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Sample records for photoelectric characteristics formirovanie

  1. Photoelectric properties of ZnO/Ag2S heterostructure and its photoelectric ethanol sensing characteristics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Yu; Liu Bingkun; Wang Dejun; Lin Yanhong; Xie Tengfeng; Zhai Jiali

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► The ZnO/Ag 2 S heterostructure shows good photoelectric properties under visible-light irradiation. ► Transient photovoltage results reveal the separation process of photo-generated charges and give further evidence of interfacial effects. ► Photoelectric ethanol sensing characteristics have been found for the ZnO/Ag 2 S heterostructure at room temperature. - Abstract: The photoelectric properties of ZnO microspheres, ZnO/Ag 2 S heterogeneous microspheres and Ag 2 S hollow microspheres were investigated systematically by surface photovoltage, transient photovoltage and surface photocurrent techniques. The ZnO/Ag 2 S heterostructure shows superior photoelectric properties in visible-light region compared with pure Ag 2 S. Transient photovoltage results reveal the separation processes of photo-generated charge carriers in the samples. The photoelectric ethanol sensing property induced by visible light for the ZnO/Ag 2 S heterostructure has been found, which should be valuable for the practical application of semiconductor gas sensors at room temperature.

  2. Photoelectric characteristics of CH3NH3PbI3/p-Si heterojunction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamei, Wu; Ruixia, Yang; Hanmin, Tian; Shuai, Chen

    2016-05-01

    Organic-inorganic hybrid perovskite CH3NH3PbI3 film is prepared on p-type silicon substrate using the one-step solution method to form a CH3NH3PbI3/p-Si heterojunction. The film morphology and structure are characterized by atomic force microscopy (AFM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The photoelectric properties of the CH3NH3PbI3/p-Si heterojunction are studied by testing the current-voltage (I-V) with and without illumination and capacitance-voltage (C-V) characteristics. It turns out from the I-V curve without illumination that the CH3NH3PbI3/p-Si heterojunction has a rectifier feature with the rectification ratio over 70 at the bias of ±5 V. Also, there appears a photoelectric conversion phenomenon on this heterojunction with a short circuit current (Isc) of 0.16 μA and an open circuit voltage (Voc) of about 10 mV The high frequency C-V characteristic of the Ag/CH3NH3PbI3/p-Si heterojunction turns out to be similar to that of the metal-insulator-semiconductor (MIS) structure, and a parallel translation of the C-V curve along the forward voltage axis is found. This parallel translation means the existence of defects at the CH3NH3PbI3/p-Si interface and positive fixed charges in the CH3NH3PbI3 layer. The defects at the interface of the CH3NH3PbI3/p-Si heterojunction result in the dramatic decline of the Voc. Besides, the C-V test of CH3NH3PbI3 film shows a non-linear dielectric property and the dielectric value is about 4.64 as calculated. Project supported by the Hebei Province Natural Science Foundation of China (No. F2014202184) and the Tianjin Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 15JCZDJC37800).

  3. Measurement of K-shell photoelectric cross-sections for some characteristic x-rays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allawadhi, K L; Sood, B S

    1976-03-05

    Because of the non-availability of clean and strong low energy photon sources, external conversion x-rays in various suitable targets have been produced and successfully used to measure relative K shell photoelectric cross-sections in Y for incident energies 17.781, 22.581, 23.618, 25.770, 29.208, 35.478, 41.006, and 43.949 keV in a double reflection geometry experiment. A brief outline of the procedure of measurement and the results obtained are given. (auth)

  4. Electrical and photoelectrical characteristic investigation of a new generation photodiode based on bromothymol blue dye

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imer, A Gencer; Korkut, A; Tombak, A

    2016-01-01

    Bromothymol blue (BTB) with the molecular formula of C 27 H 28 Br 2 O 5 S was grown onto p-Si substrate to fabricate heterojunction by spin coating technique. The current voltage ( I-V ) measurements of diode were carried out in dark and under different illumination intensity at room temperature. The photoelectrical properties of heterojunction based on BTB were investigated using the illumination intensity dependent I-V data. The results showed that photo current of diode increases with the increase in light intensity. Also, the electrical parameters of device were determined via I-V, and capacitance- voltage ( C-V ), conductance-voltage ( G-V ) measurements at different frequencies. It is observed that the excess capacitance is created at low frequencies due to the contribution of interface states charge which can follow the alternative current signal to capacitance. It is stated that, both the electrical and photoelectrical parameters of diode can be changed, and also the performance of the device could be affected by the organic thin film interlayer. (paper)

  5. Photoelectric characteristics of metal-Ga{sub 2}O{sub 3}-GaAs structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kalygina, V. M., E-mail: Kalygina@ngs.ru; Vishnikina, V. V.; Petrova, Yu. S.; Prudaev, I. A.; Yaskevich, T. M. [National Research Tomsk State University (Russian Federation)

    2015-03-15

    We investigate the effect of thermal annealing in argon and of oxygen plasma processing on the photoelectric properties of GaAs-Ga{sub 2}O{sub 3}-Me structures. Gallium-oxide films are fabricated by photostimulated electrochemical oxidation of epitaxial gallium-arsenide layers with n-type conductivity. The as-deposited films were amorphous, but their processing in oxygen plasma led to the nucleation of β-Ga{sub 2}O{sub 3} crystallites. The unannealed films are nontransparent in the visible and ultraviolet (UV) ranges and there is no photocurrent in structures based on them. After annealing at 900°C for 30 min, the gallium-oxide films contain only β-Ga{sub 2}O{sub 3} crystallites and become transparent. Under illumination of the Ga{sub 2}O{sub 3}-GaAs structures with visible light, the photocurrent appears. This effect can be attributed to radiation absorption in GaAs. The photocurrent and its voltage dependence are determined by the time of exposure to the oxygen plasma. In the UV range, the sensitivity of the structures increases with decreasing radiation wavelength, starting at λ ≤ 230 nm. This is due to absorption in the Ga{sub 2}O{sub 3} film. Reduction in the structure sensitivity with an increase in the time of exposure to oxygen plasma can be caused by the incorporation of defects both at the Ga{sub 2}O{sub 3}-GaAs interface and in the Ga{sub 2}O{sub 3} film.

  6. Photoelectric characteristics of diodes in prototype photosensitive pixels for a monolithic array infrared photodetector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sorochkin, A. V., E-mail: alexandersm@mail.ru; Varavin, V. S.; Predein, A. V.; Sabinina, I. V.; Yakushev, M. V. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Rzhanov Institute of Semiconductor Physics, Siberian Branch (Russian Federation)

    2012-04-15

    Test photodiodes in the form of mesa structures with different areas from 30 Multiplication-Sign 30 to 100 Multiplication-Sign 100 {mu}m in size are fabricated based on a Cd{sub x}Hg{sub 1-x}Te/Si structure at x = 0.235, grown by molecular-beam epitaxy (MBE). The current-voltage characteristics of the diodes are measured in the dark and under background light conditions. The experimental results are compared with theoretical calculations. It is found that the dependence of the photodiode photocurrent and dark current on the mesa structure size appears in the mesa size ranges from 30 Multiplication-Sign 30 to 80 Multiplication-Sign 80 {mu}m. The dark current decreases and the photocurrent increases with decreasing mesa size. The mechanisms affecting the behavior of current-voltage characteristics are discussed.

  7. Influence of radiation on photo-electric characteristics of silicon photo cells with optical coverings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Madatov, R.S.; Safarov, N.A.; Gasymova, V.G.; Abdurragimov, A.A.; Allahverdiev, A.M.

    2003-01-01

    In the given work results of measurements volt-ampere and spectral characteristics of silicon photo cells with optical coverings ZnS+Nd 2 O 3 irradiated accelerated electrons with energy 4.5 MeV are carried out. Elements have been made by diffusion of phosphorus in p-silicon with specific resistance 2 Ω·cm. Under condition of illumination from source AMI the photocurrent of short circuit made 40 mA/cm 2 , and a photo voltage of idling 0.52 V, efficiency made 15 %. To receive low reflection in wide area of spectral sensitivity and by that as much as possible to increase efficiency of elements with the help of two-layer coverings. The irradiation of samples was made on linear accelerator EL4-6 at room temperature. It is received, that with increase in a dose of an irradiation the Photocurrent and photo voltage decreases, and speed reduction of a photo-current is stronger, than photo voltage. The critical integrated stream for these elements makes 4·10 12 el/cm 2 . In all researched samples radiating reduction of a voltage of idling in an interval of 10 10 -10 14 el/cm 2 makes 8-10 %. The analysis of spectral characteristics of the irradiated samples show, that reduction of a photocurrent in long-wave areas of a spectrum is connected by creation of radiating defects in a base part of an element. The increase in a critical stream in silicon solar elements with optical a covering in comparison with elements without a covering is connected with low concentration of defects in the base, created with electron. Thus, on the basis of complex research of influence on radiating stability silicon solar elements us it is established, that two-layer coverings not only increases efficiency of photo cells, but also considerably raise value of an integrated stream electrons, that is equivalent to increase in service life of the elements working in conditions of radiation

  8. Photoelectric transfer device

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shinomiya, Takuji; Murao, Fumihide

    1987-12-07

    Concerning the conventional photoelectric transfer device, a short-circuit current of photodiodes is switched over with MOS transistors. However, since the backgate voltage of the MOS transistor which is to be used as the switching element, is provided by the source voltage, the leakage current between the backgate and the source/drain/ channel is great and due to this leakage current, errors occur in the photoelectric transfer power output. Especially, when the leakage current of the photodiodes is small, the error becomes large. In order to solve the above problem, this invention aims at offering a photoelectric transfer device which can provide the high precision photoelectric transfer even the short-circuit current generated in the photodiodes is small and proposes a photoelectric transfer device in which the backgate voltage of the MOS transistor switching over the short-circuit current of the photodiodes is made equal to the electric potential of the mutually connected anodes (or cathodes) of the photodiodes. (3 figs)

  9. Photoelectric installations in Tunisia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Darkazalli, G

    1983-01-01

    Four autonomous photoelectric power plants (FEU) have been in operation since February, 1983 in the village of Hamman Biadha. One of them based on a solar battery (SB) with a capacity of 29 kilowatts made of modules by the Solar Power Corporation (U.S.A.), has a storage battery (AB) with a capacity of 360 kilowatts per hour, and serves to supply alternating current, 220 volt voltage electric power to stores, a mill, a hospital, a school and streetlights near them and 22 houses. The solar battery is maintained in a maximal power mode which increases the energy production by 5 to 10 percent. As the charge of the storage battery is reduced below the assigned levels, the appropriate consumers are shut off. The daily energy productivity of the photoelectric power plant is 119 kilowatt hours per day in July and 65 kilowatt hours per day in December. A smaller variant of this photoelectric power plant with a capacity of 1.5 kilowatts provides electric power to a farm. The other two photoelectric power plants drive the irrigation systems for a greenhouse with an area of 10exp4 square meters and a fruit garden. The maximum productivity of each of them is 750 cubic meters per month with a delivery of 17 meters.

  10. Automatic Photoelectric Telescope Service

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Genet, R.M.; Boyd, L.J.; Kissell, K.E.; Crawford, D.L.; Hall, D.S.; BDM Corp., McLean, VA; Kitt Peak National Observatory, Tucson, AZ; Dyer Observatory, Nashville, TN)

    1987-01-01

    Automatic observatories have the potential of gathering sizable amounts of high-quality astronomical data at low cost. The Automatic Photoelectric Telescope Service (APT Service) has realized this potential and is routinely making photometric observations of a large number of variable stars. However, without observers to provide on-site monitoring, it was necessary to incorporate special quality checks into the operation of the APT Service at its multiple automatic telescope installation on Mount Hopkins. 18 references

  11. PHOTOELECTRIC OBSERVATIONS OF HD 8358

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Woo-Baik Lee

    1989-06-01

    Full Text Available UBV photoelectric observations of RS CVn type variable star HD 8358 were made using the 61cm reflector at Sobaeksan Astronomical Observatory. The data were obtained on 15 nights from October 1987 to December 1988. Double peaks of maximum light is seen from the light curve and continuous change of phase in notified from the times of maximum lights. The colors of October, 1987 - January, 1988 observations are bluer in ∆(b-u, but redder in ∆(u-b, than those of November -December, 1988 observations.

  12. Experimentation in the teaching of Modern Physics: Photoelectric Effect with neon lamp and LEDs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dario Eberhardt

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The article presents an experiment aimed at the teaching of Physics in High School, specifically the Photoelectric Effect, and it aims to support the teacher or serve as an inspiration for the proposition of other didactic activities. The experimentation consists on the exposure of a neon lamp to the lights of different wavelengths emitted by varied LEDs. The photoelectric current is measured on electrodes of the neon lamp, verifying that it has definite direction; the effect occurs when the wavelength of the applied light is less than a certain limit, and; the intensity of the photoelectric current depends on the intensity of the light applied, in agreement with the current scientific model of the phenomenon. This text also includes many decisive moments of the history of the Photoelectric Effect, characteristics of similar experiments using ultraviolet light, the electron work function of the metals of the electrodes and the ionization energy of the gases inside the lamp.

  13. Photoelectric effect in surface-barrier structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kononenko, V.K.; Tupenevich, P.A.

    1985-08-01

    Deviations from the Fowler law were observed when investigating photoelectric emission in p-type ZnTe surface-barrier structures. The revealed peculiarities of the structure photosensitivity spectrum are explained by the electron transitions involving surface states at the metal-semiconductor interface. (author)

  14. Photoelectric absorption cross sections with variable abundances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balucinska-Church, Monika; Mccammon, Dan

    1992-01-01

    Polynomial fit coefficients have been obtained for the energy dependences of the photoelectric absorption cross sections of 17 astrophysically important elements. These results allow the calculation of X-ray absorption in the energy range 0.03-10 keV in material with noncosmic abundances.

  15. Exploration of offering photoelectric experimental general elective courses for college students of science and technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Shen; Sun, Binchao

    2017-08-01

    The necessity of offering photoelectric experiment general elective courses, such as the experiments of modern optical and innovational photoelectric design for non optic-electric's science and engineering students were discussed based on the analysis of the status quo and problems in experimental general elective course in science and engineering colleges of our country. And the characters of photoelectric disciplines, the goal of science and engineering quality-oriented education and the reform of science education at home and abroad were also considered. The instructional objectives, contents and characteristics of the courses were investigated. The specific methods, the CDIO (conceive, design, implement and operate) mode in the general courses has been proposed; the experiences and practical effects of offering these courses were concluded.

  16. Photoelectric panel with equatorial mounting of drive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kukhta, M. S.; Krauinsh, P. Y.; Krauinsh, D. P.; Sokolov, A. P.; Mainy, S. B.

    2018-03-01

    The relevance of the work is determined by the need to create effective models for sunny energy. The article considers a photoelectric panel equipped with a system for tracking the sun. Efficiency of the system is provided by equatorial mounting, which compensates for the rotation of the Earth by rotating the sunny panel in the plane of the celestial equator. The specificity of climatic and geographical conditions of Tomsk is estimated. The dynamics of power variations of photoelectric panels with equatorial mounting during seasonal fluctuations in Tomsk is calculated. A mobile photovoltaic panel with equatorial mounting of the drive has been developed. The methods of design strategy for placing photovoltaic panels in the architectural environment of the city are presented. Key words: sunny energy, photovoltaics, equatorial mounting, mechatronic model, wave reducer, electric drive.

  17. Evidence of vectorial photoelectric effect on Copper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pedersoli, E.; Banfi, F.; Ressel, B.; Pagliara, S.; Giannetti, C.; Galimberti, G.; Lidia, S.; Corlett, J.; Ferrini, G.; Parmigiani, F.

    2005-01-01

    Quantum efficiency (QE) measurements of single photon photoemission from a Cu(111) single crystal and a Cu polycrystal photocathodes, irradiated by 150 fs-6.28 eV laser pulses, are reported over a broad range of incidence angle, both in s and p polarizations. The maximum QE (≅4x10 -4 ) for polycrystalline Cu is obtained in p polarization at an angle of incidence θ=65 deg. . We observe a QE enhancement in p polarization which cannot be explained in terms of optical absorption, a phenomenon known as vectorial photoelectric effect. Issues concerning surface roughness and symmetry considerations are addressed. An explanation in terms of nonlocal conductivity tensor is proposed

  18. L-shell photoelectric cross section measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arora, S K; Allawadhi, K L; Sood, B S [Punjabi Univ., Patiala (India). Nuclear Science Labs.

    1981-05-14

    L-shell photoelectric cross sections in Ta, W, Au, Pb, Th and U at 59.5 keV have been determined using three different versions of Sood's method of measuring the absolute yield of fluorescent x-rays when a target is irradiated with a known flux of photons. The results obtained by all the methods agree with one another showing that no hidden systematic errors are involved in the measurements. The present results are found to compare well with the theoretical calculations of Scofield (Lawrence Livermore Laboratory Report No 51326).

  19. The GO Cygni system: photoelectric observations and light curves analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rovithis, P.; Rovithis-Livaniou, H.; Niarchos, P.G.

    1990-01-01

    Photoelectric observations, in B and V, of the system GO Cygni obtained during 1985 at the Kryonerion Astronomical Station of the National Observatory of Greece are given. The corresponding light curves (typical β Lyrae) are analysed using Frequency Domain techniques. New photoelectric and absolute elements for the system are given, and its period was found to continue its increasing

  20. Photoelectrically automated, bakeable, high-load ultramicrobalance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Czanderna, A.W.; Kollen, W.; Biegen, J.R.; Rodder, J.

    1976-01-01

    An all quartz pivotal-beam ultramicrobalance has been modified for operation as a null instrument using a dual-path photoelectric detector. The beam and newly designed stainless steel beam support have been adapted to a stainless steel enclosure for studies in uhv. A thin quartz disk, with a 600-A thick Au film for partially blocking the light path, is fused to each end of the beam. An electronic circuit minimizes the signal from the detector when the balance moves from the null by providing a current output to a magnetic compensation coil. The capacity (up to 20 g), the stability of the null reading (over six months), and the unusually high load to precision ratio (1--2x10 8 ) of the balance have been maintained with the modification. Sensibilities of 0.03--0.1 μg with 4--10-g loads have been obtained with the balance, which is now completely adapted for UHV operation

  1. Photoelectric-enhanced radiation therapy with quasi-monochromatic computed tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jost, Gregor; Mensing, Tristan; Golfier, Sven; Lawaczeck, Ruediger; Pietsch, Hubertus; Huetter, Joachim; Cibik, Levent; Gerlach, Martin; Krumrey, Michael; Fratzscher, Daniel; Arkadiev, Vladimir; Wedell, Reiner; Haschke, Michael; Langhoff, Norbert; Wust, Peter; Luedemann, Lutz [TRG Diagnostic Imaging, Bayer Schering Pharma AG, 13353 Berlin (Germany); Department of Radiotherapy, Charite Medical Centre, 13353 Berlin (Germany); TRG Diagnostic Imaging, Bayer Schering Pharma AG, 13353 Berlin (Germany); Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt, 10587 Berlin (Germany); Institute of Applied Photonics e.V., 12489 Berlin (Germany); Institute for Scientific Instruments GmbH, 12489 Berlin (Germany); Department of Radiotherapy, Charite Medical Centre, 13353 Berlin (Germany)

    2009-06-15

    Photoelectric-enhanced radiation therapy is a bimodal therapy, consisting of the administration of highly radiation-absorbing substances into the tumor area and localized regional irradiation with orthovoltage x-rays. Irradiation can be performed by a modified computed tomography (CT) unit equipped with an additional x-ray optical module which converts the polychromatic, fan-shaped CT beam into a monochromatized and focused beam for energy-tuned photoelectric-enhanced radiotherapy. A dedicated x-ray optical module designed for spatial collimation, focusing, and monochromatization was mounted at the exit of the x-ray tube of a clinical CT unit. Spectrally resolved measurements of the resulting beam were performed using an energy-dispersive detection system calibrated by synchrotron radiation. The spatial photon fluence was determined by film dosimetry. Depth-dose measurements were performed and compared to the polychromatic CT and a therapeutic 6 MV beam. The spatial dose distribution in phantoms using a rotating radiation source (quasi-monochromatic CT and 6 MV, respectively) was investigated by gel dosimetry. The photoelectric dose enhancement for an iodine fraction of 1% in tissue was calculated and verified experimentally. The x-ray optical module selectively filters the energy of the tungsten K{alpha} emission line with an FWHM of 5 keV. The relative photon fluence distribution demonstrates the focusing characteristic of the x-ray optical module. A beam width of about 3 mm was determined at the isocenter of the CT gantry. The depth-dose measurements resulted in a half-depth value of approximately 36 mm for the CT beams (quasi-monochromatic, polychromatic) compared to 154 mm for the 6 MV beam. The rotation of the radiation source leads to a steep dose gradient at the center of rotation; the gel dosimetry yields an entrance-to-peak dose ratio of 1:10.8 for the quasi-monochromatic CT and 1:37.3 for a 6 MV beam of the same size. The photoelectric dose enhancement

  2. Photoelectric-enhanced radiation therapy with quasi-monochromatic computed tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jost, Gregor; Mensing, Tristan; Golfier, Sven; Lawaczeck, Rüdiger; Pietsch, Hubertus; Hütter, Joachim; Cibik, Levent; Gerlach, Martin; Krumrey, Michael; Fratzscher, Daniel; Arkadiev, Vladimir; Wedell, Reiner; Haschke, Michael; Langhoff, Norbert; Wust, Peter; Lüdemann, Lutz

    2009-06-01

    Photoelectric-enhanced radiation therapy is a bimodal therapy, consisting of the administration of highly radiation-absorbing substances into the tumor area and localized regional irradiation with orthovoltage x-rays. Irradiation can be performed by a modified computed tomography (CT) unit equipped with an additional x-ray optical module which converts the polychromatic, fan-shaped CT beam into a monochromatized and focused beam for energy-tuned photoelectric-enhanced radiotherapy. A dedicated x-ray optical module designed for spatial collimation, focusing, and monochromatization was mounted at the exit of the x-ray tube of a clinical CT unit. Spectrally resolved measurements of the resulting beam were performed using an energy-dispersive detection system calibrated by synchrotron radiation. The spatial photon fluence was determined by film dosimetry. Depth-dose measurements were performed and compared to the polychromatic CT and a therapeutic 6 MV beam. The spatial dose distribution in phantoms using a rotating radiation source (quasimonochromatic CT and 6 MV, respectively) was investigated by gel dosimetry. The photoelectric dose enhancement for an iodine fraction of 1% in tissue was calculated and verified experimentally. The x-ray optical module selectively filters the energy of the tungsten Kalpha emission line with an FWHM of 5 keV. The relative photon fluence distribution demonstrates the focusing characteristic of the x-ray optical module. A beam width of about 3 mm was determined at the isocenter of the CT gantry. The depth-dose measurements resulted in a half-depth value of approximately 36 mm for the CT beams (quasi-monochromatic, polychromatic) compared to 154 mm for the 6 MV beam. The rotation of the radiation source leads to a steep dose gradient at the center of rotation; the gel dosimetry yields an entrance-to-peak dose ratio of 1:10.8 for the quasi-monochromatic CT and 1:37.3 for a 6 MV beam of the same size. The photoelectric dose enhancement

  3. Photoelectric-enhanced radiation therapy with quasi-monochromatic computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jost, Gregor; Mensing, Tristan; Golfier, Sven; Lawaczeck, Ruediger; Pietsch, Hubertus; Huetter, Joachim; Cibik, Levent; Gerlach, Martin; Krumrey, Michael; Fratzscher, Daniel; Arkadiev, Vladimir; Wedell, Reiner; Haschke, Michael; Langhoff, Norbert; Wust, Peter; Luedemann, Lutz

    2009-01-01

    Photoelectric-enhanced radiation therapy is a bimodal therapy, consisting of the administration of highly radiation-absorbing substances into the tumor area and localized regional irradiation with orthovoltage x-rays. Irradiation can be performed by a modified computed tomography (CT) unit equipped with an additional x-ray optical module which converts the polychromatic, fan-shaped CT beam into a monochromatized and focused beam for energy-tuned photoelectric-enhanced radiotherapy. A dedicated x-ray optical module designed for spatial collimation, focusing, and monochromatization was mounted at the exit of the x-ray tube of a clinical CT unit. Spectrally resolved measurements of the resulting beam were performed using an energy-dispersive detection system calibrated by synchrotron radiation. The spatial photon fluence was determined by film dosimetry. Depth-dose measurements were performed and compared to the polychromatic CT and a therapeutic 6 MV beam. The spatial dose distribution in phantoms using a rotating radiation source (quasi-monochromatic CT and 6 MV, respectively) was investigated by gel dosimetry. The photoelectric dose enhancement for an iodine fraction of 1% in tissue was calculated and verified experimentally. The x-ray optical module selectively filters the energy of the tungsten Kα emission line with an FWHM of 5 keV. The relative photon fluence distribution demonstrates the focusing characteristic of the x-ray optical module. A beam width of about 3 mm was determined at the isocenter of the CT gantry. The depth-dose measurements resulted in a half-depth value of approximately 36 mm for the CT beams (quasi-monochromatic, polychromatic) compared to 154 mm for the 6 MV beam. The rotation of the radiation source leads to a steep dose gradient at the center of rotation; the gel dosimetry yields an entrance-to-peak dose ratio of 1:10.8 for the quasi-monochromatic CT and 1:37.3 for a 6 MV beam of the same size. The photoelectric dose enhancement factor

  4. Photoelectric properties of GaAs materials studied by pulsed laser techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aguir, Khalifa

    1981-01-01

    This research thesis addressed the photoelectric properties of single-crystal or epitaxial GaAs (N doped or P doped) materials. The objective is to characterize and to improve the electric quality of these materials and associated components, notably for the production of high performance solar cells for ground-based or space-based applications. More particularly, this research aimed at using an excitation by a pulsed laser to analyse recombination and trapping properties of carriers created by photo-excitation, and also at studying the effect of low doses of particle irradiation on the carrier properties. Thus, the author describes conduction characteristics of two different N-type epitaxial layers, discusses carrier excitation and recombination processes which may occur in semiconductors, and proposes an overview of trapping phenomena. Photoelectric properties of the considered epitaxial layers are then studied and discussed

  5. RF Photoelectric injectors using needle cathodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewellen, J.W.; Brau, C.A.

    2003-01-01

    Photocathode RF guns, in various configurations, are the injectors of choice for both current and future applications requiring high-brightness electron beams. Many of these applications, such as single-pass free-electron lasers, require beams with high brilliance but not necessarily high charge per bunch. Field-enhanced photoelectric emission has demonstrated electron-beam current density as high as 10 10 A/m 2 , with a quantum efficiency in the UV that approaches 10% at fields on the order of 10 10 V/m. Thus, the use of even a blunt needle holds promise for increasing cathode quantum efficiency without sacrificing robustness. We present an initial study on the use of needle cathodes in photoinjectors to enhance beam brightness while reducing beam charge. Benefits include lower drive-laser power requirements, easier multibunch operation, lower emittance, and lower beam degradation due to charge-dependent effects in the postinjector accelerator. These benefits result from a combination of a smaller cathode emission area, greatly enhanced RF field strength at the cathode, and the charge scaling of detrimental postinjector linac effects, e.g., transverse wakefields and CSR

  6. RF Photoelectric injectors using needle cathodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewellen, J. W.; Brau, C. A.

    2003-07-01

    Photocathode RF guns, in various configurations, are the injectors of choice for both current and future applications requiring high-brightness electron beams. Many of these applications, such as single-pass free-electron lasers, require beams with high brilliance but not necessarily high charge per bunch. Field-enhanced photoelectric emission has demonstrated electron-beam current density as high as 10 10 A/m 2, with a quantum efficiency in the UV that approaches 10% at fields on the order of 10 10 V/m. Thus, the use of even a blunt needle holds promise for increasing cathode quantum efficiency without sacrificing robustness. We present an initial study on the use of needle cathodes in photoinjectors to enhance beam brightness while reducing beam charge. Benefits include lower drive-laser power requirements, easier multibunch operation, lower emittance, and lower beam degradation due to charge-dependent effects in the postinjector accelerator. These benefits result from a combination of a smaller cathode emission area, greatly enhanced RF field strength at the cathode, and the charge scaling of detrimental postinjector linac effects, e.g., transverse wakefields and CSR.

  7. Photoelectric effect photon beam position monitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1991-01-01

    Stability of the electron orbit is of critical importance at the NSLS. Many experimenters utilizing the NSLS photon beams can take full advantage of the small transverse dimensions of the source only if the electron orbit variation is kept below 10 to 20% of the transverse electron bunch size. Clearly the first step in a program to stabilize the orbit is to develop position monitors with the required sensitivity, reliability and dynamic range. Of great importance are monitors detecting the photon beams themselves, and also monitors measuring the position of the electron beam. In this section the authors discuss photon beam position monitors utilizing the photoelectric effects, and in the following section the use of capacitively coupled pick-up electrodes to detect electron beam position will be described. In what follows they shall proceed to consider two generic types of monitor geometries (1) Gap monitors, which are designed with the idea that the fringes of the synchrotron radiation will be measured, and the hot or fundamental beam will pass through the monitor unimpeded. (2) Area monitors, which are comprised of two triangular elements nested together similar to the electrodes of a split ion chamber or the diodes described by Siddons and Kraner or Mitsuhashi et al

  8. The design of photoelectric signal processing system for a nuclear magnetic resonance gyroscope based on FPGA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xian; Zhou, Binquan; Li, Hong; Zhao, Xinghua; Mu, Weiwei; Wu, Wenfeng

    2017-10-01

    Navigation technology is crucial to the national defense and military, which can realize the measurement of orientation, positioning, attitude and speed for moving object. Inertial navigation is not only autonomous, real-time, continuous, hidden, undisturbed but also no time-limited and environment-limited. The gyroscope is the core component of the inertial navigation system, whose precision and size are the bottleneck of the performance. However, nuclear magnetic resonance gyroscope is characteristic of the advantage of high precision and small size. Nuclear magnetic resonance gyroscope can meet the urgent needs of high-tech weapons and equipment development of new generation. This paper mainly designs a set of photoelectric signal processing system for nuclear magnetic resonance gyroscope based on FPGA, which process and control the information of detecting laser .The photoelectric signal with high frequency carrier is demodulated by in-phase and quadrature demodulation method. Finally, the processing system of photoelectric signal can compensate the residual magnetism of the shielding barrel and provide the information of nuclear magnetic resonance gyroscope angular velocity.

  9. Design of Smart Multi-Functional Integrated Aviation Photoelectric Payload

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, X.

    2018-04-01

    To coordinate with the small UAV at reconnaissance mission, we've developed a smart multi-functional integrated aviation photoelectric payload. The payload weighs only 1kg, and has a two-axis stabilized platform with visible task payload, infrared task payload, laser pointers and video tracker. The photoelectric payload could complete the reconnaissance tasks above the target area (including visible and infrared). Because of its light weight, small size, full-featured, high integrated, the constraints of the UAV platform carrying the payload will be reduced a lot, which helps the payload suit for more extensive using occasions. So all users of this type of smart multi-functional integrated aviation photoelectric payload will do better works on completion of the ground to better pinpoint targets, artillery calibration, assessment of observe strike damage, customs officials and other tasks.

  10. Photoelectric characteristics of lead phthalocyanine/titanium oxide structures

    CERN Document Server

    Ray, A K; Hodgson, S N B

    2003-01-01

    A study has been carried out into the conduction, charge transfer/electron injection and photovoltaic conversion properties of TiO sub 2 -lead phthalocyanine (PbPc) heterojunctions. The results indicate that although the heterojunction area, and hence overall conversion efficiency, was low for the planar device structures used in the investigation, electron injection and effective charge separation across the dye-TiO sub 2 interface was achieved, with open circuit voltages in the region of 0.3 V. The conversion efficiency was found to be a function of the thickness of the phthalocyanine layer, increasing by a factor of more than 30 times as the thickness of the dye layer was reduced from 500 to 100 nm. The results suggest that under appropriate deposition conditions, to ensure effective coating of the inorganic phase, such phthalocyanine dyes may offer potential for use in dye sensitized photovoltaic cells.

  11. On the Conceptual Understanding of the Photoelectric Effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foong, S. K.; Lee, P.; Wong, D.; Chee, Y. P.

    2010-07-01

    We attempt an in-depth literature review that focuses on some finer aspects of the photoelectric effect that will help build a more coherent understanding of the phenomenon. These include the angular distribution of photoelectrons, multi-photon photoelectron emission and the work function in the photoelectric equation as being that associated with the collector rather than the emitter. We attempt to explain the intricacies of the related concepts in a way that is accessible to teachers and students at the Singapore GCE A-level or pre-university level.

  12. A practice course to cultivate students' comprehensive ability of photoelectricity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Yong; Liu, Yang; Niu, Chunhui; Liu, Lishuang

    2017-08-01

    After the studying of many theoretical courses, it's important and urgent for the students from specialty of optoelectronic information science and engineering to cultivate their comprehensive ability of photoelectricity. We set up a comprehensive practice course named "Integrated Design of Optoelectronic Information System" (IDOIS) for the purpose that students can integrate their knowledge of optics, electronics and computer programming to design, install and debug an optoelectronic system with independent functions. Eight years of practice shows that this practice course can train students' ability of analysis, design/development and debugging of photoelectric system, improve their ability in document retrieval, design proposal and summary report writing, teamwork, innovation consciousness and skill.

