chagas, Ewerton; Carvalho, Wagner; Chinellato, Jose; Coelho, Eduardo; Melo Da Costa, Eliza; Da Silveira, Gustavo Gil; De Jesus Damiao, Dilson; Fonseca De Souza, Sandro; Huertas Guativa, Lina Milena; Malbouisson, Helena; Melo De Almeida, Miqueias; Mora Herrera, Clemencia; Mundim, Luiz; Nogima, Helio; Sanchez Rosas, Luis Junior; Santoro, Alberto; Sznajder, Andre; Thiel, Mauricio; Tonelli Manganote, Edmilson José; Torres Da Silva De Araujo, Felipe; Vilela Pereira, Antonio; Ahuja, Sudha; Bernardes, Cesar Augusto; Tomei, Thiago; De Moraes Gregores, Eduardo; Mercadante, Pedro G; Novaes, Sergio F; Padula, Sandra; Romero Abad, David; Ruiz Vargas, José Cupertino; Aleksandrov, Aleksandar; Hadjiiska, Roumyana; Iaydjiev, Plamen; Misheva, Milena; Rodozov, Mircho; Shopova, Mariana; Sultanov, Georgi; Dimitrov, Anton; Litov, Leander; Pavlov, Borislav; Petkov, Peicho; Fang, Wenxing; Gao, Xuyang; Yuan, Li; Ahmad, Muhammad; Bian, Jian-Guo; Chen, Guo-Ming; Chen, He-Sheng; Chen, Mingshui; Chen, Ye; Jiang, Chun-Hua; Leggat, Duncan; Liao, Hongbo; Liu, Zhenan; Romeo, Francesco; Shaheen, Sarmad Masood; Spiezia, Aniello; Tao, Junquan; Wang, Chunjie; Wang, Zheng; Yazgan, Efe; Zhang, Huaqiao; Zhao, Jingzhou; Ban, Yong; Chen, Geng; Li, Jing; Li, Qiang; Liu, Shuai; Mao, Yajun; Qian, Si-Jin; Wang, Dayong; Xu, Zijun; Zhang, Fengwangdong; Wang, Yi; Avila, Carlos; Cabrera, Andrés; Carrillo Montoya, Camilo Andres; Chaparro Sierra, Luisa Fernanda; Florez, Carlos; González Hernández, Carlos Felipe; Ruiz Alvarez, José David; Segura Delgado, Manuel Alejandro; Courbon, Benoit; Godinovic, Nikola; Lelas, Damir; Puljak, Ivica; Ribeiro Cipriano, Pedro M; Sculac, Toni; Antunovic, Zeljko; Kovac, Marko; Brigljevic, Vuko; Ferencek, Dinko; Kadija, Kreso; Mesic, Benjamin; Starodumov, Andrei; Susa, Tatjana; Ather, Mohsan Waseem; Attikis, Alexandros; Mavromanolakis, Georgios; Mousa, Jehad; Nicolaou, Charalambos; Ptochos, Fotios; Razis, Panos A; Rykaczewski, Hans; Finger, Miroslav; Finger Jr, Michael; Carrera Jarrin, Edgar; El-khateeb, Esraa; Ellithi Kamel, Ali; Mahmoud, Mohammed; Bhowmik, Sandeep; Dewanjee, Ram Krishna; Kadastik, Mario; Perrini, Lucia; Raidal, Martti; Veelken, Christian; Eerola, Paula; Kirschenmann, Henning; Pekkanen, Juska; Voutilainen, Mikko; Havukainen, Joona; Heikkilä, Jaana Kristiina; Jarvinen, Terhi; Karimäki, Veikko; Kinnunen, Ritva; Lampén, Tapio; Lassila-Perini, Kati; Laurila, Santeri; Lehti, Sami; Lindén, Tomas; Luukka, Panja-Riina; Mäenpää, Teppo; Siikonen, Hannu; Tuominen, Eija; Tuominiemi, Jorma; Tuuva, Tuure; Besancon, Marc; Couderc, Fabrice; Dejardin, Marc; Denegri, Daniel; Faure, Jean-Louis; Ferri, Federico; Ganjour, Serguei; Ghosh, Saranya; Givernaud, Alain; Gras, Philippe; Hamel de Monchenault, Gautier; Jarry, Patrick; Leloup, Clément; Locci, Elizabeth; Machet, Martina; Malcles, Julie; Negro, Giulia; Rander, John; Rosowsky, André; Sahin, Mehmet Özgür; Titov, Maksym; Abdulsalam, Abdulla; Amendola, Chiara; Antropov, Iurii; Baffioni, Stephanie; Beaudette, Florian; Busson, Philippe; Cadamuro, Luca; Charlot, Claude; Granier de Cassagnac, Raphael; Jo, Mihee; Kucher, Inna; Lisniak, Stanislav; Lobanov, Artur; Martin Blanco, Javier; Nguyen, Matthew; Ochando, Christophe; Ortona, Giacomo; Paganini, Pascal; Pigard, Philipp; Salerno, Roberto; Sauvan, Jean-Baptiste; Sirois, Yves; Stahl Leiton, Andre Govinda; Strebler, Thomas; Yilmaz, Yetkin; Zabi, Alexandre; Zghiche, Amina; Agram, Jean-Laurent; Andrea, Jeremy; Bloch, Daniel; Brom, Jean-Marie; Buttignol, Michael; Chabert, Eric Christian; Collard, Caroline; Conte, Eric; Coubez, Xavier; Drouhin, Frédéric; Fontaine, Jean-Charles; Gelé, Denis; Goerlach, Ulrich; Jansová, Markéta; Juillot, Pierre; Le Bihan, Anne-Catherine; Tonon, Nicolas; Van Hove, Pierre; Gadrat, Sébastien; Beauceron, Stephanie; Bernet, Colin; Boudoul, Gaelle; Chanon, Nicolas; Chierici, Roberto; Contardo, Didier; Depasse, Pierre; El Mamouni, Houmani; Fay, Jean; Finco, Linda; Gascon, Susan; Gouzevitch, Maxime; Grenier, Gérald; Ille, Bernard; Lagarde, Francois; Laktineh, Imad Baptiste; Lethuillier, Morgan; Mirabito, Laurent; Pequegnot, Anne-Laure; Perries, Stephane; Popov, Andrey; Sordini, Viola; Vander Donckt, Muriel; Viret, Sébastien; Zhang, Sijing; Toriashvili, Tengizi; Tsamalaidze, Zviad; Autermann, Christian; Feld, Lutz; Kiesel, Maximilian Knut; Klein, Katja; Lipinski, Martin; Preuten, Marius; Schomakers, Christian; Schulz, Johannes; Teroerde, Marius; Wittmer, Bruno; Zhukov, Valery; Albert, Andreas; Duchardt, Deborah; Endres, Matthias; Erdmann, Martin; Erdweg, Sören; Esch, Thomas; Fischer, Robert; Güth, Andreas; Hebbeker, Thomas; Heidemann, Carsten; Hoepfner, Kerstin; Knutzen, Simon; Merschmeyer, Markus; Meyer, Arnd; Millet, Philipp; Mukherjee, Swagata; Pook, Tobias; Radziej, Markus; Reithler, Hans; Rieger, Marcel; Scheuch, Florian; Teyssier, Daniel; Thüer, Sebastian; Flügge, Günter; Kargoll, Bastian; Kress, Thomas; Künsken, Andreas; Müller, Thomas; Nehrkorn, Alexander; Nowack, Andreas; Pistone, Claudia; Pooth, Oliver; Stahl, Achim; Aldaya Martin, Maria; Arndt, Till; Asawatangtrakuldee, Chayanit; Beernaert, Kelly; Behnke, Olaf; Behrens, Ulf; Bermúdez Martínez, Armando; Bin Anuar, Afiq Aizuddin; Borras, Kerstin; Botta, Valeria; Campbell, Alan; Connor, Patrick; Contreras-Campana, Christian; Costanza, Francesco; Diez Pardos, Carmen; Eckerlin, Guenter; Eckstein, Doris; Eichhorn, Thomas; Eren, Engin; Gallo, Elisabetta; Garay Garcia, Jasone; Geiser, Achim; Grados Luyando, Juan Manuel; Grohsjean, Alexander; Gunnellini, Paolo; Guthoff, Moritz; Harb, Ali; Hauk, Johannes; Hempel, Maria; Jung, Hannes; Kasemann, Matthias; Keaveney, James; Kleinwort, Claus; Korol, Ievgen; Krücker, Dirk; Lange, Wolfgang; Lelek, Aleksandra; Lenz, Teresa; Lipka, Katerina; Lohmann, Wolfgang; Mankel, Rainer; Melzer-Pellmann, Isabell-Alissandra; Meyer, Andreas Bernhard; Missiroli, Marino; Mittag, Gregor; Mnich, Joachim; Mussgiller, Andreas; Ntomari, Eleni; Pitzl, Daniel; Raspereza, Alexei; Savitskyi, Mykola; Saxena, Pooja; Shevchenko, Rostyslav; Stefaniuk, Nazar; Van Onsem, Gerrit Patrick; Walsh, Roberval; Wen, Yiwen; Wichmann, Katarzyna; Wissing, Christoph; Zenaiev, Oleksandr; Aggleton, Robin; Bein, Samuel; Blobel, Volker; Centis Vignali, Matteo; Dreyer, Torben; Garutti, Erika; Gonzalez, Daniel; Haller, Johannes; Hinzmann, Andreas; Hoffmann, Malte; Karavdina, Anastasia; Klanner, Robert; Kogler, Roman; Kovalchuk, Nataliia; Kurz, Simon; Marconi, Daniele; Meyer, Mareike; Niedziela, Marek; Nowatschin, Dominik; Pantaleo, Felice; Peiffer, Thomas; Perieanu, Adrian; Scharf, Christian; Schleper, Peter; Schmidt, Alexander; Schumann, Svenja; Schwandt, Joern; Sonneveld, Jory; Stadie, Hartmut; Steinbrück, Georg; Stober, Fred-Markus Helmut; Stöver, Marc; Tholen, Heiner; Troendle, Daniel; Usai, Emanuele; Vanhoefer, Annika; Vormwald, Benedikt; Akbiyik, Melike; Barth, Christian; Baselga, Marta; Baur, Sebastian; Butz, Erik; Caspart, René; Chwalek, Thorsten; Colombo, Fabio; De Boer, Wim; Dierlamm, Alexander; Faltermann, Nils; Freund, Benedikt; Friese, Raphael; Giffels, Manuel; Harrendorf, Marco Alexander; Hartmann, Frank; Heindl, Stefan Michael; Husemann, Ulrich; Kassel, Florian; Kudella, Simon; Mildner, Hannes; Mozer, Matthias Ulrich; Müller, Thomas; Plagge, Michael; Quast, Gunter; Rabbertz, Klaus; Schröder, Matthias; Shvetsov, Ivan; Sieber, Georg; Simonis, Hans-Jürgen; Ulrich, Ralf; Wayand, Stefan; Weber, Marc; Weiler, Thomas; Williamson, Shawn; Wöhrmann, Clemens; Wolf, Roger; Anagnostou, Georgios; Daskalakis, Georgios; Geralis, Theodoros; Kyriakis, Aristotelis; Loukas, Demetrios; Topsis-Giotis, Iasonas; Karathanasis, George; Kesisoglou, Stilianos; Panagiotou, Apostolos; Saoulidou, Niki; Tziaferi, Eirini; Kousouris, Konstantinos; Evangelou, Ioannis; Foudas, Costas; Gianneios, Paraskevas; Katsoulis, Panagiotis; Kokkas, Panagiotis; Mallios, Stavros; Manthos, Nikolaos; Papadopoulos, Ioannis; Paradas, Evangelos; Strologas, John; Triantis, Frixos A; Tsitsonis, Dimitrios; Csanad, Mate; Filipovic, Nicolas; Pasztor, Gabriella; Surányi, Olivér; Veres, Gabor Istvan; Bencze, Gyorgy; Hajdu, Csaba; Horvath, Dezso; Hunyadi, Ádám; Sikler, Ferenc; Veszpremi, Viktor; Vesztergombi, Gyorgy; Beni, Noemi; Czellar, Sandor; Karancsi, János; Makovec, Alajos; Molnar, Jozsef; Szillasi, Zoltan; Bartók, Márton; Raics, Peter; Trocsanyi, Zoltan Laszlo; Ujvari, Balazs; Choudhury, Somnath; Komaragiri, Jyothsna Rani; Bahinipati, Seema; Mal, Prolay; Mandal, Koushik; Nayak, Aruna; Sahoo, Deepak Kumar; Sahoo, Niladribihari; Swain, Sanjay Kumar; Bansal, Sunil; Beri, Suman Bala; Bhatnagar, Vipin; Chawla, Ridhi; Dhingra, Nitish; Kaur, Anterpreet; Kaur, Manjit; Kaur, Sandeep; Kumar, Ramandeep; Kumari, Priyanka; Mehta, Ankita; Singh, Jasbir; Walia, Genius; Kumar, Ashok; Shah, Aashaq; Bhardwaj, Ashutosh; Chauhan, Sushil; Choudhary, Brajesh C; Garg, Rocky Bala; Keshri, Sumit; Kumar, Ajay; Malhotra, Shivali; Naimuddin, Md; Ranjan, Kirti; Sharma, Ramkrishna; Bhardwaj, Rishika; Bhattacharya, Rajarshi; Bhattacharya, Satyaki; Bhawandeep, Bhawandeep; Bhowmik, Debabrata; Dey, Sourav; Dutt, Suneel; Dutta, Suchandra; Ghosh, Shamik; Majumdar, Nayana; Modak, Atanu; Mondal, Kuntal; Mukhopadhyay, Supratik; Nandan, Saswati; Purohit, Arnab; Rout, Prasant Kumar; Roy, Ashim; Roy Chowdhury, Suvankar; Sarkar, Subir; Sharan, Manoj; Singh, Bipen; Thakur, Shalini; Behera, Prafulla Kumar; Chudasama, Ruchi; Dutta, Dipanwita; Jha, Vishwajeet; Kumar, Vineet; Mohanty, Ajit Kumar; Netrakanti, Pawan Kumar; Pant, Lalit Mohan; Shukla, Prashant; Topkar, Anita; Aziz, Tariq; Dugad, Shashikant; Mahakud, Bibhuprasad; Mitra, Soureek; Mohanty, Gagan Bihari; Sur, Nairit; Sutar, Bajrang; Banerjee, Sudeshna; Bhattacharya, Soham; Chatterjee, Suman; Das, Pallabi; Guchait, Monoranjan; Jain, Sandhya; Kumar, Sanjeev; Maity, Manas; Majumder, Gobinda; Mazumdar, Kajari; Sarkar, Tanmay; Wickramage, Nadeesha; Chauhan, Shubhanshu; Dube, Sourabh; Hegde, Vinay; Kapoor, Anshul; Kothekar, Kunal; Pandey, Shubham; Rane, Aditee; Sharma, Seema; Chenarani, Shirin; Eskandari Tadavani, Esmaeel; Etesami, Seyed Mohsen; Khakzad, Mohsen; Mohammadi Najafabadi, Mojtaba; Naseri, Mohsen; Paktinat Mehdiabadi, Saeid; Rezaei Hosseinabadi, Ferdos; Safarzadeh, Batool; Zeinali, Maryam; Felcini, Marta; Grunewald, Martin; Abbrescia, Marcello; Calabria, Cesare; Colaleo, Anna; Creanza, Donato; Cristella, Leonardo; De Filippis, Nicola; De Palma, Mauro; Errico, Filippo; Fiore, Luigi; Iaselli, Giuseppe; Lezki, Samet; Maggi, Giorgio; Maggi, Marcello; Marangelli, Bartolomeo; Miniello, Giorgia; My, Salvatore; Nuzzo, Salvatore; Pompili, Alexis; Pugliese, Gabriella; Radogna, Raffaella; Ranieri, Antonio; Selvaggi, Giovanna; Sharma, Archana; Silvestris, Lucia; Venditti, Rosamaria; Verwilligen, Piet; Zito, Giuseppe; Abbiendi, Giovanni; Battilana, Carlo; Bonacorsi, Daniele; Borgonovi, Lisa; Braibant-Giacomelli, Sylvie; Campanini, Renato; Capiluppi, Paolo; Castro, Andrea; Cavallo, Francesca Romana; Chhibra, Simranjit Singh; Codispoti, Giuseppe; Cuffiani, Marco; Dallavalle, Gaetano-Marco; Fabbri, Fabrizio; Fanfani, Alessandra; Fasanella, Daniele; Giacomelli, Paolo; Grandi, Claudio; Guiducci, Luigi; Iemmi, Fabio; Marcellini, Stefano; Masetti, Gianni; Montanari, Alessandro; Navarria, Francesco; Perrotta, Andrea; Rossi, Antonio; Rovelli, Tiziano; Siroli, Gian Piero; Tosi, Nicolò; Albergo, Sebastiano; Costa, Salvatore; Di Mattia, Alessandro; Giordano, Ferdinando; Potenza, Renato; Tricomi, Alessia; Tuve, Cristina; Barbagli, Giuseppe; Chatterjee, Kalyanmoy; Ciulli, Vitaliano; Civinini, Carlo; D'Alessandro, Raffaello; Focardi, Ettore; Lenzi, Piergiulio; Meschini, Marco; Paoletti, Simone; Russo, Lorenzo; Sguazzoni, Giacomo; Strom, Derek; Viliani, Lorenzo; Benussi, Luigi; Bianco, Stefano; Fabbri, Franco; Piccolo, Davide; Primavera, Federica; Calvelli, Valerio; Ferro, Fabrizio; Ravera, Fabio; Robutti, Enrico; Tosi, Silvano; Benaglia, Andrea; Beschi, Andrea; Brianza, Luca; Brivio, Francesco; Ciriolo, Vincenzo; Dinardo, Mauro Emanuele; Fiorendi, Sara; Gennai, Simone; Ghezzi, Alessio; Govoni, Pietro; Malberti, Martina; Malvezzi, Sandra; Manzoni, Riccardo Andrea; Menasce, Dario; Moroni, Luigi; Paganoni, Marco; Pauwels, Kristof; Pedrini, Daniele; Pigazzini, Simone; Ragazzi, Stefano; Tabarelli de Fatis, Tommaso; Buontempo, Salvatore; Cavallo, Nicola; Di Guida, Salvatore; Fabozzi, Francesco; Fienga, Francesco; Iorio, Alberto Orso Maria; Khan, Wajid Ali; Lista, Luca; Meola, Sabino; Paolucci, Pierluigi; Sciacca, Crisostomo; Thyssen, Filip; Azzi, Patrizia; Bacchetta, Nicola; Benato, Lisa; Bisello, Dario; Boletti, Alessio; Carlin, Roberto; Checchia, Paolo; Dall'Osso, Martino; De Castro Manzano, Pablo; Dorigo, Tommaso; Dosselli, Umberto; Gasparini, Fabrizio; Gasparini, Ugo; Gozzelino, Andrea; Lacaprara, Stefano; Lujan, Paul; Margoni, Martino; Meneguzzo, Anna Teresa; Pozzobon, Nicola; Ronchese, Paolo; Rossin, Roberto; Simonetto, Franco; Tiko, Andres; Torassa, Ezio; Zanetti, Marco; Zotto, Pierluigi; Zumerle, Gianni; Braghieri, Alessandro; Magnani, Alice; Montagna, Paolo; Ratti, Sergio P; Re, Valerio; Ressegotti, Martina; Riccardi, Cristina; Salvini, Paola; Vai, Ilaria; Vitulo, Paolo; Alunni Solestizi, Luisa; Biasini, Maurizio; Bilei, Gian Mario; Cecchi, Claudia; Ciangottini, Diego; Fanò, Livio; Lariccia, Paolo; Leonardi, Roberto; Manoni, Elisa; Mantovani, Giancarlo; Mariani, Valentina; Menichelli, Mauro; Rossi, Alessandro; Santocchia, Attilio; Spiga, Daniele; Androsov, Konstantin; Azzurri, Paolo; Bagliesi, Giuseppe; Bianchini, Lorenzo; Boccali, Tommaso; Borrello, Laura; Castaldi, Rino; Ciocci, Maria Agnese; Dell'Orso, Roberto; Fedi, Giacomo; Giannini, Leonardo; Giassi, Alessandro; Grippo, Maria Teresa; Ligabue, Franco; Lomtadze, Teimuraz; Manca, Elisabetta; Mandorli, Giulio; Messineo, Alberto; Palla, Fabrizio; Rizzi, Andrea; Spagnolo, Paolo; Tenchini, Roberto; Tonelli, Guido; Venturi, Andrea; Verdini, Piero Giorgio; Barone, Luciano; Cavallari, Francesca; Cipriani, Marco; Daci, Nadir; Del Re, Daniele; Di Marco, Emanuele; Diemoz, Marcella; Gelli, Simone; Longo, Egidio; Margaroli, Fabrizio; Marzocchi, Badder; Meridiani, Paolo; Organtini, Giovanni; Paramatti, Riccardo; Preiato, Federico; Rahatlou, Shahram; Rovelli, Chiara; Santanastasio, Francesco; Amapane, Nicola; Arcidiacono, Roberta; Argiro, Stefano; Arneodo, Michele; Bartosik, Nazar; Bellan, Riccardo; Biino, Cristina; Cartiglia, Nicolo; Cenna, Francesca; Costa, Marco; Covarelli, Roberto; Degano, Alessandro; Demaria, Natale; Kiani, Bilal; Mariotti, Chiara; Maselli, Silvia; Migliore, Ernesto; Monaco, Vincenzo; Monteil, Ennio; Monteno, Marco; Obertino, Maria Margherita; Pacher, Luca; Pastrone, Nadia; Pelliccioni, Mario; Pinna Angioni, Gian Luca; Romero, Alessandra; Ruspa, Marta; Sacchi, Roberto; Shchelina, Ksenia; Sola, Valentina; Solano, Ada; Staiano, Amedeo; Traczyk, Piotr; Belforte, Stefano; Casarsa, Massimo; Cossutti, Fabio; Della Ricca, Giuseppe; Zanetti, Anna; Kim, Dong Hee; Kim, Gui Nyun; Kim, Min Suk; Lee, Jeongeun; Lee, Sangeun; Lee, Seh Wook; Moon, Chang-Seong; Oh, Young Do; Sekmen, Sezen; Son, Dong-Chul; Yang, Yu Chul; Kim, Hyunchul; Moon, Dong Ho; Oh, Geonhee; Brochero Cifuentes, Javier Andres; Goh, Junghwan; Kim, Tae Jeong; Cho, Sungwoong; Choi, Suyong; Go, Yeonju; Gyun, Dooyeon; Ha, Seungkyu; Hong, Byung-Sik; Jo, Youngkwon; Kim, Yongsun; Lee, Kisoo; Lee, Kyong Sei; Lee, Songkyo; Lim, Jaehoon; Park, Sung Keun; Roh, Youn; Almond, John; Kim, Junho; Kim, Jae Sung; Lee, Haneol; Lee, Kyeongpil; Nam, Kyungwook; Oh, Sung Bin; Radburn-Smith, Benjamin Charles; Seo, Seon-hee; Yang, Unki; Yoo, Hwi Dong; Yu, Geum Bong; Kim, Hyunyong; Kim, Ji Hyun; Lee, Jason Sang Hun; Park, Inkyu; Choi, Young-Il; Hwang, Chanwook; Lee, Jongseok; Yu, Intae; Dudenas, Vytautas; Juodagalvis, Andrius; Vaitkus, Juozas; Ahmed, Ijaz; Ibrahim, Zainol Abidin; Md Ali, Mohd Adli Bin; Mohamad Idris, Faridah; Wan Abdullah, Wan Ahmad Tajuddin; Yusli, Mohd Nizam; Zolkapli, Zukhaimira; Reyes-Almanza, Rogelio; Ramirez-Sanchez, Gabriel; Duran-Osuna, Cecilia; Castilla-Valdez, Heriberto; De La Cruz-Burelo, Eduard; Heredia-De La Cruz, Ivan; Rabadán-Trejo, Raúl Iraq; Lopez-Fernandez, Ricardo; Mejia Guisao, Jhovanny; Sánchez Hernández, Alberto; Carrillo Moreno, Salvador; Oropeza Barrera, Cristina; Vazquez Valencia, Fabiola; Eysermans, Jan; Pedraza, Isabel; Salazar Ibarguen, Humberto Antonio; Uribe Estrada, Cecilia; Morelos Pineda, Antonio; Krofcheck, David; Butler, Philip H; Ahmad, Ashfaq; Ahmad, Muhammad; Hassan, Qamar; Hoorani, Hafeez R; Saddique, Asif; Shah, Mehar Ali; Shoaib, Muhammad; Waqas, Muhammad; Bialkowska, Helena; Bluj, Michal; Boimska, Bozena; Frueboes, Tomasz; Górski, Maciej; Kazana, Malgorzata; Nawrocki, Krzysztof; Szleper, Michal; Zalewski, Piotr; Bunkowski, Karol; Byszuk, Adrian; Doroba, Krzysztof; Kalinowski, Artur; Konecki, Marcin; Krolikowski, Jan; Misiura, Maciej; Olszewski, Michal; Pyskir, Andrzej; Walczak, Marek; Bargassa, Pedrame; Beirão Da Cruz E Silva, Cristóvão; Di Francesco, Agostino; Faccioli, Pietro; Galinhas, Bruno; Gallinaro, Michele; Hollar, Jonathan; Leonardo, Nuno; Lloret Iglesias, Lara; Nemallapudi, Mythra Varun; Seixas, Joao; Strong, Giles; Toldaiev, Oleksii; Vadruccio, Daniele; Varela, Joao; Afanasiev, Serguei; Bunin, Pavel; Gavrilenko, Mikhail; Golutvin, Igor; Gorbunov, Ilya; Kamenev, Alexey; Karjavin, Vladimir; Lanev, Alexander; Malakhov, Alexander; Matveev, Viktor; Moisenz, Petr; Palichik, Vladimir; Perelygin, Victor; Shmatov, Sergey; Shulha, Siarhei; Skatchkov, Nikolai; Smirnov, Vitaly; Voytishin, Nikolay; Zarubin, Anatoli; Ivanov, Yury; Kim, Victor; Kuznetsova, Ekaterina; Levchenko, Petr; Murzin, Victor; Oreshkin, Vadim; Smirnov, Igor; Sosnov, Dmitry; Sulimov, Valentin; Uvarov, Lev; Vavilov, Sergey; Vorobyev, Alexey; Andreev, Yuri; Dermenev, Alexander; Gninenko, Sergei; Golubev, Nikolai; Karneyeu, Anton; Kirsanov, Mikhail; Krasnikov, Nikolai; Pashenkov, Anatoli; Tlisov, Danila; Toropin, Alexander; Epshteyn, Vladimir; Gavrilov, Vladimir; Lychkovskaya, Natalia; Popov, Vladimir; Pozdnyakov, Ivan; Safronov, Grigory; Spiridonov, Alexander; Stepennov, Anton; Stolin, Viatcheslav; Toms, Maria; Vlasov, Evgueni; Zhokin, Alexander; Aushev, Tagir; Bylinkin, Alexander; Chadeeva, Marina; Parygin, Pavel; Philippov, Dmitry; Polikarpov, Sergey; Popova, Elena; Rusinov, Vladimir; Andreev, Vladimir; Azarkin, Maksim; Dremin, Igor; Kirakosyan, Martin; Rusakov, Sergey V; Terkulov, Adel; Baskakov, Alexey; Belyaev, Andrey; Boos, Edouard; Demiyanov, Andrey; Ershov, Alexander; Gribushin, Andrey; Kodolova, Olga; Korotkikh, Vladimir; Lokhtin, Igor; Miagkov, Igor; Obraztsov, Stepan; Petrushanko, Sergey; Savrin, Viktor; Snigirev, Alexander; Vardanyan, Irina; Blinov, Vladimir; Shtol, Dmitry; Skovpen, Yuri; Azhgirey, Igor; Bayshev, Igor; Bitioukov, Sergei; Elumakhov, Dmitry; Godizov, Anton; Kachanov, Vassili; Kalinin, Alexey; Konstantinov, Dmitri; Mandrik, Petr; Petrov, Vladimir; Ryutin, Roman; Sobol, Andrei; Troshin, Sergey; Tyurin, Nikolay; Uzunian, Andrey; Volkov, Alexey; Babaev, Anton; Adzic, Petar; Cirkovic, Predrag; Devetak, Damir; Dordevic, Milos; Milosevic, Jovan; Alcaraz Maestre, Juan; Bachiller, Irene; Barrio Luna, Mar; Cerrada, Marcos; Colino, Nicanor; De La Cruz, Begona; Delgado Peris, Antonio; Fernandez Bedoya, Cristina; Fernández Ramos, Juan Pablo; Flix, Jose; Fouz, Maria Cruz; Gonzalez Lopez, Oscar; Goy Lopez, Silvia; Hernandez, Jose M; Josa, Maria Isabel; Moran, Dermot; Pérez-Calero Yzquierdo, Antonio María; Puerta Pelayo, Jesus; Redondo, Ignacio; Romero, Luciano; Senghi Soares, Mara; Triossi, Andrea; Álvarez Fernández, Adrian; Albajar, Carmen; de Trocóniz, Jorge F; Cuevas, Javier; Erice, Carlos; Fernandez Menendez, Javier; Gonzalez Caballero, Isidro; González Fernández, Juan Rodrigo; Palencia Cortezon, Enrique; Sanchez Cruz, Sergio; Vischia, Pietro; Vizan Garcia, Jesus Manuel; Cabrillo, Iban Jose; Calderon, Alicia; Chazin Quero, Barbara; Duarte Campderros, Jordi; Fernandez, Marcos; Fernández Manteca, Pedro José; Garcia-Ferrero, Juan; García Alonso, Andrea; Gomez, Gervasio; Lopez Virto, Amparo; Marco, Jesus; Martinez Rivero, Celso; Martinez Ruiz del Arbol, Pablo; Matorras, Francisco; Piedra Gomez, Jonatan; Prieels, Cédric; Rodrigo, Teresa; Ruiz-Jimeno, Alberto; Scodellaro, Luca; Trevisani, Nicolò; Vila, Ivan; Vilar Cortabitarte, Rocio; Abbaneo, Duccio; Akgun, Bora; Auffray, Etiennette; Baillon, Paul; Ball, Austin; Barney, David; Bendavid, Joshua; Bianco, Michele; Bocci, Andrea; Botta, Cristina; Camporesi, Tiziano; Castello, Roberto; Cepeda, Maria; Cerminara, Gianluca; Chapon, Emilien; Chen, Yi; D'Enterria, David; Dabrowski, Anne; Daponte, Vincenzo; David Tinoco Mendes, Andre; De Gruttola, Michele; De Roeck, Albert; Deelen, Nikkie; Dobson, Marc; Du Pree, Tristan; Dünser, Marc; Dupont, Niels; Elliott-Peisert, Anna; Everaerts, Pieter; Fallavollita, Francesco; Franzoni, Giovanni; Fulcher, Jonathan; Funk, Wolfgang; Gigi, Dominique; Gilbert, Andrew; Gill, Karl; Glege, Frank; Gulhan, Doga; Hegeman, Jeroen; Innocente, Vincenzo; Jafari, Abideh; Janot, Patrick; Karacheban, Olena; Kieseler, Jan; Knünz, Valentin; Kornmayer, Andreas; Kortelainen, Matti J; Krammer, Manfred; Lange, Clemens; Lecoq, Paul; Lourenco, Carlos; Lucchini, Marco Toliman; Malgeri, Luca; Mannelli, Marcello; Martelli, Arabella; Meijers, Frans; Merlin, Jeremie Alexandre; Mersi, Stefano; Meschi, Emilio; Milenovic, Predrag; Moortgat, Filip; Mulders, Martijn; Neugebauer, Hannes; Ngadiuba, Jennifer; Orfanelli, Styliani; Orsini, Luciano; Pape, Luc; Perez, Emmanuel; Peruzzi, Marco; Petrilli, Achille; Petrucciani, Giovanni; Pfeiffer, Andreas; Pierini, Maurizio; Pitters, Florian Michael; Rabady, Dinyar; Racz, Attila; Reis, Thomas; Rolandi, Gigi; Rovere, Marco; Sakulin, Hannes; Schäfer, Christoph; Schwick, Christoph; Seidel, Markus; Selvaggi, Michele; Sharma, Archana; Silva, Pedro; Sphicas, Paraskevas; Stakia, Anna; Steggemann, Jan; Stoye, Markus; Tosi, Mia; Treille, Daniel; Tsirou, Andromachi; Veckalns, Viesturs; Verweij, Marta; Zeuner, Wolfram Dietrich; Bertl, Willi; Caminada, Lea; Deiters, Konrad; Erdmann, Wolfram; Horisberger, Roland; Ingram, Quentin; Kaestli, Hans-Christian; Kotlinski, Danek; Langenegger, Urs; Rohe, Tilman; Wiederkehr, Stephan Albert; Backhaus, Malte; Bäni, Lukas; Berger, Pirmin; Casal, Bruno; Dissertori, Günther; Dittmar, Michael; Donegà, Mauro; Dorfer, Christian; Grab, Christoph; Heidegger, Constantin; Hits, Dmitry; Hoss, Jan; Kasieczka, Gregor; Klijnsma, Thomas; Lustermann, Werner; Mangano, Boris; Marionneau, Matthieu; Meinhard, Maren Tabea; Meister, Daniel; Micheli, Francesco; Musella, Pasquale; Nessi-Tedaldi, Francesca; Pandolfi, Francesco; Pata, Joosep; Pauss, Felicitas; Perrin, Gaël; Perrozzi, Luca; Quittnat, Milena; Reichmann, Michael; Sanz Becerra, Diego Alejandro; Schönenberger, Myriam; Shchutska, Lesya; Tavolaro, Vittorio Raoul; Theofilatos, Konstantinos; Vesterbacka Olsson, Minna Leonora; Wallny, Rainer; Zhu, De Hua; Aarrestad, Thea Klaeboe; Amsler, Claude; Canelli, Maria Florencia; De Cosa, Annapaola; Del Burgo, Riccardo; Donato, Silvio; Galloni, Camilla; Hreus, Tomas; Kilminster, Benjamin; Pinna, Deborah; Rauco, Giorgia; Robmann, Peter; Salerno, Daniel; Schweiger, Korbinian; Seitz, Claudia; Takahashi, Yuta; Zucchetta, Alberto; Candelise, Vieri; Chang, Yu-Hsiang; Cheng, Kai-yu; Doan, Thi Hien; Jain, Shilpi; Khurana, Raman; Kuo, Chia-Ming; Lin, Willis; Pozdnyakov, Andrey; Yu, Shin-Shan; Kumar, Arun; Chang, Paoti; Chao, Yuan; Chen, Kai-Feng; Chen, Po-Hsun; Fiori, Francesco; Hou, George Wei-Shu; Hsiung, Yee; Liu, Yueh-Feng; Lu, Rong-Shyang; Paganis, Efstathios; Psallidas, Andreas; Steen, Arnaud; Tsai, Jui-fa; Asavapibhop, Burin; Kovitanggoon, Kittikul; Singh, Gurpreet; Srimanobhas, Norraphat; Bakirci, Mustafa Numan; Bat, Ayse; Boran, Fatma; Damarseckin, Serdal; Demiroglu, Zuhal Seyma; Dozen, Candan; Eskut, Eda; Girgis, Semiray; Gokbulut, Gul; Guler, Yalcin; Hos, Ilknur; Kangal, Evrim Ersin; Kara, Ozgun; Kiminsu, Ugur; Oglakci, Mehmet; Onengut, Gulsen; Ozdemir, Kadri; Ozturk, Sertac; Polatoz, Ayse; Sunar Cerci, Deniz; Tok, Ufuk Guney; Turkcapar, Semra; Zorbakir, Ibrahim Soner; Zorbilmez, Caglar; Karapinar, Guler; Ocalan, Kadir; Yalvac, Metin; Zeyrek, Mehmet; Gülmez, Erhan; Kaya, Mithat; Kaya, Ozlem; Tekten, Sevgi; Yetkin, Elif Asli; Agaras, Merve Nazlim; Atay, Serhat; Cakir, Altan; Cankocak, Kerem; Komurcu, Yildiray; Grynyov, Boris; Levchuk, Leonid; Ball, Fionn; Beck, Lana; Brooke, James John; Burns, Douglas; Clement, Emyr; Cussans, David; Davignon, Olivier; Flacher, Henning; Goldstein, Joel; Heath, Greg P; Heath, Helen F; Kreczko, Lukasz; Newbold, Dave M; Paramesvaran, Sudarshan; Sakuma, Tai; Seif El Nasr-storey, Sarah; Smith, Dominic; Smith, Vincent J; Belyaev, Alexander; Brew, Christopher; Brown, Robert M; Calligaris, Luigi; Cieri, Davide; Cockerill, David JA; Coughlan, John A; Harder, Kristian; Harper, Sam; Linacre, Jacob; Olaiya, Emmanuel; Petyt, David; Shepherd-Themistocleous, Claire; Thea, Alessandro; Tomalin, Ian R; Williams, Thomas; Womersley, William John; Auzinger, Georg; Bainbridge, Robert; Bloch, Philippe; Borg, Johan; Breeze, Shane; Buchmuller, Oliver; Bundock, Aaron; Casasso, Stefano; Citron, Matthew; Colling, David; Corpe, Louie; Dauncey, Paul; Davies, Gavin; Della Negra, Michel; Di Maria, Riccardo; Haddad, Yacine; Hall, Geoffrey; Iles, Gregory; James, Thomas; Lane, Rebecca; Laner, Christian; Lyons, Louis; Magnan, Anne-Marie; Malik, Sarah; Mastrolorenzo, Luca; Matsushita, Takashi; Nash, Jordan; Nikitenko, Alexander; Palladino, Vito; Pesaresi, Mark; Raymond, David Mark; Richards, Alexander; Rose, Andrew; Scott, Edward; Seez, Christopher; Shtipliyski, Antoni; Summers, Sioni; Tapper, Alexander; Uchida, Kirika; Vazquez Acosta, Monica; Virdee, Tejinder; Wardle, Nicholas; Winterbottom, Daniel; Wright, Jack; Zenz, Seth Conrad; Cole, Joanne; Hobson, Peter R; Khan, Akram; Kyberd, Paul; Morton, Alexander; Reid, Ivan; Teodorescu, Liliana; Zahid, Sema; Borzou, Ahmad; Call, Kenneth; Dittmann, Jay; Hatakeyama, Kenichi; Liu, Hongxuan; Pastika, Nathaniel; Smith, Caleb; Bartek, Rachel; Dominguez, Aaron; Buccilli, Andrew; Cooper, Seth; Henderson, Conor; Rumerio, Paolo; West, Christopher; Arcaro, Daniel; Avetisyan, Aram; Bose, Tulika; Gastler, Daniel; Rankin, Dylan; Richardson, Clint; Rohlf, James; Sulak, Lawrence; Zou, David; Benelli, Gabriele; Cutts, David; Hadley, Mary; Hakala, John; Heintz, Ulrich; Hogan, Julie Managan; Kwok, Ka Hei Martin; Laird, Edward; Landsberg, Greg; Lee, Jangbae; Mao, Zaixing; Narain, Meenakshi; Pazzini, Jacopo; Piperov, Stefan; Sagir, Sinan; Syarif, Rizki; Yu, David; Band, Reyer; Brainerd, Christopher; Breedon, Richard; Burns, Dustin; Calderon De La Barca Sanchez, Manuel; Chertok, Maxwell; Conway, John; Conway, Rylan; Cox, Peter Timothy; Erbacher, Robin; Flores, Chad; Funk, Garrett; Ko, Winston; Lander, Richard; Mclean, Christine; Mulhearn, Michael; Pellett, Dave; Pilot, Justin; Shalhout, Shalhout; Shi, Mengyao; Smith, John; Stolp, Dustin; Taylor, Devin; Tos, Kyle; Tripathi, Mani; Wang, Zhangqier; Bachtis, Michail; Bravo, Cameron; Cousins, Robert; Dasgupta, Abhigyan; Florent, Alice; Hauser, Jay; Ignatenko, Mikhail; Mccoll, Nickolas; Regnard, Simon; Saltzberg, David; Schnaible, Christian; Valuev, Vyacheslav; Bouvier, Elvire; Burt, Kira; Clare, Robert; Ellison, John Anthony; Gary, J William; Ghiasi Shirazi, Seyyed Mohammad Amin; Hanson, Gail; Karapostoli, Georgia; Kennedy, Elizabeth; Lacroix, Florent; Long, Owen Rosser; Olmedo Negrete, Manuel; Paneva, Mirena Ivova; Si, Weinan; Wang, Long; Wei, Hua; Wimpenny, Stephen; Yates, Brent; Branson, James G; Cittolin, Sergio; Derdzinski, Mark; Gerosa, Raffaele; Gilbert, Dylan; Hashemi, Bobak; Holzner, André; Klein, Daniel; Kole, Gouranga; Krutelyov, Vyacheslav; Letts, James; Masciovecchio, Mario; Olivito, Dominick; Padhi, Sanjay; Pieri, Marco; Sani, Matteo; Sharma, Vivek; Simon, Sean; Tadel, Matevz; Vartak, Adish; Wasserbaech, Steven; Wood, John; Würthwein, Frank; Yagil, Avraham; Zevi Della Porta, Giovanni; Amin, Nick; Bhandari, Rohan; Bradmiller-Feld, John; Campagnari, Claudio; Dishaw, Adam; Dutta, Valentina; Franco Sevilla, Manuel; Gouskos, Loukas; Heller, Ryan; Incandela, Joe; Ovcharova, Ana; Qu, Huilin; Richman, Jeffrey; Stuart, David; Suarez, Indara; Yoo, Jaehyeok; Anderson, Dustin; Bornheim, Adolf; Bunn, Julian; Dutta, Irene; Lawhorn, Jay Mathew; Newman, Harvey B; Nguyen, Thong; Pena, Cristian; Spiropulu, Maria; Vlimant, Jean-Roch; Wilkinson, Richard; Xie, Si; Zhang, Zhicai; Zhu, Ren-Yuan; Andrews, Michael Benjamin; Ferguson, Thomas; Mudholkar, Tanmay; Paulini, Manfred; Russ, James; Sun, Menglei; Vogel, Helmut; Vorobiev, Igor; Weinberg, Marc; Cumalat, John Perry; Ford, William T; Jensen, Frank; Johnson, Andrew; Krohn, Michael; Leontsinis, Stefanos; MacDonald, Emily; Mulholland, Troy; Stenson, Kevin; Wagner, Stephen Robert; Alexander, James; Chaves, Jorge; Cheng, Yangyang; Chu, Jennifer; Dittmer, Susan; Mcdermott, Kevin; Mirman, Nathan; Patterson, Juliet Ritchie; Quach, Dan; Rinkevicius, Aurelijus; Ryd, Anders; Skinnari, Louise; Soffi, Livia; Tan, Shao Min; Tao, Zhengcheng; Thom, Julia; Tucker, Jordan; Wittich, Peter; Zientek, Margaret; Abdullin, Salavat; Albrow, Michael; Alyari, Maral; Apollinari, Giorgio; Apresyan, Artur; Apyan, Aram; Banerjee, Sunanda; Bauerdick, Lothar AT; Beretvas, Andrew; Berryhill, Jeffrey; Bhat, Pushpalatha C; Bolla, Gino; Burkett, Kevin; Butler, Joel Nathan; Canepa, Anadi; Cerati, Giuseppe Benedetto; Cheung, Harry; Chlebana, Frank; Cremonesi, Matteo; Duarte, Javier; Elvira, Victor Daniel; Freeman, Jim; Gecse, Zoltan; Gottschalk, Erik; Gray, Lindsey; Green, Dan; Grünendahl, Stefan; Gutsche, Oliver; Hanlon, Jim; Harris, Robert M; Hasegawa, Satoshi; Hirschauer, James; Hu, Zhen; Jayatilaka, Bodhitha; Jindariani, Sergo; Johnson, Marvin; Joshi, Umesh; Klima, Boaz; Kreis, Benjamin; Lammel, Stephan; Lincoln, Don; Lipton, Ron; Liu, Miaoyuan; Liu, Tiehui; Lopes De Sá, Rafael; Lykken, Joseph; Maeshima, Kaori; Magini, Nicolo; Marraffino, John Michael; Mason, David; McBride, Patricia; Merkel, Petra; Mrenna, Stephen; Nahn, Steve; O'Dell, Vivian; Pedro, Kevin; Prokofyev, Oleg; Rakness, Gregory; Ristori, Luciano; Savoy-Navarro, Aurore; Schneider, Basil; Sexton-Kennedy, Elizabeth; Soha, Aron; Spalding, William J; Spiegel, Leonard; Stoynev, Stoyan; Strait, James; Strobbe, Nadja; Taylor, Lucas; Tkaczyk, Slawek; Tran, Nhan Viet; Uplegger, Lorenzo; Vaandering, Eric Wayne; Vernieri, Caterina; Verzocchi, Marco; Vidal, Richard; Wang, Michael; Weber, Hannsjoerg Artur; Whitbeck, Andrew; Wu, Weimin; Acosta, Darin; Avery, Paul; Bortignon, Pierluigi; Bourilkov, Dimitri; Brinkerhoff, Andrew; Carnes, Andrew; Carver, Matthew; Curry, David; Field, Richard D; Furic, Ivan-Kresimir; Gleyzer, Sergei V; Joshi, Bhargav Madhusudan; Konigsberg, Jacobo; Korytov, Andrey; Kotov, Khristian; Ma, Peisen; Matchev, Konstantin; Mei, Hualin; Mitselmakher, Guenakh; Shi, Kun; Sperka, David; Terentyev, Nikolay; Thomas, Laurent; Wang, Jian; Wang, Sean-Jiun; Yelton, John; Joshi, Yagya Raj; Linn, Stephan; Markowitz, Pete; Rodriguez, Jorge Luis; Ackert, Andrew; Adams, Todd; Askew, Andrew; Hagopian, Sharon; Hagopian, Vasken; Johnson, Kurtis F; Kolberg, Ted; Martinez, German; Perry, Thomas; Prosper, Harrison; Saha, Anirban; Santra, Arka; Sharma, Varun; Yohay, Rachel; Baarmand, Marc M; Bhopatkar, Vallary; Colafranceschi, Stefano; Hohlmann, Marcus; Noonan, Daniel; Roy, Titas; Yumiceva, Francisco; Adams, Mark Raymond; Apanasevich, Leonard; Berry, Douglas; Betts, Russell Richard; Cavanaugh, Richard; Chen, Xuan; Evdokimov, Olga; Gerber, Cecilia Elena; Hangal, Dhanush Anil; Hofman, David Jonathan; Jung, Kurt; Kamin, Jason; Sandoval Gonzalez, Irving Daniel; Tonjes, Marguerite; Trauger, Hallie; Varelas, Nikos; Wang, Hui; Wu, Zhenbin; Zhang, Jingyu; Bilki, Burak; Clarida, Warren; Dilsiz, Kamuran; Durgut, Süleyman; Gandrajula, Reddy Pratap; Haytmyradov, Maksat; Khristenko, Viktor; Merlo, Jean-Pierre; Mermerkaya, Hamit; Mestvirishvili, Alexi; Moeller, Anthony; Nachtman, Jane; Ogul, Hasan; Onel, Yasar; Ozok, Ferhat; Penzo, Aldo; Snyder, Christina; Tiras, Emrah; Wetzel, James; Yi, Kai; Blumenfeld, Barry; Cocoros, Alice; Eminizer, Nicholas; Fehling, David; Feng, Lei; Gritsan, Andrei; Maksimovic, Petar; Roskes, Jeffrey; Sarica, Ulascan; Swartz, Morris; Xiao, Meng; You, Can; Al-bataineh, Ayman; Baringer, Philip; Bean, Alice; Boren, Samuel; Bowen, James; Castle, James; Khalil, Sadia; Kropivnitskaya, Anna; Majumder, Devdatta; Mcbrayer, William; Murray, Michael; Rogan, Christopher; Royon, Christophe; Sanders, Stephen; Schmitz, Erich; Tapia Takaki, Daniel; Wang, Quan; Ivanov, Andrew; Kaadze, Ketino; Maravin, Yurii; Mohammadi, Abdollah; Saini, Lovedeep Kaur; Skhirtladze, Nikoloz; Rebassoo, Finn; Wright, Douglas; Baden, Drew; Baron, Owen; Belloni, Alberto; Eno, Sarah Catherine; Feng, Yongbin; Ferraioli, Charles; Hadley, Nicholas John; Jabeen, Shabnam; Jeng, Geng-Yuan; Kellogg, Richard G; Kunkle, Joshua; Mignerey, Alice; Ricci-Tam, Francesca; Shin, Young Ho; Skuja, Andris; Tonwar, Suresh C; Abercrombie, Daniel; Allen, Brandon; Azzolini, Virginia; Barbieri, Richard; Baty, Austin; Bauer, Gerry; Bi, Ran; Brandt, Stephanie; Busza, Wit; Cali, Ivan Amos; D'Alfonso, Mariarosaria; Demiragli, Zeynep; Gomez Ceballos, Guillelmo; Goncharov, Maxim; Harris, Philip; Hsu, Dylan; Hu, Miao; Iiyama, Yutaro; Innocenti, Gian Michele; Klute, Markus; Kovalskyi, Dmytro; Lee, Yen-Jie; Levin, Andrew; Luckey, Paul David; Maier, Benedikt; Marini, Andrea Carlo; Mcginn, Christopher; Mironov, Camelia; Narayanan, Siddharth; Niu, Xinmei; Paus, Christoph; Roland, Christof; Roland, Gunther; Salfeld-Nebgen, Jakob; Stephans, George; Sumorok, Konstanty; Tatar, Kaya; Velicanu, Dragos; Wang, Jing; Wang, Ta-Wei; Wyslouch, Bolek; Benvenuti, Alberto; Chatterjee, Rajdeep Mohan; Evans, Andrew; Hansen, Peter; Hiltbrand, Joshua; Kalafut, Sean; Kubota, Yuichi; Lesko, Zachary; Mans, Jeremy; Nourbakhsh, Shervin; Ruckstuhl, Nicole; Rusack, Roger; Turkewitz, Jared; Wadud, Mohammad Abrar; Acosta, John Gabriel; Oliveros, Sandra; Avdeeva, Ekaterina; Bloom, Kenneth; Claes, Daniel R; Fangmeier, Caleb; Golf, Frank; Gonzalez Suarez, Rebeca; Kamalieddin, Rami; Kravchenko, Ilya; Monroy, Jose; Siado, Joaquin Emilo; Snow, Gregory R; Stieger, Benjamin; Dolen, James; Godshalk, Andrew; Harrington, Charles; Iashvili, Ia; Nguyen, Duong; Parker, Ashley; Rappoccio, Salvatore; Roozbahani, Bahareh; Alverson, George; Barberis, Emanuela; Freer, Chad; Hortiangtham, Apichart; Massironi, Andrea; Morse, David Michael; Orimoto, Toyoko; Teixeira De Lima, Rafael; Wamorkar, Tanvi; Wang, Bingran; Wisecarver, Andrew; Wood, Darien; Bhattacharya, Saptaparna; Charaf, Otman; Hahn, Kristan Allan; Mucia, Nicholas; Odell, Nathaniel; Schmitt, Michael Henry; Sung, Kevin; Trovato, Marco; Velasco, Mayda; Bucci, Rachael; Dev, Nabarun; Hildreth, Michael; Hurtado Anampa, Kenyi; Jessop, Colin; Karmgard, Daniel John; Kellams, Nathan; Lannon, Kevin; Li, Wenzhao; Loukas, Nikitas; Marinelli, Nancy; Meng, Fanbo; Mueller, Charles; Musienko, Yuri; Planer, Michael; Reinsvold, Allison; Ruchti, Randy; Siddireddy, Prasanna; Smith, Geoffrey; Taroni, Silvia; Wayne, Mitchell; Wightman, Andrew; Wolf, Matthias; Woodard, Anna; Alimena, Juliette; Antonelli, Louis; Bylsma, Ben; Durkin, Lloyd Stanley; Flowers, Sean; Francis, Brian; Hart, Andrew; Hill, Christopher; Ji, Weifeng; Ling, Ta-Yung; Liu, Bingxuan; Luo, Wuming; Winer, Brian L; Wulsin, Howard Wells; Cooperstein, Stephane; Driga, Olga; Elmer, Peter; Hardenbrook, Joshua; Hebda, Philip; Higginbotham, Samuel; Kalogeropoulos, Alexis; Lange, David; Luo, Jingyu; Marlow, Daniel; Mei, Kelvin; Ojalvo, Isabel; Olsen, James; Palmer, Christopher; Piroué, Pierre; Stickland, David; Tully, Christopher; Malik, Sudhir; Norberg, Scarlet; Barker, Anthony; Barnes, Virgil E; Das, Souvik; Folgueras, Santiago; Gutay, Laszlo; Jones, Matthew; Jung, Andreas Werner; Khatiwada, Ajeeta; Miller, David Harry; Neumeister, Norbert; Peng, Cheng-Chieh; Qiu, Hao; Schulte, Jan-Frederik; Sun, Jian; Wang, Fuqiang; Xiao, Rui; Xie, Wei; Cheng, Tongguang; Parashar, Neeti; Stupak, John; Chen, Zhenyu; Ecklund, Karl Matthew; Freed, Sarah; Geurts, Frank JM; Guilbaud, Maxime; Kilpatrick, Matthew; Li, Wei; Michlin, Benjamin; Padley, Brian Paul; Roberts, Jay; Rorie, Jamal; Shi, Wei; Tu, Zhoudunming; Zabel, James; Zhang, Aobo; Bodek, Arie; de Barbaro, Pawel; Demina, Regina; Duh, Yi-ting; Ferbel, Thomas; Galanti, Mario; Garcia-Bellido, Aran; Han, Jiyeon; Hindrichs, Otto; Khukhunaishvili, Aleko; Lo, Kin Ho; Tan, Ping; Verzetti, Mauro; Ciesielski, Robert; Goulianos, Konstantin; Mesropian, Christina; Agapitos, Antonis; Chou, John Paul; Gershtein, Yuri; Gómez Espinosa, Tirso Alejandro; Halkiadakis, Eva; Heindl, Maximilian; Hughes, Elliot; Kaplan, Steven; Kunnawalkam Elayavalli, Raghav; Kyriacou, Savvas; Lath, Amitabh; Montalvo, Roy; Nash, Kevin; Osherson, Marc; Saka, Halil; Salur, Sevil; Schnetzer, Steve; Sheffield, David; Somalwar, Sunil; Stone, Robert; Thomas, Scott; Thomassen, Peter; Walker, Matthew; Delannoy, Andrés G; Heideman, Joseph; Riley, Grant; Rose, Keith; Spanier, Stefan; Thapa, Krishna; Bouhali, Othmane; Castaneda Hernandez, Alfredo; Celik, Ali; Dalchenko, Mykhailo; De Mattia, Marco; Delgado, Andrea; Dildick, Sven; Eusebi, Ricardo; Gilmore, Jason; Huang, Tao; Kamon, Teruki; Mueller, Ryan; Pakhotin, Yuriy; Patel, Rishi; Perloff, Alexx; Perniè, Luca; Rathjens, Denis; Safonov, Alexei; Tatarinov, Aysen; Ulmer, Keith; Akchurin, Nural; Damgov, Jordan; De Guio, Federico; Dudero, Phillip Russell; Faulkner, James; Gurpinar, Emine; Kunori, Shuichi; Lamichhane, Kamal; Lee, Sung Won; Mengke, Tielige; Muthumuni, Samila; Peltola, Timo; Undleeb, Sonaina; Volobouev, Igor; Wang, Zhixing; Greene, Senta; Gurrola, Alfredo; Janjam, Ravi; Johns, Willard; Maguire, Charles; Melo, Andrew; Ni, Hong; Padeken, Klaas; Sheldon, Paul; Tuo, Shengquan; Velkovska, Julia; Xu, Qiao; Arenton, Michael Wayne; Barria, Patrizia; Cox, Bradley; Hirosky, Robert; Joyce, Matthew; Ledovskoy, Alexander; Li, Hengne; Neu, Christopher; Sinthuprasith, Tutanon; Wang, Yanchu; Wolfe, Evan; Xia, Fan; Harr, Robert; Karchin, Paul Edmund; Poudyal, Nabin; Sturdy, Jared; Thapa, Prakash; Zaleski, Shawn; Brodski, Michael; Buchanan, James; Caillol, Cécile; Carlsmith, Duncan; Dasu, Sridhara; Dodd, Laura; Duric, Senka; Gomber, Bhawna; Grothe, Monika; Herndon, Matthew; Hervé, Alain; Hussain, Usama; Klabbers, Pamela; Lanaro, Armando; Levine, Aaron; Long, Kenneth; Loveless, Richard; Rekovic, Vladimir; Ruggles, Tyler; Savin, Alexander; Smith, Nicholas; Smith, Wesley H; Woods, Nathaniel

    2018-01-01

    Measurements of fragmentation functions for jets associated with an isolated photon are presented for the first time in pp and PbPb collisions. The analysis uses data collected with the CMS detector at the CERN LHC at a nucleon-nucleon center-of-mass energy of 5.02 TeV. Fragmentation functions are obtained for jets with ${p_{\\mathrm{T}}}^{\\text{jet}} > $ 30 GeV/$c$ in events containing an isolated photon with ${p_{\\mathrm{T}}}^{\\gamma} > $ 60 GeV/$c$, using charged tracks with transverse momentum $ {p_{\\mathrm{T}}}^{\\text{trk}} > $ 1 GeV/$c$ in a cone around the jet axis. The association with an isolated photon constrains the initial ${p_{\\mathrm{T}}}$ and azimuthal angle of the parton whose shower produced the jet. For central PbPb collisions, modifications of the jet fragmentation functions are observed when compared to those measured in pp collisions, while no significant differences are found in the 50\\% most peripheral collisions. Jets in central PbPb events show an excess (depletion) of low (high) $ {p_...

  6. Hadron production by virtual photons in the quark fragmentation region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scarr, J.M.; Chen, C.K.; Knowles, J.; Martin, D.; Skillicorn, I.O.; Smith, K.; Joos, P.; Ladage, A.; Meyer, H.; Wolf, G.

    1977-11-01

    We have measured the inclusive electroproduction of positive and negative hadrons in the quark fragmentation region using the streamer chamber at DESY. Data are presented in terms of the variable zsub(p) = p/ν in the kinematic region 1.8 2 2 . The positive hadron distributions contain a strong proton component. After subtraction of the proton component and elastic rho events, the distribution 1/sigma sub(tot) (dsigma/dz sub(p)) for positive and negative hadrons agrees well with the corresponding distribution from e + e - annihilation (DORIS data). This behaviour supports the validity of the quark parton model at surprisingly low Q 2 and W. (orig.) [de

  7. Automatic quantification of mitochondrial fragmentation from two-photon microscope images of mouse brain tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lihavainen, E; Kislin, M; Toptunov, D; Khiroug, L; Ribeiro, A S

    2015-12-01

    The morphology of mitochondria can inform about their functional state and, thus, about cell vitality. For example, fragmentation of the mitochondrial network is associated with many diseases. Recent advances in neuronal imaging have enabled the observation of mitochondria in live brains for long periods of time, enabling the study of their dynamics in animal models of diseases. To aid these studies, we developed an automatic method, based on supervised learning, for quantifying the degree of mitochondrial fragmentation in tissue images acquired via two-photon microscopy from transgenic mice, which exclusively express Enhanced cyan fluorescent protein (ECFP) under Thy1 promoter, targeted to the mitochondrial matrix in subpopulations of neurons. We tested the method on images prior to and after cardiac arrest, and found it to be sensitive to significant changes in mitochondrial morphology because of the arrest. We conclude that the method is useful in detecting morphological abnormalities in mitochondria and, likely, in other subcellular structures as well. © 2015 The Authors Journal of Microscopy © 2015 Royal Microscopical Society.

  8. Oblique photon expansion of QED structure functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chahine, C.

    1986-01-01

    In the oblique photon expansion, the collinear part of photon emission is summed up to all orders in perturbation theory. The number of oblique or non-collinear photons is the expansion order. Unlike in perturbation theory, every term of the expansion is both infrared finite and gauge invariant. The zero oblique photon contribution to the electromagnetic structure tensor in QED is computed in detail. The behaviors of the structure functions F1 and F2 are discussed in the soft and ultra-soft limits

  9. Kaon fragmentation function from NJL-jet model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matevosyan, Hrayr H.; Thomas, Anthony W.; Bentz, Wolfgang

    2010-01-01

    The NJL-jet model provides a sound framework for calculating the fragmentation functions in an effective chiral quark theory, where the momentum and isospin sum rules are satisfied without the introduction of ad hoc parameters [1]. Earlier studies of the pion fragmentation functions using the Nambu-Jona-Lasinio (NJL) model within this framework showed good qualitative agreement with the empirical parameterizations. Here we extend the NJL-jet model by including the strange quark. The corrections to the pion fragmentation function and corresponding kaon fragmentation functions are calculated using the elementary quark to quark-meson fragmentation functions from NJL. The results for the kaon fragmentation function exhibit a qualitative agreement with the empirical parameterizations, while the unfavored strange quark fragmentation to pions is shown to be of the same order of magnitude as the unfavored light quark's. The results of these studies are expected to provide important guidance for the analysis of a large variety of semi-inclusive data.

  10. Study of the neutron-photon competition during fission fragment de-excitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Min, Dong Pil.

    1976-01-01

    A program was developed to study in detail the competition between neutron and photon emissions during the different stages of the nucleus de-excitation. The main conclusions of this work are the following: the neutron-photon competition fairly depends of the initial spin of the primary fragment. It has a strong effect on the mean number of emitted neutrons, on the photon energy, and to a lower degree, on the mean energy per neutron. A relation between the mean initial spin of the heavy fragment for the almost symmetrical fission, the mean initial spin of the heavy fragment for a very asymmetric fission and the corresponding values of the mean number of emitted neutrons is given. The mean initial excitation energy must increase of about 9MeV for the nucleus to emit one more neutron. Two reasons are given to explain the fact that the measured neutron multiplicity variance is higher for the heavy fragment than for the light one: either the existence of a covariance between spin and excitation energy distribution, or a dispersion of the values of the mean number of emitted neutrons due to the mass and charge distribution resulting from experimental incertitudes. The mean energy per neutron calculated with the program is in good agreement with measured values [fr

  11. arXiv Generalized Fragmentation Functions for Fractal Jet Observables

    CERN Document Server

    Elder, Benjamin T.; Thaler, Jesse; Waalewijn, Wouter J.; Zhou, Kevin

    2017-06-15

    We introduce a broad class of fractal jet observables that recursively probe the collective properties of hadrons produced in jet fragmentation. To describe these collinear-unsafe observables, we generalize the formalism of fragmentation functions, which are important objects in QCD for calculating cross sections involving identified final-state hadrons. Fragmentation functions are fundamentally nonperturbative, but have a calculable renormalization group evolution. Unlike ordinary fragmentation functions, generalized fragmentation functions exhibit nonlinear evolution, since fractal observables involve correlated subsets of hadrons within a jet. Some special cases of generalized fragmentation functions are reviewed, including jet charge and track functions. We then consider fractal jet observables that are based on hierarchical clustering trees, where the nonlinear evolution equations also exhibit tree-like structure at leading order. We develop a numeric code for performing this evolution and study its phen...

  12. On the application of gluon to heavy quarkonium fragmentation function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qi Wei; Wang Jianxiong

    2007-01-01

    We analyze the uncertainties induced by different definitions of the momentum fraction z in the application of gluon to heavy quarkonium fragmentation function. We numerically calculate the initial g→J/ψ fragmentation functions by using the non-covariant definitions of z with finite gluon momentum and find that these fragmentation functions have strong dependence on the gluon momentum k. As |k|→∞, these fragmentation functions approach to the fragmentation function in the light-cone definition. We find that when |k| is small (for instance in the typical energy scale (about 4-20GeV) of the gluon production at the hadron colliders, such as Tevatron and LHC), large uncertainty remains while the in-covariant definitions of z are employed in the application of the fragmentation functions. (authors)

  13. Fragmentation functions of polarized heavy quarkonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma, Yan-Qing; Qiu, Jian-Wei; Zhang, Hong

    2015-01-01

    Investigating the production of polarized heavy quarkonia in terms of recently proposed QCD factorization formalism requires the knowledge of a large number of input fragmentation functions (FFs) from a single parton or a heavy quark-antiquark pair to a polarized heavy quarkonium. We study these universal FFs at the input factorization scale μ 0 ≳2m Q , with heavy quark mass m Q , in the framework of nonrelativistic QCD (NRQCD) factorization. We express these FFs in terms of perturbatively calculable coefficients for producing a heavy quark-antiquark pair in all possible NRQCD states, multiplied by corresponding NRQCD long-distance matrix elements for the pair to transmute into a polarized heavy quarkonium. We derive all relevant NRQCD operators for the long-distance matrix elements based on symmetries, and introduce a self-consistent scheme to define them in arbitrary d-dimensions. We compute, up to the first non-trivial order in α s , the perturbative coefficients for producing a heavy quark pair in all possible S-wave and P-wave NRQCD states. We also discuss the role of the polarized FFs in generating QCD predictions for the polarization of J/ψ produced at collider energies.

  14. Fission and nuclear fragmentation of silver and bromine nuclei by photons of 1-6 GeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinheiro Filho, J.D.

    1983-01-01

    The studies of fission and fragmentation of silver and bromine nuclei by Bremsstrahlung photons of 1.6 GeV energy range are presented. The Il ford-KO nuclear emulsion submitted to Bremsstrahlung beams in Deutsches Elektronen Synchrotron (DESY) with total doses of 10'' equivalent photons, was used for nuclear fragment detection. The discrimination of fission and fragmentation events was done analysing angular distribution, range and angles between fragments. The results of fragment range distributions, angular distributions, distributions of angles between fragments, distributions of ratio between range, velocity distributions forward/backward ratio, cross sections of fission and fragmentation, nuclear fissionability and ternary fission frequency are presented and discussed. (M.C.K.)

  15. Next-To-Leading Order Determination of Fragmentation Functions

    CERN Document Server

    Bourhis, L; Guillet, J P; Werlen, M

    2001-01-01

    We analyse LEP and PETRA data on single inclusive charged hadron cross-sections to establish new sets of Next-to-Leading order Fragmentation Functions. Data on hadro-production of large-$p_{\\bot}$ hadrons are also used to constrain the gluon Fragmentation Function. We carry out a critical comparison with other NLO parametrizations.

  16. Three-dimensional function photonic crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hai-Feng

    2017-11-01

    In this paper, the properties of the photonic band gaps (PBGs) of three-dimensional (3D) function photonic crystals (PCs) are theoretically investigated by a modified plane wave expansion (PWE) method, whose equations for computations are deduced. The configuration of 3D function PCs is the dielectric spheres inserted in the air background with simple-cubic (SC) lattices whose dielectric constants are the functions of space coordinates, which can be realized by the electro-optical or optical Kerr effect in the practice. The influences of the parameter for 3D function PCs on the PBGs also are discussed. The calculated results show that the bandwidths and number of PBGs can be tuned with different distributions of function dielectrics. Compared with the conventional 3D dielectric PCs with SC lattices, the larger and more PBGs can be obtained in the 3D function PCs. Those results provide a new way to design the novel practical devices.

  17. Quark fragmentation function and the nonlinear chiral quark model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu, Z.K.

    1993-01-01

    The scaling law of the fragmentation function has been proved in this paper. With that, we show that low-P T quark fragmentation function can be studied as a low energy physocs in the light-cone coordinate frame. We therefore use the nonlinear chiral quark model which is able to study the low energy physics under scale Λ CSB to study such a function. Meanwhile the formalism for studying the quark fragmentation function has been established. The nonlinear chiral quark model is quantized on the light-front. We then use old-fashioned perturbation theory to study the quark fragmentation function. Our first order result for such a function shows in agreement with the phenomenological model study of e + e - jet. The probability for u,d pair formation in the e + e - jet from our calculation is also in agreement with the phenomenological model results

  18. Calculation of parton fragmentation functions from jet calculus: gluon applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lassila, K.E.; Ng, A.

    1985-01-01

    A method is presented for calculation of general parton fragmentation functions based on jet calculus plus meson and baryon wave functions. Results for gluon fragmentation into mesons and baryons are discussed and related to recent information on upsilon decay into gluons. The expressions derived can be used directly in e + e - cross section predictions and will need to be folded in with baryon parton distribution functions when used in p-barp collisions. (author)

  19. Density of states functions for photonic crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McPhedran, R.C.; McOrist, J.; Sterke, C.M. de; Nicorovici, N.A.; Botten, L.C.; Asatryan, A.A.

    2004-01-01

    We discuss density of states functions for photonic crystals, in the context of the two-dimensional problem for arrays of cylinders of arbitrary cross section. We introduce the mutual density of states (MDOS), and show that this function can be used to calculate both the local density of states (LDOS), which gives position information for emission of radiation from photonic crystals, and the spectral density of states (SDOS), which gives angular information. We establish the connection between MDOS, LDOS, SDOS and the conventional density of states, which depends only on frequency. We relate all four functions to the band structure and propagating states within the crystal, and give numerical examples of the relation between band structure and density of states functions

  20. Transmission character of general function photonic crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xiang-Yao; Zhang, Bo-Jun; Yang, Jing-Hai; Zhang, Si-Qi; Liu, Xiao-Jing; Wang, Jing; Ba, Nuo; Hua, Zhong; Yin, Xin-Guo

    2012-08-01

    In the paper, we present a new general function photonic crystals (GFPCs), whose refractive index of medium is a arbitrary function of space position. Unlike conventional photonic crystals (PCs), whose structure grows from two mediums A and B, with different constant refractive indexes na and nb. Based on the Fermat principle, we give the motion equations of light in one-dimensional GFPCs, and calculate its transfer matrix, which is different from the conventional PCs. We choose the linearity refractive index function for two mediums A and B, and find the transmissivity of one-dimensional GFPCs can be much larger or smaller than 1 for different slope linearity refractive index functions, which are different from the transmissivity of conventional PCs (its transmissivity is in the range of 0 and 1). Otherwise, we study the effect of different incident angles, the number of periods and optical thickness on the transmissivity, and obtain some new results different from the conventional PCs.

  1. Fission and fragmentation of silver and bromine nuclei by 1-6 GeV energy photons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinheiro Filho, J. de D.

    1983-01-01

    Fission and fragmentation of silver and bromine nuclei induced by bremsstrahlung photons in the maximum energy range of 1-6 GeV are studied. A special technique of nuclear emulsion for the highly ionizing nuclear fragment detection is used in the discrimination between nuclear fission and fragmentation events. Films of Ilford-KO nuclear emulsion (approximatelly 10 20 atoms/cm 2 of Ag, Br) which had been exposed to bremsstrahlung beams in 'Deutsches Elektronen Synchrotron' (DESY, Hamburg) with total doses of approximatelly 10 11 equivalent photons are used. Through a detailed analysis of range, angular and angle between fragment distributions, and empirical relations which permit to estimate nuclear fragment energy, range and velocity, the discrimination between fission and fragmentation events is made. Results related to fragment range distribution, angular distribution, distribution of angle between fragments, distribution of ratio between ranges, velocity distributions, forward/backward ratio, fission and fragmentation cross sections, nuclear fissionability and ternary fission frequency are presented and discussed. The results show that the mean photofragmentation cross section in the internal 1-6 GeV (0,09+-0,02mb) is significant when compared to the photofission (0,29+-0,05mb). It is also shown that the mean photofission cross section between 1 and 6 GeV is great by a factor of approximatelly 10 when compared to the foreseen by the cascade-evaporation nuclear model for monoenergetic photons of 0,6 GeV. (L.C.) [pt

  2. A study of parton fragmentation using photon-hadron correlation with the ALICE experiment at LHC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arbor, N.

    2013-01-01

    The strong interaction theory, Quantum Chromodynamic (QCD), predicts a new phase of nuclear matter at very high temperature and/or very high density. This state is composed of deconfined quarks and gluons known as the quark-gluon plasma (QGP). The measurement of its composition and properties is a challenge for the nuclear physics of the 21. century and should lead to a better understanding of the fundamental symmetries and mechanisms related to the quarks confinement inside hadrons and the strong interaction generally.The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) accelerator at CERN (European Organization for Nuclear Research) allows to reach the thermodynamic conditions required to create the quark-gluon plasma using ultra-relativistic heavy ion collisions (Pb). The ALICE experiment (A Large Ion Collider Experiment) allows to access several probes to characterize the QGP through particles reconstruction and. Among these probes, high energy parton energy loss is used to access medium characteristics such as density or temperature. Parton energy loss is estimated from the modification of the energy distribution of hadrons produced by fragmentation.This thesis is dedicated to the photon-hadron correlations analysis in order to study the modification of the parton fragmentation due to the quark-gluon plasma. First part of this thesis is devoted to the characterization of the electromagnetic calorimeter (EMCal), the central detector for energy measurement and photon identification. The second part is dedicated to the photon-hadron correlation measurement, for the 7 TeV proton-proton collisions and 2.76 TeV Lead-Lead collisions. An important work has been done to improve the prompt photon identification, one of the key point of this analysis. (author) [fr

  3. A study of parton fragmentation using photon-hadron correlation with the ALICE experiment at LHC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arbor, Nicolas

    2013-01-01

    The strong interaction theory, Quantum Chromodynamic (QCD), predicts a new phase of nuclear matter at very high temperature and/or very high density. This state is composed of deconfined quarks and gluons known as the quark-gluon plasma (QGP). The measurement of its composition and properties is a challenge for the nuclear physics of the 21. century and should lead to a better understanding of the fundamental symmetries and mechanisms related to the quarks confinement inside hadrons and the strong interaction generally. The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) accelerator at CERN (European Organization for Nuclear Research) allows to reach the thermodynamic conditions required to create the quark-gluon plasma using ultra-relativistic heavy ion collisions (Pb). The ALICE experiment (A Large Ion Collider Experiment) allows to access several probes to characterize the QGP through particles reconstruction and. Among these probes, high energy parton energy loss is used to access medium characteristics such as density or temperature. Parton energy loss is estimated from the modification of the energy distribution of hadrons produced by fragmentation. This thesis is dedicated to the photon-hadron correlations analysis in order to study the modification of the parton fragmentation due to the quark-gluon plasma. First part of this thesis is devoted to the characterization of the electromagnetic calorimeter (EMCal), the central detector for energy measurement and photon identification. The second part is dedicated to the photon-hadron correlation measurement, for the 7 TeV proton-proton collisions and 2.76 TeV Lead-Lead collisions. An important work has been done to improve the prompt photon identification, one of the key point of this analysis. (author) [fr

  4. Quark fragmentation functions in NJL-jet model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bentz, Wolfgang; Matevosyan, Hrayr; Thomas, Anthony

    2014-09-01

    We report on our studies of quark fragmentation functions in the Nambu-Jona-Lasinio (NJL) - jet model. The results of Monte-Carlo simulations for the fragmentation functions to mesons and nucleons, as well as to pion and kaon pairs (dihadron fragmentation functions) are presented. The important role of intermediate vector meson resonances for those semi-inclusive deep inelastic production processes is emphasized. Our studies are very relevant for the extraction of transverse momentum dependent quark distribution functions from measured scattering cross sections. We report on our studies of quark fragmentation functions in the Nambu-Jona-Lasinio (NJL) - jet model. The results of Monte-Carlo simulations for the fragmentation functions to mesons and nucleons, as well as to pion and kaon pairs (dihadron fragmentation functions) are presented. The important role of intermediate vector meson resonances for those semi-inclusive deep inelastic production processes is emphasized. Our studies are very relevant for the extraction of transverse momentum dependent quark distribution functions from measured scattering cross sections. Supported by Grant in Aid for Scientific Research, Japanese Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology, Project No. 20168769.

  5. Charmed-meson fragmentation functions with finite-mass corrections and their application in various processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kneesch, Torben

    2010-12-15

    We have calculated the single-inclusive production cross section of massive quarks in electron-positron-annihilation with next-to-leading order QCD corrections. With these results we have extracted fragmentation functions for the fragmentation from partons into D{sup 0}, D{sup +} and D{sup *} mesons, where we have used experimental data from the B factories Belle and CLEO and from the ALEPH and OPAL experiments at the LEP collider. In our analysis we have included the masses of c and b quarks and of the D mesons and tested the evolution of fragmentation functions with a global fit spanning the B factories' center-of-mass energy of {radical}(s)=10.5 GeV to LEP's run at the Z boson resonance at M{sub Z}. We have applied this fragmentation functions in deep inelastic scattering for comparisons with HERA data using parton cross sections from the literature available in program form. We have then modified this cross section to calculate predictions for deep inelastic two-photon-scattering. By applying the Weizsaecker-Williams spectrum on the real photon we have calculated predictions for LEP1, LEP2 and the future ILC experiments. For ILC we have also included a beamstrahlung spectrum. Finally we have calculated production cross sections for the planned e{gamma} mode of the ILC with the help of a Compton spectrum. (orig.)

  6. Jet Fragmentation Function Moments in Heavy Ion Collisions

    CERN Document Server

    Cacciari, Matteo; Salam, Gavin P; Soyez, Gregory

    2013-01-01

    The nature of a jet's fragmentation in heavy-ion collisions has the potential to cast light on the mechanism of jet quenching. However the presence of the huge underlying event complicates the reconstruction of the jet fragmentation function as a function of the momentum fraction z of hadrons in the jet. Here we propose the use of moments of the fragmentation function. These quantities appear to be as sensitive to quenching modifications as the fragmentation function directly in z. We show that they are amenable to background subtraction using the same jet-area based techniques proposed in the past for jet p_t's. Furthermore, complications due to correlations between background-fluctuation contributions to the jet's p_t and to its particle content are easily corrected for.

  7. Jet fragmentation function moments in heavy ion collisions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cacciari, Matteo [UPMC Univ. Paris 6 et CNRS UMR 7589, LPTHE, Paris (France); Universite Paris Diderot, Paris (France); Quiroga-Arias, Paloma [UPMC Univ. Paris 6 et CNRS UMR 7589, LPTHE, Paris (France); Salam, Gavin P. [UPMC Univ. Paris 6 et CNRS UMR 7589, LPTHE, Paris (France); CERN, Department of Physics, Theory Unit, Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Princeton University, Department of Physics, Princeton, NJ (United States); Soyez, Gregory [CNRS URA 2306, Institut de Physique Theorique, CEA Saclay, Gif-sur-Yvette (France)

    2013-03-15

    The nature of a jet's fragmentation in heavy-ion collisions has the potential to cast light on the mechanism of jet quenching. However, the presence of the huge underlying event complicates the reconstruction of the jet fragmentation function as a function of the momentum fraction z of hadrons in the jet. Here we propose the use of moments of the fragmentation function. These quantities appear to be as sensitive to quenching modifications as the fragmentation function directly in z. We show that they are amenable to background subtraction using the same jet-area-based techniques proposed in the past for jet p{sub t} 's. Furthermore, complications due to correlations between background-fluctuation contributions to the jet's p{sub t} and to its particle content are easily corrected for. (orig.)

  8. Jet fragmentation function moments in heavy ion collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cacciari, Matteo; Quiroga-Arias, Paloma; Salam, Gavin P.; Soyez, Gregory

    2013-01-01

    The nature of a jet's fragmentation in heavy-ion collisions has the potential to cast light on the mechanism of jet quenching. However, the presence of the huge underlying event complicates the reconstruction of the jet fragmentation function as a function of the momentum fraction z of hadrons in the jet. Here we propose the use of moments of the fragmentation function. These quantities appear to be as sensitive to quenching modifications as the fragmentation function directly in z. We show that they are amenable to background subtraction using the same jet-area-based techniques proposed in the past for jet p t 's. Furthermore, complications due to correlations between background-fluctuation contributions to the jet's p t and to its particle content are easily corrected for. (orig.)

  9. NJL-jet model for quark fragmentation functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ito, T.; Bentz, W.; Cloeet, I. C.; Thomas, A. W.; Yazaki, K.

    2009-01-01

    A description of fragmentation functions which satisfy the momentum and isospin sum rules is presented in an effective quark theory. Concentrating on the pion fragmentation function, we first explain why the elementary (lowest order) fragmentation process q→qπ is completely inadequate to describe the empirical data, although the crossed process π→qq describes the quark distribution functions in the pion reasonably well. Taking into account cascadelike processes in a generalized jet-model approach, we then show that the momentum and isospin sum rules can be satisfied naturally, without the introduction of ad hoc parameters. We present results for the Nambu-Jona-Lasinio (NJL) model in the invariant mass regularization scheme and compare them with the empirical parametrizations. We argue that the NJL-jet model, developed herein, provides a useful framework with which to calculate the fragmentation functions in an effective chiral quark theory.

  10. Confronting fragmentation function universality with single hadron inclusive production at HERA and e+e- colliders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albino, S.; Kniehl, B.A.; Kramer, G.; Sandoval, C.

    2006-11-01

    Predictions for light charged hadron production data in the current fragmentation region of deeply inelastic scattering from the H1 and ZEUS experiments are calculated using perturbative Quantum Chromodynamics at next-to-leading order, and using fragmentation functions obtained by fitting to similar data from e + e - reactions. General good agreement is found when the magnitude Q 2 of the hard photon's virtuality is sufficiently large. The discrepancy at low Q and small scaled momentum x p is reduced by incorporating mass effects of the detected hadron. By performing quark tagging, the contributions to the overall fragmentation from the various quark flavours in the ep reactions are studied and compared to the contributions in e + e - reactions. The yields of the various hadron species are also calculated. (orig.)

  11. Determination of diquark fragmentation functions in pp collisions

    CERN Document Server

    Beavis, D

    1981-01-01

    The recent data of the Aachen-CERN-Harvard-Munich-Northwestern- Riverside collaboration on pp collisions involving a high-p/sub T/ pion trigger at 30 degrees with forward production of pion and proton in the same hemisphere is analyzed in terms of fragmentation functions of the forward diquark and a quantum-chromodynamic model for the ejected parton. The pion diquark fragmentation functions obtained from leptoproduction give excellent fits to the data and confirm the conclusions of ACHMNR that the diquark within a proton act as a single entity. This single-entity hypothesis can also explain proton fragmentation. The gluon contribution (triquark fragmentation) is significant in the proton distribution and accounts for the difference in pi /sup +/ and pi /sup -/ distributions. Its importance in backward-hemisphere production of hadrons with the same pion trigger is emphasized and the cross sections are predicted. (8 refs).

  12. Heavy quark fragmentation functions in the heavy quark effective theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martynenko, A.P.; Saleev, V.A.

    1996-01-01

    The fragmentation of b-bar-antiquark into polarized B c * -mesons and b-quark into P-wave (c-bar b) states in the Heavy Quark Effective Theory. The heavy quark fragmentation functions in longitudinally and transversely polarized S-wave b-bar c-states and P-wave mesons containing b-, c-quarks also, with the exact account of corrections of first order in 1/m b . 20 refs., 2 figs

  13. Fragmentation of single-particle states and neutron strength functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soloviev, V.G.