  13. Innovation ability and innovation spirit in photoelectric comprehensive experiment teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Dexing; Zhang, Yang; Wang, Xiaofeng; Zhang, Xiaojun; Zhang, Tao; Sun, Peng

    2017-08-01

    The traditional experimental teaching methods have some shortcomings in the training the student innovation ability. In order to improve the student practical ability in the photoelectric technology, in this paper new experimental teaching modes are tried and reformed for cultivating the innovative ability of students in the linear CCD experiment. The photoelectric experiment systems are independently designed and completed by students. Compared with the traditional experimental teaching methods, this new methods have a great role in the development of the ability of creative thinking.

  14. Photoelectric work function studies of carbonaceous films containing Ni nanocrystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Czerwosz, E.; Dluzewski, P.; Kutner, T.; Stacewicz, T.

    2003-01-01

    In this paper we present the results of photoelectric work function measurements for carbonaceous films containing Ni nanocrystals. The investigated films were obtained by thermal vacuum deposition method. The structure of films was studied by electron diffraction, transmission microscopy and Raman spectroscopy. Film structure depends on Ni contents in the film volume. Work function determined from photoelectric measurements for all investigated films are similar and lie in the range of 2.65-2.93 eV. The decrease of work function value with the cleaning of the film's surface with UV pulsed laser beam was observed

  15. ANALYSIS OF SOLAR POWER STATION SCHEMES ON PHOTOELECTRIC MODULES FOR ELECTRIC CARS CHARGING STATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Hnatov

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The analysis of existing schemes for building solar power stations on photoelectric modules with the revealing of their operation principles and functionality has been conducted. The specified technical characteristics of each of the analyzed schemes are given. The structural scheme of the solar charging station for electric cars with determining its functional capabilities and operation features is proposed. The practical application of this scheme will help to reduce the dependence on the general electric power supply network and will create conditions for its total rejection.

  16. A Method for Transferring Photoelectric Photometry Data from Apple II+ to IBM PC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Harry D.; Miller, James R.; Stephenson, Kipp

    1989-06-01

    A method is presented for transferring photoelectric photometry data files from an Apple II computer to an IBM PC computer in a form which is compatible with the AAVSO Photoelectric Photometry data collection process.

  17. Reform and practice for photoelectric specialty experimental teaching based on virtual simulation experiment platform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Yan; Lv, Qingsong; Wu, Maocheng; Xu, Yishen; Gu, Jihua

    2017-08-01

    In view of some problems about the traditional photoelectric specialty experimental teaching process, such as separation of theoretical teaching and practical teaching, immobilization of experimental teaching contents, low quality of experiments and no obvious effect, we explored and practiced a new experimental teaching model of "theoretical teaching, virtual simulation and physical experiment", which combined the characteristics of photoelectric information science and engineering major and the essential requirements of engineering innovation talents cultivation. The virtual simulation experiment platform has many advantages, such as high performance-to-price ratio, easy operation and open experimental process, which makes virtual simulation combine physical experiment, complete each other with virtual for practical. After the users log into the virtual simulation experimental platform, they will first study the contents of the experiment, clarify the purpose and requirements of the experiment, master the method of using the instrument and the relevant notes, and then use the experimental instruments provided by the platform to build the corresponding experimental system. Once the experimenter's optical path is set incorrectly or the instrument parameters are set incorrectly, the error or warning message will be automatically triggered, and the reference information will be given instructing the student to complete the correct experimental operation. The results of our practice in recent years show that the teaching reform of the photoelectric specialty experiments has not only brought great convenience to the experimental teaching management, broadened the students' thinking and vision, enhanced the students' experimental skills and comprehensive qualities, but also made the students participate in the experiment with their enthusiasm. During the construction of experiment programs, the students' engineering practical ability and independent innovation awareness

  18. 16 CFR 1211.11 - Requirements for photoelectric sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ....11 Section 1211.11 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY...) long. The obstruction is to be centered under the door perpendicular to the plane of the door when in... photoelectric sensor's beam from a position 45 degrees from the plane of the door when in the closed position...

  19. Measurements of Photoelectric Yield and Physical Properties of Individual Lunar Dust Grains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbas, M. M.; Tankosic, D.; Craven, P. D.; Spann, J. F.; LeClair, A.; West, F. A.; Taylor, L.; Hoover, R.

    2005-01-01

    Micron size dust grains levitated and transported on the lunar surface constitute a major problem for the robotic and human habitat missions for the Moon. It is well known since the Apollo missions that the lunar surface is covered with a thick layer of micron/sub-micron size dust grains. Transient dust clouds over the lunar horizon were observed by experiments during the Apollo 17 mission. Theoretical models suggest that the dust grains on the lunar surface are charged by the solar UV radiation as well as the solar wind. Even without any physical activity, the dust grains are levitated by electrostatic fields and transported away from the surface in the near vacuum environment of the Moon. The current dust charging and the levitation models, however, do not fully explain the observed phenomena. Since the abundance of dust on the Moon's surface with its observed adhesive characteristics is believed to have a severe impact on the human habitat and the lifetime and operations of a variety of equipment, it is necessary to investigate the phenomena and the charging properties of the lunar dust in order to develop appropriate mitigating strategies. We will present results of some recent laboratory experiments on individual micro/sub-micron size dust grains levitated in electrodynamic balance in simulated space environments. The experiments involve photoelectric emission measurements of individual micron size lunar dust grains illuminated with UV radiation in the 120-160 nm wavelength range. The photoelectric yields are required to determine the charging properties of lunar dust illuminated by solar UV radiation. We will present some recent results of laboratory measurement of the photoelectric yields and the physical properties of individual micron size dust grains from the Apollo and Luna-24 sample returns as well as the JSC-1 lunar simulants.

  20. Study on photoelectric parameter measurement method of high capacitance solar cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Junchao; Xiong, Limin; Meng, Haifeng; He, Yingwei; Cai, Chuan; Zhang, Bifeng; Li, Xiaohui; Wang, Changshi

    2018-01-01

    The high efficiency solar cells usually have high capacitance characteristic, so the measurement of their photoelectric performance usually requires long pulse width and long sweep time. The effects of irradiance non-uniformity, probe shielding and spectral mismatch on the IV curve measurement are analyzed experimentally. A compensation method for irradiance loss caused by probe shielding is proposed, and the accurate measurement of the irradiance intensity in the IV curve measurement process of solar cell is realized. Based on the characteristics that the open circuit voltage of solar cell is sensitive to the junction temperature, an accurate measurement method of the temperature of solar cell under continuous irradiation condition is proposed. Finally, a measurement method with the characteristic of high accuracy and wide application range for high capacitance solar cell is presented.

  1. Photoelectric emission from negative-electron-affinity diamond (111) surfaces: Exciton breakup versus conduction-band emission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bandis, C.; Pate, B.B.

    1995-01-01

    We have recently reported that bound electron-hole pairs (Mott-Wannier excitons) are the dominant source of photoelectron emission from specially prepared [''as-polished'' C(111)-(1x1):H] negative-electron-affinity diamond surfaces for near-band-gap excitation up to 0.5 eV above threshold [C. Bandis and B. B. Pate, Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 777 (1995)]. It was found that photoexcited excitons transport to the surface, break up, and emit their electron. In this paper, we extend the study of exciton-derived emission to include partial yield (constant final-state) analysis as well as angular distribution measurements of the photoelectric emission. In addition, we find that exciton-derived emission does not always dominate. Photoelectric emission properties of the in situ ''rehydrogenated'' (111)-(1x1):H diamond surface are characteristically different than emission observed from the as-polished (111)-(1x1):H surface. The rehydrogenated surface has additional downward band bending as compared to the as-polished surface. In confirmation of the assignment of photoelectric yield to exciton breakup emission, we find a significant enhancement of the total electron yield when the downward band bending of the hydrogenated surface is increased. The functional form of the observed total electron yield demonstrates that, in contrast to the as-polished surface, conduction-band electrons are a significant component of the observed photoelectric yield from the in situ hydrogenated (111)-(1x1):H surface. Furthermore, electron emission characteristics of the rehydrogenated surface confirms our assignment of a Fan phonon-cascade mechanism for thermalization of excitons

  2. Photoelectric method for determination of the moment of formation of an anodic spot

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barinov, V.N.; Goncharov, V.K.; Smirnov, A.V.

    1986-01-01

    In studying the problem of the effect of the amplitude and form of discharge current pulses on the time for transition from a diffuse discharge form to a contracted one and on the value of the threshold current I /SUB As/ for formation of an anodic spot, the authors used a photoelectric method for determination of the moment of appearance of the anodic spot based on determination of the spectral composition of the plasma at different moments of time after the beginning of discharge initiation. The photoelectric method can be used in studying emission processes on a cathode and also in those cases where both electrodes are made of the same material. An example shows synchronous oscillograms of I /SUB p/ (tau) and J /SUB i/ (tau) for copper electrodes. It is evident that during transition of the discharge to a contracted form with an anodic spot there was a sharp increase of the intensity of deexcitation of the ionic copper line. At the moment of extinction of the anodic spot, the amplitude values of J /SUB i/ (tau) corresponded to a level characteristic of the diffuse form of arc burning

  3. Computer Simulation of Angle-measuring System of Photoelectric Theodolite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeng, L; Zhao, Z W; Song, S L; Wang, L T

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, a virtual test platform based on malfunction phenomena is designed, using the methods of computer simulation and numerical mask. It is used in the simulation training of angle-measuring system of photoelectric theodolite. Actual application proves that this platform supplies good condition for technicians making deep simulation training and presents a useful approach for the establishment of other large equipment simulation platforms

  4. Molecular semiconductors photoelectrical properties and solar cells

    CERN Document Server

    Rees, Ch

    1985-01-01

    During the past thirty years considerable efforts have been made to design the synthesis and the study of molecular semiconductors. Molecular semiconductors - and more generally molecular materials - involve interactions between individual subunits which can be separately synthesized. Organic and metallo-organic derivatives are the basis of most of the molecular materials. A survey of the literature on molecular semiconductors leaves one rather confused. It does seem to be very difficult to correlate the molecular structure of these semiconductors with their experimental electrical properties. For inorganic materials a simple definition delimits a fairly homogeneous family. If an inorganic material has a conductivity intermediate between that of an 12 1 1 3 1 1 insulator « 10- n- cm- ) and that of a metal (> 10 n- cm- ), then it is a semiconductor and will exhibit the characteristic properties of this family, such as junction formation, photoconductivity, and the photovoltaic effect. For molecular compounds,...

  5. Sound card based digital correlation detection of weak photoelectrical signals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang Guanghui; Wang Jiangcheng

    2005-01-01

    A simple and low-cost digital correlation method is proposed to investigate weak photoelectrical signals, using a high-speed photodiode as detector, which is directly connected to a programmably triggered sound card analogue-to-digital converter and a personal computer. Two testing experiments, autocorrelation detection of weak flickering signals from a computer monitor under background of noisy outdoor stray light and cross-correlation measurement of the surface velocity of a motional tape, are performed, showing that the results are reliable and the method is easy to implement

  6. Development of Multi-Channel Photoelectric Photometer Using Optical Fiber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Woo-Baik Lee

    1993-06-01

    Full Text Available We have developed a four-channel photoelectric photometer for the 61cm telescope of Sobaeksan Astronomy Observatory using optical fiber. We observed a standard star with each channel to check the efficiency difference between the channels, and found no differences. To calibrate the observing accuracy and efficiency, we have observed a short period WUMa type eclipsing binary star, BV Dra. Test observations show that the photometer is very stable and the accuracy of the data is also increased. The observing efficiency is very increased compared with that of single channel photometer; at least five times faster than older one in the case of one filter observation.

  7. Photoelectric elements of the eclipsing binary XY Ceti

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Srivastava, R.K.; Padalia, T.D.

    1975-01-01

    The absolute elements of the system XY Ceti have been obtained on the basis of the spectroscopic elements given by Popper (1971) and the photoelectric elements derived previously. The colours of the components have been obtained. Both components are found to lie fairly on the Main Sequence. The primary component of the system, however, is slightly more evolved as it shows a tendency to drift away from the Main Sequence. The spectral classes now assigned are A5V (primary) and A7V (secondary). The values of Roche constants indicate that the system is a detached one. (Auth.)

  8. Photoelectric radar servo control system based on ARM+FPGA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Kaixuan; Zhang, Yue; Li, Yeqiu; Dai, Qin; Yao, Jun

    2016-01-01

    In order to get smaller, faster, and more responsive requirements of the photoelectric radar servo control system. We propose a set of core ARM + FPGA architecture servo controller. Parallel processing capability of FPGA to be used for the encoder feedback data, PWM carrier modulation, A, B code decoding processing and so on; Utilizing the advantage of imaging design in ARM Embedded systems achieves high-speed implementation of the PID algorithm. After the actual experiment, the closed-loop speed of response of the system cycles up to 2000 times/s, in the case of excellent precision turntable shaft, using a PID algorithm to achieve the servo position control with the accuracy of + -1 encoder input code. Firstly, This article carry on in-depth study of the embedded servo control system hardware to determine the ARM and FPGA chip as the main chip with systems based on a pre-measured target required to achieve performance requirements, this article based on ARM chip used Samsung S3C2440 chip of ARM7 architecture , the FPGA chip is chosen xilinx's XC3S400 . ARM and FPGA communicate by using SPI bus, the advantage of using SPI bus is saving a lot of pins for easy system upgrades required thereafter. The system gets the speed datas through the photoelectric-encoder that transports the datas to the FPGA, Then the system transmits the datas through the FPGA to ARM, transforms speed datas into the corresponding position and velocity data in a timely manner, prepares the corresponding PWM wave to control motor rotation by making comparison between the position data and the velocity data setted in advance . According to the system requirements to draw the schematics of the photoelectric radar servo control system and PCB board to produce specially. Secondly, using PID algorithm to control the servo system, the datas of speed obtained from photoelectric-encoder is calculated position data and speed data via high-speed digital PID algorithm and coordinate models. Finally, a

  9. X-Ray Spectro-Polarimetry with Photoelectric Polarimeters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strohmayer, T. E.

    2017-01-01

    We derive a generalization of forward fitting for X-ray spectroscopy to include linear polarization of X-ray sources, appropriate for the anticipated next generation of space-based photoelectric polarimeters. We show that the inclusion of polarization sensitivity requires joint fitting to three observed spectra, one for each of the Stokes parameters, I(E), U(E), and Q(E). The equations for StokesI (E) (the total intensity spectrum) are identical to the familiar case with no polarization sensitivity, and for which the model-predicted spectrum is obtained by a convolution of the source spectrum, F (E), with the familiar energy response function,(E) R(E,E), where (E) and R(E,E) are the effective area and energy redistribution matrix, respectively. In addition to the energy spectrum, the two new relations for U(E) and Q(E) include the source polarization fraction and position angle versus energy, a(E), and 0(E), respectively, and the model-predicted spectra for these relations are obtained by a convolution with the modulated energy response function, (E)(E) R(E,E), where(E) is the energy-dependent modulation fraction that quantifies a polarimeters angular response to 100 polarized radiation. We present results of simulations with response parameters appropriate for the proposed PRAXyS Small Explorer observatory to illustrate the procedures and methods, and we discuss some aspects of photoelectric polarimeters with relevance to understanding their calibration and operation.

  10. The Booting-Type ADRC of Airborne Photoelectrical Platform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiantao Li

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Customary disturbance rejection in the photoelectrical platform is “passive,” which makes it difficult to further improve the isolation degree owning to the strict restriction of mechanical resonance frequency. In this paper, a booting-type ADRC is proposed, whose disturbance estimation process is guided by target value to reduce the overshoot and lag in the estimated value of disturbance. All kinds of disturbance in the system are modeled in a unified way by using the equivalent disturbance voltage to avoid the complex modeling process. Based on the simplified model, extended state observer (ESO is designed to realize a real-time estimation of the disturbance. Then, the disturbance compensation is added to generate the final control value by combining the customary square lead-lag controller. Experiments are implemented to test the proposed control strategy by mounting the photoelectrical platform on a flight simulator and generating a motion perturbation. Compared with the case of only traditional lead-lag controller, the isolation degree of disturbance is enhanced obviously. And the experiments also illustrate strong robustness of ADRC.

  11. CdS/TiO{sub 2} nanocomposite film and its enhanced photoelectric responses to dry air and formaldehyde induced by visible light at room temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zou, Zhijun, E-mail: zjzou@xynu.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Advanced Micro/Nano Functional Materials, Department of Physics and Electronic Engineering, Xinyang Normal University, Xinyang 464000 (China); State Key Laboratory of Material Processing and Die & Mould Technology, Nanomaterials and Smart Sensors Research Laboratory, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China); Qiu, Yang [Key Laboratory of Advanced Micro/Nano Functional Materials, Department of Physics and Electronic Engineering, Xinyang Normal University, Xinyang 464000 (China); Xie, Changsheng [State Key Laboratory of Material Processing and Die & Mould Technology, Nanomaterials and Smart Sensors Research Laboratory, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China); Xu, Jingjing; Luo, Yongsong; Wang, Chunlei; Yan, Hailong [Key Laboratory of Advanced Micro/Nano Functional Materials, Department of Physics and Electronic Engineering, Xinyang Normal University, Xinyang 464000 (China)

    2015-10-05

    Highlights: • Photoelectric responses of TiO{sub 2} and CdS/TiO{sub 2} to dry air and formaldehyde were tested. • In contrary to TiO{sub 2}, photoelectric response of CdS/TiO{sub 2} obviously increased. • CdS/TiO{sub 2} nanocomposite device exhibits excellent stability to formaldehyde. • CdS/TiO{sub 2} may be a promising material for developing high performance sensor. - Abstract: Photoelectric responses of pure TiO{sub 2} and CdS/TiO{sub 2} nanocomposite devices to dry air and formaldehyde under visible light irradiation at room temperature were investigated in this work. The pure TiO{sub 2} film was firstly prepared by screen printing and CdS/TiO{sub 2} nanocomposite film by the subsequent SILAR process. XRD, FE-SEM, HR-TEM and UV–vis DRS analysis were employed to examine the fundamental characteristics of as-prepared samples. Photoelectric responses of pure TiO{sub 2} device displayed that no obvious photocurrent was observed upon turning the visible light on either in dry air or in formaldehyde. But in contrary to pure TiO{sub 2} device, the photoelectric response of CdS/TiO{sub 2} nanocomposite device has been obviously enhanced. It is the adding of CdS, which works as a sensitizer, that accounts for the enhanced response and makes the CdS/TiO{sub 2} device sensitive to the visible light. Moreover, the CdS/TiO{sub 2} nanocomposite device exhibits excellent stability to formaldehyde. The present work does not only shed light on the photoelectric gas sensing properties of TiO{sub 2} and CdS/TiO{sub 2}, but also suggests that the CdS/TiO{sub 2} nanocomposite may be a promising material for fabricating visible-light-induced photoelectric gas sensors working at room temperature.

  12. Photoelectric conversion and electrochromic properties of lutetium tetrakis(tert-butyl)bisphthalocyaninate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu, Andrew Teh; Hu Tenyi; Liu Lungchang

    2003-01-01

    Both photoelectric and electrochromic effects on lutetium tetrakis(tert-butyl)bisphthalocyaninate (Lu(TBPc) 2 ) have been carried out in this study. Lu(TBPc) 2 is known for its electrochromic performance, but its photoelectric effect has not mentioned in the literature. The electrochromic properties of Lu(TBPc) 2 have been measured by cyclic voltammetry (CV) and UV-Vis spectrometer at the same time. It takes less than 1.5 s for the color to change from red to green under 0.9 V. Its cycle life is at least over 500 times. Furthermore, we also investigate its photoelectric conversion properties. Its photoelectric cell exhibits a positive photo-electricity conversion effect with a short-circuit photocurrent (46.4 μA/cm 2 ) under illumination of white light (1.201 mW/cm 2 )

  13. Photoelectric UBV and DDO photometry of NGC 5138

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Claria, J.J.

    1980-01-01

    Results of UBV photoelectric photometry in NGC 5138 are presented for 50 stars brighter than 14.0 mag. In addition, four probable red giants were also observed in the DDO system. Sixteen stars previously considered members by Lindoff (1972), were found not to be physically connected with the cluster. NGC 5138 is located 1.80 kpc from the Sun and the visual interstellar absorption determined from the reddened B stars amounts to Asub(v) = 0.75 mag. There of the four red stars observed in the DDO system were found to be cluster members. The mean cyanogen anomaly is = 0.043 +- 0.018(m.e.), which implies that NGC 5138 is richer in CN than the field K giants in the solar neighbourhodd, but poorer than the Hyades giants. The cluster age is estimated to be approx. 1.5 x 10 8 yr. (orig.)

  14. Time improvement of photoelectric effect calculation for absorbed dose estimation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Massa, J M; Wainschenker, R S; Doorn, J H; Caselli, E E

    2007-01-01

    Ionizing radiation therapy is a very useful tool in cancer treatment. It is very important to determine absorbed dose in human tissue to accomplish an effective treatment. A mathematical model based on affected areas is the most suitable tool to estimate the absorbed dose. Lately, Monte Carlo based techniques have become the most reliable, but they are time expensive. Absorbed dose calculating programs using different strategies have to choose between estimation quality and calculating time. This paper describes an optimized method for the photoelectron polar angle calculation in photoelectric effect, which is significant to estimate deposited energy in human tissue. In the case studies, time cost reduction nearly reached 86%, meaning that the time needed to do the calculation is approximately 1/7 th of the non optimized approach. This has been done keeping precision invariant

  15. Application and research of artificial water mist on photoelectric interference

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Yuejun; Ren, Baolin

    2018-04-01

    Water mist is a new type of photoelectric interfering material. It can exert a strong interference and shielding effect on infrared light, laser and radar wave through scattering, reflection, refraction and absorption. Based on this, this paper illustrates the application of an artificial high pressure water mist technology in infrared interference system. First, the operating principle of the infrared interference system is introduced. Next, the design principle of self-excited rotary vortex nozzle, the key part of the system, is elaborated. Then, the calculation of the main control parameters of the system is clarified. In the end, the paper verifies interference and shielding effect of the system by experiment. Experiment shows that the interference system can significantly reduce infrared signature of the target, featuring excellent infrared interference performance and high practical value.

  16. Photoelectric equipment type MFS-7 for analyzing oils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orlova, S.A.; Fridman, M.G.; Kholosha, T.V.; Ezhoda, G.D.; Nechitailov, V.V.

    1987-01-01

    The authors describe the equipment type MFS-7 which is intended for analyzing used oils for the wear products of motors. The difference between type MFS-7 and its predecessors lies in the application of computer techniques to control the equipment and process the output data; and in the design of the sample container, which allows for two methods of introducing the sample into the discharge. The photoelectric equipment consists of an excitation spectrum source IVS-28, having an ac arc mode and 1.v. spark, a polychoromator, a special sample holder for analyzing liquid samples, an electronic recording apparatus with digital voltmeter type ERU-18 and control computer system Spectr 2.2 based on a minicomputer with its own printer. The type MFS-7 equipment has been tested and put into mass production

  17. Photoelectric professional students in common universities cultivate way to explore under the background of professional certification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yan-jun; Wang, Li; Leng, Yan-bing

    2017-08-01

    In view of the engineering education professional certification of specialty construction and the specific requirements of the training system, combining with our school optoelectronic information science and engineering characteristics, analysis of the optoelectronic information science and engineering in our school problems and challenges, to locate the specific professional training objectives. From the service oriented industry demand for talent ability, at the same time, according to the ministry of education professional norms of the development of the photoelectric teaching steering committee, and the professional development and the characteristics of target, to build a set to conform to the goal of cultivating the professional curriculum system. At the same time set up a from fundamental to professional practice teaching system, covers the course experiment, course design, case teaching, comprehensive training, such as graduation design practice. Which implements a whole ability training from the practice of foundation to high-end chain, embodies the training goal emphasize "outstanding practical skills, quality education is distinct culture characteristic. By further speed up the professional construction, professional certification standards to standardize our training process, improved the level of professional training, and improve the comprehensive quality of the graduates and talent of social competitiveness, fostered more professional talents for the country.

  18. The research on teaching reformation of photoelectric information science and engineering specialty experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Zheng; Yang, Fan; Zhang, Yang; Geng, Tao; Li, Yuxiang

    2017-08-01

    This paper introduced the idea of teaching reformation of photoelectric information science and engineering specialty experiments. The teaching reformation of specialty experiments was analyzed from many aspects, such as construction of specialized laboratory, experimental methods, experiment content, experiment assessing mechanism, and so on. The teaching of specialty experiments was composed of four levels experiments: basic experiments, comprehensive and designing experiments, innovative research experiments and engineering experiments which are aiming at enterprise production. Scientific research achievements and advanced technology on photoelectric technology were brought into the teaching of specialty experiments, which will develop the students' scientific research ability and make them to be the talent suitable for photoelectric industry.

  19. Nanosized graphene sheets enhanced photoelectric behavior of carbon film on p-silicon substrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Lei; Hu, Gaijuan; Zhang, Dongqing; Diao, Dongfeng

    2016-07-01

    We found that nanosized graphene sheets enhanced the photoelectric behavior of graphene sheets embedded carbon (GSEC) film on p-silicon substrate, which was deposited under low energy electron irradiation in electron cyclotron resonance plasma. The GSEC/p-Si photodiode exhibited good photoelectric performance with photoresponsivity of 206 mA/W, rise and fall time of 2.2, and 4.3 μs for near-infrared (850 nm) light. The origin of the strong photoelectric behavior of GSEC film was ascribed to the appearance of graphene nanosheets, which led to higher barrier height and photoexcited electron-collection efficiency. This finding indicates that GSEC film has the potential for photoelectric applications.

  20. Nanosized graphene sheets enhanced photoelectric behavior of carbon film on p-silicon substrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Lei; Hu, Gaijuan; Zhang, Dongqing; Diao, Dongfeng

    2016-01-01

    We found that nanosized graphene sheets enhanced the photoelectric behavior of graphene sheets embedded carbon (GSEC) film on p-silicon substrate, which was deposited under low energy electron irradiation in electron cyclotron resonance plasma. The GSEC/p-Si photodiode exhibited good photoelectric performance with photoresponsivity of 206 mA/W, rise and fall time of 2.2, and 4.3 μs for near-infrared (850 nm) light. The origin of the strong photoelectric behavior of GSEC film was ascribed to the appearance of graphene nanosheets, which led to higher barrier height and photoexcited electron-collection efficiency. This finding indicates that GSEC film has the potential for photoelectric applications.

  1. A device for automatic photoelectric control of the analytical gap for emission spectrographs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietrich, John A.; Cooley, Elmo F.; Curry, Kenneth J.

    1977-01-01

    A photoelectric device has been built that automatically controls the analytical gap between electrodes during excitation period. The control device allows for precise control of the analytical gap during the arcing process of samples, resulting in better precision of analysis.

  2. Nanosized graphene sheets enhanced photoelectric behavior of carbon film on p-silicon substrate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Lei; Hu, Gaijuan; Zhang, Dongqing [Key Laboratory of Education Ministry for Modern Design and Rotor-Bearing System, School of Mechanical Engineering, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an 710049 (China); Diao, Dongfeng, E-mail: dfdiao@szu.edu.cn [Institute of Nanosurface Science and Engineering (INSE), Shenzhen University, Shenzhen 518060 (China)

    2016-07-18

    We found that nanosized graphene sheets enhanced the photoelectric behavior of graphene sheets embedded carbon (GSEC) film on p-silicon substrate, which was deposited under low energy electron irradiation in electron cyclotron resonance plasma. The GSEC/p-Si photodiode exhibited good photoelectric performance with photoresponsivity of 206 mA/W, rise and fall time of 2.2, and 4.3 μs for near-infrared (850 nm) light. The origin of the strong photoelectric behavior of GSEC film was ascribed to the appearance of graphene nanosheets, which led to higher barrier height and photoexcited electron-collection efficiency. This finding indicates that GSEC film has the potential for photoelectric applications.

  3. Inventory Control: Construction of a Photoelectric Colorimeter and Application to Students' Experiments (Part 2).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuo, Tsutomu; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Discussed are the construction and uses of a version of a photoelectric colorimeter by students. Included are materials needed and four experiments which use the equipment. Sample results are shown. (CW)

  4. The photoelectric yield technique for the characterization of the semiconductor heterostructures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evangelisti, F.; Di Gaspare, L.

    1998-01-01

    The paper discusses the use of the photoelectric yield spectroscopy for investigating surface defects and interfaces. Few examples are presented that clearly show the usefulness of the techniques. The heterostructures discussed include crystalline/amorphous and crystalline/crystalline systems

  5. Preparation and photoelectric properties of p-CaFe2O4/n-WO3 composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wan, Ruiqin; Jia, Caihong; Zhang, Weifeng

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Surface photovoltage spectroscopy investigation on p-CaFe 2 O 4 /n-WO 3 composites. ► The photovoltaic response is enhanced in p-CaFe 2 O 4 /n-WO 3 composites. ► The multielectron process and high rate of carrier migration in WO 3 . - Abstract: Composites of p-CaFe 2 O 4 /n-WO 3 are prepared via a sol–gel technique. Their structures and optical properties are characterized with X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and UV–vis absorption spectroscopy. The photoelectric characteristics are investigated by surface photovoltage spectroscopy combined with electric field induced surface photovoltage spectroscopy. The results indicate that CaFe 2 O 4 can well form a p–n type composite with WO 3 , and the intensity and spectral region of surface photovoltaic response for the composites are strongly dependent on the molar ratio of two components. The enhancement in photoelectric properties and the effective separation of photogenerated carriers could be attributed to the energy level matching between the two components, multielectron process and the high migration rate in WO 3 .

  6. Photoelectric effect from observer's mathematics point of view

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khots, Boris; Khots, Dmitriy

    2014-12-01

    When we consider and analyze physical events with the purpose of creating corresponding models we often assume that the mathematical apparatus used in modeling is infallible. In particular, this relates to the use of infinity in various aspects and the use of Newton's definition of a limit in analysis. We believe that is where the main problem lies in contemporary study of nature. This work considers Physical aspects in a setting of arithmetic, algebra, geometry, analysis, topology provided by Observer's Mathematics (see www.mathrelativity.com). Certain results and communications pertaining to solution of these problems are provided. In particular, we prove the following Theorems, which give Observer's Mathematics point of view on Einstein photoelectric effect theory and Lamb-Scully and Hanbury-Brown-Twiss experiments: Theorem 1. There are some values of light intensity where anticorrelation parameter A ∈ [0,1). Theorem 2. There are some values of light intensity where anticorrelation parameter A = 1. Theorem 3. There are some values of light intensity where anticorrelation parameter A > 1.

  7. Photochemical charges separation and photoelectric properties of flexible solar cells with two types of heterostructures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Xiangyang, E-mail: lxy081276@126.com, E-mail: yzgu@henu.edu.cn; Wang, Shun; Zheng, Haiwu; Cheng, Xiuying; Gu, Yuzong, E-mail: lxy081276@126.com, E-mail: yzgu@henu.edu.cn [Institute of Microsystems Physics and School of Physics and Electronics, Henan University, Kaifeng 475004 (China)

    2015-12-14

    Photochemical charges generation, separation, and transport at nanocrystal interfaces are central to energy conversion for solar cells. Here, Zn{sub 2}SnO{sub 4} nanowires/Cu{sub 4}Bi{sub 4}S{sub 9} (ZTO/CBS), ZTO nanowires/CBS-reduced graphene oxide (ZTO/CBS-RGO), and bulk heterojunction (BHJ) solar cells were measured. The signals of steady state and electric field-induced surface photovoltage indicate that RGO with high electron mobility can evidently improve the photovoltaic response. Besides, ZTO/CBS and ZTO/CBS-RGO cells exhibit the excellent performance and the highest efficiencies of 1.2% and 2.8%, respectively. The internal relations of photoelectric properties to some factors, such as film thickness, direct paths, RGO conductive network, energy level matching, etc., were discussed in detail. Qualitative and quantitative analyses further verified the comprehensive effect of RGO and other factors. Importantly, the fine bendable characteristic of BHJ solar cells with excellent efficiency and facile, scalable production gives the as-made flexible solar cells device potential for practical application in future.

  8. Determination of X-ray photoelectric absorption of Ge and Si avoiding solid-state effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baltazar-Rodrigues, J.; Cusatis, C.

    2001-01-01

    X-ray linear attenuation coefficients of germanium and silicon were measured with precision between 0.1% and 0.3% for six characteristic wavelengths: copper, molybdenum and silver K lines. The linear photoelectric absorption coefficients were determined from the values of the measured attenuation coefficients by subtracting the calculated Compton and thermal diffuse scattering involved. It is shown that in order to compare calculated values of X-ray absorption coefficients based on the isolated atom assumption with experimental results obtained from solid samples it is necessary to take into consideration the solid-state effects. Before the measurements the sample's angular positions were scanned to search for Bragg scattering and the measurements of the transmitted intensities were done far from these angular positions. The measurements were performed in three samples of each element with different thickness and in different angular positions for each sample in order to check the consistency of the measured attenuation coefficients. Several instrumental and experimental details were considered in order to achieve the final asserted precision

  9. Protection of High Ceiling Nuclear Facilities Using Photoelectric Sensors and Infrared Fire Detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wadoud, A.A.; El Eissawi, H.M.; Saleh, A.A.

    2017-01-01

    A variety of different security systems and components are commercially available and widely used. Before implementing a security system, it is important to understand the characteristics and requirements of the facility area to be protected. Technology and manufacturers of security devices are rapidly changing. It is necessary to use optimal security equipment suitable for the surrounding environment of the facility to be protected. Several security sensors can be used to protect the nuclear facilities, such as passive infrared detectors and glass breakage sensors, vibration detectors, and microwave sensors. This work introduces technical specifications, operation and method of installation for these detectors in nuclear facilities. Also a comparative study of different security sensors or equipment is provided. The photoelectric detectors and infrared fire beam smoke detectors are reliable, suitable and advanced security equipment. They can be used in special cases because of their advantages, this includes their long ranges and accuracy in performance. This paper presents a new concept for adapting the use infrared optical fire beam smoke detector as intrusion detection equipment in high ceiling buildings or towering height facilities. This is in addition to their main function, namely fire detection.The paper also provides a study for their types and installation method. Focus is made on the installation and operation method for two advanced security systems, and wireless control circuit for the overall system operation

  10. Multipulse nanosecond laser irradiation of silicon for the investigation of surface morphology and photoelectric properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sardar, Maryam; Chen, Jun; Ullah, Zaka; Jelani, Mohsan; Tabassum, Aasma; Cheng, Ju; Sun, Yuxiang; Lu, Jian

    2017-12-01

    We irradiate the single crystal boron-doped silicon (Si) with different number of laser pulses at constant fluence (7.5 J cm-2) in ambient air using Nd:YAG laser and examine its surface morphology and photoelectric properties in details. The results obtained from optical micrographs reveal the increase in heat affected zone (HAZ) and melted area of laser irradiated Si with increasing number of laser pulses. The SEM micrographs evidence the formation of various surface morphologies like laser induced periodic surface structures, crater, microcracks, clusters, cavities, pores, trapped bubbles, nucleation sites, micro-bumps, redeposited material and micro- and nano-particles on the surface of irradiated Si. The surface profilometry analysis informs that the depth of crater is increased with increase in number of incident laser pulses. The spectroscopic ellipsometry reveals that the multipulse irradiation of Si changes its optical properties (refractive index and extinction coefficient). The current-voltage (I-V) characteristic curves of laser irradiated Si show that although the multipulse laser irradiation produces considerable number of surface defects and damages, the electrical properties of Si are well sustained after the multipulse irradiation. The current findings suggest that the multipulse irradiation can be an effective way to tune the optical properties of Si for the fabrication of wide range of optoelectronic devices.

  11. Optical and photoelectrical studies of gold nanoparticle-decorated C{sub 60} films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dmitruk, N.L., E-mail: dmitruk@isp.kiev.u [Institute for Physics of Semiconductors, National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, 45 Nauki Prospect, Kyiv 03028 (Ukraine); Borkovskaya, O.Yu.; Mamykin, S.V.; Naumenko, D.O. [Institute for Physics of Semiconductors, National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, 45 Nauki Prospect, Kyiv 03028 (Ukraine); Meza-Laguna, V. [Instituto de Ciencias Nucleares, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico (UNAM), Circuito Exterior, Ciudad Universitaria, A. P. 70-186, C. P. 04510 Mexico D.F. (Mexico); Basiuk Golovataya-Dzhymbeeva, E.V. [Centro de Ciencias Aplicadas y Desarrollo Tecnologico, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico (UNAM), Circuito exterior S/N Ciudad Universitaria, A. P. 70-186, C. P. 04510 Mexico D.F. (Mexico); Lee, I. Puente [Facultad de Quimica, UNAM, Circuito de la Investigacion Cientifica, Ciudad Universitaria, 04510 Mexico D.F. (Mexico)

    2010-01-01

    Optical and photoelectrical studies were performed on octane-1,8-dithiol cross-linked fullerene films, with supported gold nanoparticles (C{sub 60}-DT-Au). According to high-resolution transmission electron microscopy observations, the average size of obtained gold nanoparticles was about 5 nm, and the shape was spherical. The comparative investigation of optical properties of pristine and cross-linked with octane-1,8-dithiol C{sub 60} films, decorated with gold nanoparticles, found the difference in the extinction coefficient spectra, which was observed also in the photocurrent spectra of barrier heterostructure Au/C{sub 60}/Si. The analysis of dark current-voltage characteristics for Au/C{sub 60}/Si heterostructures showed that the model for them includes the barrier at the C{sub 60}/Si interface and internal barriers in the C{sub 60} layer, caused by the trapping centers. The hopping mechanism of the current transport in the C{sub 60} layer was supplemented with the Poole-Frenkel emission process on these centers, with the barrier height greater for the fullerene C{sub 60} film cross-linked with octane-1,8-dithiol.

  12. Electrical and photoelectrical properties of poly(phenyl azomethine furane) thin films devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharma, G.D. [J.N.V. Univ., Jodhpur (India). Dept. of Phys.; Sandogaker, S.G. [J.N.V. Univ., Jodhpur (India). Dept. of Phys.; Roy, M.S. [Camouflage Division, Defence Laboratory, Jodhpur (Raj.) (India)

    1996-05-15

    Poly(phenyl azomethine furane) (PPAF), a conjugated system of poly-Schiff base was synthesised by condensation of p-aminobenzene with furane-2-aldehyde. Oxidative polymerization was conducted at 0-5 C temperature, and the polymer formed was found to be soluble in common organic solvent. Optical properties were studied in the UV-visible-IR region. Electrical and photoelectrical properties of Al/PPAF/ITO and Ag/PPAF/ITO sandwich devices were investigated by measuring the steady state photocurrent resulting from illumination. The device Al/PPAF/ITO shows a Schottky barrier at the Al-PPAF interface and ohmic contact at ITO-PPAF interface. The device Ag/PPAF/ITO shows ohmic contact at both interfaces. This behaviour has been explained in terms of P-type conductivity of the PPAF and the formation of a Schottky barrier with the low work function electrode and ohmic contact with the higher work function electrode. Under low forward bias voltage (ITO positive) ohmic conduction is observed while at higher voltage there is space charge-limited conduction (SCLC). The dependence of the photo short-circuit current on illumination intensity was discussed in detail. The C-V characteristics of both devices have also been analysed. (orig.)

  13. A new photoelectric ink based on nanocellulose/CdS quantum dots for screen-printing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Aimin; Liu, Yuan; Wang, Qinwen; Chen, Ruisong; Liu, Wangyu; Fang, Zhiqiang; Wang, Lishi

    2016-09-05

    CdS quantum dots with excellent photoelectrical properties embedded in nanocellulose could be exploited for use in photoelectrical ink. In this work, nanocellulose/CdS quantum dot composites were fabricated by controlling the carboxylate content of the nanocellulose and the molar ratio of Cd(2+)/-COOH. New photoelectric inks were prepared based on the composites, in which the CdS quantum dots acted as the pigment and the nanocellulose as the binder. The results of the photocurrent of the composites showed that the photocurrent could be tailored by the carboxylate content and the molar ratio of Cd(2+)/-COOH. And the photocurrent could be as high as 2μA. The surface tension of the photoelectric ink was 27.80±0.03mN/m and its viscosity was 30.3mPas. The photoelectric ink was stable with excellent fluidity and rheology, it could therefore be applied to screen-printing and three-dimensional (3D) printing. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. A low noise photoelectric signal acquisition system applying in nuclear magnetic resonance gyroscope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Qilin; Zhang, Xian; Zhao, Xinghua; Yang, Dan; Zhou, Binquan; Hu, Zhaohui

    2017-10-01

    The nuclear magnetic resonance gyroscope serves as a new generation of strong support for the development of high-tech weapons, it solves the core problem that limits the development of the long-playing seamless navigation and positioning. In the NMR gyroscope, the output signal with atomic precession frequency is detected by the probe light, the final crucial photoelectric signal of the probe light directly decides the quality of the gyro signal. But the output signal has high sensitivity, resolution and measurement accuracy for the photoelectric detection system. In order to detect the measured signal better, this paper proposed a weak photoelectric signal rapid acquisition system, which has high SNR and the frequency of responded signal is up to 100 KHz to let the weak output signal with high frequency of the NMR gyroscope can be detected better.

  15. Influence of semiconductor surface preparation on photoelectric properties of Al-Zn{sub 3}P{sub 2} contacts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mirowska, Nella [Institute of Physics, Wroclaw University of Technology, Wybrzeze Wyspianskiego 27, 50-370 Wroclaw (Poland)]. E-mail: nella.mirowska@pwr.wroc.pl; Misiewicz, Jan [Institute of Physics, Wroclaw University of Technology, Wybrzeze Wyspianskiego 27, 50-370 Wroclaw (Poland)

    2006-06-15

    The Schottky barriers formed by Al on Zn{sub 3}P{sub 2} p-type crystals have been studied. Three types of crystals (monocrystal, large-grain crystal and polycrystal) were used for device fabrication. The samples were separated in two groups according to the type of structure and the methods of surface preparation. The samples from the first group were different in structure (monocrystal, large-grain crystal and polycrystals) but prepared in the same way. Three polycrystals with differently prepared surfaces were collected in the second group. Two samples from this group were also annealed in open air at 523 K for 24 h. Measurements of photovoltaic effect at room temperature were carried out to test the impact of surface preparation on photoelectric properties of Al-Zn{sub 3}P{sub 2} contacts. Substantial differences in shape and intensity of PV signal were observed depending on whether the surface of semiconductor was mechanically polished, chemically etched or/and heat treated. The height of potential barrier, {phi} {sub B}, and optical transitions in semiconductor were determined. The value of {phi} {sub B} changed from 0.747 to 0.767 eV for unheated samples and from 0.724 to 0.755 eV for the heated ones. The quality of semiconductor surface seems to have an essential influence on spectral characteristics of Al-Zn{sub 3}P{sub 2} junctions, especially in the case of polycrystals. It appeared that thorough preliminary mechanical polishing of crystals surface provides quite good photoelectric properties of Al-Zn{sub 3}P{sub 2} junctions.

  16. Photoelectric properties of thin films from the CdS-Ag2 S system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ristova-Lipanovikj, Mimoza

    1996-01-01

    Three different methods for preparation of thin films of CdS-Ag 2 S system are presented. Those methods are modified from the already existing methods of chemical deposition, and the method of spray pyrolysis, both widely utilized for preparation of wide range of binary, ternary and quaternary semiconductor thin films. The atomic absorption method was applied for quantitative analysis of the samples. The crystal structure of the thin films was studied by X-ray diffraction, while their morphology and the texture was analyzed from the microphotographs, taken on the samples by an optical microscope, in transmitted light. An extensive research was undertaken, to improve the crystallinity of the samples, by performing a post preparation thermal treatment. Photoelectric as well as some other physical properties were studied. VIS and NIR transmission spectra were recorded. The optical band gaps for various thin films containing different portions of Ag and Cd in the system, were evaluated. Spectral dependence of the photoconductivity was recorded. The optical band gaps were determined from the positions of the corresponding maxima of the photoconductivity. From the curves of the time relaxation of the photoconductivity, the carrier life times were calculates. Measurements of the thermal dependence of the resistivity on various samples were performed. Based on the extensive experimental research, the most convenient composition for PV application was selected. For the sake of comparison, two different types of PV cells were manufactured, Sn O 2 :F/CdS:Ag-Sn x S, and Sn O 2 :F/CdS-Sn x S, in order to study the influence of the silver content in the CdS. The plots of I-V and C-V characteristics are presented, and the parameters of the solar cells, were determined and taken in a relation with the content of the silver on the CdS. Finally, some directions of a possible future experimental and theoretical research in this field are given, based on the conclusions made. (author)

  17. The Schrödinger Equation, the Zero-Point Electromagnetic Radiation, and the Photoelectric Effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    França, H. M.; Kamimura, A.; Barreto, G. A.

    2016-04-01

    A Schrödinger type equation for a mathematical probability amplitude Ψ( x, t) is derived from the generalized phase space Liouville equation valid for the motion of a microscopic particle, with mass M and charge e, moving in a potential V( x). The particle phase space probability density is denoted Q( x, p, t), and the entire system is immersed in the "vacuum" zero-point electromagnetic radiation. We show, in the first part of the paper, that the generalized Liouville equation is reduced to a simpler Liouville equation in the equilibrium limit where the small radiative corrections cancel each other approximately. This leads us to a simpler Liouville equation that will facilitate the calculations in the second part of the paper. Within this second part, we address ourselves to the following task: Since the Schrödinger equation depends on hbar , and the zero-point electromagnetic spectral distribution, given by ρ 0{(ω )} = hbar ω 3/2 π 2 c3, also depends on hbar , it is interesting to verify the possible dynamical connection between ρ 0( ω) and the Schrödinger equation. We shall prove that the Planck's constant, present in the momentum operator of the Schrödinger equation, is deeply related with the ubiquitous zero-point electromagnetic radiation with spectral distribution ρ 0( ω). For simplicity, we do not use the hypothesis of the existence of the L. de Broglie matter-waves. The implications of our study for the standard interpretation of the photoelectric effect are discussed by considering the main characteristics of the phenomenon. We also mention, briefly, the effects of the zero-point radiation in the tunneling phenomenon and the Compton's effect.

  18. Photoelectric Emission Measurements on the Analogs of Individual Cosmic Dust Grains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbas, M. M.; Tankosic, D.; Craven, P. D.; Spann, J. F.; LeClair, A.; West, E. A.; Weingartner, J. C.; Tielens, A. G. G. M.; Nuth, J. a.; Camata, R. P.

    2006-01-01

    The photoelectric emission process is considered to be the dominant mechanism for charging of cosmic dust grains in many astrophysical environments. The grain charge and equilibrium potentials play an important role in the dynamical and physical processes that include heating of the neutral gas in the interstellar medium, coagulation processes in the dust clouds, and levitation and dynamical processes in the interplanetary medium and planetary surfaces and rings. An accurate evaluation of photoelectric emission processes requires knowledge of the photoelectric yields of individual dust grains of astrophysical composition as opposed to the values obtained from measurements on flat surfaces of bulk materials, as it is generally assumed on theoretical considerations that the yields for the small grains are much different from the bulk values. We present laboratory measurements of the photoelectric yields of individual dust grains of silica, olivine, and graphite of approx. 0.09-5 micrometer radii levitated in an electrodynamic balance and illuminated with ultraviolet radiation at 120-160 nm wavelengths. The measured yields are found to be substantially higher than the bulk values given in the literature and indicate a size dependence with larger particles having order-of-magnitude higher values than for submicron-size grains.

  19. Photoelectric UBVRI sequences in the Galactic globular clusters NGC 6752 and NGC 6864

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alvarado, F.; Wenderoth, E.; Alcaino, G.; Liller, W.

    1990-01-01

    UBVRI photoelectric sequences for the Galactic globular clusters NGC 6752 and NGC 6864 are presented. Both of them include fields suitable for CCD exposures. From five UBV sequences in NGC 6572, only five stars are in common with the previous works. 15 refs

  20. Inventory Control: Construction of a Photoelectric Colorimeter and Application to Students' Experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuo, Tsutomu; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Presented is a photoelectric colorimeter which can be assembled by the student. Reports that it can do many of the same analyses as the SPEC 20 but at a greatly reduced cost using older technology. Presents several experiments to use with the colorimeter. (MVL)

  1. Thought waves remotely affect the performance (output voltage) of photoelectric cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Dayong; Cao, Daqing

    2012-02-01

    In our experiments, thought waves have been shown to be capable of changing (affecting) the output voltage of photovoltaic cells located from as far away as 1-3 meters. There are no wires between brain and photoelectric cell and so it is presumed only the thought waves act on the photoelectric cell. In continual rotations, the experiments tested different solar cells, measuring devices and lamps, and the experiments were done in different labs. The first experiment was conducted on Oct 2002. Tests are ongoing. Conclusions and assumptions include: 1) the slow thought wave has the energy of space-time as defined by C1.00007: The mass, energy, space and time systemic theory- MEST. Every process releases a field effect electrical vibration which be transmitted and focussed in particular paths; 2) the thought wave has the information of the order of tester; 3) the brain (with the physical system of MEST) and consciousness (with the spirit system of the mind, consciousness, emotion and desire-MECD) can produce the information (a part of them as the Genetic code); 4) through some algorithms such as ACO Ant Colony Optimization and EA Evolutionary Algorithm (or genetic algorithm) working in RAM, human can optimize the information. This Optimizational function is the intelligence; 5) In our experiments, not only can thought waves affect the voltage of the output photoelectric signals by its energy, but they can also selectively increase or decrease those photoelectric currents through remote consciousness interface and a conscious-brain information technology.

  2. One-step electrochemical synthesis and photoelectric conversion of a ZnO/Se/RGO composite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Lei; Zhang, Chunyan; Zhang, Shengyi; Niu, Helin; Song, Jiming; Mao, Changjie; Jin, Baokang; Tian, Yupeng

    2015-01-01

    Using Zn(NO 3 ) 2 , H 2 SeO 3 and graphene oxide as precursors, the zinc oxide/selenium/reduced graphene oxide (ZnO/Se/RGO) composite was facilely electrodeposited on the surface of indium tin oxide glass. The conditions for electrochemical synthesis such as electrodeposition potential and electrolyte composition were studied. The morphology and crystallization of the products as-prepared were characterized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and x-ray diffractometry (XRD) respectively. The light absorption and conductivity of the products were studied by UV-visible spectroscopy (UV-vis) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). Based on a series of experimental results, the photoelectrical conversion mechanism and effect factors of the products were explored. By means of synergistic action of n-type ZnO, p-type Se and conductive RGO, the ZnO/Se/RGO composite showed excellent photoelectric conversion under visible light irradiation. (paper)

  3. Functionalization of carbon nanotubes/graphene by polyoxometalates and their enhanced photo-electrical catalysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Shuang-Shuang; Liu Rong-Ji; Zhang Guang-Jin; Gu Zhan-Jun

    2014-01-01

    Carbon nanotubes and graphene are carbon-based materials, which possess not only unique structure but also properties such as high surface area, extraordinary mechanical properties, high electronic conductivity, and chemical stability. Thus, they have been regarded as an important material, especially for exploring a variety of complex catalysts. Considerable efforts have been made to functionalize and fabricate carbon-based composites with metal nanoparticles. In this review, we summarize the recent progress of our research on the decoration of carbon nanotubes/graphene with metal nanoparticles by using polyoxometalates as key agents, and their enhanced photo-electrical catalytic activities in various catalytic reactions. The polyoxometalates play a key role in constructing the nanohybrids and contributing to their photo-electrical catalytic properties. (invited review — international conference on nanoscience and technology, china 2013)

  4. Analysis on detection accuracy of binocular photoelectric instrument optical axis parallelism digital calibration instrument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ying, Jia-ju; Yin, Jian-ling; Wu, Dong-sheng; Liu, Jie; Chen, Yu-dan

    2017-11-01

    Low-light level night vision device and thermal infrared imaging binocular photoelectric instrument are used widely. The maladjustment of binocular instrument ocular axises parallelism will cause the observer the symptom such as dizziness, nausea, when use for a long time. Binocular photoelectric equipment digital calibration instrument is developed for detecting ocular axises parallelism. And the quantitative value of optical axis deviation can be quantitatively measured. As a testing instrument, the precision must be much higher than the standard of test instrument. Analyzes the factors that influence the accuracy of detection. Factors exist in each testing process link which affect the precision of the detecting instrument. They can be divided into two categories, one category is factors which directly affect the position of reticle image, the other category is factors which affect the calculation the center of reticle image. And the Synthesize error is calculated out. And further distribute the errors reasonably to ensure the accuracy of calibration instruments.

  5. Tunable photoelectric response in NiO-based heterostructures by various orientations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Yidong; Qiao, Lina; Zhang, Qinghua; Xu, Haomin; Shen, Yang; Lin, Yuanhua; Nan, Cewen

    2018-02-01

    We engineered various orientations of NiO layers for NiO-based heterostructures (NiO/Au/STO) to investigate their effects on the generation of hot electrons and holes. Our calculation and experimental results suggested that bandgap engineering and the orientation of the hole transport layer (NiO) were crucial elements for the optimization of photoelectric responses. The (100)-orientated NiO/Au/STO achieved the highest photo-current density (˜30 μA/cm2) compared with (111) and (110)-orientated NiO films, which was attributed to the (100) films's lowest effective mass of photogenerated holes (˜1.82 m0) and the highest efficiency of separating and transferring electron-holes of the (100)-orientated sample. Our results opened a direction to design a high efficiency photoelectric solar cell.

  6. Preparation and photoelectric properties of p-CaFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}/n-WO{sub 3} composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wan, Ruiqin; Jia, Caihong [Key Laboratory of Photovoltaic Materials of Henan Province and School of Physics and Electronics, Henan University, Kaifeng 475004 (China); Zhang, Weifeng, E-mail: wfzhang@henu.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Photovoltaic Materials of Henan Province and School of Physics and Electronics, Henan University, Kaifeng 475004 (China)

    2012-12-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Surface photovoltage spectroscopy investigation on p-CaFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}/n-WO{sub 3} composites. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The photovoltaic response is enhanced in p-CaFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}/n-WO{sub 3} composites. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The multielectron process and high rate of carrier migration in WO{sub 3}. - Abstract: Composites of p-CaFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}/n-WO{sub 3} are prepared via a sol-gel technique. Their structures and optical properties are characterized with X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and UV-vis absorption spectroscopy. The photoelectric characteristics are investigated by surface photovoltage spectroscopy combined with electric field induced surface photovoltage spectroscopy. The results indicate that CaFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} can well form a p-n type composite with WO{sub 3}, and the intensity and spectral region of surface photovoltaic response for the composites are strongly dependent on the molar ratio of two components. The enhancement in photoelectric properties and the effective separation of photogenerated carriers could be attributed to the energy level matching between the two components, multielectron process and the high migration rate in WO{sub 3}.

  7. Recordings of mucociliary activity in vivo: benefit of fast Fourier transformation of the photoelectric signal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindberg, S; Cervin, A; Runer, T; Thomasson, L

    1996-09-01

    Investigations of mucociliary activity in vivo are based on photoelectric recordings of light reflections from the mucosa. The alterations in light intensity produced by the beating cilia are picked up by a photodetector and converted to photoelectric signals. The optimal processing of these signals is not known, but in vitro recordings have been reported to benefit from fast Fourier transformation (FFT) of the signal. The aim of the investigation was to study the effect of FFT for frequency analysis of photoelectric signals originating from an artificial light source simulating mucociliary activity or from sinus or nasal mucosa in vivo, as compared to a conventional method of calculating mucociliary wave frequency, in which each peak in the signal is interpreted as a beat (old method). In the experiments with the artificial light source, the FFT system was superior to the conventional method by a factor of 50 in detecting weak signals. By using FFT signal processing, frequency could be correctly calculated in experiments with a compound signal. In experiments in the rabbit maxillary sinus, the spontaneous variations were greater when signals were processed by FFT. The correlation between the two methods was excellent: r = .92. The increase in mucociliary activity in response to the ciliary stimulant methacholine at a dosage of 0.5 microgram/kg was greater measured with the FFT than with the old method (55.3% +/- 8.3% versus 43.0% +/- 8.2%, p detected. In the human nose, recordings from aluminum foil placed on the nasal dorsum and from the nasal septa mucosa displayed some similarities in the lower frequency spectrum (light, the mean frequency in seven healthy volunteers being 7.8 +/- 1.6 Hz for the human nasal mucosa. It is concluded that the FFT system has greater sensitivity in detecting photoelectric signals derived from the mucociliary system, and that it is also a useful tool for analyzing the contributions of artifacts to the signal.

  8. CALiPER Report 22.1: Photoelectric Performance of LED MR16 Lamps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2015-08-31

    This report looks at the photoelectric performance of the same set of lamps assessed in Report 22, using commercially available transformers and dimmers as well as laboratory power supplies providing either AC or DC. The investigation explores several issues related to the testing and use of MR16 lamps in lighting systems and examines the range of performance that is possible for a given lamp model, based on the system to which it is connected.

  9. The AAVSO Photoelectric Photometry Program in its Scientific and Socio-Historic Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Percy, John R.

    2011-05-01

    Photoelectric photometry began in the 1900s through the work of Guthnick, Stebbins, and others who constructed and used photometers based on the recently-discovered photoelectric effect. The mid 20th century saw a confluence of several areas of amateur interest: astronomy, telescope making, radio and electronics, and general interest in space. This is the time when AAVSO photoelectric photometry (PEP) began, with observers using mostly hand-built photometers on hand-built telescopes. The 1980s brought a revolution: affordable off-the-shelf solid-state photometers, and infrastructure such as the International Amateur-Professional Photoelectric Photometry (IAPPP) conferences, books, and journal. The AAVSO developed a formal PEP program in the early 1980s. Its emphasis was on long-term monitoring of pulsating red giants. It was competing, not always successfully, with programs such as active sun-like binaries (RS CVn stars) which offered "instant gratification" in the form of publicity and quick publications. Nevertheless, the AAVSO PEP program has, through careful organization, motivation, and feedback to observers, produced extensive scientific results. In this presentation, I shall describe, as examples, my own work, its scientific significance, its educational benefit to dozens of my students, and its satisfaction to the observers. To some extent, the AAVSO PEP program has been superceded by its CCD program, but there is still a useful place for ongoing PEP observations of thousands of variable stars. Reference: http://www.aavso.org/sites/default/files/newsletter/PEP/lastpepnl.pdf Acknowledgements: I thank NSERC Canada for research support, my students, and AAVSO staff and observers, especially Howard Landis.

  10. Effect of XCOM photoelectric cross-sections on dosimetric quantities calculated with EGSnrc

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hobeila, F.; Seuntjens, J.P.

    2002-01-01

    The EGSnrc Monte-Carlo code system incorporates improved low energy photon physics such as atomic relaxations and the implementation of bound Compton cross-sections using the impulse approximation. The total cross-section for photoelectric absorption however, still relies on the data by Storm and Israel (S and I). Yet, low energy applications such as brachytherapy (e.g. 125 I) require up-to-date low-energy photoelectric cross-section data. In this paper, we study the dosimetric effects of a simple implementation of NIST XCOM-based photoelectric cross-sections in EGSnrc. This is done by calculating mass energy-absorption coefficients, absorbed dose from point sources, kilovoltage x-ray beams and ion chamber response. In the EGS code system, the PEGS4 routine reads the photoelectric and pair cross-sections for elements from a file (pgspepr.dat) and provides numerical fits for compounds which will be used by EGSnrc. We updated the photoelectric cross-sections of the pgspepr.dat file with the XCOM total photoelectric absorption cross-sections from NIST. After validation of this new implementation, we studied its effects on a number of dosimetrically relevant quantities. Firstly, we calculated mass energy-absorption coefficients by scoring energy transferred in a thin slab of water and air using the DOSRZnrc user code. Secondly, we calculated inverse-square corrected absorbed dose distributions from point sources in water by using an internally developed user code, KERNELph. Thirdly, we studied the differences in free-air ion chamber response calculations. Ion chamber response is defined as the dose to the cavity of an ionization chamber, D gas , positioned with its effective point of measurement at a reference point divided by air-kerma measured free-in-air at the same point. The ion chamber response was calculated using monoenergetic photon beams of energy 10 keV to 200 keV. The comparison of the Storm and Israel photoelectric cross-sections with the XCOM cross

  11. Study on Photoelectric Properties of Composite Films of Graphene/Ti02 Nanorods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JIN Guo-li

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available TiOZ nanorods have large specific surface area and the ability of directional transmission electron, based on which can reduce recombination probability of light-generated electrons and holes,and improve the photoelectric conversion efficiency of DSSC. As graphene has low resistivity,good stability and excellent transparency,it can be introduced into anode film to improve the electronic transmission. The TiOZ nanorods were prepared by hydrothermal method,mixed with different quality of graphene. Its length range was 200-300 nm,with a diameter of about 20 nm. The porous graphene/TiOZ nanorods composite film were prepared by using electro- hydrodynamic technique(EHDand compositing TiOZ nanorods with different quality of grapheme. The photoelectric conversion efficiency of the DSSC device prepared with the photo-anode film with graphene mass content of 3 % was 4. 23 %,the photoelectric conversion efficiency increased by 36%,relative to that of no graphene doped TiOZ nanorods photo-anode film.

  12. [A quick algorithm of dynamic spectrum photoelectric pulse wave detection based on LabVIEW].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Ling; Li, Na; Li, Gang

    2010-02-01

    Dynamic spectrum (DS) detection is attractive among the numerous noninvasive blood component detection methods because of the elimination of the main interference of the individual discrepancy and measure conditions. DS is a kind of spectrum extracted from the photoelectric pulse wave and closely relative to the artery blood. It can be used in a noninvasive blood component concentration examination. The key issues in DS detection are high detection precision and high operation speed. The precision of measure can be advanced by making use of over-sampling and lock-in amplifying on the pick-up of photoelectric pulse wave in DS detection. In the present paper, the theory expression formula of the over-sampling and lock-in amplifying method was deduced firstly. Then in order to overcome the problems of great data and excessive operation brought on by this technology, a quick algorithm based on LabVIEW and a method of using external C code applied in the pick-up of photoelectric pulse wave were presented. Experimental verification was conducted in the environment of LabVIEW. The results show that by the method pres ented, the speed of operation was promoted rapidly and the data memory was reduced largely.

  13. Titanium dioxide-coated fluorine-doped tin oxide thin films for improving overall photoelectric property

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Bao-jia; Huang, Li-jing; Ren, Nai-fei; Zhou, Ming

    2014-01-01

    Titanium (Ti) layers were deposited by direct current (DC) magnetron sputtering on commercial fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) glasses, followed by simultaneous oxidation and annealing treatment in a tubular furnace to prepare titanium dioxide (TiO 2 )/FTO bilayer films. Large and densely arranged grains were observed on all TiO 2 /FTO bilayer films. The presence of TiO 2 tetragonal rutile phase in the TiO 2 /FTO bilayer films was confirmed by X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis. The results of parameter optimization indicated that the TiO 2 /FTO bilayer film, which was formed by adopting a temperature of 400 °C and an oxygen flow rate of 15 sccm, had the optimal overall photoelectric property with a figure of merit of 2.30 × 10 −2 Ω −1 , higher than 1.78 × 10 −2 Ω −1 for the FTO single-layer film. After coating a 500 nm-thick AZO layer by DC magnetron sputtering on this TiO 2 /FTO bilayer film, the figure of merit of the trilayer film achieved to a higher figure of merit of 3.12 × 10 −2 Ω −1 , indicating further improvement of the overall photoelectric property. This work may provide a scientific basis and reference for improving overall photoelectric property of transparent conducting oxide (TCO) films.

  14. Magnetron sputtering fabrication and photoelectric properties of WSe2 film solar cell device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Xu; Zou, Jianpeng; Li, Hongchao; Song, Zhengqi; He, Siru

    2018-06-01

    Tungsten diselenide (WSe2) films with different growing orientations exhibit diverse photoelectric properties. The WSe2 film with C-axis⊥substrate texture has been prepared and applied to thin-film solar cells. W nanofilms with a thickness of 270 nm were deposited onto the Mo bottom electrode and then heat-treated in selenium vapor to synthesize WSe2 films with a thickness of 1 μm. ZnO films were deposited onto WSe2 films to form a P-N junction and ITO films were deposited subsequently as the conductive layer. X-ray diffractometry, scanning electron microscopy and UV-vis-NIR spectro-analysis instrument were employed to analyze the phase composition, optical absorptivity and micromorphology of WSe2 films and the WSe2 solar cell device. WSe2 films exhibit excellent photoelectric performance with an optical absorption coefficient greater than 105 cm-1 across the visible spectrum. The calculated direct and indirect band gap of the WSe2 films is 1.48 eV and 1.25 eV, respectively. With the application of standard glass/Mo/WSe2/ZnO/ITO/Ag device structure, the open-circuit voltage of the battery device is 82 mV. The short-circuit current density is 2.98 mA/cm2 and the filling factor is 0.32. The photoelectric conversion efficiency of the WSe2 film solar cell device is 0.79%.