    1975-01-01

    Fragmentation of one-particle states in odd deformed nuclei is studied in the framework of a model based on the interaction between quasiparticles and phonons. A principally new semi-microscopic method for calculation of force functions using the data on fragmentation of one-particle states is suggested. Calculated s- and p-wave neutron force functions in 239 U and 169 Er are in good agreement with experiment. The correct description of the s-wave neutron force function in the vicinity of is obtained in particular for Sn isotopes/ of its minimum is obtained in particular for Sn isotopes

  14. Strength functions for fragmented doorway states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacDonald, W.M.

    1980-01-01

    Coupling a strongly excited ''doorway state'' to weak ''hallway states'' distributes its strength into micro-resonances seen in differential cross sections taken with very good energy resolution. The distribution of strength is shown to be revealed by reduced widths of the K-matrix rather than by the imaginary part of poles of the S-matrix. Different strength functions (SF) constructed by averaging the K-matrix widths are then investigated to determine their dependences on energy and on parameters related to averages of microscopic matrix elements. A new sum rule on the integrated strength of these SF is derived and used to show that different averaging procedures actually distribute the strength differently. Finally, it is shown that the discontinuous summed strength defines spreading parameters for the doorway state only in strong coupling, where it approximates the idefinite integral of the continuous SF of MacDonald-Mekjian-Kerman-De Toledo Piza. A new method of ''parametric continuation'' is used to relate a discontinuous sliding box-average, or a finite sum, of discrete terms to a continous function

  15. Predicting Hydrologic Function With Aquatic Gene Fragments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Good, S. P.; URycki, D. R.; Crump, B. C.

    2018-03-01

    Recent advances in microbiology techniques, such as genetic sequencing, allow for rapid and cost-effective collection of large quantities of genetic information carried within water samples. Here we posit that the unique composition of aquatic DNA material within a water sample contains relevant information about hydrologic function at multiple temporal scales. In this study, machine learning was used to develop discharge prediction models trained on the relative abundance of bacterial taxa classified into operational taxonomic units (OTUs) based on 16S rRNA gene sequences from six large arctic rivers. We term this approach "genohydrology," and show that OTU relative abundances can be used to predict river discharge at monthly and longer timescales. Based on a single DNA sample from each river, the average Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency (NSE) for predicted mean monthly discharge values throughout the year was 0.84, while the NSE for predicted discharge values across different return intervals was 0.67. These are considerable improvements over predictions based only on the area-scaled mean specific discharge of five similar rivers, which had average NSE values of 0.64 and -0.32 for seasonal and recurrence interval discharge values, respectively. The genohydrology approach demonstrates that genetic diversity within the aquatic microbiome is a large and underutilized data resource with benefits for prediction of hydrologic function.

  16. The γ total cross section and the photon structure functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alexander, G.

    1986-01-01

    A review on the current experimental status of the photon-photon total hadronic cross section as a function of energy and Q 2 is given in addition to the results obtained for the leptonic and hadronic photon structure functions. The results are discussed in terms of the point-like part of the photon and non-perturbative VDM part. It is shown that the cross section at Q 2 = 0 is well described by VDM derived models

  17. Summary of the Photon Structure Functions - Measurements at LEP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Przybycien, M.

    2002-01-01

    The present status of the photon structure functions measurements at LEP is discussed. The short introduction to the kinematics and theoretical framework of the structure functions measurements at LEP is given first. Then follow presentations of the most important measurements, ranging from the QED photon structure function, through the hadronic structure functions of real and virtual photons, and at the end the first measurement of the electron structure function is shown. (author)

  18. Photon albedo coefficients as functions of μ/Zeff parameter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ljubenov Vladan L.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of the analyses of photon reflection from planar targets for normal photon incidence and for different shielding materials (water, concrete, aluminum, iron, and copper, in the range of the initial photon energies from 20 keV to 300 keV. Calculations of photon reflection parameters based on the results of Monte Carlo simulations of the photon transport have been performed using MCNP4C code. Integral reflection coefficients, presented as functions of the ratio of total cross-section of photons and effective atomic number of target material, show universal behaviour for all the analyzed shielding materials in the selected energy domain.

  19. Anisotropy in angular distributions of 238U fission fragments by photons, produced in high energy electron interaction with Si monocrystal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kasilov, V.I.; Lapin, N.N.

    1981-01-01

    An enhancement is detected under the angle of 90 deg in the fission fragment yield from 238 U nuclei produced by photons emitted by high-energy electrons passing through a silicon monocrystal. The results enable one to select the most optimal conditions to obtain maximal yields of nuclear particles [ru

  20. On the next-to-next-to-leading order evolution of flavour-singlet fragmentation functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Almasy, A.A.; Moch, S.; Vogt, A.

    2012-01-01

    We present the third-order contributions to the quark-gluon and gluon-quark timelike splitting functions for the evolution of fragmentation functions in perturbative QCD. These quantities have been derived by studying physical evolution kernels for photon- and Higgs-exchange structure functions in deep-inelastic scattering and their counterparts in semi-inclusive annihilation, together with constraints from the momentum sum rule and the supersymmetric limit. For this purpose we have also calculated the second-order coefficient functions for one-hadron inclusive Higgs decay in the heavy-top limit. A numerically tolerable uncertainty remains for the quark-gluon splitting function, which does not affect the endpoint logarithms for small and large momentum fractions. We briefly discuss these limits and illustrate the numerical impact of the third-order corrections. Compact and accurate parametrizations are provided for all third-order timelike splitting functions.

  1. On the next-to-next-to-leading order evolution of flavour-singlet fragmentation functions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Almasy, A.A.; Vogt, A. [Liverpool Univ. (United Kingdom). Dept. of Mathematical Sciences; Moch, S. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Zeuthen (Germany)

    2011-07-15

    We present the third-order contributions to the quark-gluon and gluon-quark timelike splitting functions for the evolution of fragmentation functions in perturbative QCD. These quantities have been derived by studying physical evolution kernels for photon- and Higgs-exchange structure functions in deep-inelastic scattering and their counterparts in semi-inclusive annihilation, together with constraints from the momentum sum rule and the supersymmetric limit. For this purpose we have also calculated the second-order coefficient functions for one-hadron inclusive Higgs decay in the heavy-top limit. A numerically tolerable uncertainty remains for the quark-gluon splitting function, which does not affect the endpoint logarithms for small and large momentum fractions. We briefly discuss these limits and illustrate the numerical impact of the third-order corrections. Compact and accurate parametrizations are provided for all third-order timelike splitting functions. (orig.)

  2. Calculation of hadronic part of photon structure function in QCD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorskij, A.S.; Ioffe, B.L.; Oganesyan, A.G.; Khodzhamiryan, A.Yu.

    1989-01-01

    The photon structure function in QCD in the intermediate region of the Bjorken variable 0.2 2 /2pq, where q 2 is the hard photon virtuality, p is the soft photon momentum) is calculated. It is shown that without introduction of fitting parameters the experimental data can be described in the range 3GeV 2 ≤Q 2 2 /Q 2 =-q 2 /not taking account for the leading logarithmic corrections. It is demonstrated that the corrections proportional to μ ν 2 > to the hard photon scattering amplitude on the longitudinal soft photon and to the Callan-Gross relation vanish. 16 refs.; 6 figs

  3. Updated Photonuclear Data Library and Database for Photon Strength Functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitriou Paraskevi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Photonuclear cross sections and gamma-ray data used to extract Photon Strength Functions are important for a large range of applications including basic sciences. The recommendations of an IAEA Consultant’s Meeting to update the IAEA Photonuclear Data Library and create a Reference Database for Photon Strength Functions are presented.

  4. Charmed-hadron fragmentation functions from CERN LEP1 revisted

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kniehl, B.A.; Kramer, G.

    2006-07-01

    In Phys. Rev. D 58, 014014 (1998) and 71, 094013 (2005), we determined non-perturbative D 0 , D + , D *+ , D s + , and Λ c + fragmentation functions, both at leading and next-to-leading order in the MS factorization scheme, by fitting e + e - data taken by the OPAL Collaboration at CERN LEP1. The starting points for the evolution in the factorization scale μ were taken to be μ 0 -2m Q , where Q = c, b. For the reader's convenience, in this Addendum, we repeat this analysis for μ 0 =m Q , where the flavor thresholds of modern sets of parton density functions are located. (Orig.)

  5. Advances and new functions of VCSEL photonics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koyama, Fumio

    2014-11-01

    A vertical cavity surface emitting laser (VCSEL) was born in Japan. The 37 years' research and developments opened up various applications including datacom, sensors, optical interconnects, spectroscopy, optical storages, printers, laser displays, laser radar, atomic clock and high power sources. A lot of unique features have been already proven, such as low power consumption, a wafer level testing and so on. The market of VCSELs has been growing up rapidly and they are now key devices in local area networks based on multi-mode optical fibers. Optical interconnections in data centers and supercomputers are attracting much interest. In this paper, the advances on VCSEL photonics will be reviewed. We present the high-speed modulation of VCSELs based on a coupled cavity structure. For further increase in transmission capacity per fiber, the wavelength engineering of VCSEL arrays is discussed, which includes the wavelength stabilization and wavelength tuning based on a micro-machined cantilever structure. We also address a lateral integration platform and new functions, including high-resolution beam scanner, vortex beam creation and large-port free space wavelength selective switch with a Bragg reflector waveguide.

  6. Temperature-modified photonic bandgap in colloidal photonic crystals fabricated by vinyl functionalized silica spheres

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deng Tiansong; Zhang Junyan; Zhu Kongtao; Zhang Qifeng; Wu Jinlei

    2011-01-01

    Graphical abstract: A thermal annealing procedure was described for fine modifying the photonic bandgap properties of colloidal photonic crystals, which were self-assembled from vinyl-functionalized silica spheres by a gravity sedimentation process. Highlights: → We described a thermal annealing procedure for fine modifying the photonic bandgap properties of colloidal photonic crystals. → The position of its stop band had more than 25% blue shift by annealing the sample from 60 to 600 deg. C. → The annealing temperature and the Bragg peak values have a linear relationship in the 120-440 deg. C range. → The effects provide a simple and controllable method for modifying the photonic bandgap properties of colloidal photonic crystals. - Abstract: A thermal annealing procedure for fine modifying the photonic bandgap properties of colloidal photonic crystals was described. The colloidal photonic crystals were assembled from monodisperse vinyl functionalized silica spheres by a gravity sedimentation process. The samples diffract light following Bragg's law combined with Snell's law. By annealing the sample at temperatures in the range of 60-600 deg. C, the position of its stop band shifted from 943 to 706 nm. It had more than 25% blue shift. In addition, the annealing temperature and the Bragg peak values have a linear relationship in the 120-440 deg. C range. Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectra and thermo-gravimetric analysis (TGA) curves of vinyl functionalized silica spheres confirmed the above results. The effects provide a simple and controllable method for modifying the photonic bandgap properties of colloidal photonic crystals.

  7. Construction of Nanowire Heterojunctions: Photonic Function-Oriented Nanoarchitectonics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yong Jun; Yan, Yongli; Zhao, Yong Sheng; Yao, Jiannian

    2016-02-10

    Nanophotonics has received broad research interest because it may provide an alternative opportunity to overcome the fundamental limitations of electronic circuits. So far, diverse photonic functions, such as light generation, modulation, and detection, have been realized based on various nano-materials. The exact structural features of these material systems, including geometric characteristics, surface morphology, and material composition, play a key role in determining the photonic functions. Therefore, rational designs and constructions of materials on both morphological and componential levels, namely nanoarchitectonics, are indispensable for any photonic device with specific functionalities. Recently, a series of nanowire heterojunctions (NWHJs), which are usually made from two or more kinds of material compositions, were constructed for novel photonic applications based on various interactions between different materials at the junctions, for instance, energy transfer, exciton-plasmon coupling, or photon-plasmon coupling. A summary of these works is necessary to get a more comprehensive understanding of the relationship between photonic functions and architectonics of NWHJs, which will be instructive for designing novel photonic devices towards integrated circuits. Here, photonic function oriented nanoarchitectonics based on recent breakthroughs in nanophotonic devices are discussed, with emphasis on the design mechanisms, fabrication strategies, and excellent performances. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. The photon structure function and hard scattering in two-photon reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolanoski, H.

    1984-09-01

    This report summarizes experimental results obtained by the CELLO, JADE, PLUTO and TASSO collaborations on the following topics: the structure function of the photon; hard scattering and jet production and exclusive hadron pair production. (orig.)

  9. Photon structure functions at small x in holographic QCD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanabe, Akira; Li, Hsiang-nan

    2015-01-01

    We investigate the photon structure functions at small Bjorken variable x in the framework of the holographic QCD, assuming dominance of the Pomeron exchange. The quasi-real photon structure functions are expressed as convolution of the Brower–Polchinski–Strassler–Tan (BPST) Pomeron kernel and the known wave functions of the U(1) vector field in the five-dimensional AdS space, in which the involved parameters in the BPST kernel have been fixed in previous studies of the nucleon structure functions. The predicted photon structure functions, as confronted with data, provide a clean test of the BPST kernel. The agreement between theoretical predictions and data is demonstrated, which supports applications of holographic QCD to hadronic processes in the nonperturbative region. Our results are also consistent with those derived from the parton distribution functions of the photon proposed by Glück, Reya, and Schienbein, implying realization of the vector meson dominance in the present model setup.

  10. How to learn about polarized lambda-baryon fragmentation functions?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soffer, J.

    1999-01-01

    We study the inclusive production of Λ (Λ-bar) in several high energy collision processes (e + e - , e ± p, ν(ν-bar)p, pp), in view of an accurate determination of the polarized fragmentation functions of a quark into a Λ (Λ-bar). We will recall that present data are unable to distinguish between various theoretical models, in particular for the spin transfer mechanisms and we will indicate how future measurements will provide ways to discriminate between them and also how to achieve a necessary quark flavor separation

  11. Jet shape and fragmentation function measurements with CMS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mao, Yaxian

    2014-01-01

    We present measurements of the jet fragmentation functions and transverse momentum profiles (shapes) in PbPb collisions at √(s NN )=2.76 TeV per nucleon-pair center-of-mass energy with the CMS detector. Jets are reconstructed by the anti-k T sequential clustering algorithm with a resolution parameter of 0.3, using particle-flow objects that combine tracking and calorimetric information. In this proceedings the jet properties of inclusive jets with transverse momentum p T >100 GeV/c in PbPb collisions are measured for reconstructed charged particles with p T >1 GeV/c in a cone of radius √(Δϕ 2 +Δη 2 )=0.3 around the jet axis. A data sample of PbPb collisions collected in 2011 at a center-of-mass energy of √(s NN )=2.76 TeV corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 150 μb −1 is used. The results for PbPb collisions as a function of collision centrality are compared to reference distributions based on the full 2013 pp statistics collected at the same collision energy. Centrality-dependent modifications of the fragmentation functions and shapes are revealed

  12. The effect of meson wave function on heavy-quark fragmentation function

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moosavi Nejad, S.M. [Yazd University, Faculty of Physics (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Institute for Research in Fundamental Sciences (IPM), School of Particles and Accelerators, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    We calculate the process-independent fragmentation functions (FFs) for a heavy quark to fragment into heavy mesons considering the effects of meson wave function. In all previous works, where the FFs of heavy mesons or heavy baryons were calculated, a delta function form was approximated for the wave function of hadrons. Here, for the first time, we consider a typical mesonic wave function which is different from the delta function and is the nonrelativistic limit of the solution of Bethe-Salpeter equation with the QCD kernel. We present our numerical results for the heavy FFs and show how the proposed wave function improves the previous results. As an example, we focus on the fragmentation function for c-quark to split into S-wave D{sup 0} -meson and compare our results with experimental data from BELLE and CLEO. (orig.)

  13. Advances in photonic bandgap fiber functionality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lyngsøe, Jens Kristian

    In order to take advantage of the many intriguing optical properties of photonic bandgap fibers, there are some technological challenges that have to be addressed. Among other things this includes transmission loss and the fibers ability to maintain field polarization. The work presented in this ......In order to take advantage of the many intriguing optical properties of photonic bandgap fibers, there are some technological challenges that have to be addressed. Among other things this includes transmission loss and the fibers ability to maintain field polarization. The work presented...

  14. Structure functions of longitudinal virtual photons at low virtualities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ioffe, B.L.; Shushpanov, I.A.

    1996-01-01

    The structure functions F L 1 and F L 2 of longitudinal virtual photons at low virtualities are calculated in the framework of chiral perturbation theory (ChPT) in the zero and first order of ChPT. It is assumed that the virtuality of a target longitudinal photon p 2 is much less than the virtuality of the hard projectile photon Q 2 and both are less than the characteristic ChPT scale. In this approximation the structure functions are determined by the production of two pions in γγ collisions. The numerical results for F L 2 and F L 1 are presented (the upper index refers to the longitudinal polarization of the virtual target photon). The possibilities of measurements of these structure functions are briefly discussed. copyright 1996 The American Physical Society

  15. On the Q2-dependence of quark and diquark fragmentation functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartl, A.

    1988-01-01

    The Q 2 -dependence of quark and diquark fragmentation functions is studied by means of evolution equations and compared with the experimental data. Some comments on the evolution of charm quark fragmentation are also presented. 20 refs., 4 figs. (Author)

  16. Calculating kaon fragmentation functions from the Nambu-Jona-Lasinio jet model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matevosyan, Hrayr H.; Thomas, Anthony W.; Bentz, Wolfgang

    2011-01-01

    The Nambu-Jona-Lasinio (NJL)-jet model provides a sound framework for calculating the fragmentation functions in an effective chiral quark theory, where the momentum and isospin sum rules are satisfied without the introduction of ad hoc parameters. Earlier studies of the pion fragmentation functions using the NJL model within this framework showed qualitative agreement with the empirical parametrizations. Here we extend the NJL-jet model by including the strange quark. The corrections to the pion fragmentation functions and corresponding kaon fragmentation functions are calculated using the elementary quark to quark-meson fragmentation functions from NJL. The results for the kaon fragmentation functions exhibit a qualitative agreement with the empirical parametrizations, while the unfavored strange quark fragmentation to pions is shown to be of the same order of magnitude as the unfavored light quark. The results of these studies are expected to provide important guidance for the analysis of a large variety of semi-inclusive data.

  17. Second-order QCD analysis of the photon structure function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antoniadis, I.; Grunberg, G.

    1983-01-01

    The QCD predictions for the photon structure function are reexamined with particular emphasis on the small-x behavior. A simple parametrization of the real photon structure function, free of 1/x singularity, is derived. The structure function is found to be sensitive at small x to the non-perturbatively calculable constant term in the n=2 moment, and we show that the problem of a negative structure function can be solved on the basis of the knowledge of this single non-perturbative parameter. (orig.)

  18. Dynamics of Neutral Cluster Growth and Cluster Ion Fragmentation for Toluene/Water, Aniline/Argon, and 4-Fluorostyrene/Argon Clusters: Covariance Mapping of the Mass Spectral Data

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Foltin, M

    1998-01-01

    .... To explore sensitivity of the parent ion/fragment ion correlation coefficient to cluster fragmentation, correlation coefficients are measured as a function of ionization photon energy as thresholds...

  19. Study of the photon strength function in Te-128

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Isaak, Johann; Silva, Joel [EMMI, Darmstadt (Germany); FIAS, Frankfurt (Germany); Beck, Tobias; Gayer, Udo; Pietralla, Norbert; Romig, Christopher; Zweidinger, Markus [IKP, TU Darmstadt (Germany); Derya, Vera; Zilges, Andreas [IKP, University of Cologne (Germany); Loeher, Bastian; Savran, Deniz [GSI, Darmstadt (Germany); Tamkas, Makbule [EMMI, Darmstadt (Germany); Graduate School of Natural and Applied Sciences, Yildiz Technical University, Istanbul (Turkey); Tornow, Werner; Weller, Henry R. [TUNL, Duke University, Durham (United States)

    2016-07-01

    The Photon Strength Function (PSF) is a crucial input parameter for statistical model calculations such as Hauser-Feshbach calculations to study the nucleosynthesis of the elements in the universe. In practice, it is a challenging task to determine the PSF experimentally. Therefore, photon-scattering experiments were performed at the High Intensity γ-ray Source (HIγS) at Duke University, Durham, USA. Due to the monochromatic photon beam that is provided at HIγS, the excitation energy is well known as well as the ensemble of states that are populated, i.e. mainly J=1 states. The emitted photons from the subsequent deexcitation are measured with the γ-γ coincidence setup γ{sup 3}. With this experimental approach it is possible to determine the PSF for dipole transitions on top of the ground state and the PSF build on low-lying excited states. Recent results on Te-128 are presented and discussed.

  20. Proton fragmentation functions considering finite-mass corrections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moosavi Nejad, S.M. [Yazd University, Faculty of Physics, Yazd (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Institute for Research in Fundamental Sciences (IPM), School of Particles and Accelerators, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Soleymaninia, M. [Payame Noor Universtiy, Department of Physics, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Maktoubian, A. [Yazd University, Faculty of Physics, Yazd (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    We present new sets of proton fragmentation functions (FFs) describing the production of protons from the gluon and each of the quarks, obtained by the NLO QCD fits to all relevant data sets of single-inclusive electron-positron annihilation. Specifically, we determine their uncertainties using the Gaussian method for error estimation. Our analysis is in good agreement with the e{sup +}e{sup -} annihilation data. We also include finite-mass effects of the proton in our calculations, a topic to which very little attention is paid in the literature. Proton mass effects turn out to be appreciable for gluon and light quark FFs. The inclusion of finite-mass effects tends to improve the overall description of the data by reducing the minimized χ{sup 2} values significantly. As an application, we apply the extracted FFs to make predictions for the scaled-energy distribution of protons inclusively produced in top quark decays at next-to-leading order, relying on the universality and scaling violations of FFs. (orig.)

  1. Photon structure functions with heavy particle mass effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uematsu, Tsuneo, E-mail: uematsu@scphys.kyoto-u.jp [Graduate School of Science, Kyoto University, Kitashirakawa, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto, 606-8502 (Japan); Maskawa Institute for Science and Culture, Kyoto Sangyo University, Kamigamo, Kita-ku, Kyoto 603-8555 (Japan)

    2013-01-15

    In the framework of the perturbative QCD we investigate heavy particle mass effects on the unpolarized and polarized photon structure functions, F{sub 2}{sup γ} and g{sub 1}{sup γ}, respectively. We present our basic formalism to treat heavy particle mass effects to NLO in perturbative QCD. We also study heavy quark effects on the QCD sum rule for the first moment of g{sub 1}{sup γ}, which is related to axial anomaly. The photon structure function in supersymmetric QCD is also briefly discussed.

  2. Direct fragmentation of quarkonia including Fermi motion using light-cone wave function

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nobary, M.A. Gomshi [Razi University, Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Kermanshah (Iran); A.E.O.I., Center for Theoretical Physics and Mathematics, Tehran (Iran); Javadi, B. [Razi University, Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Kermanshah (Iran)

    2005-07-01

    We investigate the effect of Fermi motion on the direct fragmentation of the J/{psi} and {upsilon} states employing a light-cone wave function. Consistent with such a wave function we set up the kinematics of a heavy quark fragmenting into quarkonia such that the Fermi motion of the constituents splits into a longitudinal as well as a transverse direction and thus calculate the fragmentation functions for these states. In the framework of our investigation, we estimate that the fragmentation probabilities of J/{psi} and {upsilon} may increase at least up to 14 percent when including this degree of freedom. (orig.)

  3. Photon distribution function for stocks wave for stimulated Raman scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Man'ko, O.V.; Tcherniega, N.V.

    1997-04-01

    New time-dependent integrals of motion are found for stimulated Raman scattering. Explicit formula for the photon-number probability distribution as a function of the laser-field intensity and the medium parameters is obtained in terms of Hermite polynomials of two variables. (author). 29 refs

  4. Gamma Radiation from Fission Fragments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Higbie, Jack

    1969-10-01

    The gamma radiation from the fragments of the thermal neutron fission of 235 U has been investigated, and the preliminary data are presented here with suggestions for further lines of research and some possible interpretations of the data. The data have direct bearing on the fission process and the mode of fragment de-excitation. The parameters measured are the radiation decay curve for the time interval (1 - 7) x 10 -10 sec after fission, the photon yield, the total gamma ray energy yield, and the average photon energy. The last three quantities are measured as a function of the fragment mass

  5. Gamma Radiation from Fission Fragments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Higbie, Jack

    1969-10-15

    The gamma radiation from the fragments of the thermal neutron fission of {sup 235}U has been investigated, and the preliminary data are presented here with suggestions for further lines of research and some possible interpretations of the data. The data have direct bearing on the fission process and the mode of fragment de-excitation. The parameters measured are the radiation decay curve for the time interval (1 - 7) x 10{sup -10} sec after fission, the photon yield, the total gamma ray energy yield, and the average photon energy. The last three quantities are measured as a function of the fragment mass.

  6. The photon structure function at large Q2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cordier, A.

    1987-01-01

    LEP II offers the unique opportunity to measure the photon structure function over a large Q 2 range up to ∼ 2000 GeV 2 . Two crucial predictions of QCD can be tested in this experiment: the linear rise in log Q 2 as a consequence of asymptotic freedom, and the large renormalization O(1) of the shape of the structure function due to gluon bremsstrahlung, unperturbed by higher-twist effects

  7. Screening of a Novel Fragment Library with Functional Complexity against Mycobacterium tuberculosis InhA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prati, Federica; Zuccotto, Fabio; Fletcher, Daniel; Convery, Maire A; Fernandez-Menendez, Raquel; Bates, Robert; Encinas, Lourdes; Zeng, Jingkun; Chung, Chun-Wa; De Dios Anton, Paco; Mendoza-Losana, Alfonso; Mackenzie, Claire; Green, Simon R; Huggett, Margaret; Barros, David; Wyatt, Paul G; Ray, Peter C

    2018-04-06

    Our findings reported herein provide support for the benefits of including functional group complexity (FGC) within fragments when screening against protein targets such as Mycobacterium tuberculosis InhA. We show that InhA fragment actives with FGC maintained their binding pose during elaboration. Furthermore, weak fragment hits with functional group handles also allowed for facile fragment elaboration to afford novel and potent InhA inhibitors with good ligand efficiency metrics for optimization. © 2018 The Authors. Published by Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA.

  8. Changes in tree reproductive traits reduce functional diversity in a fragmented Atlantic forest landscape.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Coe Girão

    Full Text Available Functional diversity has been postulated to be critical for the maintenance of ecosystem functioning, but the way it can be disrupted by human-related disturbances remains poorly investigated. Here we test the hypothesis that habitat fragmentation changes the relative contribution of tree species within categories of reproductive traits (frequency of traits and reduces the functional diversity of tree assemblages. The study was carried out in an old and severely fragmented landscape of the Brazilian Atlantic forest. We used published information and field observations to obtain the frequency of tree species and individuals within 50 categories of reproductive traits (distributed in four major classes: pollination systems, floral biology, sexual systems, and reproductive systems in 10 fragments and 10 tracts of forest interior (control plots. As hypothesized, populations in fragments and control plots differed substantially in the representation of the four major classes of reproductive traits (more than 50% of the categories investigated. The most conspicuous differences were the lack of three pollination systems in fragments--pollination by birds, flies and non-flying mammals--and that fragments had a higher frequency of both species and individuals pollinated by generalist vectors. Hermaphroditic species predominate in both habitats, although their relative abundances were higher in fragments. On the contrary, self-incompatible species were underrepresented in fragments. Moreover, fragments showed lower functional diversity (H' scores for pollination systems (-30.3%, floral types (-23.6%, and floral sizes (-20.8% in comparison to control plots. In contrast to the overwhelming effect of fragmentation, patch and landscape metrics such as patch size and forest cover played a minor role on the frequency of traits. Our results suggest that habitat fragmentation promotes a marked shift in the relative abundance of tree reproductive traits and

  9. Collins fragmentation function for pions and kaons in a spectator model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bacchetta, A. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Gamberg, L.P. [Penn State Univ., Berks, PA (United States). Dept. of Physics; Goldstein, G.R. [Tufts Univ., Medford, MA (United States). Dept. of Physics and Astronomy; Mukherjee, A. [Indian Institute of Technology Bombay, Mumbai (India). Physics Dept.

    2007-07-15

    We calculate the Collins fragmentation function in the framework of a spectator model with pseudoscalar pion-quark coupling and a Gaussian form factor at the vertex. We determine the model parameters by fitting the unpolarized fragmentation function for pions and kaons. We show that the Collins function for the pions in this model is in reasonable agreement with recent parametrizations obtained by fits of the available data. In addition, we compute for the first time the Collins function for the kaons. (orig.)

  10. Photonics

    CERN Document Server

    Andrews, David L

    2015-01-01

    Discusses the basic physical principles underlying Biomedical Photonics, spectroscopy and microscopy This volume discusses biomedical photonics, spectroscopy and microscopy, the basic physical principles underlying the technology and its applications. The topics discussed in this volume are: Biophotonics; Fluorescence and Phosphorescence; Medical Photonics; Microscopy; Nonlinear Optics; Ophthalmic Technology; Optical Tomography; Optofluidics; Photodynamic Therapy; Image Processing; Imaging Systems; Sensors; Single Molecule Detection; Futurology in Photonics. Comprehensive and accessible cov

  11. Photonics

    CERN Document Server

    Andrews, David L

    2015-01-01

    Discusses the basic physical principles underlying the technology instrumentation of photonics This volume discusses photonics technology and instrumentation. The topics discussed in this volume are: Communication Networks; Data Buffers; Defense and Security Applications; Detectors; Fiber Optics and Amplifiers; Green Photonics; Instrumentation and Metrology; Interferometers; Light-Harvesting Materials; Logic Devices; Optical Communications; Remote Sensing; Solar Energy; Solid-State Lighting; Wavelength Conversion Comprehensive and accessible coverage of the whole of modern photonics Emphas

  12. Photonics

    CERN Document Server

    Andrews, David L

    2015-01-01

    Discusses the basic physical principles underlying thescience and technology of nanophotonics, its materials andstructures This volume presents nanophotonic structures and Materials.Nanophotonics is photonic science and technology that utilizeslight/matter interactions on the nanoscale where researchers arediscovering new phenomena and developing techniques that go wellbeyond what is possible with conventional photonics andelectronics.The topics discussed in this volume are: CavityPhotonics; Cold Atoms and Bose-Einstein Condensates; Displays;E-paper; Graphene; Integrated Photonics; Liquid Cry

  13. Photonics

    CERN Document Server

    Andrews, David L

    2015-01-01

    This book covers modern photonics accessibly and discusses the basic physical principles underlying all the applications and technology of photonicsThis volume covers the basic physical principles underlying the technology and all applications of photonics from statistical optics to quantum optics. The topics discussed in this volume are: Photons in perspective; Coherence and Statistical Optics; Complex Light and Singular Optics; Electrodynamics of Dielectric Media; Fast and slow Light; Holography; Multiphoton Processes; Optical Angular Momentum; Optical Forces, Trapping and Manipulation; Pol

  14. Correlation functions and susceptibilities of photonics band gap reservoirs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konopka, M.

    1998-01-01

    We investigate quantum statistical properties of photonic band gap reservoirs in terms of correlation functions and susceptibilities in time and spectral domains. Typical features are oscillations of the time-dependent correlation functions and susceptibilities. This is because photonic bad gap reservoirs are intrinsically non-Markovian reservoirs. The results help us to understand better how intrinsic quantum-statistical properties of a reservoir influence dynamics of an atom interacting with this reservoir. Boundary conditions influence time and spectral properties of the electromagnetic field. This well-known fact has a great importance in optics and generally in electromagnetism. Specific examples are resonators used in laser technique and cavity electrodynamics. In quantum optics high-Q micro cavities are used for single-atom experiments when an atom can interact in a coherent way with an electromagnetic field which has its mode structure totally different from those in free space. In particular, interaction of an (effectively) two-level atom with a single-mode cavity field was observed in the region of microwaves (with the wavelength about 1 cm). In 1987 Yablonovitch and John independently proposed that certain periodic dielectric structures can present forbidden frequency gaps (or pseudo gaps in partially disordered structures) for transverse modes. Such periodic structures were named 'photonic band structures' or 'photonic crystals', in analogy with electronic crystals which also have a (forbidden) gap for electronic energy. For true photonic crystals the basic property of blocking electromagnetic wave propagation must be fulfilled for all waves within some frequency range, i.e. for all wavevector and polarization directions

  15. Comparison of jet fragmentation for isolated-photon+jet pairs in PbPb and pp collisions at $\\sqrt{s_{\\mathrm{NN}}} = 5.02~\\mathrm{TeV}$

    CERN Document Server

    CMS Collaboration

    2017-01-01

    Measurements of fragmentation functions for jets paired with an isolated photon in pp and, for the first time, PbPb collisions are presented. The analysis uses data from the CMS detector at the CERN LHC, with both systems at a nucleon-nucleon center-of-mass energy of $5.02\\,\\mathrm{TeV}$. Fragmentation functions are constructed using charged particles with transverse momentum $p_{\\mathrm{T}}^{\\mathrm{trk}} > 1\\,\\mathrm{GeV}/c$ inside jets with transverse momentum $p_{\\mathrm{T}}^{\\mathrm{jet}} > 30\\,\\mathrm{GeV}/c$ for events containing an isolated photon with $p_{\\mathrm{T}}^{\\gamma} > 60\\,\\mathrm{GeV}/c$. For central PbPb collisions, modifications of the jet fragmentation function with respect to that found for pp collisions are observed, while no significant differences are found in the 50\\% most peripheral collisions. The modifications seen in central events indicate an enhancement for particles at low $p_{\\mathrm{T}}$ and a depletion at high $p_{\\mathrm{T}}$, with a transition around $3\\,\\mathrm{GeV}/c$....

  16. Enhancing the functionality of photovoltaic and photonic biointerfaces through structuration

    OpenAIRE

    Wenzel, Tobias

    2017-01-01

    This two-part thesis focuses on biointerfaces of two different biological systems. It specifically examines the interplay of structure and functionality in these biointerfaces. Part one studies photo-bio-electrochemically active bacteria and the strong dependence of their electrical current generation on electrode structure and pigment organisation. Part two uncovers surprising design principles of photonic structures on flower petals and presents research tools to study disordered optical sy...

  17. Functionalized 2PP structures for the BioPhotonics Workstation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Matsuoka, Tomoyo; Nishi, Masayuki; Sakakura, Masaaki

    2011-01-01

    In its standard version, our BioPhotonics Workstation (BWS) can generate multiple controllable counter-propagating beams to create real-time user-programmable optical traps for stable three-dimensional control and manipulation of a plurality of particles. The combination of the platform with micr...... on the BWS platform by functionalizing them with silica-based sol-gel materials inside which dyes can be entrapped....

  18. Improved production and function of llama heavy chain antibody fragments by molecular evolution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Linden, van der R.H.; Geus, de B.; Frenken, G.J.; Peters, H.; Verrips, C.T.

    2000-01-01

    The aim of this study was to improve production level of llama heavy chain antibody fragments (V (HH)) in Saccharomyces cerevisiae while retaining functional characteristics. For this purpose, the DNA shuffling technique was used on llama V (HH) fragments specific for the azo-dye reactive red-6. In

  19. Monte Carlo simulations of hadronic fragmentation functions using the Nambu-Jona-Lasinio-jet model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matevosyan, Hrayr H.; Thomas, Anthony W.; Bentz, Wolfgang

    2011-01-01

    The recently developed Nambu-Jona-Lasinio--jet model is used as an effective chiral quark theory to calculate the quark fragmentation functions to pions, kaons, nucleons, and antinucleons. The effects of the vector mesons ρ, K * , and φ on the production of secondary pions and kaons are included. The fragmentation processes to nucleons and antinucleons are described by using the quark-diquark picture, which has been shown to give a reasonable description of quark distribution functions. We incorporate effects of next-to-leading order in the Q 2 evolution, and compare our results with the empirical fragmentation functions.

  20. A theoretical study of the c and b fragmentation function in e+e- annihilation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colangelo, G.

    1992-01-01

    We present an analysis of the c and b fragmentation functions which includes in a consistent fashion leading and next-to-leading perturbative contributions, effects due to soft gluon emission and a parametrization of effects of non-perturbative origin. We show that the data on D meson production at intermediate energy constrain the parametrization of the effects of non-perturbative nature. We can therefore make a prediction for the B fragmentation function. Results for the B, D and D * fragmentation functions at LEP energy are given, and compared with existing data. (orig.)

  1. Study of Dimuon Production in Photon-Photon Collisions and Measurement of QED Photon Structure Functions at LEP

    CERN Document Server

    Abreu, P.; Adye, T.; Adzic, P.; Azhinenko, I.; Albrecht, Z.; Alderweireld, T.; Alekseev, G.D.; Alemany, R.; Allmendinger, T.; Allport, P.P.; Almehed, S.; Amaldi, U.; Amapane, N.; Amato, S.; Anassontzis, E.G.; Andersson, P.; Andreazza, A.; Andringa, S.; Antilogus, P.; Apel, W.D.; Arnoud, Y.; Asman, B.; Augustin, J.E.; Augustinus, A.; Baillon, P.; Bambade, P.; Barao, F.; Barbiellini, G.; Barbier, R.; Bardin, D.Yu.; Barker, G.J.; Baroncelli, A.; Battaglia, M.; Baubillier, M.; Becks, K.H.; Begalli, M.; Behrmann, A.; Beilliere, P.; Belokopytov, Yu.; Benekos, N.C.; Benvenuti, A.C.; Berat, C.; Berggren, M.; Bertrand, D.; Besancon, M.; Bigi, M.; Bilenky, Mikhail S.; Bizouard, M.A.; Bloch, D.; Blom, H.M.; Bonesini, M.; Boonekamp, M.; Booth, P.S.L.; Borgland, A.W.; Borisov, G.; Bosio, C.; Botner, O.; Boudinov, E.; Bouquet, B.; Bourdarios, C.; Bowcock, T.J.V.; Boyko, I.; Bozovic, I.; Bozzo, M.; Bracko, M.; Branchini, P.; Brenner, R.A.; Bruckman, P.; Brunet, J.M.; Bugge, L.; Buran, T.; Buschbeck, B.; Buschmann, P.; Cabrera, S.; Caccia, M.; Calvi, M.; Camporesi, T.; Canale, V.; Carena, F.; Carroll, L.; Caso, C.; Castillo Gimenez, M.V.; Cattai, A.; Cavallo, F.R.; Chabaud, V.; Charpentier, P.; Checchia, P.; Chelkov, G.A.; Chierici, R.; Shlyapnikov, P.; Chochula, P.; Chorowicz, V.; Chudoba, J.; Cieslik, K.; Collins, P.; Contri, R.; Cortina, E.; Cosme, G.; Cossutti, F.; Crawley, H.B.; Crennell, D.; Crepe-Renaudin, Sabine; Crosetti, G.; Cuevas Maestro, J.; Czellar, S.; Davenport, M.; Da Silva, W.; Della Ricca, G.; Delpierre, P.; Demaria, N.; De Angelis, A.; De Boer, W.; De Clercq, C.; De Lotto, B.; De Min, A.; De Paula, L.; Dijkstra, H.; Di Ciaccio, L.; Dolbeau, J.; Doroba, K.; Dracos, M.; Drees, J.; Dris, M.; Duperrin, A.; Durand, J.D.; Eigen, G.; Ekelof, T.; Ekspong, G.; Ellert, M.; Elsing, M.; Engel, J.P.; Espirito Santo, M.C.; Fanourakis, G.; Fassouliotis, D.; Fayot, J.; Feindt, M.; Fenyuk, A.; Ferrer, A.; Ferrer-Ribas, E.; Ferro, F.; Fichet, S.; Firestone, A.; Flagmeyer, U.; Foeth, H.; Fokitis, E.; Fontanelli, F.; Franek, B.; Frodesen, A.G.; Fruhwirth, R.; Fulda-Quenzer, F.; Fuster, J.; Galloni, A.; Gamba, D.; Gamblin, S.; Gandelman, M.; Garcia, C.; Gaspar, C.; Gaspar, M.; Gasparini, U.; Gavillet, P.; Gazis, Evangelos; Gele, D.; Ghodbane, N.; Gil Botella, Ines; Glege, F.; Gokieli, R.; Golob, B.; Gomez-Ceballos, G.; Goncalves, P.; Gonzalez Caballero, I.; Gopal, G.; Gorn, L.; Gouz, Yu.; Gracco, V.; Grahl, J.; Graziani, E.; Gris, P.; Grosdidier, G.; Grzelak, K.; Guy, J.; Haag, C.; Hahn, F.; Hahn, S.; Haider, S.; Hallgren, A.; Hamacher, K.; Hansen, J.; Harris, F.J.; Hedberg, V.; Heising, S.; Hernandez, J.J.; Herquet, P.; Herr, H.; Hessing, T.L.; Heuser, J.M.; Higon, E.; Holmgren, S.O.; Holt, P.J.; Hoorelbeke, S.; Houlden, M.; Hrubec, J.; Huber, M.; Huet, K.; Hughes, G.J.; Hultqvist, K.; Jackson, John Neil; Jacobsson, R.; Jalocha, P.; Janik, R.; Jarlskog, C.; Jarlskog, G.; Jarry, P.; Jean-Marie, B.; Jeans, D.; Johansson, Erik Karl; Jonsson, P.; Joram, C.; Juillot, P.; Jungermann, L.; Kapusta, Frederic; Karafasoulis, K.; Katsanevas, S.; Katsoufis, E.C.; Keranen, R.; Kernel, G.; Kersevan, B.P.; Khomenko, B.A.; Khovansky, N.N.; Kiiskinen, A.; King, B.; Kinvig, A.; Kjaer, N.J.; Klapp, O.; Klein, Hansjorg; Kluit, P.; Kokkinias, P.; Kostyukhin, V.; Kourkoumelis, C.; Kuznetsov, O.; Krammer, M.; Kriznic, E.; Krumshtein, Z.; Kubinec, P.; Kurowska, J.; Kurvinen, K.; Lamsa, J.W.; Lane, D.W.; Lapin, V.; Laugier, J.P.; Lauhakangas, R.; Leder, G.; Ledroit, Fabienne; Lefebure, V.; Leinonen, L.; Leisos, A.; Leitner, R.; Lemonne, J.; Lenzen, G.; Lepeltier, V.; Lesiak, T.; Lethuillier, M.; Libby, J.; Liebig, W.; Liko, D.; Lipniacka, A.; Lippi, I.; Lorstad, B.; Loken, J.G.; Lopes, J.H.; Lopez, J.M.; Lopez-Fernandez, R.; Loukas, D.; Lutz, P.; Lyons, L.; MacNaughton, J.; Mahon, J.R.; Maio, A.; Malek, A.; Malmgren, T.G.M.; Maltezos, S.; Malychev, V.; Mandl, F.; Marco, J.; Marco, R.; Marechal, B.; Margoni, M.; Marin, J.C.; Mariotti, C.; Markou, A.; Martinez-Rivero, C.; Martinez-Vidal, F.; Marti i Garcia, S.; Masik, J.; Mastroyiannopoulos, N.; Matorras, F.; Matteuzzi, C.; Matthiae, G.; Mazzucato, F.; Mazzucato, M.; McCubbin, M.; McKay, R.; McNulty, R.; McPherson, G.; Meroni, C.; Meyer, W.T.; Myagkov, A.; Migliore, E.; Mirabito, L.; Mitaroff, W.A.; Mjornmark, U.; Moa, T.; Moch, M.; Moller, Rasmus; Monig, Klaus; Monge, M.R.; Moraes, D.; Moreau, X.; Morettini, P.; Morton, G.; Muller, U.; Munich, K.; Mulders, M.; Mulet-Marquis, C.; Muresan, R.; Murray, W.J.; Muryn, B.; Myatt, G.; Myklebust, T.; Naraghi, F.; Nassiakou, M.; Navarria, F.L.; Navas, Sergio; Nawrocki, K.; Negri, P.; Neufeld, N.; Nicolaidou, R.; Nielsen, B.S.; Niezurawski, P.; Nikolenko, M.; Nomokonov, V.; Nygren, A.; Obraztsov, V.; Olshevsky, A.G.; Onofre, A.; Orava, R.; Orazi, G.; Osterberg, K.; Ouraou, A.; Paganoni, M.; Paiano, S.; Pain, R.; Paiva, R.; Palacios, J.; Palka, H.; Papadopoulou, T.D.; Papageorgiou, K.; Pape, L.; Parkes, C.; Parodi, F.; Parzefall, U.; Passeri, A.; Passon, O.; Pavel, T.; Pegoraro, M.; Peralta, L.; Pernicka, M.; Perrotta, A.; Petridou, C.; Petrolini, A.; Phillips, H.T.; Pierre, F.; Pimenta, M.; Piotto, E.; Podobnik, T.; Pol, M.E.; Polok, G.; Poropat, P.; Pozdnyakov, V.; Privitera, P.; Pukhaeva, N.; Pullia, A.; Radojicic, D.; Ragazzi, S.; Rahmani, H.; Rames, J.; Ratoff, P.N.; Read, Alexander L.; Rebecchi, P.; Redaelli, Nicola Giuseppe; Regler, M.; Rehn, J.; Reid, D.; Reinhardt, R.; Renton, P.B.; Resvanis, L.K.; Richard, F.; Ridky, J.; Rinaudo, G.; Ripp-Baudot, Isabelle; Rohne, O.; Romero, A.; Ronchese, P.; Rosenberg, E.I.; Rosinsky, P.; Roudeau, P.; Rovelli, T.; Royon, C.; Ruhlmann-Kleider, V.; Ruiz, A.; Saarikko, H.; Sacquin, Y.; Sadovsky, A.; Sajot, G.; Salt, J.; Sampsonidis, D.; Sannino, M.; Schwemling, P.; Schwering, B.; Schwickerath, U.; Scuri, Fabrizio; Seager, P.; Sedykh, Yu.; Segar, A.M.; Seibert, N.; Sekulin, R.; Shellard, R.C.; Siebel, M.; Simard, L.; Simonetto, F.; Sisakian, A.N.; Smadja, G.; Smirnov, N.; Smirnova, O.; Smith, G.R.; Sopczak, A.; Sosnowski, R.; Spassoff, T.; Spiriti, E.; Squarcia, S.; Stanescu, C.; Stanic, S.; Stanitzki, M.; Stevenson, K.; Stocchi, A.; Strauss, J.; Strub, R.; Stugu, B.; Szczekowski, M.; Szeptycka, M.; Tabarelli, T.; Taffard, A.; Chikilev, O.; Tegenfeldt, F.; Terranova, F.; Thomas, J.; Timmermans, Jan; Tinti, N.; Tkachev, L.G.; Tobin, M.; Todorova, S.; Tomaradze, A.; Tome, B.; Tonazzo, A.; Tortora, L.; Tortosa, P.; Transtromer, G.; Treille, D.; Tristram, G.; Trochimczuk, M.; Troncon, C.; Turluer, M.L.; Tyapkin, I.A.; Tzamarias, S.; Ullaland, O.; Uvarov, V.; Valenti, G.; Vallazza, E.; Vander Velde, C.; Van Dam, Piet; Van Den Boeck, W.; Van Doninck, Walter; Van Eldik, J.; Van Lysebetten, A.; Van Remortel, N.; Van Vulpen, I.; Vegni, G.; Ventura, L.; Venus, W.; Verbeure, F.; Verdier, P.; Verlato, M.; Vertogradov, L.S.; Verzi, V.; Vilanova, D.; Vitale, L.; Vlasov, E.; Vodopianov, A.S.; Voulgaris, G.; Vrba, V.; Wahlen, H.; Walck, C.; Washbrook, A.J.; Weiser, C.; Wicke, D.; Wickens, J.H.; Wilkinson, G.R.; Winter, M.; Witek, M.; Wolf, G.; Yi, J.; Yushchenko, O.; Zalewska, A.; Zalewski, P.; Zavrtanik, D.; Zevgolatakos, E.; Zimine, N.I.; Zinchenko, A.; Zoller, P.; Zucchelli, G.C.; Zumerle, G.

    2001-01-01

    Muon pair production in the process $e^+e^-\\to e^+e^-\\mu^+\\mu^-$ is studied using the data taken at LEP1 ($\\sqrt{s}\\simeq m_Z$) with the DELPHI detector during the years 1992-1995. The corresponding integrated luminosity is 138.5~pb$^{-1}$. The QED predictions have been tested over the whole $Q^2$ range accessible at LEP1 (from several GeV$^2/c^4$ to several hundred GeV$^2/c^4$) by comparing experimental distributions with distributions resulting from Monte Carlo simulations using various generators. Selected events are used to extract the leptonic photon structure function F 2 . Azimuthal correlations are used to obtain information on additional structure functions, FA and FB , which originate from interference terms of the scattering amplitudes. The measured ratios FA =F 2 and FB =F 2 are significantly different from zero and consistent with QED predictions.

  2. Anthropogenic Matrices Favor Homogenization of Tree Reproductive Functions in a Highly Fragmented Landscape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carneiro, Magda Silva; Campos, Caroline Cambraia Furtado; Beijo, Luiz Alberto; Ramos, Flavio Nunes

    2016-01-01

    Species homogenization or floristic differentiation are two possible consequences of the fragmentation process in plant communities. Despite the few studies, it seems clear that fragments with low forest cover inserted in anthropogenic matrices are more likely to experience floristic homogenization. However, the homogenization process has two other components, genetic and functional, which have not been investigated. The purpose of this study was to verify whether there was homogenization of tree reproductive functions in a fragmented landscape and, if found, to determine how the process was influenced by landscape composition. The study was conducted in eight fragments in southwest Brazil. The study was conducted in eight fragments in southwestern Brazil. In each fragment, all individual trees were sampled that had a diameter at breast height ≥3 cm, in ten plots (0.2 ha) and, classified within 26 reproductive functional types (RFTs). The process of functional homogenization was evaluated using additive partitioning of diversity. Additionally, the effect of landscape composition on functional diversity and on the number of individuals within each RFT was evaluated using a generalized linear mixed model. appeared to be in a process of functional homogenization (dominance of RFTs, alpha diversity lower than expected by chance and and low beta diversity). More than 50% of the RFTs and the functional diversity were affected by the landscape parameters. In general, the percentage of forest cover has a positive effect on RFTs while the percentage of coffee matrix has a negative one. The process of functional homogenization has serious consequences for biodiversity conservation because some functions may disappear that, in the long term, would threaten the fragments. This study contributes to a better understanding of how landscape changes affect the functional diversity, abundance of individuals in RFTs and the process of functional homogenization, as well as how to

  3. Extraction of Fragmentation Functions from Charged Kaon and Pion Production at COMPASS

    CERN Document Server

    Panknin, Regine Antje

    Quark helicity distributions can be accessed by measuring spin asymmetries in polarised deep-inelastic scattering, but for a full flavour separation the precise knowledge of quark fragmentation functions is essential. Those can only be inf erred from experimental data, and are still poorly determined today. The few existing para metrisations of fragmentation functions are derived from world data (mainly on electron-positron annihilation), and often differ considerably, most notably for strange quarks. This thesis presents an independent evaluation of fragmentation functions from deep- inelastic scattering data recorded at the COMPASS experiment. A method of extraction was developed, based on the relation between hadron multiplicities, r h ( x, z ), unpolarised parton distribution functions, q ( x ), and quark fragmentation functions into hadrons, D h d ( z ). (In this work x stands for the Bjorken scaling variable, and z for the fraction of the quark momentum that is transferred to the pro duced hadron.) Mult...

  4. Inkjet Printing of Functional Materials for Optical and Photonic Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alamán, Jorge; Alicante, Raquel; Peña, Jose Ignacio; Sánchez-Somolinos, Carlos

    2016-01-01

    Inkjet printing, traditionally used in graphics, has been widely investigated as a valuable tool in the preparation of functional surfaces and devices. This review focuses on the use of inkjet printing technology for the manufacturing of different optical elements and photonic devices. The presented overview mainly surveys work done in the fabrication of micro-optical components such as microlenses, waveguides and integrated lasers; the manufacturing of large area light emitting diodes displays, liquid crystal displays and solar cells; as well as the preparation of liquid crystal and colloidal crystal based photonic devices working as lasers or optical sensors. Special emphasis is placed on reviewing the materials employed as well as in the relevance of inkjet in the manufacturing of the different devices showing in each of the revised technologies, main achievements, applications and challenges. PMID:28774032

  5. Inkjet Printing of Functional Materials for Optical and Photonic Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Alamán

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Inkjet printing, traditionally used in graphics, has been widely investigated as a valuable tool in the preparation of functional surfaces and devices. This review focuses on the use of inkjet printing technology for the manufacturing of different optical elements and photonic devices. The presented overview mainly surveys work done in the fabrication of micro-optical components such as microlenses, waveguides and integrated lasers; the manufacturing of large area light emitting diodes displays, liquid crystal displays and solar cells; as well as the preparation of liquid crystal and colloidal crystal based photonic devices working as lasers or optical sensors. Special emphasis is placed on reviewing the materials employed as well as in the relevance of inkjet in the manufacturing of the different devices showing in each of the revised technologies, main achievements, applications and challenges.

  6. Fragmentation function in non-equilibrium QCD using closed-time path integral formalism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nayak, Gouranga C.

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we implement the Schwinger-Keldysh closed-time path integral formalism in non-equilibrium QCD in accordance to the definition of the Collins-Soper fragmentation function. We consider a high-p T parton in QCD medium at initial time τ 0 with an arbitrary non-equilibrium (non-isotropic) distribution function f(vector (p)) fragmenting to a hadron. We formulate the parton-to-hadron fragmentation function in non-equilibrium QCD in the light-cone quantization formalism. It may be possible to include final-state interactions with the medium via a modification of the Wilson lines in this definition of the non-equilibrium fragmentation function. This may be relevant to the study of hadron production from a quark-gluon plasma at RHIC and LHC. (orig.)

  7. LHC data challenges the contemporary parton-to-hadron fragmentation functions

    CERN Document Server

    d'Enterria, David; Helenius, Ilkka; Paukkunen, Hannu

    2014-01-01

    We discuss the inclusive high-pT charged-particle production in proton-proton collisions at the LHC. The experimental data are compared to the NLO perturbative QCD calculations employing various sets of parton-to-hadron fragmentation functions. Most of the theoretical predictions are found to disastrously overpredict the measured cross sections, even if the scale variations and PDF errors are accounted for. The problem appears to arise from the presently too hard gluon-to-hadron fragmentation functions.

  8. Scale breaking parton fragmentation functions, analytical parametrizations and comparison with charged multiplicities in e+e- annihilation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perlt, H.

    1980-01-01

    Scale breaking quark and gluon fragmentation functions obtained by solving numerically Altarelli-Parisi type equations are presented. Analytical parametrizations are given for the fragmentation of u and d quarks into pions. The calculated Q 2 dependent fragmentation functions are compared with experimental data. With these scale breaking fragmentation functions the average charged multiplicity is calculated in e + e - annihilation, which rises with energy more than logarithmically and is in good agreement with experiment. (author)

  9. Heavy-quark fragmentation functions in the effective theory of heavy quarks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martynenko, A.P.; Saleev, V.A.

    1996-01-01

    The effective theory of heavy quarks is used to study b-bar-antiquark fragmentation in polarized Bc* mesons and b-quark fragmentation into P-wave (c-barb) states. The functions of heavy-quark fragmentation into longitudinally and transversely polarized S-wave (b-barc) states and into P-wave mesons containing b and c quarks are calculated. First-order corrections in 1/mb are taken into account exactly in these calculations. The results are shown to be consistent with the corresponding QCD calculations

  10. Incorporation of charge transfer into the explicit polarization fragment method by grand canonical density functional theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isegawa, Miho; Gao, Jiali; Truhlar, Donald G

    2011-08-28

    Molecular fragmentation algorithms provide a powerful approach to extending electronic structure methods to very large systems. Here we present a method for including charge transfer between molecular fragments in the explicit polarization (X-Pol) fragment method for calculating potential energy surfaces. In the conventional X-Pol method, the total charge of each fragment is preserved, and charge transfer between fragments is not allowed. The description of charge transfer is made possible by treating each fragment as an open system with respect to the number of electrons. To achieve this, we applied Mermin's finite temperature method to the X-Pol wave function. In the application of this method to X-Pol, the fragments are open systems that partially equilibrate their number of electrons through a quasithermodynamics electron reservoir. The number of electrons in a given fragment can take a fractional value, and the electrons of each fragment obey the Fermi-Dirac distribution. The equilibrium state for the electrons is determined by electronegativity equalization with conservation of the total number of electrons. The amount of charge transfer is controlled by re-interpreting the temperature parameter in the Fermi-Dirac distribution function as a coupling strength parameter. We determined this coupling parameter so as to reproduce the charge transfer energy obtained by block localized energy decomposition analysis. We apply the new method to ten systems, and we show that it can yield reasonable approximations to potential energy profiles, to charge transfer stabilization energies, and to the direction and amount of charge transferred. © 2011 American Institute of Physics

  11. The hadronic component of the photon structure function F2γ(Q2, x)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gotsman, E.

    1988-01-01

    The quality of the high Q 2 data presently available in photon-photon scattering, is not sufficient to allow for a unique determination of the QCD parameter Λ (as it is strongly correlated with the hadronic component of the photon). The authors show that a combination of the QPM point-like cross section and a hadronic cross section given by a simple power expansion in energy, provides a good description of the experimental photon structure function and photon-photon total cross section

  12. Multiple parton scattering in nuclei: heavy quark energy loss and modified fragmentation functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Benwei; Wang, Enke; Wang Xinnian

    2005-01-01

    Multiple scattering, induced radiative energy loss and modified fragmentation functions of a heavy quark in nuclear matter are studied within the framework of generalized factorization in perturbative QCD. Modified heavy quark fragmentation functions and energy loss are derived in detail with illustration of the mass dependencies of the Landau-Pomeranchuk-Migdal interference effects and heavy quark energy loss. Due to the quark mass dependence of the gluon formation time, the nuclear size dependencies of nuclear modification of the heavy quark fragmentation function and heavy quark energy loss are found to change from a linear to a quadratic form when the initial energy and momentum scale are increased relative to the quark mass. The radiative energy loss of the heavy quark is also significantly suppressed due to limited cone of gluon radiation imposed by the mass. Medium modification of the heavy quark fragmentation functions is found to be limited to the large z region due to the form of heavy quark fragmentation functions in vacuum

  13. Measurement of the hadronic structure function of the photon

    CERN Document Server

    Affholderbach, Klaus

    2000-01-01

    The hadronic structure function of the photon, Fγ 2 , is measured using a data sample of 52.9 pb−1, recorded with the ALEPH detector at the LEP storage ring in 1997. Approximately 2100 single-tag two-photon events at a centre-of-mass energy of √s ≈ 183GeV are selected from this data sample. The data are analysed in the two Q2 ranges from 7 to 24 and from 17 to 200 GeV2 with mean values of 13.7 and 56.5 GeV2 . The measured distributions of kinematic variables are compared to different model predictions, based on the HERWIG and PHOJET Monte Carlo generators. To determine Fγ 2(x,Q2), a two-dimensional unfolding method employing the principle of maximum entropy is used. In addition to the Bjorken variable x, the variable E17 is introduced, denoting the hadronic energy measured in the polar angle range below 17◦ and is also used in the unfolding. The two-dimensional unfolding method significantly reduces the systematic errors compared to one-dimensional methods which is shown by various unfolding tests. ...

  14. Modeling photonic crystal waveguides with noncircular geometry using green function method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uvarovaa, I.; Tsyganok, B.; Bashkatov, Y.; Khomenko, V.

    2012-01-01

    Currently in the field of photonics is an acute problem fast and accurate simulation photonic crystal waveguides with complex geometry. This paper describes an improved method of Green's functions for non-circular geometries. Based on comparison of selected efficient numerical method for finding the eigenvalues for the Green's function method for non-circular holes chosen effective method for our purposes. Simulation is realized in Maple environment. The simulation results confirmed experimentally. Key words: photonic crystal, waveguide, modeling, Green function, complex geometry

  15. Measurements of flavour dependent fragmentation functions in $Z^{0} \\to q\\overline{q}$ events

    CERN Document Server

    Ackerstaff, K.; Allison, John; Altekamp, N.; Anderson, K.J.; Anderson, S.; Arcelli, S.; Asai, S.; Ashby, S.F.; Axen, D.; Azuelos, G.; Ball, A.H.; Barberio, E.; Barlow, Roger J.; Bartoldus, R.; Batley, J.R.; Baumann, S.; Bechtluft, J.; Behnke, T.; Bell, Kenneth Watson; Bella, G.; Bentvelsen, S.; Bethke, S.; Betts, S.; Biebel, O.; Biguzzi, A.; Bird, S.D.; Blobel, V.; Bloodworth, I.J.; Bobinski, M.; Bock, P.; Bohme, J.; Boutemeur, M.; Braibant, S.; Bright-Thomas, P.; Brown, Robert M.; Burckhart, H.J.; Burgard, C.; Burgin, R.; Capiluppi, P.; Carnegie, R.K.; Carter, A.A.; Carter, J.R.; Chang, C.Y.; Charlton, David G.; Chrisman, D.; Ciocca, C.; Clarke, P.E.L.; Clay, E.; Cohen, I.; Conboy, J.E.; Cooke, O.C.; Couyoumtzelis, C.; Coxe, R.L.; Cuffiani, M.; Dado, S.; Dallavalle, G.Marco; Davis, R.; De Jong, S.; del Pozo, L.A.; De Roeck, A.; Desch, K.; Dienes, B.; Dixit, M.S.; Doucet, M.; Dubbert, J.; Duchovni, E.; Duckeck, G.; Duerdoth, I.P.; Eatough, D.; Estabrooks, P.G.; Etzion, E.; Evans, H.G.; Fabbri, F.; Fanfani, A.; Fanti, M.; Faust, A.A.; Fiedler, F.; Fierro, M.; Fischer, H.M.; Fleck, I.; Folman, R.; Furtjes, A.; Futyan, D.I.; Gagnon, P.; Gary, J.W.; Gascon, J.; Gascon-Shotkin, S.M.; Geich-Gimbel, C.; Geralis, T.; Giacomelli, G.; Giacomelli, P.; Gibson, V.; Gibson, W.R.; Gingrich, D.M.; Glenzinski, D.; Goldberg, J.; Gorn, W.; Grandi, C.; Gross, E.; Grunhaus, J.; Gruwe, M.; Hanson, G.G.; Hansroul, M.; Hapke, M.; Hargrove, C.K.; Hartmann, C.; Hauschild, M.; Hawkes, C.M.; Hawkings, R.; Hemingway, R.J.; Herndon, M.; Herten, G.; Heuer, R.D.; Hildreth, M.D.; Hill, J.C.; Hillier, S.J.; Hobson, P.R.; Hocker, James Andrew; Homer, R.J.; Honma, A.K.; Horvath, D.; Hossain, K.R.; Howard, R.; Huntemeyer, P.; Igo-Kemenes, P.; Imrie, D.C.; Ishii, K.; Jacob, F.R.; Jawahery, A.; Jeremie, H.; Jimack, M.; Joly, A.; Jones, C.R.; Jovanovic, P.; Junk, T.R.; Karlen, D.; Kartvelishvili, V.; Kawagoe, K.; Kawamoto, T.; Kayal, P.I.; Keeler, R.K.; Kellogg, R.G.; Kennedy, B.W.; Klier, A.; Kluth, S.; Kobayashi, T.; Kobel, M.; Koetke, D.S.; Kokott, T.P.; Kolrep, M.; Komamiya, S.; Kowalewski, Robert V.; Kress, T.; Krieger, P.; von Krogh, J.; Kyberd, P.; Lafferty, G.D.; Lanske, D.; Lauber, J.; Lautenschlager, S.R.; Lawson, I.; Layter, J.G.; Lazic, D.; Lee, A.M.; Lefebvre, E.; Lellouch, D.; Letts, J.; Levinson, L.; Liebisch, R.; List, B.; Littlewood, C.; Lloyd, A.W.; Lloyd, S.L.; Loebinger, F.K.; Long, G.D.; Losty, M.J.; Ludwig, J.; Lui, D.; Macchiolo, A.; Macpherson, A.; Mannelli, M.; Marcellini, S.; Markopoulos, C.; Martin, A.J.; Martin, J.P.; Martinez, G.; Mashimo, T.; Mattig, Peter; McDonald, W.John; McKenna, J.; Mckigney, E.A.; McMahon, T.J.; McPherson, R.A.; Meijers, F.; Menke, S.; Merritt, F.S.; Mes, H.; Meyer, J.; Michelini, A.; Mihara, S.; Mikenberg, G.; Miller, D.J.; Mir, R.; Mohr, W.; Montanari, A.; Mori, T.; Nagai, K.; Nakamura, I.; Neal, H.A.; Nellen, B.; Nisius, R.; O'Neale, S.W.; Oakham, F.G.; Odorici, F.; Ogren, H.O.; Oreglia, M.J.; Orito, S.; Palinkas, J.; Pasztor, G.; Pater, J.R.; Patrick, G.N.; Patt, J.; Perez-Ochoa, R.; Petzold, S.; Pfeifenschneider, P.; Pilcher, J.E.; Pinfold, J.; Plane, David E.; Poffenberger, P.; Poli, B.; Polok, J.; Przybycien, M.; Rembser, C.; Rick, H.; Robertson, S.; Robins, S.A.; Rodning, N.; Roney, J.M.; Roscoe, K.; Rossi, A.M.; Rozen, Y.; Runge, K.; Runolfsson, O.; Rust, D.R.; Sachs, K.; Saeki, T.; Sahr, O.; Sang, W.M.; Sarkisian, E.K.G.; Sbarra, C.; Schaile, A.D.; Schaile, O.; Scharf, F.; Scharff-Hansen, P.; Schieck, J.; Schmitt, B.; Schmitt, S.; Schoning, A.; Schorner, T.; Schroder, Matthias; Schumacher, M.; Schwick, C.; Scott, W.G.; Seuster, R.; Shears, T.G.; Shen, B.C.; Shepherd-Themistocleous, C.H.; Sherwood, P.; Siroli, G.P.; Sittler, A.; Skuja, A.; Smith, A.M.; Snow, G.A.; Sobie, R.; Soldner-Rembold, S.; Sproston, M.; Stahl, A.; Stephens, K.; Steuerer, J.; Stoll, K.; Strom, David M.; Strohmer, R.; Tafirout, R.; Talbot, S.D.; Tanaka, S.; Taras, P.; Tarem, S.; Teuscher, R.; Thiergen, M.; Thomson, M.A.; von Torne, E.; Torrence, E.; Towers, S.; Trigger, I.; Trocsanyi, Z.; Tsur, E.; Turcot, A.S.; Turner-Watson, M.F.; Van Kooten, Rick J.; Vannerem, P.; Verzocchi, M.; Vikas, P.; Voss, H.; Wackerle, F.; Wagner, A.; Ward, C.P.; Ward, D.R.; Watkins, P.M.; Watson, A.T.; Watson, N.K.; Wells, P.S.; Wermes, N.; White, J.S.; Wilson, G.W.; Wilson, J.A.; Wyatt, T.R.; Yamashita, S.; Yekutieli, G.; Zacek, V.; Zer-Zion, D.

    1999-01-01

    Fragmentation functions for charged particles in Z -> qq(bar) events have been measured for bottom (b), charm (c) and light (uds) quarks as well as for all flavours together. The results are based on data recorded between 1990 and 1995 using the OPAL detector at LEP. Event samples with different flavour compositions were formed using reconstructed D* mesons and secondary vertices. The \\xi_p = ln(1/x_E) distributions and the position of their maxima \\xi_max are also presented separately for uds, c and b quark events. The fragmentation function for b quarks is significantly softer than for uds quarks.

  16. Next-to-leading QCD calculation of the heavy quark fragmentation function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mele, B.; Nason, P.

    1990-01-01

    We present the results of a next-to-leading order QCD calculation of the fragmentation function of b flavoured hadrons at LEP. We find that the addition of the next-to-leading effects improves the stability of the result under changes of the evolution scale and does not alter drastically the leading order prediction. Our next-to-leading calculation suggests that, if we neglect non-perturbative effects, the b fragmentation function is peaked at fairly large values of x, even if the average value of x is not necessarily large. (orig.)

  17. A simple model for the quark fragmentation functions seen in deep inelastic processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seiden, A.

    1977-01-01

    Using some simple assumptions, a calculation is presented of the quark fragmentation functions seen in deep inelastic processes. The results provide evidence for the conjecture that both jets seen in high p(perpendicular) reactions at the ISR stem from similar parents. The calculated functions are in excellent agreement with the inclusive distributions seen in γp and anti γp scattering, and in particular explain the puzzling presence of leading π - 's from the fragmentation of a leading up quark. The results are also in agreement with the charge ratios extracted from deep inelastic electron scattering. (Auth.)

  18. Excited State Contributions to the Heavy Baryon Fragmentation Functions in a Quark-Diquark Model

    CERN Document Server

    Adamov, A D; Goldstein, Gary R.

    2001-01-01

    Spin dependent fragmentation functions for heavy flavor quarks to fragment into heavy baryons are calculated in a quark-diquark model. The production of intermediate spin 1/2 and 3/2 excited states is explicity included. The resulting $\\Lambda_b$ production rate and polarization at LEP energies are in agreement with experiment. The $\\Lambda_c$ and $\\Xi_c$ functions are also obtained. The spin independent $f_1(z)$ is compared to data. The integrated values for production rates agree with the data.

  19. $D^{0}, D^{+}, D_{s}^{+}$, and $\\Lambda_{c}^{+}$ Fragmentation Functions from CERN LEP1

    CERN Document Server

    Kniehl, Bernd A; Kniehl, Bernd A.; Kramer, Gustav

    2005-01-01

    We present new sets of nonperturbative fragmentation functions for D^0, D^+, and D_s^+ mesons as well as for Lambda_c^+ baryons, both at leading and next-to-leading order in the MSbar factorization scheme with five massless quark flavors. They are determined by fitting data of e^+e^- annihilation taken by the OPAL Collaboration at CERN LEP1. We take the charm-quark fragmentation function to be of the form proposed by Peterson et al. and thus obtain new values of the epsilon_c parameter, which are specific for our choice of factorization scheme.

  20. Fragmentation characteristics of hydroxycinnamic acids in ESI-MSn by density functional theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Zhi-Hui; Sun, Chang-Hai; Fang, Hong-Zhuang

    2017-07-01

    This work aims to analyze the electrospray ionization multistage mass spectrometry (ESI-MS n ) fragmentation characteristics of hydroxycinnamic acids (HCAs) in negative ion mode. The geometric parameters, energies, natural bond orbitals and frontier orbitals of fragments were calculated by density functional theory (DFT) to investigate mass spectral fragmentation mechanisms. The results showed that proton transfer always occurred during fragmentation of HCAs; their quasi-molecular ions ([M - H] - ) existed in more than one form and were mainly with the lowest energy. The fragmentation characteristics included the followings: (1) according to the different substitution position of phenolic hydroxyl group, the ring contraction reaction by CO elimination from benzene was in an increasingly difficult order: m-phenolic hydroxyl > p-phenolic hydroxyl > o-phenolic hydroxyl; and (2) ortho effect always occurred in o-dihydroxycinnamic acids (o-diHCAs), i.e. one phenolic hydroxyl group offered H + , which combined with the other one to lose H 2 O. In addition, there was a nucleophilic reaction during ring contraction in diHCAs that oxygen atom attacked the carbon atom binding with the other phenolic hydroxyl to lose CO 2 . The fragmentation characteristics and mechanism of HCAs could be used for analysis and identification of such compounds quickly and effectively, and as reference for structural analogues by ESI-MS. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  1. Heavy-quark fragmentation functions at next-to-leading perturbative QCD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moosavi Nejad, S.M. [Yazd University, Faculty of Physics, Yazd (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Institute for Research in Fundamental Sciences (IPM), School of Particles and Accelerators, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Sartipi Yarahmadi, P. [Yazd University, Faculty of Physics, Yazd (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    It is well known that the dominant mechanism to produce hadronic bound states with large transverse momentum is fragmentation. This mechanism is described by the fragmentation functions (FFs) which are the universal and process-independent functions. Here, we review the perturbative FFs formalism as an appropriate tool for studying these hadronization processes and detail the extension of this formalism at next-to-leading order (NLO). Using Suzuki's model, we calculate the perturbative QCD FF for a heavy quark to fragment into a S-wave heavy meson at NLO. As an example, we study the LO and NLO FFs for a charm quark to split into the S-wave D-meson and compare our analytic results both with experimental data and well-known phenomenological models. (orig.)

  2. The structure functions of the photon at large x

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chase, M.K.

    1981-01-01

    We derive 'improved' perturbative results in QCD for the structure functions of the photon at large Bjorken x by (a) using a correct phase-space treatment of the leading mass-singularity logarithms and (b) summing the leading logarithms of (1-x) associated with the wave function of the final state. We obtain explicit results in three kinematic regimes: (i) Q 2 low enough for logarithmic QCD corrections to the parton model to be negligible; we estimate that this is the case for all presently realistic values of Q 2 (approx. 2 ). (ii) Q 2 high enough (at fixed x) for the effects of the leading mass-singularity logarithms to be important; we discuss the modifications to Witten's result at large x due to the correct kinematical treatment of the leading logarithms. (iii) Q 2 /s → infinite, where we sum the wave-function logarithms of (1-x); we show that F 2 sup(γ) → finite constant as Q 2 /s → infinite and that there is a close inclusive-exclusive connection in this limit. (orig.)

  3. Improved functional immobilization of llama single-domain antibody fragments to polystyrene surfaces using small peptides

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harmsen, M.M.; Fijten, H.P.D.

    2012-01-01

    We studied the effect of different fusion domains on the functional immobilization of three llama single-domain antibody fragments (VHHs) after passive adsorption to polystyrene in enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA). Three VHHs produced without any fusion domain were efficiently adsorbed to

  4. Measurement of the charm fragmentation function in D* photoproduction at HERA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chekanov, S.; Derrick, M.; Magill, S.

    2008-12-01

    The charm fragmentation function has been measured in D * photoproduction with the ZEUS detector at HERA using an integrated luminosity of 120 pb -1 . The fragmentation function is measured versus z=(E+p parallel ) D * /2E jet , where E is the energy of the D * meson and p parallel is the longitudinal momentum of the D * meson relative to the axis of the associated jet of energy E jet . Jets were reconstructed using the k T clustering algorithm and required to have transverse energy larger than 9 GeV. The D * meson associated with the jet was required to have a transverse momentum larger than 2 GeV. The measured function is compared to different fragmentation models incorporated in leading-logarithm Monte Carlo simulations and in a next-to-leading-order QCD calculation. The free parameters in each fragmentation model are fitted to the data. The extracted parameters and the function itself are compared to measurements from e + e - experiments. (orig.)

  5. Fab antibody fragment-functionalized liposomes for specific targeting of antigen-positive cells

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ohradanova-Repic, A.; Nogueira, E.; Hartl, I.; Gomes, A.C.; Preto, A.; Steinhuber, E.; Muehlgrabner, V.; Repic, M.; Kuttke, M.; Zwirzitz, A.; Prouza, M.; Suchánek, M.; Wozniak-Knopp, G.; Hořejší, Václav; Schabbauer, G.; Cavaco-Paulo, A.; Stockinger, H.

    2018-01-01

    Roč. 14, č. 1 (2018), s. 123-130 ISSN 1549-9634 Institutional support: RVO:68378050 Keywords : Active targeting * Liposome functionalization * Immunoliposome * Antibody engineering * Recombinant Fab antibody fragment Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology OBOR OECD: Cell biology Impact factor: 5.720, year: 2016

  6. Transverse momentum dependent fragmentation function at next-to-next-to-leading order

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Garcia, M.; Scimemi, I.; Vladimirov, A.

    2016-01-01

    We calculate the unpolarized transverse momentum dependent fragmentation function at next-to-next-to-leading order, evaluating separately the transverse momentum dependent (TMD) soft factor and the TMD collinear correlator. For the first time, the cancellation of spurious rapidity divergences in a

  7. Measurement of the charm fragmentation function in D{sup *} photoproduction at HERA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chekanov, S.; Derrick, M.; Magill, S. [Argonne National Lab., IL (US)] (and others)

    2008-12-15

    The charm fragmentation function has been measured in D{sup *} photoproduction with the ZEUS detector at HERA using an integrated luminosity of 120 pb{sup -1}. The fragmentation function is measured versus z=(E+p {sub parallel}){sup D{sup *}}/2E{sup jet}, where E is the energy of the D{sup *} meson and p {sub parallel} is the longitudinal momentum of the D{sup *} meson relative to the axis of the associated jet of energy E{sup jet}. Jets were reconstructed using the k{sub T} clustering algorithm and required to have transverse energy larger than 9 GeV. The D{sup *} meson associated with the jet was required to have a transverse momentum larger than 2 GeV. The measured function is compared to different fragmentation models incorporated in leading-logarithm Monte Carlo simulations and in a next-to-leading-order QCD calculation. The free parameters in each fragmentation model are fitted to the data. The extracted parameters and the function itself are compared to measurements from e{sup +}e{sup -} experiments. (orig.)

  8. Dynamics of NO2 dissociation. Study by resonance-enhanced multi-photon ionisation of energy distribution and of anisotropies in fragments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mons, Michel

    1988-01-01

    In this research thesis, the author reports the use of laser resonance-enhanced multi-photon ionization and of time-of-flight mass spectrometry for a detailed characterization of fragments produced by a photo-dissociation process. The author more particularly addressed the case of a NO 2 molecule excited at low energies above the dissociation threshold. In the first part, the author discusses issues and problems related to molecular photo-dissociation. In the second part, he presents the developed method and shows that the combined use of both techniques allows a precise characterisation of photo-fragments in terms of internal or translational energies as well as in terms of angle distributions. Finally, the author presents and discusses results obtained in the case of NO 2 [fr

  9. Chameleon fragmentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brax, Philippe [Institut de Physique Théorique, CEA, IPhT, CNRS, URA 2306, F-91191Gif/Yvette Cedex (France); Upadhye, Amol, E-mail: philippe.brax@cea.fr, E-mail: aupadhye@anl.gov [Institute for the Early Universe, Ewha University, International Education, Building #601, 11-1, Daehyun-Dong Seodaemun-Gu, Seoul 120-750 (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-02-01

    A scalar field dark energy candidate could couple to ordinary matter and photons, enabling its detection in laboratory experiments. Here we study the quantum properties of the chameleon field, one such dark energy candidate, in an ''afterglow'' experiment designed to produce, trap, and detect chameleon particles. In particular, we investigate the possible fragmentation of a beam of chameleon particles into multiple particle states due to the highly non-linear interaction terms in the chameleon Lagrangian. Fragmentation could weaken the constraints of an afterglow experiment by reducing the energy of the regenerated photons, but this energy reduction also provides a unique signature which could be detected by a properly-designed experiment. We show that constraints from the CHASE experiment are essentially unaffected by fragmentation for φ{sup 4} and 1/φ potentials, but are weakened for steeper potentials, and we discuss possible future afterglow experiments.

  10. Chameleon fragmentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brax, Philippe; Upadhye, Amol

    2014-01-01

    A scalar field dark energy candidate could couple to ordinary matter and photons, enabling its detection in laboratory experiments. Here we study the quantum properties of the chameleon field, one such dark energy candidate, in an ''afterglow'' experiment designed to produce, trap, and detect chameleon particles. In particular, we investigate the possible fragmentation of a beam of chameleon particles into multiple particle states due to the highly non-linear interaction terms in the chameleon Lagrangian. Fragmentation could weaken the constraints of an afterglow experiment by reducing the energy of the regenerated photons, but this energy reduction also provides a unique signature which could be detected by a properly-designed experiment. We show that constraints from the CHASE experiment are essentially unaffected by fragmentation for φ 4 and 1/φ potentials, but are weakened for steeper potentials, and we discuss possible future afterglow experiments

  11. Spin dependent fragmentation functions for heavy flavor baryons and single heavy hyperon polarization

    CERN Document Server

    Goldstein, G R

    2001-01-01

    Spin dependent fragmentation functions for heavy flavor quarks to fragment into heavy baryons are calculated in a quark-diquark model. The production of intermediate spin 1/2 and 3/2 excited states is explicity included. $\\Lambda_b$ , $\\Lambda_c$ and $\\Xi_c$ production rate and polarization at LEP energies are calculated and, where possible, compared with experiment. A different approach, also relying on a heavy quark-diquark model, is proposed for the small momentum transfer inclusive production of polarized heavy flavor hyperons. The predicted $\\Lambda_c$ polarization is roughly in agreement with experiment.

  12. Structural fragment clustering reveals novel structural and functional motifs in α-helical transmembrane proteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vassilev Boris

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A large proportion of an organism's genome encodes for membrane proteins. Membrane proteins are important for many cellular processes, and several diseases can be linked to mutations in them. With the tremendous growth of sequence data, there is an increasing need to reliably identify membrane proteins from sequence, to functionally annotate them, and to correctly predict their topology. Results We introduce a technique called structural fragment clustering, which learns sequential motifs from 3D structural fragments. From over 500,000 fragments, we obtain 213 statistically significant, non-redundant, and novel motifs that are highly specific to α-helical transmembrane proteins. From these 213 motifs, 58 of them were assigned to function and checked in the scientific literature for a biological assessment. Seventy percent of the motifs are found in co-factor, ligand, and ion binding sites, 30% at protein interaction interfaces, and 12% bind specific lipids such as glycerol or cardiolipins. The vast majority of motifs (94% appear across evolutionarily unrelated families, highlighting the modularity of functional design in membrane proteins. We describe three novel motifs in detail: (1 a dimer interface motif found in voltage-gated chloride channels, (2 a proton transfer motif found in heme-copper oxidases, and (3 a convergently evolved interface helix motif found in an aspartate symporter, a serine protease, and cytochrome b. Conclusions Our findings suggest that functional modules exist in membrane proteins, and that they occur in completely different evolutionary contexts and cover different binding sites. Structural fragment clustering allows us to link sequence motifs to function through clusters of structural fragments. The sequence motifs can be applied to identify and characterize membrane proteins in novel genomes.

  13. Charged Particles Multiplicity and Scaling Violation of Fragmentation Functions in Electron-Positron Annihilation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghaffary, Tooraj

    2016-01-01

    By the use of data from the annihilation process of electron-positron in AMY detector at 60 GeV center of mass energy, charged particles multiplicity distribution is obtained and fitted with the KNO scaling. Then, momentum spectra of charged particles and momentum distribution with respect to the jet axis are obtained, and the results are compared to the different models of QCD; also, the distribution of fragmentation functions and scaling violations are studied. It is being expected that the scaling violations of the fragmentation functions of gluon jets are stronger than the quark ones. One of the reasons for such case is that splitting function of quarks is larger than splitting function of gluon.

  14. Next-to-next-to-leading order evolution of non-singlet fragmentation functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitov, A.; Moch, S.; Vogt, A.

    2006-04-01

    We have investigated the next-to-next-to-leading order (NNLO) corrections to inclusive hadron production in e + e - annihilation and the related parton fragmentation distributions, the 'time-like' counterparts of the 'space-like' deep-inelastic structure functions and parton densities. We have re-derived the corresponding second-order coefficient functions in massless perturbative QCD, which so far had been calculated only by one group. Moreover we present, for the first time, the third-order splitting functions governing the NNLO evolution of flavour non-singlet fragmentation distributions. These results have been obtained by two independent methods relating time-like quantities to calculations performed in deep-inelastic scattering. We briefly illustrate the numerical size of the NNLO corrections, and make a prediction for the difference of the yet unknown time-like and space-like splitting functions at the fourth order in the strong coupling constant. (Orig.)

  15. Time reversal odd fragmentation functions in semi-inclusive deep inelastic lepton-hadron scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mulders, P.J. [National Inst. for Nuclear Physics and High Energy Physics, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Levelt, J. [Univ. of Erlangen-Nuernberg (Germany)

    1994-04-01

    In semi-inclusive scattering of polarized leptons from unpolarized hadrons, one can measure a time reversal odd structure function. It shows up as a sin({phi}) asymmetry of the produced hadrons. This asymmetry can be expressed as the product of a twist-three {open_quotes}hadron {r_arrow} quark{close_quotes} profile function and a time reversal odd twist-two {open_quotes}quark {r_arrow} hadron{close_quotes} fragmentation function. This fragmentation function can only be measured for nonzero transverse momenta of the produced hadron. Its appearance is a consequence of final state interactions between the produced hadron and the rest of the final state.