  15. Photoelectric conversion properties of electrochemically codeposited graphene oxide–ZnO nanocomposite films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Yiming; Wang, Dian; Li, Wenyou [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Tongji University, Shanghai, 201804 (China); He, Yunqiu, E-mail: heyunqiu@tongji.edu.cn [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Tongji University, Shanghai, 201804 (China); Key Laboratory of Advanced Civil Engineering Materials, Ministry of Education, Shanghai, 201804 (China)

    2015-11-05

    Graphene oxide (GO)–ZnO nanocomposite films were synthesized on Fluorine doped Tin Oxide (FTO) coated glasses by electrochemical codeposition. The films have a laminated architecture with GO and ZnO alternate layers arranged basically parallel to the substrate. The structures of the composites were characterized using XRD, FE-SEM, FT-IR, XPS, Raman, UV–visible, and electrochemical cyclic voltammetry analyses. The results showed that by increasing Zn:C ratio of the suspensions, there is a series of structural evolutions of the composites, and the percentages of the C–O bonds of GO in the composites decreased. The decreased C–O bonds of GO indicate an increase in the reduction degree of GO, with which its energy gap varies from 1.99 eV to 0.89 eV. Moreover, the energy levels of GO and ZnO in the composites were determined. The results of photoelectrochemical measurements of the films indicated the feasibility of using GO in photoelectric conversion as photoabsorbers. A preliminary study on the relationship between the changes in the photocurrent and the structure of the films has provided clues for further studies on improving the photoelectric conversion properties. - Highlights: • Graphene Oxide–ZnO nanocomposite films were obtained by electrochemical codeposition. • The structure of GO varies with the Zn:C ratio of the depositing suspensions. • The feasibility of using GO as photoabsorbers for photoelectric conversion was verified.

  16. Titanium dioxide-coated fluorine-doped tin oxide thin films for improving overall photoelectric property

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Bao-jia, E-mail: bjia_li@126.com [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang 212013 (China); Jiangsu Provincial Key Laboratory of Center for Photon Manufacturing Science and Technology, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang 212013 (China); Huang, Li-jing [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang 212013 (China); Jiangsu Provincial Key Laboratory of Center for Photon Manufacturing Science and Technology, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang 212013 (China); Ren, Nai-fei [Jiangsu Provincial Key Laboratory of Center for Photon Manufacturing Science and Technology, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang 212013 (China); School of Mechanical Engineering, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang 212013 (China); Zhou, Ming [The State Key Laboratory of Tribology, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China)

    2014-01-30

    Titanium (Ti) layers were deposited by direct current (DC) magnetron sputtering on commercial fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) glasses, followed by simultaneous oxidation and annealing treatment in a tubular furnace to prepare titanium dioxide (TiO{sub 2})/FTO bilayer films. Large and densely arranged grains were observed on all TiO{sub 2}/FTO bilayer films. The presence of TiO{sub 2} tetragonal rutile phase in the TiO{sub 2}/FTO bilayer films was confirmed by X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis. The results of parameter optimization indicated that the TiO{sub 2}/FTO bilayer film, which was formed by adopting a temperature of 400 °C and an oxygen flow rate of 15 sccm, had the optimal overall photoelectric property with a figure of merit of 2.30 × 10{sup −2} Ω{sup −1}, higher than 1.78 × 10{sup −2} Ω{sup −1} for the FTO single-layer film. After coating a 500 nm-thick AZO layer by DC magnetron sputtering on this TiO{sub 2}/FTO bilayer film, the figure of merit of the trilayer film achieved to a higher figure of merit of 3.12 × 10{sup −2} Ω{sup −1}, indicating further improvement of the overall photoelectric property. This work may provide a scientific basis and reference for improving overall photoelectric property of transparent conducting oxide (TCO) films.

  17. Some results concerning the external photoelectric effect and secondary emission; Quelques resultats sur l'effet photoelectrique externe et l'emission secondaire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lenouvel, F [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires; Ecole normale superieure, 75 - Paris (France)

    1967-01-01

    The characteristics and limiting possibilities of the various constituent parts of a photoelectric detector are considered. Two methods for illuminating the cathode are described and discussed. The few scattered results concerning the maximum output of cathodes and dynodes are collected together and a tentative explanation is put forward. A comparison is made of three methods for measuring very low light fluxes. (author) [French] Nous degageons les caracteristiques et les possibilites limites des divers elements constitutifs d'un detecteur photoelectrique. Deux solutions d'illumination de la cathode sont decrites et discutees. Les quelques resultats epars sur la limite de debit des cathodes et des dynodes sont rassembles et une interpretation provisoire est esquissee. Trois moyens de mesure des tres faibles flux lumineux sont compares. (auteur)

  18. Instability of a double layer and initiation of a photoelectric gas discharge by UV radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meshalkin, E.A.

    1991-01-01

    At the present time there is no theory or systematic experiments for the conversion of the energy of vacuum uv radiation into current energy in connection with the photoelectric effect in gases. The aim in this work was to study the process by which an SCL is established and to obtain a gas discharge associated with photoemission (a photoelectric gas discharge), similar to the gas discharge in thermal-emission converters, in order to transform optical energy into electrical current. The development of a space-charge layer (SCL) is studied when a metallic target in air or nitrogen at a pressure in the range 10 -3 -10 torr is subjected to UV radiation. A laser plasma was used as the source of the UV radiation, modulated in intensity at a frequency of 75 MHz. It was found that after a period of development in the course of which the potential difference across the SCL can reach 185 V, it drops abruptly. This effect is due to an instability of the SCL which arises because the pressure of the electron gas in the background plasma exceeds the confining pressure of the electric field which penetrates from SCL into the plasma. A photoelectric arc discharge was observed in which the energy of the UV radiation was converted into current energy with an efficiency ∼ 1%. The current was found to be 3.1 A and the power in the load was 10W. Because of the threshold for the occurrence of the instability in the SCL, the potential drop across the SCL could be completely modulated at a frequency of 75 MHz. The amplitude of the HF current reached 0.3 A

  19. Exploration on practice teaching reform of Photoelectric Image Processing course under applied transformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Binfang; Li, Xiaoqin; Liu, Changqing; Li, Jianqi

    2017-08-01

    With the further applied transformation of local colleges, teachers are urgently needed to make corresponding changes in the teaching content and methods from different courses. The article discusses practice teaching reform of the Photoelectric Image Processing course in the Optoelectronic Information Science and Engineering major. The Digital Signal Processing (DSP) platform is introduced to the experimental teaching. It will mobilize and inspire students and also enhance their learning motivation and innovation through specific examples. The course via teaching practice process has become the most popular course among students, which will further drive students' enthusiasm and confidence to participate in all kinds of electronic competitions.

  20. Gamma radiation effects on photorefractive and photoelectric properties of lithium niobate crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vartanyan, Eh.S.; Ovsepyan, R.K.; Pogosyan, A.R.; Timofeev, A.L.

    1984-08-01

    Investigations into the gamma radiation effect on the photorefractive aned photoelectric properties of lithium niobate crystals have been carried out for the first time. Gamma irradiation has been found to lead to an increase in the photorefractive sensitivity. The effect of optical decoloration has been discovered for the first time along with photorelaxation currents resulting from radiation center decay under the action of light. It has been shown that an increase of photorefractive sensitivity in gamma-irradiated lithium niobate crystals is caused by a new photorefraction mechanism - photorelaxation currents.

  1. Relative L-shell photoelectric cross-section measurements in W, Pb and U

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arora, S K; Allawadhi, K L; Sood, B S [Punjabi Univ., Patiala (India). Nuclear Science Labs.

    1981-06-01

    Measurements of L-shell photoelectric cross sections in W, Pb and U at K X-ray energies of Nb, Mo, Ag, In, Sn, I, Ba, Ce, Gd and Er have been made. The method yields relative cross sections and is, therefore, simpler and more accurate than those giving absolute values. The problems arising due to the non-monochromatic character of incident and emitted X-rays in the targets have been investigated. The present results show a fairly good agreement with the theoretical predicitions.

  2. Synthesis of Water-Soluble Antimony Sulfide Quantum Dots and Their Photoelectric Properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Jiang; Yan, Xuelian; Cheng, Jiang

    2018-01-15

    Antimony sulfide (Sb 2 S 3 ) has been applied in photoelectric devices for a long time. However, there was lack of information about Sb 2 S 3 quantum dots (QDs) because of the synthesis difficulties. To fill this vacancy, water-soluble Sb 2 S 3 QDs were prepared by hot injection using hexadecyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) and sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) mixture as anionic-cationic surfactant, alkanol amide (DEA) as stabilizer, and ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) as dispersant. Photoelectric properties including absorbing and emission were characterized by UV-Vis-IR spectrophotometer and photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopic technique. An intensive PL emission at 880 nm was found, indicating Sb 2 S 3 QDs have good prospects in near-infrared LED and near-infrared laser application. Sb 2 S 3 QD thin films were prepared by self-assembly growth and then annealed in argon or selenium vapor. Their band gaps (E g s) were calculated according to transmittance spectra. The E g of Sb 2 S 3 QD thin film has been found to be tunable from 1.82 to 1.09 eV via annealing or selenylation, demonstrating the good prospects in photovoltaic application.

  3. Electron track reconstruction and improved modulation for photoelectric X-ray polarimetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Tenglin [Department of Engineering Physics, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Key Laboratory of Particle & Radiation Imaging (Tsinghua University), Ministry of Education (China); Zeng, Ming, E-mail: zengming@tsinghua.edu.cn [Department of Engineering Physics, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Key Laboratory of Particle & Radiation Imaging (Tsinghua University), Ministry of Education (China); Feng, Hua [Department of Engineering Physics, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Key Laboratory of Particle & Radiation Imaging (Tsinghua University), Ministry of Education (China); Center for Astrophysics, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Cang, Jirong [Department of Engineering Physics, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Key Laboratory of Particle & Radiation Imaging (Tsinghua University), Ministry of Education (China); Li, Hong; Zhang, Heng [Department of Engineering Physics, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Key Laboratory of Particle & Radiation Imaging (Tsinghua University), Ministry of Education (China); Center for Astrophysics, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Zeng, Zhi; Cheng, Jianping; Ma, Hao; Liu, Yinong [Department of Engineering Physics, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Key Laboratory of Particle & Radiation Imaging (Tsinghua University), Ministry of Education (China)

    2017-06-21

    The key to photoelectric X-ray polarimetry is the determination of the emission direction of photoelectrons. Because of the low mass of an electron, the ionisation trajectory is not straight and the useful information needed for polarimetry is stored mostly in the initial part of the track where less energy is deposited. We present a new algorithm, based on the shortest path problem in graph theory, to reconstruct the 2D electron track from the measured image that is blurred due to transversal diffusion along drift and multiplication in the gas chamber. Compared with previous methods based on moment analysis, this algorithm allows us to identify the photoelectric interaction point more accurately and precisely for complicated tracks resulting from high energy photons or low pressure chambers. This leads to a better position resolution and a higher degree of modulation toward high energy X-rays. The new algorithm is justified using simulations and measurements with the gas pixel detector (GPD), and it should also work for other polarimetric techniques such as a time projection chamber (TPC). As the improvement is restricted in the high energy band, this new algorithm shows limited improvement for the sensitivity of GPD polarimeters, but it may have a larger potential for low-pressure TPC polarimeters.

  4. Photoelectric Properties of Si Doping Superlattice Structure on 6H-SiC(0001).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Lianbi; Zang, Yuan; Hu, Jichao; Lin, Shenghuang; Chen, Zhiming

    2017-05-25

    The energy-band structure and visible photoelectric properties of a p/n-Si doping superlattice structure (DSL) on 6H-SiC were simulated by Silvaco-TCAD. The,n the Si-DSL structures with 40 nm-p-Si/50 nm-n-Si multilayers were successfully prepared on 6H-SiC(0001) Si-face by chemical vapor deposition. TEM characterizations of the p/n-Si DSL confirmed the epitaxial growth of the Si films with preferred orientation and the misfit dislocations with a Burgers vector of 1/3 at the p-Si/n-Si interface. The device had an obvious rectifying behavior, and the turn-on voltage was about 1.2 V. Under the visible illumination of 0.6 W/cm², the device demonstrated a significant photoelectric response with a photocurrent density of 2.1 mA/cm². Visible light operation of the Si-DSL/6H-SiC heterostructure was realized for the first time.

  5. Photoelectric Properties of Si Doping Superlattice Structure on 6H-SiC(0001

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lianbi Li

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The energy-band structure and visible photoelectric properties of a p/n-Si doping superlattice structure (DSL on 6H-SiC were simulated by Silvaco-TCAD. The,n the Si-DSL structures with 40 nm-p-Si/50 nm-n-Si multilayers were successfully prepared on 6H-SiC(0001 Si-face by chemical vapor deposition. TEM characterizations of the p/n-Si DSL confirmed the epitaxial growth of the Si films with preferred orientation and the misfit dislocations with a Burgers vector of 1/3 <21-1> at the p-Si/n-Si interface. The device had an obvious rectifying behavior, and the turn-on voltage was about 1.2 V. Under the visible illumination of 0.6 W/cm2, the device demonstrated a significant photoelectric response with a photocurrent density of 2.1 mA/cm2. Visible light operation of the Si-DSL/6H-SiC heterostructure was realized for the first time.

  6. Experimental investigation on photoelectric properties of ZAO thin film deposited on flexible substrate by magnetron sputtering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hao, Ming [School of Mechanical Engineering and Automation, Northeastern University, 3-11 WenHua Rd., 319#, Shenyang, 110004 (China); Liu, Kun, E-mail: kliu@mail.neu.edu.cn [School of Mechanical Engineering and Automation, Northeastern University, 3-11 WenHua Rd., 319#, Shenyang, 110004 (China); Liu, Xinghua [Hubei Aerospace Industry Technology Academe Special Vehicle Technology Center, Wuhan (China); Wang, Dongyang; Ba, Dechun; Xie, Yuanhua; Du, Guangyu; Ba, Yaoshuai [School of Mechanical Engineering and Automation, Northeastern University, 3-11 WenHua Rd., 319#, Shenyang, 110004 (China)

    2016-12-01

    Highlights: • ZAO thin films were deposited on PET substrate. • A set of experimental parameters were systematically investigated. • Change rule of film photoelectric properties was obtained. • ZAO films with optimal properties were obtained at our working conditions. - Abstract: Transparent conductive ZAO (Zinc Aluminum Oxide) films on flexible substrates have a great potential for low-cost mass-production solar cells. ZAO thin films were achieved on flexible PET (polyethylene terephthalate) substrates by RF magnetron sputtering technology. The surface morphology and element content, the transmittance and the sheet resistance of the films were measured to determine the optical process parameters. The results show that the ZAO thin film shows the best parameters in terms of photoelectric performance including sputtering power, working pressure, sputtering time, substrate temperature (100 W, 1.5 Pa, 60 min, 125 °C). The sheet resistance of 510 Ω and transmittance in visible region of 92% were obtained after characterization. Surface morphology was uniform and compact with a good crystal grain.

  7. Experimental investigation on photoelectric properties of ZAO thin film deposited on flexible substrate by magnetron sputtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hao, Ming; Liu, Kun; Liu, Xinghua; Wang, Dongyang; Ba, Dechun; Xie, Yuanhua; Du, Guangyu; Ba, Yaoshuai

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • ZAO thin films were deposited on PET substrate. • A set of experimental parameters were systematically investigated. • Change rule of film photoelectric properties was obtained. • ZAO films with optimal properties were obtained at our working conditions. - Abstract: Transparent conductive ZAO (Zinc Aluminum Oxide) films on flexible substrates have a great potential for low-cost mass-production solar cells. ZAO thin films were achieved on flexible PET (polyethylene terephthalate) substrates by RF magnetron sputtering technology. The surface morphology and element content, the transmittance and the sheet resistance of the films were measured to determine the optical process parameters. The results show that the ZAO thin film shows the best parameters in terms of photoelectric performance including sputtering power, working pressure, sputtering time, substrate temperature (100 W, 1.5 Pa, 60 min, 125 °C). The sheet resistance of 510 Ω and transmittance in visible region of 92% were obtained after characterization. Surface morphology was uniform and compact with a good crystal grain.

  8. The effect of Phet Simulation media for physics teacher candidate understanding on photoelectric effect concept

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Supurwoko Supurwoko

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Indonesian new Curriculum for senior high school students required student-centered learning. One of the curriculum implementation constraint was the difficulty of providing learning media. PhET simulations media is one of the options that can help implementation of new curriculum on learning. However, the use of this media in Indonesia still needs to be studied comprehensively. The learning was conducted on students of physics education Study Program in sebelas maret university in 2013. The sample consisted of 62 students that was taking quantum physics course. The method that was used in the research was descriptive qualitative.  The method that was used in learning was demonstration’s method that used PhET media and accompanied by a question and answer and groups discussion. The data was collected using multiple choice test and interview through email. We found that any students still did not understand about photoelectric effect concept. They were confused when asked about the thick material and cross section of the targets as related with the regardless of electrons in the photoelectric effect event. Other than that, the concept of the waves as a particle and its relation with the kinetic energy of the electrons was not understood by most students.

  9. Optical and photoelectric properties of nanolamellar structures obtained by thermal annealing of InSe plates in Zn vapours

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Untila, Dumitru; Evtodiev, Igor [Faculty of Physics and Engineering, Moldova State University, Chisinau (Moldova, Republic of); Ghitu Institute of Electronic Engineering and Nanotechnologies, Academy of Sciences of Moldova, Chisinau (Moldova, Republic of); Caraman, Iuliana [Engineering Department ' ' Vasile Alecsandri' ' , University of Bacau (Romania); Spalatu, Nicolae [Department of Materials Science, Tallinn University of Technology (Estonia); Dmitroglo, Liliana; Caraman, Mihail [Faculty of Physics and Engineering, Moldova State University, Chisinau (Moldova, Republic of)

    2018-02-15

    The structural, optical and photoelectric properties of InSe crystals grown by Bridgman-Stockbarger method and ZnSe/InSe structures obtained on InSe by thermal annealing in Zn vapours are studied in this paper. The study of structural properties confirms that ZnSe compound is formed. The analysis of photoelectric properties reveal that both the ZnSe-InSe composite layer and the composite/InSe heterojunction are photosensitive in the VIS-NIR spectral region. (copyright 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  10. A spatially resolved study of photoelectric heating and [C II] cooling in the LMC Comparison with dust emission as seen by SAGE

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rubin, D.; Hony, S.; Madden, S. C.; Tielens, A. G. G. M.; Meixner, M.; Indebetouw, R.; Reach, W.; Ginsburg, A.; Kim, S.; Mochizuki, K.; Babler, B.; Block, M.; Bracker, S. B.; Engelbracht, C. W.; For, B. -Q.; Gordon, K.; Hora, J. L.; Leitherer, C.; Meade, M.; Misselt, K.; Sewilo, M.; Vijh, U.; Whitney, B.

    Context. Photoelectric heating is a dominant heating mechanism for many phases of the interstellar medium. We study this mechanism throughout the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC). Aims. We aim to quantify the importance of the [C II] cooling line and the photoelectric heating process of various

  11. Favorable ultraviolet photoelectric effects in TbMnO3/Nb-SrTiO3 heterostructures

    KAUST Repository

    Jin, Kexin; Zhai, Y. X.; Li, Hui; Tian, Y. F.; Luo, B. C.; Wu, Tao

    2014-01-01

    The rectifying properties and ultraviolet photoelectric effects in TbMnO3/Nb-doped SrTiO3 heterostructures have been investigated. The ideality factors and the diffusion voltages obtained from the current-voltage curves nonlinearly decrease

  12. Size-controllable synthesis of hierarchical copper carbodiimide microcrystals and their pronounced photoelectric response under visible light

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Qihui [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Shanghai Institute of Technology, Shanghai 201418 (China); Liu, Yufeng, E-mail: yfliu@mail.sitp.ac.cn [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Shanghai Institute of Technology, Shanghai 201418 (China); Dai, Guozhang [Hunan Key Laboratory for Super-microstructure and Ultrafast Process, School of Physics and Electronics, Central South University, Changsha, Hunan 410083 (China); Tian, Li [College of Electrical and Information Engineering, Hunan Institute of Engineering, Xiangtan 411101 (China); Xu, Jiayue; Zhao, Guoying; Zhang, Na; Fang, Yongzheng [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Shanghai Institute of Technology, Shanghai 201418 (China)

    2015-12-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • A controllably aqueous method was presented to synthesize two types of CuNCN microcrystals (MCs) at room temperature. • The size and nanostructure can be tuned via controlling the ratio of [NH{sub 3}]/[Cu{sup +}]. • Moreover, prounounced photoelectric response of the as-prepared CuNCN was observed for the first time under the irradiation of visible light at room temperature. • The aqueous synthetic route can provide an inspiration to acquire the other metal carbodiimides nano/microcrystals without the aid of reducing agents. - Abstract: Similar to cupric oxides and sulfides, the nitrogen-containing analogue copper carbodiimide (CuNCN) is considered as a potentially promising photoelectric material. However, there is lack of fundamental investigations on controllable synthesis and photoelectric properties of CuNCN nano/microcrystals. Herein, a facile method was developed to synthesize high-quality CuNCN semiconductor microcrystals with different sizes and hierarchical nanostructures at room temperature. This reaction was carried out in aqueous solutions, avoiding the involvement of non-aqueous solutions and high temperature solid phase reaction during the synthesis of CuNCN microcrystals. Photoelectric response of as-prepared CuNCN microcrystals was first observed under the irradiation of visible light at room temperature. The aqueous synthetic route can also provide an inspiration to acquire other metal carbodiimides nano/microcrystals.

  13. The vectorial photoelectric effect under solar irradiance and its application to sun sensing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hechenblaikner, Gerald; Ziegler, Tobias

    2014-01-01

    Sun sensors are an integral part of the attitude and orbit control system onboard almost any spacecraft. While the majority of standard analogue sun sensors is based on photo-detectors which produce photo-currents proportional to the cosine of the incidence angle (cosine detectors), we propose an alternative scheme where the vectorial photoelectric effect is exploited to achieve a higher sensitivity of the sensed photo-current to the incidence angle. The vectorial photo-effect is investigated in detail for metal cathode detectors in a space environment. Besides long operational lifetimes without significant degradation, metal cathode detectors are insensitive to earth albedo, which may significantly reduce the errors affecting attitude measurements in low earth orbits. Sensitivity curves are calculated and trade-offs performed with the aim of optimizing the sensitivity whilst also providing currents sufficient for detection. Simple applications and detector configurations are also discussed and compared to the existing designs. (paper)

  14. Validation of cross sections for Monte Carlo simulation of the photoelectric effect

    CERN Document Server

    Han, Min Cheol; Pia, Maria Grazia; Basaglia, Tullio; Batic, Matej; Hoff, Gabriela; Kim, Chan Hyeong; Saracco, Paolo

    2016-01-01

    Several total and partial photoionization cross section calculations, based on both theoretical and empirical approaches, are quantitatively evaluated with statistical analyses using a large collection of experimental data retrieved from the literature to identify the state of the art for modeling the photoelectric effect in Monte Carlo particle transport. Some of the examined cross section models are available in general purpose Monte Carlo systems, while others have been implemented and subjected to validation tests for the first time to estimate whether they could improve the accuracy of particle transport codes. The validation process identifies Scofield's 1973 non-relativistic calculations, tabulated in the Evaluated Photon Data Library(EPDL), as the one best reproducing experimental measurements of total cross sections. Specialized total cross section models, some of which derive from more recent calculations, do not provide significant improvements. Scofield's non-relativistic calculations are not surp...

  15. Deconvolving the temporal response of photoelectric x-ray detectors for the diagnosis of pulsed radiations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zou, Shiyang; Song, Peng; Pei, Wenbing; Guo, Liang

    2013-01-01

    Based on the conjugate gradient method, a simple algorithm is presented for deconvolving the temporal response of photoelectric x-ray detectors (XRDs) to reconstruct the resolved time-dependent x-ray fluxes. With this algorithm, we have studied the impact of temporal response of XRD on the radiation diagnosis of hohlraum heated by a short intense laser pulse. It is found that the limiting temporal response of XRD not only postpones the rising edge and peak position of x-ray pulses but also smoothes the possible fluctuations of radiation fluxes. Without a proper consideration of the temporal response of XRD, the measured radiation flux can be largely misinterpreted for radiation pulses of a hohlraum heated by short or shaped laser pulses

  16. Sliding mode control of photoelectric tracking platform based on the inverse system method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yao Zong Chen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to improve the photoelectric tracking platform tracking performance, an integral sliding mode control strategy based on inverse system decoupling method is proposed. The electromechanical dynamic model is established based on multi-body system theory and Newton-Euler method. The coupled multi-input multi-output (MIMO nonlinear system is transformed into two pseudo-linear single-input single-output (SISO subsystems based on the inverse system method. An integral sliding mode control scheme is designed for the decoupled pseudo-linear system. In order to eliminate system chattering phenomenon caused by traditional sign function in sliding-mode controller, the sign function is replaced by the Sigmoid function. Simulation results show that the proposed decoupling method and the control strategy can restrain the influences of internal coupling and disturbance effectively, and has better robustness and higher tracking accuracy.

  17. Photoelectrical Properties and Energetical Structure of Thin Films of Indandione Derivatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maira INDRIKOVA

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available A sandwich type structure of two dimetilaminobenziliden-1,3-indandione (DMABI derivatives placed between metal electrodes was made to investigate the photoelectrical properties of these derivatives. DMABI is an organic isolator with a wide energy gap and high quantum efficiency of the photogeneration, DMABI derivatives have received also considerable attention because of its large dipole moment and optical nonlinearities. Besides, since it is a photosensitive material, its use in solar systems is very promising. The energy gap of each material and combined system was observed from the spectral dependence of the quantum efficiency of the photoconductivity and results are compared with results of oxidation and reduction potential of the materials. The values showed a good correlation between experimental data of the photoconductivity and voltamperometry and calculated data of the HOMO and LUMO levels of the molecules.http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.ms.17.2.480

  18. Photoelectrical stimulation of neuronal cells by an organic semiconductor-electrolyte Interface

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abdullaeva, Oliya S.; Schulz, Matthias; Balzer, Frank

    2016-01-01

    As a step toward the realization of neuroprosthetics for vision restoration, we follow an electrophysiological patch-clamp approach to study the fundamental photoelectrical stimulation mechanism of neuronal model cells by an organic semiconductor–electrolyte interface. Our photoactive layer...... consisting of an anilino-squaraine donor blended with a fullerene acceptor is supporting the growth of the neuronal model cell line (N2A cells) without an adhesion layer on it and is not impairing cell viability. The transient photocurrent signal upon illumination from the semiconductor–electrolyte layer....... Furthermore, we characterize the morphology of the semiconductor–electrolyte interface by atomic force microscopy and study the stability of the interface in dark and under illuminated conditions....

  19. CALiPER Report 22.1: Photoelectric Performance of LED MR16 Lamps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Royer, Michael P. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Poplawski, Michael E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Brown, Charles C. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Merzouk, Massine B. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-09-01

    This report is a follow-up to CALiPER Application Summary Report 22, which investigated the photometric performance of LED MR16 lamps. The initial report found that many of the LED MR16 lamps did not perform as required by ENERGY STAR based on their equivalency claims, although they generally did provide substantial efficacy advantages compared to halogen MR16 lamps. All testing was completed using laboratory power supplies, with all but one product tested at 12 V AC. In contrast, this report examined the photoelectric performance of the same set of lamps, using commercially available transformers and dimmers as well as laboratory power supplies providing both AC and DC power.

  20. Synthesis of GeSe2 Nanobelts Using Thermal Evaporation and Their Photoelectrical Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lijie Zhang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available GeSe2 nanobelts were synthesized via a simple thermal-evaporation process by using gold particles as catalyst and GeSe2 flakes as starting materials. The morphology, crystal structure, and composition were characterized with scanning electron microscopy (SEM, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (TEM, X-ray diffraction spectroscopy (XRD, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS, and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS. SEM micrographs show that most of GeSe2 nanobelts have distinct segmented structures (wide belt, zigzag belt, and narrow belt. A possible mechanism was proposed for the growth of segmented nanobelts. It is possible that the growth of the segmented nanobelts is dominated by both vapor-liquid-solid and vapor-solid mechanisms. Devices made of single GeSe2 nanobelt have been fabricated and their photoelectrical property has been investigated. Results indicate that these nanobelt devices are potential building blocks for optoelectronic applications.

  1. Theory of the photoelectric effect assisted by an elliptically polarized laser field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Shumin; Jentschura, Ulrich D

    2009-01-01

    The laser-assisted photoelectric effect in atomic hydrogen is investigated for linear, circular and general elliptic polarizations. The perturbative dressed state of the atom in an elliptically polarized nonresonant laser field is derived in the velocity gauge. The continuum state of the ejected electron is described by a Coulomb-Volkov wavefunction. Numerical results show that the ionization cross section by a vacuum ultraviolet photon is enhanced at high laser field intensities and low frequencies. At small and extremely large scattering angles (measured with respect to the wave vector of the incoming vacuum ultraviolet photon), the process for emitting a laser photon is predominant, while at medium angles, the result favours the process without a laser photon exchange. The dependence of the results on the laser polarization and on various geometries is studied, and an interesting pattern is found for the dependence on the frequency of the dressing laser; an intuitive explanation is offered.

  2. Electromagnetic Spectrum Analysis and Its Influence on the Photoelectric Conversion Efficiency of Solar Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Kexiang; Ding, Enjie; Wangyang, Peihua; Wang, Qingkang

    2016-06-01

    The electromagnetic spectrum and the photoelectric conversion efficiency of the silicon hexagonal nanoconical hole (SiHNH) arrays based solar cells is systematically analyzed according to Rigorous Coupled Wave Analysis (RCWA) and Modal Transmission Line (MTL) theory. An ultimate efficiency of the optimized SiHNH arrays based solar cell is up to 31.92% in consideration of the absorption spectrum, 4.52% higher than that of silicon hexagonal nanoconical frustum (SiHNF) arrays. The absorption enhancement of the SiHNH arrays is due to its lower reflectance and more supported guided-mode resonances, and the enhanced ultimate efficiency is insensitive to bottom diameter (D(bot)) of nanoconical hole and the incident angle. The result provides an additional guideline for the nanostructure surface texturing fabrication design for photovoltaic applications.

  3. Electrical, optical and photoelectric properties of cadmium sulfide monocrystals doped by indium and irradiated by electrons

    CERN Document Server

    Davidyuk, G E; Manzhara, V S

    2002-01-01

    One studied effect of irradiation by E = 1.2 MeV energy and PHI = 2 x 10 sup 1 sup 7 cm sup - sup 2 dose fast electrons on electrical, optical and photoelectrical CdS single-crystals doped by In. On the basis of analysis of the experimental results one makes conclusions about decomposition and, in this case, indium atoms occurring in cation sublattice nodes are knocked out by cadmium atoms. In CdS:In irradiated specimens one detected new centres of slow recombination with occurrence of maximums of photoconductivity optical suppression within lambda sub M sub sub 1 = 0.75 mu m and lambda sub M sub sub 2 = 1.03 mu m range. It is assumed that complexes containing cadmium vacancies and indium atoms are responsible for recombination new centres

  4. Experimental investigation on photoelectric properties of ZAO thin film deposited on flexible substrate by magnetron sputtering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Ming; Liu, Kun; Liu, Xinghua; Wang, Dongyang; Ba, Dechun; Xie, Yuanhua; Du, Guangyu; Ba, Yaoshuai

    2016-12-01

    Transparent conductive ZAO (Zinc Aluminum Oxide) films on flexible substrates have a great potential for low-cost mass-production solar cells. ZAO thin films were achieved on flexible PET (polyethylene terephthalate) substrates by RF magnetron sputtering technology. The surface morphology and element content, the transmittance and the sheet resistance of the films were measured to determine the optical process parameters. The results show that the ZAO thin film shows the best parameters in terms of photoelectric performance including sputtering power, working pressure, sputtering time, substrate temperature (100 W, 1.5 Pa, 60 min, 125 °C). The sheet resistance of 510 Ω and transmittance in visible region of 92% were obtained after characterization. Surface morphology was uniform and compact with a good crystal grain.

  5. Photoelectric effect experiment for understanding the concept of quantization of radiation energy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeimy Gerardine Berrios Saavedra

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This study forms part of research on the teaching of physics. The question that directed it was: How a proposed classroom, based on the photoelectric effect experiment helps pres-service teachers of physics of the Universidad Pedagógica Nacional to expand their understanding of the concept of quantization energy of radiation? The construction of the theoretical framework developed on the one hand, with scientific ideas about the quantization of energy, and moreover, with the educational proposals of teaching for understanding. This pedagogical approach was guided by the investigative gaze of the study methodology based on design, taking as main element the use of learning tools such as the task to Predict, Experiment and Explain (PEE. It was found that these tasks fomented the initial understandings of students about the concept, while they enriched and transformed progressively their models and scientific ideas, promoting aspects of scientific work in developing curiosity, imagination and motivation.