  16. Heavy quark fragmentation functions for D-wave quarkonium and charmed beauty mesons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheung, K.; Yuan, T.C.

    1995-09-01

    At the large transverse momentum region, the production of heavy-heavy bound-states such as charmonium, bottomonium, and anti bc mesons in high energy e + e - and hadronic collisions is dominated by parton fragmentation. The authors calculate the heavy quark fragmentation functions into the D-wave quarkonium and anti bc mesons to leading order in the strong coupling constant and in the non-relativistic expansion. In the anti bc meson case, one set of its D-wave states is expected to lie below the open flavor threshold. The total fragmentation probability for a anti b antiquark to split into the D-wave anti bc mesons is about 2 x 10 -5 , which implies that only 2% of the total pseudo-scalar ground state B c comes from the cascades of these orbitally excited states

  17. Ionization and fragmentation of DNA-RNA bases: a density functional theory study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sadr-Arani, Leila

    2014-01-01

    Ionizing radiation (IR) cross human tissue, deposit energy and dissipate fragmenting molecules. The resulting fragments may be highlighted by mass spectrometry. Despite the amount of information obtained experimentally by the interpretation of the mass spectrum, experience alone cannot answer all the questions of the mechanism of fragmentation of DNA/RNA bases and a theoretical study is a complement to this information. A theoretical study allows us to know the weakest bonds in the molecule during ionization and thus may help to provide mechanisms of dissociation and produced fragments. The purpose of this work, using the DFT with the PBE functional, is to study the ionization and fragmentation mechanisms of DNA/RNA bases (Uracil, Cytosine, Adenine and Guanine) and to identify the cations corresponding to each peak in mass spectra. For all RNA bases, the retro Diels-Alder reaction (elimination of HNCO or NCO*) is a major route for dissociating, with the exception of adenine for which there is no atom oxygen in its structure. Loss of NH 3 (NH 2 *) molecule is another common way to all bases that contain amine group. The possibility of the loss of hydrogen from the cations is also investigated, as well as the dissociation of dehydrogenated cations and protonated uracil. This work shows the interest of providing DFT calculation in the interpretation of mass spectra of DNA bases. (author)

  18. Analytical Core Mass Function (CMF) from Filaments: Under Which Circumstances Can Filament Fragmentation Reproduce the CMF?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Yueh-Ning; Hennebelle, Patrick [IRFU, CEA, Université Paris-Saclay, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Chabrier, Gilles, E-mail: yueh-ning.lee@cea.fr [École normale supérieure de Lyon, CRAL, UMR CNRS 5574, Université de Lyon, F-69364 Lyon Cedex 07 (France)

    2017-10-01

    Observations suggest that star formation in filamentary molecular clouds occurs in a two-step process, with the formation of filaments preceding that of prestellar cores and stars. Here, we apply the gravoturbulent fragmentation theory of Hennebelle and Chabrier to a filamentary environment, taking into account magnetic support. We discuss the induced geometrical effect on the cores, with a transition from 3D geometry at small scales to 1D at large ones. The model predicts the fragmentation behavior of a filament for a given mass per unit length (MpL) and level of magnetization. This core mass function (CMF) for individual filaments is then convolved with the distribution of filaments to obtain the final system CMF. The model yields two major results. (i) The filamentary geometry naturally induces a hierarchical fragmentation process, first into groups of cores, separated by a length equal to a few filament Jeans lengths, i.e., a few times the filament width. These groups then fragment into individual cores. (ii) Non-magnetized filaments with high MpL are found to fragment excessively, at odds with observations. This is resolved by taking into account the magnetic field (treated simply as additional pressure support). The present theory suggests two complementary modes of star formation: although small (spherical or filamentary) structures will collapse directly into prestellar cores, according to the standard Hennebelle–Chabrier theory, the large (filamentary) ones, the dominant population according to observations, will follow the aforedescribed two-step process.

  19. Electron-photon shower distribution function tables for lead, copper and air absorbers

    CERN Document Server

    Messel, H

    2013-01-01

    Electron-Photon Shower Distribution Function: Tables for Lead, Copper and Air Absorbers presents numerical results of the electron-photon shower distribution function for lead, copper, and air absorbers. Electron or photon interactions, including Compton scattering, elastic Coulomb scattering, and the photo-electric effect, are taken into account in the calculations. This book consists of four chapters and begins with a review of both theoretical and experimental work aimed at deducing the characteristics of the cascade produced from the propagation of high energy electrons and photons through

  20. The transverse momentum dependence of quark fragmentation functions from cascade models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Groot, E.H. de; Engels, J.

    1979-01-01

    A covariant generalization of the onedimensional cascade model for quark fragmentation functions is presented, so as to include the transverse momentum behaviour and the possibility to produce different particles at different vertices along the chain. In the scaling limit the exact solution is given, if the primordial function is of the type αZsup(α-1). T(pT). For the more general case of factorizing primordial functions an analytic expression for the seagull effect is derived, which turns out to be independent of the function T(pT). (orig.) [de

  1. Resummation of soft gluon logarithms in the DGLAP evolution of fragmentation functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albino, S.; Kniehl, B.A.; Kramer, G.; Ochs, W.

    2005-10-01

    We define a general scheme for the evolution of fragmentation functions which resums both soft gluon logarithms and mass singularities in a consistent manner and to any order, and requires no additional theoretical assumptions. Using the Double Logarithmic Approximation and the known perturbative results for the splitting functions, we present our scheme with the complete contribution from the double logarithms, being the largest soft gluon logarithms. We show that the resulting approximation is more complete than the Modified Leading Logarithm Approximation even with the fixed order contribution calculated to leading order only, and find, after using it to fit quark and gluon fragmentation functions to experimental data, that this approximation in our scheme gives a good description of the data from the largest χ p values to the peak region in ξ=ln(1/χ p ), in contrast to other approximations. In addition, we develop a treatment of hadron mass effects which gives additional improvements at large ξ. (orig.)

  2. Comparison between fragmented QRS and Q waves in myocardial scar detection using myocardial perfusion single photon emission computed tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dabbagh Kakhki, Vahid Reza; Ayati, Narjess; Zakavi, Seyed Rasoul; Sadeghi, Ramin; Tayyebi, Mohammad; Shariati, Farzaneh

    2015-01-01

    Accurate diagnosis of myocardial infarction (MI) is of paramount importance in patient management, which necessitates the development of efficient and accurate diagnostic methods. Q wave is not present in all patients with MI, and its prevalence is declining. Recently, fragmented QRS (fQRS) complex has been introduced as a marker of prior MI. To investigate diagnostic value of fQRS compared to Q wave. We included 500 consecutive patients with known or suspected coronary artery disease who underwent two days of gated myocardial perfusion imaging using dipyridamole pharmacologic stress. Electrocardiogram (ECG) was evaluated to detect fQRS as well as Q-wave. Finally, subjects were compared in terms of ventricular perfusion and function indices. A total of 207 men and 269 women with mean age of 57.06 ± 12 years were studied. ECG analysis showed that 14.3% of the patients had both fQRS and Q waves, 30.7% had fQRS, and 3.8% had Q waves. Fixed myocardial perfusion defect was noted in 22.3% of patients according to MPIs. Sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values for myocardial scar detection were 78%, 65%, 39%, and 91%, respectively, for fQRS and 61%, 94%, 76%, and 89%, respectively, for Q wave. Although fQRS had lower specificity compared to Q wave in the detection of myocardial scar, due to higher sensitivity and negative predictive value can be an invaluable diagnostic index. There is also an incremental value for fQRS in association with Q-wave in myocardial scar assessment.

  3. Photon wave function formalism for analysis of Mach–Zehnder interferometer and sum-frequency generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ritboon, Atirach, E-mail: atirach.3.14@gmail.com [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Glasgow, Glasgow, G12 8QQ (United Kingdom); Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Prince of Songkla University, Hat Yai 90112 (Thailand); Daengngam, Chalongrat, E-mail: chalongrat.d@psu.ac.th [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Prince of Songkla University, Hat Yai 90112 (Thailand); Pengpan, Teparksorn, E-mail: teparksorn.p@psu.ac.th [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Prince of Songkla University, Hat Yai 90112 (Thailand)

    2016-08-15

    Biakynicki-Birula introduced a photon wave function similar to the matter wave function that satisfies the Schrödinger equation. Its second quantization form can be applied to investigate nonlinear optics at nearly full quantum level. In this paper, we applied the photon wave function formalism to analyze both linear optical processes in the well-known Mach–Zehnder interferometer and nonlinear optical processes for sum-frequency generation in dispersive and lossless medium. Results by photon wave function formalism agree with the well-established Maxwell treatments and existing experimental verifications.

  4. Photon wave function formalism for analysis of Mach–Zehnder interferometer and sum-frequency generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ritboon, Atirach; Daengngam, Chalongrat; Pengpan, Teparksorn

    2016-01-01

    Biakynicki-Birula introduced a photon wave function similar to the matter wave function that satisfies the Schrödinger equation. Its second quantization form can be applied to investigate nonlinear optics at nearly full quantum level. In this paper, we applied the photon wave function formalism to analyze both linear optical processes in the well-known Mach–Zehnder interferometer and nonlinear optical processes for sum-frequency generation in dispersive and lossless medium. Results by photon wave function formalism agree with the well-established Maxwell treatments and existing experimental verifications.

  5. Investigation of the Photon Strength Function in 130 Te

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isaak, J.; Beller, J.; Fiori, E.; Glorius, J.; Krtička, M.; Löher, B.; Pietralla, N.; Romig, C.; Rusev, G.; Savran, D.; Scheck, M.; Silva, J.; Sonnabend, K.; Tonchev, A. P.; Tornow, W.; Weller, H. R.; Zweidinger, M.

    2016-01-01

    The dipole strength distribution of 130Te was investigated with the method of Nuclear Resonance Fluorescence using continuous-energy bremsstrahlung at the Darmstadt High Intensity Photon Setup and quasi-monoenergetic photons at the High Intensity γ-Ray Source. The average decay properties were determined between 5.50 and 8.15 MeV and compared to simulations within the statistical model.

  6. Transverse momentum dependent fragmenting jet functions with applications to quarkonium production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bain, Reggie; Makris, Yiannis; Mehen, Thomas [Department of Physics, Duke University,Science Dr., Box 90305, Durham, NC 27708 (United States)

    2016-11-23

    We introduce the transverse momentum dependent fragmenting jet function (TMDFJF), which appears in factorization theorems for cross sections for jets with an identified hadron. These are functions of z, the hadron’s longitudinal momentum fraction, and transverse momentum, p{sub ⊥}, relative to the jet axis. In the framework of Soft-Collinear Effective Theory (SCET) we derive the TMDFJF from both a factorized SCET cross section and the TMD fragmentation function defined in the literature. The TMDFJFs are factorized into distinct collinear and soft-collinear modes by matching onto SCET{sub +}. As TMD calculations contain rapidity divergences, both the renormalization group (RG) and rapidity renormalization group (RRG) must be used to provide resummed calculations with next-to-leading-logarithm prime (NLL’) accuracy. We apply our formalism to the production of J/ψ within jets initiated by gluons. In this case the TMDFJF can be calculated in terms of NRQCD (Non-relativistic quantum chromodynamics) fragmentation functions. We find that when the J/ψ carries a significant fraction of the jet energy, the p{sub T} and z distributions differ for different NRQCD production mechanisms. Another observable with discriminating power is the average angle that the J/ψ makes with the jet axis.

  7. Natural aminoacyl tRNA synthetase fragment enhances cardiac function after myocardial infarction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margaret E McCormick

    Full Text Available A naturally-occurring fragment of tyrosyl-tRNA synthetase (TyrRS has been shown in higher eukaryotes to 'moonlight' as a pro-angiogenic cytokine in addition to its primary role in protein translation. Pro-angiogenic cytokines have previously been proposed to be promising therapeutic mechanisms for the treatment of myocardial infarction. Here, we show that systemic delivery of the natural fragment of TyRS, mini-TyrRS, improves heart function in mice after myocardial infarction. This improvement is associated with reduced formation of scar tissue, increased angiogenesis of cardiac capillaries, recruitment of c-kitpos cells and proliferation of myocardial fibroblasts. This work demonstrates that mini-TyrRS has beneficial effects on cardiac repair and regeneration and offers support for the notion that elucidation of the ever expanding repertoire of noncanonical functions of aminoacyl tRNA synthetases offers unique opportunities for development of novel therapeutics.

  8. Photon structure and the production of jets, hadrons, and prompt photons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klasen, M.

    1999-01-01

    We give a pedagogical introduction to hard photoproduction processes at HERA, including the production of jets, hadrons, and prompt photons. Recent theoretical developments in the three areas are reviewed. In summary, hard photoproduction processes can provide very useful information on the hadronic structure of the photon, in particular on the gluon density, which is complimentary to the information coming from deep inelastic photon-photon scattering at electron-positron colliders. Among the different hadronic final states, jets are most easily accessible experimentally and phenomenologically. On the other hand, inclusive hadron production offers the possibility to test the universality of hadron fragmentation functions and measure the photon structure down to very low values of p T and x γ . Prompt photon production suffers from a reduced cross section and limited data, but allows for the additional testing of photon fragmentation functions

  9. One-loop calculations of photon splitting in relativistic quantum plasma by Green's function technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De la Incera, V.; Ferrer, E.; Shalad, A.Y.

    1987-01-01

    A homogeneous and isotropic plasma made up of electrons and positrons is examined. The coefficients of the covariant expansion of the three-photon vertex are calculated in the one-loop approximation of the Green's function technique, together with the probability amplitudes of various processes involving three photons that produce information on the probability of the polarization states of the incoming and outgoing photons in the splitting process. The calculation results are used to verify the consequences of all exact symmetries which must be done for the vertex tensor. The case of a charge-symmetric plasma is considered together with the special case of photon collinearity

  10. Generalizing the DGLAP evolution of fragmentation functions to the smallest x values

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albino, S.; Kniehl, B.A.; Kramer, G.; Ochs, W.

    2005-03-01

    An approach which unifies the double logarithmic approximation at small x and the leading order DGLAP evolution of fragmentation functions at large x is presented. This approach reproduces exactly the modified leading logarithm approximation, but is more complete due to the degrees of freedom given to the quark sector and the inclusion of the fixed order terms. We find that data from the largest x values to the peak region can be better fitted than with other approaches. (orig.)

  11. Inclusive Analysis of the b Quark Fragmentation Function in Z Decays at LEP

    CERN Document Server

    Abbiendi, G.; Akesson, P.F.; Alexander, G.; Allison, John; Amaral, P.; Anagnostou, G.; Anderson, K.J.; Arcelli, S.; Asai, S.; Axen, D.; Azuelos, G.; Bailey, I.; Barberio, E.; Barlow, R.J.; Batley, R.J.; Bechtle, P.; Behnke, T.; Bell, Kenneth Watson; Bell, P.J.; Bella, G.; Bellerive, A.; Benelli, G.; Bethke, S.; Biebel, O.; Bloodworth, I.J.; Boeriu, O.; Bock, P.; Bonacorsi, D.; Boutemeur, M.; Braibant, S.; Brigliadori, L.; Brown, Robert M.; Buesser, K.; Burckhart, H.J.; Cammin, J.; Campana, S.; Carnegie, R.K.; Caron, B.; Carter, A.A.; Carter, J.R.; Chang, C.Y.; Charlton, David G.; Cohen, I.; Csilling, A.; Cuffiani, M.; Dado, S.; Dallavalle, G.Marco; Dallison, S.; De Roeck, A.; De Wolf, E.A.; Desch, K.; Donkers, M.; Dubbert, J.; Duchovni, E.; Duckeck, G.; Duerdoth, I.P.; Elfgren, E.; Etzion, E.; Fabbri, F.; Feld, L.; Ferrari, P.; Fiedler, F.; Fleck, I.; Ford, M.; Frey, A.; Furtjes, A.; Gagnon, P.; Gary, John William; Gaycken, G.; Geich-Gimbel, C.; Giacomelli, G.; Giacomelli, P.; Giunta, Marina; Goldberg, J.; Gross, E.; Grunhaus, J.; Gruwe, M.; Gunther, P.O.; Gupta, A.; Hajdu, C.; Hamann, M.; Hanson, G.G.; Harder, K.; Harel, A.; Harin-Dirac, M.; Hauschild, M.; Hauschildt, J.; Hawkes, C.M.; Hawkings, R.; Hemingway, R.J.; Hensel, C.; Herten, G.; Heuer, R.D.; Hill, J.C.; Hoffman, Kara Dion; Homer, R.J.; Horvath, D.; Howard, R.; Huntemeyer, P.; Igo-Kemenes, P.; Ishii, K.; Jeremie, H.; Jovanovic, P.; Junk, T.R.; Kanaya, N.; Kanzaki, J.; Karapetian, G.; Karlen, D.; Kartvelishvili, V.; Kawagoe, K.; Kawamoto, T.; Keeler, R.K.; Kellogg, R.G.; Kennedy, B.W.; Kim, D.H.; Klein, K.; Klier, A.; Kluth, S.; Kobayashi, T.; Kobel, M.; Kokott, T.P.; Komamiya, S.; Kormos, Laura L.; Kowalewski, Robert V.; Kramer, T.; Kress, T.; Krieger, P.; von Krogh, J.; Krop, D.; Kupper, M.; Kyberd, P.; Lafferty, G.D.; Landsman, H.; Lanske, D.; Layter, J.G.; Leins, A.; Lellouch, D.; Letts, J.; Levinson, L.; Lillich, J.; Lloyd, S.L.; Loebinger, F.K.; Lu, J.; Ludwig, J.; Macpherson, A.; Mader, W.; Marcellini, S.; Marchant, T.E.; Martin, A.J.; Martin, J.P.; Masetti, G.; Mashimo, T.; Mattig, Peter; McDonald, W.J.; McKenna, J.; McMahon, T.J.; McPherson, R.A.; Meijers, F.; Mendez-Lorenzo, P.; Menges, W.; Merritt, F.S.; Mes, H.; Michelini, A.; Mihara, S.; Mikenberg, G.; Miller, D.J.; Moed, S.; Mohr, W.; Mori, T.; Mutter, A.; Nagai, K.; Nakamura, I.; Neal, H.A.; Nisius, R.; O'Neale, S.W.; Oh, A.; Okpara, A.; Oreglia, M.J.; Orito, S.; Pahl, C.; Pasztor, G.; Pater, J.R.; Patrick, G.N.; Pilcher, J.E.; Pinfold, J.; Plane, David E.; Poli, B.; Polok, J.; Pooth, O.; Przybycien, M.; Quadt, A.; Rabbertz, K.; Rembser, C.; Renkel, P.; Rick, H.; Roney, J.M.; Rosati, S.; Rozen, Y.; Runge, K.; Rust, D.R.; Sachs, K.; Saeki, T.; Sahr, O.; Sarkisyan, E.K.G.; Schaile, A.D.; Schaile, O.; Scharff-Hansen, P.; Schieck, J.; Schoerner-Sadenius, Thomas; Schroder, Matthias; Schumacher, M.; Schwick, C.; Scott, W.G.; Seuster, R.; Shears, T.G.; Shen, B.C.; Shepherd-Themistocleous, C.H.; Sherwood, P.; Siroli, G.; Skuja, A.; Smith, A.M.; Sobie, R.; Soldner-Rembold, S.; Spagnolo, S.; Spano, F.; Stahl, A.; Stephens, K.; Strom, David M.; Strohmer, R.; Tarem, S.; Tasevsky, M.; Taylor, R.J.; Teuscher, R.; Thomson, M.A.; Torrence, E.; Toya, D.; Tran, P.; Trefzger, T.; Tricoli, A.; Trigger, I.; Trocsanyi, Z.; Tsur, E.; Turner-Watson, M.F.; Ueda, I.; Ujvari, B.; Vachon, B.; Vollmer, C.F.; Vannerem, P.; Verzocchi, M.; Voss, H.; Vossebeld, J.; Waller, D.; Ward, C.P.; Ward, D.R.; Watkins, P.M.; Watson, A.T.; Watson, N.K.; Wells, P.S.; Wengler, T.; Wermes, N.; Wetterling, D.; Wilson, G.W.; Wilson, J.A.; Wolf, G.; Wyatt, T.R.; Yamashita, S.; Zacek, V.; Zer-Zion, D.; Zivkovic, Lidija

    2003-01-01

    A study of b quark hadronisation is presented using inclusively reconstructed B hadrons in about four million hadronic Z decays recorded in 1992-2000 with the OPAL detector at LEP. The data are compared to different theoretical models, and fragmentation function parameters of these models are fitted. The average scaled energy of weakly decaying B hadrons is determined to be =0.7193+-0.0016(stat)+0.0036-0.0031(syst)

  12. Patterns of bird functional diversity on land-bridge island fragments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Zhifeng; Feeley, Kenneth J; Wang, Yanping; Pakeman, Robin J; Ding, Ping

    2013-07-01

    The loss of species diversity due to habitat fragmentation has been extensively studied. In contrast, the impacts of habitat fragmentation on functional diversity remains relatively poorly understood. We conducted bird functional diversity studies on a set of 41 recently isolated land-bridge islands in the Thousand Island Lake, China. We analysed differences in bird species richness and a recently developed suite of complementary functional diversity indices (FRic, volume of functional space occupied; FEve, evenness of abundance distribution in the functional trait space; FDiv, divergence in the distribution of abundance in the trait volume) across different gradients (island area and isolation). We found no correlations between FRic and FEve or FEve and FDiv, but negative correlations between FRic and FDiv. As predicted, island area accounted for most of the variation in bird species richness, whereas isolation explained most of the variation in species evenness (decreasing species evenness with increasing isolation). Functional diversity appears to be more strongly influenced by habitat filtering as opposed to limiting similarity. More specifically, across all islands, both FRic and FEve were significantly lower than expected for randomly assembled communities, but FDiv showed no clear patterns. FRic increased with island area, FEve decreased with island area and FDiv showed no clear patterns. Our finding that FEve decreases with island area at TIL may indicate low functional stability on such islands, and as such large islands and habitat patches may deserve extra attention and/or protection. These results help to demonstrate the importance of considering the effects of fragmentation on functional diversity in habitat management and reserve design plans. © 2013 The Authors. Journal of Animal Ecology © 2013 British Ecological Society.

  13. Functionalizing 2PP-fabricated microtools for optical manipulation on the BioPhotonics Workstation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Matsuoka, Tomoyo; Nishi, Masayuki; Sakakura, Masaaki

    Functionalization of the structures fabricated by two-photon polymerization was achieved by coating them with sol-gel materials, which contain calcium indicators. The structures are expected to work potentially as nano-sensors on the BioPhotonics Workstation....

  14. Fragmentation: Loss of global coherence or breakdown of modularity in functional brain architecture?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daan evan den Berg

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Psychiatric illnesses characterised by disorganized cognition, such as schizophrenia, have been described in terms of fragmentation and hence understood as reduction in functional brain connectivity, particularly in prefrontal and parietal areas. However, as graph-theory shows, relatively small numbers of nonlocal connections are sufficient to ensure global coherence in the modular small world network structure of the brain. We reconsider fragmentation in this perspective. Computational studies have shown that for a given level of connectivity in a model of coupled nonlinear oscillators, modular small-world networks evolve from an initially random organization. Here we demonstrate that with decreasing connectivity, the probability of evolving into a modular small-world network breaks down at a critical point, which scales to the percolation function of random networks with a universal exponent of α=1.17. Thus, according to the model, local modularity systematically breaks down before there is loss of global coherence in network connectivity. We therefore propose that fragmentation may involve, at least in its initial stages, the inability of a dynamically evolving network to sustain a modular small-world structure. The result is in a shift in the balance in schizophrenia from local to global functional connectivity.

  15. Measurement of the b quark fragmentation function in Z{sup 0} decays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dong, D.

    1999-12-01

    The authors present results of a new measurement of the inclusive b quark fragmentation function in Z decays using a novel kinematic B hadron energy reconstruction technique. The measurement is performed using 150,000 hadronic Z events recorded in the SLD experiment at SLAC between 1996 and 1997. The small and stable SLC beam spot and the CCD-based vertex detector are used to reconstruct topological B-decay vertices with high efficiency and purity, and to provide precise measurements of the kinematic quantities used in this technique. The authors measure the B energy with good efficiency and resolution over the full kinematic range. While comparing the scaled B energy distribution with predictions of several models of b quark fragmentation, the authors also test several functional forms of the B energy distribution. Several fragmentation models and functional forms are excluded by the data. The mean of the scaled energy distribution of the weakly decaying B hadron is measured to be x{sub B} = 0.714{+-}0.00(stat){+-}0.007(syst){+-}0.002 (model).

  16. The virtual photon structure functions and AdS/QCD correspondence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshida, Yutaka

    2010-01-01

    We study the virtual photons structure functions from gauge/string duality. If the Bjorken variable x is not small, supergravity approximation becomes good in dual string theory. We calculate the virtual photon structure functions at large 't Hooft coupling in a moderate x-region and determine x-behavior of the structure functions. We also show that the Callan-Gross relation F L =0 is satisfied to a good approximation in gravity calculation. (author)

  17. Effects of matrix characteristics and interpatch distance on functional connectivity in fragmented temperate rainforests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magrach, Ainhoa; Larrinaga, Asier R; Santamaría, Luis

    2012-04-01

    The connectivity of remnant patches of habitat may affect the persistence of species in fragmented landscapes. We evaluated the effects of the structural connectivity of forest patches (i.e., distance between patches) and matrix class (land-cover type) on the functional connectivity of 3 bird species (the White-crested Elaenia [Elaenia albiceps], the Green-backed Firecrown Hummingbird [Sephanoides sephaniodes], and the Austral Thrush [Turdus falklandii]). We measured functional connectivity as the rate at which each species crossed from one patch to another. We also evaluated whether greater functional connectivity translated into greater ecological connectivity (dispersal of fruit and pollen) by comparing among forest patches fruit set of a plant pollinated by hummingbirds and abundance of seedlings and adults of 2 plants with bird- and wind-dispersed seeds. Interpatch distance was strongly associated with functional connectivity, but its effect was not independent of matrix class. For one of the bird-dispersed plants, greater functional connectivity for White-crested Elaenias and Austral Thrushes (both frugivores) was associated with higher densities of this plant. The lack of a similar association for the wind-dispersed species suggests this effect is linked to the dispersal vector. The abundance of the hummingbird-pollinated species was not related to the presence of hummingbirds. Interpatch distance and matrix class affect animal movement in fragmented landscapes and may have a cascading effect on the distribution of some animal-dispersed species. On the basis of our results, we believe effort should be invested in optimizing patch configuration and modifying the matrix so as to mitigate the effects of patch isolation in fragmented landscapes. ©2012 Society for Conservation Biology.

  18. Likelihood functions for the analysis of single-molecule binned photon sequences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gopich, Irina V., E-mail: irinag@niddk.nih.gov [Laboratory of Chemical Physics, National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892 (United States)

    2012-03-02

    Graphical abstract: Folding of a protein with attached fluorescent dyes, the underlying conformational trajectory of interest, and the observed binned photon trajectory. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A sequence of photon counts can be analyzed using a likelihood function. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The exact likelihood function for a two-state kinetic model is provided. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Several approximations are considered for an arbitrary kinetic model. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Improved likelihood functions are obtained to treat sequences of FRET efficiencies. - Abstract: We consider the analysis of a class of experiments in which the number of photons in consecutive time intervals is recorded. Sequence of photon counts or, alternatively, of FRET efficiencies can be studied using likelihood-based methods. For a kinetic model of the conformational dynamics and state-dependent Poisson photon statistics, the formalism to calculate the exact likelihood that this model describes such sequences of photons or FRET efficiencies is developed. Explicit analytic expressions for the likelihood function for a two-state kinetic model are provided. The important special case when conformational dynamics are so slow that at most a single transition occurs in a time bin is considered. By making a series of approximations, we eventually recover the likelihood function used in hidden Markov models. In this way, not only is insight gained into the range of validity of this procedure, but also an improved likelihood function can be obtained.

  19. Fragment approach to constrained density functional theory calculations using Daubechies wavelets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ratcliff, Laura E.; Genovese, Luigi; Mohr, Stephan; Deutsch, Thierry

    2015-01-01

    In a recent paper, we presented a linear scaling Kohn-Sham density functional theory (DFT) code based on Daubechies wavelets, where a minimal set of localized support functions are optimized in situ and therefore adapted to the chemical properties of the molecular system. Thanks to the systematically controllable accuracy of the underlying basis set, this approach is able to provide an optimal contracted basis for a given system: accuracies for ground state energies and atomic forces are of the same quality as an uncontracted, cubic scaling approach. This basis set offers, by construction, a natural subset where the density matrix of the system can be projected. In this paper, we demonstrate the flexibility of this minimal basis formalism in providing a basis set that can be reused as-is, i.e., without reoptimization, for charge-constrained DFT calculations within a fragment approach. Support functions, represented in the underlying wavelet grid, of the template fragments are roto-translated with high numerical precision to the required positions and used as projectors for the charge weight function. We demonstrate the interest of this approach to express highly precise and efficient calculations for preparing diabatic states and for the computational setup of systems in complex environments

  20. Fragment approach to constrained density functional theory calculations using Daubechies wavelets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ratcliff, Laura E., E-mail: lratcliff@anl.gov [Argonne Leadership Computing Facility, Argonne National Laboratory, Lemont, Illinois 60439 (United States); Université de Grenoble Alpes, CEA, INAC-SP2M, L-Sim, F-38000 Grenoble (France); Genovese, Luigi; Mohr, Stephan; Deutsch, Thierry [Université de Grenoble Alpes, CEA, INAC-SP2M, L-Sim, F-38000 Grenoble (France)

    2015-06-21

    In a recent paper, we presented a linear scaling Kohn-Sham density functional theory (DFT) code based on Daubechies wavelets, where a minimal set of localized support functions are optimized in situ and therefore adapted to the chemical properties of the molecular system. Thanks to the systematically controllable accuracy of the underlying basis set, this approach is able to provide an optimal contracted basis for a given system: accuracies for ground state energies and atomic forces are of the same quality as an uncontracted, cubic scaling approach. This basis set offers, by construction, a natural subset where the density matrix of the system can be projected. In this paper, we demonstrate the flexibility of this minimal basis formalism in providing a basis set that can be reused as-is, i.e., without reoptimization, for charge-constrained DFT calculations within a fragment approach. Support functions, represented in the underlying wavelet grid, of the template fragments are roto-translated with high numerical precision to the required positions and used as projectors for the charge weight function. We demonstrate the interest of this approach to express highly precise and efficient calculations for preparing diabatic states and for the computational setup of systems in complex environments.

  1. Total reflection coefficients of low-energy photons presented as universal functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ljubenov Vladan

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The possibility of expressing the total particle and energy reflection coefficients of low-energy photons in the form of universal functions valid for different shielding materials is investigated in this paper. The analysis is based on the results of Monte Carlo simulations of photon reflection by using MCNP, FOTELP, and PENELOPE codes. The normal incidence of the narrow monoenergetic photon beam of the unit intensity and of initial energies from 20 keV up to 100 keV is considered, and particle and energy reflection coefficients from the plane homogenous targets of water, aluminum, and iron are determined and compared. The representations of albedo coefficients on the initial photon energy, on the probability of large-angle photon scattering, and on the mean number of photon scatterings are examined. It is found out that only the rescaled albedo coefficients dependent on the mean number of photon scatterings have the form of universal functions and these functions are determined by applying the least square method.

  2. CALCULATION OF FRAGMENTATION FUNCTIONS IN TWO-HADRON SEMI-INCLUSIVE PROCESSES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    BIANCONI, A.; BOFFI, S.; BOER, D.; JAKOB, R.; RADICI, M.

    2001-01-01

    We investigate the properties of interference fragmentation functions arising from the emission of two leading hadrons inside the same jet for inclusive lepton-nucleon deep inelastic scattering. Using an extended spectator model for the mechanism of the hadronization, we give a complete calculation and numerical estimates for the examples of a proton-pion pair produced with invariant mass on the Roper resonance, and of two pions produced with invariant mass close to the ρ mass. We discuss azimuthal angular dependence of the leading order cross section to point up favourable conditions for extracting transversity from experimental data

  3. Removal of oxidative fragments from chemically functionalized multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohd Hamzah Harun; Whitby, Raymond; Khairul Zaman Dahlan; Nik Ghazali Nik Salleh; Mohd Sofian Alias; Mahathir Mohamed; Mohd Yusof Hamzah; Mohd Faizal Abdul Rahman

    2010-01-01

    Acid oxidized multi-walled carbon nano tubes (MWCNTs) were prepared by refluxing MWCNTs with nitric acid (70 %). To remove the oxidative fragment/ debris, in which partially attached onto the carbon nano tubes lattice, the functionalized MWCNTs (f-MWCNTs) then were refluxed with NaOH (1M) and followed with HCl (1M) wash. The presence of carboxylic group that covalently attached onto the MWCNTs lattice are confirmed with acid-base titration. The TEM image shows the comparison of pure MWCNTs, f-MWCNTs and base-acid wash of f-MWCNTs. (author)

  4. Diquark fragmentation functions in hadron-nucleon interactions at 19 GeV/c and other energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bakken, V.; Breivik, F.O.; Jacobsen, T.

    New data on pion production in pn-interactions at 19 GeV/c are used, together with earlier data on pion production in pn (π + n) at other energies, to determine the diquark fragmentation functions Dsup(π) +- sub(dd)(=Dsup(π) +- sub(uu)) and Dsup(π)sub(ud) in the neutron and proton fragmentation regions. Typical high energy data on pion production in pp-interactions are also considered. The unfavoured fragmentation function Dsup(π) + sub(dd)(x) is found to be much smaller than the favoured fragmentati ion function Dsup(π) - sub(dd)(x) and to have a steeper x-dependence. The diquark fragmentation functions agree very well with those from v(v - )- proton interactions as expected from quark parton models

  5. Extent of sensitivity of single photon production to parton distribution ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    used the BFG-I parton to photon fragmentation function by Bourhis et al [17], which includes correction in the fragmentation function beyond leading logarithmic approxima- tion. The three scales μf,μR,μF are set equal to a common scale μ to reduce theoretical uncertainties in the calculation. The scale μ is further defined as ...

  6. Constraining the electric dipole photon strength function in {sup 130}Te

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Isaak, J.; Loeher, B.; Savran, D.; Silva, J. [ExtreMe Matter Institute EMMI and Research Division, Darmstadt (Germany); FIAS, Frankfurt (Germany); Ahmed, M.W.; Kelley, J.H.; Tornow, W.; Weller, H.R. [Department of Physics, Duke University, TUNL (United States); Beller, J.; Pietralla, N.; Romig, C.; Zweidinger, M. [Institut fuer Kernphysik, TU Darmstadt (Germany); Glorius, J.; Sonnabend, K. [Institut fuer Angewandte Physik, Goethe-Universitaet Frankfurt (Germany); Krticka, M. [Faculty of Mathematics and Physics, Charles University, Prague (Czech Republic); Rusev, G. [Chemistry Division, LANL (United States); Scheck, M. [School of Engineering, University of the West of Scotland (United Kingdom); Tonchev, A.P. [Physics Division, LLNL (United States)

    2014-07-01

    The decay properties of photo-excited states in {sup 130}Te have been investigated by means of Nuclear Resonance Fluorescence experiments at the Darmstadt High Intensity Photon Setup (DHIPS) and the High Intensity γ-ray Source (HIγS). The combination of continuous-energy bremsstrahlung on the one hand and the quasi-monoenergetic and linearly polarized photon beam on the other enables a detailed insight into the photoabsorption cross section and the decay behavior of spin-1 states. Comparing these results to simulations within the statistical model allow for constraining the electric dipole photon strength function (E1-PSF). Results are presented and discussed.

  7. Frugivorous bats maintain functional habitat connectivity in agricultural landscapes but rely strongly on natural forest fragments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ripperger, Simon P; Kalko, Elisabeth K V; Rodríguez-Herrera, Bernal; Mayer, Frieder; Tschapka, Marco

    2015-01-01

    Anthropogenic changes in land use threaten biodiversity and ecosystem functioning by the conversion of natural habitat into agricultural mosaic landscapes, often with drastic consequences for the associated fauna. The first step in the development of efficient conservation plans is to understand movement of animals through complex habitat mosaics. Therefore, we studied ranging behavior and habitat use in Dermanura watsoni (Phyllostomidae), a frugivorous bat species that is a valuable seed disperser in degraded ecosystems. Radio-tracking of sixteen bats showed that the animals strongly rely on natural forest. Day roosts were exclusively located within mature forest fragments. Selection ratios showed that the bats foraged selectively within the available habitat and positively selected natural forest. However, larger daily ranges were associated with higher use of degraded habitats. Home range geometry and composition of focal foraging areas indicated that wider ranging bats performed directional foraging bouts from natural to degraded forest sites traversing the matrix over distances of up to three hundred meters. This behavior demonstrates the potential of frugivorous bats to functionally connect fragmented areas by providing ecosystem services between natural and degraded sites, and highlights the need for conservation of natural habitat patches within agricultural landscapes that meet the roosting requirements of bats.

  8. Frugivorous bats maintain functional habitat connectivity in agricultural landscapes but rely strongly on natural forest fragments.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon P Ripperger

    Full Text Available Anthropogenic changes in land use threaten biodiversity and ecosystem functioning by the conversion of natural habitat into agricultural mosaic landscapes, often with drastic consequences for the associated fauna. The first step in the development of efficient conservation plans is to understand movement of animals through complex habitat mosaics. Therefore, we studied ranging behavior and habitat use in Dermanura watsoni (Phyllostomidae, a frugivorous bat species that is a valuable seed disperser in degraded ecosystems. Radio-tracking of sixteen bats showed that the animals strongly rely on natural forest. Day roosts were exclusively located within mature forest fragments. Selection ratios showed that the bats foraged selectively within the available habitat and positively selected natural forest. However, larger daily ranges were associated with higher use of degraded habitats. Home range geometry and composition of focal foraging areas indicated that wider ranging bats performed directional foraging bouts from natural to degraded forest sites traversing the matrix over distances of up to three hundred meters. This behavior demonstrates the potential of frugivorous bats to functionally connect fragmented areas by providing ecosystem services between natural and degraded sites, and highlights the need for conservation of natural habitat patches within agricultural landscapes that meet the roosting requirements of bats.

  9. Two-photon excitation of porphyrin-functionalized porous silicon nanoparticles for photodynamic therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Secret, Emilie; Maynadier, Marie; Gallud, Audrey; Chaix, Arnaud; Bouffard, Elise; Gary-Bobo, Magali; Marcotte, Nathalie; Mongin, Olivier; El Cheikh, Khaled; Hugues, Vincent; Auffan, Mélanie; Frochot, Céline; Morère, Alain; Maillard, Philippe; Blanchard-Desce, Mireille; Sailor, Michael J; Garcia, Marcel; Durand, Jean-Olivier; Cunin, Frédérique

    2014-12-03

    Porous silicon nanoparticles (pSiNPs) act as a sensitizer for the 2-photon excitation of a pendant porphyrin using NIR laser light, for imaging and photodynamic therapy. Mannose-functionalized pSiNPs can be vectorized to MCF-7 human breast cancer cells through a mannose receptor-mediated endocytosis mechanism to provide a 3-fold enhancement of the 2-photon PDT effect. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. Low functional richness and redundancy of a predator assemblage in native forest fragments of Chiloe island, Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farias, Ariel A; Jaksic, Fabian M

    2011-07-01

    1. Changes in land use and habitat fragmentation are major drivers of global change, and studying their effects on biodiversity constitutes a major research programme. However, biodiversity is a multifaceted concept, with a functional component linking species richness to ecosystem function. Currently, the interaction between functional and taxonomic components of biodiversity under realistic scenarios of habitat degradation is poorly understood. 2. The expected functional richness (FR)-species richness relationship (FRSR) is positive, and attenuated for functional redundancy in species-rich assemblages. Further, environmental filters are expected to flatten that association by sorting species with similar traits. Thus, analysing FRSR can inform about the response of biodiversity to environmental gradients and habitat fragmentation, and its expected functional consequences. 3. Top predators affect ecosystem functioning through prey consumption and are particularly vulnerable to changes in land use and habitat fragmentation, being good indicators of ecosystem health and suitable models for assessing the effects of habitat fragmentation on their FR. 4. Thus, this study analyses the functional redundancy of a vertebrate predator assemblage at temperate forest fragments in a rural landscape of Chiloe island (Chile), testing the existence of environmental filters by contrasting an empirically derived FRSR against those predicted from null models, and testing the association between biodiversity components and the structure of forest fragments. 5. Overall, contrasts against null models indicate that regional factors determine low levels of FR and redundancy for the vertebrate predator assemblage studied, while recorded linear FRSR indicates proportional responses of the two biodiversity components to the structure of forest fragments. Further, most species were positively associated with either fragment size or shape complexity, which are highly correlated. This, and the

  11. Unpolarised transverse momentum dependent distribution and fragmentation functions from SIDIS multiplicities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anselmino, M.; Boglione, M.; Gonzalez, H. J.O.; Melis, S.; Prokudin, A.

    2014-01-01

    In this study, the unpolarised transverse momentum dependent distribution and fragmentation functions are extracted from HERMES and COMPASS experimental measurements of SIDIS multiplicities for charged hadron production. The data are grouped into independent bins of the kinematical variables, in which the TMD factorisation is expected to hold. A simple factorised functional form of the TMDs is adopted, with a Gaussian dependence on the intrinsic transverse momentum, which turns out to be quite adequate in shape. HERMES data do not need any normalisation correction, while fits of the COMPASS data much improve with a y-dependent overall normalisation factor. A comparison of the extracted TMDs with previous EMC and JLab data confirms the adequacy of the simple gaussian distributions. The possible role of the TMD evolution is briefly considered

  12. Photon-photon collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burke, D.L.

    1982-10-01

    Studies of photon-photon collisions are reviewed with particular emphasis on new results reported to this conference. These include results on light meson spectroscopy and deep inelastic e#betta# scattering. Considerable work has now been accumulated on resonance production by #betta##betta# collisions. Preliminary high statistics studies of the photon structure function F 2 /sup #betta#/(x,Q 2 ) are given and comments are made on the problems that remain to be solved

  13. Photon-photon collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haissinski, J.

    1986-06-01

    The discussions presented in this paper deal with the following points: distinctive features of gamma-gamma collisions; related processes; photon-photon elastic scattering in the continuum and γγ →gg; total cross section; γγ → V 1 V 2 (V=vector meson); radiative width measurements and light meson spectroscopy; exclusive channels at large /t/; jets and inclusive particle distribution in γγ collisions; and, the photon structure function F γ 2

  14. The b Quark Fragmentation Function, From LEP to TeVatron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ben-haim, Eli [Univ. Pierre et Marie Curie, Paris (France)

    2004-12-01

    production at CDF is ongoing. It makes use of ~ 6000 B± candidates, from 333 pb-1 of data registered by the CDF experiment, fully reconstructed in the decay channel B± → J/ΨK±. Characteristics of B mesons and for accompanying tracks have been examined, in the perspective of understanding the effect of fragmentation. These studies, done in the framework of the PYTHIA event generator, also involve the contributions from different b$\\bar{b}$ production mechanisms. Distributions from a fully reconstructed Monte Carlo sample have been compared to data, and the agreement has been found to be reasonable. The analysis is ongoing, and the goal is to fit the fragmentation function parameters and/or the relative contributions from different production mechanisms to improve the agreement between data and Monte Carlo. A measurement of the b quark production cross section has been obtained using the same data. The analysis is still under way, and therefore the result is preliminary.

  15. Transverse Momentum Dependent Parton Distribution/Fragmentation Functions at an Electron-Ion Collider

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anselmino, M.; Avakian, H.; Boer, D.; Bradamante, F.; Burkardt, M.; Chen, J.P.; Cisbani, E.; Contalbrigo, M.; Crabb, D.; Dutta, D.; Gamberg, L.; Gao, H.; Hasch, D.; Huang, J.; Huang, M.; Kang, Z.; Keppel, C.; Laskaris, G.; Liang, Z.-T.; Liu, M.X.; Makins, N.; Mckeown, R.D.; Metz, A.; Meziani, Z.-E.; Musch, B.; Peng, J.-C.; Prokudin, A.; Qian, X.; Qiang, Y.; Qiu, J.W.; Rossi, P.; Schweitzer, P.; Soffer, J.; Sulkosky, V.; Wang, Y.; Xiao, B.; Ye, Q.; Ye, Q.-J.; Yuan, F.; Zhan, X.; Zhang, Y.; Zheng, W.; Zhou, J.

    2011-01-01

    We present a summary of a recent workshop held at Duke University on Partonic Transverse Momentum in Hadrons: Quark Spin-Orbit Correlations and Quark-Gluon Interactions. The transverse momentum dependent parton distribution functions (TMDs), parton-to-hadron fragmentation functions, and multi-parton correlation functions, were discussed extensively at the Duke workshop. In this paper, we summarize first the theoretical issues concerning the study of partonic structure of hadrons at a future electron-ion collider (EIC) with emphasis on the TMDs. We then present simulation results on experimental studies of TMDs through measurements of single spin asymmetries (SSA) from semi-inclusive deep-inelastic scattering (SIDIS) processes with an EIC, and discuss the requirement of the detector for SIDIS measurements. The dynamics of parton correlations in the nucleon is further explored via a study of SSA in D ((bar D)) production at large transverse momenta with the aim of accessing the unexplored tri-gluon correlation functions. The workshop participants identified the SSA measurements in SIDIS as a golden program to study TMDs in both the sea and valence quark regions and to study the role of gluons, with the Sivers asymmetry measurements as examples. Such measurements will lead to major advancement in our understanding of TMDs in the valence quark region, and more importantly also allow for the investigation of TMDs in the sea quark region along with a study of their evolution.

  16. Measurement of the photon structure function $F_{2}^{\\gamma}$ at low x

    CERN Document Server

    Ackerstaff, K.; Allison, John; Altekamp, N.; Anderson, K.J.; Anderson, S.; Arcelli, S.; Asai, S.; Axen, D.; Azuelos, G.; Ball, A.H.; Barberio, E.; Barlow, Roger J.; Bartoldus, R.; Batley, J.R.; Baumann, S.; Bechtluft, J.; Beeston, C.; Behnke, T.; Bell, A.N.; Bell, Kenneth Watson; Bella, G.; Bentvelsen, S.; Bethke, S.; Biebel, O.; Biguzzi, A.; Bird, S.D.; Blobel, V.; Bloodworth, I.J.; Bloomer, J.E.; Bobinski, M.; Bock, P.; Bonacorsi, D.; Boutemeur, M.; Bouwens, B.T.; Braibant, S.; Brigliadori, L.; Brown, Robert M.; Burckhart, H.J.; Burgard, C.; Burgin, R.; Capiluppi, P.; Carnegie, R.K.; Carter, A.A.; Carter, J.R.; Chang, C.Y.; Charlton, David G.; Chrisman, D.; Clarke, P.E.L.; Cohen, I.; Conboy, J.E.; Cooke, O.C.; Cuffiani, M.; Dado, S.; Dallapiccola, C.; Dallavalle, G.Marco; Davies, R.; De Jong, S.; del Pozo, L.A.; Desch, K.; Dienes, B.; Dixit, M.S.; do Couto e Silva, E.; Doucet, M.; Duchovni, E.; Duckeck, G.; Duerdoth, I.P.; Eatough, D.; Edwards, J.E.G.; Estabrooks, P.G.; Evans, H.G.; Evans, M.; Fabbri, F.; Fanti, M.; Faust, A.A.; Fiedler, F.; Fierro, M.; Fischer, H.M.; Fleck, I.; Folman, R.; Fong, D.G.; Foucher, M.; Furtjes, A.; Futyan, D.I.; Gagnon, P.; Gary, J.W.; Gascon, J.; Gascon-Shotkin, S.M.; Geddes, N.I.; Geich-Gimbel, C.; Geralis, T.; Giacomelli, G.; Giacomelli, P.; Giacomelli, R.; Gibson, V.; Gibson, W.R.; Gingrich, D.M.; Glenzinski, D.; Goldberg, J.; Goodrick, M.J.; Gorn, W.; Grandi, C.; Gross, E.; Grunhaus, J.; Gruwe, M.; Hajdu, C.; Hanson, G.G.; Hansroul, M.; Hapke, M.; Hargrove, C.K.; Hart, P.A.; Hartmann, C.; Hauschild, M.; Hawkes, C.M.; Hawkings, R.; Hemingway, R.J.; Herndon, M.; Herten, G.; Heuer, R.D.; Hildreth, M.D.; Hill, J.C.; Hillier, S.J.; Hobson, P.R.; Homer, R.J.; Honma, A.K.; Horvath, D.; Hossain, K.R.; Howard, R.; Huntemeyer, P.; Hutchcroft, D.E.; Igo-Kemenes, P.; Imrie, D.C.; Ingram, M.R.; Ishii, K.; Jawahery, A.; Jeffreys, P.W.; Jeremie, H.; Jimack, M.; Joly, A.; Jones, C.R.; Jones, G.; Jones, M.; Jost, U.; Jovanovic, P.; Junk, T.R.; Karlen, D.; Kartvelishvili, V.; Kawagoe, K.; Kawamoto, T.; Kayal, P.I.; Keeler, R.K.; Kellogg, R.G.; Kennedy, B.W.; Kirk, J.; Klier, A.; Kluth, S.; Kobayashi, T.; Kobel, M.; Koetke, D.S.; Kokott, T.P.; Kolrep, M.; Komamiya, S.; Kress, T.; Krieger, P.; von Krogh, J.; Kyberd, P.; Lafferty, G.D.; Lahmann, R.; Lai, W.P.; Lanske, D.; Lauber, J.; Lautenschlager, S.R.; Layter, J.G.; Lazic, D.; Lee, A.M.; Lefebvre, E.; Lellouch, D.; Letts, J.; Levinson, L.; Lloyd, S.L.; Loebinger, F.K.; Long, G.D.; Losty, M.J.; Ludwig, J.; Macchiolo, A.; Macpherson, A.; Mannelli, M.; Marcellini, S.; Markus, C.; Martin, A.J.; Martin, J.P.; Martinez, G.; Mashimo, T.; Mattig, Peter; McDonald, W.John; McKenna, J.; Mckigney, E.A.; McMahon, T.J.; McPherson, R.A.; Meijers, F.; Menke, S.; Merritt, F.S.; Mes, H.; Meyer, J.; Michelini, A.; Mikenberg, G.; Miller, D.J.; Mincer, A.; Mir, R.; Mohr, W.; Montanari, A.; Mori, T.; Morii, M.; Muller, U.; Mihara, S.; Nagai, K.; Nakamura, I.; Neal, H.A.; Nellen, B.; Nisius, R.; O'Neale, S.W.; Oakham, F.G.; Odorici, F.; Ogren, H.O.; Oh, A.; Oldershaw, N.J.; Oreglia, M.J.; Orito, S.; Palinkas, J.; Pasztor, G.; Pater, J.R.; Patrick, G.N.; Patt, J.; Pearce, M.J.; Perez-Ochoa, R.; Petzold, S.; Pfeifenschneider, P.; Pilcher, J.E.; Pinfold, J.; Plane, David E.; Poffenberger, P.; Poli, B.; Posthaus, A.; Rees, D.L.; Rigby, D.; Robertson, S.; Robins, S.A.; Rodning, N.; Roney, J.M.; Rooke, A.; Ros, E.; Rossi, A.M.; Routenburg, P.; Rozen, Y.; Runge, K.; Runolfsson, O.; Ruppel, U.; Rust, D.R.; Rylko, R.; Sachs, K.; Saeki, T.; Sarkisian, E.K.G.; Sbarra, C.; Schaile, A.D.; Schaile, O.; Scharf, F.; Scharff-Hansen, P.; Schenk, P.; Schieck, J.; Schleper, P.; Schmitt, B.; Schmitt, S.; Schoning, A.; Schroder, Matthias; Schultz-Coulon, H.C.; Schumacher, M.; Schwick, C.; Scott, W.G.; Shears, T.G.; Shen, B.C.; Shepherd-Themistocleous, C.H.; Sherwood, P.; Siroli, G.P.; Sittler, A.; Skillman, A.; Skuja, A.; Smith, A.M.; Snow, G.A.; Sobie, R.; Soldner-Rembold, S.; Springer, Robert Wayne; Sproston, M.; Stephens, K.; Steuerer, J.; Stockhausen, B.; Stoll, K.; Strom, David M.; Szymanski, P.; Tafirout, R.; Talbot, S.D.; Tanaka, S.; Taras, P.; Tarem, S.; Teuscher, R.; Thiergen, M.; Thomson, M.A.; von Torne, E.; Towers, S.; Trigger, I.; Trocsanyi, Z.; Tsur, E.; Turcot, A.S.; Turner-Watson, M.F.; Utzat, P.; Van Kooten, Rick J.; Verzocchi, M.; Vikas, P.; Vokurka, E.H.; Voss, H.; Wackerle, F.; Wagner, A.; Ward, C.P.; Ward, D.R.; Watkins, P.M.; Watson, A.T.; Watson, N.K.; Wells, P.S.; Wermes, N.; White, J.S.; Wilkens, B.; Wilson, G.W.; Wilson, J.A.; Wolf, G.; Wyatt, T.R.; Yamashita, S.; Yekutieli, G.; Zacek, V.; Zer-Zion, D.

    1997-01-01

    Deep inelastic electron-photon scattering is studied using e+e- data collected by the OPAL detector at centre-of-mass energies sqrt{s_ee} ~ M_{Z^0}. The photon structure function F_2^gamma(x,Q^2) is explored in a Q^2 range of 1.1 to 6.6 GeV/c^2 at lower x values than ever before. To probe this kinematic region events are selected with a beam electron scattered into one of the OPAL luminosity calorimeters at scattering angles between 27 and 55 mrad. A measurement is presented of the photon structure function F_2^gamma(x,Q^2) at = 1.86 GeV^2 and 3.76 GeV^2 in five logarithmic x bins from 0.0025 to 0.2.

  17. Measurement of the leptonic structure functions of the photon at PEP [Positron Electron Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cain, M.P.

    1987-01-01

    At beam energies available at the PEP e + e - storage ring at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center the cross-section for two-photon particle production is sufficiently large to warrant an investigation of this O(α 4 ) process. Of particular interest is the two-photon process ee → eeμμ at non-zero Q 2 . This channel is not only relatively easy to observe experimentally but also serves as a model for the process ee → eeq bar q. For the case of inelastic eγ scattering the cross-section could be parameterized in terms of the photon structure functions F 1 (x,Q 2 ) and F 2 (x,Q 2 ). In this thesis I will present data on the process ee → eeμμ collected by the Two-Photon collaboration (PEP-9) at PEP. For the subset of data which proceeds by inelastic eγ scattering I will present a procedure for extracting the QED photon structure functions and apply this method to the data. 42 refs., 44 figs

  18. Biological activity of the functional epitope of ciguatoxin fragment AB on the neuroblastoma sodium channel in tissue culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hokama, Y; Chun, K E; Campora, C E; Higa, N; Suma, C; Hamajima, A; Isobe, M

    2006-01-01

    It is well established that the targeted receptor for ciguatoxin (CTX) in mammalian tissues is the sodium channel, affecting the influx of sodium into cells and altering the action potential and function of the cell. Since the syntheses of fragments of CTX has become available, our focus has been on the receptor functions of the west sphere AB and east sphere JKLM fragments using the neuroblastoma cell assay, guinea pig atrium assay, and the membrane immunobead assay (MIA). The data presented here suggest that the west sphere AB of the ciguatoxin molecule is the active portion and is responsible for the activation of the sodium channels. (c) 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  19. Photon strength function in the Hf-181 nucleus by method of two-step cascade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Hong Khiem

    2003-01-01

    The applicability of sum-coincidence measurements of two-step cascade gamma ray spectra determining Photon Strength Function (PSF) of Hf-181 induced from Hf-180 (n,2γ) Hf-181 reaction is presented. Up to 80% intensity of the primary gamma ray transitions in a wide energy range have been deduced and compared to model calculation. (author)

  20. Experimental study of the photon structure function F2 in the high Q2 region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartel, W.; Cords, D.; Dietrich, G.; Dittmann, P.; Eichler, R.; Felst, R.; Haidt, D.; Krehbiel, H.; Meier, K.; Naroska, B.

    1982-09-01

    We report on a measurement of the process e + e - → e + e - + hadrons, where one of the scattered electron is detected at large angles, with an average Q 2 of 23 GeV 2 . The results are analysed in terms of the photon structure function F 2 and are compared with QCD predictions. (orig.)

  1. The effect of vector meson decays on di-hadron fragmentation functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matevosyan, H.H.; Thomas, A.W.; Bentz, W.

    2014-01-01

    Di-hadron Fragmentation Functions (DFF) provide a vast amount of information on the intricate details of the parton hadronization process. Moreover, they provide a unique access to the 'clean' extraction of nucleon transversity parton distribution functions in semi inclusive deep inelastic two hadron production process with a transversely polarised target. On the example of the u → π + π - we analyse the properties of unpolarized DFFs using their probabilistic interpretation. We use both the NJL-jet hadronization model and PYTHIA 8.1 event generator to explore the effect of the strong decays of the vector mesons produced in the quark hadronization process on the pseudoscalar DFFs. Our study shows that, even though it is less probable to produce vector mesons in the hadronization process than pseudo scalar mesons of the same charge, the products of their strong decays drastically affect the DFFs for pions because of the large combinatorial factors. Thus, an accurate description of both vector meson production and decays are crucial for theoretical understanding of DFFs. (authors)

  2. A determination of the fragmentation functions of pions, kaons, and protons with faithful uncertainties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bertone, Valerio; Hartland, Nathan P.; Rojo, Juan [VU University, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Nikhef Theory Group, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Carrazza, Stefano [CERN, Theoretical Physics Department, Geneva (Switzerland); Nocera, Emanuele R. [University of Oxford, Rudolf Peierls Centre for Theoretical Physics, Oxford (United Kingdom); Collaboration: The NNPDF Collaboration

    2017-08-15

    We present NNFF1.0, a new determination of the fragmentation functions (FFs) of charged pions, charged kaons, and protons/antiprotons from an analysis of single-inclusive hadron production data in electron-positron annihilation. This determination, performed at leading, next-to-leading, and next-to-next-to-leading order in perturbative QCD, is based on the NNPDF methodology, a fitting framework designed to provide a statistically sound representation of FF uncertainties and to minimise any procedural bias. We discuss novel aspects of the methodology used in this analysis, namely an optimised parametrisation of FFs and a more efficient χ{sup 2} minimisation strategy, and validate the FF fitting procedure by means of closure tests. We then present the NNFF1.0 sets, and discuss their fit quality, their perturbative convergence, and their stability upon variations of the kinematic cuts and the fitted dataset. We find that the systematic inclusion of higher-order QCD corrections significantly improves the description of the data, especially in the small-z region. We compare the NNFF1.0 sets to other recent sets of FFs, finding in general a reasonable agreement, but also important differences. Together with existing sets of unpolarised and polarised parton distribution functions (PDFs), FFs and PDFs are now available from a common fitting framework for the first time. (orig.)

  3. Real photon spectral weight functions, imaginary part of vacuum polarization and electromagnetic vertices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chahine, C.; College de France, 75 - Paris. Lab. de Physique Corpusculaire)

    1978-02-01

    The concept of a real photon spectral weight function for any cross-section involving charged particles is introduced as a simple approximation taking into account the soft part of photon emission to all orders in perturbation theory. The spectral weight function replaces the energy-momentum conservation delta function in the elastic cross-section. The spectral weight function is computed in closed form in space-time and in the peaking approximation in momentum space. The spectral weight function description is applied to the imaginary part of vacuum polarization ImPI and to electron-proton scattering. A spectral representation for ImPI is derived and its content compared with the known fourth order result, showing in particular the identity of the soft and peaking approximations in lowest order. The virtual photon radiative corrections are discussed in part, with emphasis on the threshold behavior of the vertex functions. A relativistic generalization of the electric non-relativistic vertex function is given, whose asymptotic behavior is approppriate to use in conjuction with the spectral weight function

  4. Displaced trochanteric fragments lead to poor functional outcome in pertrochanteric fractures treated by cephalomedullary nails.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Studer, Patrick; Suhm, Norbert; Wang, Qing; Rosenthal, Rachel; Saleh, Hatem Al-Fadel; Jakob, Marcel

    2015-12-01

    The importance of the greater trochanter and its attached abductor muscles for physiological gait is well accepted. However the influence of a displaced greater trochanter fracture after a pertrochanteric fracture is unknown. The aim of this study is to determine if there is an association between the greater trochanter position and the level of patient mobility following internal fixation of pertrochanteric fractures. One hundred and thirty-three consecutive elderly patients with a median age of 85 (interquartile range [IQR] 79-91) years, who were treated for pertrochanteric fractures at a level I trauma centre, were recruited. AO 31 A3.1 and A3.2 fracture types were excluded from the statistical analysis. Patient mobility was prospectively assessed before the fracture and one year following fracture treatment using the Parker mobility score. In a multivariable analysis, the influence of a displaced greater trochanter on patient mobility at one-year follow-up was assessed. The analysis was adjusted for age, gender, body mass index, Charlson comorbidity index, AO fracture classification, varus-/valgus malposition of the neck-shaft fragments, and Parker mobility score before fracture. Post-operative X-rays were available in 125 patients, out of which 66 (53%) patients were identified with a displaced or migrated greater trochanter. One year mortality rate was 22% (n=27). In the 82 patients who had functional assessment one year post-operatively, the median Parker mobility score before fracture and at one-year follow-up was 7 (IQR 4-9) and 7 (IQR 3-9) in patients without, and 7 (IQR 4-9) and 3 (IQR 2-5) in patients with a displaced greater trochanter. In multivariable analysis, a displaced greater trochanter was significantly associated with a lower Parker mobility score (-1.74, 95% confidence interval -2.37, -1.12, pfractures with a cephalomedullary nail is associated with a poor functional outcome. Greater attention to achieve adequate reduction and stabilisation

  5. Scanless functional imaging of hippocampal networks using patterned two-photon illumination through GRIN lenses

    KAUST Repository

    Moretti, Claudio

    2016-09-12

    Patterned illumination through the phase modulation of light is increasingly recognized as a powerful tool to investigate biological tissues in combination with two-photon excitation and light-sensitive molecules. However, to date two-photon patterned illumination has only been coupled to traditional microscope objectives, thus limiting the applicability of these methods to superficial biological structures. Here, we show that phase modulation can be used to efficiently project complex two-photon light patterns, including arrays of points and large shapes, in the focal plane of graded index (GRIN) lenses. Moreover, using this approach in combination with the genetically encoded calcium indicator GCaMP6, we validate our system performing scanless functional imaging in rodent hippocampal networks in vivo ~1.2 mm below the brain surface. Our results open the way to the application of patterned illumination approaches to deep regions of highly scattering biological tissues, such as the mammalian brain.

  6. Time-dependent density functional theory for many-electron systems interacting with cavity photons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tokatly, I V

    2013-06-07

    Time-dependent (current) density functional theory for many-electron systems strongly coupled to quantized electromagnetic modes of a microcavity is proposed. It is shown that the electron-photon wave function is a unique functional of the electronic (current) density and the expectation values of photonic coordinates. The Kohn-Sham system is constructed, which allows us to calculate the above basic variables by solving self-consistent equations for noninteracting particles. We suggest possible approximations for the exchange-correlation potentials and discuss implications of this approach for the theory of open quantum systems. In particular we show that it naturally leads to time-dependent density functional theory for systems coupled to the Caldeira-Leggett bath.

  7. Arthropods on plants in a fragmented Neotropical dry forest: a functional analysis of area loss and edge effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, Ezequiel; Salvo, Adriana; Valladares, Graciela

    2015-02-01

    Loss and fragmentation of natural ecosystems are widely recognized as the most important threats to biodiversity conservation, with Neotropical dry forests among the most endangered ecosystems. Area and edge effects are major factors in fragmented landscapes. Here, we examine area and edge effects and their interaction, on ensembles of arthropods associated to native vegetation in a fragmented Chaco Serrano forest. We analyzed family richness and community composition of herbivores, predators, and parasitoids on three native plant species in 12 fragments of varying size and at edge/interior positions. We also looked for indicator families by using Indicator Species Analysis. Loss of family richness with the reduction of forest fragment area was observed for the three functional groups, with similar magnitude. Herbivores were richer at the edges without interaction between edge and area effects, whereas predators were not affected by edge/interior position and parasitoid richness showed an interaction between area and position, with a steeper area slope at the edges. Family composition of herbivore, predator, and parasitoid assemblages was also affected by forest area and/or edge/interior situation. We found three indicator families for large remnants and five for edges. Our results support the key role of forest area for conservation of arthropods taxonomic and functional diversity in a highly threatened region, and emphasize the need to understand the interactions between area and edge effects on such diversity. © 2014 Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  8. An Efficient Genome Fragment Assembling Using GA with Neighborhood Aware Fitness Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satoko Kikuchi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available To decode a long genome sequence, shotgun sequencing is the state-of-the-art technique. It needs to properly sequence a very large number, sometimes as large as millions, of short partially readable strings (fragments. Arranging those fragments in correct sequence is known as fragment assembling, which is an NP-problem. Presently used methods require enormous computational cost. In this work, we have shown how our modified genetic algorithm (GA could solve this problem efficiently. In the proposed GA, the length of the chromosome, which represents the volume of the search space, is reduced with advancing generations, and thereby improves search efficiency. We also introduced a greedy mutation, by swapping nearby fragments using some heuristics, to improve the fitness of chromosomes. We compared results with Parsons’ algorithm which is based on GA too. We used fragments with partial reads on both sides, mimicking fragments in real genome assembling process. In Parsons’ work base-pair array of the whole fragment is known. Even then, we could obtain much better results, and we succeeded in restructuring contigs covering 100% of the genome sequences.

  9. Measurement of hadron multiplicities in deep inelastic scattering and extraction of quark fragmentation functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Curiel-Garcia, Quiela-Marina

    2014-01-01

    One of the goals of the COMPASS experience is the study of the nucleon spin structure. Data were taken from a polarized muon beam (160 GeV/c) scattering off a polarized target ( 6 LiD or NH 3 ). In this context, the need of a precise knowledge of quark Fragmentation Functions (final-state hadronization of quarks q into hadrons h, FFs) was raised. The FFs can be extracted from hadron multiplicities produced in Semi-Inclusive Deep Inelastic Scattering (SIDIS). This thesis presents the measurement of charged hadrons (pions and kaons) multiplicities from SIDIS data collected in 2006. The data cover a large kinematical range: Q 2 ≥1 (GeV/c)2, y belongs to [0.1,0.9], x belongs to [0.004,0.7] and W belongs to [5,17] GeV. These multiplicities provide an important input for global QCD analyses of world data at NLO, aiming at the FFs determination. (author) [fr

  10. Dihadron fragmentation functions in the quark-jet model: Transversely polarized quarks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matevosyan, Hrayr H.; Kotzinian, Aram; Thomas, Anthony W.

    2018-01-01

    Within the most recent extension of the quark-jet hadronization framework, we explore the transverse-polarization-dependent dihadron fragmentation functions (DiFFs) H1∢ and H1⊥ of a quark into π+π- pairs. Monte Carlo (MC) simulations are employed to model polarized quark hadronization and calculate the corresponding number densities. These, in turn, are used to extract the Fourier cosine moments of the DiFFs H1∢ and H1⊥. A notable finding is that there are previously unnoticed apparent discrepancies between the definitions of the so-called interference DiFF (IFF) H1∢ , entering the cross sections for two-hadron semi-inclusive electroproduction, and those involved in the production of two pairs of hadrons from back-to-back jets in electron-positron annihilation. This manuscript completes the studies of all four leading-twist DiFFs for unpolarized hadron pairs within the quark-jet framework, following our previous work on the helicity-dependent DiFF G1⊥.

  11. Functional display of platelet-binding VWF fragments on filamentous bacteriophage.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Yee

    Full Text Available von Willebrand factor (VWF tethers platelets to sites of vascular injury via interaction with the platelet surface receptor, GPIb. To further define the VWF sequences required for VWF-platelet interaction, a phage library displaying random VWF protein fragments was screened against formalin-fixed platelets. After 3 rounds of affinity selection, DNA sequencing of platelet-bound clones identified VWF peptides mapping exclusively to the A1 domain. Aligning these sequences defined a minimal, overlapping segment spanning P1254-A1461, which encompasses the C1272-C1458 cystine loop. Analysis of phage carrying a mutated A1 segment (C1272/1458A confirmed the requirement of the cystine loop for optimal binding. Four rounds of affinity maturation of a randomly mutagenized A1 phage library identified 10 and 14 unique mutants associated with enhanced platelet binding in the presence and absence of botrocetin, respectively, with 2 mutants (S1370G and I1372V common to both conditions. These results demonstrate the utility of filamentous phage for studying VWF protein structure-function and identify a minimal, contiguous peptide that bind to formalin-fixed platelets, confirming the importance of the VWF A1 domain with no evidence for another independently platelet-binding segment within VWF. These findings also point to key structural elements within the A1 domain that regulate VWF-platelet adhesion.

  12. Direct measurement of the biphoton Wigner function through two-photon interference

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douce, T.; Eckstein, A.; Walborn, S. P.; Khoury, A. Z.; Ducci, S.; Keller, A.; Coudreau, T.; Milman, P.

    2013-01-01

    The Hong-Ou-Mandel (HOM) experiment was a benchmark in quantum optics, evidencing the non–classical nature of photon pairs, later generalized to quantum systems with either bosonic or fermionic statistics. We show that a simple modification in the well-known and widely used HOM experiment provides the direct measurement of the Wigner function. We apply our results to one of the most reliable quantum systems, consisting of biphotons generated by parametric down conversion. A consequence of our results is that a negative value of the Wigner function is a sufficient condition for non-gaussian entanglement between two photons. In the general case, the Wigner function provides all the required information to infer entanglement using well known necessary and sufficient criteria. The present work offers a new vision of the HOM experiment that further develops its possibilities to realize fundamental tests of quantum mechanics using simple optical set-ups. PMID:24346262

  13. Study of the hadronic photon structure function $F^\\gamma_2$ at LEP

    CERN Document Server

    Acciarri, M; Aguilar-Benítez, M; Ahlen, S P; Alcaraz, J; Alemanni, G; Allaby, James V; Aloisio, A; Alviggi, M G; Ambrosi, G; Anderhub, H; Andreev, V P; Angelescu, T; Anselmo, F; Arefev, A; Azemoon, T; Aziz, T; Bagnaia, P; Baksay, L; Ball, R C; Banerjee, S; Banerjee, Sw; Banicz, K; Barczyk, A; Barillère, R; Barone, L; Bartalini, P; Baschirotto, A; Basile, M; Battiston, R; Bay, A; Becattini, F; Becker, U; Behner, F; Berdugo, J; Berges, P; Bertucci, B; Betev, B L; Bhattacharya, S; Biasini, M; Biland, A; Bilei, G M; Blaising, J J; Blyth, S C; Bobbink, Gerjan J; Böck, R K; Böhm, A; Boldizsar, L; Borgia, B; Bourilkov, D; Bourquin, Maurice; Boutigny, D; Braccini, S; Branson, J G; Brigljevic, V; Brock, I C; Buffini, A; Buijs, A; Burger, J D; Burger, W J; Busenitz, J K; Cai, X D; Campanelli, M; Capell, M; Cara Romeo, G; Carlino, G; Cartacci, A M; Casaus, J; Castellini, G; Cavallari, F; Cavallo, N; Cecchi, C; Cerrada-Canales, M; Cesaroni, F; Chamizo-Llatas, M; Chang, Y H; Chaturvedi, U K; Chemarin, M; Chen, A; Chen, G; Chen, G M; Chen, H F; Chen, H S; Chen, M; Chiefari, G; Chien, C Y; Cifarelli, Luisa; Cindolo, F; Civinini, C; Clare, I; Clare, R; Coignet, G; Colijn, A P; Colino, N; Costantini, S; Cotorobai, F; de la Cruz, B; Csilling, Akos; Dai, T S; D'Alessandro, R; De Asmundis, R; Degré, A; Deiters, K; Denes, P; De Notaristefani, F; Diemoz, M; Van Dierendonck, D N; Di Lodovico, F; Dionisi, C; Dittmar, Michael; Dominguez, A; Doria, A; Dova, M T; Drago, E; Duchesneau, D; Duinker, P; Durán, I; Easo, S; El-Mamouni, H; Engler, A; Eppling, F J; Erné, F C; Ernenwein, J P; Extermann, Pierre; Fabre, M; Faccini, R; Falagán, M A; Falciano, S; Favara, A; Fay, J; Fedin, O; Felcini, Marta; Ferguson, T; Ferroni, F; Fesefeldt, H S; Fiandrini, E; Field, J H; Filthaut, Frank; Fisher, P H; Fisk, I; Forconi, G; Fredj, L; Freudenreich, Klaus; Furetta, C; Galaktionov, Yu; Ganguli, S N; García-Abia, P; Gataullin, M; Gau, S S; Gentile, S; Gerald, J; Gheordanescu, N; Giagu, S; Goldfarb, S; Goldstein, J; Gong, Z F; Gougas, Andreas; Gratta, Giorgio; Grünewald, M W; van Gulik, R; Gupta, V K; Gurtu, A; Gutay, L J; Haas, D; Hartmann, B; Hasan, A; Hatzifotiadou, D; Hebbeker, T; Hervé, A; Hidas, P; Hirschfelder, J; Van Hoek, W C; Hofer, H; Hoorani, H; Hou, S R; Hu, G; Iashvili, I; Jin, B N; Jones, L W; de Jong, P; Josa-Mutuberria, I; Kasser, A; Khan, R A; Kamrad, D; Kapustinsky, J S; Karyotakis, Yu; Kaur, M; Kienzle-Focacci, M N; Kim, D; Kim, D H; Kim, J K; Kim, S C; Kinnison, W W; Kirkby, A; Kirkby, D; Kirkby, Jasper; Kiss, D; Kittel, E W; Klimentov, A; König, A C; Kopp, A; Korolko, I; Koutsenko, V F; Krämer, R W; Krenz, W; Kunin, A; Lacentre, P E; Ladrón de Guevara, P; Landi, G; Lapoint, C; Lassila-Perini, K M; Laurikainen, P; Lavorato, A; Lebeau, M; Lebedev, A; Lebrun, P; Lecomte, P; Lecoq, P; Le Coultre, P; Lee, H J; Leggett, C; Le Goff, J M; Leiste, R; Leonardi, E; Levchenko, P M; Li Chuan; Lin, C H; Lin, W T; Linde, Frank L; Lista, L; Liu, Z A; Lohmann, W; Longo, E; Lu, W; Lü, Y S; Lübelsmeyer, K; Luci, C; Luckey, D; Luminari, L; Lustermann, W; Ma Wen Gan; Maity, M; Majumder, G; Malgeri, L; Malinin, A; Maña, C; Mangeol, D J J; Marchesini, P A; Marian, G; Marin, A; Martin, J P; Marzano, F; Massaro, G G G; Mazumdar, K; Mele, S; Merola, L; Meschini, M; Metzger, W J; Von der Mey, M; Mi, Y; Migani, D; Mihul, A; Van Mil, A J W; Milcent, H; Mirabelli, G; Mnich, J; Molnár, P; Monteleoni, B; Moore, R; Moulik, T; Mount, R; Muheim, F; Muijs, A J M; Nahn, S; Napolitano, M; Nessi-Tedaldi, F; Newman, H; Niessen, T; Nippe, A; Nisati, A; Nowak, H; Oh, Yu D; Organtini, G; Ostonen, R; Palit, S; Palomares, C; Pandoulas, D; Paoletti, S; Paolucci, P; Park, H K; Park, I H; Pascale, G; Passaleva, G; Patricelli, S; Paul, T; Pauluzzi, M; Paus, C; Pauss, Felicitas; Peach, D; Pei, Y J; Pensotti, S; Perret-Gallix, D; Petersen, B; Petrak, S; Pevsner, A; Piccolo, D; Pieri, M; Piroué, P A; Pistolesi, E; Plyaskin, V; Pohl, M; Pozhidaev, V; Postema, H; Pothier, J; Produit, N; Prokofev, D; Prokofiev, D O; Quartieri, J; Rahal-Callot, G; Raja, N; Rancoita, P G; Rattaggi, M; Raven, G; Razis, P A; Ren, D; Rescigno, M; Reucroft, S; Van Rhee, T; Riemann, S; Riles, K; Rind, O; Robohm, A; Rodin, J; Roe, B P; Romero, L; Rosier-Lees, S; Rosselet, P; Roth, S; Rubio, Juan Antonio; Ruschmeier, D; Rykaczewski, H; Salicio, J; Sánchez, E; Sanders, M P; Sarakinos, M E; Sauvage, G; Schäfer, C; Shchegelskii, V; Schmidt-Kärst, S; Schmitz, D; Schneegans, M; Scholz, N; Schopper, Herwig Franz; Schotanus, D J; Schwenke, J; Schwering, G; Sciacca, C; Sciarrino, D; Servoli, L; Shevchenko, S; Shivarov, N; Shoutko, V; Shukla, J; Shumilov, E; Shvorob, A V; Siedenburg, T; Son, D; Soulimov, V; Smith, B; Spillantini, P; Steuer, M; Stickland, D P; Stone, H; Stoyanov, B; Strässner, A; Sudhakar, K; Sultanov, G G; Sun, L Z; Susinno, G F; Suter, H; Swain, J D; Tang, X W; Tauscher, Ludwig; Taylor, L; Timmermans, C; Ting, Samuel C C; Ting, S M; Tonwar, S C; Tóth, J; Tully, C; Tung, K L; Uchida, Y; Ulbricht, J; Valente, E; Vesztergombi, G; Vetlitskii, I; Viertel, Gert M; Vivargent, M; Vlachos, S; Vogel, H; Vogt, H; Vorobev, I; Vorobyov, A A; Vorvolakos, A; Wadhwa, M; Wallraff, W; Wang, J C; Wang, X L; Wang, Z M; Weber, A; Wu, S X; Wynhoff, S; Xu, J; Xu, Z Z; Yang, B Z; Yang, C G; Yang, H J; Yang, M; Ye, J B; Yeh, S C; You, J M; Zalite, A; Zalite, Yu; Zemp, P; Zeng, Y; Zhang, Z P; Zhou, B; Zhou, Y; Zhu, G Y; Zhu, R Y; Zichichi, Antonino; Ziegler, F; Zilizi, G

    1998-01-01

    The hadronic photon structure function $F^\\gamma_2$ is studied in the reaction $\\mathrm{e^+e^-} \\rightarrow \\mathrm{e^+e^-hadrons}$ at LEP with the L3 detector. The data, collected from 1991 to 1995 at a centre-of-mass energy $\\sqrt{s} \\simeq 91 \\GeV$, correspond to an integrated luminosity of 140~pb$^{-1}$. The photon structure function $F^\\gamma_2$ is measured in the $Q^2$ interval $1.2 \\GeV^2 \\leq Q^2 \\leq 9.0 \\GeV^2$ and the $x$ interval $0.002 < x < 0.2$. $\\FF$ shows a linear growth with $\\ln Q^2$. The value of the slope $\\alpha^{-1}\\mathrm{d}\\FF(Q^2)/\\mathrm{d}\\ln{Q^2}$ is measured to be $0.079 \\pm 0.011 \\pm 0.009$.

  14. One-loop calculations of photon splitting in a relativistic quantum plasma by the Green function method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Lya Insera, V.; Ferrer, Eh.; Shabad, A.E.

    1986-01-01

    Homogeneous and isotopic plasma of electrons and positrons is considered. Coefficients of covariant expansion of three-photon vertex in one-loop approximation of a technique of the Green temperature functions have been calculated and as a result amplitudes of different processes probability with the participation of three photons giving the data on the polarization state probability of incoming and outgoing photons in the splitting process. Sequences of all exact symmetries, which must be accomplished for vertex tensor, have been checked from calculational results. A case of charge-symmetrical plasma and a special case of photon collinearity have been considered

  15. Generating functional for mesonic ChPT with virtual photons in a general covariant gauge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agadjanov, Andria; Agadjanov, Dimitri; Khelashvili, Anzor; Rusetsky, Akaki

    2013-01-01

    The divergent part of the one-loop effective action in Chiral Perturbation Theory with virtual photons has been evaluated in an arbitrary covariant gauge. The differential operator that emerges in the functional determinant is of non-minimal type, for which the standard heat kernel methods are not directly applicable. Both the SU(2) and SU(3) cases have been worked out. A comparison with existing results in the literature is given. (orig.)

  16. Lower sperm DNA fragmentation after r-FSH administration in functional hypogonadotropic hypogonadism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruvolo, Giovanni; Roccheri, Maria Carmela; Brucculeri, Anna Maria; Longobardi, Salvatore; Cittadini, Ettore; Bosco, Liana

    2013-04-01

    An observational clinical and molecular study was designed to evaluate the effects of the administration of recombinant human FSH on sperm DNA fragmentation in men with a non-classical form of hypogonadotropic hypogonadism and idiopathic oligoasthenoteratozoospermia. In the study were included 53 men with a non-classical form of hypogonadotropic hypogonadism and idiopathic oligoasthenoteratozoospermia. In all patients, sperm DNA fragmentation index (DFI), assessed by terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated deoxyuridine triphosphate (dUTP) in situ DNA nick end-labelling (TUNEL) assay, was evaluated before starting the treatment with 150 IU of recombinant human FSH, given three times a week for at least 3 months. Patients' semen analysis and DNA fragmentation index were re-evaluated after the 3-month treatment period. After recombinant human FSH therapy, we did not find any differences in terms of sperm count, motility and morphology. The average DNA fragmentation index was significantly reduced (21.15 vs 15.2, p15 %), while no significant variation occurred in the patients with DFI values ≤ 15 %. Recombinant human FSH administration improves sperm DNA integrity in hypogonadotropic hypogonadism and idiopathic oligoasthenoteratozoospermia men with DNA fragmentation index value >15 % .

  17. Study of photon strength functions via (γ→, γ', γ″) reactions at the γ3-setup

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isaak, Johann; Savran, Deniz; Beck, Tobias; Gayer, Udo; Krishichayan; Löher, Bastian; Pietralla, Norbert; Scheck, Marcus; Tornow, Werner; Werner, Volker; Zilges, Andreas

    2018-05-01

    One of the basic ingredients for the modelling of the nucleosynthesis of heavy elements are so-called photon strength functions and the assumption of the Brink-Axel hypothesis. This hypothesis has been studied for many years by numerous experiments using different and complementary reactions. The present manuscript aims to introduce a model-independent approach to study photon strength functions via γ-γ coincidence spectroscopy of photoexcited states in 128Te. The experimental results provide evidence that the photon strength function extracted from photoabsorption cross sections is not in an overall agreement with the one determined from direct transitions to low-lying excited states.

  18. Holographic Fabrication of Designed Functional Defect Lines in Photonic Crystal Lattice Using a Spatial Light Modulator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey Lutkenhaus

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available We report the holographic fabrication of designed defect lines in photonic crystal lattices through phase engineering using a spatial light modulator (SLM. The diffracted beams from the SLM not only carry the defect’s content but also the defect related phase-shifting information. The phase-shifting induced lattice shifting in photonic lattices around the defects in three-beam interference is less than the one produced by five-beam interference due to the alternating shifting in lattice in three beam interference. By designing the defect line at a 45 degree orientation and using three-beam interference, the defect orientation can be aligned with the background photonic lattice, and the shifting is only in one side of the defect line, in agreement with the theory. Finally, a new design for the integration of functional defect lines in a background phase pattern reduces the relative phase shift of the defect and utilizes the different diffraction efficiency between the defect line and background phase pattern. We demonstrate that the desired and functional defect lattice can be registered into the background lattice through the direct imaging of designed phase patterns.