  6. Laser-assisted preparation and photoelectric properties of grating-structured Pt/FTO thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ren, Nai-fei, E-mail: rnf_ujs@126.com [School of Mechanical Engineering, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang 212013 (China); Jiangsu Provincial Key Laboratory of Center for Photon Manufacturing Science and Technology, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang 212013 (China); Huang, Li-jing, E-mail: lij_huang@126.com [Jiangsu Provincial Key Laboratory of Center for Photon Manufacturing Science and Technology, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang 212013 (China); School of Materials Science and Engineering, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang 212013 (China); Li, Bao-jia [Jiangsu Provincial Key Laboratory of Center for Photon Manufacturing Science and Technology, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang 212013 (China); School of Materials Science and Engineering, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang 212013 (China); Zhou, Ming [Jiangsu Provincial Key Laboratory of Center for Photon Manufacturing Science and Technology, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang 212013 (China); The State Key Laboratory of Tribology, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China)

    2014-09-30

    Highlights: • Pt layers were deposited by DC magnetron sputtering on commercial FTO glasses. • Pt/FTO films were irradiated by laser for inducing gratings and annealing. • An ideal grating-structured Pt/FTO film was obtained using a fluence of 1.05 J/cm{sup 2}. • The grating-structured Pt/FTO film exhibited excellent photoelectric properties. • Laser-assisted treatment is effective for improving performance of FTO-based films. - Abstract: In order to improve the transparency and conductivity of commercial fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) glass, platinum (Pt) layers were deposited on the FTO film by direct current (DC) magnetron sputtering, followed by being irradiating with a 532 nm nanosecond pulsed laser for the dual purpose of inducing grating structures and annealing. Introducing a Pt layer decreased the average transmittance (400–800 nm) and the sheet resistance of the initial FTO film from 80.2% and 8.4 Ω/sq to 68.6% and 7.9 Ω/sq, respectively. The ideal grating-structured Pt/FTO film was obtained by laser irradiation with a fluence of 1.05 J/cm{sup 2}, and X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis confirmed that this film underwent optimal annealing. As a result, it exhibited an average transmittance (400–800 nm) of 84.1% and a sheet resistance of 6.8 Ω/sq. These results indicated that laser-assisted treatment combined with introduction of metal layer can effectively improve photoelectric properties of FTO single-layer films.

  7. The fundamental parameter approach of quantitative XRFA- investigation of photoelectric absorption coefficients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaltout, A.

    2003-06-01

    The present work describes some actual problems of quantitative x-ray fluorescence analysis by means of the fundamental parameter approach. To perform this task, some of the main parameters are discussed in detail. These parameters are photoelectric cross sections, coherent and incoherent scattering cross sections, mass absorption cross sections and the variation of the x-ray tube voltage. Photoelectric cross sections, coherent and incoherent scattering cross sections and mass absorption cross sections in the energy range from 1 to 300 keV for the elements from Z=1 to 94 considering ten different data bases are studied. These are data bases given by Hubbell, McMaster, Mucall, Scofield, Xcom, Elam, Sasaki, Henke, Cullen and Chantler's data bases. These data bases have been developed also for an application in fundamental parameter programs for quantitative x-ray analysis (Energy Dispersive X-Ray Fluorescence Analysis (EDXRFA), Electron Probe Microanalysis (EPMA), X-Ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS) and Total Electron Yield (TEY)). In addition a comparison is performed between different data bases. In McMaster's data base, the missing elements (Z=84, 85, 87, 88, 89, 91, and 93) are added by using photoelectric cross sections of Scofield's data base, coherent as well as incoherent scattering cross sections of Elam's data base and the absorption edges of Bearden. Also, the N-fit coefficients of the elements from Z=61 to 69 are wrong in McMaster data base, therefore, linear least squares fits are used to recalculate the N-fit coefficients of these elements. Additionally, in the McMaster tables the positions of the M- and N-edges of all elements with the exception of the M1- and N1- edges are not defined as well as the jump ratio of the edges. In the present work, the M- and N-edges and the related jump ratios are calculated. To include the missing N-edges, Bearden's values of energy edges are used. In Scofield's data base, modifications include check and correction

  8. Unusual photoelectric behaviors of Mo-doped TiO2 multilayer thin films prepared by RF magnetron co-sputtering: effect of barrier tunneling on internal charge transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, B. X.; Luo, S. Y.; Mao, X. G.; Shen, J.; Zhou, Q. F.

    2013-01-01

    Mo-doped TiO2 multilayer thin films were prepared by RF magnetron co-sputtering. Microstructures, crystallite parameters and the absorption band were investigated with atomic force microscopy, X-ray diffraction and ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy. Internal carrier transport characteristics and the photoelectric property of different layer-assemble modes were examined on an electrochemical workstation under visible light. The result indicates that the double-layer structure with an undoped surface layer demonstrated a red-shifted absorption edge and a much stronger photocurrent compared to the uniformly doped sample, signifying that the electric field implanted at the interface between particles in different layers accelerated internal charge transfer effectively. However, a heavily doped layer implanted at the bottom of the three-layer film merely brought about negative effects on the photoelectric property, mainly because of the Schottky junction existing above the substrate. Nevertheless, this obstacle was successfully eliminated by raising the Mo concentration to 1020 cm-3, where the thickness of the depletion layer fell into the order of angstroms and the tunneling coefficient manifested a dramatic increase. Under this circumstance, the Schottky junction disappeared and the strongest photocurrent was observed in the three-layer film.

  9. Measurement of L-shell photoelectric cross sections in high Z elements at 37 and 74 keV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allawadhi, K L; Ghumman, B S; Sood, B S [Punjabi Univ., Patiala (India). Nuclear Science Labs.

    1977-05-01

    L-shell photoelectric cross section measurements have been made at 36.818 and 74.409 keV for four elements in the range 81<=Z<=92. The measurements at 74.409 keV are found to agree with theory, within experimental uncertainties, but the experimental values at 36.818 keV are found to be higher than the theoretical predictions. The possible reasons for the observed discrepancy are discussed.

  10. Metal/Semiconductor and Transparent Conductor/Semiconductor Heterojunctions in High Efficient Photoelectric Devices: Progress and Features

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Melvin David Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Metal/semiconductor and transparent conductive oxide (TCO/semiconductor heterojunctions have emerged as an effective modality in the fabrication of photoelectric devices. This review is following a recent shift toward the engineering of TCO layers and structured Si substrates, incorporating metal nanoparticles for the development of next-generation photoelectric devices. Beneficial progress which helps to increase the efficiency and reduce the cost, has been sequenced based on efficient technologies involved in making novel substrates, TCO layers, and electrodes. The electrical and optical properties of indium tin oxide (ITO and aluminum doped zinc oxide (AZO thin films can be enhanced by structuring the surface of TCO layers. The TCO layers embedded with Ag nanoparticles are used to enhance the plasmonic light trapping effect in order to increase the energy harvesting nature of photoelectric devices. Si nanopillar structures which are fabricated by photolithography-free technique are used to increase light-active surface region. The importance of the structure and area of front electrodes and the effect of temperature at the junction are the value added discussions in this review.

  11. Photoelectric properties of the metamorphic InAs/InGaAs quantum dot structure at room temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Golovynskyi, S. L., E-mail: golovynskyi@isp.kiev.ua [Institute of Semiconductor Physics, National Academy of Sciences, pr. Nauki 45, 03028 Kyiv (Ukraine); Seravalli, L.; Trevisi, G.; Frigeri, P.; Gombia, E. [Institute of Materials for Electronics and Magnetism, CNR-IMEM, Parco delle Scienze 37a, I-43100 Parma (Italy); Dacenko, O. I.; Kondratenko, S. V. [Department of Physics, Taras Shevchenko National University of Kyiv, 64 Volodymyrska St., 01601 Kyiv (Ukraine)

    2015-06-07

    We present the study of optical and photoelectric properties of InAs quantum dots (QDs) grown on a metamorphic In{sub 0.15}Ga{sub 0.85}As buffer layer: such nanostructures show efficient light emission in the telecom window at 1.3 μm (0.95 eV) at room temperature. We prepared a sample with vertical geometry of contacts isolated from the GaAs substrate. The structure is found to be photosensitive in the spectral range above 0.9 eV at room temperature, showing distinctive features in the photovoltage and photocurrent spectra attributed to QDs, InAs wetting layer, and In{sub 0.15}Ga{sub 0.85}As metamorphic buffer, while a drop in the photoelectric signal above 1.36 eV is related to the GaAs layer. No effect of defect centers on the photoelectrical properties is found, although they are observed in the absorption spectrum. We conclude that metamorphic QDs have a low amount of interface-related defects close to the optically active region and charge carriers can be effectively collected into InAs QDs.

  12. Transparent Cu4O3/ZnO heterojunction photoelectric devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hong-Sik; Yadav, Pankaj; Patel, Malkeshkumar; Kim, Joondong; Pandey, Kavita; Lim, Donggun; Jeong, Chaehwan

    2017-12-01

    The present article reports the development of flexible, self-biased, broadband, high speed and transparent heterojunction photodiode, which is essentially important for the next generation electronic devices. We grow semitransparent p-type Cu4O3 using the reactive sputtering method at room temperature. The structural and optical properties of the Cu4O3 film were investigated by using the X-ray diffraction and UV-visible spectroscopy, respectively. The p-Cu4O3/n-ZnO heterojunction diode under dark condition yields rectification behavior with an extremely low saturation current value of 1.8 × 10-10 A and a zero bias photocurrent under illumination condition. The transparent p-Cu4O3/n-ZnO heterojunction photodetector can be operated without an external bias, due to the light-induced voltage production. The metal oxide heterojunction based on Cu4O3/ZnO would provide a route for the transparent and flexible photoelectric devices, including photodetectors and photovoltaics.

  13. ANALYSIS OF THE ELECTROPHYSICAL AND PHOTOELECTRIC PROPERTIES OF NANOCOMPOSITE POLYMERS BY THE MODIFIED KELVIN PROBE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. U. Pantsialeyeu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available At present for analysis of the homogeneity of materials properties are becoming widely used various modifications of a scanning Kelvin probe. These methods allow mapping the spatial distribution of the electrostatic potential. Analysis of the electropotential profile is not sufficient to describe any specific physical parameters of the polymer nanocomposites. Therefore, we use an external energy impact, such as light. Purpose of paper is the modification of the Kelvin scanning probe and the conduct of experimental studies of the spatial distribution and response of the electrostatic potential of the actual polymer nanocomposites to the optical probing.Carried out the investigations on experimental Low density polyethylene composites. Carbon nanomaterials and nanoparticles of silicon dioxide or aluminum as fillers are used. As a result, maps of the spatial distribution of the electrostatic potential relative values and the surface photovoltage. Statistical analysis of the electrophysical and photoelectric properties homogeneity, depending on the component composition of the composites carried out. In addition, with reference to matrix polymers, the Kelvin scanning probe, in combination with the optical probing, made it possible to detect a piezoelectric effect. The latter, can used as a basis for the development of new methods for studying the mechanical properties of matrix polymers.

  14. Subdivision Error Analysis and Compensation for Photoelectric Angle Encoder in a Telescope Control System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanrui Su

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available As the position sensor, photoelectric angle encoder affects the accuracy and stability of telescope control system (TCS. A TCS-based subdivision error compensation method for encoder is proposed. Six types of subdivision error sources are extracted through mathematical expressions of subdivision signals first. Then the period length relationships between subdivision signals and subdivision errors are deduced. And the error compensation algorithm only utilizing the shaft position of TCS is put forward, along with two control models; Model I is that the algorithm applies only to the speed loop of TCS and Model II is applied to both speed loop and position loop. Combined with actual project, elevation jittering phenomenon of the telescope is discussed to decide the necessity of DC-type subdivision error compensation. Low-speed elevation performance before and after error compensation is compared to help decide that Model II is preferred. In contrast to original performance, the maximum position error of the elevation with DC subdivision error compensation is reduced by approximately 47.9% from 1.42″ to 0.74″. The elevation gets a huge decrease in jitters. This method can compensate the encoder subdivision errors effectively and improve the stability of TCS.

  15. CdTe polycrystalline films on Ni foil substrates by screen printing and their photoelectric performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yao, Huizhen; Ma, Jinwen; Mu, Yannan; Su, Shi; Lv, Pin; Zhang, Xiaoling; Zhou, Liying; Li, Xue; Liu, Li; Fu, Wuyou; Yang, Haibin

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • The sintered CdTe polycrystalline films by a simple screen printing. • The flexible Ni foil was chose as substrates to reduce the weight of the electrode. • The compact CdTe film was obtained at 550 °C sintering temperature. • The photoelectric activity of the CdTe polycrystalline films was excellent. - Abstract: CdTe polycrystalline films were prepared on flexible Ni foil substrates by sequential screen printing and sintering in a nitrogen atmosphere for the first time. The effect of temperature on the quality of the screen-printed film was investigated in our work. The high-quality CdTe films were obtained after sintering at 550 °C for 2 h. The properties of the sintered CdTe films were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction pattern and UV–visible spectroscopy. The high-quality CdTe films have the photocurrent was 2.04 mA/cm 2 , which is higher than that of samples prepared at other temperatures. Furthermore, CdCl 2 treatment reduced the band gap of the CdTe film due to the larger grain size. The photocurrent of photoelectrode based on high crystalline CdTe polycrystalline films after CdCl 2 treatment improved to 2.97 mA/cm 2 , indicating a potential application in photovoltaic devices

  16. Synchronous photoelectrical observations of flare stars in the visible and near infrared ranges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruevich, V.V.; Kilyachkov, N.N.; Shevchenko, V.S.; Burnashov, V.I.; Grinin, V.P.; Koryshev, V.V.; Shakhovskaya, N.I.

    1980-01-01

    The results of synchronous photoelectrical observations of the AD Leo and EV Lac flare stars made in 1975 in the Crimea in B-filter and in the near infrared region (i-band, lambdasub(ef) approximately 0.85 μm) and the observations of the UV Cet and EV Lac stars made in 1976 in the Astronomical Institute Uzbek SSR in three passbands: U, isub(TiO)(lambdasub(ef)=0.71 μ) and isub(C)(lambdasub(ef)=0.80μm) are given. Practically all strong flares in the visible spectral range were followed by the IR-flares. In about 70% of the cases the predicted infrared negative preflares were observed. The amplitudes (in erg/s) of the negative flares are comparable with the amplitude of the optical flares. The analysis of the observed data shows that: a) the amplitudes and the energies of the positive IR flares are in average the larger the stronger is the optical flare; b) the amplitudes of the negative IR preflares are on the contrary the smaller the stronger is the optical flare; c) there are infrared flares the main energy out of which takes place in the infrared range of wavelengths; d) The U-i color shows a positive correlation with the amplitude of the flare in U: the stronger is the flare the bluer is its radiation

  17. The sandwich InGaAs/GaAs quantum dot structure for IR photoelectric detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moldavskaya, L. D.; Vostokov, N. V.; Gaponova, D. M.; Danil'tsev, V. M.; Drozdov, M. N.; Drozdov, Yu. N.; Shashkin, V. I.

    2008-01-01

    A new possibility for growing InAs/GaAs quantum dot heterostructures for infrared photoelectric detectors by metal-organic vapor-phase epitaxy is discussed. The specific features of the technological process are the prolonged time of growth of quantum dots and the alternation of the low-and high-temperature modes of overgrowing the quantum dots with GaAs barrier layers. During overgrowth, large-sized quantum dots are partially dissolved, and the secondary InGaAs quantum well is formed of the material of the dissolved large islands. In this case, a sandwich structure is formed. In this structure, quantum dots are arranged between two thin layers with an increased content of indium, namely, between the wetting InAs layer and the secondary InGaAs layer. The height of the quantum dots depends on the thickness of the GaAs layer grown at a comparatively low temperature. The structures exhibit intraband photoconductivity at a wavelength around 4.5 μm at temperatures up to 200 K. At 90 K, the photosensitivity is 0.5 A/W, and the detectivity is 3 x 10 9 cm Hz 1/2 W -1

  18. Asymmetric photoelectric property of transparent TiO2 nanotube films loaded with Au nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Hui; Liang, Wei; Liu, Yiming; Zhang, Wanggang; Zhou, Diaoyu; Wen, Jing

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Highly transparent films of TiO 2 nanotube arrays were directly fabricated on FTO glasses. • Semitransparent TNT-Au composite films were obtained and exhibited excellent photoelectrocatalytic ability. • Back-side of TNT-Au composite films was firstly irradiated and tested to compare with front-side of films. - Abstract: Semitransparent composite films of Au loaded TiO 2 nanotubes (TNT-Au) were prepared by sputtering Au nanoparticles on highly transparent TiO 2 nanotubes films, which were fabricated directly on FTO glasses by anodizing the Ti film sputtered on the FTO glasses. Compared with pure TNT films, the prepared TNT-Au films possessed excellent absorption ability and high photocurrent response and improved photocatalytic activity under visible-light irradiation. It could be concluded that Au nanoparticles played important roles in improving the photoelectrochemical performance of TNT-Au films. Moreover, in this work, both sides of TNT-Au films were researched and compared owing to theirs semitransparency. It was firstly found that the photoelectric activity of TNT-Au composite films with back-side illumination was obviously superior to front-side illumination.

  19. Photoelectrical Stimulation of Neuronal Cells by an Organic Semiconductor-Electrolyte Interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdullaeva, Oliya S; Schulz, Matthias; Balzer, Frank; Parisi, Jürgen; Lützen, Arne; Dedek, Karin; Schiek, Manuela

    2016-08-23

    As a step toward the realization of neuroprosthetics for vision restoration, we follow an electrophysiological patch-clamp approach to study the fundamental photoelectrical stimulation mechanism of neuronal model cells by an organic semiconductor-electrolyte interface. Our photoactive layer consisting of an anilino-squaraine donor blended with a fullerene acceptor is supporting the growth of the neuronal model cell line (N2A cells) without an adhesion layer on it and is not impairing cell viability. The transient photocurrent signal upon illumination from the semiconductor-electrolyte layer is able to trigger a passive response of the neuronal cells under physiological conditions via a capacitive coupling mechanism. We study the dynamics of the capacitive transmembrane currents by patch-clamp recordings and compare them to the dynamics of the photocurrent signal and its spectral responsivity. Furthermore, we characterize the morphology of the semiconductor-electrolyte interface by atomic force microscopy and study the stability of the interface in dark and under illuminated conditions.

  20. Optimal design of a high accuracy photoelectric auto-collimator based on position sensitive detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Pei-pei; Yang, Yong-qing; She, Wen-ji; Liu, Kai; Jiang, Kai; Duan, Jing; Shan, Qiusha

    2018-02-01

    A kind of high accuracy Photo-electric auto-collimator based on PSD was designed. The integral structure composed of light source, optical lens group, Position Sensitive Detector (PSD) sensor, and its hardware and software processing system constituted. Telephoto objective optical type is chosen during the designing process, which effectively reduces the length, weight and volume of the optical system, as well as develops simulation-based design and analysis of the auto-collimator optical system. The technical indicators of auto-collimator presented by this paper are: measuring resolution less than 0.05″; a field of view is 2ω=0.4° × 0.4° measuring range is +/-5' error of whole range measurement is less than 0.2″. Measuring distance is 10m, which are applicable to minor-angle precise measuring environment. Aberration analysis indicates that the MTF close to the diffraction limit, the spot in the spot diagram is much smaller than the Airy disk. The total length of the telephoto lens is only 450mm by the design of the optical machine structure optimization. The autocollimator's dimension get compact obviously under the condition of the image quality is guaranteed.

  1. Asymmetric photoelectric property of transparent TiO{sub 2} nanotube films loaded with Au nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Hui [College of Materials Science and Engineering, Taiyuan University of Technology, Taiyuan, Shanxi 030024 (China); College of Applied Science, Taiyuan University of Science and Technology, Taiyuan, Shanxi 030024 (China); Key Laboratory of Interface Science and Engineering in Advanced Materials, Taiyuan University of Technology, Ministry of Education, Taiyuan, Shanxi 030024 (China); Liang, Wei, E-mail: 986903124@qq.com [College of Materials Science and Engineering, Taiyuan University of Technology, Taiyuan, Shanxi 030024 (China); Key Laboratory of Interface Science and Engineering in Advanced Materials, Taiyuan University of Technology, Ministry of Education, Taiyuan, Shanxi 030024 (China); Liu, Yiming; Zhang, Wanggang; Zhou, Diaoyu; Wen, Jing [College of Materials Science and Engineering, Taiyuan University of Technology, Taiyuan, Shanxi 030024 (China); Key Laboratory of Interface Science and Engineering in Advanced Materials, Taiyuan University of Technology, Ministry of Education, Taiyuan, Shanxi 030024 (China)

    2016-11-15

    Highlights: • Highly transparent films of TiO{sub 2} nanotube arrays were directly fabricated on FTO glasses. • Semitransparent TNT-Au composite films were obtained and exhibited excellent photoelectrocatalytic ability. • Back-side of TNT-Au composite films was firstly irradiated and tested to compare with front-side of films. - Abstract: Semitransparent composite films of Au loaded TiO{sub 2} nanotubes (TNT-Au) were prepared by sputtering Au nanoparticles on highly transparent TiO{sub 2} nanotubes films, which were fabricated directly on FTO glasses by anodizing the Ti film sputtered on the FTO glasses. Compared with pure TNT films, the prepared TNT-Au films possessed excellent absorption ability and high photocurrent response and improved photocatalytic activity under visible-light irradiation. It could be concluded that Au nanoparticles played important roles in improving the photoelectrochemical performance of TNT-Au films. Moreover, in this work, both sides of TNT-Au films were researched and compared owing to theirs semitransparency. It was firstly found that the photoelectric activity of TNT-Au composite films with back-side illumination was obviously superior to front-side illumination.

  2. Photoelectric schlieren method used to study the properties of diesel engine injection systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reznicek, R.

    1987-01-01

    The time dependence of the fuel flow rate issuing from the injector nozzle represents very important information concerning the properties of Diesel engine injection systems. By analysing the delivery rate, it is possible to judge a new design, and the modifications and adjustments of Diesel engine injection systems. A number of devices for measuring the delivery rate, frequently founded on mechanical principles, have also been constructed. Mechanical methods are laborious, require complicated measuring instruments, and the analysis of the results is quite tedious. For investigating the delivery rate, one can also use the intensity of the luminous flux of the light ray which is intersected, and consequently its intensity decreased, by the flow of the delivered fuel. The schlieren method can be used for this purpose, employing a thin beam of parallel light rays and a photoelectric sensor placed immediately beyond the cut-off slit. After adjustment and calibration, the variations of the original electric signal represent the time variation of the delivery rate by the nozzle

  3. Oxide properties of autoclaved zircaloy cladding tubes investigated by the photoelectric polarization method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nystrand, A.C.

    2000-06-01

    Corrosion of zirconium alloys is an important lifetime limiting factor for the nuclear reactor fuel. The corrosion resistance of a metal is highly dependent on the ability of the surface metal oxide to transport electrons and ions, which is related to the stoichiometry of the oxide and the oxide defect concentration. The Photoelectric Polarization Method (PEP) is a structure sensitive method which earlier has been investigated as a possible method to study the defect structure in zirconium oxides. The purpose of the following work is, by using more optimized experimental equipment, to verify if the PEP method is a suitable method to study the defect structure in zirconium oxides and to predict the corrosion resistance for different zirconium alloys. The conclusions from the experiments are as follows: - The modifications of the experimental setup by means of a new source of light (deuterium lamp) and a new oscilloscope with an amplifier gave distinct Vpep signals. - The photoresponse is negative for all types of cladding and under all kind of oxidation regimes and hence the oxide is a n-type semiconductor with deficiency of oxygen. - The method needs to be verified by testing semiconductors with a known defect concentration

  4. ZnO/Cu/ZnO multilayer films: Structure optimization and investigation on photoelectric properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Xiaoyu; Li Yingai; Liu Shi; Wu Honglin; Cui Haining

    2012-01-01

    A series of ZnO/Cu/ZnO multilayer films has been fabricated from zinc and copper metallic targets by simultaneous RF and DC magnetron sputtering. Numerical simulation of the optical properties of the multilayer films has been carried out in order to guide the experimental work. The influences of the ZnO and Cu layer thicknesses, and of O 2 /Ar ratio on the photoelectric and structural properties of the films were investigated. The optical and electrical properties of the multilayers were studied by optical spectrometry and four point probe measurements, respectively. The structural properties were investigated using X-ray diffraction. The performance of the multilayers as transparent conducting coatings was compared using a figure of merit. In experiments, the thickness of the ZnO layers was varied between 4 and 70 nm and those of Cu were between 8 and 37 nm. The O 2 /Ar ratios range from 1:5 to 2:1. Low sheet resistance and high transmittance were obtained when the film was prepared using an O 2 /Ar ratio of 1:4 and a thickness of ZnO (60 nm)/Cu (15 nm)/ZnO (60 nm). - Highlights: ► ZnO/Cu/ZnO films were fabricated from zinc and copper targets by sputtering. ► Transmittance reaches maximum when top and bottom ZnO thicknesses are nearly equal. ► Sheet resistance increases with increasing ZnO layer thickness. ► Variation in sheet resistance with oxygen/argon ratio is due to interface effect.

  5. Variable interstellar radiation fields in simulated dwarf galaxies: supernovae versus photoelectric heating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Chia-Yu; Naab, Thorsten; Glover, Simon C. O.; Walch, Stefanie; Clark, Paul C.

    2017-10-01

    We present high-resolution hydrodynamical simulations of isolated dwarf galaxies including self-gravity, non-equilibrium cooling and chemistry, interstellar radiation fields (ISRF) and shielding, star formation, and stellar feedback. This includes spatially and temporally varying photoelectric (PE) heating, photoionization, resolved supernova (SN) blast waves and metal enrichment. A new flexible method to sample the stellar initial mass function allows us to follow the contribution to the ISRF, the metal output and the SN delay times of individual massive stars. We find that SNe play the dominant role in regulating the global star formation rate, shaping the multiphase interstellar medium (ISM) and driving galactic outflows. Outflow rates (with mass-loading factors of a few) and hot gas fractions of the ISM increase with the number of SNe exploding in low-density environments where radiative energy losses are low. While PE heating alone can suppress star formation as efficiently as SNe alone can do, it is unable to drive outflows and reproduce the multiphase ISM that emerges naturally whenever SNe are included. We discuss the potential origins for the discrepancy between our results and another recent study that claimed that PE heating dominates over SNe. In the absence of SNe and photoionization (mechanisms to disperse dense clouds), the impact of PE heating is highly overestimated owing to the (unrealistic) proximity of dense gas to the radiation sources. This leads to a substantial boost of the infrared continuum emission from the UV-irradiated dust and a far-infrared line-to-continuum ratio too low compared to observations.

  6. The application of full spectrum gamma-gamma techniques to density/photoelectric cross section logging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minette, D.C.; Hubner, B.G.; Koudelka, J.C.; Schmidt, M.

    1986-01-01

    The Compensated Z-Densilog instrument is a new full spectrum gamma-gamma logging instrument, measuring the density and photoelectric cross section (Pe) of the formation. This instrument represents an advancement over present instruments in that the observed gamma spectrum is sent to the surface as a full 256-channel spectrum instead of count rates in a few energy gates. This advancement is made possible by the use of high speed digital electronics which are protected from the high temperatures observed downhole by custom-built flasks. In this paper, the new advanced electronics are considered in some detail. This consideration includes a comparison of full spectrum data acquisition with the multiple discriminator window technique, which is the foundation of the ''few gate'' method. Both of these methods are critiqued based upon electronic stability and the information obtained. The full spectrum provided by high speed electronics facilitates a much more sophisticated data analysis. This data analysis, based on phenomenological model of the instrument (Minette, 1984), includes real time compensation for changes in detector gain and crystal resolution. It also includes a ''four-dimensional'' rib-spine plot, which separates the compensation for mudcake density from the compensation for the Pe of the formation and the mudcake. Also included in the software are real time error minimization and real time decision-making techniques. These techniques maximize the sensitivity of the instrument to the density and Pe of the formation and minimize error due to statistical fluctuations. Gain and resolution compensation completes the data analysis. This compensation virtually eliminates density and Pe errors caused by changing gain and resolution

  7. Linear surface photoelectric effect of gold in intense laser field as a possible high-current electron source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farkas, G.; Horvath, Z.G.; Toth, C.; Fotakis, C.; Hontzopoulos, E.

    1987-01-01

    Investigations were conducted on radiation-induced electron emission processes on a gold target surface with a high-intensity (2 MW/cm 2 ) KrF laser (λ = 248 nm). The single photon surface photoelectric emission obtained can be used for high-current density electron sources. The measured polarization dependence of electron current shows the dominance of the surface-type effect over that of the volume type, thereby making it possible to optimize the short, high-density electron current creation conditions. The advantage of the grazing light incidence and the multiphoton photoeffect giving rise to a 500 A/cm 2 electron current has been demonstrated

  8. The photoelectric effect and study of the diffraction of light: Two new experiments in UNILabs virtual and remote laboratories network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sánchez, Juan Pedro; Carreras, Carmen; Yuste, Manuel; Dormido, Sebastián; Sáenz, Jacobo; De la Torre, Luis; Rubén, Heradio

    2015-01-01

    This work describes two experiments: 'study of the diffraction of light: Fraunhofer approximation' and 'the photoelectric effect'. Both of them count with a virtual, simulated, version of the experiment as well as with a real one which can be operated remotely. The two previous virtual and remote labs (built using Easy Java(script) Simulations) are integrated in UNILabs, a network of online interactive laboratories based on the free Learning Management System Moodle. In this web environment, students can find not only the virtual and remote labs but also manuals with related theory, the user interface description for each application, and so on.

  9. Photoelectric characteristics of an inverse U-shape buried doping design for crosstalk suppression in pinned photodiodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cao Chen; Zhang Bing; Li Xin; Wu Longsheng; Wang Junfeng

    2014-01-01

    A design of an inverse U-shape buried doping in a pinned photodiode (PPD) of CMOS image sensors is proposed for electrical crosstalk suppression between adjacent pixels. The architecture achieves no extra fill factor consumption, and proper built-in electric fields can be established according to the doping gradient created by the injections of the extremely low P-type doping buried regions in the epitaxial layer, causing the excess electrons to easily drift back to the photosensitive area rarely with a diffusion probability; the overall junction capacitance and photosensitive area extensions for a full well capacity (FWC) and internal quantum efficiency (IQE) improving are achieved by the injection of a buried N-type doping. By considering the image lag issue, the process parameters of all the injections have been precisely optimized. Optical simulation results based on the finite difference time domain method show that compared to the conventional PPD, the electrical crosstalk rate of the proposed architecture can be decreased by 60%–80% at an incident wavelength beyond 450 nm, IQE can be clearly improved at an incident wavelength between 400 and 600 nm, and the FWC can be enhanced by 107.5%. Furthermore, the image lag performance is sustained to a perfect low level. The present study provides important guidance on the design of ultra high resolution image sensors. (semiconductor devices)

  10. X-ray attenuation coefficients and photoelectric cross sections of Cu, Fe and Sn for the energy range 3-29 KeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Dachun; Yang Hua; Luo Pingan; Ding Xunliang; Wang Xinfu; Zhou Hongyu; Shen Xinyin; Zhu Guanghua

    1991-08-01

    The document contains the following two papers: X-ray attenuation coefficient and photoelectric cross sections of Sn for the Energy Range 3.3 KeV to 29.1 KeV - by Wang Dachun, Yang Hua and Luo Pingan. X-ray attenuation coefficients and photoelectric cross sections of Cu and Fe for the range 3 KeV to 29 KeV - by Wang Dachun, Ding Xunliang, Wang Xinfu, Yang Hua, Zhou Hongyu, Shen Xinyin and Zhu Guanghua. A separate abstract was prepared for each of these papers. Refs, figs and tabs

  11. Enhancement of the photo-electric effect with pharmacological agents in synchrotron radiation based anti-cancer radiotherapy: a methodological study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corde, Stephanie

    2002-01-01

    Anti-cancer therapy rests on three main principles: 1) anatomic confinement of irradiation; 2) temporal fractioning of treatment; 3) treatment of tissues that are more sensitive to radiation than surrounding healthy tissue. Under those principles hides the goal of radiotherapy: to deposit more of the X-ray energy in the tumor while preserving the surrounding healthy tissues. This goal is hard to reach since one of the causes of the failures in radiotherapy is the continuing evolution of the tumor. Could synchrotron radiation be more effective as an X-ray source for radiotherapy? The variation of the radiation-matter interaction cross-sections as a function of X-ray energy and atomic number of the medium show that certain energies and certain elements are more suitable to obtain the largest number of interactions and the largest amount of deposited energy. Synchrotron radiation allows to select precisely those energies because of its high spectral intensity. Its spectral characteristics (energy of the photons between 10 and 100 keV) allow to trigger the photoelectric effect with a maximum of probability on heavy elements introduced close to cancerous cells. It has been shown that: 1) synchrotron radiation based tomodensitometry is a quantitative imaging technique, potentially powerful for radiotherapy since it insures in-vivo the measurement of intra-tumoral concentration of contrast agent (I or Gd); 2) in the presence of iodinated contrast agent the lethal effect of X-rays on cell survival is increased and the gain in radio sensitivity depends on X-ray energy; 3) at the cellular scale the lethality of irradiation can be optimised again by transporting heavy atoms (I, Pt) inside the DNA, which is the biological target of the irradiation. This reinforcement of the killing efficiency of low energy X-rays using a physical mechanism aimed at a pharmacological agent is an original concept in anti-cancer radiotherapy. (author) [fr

  12. [Objective non-contact method of study of the color of the human skin integument by use of a photoelectric colorimeter].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruzdeva, N I; Zherebtsov, L D; Vasilevskiĭ, V K; Vremzen, S A

    1975-04-01

    The authors describe a method of determination of the colour of the skin in man based on the use of contactless photoelectric colorimeter made especially for this purpose. The mean normal values of the indices of the skin colour of the anterior and the posterior surface of the arm in 45 men and 35 women of the Europeoid race under normal conditions are presented.