  19. Measurement system of correlation functions of microwave single photon source in real time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korenkov, A.; Dmitriev, A.; Astafiev, O.

    2018-02-01

    Several quantum setups, such as quantum key distribution networks[1] and quantum simulators (e.g. boson sampling), by their design rely on single photon sources (SPSs). These quantum setups were demonstrated to operate in optical frequency domain. However, following the steady advances in circuit quantum electrodynamics, a proposal has been made recently[2] to demonstrate boson sampling with microwave photons. This in turn requires the development of reliable microwave SPS. It's one of the most important characteristics are the first-order and the second-order correlation functions g1 and g2. The measurement technique of g1 and g2 is significantly different from that in the optical domain [3],[4] because of the current unavailability of microwave single-photon detectors. In particular, due to high levels of noise present in the system a substantial amount of statistics in needed to be acquired. This work presents a platform for measurement of g1 and g2 that processes the incoming data in real time, maximizing the efficiency of data acquisition. The use of field-programmable gate array (FPGA) electronics, common in similar experiments[3] but complex in programming, is avoided; instead, the calculations are performed on a standard desktop computer. The platform is used to perform the measurements of the first-order and the second-order correlation functions of the microwave SPS.

  20. Jet reconstruction and measurement of identified fragmentation functions in Pb-Pb and pp collisions with the ALICE experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, Xianguo; Busch, Oliver [Physikalisches Institut, Heidelberg (Germany); Collaboration: ALICE-Collaboration

    2014-07-01

    Jets are defined in QCD as cascades of consecutive emission of partons from an initial hard scattering. The process of parton showering and subsequent hadronisation is broadly known as fragmentation. High energy nucleus-nucleus collisions allow us to probe parton fragmentation within a QCD medium and the properties of this medium via the modification of the jet spectrum and jet structure. Jet reconstruction in pp collisions provides an elementary baseline and allows to investigate perturbative and non-perturbative aspects of particle production. In addition to inclusive probes, identified particles in the final states provide an enhanced sensitivity to the flavor dependence of fragmentation and nuclear modifications. ALICE at the CERN LHC is a general-purpose heavy ion experiment designed to study the physics of strongly interacting matter and the Quark-Gluon-Plasma. It has an excellent tracking and particle identification performance over a wide momentum range. In this talk we present results on inclusive jet observable as well as the novel measurements of identified fragmentation functions in pp and Pb-Pb collisions. The results are confronted with theory predictions.

  1. Measurement of the photon structure function F2 gamma with the L3 detector at LEP

    CERN Document Server

    Achard, P.; Aguilar-Benitez, M.; Alcaraz, J.; Alemanni, G.; Allaby, J.; Aloisio, A.; Alviggi, M.G.; Anderhub, H.; Andreev, Valery P.; Anselmo, F.; Arefev, A.; Azemoon, T.; Aziz, T.; Bagnaia, P.; Bajo, A.; Baksay, G.; Baksay, L.; Baldew, S.V.; Banerjee, S.; Banerjee, Sw.; Barczyk, A.; Barillere, R.; Bartalini, P.; Basile, M.; Batalova, N.; Battiston, R.; Bay, A.; Becattini, F.; Becker, U.; Behner, F.; Bellucci, L.; Berbeco, R.; Berdugo, J.; Berges, P.; Bertucci, B.; Betev, B.L.; Biasini, M.; Biglietti, M.; Biland, A.; Blaising, J.J.; Blyth, S.C.; Bobbink, G.J.; Bohm, A.; Boldizsar, L.; Borgia, B.; Bottai, S.; Bourilkov, D.; Bourquin, M.; Braccini, S.; Branson, J.G.; Brochu, F.; Burger, J.D.; Burger, W.J.; Cai, X.D.; Capell, M.; Cara Romeo, G.; Carlino, G.; Cartacci, A.; Casaus, J.; Cavallari, F.; Cavallo, N.; Cecchi, C.; Cerrada, M.; Chamizo, M.; Chang, Y.H.; Chemarin, M.; Chen, A.; Chen, G.; Chen, G.M.; Chen, H.F.; Chen, H.S.; Chiefari, G.; Cifarelli, L.; Cindolo, F.; Clare, I.; Clare, R.; Coignet, G.; Colino, N.; Costantini, S.; de la Cruz, B.; Cucciarelli, S.; de Asmundis, R.; Deglon, P.; Debreczeni, J.; Degre, A.; Dehmelt, K.; Deiters, K.; della Volpe, D.; Delmeire, E.; Denes, P.; DeNotaristefani, F.; De Salvo, A.; Diemoz, M.; Dierckxsens, M.; Dionisi, C.; Dittmar, M.; Doria, A.; Dova, M.T.; Duchesneau, D.; Duda, M.; Echenard, B.; Eline, A.; El Hage, A.; El Mamouni, H.; Engler, A.; Eppling, F.J.; Extermann, P.; Falagan, M.A.; Falciano, S.; Favara, A.; Fay, J.; Fedin, O.; Felcini, M.; Ferguson, T.; Fesefeldt, H.; Fiandrini, E.; Field, J.H.; Filthaut, F.; Fisher, P.H.; Fisher, W.; Fisk, I.; Forconi, G.; Freudenreich, K.; Furetta, C.; Galaktionov, Iouri; Ganguli, S.N.; Garcia-Abia, Pablo; Gataullin, M.; Gentile, S.; Giagu, S.; Gong, Z.F.; Grenier, Gerald Jean; Grimm, O.; Gruenewald, M.W.; Guida, M.; Gupta, V.K.; Gurtu, A.; Gutay, L.J.; Haas, D.; Hatzifotiadou, D.; Hebbeker, T.; Herve, Alain; Hirschfelder, J.; Hofer, H.; Hohlmann, M.; Holzner, G.; Hou, S.R.; Jin, B.N.; Jindal, P.; Jones, Lawrence W.; de Jong, P.; Josa-Mutuberria, I.; Kaur, M.; Kienzle-Focacci, M.N.; Kim, J.K.; Kirkby, Jasper; Kittel, W.; Klimentov, A.; Konig, A.C.; Kopal, M.; Koutsenko, V.; Kraber, M.; Kraemer, R.W.; Kruger, A.; Kunin, A.; Ladron de Guevara, P.; Laktineh, I.; Landi, G.; Lebeau, M.; Lebedev, A.; Lebrun, P.; Lecomte, P.; Lecoq, P.; Le Coultre, P.; Le Goff, J.M.; Leiste, R.; Levtchenko, M.; Levtchenko, P.; Li, C.; Likhoded, S.; Lin, C.H.; Lin, W.T.; Linde, F.L.; Lista, L.; Liu, Z.A.; Lohmann, W.; Longo, E.; Lu, Y.S.; Luci, C.; Luminari, L.; Lustermann, W.; Ma, W.G.; Malgeri, L.; Malinin, A.; Mana, C.; Mans, J.; Martin, J.P.; Marzano, F.; Mazumdar, K.; McNeil, R.R.; Mele, S.; Mermod, P.; Merola, L.; Meschini, M.; Metzger, W.J.; Mihul, A.; Milcent, H.; Mirabelli, G.; Mnich, J.; Mohanty, G.B.; Muanza, G.S.; Muijs, A.J.M.; Musicar, B.; Musy, M.; Nagy, S.; Natale, S.; Napolitano, M.; Nessi-Tedaldi, F.; Newman, H.; Nisati, A.; Novak, T.; Kluge, Hannelies; Ofierzynski, R.; Organtini, G.; Pal, I.; Palomares, C.; Paolucci, P.; Paramatti, R.; Passaleva, G.; Patricelli, S.; Paul, Thomas Cantzon; Pauluzzi, M.; Paus, C.; Pauss, F.; Pedace, M.; Pensotti, S.; Perret-Gallix, D.; Piccolo, D.; Pierella, F.; Pioppi, M.; Piroue, P.A.; Pistolesi, E.; Plyaskin, V.; Pohl, M.; Pojidaev, V.; Pothier, J.; Prokofev, D.; Rahal-Callot, G.; Rahaman, Mohammad Azizur; Raics, P.; Raja, N.; Ramelli, R.; Rancoita, P.G.; Ranieri, R.; Raspereza, A.; Razis, P.; Ren, D.; Rescigno, M.; Reucroft, S.; Riemann, S.; Riles, Keith; Roe, B.P.; Romero, L.; Rosca, A.; Rosemann, C.; Rosenbleck, C.; Rosier-Lees, S.; Roth, Stefan; Rubio, J.A.; Ruggiero, G.; Rykaczewski, H.; Sakharov, A.; Saremi, S.; Sarkar, S.; Salicio, J.; Sanchez, E.; Schafer, C.; Schegelsky, V.; Schopper, H.; Schotanus, D.J.; Sciacca, C.; Servoli, L.; Shevchenko, S.; Shivarov, N.; Shoutko, V.; Shumilov, E.; Shvorob, A.; Son, D.; Souga, C.; Spillantini, P.; Steuer, M.; Stickland, D.P.; Stoyanov, B.; Straessner, A.; Sudhakar, K.; Sultanov, G.; Sun, L.Z.; Sushkov, S.; Suter, H.; Swain, J.D.; Szillasi, Z.; Tang, X.W.; Tarjan, P.; Tauscher, L.; Taylor, L.; Tellili, B.; Teyssier, D.; Timmermans, Charles; Ting, Samuel C.C.; Ting, S.M.; Tonwar, S.C.; Toth, J.; Tully, C.; Tung, K.L.; Ulbricht, J.; Valente, E.; Van de Walle, R.T.; Vasquez, R.; Veszpremi, V.; Vesztergombi, G.; Vetlitsky, I.; Viertel, G.; Villa, S.; Vivargent, M.; Vlachos, S.; Vodopianov, I.; Vogel, H.; Vogt, H.; Vorobev, I.; Vorobyov, A.A.; Wadhwa, M.; Wang, Q.; Wang, X.L.; Wang, Z.M.; Weber, M.; Wynhoff, S.; Xia, L.; Xu, Z.Z.; Yamamoto, J.; Yang, B.Z.; Yang, C.G.; Yang, H.J.; Yang, M.; Yeh, S.C.; Zalite, An.; Zalite, Yu.; Zhang, Z.P.; Zhao, J.; Zhu, G.Y.; Zhu, R.Y.; Zhuang, H.L.; Zichichi, A.; Zimmermann, B.; Zoller, M.

    2005-01-01

    The e+e- -> e+e- hadrons reaction, where one of the two electrons is detected in a low polar-angle calorimeter, is analysed in order to measure the hadronic photon structure function F2gamma . The full high-energy and high-luminosity data set, collected with the L3 detector at centre-of-mass energies 189-209GeV, corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 608/pb is used. The Q^2 range 11-34GeV^2 and the x range 0.006-0.556 are considered. The data are compared with recent parton density functions.

  2. The photon Green's function for bounded media: Splitting property and nonequilibrium radiation laws

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richter, F; Semkat, D; Henneberger, K

    2010-01-01

    The presence of a medium boundary has been a major obstacle for the theoretical description of the propagation, emission and absorption of light due to the loss of translational invariance. We present a nonequilibrium photon Green's function theory that is valid for bounded (i.e., spatially inhomogeneous) media systems and also yields an energy flow law which can be seen as a generalization of the Kirchhoff and Planck laws to nonequilibrium. With the help of this law, we discuss mechanisms of emission and optical signatures of quantum condensates. An important finding is that the D>< components of the photon GF, which describe field-field fluctuations, decompose universally into two parts related to medium kinetics and external light sources. Thanks to their specific structure, the propagation of arbitrary (even nonclassical) light can be analyzed straightforwardly. These properties are used to demonstrate the energy flux and scattering of squeezed light incident on the medium.

  3. Constraining nuclear photon strength functions by the decay properties of photo-excited states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isaak, J.; Savran, D.; Krtička, M.; Ahmed, M. W.; Beller, J.; Fiori, E.; Glorius, J.; Kelley, J. H.; Löher, B.; Pietralla, N.; Romig, C.; Rusev, G.; Scheck, M.; Schnorrenberger, L.; Silva, J.; Sonnabend, K.; Tonchev, A. P.; Tornow, W.; Weller, H. R.; Zweidinger, M.

    2013-12-01

    A new approach for constraining the low-energy part of the electric dipole Photon Strength Function (E1-PSF) is presented. Experiments at the Darmstadt High-Intensity Photon Setup and the High Intensity γ→-Ray Source have been performed to investigate the decay properties of 130Te between 5.50 and 8.15 MeV excitation energy. In particular, the average γ-ray branching ratio to the ground state and the population intensity of low-lying excited states have been studied. A comparison to the statistical model shows that the latter is sensitive to the low-energy behavior of the E1-PSF, while the average ground state branching ratio cannot be described by the statistical model in the energy range between 5.5 and 6.5 MeV.

  4. A measurement of the b quark fragmentation function at √Q2 = 45.6 GeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Church, E.D.

    1996-06-01

    Presented here is a measurement of the b quark fragmentation function D b (X), taken from a sample of 504 semi-leptonic B decays which were selected from the 150,000 Z 0 decays collected between 1993 and 1995 at the SLD at SLAC. The energy of each tagged B hadron is reconstructed using missing jet energy, based on the information from the lepton and a partially-reconstructed charm-decay vertex. Account is taken of the effect of primary orbitally excited mesons (B**s). An iterative unfolding procedure is used which serves to effectively extract the true fragmentation function from the reconstructed B energy spectrum. The final result is shown to be compatible with many theoretical models. A comparison is made with other b fragmentation function measurements at 45.6 GeV, and this measurement is shown to be consistent with those results. The average scaled energy is found to be (x E ) = 0.697± 0.017(stat) ± 0.034(sys)

  5. A measurement of the b quark fragmentation function at {radical}Q{sup 2} = 45.6 GeV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Church, E.D.

    1996-06-01

    Presented here is a measurement of the b quark fragmentation function D{sub b}(X), taken from a sample of 504 semi-leptonic B decays which were selected from the 150,000 Z{sup 0} decays collected between 1993 and 1995 at the SLD at SLAC. The energy of each tagged B hadron is reconstructed using missing jet energy, based on the information from the lepton and a partially-reconstructed charm-decay vertex. Account is taken of the effect of primary orbitally excited mesons (B**s). An iterative unfolding procedure is used which serves to effectively extract the true fragmentation function from the reconstructed B energy spectrum. The final result is shown to be compatible with many theoretical models. A comparison is made with other b fragmentation function measurements at 45.6 GeV, and this measurement is shown to be consistent with those results. The average scaled energy is found to be (x{sub E}) = 0.697{+-} 0.017(stat) {+-} 0.034(sys).

  6. Effects of growth form and functional traits on response of woody plants to clearing and fragmentation of subtropical rainforest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kooyman, R M; Zanne, A E; Gallagher, R V; Cornwell, W; Rossetto, M; O'Connor, P; Parkes, E A; Catterall, C F; Laffan, S W; Lusk, C H

    2013-12-01

    The conservation implications of large-scale rainforest clearing and fragmentation on the persistence of functional and taxonomic diversity remain poorly understood. If traits represent adaptive strategies of plant species to particular circumstances, the expectation is that the effect of forest clearing and fragmentation will be affected by species functional traits, particularly those related to dispersal. We used species occurrence data for woody plants in 46 rainforest patches across 75,000 ha largely cleared of forest by the early 1900s to determine the combined effects of area reduction, fragmentation, and patch size on the taxonomic structure and functional diversity of subtropical rainforest. We compiled species trait values for leaf area, seed dry mass, wood density, and maximum height and calculated species niche breadths. Taxonomic structure, trait values (means, ranges), and the functional diversity of assemblages of climbing and free-standing plants in remnant patches were quantified. Larger rainforest patches had higher species richness. Species in smaller patches were taxonomically less related than species in larger patches. Free-standing plants had a high percentage of frugivore dispersed seeds; climbers had a high proportion of small wind-dispersed seeds. Connections between the patchy spatial distribution of free-standing species, larger seed sizes, and dispersal syndrome were weak. Assemblages of free-standing plants in patches showed more taxonomic and spatial structuring than climbing plants. Smaller isolated patches retained relatively high functional diversity and similar taxonomic structure to larger tracts of forest despite lower species richness. The response of woody plants to clearing and fragmentation of subtropical rainforest differed between climbers and slow-growing mature-phase forest trees but not between climbers and pioneer trees. Quantifying taxonomic structure and functional diversity provides an improved basis for

  7. Simultaneous morphological and functional imaging of the honeybee's brain by two-photon microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haase, A.

    2011-01-01

    Thanks to its rather simply structured but highly performing brain, the honeybee (Apis mellifera) is an important model for neurobiological studies. Therefore there is a great need for new functional imaging modalities adapted to this species. Herein we give a detailed report on the development and performance of a platform for in vivo functional and morphological imaging of the honeybee's brain, focusing on its primary olfactory centres, the antennal lobes (ALs). The experimental setup consists of a two-photon microscope combined with a synchronized odour stimulus generator. Our imaging platform allows to simultaneously obtain both morphological measurements of the ALs functional units, the glomeruli, and in vivo calcium recording of their neural activity. We were able to record the characteristic glomerular response maps to odour stimuli applied to the bee's antennae. Our approach offers several advantages over the commonly used conventional fluorescence microscopy. Two-photon microscopy provides substantial enhancement in both spatial and temporal resolutions, while minimizing photo damage. Calcium recordings show a more than fourfold improvement in the functional signal with respect to the techniques available up to now. Finally, the extended penetration depth, thanks to the infrared excitation, allows the functional imaging of profound glomeruli which have not been optically accessible up to now.

  8. Cell-free synthesis of functional antibody fragments to provide a structural basis for antibody-antigen interaction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takayoshi Matsuda

    Full Text Available Growing numbers of therapeutic antibodies offer excellent treatment strategies for many diseases. Elucidation of the interaction between a potential therapeutic antibody and its target protein by structural analysis reveals the mechanism of action and offers useful information for developing rational antibody designs for improved affinity. Here, we developed a rapid, high-yield cell-free system using dialysis mode to synthesize antibody fragments for the structural analysis of antibody-antigen complexes. Optimal synthesis conditions of fragments (Fv and Fab of the anti-EGFR antibody 059-152 were rapidly determined in a day by using a 30-μl-scale unit. The concentration of supplemented disulfide isomerase, DsbC, was critical to obtaining soluble antibody fragments. The optimal conditions were directly applicable to a 9-ml-scale reaction, with linear scalable yields of more than 1 mg/ml. Analyses of purified 059-152-Fv and Fab showed that the cell-free synthesized antibody fragments were disulfide-bridged, with antigen binding activity comparable to that of clinical antibodies. Examination of the crystal structure of cell-free synthesized 059-152-Fv in complex with the extracellular domain of human EGFR revealed that the epitope of 059-152-Fv broadly covers the EGF binding surface on domain III, including residues that formed critical hydrogen bonds with EGF (Asp355EGFR, Gln384EGFR, H409EGFR, and Lys465EGFR, so that the antibody inhibited EGFR activation. We further demonstrated the application of the cell-free system to site-specific integration of non-natural amino acids for antibody engineering, which would expand the availability of therapeutic antibodies based on structural information and rational design. This cell-free system could be an ideal antibody-fragment production platform for functional and structural analysis of potential therapeutic antibodies and for engineered antibody development.

  9. Photon structure function fit with the xFitter framework

    CERN Document Server

    Schulte, Sebastian

    2017-01-01

    The theory of the strong interaction, Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD), is one of the main constituents of the Standard Model of elementary particle physics. Particularly interesting is the strong coupling constant αs, the only fundamental QCD parameter, which can be only determined by experimental in- vestigations. Therefore, the precise knowledge of αs has been subject of many investigations, using several different methods, like for example the Z- and τ- decays at LEP. The current world average value of αs(mZ) = 0.1172 ± 0.0020, where mZ = 91.1876 GeV denotes the mass of the Z-boson [1]. In terms of QCD, the photon offers particular interesting investigation possibilities, which can be shown by Deep Inelastic Scattering (DIS) of electrons and photons. Despite the assumption, that the photon is a point-like particle, hadron production can be observed. This is leading to the introduction of structure functions, as for DIS electron-nucleon scattering and can be explained by quantum fluctuations due to Hei...

  10. Radiation-induced changes in gustatory function comparison of effects of neutron and photon irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mossman, K.L.; Chencharick, J.D.; Scheer, A.C.; Walker, W.P.; Ornitz, R.D.; Rogers, C.C.; Henkin, R.I.

    1979-01-01

    Changes in gustatory function were measured in 51 patients with various forms of cancer who received radiation to the head and neck region. Forty patients (group I) were treated with conventional photon radiation (e.g. 66 Gy/7 weeks), and 11 patients (group II) were treated with cyclotron produced fast neutrons (e.g. 22 Gy/7 weeks). Taste acuity was measured for four taste qualities (salt, sweet, sour, and bitter) by a forced choice-three stimulus drop technique which measured detection and recognition thresholds and by a forced scaling technique which measured taste intensity responsiveness. Subjective complaints of anorexia, dysgeusia, taste loss, and xerostomia were also recorded. Patients were studied before, during and up to two months after therapy. Prior to therapy, detection and recognition thresholds, intensity responsiveness, and the frequency of subjective complaints in patients from groups I and II were statistically equivalent. During and up to 2 months after therapy, taste impairment and frequency of subjective complaints increased significantly in neutron and photon treated patients, but were statistically equivalent. Results of this study indicate that gustatory tissue response as measured by taste detection and recognition and intensity responsiveness, and the frequency of subjective complaints related to taste are statistically equivalent in patients before, during, or up 2 months after they were given either neutron or photon radiation for tumors of the head and neck

  11. Quantitative constraints on the gluon distribution function in the proton from collider isolated-photon data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D' Enterria, David, E-mail: dde@cern.ch [CERN, PH Department, CH-1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland); ICREA and ICC-UB, Universitat de Barcelona, 08028 Barcelona, Catalonia (Spain); Rojo, Juan [CERN, PH Department, TH Unit, CH-1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland)

    2012-07-21

    The impact of isolated-photon data from proton-(anti)proton collisions at RHIC, Spp{sup Macron }S, Tevatron and LHC energies, on the parton distribution functions of the proton is studied using a recently developed Bayesian reweighting method. The impact on the gluon density of the 35 existing isolated-{gamma} measurements is quantified using next-to-leading order (NLO) perturbative QCD calculations complemented with the NNPDF2.1 parton densities. The NLO predictions are found to describe well most of the datasets from 200 GeV up to 7 TeV centre-of-mass energies. The isolated-photon spectra recently measured at the LHC are precise enough to constrain the gluon distribution and lead to a moderate reduction (up to 20%) of its uncertainties around fractional momenta x Almost-Equal-To 0.02. As a particular case, we show that the improved gluon density reduces the PDF uncertainty for the Higgs boson production cross section in the gluon-fusion channel by more than 20% at the LHC. We conclude that present and future isolated-photon measurements constitute an interesting addition to coming global PDF analyses.

  12. Quantitative constraints on the gluon distribution function in the proton from collider isolated-photon data

    CERN Document Server

    d'Enterria, David

    2012-01-01

    The impact of isolated-photon data from proton-(anti)proton collisions at RHIC, SppbarS, Tevatron and LHC energies, on the parton distribution functions of the proton is studied using a recently developed Bayesian reweighting method. The impact on the gluon density of the 35 existing isolated-gamma measurements is quantified using next-to-leading order (NLO) perturbative QCD calculations complemented with the NNPDF2.1 parton densities. The NLO predictions are found to describe well most of the datasets from 200 GeV up to 7 TeV centre-of-mass energies. The isolated-photon spectra recently measured at the LHC are precise enough to constrain the gluon distribution and lead to a moderate reduction (up to 20%) of its uncertainties around fractional momenta x~0.02. As a particular case, we show that the improved gluon density reduces the PDF uncertainty for the Higgs boson production cross section in the gluon-fusion channel by more than 20% at the LHC. We conclude that present and future isolated-photon measuremen...

  13. Entanglement with negative Wigner function of almost 3,000 atoms heralded by one photon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McConnell, Robert; Zhang, Hao; Hu, Jiazhong; Ćuk, Senka; Vuletić, Vladan

    2015-03-26

    Quantum-mechanically correlated (entangled) states of many particles are of interest in quantum information, quantum computing and quantum metrology. Metrologically useful entangled states of large atomic ensembles have been experimentally realized, but these states display Gaussian spin distribution functions with a non-negative Wigner quasiprobability distribution function. Non-Gaussian entangled states have been produced in small ensembles of ions, and very recently in large atomic ensembles. Here we generate entanglement in a large atomic ensemble via an interaction with a very weak laser pulse; remarkably, the detection of a single photon prepares several thousand atoms in an entangled state. We reconstruct a negative-valued Wigner function--an important hallmark of non-classicality--and verify an entanglement depth (the minimum number of mutually entangled atoms) of 2,910 ± 190 out of 3,100 atoms. Attaining such a negative Wigner function and the mutual entanglement of virtually all atoms is unprecedented for an ensemble containing more than a few particles. Although the achieved purity of the state is slightly below the threshold for entanglement-induced metrological gain, further technical improvement should allow the generation of states that surpass this threshold, and of more complex Schrödinger cat states for quantum metrology and information processing. More generally, our results demonstrate the power of heralded methods for entanglement generation, and illustrate how the information contained in a single photon can drastically alter the quantum state of a large system.

  14. Wigner functions and tomograms of the photon-depleted even and odd coherent states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Jisuo; Meng Xiangguo

    2008-01-01

    Using the coherent state representation of Wigner operator and the technique of integration within an ordered product (IWOP) of operators, this paper derives the Wigner functions for the photon-depleted even and odd coherent states (PDEOCSs). Moreover, in terms of the Wigner functions with respect to the complex parameter α the nonclassical properties of the PDEOCSs are discussed. The results show that the nonclassicality for the state |β, m) o (or |β, m) e ) is more pronounced when m is even (or odd). According to the marginal distributions of the Wigner functions, the physical meaning of the Wigner functions is given. Further, the tomograms of the PDEOCSs are calculated with the aid of newly introduced intermediate coordinate-momentum representation in quantum optics

  15. Measurement of the Low-x Behaviour of the Photon Structure Function $F2-\\gamma$

    CERN Document Server

    Abbiendi, G.; Ainsley, C.; Akesson, P.F.; Alexander, G.; Allison, John; Anderson, K.J.; Arcelli, S.; Asai, S.; Ashby, S.F.; Axen, D.; Azuelos, G.; Bailey, I.; Ball, A.H.; Barberio, E.; Barlow, Roger J.; Baumann, S.; Bechtluft, J.; Behnke, T.; Bell, Kenneth Watson; Bella, G.; Bellerive, A.; Bentvelsen, S.; Bethke, S.; Biebel, O.; Bloodworth, I.J.; Bock, P.; Bohme, J.; Boeriu, O.; Bonacorsi, D.; Boutemeur, M.; Braibant, S.; Bright-Thomas, P.; Brigliadori, L.; Brown, Robert M.; Burckhart, H.J.; Cammin, J.; Capiluppi, P.; Carnegie, R.K.; Carter, A.A.; Carter, J.R.; Chang, C.Y.; Charlton, David G.; Ciocca, C.; Clarke, P.E.L.; Clay, E.; Cohen, I.; Cooke, O.C.; Couchman, J.; Couyoumtzelis, C.; Coxe, R.L.; Cuffiani, M.; Dado, S.; Dallavalle, G.Marco; Dallison, S.; de Roeck, A.; Dervan, P.; Desch, K.; Dienes, B.; Dixit, M.S.; Donkers, M.; Dubbert, J.; Duchovni, E.; Duckeck, G.; Duerdoth, I.P.; Estabrooks, P.G.; Etzion, E.; Fabbri, F.; Fanti, M.; Feld, L.; Ferrari, P.; Fiedler, F.; Fleck, I.; Ford, M.; Frey, A.; Furtjes, A.; Futyan, D.I.; Gagnon, P.; Gary, J.W.; Gaycken, G.; Geich-Gimbel, C.; Giacomelli, G.; Giacomelli, P.; Glenzinski, D.; Goldberg, J.; Grandi, C.; Graham, K.; Gross, E.; Grunhaus, J.; Gruwe, M.; Gunther, P.O.; Hajdu, C.; Hanson, G.G.; Hansroul, M.; Hapke, M.; Harder, K.; Harel, A.; Hargrove, C.K.; Harin-Dirac, M.; Hauke, A.; Hauschild, M.; Hawkes, C.M.; Hawkings, R.; Hemingway, R.J.; Hensel, C.; Herten, G.; Heuer, R.D.; Hildreth, M.D.; Hill, J.C.; Hocker, James Andrew; Hoffman, Kara Dion; Homer, R.J.; Honma, A.K.; Horvath, D.; Hossain, K.R.; Howard, R.; Huntemeyer, P.; Igo-Kemenes, P.; Ishii, K.; Jacob, F.R.; Jawahery, A.; Jeremie, H.; Jones, C.R.; Jovanovic, P.; Junk, T.R.; Kanaya, N.; Kanzaki, J.; Karapetian, G.; Karlen, D.; Kartvelishvili, V.; Kawagoe, K.; Kawamoto, T.; Keeler, R.K.; Kellogg, R.G.; Kennedy, B.W.; Kim, D.H.; Klein, K.; Klier, A.; Kobayashi, T.; Kobel, M.; Kokott, T.P.; Komamiya, S.; Kowalewski, Robert V.; Kress, T.; Krieger, P.; von Krogh, J.; Kuhl, T.; Kupper, M.; Kyberd, P.; Lafferty, G.D.; Landsman, H.; Lanske, D.; Lauber, J.; Lawson, I.; Layter, J.G.; Leins, A.; Lellouch, D.; Letts, J.; Levinson, L.; Liebisch, R.; Lillich, J.; List, B.; Littlewood, C.; Lloyd, A.W.; Lloyd, S.L.; Loebinger, F.K.; Long, G.D.; Losty, M.J.; Lu, J.; Ludwig, J.; Macchiolo, A.; Macpherson, A.; Mader, W.; Mannelli, M.; Marcellini, S.; Marchant, T.E.; Martin, A.J.; Martin, J.P.; Martinez, G.; Mashimo, T.; Mattig, Peter; McDonald, W.John; McKenna, J.; McMahon, T.J.; McPherson, R.A.; Meijers, F.; Mendez-Lorenzo, P.; Merritt, F.S.; Mes, H.; Michelini, A.; Mihara, S.; Mikenberg, G.; Miller, D.J.; Mohr, W.; Montanari, A.; Mori, T.; Nagai, K.; Nakamura, I.; Neal, H.A.; Nisius, R.; O'Neale, S.W.; Oakham, F.G.; Odorici, F.; Ogren, H.O.; Oh, A.; Okpara, A.; Oreglia, M.J.; Orito, S.; Pasztor, G.; Pater, J.R.; Patrick, G.N.; Patt, J.; Pfeifenschneider, P.; Pilcher, J.E.; Pinfold, J.; Plane, David E.; Poli, B.; Polok, J.; Pooth, O.; Przybycien, M.; Quadt, A.; Rembser, C.; Rick, H.; Robins, S.A.; Rodning, N.; Roney, J.M.; Rosati, S.; Roscoe, K.; Rossi, A.M.; Rozen, Y.; Runge, K.; Runolfsson, O.; Rust, D.R.; Sachs, K.; Saeki, T.; Sahr, O.; Sarkisyan, E.K.G.; Sbarra, C.; Schaile, A.D.; Schaile, O.; Scharff-Hansen, P.; Schmitt, S.; Schroder, Matthias; Schumacher, M.; Schwick, C.; Scott, W.G.; Seuster, R.; Shears, T.G.; Shen, B.C.; Shepherd-Themistocleous, C.H.; Sherwood, P.; Siroli, G.P.; Skuja, A.; Smith, A.M.; Snow, G.A.; Sobie, R.; Soldner-Rembold, S.; Spagnolo, S.; Sproston, M.; Stahl, A.; Stephens, K.; Stoll, K.; Strom, David M.; Strohmer, R.; Surrow, B.; Talbot, S.D.; Tarem, S.; Taylor, R.J.; Teuscher, R.; Thiergen, M.; Thomas, J.; Thomson, M.A.; Torrence, E.; Towers, S.; Trefzger, T.; Trigger, I.; Trocsanyi, Z.; Tsur, E.; Turner-Watson, M.F.; Ueda, I.; Vannerem, P.; Verzocchi, M.; Voss, H.; Vossebeld, J.; Waller, D.; Ward, C.P.; Ward, D.R.; Ward, J.J.; Watkins, P.M.; Watson, A.T.; Watson, N.K.; Wells, P.S.; Wengler, T.; Wermes, N.; Wetterling, D.; White, J.S.; Wilson, G.W.; Wilson, J.A.; Wyatt, T.R.; Yamashita, S.; Zacek, V.; Zer-Zion, D.

    2000-01-01

    The photon structure function F2-gamma(x,Q**2) has been measured using data taken by the OPAL detector at centre-of-mass energies of 91Gev, 183Gev and 189Gev, in Q**2 ranges of 1.5 to 30.0 GeV**2 (LEP1), and 7.0 to 30.0 GeV**2 (LEP2), probing lower values of x than ever before. Since previous OPAL analyses, new Monte Carlo models and new methods, such as multi-variable unfolding, have been introduced, reducing significantly the model dependent systematic errors in the measurement.

  16. Nonlinear response time-dependent density functional theory combined with the effective fragment potential method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zahariev, Federico; Gordon, Mark S., E-mail: mark@si.msg.chem.iastate.edu [Department of Chemistry, Iowa State University, Ames, Iowa 50011 (United States)

    2014-05-14

    This work presents an extension of the linear response TDDFT/EFP method to the nonlinear-response regime together with the implementation of nonlinear-response TDDFT/EFP in the quantum-chemistry computer package GAMESS. Included in the new method is the ability to calculate the two-photon absorption cross section and to incorporate solvent effects via the EFP method. The nonlinear-response TDDFT/EFP method is able to make correct qualitative predictions for both gas phase values and aqueous solvent shifts of several important nonlinear properties.

  17. Fission fragment charge and mass distributions in 239Pu(n ,f ) in the adiabatic nuclear energy density functional theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regnier, D.; Dubray, N.; Schunck, N.; Verrière, M.

    2016-05-01

    Background: Accurate knowledge of fission fragment yields is an essential ingredient of numerous applications ranging from the formation of elements in the r process to fuel cycle optimization for nuclear energy. The need for a predictive theory applicable where no data are available, together with the variety of potential applications, is an incentive to develop a fully microscopic approach to fission dynamics. Purpose: In this work, we calculate the pre-neutron emission charge and mass distributions of the fission fragments formed in the neutron-induced fission of 239Pu using a microscopic method based on nuclear density functional theory (DFT). Methods: Our theoretical framework is the nuclear energy density functional (EDF) method, where large-amplitude collective motion is treated adiabatically by using the time-dependent generator coordinate method (TDGCM) under the Gaussian overlap approximation (GOA). In practice, the TDGCM is implemented in two steps. First, a series of constrained EDF calculations map the configuration and potential-energy landscape of the fissioning system for a small set of collective variables (in this work, the axial quadrupole and octupole moments of the nucleus). Then, nuclear dynamics is modeled by propagating a collective wave packet on the potential-energy surface. Fission fragment distributions are extracted from the flux of the collective wave packet through the scission line. Results: We find that the main characteristics of the fission charge and mass distributions can be well reproduced by existing energy functionals even in two-dimensional collective spaces. Theory and experiment agree typically within two mass units for the position of the asymmetric peak. As expected, calculations are sensitive to the structure of the initial state and the prescription for the collective inertia. We emphasize that results are also sensitive to the continuity of the collective landscape near scission. Conclusions: Our analysis confirms

  18. Photon-photon collisions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brodsky, S.J.

    1985-01-01

    The study of photon-photon collisions has progressed enormously, stimulated by new data and new calculational tools for QCD. In the future we can expect precise determinations of ..cap alpha../sub s/ and ..lambda../sup ms/ from the ..gamma..*..gamma.. ..-->.. ..pi../sup 0/ form factor and the photon structure function, as well as detailed checks of QCD, determination of the shape of the hadron distribution amplitudes from ..gamma gamma.. ..-->.. H anti H, reconstruction of sigma/sub ..gamma gamma../ from exclusive channels at low W/sub ..gamma gamma../, definitive studies of high p/sub T/ hadron and jet production, and studies of threshold production of charmed systems. Photon-photon collisions, along with radiative decays of the psi and UPSILON, are ideal for the study of multiquark and gluonic resonances. We have emphasized the potential for resonance formation near threshold in virtually every hadronic exclusive channel, including heavy quark states c anti c c anti c, c anti c u anti u, etc. At higher energies SLC, LEP, ...) parity-violating electroweak effects and Higgs production due to equivalent Z/sup 0/ and W/sup + -/ beams from e ..-->.. eZ/sup 0/ and e ..-->.. nu W will become important. 44 references.

  19. Photon-photon collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brodsky, S.J.

    1985-01-01

    The study of photon-photon collisions has progressed enormously, stimulated by new data and new calculational tools for QCD. In the future we can expect precise determinations of α/sub s/ and Λ/sup ms/ from the γ*γ → π 0 form factor and the photon structure function, as well as detailed checks of QCD, determination of the shape of the hadron distribution amplitudes from γγ → H anti H, reconstruction of sigma/sub γγ/ from exclusive channels at low W/sub γγ/, definitive studies of high p/sub T/ hadron and jet production, and studies of threshold production of charmed systems. Photon-photon collisions, along with radiative decays of the psi and UPSILON, are ideal for the study of multiquark and gluonic resonances. We have emphasized the potential for resonance formation near threshold in virtually every hadronic exclusive channel, including heavy quark states c anti c c anti c, c anti c u anti u, etc. At higher energies SLC, LEP, ...) parity-violating electroweak effects and Higgs production due to equivalent Z 0 and W +- beams from e → eZ 0 and e → nu W will become important. 44 references

  20. Photon-photon collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Field, J.H.

    1984-01-01

    The current status, both theoretical and experimental, of two photon collision physics is reviewed with special emphasis on recent experimental results from e + e - storage rings. After a complete presentation of the helicity amplitude formalism for the general process e + e - → Xe + e - , various approximations (transverse photon, Weisaecker Williams) are discussed. Beam polarisation effects and radiative corrections are also briefly considered. A number of specific processes, for which experimental results are now available, are then described. In each case existing theoretical prediction are confronted with experimental results. The processes described include single resonance production, lepton and hadron pair production, the structure functions of the photon, the production of high Psub(T) jets and the total photon photon cross section. In the last part of the review the current status of the subject is summarised and some comments are made on future prospects. These include both extrapolations of current research to higher energy machines (LEP, HERA) as well as a brief mention of both the technical realisation and the physics interest of the real γγ and eγ collisions which may be possible using linear electron colliders in the 1 TeV energy range

  1. Dispersion and betatron function correction in the Advanced Photon Source storage ring using singular value decomposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emery, L.

    1999-01-01

    Magnet errors and off-center orbits through sextuples perturb the dispersion and beta functions in a storage ring (SR), which affects machine performance. In a large ring such as the Advanced Photon Source (APS), the magnet errors are difficult to determine with beam-based methods. Also the non-zero orbit through sextuples result from user requests for steering at light source points. For expediency, a singular value decomposition (SVD) matrix method analogous to orbit correction was adopted to make global corrections to these functions using strengths of several quadrupoles as correcting elements. The direct response matrix is calculated from the model of the perfect lattice. The inverse is calculated by SVD with a selected number of singular vectors. Resulting improvement in the lattice functions and machine performance will be presented

  2. Silicon photonic integrated circuits with electrically programmable non-volatile memory functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, J-F; Lim, A E-J; Luo, X-S; Fang, Q; Li, C; Jia, L X; Tu, X-G; Huang, Y; Zhou, H-F; Liow, T-Y; Lo, G-Q

    2016-09-19

    Conventional silicon photonic integrated circuits do not normally possess memory functions, which require on-chip power in order to maintain circuit states in tuned or field-configured switching routes. In this context, we present an electrically programmable add/drop microring resonator with a wavelength shift of 426 pm between the ON/OFF states. Electrical pulses are used to control the choice of the state. Our experimental results show a wavelength shift of 2.8 pm/ms and a light intensity variation of ~0.12 dB/ms for a fixed wavelength in the OFF state. Theoretically, our device can accommodate up to 65 states of multi-level memory functions. Such memory functions can be integrated into wavelength division mutiplexing (WDM) filters and applied to optical routers and computing architectures fulfilling large data downloading demands.

  3. Density functional theory fragment descriptors to quantify the reactivity of a molecular family: application to amino acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senet, P; Aparicio, F

    2007-04-14

    By using the exact density functional theory, one demonstrates that the value of the local electronic softness of a molecular fragment is directly related to the polarization charge (Coulomb hole) induced by a test electron removed (or added) from (at) the fragment. Our finding generalizes to a chemical group a formal relation between these molecular descriptors recently obtained for an atom in a molecule using an approximate atomistic model [P. Senet and M. Yang, J. Chem. Sci. 117, 411 (2005)]. In addition, a practical ab initio computational scheme of the Coulomb hole and related local descriptors of reactivity of a molecular family having in common a similar fragment is presented. As a blind test, the method is applied to the lateral chains of the 20 isolated amino acids. One demonstrates that the local softness of the lateral chain is a quantitative measure of the similarity of the amino acids. It predicts the separation of amino acids in different biochemical groups (aliphatic, basic, acidic, sulfur contained, and aromatic). The present approach may find applications in quantitative structure activity relationship methodology.

  4. Functional traits variation explains the distribution of Aextoxicon punctatum (Aextoxicaceae in pronounced moisture gradients within fog-dependent forest fragments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz eSalgado-Negret

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Climate change and fragmentation are major threats to world forests. Understanding how functional traits related to drought tolerance change across small-scale, pronounced moisture gradients in fragmented forests is important to predict species’ responses to these threats. In the case of Aextoxicon punctatum, a dominant canopy tree in fog-dependent rain forest patches in semiarid Chile, we explored how the magnitude, variability and correlation patterns of leaf and xylem vessel traits and hydraulic conductivity varied across soil moisture gradients established within and among forest patches of different size, which are associated with differences in tree establishment and mortality patterns. Leaf traits varied across soil-moisture gradients produced by fog interception. Trees growing at drier leeward edges showed higher LMA (leaf mass per area, trichome and stomatal density than trees from the wetter core and windward zones. In contrast, xylem vessel traits (vessels diameter and density did not vary producing loss of hydraulic conductivity at drier leeward edges. We also detected higher levels of phenotypic integration and variability at leeward edges. The ability of A. punctatum to modify leaf traits in response to differences in soil moisture availability established over short distances (<500 m facilitates its persistence in contrasting microhabitats within forest patches. However, xylem anatomy showed limited plasticity, which increases cavitation risk at leeward edges. Greater patch fragmentation, together with fluctuations in irradiance and soil moisture in small patches, could result in higher risk of drought-related tree mortality, with profound impacts on hydrological balances at the ecosystem scale.

  5. RISC-interacting clearing 3'- 5' exoribonucleases (RICEs) degrade uridylated cleavage fragments to maintain functional RISC in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhonghui; Hu, Fuqu; Sung, Min Woo; Shu, Chang; Castillo-González, Claudia; Koiwa, Hisashi; Tang, Guiliang; Dickman, Martin; Li, Pingwei; Zhang, Xiuren

    2017-05-02

    RNA-induced silencing complex (RISC) is composed of miRNAs and AGO proteins. AGOs use miRNAs as guides to slice target mRNAs to produce truncated 5' and 3' RNA fragments. The 5' cleaved RNA fragments are marked with uridylation for degradation. Here, we identified novel cofactors of Arabidopsis AGOs, named RICE1 and RICE2. RICE proteins specifically degraded single-strand (ss) RNAs in vitro; but neither miRNAs nor miRNA*s in vivo. RICE1 exhibited a DnaQ-like exonuclease fold and formed a homohexamer with the active sites located at the interfaces between RICE1 subunits. Notably, ectopic expression of catalytically-inactive RICE1 not only significantly reduced miRNA levels; but also increased 5' cleavage RISC fragments with extended uridine tails. We conclude that RICEs act to degrade uridylated 5' products of AGO cleavage to maintain functional RISC. Our study also suggests a possible link between decay of cleaved target mRNAs and miRNA stability in RISC.

  6. The b Quark Fragmentation Function, From LEP to TeVatron

    CERN Document Server

    Ben-Haim, Eli; Savoy-Navarro, Aurore

    2004-01-01

    The b quark fragmentation distribution has been measured, using data registered by the DELPHI experiment at the Z pole, in the years 1994-1995. The measurement made use of 176000 inclusively reconstructed B meson candidates. The uncertainties of this measurement are dominated by systematic effects, the principal ones being related to the energy calibration. The distribution has been established in a nine bin histogram. Its mean value has been found to be = 0.704±0.001(stat.)±0.008(syst.) Using this measurement, and other available analyses of the b-quark fragmentation distribution in e +e − collisions, the non-perturbative QCD component of the distribution has been extracted independently of any hadronic physics modeling. This distribution depends only on the way the perturbative QCD component has been defined. When the perturbative QCD component is taken from a parton shower Monte-Carlo, the non-perturbative QCD component is rather similar with those obtained from the Lund or Bowler models. When the pert...

  7. Yield of Prompt Gamma Radiation in Slow-Neutron Induced Fission of 235U as a Function of the Total Fragment Kinetic Energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albinsson, H [Chalmers Univ. of Technology, Goeteborg (SE)

    1971-07-01

    Fission gamma radiation yields as functions of the total fragment kinetic energy were obtained for 235U thermal-neutron induced fission. The fragments were detected with silicon surface-barrier detectors and the gamma radiation with a Nal(Tl) scintillator. In some of the measurements mass selection was used so that the gamma radiation could also be measured as a function of fragment mass. Time discrimination between the fission gammas and the prompt neutrons released in the fission process was employed to reduce the background. The gamma radiation emitted during different time intervals after the fission event was studied with the help of a collimator, the position of which was changed along the path of the fission fragments. Fission-neutron and gamma-ray data of previous experiments were used for comparisons of the yields, and estimates were made of the variation of the prompt gamma-ray energy with the total fragment kinetic energy

  8. Photon strength functions in Gd isotopes studied from radiative capture of resonance neutrons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kroll J.

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The experimental spectra of γ rays following radiative neutron capture on isolated resonances of stable 152,154–158Gd targets were measured by the DANCE calorimeter installed at the Los Alamos Neutron Scattering Center in New Mexico, USA. These spectra were analyzed within the extreme statistical model to get new information on the photon strength functions. Special emphasis was put on study of the scissors vibrational mode present in these isotopes. Our data show that the scissors-mode resonances are built not only on the ground states but also on the excited levels of all studied Gd isotopes. The scissors mode strength observed in 157,159Gd products is significantly higher than in neighboring even-even nuclei 156,158Gd. Such a difference indicates the existence of an odd-even effect in the scissors mode strength. Moreover, there exists no universal parameter-free model of the electric dipole photon strength function describing the experimental data in all of the Gd isotopes studied. The results for the scissors mode are compared with the (γ, γ′ data for the ground-state transitions and with the results from 3He-induced reactions.

  9. Active fragments from pro- and antiapoptotic BCL-2 proteins have distinct membrane behavior reflecting their functional divergence.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yannis Guillemin

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The BCL-2 family of proteins includes pro- and antiapoptotic members acting by controlling the permeabilization of mitochondria. Although the association of these proteins with the outer mitochondrial membrane is crucial for their function, little is known about the characteristics of this interaction. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here, we followed a reductionist approach to clarify to what extent membrane-active regions of homologous BCL-2 family proteins contribute to their functional divergence. Using isolated mitochondria as well as model lipid Langmuir monolayers coupled with Brewster Angle Microscopy, we explored systematically and comparatively the membrane activity and membrane-peptide interactions of fragments derived from the central helical hairpin of BAX, BCL-xL and BID. The results show a connection between the differing abilities of the assayed peptide fragments to contact, insert, destabilize and porate membranes and the activity of their cognate proteins in programmed cell death. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: BCL-2 family-derived pore-forming helices thus represent structurally analogous, but functionally dissimilar membrane domains.

  10. Variation of photon intensities in transmitted photon spectra of 60Co as a function of dimensions of a soil medium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Charanjeet; Sidhu, Gurdeep S.; Kumar, Ashok; Singh, Tejbir; Singh, Parjit S.; Mudahar, Gurmel S.

    2005-01-01

    The transmitted photon spectra of a point gamma-ray source of 60 Co have been measured through the longitudinal and transverse dimensions of a soil medium. The simultaneous effect of longitudinal and transverse thicknesses has been studied on the intensity of an appeared multiple-scatter peak in the soft part of the spectrum. The intensity of peak decreases exponentially with the increase of longitudinal thickness of soil medium whereas a reversal of the trend of multiple-scatter peak intensity with the transverse thickness observed as longitudinal dimension increases

  11. Response functions for computing absorbed dose to skeletal tissues from photon irradiation-an update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, Perry B; Bahadori, Amir A [Nuclear and Radiological Engineering, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611 (United States); Eckerman, Keith F [Life Sciences Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN 37831 (United States); Lee, Choonsik [Radiation Epidemiology Branch, National Cancer Institute, Bethesda, MD 20892 (United States); Bolch, Wesley E, E-mail: wbolch@ufl.edu [Nuclear and Radiological/Biomedical Engineering, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611 (United States)

    2011-04-21

    A comprehensive set of photon fluence-to-dose response functions (DRFs) is presented for two radiosensitive skeletal tissues-active and total shallow marrow-within 15 and 32 bone sites, respectively, of the ICRP reference adult male. The functions were developed using fractional skeletal masses and associated electron-absorbed fractions as reported for the UF hybrid adult male phantom, which in turn is based upon micro-CT images of trabecular spongiosa taken from a 40 year male cadaver. The new DRFs expand upon both the original set of seven functions produced in 1985, and a 2007 update calculated under the assumption of secondary electron escape from spongiosa. In this study, it is assumed that photon irradiation of the skeleton will yield charged particle equilibrium across all spongiosa regions at energies exceeding 200 keV. Kerma coefficients for active marrow, inactive marrow, trabecular bone and spongiosa at higher energies are calculated using the DRF algorithm setting the electron-absorbed fraction for self-irradiation to unity. By comparing kerma coefficients and DRF functions, dose enhancement factors and mass energy-absorption coefficient (MEAC) ratios for active marrow to spongiosa were derived. These MEAC ratios compared well with those provided by the NIST Physical Reference Data Library (mean difference of 0.8%), and the dose enhancement factors for active marrow compared favorably with values calculated in the well-known study published by King and Spiers (1985 Br. J. Radiol. 58 345-56) (mean absolute difference of 1.9 percentage points). Additionally, dose enhancement factors for active marrow were shown to correlate well with the shallow marrow volume fraction (R{sup 2} = 0.91). Dose enhancement factors for the total shallow marrow were also calculated for 32 bone sites representing the first such derivation for this target tissue.

  12. Gluon fragmentation in T(1S) decays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bienlein, J.K.

    1983-05-01

    In T(1S) decays most observables (sphericity, charged multiplicity, photonic energy fraction, inclusive spectra) can be understood assuming that gluons fragment like quarks. New results from LENA use the (axis-independent) Fox-Wolfram moments for the photonic energy deposition. Continuum reactions show 'standard' Field-Feynman fragmentation. T(1S) decays show a significant difference in the photonic energy topology. It is more isotropic than with the Field-Feynman fragmentation scheme. Gluon fragmentation into isoscalar mesons (a la Peterson and Walsh) is excluded. But if one forces the leading particle to be isoscalar, one gets good agreement with the data. (orig.)

  13. Scaling violations of quark and gluon jet fragmentation functions in $e^{+}e{-}$ annihilations at $\\sqrt{s}$ = 91.2 and 183-209 GeV

    CERN Document Server

    Abbiendi, G.; Akesson, P.F.; Alexander, G.; Allison, John; Amaral, P.; Anagnostou, G.; Anderson, K.J.; Asai, S.; Axen, D.; Azuelos, G.; Bailey, I.; Barberio, E.; Barillari, T.; Barlow, R.J.; Batley, R.J.; Bechtle, P.; Behnke, T.; Bell, Kenneth Watson; Bell, P.J.; Bella, G.; Bellerive, A.; Benelli, G.; Bethke, S.; Biebel, O.; Boeriu, O.; Bock, P.; Boutemeur, M.; Braibant, S.; Brigliadori, L.; Brown, Robert M.; Buesser, K.; Burckhart, H.J.; Campana, S.; Carnegie, R.K.; Carter, A.A.; Carter, J.R.; Chang, C.Y.; Charlton, D.G.; Ciocca, C.; Csilling, A.; Cuffiani, M.; Dado, S.; De Roeck, A.; De Wolf, E.A.; Desch, K.; Dienes, B.; Donkers, M.; Dubbert, J.; Duchovni, E.; Duckeck, G.; Duerdoth, I.P.; Etzion, E.; Fabbri, F.; Feld, L.; Ferrari, P.; Fiedler, F.; Fleck, I.; Ford, M.; Frey, A.; Gagnon, P.; Gary, John William; Gaycken, G.; Geich-Gimbel, C.; Giacomelli, G.; Giacomelli, P.; Giunta, Marina; Goldberg, J.; Gross, E.; Grunhaus, J.; Gruwe, M.; Gunther, P.O.; Gupta, A.; Hajdu, C.; Hamann, M.; Hanson, G.G.; Harel, A.; Hauschild, M.; Hawkes, C.M.; Hawkings, R.; Hemingway, R.J.; Herten, G.; Heuer, R.D.; Hill, J.C.; Hoffman, Kara Dion; Horvath, D.; Igo-Kemenes, P.; Ishii, K.; Jeremie, H.; Jovanovic, P.; Junk, T.R.; Kanaya, N.; Kanzaki, J.; Karlen, D.; Kawagoe, K.; Kawamoto, T.; Keeler, R.K.; Kellogg, R.G.; Kennedy, B.W.; Kluth, S.; Kobayashi, T.; Kobel, M.; Komamiya, S.; Kramer, T.; Krieger, P.; von Krogh, J.; Kruger, K.; Kuhl, T.; Kupper, M.; Lafferty, G.D.; Landsman, H.; Lanske, D.; Layter, J.G.; Lellouch, D.; Lettso, J.; Levinson, L.; Lillich, J.; Lloyd, S.L.; Loebinger, F.K.; Lu, J.; Ludwig, A.; Ludwig, J.; Mader, W.; Marcellini, S.; Martin, A.J.; Masetti, G.; Mashimo, T.; Mattig, Peter; McKenna, J.; McPherson, R.A.; Meijers, F.; Menges, W.; Merritt, F.S.; Mes, H.; Meyer, Niels T.; Michelini, A.; Mihara, S.; Mikenberg, G.; Miller, D.J.; Moed, S.; Mohr, W.; Mori, T.; Mutter, A.; Nagai, K.; Nakamura, I.; Nanjo, H.; Neal, H.A.; Nisius, R.; O'Neale, S.W.; Oh, A.; Oreglia, M.J.; Orito, S.; Pahl, C.; Pasztor, G.; Pater, J.R.; Pilcher, J.E.; Pinfold, J.; Plane, David E.; Poli, B.; Pooth, O.; Przybycien, M.; Quadt, A.; Rabbertz, K.; Rembser, C.; Renkel, P.; Roney, J.M.; Rozen, Y.; Runge, K.; Sachs, K.; Saeki, T.; Sarkisyan, E.K.G.; Schaile, A.D.; Schaile, O.; Scharff-Hansen, P.; Schieck, J.; Schorner-Sadenius, T.; Schroder, Matthias; Schumacher, M.; Scott, W.G.; Seuster, R.; Shears, T.G.; Shen, B.C.; Sherwood, P.; Skuja, A.; Smith, A.M.; Sobie, R.; Soldner-Rembold, S.; Spano, F.; Stahl, A.; Strom, David M.; Strohmer, R.; Tarem, S.; Tasevsky, M.; Teuscher, R.; Thomson, M.A.; Torrence, E.; Toya, D.; Tran, P.; Trigger, I.; Trocsanyi, Z.; Tsur, E.; Turner-Watson, M.F.; Ueda, I.; Ujvari, B.; Vollmer, C.F.; Vannerem, P.; Vertesi, R.; Verzocchi, M.; Voss, H.; Vossebeld, J.; Ward, C.P.; Ward, D.R.; Watkins, P.M.; Watson, A.T.; Watson, N.K.; Wells, P.S.; Wengler, T.; Wermes, N.; Wilson, G.W.; Wilson, J.A.; Wolf, G.; Wyatt, T.R.; Yamashita, S.; Zer-Zion, D.; Zivkovic, Lidija

    Flavour inclusive, udsc and b fragmentation functions in unbiased jets, and flavour inclusive, udsc, b and gluon fragmentation functions in biased jets are measured in e+e- annihilations from data collected at centre-of-mass energies of 91.2, and 183-209 GeV with the OPAL detector at LEP. The unbiased jets are defined by hemispheres of inclusive hadronic events, while the biased jet measurements are based on three-jet events selected with jet algorithms. Several methods are employed to extract the fragmentation functions over a wide range of scales. Possible biases are studied in the results are obtained. The fragmentation functions are compared to results from lower energy e+e- experiments and with earlier LEP measurements and are found to be consistent. Scaling violations are observed and are found to be stronger for the fragmentation functions of gluon jets than for those of quarks. The measured fragmentation functions are compared to three recent theoretical next-to-leading order calculations and to the p...

  14. Adaptive frozen orbital treatment for the fragment molecular orbital method combined with density-functional tight-binding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishimoto, Yoshio; Fedorov, Dmitri G.

    2018-02-01

    The exactly analytic gradient is derived and implemented for the fragment molecular orbital (FMO) method combined with density-functional tight-binding (DFTB) using adaptive frozen orbitals. The response contributions which arise from freezing detached molecular orbitals on the border between fragments are computed by solving Z-vector equations. The accuracy of the energy, its gradient, and optimized structures is verified on a set of representative inorganic materials and polypeptides. FMO-DFTB is applied to optimize the structure of a silicon nano-wire, and the results are compared to those of density functional theory and experiment. FMO accelerates the DFTB calculation of a boron nitride nano-ring with 7872 atoms by a factor of 406. Molecular dynamics simulations using FMO-DFTB applied to a 10.7 μm chain of boron nitride nano-rings, consisting of about 1.2 × 106 atoms, reveal the rippling and twisting of nano-rings at room temperature.

  15. Measurement of the Charm structure Function $F_{2}^{\\gamma},c$ of the Photon at LEP

    CERN Document Server

    Abbiendi, G.; Akesson, P.F.; Alexander, G.; Allison, John; Amaral, P.; Anagnostou, G.; Anderson, K.J.; Arcelli, S.; Asai, S.; Axen, D.; Azuelos, G.; Bailey, I.; Barberio, E.; Barlow, R.J.; Batley, R.J.; Bechtle, P.; Behnke, T.; Bell, Kenneth Watson; Bell, P.J.; Bella, G.; Bellerive, A.; Benelli, G.; Bethke, S.; Biebel, O.; Bloodworth, I.J.; Boeriu, O.; Bock, P.; Bonacorsi, D.; Boutemeur, M.; Braibant, S.; Brigliadori, L.; Brown, Robert M.; Busser, K.; Burckhart, H.J.; Cammin, J.; Campana, S.; Carnegie, R.K.; Caron, B.; Carter, A.A.; Carter, J.R.; Chang, C.Y.; Charlton, David G.; Cohen, I.; Csilling, A.; Cuffiani, M.; Dado, S.; Dallavalle, G.Marco; Dallison, S.; de Roeck, A.; De Wolf, E.A.; Desch, K.; Donkers, M.; Dubbert, J.; Duchovni, E.; Duckeck, G.; Duerdoth, I.P.; Elfgren, E.; Etzion, E.; Fabbri, F.; Feld, L.; Ferrari, P.; Fiedler, F.; Fleck, I.; Ford, M.; Frey, A.; Furtjes, A.; Gagnon, P.; Gary, John William; Gaycken, G.; Geich-Gimbel, C.; Giacomelli, G.; Giacomelli, P.; Giunta, Marina; Goldberg, J.; Gross, E.; Grunhaus, J.; Gruwe, M.; Gunther, P.O.; Gupta, A.; Hajdu, C.; Hamann, M.; Hanson, G.G.; Harder, K.; Harel, A.; Harin-Dirac, M.; Hauschild, M.; Hauschildt, J.; Hawkings, R.; Hemingway, R.J.; Hensel, C.; Herten, G.; Heuer, R.D.; Hill, J.C.; Hoffman, Kara Dion; Homer, R.J.; Horvath, D.; Howard, R.; Huntemeyer, P.; Igo-Kemenes, P.; Ishii, K.; Jeremie, H.; Jovanovic, P.; Junk, T.R.; Kanaya, N.; Kanzaki, J.; Karapetian, G.; Karlen, D.; Kartvelishvili, V.; Kawagoe, K.; Kawamoto, T.; Keeler, R.K.; Kellogg, R.G.; Kennedy, B.W.; Kim, D.H.; Klein, K.; Klier, A.; Kluth, S.; Kobayashi, T.; Kobel, M.; Kokott, T.P.; Komamiya, S.; Kormos, Laura L.; Kowalewski, Robert V.; Kramer, T.; Kress, T.; Krieger, P.; Von Krogh, J.; Krop, D.; Kupper, M.; Kyberd, P.; Lafferty, G.D.; Landsman, H.; Lanske, D.; Layter, J.G.; Leins, A.; Lellouch, D.; Letts, J.; Levinson, L.; Lillich, J.; Lloyd, S.L.; Loebinger, F.K.; Lu, J.; Ludwig, J.; Macpherson, A.; Mader, W.; Marcellini, S.; Marchant, T.E.; Martin, A.J.; Martin, J.P.; Masetti, G.; Mashimo, T.; Mattig, Peter; McDonald, W.J.; McKenna, J.; McMahon, T.J.; McPherson, R.A.; Meijers, F.; Mendez-Lorenzo, P.; Menges, W.; Merritt, F.S.; Mes, H.; Michelini, A.; Mihara, S.; Mikenberg, G.; Miller, D.J.; Moed, S.; Mohr, W.; Mori, T.; Mutter, A.; Nagai, K.; Nakamura, I.; Neal, H.A.; Nisius, R.; O'Neale, S.W.; Oh, A.; Okpara, A.; Oreglia, M.J.; Orito, S.; Pahl, C.; Pasztor, G.; Pater, J.R.; Patrick, G.N.; Pilcher, J.E.; Pinfold, J.; Plane, David E.; Poli, B.; Polok, J.; Pooth, O.; Przybycien, M.; Quadt, A.; Rabbertz, K.; Rembser, C.; Renkel, P.; Rick, H.; Roney, J.M.; Rosati, S.; Rozen, Y.; Runge, K.; Rust, D.R.; Sachs, K.; Saeki, T.; Sahr, O.; Sarkisian, E.K.G.; Schaile, A.D.; Schaile, O.; Scharff-Hansen, P.; Schieck, J.; Schoerner-Sadenius, Thomas; Schroder, Matthias; Schumacher, M.; Schwick, C.; Scott, W.G.; Seuster, R.; Shears, T.G.; Shen, B.C.; Shepherd-Themistocleous, C.H.; Sherwood, P.; Siroli, G.; Skuja, A.; Smith, A.M.; Sobie, R.; Soldner-Rembold, S.; Spagnolo, S.; Spano, F.; Stahl, A.; Stephens, K.; Strom, David M.; Strohmer, R.; Tarem, S.; Tasevsky, M.; Taylor, R.J.; Teuscher, R.; Thomson, M.A.; Torrence, E.; Toya, D.; Tran, P.; Trefzger, T.; Tricoli, A.; Trigger, I.; Trocsanyi, Z.; Tsur, E.; Turner-Watson, M.F.; Ueda, I.; Ujvari, B.; Vachon, B.; Vollmer, C.F.; Vannerem, P.; Verzocchi, M.; Voss, H.; Vossebeld, J.; Waller, D.; Ward, C.P.; Ward, D.R.; Watkins, P.M.; Watson, N.K.; Wells, P.S.; Wengler, T.; Wermes, N.; Wetterling, D.; Wilson, G.W.; Wilson, J.A.; Wolf, G.; Wyatt, T.R.; Yamashita, S.; Zacek, V.; Zer-Zion, D.; Zivkovic, Lidija

    2002-01-01

    The production of charm quarks is studied in deep-inelastic electron-photon scattering using data recorded by the OPAL detector at LEP at normal e+e- centre-of-mass energies from 183 to 209 GeV. The charm quarks have been identified by full reconstruction of charged D* mesons using their decays into D0pi with the D0 observed in two decay modes with charged particle final states, Kpi and K3pi. The cross-section sigma(D*) for production of charged D* in the reaction e+e- -> e+e-D*X is measured in a restricted kinematical region using two bins in Bjorken x, 0.0014 e+e- ccbar X) and the charm structure function of the photon F 2,c are determined in the region 0.0014 0.1 the perturbative QCD calculation at next-to-leading order agrees perfectly with the measured cross-section. For x < 0.1 the measured cross-section is 43.8 +- 14.3 +- 6.3 +- 2.8 pb with a next-to-leading order prediction of 17.0+2.9-2.3 p.b.

  16. Expression of a humanized SZ-63 McAb functional recombinant Fab fragment in E. Coli

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xia Lijun; Gu Jianming; Zhang Xiaoming; Liu Yue; Wan Haiying; Li Peixia; Ruan Changgeng

    1995-06-01

    MRNA was selected on oligo(dT)-cellulose from total RNA isolated from SZ-63 hybridoma cells by CsCl ultracentrifugation. cDNA coding for heavy and light variable regions were amplified by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). The amplified fragments were then cloned and sequenced by the 32 P labelled sanger dideoxy-mediated chain-termination method. The nucleotides of VH and Vκ are 354 and 321 respectively, the amino acid sequence of heavy and light chain of SZ-63 were also deduced. Then, linking the variable genes of SZ-63 with human immunoglobulin γ 1 CH and κ VL genes, constructing pHEN1-63 Fab/Hu chimera for expression and transforming E. coli HB2151. The expressed chimeric SZ-63 Fab was soluble. Both ELISA and Western blot results showed the expression products could specifically bind with cross-linked fibrin and the content in expression culture was about 225 μg/L. (5 figs.)

  17. Influence of turn (or fold) and local charge in fragmentation of the peptide analogue molecule CH3CO-Gly-NH2 following single-photon VUV (118.22 nm) ionization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharya, Atanu; Bernstein, Elliot R

    2011-10-06

    The radical cationic reactivity of the peptide analogue molecule CH(3)CO-Gly-NH(2) is addressed both experimentally and theoretically. The radical cation intermediate of CH(3)CO-Gly-NH(2) is created by single-photon ionization of this molecule at 118.22 nm (~10.5 eV). The two most stable conformers (C(7) and C(5)) of this molecule exhibit different folds along the backbone: the C(7) conformer has a γ-turn structure, and the C(5) conformer has a β-strand structure. The experimental results show that the radical cation intermediate of CH(3)CO-Gly-NH(2) dissociates and generates a fragment-ion signal at 73 amu that is observed through TOFMS. Theoretical results show how the fragment-ion signal at 73 amu is generated by only one conformer of CH(3)CO-Gly-NH(2) (C(7)) and how local charge and specific hydrogen bonding in the molecule influence fragmentation of the radical cation intermediate of CH(3)CO-Gly-NH(2). The specific fold of the molecule controls fragmentation of this reactive radical cation intermediate. Whereas the radical cation of the C(7) conformer dissociates through a hydrogen-transfer mechanism followed by HNCO elimination, the radical cation of the C(5) conformer does not dissociate at all. CASSCF calculations show that positive charge in the radical cationic C(7) conformer is localized at the NH(2)CO moiety of the molecular ion. This site-specific localization of the positive charge enhances the acidity of the terminal NH(2) group, facilitating hydrogen transfer from the NH(2) to the COCH(3) end of the molecular ion. Positive charge in the C(5) conformer of the CH(3)CO-Gly-NH(2) radical cation is, however, localized at the COCH(3) end of the molecular ion, and this conformer does not have enough energy to surmount the energy barrier to dissociation on the ion potential energy surface. CASSCF results show that conformation-specific localization of charge in the CH(3)CO-Gly-NH(2) molecular ion occurs as a result of the different hydrogen

  18. Optical components based on two-photon absorption process in functionalized polymers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klein, S.; Barsella, A.; Taupier, G.; Stortz, V.; Fort, A.; Dorkenoo, K.D.

    2006-01-01

    We report on the fabrication of basic elements needed in optical circuits in a photopolymerizable resin, using a two-photon absorption (TPA) process to perform a selective polymerization. By taking advantage of the high spatial selectivity of the TPA approach, we can control the value of the local index of refraction in the material and realize permanent optical pathways in the bulk of photopolymerizable matrices. The computer-controlled design of such pathways allows creating optical circuits. As an example of application, optical fibers separated by millimetric distances and placed in arbitrary positions have been connected with moderate losses. Moreover, active components, such as electro-optical Mach-Zehnder interferometers, can be fabricated using photopolymers functionalized with non-linear optical chromophores, in order to be integrated in micro-optical circuits

  19. Measurement of the $Q^2$ evolution of the photon structure function $F^{\\gamma}_{2}$

    CERN Document Server

    Ackerstaff, K.; Allison, John; Altekamp, N.; Anderson, K.J.; Anderson, S.; Arcelli, S.; Asai, S.; Axen, D.; Azuelos, G.; Ball, A.H.; Barberio, E.; Barillari, T.; Barlow, Roger J.; Bartoldus, R.; Batley, J.R.; Baumann, S.; Bechtluft, J.; Beeston, C.; Behnke, T.; Bell, A.N.; Bell, Kenneth Watson; Bella, G.; Bentvelsen, S.; Bethke, S.; Biebel, O.; Biguzzi, A.; Bird, S.D.; Blobel, V.; Bloodworth, I.J.; Bloomer, J.E.; Bobinski, M.; Bock, P.; Bonacorsi, D.; Boutemeur, M.; Bouwens, B.T.; Braibant, S.; Brigliadori, L.; Brown, Robert M.; Burckhart, H.J.; Burgard, C.; Burgin, R.; Capiluppi, P.; Carnegie, R.K.; Carter, A.A.; Carter, J.R.; Chang, C.Y.; Charlton, David G.; Chrisman, D.; Clarke, P.E.L.; Cohen, I.; Conboy, J.E.; Cooke, O.C.; Cuffiani, M.; Dado, S.; Dallapiccola, C.; Dallavalle, G.Marco; Davies, R.; De Jong, S.; del Pozo, L.A.; Desch, K.; Dienes, B.; Dixit, M.S.; do Couto e Silva, E.; Doucet, M.; Duchovni, E.; Duckeck, G.; Duerdoth, I.P.; Eatough, D.; Edwards, J.E.G.; Estabrooks, P.G.; Evans, H.G.; Evans, M.; Fabbri, F.; Fanti, M.; Faust, A.A.; Fiedler, F.; Fierro, M.; Fischer, H.M.; Fleck, I.; Folman, R.; Fong, D.G.; Foucher, M.; Furtjes, A.; Futyan, D.I.; Gagnon, P.; Gary, J.W.; Gascon, J.; Gascon-Shotkin, S.M.; Geddes, N.I.; Geich-Gimbel, C.; Geralis, T.; Giacomelli, G.; Giacomelli, P.; Giacomelli, R.; Gibson, V.; Gibson, W.R.; Gingrich, D.M.; Glenzinski, D.; Goldberg, J.; Goodrick, M.J.; Gorn, W.; Grandi, C.; Gross, E.; Grunhaus, J.; Gruwe, M.; Hajdu, C.; Hanson, G.G.; Hansroul, M.; Hapke, M.; Hargrove, C.K.; Hart, P.A.; Hartmann, C.; Hauschild, M.; Hawkes, C.M.; Hawkings, R.; Hemingway, R.J.; Herndon, M.; Herten, G.; Heuer, R.D.; Hildreth, M.D.; Hill, J.C.; Hillier, S.J.; Hobson, P.R.; Homer, R.J.; Honma, A.K.; Horvath, D.; Hossain, K.R.; Howard, R.; Huntemeyer, P.; Hutchcroft, D.E.; Igo-Kemenes, P.; Imrie, D.C.; Ingram, M.R.; Ishii, K.; Jawahery, A.; Jeffreys, P.W.; Jeremie, H.; Jimack, M.; Joly, A.; Jones, C.R.; Jones, G.; Jones, M.; Jost, U.; Jovanovic, P.; Junk, T.R.; Karlen, D.; Kartvelishvili, V.; Kawagoe, K.; Kawamoto, T.; Kayal, P.I.; Keeler, R.K.; Kellogg, R.G.; Kennedy, B.W.; Kirk, J.; Klier, A.; Kluth, S.; Kobayashi, T.; Kobel, M.; Koetke, D.S.; Kokott, T.P.; Kolrep, M.; Komamiya, S.; Kress, T.; Krieger, P.; von Krogh, J.; Kyberd, P.; Lafferty, G.D.; Lahmann, R.; Lai, W.P.; Lanske, D.; Lauber, J.; Lautenschlager, S.R.; Layter, J.G.; Lazic, D.; Lee, A.M.; Lefebvre, E.; Lellouch, D.; Letts, J.; Levinson, L.; Lloyd, S.L.; Loebinger, F.K.; Long, G.D.; Losty, M.J.; Ludwig, J.; Macchiolo, A.; Macpherson, A.; Mannelli, M.; Marcellini, S.; Markus, C.; Martin, A.J.; Martin, J.P.; Martinez, G.; Mashimo, T.; Mattig, Peter; McDonald, W.John; McKenna, J.; Mckigney, E.A.; McMahon, T.J.; McPherson, R.A.; Meijers, F.; Menke, S.; Merritt, F.S.; Mes, H.; Meyer, J.; Michelini, A.; Mikenberg, G.; Miller, D.J.; Mincer, A.; Mir, R.; Mohr, W.; Montanari, A.; Mori, T.; Morii, M.; Muller, U.; Mihara, S.; Nagai, K.; Nakamura, I.; Neal, H.A.; Nellen, B.; Nisius, R.; O'Neale, S.W.; Oakham, F.G.; Odorici, F.; Ogren, H.O.; Oh, A.; Oldershaw, N.J.; Oreglia, M.J.; Orito, S.; Palinkas, J.; Pasztor, G.; Pater, J.R.; Patrick, G.N.; Patt, J.; Pearce, M.J.; Perez-Ochoa, R.; Petzold, S.; Pfeifenschneider, P.; Pilcher, J.E.; Pinfold, J.; Plane, David E.; Poffenberger, P.; Poli, B.; Posthaus, A.; Rees, D.L.; Rigby, D.; Robertson, S.; Robins, S.A.; Rodning, N.; Roney, J.M.; Rooke, A.; Ros, E.; Rossi, A.M.; Routenburg, P.; Rozen, Y.; Runge, K.; Runolfsson, O.; Ruppel, U.; Rust, D.R.; Rylko, R.; Sachs, K.; Saeki, T.; Sarkisian, E.K.G.; Sbarra, C.; Schaile, A.D.; Schaile, O.; Scharf, F.; Scharff-Hansen, P.; Schenk, P.; Schieck, J.; Schleper, P.; Schmitt, B.; Schmitt, S.; Schoning, A.; Schroder, Matthias; Schultz-Coulon, H.C.; Schumacher, M.; Schwick, C.; Scott, W.G.; Shears, T.G.; Shen, B.C.; Shepherd-Themistocleous, C.H.; Sherwood, P.; Siroli, G.P.; Sittler, A.; Skillman, A.; Skuja, A.; Smith, A.M.; Snow, G.A.; Sobie, R.; Soldner-Rembold, S.; Springer, Robert Wayne; Sproston, M.; Stephens, K.; Steuerer, J.; Stockhausen, B.; Stoll, K.; Strom, David M.; Szymanski, P.; Tafirout, R.; Talbot, S.D.; Tanaka, S.; Taras, P.; Tarem, S.; Teuscher, R.; Thiergen, M.; Thomson, M.A.; von Torne, E.; Towers, S.; Trigger, I.; Trocsanyi, Z.; Tsur, E.; Turcot, A.S.; Turner-Watson, M.F.; Utzat, P.; Van Kooten, Rick J.; Verzocchi, M.; Vikas, P.; Vokurka, E.H.; Voss, H.; Wackerle, F.; Wagner, A.; Ward, C.P.; Ward, D.R.; Watkins, P.M.; Watson, A.T.; Watson, N.K.; Wells, P.S.; Wermes, N.; White, J.S.; Wilkens, B.; Wilson, G.W.; Wilson, J.A.; Wolf, G.; Wyatt, T.R.; Yamashita, S.; Yekutieli, G.; Zacek, V.; Zer-Zion, D.

    1997-01-01

    New measurements are presented of the photon structure function F_2^gamma(Q) at four values of Q^2 between 9 and 59 GeV/c^2 based on data collected with the OPAL detector at centre-of-mass energies of 161-172 GeV, with a total integrated luminosity of 18.1 pb^-1. The evolution of F_2^gamma with Q^2 in bins of x is determined in the Q^2 range from 1.86 to 135 GeV/c^2 using data taken at centre-of-mass energies of 91 GeV and 161-172 GeV. F_2^gamma is observed to increase with Q^2 with a slope of 1/alpha_em dF_2^gamma/dln(Q^2) = 0.10 +0.05 -0.03 measured in the range 0.1 < x < 0.6.

  20. Determination of distribution function of refraction index and anion diffusion depth in porous alumina photonic crystals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Kaviani

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available   Band structure of porous alumina photonic crystal in the Γ X direction was calculated using order-N method . In a comparison of calculated results with experimental data of reflective and absorptive index, the variation of refractive index of alumina in the external region of oxide layer, around the pores were studied. A Gaussian distribution function was adopted for phosphate anions in the external oxide layer and the variation of refractive index and diffusion depth were determined. The structure of the first four bands was calculated using the obtained distribution of refractive index in the external oxide layer for both TE and TM mode. This results show a narrow full band gap in the TM mode.

  1. Measurement of the Photon Structure Function at High $Q^{2}$ at LEP

    CERN Document Server

    Acciarri, M.; Adriani, O.; Aguilar-Benitez, M.; Alcaraz, J.; Alemanni, G.; Allaby, J.; Aloisio, A.; Alviggi, M.G.; Ambrosi, G.; Anderhub, H.; Andreev, Valery P.; Angelescu, T.; Anselmo, F.; Arefev, A.; Azemoon, T.; Aziz, T.; Bagnaia, P.; Bajo, A.; Baksay, L.; Balandras, A.; Banerjee, S.; Banerjee, Sw.; Barczyk, A.; Barillere, R.; Barone, L.; Bartalini, P.; Basile, M.; Battiston, R.; Bay, A.; Becattini, F.; Becker, U.; Behner, F.; Bellucci, L.; Berbeco, R.; Berdugo, J.; Berges, P.; Bertucci, B.; Betev, B.L.; Bhattacharya, S.; Biasini, M.; Biland, A.; Blaising, J.J.; Blyth, S.C.; Bobbink, G.J.; Bohm, A.; Boldizsar, L.; Borgia, B.; Bourilkov, D.; Bourquin, M.; Braccini, S.; Branson, J.G.; Brigljevic, V.; Brochu, F.; Buffini, A.; Buijs, A.; Burger, J.D.; Burger, W.J.; Cai, X.D.; Campanelli, Mario; Capell, M.; Cara Romeo, G.; Carlino, G.; Cartacci, A.M.; Casaus, J.; Castellini, G.; Cavallari, F.; Cavallo, N.; Cecchi, C.; Cerrada, M.; Cesaroni, F.; Chamizo, M.; Chang, Y.H.; Chaturvedi, U.K.; Chemarin, M.; Chen, A.; Chen, G.; Chen, G.M.; Chen, H.F.; Chen, H.S.; Chiefari, G.; Cifarelli, L.; Cindolo, F.; Civinini, C.; Clare, I.; Clare, R.; Coignet, G.; Colijn, A.P.; Colino, N.; Costantini, S.; Cotorobai, F.; Cozzoni, B.; de la Cruz, B.; Csilling, A.; Cucciarelli, S.; Dai, T.S.; van Dalen, J.A.; D'Alessandro, R.; de Asmundis, R.; Deglon, P.; Degre, A.; Deiters, K.; della Volpe, D.; Denes, P.; DeNotaristefani, F.; De Salvo, A.; Diemoz, M.; van Dierendonck, D.; Di Lodovico, F.; Dionisi, C.; Dittmar, M.; Dominguez, A.; Doria, A.; Dova, M.T.; Duchesneau, D.; Dufournaud, D.; Duinker, P.; Duran, I.; El Mamouni, H.; Engler, A.; Eppling, F.J.; Erne, F.C.; Extermann, P.; Fabre, M.; Faccini, R.; Falagan, M.A.; Falciano, S.; Favara, A.; Fay, J.; Fedin, O.; Felcini, M.; Ferguson, T.; Ferroni, F.; Fesefeldt, H.; Fiandrini, E.; Field, J.H.; Filthaut, F.; Fisher, P.H.; Fisk, I.; Forconi, G.; Fredj, L.; Freudenreich, K.; Furetta, C.; Galaktionov, Iouri; Ganguli, S.N.; Garcia-Abia, Pablo; Gataullin, M.; Gau, S.S.; Gentile, S.; Gheordanescu, N.; Giagu, S.; Gong, Z.F.; Grenier, Gerald Jean; Grimm, O.; Gruenewald, M.W.; Guida, M.; van Gulik, R.; Gupta, V.K.; Gurtu, A.; Gutay, L.J.; Haas, D.; Hasan, A.; Hatzifotiadou, D.; Hebbeker, T.; Herve, Alain; Hidas, P.; Hirschfelder, J.; Hofer, H.; Holzner, G.; Hoorani, H.; Hou, S.R.; Hu, Y.; Iashvili, I.; Jin, B.N.; Jones, Lawrence W.; de Jong, P.; Josa-Mutuberria, I.; Khan, R.A.; Kaur, M.; Kienzle-Focacci, M.N.; Kim, D.; Kim, J.K.; Kirkby, Jasper; Kiss, D.; Kittel, W.; Klimentov, A.; Konig, A.C.; Kopp, A.; Koutsenko, V.; Kraber, M.; Kraemer, R.W.; Krenz, W.; Kruger, A.; Kunin, A.; Ladron de Guevara, P.; Laktineh, I.; Landi, G.; Lassila-Perini, K.; Lebeau, M.; Lebedev, A.; Lebrun, P.; Lecomte, P.; Lecoq, P.; Le Coultre, P.; Lee, H.J.; Le Goff, J.M.; Leiste, R.; Leonardi, Emanuele; Levtchenko, P.; Li, C.; Likhoded, S.; Lin, C.H.; Lin, W.T.; Linde, F.L.; Lista, L.; Liu, Z.A.; Lohmann, W.; Longo, E.; Lu, Y.S.; Lubelsmeyer, K.; Luci, C.; Luckey, David; Lugnier, L.; Luminari, L.; Lustermann, W.; Ma, W.G.; Maity, M.; Malgeri, L.; Malinin, A.; Mana, C.; Mangeol, D.; Mans, J.; Marchesini, P.; Marian, G.; Martin, J.P.; Marzano, F.; Massaro, G.G.G.; Mazumdar, K.; McNeil, R.R.; Mele, S.; Merola, L.; Meschini, M.; Metzger, W.J.; von der Mey, M.; Mihul, A.; Milcent, H.; Mirabelli, G.; Mnich, J.; Mohanty, G.B.; Molnar, P.; Monteleoni, B.; Moulik, T.; Muanza, G.S.; Muheim, F.; Muijs, A.J.M.; Musy, M.; Napolitano, M.; Nessi-Tedaldi, F.; Newman, H.; Niessen, T.; Nisati, A.; Kluge, Hannelies; Organtini, G.; Oulianov, A.; Palomares, C.; Pandoulas, D.; Paoletti, S.; Paolucci, P.; Paramatti, R.; Park, H.K.; Park, I.H.; Pascale, G.; Passaleva, G.; Patricelli, S.; Paul, Thomas Cantzon; Pauluzzi, M.; Paus, C.; Pauss, F.; Pedace, M.; Pensotti, S.; Perret-Gallix, D.; Petersen, B.; Piccolo, D.; Pierella, F.; Pieri, M.; Piroue, P.A.; Pistolesi, E.; Plyaskin, V.; Pohl, M.; Pojidaev, V.; Postema, H.; Pothier, J.; Produit, N.; Prokofev, D.O.; Prokofev, D.; Quartieri, J.; Rahal-Callot, G.; Rahaman, M.A.; Raics, P.; Raja, N.; Ramelli, R.; Rancoita, P.G.; Raspereza, A.; Raven, G.; Razis, P.; Ren, D.; Rescigno, M.; Reucroft, S.; van Rhee, T.; Riemann, S.; Riles, Keith; Robohm, A.; Rodin, J.; Roe, B.P.; Romero, L.; Rosca, A.; Rosier-Lees, S.; Rubio, J.A.; Ruschmeier, D.; Rykaczewski, H.; Saremi, S.; Sarkar, S.; Salicio, J.; Sanchez, E.; Sanders, M.P.; Sarakinos, M.E.; Schafer, C.; Schegelsky, V.; Schmidt-Kaerst, S.; Schmitz, D.; Schopper, H.; Schotanus, D.J.; Schwering, G.; Sciacca, C.; Sciarrino, D.; Seganti, A.; Servoli, L.; Shevchenko, S.; Shivarov, N.; Shoutko, V.; Shumilov, E.; Shvorob, A.; Siedenburg, T.; Son, D.; Smith, B.; Spillantini, P.; Steuer, M.; Stickland, D.P.; Stone, A.; Stoyanov, B.; Straessner, A.; Sudhakar, K.; Sultanov, G.; Sun, L.Z.; Suter, H.; Swain, J.D.; Szillasi, Z.; Sztaricskai, T.; Tang, X.W.; Tauscher, L.; Taylor, L.; Tellili, B.; Timmermans, Charles; Ting, Samuel C.C.; Ting, S.M.; Tonwar, S.C.; Toth, J.; Tully, C.; Tung, K.L.; Uchida, Y.; Ulbricht, J.; Valente, E.; Vesztergombi, G.; Vetlitsky, I.; Vicinanza, D.; Viertel, G.; Villa, S.; Vivargent, M.; Vlachos, S.; Vodopianov, I.; Vogel, H.; Vogt, H.; Vorobev, I.; Vorobov, A.A.; Vorvolakos, A.; Wadhwa, M.; Wallraff, W.; Wang, M.; Wang, X.L.; Wang, Z.M.; Weber, A.; Weber, M.; Wienemann, P.; Wilkens, H.; Wu, S.X.; Wynhoff, S.; Xia, L.; Xu, Z.Z.; Yamamoto, J.; Yang, B.Z.; Yang, C.G.; Yang, H.J.; Yang, M.; Ye, J.B.; Yeh, S.C.; Zalite, A.; Zalite, Yu.; Zhang, Z.P.; Zhu, G.Y.; Zhu, R.Y.; Zichichi, A.; Zilizi, G.; Zoller, M.

    2000-01-01

    The structure functions of real and virtual photons are derivedfrom cross section measurements of the reaction$\\rm e^+e^-\\rightarrow e^+e^- + \\hbox{hadrons}$ at LEP.The reaction is studied at $\\sqrt{\\rm {s}} \\simeq 91$ GeV with the L3detector. One of the final state electrons is detected at a large angle relative to the beam direction, leading to $Q^2$ values between40 GeV$^2$ and 500 GeV$^2$.The other final state electron is either undetected or it is detected ata four-momentum transfer squared $P^2$ between 1 GeV$^2$ and 8 GeV$^2$.These measurements are compared with predictions of the Quark PartonModel and other QCD based models.

  2. Optimization of two-photon wave function in parametric down conversion by adaptive optics control of the pump radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minozzi, M; Bonora, S; Sergienko, A V; Vallone, G; Villoresi, P

    2013-02-15

    We present an efficient method for optimizing the spatial profile of entangled-photon wave function produced in a spontaneous parametric down conversion process. A deformable mirror that modifies a wavefront of a 404 nm CW diode laser pump interacting with a nonlinear β-barium borate type-I crystal effectively controls the profile of the joint biphoton function. The use of a feedback signal extracted from the biphoton coincidence rate is used to achieve the optimal wavefront shape. The optimization of the two-photon coupling into two, single spatial modes for correlated detection is used for a practical demonstration of this physical principle.

  3. Advantages of crystallographic fragment screening: functional and mechanistic insights from a powerful platform for efficient drug discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Disha; Bauman, Joseph D; Arnold, Eddy

    2014-01-01

    X-ray crystallography has been an under-appreciated screening tool for fragment-based drug discovery due to the perception of low throughput and technical difficulty. Investigators in industry and academia have overcome these challenges by taking advantage of key factors that contribute to a successful crystallographic screening campaign. Efficient cocktail design and soaking methodologies have evolved to maximize throughput while minimizing false positives/negatives. In addition, technical improvements at synchrotron beamlines have dramatically increased data collection rates thus enabling screening on a timescale comparable to other techniques. The combination of available resources and efficient experimental design has resulted in many successful crystallographic screening campaigns. The three-dimensional crystal structure of the bound fragment complexed to its target, a direct result of the screening effort, enables structure-based drug design while revealing insights regarding protein dynamics and function not readily obtained through other experimental approaches. Furthermore, this "chemical interrogation" of the target protein crystals can lead to the identification of useful reagents for improving diffraction resolution or compound solubility. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  4. Advantages of Crystallographic Fragment Screening: Functional and Mechanistic Insights from a Powerful Platform for Efficient Drug Discovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Disha; Bauman, Joseph D.; Arnold, Eddy

    2015-01-01

    X-ray crystallography has been an under-appreciated screening tool for fragment-based drug discovery due to the perception of low throughput and technical difficulty. Investigators in industry and academia have overcome these challenges by taking advantage of key factors that contribute to a successful crystallographic screening campaign. Efficient cocktail design and soaking methodologies have evolved to maximize throughput while minimizing false positives/negatives. In addition, technical improvements at synchrotron beamlines have dramatically increased data collection rates thus enabling screening on a timescale comparable to other techniques. The combination of available resources and efficient experimental design has resulted in many successful crystallographic screening campaigns. The three-dimensional crystal structure of the bound fragment complexed to its target, a direct result of the screening effort, enables structure-based drug design while revealing insights regarding protein dynamics and function not readily obtained through other experimental approaches. Furthermore, this “chemical interrogation” of the target protein crystals can lead to the identification of useful reagents for improving diffraction resolution or compound solubility. PMID:25117499

  5. Functional improvement of antibody fragments using a novel phage coat protein III fusion system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kim Bak; Larsen, Martin; Pedersen, Jesper Søndergaard

    2002-01-01

    Functional expressions of proteins often depend on the presence of host specific factors. Frequently recombinant expression strategies of proteins in foreign hosts, such as bacteria, have been associated with poor yields or significant loss of functionality. Improvements in the performance of het......(s) of the filamentous phage coat protein III. Furthermore, it will be shown that the observed effect is neither due to improved stability nor increased avidity....

  6. Matrix intensification alters avian functional group composition in adjacent rainforest fragments.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justus P Deikumah

    Full Text Available Conversion of farmland land-use matrices to surface mining is an increasing threat to the habitat quality of forest remnants and their constituent biota, with consequences for ecosystem functionality. We evaluated the effects of matrix type on bird community composition and the abundance and evenness within avian functional groups in south-west Ghana. We hypothesized that surface mining near remnants may result in a shift in functional composition of avifaunal communities, potentially disrupting ecological processes within tropical forest ecosystems. Matrix intensification and proximity to the remnant edge strongly influenced the abundance of members of several functional guilds. Obligate frugivores, strict terrestrial insectivores, lower and upper strata birds, and insect gleaners were most negatively affected by adjacent mining matrices, suggesting certain ecosystem processes such as seed dispersal may be disrupted by landscape change in this region. Evenness of these functional guilds was also lower in remnants adjacent to surface mining, regardless of the distance from remnant edge, with the exception of strict terrestrial insectivores. These shifts suggest matrix intensification can influence avian functional group composition and related ecosystem-level processes in adjacent forest remnants. The management of matrix habitat quality near and within mine concessions is important for improving efforts to preserveavian biodiversity in landscapes undergoing intensification such as through increased surface mining.

  7. Jet fragmentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saxon, D.H.

    1985-10-01

    The paper reviews studies on jet fragmentation. The subject is discussed under the topic headings: fragmentation models, charged particle multiplicity, bose-einstein correlations, identified hadrons in jets, heavy quark fragmentation, baryon production, gluon and quark jets compared, the string effect, and two successful models. (U.K.)

  8. Immobilization and functional reconstitution of antibody Fab fragment by solid-phase refolding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumada, Yoichi; Hamasaki, Kyoto; Nakagawa, Aya; Sasaki, Eiju; Shirai, Tatsunori; Okumura, Masahiro; Inoue, Manami; Kishimoto, Michimasa

    2013-12-31

    In this study, we demonstrated the successful preparation of a Fab antibody-immobilized hydrophilic polystyrene (phi-PS) plate via one- and two-step solid-phase refolding methods. Both polystyrene-binding peptide (PS-tag)-fused Fd fragment of heavy chain (Fab H-PS) and full-length of light-chain (Fab L-PS) were individually produced in insoluble fractions of Escherichia coli cells, and they were highly purified in the presence of 8M of urea. Antigen-binding activities of Fab antibody immobilized were correctly recovered by the one-step solid-phase refolding method that a mixture of Fab H-PS and Fab L-PS was immobilized in the presence of 0.5-2M urea, followed by surface washing of the phi-PS plate with PBST. These results indicate that by genetic fusion of a PS-tag, a complex between Fab H and Fab L was efficiently immobilized on the surface of a phi-PS plate even in the presence of a low concentration of urea, and was then correctly refolded to retain its high antigen-binding activity via removal of the urea. A two-step solid-phase refolding method whereby Fab H-PS and Fab L-PS were successively refolded on the surface of a phi-PS plate also resulted in Fab antibody formation on the plate. Furthermore, both the binding affinity and the specificity of the Fab antibody produced by the two-step method were highly maintained, according to the results of sandwich ELISA and competitive ELISA using Fab antibody-immobilized plate via two-step solid-phase refolding. Thus, the solid-phase refolding method demonstrated in this study should be quite useful for the preparation of a Fab antibody-immobilized PS surface with high efficiency from individually produced Fab H-PS and Fab L-PS. This method will be applicable to the preparation of a large Fab antibody library on the surface of a PS plate for use in antibody screening. © 2013. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Linking Neurons to Network Function and Behavior by Two-Photon Holographic Optogenetics and Volumetric Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dal Maschio, Marco; Donovan, Joseph C; Helmbrecht, Thomas O; Baier, Herwig

    2017-05-17

    We introduce a flexible method for high-resolution interrogation of circuit function, which combines simultaneous 3D two-photon stimulation of multiple targeted neurons, volumetric functional imaging, and quantitative behavioral tracking. This integrated approach was applied to dissect how an ensemble of premotor neurons in the larval zebrafish brain drives a basic motor program, the bending of the tail. We developed an iterative photostimulation strategy to identify minimal subsets of channelrhodopsin (ChR2)-expressing neurons that are sufficient to initiate tail movements. At the same time, the induced network activity was recorded by multiplane GCaMP6 imaging across the brain. From this dataset, we computationally identified activity patterns associated with distinct components of the elicited behavior and characterized the contributions of individual neurons. Using photoactivatable GFP (paGFP), we extended our protocol to visualize single functionally identified neurons and reconstruct their morphologies. Together, this toolkit enables linking behavior to circuit activity with unprecedented resolution. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Photoproduction of multiparticle states in the beam fragmentation region for photon energies in the range 50-70 GeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atkinson, M.; Davenport, M.; Flower, P.; Hutton, J.S.; Kemp, M.A.R.; Kumar, B.R.; Morris, J.A.G.; Sharp, P.H.; Brodbeck, T.J.; Clegg, A.B.; Flynn, P.J.; Henderson, R.C.W.; Newton, D.; Bussey, P.J.; Dainton, B.; Paterson, C.; Raine, C.; Skillicorn, I.O.; Smith, K.M.; Diekmann, B.; Heinloth, K.; Jakob, H.P.; Jung, M.; Liebenau, V.; Paul, E.; Reidenbach, M.; Rotscheidt, H.; Schlosser, A.; Brookes, G.R.; Bunn, J.J.; Galbraith, W.; McClatchey, R.H.; Laberrigue, J.; Levy, J.M.; Vaissiere, C. de la; Yiou, T.P.

    1984-01-01

    Forward production of hadrons in γp interactions at about 11 GeV. Centre of mass energy has been analysed in terms of single particle spectra. Comparisons with K + p and K - p data and with deep inelastic scattering data at similar energies confirms the universality of global properties. As the minimum psub(T) 2 is increased the data show features which are consistent with a 2-jet structure in the beam fragmentation region. A small subsample of these events is consistent with a special topology in which a jet is replaced by a single high-psub(T) pion. (orig.)

  11. Functionalization of vertically aligned carbon nanotubes with polystyrene via surface initiated reversible addition fragmentation chain transfer polymerization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Macdonald, Thomas; Gibson, Christopher T.; Constantopoulos, Kristina; Shapter, Joseph G. [Flinders Centre for Nanoscale Science and Technology, School of Chemical and Physical Sciences, Flinders University, GPO Box 2100, Adelaide, SA, 5001 (Australia); Ellis, Amanda V., E-mail: amanda.ellis@flinders.edu.au [Flinders Centre for Nanoscale Science and Technology, School of Chemical and Physical Sciences, Flinders University, GPO Box 2100, Adelaide, SA, 5001 (Australia)

    2012-01-15

    Here we demonstrate the covalent attachment of vertically aligned (VA) acid treated single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) onto a silicon substrate via dicyclohexylcarbodiimide (DCC) coupling chemistry. Subsequently, the pendant carboxyl moieties on the sidewalls of the VA-SWCNTs were derivatized to acyl chlorides, and then finally to bis(dithioester) moieties using a magnesium chloride dithiobenzoate salt. The bis(dithioester) moieties were then successfully shown to act as a chain transfer agent (CTA) in the reversible addition fragmentation chain transfer (RAFT) polymerization of styrene in a surface initiated 'grafting-from' process from the VA-SWCNT surface. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) verified vertical alignment of the SWCNTs and the maintenance thereof throughout the synthesis process. Finally, Raman scattering spectroscopy and AFM confirmed polystyrene functionalization.

  12. Functionalization of vertically aligned carbon nanotubes with polystyrene via surface initiated reversible addition fragmentation chain transfer polymerization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Macdonald, Thomas; Gibson, Christopher T.; Constantopoulos, Kristina; Shapter, Joseph G.; Ellis, Amanda V.

    2012-01-01

    Here we demonstrate the covalent attachment of vertically aligned (VA) acid treated single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) onto a silicon substrate via dicyclohexylcarbodiimide (DCC) coupling chemistry. Subsequently, the pendant carboxyl moieties on the sidewalls of the VA-SWCNTs were derivatized to acyl chlorides, and then finally to bis(dithioester) moieties using a magnesium chloride dithiobenzoate salt. The bis(dithioester) moieties were then successfully shown to act as a chain transfer agent (CTA) in the reversible addition fragmentation chain transfer (RAFT) polymerization of styrene in a surface initiated “grafting-from” process from the VA-SWCNT surface. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) verified vertical alignment of the SWCNTs and the maintenance thereof throughout the synthesis process. Finally, Raman scattering spectroscopy and AFM confirmed polystyrene functionalization.

  13. Multi-functional photonic crystal sensors enabled by biological silica (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Alan X.

    2017-02-01

    Diatoms are microalgae found in every habitat where water is present. They produce 40% of the ocean's yearly production of organic carbon and 20% of the oxygen that we breathe. Their abundance and wide distribution make them ideal materials for a wide range of applications as living organisms. In our previous work, we have demonstrated that diatom biosilica with self-assembled silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) can be used as ultra-sensitive, low-cost substrates for surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) sensing. The enhancement comes from the photonic crystal enhancement of diatom frustules that could improve the hot-spots of Ag NPs. In this work, we report the unique micro-fluidic flow, analyte concentration effect, and thin layer chromatography (TLC) on diatom biosilica, which enables selection, separation, detection, and analysis of complex chemical and biological samples. Particularly, we show that the microscopic fluidic flow induced by the evaporation of liquid droplet can concentrate the analyte and achieve label-free sensing of single molecule detection of R6G and label-free sensing of 4.5×10-17g trinitrotoluene (TNT) from only 200 nano-liter solution. We also demonstrated a facile method for instant on-site separation and detection of analytes by TLC in tandem with SERS spectroscopy using high density diatom thin film. This lab-on-chip technology has been successfully applied for label-free detection of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from human plasma and histamine from salmon fish. Our research suggests that such cost-effective, multi-functional photonic crystal sensors enabled by diatom biosilica opens a new route for lab-on-chip systems and possess significant engineering potentials for chemical and biological sensing.

  14. Atomic form factors, incoherent scattering functions, and photon scattering cross sections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hubbell, J.H.; Veigele, W.J.; Briggs, E.A.; Brown, R.T.; Cromer, D.T.; Howerton, R.J.

    1975-01-01

    Tabulations are presented of the atomic form factor, F (α,Z), and the incoherent scattering function, S (x,Z), for values of x (=sin theta/2)/lambda) from 0.005 A -1 to 10 9 A -1 , for all elements A=1 to 100. These tables are constructed from available state-of-the-art theoretical data, including the Pirenne formulas for Z=1, configuration-into action results by Brown using Brown-Fontana and Weiss correlated wavefunctions for Z=2 to 6 non-relativistic Hartree-Fock results by Cromer for Z=7 to 100 and a relativistic K-shell analytic expression for F (x,Z) by Bethe Levinger for x>10 A -1 for all elements Z=2 to 100. These tabulated values are graphically compared with available photon scattering angular distribution measurements. Tables of coherent (Rayleigh) and incoherent (Compton) total scattering cross sections obtained by nummerical integration over combinations of F 2 (x,Z) with the Thomson formula and S (x,Z) with the Klum-Nishina Formual, respectively, are presented for all elements Z=1 to 100, for photon energies 100 eV (lambda=124 A) to 100 MeV (0.000124 A). The incoherent scattering cross sections also include the radiative and double-Compton corrections as given by Mork. Similar tables are presented for the special cases of terminally-bonded hydrogen and for the H 2 molecule, interpolated and extrapolated from values calculated by Stewart et al., and by Bentley and Stewart using Kolos-Roothaan wavefunctions

  15. Fragmentation and reactivity of energy-selected ferrocenium ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mestdagh, H.; Dutuit, O.; Heninger, M.; Thissen, R.; Alcaraz, C.

    2002-01-01

    In this study, results concerning the discussion of state-selected ferrocenium ions (c-C 5 H 5 ) 2 Fe + commonly called Cp 2 Fe + , as well as their reactions with methanol and ethanol are presented. Parent ions Cp 2 Fe + were produced by vacuumultraviolett (VUV) photoionization of neutral ferrocene using synchrotron radiation, and selected in internal energy by threshold photoelectron-photoion coincidences. The apparatus is divided into three differentially pumped regions: the source, the reaction and the detection zones. In source, state-selected parent ions are formed and can be selected in mass by a first quadrupole filter. State-selected ions are then injected in the second zone which is a RF octopole ion guide where reaction product ions are mass analyzed by a second quadrupole filter and detected by microchannelplates. In addition, the long flight time in the octopoles (several hundreds of microseconds) allows studying long-lived metastable ions. Total mass spectra were recorded at different photon energies, in addition to the main CpFe + and Fe + fragments, several minor fragments were detected such as C 10 H 10 + which reflects the formation of a C-C bond between the two Cp ligands. Losses of CH 3 , C 2 H 2 and C-4H 4 also indicate that important structure rearrangements take place before cleavage. The appearance energies of each mass-selected fragment ion were measured by recording fragment ion yields as a function of photon energy. Surprisingly, all fragments were found to have the same energy onset, i.e. 13.2 eV photon energy, except for C 3 H 3 Fe + (m/z 95). For Fe + ions, a sharp increase was observed at 17 eV, above the thermochemical onset of Fe + + 2 Cp. The 13.2 eV appearance energy of Fe + is thus assigned to the formation of Fe - + C 10 H 10 . The reactivity of ferrocenium ion with methanol and ethanol was investigated as a function of photon energy. While no reaction occurs at lower photon energies, several reaction products appear at 13.0 e

  16. Adler-Bardeen Theorem for the Axial Anomaly and the First Moment of the Polarized Virtual Photon Structure Function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ueda, Takahiro; Sasaki, Ken; Uematsu, Tsuneo

    2007-01-01

    The Adler-Bardeen theorem for the axial anomaly is extensively used to calculate the next-to-next-to-leading order (αα s 2 ) corrections to the first moment of the polarized virtual photon structure function g 1 γ (x,P 2 ,Q 2 )

  17. Measurement of jet fragmentation functions and of their moments in $pp$ collisions at $\\sqrt{s}=2.76$ TeV with ALICE at the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2074876; Kabana, Sonja; Shabetai, Alexandre; Zhou, Daicui

    A cross-over between ordinary nuclear matter and a state of de-confined quarks and gluons, the Quark Gluon Plasma (QGP), is predicted by lattice QCD calculations at low chemical potential and high temperature in the nuclear phase diagram. Experimentally, ultra-relativistic heavy ion collisions are used to produce and study the hot and dense QGP medium. Produced in a hard scattering at the early stage of the collision a highly energetic parton is first expected to lose energy in the medium before fragmenting into a hadronic spray of particles called jet. A detailed study of the modification of the jet structure and of its fragmentation pattern in vacuum and in medium should provide insights into the QGP properties. The jet fragmentation functions describe the momentum distribution of hadrons inside a reconstructed jet. In proton-proton ($pp$) collisions their measurement is important for understanding the mechanisms of parton fragmentation. Such measurements also provide a test of perturbative Quantum Chro...

  18. Integral particle reflection coefficient for oblique incidence of photons as universal function in the domain of initial energies up to 300 keV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ljubenov Vladan L.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we present the results of calculations and analyses of the integral particle reflection coefficient of photons for oblique photon incidence on planar targets, in the domain of initial photon energies from 100 keV to 300 keV. The results are based on the Monte Carlo simulations of the photon reflection from water, concrete, aluminum, iron, and copper materials, performed by the MCNP code. It has been observed that the integral particle reflection coefficient as a function of the ratio of total cross-section of photons and effective atomic number of target material shows universal behavior for all the analyzed shielding materials in the selected energy domain. Analytical formulas for different angles of photon incidence have been proposed, which describe the reflection of photons for all the materials and energies analyzed.

  19. Dual-function photonic integrated circuit for frequency octo-tupling or single-side-band modulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasan, Mehedi; Maldonado-Basilio, Ramón; Hall, Trevor J

    2015-06-01

    A dual-function photonic integrated circuit for microwave photonic applications is proposed. The circuit consists of four linear electro-optic phase modulators connected optically in parallel within a generalized Mach-Zehnder interferometer architecture. The photonic circuit is arranged to have two separate output ports. A first port provides frequency up-conversion of a microwave signal from the electrical to the optical domain; equivalently single-side-band modulation. A second port provides tunable millimeter wave carriers by frequency octo-tupling of an appropriate amplitude RF carrier. The circuit exploits the intrinsic relative phases between the ports of multi-mode interference couplers to provide substantially all the static optical phases needed. The operation of the proposed dual-function photonic integrated circuit is verified by computer simulations. The performance of the frequency octo-tupling and up-conversion functions is analyzed in terms of the electrical signal to harmonic distortion ratio and the optical single side band to unwanted harmonics ratio, respectively.

  20. Using Variable-Length Aligned Fragment Pairs and an Improved Transition Function for Flexible Protein Structure Alignment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Hu; Lu, Yonggang

    2017-01-01

    With the rapid growth of known protein 3D structures in number, how to efficiently compare protein structures becomes an essential and challenging problem in computational structural biology. At present, many protein structure alignment methods have been developed. Among all these methods, flexible structure alignment methods are shown to be superior to rigid structure alignment methods in identifying structure similarities between proteins, which have gone through conformational changes. It is also found that the methods based on aligned fragment pairs (AFPs) have a special advantage over other approaches in balancing global structure similarities and local structure similarities. Accordingly, we propose a new flexible protein structure alignment method based on variable-length AFPs. Compared with other methods, the proposed method possesses three main advantages. First, it is based on variable-length AFPs. The length of each AFP is separately determined to maximally represent a local similar structure fragment, which reduces the number of AFPs. Second, it uses local coordinate systems, which simplify the computation at each step of the expansion of AFPs during the AFP identification. Third, it decreases the number of twists by rewarding the situation where nonconsecutive AFPs share the same transformation in the alignment, which is realized by dynamic programming with an improved transition function. The experimental data show that compared with FlexProt, FATCAT, and FlexSnap, the proposed method can achieve comparable results by introducing fewer twists. Meanwhile, it can generate results similar to those of the FATCAT method in much less running time due to the reduced number of AFPs.

  1. Overview of experimental progress on understanding photon strength functions with an emphasis of the Oslo method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krticka, Milan

    2015-10-01

    The so-called Photon Strength Functions (PSFs) for different multipolarities are, together with the Nuclear Level Density (NLD) the key entities describing the statistical γ-decay of nucleus. It is well known that PSFs at energies above the threshold for particle emission are well described by the Lorentzian shape of the Giant Electric Dipole Resonance (GEDR). On the other hand, shapes of RSFs at the low-energy tail of GEDR are known rather poorly. Information on the PSFs at the GEDR tail can be obtained from several different experimental techniques. They will be summarized and the most important ones briefly introduced in this contribution. Special emphasis will be put on the so-called Oslo method which allows simultaneous extraction of the NLD and the PSFs from particle- γ coincidence measurements. This method has been used for determining the NLD and the PSFs in many nuclei in A ~ 45- 240 range during past years. Examples of the most interesting results obtained with this method will be shown. The results will be compared to information on the PSFs available from other experimental techniques. The strengths and the weaknesses of the method will be thoroughly discussed.

  2. Investigation of photon detection probability dependence of SPADnet-I digital photon counter as a function of angle of incidence, wavelength and polarization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Játékos, Balázs, E-mail: jatekosb@eik.bme.hu; Ujhelyi, Ferenc; Lőrincz, Emőke; Erdei, Gábor

    2015-01-01

    SPADnet-I is a prototype, fully digital, high spatial and temporal resolution silicon photon counter, based on standard CMOS imaging technology, developed by the SPADnet consortium. Being a novel device, the exact dependence of photon detection probability (PDP) of SPADnet-I was not known as a function of angle of incidence, wavelength and polarization of the incident light. Our targeted application area of this sensor is next generation PET detector modules, where they will be used along with LYSO:Ce scintillators. Hence, we performed an extended investigation of PDP in a wide range of angle of incidence (0° to 80°), concentrating onto a 60 nm broad wavelength interval around the characteristic emission peak (λ=420 nm) of the scintillator. In the case where the sensor was optically coupled to a scintillator, our experiments showed a notable dependence of PDP on angle, polarization and wavelength. The sensor has an average PDP of approximately 30% from 0° to 60° angle of incidence, where it starts to drop rapidly. The PDP turned out not to be polarization dependent below 30°. If the sensor is used without a scintillator (i.e. the light source is in air), the polarization dependence is much less expressed, it begins only from 50°.

  3. Singular value decomposition for photon-processing nuclear imaging systems and applications for reconstruction and computing null functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jha, Abhinav K.; Barrett, Harrison H.; Frey, Eric C.; Clarkson, Eric; Caucci, Luca; Kupinski, Matthew A.

    2015-09-01

    Recent advances in technology are enabling a new class of nuclear imaging systems consisting of detectors that use real-time maximum-likelihood (ML) methods to estimate the interaction position, deposited energy, and other attributes of each photon-interaction event and store these attributes in a list format. This class of systems, which we refer to as photon-processing (PP) nuclear imaging systems, can be described by a fundamentally different mathematical imaging operator that allows processing of the continuous-valued photon attributes on a per-photon basis. Unlike conventional photon-counting (PC) systems that bin the data into images, PP systems do not have any binning-related information loss. Mathematically, while PC systems have an infinite-dimensional null space due to dimensionality considerations, PP systems do not necessarily suffer from this issue. Therefore, PP systems have the potential to provide improved performance in comparison to PC systems. To study these advantages, we propose a framework to perform the singular-value decomposition (SVD) of the PP imaging operator. We use this framework to perform the SVD of operators that describe a general two-dimensional (2D) planar linear shift-invariant (LSIV) PP system and a hypothetical continuously rotating 2D single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) PP system. We then discuss two applications of the SVD framework. The first application is to decompose the object being imaged by the PP imaging system into measurement and null components. We compare these components to the measurement and null components obtained with PC systems. In the process, we also present a procedure to compute the null functions for a PC system. The second application is designing analytical reconstruction algorithms for PP systems. The proposed analytical approach exploits the fact that PP systems acquire data in a continuous domain to estimate a continuous object function. The approach is parallelizable and

  4. Singular value decomposition for photon-processing nuclear imaging systems and applications for reconstruction and computing null functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jha, Abhinav K; Barrett, Harrison H; Frey, Eric C; Clarkson, Eric; Caucci, Luca; Kupinski, Matthew A

    2015-09-21

    Recent advances in technology are enabling a new class of nuclear imaging systems consisting of detectors that use real-time maximum-likelihood (ML) methods to estimate the interaction position, deposited energy, and other attributes of each photon-interaction event and store these attributes in a list format. This class of systems, which we refer to as photon-processing (PP) nuclear imaging systems, can be described by a fundamentally different mathematical imaging operator that allows processing of the continuous-valued photon attributes on a per-photon basis. Unlike conventional photon-counting (PC) systems that bin the data into images, PP systems do not have any binning-related information loss. Mathematically, while PC systems have an infinite-dimensional null space due to dimensionality considerations, PP systems do not necessarily suffer from this issue. Therefore, PP systems have the potential to provide improved performance in comparison to PC systems. To study these advantages, we propose a framework to perform the singular-value decomposition (SVD) of the PP imaging operator. We use this framework to perform the SVD of operators that describe a general two-dimensional (2D) planar linear shift-invariant (LSIV) PP system and a hypothetical continuously rotating 2D single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) PP system. We then discuss two applications of the SVD framework. The first application is to decompose the object being imaged by the PP imaging system into measurement and null components. We compare these components to the measurement and null components obtained with PC systems. In the process, we also present a procedure to compute the null functions for a PC system. The second application is designing analytical reconstruction algorithms for PP systems. The proposed analytical approach exploits the fact that PP systems acquire data in a continuous domain to estimate a continuous object function. The approach is parallelizable and

  5. Nuclear fragmentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, K.C.

    1989-01-01

    An introduction to nuclear fragmentation, with emphasis in percolation ideas, is presented. The main theoretical models are discussed and as an application, the uniform expansion approximation is presented and the statistical multifragmentation model is used to calculate the fragment energy spectra. (L.C.)

  6. Domino reactions initiated by intramolecular hydride transfers from tri(di)arylmethane fragments to ketenimine and carbodiimide functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alajarin, Mateo; Bonillo, Baltasar; Ortin, Maria-Mar; Sanchez-Andrada, Pilar; Vidal, Angel; Orenes, Raul-Angel

    2010-10-21

    The ability of triarylmethane and diarylmethane fragments to behave as hydride donors participating in thermal [1,5]-H shift/6π-ERC tandem processes involving ketenimine and carbodiimide functions is disclosed. C-Alkyl-C-phenyl ketenimines N-substituted by a triarylmethane substructure convert into a variety of 3,3,4,4-tetrasubstituted-3,4-dihydroquinolines, as structurally related carbodiimides transform into 3,4,4-trisubstituted-3,4-dihydroquinazolines via transient ortho-azaxylylenes. The first step of these one-pot conversions, the [1,5]-H shift, is considered to be a hydride migration on the basis of the known hydricity of the tri(di)arylmethane fragment and the electrophilicity of the central heterocumulenic carbon atom, whereas the final electrocyclization involves the formation of a sterically congested C-C or C-N bond. In the cases of C,C-diphenyl substituted triarylmethane-ketenimines the usual 6π-ERC becomes prohibited by the presence of two phenyl rings at each end of the azatrienic system. This situation opens new reaction channels: (a) following the initial hydride shift, the tandem sequence continues with an alternative electrocyclization mode to give 9,10-dihydroacridines, (b) the full sequence is initiated by a rare 1,5 migration of an electron-rich aryl group, followed by a 6π-ERC which leads to 2-aryl-3,4-dihydroquinolines, or (c) a different [1,5]-H shift/6π-ERC sequence involving the initial migration of a hydrogen atom from a methyl group at the ortho position to the nitrogen atom of the ketenimine function. Diarylmethane-ketenimines bearing a methyl group at the benzylic carbon atom experience a tandem double [1,5]-H shift, the first one being the usual benzylic hydride transfer whereas the second one involves the methyl group at the initial benzylic carbon atom, the reaction products being 2-aminostyrenes. Diarylmethane-ketenimines lacking such a methyl group convert into 3,4-dihydroquinolines by the habitual tandem [1,5]-H shift/6

  7. Multiply excited molecules produced by photon and electron interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Odagiri, T.; Kouchi, N.

    2006-01-01

    The photon and electron interactions with molecules resulting in the formation of multiply excited molecules and the subsequent decay are subjects of great interest because the independent electron model and Born-Oppenheimer approximation are much less reliable for the multiply excited states of molecules than for the ground and lower excited electronic states. We have three methods to observe and investigate multiply excited molecules: 1) Measurements of the cross sections for the emission of fluorescence emitted by neutral fragments in the photoexcitation of molecules as a function of incident photon energy [1-3], 2) Measurements of the electron energy-loss spectra tagged with the fluorescence photons emitted by neutral fragments [4], 3) Measurements of the cross sections for generating a pair of photons in absorption of a single photon by a molecule as a function of incident photon energy [5-7]. Multiply excited states degenerate with ionization continua, which make a large contribution in the cross section curve involving ionization processes. The key point of our methods is hence that we measure cross sections free from ionization. The feature of multiply excited states is noticeable in such a cross section curve. Recently we have measured: i) the cross sections for the emission of the Lyman- fluorescence in the photoexcitation of CH 4 as a function of incident photon energy in the range 18-51 eV, ii) the electron energy-loss spectrum of CH 4 tagged with the Lyman-photons at 80 eV incident electron energy and 10 electron scattering angle in the range of the energy loss 20-45 eV, in order to understand the formation and decay of the doubly excited methane in photon and electron interactions. [8] The results are summarized in this paper and the simultaneous excitation of two electrons by electron interaction is compared with that by photon interaction in terms of the oscillator strength. (authors)

  8. Gold nanoparticles functionalized with a fragment of the neural cell adhesion molecule L1 stimulate L1-mediated functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulz, Florian; Lutz, David; Rusche, Norman; Bastús, Neus G.; Stieben, Martin; Höltig, Michael; Grüner, Florian; Weller, Horst; Schachner, Melitta; Vossmeyer, Tobias; Loers, Gabriele

    2013-10-01

    The neural cell adhesion molecule L1 is involved in nervous system development and promotes regeneration in animal models of acute and chronic injury of the adult nervous system. To translate these conducive functions into therapeutic approaches, a 22-mer peptide that encompasses a minimal and functional L1 sequence of the third fibronectin type III domain of murine L1 was identified and conjugated to gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) to obtain constructs that interact homophilically with the extracellular domain of L1 and trigger the cognate beneficial L1-mediated functions. Covalent conjugation was achieved by reacting mixtures of two cysteine-terminated forms of this L1 peptide and thiolated poly(ethylene) glycol (PEG) ligands (~2.1 kDa) with citrate stabilized AuNPs of two different sizes (~14 and 40 nm in diameter). By varying the ratio of the L1 peptide-PEG mixtures, an optimized layer composition was achieved that resulted in the expected homophilic interaction of the AuNPs. These AuNPs were stable as tested over a time period of 30 days in artificial cerebrospinal fluid and interacted with the extracellular domain of L1 on neurons and Schwann cells, as could be shown by using cells from wild-type and L1-deficient mice. In vitro, the L1-derivatized particles promoted neurite outgrowth and survival of neurons from the central and peripheral nervous system and stimulated Schwann cell process formation and proliferation. These observations raise the hope that, in combination with other therapeutic approaches, L1 peptide-functionalized AuNPs may become a useful tool to ameliorate the deficits resulting from acute and chronic injuries of the mammalian nervous system.The neural cell adhesion molecule L1 is involved in nervous system development and promotes regeneration in animal models of acute and chronic injury of the adult nervous system. To translate these conducive functions into therapeutic approaches, a 22-mer peptide that encompasses a minimal and functional L1

  9. Hadron production in photon-photon collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pandita, P.N.; Singh, Y.

    1976-01-01

    We analyze deep-inelastic photon-photon collisions via the two-photon mechanism in electron-positron (-electron) colliding beams in a form especially suitable for experimental analysis. It is shown that by a helicity analysis similar to that used in electroproduction experiments, we can separate five of the eight structure functions describing the process γ* + γ* → hadrons. The helicity cross sections for this process and for the process with one real photon (inelastic electron-photon scattering) are related to structure functions, and are evaluated using quark light-cone algebra. There are anomalous contributions to the structure functions for the inelastic electron-photon scattering which arise both in parton as well as generalized vector-meson-dominance models. This suggests a connection between these two types of models for photon-photon scattering. Further, we use vector-meson dominance to construct a sum rule for sigma/sub gamma//sub gamma/ /sub arrow-right/ from which it is estimated that roughly 20% of the cross section should be built up from higher-mass vector states. Using a spectral representation for the total transverse cross section, and the ''aligned-jet'' vector-dominance model we achieve a connection, via a ''correspondence principle,'' with the parton model for the hadron multiplicities in photon-photon collisions. We also comment on inclusive pion multiplicities and the approach to scaling for photon-photon processes in the light-cone algebra

  10. Assessment of left ventricular function by electrocardiogram-gated myocardial single photon emission computed tomography using quantitative gated single photon emission computed tomography software

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morita, Koichi; Adachi, Itaru; Konno, Masanori

    1999-01-01

    Electrocardiogram (ECG)-gated myocardial single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) can assess left ventricular (LV) perfusion and function easily using quantitative gated SPECT (QGS) software. ECG-gated SPECT was performed in 44 patients with coronary artery disease under post-stress and resting conditions to assess the values of LV functional parameters, by comparison to LV ejection fraction derived from gated blood pool scan and myocardial characteristics. A good correlation was obtained between ejection fraction using QGS and that using cardiac blood pool scan (r=0.812). Some patients with myocardial ischemia had lower ejection fraction under post-stress compared to resting conditions, indicating post-stress LV dysfunction. LV wall motion and wall thickening were significantly impaired in ischemic and infarcted myocardium, and the degree of abnormality in the infarcted areas was greater than in the ischemia area. LV functional parameters derived using QGS were useful to assess post-stress LV dysfunction and myocardial viability. In conclusion, ECG-gated myocardial SPECT permits simultaneous quantitative assessment of myocardial perfusion and function. (author)

  11. Ligand-receptor assay for evaluation of functional activity of human recombinant VEGF and VEGFR-1 extracellular fragment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leopol'd, A V; Baklaushev, V P; Korchagina, A A; Shein, S A; Grinenko, N F; Pavlov, K A; Ryabukhin, I A; Chekhonin, V P

    2012-04-01

    cDNA encoding VEGF and Ig-like extracellular domains 2-4 of VEGFR-1 (sFlt-1(2-4)) were cloned into prokaryotic expression vectors pET32a and pQE60. Recombinant proteins were purified (metal affinity chromatography) and renatured. Chemiluminescent study for the interaction of recombinant VEGF and sFlt-1(2-4) showed that biotinylated VEGF specifically binds to the polystyrene-immobilized receptor extracellular fragment. Biotinylated recombinant sFlt-1 interacts with immobilized VEGF. Analysis of the interaction of immobilized recombinant VEGFR-1 and VEGF with C6 glioma cells labeled with CFDA-SE (vital fluorescent dye) showed that recombinant VEGFR-1 also binds to native membrane-associated VEGF. Recombinant VEGF was shown to bind to specific receptors expressed on the surface of C6 glioma cells. Functional activity of these proteins was confirmed by ligand-receptor assay for VEGF and VEGFR-1 (sFlt-1) and quantitative chemiluminescent detection.

  12. Dual therapeutic functions of F-5 fragment in burn wounds: preventing wound progression and promoting wound healing in pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayesha Bhatia

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Burn injuries are a leading cause of morbidity including prolonged hospitalization, disfigurement, and disability. Currently there is no Food and Drug Administration-approved burn therapeutics. A clinical distinction of burn injuries from other acute wounds is the event of the so-called secondary burn wound progression within the first week of the injury, in which a burn expands horizontally and vertically from its initial boundary to a larger area. Therefore, an effective therapeutics for burns should show dual abilities to prevent the burn wound progression and thereafter promote burn wound healing. Herein we report that topically applied F-5 fragment of heat shock protein-90α is a dual functional agent to promote burn wound healing in pigs. First, F-5 prevents burn wound progression by protecting the surrounding cells from undergoing heat-induced caspase 3 activation and apoptosis with increased Akt activation. Accordingly, F-5–treated burn and excision wounds show a marked decline in inflammation. Thereafter, F-5 accelerates burn wound healing by stimulating the keratinocyte migration-led reepithelialization, leading to wound closure. This study addresses a topical agent that is capable of preventing burn wound progression and accelerating burn wound healing.

  13. Dual therapeutic functions of F-5 fragment in burn wounds: preventing wound progression and promoting wound healing in pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatia, Ayesha; O'Brien, Kathryn; Chen, Mei; Wong, Alex; Garner, Warren; Woodley, David T; Li, Wei

    2016-01-01

    Burn injuries are a leading cause of morbidity including prolonged hospitalization, disfigurement, and disability. Currently there is no Food and Drug Administration-approved burn therapeutics. A clinical distinction of burn injuries from other acute wounds is the event of the so-called secondary burn wound progression within the first week of the injury, in which a burn expands horizontally and vertically from its initial boundary to a larger area. Therefore, an effective therapeutics for burns should show dual abilities to prevent the burn wound progression and thereafter promote burn wound healing. Herein we report that topically applied F-5 fragment of heat shock protein-90α is a dual functional agent to promote burn wound healing in pigs. First, F-5 prevents burn wound progression by protecting the surrounding cells from undergoing heat-induced caspase 3 activation and apoptosis with increased Akt activation. Accordingly, F-5-treated burn and excision wounds show a marked decline in inflammation. Thereafter, F-5 accelerates burn wound healing by stimulating the keratinocyte migration-led reepithelialization, leading to wound closure. This study addresses a topical agent that is capable of preventing burn wound progression and accelerating burn wound healing.

  14. First determination of D* -meson fragmentation functions and their uncertainties at next-to-next-to-leading order

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soleymaninia, Maryam; Khanpour, Hamzeh; Nejad, S. Mohammad Moosavi

    2018-04-01

    We present, for the first time, a set of next-to-next-to-leading order (NNLO) fragmentation functions (FFs) describing the production of charmed-meson D* from partons. Exploiting the universality and scaling violations of FFs, we extract the NLO and NNLO FFs through a global fit to all relevant data sets from single-inclusive e+e- annihilation. The uncertainties for the resulting FFs as well as the corresponding observables are estimated using the Hessian approach. We evaluate the quality of the SKM18 FFs determined in this analysis by comparing with the recent results in literature and show how they describe the available data for single-inclusive D*±-meson production in electron-positron annihilation. As a practical application, we apply the extracted FFs to make our theoretical predictions for the scaled-energy distributions of D*±-mesons inclusively produced in top quark decays. We explore the implications of SKM18 for LHC phenomenology and show that our findings of this study can be introduced as a channel to indirect search for top-quark properties.

  15. Study of Photon Strength Functions of Actinides: the case of U-235, Np-238 and Pu-241

    CERN Document Server

    Guerrero, C; Cano-Ott, D; Martinez, T; Mendoza, E; Villamarin, D; Colonna, N; Meaze, M H; Marrone, S; Tagliente, G; Terlizzi, R; Belloni, F; Abbondanno, U; Fujii, K; Milazzo, P M; Moreau, C; Aerts, G; Berthoumieux, E; Dridi, W; Gunsing, F; Pancin, J; Perrot, L; Plukis, A; Alvarez, H; Duran, I; Paradela, C; Andriamonje, S; Calviani, M; Chiaveri, E; Gonzalez-Romero, E; Kadi, Y; Vicente, M C; Vlachoudis, V; Andrzejewski, J; Marganiec, J; Assimakopoulos, P; Karadimos, D; Karamanis, D; Papachristodoulou, C; Patronis, N; Audouin, L; David, S; Ferrant, L; Isaev, S; Stephan, C; Tassan-Got, L; Badurek, G; Jericha, E; Leeb, H; Oberhummer, H; Pigni, M T; Baumann, P; Kerveno, M; Lukic, S; Rudolf, G; Becvar, F; Krticka, M; Calvino, F; Capote, R; Carrillo De Albornoz, A; Marques, L; Salgado, J; Tavora, L; Vaz, P; Cennini, P; Dahlfors, M; Ferrari, A; Gramegna, F; Herrera-Martinez, A; Mastinu, P; Praena, J; Sarchiapone, L; Wendler, H; Chepel, V; Ferreira-Marques, R; Goncalves, I; Lindote, A; Lopes, I; Neves, F; Cortes, G; Poch, A; Pretel, C; Couture, A; Cox, J; O'brien, S; Wiescher, M; Dillman, I; Kappeler, F; Mosconi, M; Plag, R; Voss, F; Walter, S; Wisshak, K; Dolfini, R; Rubbia, C; Domingo-Pardo, C; Tain, J L; Eleftheriadis, C; Savvidis, I; Frais-Koelbl, H; Griesmayer, E; Furman, W; Konovalov, V; Goverdovski, A; Ketlerov, V; Haas, B; Haight, R; Reifarth, R; Heil, M; Igashira, M; Koehler, P; Kossionides, E; Lampoudis, C; Lozano, M; Quesada, J; Massimi, C; Vannini, G; Mengoni, A; Oshima, M; Papadopoulos, C; Vlastou, R; Pavlik, A; Pavlopoulos, P; Plompen, A; Rullhusen, P; Rauscher, T; Rosetti, M; Ventura, A

    2011-01-01

    The decay from excited levels in medium and heavy nuclei can be described in a statistical approach by means of Photon Strength Functions and Level Density distributions combined with the theory of the compound. The study of electromagnetic cascades following neutron capture by means of high efficiency detectors has been shown to be well suited for probing the properties of the Photon Strength Function of heavy (high level density) and/or radioactive (high background) nuclei. In this work we have investigated for the first time the validity of the recommended PSF for actinides, in particular 235U, 238Np and 241Pu. Our study includes the search for resonance structures in the PSF below Sn and draws conclusions regarding their existence and their characteristics in terms of energy, width and electromagnetic nature.

  16. Two-Photon Functional Imaging of the Auditory Cortex in Behaving Mice: From Neural Networks to Single Spines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruijie Li

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available In vivo two-photon Ca2+ imaging is a powerful tool for recording neuronal activities during perceptual tasks and has been increasingly applied to behaving animals for acute or chronic experiments. However, the auditory cortex is not easily accessible to imaging because of the abundant temporal muscles, arteries around the ears and their lateral locations. Here, we report a protocol for two-photon Ca2+ imaging in the auditory cortex of head-fixed behaving mice. By using a custom-made head fixation apparatus and a head-rotated fixation procedure, we achieved two-photon imaging and in combination with targeted cell-attached recordings of auditory cortical neurons in behaving mice. Using synthetic Ca2+ indicators, we recorded the Ca2+ transients at multiple scales, including neuronal populations, single neurons, dendrites and single spines, in auditory cortex during behavior. Furthermore, using genetically encoded Ca2+ indicators (GECIs, we monitored the neuronal dynamics over days throughout the process of associative learning. Therefore, we achieved two-photon functional imaging at multiple scales in auditory cortex of behaving mice, which extends the tool box for investigating the neural basis of audition-related behaviors.

  17. EFFECT OF PROSTATILEN® AC ON SPERM DNA FRAGMENTATION DURING TREATMENT OF PATIENTS WITH CHRONIC NONBACTERIAL PROSTATITIS AND CONCOMITANT DISORDERS OF THE REPRODUCTIVE FUNCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Yu. Borovets

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The study objective is to analyze the effect of Prostatilen® AC on sperm DNA fragmentation during treatment of patients with chronic nonbacterial prostatitis and concomitant disorders of the reproductive function.Materials and methods. The study is based on the results of treatment of 25 men aged 24 to 45 years (mean age 35.3 ± 4.4 years with a verified diagnosis of chronic nonbacterial prostatitis and complaints of early-stage missed miscarriage in a spouse/sexual partner. All patients received Prostatilen® AC daily in rectal suppositories formulation. The duration of treatment was 10 days with retreatment after 20 days. In all patients before treatment and 20 days after it, spermiogram parameters (5th ed., WHO, 2010 and sperm DNA fragmentation level using SCSA (sperm chromatin structure assay by FACSCantoll with monoclonal antibodies (Roche, Germany were determined, and all patients underwent the MAR (mixed antiglobulin reaction test with normal value considered to be 10 % or less. The normal value of sperm DNA fragmentation was considered to be 15 % or less (low risk of fertility impairment. The analysis of the obtained data was carried out using the IBM SPSS Statistics program 22.Results. Before the treatment, pathologic level of sperm DNA fragmentation was observed in 6 (43 % of 14 patients with normozoospermia and in 7 (63 % of 11 patients with pathozoospermia (χ² = 1.06; p <0.3. Thus, there weren’t any significant difference between the rates of occurrence of increased sperm DNA fragmentation in patients with normo- and pathozoospermia. A correlation was found between the level of sperm DNA fragmentation and the results of MAR test before treatment (r = 0.8, p <0.05, which varied between 0 and 99 % (mean 16.48 ± 31.64 %. Meanwhile, increased sperm DNA fragmentation was observed in 7 (53 % of 13 patients with pathological MAR test results, and in 2 (40 % of 5 patients with normal MAR test results (χ² = 0.67; p <0.01. The level

  18. Single-photon emission computed tomography for the assessment of ventricular perfusion and function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez, Patricio; Dussaillant, Gaston; Gutierrez, Daniela; Berrocal, Isabel; Alay, Rita; Otarola, Sonia

    2013-01-01

    Background: Single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) can be used as a non-invasive tool for the assessment of coronary perfusion. Aim: To assess ventricular perfusion and function by SPECT in patients with single vessel coronary artery disease. Material and Methods: Among patients with indications for a coronary artery angiography, those with significant lesions in one vessel, were selected for the study. Within 24 hours, cardiac SPECT examinations on basal conditions and after high doses of dipyridamole, were performed. SPECT data from 38 patients with a low probability of coronary artery disease was used for comparisons. Results:Ten patients aged 61 ± 8 years (seven men) were studied. Visual analysis of SPECT revealed signs suggestive of ischemia in eight patients. The remaining two patients did not have perfusion disturbances. SPECT detected eight of ten abnormal vessels reported in the coronary artery angiography. There were two false negative results Summed stress, summed rest and summed difference scores were 9.78 ± 6.51, 3.22 ± 5.07 and 6.33 ± 4.97, respectively. The ejection fractions under stress and at rest were 53 ± 11.7% and 61 ± 15.7% respectively (p ≤ 0.01). The figures for the control group were 69.1 ± 13.5% and 75.2 ± 12.04% respectively (significantly different from patients). Two patients had a summed motion score above 14.9. Likewise, two patients had a summed thickening score above 10.9. Conclusions: SPECT detected 80% of coronary lesions found during coronary artery angiography. Visual analysis of perfusion is highly reliable for diagnosis. Quantitative parameters must be considered only as reference parameters

  19. Cytosolic expression of functional Fab fragments in Escherichia coli using a novel combination of dual SUMO expression cassette and EnBase® cultivation mode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezaie, F; Davami, F; Mansouri, K; Agha Amiri, S; Fazel, R; Mahdian, R; Davoudi, N; Enayati, S; Azizi, M; Khalaj, V

    2017-05-08

    The Escherichia coli expression system is highly effective in producing recombinant proteins. However, there are some limitations in this system, especially in obtaining correctly folded forms of some complex proteins such as Fab fragments. To improve the solubility and folding quality of Fab fragments, we have examined the effect of simultaneous application of a SUMO fusion tag, EnBase ® cultivation mode and a redox mutant strain in the E. coli expression system. A bicistronic gene construct was designed to express an antivascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) Fab fragment as a model system. The construct contained a dual SUMO fusion gene fragment to encode SUMO-tagged heavy and light chains. While the expression of the construct in batch cultures of BL21 or SHuffle ® transformants produced insoluble and unfolded products, the induction of the transformants in EnBase ® medium resulted in soluble and correctly folded Fab fragment, reaching as high as 19% of the total protein in shuffle strain. The functional assays indicated that the biological activity of the target Fab is similar to the commercial anti-VEGF, Lucentis ® . This study demonstrated that the combination of SUMO fusion technology, EnBase ® cultivation system and recruiting a redox mutant of E. coli can efficiently enhance the solubility and productivity of recombinant Fab fragments. The presented strategy provides not only a novel method to produce soluble and active form of an anti-VEGF Fab but also may use in the efficient production of other antibody fragments. © 2017 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  20. Experimental response function of NaI(Tl) scintillation detector for gamma photons and tomographic measurements for defect detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, Amandeep; Singh, Karamjit; Singh, Bhajan; Sandhu, B.S.

    2011-01-01

    The response function of gamma detector is an important factor for spectrum analysis because some photons and secondary electrons may escape the detector volume before fully depositing their energy, of course destroys the ideal delta function response. An inverse matrix approach, for unfolding of observed pulse-height distribution to a true photon spectrum, is used for construction of experimental response function by formulating a 40 x 40 matrix with bin mesh (E 1/2 ) of 0.025 (MeV) 1/2 for the present measurements. A tomographic scanner system, operating in a non-destructive and non-invasive way, is also presented for inspection of density variation in any object. The incoherent scattered intensity of 662 keV gamma photons, obtained by unfolding (deconvolution) the experimental pulse-height distribution of NaI(Tl) scintillation detector, provides the desired information. The method is quite sensitive, for showing inclusion of medium Z (atomic number) material (iron) in low Z material (aluminium) and detecting a void of ∼2 mm in size for iron block, to investigate the inhomogeneities in the object. Also, the grey scale images (using 'MATLAB') are shown to visualise the presence of defects/inclusion in metal samples.

  1. Photon-photon interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gilman, F.J.

    1980-01-01

    A brief summary of the present status of photon-photon interactions is presented. Stress is placed on the use of two-photon collisions to test present ideas on the quark constituents of hadrons and on the theory of strong interactions

  2. Investigation of prompt gamma-ray yields as a function of mass and charge of 236U fission fragments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bogdzel', A.A.; Gundorin, N.A.; Duka-Zojomi, A.; Kliman, Ya.; Krishtiak, J.

    1987-01-01

    New experimental results determining yields of the prompt gamma-rays from the excited states decay of fission fragments are presented. 80 gamma-transitions were observed in 51 fission fragments. The measurements were performed by Ge(Li)-spectrometry in coincidence with fast ionization chamber (10g 235 U). The beam of the resonance neutrons with energy range from 0.7 to 36 eV was used

  3. Study of photon strength functions via (γ→, γ′, γ″ reactions at the γ3-setup

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isaak Johann

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the basic ingredients for the modelling of the nucleosynthesis of heavy elements are so-called photon strength functions and the assumption of the Brink-Axel hypothesis. This hypothesis has been studied for many years by numerous experiments using different and complementary reactions. The present manuscript aims to introduce a model-independent approach to study photon strength functions via γ-γ coincidence spectroscopy of photoexcited states in 128Te. The experimental results provide evidence that the photon strength function extracted from photoabsorption cross sections is not in an overall agreement with the one determined from direct transitions to low-lying excited states.

  4. Dimensional crossover in fragmentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sotolongo-Costa, Oscar; Rodriguez, Arezky H.; Rodgers, G. J.

    2000-11-01

    Experiments in which thick clay plates and glass rods are fractured have revealed different behavior of fragment mass distribution function in the small and large fragment regions. In this paper we explain this behavior using non-extensive Tsallis statistics and show how the crossover between the two regions is caused by the change in the fragments’ dimensionality during the fracture process. We obtain a physical criterion for the position of this crossover and an expression for the change in the power-law exponent between the small and large fragment regions. These predictions are in good agreement with the experiments on thick clay plates.

  5. Efficient multi-site two-photon functional imaging of neuronal circuits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castanares, Michael Lawrence; Gautam, Vini; Drury, Jack; Bachor, Hans; Daria, Vincent R

    2016-12-01

    Two-photon imaging using high-speed multi-channel detectors is a promising approach for optical recording of cellular membrane dynamics at multiple sites. A main bottleneck of this technique is the limited number of photons captured within a short exposure time (~1ms). Here, we implement temporal gating to improve the two-photon fluorescence yield from holographically projected multiple foci whilst maintaining a biologically safe incident average power. We observed up to 6x improvement in the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) in Fluorescein and cultured hippocampal neurons showing evoked calcium transients. With improved SNR, we could pave the way to achieving multi-site optical recording of fluorogenic probes with response times in the order of ~1ms.

  6. Fragment Impact Toolkit (FIT)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shevitz, Daniel Wolf [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Key, Brian P. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Garcia, Daniel B. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-09-05

    The Fragment Impact Toolkit (FIT) is a software package used for probabilistic consequence evaluation of fragmenting sources. The typical use case for FIT is to simulate an exploding shell and evaluate the consequence on nearby objects. FIT is written in the programming language Python and is designed as a collection of interacting software modules. Each module has a function that interacts with the other modules to produce desired results.

  7. Correlation between CD16a binding and immuno effector functionality of an antigen specific immunoglobulin Fc fragment (Fcab).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kainer, Manuela; Antes, Bernhard; Wiederkum, Susanne; Wozniak-Knopp, Gordana; Bauer, Anton; Rüker, Florian; Woisetschläger, Max

    2012-10-15

    Antigen binding immunoglobulin Fc fragments (Fcab) are generated by engineering loop regions in the CH3 domain of human IgG1 Fc. Variants of an Fcab specific for Her-2 were designed to display either enhanced (S239D:A330L:I332E) or diminished (L234A:L235A) binding affinities to the Fc receptor CD16a based on mutations described previously. The two mutant Fcab proteins demonstrated the expected modulation of CD16a binding. Interaction with recombinant or cell surface expressed Her-2 was unaffected in both mutants compared to the parental Fcab. Binding affinities for CD16a correlated with the ADCC-potencies of the Fcab variants. Additional studies indicated that the L234A:L235A variant Fcab had equivalent structural features as the unmodified Fcab since their DSC profiles were similar and antigen binding after re-folding upon partial heat denaturation had not changed. Introduction of the S239D:A330L:I332E mutations resulted in a significant reduction of the CH2 domain melting temperature, a moderate decrease of the thermal transition of the CH3 domain and lower antigen binding after thermal stress compared to the parental Fcab. We conclude that the known correlation between CD16a binding affinity and ADCC potency is also valid in Fcab proteins and that antigen specific Fcab molecules can be further engineered for fine tuning of immuno effector functions. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Printable UV personal dosimeter: sensitivity as a function of DoD parameters and number of layers of a functional photonic ink

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sousa, Felipe L. N.; Mojica-Sánchez, Lizeth C.; Gavazza, Sávia; Florencio, Lourdinha; Vaz, Elaine C. R.; Santa-Cruz, Petrus A.

    2016-04-01

    This work presents ‘intelligent papers’ obtained by functional inks printed on cellulose-sheets by DoD inkjet technology and their performance as a photonic device for UV-radiation dosimetry. The dosimeter operation is based on the photodegradation of the active part of a photonic ink, btfa (4,4,4-trifluoro-1-phenyl-1,3-butanedione) ligands in Eu(III) complex, as a function of the UV dose (Jcm-2), and the one-way device is read by the luminescence quenching of (5D0 → 7F2) Eu3+ transition after UV exposure of the printed paper. The printed dosimeter presented an exponential behavior, measured here up to 10 Jcm-2 for UV-A, UV-B and UV-C, and it was shown that the number of jetted layers could fit the dosimeter sensitivity.

  9. Printable UV personal dosimeter: sensitivity as a function of DoD parameters and number of layers of a functional photonic ink

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sousa, Felipe L N; Mojica-Sánchez, Lizeth C; Vaz, Elaine C R; Santa-Cruz, Petrus A; Gavazza, Sávia; Florencio, Lourdinha

    2016-01-01

    This work presents ‘intelligent papers’ obtained by functional inks printed on cellulose-sheets by DoD inkjet technology and their performance as a photonic device for UV-radiation dosimetry. The dosimeter operation is based on the photodegradation of the active part of a photonic ink, btfa (4,4,4-trifluoro-1-phenyl-1,3-butanedione) ligands in Eu(III) complex, as a function of the UV dose (Jcm −2 ), and the one-way device is read by the luminescence quenching of ( 5 D 0  →  7 F 2 ) Eu 3+ transition after UV exposure of the printed paper. The printed dosimeter presented an exponential behavior, measured here up to 10 Jcm −2 for UV-A, UV-B and UV-C, and it was shown that the number of jetted layers could fit the dosimeter sensitivity. (paper)

  10. Predictions for Boson-Jet Observables and Fragmentation Function Ratios from a Hybrid Strong/Weak Coupling Model for Jet Quenching

    CERN Document Server

    Casalderrey-Solana, Jorge; Milhano, José Guilherme; Pablos, Daniel; Rajagopal, Krishna

    2016-01-01

    We have previously introduced a hybrid strong/weak coupling model for jet quenching in heavy ion collisions that describes the production and fragmentation of jets at weak coupling, using PYTHIA, and describes the rate at which each parton in the jet shower loses energy as it propagates through the strongly coupled plasma, dE/dx, using an expression computed holographically at strong coupling. The model has a single free parameter that we fit to a single experimental measurement. We then confront our model with experimental data on many other jet observables, focusing here on boson-jet observables, finding that it provides a good description of present jet data. Next, we provide the predictions of our hybrid model for many measurements to come, including those for inclusive jet, dijet, photon-jet and Z-jet observables in heavy ion collisions with energy $\\sqrt{s}=5.02$ ATeV coming soon at the LHC. As the statistical uncertainties on near-future measurements of photon-jet observables are expected to be much sm...

  11. Controlled fragmentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arnold, Werner

    2002-01-01

    Contrary to natural fragmentation, controlled fragmentation offers the possibility to adapt fragment parameters like size and mass to the performance requirements in a very flexible way. Known mechanisms like grooves inside the casing, weaken the structure. This is, however, excluded for applications with high accelerations during launch or piercing requirements for example on a semi armor piercing penetrator. Another method to achieve controlled fragmentation with an additional grid layer is presented with which the required grooves are produced 'just in time' inside the casing during detonation of the high explosive. The process of generating the grooves aided by the grid layer was studied using the hydrocode HULL with respect to varying grid designs and material combinations. Subsequent to this, a large range of these theoretically investigated combinations was contemplated in substantial experimental tests. With an optimised grid design and a suitable material selection, the controlled fragment admits a very flexible adaptation to the set requirements. Additional advantages like the increase of perforation performance or incendiary amplification can be realized with the grid layer

  12. Photon-photon colliders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sessler, A.M.

    1995-04-01

    Since the seminal work by Ginsburg, et at., the subject of giving the Next Linear Collider photon-photon capability, as well as electron-positron capability, has drawn much attention. A 1990 article by V.I. Teinov describes the situation at that time. In March 1994, the first workshop on this subject was held. This report briefly reviews the physics that can be achieved through the photon-photon channel and then focuses on the means of achieving such a collider. Also reviewed is the spectrum of backscattered Compton photons -- the best way of obtaining photons. We emphasize the spectrum actually obtained in a collider with both polarized electrons and photons (peaked at high energy and very different from a Compton spectrum). Luminosity is estimated for the presently considered colliders, and interaction and conversion-point geometries are described. Also specified are laser requirements (such as wavelength, peak power, and average power) and the lasers that might be employed. These include conventional and free-electron lasers. Finally, we describe the R ampersand D necessary to make either of these approaches viable and explore the use of the SLC as a test bed for a photon-photon collider of very high energy

  13. Electroproduction cross section of large-E bot hadrons at NLO and virtual photon structure function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fontannaz, M.

    2004-01-01

    We calculate higher order corrections to the resolved component of the electroproduction cross section of large- E bot hadrons. The parton distributions in the virtual photon are studied in detail and a NLO parametrization of the latter is proposed. The contribution of the resolved component to the forward production of large- E bot hadrons is calculated and its connection with the BFKL cross section is discussed. (orig.)

  14. Bespoke Fragments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kruse Aagaard, Anders

    2017-01-01

    The PhD project Bespoke Fragments is investigating the space emerging in the exploration of the relationship between digital drawing and fabrication, and the field of materials and their properties and capacities. Through a series of different experiments, the project situates itself in a shuttli...

  15. Rock fragmentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, W.S.; Green, S.J.; Hakala, W.W.; Hustrulid, W.A.; Maurer, W.C. (eds.)

    1976-01-01

    Experts in rock mechanics, mining, excavation, drilling, tunneling and use of underground space met to discuss the relative merits of a wide variety of rock fragmentation schemes. Information is presented on novel rock fracturing techniques; tunneling using electron beams, thermocorer, electric spark drills, water jets, and diamond drills; and rock fracturing research needs for mining and underground construction. (LCL)

  16. A study of the b-quark fragmentation function with the DELPHI detector at LEP I and an averaged distribution obtained at the Z Pole

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Abdallah, J.; Abreu, A.; Adam, W.; Mašík, Jiří; Němeček, Stanislav; Řídký, Jan; Todorovová, Šárka; Trávníček, Petr; Vrba, Václav

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 71, č. 2 (2011), 1-50 ISSN 1434-6044 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LA08015 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100502 Keywords : parton: shower s * bottom: fragmentation function * jet: hadronization * CERN * LEP * DELPHI * quantum chromodynamics * PYTHIA * ALEPH * OPAL * SLD Subject RIV: BF - Elementary Particles and High Energy Physics Impact factor: 3.631, year: 2011

  17. First results on photon strength functions of 78Se from the two-step γ Cascades measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valenta, Stanislav; Bečvář, František; Krtička, Milan; Tomandl, Ivo

    2017-09-01

    Two-step gamma cascades (TSCs) following the radiative capture of thermal neutrons in 77Se were measured at the research reactor at Řež near Prague. Results on photon strength functions (PSFs) of 78Se, obtained from comparison of experimental TSC spectra with outcomes of simulations under different assumptions about level density and PSFs using the DICEBOX algorithm, are presented. The main attention is paid to possible manifestation of the pygmy resonance observed recently in this nucleus in the nuclear resonance fluorescence measurement and low-energy PSF enhancement observed in Oslo-type experiments for all A ≲ 100 nuclei.

  18. Updating Photonuclear Data Library and Generating a Reference Database for Photon Strength Functions. 1st Research Coordination Meeting. Summary Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goriely, S.; Dimitriou, P.

    2016-07-01

    A summary is given of the 1 st Research Coordination Meeting of the new IAEA Co-ordinated Research Project (CRP) on Updating the Photonuclear Data Library and Generating a Reference Database for Photon Strength Functions. Participants presented their work, reviewed the current status of the field with regards to measurements, theoretical models and evaluations, discussed the scope of the work to be undertaken and agreed on a list of priorities and task assignments necessary to achieve the goals of the CRP. A summary of the presentations and discussions is presented in this report. (author)

  19. Fragmentation of atomic clusters: A theoretical study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopez, M.J.; Jellinek, J.

    1994-01-01

    Collisionless fragmentation of nonrotating model n-atom metal clusters (n=12, 13, and 14) is studied using isoergic molecular-dynamics simulations. Minimum-energy paths for fragmentation are mapped out as functions of the distance between the centers of mass of the fragments. These paths provide information on the fragmentation energies for the different fragmentation channels. Fragmentation patterns (distributions of the fragmentation channel probabilities) and global and channel-specific fragmentation rate constants are computed and analyzed as functions of the internal energy and of the size of the clusters. The trends derived from the dynamics are compared with those obtained using the RRK and TST statistical approaches. The dynamics of the fragmentation process is analyzed in terms of characteristic quantities such as the distance between the centers of mass of the fragments, their relative translational energy, and their interaction energy, all considered as functions of time

  20. Tomography of photon-added and photon-subtracted states

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bazrafkan, MR; Man'ko, [No Value

    The purpose of this paper is to introduce symplectic and optical tomograms of photon-added and photon-subtracted quantum states. Explicit relations for the tomograms of photon-added and photon-subtracted squeezed coherent states and squeezed number states are obtained. Generating functions for the

  1. Architectural fragments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bang, Jacob Sebastian

    2018-01-01

    I have created a large collection of plaster models: a collection of Obstructions, errors and opportunities that may develop into architecture. The models are fragments of different complex shapes as well as more simple circular models with different profiling and diameters. In this contect I have....... I try to invent the ways of drawing the models - that decode and unfold them into architectural fragments- into future buildings or constructions in the landscape. [1] Luigi Moretti: Italian architect, 1907 - 1973 [2] Man Ray: American artist, 1890 - 1976. in 2015, I saw the wonderful exhibition...... "Man Ray - Human Equations" at the Glyptotek in Copenhagen, organized by the Philips Collection in Washington D.C. and the Israel Museum in Jerusalem (in 2013). See also: "Man Ray - Human Equations" catalogue published by Hatje Cantz Verlag, Germany, 2014....

  2. Genetic and functional properties of uncultivated thermophilic crenarchaeotes from a subsurface gold mine as revealed by analysis of genome fragments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunoura, Takuro; Hirayama, Hisako; Takami, Hideto; Oida, Hanako; Nishi, Shinro; Shimamura, Shigeru; Suzuki, Yohey; Inagaki, Fumio; Takai, Ken; Nealson, Kenneth H; Horikoshi, Koki

    2005-12-01

    Within a phylum Crenarchaeota, only some members of the hyperthermophilic class Thermoprotei, have been cultivated and characterized. In this study, we have constructed a metagenomic library from a microbial mat formation in a subsurface hot water stream of the Hishikari gold mine, Japan, and sequenced genome fragments of two different phylogroups of uncultivated thermophilic Crenarchaeota: (i) hot water crenarchaeotic group (HWCG) I (41.2 kb), and (ii) HWCG III (49.3 kb). The genome fragment of HWCG I contained a 16S rRNA gene, two tRNA genes and 35 genes encoding proteins but no 23S rRNA gene. Among the genes encoding proteins, several genes for putative aerobic-type carbon monoxide dehydrogenase represented a potential clue with regard to the yet unknown metabolism of HWCG I Archaea. The genome fragment of HWCG III contained a 16S/23S rRNA operon and 44 genes encoding proteins. In the 23S rRNA gene, we detected a homing-endonuclease encoding a group I intron similar to those detected in hyperthermophilic Crenarchaeota and Bacteria, as well as eukaryotic organelles. The reconstructed phylogenetic tree based on the 23S rRNA gene sequence reinforced the intermediate phylogenetic affiliation of HWCG III bridging the hyperthermophilic and non-thermophilic uncultivated Crenarchaeota.

  3. Modulation of the pupil function of microscope objective lens for multifocal multi-photon microscopy using a spatial light modulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, Naoya; Okazaki, Shigetoshi; Takamoto, Hisayoshi; Inoue, Takashi; Terakawa, Susumu

    2014-02-01

    We propose a method for high precision modulation of the pupil function of a microscope objective lens to improve the performance of multifocal multi-photon microscopy (MMM). To modulate the pupil function, we adopt a spatial light modulator (SLM) and place it at the conjugate position of the objective lens. The SLM can generate an arbitrary number of spots to excite the multiple fluorescence spots (MFS) at the desired positions and intensities by applying an appropriate computer-generated hologram (CGH). This flexibility allows us to control the MFS according to the photobleaching level of a fluorescent protein and phototoxicity of a specimen. However, when a large number of excitation spots are generated, the intensity distribution of the MFS is significantly different from the one originally designed due to misalignment of the optical setup and characteristics of the SLM. As a result, the image of a specimen obtained using laser scanning for the MFS has block noise segments because the SLM could not generate a uniform MFS. To improve the intensity distribution of the MFS, we adaptively redesigned the CGH based on the observed MFS. We experimentally demonstrate an improvement in the uniformity of a 10 × 10 MFS grid using a dye solution. The simplicity of the proposed method will allow it to be applied for calibration of MMM before observing living tissue. After the MMM calibration, we performed laser scanning with two-photon excitation to observe a real specimen without detecting block noise segments.

  4. Inverse gold photonic crystals and conjugated polymer coated opals for functional materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Landon, P.B.; Gutierrez, Jose; Ferraris, John P.; Martinez, I.L.; Giridharagopal, Rajiv; Wu, Y.-C.; Lee, Sergey; Parikh, Kunjal; Gillespie, Jessica; Ussery, Geoffrey; Karimi, Behzad; Baughman, Ray; Zakhidov, Anvar; Glosser, R

    2003-10-01

    Inverse gold photonic crystals templated from synthetic opals with a face centered cubic (FCC) crystal lattice were constructed by heat converting gold chloride to metallic gold. Tetrahedral formations constructed of alternating large and small octahedrons oriented in the zinc sulfide structure were created by controlling the infiltration of gold chloride. Silica spheres were coated with polyanilinesulfonic acid, polypyrrole, poly[2-methoxy-5-(2'-ethylhexyloxy)-1,4-phenylenevinylene] (MEH-PPV) and 5 nm colloidal gold. Ordinary yeast cells were coated with polyanilinesulfonic acid, polypyrrole and 5 nm colloidal gold. Spheres coated with MEH-PPV were dispersed in H{sub 2}O and coated with polyelectrolytes which recharged and sterically stabilized the colloidal surfaces. The recharged spheres self-assembled by sedimentation with a FCC crystalline lattice possessing 500 {mu}m wide and 1 mm long crystallites. Silica spheres with diameters as large as 1500 {mu}m were self-assembled along the [1 0 0] direction of the FCC crystal lattice. Opals infiltrated with gold and opals constructed from polymer coated spheres were co-infiltrated with polypropylene yielding inverse polypropylene composite photonic crystals.

  5. Integrated Microwave Photonics

    OpenAIRE

    Marpaung, David; Roeloffzen, Chris; Heideman, René; Leinse, Arne; Sales Maicas, Salvador; Capmany Francoy, José

    2013-01-01

    Microwave photonics (MWP) is an emerging field in which radio frequency (RF) signals are generated, distributed, processed and analyzed using the strength of photonic techniques. It is a technology that enables various functionalities which are not feasible to achieve only in the microwave domain. A particular aspect that recently gains significant interests is the use of photonic integrated circuit (PIC) technology in the MWP field for enhanced functionalities and robustness as well as the r...

  6. Measurement of cerebral blood flow by single photon emission tomography: principles and application to functional studies of the language areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tran Dinh, Y.R.; Seylaz, J.

    1989-01-01

    Quantitative measurement of cerebral blood flow by single photon emission computerized tomography (SPECT) is a new technique which is particularly suitable for routine studies of cerebro-vascular diseases. SPECT can be used to examine the deep structures of the brain and cerebellum. The functional areas of the brain, which have hitherto been only accessible by clinical-anatomical methods, can be imaged by this technique, based on the correlation between cerebral blood flow and metabolism. The demonstration of preferential activation of temporal and frontal zones in the left hemisphere by active speech stimulation confirms the general principles of hemispheric lateralization of cerebral functions. In addition to this role in studying the physiology of normal subjects, the technique has practical pathological applications. Knowledge of hemispheric lateralization of spoken language should be a pre-operative test for cerebral lesion when there is a risk that surgical intervention may produce irreversible neuropsychological lesions [fr

  7. Formation and fragmentation of radical peptide anions: insights from vacuum ultra violet spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunet, Claire; Antoine, Rodolphe; Dugourd, Philippe; Canon, Francis; Giuliani, Alexandre; Nahon, Laurent

    2012-02-01

    We have studied the photodissociation of gas-phase deprotonated caerulein anions by vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) photons in the 4.5 to 20 eV range, as provided by the DESIRS beamline at the synchrotron radiation facility SOLEIL (France). Caerulein is a sulphated peptide with three aromatic residues and nine amide bonds. Electron loss is found to be the major relaxation channel at every photon energy. However, an increase in the fragmentation efficiency (neutral losses and peptide backbone cleavages) as a function of the energy is also observed. The oxidized ions, generated by electron photodetachment were further isolated and activated by collision (CID) in a MS(3) scheme. The branching ratios of the different fragments observed by CID as a function of the initial VUV photon energy are found to be independent of the initial photon energy. Thus, there is no memory effect of the initial excitation energy on the fragmentation channels of the oxidized species on the time scale of our tandem MS experiment. We also report photofragment yields as a function of photon energy for doubly deprotonated caerulein ions, for both closed-shell ([M-2H](2-)) non-radical ions and open-shell ([M-3H](2-•)) radical ions. These latter ions are generated by electron photodetachment from [M-3H](3-) precursor ions. The detachment yield increases monotonically with the energy with the appearance of several absorption bands. Spectra for radical and non-radical ions are quite similar in terms of observed bands; however, the VUV fragmentation yield is enhanced by the presence of a radical in caerulein peptides. © American Society for Mass Spectrometry, 2011

  8. Features of possible polarized photon beams at high energy and corresponding physics programme or the proton structure function using real photons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tannenbaum, M.J.

    1980-01-01

    In the range of electron energies available at Fermilab, 100 GeV less than or equal to E less than or equal to 500 GeV, coherent Bremsstrahlung in crystals, particularly diamond, gives a huge enhancement to the equivalent photon spectrum at large values of x where x = k/E. The photons in this enhancement are polarized. Requirements on electron beam energy spread, angular divergence and spot size imposed by the use of a diamond as a radiator are discussed. The physics program emphasizes hard processes and tests of QCD using polarization

  9. Photon radiation from quarks at LEP

    CERN Document Server

    Thompson, J C

    1994-01-01

    Earlier measurements at LEP of isolated hard photons in hadronic zo decays attributed to radiation from primary quark pairs, have been extended in the ALEPH experiment to include their production inside hadron jets. Events are selected where all particles combine "democratically" to form 2 hadron jets, one of which contains a photon with a fractional energy z � 0. 7. After the statistical subtraction of events arising from non-prompt photons, the quark-to-photon fragmentation function, D(z), is extracted directly from the measured prompt production rate. Taking into account the perturbative contributions to D(z) obtained in an O(aa,) MS renormalisation scheme enables the unknown non-perturbative component of D(z) to be determined at high z. This measurement provides a better description of quark bremmstrahlung than hitherto employed in high energy hadron-hadron collisions. A updated analysis is also presented from OPAL of comparisons between 1-jet plus isolated photon rates and different QCD matrix element ...

  10. Dependence of alanine gel dosimeter response as a function of photon clinical beams dose rate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, Cleber Feijo; Campos, Leticia Lucente

    2013-01-01

    Gel dosimetry is a new area developed by Gore, it is ery useful for application in radiotherapy because using NMR imaging as evaluation technique is possible to evaluate three dimensional absorbed dose distribution. The measure technique is based on difference of ferrous (Fe 2+ ) and ferric (Fe 3+ ) ) ions concentration that can be measured also by spectrophotometry technique. The Alanine gel dosimeter was developed at IPEN. The alanine is an amino acid and tissue equivalent material that presents significant improvement on previous alanine dosimetry systems. The addition of Alanine increases the production of ferric ions in the solution. This work aims to study the dose rate dependence of photon clinical beams radiation on the alanine gel dosimeter optical response, as well as the response repeatability and gel production reproducibility, since this property is very important for characterization and standardization of any dosimeter. (author)

  11. Intermediate Fragment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kruse Aagaard, Anders

    2015-01-01

    This text and its connected exhibition are aiming to reflect both on the thoughts, the processes and the outcome of the design and production of the artefact ‘Intermediate Fragment’ and making as a contemporary architectural tool in general. Intermediate Fragment was made for the exhibition ‘Enga...... of realising an exhibition object was conceived, but expanded, refined and concretised through this process. The context of the work shown here is an interest in a tighter, deeper connection between experimentally obtained material knowledge and architectural design....

  12. Fragmentation based

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shashank Srivastava

    2014-01-01

    Gaining the understanding of mobile agent architecture and the security concerns, in this paper, we proposed a security protocol which addresses security with mitigated computational cost. The protocol is a combination of self decryption, co-operation and obfuscation technique. To circumvent the risk of malicious code execution in attacking environment, we have proposed fragmentation based encryption technique. Our encryption technique suits the general mobile agent size and provides hard and thorny obfuscation increasing attacker’s challenge on the same plane providing better performance with respect to computational cost as compared to existing AES encryption.

  13. Bespoke Fragments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kruse Aagaard, Anders

    2016-01-01

    , investigating levels of control and uncertainty encountering with these. Through tangible experiments, the project discusses materiality and digitally controlled fabrications tools as direct expansions of the architect's digital drawing and workflow. The project sees this expansion as an opportunity to connect...... architectural designs, tectonics and aesthetics. In this Ph.D.-project a series a physical, but conceptual, experiment plays the central role in the knowledge production. The experiments result in materialised architectural fragments and tangible experiences. However, these creations also become the driving...

  14. RISC-interacting clearing 3’- 5’ exoribonucleases (RICEs) degrade uridylated cleavage fragments to maintain functional RISC in Arabidopsis thaliana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhonghui; Hu, Fuqu; Sung, Min Woo; Shu, Chang; Castillo-González, Claudia; Koiwa, Hisashi; Tang, Guiliang; Dickman, Martin; Li, Pingwei; Zhang, Xiuren

    2017-01-01

    RNA-induced silencing complex (RISC) is composed of miRNAs and AGO proteins. AGOs use miRNAs as guides to slice target mRNAs to produce truncated 5' and 3' RNA fragments. The 5' cleaved RNA fragments are marked with uridylation for degradation. Here, we identified novel cofactors of Arabidopsis AGOs, named RICE1 and RICE2. RICE proteins specifically degraded single-strand (ss) RNAs in vitro; but neither miRNAs nor miRNA*s in vivo. RICE1 exhibited a DnaQ-like exonuclease fold and formed a homohexamer with the active sites located at the interfaces between RICE1 subunits. Notably, ectopic expression of catalytically-inactive RICE1 not only significantly reduced miRNA levels; but also increased 5' cleavage RISC fragments with extended uridine tails. We conclude that RICEs act to degrade uridylated 5’ products of AGO cleavage to maintain functional RISC. Our study also suggests a possible link between decay of cleaved target mRNAs and miRNA stability in RISC. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.24466.001 PMID:28463111

  15. Hadronic photon-photon interactions at high energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Engel, R.; Siegen Univ.; Ranft, J.