  13. Measured energy dependence of L-shell photoelectric cross sections of lead in the energy region 17-50 keV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arora, S K; Allawadhi, K L; Sood, B S [Punjabi Univ., Patiala (India). Nuclear Science Labs.

    1980-08-28

    The energy dependence of L-shell photoelectric cross sections for lead in the energy region 17-50 keV has been investigated. The method utilises external conversion x-rays as the source of photons and it yields relative rather than absolute cross sections, but is simpler and more accurate. The results show fairly good agreement with theory.

  14. Further measurements of K shell photoelectric cross sections for some elements in the range 26<=Z<=41 at 74 keV. [74. 409 keV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arora, S K; Allawadhi, K L; Sood, B S [Punjabi Univ., Patiala (India). Dept. of Physics

    1978-12-01

    K shell photoelectric cross sections in elements Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Se, Br, Sr, Zr and Nb have been measured at 74.409 keV. The targets were irradiated with x radiation and gamma radiation beams. In confirmation with the earlier results, the present results also show fairly good agreement with theory.

  15. Favorable ultraviolet photoelectric effects in TbMnO3/Nb-SrTiO3 heterostructures

    KAUST Repository

    Jin, Kexin

    2014-12-01

    The rectifying properties and ultraviolet photoelectric effects in TbMnO3/Nb-doped SrTiO3 heterostructures have been investigated. The ideality factors and the diffusion voltages obtained from the current-voltage curves nonlinearly decrease with increasing the temperature. It is observed that the maximum photovoltaic values of the heterostructure irradiated by the 365 nm (2.6 mW/mm2) and 248 nm (0.71 mJ/mm2) lights are about 0.121 V and 0.119 V at T=300 K, respectively. The relations between the relaxation of photovoltages after the irradiation and the power intensity are revealed. These results suggest the potential applications in the development of ultraviolet detectors using oxides-based heterostructures.

  16. Effect of ZrO2 film thickness on the photoelectric properties of mixed-cation perovskite solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yanyan; Zhao, Li; Wei, Shoubin; Xiao, Meng; Dong, Binghai; Wan, Li; Wang, Shimin

    2018-05-01

    In this work, perovskite solar cells (PSCs) were fabricated in the ambient air, with a scaffold layer composed of TiO2/ZrO2 double layer as the mesoscopic layer and carbon as the counter electrode. The effect of ZrO2 thin film thickness on the photovoltaic performances of PSCs was also studied in detail. Results showed that the photoelectric properties of as-prepared PSCs largely depend on the thin film thickness due to a series of factors, including surface roughness, charge transport resistance, and electron-hole recombination rate. The power conversion efficiency of PSCs increased from 8.37% to 11.33% by varying the thin film thickness from 75 nm to 305 nm, and the optimal power conversion efficiency was realized up to the 11.33% with a thin film thickness of 167 nm. This research demonstrates a promising route for the high-efficiency and low-cost photovoltaic technology.

  17. Photoelectric effect in the relativistic domain revealed by the time-reversed process for highly charged uranium ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stoehlker, T.; Mokler, P.H.; Kozhuharov, C.; Warczak, A.

    1996-10-01

    The photoelectric effect in the near relativistic energy regime of 80 to 350 keV is studied by the time-reversed process in ion-atom collisions, i.e. by the radiative capture of a quasi-free target electron. We review shell and subshell differential photon-angular distribution studies of radiative capture into highly-charged uranium ions. The experimental data are compared with exact relativistic calculations and give detailed insight into both the atomic structure of high-Z few-electron ions and into the fundamental electron-photon interaction process involved. In particular it is shown that the angular-differential measurements provide a unique method to study the magnetic interaction in relativistic electron-photon encoun- (orig.)

  18. Formation Process of Eosin Y-Adsorbing ZnO Particles by Electroless Deposition and Their Photoelectric Conversion Properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagaya, Satoshi; Nishikiori, Hiromasa; Mizusaki, Hideaki; Wagata, Hajime; Teshima, Katsuya

    2015-06-03

    The thin films consisting of crystalline ZnO particles were prepared on fluorine-doped tin oxide electrodes by electroless deposition. The particles were deposited from an aqueous solution containing zinc nitrate, dimethyamine-borane, and eosin Y at 328 K. As the Pd particles were adsorbed on the substrate, not only the eosin Y monomer but also the dimer and debrominated species were rapidly adsorbed on the spherical ZnO particles, which were aggregated and formed secondary particles. On the other hand, in the absence of the Pd particles, the monomer was adsorbed on the flake-shaped ZnO particles, which vertically grew on the substrate surface and had a high crystallinity. The photoelectric conversion efficiency was higher for the ZnO electrodes containing a higher amount of the monomer during light irradiation.

  19. Photoelectric UBV-photometry of the In(YY) DR Tauri-type young star in 1982-1986

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolotilov, E.A.

    1987-01-01

    The results of photoelectric UBV-photometry carried out in 1982-1986 for DR TAU - the star which undergone nova-like brightness increase in 1965-1980 - are presented. The brightness variations of the star during the post-maximum period include several days lasting flares and much more rare deep minima. The averaged colour-brightness relations are as follows: the higher brightness, the bluer B - V colour and the redder U - B colour. However the fast variations on a time scale of days do not always follow this relation. The observed pattern of variability of DR Tau is in agreement with the model of young stars activity (Grinin, 1980) proposing the appearance of hot spots in stellar atmosphere due to accretion of gas. Some arguments for the binarity of DR Tau are presented

  20. The development of student worksheet assisted by interactive multimedia of photoelectric effect to build science process skills

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Payudi Payudi

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This research aims to produce student worksheet based on interactive multimedia on photoelectric effect to grow science process skills that are attractive, easy, useful, and study to improve students learning out comes. The development design used in this research by Sugiono which implemented in 8 stages, they are potential and problem, data collecting, product design, validation design, revision design, product trial, product, and trial usage. Trial usage of the product was conducted at SMA Negeri 2 Bandar Lampung in October 2016 to November 2016 and the research subject was twelve grade classes. The sampling technique of product trial subjects done by purpose sampling, it took two same classes. One class used as an experimental class and the other class as a control class. Trial product design used Matching-Only Pretest-Post test Control Group Design method. Data collecting technique used questionnaire and test (pretest and post test. The data were analyzed by using a descriptive quantitative method. The conclusions of the research are: (1 Student worksheet to build scientific process skills on photoelectric effect should include predicting and hypothesizing activities, planning the experiment, doing the practicum, interpreting the observation, and communicating. (2 Student worksheet of development result has an attractiveness level with the average score is 3.27 or 81.74% with “interesting” category, ease level with the average score is 3.25 or 81.32 with “simple”, and usefulness level with the average score is 3.21 or 80.13% of “useful” category. (3 Student worksheet of development result is effective to improve students learning outcomes in science process skills with N-gain average is 0.63 with the medium.

  1. The Interplay between Radiation Pressure and the Photoelectric Instability in Optically Thin Disks of Gas and Dust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richert, Alexander J. W.; Lyra, Wladimir; Kuchner, Marc J.

    2018-03-01

    In optically thin disks, dust grains are photoelectrically stripped of electrons by starlight, heating nearby gas and possibly creating a dust clumping instability—the photoelectric instability (PeI)—that significantly alters global disk structure. In the current work, we use the Pencil Code to perform the first numerical models of the PeI that include stellar radiation pressure on dust grains in order to explore the parameter regime in which the instability operates. In some models with low gas and dust surface densities, we see a variety of dust structures, including sharp concentric rings. In the most gas- and dust-rich models, nonaxisymmetric clumps, arcs, and spiral arms emerge that represent dust surface density enhancements of factors of ∼5–20. In one high gas surface density model, we include a large, low-order gas viscosity and find that it observably smooths the structures that form in the gas and dust, suggesting that resolved images of a given disk may be useful for deriving constraints on the effective viscosity of its gas. Our models show that radiation pressure does not preclude the formation of complex structure from the PeI, but the qualitative manifestation of the PeI depends strongly on the parameters of the system. The PeI may provide an explanation for unusual disk morphologies, such as the moving blobs of the AU Mic disk, the asymmetric dust distribution of the 49 Ceti disk, and the rings and arcs found in the HD 141569A disk.

  2. Graphene-insulator-semiconductor capacitors as superior test structures for photoelectric determination of semiconductor devices band diagrams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Piskorski

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available We report on the advantages of using Graphene-Insulator-Semiconductor (GIS instead of Metal-Insulator-Semiconductor (MIS structures in reliable and precise photoelectric determination of the band alignment at the semiconductor-insulator interface and of the insulator band gap determination. Due to the high transparency to light of the graphene gate in GIS structures large photocurrents due to emission of both electrons and holes from the substrate and negligible photocurrents due to emission of carriers from the gate can be obtained, which allows reliable determination of barrier heights for both electrons, Ee and holes, Eh from the semiconductor substrate. Knowing the values of both Ee and Eh allows direct determination of the insulator band gap EG(I. Photoelectric measurements were made of a series of Graphene-SiO2-Si structures and an example is shown of the results obtained in sequential measurements of the same structure giving the following barrier height values: Ee = 4.34 ± 0.01 eV and Eh = 4.70 ± 0.03 eV. Based on this result and results obtained for other structures in the series we conservatively estimate the maximum uncertainty of both barrier heights estimations at ± 0.05 eV. This sets the SiO2 band gap estimation at EG(I = 7.92 ± 0.1 eV. It is shown that widely different SiO2 band gap values were found by research groups using various determination methods. We hypothesize that these differences are due to different sensitivities of measurement methods used to the existence of the SiO2 valence band tail.

  3. PERSPECTIVE TRANSPORT-POWER SYSTEM BASED ON THE INTEGRATION OF MAGLEV-TECHNOLOGY AND DISTRIBUTED PHOTO-ELECTRIC STATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. O. Dzenzerskiy

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The research main purpose is the perfection of magnetolevitating technology on electrodynamic suspension and providing its functioning on the base of ecologically rational energy systems. It means creation of the MAGLEV transport-power system which uses renewable energy sources (in particular, photoelectric converters and is connected to national/local networks as an energy user and producer simultaneously. Methodology. Conducted research, analysis and summary conclusions are based both on the results of works on the given subject, and own works of authors. The methods of systems analysis and computer design of components of the large cyber-physical transport-power system were used during research conducting. Findings. The physical-technical foundations of conception of the perspective transport-power system, which includes high-speed ground vehicle on electrodynamic suspension and distributed photo-electric energy complex are developed. The adapt to the performance of the given transport type and guaranteeing its safe functioning in any weather terms. Originality. For the first time authors substantiated the possibility for creation of single transport complex uniting the speed magnetolevitating system and distributed power supply system on the base of sun energy. It is simultaneously the inalienable part of the precision fast-acting control system, working in the real-time mode. Practical value. The offered scientific-technical solution allows on the base of renewable energy source to solve the problems of power supply and a high-speed transport control. Due to the inclusion of the distributed power supply system into local intellectual networks on the SMART-grid technology it gives the possibility to optimize energy consumption of territories neighboring to high-speed way.

  4. Graphene-insulator-semiconductor capacitors as superior test structures for photoelectric determination of semiconductor devices band diagrams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piskorski, K.; Passi, V.; Ruhkopf, J.; Lemme, M. C.; Przewlocki, H. M.

    2018-05-01

    We report on the advantages of using Graphene-Insulator-Semiconductor (GIS) instead of Metal-Insulator-Semiconductor (MIS) structures in reliable and precise photoelectric determination of the band alignment at the semiconductor-insulator interface and of the insulator band gap determination. Due to the high transparency to light of the graphene gate in GIS structures large photocurrents due to emission of both electrons and holes from the substrate and negligible photocurrents due to emission of carriers from the gate can be obtained, which allows reliable determination of barrier heights for both electrons, Ee and holes, Eh from the semiconductor substrate. Knowing the values of both Ee and Eh allows direct determination of the insulator band gap EG(I). Photoelectric measurements were made of a series of Graphene-SiO2-Si structures and an example is shown of the results obtained in sequential measurements of the same structure giving the following barrier height values: Ee = 4.34 ± 0.01 eV and Eh = 4.70 ± 0.03 eV. Based on this result and results obtained for other structures in the series we conservatively estimate the maximum uncertainty of both barrier heights estimations at ± 0.05 eV. This sets the SiO2 band gap estimation at EG(I) = 7.92 ± 0.1 eV. It is shown that widely different SiO2 band gap values were found by research groups using various determination methods. We hypothesize that these differences are due to different sensitivities of measurement methods used to the existence of the SiO2 valence band tail.

  5. Structural, electrical, and photoelectric properties of p-NiO/n-CdTe heterojunctions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parkhomenko, Hryhorii; Solovan, Mykhaylo; Brus, Viktor; Maystruk, Eduard; Maryanchuk, Pavlo

    2018-01-01

    p-NiO/n-CdTe-photosensitive heterojunctions were prepared by the deposition of nickel oxide thin films onto n-type single-crystal CdTe substrates by DC reactive magnetron sputtering. The analysis of capacitance-voltage (C-V) characteristics, measured at different frequencies of the small amplitude AC signal and corrected by the effect of the series resistance, provided evidence of the presence of electrically charged interface states, which significantly affect the measured capacitance. The dominant current transport mechanisms in the heterojunctions were determined at forward and reverse biases. Using "light" I-V characteristics, we determined the open-circuit voltage Voc=0.42 V, the short-circuit current Isc=57.5 μA/cm2, and the fill factor FF=0.24 under white light illumination with the intensity of 80 mW.

  6. Photoelectric atomic absorption cross sections for elements Z = 6 to 54 in the medium energy X-ray range (5 to 25 keV). Pt. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hildebrandt, G.; Stephenson, J.D.; Wagenfeld, H.

    1975-01-01

    Photoelectric atomic absorption cross sections have been calculated by means of hydrogen-like eigenfunctions for the atomic K, L, M and N sub-shells of the elements Z = 6 to 54, using revised screening constants and an extension of the theory. The absorption cross sections have been further separated into dipole and quadrupole components so that the numerical data can also be applied to the Borrmann effect. (orig.) [de

  7. An Experimental and Theoretical Investigation of the Electronic Structures and Photoelectrical Properties of Ethyl Red and Carminic Acid for DSSC Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaofan Sun

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The photoelectrical properties of two dyes—ethyl red and carminic acid—as sensitizers of dye-sensitized solar cells were investigated in experiments herein described. In order to reveal the reason for the difference between the photoelectrical properties of the two dyes, the ground state and excited state properties of the dyes before and after adsorbed on TiO2 were calculated via density functional theory (DFT and time-dependent DFT (TDDFT. The key parameters including the light harvesting efficiency (LHE, the driving force of electron injection ( Δ G inject and dye regeneration ( Δ G regen , the total dipole moment ( μ normal , the conduction band of edge of the semiconductor ( Δ E CB , and the excited state lifetime (τ were investigated, which are closely related to the short-circuit current density ( J sc and open circuit voltage ( V oc . It was found that the experimental carminic acid has a larger J sc and V oc , which are interpreted by a larger amount of dye adsorbed on a TiO2 photoanode and a larger Δ G regen , excited state lifetime (τ, μ normal , and Δ E CB . At the same time, chemical reactivity parameters illustrate that the lower chemical hardness (h and higher electron accepting power (ω+ of carminic acid have an influence on the short-circuit current density. Therefore, carminic acid shows excellent photoelectric conversion efficiency in comparison with ethyl red.

  8. Au@TiO2 yolk-shell nanostructures for enhanced performance in both photoelectric and photocatalytic solar conversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Qinrong; Sun, Hang; Shang, Yinxing; Tang, Yanan; She, Ping; Zeng, Shan; Xu, Kongliang; Lu, Guolong; Liang, Song; Yin, Shengyan; Liu, Zhenning

    2018-05-01

    Solar energy conversion is an important field gaining increasing interest. Herein, bio-inspired Au@TiO2 yolk-shell nanoparticles (NPs) have been prepared via a facial one-pot hydrothermal approach. The Au@TiO2 yolk-shell NPs can self-assemble into 3D-structure to form photoelectrode for photoelectric conversion. The obtained photoelectrode demonstrates a swift and stable photocurrent of 3.5 μA/cm2, which is 4.2 and 1.6 times higher than those of the photocurrents generated by the counterparts of commercial TiO2 and Au@TiO2 core-shell NPs, respectively. Moreover, compared to the commercial TiO2 and Au@TiO2 core-shell NPs, the Au@TiO2 yolk-shell NPs also exhibit superior photocatalytic activity, delivering a H2 evolution rate of 4.92 mmol/g h. The performance improvement observed for the Au@TiO2 yolk-shell NPs is likely contributed by two synergistic factors, i.e. the incorporation of AuNPs and the unique hollow structure, which benefit the activity by simultaneously enhancing light utilization, charge separation and reaction site accessibility. The rational design and fabrication of Au@TiO2 yolk-shell NPs hold great promise for future application in efficient solar energy conversion.

  9. Photoelectric Properties of Silicon Nanocrystals/P3HT Bulk-Heterojunction Ordered in Titanium Dioxide Nanotube Arrays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Švrček Vladimir

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A silicon nanocrystals (Si-ncs conjugated-polymer-based bulk-heterojunction represents a promising approach for low-cost hybrid solar cells. In this contribution, the bulk-heterojunction is based on Si-ncs prepared by electrochemical etching and poly(3-hexylthiophene (P3HT polymer. Photoelectric properties in parallel and vertical device-like configuration were investigated. Electronic interaction between the polymer and surfactant-free Si-ncs is achieved. Temperature-dependent photoluminescence and transport properties were studied and the ratio between the photo- and dark-conductivity of 1.7 was achieved at ambient conditions. Furthermore the porous titanium dioxide (TiO2 nanotubes’ template was used for vertical order of photosensitive Si-ncs/P3HT-based blend. The anodization of titanium foil in ethylene glycol-based electrolyte containing fluoride ions and subsequent thermal annealing were used to prepare anatase TiO2nanotube arrays. The arrays with nanotube inner diameter of 90 and 50 nm were used for vertical ordering of the Si-ncs/P3HT bulk-heterojunction.

  10. Effects of vacuum heat treatment on the photoelectric work function and surface morphology of multilayered silver–metal electrical contacts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akbi, Mohamed; Bouchou, Aïssa; Zouache, Noureddine

    2014-01-01

    Contact materials used for electrical breakers are often made with silver alloys. Mechanical and thermodynamical properties as well as electron emission of such complicated alloys present a lack of reliable and accurate experimental data. This paper deals mainly with electron work function (EWF) measurements about silver–metal (Ag–Me) electrical contacts (Ag–Ni (60/40) and Ag–W (50/50)), before and after surface heat treatments at 513 K–873 K, under UHV conditions (residual gas pressure of 1.4 × 10 −7 mbar). The electron work function (EWF) of silver alloyed contacts was measured photoelectrically, using both Fowler's method of isothermal curves and linearized Fowler plots. An interesting fact brought to light by this investigation is that after vacuum heat treatments, the diffusion and/or evaporation phenomena, affecting the atomic composition of the alloy surface, somehow confine the EWF of the silver–nickel alloy, Φ(Ag–Ni), determined at room temperature in interval]Φ(Ag), Φ(Ni) [=] 4.26 eV, 4.51 eV[. Surface analysis of two specimens before and after heating showed a significant increase of tungsten atomic proportion on the contact surface for Ag–W contacts after VH treatments. A multilayer model, taking into account the strong intergranular and volume segregation gives a good interpretation of the obtained results.

  11. Manufacturing technologies for photovoltaics and possible means of their development in Russia (Review). Part 1: General approach to the development of photoelectric converters and basic silicon technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarasenko, A. B.; Popel', O. S.

    2015-11-01

    The state and key tendencies of the development of basic technologies for manufacture of photoelectric converters (PECs) in the world are considered, and their advantages and disadvantages are discussed. The first part of the review gives short information on the development of photovoltaics in the world and planes of the development of solar power plants in Russia. Total power of photoelectric plants operating in various countries in 2015 exceeded 150 GW and increased in the last ten years with a rate of approximately 50% per year. Russia made important state decisions on the support of the development of renewable power engineering and developed mechanisms, which were attractive for business, on the stimulation of building of the network of solar power plants with a total power to 1.5 GW in the country to 2020. At the same time, the rigid demands are made with respect to the localization of the production of components of these plants that opens new abilities for the development of the domestic production of photovoltaics manufacture. Data on the efficiency of PECs of various types that are attained in the leading laboratories of the world are given. Particular emphasis has been placed on the consideration of basic silicon technologies of PEC manufacture, which had the widest commercial application. The basic methods for production of polycrystalline silicon and making single-crystal and multicrystal silicon are described. Fundamentals of making techniques for plates, PECs, and photoelectric modules based on single-crystal and polycrystalline silicon are considered. The second part will be devoted to modifications of manufacturing techniques for photoelectric converters, enhancement methods for contact structures, and recommendations of authors with respect to the choice of prospective technologies for the expansion of PEC production in Russia. It will involve formulations and substantiations of the most promising lines of the development of photoelectric

  12. Singularities of current-voltage characteristics of GaAs films fabricated by pulsed ions ablation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kabyshev, A.V.; Konusov, F.V.; Lozhnikov, S.N.; Remnev, G.E.; Saltymakov, M.S.

    2009-01-01

    A singularities and advantages of the optical, photoelectric and electrical properties of GaAs in comparison with other available materials for electronics, for example, silicon allow to manufacture on it base the devices having an advanced characteristics. The GaAs for electronics, obtained from the dense ablation plasma, possess some preferences as compared to material manufactured by traditional methods of vacuum deposition. The electrical characteristics of GaAs produced by chemical deposition were extensively studied. Purpose of this work is investigation the current-voltage characteristics of thin films of GaAs, deposited on polycrystalline corundum (polycor) from plasma forming the power ions bunch and determination of the thermal vacuum annealing effect on photoelectric and electrical properties of films. Peculiarities of optical, photoelectric and current-voltage characteristics of films obtained by ions ablation are determined by deposition conditions and resistance of initial target GaAs. The transitions between the states with low- and high conduction were revealed directly after deposition in films having the optical properties similar to amorphous materials and/or after annealing in films with properties similar to initial target GaAs. Behavior of current-voltage characteristics at vacuum annealing correlates with Schottky barrier height and photosensitivity and is accompanies of the transport mechanism change. The stable properties of films are formed at its dark conduction 10 -10 -10 -8 s and after annealing at T an =600-700 K. (authors)

  13. Photoelectric Properties of DSSCs Sensitized by Phloxine B and Bromophenol Blue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Penghui Ren

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Phloxine B and bromophenol blue as the sensitizers of dye-sensitized solar cells were investigated via UV-Vis spectra, FT-IR spectra, fluorescence spectra, and current-voltage characteristics. The frontier molecular orbital, vibration analysis, and the first hyperpolarizability were calculated with DFT/6-31G(d. The dipole moment, light harvesting efficiency (LHE, and larger absolute value of driving force of electron injection (ΔGinject were also discussed. The calculated results were compared with the experimental results of phloxine B and bromophenol blue. It was found that, compared with bromophenol blue, bigger dipole moment of phloxine B results in larger open circuit voltage (Voc according to the correlation between dipole moment and Voc. At the same time, for configuration of phloxine B, it has higher LHE and ΔGinject, which are helpful to enhance the abilities of absorbing sunlight and electron injection. Therefore, higher LHE and ΔGinject for phloxine B produced a larger value of Jsc.

  14. Influence of iodine on the electrical and photoelectrical properties of zinc phthalocyanine thin film devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharma, G.D. [Jodhpur Univ. (India). Dept. of Physics; Sangodkar, S.G. [Jodhpur Univ. (India). Dept. of Physics; Roy, M.S. [Camouflage Division, Defence Laboratory, Jodhpur (Raj.) (India)

    1996-11-01

    The electrical and photovoltaic properties of the zinc phthalocyanine (ZnPc) and I{sub 2} doped ZnPc thin films, sandwiched between indium tin oxide (ITO) and Al electrodes, were investigated. Doping with iodine brings adequate changes in the characteristics of the device. The devices constitute a metal-insulator-semiconductor (MIS) structure, in which depletion layer is formed in ZnPc, near Al-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}/ZnPc. The depletion layer width and potential barrier height decrease with I{sub 2} doping. The charge transport phenomenon at higher voltage range appears to be space charge limited conduction (SCLC), in the presence of the discrete trapping level. The position of Fermi level shifts toward the valence band edge, which indicates that I{sub 2} doping increases the P-type conductivity. Various electrical and photovoltaic parameters were determined from the J-V and C-V analysis. The influence of the I{sub 2} doping has been discussed in detail. (orig.)

  15. Double-gated Si NW FET sensors: Low-frequency noise and photoelectric properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gasparyan, F.; Khondkaryan, H.; Arakelyan, A.; Zadorozhnyi, I.; Pud, S.; Vitusevich, S.

    2016-01-01

    The transport, noise, and photosensitivity properties of an array of silicon nanowire (NW) p"+-p-p"+ field-effect transistors (FETs) are investigated. The peculiarities of photosensitivity and detectivity are analyzed over a wide spectrum range. The absorbance of p-Si NW shifts to the short wavelength region compared with bulk Si. The photocurrent and photosensitivity reach increased values in the UV range of the spectrum at 300 K. It is shown that sensitivity values can be tuned by the drain-source voltage and may reach record values of up to 2–4 A/W at a wavelength of 300 nm at room temperature. Low-frequency noise studies allow calculating the photodetectivity values, which increase with decreasing wavelength down to 300 nm. We show that the drain current of Si NW biochemical sensors substantially depends on pH value and the signal-to-noise ratio reaches the high value of 10"5. Increasing pH sensitivity with gate voltage is revealed for certain source-drain currents of pH-sensors based on Si NW FETs. The noise characteristic index decreases from 1.1 to 0.7 with the growth of the liquid gate voltage. Noise behavior is successfully explained in the framework of the correlated number-mobility unified fluctuation model. pH sensitivity increases as a result of the increase in liquid gate voltage, thus giving the opportunity to measure very low proton concentrations in the electrolyte medium at certain values of the liquid gate voltage.

  16. The present situation of photo-electric plants in the Sahel zone: Possibilities and limits of a marketing strategy using the example of the Niger. Zur gegenwaertigen Situation photovoltaischer Anlagen in der Sahelzone: Moeglichkeiten und Grenzen einer Vermarktungsstrategie am Beispiel des Niger

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hempel, C. (GTZ - Sonderenergieprogramm Niger, Niamey (Niger))

    1993-01-01

    The report is aimed at three targets: First one deals with the meteorological data as the basis for the technical design of photo-electric plants, secondly there is a short survey of the present situation of photo-electrics in Nigeria (referring also to other Sahel countries), and thirdly, the possibilities and limits of a marketing strategy for photo-electric plants are sketched out for this region. (orig.)

  17. [Influence of MnO3 on Photoelectric Performance in Organic Light Emitting Diodes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Yun-xia; Chen, Li-jia; Chen, Ping; Fu, Xiao-qiang; Niu, Lian-bin

    2016-03-01

    Organic Light Emitting Diodes (OLEDs) has been a promising new research point that has received much attention recently. Emission in a conventional OLED originates from the recombination of carriers (electrons and holes) that are injected from external electrodes. In the device, Electrons, on the other hand, are injected from the Al cathode to an electron-transporting layer and travel to the same emissive zone. Holes are injected from the transparent ITO anode to a hole-transporting layer and holes reach an emitting zone through the holetransporting layer. Electrons and holes recombine at the emissive film to formsinglet excited states, followed by emissive light. It is because OLED is basically an optical device and its structure consists of organic or inorganic layers of sub-wavelength thickness with different refractive indices. When the electron and holes are injected through the electrodes, they combine in the emission zone emitting the photons. These photons will have the reflection and transmission at each interface and the interference will determine the intensity profile. The emissive light reflected at the interfaces or the metallic electrode returns to the emissive layer and affects the radiation current efficiency. Microcavity OLED can produce saturated colors and narrow the emission spetrum as a new kind of technique. In the paper, we fabricate microcavity OLED using glass substrate. Ag film acts as the anode reflector mirror; NPB serves as the hole-transporting material; Alq3 is electron-transporting material and organic emissive material; Ag film acts as cathode reflector mirror. The microcavity OLED structures named as A, B, C and D are glass/Ag(15 nm)/MoO3 (x nm)/NPB(50 nm)/Alq3 (60 nm)/A1(100 nm). Here, A, x = 4 nm; B, x = 7 nm; C, x = 10 nm; D, x = 13 nm. The characteristic voltage, brightness and current of these devices are investigated in the electric field. The luminance from the Devices A, B, C and D reaches the luminance of 928, 1 369, 2

  18. First measurements of electron-beam transit times and micropulse elongation in a photoelectric injector at the High-Brightness Accelerator FEL (HIBAF)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lumpkin, A.H.; Carlsten, B.E.; Feldman, R.B.

    1990-01-01

    Key aspects of the dynamics of a photoelectric injector (PEI) on the Los Alamos High-Brightness Accelerator FEL (HIBAF) facility have been investigated using a synchroscan streak camera. By phase-locking the streak camera sweep to the reference 108.3 MHz rf signal, the variations of micropulse temporal elongations (30 to 80% over the drive-laser pulse length) and of transit times (25 ps for a 16{degree}-phase change) were observed for the first time. These results were in good agreement with PARMELA simulations. 2 refs., 8 figs.

  19. Mass production and photoelectric performances of P and Al Co-doped ZnO nanocrystals under different cooling post-processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deng, Ya-Juan; Lu, Yi; Liu, Jin-Ku; Yang, Xiao-Hong

    2015-01-01

    The phosphorus and aluminum co-doped in zinc oxide (ZnO) called PAZO nano-crystals (NCs) have been mass synthesized by a combustion method, which shows a preferable photocatalytic capability and conductive ability. This article focuses on the properties of PAZO NCs experienced by three cooling-down aftertreatments, which were the normalizing, quenching and annealing process, respectively. The influences of different cooling processes on the photocatalytic and conductive performances are discussed in details. From the research, we found the quenched-PAZO NCs showed the most unappealing photocatalysis and conductivity, because excessive defects as the recombination center of electron–hole pairs were generated in the quenching process. - Graphical abstract: This research focuses on the PAZO NCs experienced by different cooling-down aftertreatments, which were the normalizing, quenching and annealing process, respectively. The quenched-PAZO NCs had the most unappealing photocatalysis and conductivity, because of generating excessive defects as the recombination center of electron–hole pairs in the quenching process. - Highlights: • We presented a method to mass synthesize co-doped P and Al in ZnO nanocrystals. • The PAZO NCs have novel photoelectric performances. • The cooling post-process influence on the photoelectric properties was studied. • The excessive defects decline the photocatalytic and conductive activities

  20. THE FLOCCULATION MAXIMUM (pH) OF FIBRINOGEN AND SOME OTHER BLOOD-CLOTTING REAGENTS. (RELATIVE TURBIDIMETRY WITH THE EVELYN PHOTOELECTRIC COLORIMETER).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, J H

    1942-03-20

    By means of a novel adaptation of the Evelyn photoelectric colorimeter to the measurement of relative turbidities, the question of the flocculation maximum (F.M.) in acetate buffer solutions of varying pH and salt content has been studied on (a) an exceptionally stable prothrombin-free fibrinogen and its solutions after incipient thermal denaturation and incomplete tryptic proteolysis, (b) plasma, similarly treated, (c) prothrombin, thrombin, and (brain) thromboplastin solutions. All the fibrinogens show a remarkable uniformity of the precipitation pattern, viz. F.M. =4.7 (+/-0.2) pH in salt-containing buffer solutions and pH = 5.3 (+/-0.2) in salt-poor buffer (N/100 acetate). The latter approximates the isoelectric point (5.4) obtained by cataphoresis (14). There is no evidence that denaturation or digestion can produce any "second maximum." The data support the view that fibrin formation (under the specific influence of thrombin) is intrinsically unrelated to denaturation and digestion phenomena, although all three can proceed simultaneously in crude materials. A criticism is offered, therefore, of Wöhlisch's blood clotting theory. Further applications of the photoelectric colorimeter to coagulation problems are suggested, including kinetic study of fibrin formation and the assay of fibrinogen, with a possible sensitivity of 7.5 mg. protein in 100 cc. solution.