    1996-01-01

    Photon-photon collisions are investigated in the framework of the two-component Dual Parton Model. The model contains contributions from direct, resolved soft and resolved hard interactions. All free parameters of the model are determined in fits to hadron-hadron and photon-hadron cross section data. The model is shown to agree well to hadron production data from hadron-hadron and photon-hadron collisions. The multiparticle production in hadron-hadron, photon-hadron and photon-photon collisions as predicted by the model is compared. Strong differences are only found as function of the transverse momentum variable. (author)

  16. Fluorescence resonance energy transfer measured by spatial photon migration in CdSe-ZnS quantum dots colloidal systems as a function of concentration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Azevedo, G.; Monte, A. F. G.; Reis, A. F.; Messias, D. N. [Laboratório de Espectroscopia Óptica, Instituto de Física, Universidade Federal de Uberlândia, Uberlândia, MG 38400-902 (Brazil)

    2014-11-17

    The study of the spatial photon migration as a function of the concentration brings into attention the problem of the energy transfer in quantum dot embedded systems. By measuring the photon propagation and its spatial dependence, it is possible to understand the whole dynamics in a quantum dot system, and also improve their concentration dependence to maximize energy propagation due to radiative and non-radiative processes. In this work, a confocal microscope was adapted to scan the spatial distribution of photoluminescence from CdSe-ZnS core-shell quantum dots in colloidal solutions. The energy migration between the quantum dots was monitored by the direct measurement of the photon diffusion length, according to the diffusion theory. We observed that the photon migration length decreases by increasing the quantum dot concentration, this kind of behavior has been regarded as a signature of Förster resonance energy transfer in the system.

  17. Magnetic field influences on the lateral dose response functions of photon-beam detectors: MC study of wall-less water-filled detectors with various densities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Looe, Hui Khee; Delfs, Björn; Poppinga, Daniela; Harder, Dietrich; Poppe, Björn

    2017-06-21

    The distortion of detector reading profiles across photon beams in the presence of magnetic fields is a developing subject of clinical photon-beam dosimetry. The underlying modification by the Lorentz force of a detector's lateral dose response function-the convolution kernel transforming the true cross-beam dose profile in water into the detector reading profile-is here studied for the first time. The three basic convolution kernels, the photon fluence response function, the dose deposition kernel, and the lateral dose response function, of wall-less cylindrical detectors filled with water of low, normal and enhanced density are shown by Monte Carlo simulation to be distorted in the prevailing direction of the Lorentz force. The asymmetric shape changes of these convolution kernels in a water medium and in magnetic fields of up to 1.5 T are confined to the lower millimetre range, and they depend on the photon beam quality, the magnetic flux density and the detector's density. The impact of this distortion on detector reading profiles is demonstrated using a narrow photon beam profile. For clinical applications it appears as favourable that the magnetic flux density dependent distortion of the lateral dose response function, as far as secondary electron transport is concerned, vanishes in the case of water-equivalent detectors of normal water density. By means of secondary electron history backtracing, the spatial distribution of the photon interactions giving rise either directly to secondary electrons or to scattered photons further downstream producing secondary electrons which contribute to the detector's signal, and their lateral shift due to the Lorentz force is elucidated. Electron history backtracing also serves to illustrate the correct treatment of the influences of the Lorentz force in the EGSnrc Monte Carlo code applied in this study.

  18. Fracture mechanics model of fragmentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glenn, L.A.; Gommerstadt, B.Y.; Chudnovsky, A.

    1986-01-01

    A model of the fragmentation process is developed, based on the theory of linear elastic fracture mechanics, which predicts the average fragment size as a function of strain rate and material properties. This approach permits a unification of previous results, yielding Griffith's solution in the low-strain-rate limit and Grady's solution at high strain rates

  19. Single photon emission tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buvat, Irene

    2011-09-01

    The objective of this lecture is to present the single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) imaging technique. Content: 1 - Introduction: anatomic, functional and molecular imaging; Principle and role of functional or molecular imaging; 2 - Radiotracers: chemical and physical constraints, main emitters, radioisotopes production, emitters type and imaging techniques; 3 - Single photon emission computed tomography: gamma cameras and their components, gamma camera specifications, planar single photon imaging characteristics, gamma camera and tomography; 4 - Quantification in single photon emission tomography: attenuation, scattering, un-stationary spatial resolution, partial volume effect, movements, others; 5 - Synthesis and conclusion

  20. Inclusive hadron production in photon-photon collisions at next-to-leading order

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Binnewies, J.

    1996-01-01

    We study inclusive charged-hadron production in collisions of quasireal photons at next-to-leading order (NLO) in the QCD-improved parton model, using fragmentation functions recently extracted from PEP and LEP1 data of e + e - annihilation. We consistently superimpose the direct (DD), single-resolved (DR), and double-resolved (RR) γγ channels. We consider photon spectra generated by electromagnetic bremsstrahlung and/or beamstrahlung off colliding e + and e - beams as well as those which result from backscattering of laser light off such beams. First, we revisit existing single-tag data taken by TASSO at PETRA and by MARK II at PEP (with e + e - energy √S∼30 GeV) and confront them with our NLO calculations imposing the respective experimental cuts. We also make comparisons with the neutral-kaon to charged-hadron ratio measured by MARK II. Then, we present NLO predictions for LEP2, a next-generation e + e - linear collider (NLC) in the TESLA design with √S=500 GeV, and a Compton collider obtained by converting a 500-GeV NLC. We analyze transverse-momentum and rapidity spectra with regard to the scale dependence, the interplay of the DD, DR, and RR components, the sensitivity to the gluon density inside the resolved photon, and the influence of gluon fragmentation. It turns out that the inclusive measurement of small-p T hadrons at a Compton collider would greatly constrain the gluon density of the photon and the gluon fragmentation function. (orig.)

  1. Construction and expression of a functional monoclonal antibody SZ-51 specific for GMP-140 chimeric fab fragment in Escherichia coli

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gu Jianming; Zhang Xiaomin; Xia Lijun; Wan Haiying; Liu Yue; Li Peixia; Ruan Changgeng

    1996-04-01

    The variable region cDNAs of a monoclonal antibody SZ-51 specific for α-granule membrane protein (GMP-140) on the surface of activated human platelets were spliced with the constant region cDNA of the heavy chain CH1 and light chain k of human Ig G by means of the gene recombination techniques. The above recombinant gene was amplified by the polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The expression vector of phage plasmid pHEN1 SZ-51 Fab/Hu was constructed. The pHEN1-51 Fab/Hu was introduced into non-suppressor E. coli HB2151. The amount of expression of SZ-51 chimeric Fab/Hu measured by quantitative ELISA was about 500 μg/L. Western blot demonstrated that the SZ-51 chimeric Fab fragment could specifically bind to GMP-140. (2 figs.)

  2. Framing Fragmentation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bundgaard, Charlotte

    2009-01-01

    Contemporary industrialized architecture based on advanced information technology and highly technological production processes, implies a radically different approach to architecture than what we have experienced in the past. Works of architecture composed of prefabricated building components......, contain distinctive architectural traits, not only based on rational repetition, but also supporting composition and montage as dynamic concepts. Prefab architecture is an architecture of fragmentation, individualization and changeability, and this sets up new challenges for the architect. This paper...... tries to develop a strategy for the architect dealing with industrially based architecture; a strategy which exploits architectural potentials in industrial building, which recognizes the rules of mass production and which redefines the architect’s position among the agents of building. If recent...

  3. Spatial distribution function of electron-photon shower particles for different values of Esub(0)/. beta. in isothermal atmosphere

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ivanenko, I P; Osipova, L N; Roganova, T M; Fedorova, G F [Moskovskij Gosudarstvennyj Univ. (USSR). Nauchno-Issledovatel' skij Inst. Yadernoj Fiziki

    1982-12-01

    Results of calculations of the spatial distribution function (SDF) of electron-photon shower particles for different values of the parameter E/sub 0//..beta.. in an isothermal atmosphere are given. Consideration of finiteness of the parameter E/sub 0//..beta.. leads to narrowing of SDF two times at E/sub 0//..beta.. approximately 10-100 as compared with the Nishimura, Kamata, Greisen SDF (E/sub 0//..beta.. = infinity). Atmosphere inhomogeneity results in SDF broadening in comparison with SDFsub(hom) (E/sub 0//..beta..) calculated for homogeneous atmosphere. SDFsub(inhom) (E/sub 0//..beta..) and SDFsub(hom) (E/sub 0//..beta..) depend on E/sub 0//..beta.. differently which is attributed to different contributions of shower prehistory to SDF formation. The larger is E/sub 0//..beta.., the wider is cascade curve and the higher is the effect of shower prehistory.

  4. Study of the photon-structure function F2γ in the reaction e+e- → e+e- + hadrons at LEP2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tyapkin, I.; Zimin, N.

    1999-01-01

    The photon-structure function F 2 γ has been studied in the Q 2 range from 10 to 1000 (GeV/c 2 ) 2 . The data corresponds to the integrated luminosity of about 220 pb -1 , collected by the DELPHI detector during the 1996-1998 LEP runs. Experimental distributions with particular attention on event shape are compared with predictions of the model. The three-component description of DIS proposed in our previous papers is applied here again. A result for Q 2 evolution of the photon-structure function has been obtained

  5. Study of function response of a detector HPGe to photons of reaction 19F(p,αγ)16O

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tridapalli, D.B.

    2006-01-01

    In the 19 F(p,αγ) 16 O reaction, characteristic gamma-rays with energies: 6.1 MeV; 6.9 MeV and 7.1 keV can be observed. These photons can be used in many important applications such as Proton Induced Gamma-ray Emission (PIGE), gamma radiography and calibration purposes. It has another advantage in calibration procedures, which is the observed photon flux is greater than other reactions studied, 27 Al(p,αγ) 28 Si and 23 Na(p,αγ) 24 Mg. In our laboratory, we are studying the efficiency and response function of HPGe detectors for high energy photons, and for this it is necessary a source with a level scheme with few gamma-ray transitions and known relative yields. The 19 F(p,αγ) 16 O reaction satisfies the first condition but in the literature we found relative yields for thick targets or reaction cross section for thin targets. However, we use targets of intermediate thickness, therefore in this work we measure the relative gamma-ray yields for protons with energies between 1.36 MeV and 1.42 MeV. The experiments were performed at the 1.7 MV Pelletron tandem accelerator of the Laboratorio de Analise de Materiais por Feixes Ionicos (LAMFI) located at Instituto de Fisica da Universidade de Sao Paulo, using a reverse-electrode closed-end coaxial HPGe detector with 72.5 mm in diameter and 60.5 mm in length, at 0 deg. The proton irradiation current was 50 nA, and the target consisted of 250 μg/cm 2 CaF 2 evaporated on a 0.1 mm Ta backing. In this reaction the 20 Ne resonant state fissions in flight, and the resulting 16 O excited states have different half-lives; all observed peaks are deformed due to either Doppler broadening from 16 O random velocity direction or Doppler shift from nuclei that leave the target toward the vacuum chamber. Moreover, the peak deformations vary with the proton energy. These deformations were modeled by a Monte Carlo simulation that follows the oxygen nuclei in its trajectory until photon emission, considering the changes in spatial

  6. Proteolytic processing of the cilium adhesin MHJ_0194 (P123J ) in Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae generates a functionally diverse array of cleavage fragments that bind multiple host molecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raymond, Benjamin B A; Jenkins, Cheryl; Seymour, Lisa M; Tacchi, Jessica L; Widjaja, Michael; Jarocki, Veronica M; Deutscher, Ania T; Turnbull, Lynne; Whitchurch, Cynthia B; Padula, Matthew P; Djordjevic, Steven P

    2015-03-01

    Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae, the aetiological agent of porcine enzootic pneumonia, regulates the presentation of proteins on its cell surface via endoproteolysis, including those of the cilial adhesin P123 (MHJ_0194). These proteolytic cleavage events create functional adhesins that bind to proteoglycans and glycoproteins on the surface of ciliated and non-ciliated epithelial cells and to the circulatory host molecule plasminogen. Two dominant cleavage events of the P123 preprotein have been previously characterized; however, immunoblotting studies suggest that more complex processing events occur. These extensive processing events are characterized here. The functional significance of the P97 cleavage fragments is also poorly understood. Affinity chromatography using heparin, fibronectin and plasminogen as bait and peptide arrays were used to expand our knowledge of the adhesive capabilities of P123 cleavage fragments and characterize a novel binding motif in the C-terminus of P123. Further, we use immunohistochemistry to examine in vivo, the biological significance of interactions between M. hyopneumoniae and fibronectin and show that M. hyopneumoniae induces fibronectin deposition at the site of infection on the ciliated epithelium. Our data supports the hypothesis that M. hyopneumoniae possesses the molecular machinery to influence key molecular communication pathways in host cells. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Polarized triple-collinear splitting functions at NLO for processes with photons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sborlini, Germán F.R.; Florian, Daniel de; Rodrigo, Germán

    2015-01-01

    We compute the polarized splitting functions in the triple collinear limit at next-to-leading order accuracy (NLO) in the strong coupling α_S, for the splitting processes γ→qq-barγ, γ→qq-barg and g→qq-barγ. The divergent structure of each splitting function was compared to the predicted behaviour according to Catani’s formula. The results obtained in this paper are compatible with the unpolarized splitting functions computed in a previous article. Explicit results for NLO corrections are presented in the context of conventional dimensional regularization (CDR).

  8. Polarized triple-collinear splitting functions at NLO for processes with photons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sborlini, Germán F.R. [Departamento de Física and IFIBA, FCEyN, Universidad de Buenos Aires (1428) Pabellón 1 Ciudad Universitaria, Capital Federal (Argentina); Instituto de Física Corpuscular, Universitat de València,Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas,Parc Científic, E-46980 Paterna, Valencia (Spain); Florian, Daniel de [Departamento de Física and IFIBA, FCEyN, Universidad de Buenos Aires (1428) Pabellón 1 Ciudad Universitaria, Capital Federal (Argentina); Rodrigo, Germán [Instituto de Física Corpuscular, Universitat de València,Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas,Parc Científic, E-46980 Paterna, Valencia (Spain)

    2015-03-04

    We compute the polarized splitting functions in the triple collinear limit at next-to-leading order accuracy (NLO) in the strong coupling α{sub S}, for the splitting processes γ→qq-barγ, γ→qq-barg and g→qq-barγ. The divergent structure of each splitting function was compared to the predicted behaviour according to Catani’s formula. The results obtained in this paper are compatible with the unpolarized splitting functions computed in a previous article. Explicit results for NLO corrections are presented in the context of conventional dimensional regularization (CDR).

  9. Transgenic Expression of a Functional Fragment of Harpin Protein Hpa1 in Wheat Represses English Grain Aphid Infestation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Man-yu; ZHOU Ting; ZHAO Yan-ying; LI Jia-bao; XU Heng; DONG Han-song; ZHANG Chun-ling

    2014-01-01

    The harpin protein Hpa1 produced by the rice bacterial blight pathogen promotes plant growth and induces plant resistance to pathogens and insect pests. The region of 10-42 residues (Hpa110-42) in the Hpa1 sequence is critical as the isolated Hpa110-42 fragment is 1.3-7.5-fold more effective than the full length in inducing plant growth and resistance. Here we report that transgenic expression of Hpa110-42 in wheat induces resistance to English grain aphid, a dominant species of wheat aphids. Hpa110-42-induced resistance is effective to inhibit the aphid behavior in plant preference at the initial colonization stage and repress aphid performances in the reproduction, nymph growth, and instar development on transgenic plants. The resistance characters are correlated with enhanced expression of defense-regulatory genes (EIN2, PP2-A, and GSL10) and consistent with induced expression of defense response genes (Hel, PDF1.2, PR-1b, and PR-2b). As a result, aphid infestations are alleviated in transgenic plants. The level of Hpa110-42-induced resistance in regard to repression of aphid infestations is equivalent to the effect of chemical control provided by an insecticide. These results suggested that the defensive role of Hpa110-42 can be integrated into breeding germplasm of the agriculturally signiifcant crop with a great potential of the agricultural application.

  10. QGP and Modified Jet Fragmentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Xin-Nian

    2005-01-01

    Recent progresses in the study of jet modification in hotmedium and their consequences in high-energy heavy-ion collisions are reviewed. In particular, I will discuss energy loss for propagating heavy quarks and the resulting modified fragmentation function. Medium modification of the parton fragmentation function due to quark recombination are formulated within finite temperature field theory and their implication on the search for deconfined quark-gluon plasma is also discussed

  11. A Fab fragment directed against the neural cell adhesion molecule L1 enhances functional recovery after injury of the adult mouse spinal cord.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loers, Gabriele; Cui, Yi-Fang; Neumaier, Irmgard; Schachner, Melitta; Skerra, Arne

    2014-06-15

    Lack of permissive mechanisms and abundance of inhibitory molecules in the lesioned central nervous system of adult mammals contribute to the failure of functional recovery, which leads to severe disabilities in motor functions or pain. Previous studies have indicated that the neural cell adhesion molecule L1 constitutes a viable target to promote regeneration. In the present study, we describe the cloning, functional expression in Escherichia coli cells and purification of a recombinant αL1 Fab fragment that binds to L1 with comparable activity as the function-triggering monoclonal antibody 557.B6 and induces neurite outgrowth and neuronal survival in cultured neurons, despite its monovalent function. Infusion of αL1 Fab into the lesioned spinal cord of mice enhanced functional recovery after thoracic spinal cord compression injury. αL1 Fab treatment resulted in reduced scar volume, enhanced number of tyrosine hydroxylase-positive axons and increased linear density of VGLUT1 (vesicular glutamate transporter 1) on motoneurons. Furthermore, the number and soma size of ChAT (choline acetyltransferase)-positive motoneurons and the linear density of ChAT-positive boutons on motoneurons as well as parvalbumin-positive interneurons in the lumbar spinal cord were elevated. Stimulation of endogenous L1 by application of the αL1 Fab opens new avenues for recombinant antibody technology, offering prospects for therapeutic applications after traumatic nervous system lesions.

  12. Clinical studies of brain functional images by motor activation using single photon emission computed tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kawaguchi, Masahiro [Gifu Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine

    1998-09-01

    Thirty participants (10 normal controls; group A, 5 patients with brain tumors located near central sulcus without hemiparesis; group B, 10 patients with brain tumors located near central sulcus with hemiparesis; group C, and 5 patients with brain tumors besides the central regions with hemiparesis; group D) were enrolled. The images were performed by means of split-dose method with {sup 99m}Tc-ECD at rest condition (SPECT 1) and during hand grasping (SPECT 2). The activation SPECT were obtained by subtracting SPECT 1 from SPECT 2, and the functional mapping was made by the strict registration of the activation SPECT with 3D MRI. To evaluate the changes of CBF (%{Delta}CBF) of the sensorimotor and supplementary motor areas on the functional mapping, ratio of the average counts of SPECT 1 and SPECT 2 was calculated and statistically compared. The functional activation paradigms caused a significant increase of CBF in the sensorimotor area contra-lateral to the stimulated hand, although the sensorimotor area and the central sulcus in groups B and C were dislocated, compared with hemisphere of non-tumor side. The sensorimotor area ipsi-lateral to the stimulated hand could be detected in almost of all subjects. The supplementary motor area could be detected in all subjects. In group A, the average %{Delta}CBF were up 24.1{+-}4.3% in the contra-lateral sensorimotor area, and 22.3{+-}3.6% in the supplementary motor area, respectively. The average %{Delta}CBF in the contra-lateral sensorimotor area of group D was significantly higher than that of group A. The brain functional mapping by motor activation using SPECT could localize the area of cortical motor function in normal volunteers and patients with brain tumors. The changes of regional CBF by activation SPECT precisely assess the cortical motor function even in patients with brain tumors located near central sulcus. (K.H.)

  13. Clinical studies of brain functional images by motor activation using single photon emission computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawaguchi, Masahiro

    1998-01-01

    Thirty participants (10 normal controls; group A, 5 patients with brain tumors located near central sulcus without hemiparesis; group B, 10 patients with brain tumors located near central sulcus with hemiparesis; group C, and 5 patients with brain tumors besides the central regions with hemiparesis; group D) were enrolled. The images were performed by means of split-dose method with 99m Tc-ECD at rest condition (SPECT 1) and during hand grasping (SPECT 2). The activation SPECT were obtained by subtracting SPECT 1 from SPECT 2, and the functional mapping was made by the strict registration of the activation SPECT with 3D MRI. To evaluate the changes of CBF (%ΔCBF) of the sensorimotor and supplementary motor areas on the functional mapping, ratio of the average counts of SPECT 1 and SPECT 2 was calculated and statistically compared. The functional activation paradigms caused a significant increase of CBF in the sensorimotor area contra-lateral to the stimulated hand, although the sensorimotor area and the central sulcus in groups B and C were dislocated, compared with hemisphere of non-tumor side. The sensorimotor area ipsi-lateral to the stimulated hand could be detected in almost of all subjects. The supplementary motor area could be detected in all subjects. In group A, the average %ΔCBF were up 24.1±4.3% in the contra-lateral sensorimotor area, and 22.3±3.6% in the supplementary motor area, respectively. The average %ΔCBF in the contra-lateral sensorimotor area of group D was significantly higher than that of group A. The brain functional mapping by motor activation using SPECT could localize the area of cortical motor function in normal volunteers and patients with brain tumors. The changes of regional CBF by activation SPECT precisely assess the cortical motor function even in patients with brain tumors located near central sulcus. (K.H.)

  14. New global fit to the total photon-proton cross-section σL+T and to the structure function F2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gabbert, D.; Nardo, L. de

    2007-08-01

    A fit to world data on the photon-proton cross section σ L+T and the unpolarised structure function F 2 is presented. The 23-parameter ALLM model based on Reggeon and Pomeron exchange is used. Cross section data were reconstructed to avoid inconsistencies with respect to R of the published F 2 data base. Parameter uncertainties and correlations are obtained. (orig.)

  15. Integrated microwave photonics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marpaung, D.A.I.; Roeloffzen, C.G.H.; Heideman, Rene; Leinse, Arne; Sales, S.; Capmany, J.

    2013-01-01

    Microwave photonics (MWP) is an emerging field in which radio frequency (RF) signals are generated, distributed, processed and analyzed using the strength of photonic techniques. It is a technology that enables various functionalities which are not feasible to achieve only in the microwave domain. A

  16. Physics with Photons at the ATLAS experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez-Reale, V.

    2008-01-01

    The identification of photons in the ATLAS experiment is crucial for the study of a number of physics channels, including the search for a Higgs boson decaying to photon pairs, and measurements of direct production of single photons and photon pairs. The photon-photon and photon-jet channels are interesting in their own right, allowing the study of QCD at the new energy range of the LHC. The photon-identification strategy in ATLAS will be presented along with photon-jet cross section measurements and the potential ATLAS constrains on the gluon structure function

  17. Scanless functional imaging of hippocampal networks using patterned two-photon illumination through GRIN lenses

    KAUST Repository

    Moretti, Claudio; Antonini, Andrea; Bovetti, Serena; Liberale, Carlo; Fellin, Tommaso

    2016-01-01

    functional imaging in rodent hippocampal networks in vivo ~1.2 mm below the brain surface. Our results open the way to the application of patterned illumination approaches to deep regions of highly scattering biological tissues, such as the mammalian brain.

  18. CONFERENCE: Photon-photon collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1983-01-01

    Despite being difficult to observe, photon-photon collisions have opened up a range of physics difficult, or even impossible, to access by other methods. The progress which has been made in this field was evident at the fifth international workshop on photon-photon collisions, held in Aachen from 13-16 April and attended by some 120 physicists

  19. Multi-photon absorption limits to heralded single photon sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Husko, Chad A.; Clark, Alex S.; Collins, Matthew J.; De Rossi, Alfredo; Combrié, Sylvain; Lehoucq, Gaëlle; Rey, Isabella H.; Krauss, Thomas F.; Xiong, Chunle; Eggleton, Benjamin J.

    2013-01-01

    Single photons are of paramount importance to future quantum technologies, including quantum communication and computation. Nonlinear photonic devices using parametric processes offer a straightforward route to generating photons, however additional nonlinear processes may come into play and interfere with these sources. Here we analyse spontaneous four-wave mixing (SFWM) sources in the presence of multi-photon processes. We conduct experiments in silicon and gallium indium phosphide photonic crystal waveguides which display inherently different nonlinear absorption processes, namely two-photon (TPA) and three-photon absorption (ThPA), respectively. We develop a novel model capturing these diverse effects which is in excellent quantitative agreement with measurements of brightness, coincidence-to-accidental ratio (CAR) and second-order correlation function g(2)(0), showing that TPA imposes an intrinsic limit on heralded single photon sources. We build on these observations to devise a new metric, the quantum utility (QMU), enabling further optimisation of single photon sources. PMID:24186400

  20. Effects of nocturnal railway noise on sleep fragmentation in young and middle-aged subjects as a function of type of train and sound level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saremi, Mahnaz; Grenèche, Jérôme; Bonnefond, Anne; Rohmer, Odile; Eschenlauer, Arnaud; Tassi, Patricia

    2008-12-01

    Due to undisputable effects of noise on sleep structure, especially in terms of sleep fragmentation, the expected development of railway transportation in the next few years might represent a potential risk factor for people living alongside the rail tracks. The aim of this study was to compare the effects of different types of train (freight, automotive, passenger) on arousal from sleep and to determine any differential impact as a function of sound level and age. Twenty young (16 women, 4 men; 25.8 years+/-2.6) and 18 middle-aged (15 women, 3 men; 52.2 years+/-2.5) healthy subjects participated in three whole-night polysomnographic recordings including one control night (35 dBA), and two noisy nights with equivalent noise levels of 40 or 50 dB(A), respectively. Arousal responsiveness increased with sound level. It was the highest in S2 and the lowest in REM sleep. Micro-arousals (3-10 s) occurred at a rate of 25-30%, irrespective of the type of train. Awakenings (>10 s) were produced more frequently by freight train than by automotive and passenger trains. Normal age-related changes in sleep were observed, but they were not aggravated by railway noise, thus questioning whether older persons are less sensitive to noise during sleep. These evidences led to the conclusion that microscopic detection of sleep fragmentation may provide advantageous information on sleep disturbances caused by environmental noises.

  1. Fission fragment spins and spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Durell, J.L.

    1988-01-01

    Prompt γ-ray coincidence experiments have been carried out on γ-rays emitted from post-neutron emission fission fragments produced by the aup 19F + 197 Au and 18 O + 232 Th reactions. Decay schemes have been established for even-even nuclei ranging from 78 Se to 148 Nd. Many new states with spin up to ∼ 12h have been observed. Apart from providing a wealth of new information on the spectroscopy of neutron-rich nuclei, the data have been analyzed to determine the average spin of primary fission fragments as a function of fragment mass. The results suggest that the fragment spins are determined by the temperature and shape of the primary fragments at or near to scission

  2. Antibody fragments directed against different portions of the human neural cell adhesion molecule L1 act as inhibitors or activators of L1 function.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Wang

    Full Text Available The neural cell adhesion molecule L1 plays important roles in neuronal migration and survival, neuritogenesis and synaptogenesis. L1 has also been found in tumors of different origins, with levels of L1 expression correlating positively with the metastatic potential of tumors. To select antibodies targeting the varied functions of L1, we screened the Tomlinson library of recombinant human antibody fragments to identify antibodies binding to recombinant human L1 protein comprising the entire extracellular domain of human L1. We obtained four L1 binding single-chain variable fragment antibodies (scFvs, named I4, I6, I13, and I27 and showed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA that scFvs I4 and I6 have high affinity to the immunoglobulin-like (Ig domains 1-4 of L1, while scFvs I13 and I27 bind strongly to the fibronectin type III homologous (Fn domains 1-3 of L1. Application of scFvs I4 and I6 to human SK-N-SH neuroblastoma cells reduced proliferation and transmigration of these cells. Treatment of SK-N-SH cells with scFvs I13 and I27 enhanced cell proliferation and migration, neurite outgrowth, and protected against the toxic effects of H(2O(2 by increasing the ratio of Bcl-2/Bax. In addition, scFvs I4 and I6 inhibited and scFvs I13 and I27 promoted phosphorylation of src and Erk. Our findings indicate that scFvs reacting with the immunoglobulin-like domains 1-4 inhibit L1 functions, whereas scFvs interacting with the fibronectin type III domains 1-3 trigger L1 functions of cultured neuroblastoma cells.

  3. Photon technology. Hard photon technology; Photon technology. Hard photon gijutsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-03-01

    Research results of hard photon technology have been summarized as a part of novel technology development highly utilizing the quantum nature of photon. Hard photon technology refers to photon beam technologies which use photon in the 0.1 to 200 nm wavelength region. Hard photon has not been used in industry due to the lack of suitable photon sources and optical devices. However, hard photon in this wavelength region is expected to bring about innovations in such areas as ultrafine processing and material synthesis due to its atom selective reaction, inner shell excitation reaction, and spatially high resolution. Then, technological themes and possibility have been surveyed. Although there are principle proposes and their verification of individual technologies for the technologies of hard photon generation, regulation and utilization, they are still far from the practical applications. For the photon source technology, the laser diode pumped driver laser technology, laser plasma photon source technology, synchrotron radiation photon source technology, and vacuum ultraviolet photon source technology are presented. For the optical device technology, the multi-layer film technology for beam mirrors and the non-spherical lens processing technology are introduced. Also are described the reduction lithography technology, hard photon excitation process, and methods of analysis and measurement. 430 refs., 165 figs., 23 tabs.

  4. QCD measurements in photon-photon collisions at LEP

    OpenAIRE

    Csilling, Akos

    2001-01-01

    An overview of the latest results of the LEP collaborations on QCD measurements in photon-photon collisions is presented, including measurements of the total hadronic cross-section, the production of heavy quarks and dijets and the structure functions of real and virtual photons.

  5. The plant functional traits that explain species occurrence across fragmented grasslands differ according to patch management, isolation, and wetness

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Janečková, Petra; Janeček, Štěpán; Klimešová, Jitka; Götzenberger, Lars; Horník, J.; Lepš, J.; de Bello, Francesco

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 32, č. 4 (2017), s. 791-805 ISSN 0921-2973 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP505/12/1296; GA ČR(CZ) GA16-12243S Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : Functional traits * Isolation * Management Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour OBOR OECD: Ecology Impact factor: 3.615, year: 2016

  6. Novel Organic Materials for Multi-photon Photopolymerization and Photografting: Powerful Tools for Precise Microfabracation and Functionalization in 3D

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Z.

    2013-07-01

    Two-photon excitation provides the possibility of the activation of chemical or physical processes with high spatial resolution in 3D. Such strategy has been widely used in microfabrication of photonic crystals, polymer-based optical waveguides on integrated circuit boards, high-density 3D optical data storage and other industries requiring high precision. Since the photo-activated chemical or physical processes are confined only within the small focal volume, excellent spatial control could be obtained. Moreover, the excitation source with long wavelength offers the advantages of deeper tissue penetration and less photodamage, making 2PA especially suitable for various biological applications, such as bioimaging and in-vivo biofabrications. The development of novel two-photon absorption (2PA) active organic materials is essential to realize the desired functions. The first part of the thesis focuses on the novel 2PA photoinitiators (2PIs) used for two-photon induced photopolymerization (2PP), a versatile technique for precise 3D microfabrications. High initiation efficiency is the most important character for an efficient PI. Based on a potent lead structure 1,5-bis(4-(N,N-dibutylamino) phenyl)penta-1,4-diyn-3-one, several aromatic ketone-based 2PIs containing triple bonds and dialkylamino groups were synthesized via Sonogashira coupling reactions. 2, 7-substituted fluorenone-based PI B3FL, with the largest 2PA cross section of 440 GM at 800 nm, exhibited the broadest processing windows among the investigated PIs. The double bonds conversion of the cross-linking polymeric network and the mechanical properties of the microstructures were also evaluated by FTIR and nanoindentation measurements, respectively. Beside initiation efficiency of PIs, the ease and cost of preparation are also critical factors from practical aspect. To overcome the problem of the reported 2PIs derived from the complicated syntheses and expensive catalysts, a series of linear and cyclic

  7. TL response of LiF: Mg, Cu, P dosemeters in function of the photon energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez, P.R.; Azorin, J.; Furetta, C.

    2005-01-01

    In this work the obtained results of studying the response of dosemeters of LiF: Mg, Cu, P + Ptfe, developed in the ININ, commercial dosemeters GR200A (LiF: Mg, Cu, P) of chinese manufacture and TLD-100 (LiF: Mg, Ti) US are presented, when irradiating them with X rays 16, 24, 34.5, 42, 100 and 145 keV of effective energy, with gamma rays of 662 keV ( 137 Cs) and 1252 keV ( 60 Co). The results are presented in function of the sensitivity that the dosemeters showed normalized to gamma radiation of 60 Co. It was appreciated that the dosemeters more equivalent to the tissue, they were those of LiF: Mg, Cu, P + Ptfe, while the less equivalent ones were the TLD-100. (Author)

  8. Photonic quantum information: science and technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeuchi, Shigeki

    2016-01-01

    Recent technological progress in the generation, manipulation and detection of individual single photons has opened a new scientific field of photonic quantum information. This progress includes the realization of single photon switches, photonic quantum circuits with specific functions, and the application of novel photonic states to novel optical metrology beyond the limits of standard optics. In this review article, the recent developments and current status of photonic quantum information technology are overviewed based on the author's past and recent works.

  9. Modelling the fragmentation mechanisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bougault, R.; Durand, D.; Gulminelli, F.

    1998-01-01

    We have investigated the role of high amplitude collective motion in the nuclear fragmentation by using semi-classical macroscopic, as well as, microscopic simulations (BUU). These studies are motivated by the search of instabilities responsible for nuclear fragmentation. Two cases were examined: the bubble formation following the collective expansion of the compressed nucleus in case of very central reactions and, in the case of the semi-central collisions, the fast fission of the two partners issued from a binary reaction, in their corresponding Coulomb field. In the two cases the fragmentation channel is dominated by the inter-relation between the Coulomb and nuclear fields, and it is possible to obtain semi-quantitative predictions as functions of interaction parameters. The transport equations of BUU type predicts for central reactions formation of a high density transient state. Of much interest is the mechanism subsequent to de-excitation. It seems reasonable to conceive that the pressure stocked in the compressional mode manifests itself as a collective expansion of the system. As the pressure is a increasing function of the available energy one can conceive a variety of energy depending exit channels, starting from the fragmentation due the amplification of fluctuations interior to the spinodal zone up to the complete vaporization of the highly excited system. If the reached pressure is sufficiently high the reaction final state may preserve the memory of the entrance channel as a collective radial energy superimposed to the thermal disordered motion. Distributions of particles in the configuration space for both central and semi-central reactions for the Pb+Au system are presented. The rupture time is estimated to the order of 300 fm/c, and is strongly dependent on the initial temperature. The study of dependence of the rupture time on the interaction parameters is under way

  10. NEAR-IR TWO PHOTON MICROSCOPY IMAGING OF SILICA NANOPARTICLES FUNCTIONALIZED WITH ISOLATED SENSITIZED Yb(III) CENTERS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lapadula, Giuseppe; Bourdolle, Adrien; Allouche, Florian; Conley, Matthew P.; Maron, Laurent; Lukens, Wayne W.; Guyot, Yannick; Andraud, Chantal; Brasselet, Sophie; Copé; ret, Christophe; Maury, Olivier; Andersen, Richard A.

    2013-01-12

    Bright nano objects emitting in the near infrared with a maximal cross section of 41.4 x 103 GM (Goppert Mayer), were prepared by implanting ca. 180 4,4 diethylaminostyryl 2,2 bipyridine (DEAS) Yb(III) complexes on the surface of 12 nm silica nanoparticles. The surface complexes ([DEAS Ln SiO2], Ln =Y,Yb) were characterized using IR, solid state NMR, UV Vis, EXAFS spectroscopies in combination with the preparation and characterization of similar molecular analogues by analytical techniques (IR, solution NMR, UV Vis, X ray crystallography) as well as DFT calculations. Starting from the partial dehydroxylation of the silica at 700 C on high vacuum having 0.8 OH.nm 2, the grafting of Ln(N(SiMe3)2)3 generate ≤SiO Ln(N(SiMe3)2)2, which upon thermal step and coordination of the DEAS chromophore yields (≤SiO)3Ln(DEAS). Surface and molecular analogues display similar properties, in terms of DEAS binding constants absorption maxima and luminescence properties (intense emission band assigned to a ligand centered CT fluorescence and life time) in the solid state, consistent with the molecular nature of the surface species. The densely functionalized nanoparticles can be dispersed via ultra-sonication in small ca. 15-20 nm aggregates (1 to 6 elementary particles) that were detected using two photon microscopy imaging at 720 nm excitation, making them promising nano objects for bio imaging.

  11. Assessment of left ventricular function using 201Tl electrocardiogram-gated myocardial single photon emission computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishikubo, Naotsugu; Tamai, Hiroyuki

    2013-01-01

    Advances in computed tomography (CT) technology make it possible to obtain left ventricular wall motion using 3D reconstruction. In this study, we compared the images obtained from CT and 201 Tl electrocardiogram (ECG) gated single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). In 20 patients with ischemic heart disease, we performed 201 Tl ECG gated SPECT (GE Healthcare Millennium VG) and ECG gated CT (Philips Medical Systems Brilliance iCT) to evaluate of left ventricular wall motion during the resting phase. In SPECT, left ventricular images were reconstructed using quantitative gated SPECT (QGS) software. In CT, the images were reconstructed using Virtual Place (AZE Software). The left ventricle was classified into five regions (anterior, lateral, inferior, septal, and apical). The amplitude of the wall motion was classified into five grades according to AHA classification. The values of the wall motion were separately checked by two radiographers. Assessment of left ventricular function myocardial wall movement using the three-dimensional movie display with ECG gated myocardial SPECT data was in agreement with the evaluation by cardiac CT inspection, and corresponded with wall motion in 88 of all 100 segments. SPECT analysis has the same quantity as that of obtained from CT for evaluation of left ventricular wall motion. (author)

  12. Measurement of charm fragmentation in DIS at HERA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rurikova, Z.

    2006-04-15

    The charm fragmentation function has been studied in deep inelastic ep collisions with the H1 detector at HERA. The data were analyzed in the kinematic range given by the photon virtuality 2function of two scaling variables sensitive to fragmentation, z{sub hem} and z{sub jet}, was measured in the D{sup *}-meson visible range de ned by cuts on pseudorapidity vertical stroke {eta}(D{sup *}) vertical stroke <1.5 and transverse momentum 1.5photon-proton center-of-mass frame, whereas in the case of the z{sub jet} observable, the charm quark momentum was approximated by the momentum of the reconstructed jet associated with the D{sup *}-meson. A transverse energy E{sub t}{sup {gamma}}{sup p}(D{sup *}jet)>3 GeV was required in the latter case. Both distributions were used to extract the parameters of the nonperturbative Peterson and Kartvelishvili fragmentation functions for the Monte Carlo models RAPGAP/PYTHIA and CASCADE/PYTHIA and for the next-to-leading-order massive QCD calculation HVQDIS. (orig.)

  13. Polychromatic photons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keller, Ole

    2002-01-01

    train quantum electrodynamics. A brief description of particle (photon) position operators is given, and it is shown that photons usually are only algebraically confined in an emission process. Finally, it is demonstrated that the profile of the birth domain of a radio-frequency photon emitted...

  14. Measurement of the jet fragmentation function and transverse profile in proton-proton collisions at a center-of-mass energy of 7 TeV with the ATLAS detector

    CERN Document Server

    Aad, Georges; Abdallah, Jalal; Abdelalim, Ahmed Ali; Abdesselam, Abdelouahab; Abdinov, Ovsat; Abi, Babak; Abolins, Maris; Abramowicz, Halina; Abreu, Henso; Acerbi, Emilio; Acharya, Bobby Samir; Adams, David; Addy, Tetteh; Adelman, Jahred; Aderholz, Michael; Adomeit, Stefanie; Adragna, Paolo; Adye, Tim; Aefsky, Scott; Aguilar-Saavedra, Juan Antonio; Aharrouche, Mohamed; Ahlen, Steven; Ahles, Florian; Ahmad, Ashfaq; Ahsan, Mahsana; Aielli, Giulio; Akdogan, Taylan; Akesson, Torsten Paul; Akimoto, Ginga; Akimov, Andrei; Akiyama, Kunihiro; Alam, Mohammad; Alam, Muhammad Aftab; Albert, Justin; Albrand, Solveig; Aleksa, Martin; Aleksandrov, Igor; Alessandria, Franco; Alexa, Calin; Alexander, Gideon; Alexandre, Gauthier; Alexopoulos, Theodoros; Alhroob, Muhammad; Aliev, Malik; Alimonti, Gianluca; Alison, John; Aliyev, Magsud; Allport, Phillip; Allwood-Spiers, Sarah; Almond, John; Aloisio, Alberto; Alon, Raz; Alonso, Alejandro; Alviggi, Mariagrazia; Amako, Katsuya; Amaral, Pedro; Amelung, Christoph; Ammosov, Vladimir; Amorim, Antonio; Amoros, Gabriel; Amram, Nir; Anastopoulos, Christos; Ancu, Lucian Stefan; Andari, Nansi; Andeen, Timothy; Anders, Christoph Falk; Anders, Gabriel; Anderson, Kelby; Andreazza, Attilio; Andrei, George Victor; Andrieux, Marie-Laure; Anduaga, Xabier; Angerami, Aaron; Anghinolfi, Francis; Anjos, Nuno; Annovi, Alberto; Antonaki, Ariadni; Antonelli, Mario; Antonov, Alexey; Antos, Jaroslav; Anulli, Fabio; Aoun, Sahar; Aperio Bella, Ludovica; Apolle, Rudi; Arabidze, Giorgi; Aracena, Ignacio; Arai, Yasuo; Arce, Ayana; Archambault, John-Paul; Arfaoui, Samir; Arguin, Jean-Francois; Arik, Engin; Arik, Metin; Armbruster, Aaron James; Arnaez, Olivier; Arnault, Christian; Artamonov, Andrei; Artoni, Giacomo; Arutinov, David; Asai, Shoji; Asfandiyarov, Ruslan; Ask, Stefan; Asman, Barbro; Asquith, Lily; Assamagan, Ketevi; Astbury, Alan; Astvatsatourov, Anatoli; Atoian, Grigor; Aubert, Bernard; Auge, Etienne; Augsten, Kamil; Aurousseau, Mathieu; Austin, Nicholas; Avolio, Giuseppe; Avramidou, Rachel Maria; Axen, David; Ay, Cano; Azuelos, Georges; Azuma, Yuya; Baak, Max; Baccaglioni, Giuseppe; Bacci, Cesare; Bach, Andre; Bachacou, Henri; Bachas, Konstantinos; Bachy, Gerard; Backes, Moritz; Backhaus, Malte; Badescu, Elisabeta; Bagnaia, Paolo; Bahinipati, Seema; Bai, Yu; Bailey, David; Bain, Travis; Baines, John; Baker, Oliver Keith; Baker, Mark; Baker, Sarah; Banas, Elzbieta; Banerjee, Piyali; Banerjee, Swagato; Banfi, Danilo; Bangert, Andrea Michelle; Bansal, Vikas; Bansil, Hardeep Singh; Barak, Liron; Baranov, Sergei; Barashkou, Andrei; Galtieri, Angela Barbaro; Barber, Tom; Barberio, Elisabetta Luigia; Barberis, Dario; Barbero, Marlon; Bardin, Dmitri; Barillari, Teresa; Barisonzi, Marcello; Barklow, Timothy; Barlow, Nick; Barnett, Bruce; Barnett, Michael; Baroncelli, Antonio; Barone, Gaetano; Barr, Alan; Barreiro, Fernando; Barreiro Guimaraes da Costa, Joao; Barrillon, Pierre; Bartoldus, Rainer; Barton, Adam Edward; Bartsch, Detlef; Bartsch, Valeria; Bates, Richard; Batkova, Lucia; Batley, Richard; Battaglia, Andreas; Battistin, Michele; Battistoni, Giuseppe; Bauer, Florian; Bawa, Harinder Singh; Beare, Brian; Beau, Tristan; Beauchemin, Pierre-Hugues; Beccherle, Roberto; Bechtle, Philip; Beck, Hans Peter; Beckingham, Matthew; Becks, Karl-Heinz; Beddall, Andrew; Beddall, Ayda; Bedikian, Sourpouhi; Bednyakov, Vadim; Bee, Christopher; Begel, Michael; Behar Harpaz, Silvia; Behera, Prafulla; Beimforde, Michael; Belanger-Champagne, Camille; Bell, Paul; Bell, William; Bella, Gideon; Bellagamba, Lorenzo; Bellina, Francesco; Bellomo, Massimiliano; Belloni, Alberto; Beloborodova, Olga; Belotskiy, Konstantin; Beltramello, Olga; Ben Ami, Sagi; Benary, Odette; Benchekroun, Driss; Benchouk, Chafik; Bendel, Markus; Benekos, Nektarios; Benhammou, Yan; Benjamin, Douglas; Benoit, Mathieu; Bensinger, James; Benslama, Kamal; Bentvelsen, Stan; Berge, David; Bergeaas Kuutmann, Elin; Berger, Nicolas; Berghaus, Frank; Berglund, Elina; Beringer, Jurg; Bernardet, Karim; Bernat, Pauline; Bernhard, Ralf; Bernius, Catrin; Berry, Tracey; Bertin, Antonio; Bertinelli, Francesco; Bertolucci, Federico; Besana, Maria Ilaria; Besson, Nathalie; Bethke, Siegfried; Bhimji, Wahid; Bianchi, Riccardo-Maria; Bianco, Michele; Biebel, Otmar; Bieniek, Stephen Paul; Bierwagen, Katharina; Biesiada, Jed; Biglietti, Michela; Bilokon, Halina; Bindi, Marcello; Binet, Sebastien; Bingul, Ahmet; Bini, Cesare; Biscarat, Catherine; Bitenc, Urban; Black, Kevin; Blair, Robert; Blanchard, Jean-Baptiste; Blanchot, Georges; Blazek, Tomas; Blocker, Craig; Blocki, Jacek; Blondel, Alain; Blum, Walter; Blumenschein, Ulrike; Bobbink, Gerjan; Bobrovnikov, Victor; Bocchetta, Simona Serena; Bocci, Andrea; Boddy, Christopher Richard; Boehler, Michael; Boek, Jennifer; Boelaert, Nele; Boser, Sebastian; Bogaerts, Joannes Andreas; Bogdanchikov, Alexander; Bogouch, Andrei; Bohm, Christian; Boisvert, Veronique; Bold, Tomasz; Boldea, Venera; Bolnet, Nayanka Myriam; Bona, Marcella; Bondarenko, Valery; Bondioli, Mario; Boonekamp, Maarten; Boorman, Gary; Booth, Chris; Bordoni, Stefania; Borer, Claudia; Borisov, Anatoly; Borissov, Guennadi; Borjanovic, Iris; Borroni, Sara; Bos, Kors; Boscherini, Davide; Bosman, Martine; Boterenbrood, Hendrik; Botterill, David; Bouchami, Jihene; Boudreau, Joseph; Bouhova-Thacker, Evelina Vassileva; Bourdarios, Claire; Bousson, Nicolas; Boveia, Antonio; Boyd, James; Boyko, Igor; Bozhko, Nikolay; Bozovic-Jelisavcic, Ivanka; Bracinik, Juraj; Braem, Andre; Branchini, Paolo; Brandenburg, George; Brandt, Andrew; Brandt, Gerhard; Brandt, Oleg; Bratzler, Uwe; Brau, Benjamin; Brau, James; Braun, Helmut; Brelier, Bertrand; Bremer, Johan; Brenner, Richard; Bressler, Shikma; Breton, Dominique; Britton, Dave; Brochu, Frederic; Brock, Ian; Brock, Raymond; Brodbeck, Timothy; Brodet, Eyal; Broggi, Francesco; Bromberg, Carl; Brooijmans, Gustaaf; Brooks, William; Brown, Gareth; Brown, Heather; Bruckman de Renstrom, Pawel; Bruncko, Dusan; Bruneliere, Renaud; Brunet, Sylvie; Bruni, Alessia; Bruni, Graziano; Bruschi, Marco; Buanes, Trygve; Bucci, Francesca; Buchanan, James; Buchanan, Norman; Buchholz, Peter; Buckingham, Ryan; Buckley, Andrew; Buda, Stelian Ioan; Budagov, Ioulian; Budick, Burton; Buscher, Volker; Bugge, Lars; Buira-Clark, Daniel; Bulekov, Oleg; Bunse, Moritz; Buran, Torleiv; Burckhart, Helfried; Burdin, Sergey; Burgess, Thomas; Burke, Stephen; Busato, Emmanuel; Bussey, Peter; Buszello, Claus-Peter; Butin, Francois; Butler, Bart; Butler, John; Buttar, Craig; Butterworth, Jonathan; Buttinger, William; Cabrera Urban, Susana; Caforio, Davide; Cakir, Orhan; Calafiura, Paolo; Calderini, Giovanni; Calfayan, Philippe; Calkins, Robert; Caloba, Luiz; Caloi, Rita; Calvet, David; Calvet, Samuel; Camacho Toro, Reina; Camarri, Paolo; Cambiaghi, Mario; Cameron, David; Campana, Simone; Campanelli, Mario; Canale, Vincenzo; Canelli, Florencia; Canepa, Anadi; Cantero, Josu; Capasso, Luciano; Garrido, Maria Del Mar Capeans; Caprini, Irinel; Caprini, Mihai; Capriotti, Daniele; Capua, Marcella; Caputo, Regina; Cardarelli, Roberto; Carli, Tancredi; Carlino, Gianpaolo; Carminati, Leonardo; Caron, Bryan; Caron, Sascha; Montoya, German D.Carrillo; Carter, Antony; Carter, Janet; Carvalho, Joao; Casadei, Diego; Casado, Maria Pilar; Cascella, Michele; Caso, Carlo; Castaneda Hernandez, Alfredo Martin; Castaneda-Miranda, Elizabeth; Castillo Gimenez, Victoria; Castro, Nuno Filipe; Cataldi, Gabriella; Cataneo, Fernando; Catinaccio, Andrea; Catmore, James; Cattai, Ariella; Cattani, Giordano; Caughron, Seth; Cauz, Diego; Cavalleri, Pietro; Cavalli, Donatella; Cavalli-Sforza, Matteo; Cavasinni, Vincenzo; Ceradini, Filippo; Santiago Cerqueira, Augusto; Cerri, Alessandro; Cerrito, Lucio; Cerutti, Fabio; Cetin, Serkant Ali; Cevenini, Francesco; Chafaq, Aziz; Chakraborty, Dhiman; Chan, Kevin; Chapleau, Bertrand; Chapman, John Derek; Chapman, John Wehrley; Chareyre, Eve; Charlton, Dave; Chavda, Vikash; Chavez Barajas, Carlos Alberto; Cheatham, Susan; Chekanov, Sergei; Chekulaev, Sergey; Chelkov, Gueorgui; Chelstowska, Magda Anna; Chen, Chunhui; Chen, Hucheng; Chen, Shenjian; Chen, Tingyang; Chen, Xin; Cheng, Shaochen; Cheplakov, Alexander; Chepurnov, Vladimir; Cherkaoui El Moursli, Rajaa; Chernyatin, Valeriy; Cheu, Elliott; Cheung, Sing-Leung; Chevalier, Laurent; Chiefari, Giovanni; Chikovani, Leila; Childers, John Taylor; Chilingarov, Alexandre; Chiodini, Gabriele; Chizhov, Mihail; Choudalakis, Georgios; Chouridou, Sofia; Christidi, Illectra-Athanasia; Christov, Asen; Chromek-Burckhart, Doris; Chu, Ming-Lee; Chudoba, Jiri; Ciapetti, Guido; Ciba, Krzysztof; Ciftci, Abbas Kenan; Ciftci, Rena; Cinca, Diane; Cindro, Vladimir; Ciobotaru, Matei Dan; Ciocca, Claudia; Ciocio, Alessandra; Cirilli, Manuela; Ciubancan, Mihai; Clark, Allan G.; Clark, Philip; Cleland, Bill; Clemens, Jean-Claude; Clement, Benoit; Clement, Christophe; Clifft, Roger; Coadou, Yann; Cobal, Marina; Coccaro, Andrea; Cochran, James H.; Coe, Paul; Cogan, Joshua Godfrey; Coggeshall, James; Cogneras, Eric; Cojocaru, Claudiu; Colas, Jacques; Colijn, Auke-Pieter; Collard, Caroline; Collins, Neil; Collins-Tooth, Christopher; Collot, Johann; Colon, German; Conde Muino, Patricia; Coniavitis, Elias; Conidi, Maria Chiara; Consonni, Michele; Consorti, Valerio; Constantinescu, Serban; Conta, Claudio; Conventi, Francesco; Cook, James; Cooke, Mark; Cooper, Ben; Cooper-Sarkar, Amanda; Cooper-Smith, Neil; Copic, Katherine; Cornelissen, Thijs; Corradi, Massimo; Corriveau, Francois; Cortes-Gonzalez, Arely; Cortiana, Giorgio; Costa, Giuseppe; Costa, Maria Jose; Costanzo, Davide; Costin, Tudor; Cote, David; Courneyea, Lorraine; Cowan, Glen; Cowden, Christopher; Cox, Brian; Cranmer, Kyle; Crescioli, Francesco; Cristinziani, Markus; Crosetti, Giovanni; Crupi, Roberto; Crepe-Renaudin, Sabine; Cuciuc, Constantin-Mihai; Cuenca Almenar, Cristobal; Donszelmann, Tulay Cuhadar; Curatolo, Maria; Curtis, Chris; Cwetanski, Peter; Czirr, Hendrik; Czyczula, Zofia; D'Auria, Saverio; D'Onofrio, Monica; D'Orazio, Alessia; Da Silva, Paulo Vitor; Da Via, Cinzia; Dabrowski, Wladyslaw; Dai, Tiesheng; Dallapiccola, Carlo; Dam, Mogens; Dameri, Mauro; Damiani, Daniel; Danielsson, Hans Olof; Dannheim, Dominik; Dao, Valerio; Darbo, Giovanni; Darlea, Georgiana Lavinia; Daum, Cornelis; Dauvergne, Jean-Pierre; Davey, Will; Davidek, Tomas; Davidson, Nadia; Davidson, Ruth; Davies, Eleanor; Davies, Merlin; Davison, Adam; Davygora, Yuriy; Dawe, Edmund; Dawson, Ian; Dawson, John; Daya, Rozmin; De, Kaushik; De Asmundis, Riccardo; De Castro, Stefano; De Castro Faria Salgado, Pedro; De Cecco, Sandro; de Graat, Julien; De Groot, Nicolo; de Jong, Paul; de la Taille, Christophe; de la Torre, Hector; De Lotto, Barbara; De Mora, Lee; De Nooij, Lucie; De Pedis, Daniele; De Salvo, Alessandro; De Sanctis, Umberto; De Santo, Antonella; de Vivie De Regie, Jean-Baptiste; Dean, Simon; Debbe, Ramiro; Dedovich, Dmitri; Degenhardt, James; Dehchar, Mohamed; del Papa, Carlo; del Peso, Jose; del Prete, Tarcisio; Deliyergiyev, Maksym; Dell'Acqua, Andrea; Dell'Asta, Lidia; Della Pietra, Massimo; della Volpe, Domenico; Delmastro, Marco; Delpierre, Pierre; Delruelle, Nicolas; Delsart, Pierre-Antoine; Deluca, Carolina; Demers, Sarah; Demichev, Mikhail; Demirkoz, Bilge; Deng, Jianrong; Denisov, Sergey; Derendarz, Dominik; Derkaoui, Jamal Eddine; Derue, Frederic; Dervan, Paul; Desch, Klaus Kurt; Devetak, Erik; Deviveiros, Pier-Olivier; Dewhurst, Alastair; DeWilde, Burton; Dhaliwal, Saminder; Dhullipudi, Ramasudhakar; Di Ciaccio, Anna; Di Ciaccio, Lucia; Di Girolamo, Alessandro; Di Girolamo, Beniamino; Di Luise, Silvestro; Di Mattia, Alessandro; Di Micco, Biagio; Di Nardo, Roberto; Di Simone, Andrea; Di Sipio, Riccardo; Diaz, Marco Aurelio; Diblen, Faruk; Diehl, Edward; Dietrich, Janet; Dietzsch, Thorsten; Diglio, Sara; Yagci, Kamile Dindar; Dingfelder, Jochen; Dionisi, Carlo; Dita, Petre; Dita, Sanda; Dittus, Fridolin; Djama, Fares; Djobava, Tamar; Barros do Vale, Maria Aline; Do Valle Wemans, Andre; Doan, Thi Kieu Oanh; Dobbs, Matt; Dobinson, Robert; Dobos, Daniel; Dobson, Ellie; Dobson, Marc; Dodd, Jeremy; Doglioni, Caterina; Doherty, Tom; Doi, Yoshikuni; Dolejsi, Jiri; Dolenc, Irena; Dolezal, Zdenek; Dolgoshein, Boris; Dohmae, Takeshi; Donadelli, Marisilvia; Donega, Mauro; Donini, Julien; Dopke, Jens; Doria, Alessandra; dos Anjos, Andre; Dosil, Mireia; Dotti, Andrea; Dova, Maria-Teresa; Dowell, John; Doxiadis, Alexander; Doyle, Tony; Drasal, Zbynek; Drees, Jurgen; Dressnandt, Nandor; Drevermann, Hans; Driouichi, Chafik; Dris, Manolis; Dubbert, Jorg; Dubbs, Tim; Dube, Sourabh; Duchovni, Ehud; Duckeck, Guenter; Dudarev, Alexey; Dudziak, Fanny; Duhrssen, Michael; Duerdoth, Ian; Duflot, Laurent; Dufour, Marc-Andre; Dunford, Monica; Duran Yildiz, Hatice; Duxfield, Robert; Dwuznik, Michal; Dydak, Friedrich; Duren, Michael; Ebenstein, William; Ebke, Johannes; Eckert, Simon; Eckweiler, Sebastian; Edmonds, Keith; Edwards, Clive; Edwards, Nicholas Charles; Ehrenfeld, Wolfgang; Ehrich, Thies; Eifert, Till; Eigen, Gerald; Einsweiler, Kevin; Eisenhandler, Eric; Ekelof, Tord; El Kacimi, Mohamed; Ellert, Mattias; Elles, Sabine; Ellinghaus, Frank; Ellis, Katherine; Ellis, Nicolas; Elmsheuser, Johannes; Elsing, Markus; Emeliyanov, Dmitry; Engelmann, Roderich; Engl, Albert; Epp, Brigitte; Eppig, Andrew; Erdmann, Johannes; Ereditato, Antonio; Eriksson, Daniel; Ernst, Jesse; Ernst, Michael; Ernwein, Jean; Errede, Deborah; Errede, Steven; Ertel, Eugen; Escalier, Marc; Escobar, Carlos; Espinal Curull, Xavier; Esposito, Bellisario; Etienne, Francois; Etienvre, Anne-Isabelle; Etzion, Erez; Evangelakou, Despoina; Evans, Hal; Fabbri, Laura; Fabre, Caroline; Fakhrutdinov, Rinat; Falciano, Speranza; Fang, Yaquan; Fanti, Marcello; Farbin, Amir; Farilla, Addolorata; Farley, Jason; Farooque, Trisha; Farrington, Sinead; Farthouat, Philippe; Fassnacht, Patrick; Fassouliotis, Dimitrios; Fatholahzadeh, Baharak; Favareto, Andrea; Fayard, Louis; Fazio, Salvatore; Febbraro, Renato; Federic, Pavol; Fedin, Oleg; Fedorko, Woiciech; Fehling-Kaschek, Mirjam; Feligioni, Lorenzo; Fellmann, Denis; Felzmann, Ulrich; Feng, Cunfeng; Feng, Eric; Fenyuk, Alexander; Ferencei, Jozef; Ferland, Jonathan; Fernando, Waruna; Ferrag, Samir; Ferrando, James; Ferrara, Valentina; Ferrari, Arnaud; Ferrari, Pamela; Ferrari, Roberto; Ferrer, Antonio; Ferrer, Maria Lorenza; Ferrere, Didier; Ferretti, Claudio; Ferretto Parodi, Andrea; Fiascaris, Maria; Fiedler, Frank; Filipcic, Andrej; Filippas, Anastasios; Filthaut, Frank; Fincke-Keeler, Margret; Fiolhais, Miguel; Fiorini, Luca; Firan, Ana; Fischer, Gordon; Fischer, Peter; Fisher, Matthew; Fisher, Steve; Flechl, Martin; Fleck, Ivor; Fleckner, Johanna; Fleischmann, Philipp; Fleischmann, Sebastian; Flick, Tobias; Flores Castillo, Luis; Flowerdew, Michael; Fokitis, Manolis; Fonseca Martin, Teresa; Forbush, David Alan; Formica, Andrea; Forti, Alessandra; Fortin, Dominique; Foster, Joe; Fournier, Daniel; Foussat, Arnaud; Fowler, Andrew; Fowler, Ken; Fox, Harald; Francavilla, Paolo; Franchino, Silvia; Francis, David; Frank, Tal; Franklin, Melissa; Franz, Sebastien; Fraternali, Marco; Fratina, Sasa; French, Sky; Friedrich, Felix; Froeschl, Robert; Froidevaux, Daniel; Frost, James; Fukunaga, Chikara; Fullana Torregrosa, Esteban; Fuster, Juan; Gabaldon, Carolina; Gabizon, Ofir; Gadfort, Thomas; Gadomski, Szymon; Gagliardi, Guido; Gagnon, Pauline; Galea, Cristina; Gallas, Elizabeth; Gallo, Valentina Santina; Gallop, Bruce; Gallus, Petr; Galyaev, Eugene; Gan, K.K.; Gao, Yongsheng; Gapienko, Vladimir; Gaponenko, Andrei; Garberson, Ford; Garcia-Sciveres, Maurice; Garcia, Carmen; Garcia Navarro, Jose Enrique; Gardner, Robert; Garelli, Nicoletta; Garitaonandia, Hegoi; Garonne, Vincent; Garvey, John; Gatti, Claudio; Gaudio, Gabriella; Gaumer, Olivier; Gaur, Bakul; Gauthier, Lea; Gavrilenko, Igor; Gay, Colin; Gaycken, Goetz; Gayde, Jean-Christophe; Gazis, Evangelos; Ge, Peng; Gee, Norman; Geerts, Dani\\|{e}l Alphonsus Adrianus; Geich-Gimbel, Christoph; Gellerstedt, Karl; Gemme, Claudia; Gemmell, Alistair; Genest, Marie-Helene; Gentile, Simonetta; George, Matthias; George, Simon; Gerlach, Peter; Gershon, Avi; Geweniger, Christoph; Ghazlane, Hamid; Ghez, Philippe; Ghodbane, Nabil; Giacobbe, Benedetto; Giagu, Stefano; Giakoumopoulou, Victoria; Giangiobbe, Vincent; Gianotti, Fabiola; Gibbard, Bruce; Gibson, Adam; Gibson, Stephen; Gilbert, Laura; Gilchriese, Murdock; Gilewsky, Valentin; Gillberg, Dag; Gillman, Tony; Gingrich, Douglas; Ginzburg, Jonatan; Giokaris, Nikos; Giordani, MarioPaolo; Giordano, Raffaele; Giorgi, Francesco Michelangelo; Giovannini, Paola; Giraud, Pierre-Francois; Giugni, Danilo; Giunta, Michele; Giusti, Paolo; Gjelsten, Borge Kile; Gladilin, Leonid; Glasman, Claudia; Glatzer, Julian; Glazov, Alexandre; Glitza, Karl-Walter; Glonti, George; Godfrey, Jennifer; Godlewski, Jan; Goebel, Martin; Gopfert, Thomas; Goeringer, Christian; Gossling, Claus; Gottfert, Tobias; Goldfarb, Steven; Golling, Tobias; Golovnia, Serguei; Gomes, Agostinho; Gomez Fajardo, Luz Stella; Goncalo, Ricardo; Goncalves Pinto Firmino Da Costa, Joao; Gonella, Laura; Gonidec, Allain; Gonzalez, Saul; Gonzalez de la Hoz, Santiago; Gonzalez Silva, Laura; Gonzalez-Sevilla, Sergio; Goodson, Jeremiah Jet; Goossens, Luc; Gorbounov, Petr Andreevich; Gordon, Howard; Gorelov, Igor; Gorfine, Grant; Gorini, Benedetto; Gorini, Edoardo; Gorisek, Andrej; Gornicki, Edward; Gorokhov, Serguei; Goryachev, Vladimir; Gosdzik, Bjoern; Gosselink, Martijn; Gostkin, Mikhail Ivanovitch; Gough Eschrich, Ivo; Gouighri, Mohamed; Goujdami, Driss; Goulette, Marc Phillippe; Goussiou, Anna; Goy, Corinne; Grabowska-Bold, Iwona; Grafstrom, Per; Grah, Christian; Grahn, Karl-Johan; Grancagnolo, Francesco; Grancagnolo, Sergio; Grassi, Valerio; Gratchev, Vadim; Grau, Nathan; Gray, Heather; Gray, Julia Ann; Graziani, Enrico; Grebenyuk, Oleg; Greenfield, Debbie; Greenshaw, Timothy; Greenwood, Zeno Dixon; Gregersen, Kristian; Gregor, Ingrid-Maria; Grenier, Philippe; Griffiths, Justin; Grigalashvili, Nugzar; Grillo, Alexander; Grinstein, Sebastian; Grishkevich, Yaroslav; Grivaz, Jean-Francois; Groh, Manfred; Gross, Eilam; Grosse-Knetter, Joern; Groth-Jensen, Jacob; Grybel, Kai; Guarino, Victor; Guest, Daniel; Guicheney, Christophe; Guida, Angelo; Guillemin, Thibault; Guindon, Stefan; Guler, Hulya; Gunther, Jaroslav; Guo, Bin; Guo, Jun; Gupta, Ambreesh; Gusakov, Yury; Gushchin, Vladimir; Gutierrez, Andrea; Gutierrez, Phillip; Guttman, Nir; Gutzwiller, Olivier; Guyot, Claude; Gwenlan, Claire; Gwilliam, Carl; Haas, Andy; Haas, Stefan; Haber, Carl; Hackenburg, Robert; Hadavand, Haleh Khani; Hadley, David; Haefner, Petra; Hahn, Ferdinand; Haider, Stefan; Hajduk, Zbigniew; Hakobyan, Hrachya; Haller, Johannes; Hamacher, Klaus; Hamal, Petr; Hamilton, Andrew; Hamilton, Samuel; Han, Hongguang; Han, Liang; Hanagaki, Kazunori; Hance, Michael; Handel, Carsten; Hanke, Paul; Hansen, John Renner; Hansen, Jorgen Beck; Hansen, Jorn Dines; Hansen, Peter Henrik; Hansson, Per; Hara, Kazuhiko; Hare, Gabriel; Harenberg, Torsten; Harkusha, Siarhei; Harper, Devin; Harrington, Robert; Harris, Orin; Harrison, Karl; Hartert, Jochen; Hartjes, Fred; Haruyama, Tomiyoshi; Harvey, Alex; Hasegawa, Satoshi; Hasegawa, Yoji; Hassani, Samira; Hatch, Mark; Hauff, Dieter; Haug, Sigve; Hauschild, Michael; Hauser, Reiner; Havranek, Miroslav; Hawes, Brian; Hawkes, Christopher; Hawkings, Richard John; Hawkins, Donovan; Hayakawa, Takashi; Hayashi, Takayasu; Hayden, Daniel; Hayward, Helen; Haywood, Stephen; Hazen, Eric; He, Mao; Head, Simon; Hedberg, Vincent; Heelan, Louise; Heim, Sarah; Heinemann, Beate; Heisterkamp, Simon; Helary, Louis; Heller, Mathieu; Hellman, Sten; Hellmich, Dennis; Helsens, Clement; Henderson, Robert; Henke, Michael; Henrichs, Anna; Henriques Correia, Ana Maria; Henrot-Versille, Sophie; Henry-Couannier, Frederic; Hensel, Carsten; Henss, Tobias; Medina Hernandez, Carlos; Hernandez Jimenez, Yesenia; Herrberg, Ruth; Hershenhorn, Alon David; Herten, Gregor; Hertenberger, Ralf; Hervas, Luis; Hessey, Nigel; Hidvegi, Attila; Higon-Rodriguez, Emilio; Hill, Daniel; Hill, John; Hill, Norman; Hiller, Karl Heinz; Hillert, Sonja; Hillier, Stephen; Hinchliffe, Ian; Hines, Elizabeth; Hirose, Minoru; Hirsch, Florian; Hirschbuehl, Dominic; Hobbs, John; Hod, Noam; Hodgkinson, Mark; Hodgson, Paul; Hoecker, Andreas; Hoeferkamp, Martin; Hoffman, Julia; Hoffmann, Dirk; Hohlfeld, Marc; Holder, Martin; Holmgren, Sven-Olof; Holy, Tomas; Holzbauer, Jenny; Homma, Yasuhiro; Hong, Tae Min; Hooft van Huysduynen, Loek; Horazdovsky, Tomas; Horn, Claus; Horner, Stephan; Horton, Katherine; Hostachy, Jean-Yves; Hou, Suen; Houlden, Michael; Hoummada, Abdeslam; Howarth, James; Howell, David; Hristova, Ivana; Hrivnac, Julius; Hruska, Ivan; Hryn'ova, Tetiana; Hsu, Pai-hsien Jennifer; Hsu, Shih-Chieh; Huang, Guang Shun; Hubacek, Zdenek; Hubaut, Fabrice; Huegging, Fabian; Huffman, Todd Brian; Hughes, Emlyn; Hughes, Gareth; Hughes-Jones, Richard; Huhtinen, Mika; Hurst, Peter; Hurwitz, Martina; Husemann, Ulrich; Huseynov, Nazim; Huston, Joey; Huth, John; Iacobucci, Giuseppe; Iakovidis, Georgios; Ibbotson, Michael; Ibragimov, Iskander; Ichimiya, Ryo; Iconomidou-Fayard, Lydia; Idarraga, John; Iengo, Paolo; Igonkina, Olga; Ikegami, Yoichi; Ikeno, Masahiro; Ilchenko, Yuri; Iliadis, Dimitrios; Imbault, Didier; Imori, Masatoshi; Ince, Tayfun; Inigo-Golfin, Joaquin; Ioannou, Pavlos; Iodice, Mauro; Irles Quiles, Adrian; Ishikawa, Akimasa; Ishino, Masaya; Ishmukhametov, Renat; Issever, Cigdem; Istin, Serhat; Ivashin, Anton; Iwanski, Wieslaw; Iwasaki, Hiroyuki; Izen, Joseph; Izzo, Vincenzo; Jackson, Brett; Jackson, John; Jackson, Paul; Jaekel, Martin; Jain, Vivek; Jakobs, Karl; Jakobsen, Sune; Jakubek, Jan; Jana, Dilip; Jankowski, Ernest; Jansen, Eric; Jantsch, Andreas; Janus, Michel; Jarlskog, Goran; Jeanty, Laura; Jelen, Kazimierz; Jen-La Plante, Imai; Jenni, Peter; Jeremie, Andrea; Jez, Pavel; Jezequel, Stephane; Jha, Manoj Kumar; Ji, Haoshuang; Ji, Weina; Jia, Jiangyong; Jiang, Yi; Jimenez Belenguer, Marcos; Jin, Ge; Jin, Shan; Jinnouchi, Osamu; Joergensen, Morten Dam; Joffe, David; Johansen, Lars; Johansen, Marianne; Johansson, Erik; Johansson, Per; Johnert, Sebastian; Johns, Kenneth; Jon-And, Kerstin; Jones, Graham; Jones, Roger; Jones, Tegid; Jones, Tim; Jonsson, Ove; Joram, Christian; Jorge, Pedro; Joseph, John; Jovin, Tatjana; Ju, Xiangyang; Jung, Christian; Juranek, Vojtech; Jussel, Patrick; Juste Rozas, Aurelio; Kabachenko, Vasily; Kabana, Sonja; Kaci, Mohammed; Kaczmarska, Anna; Kadlecik, Peter; Kado, Marumi; Kagan, Harris; Kagan, Michael; Kaiser, Steffen; Kajomovitz, Enrique; Kalinin, Sergey; Kalinovskaya, Lidia; Kama, Sami; Kanaya, Naoko; Kaneda, Michiru; Kanno, Takayuki; Kantserov, Vadim; Kanzaki, Junichi; Kaplan, Benjamin; Kapliy, Anton; Kaplon, Jan; Kar, Deepak; Karagoz, Muge; Karnevskiy, Mikhail; Karr, Kristo; Kartvelishvili, Vakhtang; Karyukhin, Andrey; Kashif, Lashkar; Kasmi, Azzedine; Kass, Richard; Kastanas, Alex; Kataoka, Mayuko; Kataoka, Yousuke; Katsoufis, Elias; Katzy, Judith; Kaushik, Venkatesh; Kawagoe, Kiyotomo; Kawamoto, Tatsuo; Kawamura, Gen; Kayl, Manuel; Kazanin, Vassili; Kazarinov, Makhail; Keates, James Robert; Keeler, Richard; Kehoe, Robert; Keil, Markus; Kekelidze, George; Kelly, Marc; Kennedy, John; Kenney, Christopher John; Kenyon, Mike; Kepka, Oldrich; Kerschen, Nicolas; Kersevan, Borut Paul; Kersten, Susanne; Kessoku, Kohei; Ketterer, Christian; Keung, Justin; Khakzad, Mohsen; Khalil-zada, Farkhad; Khandanyan, Hovhannes; Khanov, Alexander; Kharchenko, Dmitri; Khodinov, Alexander; Kholodenko, Anatoli; Khomich, Andrei; Khoo, Teng Jian; Khoriauli, Gia; Khoroshilov, Andrey; Khovanskiy, Nikolai; Khovanskiy, Valery; Khramov, Evgeniy; Khubua, Jemal; Kim, Hyeon Jin; Kim, Min Suk; Kim, Peter; Kim, Shinhong; Kimura, Naoki; Kind, Oliver; King, Barry; King, Matthew; King, Robert Steven Beaufoy; Kirk, Julie; Kirsch, Lawrence; Kiryunin, Andrey; Kishimoto, Tomoe; Kisielewska, Danuta; Kittelmann, Thomas; Kiver, Andrey; Kladiva, Eduard; Klaiber-Lodewigs, Jonas; Klein, Max; Klein, Uta; Kleinknecht, Konrad; Klemetti, Miika; Klier, Amit; Klimentov, Alexei; Klingenberg, Reiner; Klinkby, Esben; Klioutchnikova, Tatiana; Klok, Peter; Klous, Sander; Kluge, Eike-Erik; Kluge, Thomas; Kluit, Peter; Kluth, Stefan; Knecht, Neil; Kneringer, Emmerich; Knobloch, Juergen; Knoops, Edith; Knue, Andrea; Ko, Byeong Rok; Kobayashi, Tomio; Kobel, Michael; Kocian, Martin; Kocnar, Antonin; Kodys, Peter; Koneke, Karsten; Konig, Adriaan; Koenig, Sebastian; Kopke, Lutz; Koetsveld, Folkert; Koevesarki, Peter; Koffas, Thomas; Koffeman, Els; Kohn, Fabian; Kohout, Zdenek; Kohriki, Takashi; Koi, Tatsumi; Kokott, Thomas; Kolachev, Guennady; Kolanoski, Hermann; Kolesnikov, Vladimir; Koletsou, Iro; Koll, James; Kollar, Daniel; Kollefrath, Michael; Kolya, Scott; Komar, Aston; Komori, Yuto; Kondo, Takahiko; Kono, Takanori; Kononov, Anatoly; Konoplich, Rostislav; Konstantinidis, Nikolaos; Kootz, Andreas; Koperny, Stefan; Kopikov, Sergey; Korcyl, Krzysztof; Kordas, Kostantinos; Koreshev, Victor; Korn, Andreas; Korol, Aleksandr; Korolkov, Ilya; Korolkova, Elena; Korotkov, Vladislav; Kortner, Oliver; Kortner, Sandra; Kostyukhin, Vadim; Kotamaki, Miikka Juhani; Kotov, Sergey; Kotov, Vladislav; Kotwal, Ashutosh; Kourkoumelis, Christine; Kouskoura, Vasiliki; Koutsman, Alex; Kowalewski, Robert Victor; Kowalski, Tadeusz; Kozanecki, Witold; Kozhin, Anatoly; Kral, Vlastimil; Kramarenko, Viktor; Kramberger, Gregor; Krasny, Mieczyslaw Witold; Krasznahorkay, Attila; Kraus, James; Kraus, Jana; Kreisel, Arik; Krejci, Frantisek; Kretzschmar, Jan; Krieger, Nina; Krieger, Peter; Kroeninger, Kevin; Kroha, Hubert; Kroll, Joe; Kroseberg, Juergen; Krstic, Jelena; Kruchonak, Uladzimir; Kruger, Hans; Kruker, Tobias; Krumshteyn, Zinovii; Kruth, Andre; Kubota, Takashi; Kuehn, Susanne; Kugel, Andreas; Kuhl, Thorsten; Kuhn, Dietmar; Kukhtin, Victor; Kulchitsky, Yuri; Kuleshov, Sergey; Kummer, Christian; Kuna, Marine; Kundu, Nikhil; Kunkle, Joshua; Kupco, Alexander; Kurashige, Hisaya; Kurata, Masakazu; Kurochkin, Yurii; Kus, Vlastimil; Kuze, Masahiro; Kuzhir, Polina; Kvita, Jiri; Kwee, Regina; La Rosa, Alessandro; La Rotonda, Laura; Labarga, Luis; Labbe, Julien; Lablak, Said; Lacasta, Carlos; Lacava, Francesco; Lacker, Heiko; Lacour, Didier; Lacuesta, Vicente Ramon; Ladygin, Evgueni; Lafaye, Remi; Laforge, Bertrand; Lagouri, Theodota; Lai, Stanley; Laisne, Emmanuel; Lamanna, Massimo; Lampen, Caleb; Lampl, Walter; Lancon, Eric; Landgraf, Ulrich; Landon, Murrough; Landsman, Hagar; Lane, Jenna; Lange, Clemens; Lankford, Andrew; Lanni, Francesco; Lantzsch, Kerstin; Laplace, Sandrine; Lapoire, Cecile; Laporte, Jean-Francois; Lari, Tommaso; Larionov, Anatoly; Larner, Aimee; Lasseur, Christian; Lassnig, Mario; Laurelli, Paolo; Lavrijsen, Wim; Laycock, Paul; Lazarev, Alexandre; Le Dortz, Olivier; Le Guirriec, Emmanuel; Le Maner, Christophe; Le Menedeu, Eve; Lebel, Celine; LeCompte, Thomas; Ledroit-Guillon, Fabienne Agnes Marie; Lee, Hurng-Chun; Lee, Jason; Lee, Shih-Chang; Lee, Lawrence; Lefebvre, Michel; Legendre, Marie; Leger, Annie; LeGeyt, Benjamin; Legger, Federica; Leggett, Charles; Lehmacher, Marc; Lehmann Miotto, Giovanna; Lei, Xiaowen; Leite, Marco Aurelio Lisboa; Leitner, Rupert; Lellouch, Daniel; Leltchouk, Mikhail; Lemmer, Boris; Lendermann, Victor; Leney, Katharine; Lenz, Tatiana; Lenzen, Georg; Lenzi, Bruno; Leonhardt, Kathrin; Leontsinis, Stefanos; Leroy, Claude; Lessard, Jean-Raphael; Lesser, Jonas; Lester, Christopher; Leung Fook Cheong, Annabelle; Leveque, Jessica; Levin, Daniel; Levinson, Lorne; Levitski, Mikhail; Lewandowska, Marta; Lewis, Adrian; Lewis, George; Leyko, Agnieszka; Leyton, Michael; Li, Bo; Li, Haifeng; Li, Shu; Li, Xuefei; Liang, Zhihua; Liang, Zhijun; Liao, Hongbo; Liberti, Barbara; Lichard, Peter; Lichtnecker, Markus; Lie, Ki; Liebig, Wolfgang; Lifshitz, Ronen; Lilley, Joseph; Limbach, Christian; Limosani, Antonio; Limper, Maaike; Lin, Simon; Linde, Frank; Linnemann, James; Lipeles, Elliot; Lipinsky, Lukas; Lipniacka, Anna; Liss, Tony; Lissauer, David; Lister, Alison; Litke, Alan; Liu, Chuanlei; Liu, Dong; Liu, Hao; Liu, Jianbei; Liu, Minghui; Liu, Shengli; Liu, Yanwen; Livan, Michele; Livermore, Sarah; Lleres, Annick; Llorente Merino, Javier; Lloyd, Stephen; Lobodzinska, Ewelina; Loch, Peter; Lockman, William; Loddenkoetter, Thomas; Loebinger, Fred; Loginov, Andrey; Loh, Chang Wei; Lohse, Thomas; Lohwasser, Kristin; Lokajicek, Milos; Loken, James; Lombardo, Vincenzo Paolo; Long, Robin Eamonn; Lopes, Lourenco; Lopez Mateos, David; Losada, Marta; Loscutoff, Peter; Sterzo, Francesco Lo; Losty, Michael; Lou, Xinchou; Lounis, Abdenour; Loureiro, Karina; Love, Jeremy; Love, Peter; Lowe, Andrew; Lu, Feng; Lubatti, Henry; Luci, Claudio; Lucotte, Arnaud; Ludwig, Andreas; Ludwig, Dorthe; Ludwig, Inga; Ludwig, Jens; Luehring, Frederick; Luijckx, Guy; Lumb, Debra; Luminari, Lamberto; Lund, Esben; Lund-Jensen, Bengt; Lundberg, Bjorn; Lundberg, Johan; Lundquist, Johan; Lungwitz, Matthias; Lupi, Anna; Lutz, Gerhard; Lynn, David; Lys, Jeremy; Lytken, Else; Ma, Hong; Ma, Lian Liang; Macana Goia, Jorge Andres; Maccarrone, Giovanni; Macchiolo, Anna; Macek, Bostjan; Machado Miguens, Joana; Mackeprang, Rasmus; Madaras, Ronald; Mader, Wolfgang; Maenner, Reinhard; Maeno, Tadashi; Mattig, Peter; Mattig, Stefan; Magnoni, Luca; Magradze, Erekle; Mahalalel, Yair; Mahboubi, Kambiz; Mahout, Gilles; Maiani, Camilla; Maidantchik, Carmen; Maio, Amelia; Majewski, Stephanie; Makida, Yasuhiro; Makovec, Nikola; Mal, Prolay; Malecki, Pawel; Malecki, Piotr; Maleev, Victor; Malek, Fairouz; Mallik, Usha; Malon, David; Malone, Caitlin; Maltezos, Stavros; Malyshev, Vladimir; Malyukov, Sergei; Mameghani, Raphael; Mamuzic, Judita; Manabe, Atsushi; Mandelli, Luciano; Mandic, Igor; Mandrysch, Rocco; Maneira, Jose; Mangeard, Pierre-Simon; Manjavidze, Ioseb; Mann, Alexander; Manning, Peter; Manousakis-Katsikakis, Arkadios; Mansoulie, Bruno; Manz, Andreas; Mapelli, Alessandro; Mapelli, Livio; March, Luis; Marchand, Jean-Francois; Marchese, Fabrizio; Marchiori, Giovanni; Marcisovsky, Michal; Marin, Alexandru; Marino, Christopher; Marroquim, Fernando; Marshall, Robin; Marshall, Zach; Martens, Kalen; Marti-Garcia, Salvador; Martin, Andrew; Martin, Brian; Martin, Brian Thomas; Martin, Franck Francois; Martin, Jean-Pierre; Martin, Philippe; Martin, Tim; Martin, Victoria Jane; Martin Dit Latour, Bertrand; Martin--Haugh, Stewart; Martinez, Mario; Martinez Outschoorn, Verena; Martyniuk, Alex; Marx, Marilyn; Marzano, Francesco; Marzin, Antoine; Masetti, Lucia; Mashimo, Tetsuro; Mashinistov, Ruslan; Masik, Jiri; Maslennikov, Alexey; Massa, Ignazio; Massaro, Graziano; Massol, Nicolas; Mastrandrea, Paolo; Mastroberardino, Anna; Masubuchi, Tatsuya; Mathes, Markus; Matricon, Pierre; Matsumoto, Hiroshi; Matsunaga, Hiroyuki; Matsushita, Takashi; Mattravers, Carly; Maugain, Jean-Marie; Maxfield, Stephen; Maximov, Dmitriy; May, Edward; Mayne, Anna; Mazini, Rachid; Mazur, Michael; Mazzanti, Marcello; Mazzoni, Enrico; Mc Kee, Shawn Patrick; McCarn, Allison; McCarthy, Robert; McCarthy, Tom; McCubbin, Norman; McFarlane, Kenneth; Mcfayden, Josh; McGlone, Helen; Mchedlidze, Gvantsa; McLaren, Robert Andrew; Mclaughlan, Tom; McMahon, Steve; McPherson, Robert; Meade, Andrew; Mechnich, Joerg; Mechtel, Markus; Medinnis, Mike; Meera-Lebbai, Razzak; Meguro, Tatsuma; Mehdiyev, Rashid; Mehlhase, Sascha; Mehta, Andrew; Meier, Karlheinz; Meinhardt, Jens; Meirose, Bernhard; Melachrinos, Constantinos; Mellado Garcia, Bruce Rafael; Mendoza Navas, Luis; Meng, Zhaoxia; Mengarelli, Alberto; Menke, Sven; Menot, Claude; Meoni, Evelin; Mercurio, Kevin Michael; Mermod, Philippe; Merola, Leonardo; Meroni, Chiara; Merritt, Frank; Messina, Andrea; Metcalfe, Jessica; Mete, Alaettin Serhan; Meyer, Carsten; Meyer, Jean-Pierre; Meyer, Jochen; Meyer, Joerg; Meyer, Thomas Christian; Meyer, W.Thomas; Miao, Jiayuan; Michal, Sebastien; Micu, Liliana; Middleton, Robin; Miele, Paola; Migas, Sylwia; Mijovic, Liza; Mikenberg, Giora; Mikestikova, Marcela; Mikuz, Marko; Miller, David; Miller, Robert; Mills, Bill; Mills, Corrinne; Milov, Alexander; Milstead, David; Milstein, Dmitry; Minaenko, Andrey; Minano, Mercedes; Minashvili, Irakli; Mincer, Allen; Mindur, Bartosz; Mineev, Mikhail; Ming, Yao; Mir, Lluisa-Maria; Mirabelli, Giovanni; Miralles Verge, Lluis; Misiejuk, Andrzej; Mitrevski, Jovan; Mitrofanov, Gennady; Mitsou, Vasiliki A.; Mitsui, Shingo; Miyagawa, Paul; Miyazaki, Kazuki; Mjornmark, Jan-Ulf; Moa, Torbjoern; Mockett, Paul; Moed, Shulamit; Moeller, Victoria; Monig, Klaus; Moser, Nicolas; Mohapatra, Soumya; Mohr, Wolfgang; Mohrdieck-Mock, Susanne; Moisseev, Artemy; Moles-Valls, Regina; Molina-Perez, Jorge; Monk, James; Monnier, Emmanuel; Montesano, Simone; Monticelli, Fernando; Monzani, Simone; Moore, Roger; Moorhead, Gareth; Mora Herrera, Clemencia; Moraes, Arthur; Morange, Nicolas; Morel, Julien; Morello, Gianfranco; Moreno, Deywis; Moreno Llácer, María; Morettini, Paolo; Morii, Masahiro; Morin, Jerome; Morley, Anthony Keith; Mornacchi, Giuseppe; Morozov, Sergey; Morris, John; Morvaj, Ljiljana; Moser, Hans-Guenther; Mosidze, Maia; Moss, Josh; Mount, Richard; Mountricha, Eleni; Mouraviev, Sergei; Moyse, Edward; Mudrinic, Mihajlo; Mueller, Felix; Mueller, James; Mueller, Klemens; Muller, Thomas; Muenstermann, Daniel; Muir, Alex; Munwes, Yonathan; Murray, Bill; Mussche, Ido; Musto, Elisa; Myagkov, Alexey; Myska, Miroslav; Nadal, Jordi; Nagai, Koichi; Nagano, Kunihiro; Nagasaka, Yasushi; Nairz, Armin Michael; Nakahama, Yu; Nakamura, Koji; Nakamura, Tomoaki; Nakano, Itsuo; Nanava, Gizo; Napier, Austin; Nash, Michael; Nation, Nigel; Nattermann, Till; Naumann, Thomas; Navarro, Gabriela; Neal, Homer; Nebot, Eduardo; Nechaeva, Polina; Negri, Andrea; Negri, Guido; Nektarijevic, Snezana; Nelson, Andrew; Nelson, Silke; Nelson, Timothy Knight; Nemecek, Stanislav; Nemethy, Peter; Nepomuceno, Andre Asevedo; Nessi, Marzio; Nesterov, Stanislav; Neubauer, Mark; Neusiedl, Andrea; Neves, Ricardo; Nevski, Pavel; Newman, Paul; Hong, Van Nguyen Thi; Nickerson, Richard; Nicolaidou, Rosy; Nicolas, Ludovic; Nicquevert, Bertrand; Niedercorn, Francois; Nielsen, Jason; Niinikoski, Tapio; Nikiforou, Nikiforos; Nikiforov, Andriy; Nikolaenko, Vladimir; Nikolaev, Kirill; Nikolic-Audit, Irena; Nikolics, Katalin; Nikolopoulos, Konstantinos; Nilsen, Henrik; Nilsson, Paul; Ninomiya, Yoichi; Nisati, Aleandro; Nishiyama, Tomonori; Nisius, Richard; Nodulman, Lawrence; Nomachi, Masaharu; Nomidis, Ioannis; Nordberg, Markus; Nordkvist, Bjoern; Norton, Peter; Novakova, Jana; Nozaki, Mitsuaki; Nozka, Libor; Nugent, Ian Michael; Nuncio-Quiroz, Adriana-Elizabeth; Nunes Hanninger, Guilherme; Nunnemann, Thomas; Nurse, Emily; Nyman, Tommi; O'Brien, Brendan Joseph; O'Neale, Steve; O'Neil, Dugan; O'Shea, Val; Oakham, Gerald; Oberlack, Horst; Ocariz, Jose; Ochi, Atsuhiko; Oda, Susumu; Odaka, Shigeru; Odier, Jerome; Ogren, Harold; Oh, Alexander; Oh, Seog; Ohm, Christian; Ohshima, Takayoshi; Ohshita, Hidetoshi; Ohsugi, Takashi; Okada, Shogo; Okawa, Hideki; Okumura, Yasuyuki; Okuyama, Toyonobu; Olcese, Marco; Olchevski, Alexander; Oliveira, Miguel Alfonso; Oliveira Damazio, Denis; Oliver Garcia, Elena; Olivito, Dominick; Olszewski, Andrzej; Olszowska, Jolanta; Omachi, Chihiro; Onofre, Antonio; Onyisi, Peter; Oram, Christopher; Oreglia, Mark; Oren, Yona; Orestano, Domizia; Orlov, Iliya; Oropeza Barrera, Cristina; Orr, Robert; Osculati, Bianca; Ospanov, Rustem; Osuna, Carlos; Otero y Garzon, Gustavo; Ottersbach, John; Ouchrif, Mohamed; Ould-Saada, Farid; Ouraou, Ahmimed; Ouyang, Qun; Owen, Mark; Owen, Simon; Ozcan, Veysi Erkcan; Ozturk, Nurcan; Pacheco Pages, Andres; Padilla Aranda, Cristobal; Pagan Griso, Simone; Paganis, Efstathios; Paige, Frank; Pajchel, Katarina; Palacino, Gabriel; Paleari, Chiara; Palestini, Sandro; Pallin, Dominique; Palma, Alberto; Palmer, Jody; Pan, Yibin; Panagiotopoulou, Evgenia; Panes, Boris; Panikashvili, Natalia; Panitkin, Sergey; Pantea, Dan; Panuskova, Monika; Paolone, Vittorio; Papadelis, Aras; Papadopoulou, Theodora; Paramonov, Alexander; Park, Woochun; Parker, Andy; Parodi, Fabrizio; Parsons, John; Parzefall, Ulrich; Pasqualucci, Enrico; Passeri, Antonio; Pastore, Fernanda; Pastore, Francesca; Pasztor, Gabriella; Pataraia, Sophio; Patel, Nikhul; Pater, Joleen; Patricelli, Sergio; Pauly, Thilo; Pecsy, Martin; Pedraza Morales, Maria Isabel; Peleganchuk, Sergey; Peng, Haiping; Pengo, Ruggero; Penson, Alexander; Penwell, John; Perantoni, Marcelo; Perez, Kerstin; Cavalcanti, Tiago Perez; Perez Codina, Estel; Perez Garcia-Estan, Maria Teresa; Perez Reale, Valeria; Perini, Laura; Pernegger, Heinz; Perrino, Roberto; Perrodo, Pascal; Persembe, Seda; Peshekhonov, Vladimir; Petersen, Brian; Petersen, Jorgen; Petersen, Troels; Petit, Elisabeth; Petridis, Andreas; Petridou, Chariclia; Petrolo, Emilio; Petrucci, Fabrizio; Petschull, Dennis; Petteni, Michele; Pezoa, Raquel; Phan, Anna; Phillips, Alan; Phillips, Peter William; Piacquadio, Giacinto; Piccaro, Elisa; Piccinini, Maurizio; Pickford, Andrew; Piec, Sebastian Marcin; Piegaia, Ricardo; Pilcher, James; Pilkington, Andrew; Pina, Joao Antonio; Pinamonti, Michele; Pinder, Alex; Pinfold, James; Ping, Jialun; Pinto, Belmiro; Pirotte, Olivier; Pizio, Caterina; Placakyte, Ringaile; Plamondon, Mathieu; Pleier, Marc-Andre; Pleskach, Anatoly; Poblaguev, Andrei; Poddar, Sahill; Podlyski, Fabrice; Poggioli, Luc; Poghosyan, Tatevik; Pohl, Martin; Polci, Francesco; Polesello, Giacomo; Policicchio, Antonio; Polini, Alessandro; Poll, James; Polychronakos, Venetios; Pomarede, Daniel Marc; Pomeroy, Daniel; Pommes, Kathy; Pontecorvo, Ludovico; Pope, Bernard; Popeneciu, Gabriel Alexandru; Popovic, Dragan; Poppleton, Alan; Bueso, Xavier Portell; Porter, Robert; Posch, Christoph; Pospelov, Guennady; Pospisil, Stanislav; Potrap, Igor; Potter, Christina; Potter, Christopher; Poulard, Gilbert; Poveda, Joaquin; Prabhu, Robindra; Pralavorio, Pascal; Prasad, Srivas; Pravahan, Rishiraj; Prell, Soeren; Pretzl, Klaus Peter; Pribyl, Lukas; Price, Darren; Price, Lawrence; Price, Michael John; Prichard, Paul; Prieur, Damien; Primavera, Margherita; Prokofiev, Kirill; Prokoshin, Fedor; Protopopescu, Serban; Proudfoot, James; Prudent, Xavier; Przysiezniak, Helenka; Psoroulas, Serena; Ptacek, Elizabeth; Pueschel, Elisa; Purdham, John; Purohit, Milind; Puzo, Patrick; Pylypchenko, Yuriy; Qian, Jianming; Qian, Zuxuan; Qin, Zhonghua; Quadt, Arnulf; Quarrie, David; Quayle, William; Quinonez, Fernando; Raas, Marcel; Radescu, Voica; Radics, Balint; Rador, Tonguc; Ragusa, Francesco; Rahal, Ghita; Rahimi, Amir; Rahm, David; Rajagopalan, Srinivasan; Rammensee, Michael; Rammes, Marcus; Ramstedt, Magnus; Randle-Conde, Aidan Sean; Randrianarivony, Koloina; Ratoff, Peter; Rauscher, Felix; Rauter, Emanuel; Raymond, Michel; Read, Alexander Lincoln; Rebuzzi, Daniela; Redelbach, Andreas; Redlinger, George; Reece, Ryan; Reeves, Kendall; Reichold, Armin; Reinherz-Aronis, Erez; Reinsch, Andreas; Reisinger, Ingo; Reljic, Dusan; Rembser, Christoph; Ren, Zhongliang; Renaud, Adrien; Renkel, Peter; Rescigno, Marco; Resconi, Silvia; Resende, Bernardo; Reznicek, Pavel; Rezvani, Reyhaneh; Richards, Alexander; Richter, Robert; Richter-Was, Elzbieta; Ridel, Melissa; Rieke, Stefan; Rijpstra, Manouk; Rijssenbeek, Michael; Rimoldi, Adele; Rinaldi, Lorenzo; Rios, Ryan Randy; Riu, Imma; Rivoltella, Giancesare; Rizatdinova, Flera; Rizvi, Eram; Robertson, Steven; Robichaud-Veronneau, Andree; Robinson, Dave; Robinson, James; Robinson, Mary; Robson, Aidan; Rocha de Lima, Jose Guilherme; Roda, Chiara; Roda Dos Santos, Denis; Rodier, Stephane; Rodriguez, Diego; Roe, Adam; Roe, Shaun; Rohne, Ole; Rojo, Victoria; Rolli, Simona; Romaniouk, Anatoli; Romano, Marino; Romanov, Victor; Romeo, Gaston; Roos, Lydia; Ros, Eduardo; Rosati, Stefano; Rosbach, Kilian; Rose, Anthony; Rose, Matthew; Rosenbaum, Gabriel; Rosenberg, Eli; Rosendahl, Peter Lundgaard; Rosenthal, Oliver; Rosselet, Laurent; Rossetti, Valerio; Rossi, Elvira; Rossi, Leonardo Paolo; Rossi, Lucio; Rotaru, Marina; Roth, Itamar; Rothberg, Joseph; Rousseau, David; Royon, Christophe; Rozanov, Alexander; Rozen, Yoram; Ruan, Xifeng; Rubinskiy, Igor; Ruckert, Benjamin; Ruckstuhl, Nicole; Rud, Viacheslav; Rudolph, Christian; Rudolph, Gerald; Ruhr, Frederik; Ruggieri, Federico; Ruiz-Martinez, Aranzazu; Rulikowska-Zarebska, Elzbieta; Rumiantsev, Viktor; Rumyantsev, Leonid; Runge, Kay; Runolfsson, Ogmundur; Rurikova, Zuzana; Rusakovich, Nikolai; Rust, Dave; Rutherfoord, John; Ruwiedel, Christoph; Ruzicka, Pavel; Ryabov, Yury; Ryadovikov, Vasily; Ryan, Patrick; Rybar, Martin; Rybkin, Grigori; Ryder, Nick; Rzaeva, Sevda; Saavedra, Aldo; Sadeh, Iftach; Sadrozinski, Hartmut; Sadykov, Renat; Safai Tehrani, Francesco; Sakamoto, Hiroshi; Salamanna, Giuseppe; Salamon, Andrea; Saleem, Muhammad; Salihagic, Denis; Salnikov, Andrei; Salt, Jose; Salvachua Ferrando, Belen; Salvatore, Daniela; Salvatore, Pasquale Fabrizio; Salvucci, Antonio; Salzburger, Andreas; Sampsonidis, Dimitrios; Samset, Bjorn Hallvard; Sanchez, Arturo; Sandaker, Heidi; Sander, Heinz Georg; Sanders, Michiel; Sandhoff, Marisa; Sandoval, Tanya; Sandoval, Carlos; Sandstroem, Rikard; Sandvoss, Stephan; Sankey, Dave; Sansoni, Andrea; Santamarina Rios, Cibran; Santoni, Claudio; Santonico, Rinaldo; Santos, Helena; Saraiva, Joao; Sarangi, Tapas; Sarkisyan-Grinbaum, Edward; Sarri, Francesca; Sartisohn, Georg; Sasaki, Osamu; Sasaki, Takashi; Sasao, Noboru; Satsounkevitch, Igor; Sauvage, Gilles; Sauvan, Emmanuel; Sauvan, Jean-Baptiste; Savard, Pierre; Savinov, Vladimir; Savu, Dan Octavian; Savva, Panagiota; Sawyer, Lee; Saxon, David; Says, Louis-Pierre; Sbarra, Carla; Sbrizzi, Antonio; Scallon, Olivia; Scannicchio, Diana; Schaarschmidt, Jana; Schacht, Peter; Schafer, Uli; Schaepe, Steffen; Schaetzel, Sebastian; Schaffer, Arthur; Schaile, Dorothee; Schamberger, R. Dean; Schamov, Andrey; Scharf, Veit; Schegelsky, Valery; Scheirich, Daniel; Schernau, Michael; Scherzer, Max; Schiavi, Carlo; Schieck, Jochen; Schioppa, Marco; Schlenker, Stefan; Schlereth, James; Schmidt, Evelyn; Schmieden, Kristof; Schmitt, Christian; Schmitt, Sebastian; Schmitz, Martin; Schoning, Andre; Schott, Matthias; Schouten, Doug; Schovancova, Jaroslava; Schram, Malachi; Schroeder, Christian; Schroer, Nicolai; Schuh, Silvia; Schuler, Georges; Schultes, Joachim; Schultz-Coulon, Hans-Christian; Schulz, Holger; Schumacher, Jan; Schumacher, Markus; Schumm, Bruce; Schune, Philippe; Schwanenberger, Christian; Schwartzman, Ariel; Schwemling, Philippe; Schwienhorst, Reinhard; Schwierz, Rainer; Schwindling, Jerome; Schwindt, Thomas; Scott, Bill; Searcy, Jacob; Sedov, George; Sedykh, Evgeny; Segura, Ester; Seidel, Sally; Seiden, Abraham; Seifert, Frank; Seixas, Jose; Sekhniaidze, Givi; Seliverstov, Dmitry; Sellden, Bjoern; Sellers, Graham; Seman, Michal; Semprini-Cesari, Nicola; Serfon, Cedric; Serin, Laurent; Seuster, Rolf; Severini, Horst; Sevior, Martin; Sfyrla, Anna; Shabalina, Elizaveta; Shamim, Mansoora; Shan, Lianyou; Shank, James; Shao, Qi Tao; Shapiro, Marjorie; Shatalov, Pavel; Shaver, Leif; Shaw, Kate; Sherman, Daniel; Sherwood, Peter; Shibata, Akira; Shichi, Hideharu; Shimizu, Shima; Shimojima, Makoto; Shin, Taeksu; Shmeleva, Alevtina; Shochet, Mel; Short, Daniel; Shupe, Michael; Sicho, Petr; Sidoti, Antonio; Siebel, Anca-Mirela; Siegert, Frank; Siegrist, James; Sijacki, Djordje; Silbert, Ohad; Silva, Jose; Silver, Yiftah; Silverstein, Daniel; Silverstein, Samuel; Simak, Vladislav; Simard, Olivier; Simic, Ljiljana; Simion, Stefan; Simmons, Brinick; Simonyan, Margar; Sinervo, Pekka; Sinev, Nikolai; Sipica, Valentin; Siragusa, Giovanni; Sircar, Anirvan; Sisakyan, Alexei; Sivoklokov, Serguei; Sjolin, Jorgen; Sjursen, Therese; Skinnari, Louise Anastasia; Skottowe, Hugh Philip; Skovpen, Kirill; Skubic, Patrick; Skvorodnev, Nikolai; Slater, Mark; Slavicek, Tomas; Sliwa, Krzysztof; Sloper, John erik; Smakhtin, Vladimir; Smirnov, Sergei; Smirnova, Lidia; Smirnova, Oxana; Smith, Ben Campbell; Smith, Douglas; Smith, Kenway; Smizanska, Maria; Smolek, Karel; Snesarev, Andrei; Snow, Steve; Snow, Joel; Snuverink, Jochem; Snyder, Scott; Soares, Mara; Sobie, Randall; Sodomka, Jaromir; Soffer, Abner; Solans, Carlos; Solar, Michael; Solc, Jaroslav; Soldatov, Evgeny; Soldevila, Urmila; Solfaroli Camillocci, Elena; Solodkov, Alexander; Solovyanov, Oleg; Sondericker, John; Soni, Nitesh; Sopko, Vit; Sopko, Bruno; Sorbi, Massimo; Sosebee, Mark; Soualah, Rachik; Soukharev, Andrey; Spagnolo, Stefania; Spano, Francesco; Spighi, Roberto; Spigo, Giancarlo; Spila, Federico; Spiriti, Eleuterio; Spiwoks, Ralf; Spousta, Martin; Spreitzer, Teresa; Spurlock, Barry; St. Denis, Richard Dante; Stahl, Thorsten; Stahlman, Jonathan; Stamen, Rainer; Stanecka, Ewa; Stanek, Robert; Stanescu, Cristian; Stapnes, Steinar; Starchenko, Evgeny; Stark, Jan; Staroba, Pavel; Starovoitov, Pavel; Staude, Arnold; Stavina, Pavel; Stavropoulos, Georgios; Steele, Genevieve; Steinbach, Peter; Steinberg, Peter; Stekl, Ivan; Stelzer, Bernd; Stelzer, Harald Joerg; Stelzer-Chilton, Oliver; Stenzel, Hasko; Stevenson, Kyle; Stewart, Graeme; Stillings, Jan Andre; Stockmanns, Tobias; Stockton, Mark; Stoerig, Kathrin; Stoicea, Gabriel; Stonjek, Stefan; Strachota, Pavel; Stradling, Alden; Straessner, Arno; Strandberg, Jonas; Strandberg, Sara; Strandlie, Are; Strang, Michael; Strauss, Emanuel; Strauss, Michael; Strizenec, Pavol; Strohmer, Raimund; Strom, David; Strong, John; Stroynowski, Ryszard; Strube, Jan; Stugu, Bjarne; Stumer, Iuliu; Stupak, John; Sturm, Philipp; Soh, Dart-yin; Su, Dong; Subramania, Halasya Siva; Succurro, Antonella; Sugaya, Yorihito; Sugimoto, Takuya; Suhr, Chad; Suita, Koichi; Suk, Michal; Sulin, Vladimir; Sultansoy, Saleh; Sumida, Toshi; Sun, Xiaohu; Sundermann, Jan Erik; Suruliz, Kerim; Sushkov, Serge; Susinno, Giancarlo; Sutton, Mark; Suzuki, Yu; Suzuki, Yuta; Svatos, Michal; Sviridov, Yuri; Swedish, Stephen; Sykora, Ivan; Sykora, Tomas; Szeless, Balazs; Sanchez, Javier; Ta, Duc; Tackmann, Kerstin; Taffard, Anyes; Tafirout, Reda; Taiblum, Nimrod; Takahashi, Yuta; Takai, Helio; Takashima, Ryuichi; Takeda, Hiroshi; Takeshita, Tohru; Talby, Mossadek; Talyshev, Alexey; Tamsett, Matthew; Tanaka, Junichi; Tanaka, Reisaburo; Tanaka, Satoshi; Tanaka, Shuji; Tanaka, Yoshito; Tani, Kazutoshi; Tannoury, Nancy; Tappern, Geoffrey; Tapprogge, Stefan; Tardif, Dominique; Tarem, Shlomit; Tarrade, Fabien; Tartarelli, Giuseppe Francesco; Tas, Petr; Tasevsky, Marek; Tassi, Enrico; Tatarkhanov, Mous; Tayalati, Yahya; Taylor, Christopher; Taylor, Frank; Taylor, Geoffrey; Taylor, Wendy; Teinturier, Marthe; Teixeira Dias Castanheira, Matilde; Teixeira-Dias, Pedro; Temming, Kim Katrin; Ten Kate, Herman; Teng, Ping-Kun; Terada, Susumu; Terashi, Koji; Terron, Juan; Terwort, Mark; Testa, Marianna; Teuscher, Richard; Thadome, Jocelyn; Therhaag, Jan; Theveneaux-Pelzer, Timothee; Thioye, Moustapha; Thoma, Sascha; Thomas, Juergen; Thompson, Emily; Thompson, Paul; Thompson, Peter; Thompson, Stan; Thomson, Evelyn; Thomson, Mark; Thun, Rudolf; Tian, Feng; Tic, Tom\\'{a}\\v{s}; Tikhomirov, Vladimir; Tikhonov, Yury; Timmermans, Charles; Tipton, Paul; Viegas, Florbela De Jes Tique Aires; Tisserant, Sylvain; Tobias, Jurgen; Toczek, Barbara; Todorov, Theodore; Todorova-Nova, Sharka; Toggerson, Brokk; Tojo, Junji; Tokar, Stanislav; Tokunaga, Kaoru; Tokushuku, Katsuo; Tollefson, Kirsten; Tomoto, Makoto; Tompkins, Lauren; Toms, Konstantin; Tong, Guoliang; Tonoyan, Arshak; Topfel, Cyril; Topilin, Nikolai; Torchiani, Ingo; Torrence, Eric; Torres, Heberth; Torro Pastor, Emma; Toth, Jozsef; Touchard, Francois; Tovey, Daniel; Traynor, Daniel; Trefzger, Thomas; Tremblet, Louis; Tricoli, Alesandro; Trigger, Isabel Marian; Trincaz-Duvoid, Sophie; Trinh, Thi Nguyet; Tripiana, Martin; Trischuk, William; Trivedi, Arjun; Trocme, Benjamin; Troncon, Clara; Trottier-McDonald, Michel; Trzupek, Adam; Tsarouchas, Charilaos; Tseng, Jeffrey; Tsiakiris, Menelaos; Tsiareshka, Pavel; Tsionou, Dimitra; Tsipolitis, Georgios; Tsiskaridze, Vakhtang; Tskhadadze, Edisher; Tsukerman, Ilya; Tsulaia, Vakhtang; Tsung, Jieh-Wen; Tsuno, Soshi; Tsybychev, Dmitri; Tua, Alan; Tudorache, Alexandra; Tudorache, Valentina; Tuggle, Joseph; Turala, Michal; Turecek, Daniel; Turk Cakir, Ilkay; Turlay, Emmanuel; Turra, Ruggero; Tuts, Michael; Tykhonov, Andrii; Tylmad, Maja; Tyndel, Mike; Tyrvainen, Harri; Tzanakos, George; Uchida, Kirika; Ueda, Ikuo; Ueno, Ryuichi; Ugland, Maren; Uhlenbrock, Mathias; Uhrmacher, Michael; Ukegawa, Fumihiko; Unal, Guillaume; Underwood, David; Undrus, Alexander; Unel, Gokhan; Unno, Yoshinobu; Urbaniec, Dustin; Urkovsky, Evgeny; Urrejola, Pedro; Usai, Giulio; Uslenghi, Massimiliano; Vacavant, Laurent; Vacek, Vaclav; Vachon, Brigitte; Vahsen, Sven; Valenta, Jan; Valente, Paolo; Valentinetti, Sara; Valkar, Stefan; Valladolid Gallego, Eva; Vallecorsa, Sofia; Ferrer, Juan Antonio Valls; Van der Graaf, Harry; van der Kraaij, Erik; van der Leeuw, Robin; van der Poel, Egge; van der Ster, Daniel; van Eldik, Niels; Van Gemmeren, Peter; van Kesteren, Zdenko; Van Vulpen, Ivo; Vandelli, Wainer; Vandoni, Giovanna; Vaniachine, Alexandre; Vankov, Peter; Vannucci, Francois; Varela Rodriguez, Fernando; Vari, Riccardo; Varouchas, Dimitris; Vartapetian, Armen; Varvell, Kevin; Vassilakopoulos, Vassilios; Vazeille, Francois; Vegni, Guido; Veillet, Jean-Jacques; Vellidis, Constantine; Veloso, Filipe; Veness, Raymond; Veneziano, Stefano; Ventura, Andrea; Ventura, Daniel; Venturi, Manuela; Venturi, Nicola; Vercesi, Valerio; Verducci, Monica; Verkerke, Wouter; Vermeulen, Jos; Vest, Anja; Vetterli, Michel; Vichou, Irene; Vickey, Trevor; Vickey Boeriu, Oana Elena; Viehhauser, Georg; Viel, Simon; Villa, Mauro; Villaplana Perez, Miguel; Vilucchi, Elisabetta; Vincter, Manuella; Vinek, Elisabeth; Vinogradov, Vladimir; Virchaux, Marc; Virzi, Joseph; Vitells, Ofer; Viti, Michele; Vivarelli, Iacopo; Vives Vaque, Francesc; Vlachos, Sotirios; Vladoiu, Dan; Vlasak, Michal; Vlasov, Nikolai; Vogel, Adrian; Vokac, Petr; Volpi, Guido; Volpi, Matteo; Volpini, Giovanni; von der Schmitt, Hans; von Loeben, Joerg; von Radziewski, Holger; von Toerne, Eckhard; Vorobel, Vit; Vorobiev, Alexander; Vorwerk, Volker; Vos, Marcel; Voss, Rudiger; Voss, Thorsten Tobias; Vossebeld, Joost; Vranjes, Nenad; Vranjes Milosavljevic, Marija; Vrba, Vaclav; Vreeswijk, Marcel; Anh, Tuan Vu; Vuillermet, Raphael; Vukotic, Ilija; Wagner, Wolfgang; Wagner, Peter; Wahlen, Helmut; Wakabayashi, Jun; Walbersloh, Jorg; Walch, Shannon; Walder, James; Walker, Rodney; Walkowiak, Wolfgang; Wall, Richard; Waller, Peter; Wang, Chiho; Wang, Haichen; Wang, Hulin; Wang, Jike; Wang, Jin; Wang, Joshua C.; Wang, Rui; Wang, Song-Ming; Warburton, Andreas; Ward, Patricia; Warsinsky, Markus; Watkins, Peter; Watson, Alan; Watson, Miriam; Watts, Gordon; Watts, Stephen; Waugh, Anthony; Waugh, Ben; Weber, Jens; Weber, Marc; Weber, Michele; Weber, Pavel; Weidberg, Anthony; Weigell, Philipp; Weingarten, Jens; Weiser, Christian; Wellenstein, Hermann; Wells, Phillippa; Wen, Mei; Wenaus, Torre; Wendler, Shanti; Weng, Zhili; Wengler, Thorsten; Wenig, Siegfried; Wermes, Norbert; Werner, Matthias; Werner, Per; Werth, Michael; Wessels, Martin; Weydert, Carole; Whalen, Kathleen; Wheeler-Ellis, Sarah Jane; Whitaker, Scott; White, Andrew; White, Martin; Whitehead, Samuel Robert; Whiteson, Daniel; Whittington, Denver; Wicek, Francois; Wicke, Daniel; Wickens, Fred; Wiedenmann, Werner; Wielers, Monika; Wienemann, Peter; Wiglesworth, Craig; Wiik, Liv Antje Mari; Wijeratne, Peter Alexander; Wildauer, Andreas; Wildt, Martin Andre; Wilhelm, Ivan; Wilkens, Henric George; Will, Jonas Zacharias; Williams, Eric; Williams, Hugh; Willis, William; Willocq, Stephane; Wilson, John; Wilson, Michael Galante; Wilson, Alan; Wingerter-Seez, Isabelle; Winkelmann, Stefan; Winklmeier, Frank; Wittgen, Matthias; Wolter, Marcin Wladyslaw; Wolters, Helmut; Wong, Wei-Cheng; Wooden, Gemma; Wosiek, Barbara; Wotschack, Jorg; Woudstra, Martin; Wraight, Kenneth; Wright, Catherine; Wright, Michael; Wrona, Bozydar; Wu, Sau Lan; Wu, Xin; Wu, Yusheng; Wulf, Evan; Wunstorf, Renate; Wynne, Benjamin; Xaplanteris, Leonidas; Xella, Stefania; Xie, Song; Xie, Yigang; Xu, Chao; Xu, Da; Xu, Guofa; Yabsley, Bruce; Yacoob, Sahal; Yamada, Miho; Yamaguchi, Hiroshi; Yamamoto, Akira; Yamamoto, Kyoko; Yamamoto, Shimpei; Yamamura, Taiki; Yamanaka, Takashi; Yamaoka, Jared; Yamazaki, Takayuki; Yamazaki, Yuji; Yan, Zhen; Yang, Haijun; Yang, Un-Ki; Yang, Yi; Yang, Yi; Yang, Zhaoyu; Yanush, Serguei; Yao, Yushu; Yasu, Yoshiji; Ybeles Smit, Gabriel Valentijn; Ye, Jingbo; Ye, Shuwei; Yilmaz, Metin; Yoosoofmiya, Reza; Yorita, Kohei; Yoshida, Riktura; Young, Charles; Youssef, Saul; Yu, Dantong; Yu, Jaehoon; Yu, Jie; Yuan, Li; Yurkewicz, Adam; Zaets, Vassilli; Zaidan, Remi; Zaitsev, Alexander; Zajacova, Zuzana; Zalite, Youris; Zanello, Lucia; Zarzhitsky, Pavel; Zaytsev, Alexander; Zeitnitz, Christian; Zeller, Michael; Zeman, Martin; Zemla, Andrzej; Zendler, Carolin; Zenin, Oleg; Zenis, Tibor; Zenonos, Zenonas; Zenz, Seth; Zerwas, Dirk; Zevi Della Porta, Giovanni; Zhan, Zhichao; Zhang, Dongliang; Zhang, Huaqiao; Zhang, Jinlong; Zhang, Xueyao; Zhang, Zhiqing; Zhao, Long; Zhao, Tianchi; Zhao, Zhengguo; Zhemchugov, Alexey; Zheng, Shuchen; Zhong, Jiahang; Zhou, Bing; Zhou, Ning; Zhou, Yue; Zhu, Cheng Guang; Zhu, Hongbo; Zhu, Junjie; Zhu, Yingchun; Zhuang, Xuai; Zhuravlov, Vadym; Zieminska, Daria; Zimmermann, Robert; Zimmermann, Simone; Zimmermann, Stephanie; Ziolkowski, Michael; Zitoun, Robert; Zivkovic, Lidija; Zmouchko, Viatcheslav; Zobernig, Georg; Zoccoli, Antonio; Zolnierowski, Yves; Zsenei, Andras; zur Nedden, Martin; Zutshi, Vishnu; Zwalinski, Lukasz

    2011-01-01

    The jet fragmentation function and transverse profile for jets with 25 GeV < ptJet < 500 GeV and etaJet<1.2 produced in proton-proton collisions with a center-of-mass energy of 7 TeV are presented. The measurement is performed using data with an integrated luminosity of 36 pb^-1. Jets are reconstructed and their momentum measured using calorimetric information. The momenta of the charged particle constituents are measured using the tracking system. The distributions corrected for detector effects are compared with various Monte Carlo event generators and generator tunes. Several of these choices show good agreement with the measured fragmentation function. None of these choices reproduce both the transverse profile and fragmentation function over the full kinematic range of the measurement.

  15. Explosive fragmentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vledouts, Alexandre; Graña-Otero, José; Quinard, Joel; Vandenberghe, Nicolas; Villermaux, Emmanuel

    2013-11-01

    We report on an experiment consisting in forcing the fast radial expansion of a spherical liquid shell. The shell is formed by the capillary pinch off of a water thin annular jet surrounding a jet of reactive gaseous mixture at ambient pressure. The encapsulated gas in the resulting water bubble is a mixture of Hydrogen and Oxygen in controlled relative proportions, which is ignited by a laser plasma aimed at the center of the bubble. The strongly exothermic combustion of the mixture induces the expansion of the hot burnt gas, pushing the shell radially outwards in a violently accelerated motion. That motion triggers the instability of the shell, developing thickness modulations ultimately piercing it in a number of holes. The capillary retraction of the holes concentrates the liquid constitutive of the shell into a web of ligaments, whose breakup leads to stable drops. We document the overall process, from the kinematics of the shell initial expansion, to the final drops size distribution as a function of the composition of the gas mixture and bubble shell thickness.

  16. Point-by-point model description of average prompt neutron data as a function of total kinetic energy of fission fragments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tudora, A.

    2013-01-01

    The experimental data of average prompt neutron multiplicity as a function of total kinetic energy of fragments <ν>(TKE) exhibit, especially in the case of 252 Cf(SF), different slopes dTKE/dν and different behaviours at low TKE values. The Point-by-Point (PbP) model can describe these different behaviours. The higher slope dTKE/dν and the flattening of <ν> at low TKE exhibited by a part of experimental data sets is very well reproduced when the PbP multi-parametric matrix ν(A,TKE) is averaged over a double distribution Y(A,TKE). The lower slope and the almost linear behaviour over the entire TKE range exhibited by other data sets is well described when the same matrix ν(A,TKE) is averaged over a single distribution Y(A). In the case of average prompt neutron energy in SCM as a function of TKE, different dTKE/dε slopes are also obtained by averaging the same PbP matrix ε(A,TKE) over Y(A,TKE) and over Y(A). The results are exemplified for 3 fissioning systems benefiting of experimental data as a function of TKE: 252 Cf(SF), 235 U(n th ,f) and 239 Pu(n th ,f). In the case of 234 U(n,f) for the first time it was possible to calculate <ν>(TKE) and <ε>(TKE) at many incident energies by averaging the PbP multi-parametric matrices over the experimental Y(A,TKE) distributions recently measured at IRMM for 14 incident energies in the range 0.3- 5 MeV. The results revealed that the slope dTKE/dν does not vary with the incident energy and the flattening of <ν> at low TKE values is more pronounced at low incident energies. The average model parameters dependences on TKE resulted from the PbP treatment allow the use of the most probable fragmentation approach, having the great advantage to provide results at many TKE values in a very short computing time compared to PbP and Monte Carlo treatments. (author)

  17. The dynamics of fragment formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keane, D.

    1994-09-01

    We demonstrate that in the Quantum Molecular Dynamics model, dynamical correlations can result in the production rate for final state nucleon clusters (and hence composite fragments) being higher than would be expected if statistics and the available phase space were dominant in determining composite formation. An intranuclear cascade or a Boltzmann-Uehling-Uhlenbeck model, combined with a statistical approach in the late stage of the collision to determine composites, provides an equivalent description only under limited conditions of centrality and beam energy. We use data on participant fragment production in Au + Au collisions in the Bevalac's BOS time projection chamber to map out the parameter space where statistical clustering provides a good description. In particular, we investigate momentum-space densities of fragments up to 4 He as a function of fragment transverse momentum, azimuth relative to the reaction plane, rapidity, multiplicity and beam energy

  18. Measurement of the Hadronic Photon Structure Function at LEP 1 for $Q^{2}$ Values between 9.9 and 284 $GeV^{2}$

    CERN Document Server

    Barate, R; Ghez, P; Goy, C; Lees, J P; Merle, E; Minard, M N; Pietrzyk, B; Alemany, R; Casado, M P; Chmeissani, M; Crespo, J M; Fernández, E; Fernández-Bosman, M; Garrido, L; Graugès-Pous, E; Juste, A; Martínez, M; Merino, G; Miquel, R; Mir, L M; Pacheco, A; Park, I C; Riu, I; Colaleo, A; Creanza, D; De Palma, M; Gelao, G; Iaselli, Giuseppe; Maggi, G; Maggi, M; Nuzzo, S; Ranieri, A; Raso, G; Ruggieri, F; Selvaggi, G; Silvestris, L; Tempesta, P; Tricomi, A; Zito, G; Huang, X; Lin, J; Ouyang, Q; Wang, T; Xie, Y; Xu, R; Xue, S; Zhang, J; Zhang, L; Zhao, W; Abbaneo, D; Becker, U; Boix, G; Cattaneo, M; Cerutti, F; Ciulli, V; Dissertori, G; Drevermann, H; Forty, Roger W; Frank, M; Halley, A W; Hansen, J B; Harvey, J; Janot, P; Jost, B; Lehraus, Ivan; Leroy, O; Mato, P; Minten, Adolf G; Moutoussi, A; Ranjard, F; Rolandi, Luigi; Rousseau, D; Schlatter, W D; Schmitt, M; Schneider, O; Spagnolo, P; Tejessy, W; Teubert, F; Tomalin, I R; Tournefier, E; Wright, A E; Ajaltouni, Ziad J; Badaud, F; Chazelle, G; Deschamps, O; Falvard, A; Ferdi, C; Gay, P; Guicheney, C; Henrard, P; Jousset, J; Michel, B; Monteil, S; Montret, J C; Pallin, D; Perret, P; Podlyski, F; Hansen, J D; Hansen, J R; Hansen, P H; Nilsson, B S; Rensch, B; Wäänänen, A; Daskalakis, G; Kyriakis, A; Markou, C; Simopoulou, Errietta; Siotis, I; Vayaki, Anna; Blondel, A; Bonneaud, G R; Brient, J C; Rougé, A; Rumpf, M; Swynghedauw, M; Verderi, M; Videau, H L; Focardi, E; Parrini, G; Zachariadou, K; Cavanaugh, R J; Corden, M; Georgiopoulos, C H; Antonelli, A; Bencivenni, G; Bologna, G; Bossi, F; Campana, P; Capon, G; Chiarella, V; Laurelli, P; Mannocchi, G; Murtas, F; Murtas, G P; Passalacqua, L; Pepé-Altarelli, M; Curtis, L; Lynch, J G; Negus, P; O'Shea, V; Raine, C; Teixeira-Dias, P; Thompson, A S; Buchmüller, O L; Dhamotharan, S; Geweniger, C; Hanke, P; Hansper, G; Hepp, V; Kluge, E E; Putzer, A; Sommer, J; Tittel, K; Werner, S; Wunsch, M; Ghete, V M; Girtler, P; Kneringer, E; Kuhn, D; Rudolph, G; Bowdery, C K; Buck, P G; Finch, A J; Foster, F; Hughes, G; Jones, R W L; Robertson, N A; Williams, M I; Giehl, I; Jakobs, K; Kleinknecht, K; Quast, G; Renk, B; Rohne, E; Sander, H G; Wachsmuth, H W; Zeitnitz, C; Aubert, Jean-Jacques; Benchouk, C; Bonissent, A; Carr, J; Coyle, P; Etienne, F; Motsch, F; Payre, P; Talby, M; Thulasidas, M; Aleppo, M; Antonelli, M; Ragusa, F; Büscher, V; Dietl, H; Ganis, G; Hüttmann, K; Lütjens, G; Mannert, C; Männer, W; Moser, H G; Schael, S; Settles, Ronald; Seywerd, H C J; Stenzel, H; Wiedenmann, W; Wolf, G; Azzurri, P; Boucrot, J; Callot, O; Chen, S; Cordier, A; Davier, M; Duflot, L; Grivaz, J F; Heusse, P; Jacholkowska, A; Le Diberder, F R; Lefrançois, J; Lutz, A M; Schune, M H; Veillet, J J; Videau, I; Zerwas, D; Bagliesi, G; Bettarini, S; Boccali, T; Bozzi, C; Calderini, G; Dell'Orso, R; Ferrante, I; Foà, L; Giassi, A; Gregorio, A; Ligabue, F; Lusiani, A; Marrocchesi, P S; Messineo, A; Palla, Fabrizio; Rizzo, G; Sanguinetti, G; Sguazzoni, G; Tenchini, Roberto; Vannini, C; Venturi, A; Verdini, P G; Blair, G A; Cowan, G D; Green, M G; Medcalf, T; Strong, J A; Von Wimmersperg-Töller, J H; Botterill, David R; Clifft, R W; Edgecock, T R; Norton, P R; Thompson, J C; Bloch-Devaux, B; Colas, P; Emery, S; Kozanecki, Witold; Lançon, E; Lemaire, M C; Locci, E; Pérez, P; Rander, J; Renardy, J F; Roussarie, A; Schuller, J P; Schwindling, J; Trabelsi, A; Vallage, B; Black, S N; Dann, J H; Johnson, R P; Kim, H Y; Konstantinidis, N P; Litke, A M; McNeil, M A; Taylor, G; Booth, C N; Cartwright, S L; Combley, F; Kelly, M S; Lehto, M H; Thompson, L F; Affholderbach, K; Böhrer, A; Brandt, S; Grupen, Claus; Prange, G; Giannini, G; Gobbo, B; Rothberg, J E; Wasserbaech, S R; Armstrong, S R; Charles, E; Elmer, P; Ferguson, D P S; Gao, Y; González, S; Greening, T C; Hayes, O J; Hu, H; Jin, S; McNamara, P A; Nachtman, J M; Nielsen, J; Orejudos, W; Pan, Y B; Saadi, Y; Scott, I J; Walsh, J; Wu Sau Lan; Wu, X; Zobernig, G

    1999-01-01

    Inclusive gamma * gamma interactions to hadronic final states where one scattered electron or positron is detected in the electromagnetic calorimeters have been studied in the LEP 1 data taken by ALEPH from 1991 to 1995. The event sample has been used to measure the hadronic structure function of the photon F/sub 2//sup gamma / in three bins with of 9.9, 20.7 and 284 GeV/sup 2/. (31 refs).

  19. A measurement of the photon structure function F$_{2}^{\\gamma}$ at an average Q$^{2}$ of 12 GeV$^{2}$/c$^{4}$ : results from DELPHI

    CERN Document Server

    Abreu, P; Adye, T; Agasi, E; Ajinenko, I; Aleksan, Roy; Alekseev, G D; Allport, P P; Almehed, S; Alvsvaag, S J; Amaldi, Ugo; Amato, S; Andreazza, A; Andrieux, M L; Antilogus, P; Apel, W D; Arnoud, Y; Augustin, J E; Augustinus, A; Baillon, Paul; Bambade, P; Barão, F; Barate, R; Bardin, Dimitri Yuri; Barker, G J; Baroncelli, A; Bärring, O; Barrio, J A; Bartl, Walter; Bates, M J; Battaglia, Marco; Batyunya, B; Baubillier, M; Baudot, J; Becks, K H; Begalli, M; Beillière, P; Belokopytov, Yu A; Belous, K S; Benvenuti, Alberto C; Berggren, M; Bertrand, D; Bianchi, F; Bigi, M; Bilenky, S M; Billoir, P; Bloch, D; Blume, M; Blyth, S; Bocci, V; Bolognese, T; Bonesini, M; Bonivento, W; Booth, P S L; Borisov, G; Bosio, C; Bosworth, S; Botner, O; Bouquet, B; Bourdarios, C; Bowcock, T J V; Bozzo, M; Branchini, P; Brand, K D; Brenke, T; Brenner, R A; Bricman, C; Brillault, L; Brown, R C A; Brückman, P; Brunet, J M; Bugge, L; Buran, T; Burgsmüller, T; Buschmann, P; Buys, A; Caccia, M; Calvi, M; Camacho-Rozas, A J; Camporesi, T; Canale, V; Canepa, M; Cankocak, K; Cao, F; Carena, F; Carrilho, P; Carroll, L; Caso, Carlo; Castillo-Gimenez, M V; Cattai, A; Cavallo, F R; Cerrito, L; Chabaud, V; Charpentier, P; Chaussard, L; Chauveau, J; Checchia, P; Chelkov, G A; Chierici, R; Chliapnikov, P V; Chochula, P; Chorowicz, V; Cindro, V; Collins, P; Contreras, J L; Contri, R; Cortina, E; Cosme, G; Cossutti, F; Crawley, H B; Crennell, D J; Crosetti, G; Cuevas-Maestro, J; Czellar, S; Dahl-Jensen, Erik; Dahm, J; D'Almagne, B; Dam, M; Damgaard, G; Daum, A; Dauncey, P D; Davenport, Martyn; Da Silva, W; Defoix, C; Della Ricca, G; Delpierre, P A; Demaria, N; De Angelis, A; De Boeck, H; de Boer, Wim; De Brabandere, S; De Clercq, C; La Vaissière, C de; De Lotto, B; De Min, A; De Paula, L S; De Saint-Jean, C; Dijkstra, H; Di Ciaccio, Lucia; Djama, F; Dolbeau, J; Dönszelmann, M; Doroba, K; Dracos, M; Drees, J; Drees, K A; Dris, M; Dufour, Y; Dupont, F; Edsall, D M; Ehret, R; Eigen, G; Ekelöf, T J C; Ekspong, Gösta; Elsing, M; Engel, J P; Ershaidat, N; Erzen, B; Espirito-Santo, M C; Falk, E; Fassouliotis, D; Feindt, Michael; Fenyuk, A; Ferrer, A; Filippas-Tassos, A; Firestone, A; Föth, H; Fokitis, E; Fontanelli, F; Formenti, F; Franek, B J; Frenkiel, P; Fries, D E C; Frodesen, A G; Frühwirth, R; Fulda-Quenzer, F; Fürstenau, H; Fuster, J A; Galloni, A; Gamba, D; Gandelman, M; García, C; García, J; Gaspar, C; Gasparini, U; Gavillet, P; Gazis, E N; Gelé, D; Gerber, J P; Gibbs, M; Gillespie, D; Gokieli, R; Golob, B; Gopal, Gian P; Gorn, L; Górski, M; Guz, Yu; Gracco, Valerio; Graziani, E; Grosdidier, G; Gunnarsson, P; Günther, M; Guy, J; Haedinger, U; Hahn, F; Hahn, M; Hahn, S; Hajduk, Z; Hallgren, A; Hamacher, K; Hao, W; Harris, F J; Hedberg, V; Hernández, J J; Herquet, P; Herr, H; Hessing, T L; Higón, E; Hilke, Hans Jürgen; Hill, T S; Holmgren, S O; Holt, P J; Holthuizen, D J; Houlden, M A; Hrubec, Josef; Huet, K; Hultqvist, K; Ioannou, P; Jackson, J N; Jacobsson, R; Jalocha, P; Janik, R; Jarlskog, G; Jarry, P; Jean-Marie, B; Johansson, E K; Jönsson, L B; Jönsson, P E; Joram, Christian; Juillot, P; Kaiser, M; Kalmus, George Ernest; Kapusta, F; Karlsson, M; Karvelas, E; Katsanevas, S; Katsoufis, E C; Keränen, R; Khomenko, B A; Khovanskii, N N; King, B J; Kjaer, N J; Klein, H; Klovning, A; Kluit, P M; Köhne, J H; Köne, B; Kokkinias, P; Koratzinos, M; Korcyl, K; Kostyukhin, V; Kourkoumelis, C; Kuznetsov, O; Kramer, P H; Krammer, Manfred; Kreuter, C; Królikowski, J; Kronkvist, I J; Krumshtein, Z; Krupinski, W; Kubinec, P; Kucewicz, W; Kurvinen, K L; Lacasta, C; Laktineh, I; Lamblot, S; Lamsa, J; Lanceri, L; Lane, D W; Langefeld, P; Lapin, V; Last, I; Laugier, J P; Lauhakangas, R; Leder, Gerhard; Ledroit, F; Lefébure, V; Legan, C K; Leitner, R; Lemoigne, Y; Lemonne, J; Lenzen, G; Lepeltier, V; Lesiak, T; Liko, D; Lindner, R; Lipniacka, A; Lippi, I; Lörstad, B; Lokajícek, M; Loken, J G; López, J M; López-Fernandez, A; López-Aguera, M A; Loukas, D; Lutz, P; Lyons, L; MacNaughton, J N; Maehlum, G; Maio, A; Malychev, V; Mandl, F; Marco, J; Maréchal, B; Margoni, M; Marin, J C; Mariotti, C; Markou, A; Maron, T; Martínez-Rivero, C; Martínez-Vidal, F; Martí i García, S; Matorras, F; Matteuzzi, C; Matthiae, Giorgio; Mazzucato, M; McCubbin, M L; McKay, R; McNulty, R; Medbo, J; Meroni, C; Meyer, W T; Myagkov, A; Michelotto, M; Migliore, E; Mirabito, L; Mjörnmark, U; Moa, T; Møller, R; Mönig, K; Monge, M R; Morettini, P; Müller, H; Mundim, L M; Murray, W J; Muryn, B; Myatt, Gerald; Naraghi, F; Navarria, Francesco Luigi; Navas, S; Negri, P; Némécek, S; Neumann, W; Neumeister, N; Nicolaidou, R; Nielsen, B S; Nieuwenhuizen, M; Nikolaenko, V; Niss, P; Nomerotski, A; Normand, Ainsley; Oberschulte-Beckmann, W; Obraztsov, V F; Olshevskii, A G; Onofre, A; Orava, Risto; Österberg, K; Ouraou, A; Paganini, P; Paganoni, M; Pagès, P; Palka, H; Papadopoulou, T D; Pape, L; Parkes, C; Parodi, F; Passeri, A; Pegoraro, M; Peralta, L; Pernegger, H; Pernicka, Manfred; Perrotta, A; Petridou, C; Petrolini, A; Phillips, H T; Piana, G; Pierre, F; Pimenta, M; Plaszczynski, S; Podobrin, O; Pol, M E; Polok, G; Poropat, P; Pozdnyakov, V; Prest, M; Privitera, P; Pukhaeva, N; Pullia, Antonio; Radojicic, D; Ragazzi, S; Rahmani, H; Rames, J; Ratoff, P N; Read, A L; Reale, M; Rebecchi, P; Redaelli, N G; Regler, Meinhard; Reid, D; Renton, P B; Resvanis, L K; Richard, F; Richardson, J; Rídky, J; Rinaudo, G; Ripp, I; Romero, A; Roncagliolo, I; Ronchese, P; Roos, L; Rosenberg, E I; Rosso, E; Roudeau, Patrick; Rovelli, T; Rückstuhl, W; Ruhlmann-Kleider, V; Ruiz, A; Rybicki, K; Saarikko, H; Sacquin, Yu; Sadovskii, A; Sajot, G; Salt, J; Sánchez, J; Sannino, M; Schneider, H; Schyns, M A E; Sciolla, G; Scuri, F; Sedykh, Yu; Segar, A M; Seitz, A; Sekulin, R L; Shellard, R C; Siccama, I; Siegrist, P; Simonetti, S; Simonetto, F; Sissakian, A N; Sitár, B; Skaali, T B; Smadja, G; Smirnov, N; Smirnova, O G; Smith, G R; Sosnowski, R; Souza-Santos, D; Spassoff, Tz; Spiriti, E; Sponholz, P; Squarcia, S; Stanescu, C; Stapnes, Steinar; Stavitski, I; Stepaniak, K; Stichelbaut, F; Stocchi, A; Strauss, J; Strub, R; Stugu, B; Szczekowski, M; Szeptycka, M; Tabarelli de Fatis, T; Tavernet, J P; Chikilev, O G; Tilquin, A; Timmermans, J; Tkatchev, L G; Todorov, T; Toet, D Z; Tomaradze, A G; Tomé, B; Tortora, L; Tranströmer, G; Treille, D; Trischuk, W; Tristram, G; Trombini, A; Troncon, C; Tsirou, A L; Turluer, M L; Tyapkin, I A; Tyndel, M; Tzamarias, S; Überschär, B; Ullaland, O; Uvarov, V; Valenti, G; Vallazza, E; Van der Velde, C; van Apeldoorn, G W; van Dam, P; Van Doninck, W K; Van Eldik, J; Vassilopoulos, N; Vegni, G; Ventura, L; Venus, W A; Verbeure, F; Verlato, M; Vertogradov, L S; Vilanova, D; Vincent, P; Vitale, L; Vlasov, E; Vodopyanov, A S; Vrba, V; Wahlen, H; Walck, C; Waldner, F; Weierstall, M; Weilhammer, Peter; Wetherell, Alan M; Wicke, D; Wickens, J H; Wielers, M; Wilkinson, G R; Williams, W S C; Winter, M; Witek, M; Woschnagg, K; Yip, K; Yushchenko, O P; Zach, F; Zacharatou-Jarlskog, C; Zalewska-Bak, A; Zalewski, Piotr; Zavrtanik, D; Zevgolatakos, E; Zimin, N I; Zito, M; Zontar, D; Zuberi, R; Zucchelli, G C; Zumerle, G

    1996-01-01

    The hadronic photon structure function F_{2}^{\\gamma} has been measured in the Q^{2} range from 4 to 30~GeV^2/c^{4} and down to x values of order 0.001, using data taken with the DELPHI detector at LEP between 1991 and 1993. A comparison is made with several F_{2}^{\\gamma} parameterizations with special emphasis on their low x behaviour. A result on the Q^{2} evolution of F_{2}^{\\gamma} is presented.

  20. IG and TR single chain fragment variable (scFv) sequence analysis: a new advanced functionality of IMGT/V-QUEST and IMGT/HighV-QUEST.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giudicelli, Véronique; Duroux, Patrice; Kossida, Sofia; Lefranc, Marie-Paule

    2017-06-26

    IMGT®, the international ImMunoGeneTics information system® ( http://www.imgt.org ), was created in 1989 in Montpellier, France (CNRS and Montpellier University) to manage the huge and complex diversity of the antigen receptors, and is at the origin of immunoinformatics, a science at the interface between immunogenetics and bioinformatics. Immunoglobulins (IG) or antibodies and T cell receptors (TR) are managed and described in the IMGT® databases and tools at the level of receptor, chain and domain. The analysis of the IG and TR variable (V) domain rearranged nucleotide sequences is performed by IMGT/V-QUEST (online since 1997, 50 sequences per batch) and, for next generation sequencing (NGS), by IMGT/HighV-QUEST, the high throughput version of IMGT/V-QUEST (portal begun in 2010, 500,000 sequences per batch). In vitro combinatorial libraries of engineered antibody single chain Fragment variable (scFv) which mimic the in vivo natural diversity of the immune adaptive responses are extensively screened for the discovery of novel antigen binding specificities. However the analysis of NGS full length scFv (~850 bp) represents a challenge as they contain two V domains connected by a linker and there is no tool for the analysis of two V domains in a single chain. The functionality "Analyis of single chain Fragment variable (scFv)" has been implemented in IMGT/V-QUEST and, for NGS, in IMGT/HighV-QUEST for the analysis of the two V domains of IG and TR scFv. It proceeds in five steps: search for a first closest V-REGION, full characterization of the first V-(D)-J-REGION, then search for a second V-REGION and full characterization of the second V-(D)-J-REGION, and finally linker delimitation. For each sequence or NGS read, positions of the 5'V-DOMAIN, linker and 3'V-DOMAIN in the scFv are provided in the 'V-orientated' sense. Each V-DOMAIN is fully characterized (gene identification, sequence description, junction analysis, characterization of mutations and amino

  1. Mannose-functionalized porous silica-coated magnetic nanoparticles for two-photon imaging or PDT of cancer cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perrier, Marine; Gary-Bobo, Magali; Lartigue, Lenaïc; Brevet, David; Morère, Alain; Garcia, Marcel; Maillard, Philippe; Raehm, Laurence; Guari, Yannick; Larionova, Joulia; Durand, Jean-Olivier; Mongin, Olivier; Blanchard-Desce, Mireille

    2013-01-01

    An original fluorophore engineered for two-photon excitation or a porphyrin derivative were entrapped in the silica shell of magnetic porous silica nanoparticles during the synthesis of the silica moiety without damaging the structure of the organic part. The mild conditions involved allowed obtaining microporous or mesoporous silica magnetic nanoparticles, respectively. Mannose was grafted on the surface of the nanoparticles to target MCF-7 breast cancer cells. The studies of magnetic properties of these hybrid nanoparticles show that they present a blocking temperature at 190 K. The nano-objects designed with the two-photon fluorophore were efficient for two-photon imaging of MCF-7 cancer cells, whereas the nano-objects with the photosensitizer efficiently killed cancer cells. The presence of the mannose moiety was demonstrated to improve both imaging and therapy properties.

  2. Mannose-functionalized porous silica-coated magnetic nanoparticles for two-photon imaging or PDT of cancer cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perrier, Marine [UMR 5253 CNRS-UM2-ENSCM-UM1, Institut Charles Gerhardt Montpellier (France); Gary-Bobo, Magali [Faculte de Pharmacie, Universite Montpellier 1, Universite Montpellier 2, Institut des Biomolecules Max Mousseron UMR 5247 CNRS (France); Lartigue, Lenaiec; Brevet, David [UMR 5253 CNRS-UM2-ENSCM-UM1, Institut Charles Gerhardt Montpellier (France); Morere, Alain; Garcia, Marcel [Faculte de Pharmacie, Universite Montpellier 1, Universite Montpellier 2, Institut des Biomolecules Max Mousseron UMR 5247 CNRS (France); Maillard, Philippe [Universite Paris-Sud, UMR 176 CNRS, Institut Curie (France); Raehm, Laurence; Guari, Yannick, E-mail: yannick.guari@um2.fr; Larionova, Joulia; Durand, Jean-Olivier, E-mail: durand@univ-montp2.fr [UMR 5253 CNRS-UM2-ENSCM-UM1, Institut Charles Gerhardt Montpellier (France); Mongin, Olivier [Universite de Rennes 1, Institut des Sciences Chimiques de Rennes, CNRS UMR 6226 (France); Blanchard-Desce, Mireille [Universite Bordeaux, Institut des Sciences Moleculaires, UMR CNRS 5255 (France)

    2013-05-15

    An original fluorophore engineered for two-photon excitation or a porphyrin derivative were entrapped in the silica shell of magnetic porous silica nanoparticles during the synthesis of the silica moiety without damaging the structure of the organic part. The mild conditions involved allowed obtaining microporous or mesoporous silica magnetic nanoparticles, respectively. Mannose was grafted on the surface of the nanoparticles to target MCF-7 breast cancer cells. The studies of magnetic properties of these hybrid nanoparticles show that they present a blocking temperature at 190 K. The nano-objects designed with the two-photon fluorophore were efficient for two-photon imaging of MCF-7 cancer cells, whereas the nano-objects with the photosensitizer efficiently killed cancer cells. The presence of the mannose moiety was demonstrated to improve both imaging and therapy properties.

  3. Photon correlation: a micrometer of the nuclear reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marques, F.M.

    1997-01-01

    The technique of intensity interferometry was largely applied to pairs of bosons produced in heavy ion collisions to study the properties of their source. Recently this technique was applied also to photons which can be considered 'natural' probes in interferometry. The analysis of the results of two experiments, namely Kr + Mi at 60 MeV/N and Ta + Au at 40 MeV/N carried out with the multidetector TAPS at GANIL has shown the complexity of the space-time characteristic of the photon source. The standard hypothesis describing the production of high energy protons (E γ > 25 MeV) as starting from p-n Bremsstrahlung exclusively in the initial superposition of the two nuclei was rejected. Actually the typical form of the correlation function in which the correlation width corresponds to the inverse of the source size, is not satisfied by any of the two systems. Only, by the taking into account in the BUU calculations the photons produced later bring near the calculations and the data. This late production could originate in the recompression of the di-nuclei system. In analogy with previous application of this technique to stellar interferometry we have studied the structure of the photon source by Monte-Carlo calculations of the correlation function. For the simple case of a binary source the correlation function is dependent on the two source distributions, relative intensity and the space-time separation of the two sources. The results of this calculations evidence the sensitivity of the photon interferometry to different reaction mechanisms by the magnitude and also the shape of the correlation function. The best agreement with the data is obtained when the two nuclear fragments emit simultaneously the photons at a moment subsequent to the reaction moment

  4. Photonic Hypercrystals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evgenii E. Narimanov

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available We introduce a new “universality class” of artificial optical media—photonic hypercrystals. These hyperbolic metamaterials, with periodic spatial variation of dielectric permittivity on subwavelength scale, combine the features of optical metamaterials and photonic crystals. In particular, surface waves supported by a hypercrystal possess the properties of both the optical Tamm states in photonic crystals and surface-plasmon polaritons at the metal-dielectric interface.

  5. Microwave photonics

    CERN Document Server

    Lee, Chi H

    2006-01-01

    Wireless, optical, and electronic networks continue to converge, prompting heavy research into the interface between microwave electronics, ultrafast optics, and photonic technologies. New developments arrive nearly as fast as the photons under investigation, and their commercial impact depends on the ability to stay abreast of new findings, techniques, and technologies. Presenting a broad yet in-depth survey, Microwave Photonics examines the major advances that are affecting new applications in this rapidly expanding field.This book reviews important achievements made in microwave photonics o

  6. Neuromorphic photonic networks using silicon photonic weight banks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tait, Alexander N; de Lima, Thomas Ferreira; Zhou, Ellen; Wu, Allie X; Nahmias, Mitchell A; Shastri, Bhavin J; Prucnal, Paul R

    2017-08-07

    Photonic systems for high-performance information processing have attracted renewed interest. Neuromorphic silicon photonics has the potential to integrate processing functions that vastly exceed the capabilities of electronics. We report first observations of a recurrent silicon photonic neural network, in which connections are configured by microring weight banks. A mathematical isomorphism between the silicon photonic circuit and a continuous neural network model is demonstrated through dynamical bifurcation analysis. Exploiting this isomorphism, a simulated 24-node silicon photonic neural network is programmed using "neural compiler" to solve a differential system emulation task. A 294-fold acceleration against a conventional benchmark is predicted. We also propose and derive power consumption analysis for modulator-class neurons that, as opposed to laser-class neurons, are compatible with silicon photonic platforms. At increased scale, Neuromorphic silicon photonics could access new regimes of ultrafast information processing for radio, control, and scientific computing.

  7. ADP-ribosylation by cholera toxin: functional analysis of a cellular system that stimulates the enzymic activity of cholera toxin fragment A1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gill, D.M.; Coburn, J.

    1987-01-01

    The authors have clarified relationships between cholera toxin, cholera toxin substrates, a membrane protein S that is required for toxin activity, and a soluble protein CF that is needed for the function of S. The toxin has little intrinsic ability to catalyze ADP-ribosylations unless it encounters the active form of the S protein, which is S liganded to GTP or to a GTP analogue. In the presence of CF, S x GTP forms readily, though reversibly, but a more permanent active species, S-guanosine 5'-O-(3-thiotriphosphate) (S x GTPγS), forms over a period of 10-15 min at 37 0 C. Both guanosine 5'-O-(2-thiodiphosphate) and GTP block this quasi-permanent activation. Some S x GTPγS forms in membranes that are exposed to CF alone and then to GTPγS, with a wash in between, and it is possible that CF facilitates a G nucleotide exchange. S x GTPγS dissolved by nonionic detergents persists in solution and can be used to support the ADP-ribosylation of nucleotide-free substrates. In this circumstance, added guanyl nucleotides have no further effect. This active form of S is unstable, especially when heated, but the thermal inactivation above 45 0 C is decreased by GTPγS. Active S is required equally for the ADP-ribosylation of all of cholera toxin's protein substrates, regardless of whether they bind GTP or not. They suggest that active S interacts directly with the enzymic A 1 fragments of cholera toxin and not with any toxin substrate. The activation and activity of S are independent of the state, or even the presence, of adenylate cyclase and seem to be involved with the cyclase system only via cholera toxin. S is apparently not related by function to certain other GTP binding proteins, including p21/sup ras/, and appears to be a new GTP binding protein whose physiologic role remains to be identified

  8. Universal elements of fragmentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yanovsky, V. V.; Tur, A. V.; Kuklina, O. V.

    2010-01-01

    A fragmentation theory is proposed that explains the universal asymptotic behavior of the fragment-size distribution in the large-size range, based on simple physical principles. The basic principles of the theory are the total mass conservation in a fragmentation process and a balance condition for the energy expended in increasing the surface of fragments during their breakup. A flux-based approach is used that makes it possible to supplement the basic principles and develop a minimal theory of fragmentation. Such a supplementary principle is that of decreasing fragment-volume flux with increasing energy expended in fragmentation. It is shown that the behavior of the decreasing flux is directly related to the form of a power-law fragment-size distribution. The minimal theory is used to find universal asymptotic fragment-size distributions and to develop a natural physical classification of fragmentation models. A more general, nonlinear theory of strong fragmentation is also developed. It is demonstrated that solutions to a nonlinear kinetic equation consistent with both basic principles approach a universal asymptotic size distribution. Agreement between the predicted asymptotic fragment-size distributions and experimental observations is discussed.

  9. Principles of photonics

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Jia-Ming

    2016-01-01

    With this self-contained and comprehensive text, students will gain a detailed understanding of the fundamental concepts and major principles of photonics. Assuming only a basic background in optics, readers are guided through key topics such as the nature of optical fields, the properties of optical materials, and the principles of major photonic functions regarding the generation, propagation, coupling, interference, amplification, modulation, and detection of optical waves or signals. Numerous examples and problems are provided throughout to enhance understanding, and a solutions manual containing detailed solutions and explanations is available online for instructors. This is the ideal resource for electrical engineering and physics undergraduates taking introductory, single-semester or single-quarter courses in photonics, providing them with the knowledge and skills needed to progress to more advanced courses on photonic devices, systems and applications.

  10. Photon technology. Hard photon technology; Photon technology. Hard photon gijutsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    For the application of photon to industrial technologies, in particular, a hard photon technology was surveyed which uses photon beams of 0.1-200nm in wavelength. Its features such as selective atom reaction, dense inner shell excitation and spacial high resolution by quantum energy are expected to provide innovative techniques for various field such as fine machining, material synthesis and advanced inspection technology. This wavelength region has been hardly utilized for industrial fields because of poor development of suitable photon sources and optical devices. The developmental meaning, usable time and issue of a hard photon reduction lithography were surveyed as lithography in ultra-fine region below 0.1{mu}m. On hard photon analysis/evaluation technology, the industrial use of analysis, measurement and evaluation technologies by micro-beam was viewed, and optimum photon sources and optical systems were surveyed. Prediction of surface and surface layer modification by inner shell excitation, the future trend of this process and development of a vacuum ultraviolet light source were also surveyed. 383 refs., 153 figs., 17 tabs.

  11. Inverse photon-photon processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carimalo, C.; Crozon, M.; Kesler, P.; Parisi, J.

    1981-12-01

    We here consider inverse photon-photon processes, i.e. AB → γγX (where A, B are hadrons, in particular protons or antiprotons), at high energies. As regards the production of a γγ continuum, we show that, under specific conditions the study of such processes might provide some information on the subprocess gg γγ, involving a quark box. It is also suggested to use those processes in order to systematically look for heavy C = + structures (quarkonium states, gluonia, etc.) showing up in the γγ channel. Inverse photon-photon processes might thus become a new and fertile area of investigation in high-energy physics, provided the difficult problem of discriminating between direct photons and indirect ones can be handled in a satisfactory way

  12. Direct photons in WA98

    CERN Document Server

    Aggarwal, M M; Ahammed, Z; Angelis, Aris L S; Antonenko, V G; Arefev, V; Astakhov, V A; Avdeichikov, V; Awes, T C; Baba, P V K S; Badyal, S K; Barlag, C; Bathe, S; Batyunya, B; Bernier, T; Bhalla, K B; Bhatia, V S; Blume, C; Bock, R; Bohne, E M; Böröcz, Z K; Bucher, D; Buijs, A; Büsching, H; Carlén, L; Chalyshev, V; Chattopadhyay, S; Cherbachev, R; Chujo, T; Claussen, A; Das, A C; Decowski, M P; Delagrange, H; Dzhordzhadze, V; Dönni, P; Dubovik, I; Dutt, S; Dutta-Majumdar, M R; El-Chenawi, K F; Eliseev, S; Enosawa, K; Foka, P Y; Fokin, S L; Ganti, M S; Garpman, S; Gavrishchuk, O P; Geurts, F J M; Ghosh, T K; Glasow, R; Gupta, S K; Guskov, B; Gustafsson, Hans Åke; Gutbrod, H H; Higuchi, R; Hrivnacova, I; Ippolitov, M S; Kalechofsky, H; Kamermans, R; Kampert, K H; Karadzhev, K; Karpio, K; Kato, S; Kees, S; Klein-Bösing, C; Knoche, S; Kolb, B W; Kosarev, I G; Kucheryaev, I; Krümpel, T; Kugler, A; Kulinich, P A; Kurata, M; Kurita, K; Kuzmin, N A; Langbein, I; Lee, Y Y; Löhner, H; Luquin, Lionel; Mahapatra, D P; Man'ko, V I; Martin, M; Martínez, G; Maksimov, A; Mgebrishvili, G; Miake, Y; Mir, M F; Mishra, G C; Miyamoto, Y; Mohanty, B; Morrison, D; Mukhopadhyay, D S; Naef, H; Nandi, B K; Nayak, S K; Nayak, T K; Neumaier, S; Nyanin, A; Nikitin, V A; Nikolaev, S; Nilsson, P O; Nishimura, S; Nomokonov, V P; Nystrand, J; Obenshain, F E; Oskarsson, A; Otterlund, I; Pachr, M; Pavlyuk, S; Peitzmann, Thomas; Petracek, V; Pinganaud, W; Plasil, F; Von Poblotzki, U; Purschke, M L; Rak, J; Raniwala, R; Raniwala, S; Ramamurthy, V S; Rao, N K; Retière, F; Reygers, K; Roland, G; Rosselet, L; Rufanov, I A; Roy, C; Rubio, J M; Sako, H; Sambyal, S S; Santo, R; Sato, S; Schlagheck, H; Schmidt, H R; Schutz, Y; Shabratova, G; Shah, T H; Sibiryak, Yu; Siemiarczuk, T; Silvermyr, D; Sinha, B C; Slavin, N V; Söderström, K; Solomey, Nickolas; Sood, G; Sørensen, S P; Stankus, P; Stefanek, G; Steinberg, P; Stenlund, E; Stüken, D; Sumbera, M; Svensson, S; Trivedi, M D; Tsvetkov, A A; Tykarski, L; Urbahn, J; Van den Pijll, E C; van Eijndhoven, N; van Nieuwenhuizen, G J; Vinogradov, A; Viyogi, Y P; Vodopyanov, A S; Vörös, S; Wyslouch, B; Yagi, K; Yokota, Y; Young, G R

    2002-01-01

    A measurement of direct photon production in /sup 208/Pb+/sup 208/Pb collisions at 158 A GeV has been carried out in the CERN WA98 experiment. The invariant yield of direct photons was extracted as a function of transverse momentum in the interval 0.51.5 GeV/c. the result constitutes the first observation of direct photons in ultrarelativistic heavy-ion collisions. (19 refs).

  13. Silicon photonic integration in telecommunications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Richard Doerr

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Silicon photonics is the guiding of light in a planar arrangement of silicon-based materials to perform various functions. We focus here on the use of silicon photonics to create transmitters and receivers for fiber-optic telecommunications. As the need to squeeze more transmission into a given bandwidth, a given footprint, and a given cost increases, silicon photonics makes more and more economic sense.

  14. Quark fragmentation into 3PJ quarkonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma, J.P.

    1996-01-01

    The functions of parton fragmentation into 3 P J quarkonium at order α 2 s are calculated, where the parton can be a heavy or a light quark. The obtained functions explicitly satisfy the Altarelli-Parisi equation and they are divergent, behaving as z -1 near z = O. However, if one choses the renormalization scale as twice of the heavy quark mass, the fragmentation functions are regular over the whole range of z. 15 refs., 2 figs

  15. Photon generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivasan-Rao, Triveni

    2002-01-01

    A photon generator includes an electron gun for emitting an electron beam, a laser for emitting a laser beam, and an interaction ring wherein the laser beam repetitively collides with the electron beam for emitting a high energy photon beam therefrom in the exemplary form of x-rays. The interaction ring is a closed loop, sized and configured for circulating the electron beam with a period substantially equal to the period of the laser beam pulses for effecting repetitive collisions.

  16. Universality of fragment shapes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domokos, Gábor; Kun, Ferenc; Sipos, András Árpád; Szabó, Tímea

    2015-03-16

    The shape of fragments generated by the breakup of solids is central to a wide variety of problems ranging from the geomorphic evolution of boulders to the accumulation of space debris orbiting Earth. Although the statistics of the mass of fragments has been found to show a universal scaling behavior, the comprehensive characterization of fragment shapes still remained a fundamental challenge. We performed a thorough experimental study of the problem fragmenting various types of materials by slowly proceeding weathering and by rapid breakup due to explosion and hammering. We demonstrate that the shape of fragments obeys an astonishing universality having the same generic evolution with the fragment size irrespective of materials details and loading conditions. There exists a cutoff size below which fragments have an isotropic shape, however, as the size increases an exponential convergence is obtained to a unique elongated form. We show that a discrete stochastic model of fragmentation reproduces both the size and shape of fragments tuning only a single parameter which strengthens the general validity of the scaling laws. The dependence of the probability of the crack plan orientation on the linear extension of fragments proved to be essential for the shape selection mechanism.

  17. Photon-photon inclusive scattering and perturbative QCD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maor, U.

    1988-01-01

    Perturbative QCD expectations and problems associated with the study of the photon structure function data are reviewed. An assessment is given for the viability and sensitivity of photon-photon scattering as a decisive tool for the determination of the QCD scale. Particular attention is given to the theoretical problems of singularity cancellations at x = 0 and threshold-associated difficulties at x = 1 and their implications on the actual data analysis. It is concluded that the experimental results, while not providing a decisive verification of QCD at small distances, do add to other independent experiments which are all consistent with the theory and suggest a reasonably well defined QCD scale parameter. The importance of the small Q 2 limit to photon-photon analysis is discussed and the data are examined in an attempt to identify and isolate the contributions of the hadronic and point-like sectors of the target photon. 21 refs., 7 figs. (author)

  18. Gluon fragmentation into 3 PJ quarkonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma, J.P.

    1995-01-01

    The functions of the gluon fragmentation into 3 P j quarkonium are calculated to order α 2 s . With the recent progress in analysing quarkonium systems in QCD it is possible show how the so called divergence in the limit of the zero-binding energy, which is related to P-wave quarkonia, is treated correctly in the case of fragmentation functions. The obtained fragmentation functions satisfy explicitly at the order of α 2 s the Altarelli-Parisi equation and when z → 0 they behave as z -1 as expected. 19 refs., 7 figs

  19. Photon correlation in single-photon frequency upconversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Xiaorong; Huang, Kun; Pan, Haifeng; Wu, E; Zeng, Heping

    2012-01-30

    We experimentally investigated the intensity cross-correlation between the upconverted photons and the unconverted photons in the single-photon frequency upconversion process with multi-longitudinal mode pump and signal sources. In theoretical analysis, with this multi-longitudinal mode of both signal and pump sources system, the properties of the signal photons could also be maintained as in the single-mode frequency upconversion system. Experimentally, based on the conversion efficiency of 80.5%, the joint probability of simultaneously detecting at upconverted and unconverted photons showed an anti-correlation as a function of conversion efficiency which indicated the upconverted photons were one-to-one from the signal photons. While due to the coherent state of the signal photons, the intensity cross-correlation function g(2)(0) was shown to be equal to unity at any conversion efficiency, agreeing with the theoretical prediction. This study will benefit the high-speed wavelength-tunable quantum state translation or photonic quantum interface together with the mature frequency tuning or longitudinal mode selection techniques.

  20. Recent photon results from ATLAS

    CERN Document Server

    Glasman, Claudia; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The production of prompt isolated photons at hadron colliders provides a stringent test of perturbative QCD and can be used to probe the gluon density function of the proton. The ATLAS collaboration has performed precise measurements of the inclusive production o f isolated prompt photons at a center-of-mass energy of 13 TeV, differential in both rap idity and the photon transverse momentum. In addition, the integrated and differential c ross sections for isolated photon pair production 8 TeV have been measured. The results are compared with state-of-the-art theory predictions at NLO in QCD and with predictions of several MC generators.

  1. Anomalous nuclear fragments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karmanov, V.A.

    1983-01-01

    Experimental data are given, the status of anomalon problem is discussed, theoretical approaches to this problem are outlined. Anomalons are exotic objects formed following fragmentation of nuclei-targets under the effect of nuclei - a beam at the energy of several GeV/nucleon. These nuclear fragments have an anomalously large cross section of interaction and respectively, small free path, considerably shorter than primary nuclei have. The experimental daa are obtained in accelerators following irradiation of nuclear emulsions by 16 O, 56 Fe, 40 Ar beams, as well as propane by 12 C beams. The experimental data testify to dependence of fragment free path on the distance L from the point of the fragment formation. A decrease in the fragment free path is established more reliably than its dependence on L. The problem of the anomalon existence cannot be yet considered resolved. Theoretical models suggested for explanation of anomalously large cross sections of nuclear fragment interaction are variable and rather speculative

  2. Photonic Free-Electron Lasers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Slot, Petrus J.M.; Denis, T.; Lee, J.H.H.; van Dijk, M.W.; Boller, Klaus J.

    2012-01-01

    A photonic free-electron laser (pFEL) produces coherent Cerenkov radiation from a set of parallel electron beams streaming through a photonic crystal. The function of the crystal is to slow down the phase velocity of a copropagating electromagnetic wave, such that also mildly relativistic electrons

  3. Fragmented medial coronoid process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Juhasz, Cs.; Juhasz, T.

    1997-01-01

    Fragmented medial coronoid process: (FCP) is often considered to be part of the osteochondrosis dissecans complex, but trauma and growth discrepancies between the radius and ulna are proposed as causes. There is little to clinically differentiate FCP, from osteochondrosis dissecans (OCD) of the elbow. Pain on, flexion-extension of the elbow and lateral rotation of the paw is a little more consistent in FCP. Radiographic examination of the elbow is important despite the, fact that radiographic signs of the FCP are often nonspecific. Excessive osteoarthrosis and superimposition of the radial head and coronoid process make identification of the FCP difficult. Craniocaudal, flexed mediolateral and 25 degree craniocaudal-lateromedial views are necessary for diagnosis. Osteophyte production is more dramatic with FCP than with OCD and suggests therefore the occurrence of OCP in many cases. Although the detached process may be seen on any view, the oblique projection offers the least obstructed view. Exposure of the joint is identical to that for OCD, that means a medial approach with osteotomy of the epicondyle. In most cases the process is loose enough to be readily apparent, but in some it is necessary to exert force on the process in order to find the cleavage plane. It is necessary to remove the osteophytes as well and to inspect and irrigate the joint carefully to remove cartilage fragments before closure. Confinement is advisable for 4 weeks before returning the dog to normal activity. The outlook for function is good if the FCP is removed before secondary degenerative joint disease is well established

  4. Direct Photon and Neutral Mesons Measurements with the ALICE Detector

    CERN Document Server

    Matyja, Adam

    2016-01-01

    The ALICE experiment at LHC is dedicated to studies of the Quark– Gluon Plasma (QGP) state, which is going to be created in heavy-ion collisions. Both photons and neutral mesons are excellent probes for QGP formation. Photons are produced during the different stages of the expan- sion of the initial hot matter fireball. They do not interact strongly with the medium and passing through it, they carry information on their emis- sion point. The prompt photons which are formed at the early stage of the collision enable us to test perturbative QCD constraining parton distri- butions and fragmentation functions. Looking into the regime of thermal photons, one can extract the temperature of the medium. The medium- induced energy loss of particles can be investigated via the measurement of neutral meson spectra for different centrality classes as well as via neutral meson–hadron correlations. A decrease of the nuclear modification factor ( R AA ) with centrality of the collision is observed. The suppression of th...