  1. Spectral and spatial resolving of photoelectric property of femtosecond laser drilled holes of GaSb(1-x)Bi(x).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, C B; Zha, F X; Song, Y X; Shao, J; Dai, Y; Chen, X R; Ye, J Y; Wang, S M

    2015-07-15

    Femtosecond laser drilled holes of GaSbBi were characterized by the joint measurements of photoconductivity (PC) spectroscopy and laser-beam-induced current (LBIC) mapping. The excitation light in PC was focused down to 60 μm presenting the spectral information of local electronic property of individual holes. A redshift of energy band edge of about 6-8 meV was observed by the PC measurement when the excitation light irradiated on the laser drilled holes. The spatial resolving of photoelectric property was achieved by the LBIC mapping which shows "pseudo-holes" with much larger dimensions than the geometric sizes of the holes. The reduced LBIC current with the pseudo-holes is associated with the redshift effect indicating that the electronic property of the rim areas of the holes is modified by the femtosecond laser drilling.

  2. Synthesis and photoelectrical performance of nanoscale PbS and Bi2S3 co-sensitized on Ti02 nanotube arrays

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fanggong Cai; Min Pan; Yong Feng; Guo Yan; Yong Zhang; Yong Zhao

    2017-01-01

    TiO2 films have been widely applied in photovoltaic conversion techniques.TiO2 nanotube arrays (TiO2 NAs) can be grown directly on the surface of metal Ti by the anodic oxidation method.Bi2S3 and PbS nanoparticles (NPs) were firstly co-sensitized on TiO2 NAs (denoted as PbS/Bi2S3(n)/TiO2 NAs) by a two-step process containing hydrothermal and sonication-assisted SILAR method.When the concentration of Bi3+ is 5 mmol/L,the best photoelectrical performance was obtained under simulated solar irradiation.The short-circuit photocurrent (Jsc) and photoconversion efficiency (η) of PbS/Bi2S3(5)/TiO2 NAs electrode were 4.70 mA/cm and 1.13 %,respectively.

  3. Decrease of oxygen vacancy by Zn-doped for improving solar-blind photoelectric performance in β-Ga2O3 thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Daoyou; Qin, Xinyuan; Lv, Ming; Shi, Haoze; Su, Yuanli; Yao, Guosheng; Wang, Shunli; Li, Chaorong; Li, Peigang; Tang, Weihua

    2017-11-01

    Highly (201) oriented Zn-doped β-Ga2O3 thin films with different dopant concentrations were grown on (0001) sapphire substrates by radio frequency magnetron sputtering. With the increase of Zn dopant concentration, the crystal lattice expands, the energy band gap shrinks, and the oxygen vacancy concentration decreases. Both the metal semiconductor metal (MSM) structure photodetectors based on the pure and Zn-doped β-Ga2O3 thin films exhibit solar blind UV photoelectric property. Compared to the pure β-Ga2O3 photodetector, the Zn-doped one exhibits a lower dark current, a higher photo/dark current ratio, a faster photoresponse speed, which can be attributed to the decreases of oxygen vacancy concentration.[Figure not available: see fulltext.

  4. Graphene quantum dot (GQD)-induced photovoltaic and photoelectric memory elements in a pentacene/GQD field effect transistor as a probe of functional interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Youngjun; Cho, Seongeun; Kim, Hyeran; Seo, Soonjoo; Lee, Hyun Uk; Lee, Jouhahn; Ko, Hyungduk; Chang, Mincheol; Park, Byoungnam

    2017-09-01

    Electric field-induced charge trapping and exciton dissociation were demonstrated at a penatcene/grapheme quantum dot (GQD) interface using a bottom contact bi-layer field effect transistor (FET) as an electrical nano-probe. Large threshold voltage shift in a pentacene/GQD FET in the dark arises from field-induced carrier trapping in the GQD layer or GQD-induced trap states at the pentacene/GQD interface. As the gate electric field increases, hysteresis characterized by the threshold voltage shift depending on the direction of the gate voltage scan becomes stronger due to carrier trapping associated with the presence of a GQD layer. Upon illumination, exciton dissociation and gate electric field-induced charge trapping simultaneously contribute to increase the threshold voltage window, which can potentially be exploited for photoelectric memory and/or photovoltaic devices through interface engineering.

  5. STAR FORMATION IN DISK GALAXIES. II. THE EFFECT OF STAR FORMATION AND PHOTOELECTRIC HEATING ON THE FORMATION AND EVOLUTION OF GIANT MOLECULAR CLOUDS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tasker, Elizabeth J.

    2011-01-01

    We investigate the effect of star formation and diffuse photoelectric heating on the properties of giant molecular clouds (GMCs) formed in high-resolution (∼ H,c >100 cm -3 are identified as GMCs. Between 1000 and 1500 clouds are created in the simulations with masses M>10 5 M sun and 180-240 with masses M>10 6 M sun in agreement with estimates of the Milky Way's population. We find that the effect of photoelectric heating is to suppress the fragmentation of the interstellar medium, resulting in a filamentary structure in the warm gas surrounding clouds. This environment suppresses the formation of a retrograde rotating cloud population, with 88% of the clouds rotating prograde with respect to the galaxy after 300 Myr. The diffuse heating also reduces the initial star formation rate (SFR), slowing the conversation of gas into stars. We therefore conclude that the interstellar environment plays an important role in the GMC evolution. Our clouds live between 0 and 20 Myr with a high infant mortality (t' < 3 Myr) due to cloud mergers and star formation. Other properties, including distributions of mass, size, and surface density, agree well with observations. Collisions between our clouds are common, occurring at a rate of ∼ 1/4 of the orbital period. It is not clear whether such collisions trigger or suppress star formation at our current resolution. Our SFR is a factor of 10 higher than observations in local galaxies. This is likely due to the absence of localized feedback in our models.

  6. Preparation and electric and photoelectric properties of thin deposits of Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Ag, Au and Pd

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heras, J.M.; Albano, E.V.; Asensio, M.C.; Viscido, L.

    1984-01-01

    The physics chemical properties of desordered metallic thin films of Fe, Co, Ni, Pd, Ag, Cu and Au are of great interest for its catalitic activity and for its application in radiation absorption of solar cells and micro electronic devices. This work has the purpose of reporting the experimental results obtained by evaporated films of these metals, which present desordered characteristics, small crystal size and high surface-volume rate. (A.C.A.S.) [pt

  7. Concept of dual-resolution light field imaging using an organic photoelectric conversion film for high-resolution light field photography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugimura, Daisuke; Kobayashi, Suguru; Hamamoto, Takayuki

    2017-11-01

    Light field imaging is an emerging technique that is employed to realize various applications such as multi-viewpoint imaging, focal-point changing, and depth estimation. In this paper, we propose a concept of a dual-resolution light field imaging system to synthesize super-resolved multi-viewpoint images. The key novelty of this study is the use of an organic photoelectric conversion film (OPCF), which is a device that converts spectra information of incoming light within a certain wavelength range into an electrical signal (pixel value), for light field imaging. In our imaging system, we place the OPCF having the green spectral sensitivity onto the micro-lens array of the conventional light field camera. The OPCF allows us to acquire the green spectra information only at the center viewpoint with the full resolution of the image sensor. In contrast, the optical system of the light field camera in our imaging system captures the other spectra information (red and blue) at multiple viewpoints (sub-aperture images) but with low resolution. Thus, our dual-resolution light field imaging system enables us to simultaneously capture information about the target scene at a high spatial resolution as well as the direction information of the incoming light. By exploiting these advantages of our imaging system, our proposed method enables the synthesis of full-resolution multi-viewpoint images. We perform experiments using synthetic images, and the results demonstrate that our method outperforms other previous methods.

  8. Report on the FY 1999 R and D survey on ultra-high sensitive photoelectric converter; 1999 nendo chokokando koden henkan soshi ni kansuru kenkyu kaihatsu chosa hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    By the ICB method which is one of the ion engineering methods, photomultipliers were formed using organic dye thin films. By changing the energy to bond traps on thin film/metal electrode interface and electric charges by change of acceleration energy of ion beams, a technology was developed for adjusting the optimum operating temperature between -20 degrees C and +100 degrees C. The wide range of operating temperature and favorable SN ratio can be realized. It was made clear that the dark current of the photomultiplier is composed of two components of contribution by the residual charge stored on the interface at photomultiplying and of contribution by charge injection from the Schottky barrier. Based on this, the residual electric charge removal method by heating and applied pulse voltage was developed. The development for practical use was studied of ultra-high sensitive photoelectric converters. As an intelligent photo sensor, a biomimetic visual photosensor was proposed which uses amplification/memory/arithmetic functions and film formation/processability of organic thin films. The paper also described the image sensor. (NEDO)

  9. B and V photoelectric photometry and light curve solution of the interacting binary systems HI Puppis, BL Eridani and SY Horologii

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kern, J.R.

    1985-01-01

    The first photoelectric observations of the eclipsing binary systems HI Puppis, BL Eridani, and SY Horologii were obtained and complete B and V light curves are presented. Improved light elements were derived for all three systems. The light curves of HI Puppis were analyzed by the three different computer models of Wilson and Devinney (1971), Binnendijk (1977), and Wood (1971) to get the geometrical and photometric elements of the system. HI Puppis, whose light curves show a total eclipse at secondary minimum, is shown to be a classic A-Type W Ursae Majoris system. The geometrical and photometric elements of BL Eridani were obtained from the analysis of the light curves using the method of Wilson and Devinney. The asymmetric nature of the light curve is treated as being due to the presence of an underluminous starspot on the primary component. The light curves of BL Eri show secondary eclipse to be total. The system is found to be a near contact system with the primary component filling its Roche lobe and the secondary nearly filling its lobe with a fill-out ratio of approximately 1.0. The light curves of SY Horologii were also subjected to the model of Wilson and Devinney. Both primary and secondary eclipses are partial

  10. Slow-Photon-Effect-Induced Photoelectrical-Conversion Efficiency Enhancement for Carbon-Quantum-Dot-Sensitized Inorganic CsPbBr3 Inverse Opal Perovskite Solar Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Shujie; Tang, Rui; Yin, Longwei

    2017-11-01

    All-inorganic cesium lead halide perovskite is suggested as a promising candidate for perovskite solar cells due to its prominent thermal stability and comparable light absorption ability. Designing textured perovskite films rather than using planar-architectural perovskites can indeed optimize the optical and photoelectrical conversion performance of perovskite photovoltaics. Herein, for the first time, this study demonstrates a rational strategy for fabricating carbon quantum dot (CQD-) sensitized all-inorganic CsPbBr 3 perovskite inverse opal (IO) films via a template-assisted, spin-coating method. CsPbBr 3 IO introduces slow-photon effect from tunable photonic band gaps, displaying novel optical response property visible to naked eyes, while CQD inlaid among the IO frameworks not only broadens the light absorption range but also improves the charge transfer process. Applied in the perovskite solar cells, compared with planar CsPbBr 3 , slow-photon effect of CsPbBr 3 IO greatly enhances the light utilization, while CQD effectively facilitates the electron-hole extraction and injection process, prolongs the carrier lifetime, jointly contributing to a double-boosted power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 8.29% and an increased incident photon-to-electron conversion efficiency of up to 76.9%. The present strategy on CsPbBr 3 IO to enhance perovskite PCE can be extended to rationally design other novel optoelectronic devices. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. The effect of Gd doping on the electrical and photoelectrical properties of Gd:ZnO/p-Si heterojunctions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baturay, Silan [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Dicle University, 21280 Diyarbakir (Turkey); Ocak, Yusuf Selim, E-mail: yusufselim@gmail.com [Department of Science, Faculty of Education, Dicle University, 21280 Diyarbakir (Turkey); Science and Technology Application and Research Center, Dicle University, 21280 Diyarbakir (Turkey); Kaya, Derya [Department of Physics, Institute of Natural Applied Sciences, Dicle University, 21280 Diyarbakir (Turkey)

    2015-10-05

    Highlights: • Undoped and Gd doped ZnO thin films were deposited onto p-Si semiconductor. • The Gd:ZnO/p-Si heterojunctions were compared with undoped ZnO/p-Si heterojunction. • A strong effect of Gd doping on the performance of the devices were reported. - Abstract: Undoped ZnO thin films, as well as 1%, 3% and 5% Gd-doped ZnO films, were deposited on p-type Si using spin coating. The structural properties of these thin films were analysed using X-ray diffraction, and the current–voltage (I–V) and capacitance–voltage (C–V) characteristics of the Gd:ZnO/p-Si heterojunctions were compared with those of the undoped ZnO/p-Si heterojunctions. We found that Gd doping had a strong effect on the performance of the devices, and that the Gd:ZnO/p-Si heterojunctions formed with 1% Gd-doped ZnO were the most strongly rectifying, and had the highest barrier height and the lowest series resistance. Furthermore, the I–V measurements of the 1% Gd-doped ZnO/p-Si heterojunction exhibited the strongest response to light.

  12. Immobilizing ternary Zn{sub X}Cd{sub 1−X}S on graphene via solvothermal method for enhanced photoelectric properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lei, Yun, E-mail: leiyun@whut.edu.cn; Chen, Feifei; Xu, Jun

    2015-12-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Composition-tunable Zn{sub X}Cd{sub 1−X}S-graphene were prepared with a one-step solvothermal process by varying Zn/Cd ratios. • The diffraction peaks move to higher angle and UV–vis spectra present a progressive blue-shift with the increase of x value. • A more efficient separation of photo-induced carriers and a faster interfacial charge transfer occurs on graphene-Zn{sub 0.8}Cd{sub 0.2}S. - Abstract: Ternary Zn{sub X}Cd{sub 1−X}S particles were directly immobilized on graphene sheets by a facile solvothermal route with zinc acetate, cadmium acetate and thiourea as precursors, ethylene glycol as reaction solvent and graphene oxide as support. The value of x could be adjusted by controlling the molar ratio of Zn and Cd precursors. The products were characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscope and ultraviolet–visible absorption. The photoelectric properties of the graphene-Zn{sub X}Cd{sub 1−X}S composites were investigated by transient photocurrent responses and electrochemical impedance spectra, and the results show that the obvious increase in the photocurrent density and decrease in electron-transfer resistance can be seen for graphene-Zn{sub 0.8}Cd{sub 0.2}S composites as compared to graphene-Zn{sub X}Cd{sub 1−X}S composites with other Zn/Cd ratios.

  13. A measuring method of photo-electric cross section. Application to high-Z elements between 40 keV and 220 keV. Measurement of K absorption edge energy of Au, Th, U, Pu

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chartier, J.-L.

    1977-09-01

    This study first describes a bent crystal monochromator developed for the production of monochromatic beams in a continuous energy range from 30 to 250 keV; it is completed by a metrological application of the device (determination of K absorption edge energy of Au, Th, U, Pu). A method and the associated experimental procedure were developed to measure the photo-electric cross section for high-Z elements; the results are presented with a relative uncertainty ranging between 3 and 6%. Finally, the experimental values are compared with values calculated from theories using self-consistent potential models [fr

  14. Effect of boron implantation on the electrical and photoelectrical properties of e-beam deposited Ag-In-Se thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colakoglu, T; Parlak, M; Kulakci, M; Turan, R

    2008-01-01

    In this study, e-beam evaporated Ag-In-Se (AIS) thin films were doped by the implantation of boron (B) ions at 75 keV with a dose of 1 x 10 15 ions cm -2 and a subsequent annealing process was applied to the doped AIS films at different temperatures under nitrogen atmosphere. The effects of implantation and annealing on the electrical and photoelectrical properties of AIS thin films were investigated through temperature dependent conductivity, spectral photoresponse and photoconductivity measurements under different illumination intensities. The electrical conductivity measurements showed that the room temperature conductivity values were determined as 2.4 x 10 -7 (Ω cm) -1 , 1.7 x 10 -6 (Ω cm) -1 and 8.9 x 10 -5 (Ω cm) -1 for B-doped films (B0), B-doped and annealed films at 200 deg. C (B2) and at 300 deg. C (B3), respectively. It was observed that the electrical conductivity improved as the annealing temperature increased up to 400 deg. C at which the AIS thin films showed degenerate semiconductor behaviour. The spectral distribution of the photoresponse curves indicated three local maxima located at 1.63, 1.79 and 2.01 eV for B0 type films, 1.65, 1.87 and 2.07 eV for B2 type films and 1.73, 2.02 and 2.32 eV for B3 type films at room temperature. These three different energy values were ascribed to the splitting of the valence band due to spin-orbit interaction and crystalline lattice field effects. The first energy values of each set were determined to be energy band gaps of the AIS thin films. The photoconductivity measurements as a function of temperature and illumination intensity were performed on the B-doped AIS thin films in order to determine the nature of recombination processes in the films. The photoconductivity values were found to be thermally quenched for all types of thin films and the variation of photocurrent as a function of illumination intensity showed that the dependence of photocurrent on the intensity was supralinear. The two

  15. Photoelectric charging of dust grains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ignatov, A. M.

    2009-01-01

    Photoemission from the surface of a dust grain in vacuum is considered. It is shown that the cutoff in the energy spectrum of emitted electrons leads to the formation of a steady-state electron cloud. The equation describing the distribution of the electric potential in the vicinity of a dust grain is solved numerically. The dust grain charge is found as a function of the grain size.

  16. Photoelectric observations of CH Cygni

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luud, L; Ruusalepp, M; Vennik, Ya

    1977-01-01

    UBV observations of the peculiar variable star CH Cygni from 1968 up to 1974 are presented. HD 182691 served as a comparison star. It turned out that the colours are in accordance with a model for a symbiotic star. The colour-magnitude diagrams of CH Cygni allow dividing the period of the observations into two parts in dependence on the activity of CH Cygni. Observed brightness variations are analyzed by using autocorrelation, crosscorrelation, and power spectral density functions. It has been found that brightness variations have some periods which are given.

  17. Studies on structural, optical, and photoelectric properties of CdS{sub 1-x}Se{sub x} films fabricated by selenization of chemical bath deposited CdS films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, Tianyu; Gu, Han; Ge, Zhenhua; Zhang, Lei; Wang, Zhicheng; Fang, Yong; Han, Zhida; Qian, Bin; Jiang, Xuefan [Department of Physics, Changshu Institute of Technology, Changshu (China); Wu, Wangping [School of Mechanical Engineering, Changzhou University, Changzhou (China)

    2017-02-15

    In this paper, high-photosensitive CdS{sub 1-x}Se{sub x} films are synthesized by a two-step technique, which includes the chemical bath deposition of CdS films and a following selenization process. The structural, optical, and photoelectric properties of the CdS{sub 1-x}Se{sub x} films were investigated. With the substitution of selenium for sulfur atoms, grain sizes of the as-prepared CdS{sub 1-x}Se{sub x} films are effectively enlarged and reach the scales of the films thickness when the selenization temperature exceeds 450 C. With increasing the selenization temperature from 350 to 550 C, the band gaps of CdS{sub 1-x}Se{sub x} films gradually decrease from 2.37 to 1.82 eV. Under the co-action of the grain-size enlargement and band-gap decrease, the CdS{sub 1-x}Se{sub x} films fabricated at 450 C show very pronounced photosensitivity. Noteworthy, the ratio of photo to dark conductivity of the CdS{sub 1-x}Se{sub x} film selenized at 450 C reaches 1.1 x 10{sup 5}, suggesting a promising application potential in the photoelectric devices. (copyright 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  18. Effects of Nb doping level on the electronic transport, photoelectric effect and magnetoresistance across La0.5Ca0.5MnO3/Nb:SrTiO3 junctions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, J. F.; Jiang, Y. C.; Chen, M. G.; Gao, J.

    2013-12-01

    Heterojunctions composed of La0.5Ca0.5MnO3 and Nb doped SrTiO3 were fabricated, and the effects of the Nb doping level on their electronic transport, photoelectric effect, and magnetoresistance were investigated. A lower doping concentration of Nb led to better rectifying properties and higher open circuit voltages. The I-V curves for La0.5Ca0.5MnO3/0.7 wt. % Nb-SrTiO3 showed a negligible response to magnetic fields for all temperatures, whereas La0.5Ca0.5MnO3/0.05 wt. % Nb-SrTiO3 exhibited distinct magnetoresistance, which depended on both the bias voltage and temperature. These results are discussed with the assistance of conventional semiconductor theories.

  19. ENERGY CHARACTERISTICS OF ETHANOL CHARACTERISTICS ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    eobe

    CHARACTERISTICS OF ETHANOL-DIESEL MIX FOR AUTOMOTIVE. DIESEL ... diesel engine and the engine speed, torque, power and specific fuel consumption (sfc) were determine .... heated on an electric stove and stirred continuously.

  20. Photoelectric guided AGV based on MC9S12XS128MAL%基于MC9S12XS128MAL控制的光电导引式AGV

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘波; 汪宇辰; 梁伟健; 叶波; 周杰

    2013-01-01

    Aiming at the drawbacks that automatic guided vehicles (AGV) are bulky and expensive,a system based on Freescale micro processor Mc9S12XS128MAL was used to design the economic photoelectric guided AGV system with the sophisticated intelligent car racing of the Froescale cup and the cheep electric wheelchairs.Experimental study on the ultrosonic sensors was carried out on a test rig.The obastacle distance in emergency was measured experimentally.The LCD module was introduced to display the real time velocity with using photoelectric encoders.Two brushless DC motors were used to drive the wheels,the deviation accumulated algorithm was proposed,The function was realized that the brushless DC motors successfully drive the AGV forward and to turn through differential control.At last,the control method was validated in the experiment.The results indicate that the AGV system is of quick dynamic response and stable operation,and the automatic control of the AGV is excellently realized.%针对目前国内自动导引运输车(AGV)体积大、价格贵的问题,在技术成熟的“飞思卡尔”智能汽车竞赛和价格低廉的电动轮椅车的基础上,设计了一款基于“飞思卡尔”MC9S12XS128MAL微处理器控制的经济型光电导引式AGV系统.在试验台上对超声波传感器进行了测试,确定了紧急情况下的避障距离;采用光电码盘测速,由液晶模块显示出AGV的实时速度;同时结合无刷直流电机驱动原理,提出了基于偏差累积算法的控制方法,实现了差动方式的无刷直流电机驱动AGV直线行驶和转弯的功能,最后通过实验验证了该控制方法的有效性.研究结果表明,此AGV系统响应迅速、运行稳定,很好地实现了AGV的自动控制.

  1. Light curve of the CX Cep eclipsing binary system and characteristics of a Wolf-Rayet star

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lipunova, N.A.; Cherepashchuk, A.M.

    1982-01-01

    The photoelectric B, V, R observations of the eclipsing Wolf-Rayet binary CX Cep (WN 5 + 08V, V approximately equal to 12sup(m),1, p approximately equal to 2sup(d),127) have been carried out. The physical characteristics of the WN 5 star, the core radius r 0 =(4.5+-2.5) Rsub(S) (Rsub(S) is the Sun radius) and the brightness temperature of the core Tsub(b)>50 000 K, are determined from the analysis of the light curve lambdasub(eff) approximately equal to 6 000 A. These characteristics are close to those of the WN 5 star in the eclipsing Wolf-Rayet binary V 444 Cyg. The results of the interpretation of the light curves of two eclipsing Wolf-Rayet binaries (V 444 Cyg and CX Cep) confirm the conclusions of the modern theory of evolution of massive close binary systems [ru

  2. The Effect of Metal-Semiconductor Contact on the Transient Photovoltaic Characteristic of HgCdTe PV Detector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haoyang Cui

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The transient photovoltaic (PV characteristic of HgCdTe PV array is studied using an ultrafast laser. The photoresponse shows an apparent negative valley first, then it evolves into a positive peak. By employing a combined theoretical model of pn junction and Schottky potential, this photo-response polarity changing curves can be interpreted well. An obvious decreasing of ratio of negative valley to positive peak can be realized by limiting the illumination area of the array electrode. This shows that the photoelectric effect of Schottky barrier at metal-semiconductor (M/S interface is suppressed, which will verify the correctness of the model. The characteristic parameters of transient photo-response induced from p-n junction and Schottky potential are extracted by fitting the response curve utilizing this model. It shows that the negative PV response induced by the Schottky barrier decreases the positive photovoltage generated by the pn junction.

  3. Photoelectric properties by interface effect of organic/inorganic(CuPc/PbTe) multilayer prepared by pulsed laser deposition and thermal evaporation

    CERN Document Server

    Lee, H Y; Choi, B C; Jeong, J H; Tabata, H; Kawai, T

    1999-01-01

    Highly crystallized CuPc/PbTe multilayer are prepared at substrate temperature from room temperature to 300 .deg. C by pulsed laser deposition and thermal evaporation method. From the measurement of AFM image, these all film exhibits composed of round grains and flat matrix. For observation the interface effect of multilayer, we measured the transverse current-voltage characteristics in the dark and under illumination. The photocarrier is generated in the CuPc layer and the electron-hole pairs are separated by the steep incline of the potential near the CuPc/PbTe interface. The CuPc/PbTe multilayers in the in-plane current-voltage curve exhibit larger photoconduction effect than that of CuPc single layer.

  4. Electrical, photoelectrical and morphological properties of ZnO nanofiber networks grown on SiO{sub 2} and on Si nanowires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vega, Nadia Celeste; Comedi, David [Universidad Nacional de Tucuman (FACET/UNT), (Argentina). Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Tecnologia. Dept. de Fisica. Lab. de Fisica del Solido; Audebert, Fernando [Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Cientificas y Tecnicas (CONICET) (Argentina); Tirado, Monica, E-mail: mtirado@herrera.unt.edu.ar [Universidad Nacional de Tucuman (FACET/UNT), (Argentina). Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Tecnologia. Dept. de Fisica. Lab. de Nanomateriales y de Propiedades Dielectricas; Rodriguez, Andres; Rodriguez, Tomas [Universidad Politecnica de Madrid (ETSIT/UPM), Madrid (Spain). Escuela Tecnica Superior de Ingenieros de Telecomucacion. Tecnologia Electronica; Hughes, Gareth M.; Grovenor, Chris R.M. [University of Oxford, Parks Road, OX (United Kingdom). Dept. of Materials

    2013-11-01

    ZnO nanofibre networks (NFNs) were grown by vapour transport method on Si-based substrates. One type of substrate was SiO{sub 2} thermally grown on Si and another consisted of a Si wafer onto which Si nanowires (NWs) had been grown having Au nanoparticles catalysts. The ZnO-NFN morphology was observed by scanning electron microscopy on samples grown at 600 Degree-Sign C and 720 Degree-Sign C substrate temperature, while an focused ion beam was used to study the ZnO NFN/Si NWs/Si and ZnO NFN/SiO{sub 2} interfaces. Photoluminescence, electrical conductance and photo conductance of ZnO-NFN was studied for the sample grown on SiO{sub 2}. The photoluminescence spectra show strong peaks due to exciton recombination and lattice defects. The ZnO-NFN presents quasi-persistent photoconductivity effects and ohmic I-V characteristics which become nonlinear and hysteretic as the applied voltage is increased. The electrical conductance as a function of temperature can be described by a modified three dimensional variable hopping model with nanometer-ranged typical hopping distances. (author)

  5. 基于红外光电传感器的智能寻迹小车设计%Design of intelligent-searching-track race car based on infrared photoelectric sensor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡媛媛; 邓世建; 王书婧

    2011-01-01

    寻迹小车可以看作是缩小化的智能汽车,对智能汽车的研究有一定的借鉴意义.采用飞思卡尔公司的MC9S12DG128B作为核心控制芯片,设计了通过红外光电传惠器检测路径信息的智能寻迹小车.该系统由处理器模块、路径识别模块、电机驱动模块、舵机驱动模块、车速检测模块、液晶显示模块与电源模块等组成.实际应用表明,该小车可以在专门设计的跑道上快速平稳地实现寻迹功能.%The tracing car can be regarded as the contractible intelligent vehicle. Its research has a certain significance for the intelligent car. By using Freescale company's devices MC9S12DG128B as the core control chip, this paper designed the intelligent tracing car to detection route information through the infrared photoelectric sensor. The system includes processor module, path recognition module, motor driver module, servo driver module, speed detection module, LCD module,power supply module and so on. The practical application shows that the car can rapidly and smoothly realize the tracing function in the runway of the special design.

  6. Characteristics of withstanding radiation damage of InP crystals and devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamaguchi, Masafumi; Ando, Koshi

    1988-01-01

    Recently, the authors discovered that the characteristics of with standing radiation damage of InP crystals and devices (solar cells) are superior to those of Si and GaAs crystals and devices. Also the restoration phenomena at room temperature of radiation deterioration and the accelerated anneal phenomena by light irradiation and the injection of other minority, carriers in InP system devices were found. Such excellent characteristics suggested that InP devices are promising for the use in space. In this paper, taking an example of solar cells, the radiation resistance characteristics and their mechanism of InP crystals and devices are reported, based on the results of analysis by deep level transient spectroscopy and others. In InP solar cells, the high efficiency of photoelectric conversion was maintained even in the high dose irradiation of 1 MeV electron beam. As the carrier concentration in InP crystals is higher, they are stronger against radiation. With the increase of carrier concentration, the rate of anneal of radiation deterioration at room temperature increased. The accelerated anneal effect by minority carrier injection was remarkable in n + -p junction cells. The excellent characteristics of InP crystals are due to the formation of Frenkel defects of P and their instability. (K.I.)

  7. A novel π–conjugated Zn⟵S→Zn unit interface in the ZnS/Zn(S){sub 2}L inorganic/orgainc hybrids for significant photoelectric response

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gao, Yuanhao, E-mail: gyh-2007@sohu.com [Key Laboratory of Micro–Nano Materials for Energy Storage and Conversion of Henan Province and Institute of Surface Micro and Nano Materials, Xuchang University, Xuchang 461000 (China); Zhang, Xiaofei; Wang, Peipei [College of Chemistry and Molecular Engineering, Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou 450000 (China); Lei, Yan, E-mail: leiyan361@163.com [Key Laboratory of Micro–Nano Materials for Energy Storage and Conversion of Henan Province and Institute of Surface Micro and Nano Materials, Xuchang University, Xuchang 461000 (China); Yang, Xiaognag; Fa, Wenjun [Key Laboratory of Micro–Nano Materials for Energy Storage and Conversion of Henan Province and Institute of Surface Micro and Nano Materials, Xuchang University, Xuchang 461000 (China); Niu, Helin [Department of Chemistry, Anhui University, Hefei 230039 (China); Zheng, Zhi [Key Laboratory of Micro–Nano Materials for Energy Storage and Conversion of Henan Province and Institute of Surface Micro and Nano Materials, Xuchang University, Xuchang 461000 (China)

    2017-04-30

    Highlights: • ZnS/Zn(S){sub 2}L is synthesized by using ZnS nanocrystals and Zn(S){sub 2}L complex. • There is a novel Zn⟵S→Zn unit interface in ZnS/Zn(S){sub 2}L hybrid system. • Luminescence quantum efficiency of ZnS/Zn(S){sub 2}L is up to 69%. • The π–conjugated Zn⟵S→Zn bridge enhanced the electron transfer effectively. - Abstract: By using a novel Zn(S){sub 2}L complex (L = N–hexyl–3–{2–(4–(2,2′:6′,2′′–terpyridin–4′–yl)phenyl)ethenyl}carbazole) as a surface stabilizing agent, the self–assembled microspheres of Zn(S){sub 2}L–capped ZnS nanocrystals are obtained in a simple ethanol solvothermal process. Because of the strong π character of the two terminal sulfur atoms (S{sup 1–} valence state) in the Zn(S){sub 2}L complex, the Zn(S){sub 2}L complex could incorporate ZnS nanocrystals together by a homologous Zn⟵S→Zn unit interface. In the work, the homologous Zn⟵S→Zn unit interface is proposed to function as a π–conjugated bridge for effective electron–transfer transition from Zn(S){sub 2}L moiety to ZnS nanocrystal to significantly improve the photoelectric response performance, such as the long lifetime of photogenerated charge carriers from 8 × 10{sup −8} s to 4 × 10{sup −5} s and the high recombination luminescence quantum efficiency (QE) up to 69%, which are confirmed by the systematically investigation with Raman spectra, XPS spectra, Uv–vis absorption spectra, photoluminescence (PL) spectra and transient photovoltage (TPV) technique. The ZnS/Zn(S){sub 2}L used as extra electron donor in organic/inorganic hybrid solar cell device could increase performance up to about 30%.

  8. Fluorescence imaging of reactive oxygen species by confocal laser scanning microscopy for track analysis of synchrotron X-ray photoelectric nanoradiator dose: X-ray pump-optical probe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, Jae Kun; Han, Sung Mi; Kim, Jong Ki

    2016-09-01

    penetration by nanoradiators. In conclusion, the combined use of a synchrotron X-ray microbeam-irradiated three-dimensional ROS gel and confocal laser scanning fluorescence microscopy provides a simple dosimetry method for track analysis of X-ray photoelectric nanoradiator radiation, suggesting extensive cellular damage with dose-enhancement beyond a single cell containing IONs.

  9. Hard X-ray Photoelectric Polarimeter

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Our objective is to determine the gas mixtures and pressures that would enable a sensitive, hard X-ray polarimeter using existing flight components with the goal of...