  5. Multi-step surface functionalization of polyimide based evanescent wave photonic biosensors and application for DNA hybridization by Mach-Zehnder interferometer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melnik, Eva [Health and Environment Department, Nano Systems, AIT Austrian Institute of Technology GmbH, Donau-City-Strasse 1, 1220 Vienna (Austria); Department of Analytical Chemistry, University of Vienna, Waehringer Strasse 38, 1090 Vienna (Austria); Bruck, Roman [Health and Environment Department, Nano Systems, AIT Austrian Institute of Technology GmbH, Donau-City-Strasse 1, 1220 Vienna (Austria); Hainberger, Rainer, E-mail: rainer.hainberger@ait.ac.at [Health and Environment Department, Nano Systems, AIT Austrian Institute of Technology GmbH, Donau-City-Strasse 1, 1220 Vienna (Austria); Laemmerhofer, Michael, E-mail: michael.laemmerhofer@univie.ac.at [Department of Analytical Chemistry, University of Vienna, Waehringer Strasse 38, 1090 Vienna (Austria)

    2011-08-12

    Highlights: {yields} We realize a biosensing platform for polyimide evanescent photonic wave sensors. {yields} We show that the surface functionalization via silanisation and biotinylation followed by streptavidin immobilization do not destroy or damage the thin polyimide film. {yields} A highly dense streptavidin layer enables the immobilisation of biotinylated ligands such as biotinylated ssDNA for the selective measurement of DNA hybridization. - Abstract: The process of surface functionalization involving silanization, biotinylation and streptavidin bonding as platform for biospecific ligand immobilization was optimized for thin film polyimide spin-coated silicon wafers, of which the polyimide film serves as a wave guiding layer in evanescent wave photonic biosensors. This type of optical sensors make great demands on the materials involved as well as on the layer properties, such as the optical quality, the layer thickness and the surface roughness. In this work we realized the binding of a 3-mercaptopropyl trimethoxysilane on an oxygen plasma activated polyimide surface followed by subsequent derivatization of the reactive thiol groups with maleimide-PEG{sub 2}-biotin and immobilization of streptavidin. The progress of the functionalization was monitored by using different fluorescence labels for optimization of the chemical derivatization steps. Further, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and atomic force microscopy were utilized for the characterization of the modified surface. These established analytical methods allowed to derive information like chemical composition of the surface, surface coverage with immobilized streptavidin, as well as parameters of the surface roughness. The proposed functionalization protocol furnished a surface density of 144 fmol mm{sup -2} streptavidin with good reproducibility (13.9% RSD, n = 10) and without inflicted damage to the surface. This surface modification was applied to polyimide based Mach-Zehnder interferometer

  6. Robust Adaptive Photon Tracing using Photon Path Visibility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hachisuka, Toshiya; Jensen, Henrik Wann

    2011-01-01

    We present a new adaptive photon tracing algorithm which can handle illumination settings that are considered difficult for photon tracing approaches such as outdoor scenes, close-ups of a small part of an illuminated region, and illumination coming through a small gap. The key contribution in our...... algorithm is the use of visibility of photon path as the importance function which ensures that our sampling algorithm focuses on paths that are visible from the given viewpoint. Our sampling algorithm builds on two recent developments in Markov chain Monte Carlo methods: adaptive Markov chain sampling...... and replica exchange. Using these techniques, each photon path is adaptively mutated and it explores the sampling space efficiently without being stuck at a local peak of the importance function. We have implemented this sampling approach in the progressive photon mapping algorithm which provides visibility...

  7. Modification of equivalent photon approximation (EPA) for resolved photon processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drees, M.; Godbole, R.M.

    1995-05-01

    The authors propose a modification of the equivalent photon approximation (EPA) for processes which involve the parton content of the photon, to take into account the suppression of the photonic parton fluxes due to the virtuality of the photon. They present simple, physically motivated ansaetze to model this suppression and show that even though the parton content of the electron no longer factorizes into an electron flux function and photon structure function, it is still possible to express it as a single integral. They also show that for the TRISTAN (transposable ring intersecting storage accelerators in Nippon) experiments its effects can be numerically of the same size as that of the NLO corrections. Further, it is discussed a possible measurements at HERA (hadron electron ring an large), which can be provide an experimental handle on the effect the authors model through their ansaetze

  8. Two-dimensional 'photon fluid': effective photon-photon interaction and physical realizations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiao, R Y; Hansson, T H; Leinaas, J M; Viefers, S

    2004-01-01

    We describe a recently developed effective theory for atom-mediated photon-photon interactions in a two-dimensional 'photon fluid' confined to a Fabry-Perot resonator. The photons in the lowest longitudinal cavity mode will appear as massive bosons interacting via a renormalized delta-function potential with a strength determined by physical parameters such as the density of atoms and the detuning of the photons relative to the resonance frequency of the atoms. We discuss novel quantum phenomena for photons, such as Bose-Einstein condensation and bound state formation, as well as possible experimental scenarios based on Rydberg atoms in a microwave cavity, or alkali atoms in an optical cavity

  9. Fission fragment angular momentum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frenne, D. De

    1991-01-01

    Most of the energy released in fission is converted into translational kinetic energy of the fragments. The remaining excitation energy will be distributed among neutrons and gammas. An important parameter characterizing the scission configuration is the primary angular momentum of the nascent fragments. Neutron emission is not expected to decrease the spin of the fragments by more than one unit of angular momentum and is as such of less importance in the determination of the initial fragment spins. Gamma emission is a suitable tool in studying initial fragment spins because the emission time, number, energy, and multipolarity of the gammas strongly depend on the value of the primary angular momentum. The main conclusions of experiments on gamma emission were that the initial angular momentum of the fragments is large compared to the ground state spin and oriented perpendicular to the fission axis. Most of the recent information concerning initial fragment spin distributions comes from the measurement of isomeric ratios for isomeric pairs produced in fission. Although in nearly every mass chain isomers are known, only a small number are suitable for initial fission fragment spin studies. Yield and half-life considerations strongly limit the number of candidates. This has the advantage that the behavior of a specific isomeric pair can be investigated for a number of fissioning systems at different excitation energies of the fragments and fissioning nuclei. Because most of the recent information on primary angular momenta comes from measurements of isomeric ratios, the global deexcitation process of the fragments and the calculation of the initial fragment spin distribution from measured isomeric ratios are discussed here. The most important results on primary angular momentum determinations are reviewed and some theoretical approaches are given. 45 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs

  10. Monte Carlo simulations used to calculate the energy deposited in the coronary artery lumen as a function of iodine concentration and photon energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hocine, Nora; Meignan, Michel; Masset, Hélène

    2018-04-01

    To better understand the risks of cumulative medical X-ray investigations and the possible causal role of contrast agent on the coronary artery wall, the correlation between iodinated contrast media and the increase of energy deposited in the coronary artery lumen as a function of iodine concentration and photon energy is investigated. The calculations of energy deposition have been performed using Monte Carlo (MC) simulation codes, namely PENetration and Energy LOss of Positrons and Electrons (PENELOPE) and Monte Carlo N-Particle eXtended (MCNPX). Exposure of a cylinder phantom, artery and a metal stent (AISI 316L) to several X-ray photon beams were simulated. For the energies used in cardiac imaging the energy deposited in the coronary artery lumen increases with the quantity of iodine. Monte Carlo calculations indicate a strong dependence of the energy enhancement factor (EEF) on photon energy and iodine concentration. The maximum value of EEF is equal to 25; this factor is showed for 83 keV and for 400 mg Iodine/mL. No significant impact of the stent is observed on the absorbed dose in the artery for incident X-ray beams with mean energies of 44, 48, 52 and 55 keV. A strong correlation was shown between the increase in the concentration of iodine and the energy deposited in the coronary artery lumen for the energies used in cardiac imaging and over the energy range between 44 and 55 keV. The data provided by this study could be useful for creating new medical imaging protocols to obtain better diagnostic information with a lower level of radiation exposure.

  11. Photon technology. Laser process technology; Photon technology. Laser process gijutsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    For developing laser process technology by interaction between substance and photon, the present state, system, R and D issues and proposal of such technology were summarized. Development of the photon technology aims at the modification of bonding conditions of substances by quantum energy of photon, and the new process technology for generating ultra- high temperature and pressure fields by concentrating photon on a minute region. Photon technology contributes to not only the conventional mechanical and thermal forming and removal machining but also function added machining (photon machining) in quantum level and new machining technology ranging from macro- to micro-machining, creating a new industrial field. This technology extends various fields from the basis of physics and chemistry to new bonding technology. Development of a compact high-quality high-power high-efficiency photon source, and advanced photon transmission technology are necessary. The basic explication of an unsolved physicochemical phenomenon related to photon and substance, and development of related application technologies are essential. 328 refs., 147 figs., 13 tabs.

  12. Quantum photonics

    CERN Document Server

    Pearsall, Thomas P

    2017-01-01

    This textbook employs a pedagogical approach that facilitates access to the fundamentals of Quantum Photonics. It contains an introductory description of the quantum properties of photons through the second quantization of the electromagnetic field, introducing stimulated and spontaneous emission of photons at the quantum level. Schrödinger’s equation is used to describe the behavior of electrons in a one-dimensional potential. Tunneling through a barrier is used to introduce the concept of non­locality of an electron at the quantum level, which is closely-related to quantum confinement tunneling, resonant tunneling, and the origin of energy bands in both periodic (crystalline) and aperiodic (non-crystalline) materials. Introducing the concepts of reciprocal space, Brillouin zones, and Bloch’s theorem, the determination of electronic band structure using the pseudopotential method is presented, allowing direct computation of the band structures of most group IV, group III-V, and group II-VI semiconducto...

  13. Green photonics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quan, Frederic

    2012-01-01

    Photonics, the broad merger of electronics with the optical sciences, encompasses such a wide swath of technology that its impact is almost universal in our everyday lives. This is a broad overview of some aspects of the industry and their contribution to the ‘green’ or environmental movement. The rationale for energy conservation is briefly discussed and the impact of photonics on our everyday lives and certain industries is described. Some opinions from industry are presented along with market estimates. References are provided to some of the most recent research in these areas. (review article)

  14. Measurement of cortical functional activation in awake mice using two-photon microscopy and a novel pO2-sensitive probe(Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sencan, Ikbal; Esipova, Tatiana V.; Kilic, Kivilcim; Li, Baoqiang; Desjardins, Michèle; Yaseen, Mohammad A.; Wang, Hui; Jaswal, Rajeshwer S.; Kura, Sreekanth; Fu, Buyin; Boas, David A.; Devor, Anna; Sakadžić, Sava; Vinogradov, Sergei A.

    2017-02-01

    We characterized cortical microvascular PO2 and blood flow changes in response to whisker stimulation in awake mice. The measurements were performed by combining two-photon microscopy imaging of the cortical oxygenation and optical coherence tomography imaging of the cerebral blood flow. In order to perform fast spatio-temporally resolved measurements of PO2, we used a newly-developed oxygen-sensitive probe PtG-2P, which has significantly higher brightness than the established two-photon-enhanced oxygen sensor PtP-C343. We characterized the performance of the new probe in vivo and mapped the amplitudes and shapes (e.g. initial dip, overshoot, and post stimulus undershoot) of the PO2 changes as a function of the vessel type (e.g., arterioles, capillaries, and venules) and a distance from the activation center. The measurements in the awake mice are not affected by the confounding factors of anesthesia on the animal physiology, including the level of cerebral metabolism and the amplitude and speed of neuronal and vascular responses. Our results will help to understand changes in oxygenation and blood flow on the cortical microvascular scale, will lead to improved understanding of the cerebral physiology, pathophysiology and will improve quantitative interpretation of fMRI signals.

  15. Nonlinear silicon photonics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsia, Kevin K.; Jalali, Bahram

    2010-05-01

    An intriguing optical property of silicon is that it exhibits a large third-order optical nonlinearity, with orders-ofmagnitude larger than that of silica glass in the telecommunication band. This allows efficient nonlinear optical interaction at relatively low power levels in a small footprint. Indeed, we have witnessed a stunning progress in harnessing the Raman and Kerr effects in silicon as the mechanisms for enabling chip-scale optical amplification, lasing, and wavelength conversion - functions that until recently were perceived to be beyond the reach of silicon. With all the continuous efforts developing novel techniques, nonlinear silicon photonics is expected to be able to reach even beyond the prior achievements. Instead of providing a comprehensive overview of this field, this manuscript highlights a number of new branches of nonlinear silicon photonics, which have not been fully recognized in the past. In particular, they are two-photon photovoltaic effect, mid-wave infrared (MWIR) silicon photonics, broadband Raman effects, inverse Raman scattering, and periodically-poled silicon (PePSi). These novel effects and techniques could create a new paradigm for silicon photonics and extend its utility beyond the traditionally anticipated applications.

  16. Photons and diphotons from the Tevatron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blair, R.

    1997-08-01

    Photon measurements from the CDF and D0 collaboration are described. The subjects touched on are loosely organized around the fact that they all have some bearing on the structure functions and pQCD. The methodology of collider measurements is briefly reviewed, and the results for single photons, photons plus jets, photons plus charm and diphotons are discussed. Finally there is a very brief indication of what is expected from the Tevatron based experiments in the future

  17. Photon Differentials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schjøth, Lars; Frisvad, Jeppe Revall; Erleben, Kenny

    2007-01-01

    illumination features. This is often not desirable as these may lose clarity or vanish altogether. We present an accurate method for reconstruction of indirect illumination with photon mapping. Instead of reconstructing illumination using classic density estimation on finite points, we use the correlation...

  18. Photon Rao

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Volume 2 Issue 5 May 1997 pp 69-72 Feature Article. Molecule of the Month Molecular–Chameleon: Solvatochromism at its Iridescent Best! Photon Rao · More Details Fulltext PDF. Volume 16 Issue 12 December 2011 pp 1303-1306. Molecule of the Month - Molecular-Chameleon: Solvatochromism at its Iridescent Best!

  19. Experimental determination of the lateral dose response functions of detectors to be applied in the measurement of narrow photon-beam dose profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poppinga, D; Meyners, J; Delfs, B; Muru, A; Harder, D; Poppe, B; Looe, H K

    2015-12-21

    This study aims at the experimental determination of the detector-specific 1D lateral dose response function K(x) and of its associated rotational symmetric counterpart K(r) for a set of high-resolution detectors presently used in narrow-beam photon dosimetry. A combination of slit-beam, radiochromic film, and deconvolution techniques served to accomplish this task for four detectors with diameters of their sensitive volumes ranging from 1 to 2.2 mm. The particular aim of the experiment was to examine the existence of significant negative portions of some of these response functions predicted by a recent Monte-Carlo-simulation (Looe et al 2015 Phys. Med. Biol. 60 6585-607). In a 6 MV photon slit beam formed by the Siemens Artiste collimation system and a 0.5 mm wide slit between 10 cm thick lead blocks serving as the tertiary collimator, the true cross-beam dose profile D(x) at 3 cm depth in a large water phantom was measured with radiochromic film EBT3, and the detector-affected cross-beam signal profiles M(x) were recorded with a silicon diode, a synthetic diamond detector, a miniaturized scintillation detector, and a small ionization chamber. For each detector, the deconvolution of the convolution integral M(x)  =  K(x)  ∗  D(x) served to obtain its specific 1D lateral dose response function K(x), and K(r) was calculated from it. Fourier transformations and back transformations were performed using function approximations by weighted sums of Gaussian functions and their analytical transformation. The 1D lateral dose response functions K(x) of the four types of detectors and their associated rotational symmetric counterparts K(r) were obtained. Significant negative curve portions of K(x) and K(r) were observed in the case of the silicon diode and the diamond detector, confirming the Monte-Carlo-based prediction (Looe et al 2015 Phys. Med. Biol. 60 6585-607). They are typical for the perturbation of the secondary electron field by a detector with

  20. Heavy-Quark Production in the Target Fragmentation Region

    CERN Document Server

    Graudenz, Dirk

    1997-01-01

    Fixed-target experiments permit the study of hadron production in the target fragmentation region. It is expected that the tagging of specific particles in the target fragments can be employed to introduce a bias in the hard scattering process towards a specific flavour content. The case of hadrons containing a heavy quark is particularly attractive because of the clear experimental signatures and the applicability of perturbative QCD. The standard approach to one-particle inclusive processes based on fragmentation functions is valid in the current fragmentation region and for large transverse momenta $p_T$ in the target fragmentation region, but it fails for particle production at small $p_T$ in the target fragmentation region. A collinear singularity, which cannot be absorbed in the standard way into the phenomenological distribution functions, prohibits the application of this procedure. This situation is remedied by the introduction of a new set of distribution functions, the target fragmentation function...

  1. String fragmentation; La fragmentation des cordes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drescher, H.J.; Werner, K. [Laboratoire de Physique Subatomique et des Technologies Associees - SUBATECH, Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, 44 - Nantes (France)

    1997-10-01

    The classical string model is used in VENUS as a fragmentation model. For the soft domain simple 2-parton strings were sufficient, whereas for higher energies up to LHC, the perturbative regime of the QCD gives additional soft gluons, which are mapped on the string as so called kinks, energy singularities between the leading partons. The kinky string model is chosen to handle fragmentation of these strings by application of the Lorentz invariant area law. The `kinky strings` model, corresponding to the perturbative gluons coming from pQCD, takes into consideration this effect by treating the partons and gluons on the same footing. The decay law is always the Artru-Menessier area law which is the most realistic since it is invariant to the Lorentz and gauge transformations. For low mass strings a manipulation of the rupture point is necessary if the string corresponds already to an elementary particle determined by the mass and the flavor content. By means of the fragmentation model it will be possible to simulate the data from future experiments at LHC and RHIC 3 refs.

  2. Temporal change in fragmentation of continental US forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    James D. Wickham; Kurt H. Riitters; Timothy G. Wade; Collin Homer

    2008-01-01

    Changes in forest ecosystem function and condition arise from changes in forest fragmentation. Previous studies estimated forest fragmentation for the continental United States (US). In this study, new temporal land-cover data from the National Land Cover Database (NLCD) were used to estimate changes in forest fragmentation at multiple scales for the continental US....

  3. Photonic integration and photonics-electronics convergence on silicon platform

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Jifeng; Baba, Toshihiko; Vivien, Laurent; Xu, Dan-Xia

    2015-01-01

    Silicon photonics technology, which has the DNA of silicon electronics technology, promises to provide a compact photonic integration platform with high integration density, mass-producibility, and excellent cost performance. This technology has been used to develop and to integrate various photonic functions on silicon substrate. Moreover, photonics-electronics convergence based on silicon substrate is now being pursued. Thanks to these features, silicon photonics will have the potential to be a superior technology used in the construction of energy-efficient cost-effective apparatuses for various applications, such as communications, information processing, and sensing. Considering the material characteristics of silicon and difficulties in microfabrication technology, however, silicon by itself is not necessarily an ideal material. For example, silicon is not suitable for light emitting devices because it is an indirect transition material. The resolution and dynamic range of silicon-based interference de...

  4. Intellectual function and radiological images in patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Special reference to single photon emission computed tomography images

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ichikawa, Hiroo; Kanda, Mikio; Fukui, Toshiya; Sugita, Koujiro [Showa Univ., Tokyo (Japan). School of Medicine

    1994-10-01

    To clarify cognitive decline in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), we compared cognitive and motor signs with neuroradiological features, with special reference to single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT), in 23 patients with ALS. Of these 23 patients, five demented patients (ALS-D) showed a decrease in voluntary speech output, abnormal behavior or character change. SPECT images in these patients were specifically characterized by marked uptake reduction in the frontal lobes. ALS patients with normal mentality (ALS-N) showed either a normal pattern or non-specific patchy uptake reduction on SPECT, but never showed the diffuse frontal uptake reduction that was observed in ALS-D patients. None of the ALS-N patients showed cognitive decline or frontal uptake reduction during the follow-up period of up to 29 months. There was no relation in either ALS-D or ALS-N patients between the degree of tracer uptake reduction and clinical features of ALS including severity and duration of illness. Clinical and neuroradiological features in ALS-D patients were compatible with those of `frontal lobe dementia`. ALS-D patients may compose a distinct group because cognitive decline is unlikely to occur in ALS-N patients with a long clinical course. ALS-D patients may be differentiated from other non-demented ALS patients in the early clinical course by the characteristic diffuse frontal uptake reduction on SPECT. (author).

  5. Intellectual function and radiological images in patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Special reference to single photon emission computed tomography images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ichikawa, Hiroo; Kanda, Mikio; Fukui, Toshiya; Sugita, Koujiro

    1994-01-01

    To clarify cognitive decline in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), we compared cognitive and motor signs with neuroradiological features, with special reference to single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT), in 23 patients with ALS. Of these 23 patients, five demented patients (ALS-D) showed a decrease in voluntary speech output, abnormal behavior or character change. SPECT images in these patients were specifically characterized by marked uptake reduction in the frontal lobes. ALS patients with normal mentality (ALS-N) showed either a normal pattern or non-specific patchy uptake reduction on SPECT, but never showed the diffuse frontal uptake reduction that was observed in ALS-D patients. None of the ALS-N patients showed cognitive decline or frontal uptake reduction during the follow-up period of up to 29 months. There was no relation in either ALS-D or ALS-N patients between the degree of tracer uptake reduction and clinical features of ALS including severity and duration of illness. Clinical and neuroradiological features in ALS-D patients were compatible with those of 'frontal lobe dementia'. ALS-D patients may compose a distinct group because cognitive decline is unlikely to occur in ALS-N patients with a long clinical course. ALS-D patients may be differentiated from other non-demented ALS patients in the early clinical course by the characteristic diffuse frontal uptake reduction on SPECT. (author)

  6. On a spatial distribution function of electron-photon shower particles for different values of Esub(0)/#betta# in isothermal atmosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivanenko, I.P.; Osipova, L.N.; Roganova, T.M.; Fedorova, G.F.

    1982-01-01

    Results of calculations of scape distribution function (SDF) of electron-photon shower particles for different values of a parameter E 0 /#betta# in isothermal atmosphere are given. Consideration of finiteness of the parameter E 0 /#betta# leads to narrowing of SDF two times at E 0 /#betta# approximately 10-100 as compared with the Nishimura, Kamata, Greisen SDF (E 0 /#betta# = infinity). Atmosphere inhomogeneity results in SDF broadening in comparison with SDFsub(hom) (E 0 /#betta#) calculated for homogeneous atmosphere. SDFsub(inhom) (E 0 /#betta#) and SDFsub(hom) (E 0 /#betta#) depend on E 0 /#betta# differently which is attributed to different contributions of shower prehistory to SDF formation. The larger is E 0 /#betta# the wider is cascade curve and the higher is the effect of shower prehistory

  7. Assessment of right ventricular function using gated blood pool single photon emission computed tomography in inferior myocardial infarction with or without hemodynamically significant right ventricular infarction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, Masaharu

    1992-01-01

    Right ventricular function was assessed using gated blood pool single photon emission computed tomography (GSPECT) in 10 normal subjects and 14 patients with inferior myocardial infarction. Three-dimensional backbround subtraction was achieved by applying an optimal cut off level. The patient group consisted of 6 patients with definite hemodynamic abnormalities indicative of right ventricular infarction (RVI) and 8 other patients with significant obstructive lesion at the proximal portion of right coronary artery without obvious hemodynamic signs of RVI. Right ventricular regional wall motion abnormalities were demonstrated on GSPECT functional images and the indices of right ventricular function (i.e the right ventricular ejection fraction (RVEF), the right ventricular peak ejection rate (RVPER) and the right ventricular peak filling rate (RVPFR)) were significantly reduced in the patient group, not only in the patients with definite RVI but also in those without hemodynamic signs of RVI, even in the absence of definite hemodynamic signs, when the proximal portion of right coronary artery is obstructed. It is concluded that GSPECT is reliable for the assessment of right ventricular function and regional wall motion, and is also useful for the diagnosis of RVI. (author)

  8. Hypervelocity Impact Test Fragment Modeling: Modifications to the Fragment Rotation Analysis and Lightcurve Code

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gouge, Michael F.

    2011-01-01

    Hypervelocity impact tests on test satellites are performed by members of the orbital debris scientific community in order to understand and typify the on-orbit collision breakup process. By analysis of these test satellite fragments, the fragment size and mass distributions are derived and incorporated into various orbital debris models. These same fragments are currently being put to new use using emerging technologies. Digital models of these fragments are created using a laser scanner. A group of computer programs referred to as the Fragment Rotation Analysis and Lightcurve code uses these digital representations in a multitude of ways that describe, measure, and model on-orbit fragments and fragment behavior. The Dynamic Rotation subroutine generates all of the possible reflected intensities from a scanned fragment as if it were observed to rotate dynamically while in orbit about the Earth. This calls an additional subroutine that graphically displays the intensities and the resulting frequency of those intensities as a range of solar phase angles in a Probability Density Function plot. This document reports the additions and modifications to the subset of the Fragment Rotation Analysis and Lightcurve concerned with the Dynamic Rotation and Probability Density Function plotting subroutines.

  9. Photon Collider Physics with Real Photon Beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gronberg, J; Asztalos, S

    2005-01-01

    Photon-photon interactions have been an important probe into fundamental particle physics. Until recently, the only way to produce photon-photon collisions was parasitically in the collision of charged particles. Recent advances in short-pulse laser technology have made it possible to consider producing high intensity, tightly focused beams of real photons through Compton scattering. A linear e + e - collider could thus be transformed into a photon-photon collider with the addition of high power lasers. In this paper they show that it is possible to make a competitive photon-photon collider experiment using the currently mothballed Stanford Linear Collider. This would produce photon-photon collisions in the GeV energy range which would allow the discovery and study of exotic heavy mesons with spin states of zero and two

  10. Hard photons in heavy ion collisions: direct or statistical?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herrmann, N.; Bock, R.; Emling, H.; Freifelder, R.; Gobbi, A.; Grosse, E.; Hildenbrand, K.D.; Kulessa, R.; Matulewicz, T.; Rami, F.; Simon, R.S.; Stelzer, H.; Wessels, J.; Maurenzig, P.R.; Olmi, A.; Stefanini, A.A.; Kuehn, W.; Metag, V.; Novotny, R.

    1987-10-01

    Photons with energies from 2 to 60 MeV have been measured in coincidence with binary fragments in the reaction 92 Mo + 92 Mo at an incident energy of 19.5 A MeV. The rapid change of the γ-ray spectrum and multiplicity with the fragment total kinetic energy in the exit channel indicates that the γ-rays are emitted statistically by the highly excited fragments. Temperatures as high as 6 MeV are inferred. (orig.)

  11. Depth dependence of the single chamber response function of the I'mRT MatriXX array in a 6 MV photon beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alashrah, Saleh

    2013-01-01

    One of the factors which influence the spatial resolution of a 2D detector array is the size of the single detector, another the transport of the secondary electrons from the walls into the measuring volume. In this study, the single ion chamber dose response function of an I'mRT MatriXX array was determined by comparison between slit beam dose profiles measured with the array and with EBT2 radiochromic film in a solid water-equivalent phantom at a shallow depth of 0.5 cm and at a depth of 5 cm beyond the depth dose maximum for a 6 MV photon beam. The dose response functions were obtained using two methods, the best fit method and the deconvolution method. At the shallow depth, a Lorentz function and at 5 cm depth a Gaussian function, both with the same FWHM of 7.4 mm within limits of uncertainty, were identified as the best suited dose response functions of the 4.5 mm diameter single array chamber. These dose response functions were then tested on various dose profiles whose true shape had been determined with EBT2 film and with the IC03 ionization chamber. By convolving these with the Lorentz kernel (at shallow depth) and the Gaussian kernel (at 5 cm depth) the signal profiles measured with the I'mRT MatriXX array were closely approximated. Thus, the convolution of TPS-calculated dose profiles with these dose response functions can minimize the differences between calculation and measurement which occur due to the limited spatial resolution of the I'mRT MatriXX detector. (orig.)

  12. Embedded Fragments Registry (EFR)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — In 2009, the Department of Defense estimated that approximately 40,000 service members who served in OEF/OIF may have embedded fragment wounds as the result of small...

  13. Physics of projectile fragments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minamisono, Tadanori

    1982-01-01

    This is a study report on the polarization phenomena of the projectile fragments produced by heavy ion reactions, and the beta decay of fragments. The experimental project by using heavy ions with the energy from 50 MeV/amu to 250 MeV/amu was designed. Construction of an angle-dispersion spectrograph for projectile fragments was proposed. This is a two-stage spectrograph. The first stage is a QQDQQ type separator, and the second stage is QDQD type. Estimation shows that Co-66 may be separated from the nuclei with mass of 65 and 67. The orientation of fragments can be measured by detecting beta-ray. The apparatus consists of a uniform field magnet, an energy absorber, a stopper, a RF coil and a beta-ray hodoscope. This system can be used for not only this purpose but also for the measurement of hyperfine structure. (Kato, T.)

  14. Fragmentation Main Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The fragmentation model combines patch size and patch continuity with diversity of vegetation types per patch and rarity of vegetation types per patch. A patch was...

  15. Stone fragmentation by ultrasound

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    In the present work, enhancement of the kidney stone fragmentation by using ultrasound is studied. The cavi- ... ment system like radiation pressure balance, the power is given by ... Thus the bubble size has direct relationship with its life and.

  16. Fragment capture device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payne, Lloyd R.; Cole, David L.

    2010-03-30

    A fragment capture device for use in explosive containment. The device comprises an assembly of at least two rows of bars positioned to eliminate line-of-sight trajectories between the generation point of fragments and a surrounding containment vessel or asset. The device comprises an array of at least two rows of bars, wherein each row is staggered with respect to the adjacent row, and wherein a lateral dimension of each bar and a relative position of each bar in combination provides blockage of a straight-line passage of a solid fragment through the adjacent rows of bars, wherein a generation point of the solid fragment is located within a cavity at least partially enclosed by the array of bars.

  17. DNA fragmentation in spermatozoa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rex, A S; Aagaard, J.; Fedder, J

    2017-01-01

    Sperm DNA Fragmentation has been extensively studied for more than a decade. In the 1940s the uniqueness of the spermatozoa protein complex which stabilizes the DNA was discovered. In the fifties and sixties, the association between unstable chromatin structure and subfertility was investigated....... In the seventies, the impact of induced DNA damage was investigated. In the 1980s the concept of sperm DNA fragmentation as related to infertility was introduced as well as the first DNA fragmentation test: the Sperm Chromatin Structure Assay (SCSA). The terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase nick end labelling...... (TUNEL) test followed by others was introduced in the nineties. The association between DNA fragmentation in spermatozoa and pregnancy loss has been extensively investigated spurring the need for a therapeutic tool for these patients. This gave rise to an increased interest in the aetiology of DNA damage...

  18. Zonula occludens toxin structure-function analysis. Identification of the fragment biologically active on tight junctions and of the zonulin receptor binding domain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Pierro, M; Lu, R; Uzzau, S; Wang, W; Margaretten, K; Pazzani, C; Maimone, F; Fasano, A

    2001-06-01

    Zonula occludens toxin (Zot) is an enterotoxin elaborated by Vibrio cholerae that increases intestinal permeability by interacting with a mammalian cell receptor with subsequent activation of intracellular signaling leading to the disassembly of the intercellular tight junctions. Zot localizes in the bacterial outer membrane of V. cholerae with subsequent cleavage and secretion of a carboxyl-terminal fragment in the host intestinal milieu. To identify the Zot domain(s) directly involved in the protein permeating effect, several zot gene deletion mutants were constructed and tested for their biological activity in the Ussing chamber assay and their ability to bind to the target receptor on intestinal epithelial cell cultures. The Zot biologically active domain was localized toward the carboxyl terminus of the protein and coincided with the predicted cleavage product generated by V. cholerae. This domain shared a putative receptor-binding motif with zonulin, the Zot mammalian analogue involved in tight junction modulation. Amino acid comparison between the Zot active fragment and zonulin, combined with site-directed mutagenesis experiments, confirmed the presence of an octapeptide receptor-binding domain toward the amino terminus of the processed Zot.

  19. Performance of Thallium-201 Electrocardiography-gated Myocardial Perfusion Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography to Assess Left Ventricular Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guang-Uei Hung

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the performance of gated single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT with thallium-201 (201Tl in assessing left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF, end-diastolic volume (EDV, and end-systolic volume (ESV in Taiwanese by determining repeatability and correlation with two-dimensional (2D echocardiography. A total of 18 patients underwent two sequential gated SPECT acquisitions within 30 minutes in the resting state to assess repeatability. Another 28 patients who underwent gated SPECT and 2D echocardiography within 7 days were included for comparison. The two sequential measurements were well correlated with respect to LVEF, EDV, and ESV (r = 0.97, 0.95, and 0.97, respectively, all p < 0.0001. Bland-Altman analysis revealed that two standard deviations of the absolute difference between the two sequential measurements for LVEF, EDV, and ESV were 6.4%, 16.8 mL, and 8.6 mL, respectively. For LVEF, EDV, and ESV, correlations between redistribution 201Tl-gated SPECT and echocardiography were also excellent (all r = 0.83, p < 0.0001. LVEF was similar with 201Tl-gated SPECT and echocardiography, but EDV and ESV were significantly higher with echocardiography (p < 0.05. Our study revealed that 201Tl-gated SPECT has high repeatability and excellent correlation with echocardiography for the assessment of LVEF and volumes in Taiwanese. These results support the clinical application of gated SPECT in routine 201Tl myocardial perfusion imaging in Taiwanese.

  20. Photon collisions as a glueball source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, H.C.

    1984-01-01

    Photon-photon and photon-nucleon collisions are suggested as a glueball source at small x in the collision center-of-mass frame. The glueball-production cross section is estimated through the two-gluon-fusion mechanism in perturbative quantum chromodynamics. The pointlike component of the photon structure function has a distinctive feature in that it consists almost purely of gluons at small x, which turns out to be very effective in producing glueballs. A much larger signal-to-noise ratio is expected in the glueball search in high-energy photon-photon and photon-nucleon collisions compared with hadron-hadron collisions. It is argued that the background due to soft collisions of the photons can be effectively reduced

  1. Photon statistics in an N-level (N-1)-mode system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kozierowski, M.; Shumovskij, A.S.

    1987-01-01

    The characteristic and photon number distribution functions, the statistical moments of photon numbers and the correlations of modes are studied. The normally ordered variances of the photon numbers and the cross-correlation functions are calculated

  2. Photon technology. Laser processing technology; Photon technology. Laser process gijutsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-03-01

    Survey has been conducted to develop laser processing technology utilizing the interaction between substance and photon. This is a part of the leading research on photon technology development. The photon technology development is aimed at novel technology development highly utilizing the quantum nature of photons. In the field of laser processing, high quality photons are used as tools, special functions of atoms and molecules will be discovered, and processing for functional fabrication (photon machining) will be established. A role of laser processing in industries has become significant, which is currently spreading not only into cutting and welding of materials and scalpels but also into such a special field as ultrafine processing of materials. The spreading is sometimes obstructed due to the difficulty of procurement of suitable machines and materials, and the increase of cost. The purpose of this study is to develop the optimal laser technology, to elucidate the interaction between substance and photon, and to develop the laser system and the transmission and regulation systems which realize the optimal conditions. 387 refs., 115 figs., 25 tabs.

  3. Behaviors of cost functions in image registration between 201Tl brain tumor single-photon emission computed tomography and magnetic resonance images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soma, Tsutomu; Takaki, Akihiro; Teraoka, Satomi; Ishikawa, Yasushi; Murase, Kenya; Koizumi, Kiyoshi

    2008-01-01

    We studied the behaviors of cost functions in the registration of thallium-201 ( 201 Tl) brain tumor single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) and magnetic resonance (MR) images, as the similarity index of image positioning. A marker for image registration [technetium-99m ( 99m Tc) point source] was attached at three sites on the heads of 13 patients with brain tumor, from whom 42 sets of 99m Tc- 201 Tl SPECT (the dual-isotope acquisition) and MR images were obtained. The 201 Tl SPECT and MR images were manually registered according to the markers. From the positions where the two images were registered, the position of the 201 Tl SPECT was moved to examine the behaviors of the three cost functions, i.e., ratio image uniformity (RIU), mutual information (MI), and normalized MI (NMI). The cost functions MI and NMI reached the maximum at positions adjacent to those where the SPECT and MR images were manually registered. As for the accuracy of image registration in terms of the cost functions MI and NMI, on average, the images were accurately registered within 3 deg of rotation around the X-, Y-, and Z-axes, and within 1.5 mm (within 2 pixels), 3 mm (within 3 pixels), and 4 mm (within 1 slice) of translation to the X-, Y-, and Z-axes, respectively. In terms of rotation around the Z-axis, the cost function RIU reached the minimum at positions where the manual registration of the two images was substantially inadequate. The MI and NMI were suitable cost functions in the registration of 201 Tl SPECT and MR images. The behavior of the RIU, in contrast, was unstable, being unsuitable as an index of image registration. (author)

  4. Evaluation of left ventricular function and volume with multidetector-row computed tomography. Comparison with electrocardiogram-gated single photon emission computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Takeya; Yamashina, Shohei; Nanjou, Shuji; Yamazaki, Junichi

    2007-01-01

    This study compared left ventricular systolic function and volume determined by multidetector-row computed tomography (MDCT) and electrocardiogram-gated single photon emission computed tomography (G-SPECT) Thirty-seven patients with coronary artery disease and non-cardiovascular disease underwent MDCT. In this study, left ventricular ejection fraction (EF), left ventricular end-diastolic volume (EDV) and left ventricular end-systolic volume (ESV) were calculated using only two-phase imaging with MDCT. Left ventricular function and volume were compared using measurements from G-SPECT. We conducted MDCT and G-SPECT virtually simultaneously. Both the EF and ESV evaluated by MDCT closely correlated with G-SPECT (r=0.763, P 65 bpm) during MDCT significantly influenced the difference in EF calculated from MDCT and G-SPECT (P<0.05). Left ventricular function can be measured with MDCT as well as G-SPECT. However, a heart rate over 65 bpm during MDCT negatively affects the EF correlation between MDCT and G-SPECT. (author)

  5. Structure and optical function of amorphous photonic nanostructures from avian feather barbs: a comparative small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) analysis of 230 bird species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saranathan, Vinodkumar; Forster, Jason D; Noh, Heeso; Liew, Seng-Fatt; Mochrie, Simon G J; Cao, Hui; Dufresne, Eric R; Prum, Richard O

    2012-10-07

    Non-iridescent structural colours of feathers are a diverse and an important part of the phenotype of many birds. These colours are generally produced by three-dimensional, amorphous (or quasi-ordered) spongy β-keratin and air nanostructures found in the medullary cells of feather barbs. Two main classes of three-dimensional barb nanostructures are known, characterized by a tortuous network of air channels or a close packing of spheroidal air cavities. Using synchrotron small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) and optical spectrophotometry, we characterized the nanostructure and optical function of 297 distinctly coloured feathers from 230 species belonging to 163 genera in 51 avian families. The SAXS data provided quantitative diagnoses of the channel- and sphere-type nanostructures, and confirmed the presence of a predominant, isotropic length scale of variation in refractive index that produces strong reinforcement of a narrow band of scattered wavelengths. The SAXS structural data identified a new class of rudimentary or weakly nanostructured feathers responsible for slate-grey, and blue-grey structural colours. SAXS structural data provided good predictions of the single-scattering peak of the optical reflectance of the feathers. The SAXS structural measurements of channel- and sphere-type nanostructures are also similar to experimental scattering data from synthetic soft matter systems that self-assemble by phase separation. These results further support the hypothesis that colour-producing protein and air nanostructures in feather barbs are probably self-assembled by arrested phase separation of polymerizing β-keratin from the cytoplasm of medullary cells. Such avian amorphous photonic nanostructures with isotropic optical properties may provide biomimetic inspiration for photonic technology.

  6. Fiscal 1997 report under consignment from NEDO on photon measuring/processing technology (development of power generation facility use high-function maintenance technology); 1997 nendo Shin energy Sangyo Gijutsu Sogo Kaihatsu Kiko itaku photon keisoku kako gijutsu (hatsuden shisetsuyo kokino maintenance gijutsu kaihatsu) seika hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    A research/development was conducted on technologies of photon applied measuring/photon applied processing/photon generation which are usable for heightening of reliability and maintenance efficiency of power generation facilities. In fiscal 1997, high melting-point metal particles were manufactured by high energy density laser for formation of high temperature and stabilized fine functional circuit. Further, a wavelength changeable ultra red laser light source was studied which can make in-situ measurement of gas concentration and components. A study was also made to examine the surface composition by measuring fluorescent X-rays emitted by radiating high intensity laser beam on the surface of material. A rod type and a slab type as a high-output complete-solidified laser are under development. There is also a development aiming at high speed/high quality photon processing such as high speed/high precision welding/cutting and laser joining. Besides, a study is being made of high energy pulse/high quality beam complete-solidified laser. The paper made a comprehensive survey of the trend of the photon measuring/monitoring technology, and made a systematical arrangement of the developmental subjects extracted. 142 refs., 357 figs., 62 tabs.

  7. Nonlocal structures: bilocal photon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clapp, R.E.

    1980-01-01

    It is postulated that all particles and fields are built from a single primitive field, a massless fermion with a σ spin of one-half. Two helicities are embodied in a tau spin of one-half. The vacuum is an open Fermi sea whose height is a wave number kappa. Elementary particles are structures having the form of standing-wave systems floating on the vacuum sea. A bilocal photon starts with a function describing two primitive quanta with parallel σ spin and opposite tau spin. A centroid-time wave equation then couples-in and infinite set of orthogonal functions. The introduction of an operator Qlambda permits the reduction of the infinite secular determinant to finite six-by-six determinant. Solutions are obtained describing photons with right-handed and left-handed polarizations. Electric and magnetic field vectors satisfying the vacuum Maxwell equations, are obtained from a bilocal Hertz vector. (author)

  8. Photonic compressive sensing with a micro-ring-resonator-based microwave photonic filter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Ying; Ding, Yunhong; Zhu, Zhijing

    2015-01-01

    A novel approach to realize photonic compressive sensing (CS) with a multi-tap microwave photonic filter is proposed and demonstrated. The system takes both advantages of CS and photonics to capture wideband sparse signals with sub-Nyquist sampling rate. The low-pass filtering function required...

  9. Fragmentation of relativistic nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cork, B.

    1975-06-01

    Nuclei with energies of several GeV/n interact with hadrons and produce fragments that encompass the fields of nuclear physics, meson physics, and particle physics. Experimental results are now available to explore problems in nuclear physics such as the validity of the shell model to explain the momentum distribution of fragments, the contribution of giant dipole resonances to fragment production cross sections, the effective Coulomb barrier, and nuclear temperatures. A new approach to meson physics is possible by exploring the nucleon charge-exchange process. Particle physics problems are explored by measuring the energy and target dependence of isotope production cross sections, thus determining if limiting fragmentation and target factorization are valid, and measuring total cross sections to determine if the factorization relation, sigma/sub AB/ 2 = sigma/sub AA/ . sigma/sub BB/, is violated. Also, new experiments have been done to measure the angular distribution of fragments that could be explained as nuclear shock waves, and to explore for ultradense matter produced by very heavy ions incident on heavy atoms. (12 figures, 2 tables)

  10. Fragmentation in DNA double-strand breaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei Zhiyong; Suzhou Univ., Suzhou; Zhang Lihui; Li Ming; Fan Wo; Xu Yujie

    2005-01-01

    DNA double strand breaks are important lesions induced by irradiations. Random breakage model or quantification supported by this concept is suitable to analyze DNA double strand break data induced by low LET radiation, but deviation from random breakage model is more evident in high LET radiation data analysis. In this work we develop a new method, statistical fragmentation model, to analyze the fragmentation process of DNA double strand breaks. After charged particles enter the biological cell, they produce ionizations along their tracks, and transfer their energies to the cells and break the cellular DNA strands into fragments. The probable distribution of the fragments is obtained under the condition in which the entropy is maximum. Under the approximation E≅E 0 + E 1 l + E 2 l 2 , the distribution functions are obtained as exp(αl + βl 2 ). There are two components, the one proportional to exp(βl 2 ), mainly contributes to the low mass fragment yields, the other component, proportional to exp(αl), decreases slowly as the mass of the fragments increases. Numerical solution of the constraint equations provides parameters α and β. Experimental data, especially when the energy deposition is higher, support the statistical fragmentation model. (authors)

  11. The dual role of fragments in fragment-assembly methods for de novo protein structure prediction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handl, Julia; Knowles, Joshua; Vernon, Robert; Baker, David; Lovell, Simon C.

    2013-01-01

    In fragment-assembly techniques for protein structure prediction, models of protein structure are assembled from fragments of known protein structures. This process is typically guided by a knowledge-based energy function and uses a heuristic optimization method. The fragments play two important roles in this process: they define the set of structural parameters available, and they also assume the role of the main variation operators that are used by the optimiser. Previous analysis has typically focused on the first of these roles. In particular, the relationship between local amino acid sequence and local protein structure has been studied by a range of authors. The correlation between the two has been shown to vary with the window length considered, and the results of these analyses have informed directly the choice of fragment length in state-of-the-art prediction techniques. Here, we focus on the second role of fragments and aim to determine the effect of fragment length from an optimization perspective. We use theoretical analyses to reveal how the size and structure of the search space changes as a function of insertion length. Furthermore, empirical analyses are used to explore additional ways in which the size of the fragment insertion influences the search both in a simulation model and for the fragment-assembly technique, Rosetta. PMID:22095594

  12. Electrocardiograph-gated single photon emission computed tomography radionuclide angiography presents good interstudy reproducibility for the quantification of global systolic right ventricular function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daou, Doumit; Coaguila, Carlos; Vilain, Didier

    2007-05-01

    Electrocardiograph-gated single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) radionuclide angiography provides accurate measurement of right ventricular ejection fraction and end-diastolic and end-systolic volumes. In this study, we report the interstudy precision and reliability of SPECT radionuclide angiography for the measurement of global systolic right ventricular function using two, three-dimensional volume processing methods (SPECT-QBS, SPECT-35%). These were compared with equilibrium planar radionuclide angiography. Ten patients with chronic coronary artery disease having two SPECT and planar radionuclide angiography acquisitions were included. For the right ventricular ejection fraction, end-diastolic volume and end-systolic volume, the interstudy precision and reliability were better with SPECT-35% than with SPECT-QBS. The sample sizes needed to objectify a change in right ventricular volumes or ejection fraction were lower with SPECT-35% than with SPECT-QBS. The interstudy precision and reliability of SPECT-35% and SPECT-QBS for the right ventricle were better than those of equilibrium planar radionuclide angiography, but poorer than those previously reported for the left ventricle with SPECT radionuclide angiography on the same population. SPECT-35% and SPECT-QBS present good interstudy precision and reliability for right ventricular function, with the results favouring the use of SPECT-35%. The results are better than those of equilibrium planar radionuclide angiography, but poorer than those previously reported for the left ventricle with SPECT radionuclide angiography. They need to be confirmed in a larger population.

  13. Photon absorptiometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valkema, R.; Blokland, J.A.K.; Papapoulos, S.E.; Bijvoet, O.L.M.; Pauwels, E.K.J.

    1989-01-01

    Osteoporosis is a significant health problem in the western world, with important medical, social and economical consequences. Prevention and treatment require reliable methods for in vivo monitoring of the bone mineral content (BMC) and its change in time. This paper presents an overview of currently used radiological methods, based on photon absorptiometry, and their clinical applications. With recent methods based on dual energy X-ray absorptiometry accurate and precise measurements of axial BMC can be obtained. Whether this improvements allows reliable detection of small changes in BMC remains to be investigated. (Author). 95 refs.; 1 tab

  14. Measurement of temporal regional cerebral perfusion with single-photon emission tomography predicts rate of decline in language function and survival in early Alzheimer`s disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Claus, J.J.; Walstra, G.J.M.; Hijdra, A.; Gool, W.A. van [Department of Neurology, Academic Medical Center, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Royen, E.A. van [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Academic Medical Center, University of Amsterdam (Netherlands); Verbeeten, B. Jr. [Department of Radiology, Academic Medical Center, University of Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    1999-03-01

    We determined the relationship between regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) measured with single-photon emission tomography (SPET) and decline in cognitive function and survival in Alzheimer`s disease. In a prospective follow-up study, 69 consecutively referred patients with early probable Alzheimer`s disease (NINCDS/ADRDA criteria) underwent SPET performed at the time of initial diagnosis using technetium-99m-labelled hexamethylpropylene amine oxime. Neuropsychological function was assessed at baseline and after 6 months and survival data were available on all patients, extending to 5.5 years of follow-up. Lower left temporal (P<0.01) and lower left parietal (P<0.01) rCBF were statistically significantly related to decline in language function after 6 months. The association between left temporal rCBF and survival was also statistically significant (P<0.05) using Cox proportional hazards regression analysis. Performing analysis with quartiles of the distribution, we found a threshold effect for low left temporal rCBF (rCBF<73.7%, P<0.01) and high risk of mortality. In this lowest quartile, median survival time was 2.7 years (follow-up to 5.2 years), compared with 4.4 years in the other quartiles (follow-up to 5.5 years). Kaplan-Meier survival curves showed statistically significant (P<0.05, log rank test) survival curves for the lowest versus other quartiles of left temporal rCBF. All results were unaffected by adjustment for age, sex, dementia severity, duration of symptoms, education and ratings of local cortical atrophy. We conclude that left temporal rCBF predicts decline in language function and survival in patients with early probable Alzheimer`s disease, with a threshold effect of low rCBF and high risk of mortality. (orig.) With 3 figs., 3 tabs., 44 refs.

  15. Measurement of temporal regional cerebral perfusion with single-photon emission tomography predicts rate of decline in language function and survival in early Alzheimer's disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Claus, J.J.; Walstra, G.J.M.; Hijdra, A.; Gool, W.A. van; Royen, E.A. van; Verbeeten, B. Jr.

    1999-01-01

    We determined the relationship between regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) measured with single-photon emission tomography (SPET) and decline in cognitive function and survival in Alzheimer's disease. In a prospective follow-up study, 69 consecutively referred patients with early probable Alzheimer's disease (NINCDS/ADRDA criteria) underwent SPET performed at the time of initial diagnosis using technetium-99m-labelled hexamethylpropylene amine oxime. Neuropsychological function was assessed at baseline and after 6 months and survival data were available on all patients, extending to 5.5 years of follow-up. Lower left temporal (P<0.01) and lower left parietal (P<0.01) rCBF were statistically significantly related to decline in language function after 6 months. The association between left temporal rCBF and survival was also statistically significant (P<0.05) using Cox proportional hazards regression analysis. Performing analysis with quartiles of the distribution, we found a threshold effect for low left temporal rCBF (rCBF<73.7%, P<0.01) and high risk of mortality. In this lowest quartile, median survival time was 2.7 years (follow-up to 5.2 years), compared with 4.4 years in the other quartiles (follow-up to 5.5 years). Kaplan-Meier survival curves showed statistically significant (P<0.05, log rank test) survival curves for the lowest versus other quartiles of left temporal rCBF. All results were unaffected by adjustment for age, sex, dementia severity, duration of symptoms, education and ratings of local cortical atrophy. We conclude that left temporal rCBF predicts decline in language function and survival in patients with early probable Alzheimer's disease, with a threshold effect of low rCBF and high risk of mortality. (orig.)

  16. Quantum mechanics of a photon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babaei, Hassan; Mostafazadeh, Ali

    2017-08-01

    A first-quantized free photon is a complex massless vector field A =(Aμ ) whose field strength satisfies Maxwell's equations in vacuum. We construct the Hilbert space H of the photon by endowing the vector space of the fields A in the temporal-Coulomb gauge with a positive-definite and relativistically invariant inner product. We give an explicit expression for this inner product, identify the Hamiltonian for the photon with the generator of time translations in H , determine the operators representing the momentum and the helicity of the photon, and introduce a chirality operator whose eigenfunctions correspond to fields having a definite sign of energy. We also construct a position operator for the photon whose components commute with each other and with the chirality and helicity operators. This allows for the construction of the localized states of the photon with a definite sign of energy and helicity. We derive an explicit formula for the latter and compute the corresponding electric and magnetic fields. These turn out to diverge not just at the point where the photon is localized but on a plane containing this point. We identify the axis normal to this plane with an associated symmetry axis and show that each choice of this axis specifies a particular position operator, a corresponding position basis, and a position representation of the quantum mechanics of a photon. In particular, we examine the position wave functions determined by such a position basis, elucidate their relationship with the Riemann-Silberstein and Landau-Peierls wave functions, and give an explicit formula for the probability density of the spatial localization of the photon.

  17. Land fragmentation and production diversification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ciaian, Pavel; Guri, Fatmir; Rajcaniova, Miroslava; Drabik, Dusan; Paloma, Sergio Gomez Y.

    2018-01-01

    We analyze the impact of land fragmentation on production diversification in rural Albania. Albania represents a particularly interesting case for studying land fragmentation as the fragmentation is a direct outcome of land reforms. The results indicate that land fragmentation is an important driver

  18. Heavy fragment radioactivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silisteanu, I.

    1991-06-01

    The effect of collective mode excitation in heavy fragment radioactivity (HFR) is explored and discussed in the light of current experimental data. It is found that the coupling and resonance effects in fragment interaction and also the proper angular momentum effects may lead to an important enhancing of the emission process. New useful procedures are proposed for the study of nuclear decay properties. The relations between different decay processes are investigated in detail. We are also trying to understand and explain in a unified way the reaction mechanisms in decay phenomena. (author). 17 refs, 4 figs, 3 tabs

  19. FY 1998 annual summary report on photon measuring/processing techniques. Development of highly functional maintenance techniques for power generating facilities; 1998 nendo foton keisoku kako gijutsu. Hatsuden shisetsuyo kokino maintenance gijutsu kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    The objectives are set to develop the techniques for non-destructive measurement of conditions of facility portions, especially those exposed to severe environments, e.g., elevated temperature and pressure, over a wide range; the techniques for measurement of leakage of, e.g., gases, at high sensitivity; the techniques of laser-aided welding and surface-modification treatment for the members exposed to severe conditions; and the techniques for generating photon beams of high quality and energy density as the tools therefor, in order to improve reliability and maintenance efficiency of power generating facilities. The R and D themes are microscopic processing technology: fabrication technology for functional micro-composite circuits; in-situ status measuring technology: gas concentration/component measurement technology, and photon wavefront compensation device technology; non-destructive composition measuring technology: high-sensitivity detection technology using short-wavelength photons; high-power all-solid-state laser technology: rod-type laser and slab-type laser; tightly-focusing all-solid-state laser technology: high-energy pulse, high-quality laser; and comprehensive investigation of photonics engineering: investigation for photon-applied measurement technologies. (NEDO)

  20. Photon-photon and photon-hadron processes in relativistic heavy ion collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baron, N.C.

    1993-11-01

    Photon-photon and photon-hadron interactions in relativistic heavy ion collisions are studied in the framework of the impact parameter dependent equivalent photon approximation. Improvements of this method, like formfactor inclusion and geometrical modifications are developed. In disruptive relativistic heavy ion collisions where the heavy ions overlapp during the collision, electromagnetic processes are an important background to other mechanisms. In peripheral (non-disruptive) relativistic heavy ion collisions where the ions pass each other without strong interactions, the electromagnetic processes can be studied in their pure form. The lepton pair production is an important diagnostic tool in relativistic heavy ion collisions. The coherent γγ lepton pair production is therefore extensively studied in disruptive but also in non-disruptive collisions. The effects of strong interactions on the coherent γγ lepton pair production in disruptive collisions are discussed in terms of a simple stopping model. Coherent γγ dielectron production contributes to the dilepton production in high energy hadron-hadron collisions. As an example, the coherent dielectron production in π - p collisions is studied in terms of the equivalent photon approximation. Peripheral ultrarelativistic heavy ion collisions open up new possibilities for γγ physics. Taking into account γA background reactions, typical γγ processes in the relevant invariant mass ranges are discussed. The extreme high energy part of the equivalent photon spectrum leads to hard photon-parton reactions. As a potential tool to investigate the gluon distribution function of nucleons, thee q anti q production via the γg fusion in ultrarelativistic heavy ion collisions is studied. It is the purpose of this work to investigate how photon-photon and photon-hadron reactions in relativistic heavy ion collisions may contribute to the understanding of QCD and the standard model. (orig.) [de

  1. X and gamma reference radiation for calibrating dosemeters and doserate meters and for determining their response as a function of photon energy - Part 4: Calibration of area and personal dosemeters in low energy X reference radiation fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    ISO 4037 consists of the following parts, under the general title X and gamma reference radiation for calibrating dosemeters and doserate meters and for determining their response as a function of photon energy: Part 1: Radiation characteristics and production methods; Part 2: Dosimetry for radiation protection over the energy ranges from 8 keV to 1,3 MeV and 4 MeV to 9 MeV; Part 3: Calibration of area and personal dosemeters and the measurement of their response as a function of energy and angle of incidence; Part 4: Calibration of area and personal dosemeters in low energy X reference radiation fields. This part 4. of ISO 4037 gives guidelines on additional aspects of the characterization of low energy photon radiations. This part of ISO 4037 also describes procedures for calibration and determination of the response of area and personal dose(rate)meters as a function of photon energy and angle of incidence. This part of ISO 4037 concentrates on the accurate determination of conversion coefficients from air kerma to Hp(10) and H*(10) for the spectra of low energy photon radiations. As an alternative to the use of conversion coefficients, the direct calibration in terms of these quantities by means of appropriate reference instruments is described

  2. A study of the b-quark fragmentation function with the DELPHI detector at LEP I and an averaged distribution obtained at the Z Pole

    CERN Document Server

    Abdallah, J.; Adam, W.; Adzic, P.; Albrecht, T.; Alemany-Fernandez, R.; Allmendinger, T.; Allport, P.P.; Amaldi, U.; Amapane, N.; Amato, S.; Anashkin, E.; Andreazza, A.; Andringa, S.; Anjos, N.; Antilogus, P.; Apel, W.D.; Arnoud, Y.; Ask, S.; Asman, B.; Augustin, J.E.; Augustinus, A.; Baillon, P.; Ballestrero, A.; Bambade, P.; Barbier, R.; Bardin, D.; Barker, G.J.; Baroncelli, A.; Battaglia, M.; Baubillier, M.; Becks, K.H.; Begalli, M.; Behrmann, A.; Ben-Haim, E.; Benekos, N.; Benvenuti, A.; Berat, C.; Berggren, M.; Bertrand, D.; Besancon, M.; Besson, N.; Bloch, D.; Blom, M.; Bluj, M.; Bonesini, M.; Boonekamp, M.; Booth, P.S.L.; Borisov, G.; Botner, O.; Bouquet, B.; Bowcock, T.J.V.; Boyko, I.; Bracko, M.; Brenner, R.; Brodet, E.; Bruckman, P.; Brunet, J.M.; Buschbeck, B.; Buschmann, P.; Calvi, M.; Camporesi, T.; Canale, V.; Carena, F.; Castro, N.; Cavallo, F.; Chapkin, M.; Charpentier, Ph.; Checchia, P.; Chierici, R.; Chliapnikov, P.; Chudoba, J.; Chung, S.U.; Cieslik, K.; Collins, P.; Contri, R.; Cosme, G.; Cossutti, F.; Costa, M.J.; Crennell, D.; Cuevas, J.; D'Hondt, J.; da Silva, T.; Da Silva, W.; Della Ricca, G.; De Angelis, A.; De Boer, W.; De Clercq, C.; De Lotto, B.; De Maria, N.; De Min, A.; de Paula, L.; Di Ciaccio, L.; Di Simone, A.; Doroba, K.; Drees, J.; Eigen, G.; Ekelof, T.; Ellert, M.; Elsing, M.; Espirito Santo, M.C.; Fanourakis, G.; Fassouliotis, D.; Feindt, M.; Fernandez, J.; Ferrer, A.; Ferro, F.; Flagmeyer, U.; Foeth, H.; Fokitis, E.; Fulda-Quenzer, F.; Fuster, J.; Gandelman, M.; Garcia, C.; Gavillet, Ph.; Gazis, E.; Gokieli, R.; Golob, B.; Gomez-Ceballos, G.; Goncalves, P.; Graziani, E.; Grosdidier, G.; Grzelak, K.; Guy, J.; Haag, C.; Hallgren, A.; Hamacher, K.; Hamilton, K.; Haug, S.; Hauler, F.; Hedberg, V.; Hennecke, M.; Hoffman, J.; Holmgren, S.O.; Holt, P.J.; Houlden, M.A.; Jackson, J.N.; Jarlskog, G.; Jarry, P.; Jeans, D.; Johansson, E.K.; Jonsson, P.; Joram, C.; Jungermann, L.; Kapusta, F.; Katsanevas, S.; Katsoufis, E.; Kernel, G.; Kersevan, B.P.; Kerzel, U.; King, B.T.; Kjaer, N.J.; Kluit, P.; Kokkinias, P.; Kourkoumelis, C.; Kouznetsov, O.; Krumstein, Z.; Kucharczyk, M.; Lamsa, J.; Leder, G.; Ledroit, F.; Leinonen, L.; Leitner, R.; Lemonne, J.; Lepeltier, V.; Lesiak, T.; Liebig, W.; Liko, D.; Lipniacka, A.; Lopes, J.H.; Lopez, J.M.; Loukas, D.; Lutz, P.; Lyons, L.; MacNaughton, J.; Malek, A.; Maltezos, S.; Mandl, F.; Marco, J.; Marco, R.; Marechal, B.; Margoni, M.; Marin, J.C.; Mariotti, C.; Markou, A.; Martinez-Rivero, C.; Masik, J.; Mastroyiannopoulos, N.; Matorras, F.; Matteuzzi, C.; Mazzucato, F.; Mazzucato, M.; McNulty, R.; Meroni, C.; Migliore, E.; Mitaroff, W.; Mjoernmark, U.; Moa, T.; Moch, M.; Moenig, K.; Monge, R.; Montenegro, J.; Moraes, D.; Moreno, S.; Morettini, P.; Mueller, U.; Muenich, K.; Mulders, M.; Mundim, L.; Murray, W.; Muryn, B.; Myatt, G.; Myklebust, T.; Nassiakou, M.; Navarria, F.; Nawrocki, K.; Nemecek, S.; Nicolaidou, R.; Nikolenko, M.; Oblakowska-Mucha, A.; Obraztsov, V.; Olshevski, A.; Onofre, A.; Orava, R.; Osterberg, K.; Ouraou, A.; Oyanguren, A.; Paganoni, M.; Paiano, S.; Palacios, J.P.; Palka, H.; Papadopoulou, Th.D.; Pape, L.; Parkes, C.; Parodi, F.; Parzefall, U.; Passeri, A.; Passon, O.; Peralta, L.; Perepelitsa, V.; Perrotta, A.; Petrolini, A.; Piedra, J.; Pieri, L.; Pierre, F.; Pimenta, M.; Piotto, E.; Podobnik, T.; Poireau, V.; Pol, M.E.; Polok, G.; Pozdniakov, V.; Pukhaeva, N.; Pullia, A.; Radojicic, D.; Rebecchi, P.; Rehn, J.; Reid, D.; Reinhardt, R.; Renton, P.; Richard, F.; Ridky, J.; Rivero, M.; Rodriguez, D.; Romero, A.; Ronchese, P.; Roudeau, P.; Rovelli, T.; Ruhlmann-Kleider, V.; Ryabtchikov, D.; Sadovsky, A.; Salmi, L.; Salt, J.; Sander, C.; Savoy-Navarro, A.; Schwickerath, U.; Sekulin, R.; Siebel, M.; Sisakian, A.; Smadja, G.; Smirnova, O.; Sokolov, A.; Sopczak, A.; Sosnowski, R.; Spassov, T.; Stanitzki, M.; Stocchi, A.; Strauss, J.; Stugu, B.; Szczekowski, M.; Szeptycka, M.; Szumlak, T.; Tabarelli, T.; Tegenfeldt, F.; Timmermans, J.; Tkatchev, L.; Tobin, M.; Todorovova, S.; Tome, B.; Tonazzo, A.; Tortosa, P.; Travnicek, P.; Treille, D.; Tristram, G.; Trochimczuk, M.; Troncon, C.; Turluer, M.L.; Tyapkin, I.A.; Tyapkin, P.; Tzamarias, S.; Uvarov, V.; Valenti, G.; Van Dam, P.; Van Eldik, J.; van Remortel, N.; Van Vulpen, I.; Vegni, G.; Veloso, F.; Venus, W.; Verdier, P.; Verzi, V.; Vilanova, D.; Vitale, L.; Vrba, V.; Wahlen, H.; Washbrook, A.J.; Weiser, C.; Wicke, D.; Wickens, J.; Wilkinson, G.; Winter, M.; Witek, M.; Yushchenko, O.; Zalewska, A.; Zalewski, P.; Zavrtanik, D.; Zhuravlov, V.; Zimine, N.I.; Zintchenko, A.; Zupan, M.

    2011-01-01

    The nature of b-quark jet hadronisation has been investigated using data taken at the Z peak by the DELPHI detector at LEP. Two complementary methods are used to reconstruct the energy of weakly decaying b-hadrons, E^weak_B. The average value of x^weak_B = E^weak_B/E_beam is measured to be 0.699 +/- 0.011. The resulting x^weak_B distribution is then analysed in the framework of two choices for the perturbative contribution (parton shower and Next to Leading Log QCD calculation) in order to extract measurements of the non-perturbative contribution to be used in studies of b-hadron production in other experimental environments than LEP. In the parton shower framework, data favour the Lund model ansatz and corresponding values of its parameters have been determined within PYTHIA~6.156 from DELPHI data: a= 1.84^{+0.23}_{-0.21} and b=0.642^{+0.073}_{-0.063} GeV^-2, with a correlation factor rho = 92.2%. Combining the data on the b-quark fragmentation distributions with those obtained at the Z peak by ALEPH, OPAL a...

  3. Assessment of fragment projection hazard: probability distributions for the initial direction of fragments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tugnoli, Alessandro; Gubinelli, Gianfilippo; Landucci, Gabriele; Cozzani, Valerio

    2014-08-30

    The evaluation of the initial direction and velocity of the fragments generated in the fragmentation of a vessel due to internal pressure is an important information in the assessment of damage caused by fragments, in particular within the quantitative risk assessment (QRA) of chemical and process plants. In the present study an approach is proposed to the identification and validation of probability density functions (pdfs) for the initial direction of the fragments. A detailed review of a large number of past accidents provided the background information for the validation procedure. A specific method was developed for the validation of the proposed pdfs. Validated pdfs were obtained for both the vertical and horizontal angles of projection and for the initial velocity of the fragments. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Evaluation of left ventricular function and volumes in patients with ischaemic cardiomyopathy: gated single-photon emission computed tomography versus two-dimensional echocardiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vourvouri, E.C.; Poldermans, D.; Sianos, G.; Sozzi, F.B.; Schinkel, A.F.L.; Sutter, J. de; Roelandt, J.R.T.C.; Bax, J.J.; Parcharidis, G.; Valkema, R.

    2001-01-01

    The objective of this study was to perform a head-to-head comparison between two-dimensional (2D) echocardiography and gated single-photon emission computed tomography (SPET) for the evaluation of left ventricular (LV) function and volumes in patients with severe ischaemic LV dysfunction. Thirty-two patients with chronic ischaemic LV dysfunction [mean LV ejection fraction (EF) 25%±6%] were studied with gated SPET and 2D echocardiography. Regional wall motion was evaluated by both modalities and scored by two independent observers using a 16-segment model with a 5-point scoring system (1= normokinesia, 2= mild hypokinesia, 3= severe hypokinesia, 4= akinesia and 5= dyskinesia). LVEF and LV end-diastolic and end-systolic volumes were evaluated by 2D echocardiography using the Simpson's biplane discs method. The same parameters were calculated using quantitative gated SPET software (QGS, Cedars-Sinai Medical Center). The overall agreement between the two imaging modalities for assessment of regional wall motion was 69%. The correlations between gated SPET and 2D echocardiography for the assessment of end-diastolic and end-systolic volumes were excellent (r=0.94, P<0.01, and r=0.96, P<0.01, respectively). The correlation for LVEF was also good (r=0.83, P<0.01). In conclusion: in patients with ischaemic cardiomyopathy, close and significant relations between gated SPET and 2D echocardiography were observed for the assessment of regional and global LV function and LV volumes; gated SPET has the advantage that it provides information on both LV function/dimensions and perfusion. (orig.)

  5. Evaluation of left ventricular function and volume in patients with dilated cardiomyopathy: Gated myocardial single-photon emission tomography (SPECT) versus echocardiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berk, Fatma; Isgoren, S.; Demir, H.; Kozdag, G.; Ural, D.; Komsuoglu, B.

    2005-01-01

    Left ventricular function, volumes and regional wall motion provide valuable diagnostic information and are of long-term prognostic importance in patients with dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM). This study was designed to compare the effectiveness of 2D-echocardiography and gated single-photon emission tomography (SPECT) for evaluation of these parameters in patients with DCM. Gated SPECT and 2D-echocardiography were performed in 33 patients having DCM. Gated SPECT data, including left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF), were processed using an automated algorithm. Standard technique was used for 2D-echocardiography. Regional wall motion was evaluated using both modalities and was scored by two independent observers using a 16-sement model with a 5-point scoring system. The overall agreement between the two imaging modalities for the assessment of regional wall motion was 56% (298/528 segments). With gated SPECT, LEVF, end-diastolic volume (EDV), and end-diastolic volume (EDV), and end-systolic volume (ESV) were 27+-9%, 217+-73mL, respectively, and 30.8%, 195+-58mL and, 137+-48 mL with echocardiography. The correlation between gated SPECT and 2-D-echocardiography was good (r=0.76, P<0.01) for the assessment of LVEF. The correlation for EDV and ESV were also good, but with wider limits of agreement (r=0.72, P<0.01 and r=0.73, P<0.01, respectively) and significantly higher values were obtained with gated SPECT (P<0.01). Gated SPECT and 2D-echocardiography correlate well for the assessment of LV function and LV volumes. Like 2D-echocardiography, gated SPECT provides reliable information about LV function and dimension with the additional advantage of perfusion data. (author)

  6. PELE fragmentation dynamics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verreault, J.; Hinsberg, N.P. van; Abadjieva, E.

    2013-01-01

    An analytical model that describes the PELE fragmentation dynamics is presented and compared with experimental results from literature. The model accounts for strong shock effects and detailed interactions taking place between the filling – the inner core of the ammunition – and the target

  7. Cryobiology of coral fragments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagedorn, Mary; Farrell, Ann; Carter, Virginia L

    2013-02-01

    Around the world, coral reefs are dying due to human influences, and saving habitat alone may not stop this destruction. This investigation focused on the biological processes that will provide the first steps in understanding the cryobiology of whole coral fragments. Coral fragments are a partnership of coral tissue and endosymbiotic algae, Symbiodinium sp., commonly called zooxanthellae. These data reflected their separate sensitivities to chilling and a cryoprotectant (dimethyl sulfoxide) for the coral Pocillopora damicornis, as measured by tissue loss and Pulse Amplitude Modulated fluorometry 3weeks post-treatment. Five cryoprotectant treatments maintained the viability of the coral tissue and zooxanthellae at control values (1M dimethyl sulfoxide at 1.0, 1.5 and 2.0h exposures, and 1.5M dimethyl sulfoxide at 1.0 and 1.5h exposures, P>0.05, ANOVA), whereas 2M concentrations did not (Pzooxanthellae. During the winter when the fragments were chilled, the coral tissue remained relatively intact (∼25% loss) post-treatment, but the zooxanthellae numbers in the tissue declined after 5min of chilling (Pzooxanthellae numbers declined in response to chilling alone (P0.05, ANOVA), but it did not protect against the loss of zooxanthellae (Pzooxanthellae are the most sensitive element in the coral fragment complex and future cryopreservation protocols must be guided by their greater sensitivity. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Fragments of the Past

    OpenAIRE

    Peter Szende; Annie Holcombe

    2016-01-01

    With travel being made more accessible throughout the decades, the hospitality industry constantly evolved their practices as society and technology progressed. Hotels looked for news ways up service their customers, which led to the invention of the Servidor in 1918. Once revolutionary innovations have gone extinct, merely becoming fragments of the past.

  9. Synthesis of arabinoxylan fragments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Underlin, Emilie Nørmølle; Böhm, Maximilian F.; Madsen, Robert

    , or production of commercial chemicals which are mainly obtained from fossil fuels today.The arbinoxylan fragments have a backbone of β-1,4-linked xylans with α-L-arabinose units attached at specific positions. The synthesis ultilises an efficient synthetic route, where all the xylan units can be derived from D...

  10. Fragmented Work Stories

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Humle, Didde Maria; Reff Pedersen, Anne

    2015-01-01

    stories. We argue that meaning by story making is not always created by coherence and causality; meaning is created by different types of fragmentation: discontinuities, tensions and editing. The objective of this article is to develop and advance antenarrative practice analysis of work stories...

  11. Fragments of the Past

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Szende

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available With travel being made more accessible throughout the decades, the hospitality industry constantly evolved their practices as society and technology progressed. Hotels looked for news ways up service their customers, which led to the invention of the Servidor in 1918. Once revolutionary innovations have gone extinct, merely becoming fragments of the past.

  12. Evaluation of cardiac function in patients with Duchenne's muscular dystrophy by single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tamura, Takuhisa; Motomura, Masakatsu; Kanazawa, Hajime; Shibuya, Noritoshi (Kawatana Byoin National Sanatorium, Nagasaki (Japan))

    1989-06-01

    The extent of myocardial ischemia was evaluated in 20 patients with Duchenne's muscular dystrophy (DMD) by using Bull's eye method of thallium-201 myocardial SPECT. It was examined in relation to skeletal muscle involvement, age, left ventricular (LV) ejection fraction and ventricular premature contractions (VPCs). Myocardial ischemia was detected in all of patients with DMD. Ischemic lesion was mostly detected in the apical side of the LV lateral wall and interventricular septum, while the extent of myocardial ischemia had no correlations with either the stage of functional disability of skeletal muscle or age. The more ischemic ratio was higher, the more LV ejection fraction decreased. The total number of VPCs was relatively small and it did not have any relation to myocardial ischemic ratio. These results suggest that younger DMD patients having extensive myocardial ischemia and/or ventricular tachycardia will have a high risk of cardiac death. (author).

  13. Evaluation of cardiac function in patients with Duchenne's muscular dystrophy by single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tamura, Takuhisa; Motomura, Masakatsu; Kanazawa, Hajime; Shibuya, Noritoshi

    1989-01-01

    The extent of myocardial ischemia was evaluated in 20 patients with Duchenne's muscular dystrophy (DMD) by using Bull's eye method of thallium-201 myocardial SPECT. It was examined in relation to skeletal muscle involvement, age, left ventricular (LV) ejection fraction and ventricular premature contractions (VPCs). Myocardial ischemia was detected in all of patients with DMD. Ischemic lesion was mostly detected in the apical side of the LV lateral wall and interventricular septum, while the extent of myocardial ischemia had no correlations with either the stage of functional disability of skeletal muscle or age. The more ischemic ratio was higher, the more LV ejection fraction decreased. The total number of VPCs was relatively small and it did not have any relation to myocardial ischemic ratio. These results suggest that younger DMD patients having extensive myocardial ischemia and/or ventricular tachycardia will have a high risk of cardiac death. (author)

  14. Non-functional plastid ndh gene fragments are present in the nuclear genome of Norway spruce (Picea abies L. Karsch): insights from in silico analysis of nuclear and organellar genomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranade, Sonali Sachin; García-Gil, María Rosario; Rosselló, Josep A

    2016-04-01

    Many genes have been lost from the prokaryote plastidial genome during the early events of endosymbiosis in eukaryotes. Some of them were definitively lost, but others were relocated and functionally integrated to the host nuclear genomes through serial events of gene transfer during plant evolution. In gymnosperms, plastid genome sequencing has revealed the loss of ndh genes from several species of Gnetales and Pinaceae, including Norway spruce (Picea abies). This study aims to trace the ndh genes in the nuclear and organellar Norway spruce genomes. The plastid genomes of higher plants contain 11 ndh genes which are homologues of mitochondrial genes encoding subunits of the proton-pumping NADH-dehydrogenase (nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide dehydrogenase) or complex I (electron transport chain). Ndh genes encode 11 NDH polypeptides forming the Ndh complex (analogous to complex I) which seems to be primarily involved in chloro-respiration processes. We considered ndh genes from the plastidial genome of four gymnosperms (Cryptomeria japonica, Cycas revoluta, Ginkgo biloba, Podocarpus totara) and a single angiosperm species (Arabidopsis thaliana) to trace putative homologs in the nuclear and organellar Norway spruce genomes using tBLASTn to assess the evolutionary fate of ndh genes in Norway spruce and to address their genomic location(s), structure, integrity and functionality. The results obtained from tBLASTn were subsequently analyzed by performing homology search for finding ndh specific conserved domains using conserved domain search. We report the presence of non-functional plastid ndh gene fragments, excepting ndhE and ndhG genes, in the nuclear genome of Norway spruce. Regulatory transcriptional elements like promoters, TATA boxes and enhancers were detected in the upstream regions of some ndh fragments. We also found transposable elements in the flanking regions of few ndh fragments suggesting nuclear rearrangements in those regions. These evidences

  15. Complete photo-fragmentation of the deuterium molecule

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weber, Thorsten; Czasch, Achim O.; Jagutzki, Ottmar; Muller, Alkis K.; Mergel, Volker; Kheifets, A.; Rotenberg, Eli; Meigs, George; Prior, Mike H.; Daveau, Sebastian; Landers, Allen; Cocke, C.L.; Osipov, Timur; Diez Muino, Ricardo; Schmidt-Bocking, Horst; Dorner, Reinhard

    2004-01-01

    All properties of molecules, from binding and excitation energies to their geometry, are determined by the highly correlated initial state wavefunction of the electrons and nuclei. Perhaps surprisingly, details of these correlations can be revealed by studying the break-up of these systems into their constituents. The fragmentation might be initiated by the absorption of a single photon [1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6], collision with a charged particle [7, 8] or exposure to a strong laser pulse [9, 10]. If the exciting interaction is sufficiently understood, one can use the fragmentation process as a tool to learn about the bound initial state [11, 12]. However, often the interaction and the fragment motions pose formidable challenges to quantum theory [13, 14, 15]. Here we report the coincident measurement of the momenta of both nuclei and both electrons from the single photon induced fragmentation of the deuterium molecule. The results reveal that the correlated motion of the electrons is strongly dependent on the inter-nuclear separation in the molecular ground state at the instant of photon absorption

  16. Transgenic expression of a functional fragment of harpin protein Hpa1 in wheat induces the phloem-based defence against English grain aphid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Maoqiang; Xu, Manyu; Zhang, Chunling

    2014-01-01

    The harpin protein Hpa1 has multiple beneficial effects in plants, promoting plant growth and development, increasing crop yield, and inducing resistance to pathogens and insect pests. For these effects, the 10–40 residue fragment (Hpa110–42) isolated from the Hpa1 sequence is 1.3- to 7.5-fold more effective than the full-length protein. Here it is reported that the expression of Hpa110–42 under the direction of an insect-induced promoter induces the phloem-based defence to English grain aphid, a dominant species of wheat aphids. The expression of Hpa110–42 was found to compromise the colonization preference of aphids on the plant and further inhibit aphid reproduction in leaf colonies. In Hpa110–42-expressing wheat lines, moreover, aphid feeding from the phloem was repressed in correlation with the phloem-based defence. This defensive mechanism was shown as enhanced expression of wheat genes encoding phloem lectin proteins (PP2-A1 and PP2-A2) and β-1,3-glucan synthase-like enzymes (GSL2, GSL10, and GSL12). Both PP2-A and β-1,3-glucan formed high molecular mass polymers to block phloem sieve plate pores and therefore impede aphid feeding from the phloem. However, the phloem-based defence was impaired by treating plants with ethylene signalling inhibitors, suggesting the requirement for the ethylene signalling pathway. In addition, if Hpa110–42-expressing plants were subjected to attack by a small number of aphids, they newly acquired agriculturally beneficial characters, such as enhanced vegetative growth and increased tiller numbers and grain output values. These results suggest that the defensive and developmental roles of Hpa110–42 can be integrated into the germplasm of this agriculturally significant crop. PMID:24676030

  17. Transgenic expression of a functional fragment of harpin protein Hpa1 in wheat induces the phloem-based defence against English grain aphid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Maoqiang; Xu, Manyu; Zhou, Ting; Wang, Defu; Tian, Shan; Han, Liping; Dong, Hansong; Zhang, Chunling

    2014-04-01

    The harpin protein Hpa1 has multiple beneficial effects in plants, promoting plant growth and development, increasing crop yield, and inducing resistance to pathogens and insect pests. For these effects, the 10-40 residue fragment (Hpa1₁₀₋₄₂) isolated from the Hpa1 sequence is 1.3- to 7.5-fold more effective than the full-length protein. Here it is reported that the expression of Hpa1₁₀₋₄₂ under the direction of an insect-induced promoter induces the phloem-based defence to English grain aphid, a dominant species of wheat aphids. The expression of Hpa1₁₀₋₄₂ was found to compromise the colonization preference of aphids on the plant and further inhibit aphid reproduction in leaf colonies. In Hpa1₁₀₋₄₂-expressing wheat lines, moreover, aphid feeding from the phloem was repressed in correlation with the phloem-based defence. This defensive mechanism was shown as enhanced expression of wheat genes encoding phloem lectin proteins (PP2-A1 and PP2-A2) and β-1,3-glucan synthase-like enzymes (GSL2, GSL10, and GSL12). Both PP2-A and β-1,3-glucan formed high molecular mass polymers to block phloem sieve plate pores and therefore impede aphid feeding from the phloem. However, the phloem-based defence was impaired by treating plants with ethylene signalling inhibitors, suggesting the requirement for the ethylene signalling pathway. In addition, if Hpa1₁₀₋₄₂-expressing plants were subjected to attack by a small number of aphids, they newly acquired agriculturally beneficial characters, such as enhanced vegetative growth and increased tiller numbers and grain output values. These results suggest that the defensive and developmental roles of Hpa1₁₀₋₄₂ can be integrated into the germplasm of this agriculturally significant crop.

  18. Natural photonic crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vigneron, Jean Pol, E-mail: jean-pol.vigneron@fundp.ac.be [Research Center in Physics of Matter and Radiation (PMR), University of Namur (FUNDP), rue de Bruxelles, 61, B-5000 Namur (Belgium); Simonis, Priscilla [Research Center in Physics of Matter and Radiation (PMR), University of Namur (FUNDP), rue de Bruxelles, 61, B-5000 Namur (Belgium)

    2012-10-15

    Photonic structures appeared in nature several hundred millions years ago. In the living world, color is used for communication and this important function strongly impacts the individual chances of survival as well as the chances to reproduce. This has a statistical influence on species populations. Therefore, because they are involved in evolution, natural color-generating structures are - from some point of view - highly optimized. In this short review, a survey is presented of the development of natural photonic crystal-type structures occurring in insects, spiders, birds, fishes and other marine animals, in plants and more, from the standpoint of light-waves propagation. One-, two-, and three-dimensional structures will be reviewed with selected examples.

  19. Natural photonic crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vigneron, Jean Pol; Simonis, Priscilla

    2012-01-01

    Photonic structures appeared in nature several hundred millions years ago. In the living world, color is used for communication and this important function strongly impacts the individual chances of survival as well as the chances to reproduce. This has a statistical influence on species populations. Therefore, because they are involved in evolution, natural color-generating structures are - from some point of view - highly optimized. In this short review, a survey is presented of the development of natural photonic crystal-type structures occurring in insects, spiders, birds, fishes and other marine animals, in plants and more, from the standpoint of light-waves propagation. One-, two-, and three-dimensional structures will be reviewed with selected examples.

  20. Photon statistical properties of photon-added two-mode squeezed coherent states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Xue-Fen; Wang Shuai; Tang Bin

    2014-01-01

    We investigate photon statistical properties of the multiple-photon-added two-mode squeezed coherent states (PA-TMSCS). We find that the photon statistical properties are sensitive to the compound phase involved in the TMSCS. Our numerical analyses show that the photon addition can enhance the cross-correlation and anti-bunching effects of the PA-TMSCS. Compared with that of the TMSCS, the photon number distribution of