  10. Application of AXUV photoelectric diode detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Guogang; Pan Ningdong; Liu Yi

    2006-01-01

    Based on the photo-voltage effect of PN junction, two kinds of detector are introduced. Newly designed AXUV (Absolute Extreme Ultra Violet) photodiodes array radiation diagnostic system is installed in the HA-2A tokamak device. The advantages of AXUV detector are its near theoretical high quantum efficiency, high sensitivity, high responsibility, electromagnetic and vibration immunity, low price. (authors)

  11. Photoelectric sensor output controlled by eyeball movements

    Science.gov (United States)

    1965-01-01

    The difference between the infrared absorption of the iris and infrared reflectivity of the eyeball controls the operation of a device consisting of an infrared source and amplifier, a cadmium selenide infrared sensor, and an infrared filter.

  12. Photoelectric Radial Velocities, Paper XIX Additional Spectroscopic ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ian velocity curve that does justice to the measurements, but it cannot be expected to have much predictive power. Key words. Stars: late-type—stars: radial velocities—spectroscopic binaries—orbits. 0. Preamble. The 'Redman K stars' are a lot of seventh-magnitude K stars whose radial velocities were first observed by ...

  13. Photoelectric observations of propagating sunspot oscillations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lites, B.W.; White, O.R.; Packman, D.

    1982-01-01

    The Sacramento Park Observatory Vacuum Tower Telescope and diode array were used to make repeated intensity and velocity images of a large, isolated sunspot in both a chromospheric (lambda8542 Ca II) and a photospheric (lambda5576 Fe I) line. The movie of the digital data for the chromospheric line shows clearly a relationship between the propagating umbral disturbances and the running penumbral waves. The velocities for transverse propagating of the umbral and penumbral disturbances are 60--70 km s -1 and 20--35 km s -1 , respectively. Power spectra of the oscillations show a sharp peak at a period of about 170 s in both the velocity and intensity signals. The rms velocity fluctuation of this power peak is 0.26 km s -1 . The oscillations at any given point in the sunspot are very regular, and the phase relationship between the velocity and intensity of the chromospheric oscillations is radically different than that for the quiet Sun. Our preliminary interpretation of the phase relationship involves acoustic waves with wave vector directed downwards along the magnetic field lines; however, this interpretation relies on assumptions involved in the data reduction scheme. The mechanical energy flux carried by the observed umbral disturbances does not appear to be a significant contributor to the overall energy budget of the sunspot or the surrounding active region

  14. Characteristics of Multihole Collimator Gamma Camera Simulation Modeled Using MCNP5

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saripan, M. I.; Mashohor, S.; Adnan, W. A. Wan; Marhaban, M. H.; Hashim, S.

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes the characteristics of the multihole collimator gamma camera that is simulated using the combination of the Monte Carlo N-Particles Code (MCNP) version 5 and in-house software. The model is constructed based on the GCA-7100A Toshiba Gamma Camera at the Royal Surrey County Hospital, Guildford, Surrey, UK. The characteristics are analyzed based on the spatial resolution of the images detected by the Sodium Iodide (NaI) detector. The result is recorded in a list-mode file referred to as a PTRAC file within MCNP5. All pertinent nuclear reaction mechanisms, such as Compton and Rayleigh scattering and photoelectric absorption are undertaken by MCNP5 for all materials encountered by each photon. The experiments were conducted on Tl-201, Co-57, Tc-99 m and Cr-51 radio nuclides. The comparison of full width half maximum value of each datasets obtained from experimental work, simulation and literature are also reported in this paper. The relationship of the simulated data is in agreement with the experimental results and data obtained in the literature. A careful inspection at each of the data points of the spatial resolution of Tc-99 m shows a slight discrepancy between these sets. However, the difference is very insignificant, i.e. less than 3 mm only, which corresponds to a size of less than 1 pixel only (of the segmented detector)

  15. Bistable impurity centers in silicon. Temperature dependent characteristics of electro- and thermophysical parameters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Musaeva, L F; Igamberdiev, Kh T; Mamadalimov, A T; Khabibullaev, P K [AS RU, Heat Physics Department, Tashkent (Uzbekistan)

    2003-09-01

    On the basis of experimental data covering temperature dependencies of photoelectric and thermodynamic properties of silicon containing defects the possible physical mechanisms of defect center transformation in the silicon lattice and of phase transitions are discussed. (author)

  16. Bistable impurity centers in silicon. Temperature dependent characteristics of electro- and thermophysical parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Musaeva, L.F.; Igamberdiev, Kh.T.; Mamadalimov, A.T.; Khabibullaev, P.K.

    2003-01-01

    On the basis of experimental data covering temperature dependencies of photoelectric and thermodynamic properties of silicon containing defects the possible physical mechanisms of defect center transformation in the silicon lattice and of phase transitions are discussed. (author)

  17. Investigating the effect of K-characteristic radiation on the performance of nuclear medicine scintillators by Monte Carlo methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liaparinos, Panagiotis; Kandarakis, Ioannis; Cavouras, Dionisis; Delis, Harry; Panayiotakis, George

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of K-characteristic radiation on the performance of scintillator crystals incorporated in nuclear medicine detectors (LSO, BGO, GSO). K-characteristic radiation is produced within materials of at least one high atomic number element (e.g. Lu, Gd, Bi). This radiation may either be reabsorbed or it may escape the scintillator. In both cases the light emission efficiency of the scintillator may be affected resulting in either spatial or energy resolution degradation. A computational program, based on Monte Carlo methods, was developed in order to simulate the transport of K-characteristic radiation within the most commonly used scintillator materials. Crystal thickness was allowed to vary from 0.5 up to 15 mm. A monoenergetic pencil beam, with energy varying from 0.60 to 0.511 MeV was considered to fall on the center of the crystal surface. The dominant γ-ray interactions (elastic and inelastic scattering and photoelectric absorption) were taken into account in the simulation. Results showed that, depending on crystal thickness, incident photon energy and scintillator's intrinsic properties (L or K-fluorescence yield, effective atomic number and density), the scintillator's emission efficiency may be significantly reduced and affect spatial or energy resolution

  18. FY 2000 report on the survey of the development of high efficiency photoelectric conversion compounds. Plan on the Light for the 21st Century; 2000 nendo kokoritsu denko henkan kagobutsu handotai kaihatsu seika hokokusho. 21 seiki no akari keikaku

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    The paper described the results of the FY 2000 R and D on the Plan on the Light for the 21st Century. For the purpose of developing the white light emitting diode lighting technology, the results were obtained in the following four items: 1) basic study on the light emitting mechanism; 2) epitaxial growth in blue light/ultra violet LED and evaluation of LED characteristics; 3) substrates and characteristics for homo-epitaxial growth; 4) basic characteristics of phosphor and white light LED lighting use light source. In 1), for the purpose of clarifying the light emitting mechanism in InGaN mixed crystal semiconductor and InGaN/GaN quantum well structure, temperature dependency of time resolved light emitting spectroscopy and selective excitation light emitting spectroscopy was measured to get information/knowledge. In 2), evaluated were characteristics of multi-quantum well UV-LED composed of AlGaN/InGaN. In 3), in the GaN crystal growth by the pressure control solution growth method, studied were effects of the increasing speed of nitrogen pressure on the size of GaN monocrystal and the surface state. In 4), verified were the measuring method of quantum efficiency of three primary color phosphor materials and problems on the measured values. (NEDO)

  19. Characteristics of early psychosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schothorst, P.F.; Emck, C.; van Engeland, H.

    2006-01-01

    There is little research on characteristics related to course and prognosis of early-onset psychosis. The present article aims to advance our knowledge of this disorder for the purpose of proper diagnosis and treatment. It focuses on premorbid and prodromal characteristics, treatment history,

  20. Characteristics of Successful Entrepreneurs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClelland, David C.

    1987-01-01

    Comparison of characteristics of 12 average and 12 superior small business people in three developing nations (India, Malawi, and Ecuador) found proactive qualities such as initiative and assertiveness, achievement orientation, and commitment to others characteristic of successful entrepreneurs. Other expected qualities (self-confidence,…

  1. Capstone Required System Characteristics

    OpenAIRE

    2004-01-01

    roll roll Interactive Media Element This interactive illustration provides information about the characteristics of satellite communication systems, and the characteristics associated with each of the four categories of space segment (constellation of communication satellites). The four categories are: Narrowband (UHF) , Wideband (SHF), Protected (EHF), CommercialSimple mouseover interactions are used to reveal individual pieces of information. SS3613 Military Satellite Communi...

  2. Annealing effect on I-V characteristic of n-ZnO-p-InSe heterojunction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kovalyuk Z. D.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to studying of influence of vacuum low-temperature annealing on the electrical and photoelectric characteristics of n-ZnO-p-InSe heterostructure. Indium monoselenide (InSe is a semiconductor of the A3B6 group of layered compounds. The basic unit consists of two planes of metal atoms sandwiched between two planes of chalcogen atoms (Se-In-In-Se. The absence of dangling bonds on InSe cleaved surface makes it possible to use this semiconductor as a substrate for fabrication of heterostructures based on semiconductor materials with different symmetries and lattice spacings. Zinc oxide (ZnO is the most suitable material for window materials and solar cells buffer layers application due to its marvelous transparency in the range of visible region. InSe single crystals were grown by the Bridgman technique from a nonstoichiometric melt and characterized by a pronounced layered structure along the whole length of a sample. ZnO thin oxide film was formed on freshly cleaved van der Waals surface of InSe layered crystal. n-ZnO-p-InSe heterostructure was prepared by the method of high-frequency magnetron sputtering. Sensitivity spectral areas were identified by MDR-3 monochromator with a resolution of 2.6 nm/mm. The current-voltage characteristics of the n-ZnO-p-InSe heterostructures showed a clearly pronounced diode character. In the forward bias of the initial samples, the diode factor had the value 3.7 at room temperature. It is shown that vacuum low-temperature annealing reduces shunt currents of the heterojunction, which is reflected in the decrease in the values of n from 3.7 to 2.7.

  3. Payment Instrument Characteristics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holst, Jacques; Kjeldsen, Martin; Hedman, Jonas

    2015-01-01

    Over the last decade, we have witnessed payment innovations that fundamentally have changed the ways we pay. Payment innovations, such as mobile payments and on-line banking, include characteristics or features that are essential to understand if we want to know how and why payers choose among...... payment innovations. Using the Repertory Grid technique to explore 15 payers’ perception of six payment instruments, including coins, banknotes, debit cards, credit cards, mobile payments, and on-line banking, we identify 16 payment characteristics. The characteristics aggregate seventy-six unique...

  4. Work Practice Characteristics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pors, Jens Kaaber; Simonsen, Jesper

    2003-01-01

    and work practice. To understand these issues a framework of characteristics is identified and termed work practice characteristics to describe important aspects of the hybrid configuration of groupware and situated work practices. Drawing on concepts and work practice studies in the field of computer...... investigation of how groupware is employed to support new ways of working in a large European financial organisation are analysed to illustrate situations with high and low integration of groupware. The framework of work practice characteristics is discussed in the light of these findings and implications...

  5. Detailed tabulation of atomic form factors, photoelectric absorption and scattering cross section, and mass attenuation coefficients in the vicinity of absorption edges in the soft X-ray (Z=30-36, Z=60-89, E=0.1 keV-10 keV), addressing convergence issues of earlier work

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chantler, C.T.

    2000-01-01

    Reliable knowledge of the complex x-ray form factor [Re(f ) ] and the photoelectric attenuation coefficient (σ PE ) is required for crystallography, medical diagnosis, radiation safety, and XAFS studies. Discrepancies between currently used theoretical approaches of 200% exist for numerous elements from 1 to 3 keV x-ray energies. The key discrepancies are due to the smoothing of edge structure, the use of nonrelativistic wave functions, and the lack of appropriate convergence of wave functions. This paper addresses these key discrepancies and derives new theoretical results of substantially higher accuracy in near-edge soft x-ray regions. The high-energy limitations of the current approach are also illustrated. The energy range covered is 0.1 to 10 keV. The associated figures and tabulation demonstrate the current comparison with alternate theory and with available experimental data. In general, experimental data are not sufficiently accurate to establish the errors and inadequacies of theory at this level. However, the best experimental data and the observed experimental structure as a function of energy are strong indicators of the validity of the current approach. New developments in experimental measurement hold great promise in making critical comparisons with theory in the near future

  6. Flammability characteristics of LPG

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cardillo, Paolo

    2005-01-01

    The use of LPG is continuous increase not only in the domestic field but also in the field of the transports. Consequently, there is a renewed interest for its flammability characteristics in order to decide the necessary conditions of safety. The main components of LPG are hydrocarbons containing three or four carbon atoms. The normal components of LPG are propane and butane; small concentrations of other hydrocarbons (isobutene, propylene, butane, ethane, pentane) may also be present. Different mixtures of LGP have different and physical characteristics with a different behavior during the use. Also flammability characteristics can be different according to the composition. In this paper at firsts the flammability characteristics of the main components of LGP, taken singularly, are examinated; subsequently some examples of calculation of the flammability limits of different mixture are reported [it

  7. PRODUCTIVITY CHARACTERISTICS AND DEVELOPMENT ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ACSS

    2016-02-23

    Feb 23, 2016 ... The pulp and kernels of the fruit are the only by-products marketed by women and mainly girls who .... characteristics of trees and fruit involved, 30 adult hermaphrodite ..... Ethnobotanical research and traditional health care in.

  8. MAX Provider Characteristics

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The MAX Provider Characteristics (PC) File Implementation Report describes the design, implementation, and results of the MAXPC prototype, which was based on three...

  9. Resident Characteristics Report

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — The Resident Characteristics Report summarizes general information about households who reside in Public Housing, or who receive Section 8 assistance. The report...

  10. Database on Wind Characteristics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Højstrup, J.; Ejsing Jørgensen, Hans; Lundtang Petersen, Erik

    1999-01-01

    his report describes the work and results of the project: Database on Wind Characteristics which was sponsered partly by the European Commision within the framework of JOULE III program under contract JOR3-CT95-0061......his report describes the work and results of the project: Database on Wind Characteristics which was sponsered partly by the European Commision within the framework of JOULE III program under contract JOR3-CT95-0061...

  11. TRIGA reactor characteristics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boeck, H.; Villa, M.

    2007-01-01

    This module describes the general design, characteristics and parameters of TRIGA reactors and fuels. It is recommended that most of this information should be incorporated into any reactor operator training program and, in many cases, the facility Safety Analysis Report. It is oriented to teach the basics of the physics and mechanical design of the TRIGA fuel as well as its unique operational characteristics and the differences between TRIGA fuels and others more traditional reactor fuels. (nevyjel)

  12. Housing characteristics 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-06-01

    This report, Housing Characteristics 1993, presents statistics about the energy-related characteristics of US households. These data were collected in the 1993 Residential Energy Consumption Survey (RECS) -- the ninth in a series of nationwide energy consumption surveys conducted since 1978 by the Energy Information Administration of the US Department of Energy. Over 7 thousand households were surveyed, representing 97 million households nationwide. A second report, to be released in late 1995, will present statistics on residential energy consumption and expenditures.

  13. Synthesis, DFT band structure calculations, optical and photoelectrical characterizations of the novel 5-hydroxy-4-methoxy-7-oxo-7H-furo[3,2-g]chromene-6-carbonitrile (HMOFCC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Magdy A.; Halim, Shimaa Abdel; Roushdy, N.; Farag, A. A. M.; El-Gohary, Nasser M.

    2017-11-01

    Reaction of 4-methoxy-5-oxo-5H-furo[3,2-g]chromene-6-carboxaldehyde (1) with hydroxylamine hydrochloride resulted in ring transformation producing the novel 5-hydroxy-4-methoxy-7-oxo-7H-furo[3,2-g]chromene-6-carbonitrile (HMOFCC). The structure was deduced based on its correct elemental analysis and spectral data (IR, 1H NMR, 13C NMR and mass spectra). The geometries of the HMOFCC were completely optimized by means of DFT-B3LYP/6-311++G (d,p) theoretical level. The ground state properties such as; total energy, the energy of HOMO and LUMO and Mulliken atomic charges were also determined. In addition, the two solvents; polar (methanol) and nonpolar (dioxane) were utilized to extract the electronic absorption spectra. The assignment of the detected bands was discussed by TD-DFT calculations. A cauliflower-like, as well as, needle-like leaves morphologies were observed using scanning electron microscope images. Two direct optical band gaps were extracted from the photon energy dependence of absorption coefficient at the band edges and found to be 1.16 and 2.56 eV. A characteristic emission peak of photoluminescence spectrum was observed and shifted depending on the solvent type. A remarkable rectification characteristic of HMOFCC/p-Si heterojunction confirms the diode-like behavior. The main important parameters like series resistance, shunt resistance and reverse saturation current show illumination dependence under influence of the illumination intensity range 20-100 mW/cm2. The heterojunction based HMOFCC showed phototransient properties under various illumination intensities which give the recommendation for the studied heterojunction in the field of optoelectronic device application.

  14. Commercial Buildings Characteristics, 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-04-29

    Commercial Buildings Characteristics 1992 presents statistics about the number, type, and size of commercial buildings in the United States as well as their energy-related characteristics. These data are collected in the Commercial Buildings Energy Consumption Survey (CBECS), a national survey of buildings in the commercial sector. The 1992 CBECS is the fifth in a series conducted since 1979 by the Energy Information Administration. Approximately 6,600 commercial buildings were surveyed, representing the characteristics and energy consumption of 4.8 million commercial buildings and 67.9 billion square feet of commercial floorspace nationwide. Overall, the amount of commercial floorspace in the United States increased an average of 2.4 percent annually between 1989 and 1992, while the number of commercial buildings increased an average of 2.0 percent annually.

  15. Main Characteristics of LCA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørn, Anders; Owsianiak, Mikołaj; Molin, Christine

    2017-01-01

    Life cycle assessment (LCA) has a number of defining characteristics that enables it to address questions that no other assessment tools can address. This chapter begins by demonstrating how the use of LCA in the late 2000s led to a drastic shift in the dominant perception that biofuels were “green......”, “sustainable” or “carbon neutral”, which led to a change in biofuel policies . This is followed by a grouping of the LCA characteristics into four headlines and an explanation of these: (1) takes a life cycle perspective , (2) covers a broad range of environmental issues, (3) is quantitative, (4) is based...... on science. From the insights of the LCA characteristics we then consider the strengths and limitations of LCA and end the chapter by listing 10 questions that LCA can answer and 3 that it cannot....

  16. Gender and Learner Characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hindal, Huda; Reid, Norman; Whitehead, Rex

    2013-01-01

    It is well established that girls and boys perform differently in traditional examinations in most countries. This study looks at a sample of 754 school students in Kuwait (aged about 13) and explores how boys and girls differ in the performance in a range of tests related to learner characteristics. The fundamental question is how boys and girls…

  17. Characteristic of pandemic virus

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Graphics. Characteristic of pandemic virus. The virus was highly transmissible. Risk of hospitalization was 2X and risk of death was about 11X more in comparison to seasonal influenza. Virus continues to be susceptible to Osaltamivir, the only drug available. Vaccines are available but ...

  18. Personality characteristics and epilepsy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, A S; Hansen, H; Andersen, R

    1989-01-01

    Patients with a long history of temporal lobe epilepsy or primary generalized epilepsy entered a questionnaire study of personality characteristics, based on a modification of the Bear-Fedio inventory for temporal lobe behavioural syndrome. Psoriasis patients and healthy volunteers served...

  19. Characteristics of synchrotron radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, G.S.

    1984-01-01

    The characteristics and production of synchrotron radiation are qualitatively discussed. The spectral properties of wigglers and undulators are briefly described. Possible applications in condensed matter physics are outlined. These include atomic and molecular studies, crystallography, impurities in solids and radiographic imaging

  20. Structural, Optical, Electrical and Photoelectrical Properties of 2-Amino-4-(5-bromothiophen-2-yl)-5,6-dihydro-6-methyl-5-oxo-4 H-pyrano[3,2-c] quinoline-3-carbonitrile Films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansour, A. M.; El-Taweel, F. M. A.; Abu El-Enein, R. A. N.; El-Menyawy, E. M.

    2017-12-01

    2-Amino-4-(5-bromothiophen-2-yl)-5,6-dihydro-6-methyl-5-oxo-4 H-pyrano[3,2-c] quinoline-3-carbonitrile (ABDQC) powder was synthesized and showed thermal stability up to 535 K. ABDQC films were successfully prepared using thermal evaporation. X-ray diffraction showed that the prepared ABDQC powder had a polycrystalline structure, whereas the deposited film had an amorphous structure. The surface morphology of the films was characterized by using a transmission electron microscope. Optical absorption properties of ABDQC films were investigated by spectrophotometric measurements of the transmittance and reflectance in the wavelength range 200-2500 nm. The films were found to have indirect allowed optical band gap of 2.5 eV. Current-voltage characteristics of Au/ABDQC/ p-Si/Al were measured at different temperatures (300-420 K) in which the temperature dependence of the diode parameters has been discussed. Under illumination, the device showed open-circuit voltage and short-circuit current of 0.09 V and 3.26 × 10-4 A, respectively.

  1. Retail Lamps Study 3.1: Dimming, Flicker, and Power Quality Characteristics of LED A Lamps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Royer, Michael P. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Poplawski, Michael E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Brown, Charles C. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2014-12-01

    To date, all three reports in the retail lamps series have focused on basic performance parameters, such as lumen output, efficacy, and color quality. This report goes a step further, examining the photoelectric characteristics (i.e., dimming and flicker) of a subset of lamps from CALiPER Retails Lamps Study 3. Specifically, this report focuses on the dimming, power quality, and flicker characteristics of 14 LED A lamps, as controlled by four different retail-available dimmers. The results demonstrate notable variation across the various lamps, but little variation between the four dimmers. Overall, the LED lamps: ~tended to have higher relative light output compared to the incandescent and halogen benchmark at the same dimmer output signal (RMS voltage). The lamps’ dimming curves (i.e., the relationship between control signal and relative light output) ranged from linear to very similar to the square-law curve typical of an incandescent lamp. ~generally exhibited symmetrical behavior—the same dimming curve—when measured proceeding from maximum to minimum or minimum to maximum control signal. ~mostly dimmed below 10% of full light output, with some exceptions for specific lamp and dimmer combinations ~exhibited a range of flicker characteristics, with many comparing favorably to the level typical of a magnetically-ballasted fluorescent lamp through at least a majority of the dimming range. ~ always exceeded the relative (normalized) efficacy over the dimming range of the benchmark lamps, which rapidly decline in efficacy when they are dimmed. This report generally does not attempt to rank the performance of one product compared to another, but instead focuses on the collective performance of the group versus conventional incandescent or halogen lamps, the performance of which is likely to be the baseline for a majority of consumers. Undoubtedly, some LED lamps perform better—or more similar to conventional lamps—than others. Some perform desirably for one

  2. Characteristics of healthcare wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diaz, L.F.; Eggerth, L.L.; Enkhtsetseg, Sh.; Savage, G.M.

    2008-01-01

    A comprehensive understanding of the quantities and characteristics of the material that needs to be managed is one of the most basic steps in the development of a plan for solid waste management. In this case, the material under consideration is the solid waste generated in healthcare facilities, also known as healthcare waste. Unfortunately, limited reliable information is available in the open literature on the quantities and characteristics of the various types of wastes that are generated in healthcare facilities. Thus, sound management of these wastes, particularly in developing countries, often is problematic. This article provides information on the quantities and properties of healthcare wastes in various types of facilities located in developing countries, as well as in some industrialized countries. Most of the information has been obtained from the open literature, although some information has been collected by the authors and from reports available to the authors. Only data collected within approximately the last 15 years and using prescribed methodologies are presented. The range of hospital waste generation (both infectious and mixed solid waste fractions) varies from 0.016 to 3.23 kg/bed-day. The relatively wide variation is due to the fact that some of the facilities surveyed in Ulaanbaatar include out-patient services and district health clinics; these facilities essentially provide very basic services and thus the quantities of waste generated are relatively small. On the other hand, the reported amount of infectious (clinical, yellow bag) waste varied from 0.01 to 0.65 kg/bed-day. The characteristics of the components of healthcare wastes, such as the bulk density and the calorific value, have substantial variability. This literature review and the associated attempt at a comparative analysis point to the need for worldwide consensus on the terms and characteristics that describe wastes from healthcare facilities. Such a consensus would greatly

  3. Rectangular drift tube characteristics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Denisov, D.S.; Musienko, Yu.V.

    1985-01-01

    Results on the study of the characteristics of a 50 x 100 mm aluminium drift tube are presented. The tube was filled with argon-methane and argon-isobutane mixtures. With 16 per cent methane concentration the largest deviation from a linear relation between the drift time and the drift path over 50 mm is less than 2 mm. The tube filled with argon-isobutane mixture is capable of operating in a limited streamer mode

  4. Pump characteristics and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Volk, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Providing a wealth of information on pumps and pump systems, Pump Characteristics and Applications, Third Edition details how pump equipment is selected, sized, operated, maintained, and repaired. The book identifies the key components of pumps and pump accessories, introduces the basics of pump and system hydraulics as well as more advanced hydraulic topics, and details various pump types, as well as special materials on seals, motors, variable frequency drives, and other pump-related subjects. It uses example problems throughout the text, reinforcing the practical application of the formulae

  5. Personality characteristics and epilepsy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, A S; Hansen, H; Andersen, R

    1989-01-01

    as controls. Four clinical meaningful dimensions of included personality traits were identified: ixoide, ideational, obsessive-compulsive and affective features. Analyses based on the Rasch model approved of all dimensions except for affective features. The epilepsy group obtained the highest scores on all 3......Patients with a long history of temporal lobe epilepsy or primary generalized epilepsy entered a questionnaire study of personality characteristics, based on a modification of the Bear-Fedio inventory for temporal lobe behavioural syndrome. Psoriasis patients and healthy volunteers served...... dysfunction in the epilepsy group, the mere presence of a chronic disorder with potential social stigmatization influences personality....

  6. Characteristics of past smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, I; Tominaga, S; Suzuki, T

    1989-06-01

    We studied characteristics of past smokers according to the duration of cessation of smoking based on data from a population-based survey. Lifestyle, prevalences of various symptoms and diseases and other factors were compared among current smokers (8507 males and 2012 females), past smokers (4423 males and 684 females) and non-smokers (2431 males and 12,859 females) aged 40 years and over. Compared to current smokers, past smokers consumed more bread, milk, vegetables, fruit and black tea, and less rice, pickles, instant noodles, coffee and alcohol, had lower prevalences of cough, sputum and anorexia, participated more in cancer screening tests, weighed more, included more professional and administrative workers and had more non-smoking spouses. These characteristics resembled those of non-smokers. But past smokers had high prevalences of several cardiovascular and respiratory diseases compared to current smokers. Daily intake of coffee was inversely associated and daily intakes of fruit and milk were positively associated with the duration of abstinence from smoking after adjusting for other factors in both sexes. These results suggest that lifestyle of past smokers may contribute to risk reduction for several diseases.

  7. Investment characteristics, stock characteristics and portfolio diversification of finance professionals

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammad Tariqul Islam Khan; Siow-Hooi Tan; Lee-Lee Chong; Hway-Boon Ong

    2017-01-01

    This study estimates if Malaysian finance professionals' investment characteristics and stock characteristics' preferences affect their portfolio diversification, and whether the effects of these predictors vary across professionals' gender, income and experience. Employing a survey and ordinal regression models, the findings demonstrate that investment characteristics such as active trading, usage of internet and telephone, and saving for retirement objective are likely to improve diversific...

  8. Characteristics of regulatory regimes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noralv Veggeland

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The overarching theme of this paper is institutional analysis of basic characteristics of regulatory regimes. The concepts of path dependence and administrative traditions are used throughout. Self-reinforcing or positive feedback processes in political systems represent a basic framework. The empirical point of departure is the EU public procurement directive linked to OECD data concerning use of outsourcing among member states. The question is asked: What has caused the Nordic countries, traditionally not belonging to the Anglo-Saxon market-centred administrative tradition, to be placed so high on the ranking as users of the Market-Type Mechanism (MTM of outsourcing in the public sector vs. in-house provision of services? A thesis is that the reason may be complex, but might be found in an innovative Scandinavian regulatory approach rooted in the Nordic model.

  9. Characteristics of tau oligomers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan eRen

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available In Alzheimer disease (AD and other tauopathies, microtubule-associated protein tau becomes hyperphosphorylated, undergoes conformational changes, aggregates, eventually becoming neurofibrillary tangles (NFTs. As accumulating evidence suggests that NFTs themselves may not be toxic, attention is now turning toward the role of intermediate tau oligomers in AD pathophysiology. Sarkosyl extraction is a standard protocol for investigating insoluble tau aggregates in brains. There is a growing consensus that sarkosyl-insoluble tau correlates with the pathological features of tauopathy. While sarkosyl-insoluble tau from tauopathy brains has been well characterized as a pool of filamentous tau, other dimers, multimers, and granules of tau are much less well understood. There are protocols for identifying these tau oligomers. In this mini review, we discuss the characteristics of tau oligomers isolated via different methods and materials.

  10. Three Characteristics of Effective Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steele, Natalie A.

    2010-01-01

    This article discusses three characteristics that are often associated with successful music educators. The three characteristics discussed include nonverbal communication, teacher self-efficacy, and servant leadership. Although there is no magical combination of characteristics that will produce an effective music teacher, these three attributes…

  11. Characteristics of a Healthy Family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Phylis Lan

    The reason for studying the characteristics of a healthy family is to encourage and strengthen the family and to move toward an enriched family life by using the characteristics as bench marks. Six characteristics are discussed as the essence of a healthy family: (1) commitment; (2) togetherness; (3) appreciation; (4) good communication; (5)…

  12. Exploring Lightning Jump Characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chronis, Themis; Carey, Larry D.; Schultz, Christopher J.; Schultz, Elise; Calhoun, Kristin; Goodman, Steven J.

    2014-01-01

    This study is concerned with the characteristics of storms exhibiting an abrupt temporal increase in the total lightning flash rate (i.e., lightning jump, LJ). An automated storm tracking method is used to identify storm "clusters" and total lightning activity from three different lightning detection systems over Oklahoma, northern Alabama and Washington, D.C. On average and for different employed thresholds, the clusters that encompass at least one LJ (LJ1) last longer, relate to higher Maximum Expected Size of Hail, Vertical Integrated Liquid and lightning flash rates (area-normalized) than the clusters that did not exhibit any LJ (LJ0). The respective mean values for LJ1 (LJ0) clusters are 80 min (35 min), 14 mm (8 mm), 25 kg per square meter (18 kg per square meter) and 0.05 flash per min per square kilometer (0.01 flash per min per square kilometer). Furthermore, the LJ1 clusters are also characterized by slower decaying autocorrelation functions, a result that implies a less "random" behavior in the temporal flash rate evolution. In addition, the temporal occurrence of the last LJ provides an estimate of the time remaining to the storm's dissipation. Depending of the LJ strength (i.e., varying thresholds), these values typically range between 20-60 min, with stronger jumps indicating more time until storm decay. This study's results support the hypothesis that the LJ is a proxy for the storm's kinematic and microphysical state rather than a coincidental value.

  13. Characteristics of Recent Tsunamis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweeney, A. D.; Eble, M. C.; Mungov, G.

    2017-12-01

    How long do tsunamis impact a coast? How often is the largest tsunami wave the first to arrive? How do measurements in the far field differ from those made close to the source? Extending the study of Eblé et al. (2015) who showed the prevalence of a leading negative phase, we assimilate and summarize characteristics of known tsunami events recorded on bottom pressure and coastal water level stations throughout the world oceans to answer these and other questions. An extensive repository of data from the National Centers for Environmental Information (NCEI) archive for tsunami-ready U.S. tide gauge stations, housing more than 200 sites going back 10 years are utilized as are some of the more 3000 marigrams (analog or paper tide gauge records) for tsunami events. The focus of our study is on five tsunamis generated by earthquakes: 2010 Chile (Maule), 2011 East Japan (Tohoku), 2012 Haida Gwaii, 2014 Chile (Iquique), and 2015 Central Chile and one meteorologically generated tsunami on June 2013 along the U.S. East Coast and Caribbean. Reference: Eblé, M., Mungov, G. & Rabinovich, A. On the Leading Negative Phase of Major 2010-2014 Tsunamis. Pure Appl. Geophys. (2015) 172: 3493. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00024-015-1127-5

  14. Based on Channel Characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhuo Hao

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A number of key agreement schemes based on wireless channel characteristics have been proposed recently. However, previous key agreement schemes require that two nodes which need to agree on a key are within the communication range of each other. Hence, they are not suitable for multihop wireless networks, in which nodes do not always have direct connections with each other. In this paper, we first propose a basic multihop key agreement scheme for wireless ad hoc networks. The proposed basic scheme is resistant to external eavesdroppers. Nevertheless, this basic scheme is not secure when there exist internal eavesdroppers or Man-in-the-Middle (MITM adversaries. In order to cope with these adversaries, we propose an improved multihop key agreement scheme. We show that the improved scheme is secure against internal eavesdroppers and MITM adversaries in a single path. Both performance analysis and simulation results demonstrate that the improved scheme is efficient. Consequently, the improved key agreement scheme is suitable for multihop wireless ad hoc networks.

  15. Sensor Characteristics Reference Guide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cree, Johnathan V.; Dansu, A.; Fuhr, P.; Lanzisera, Steven M.; McIntyre, T.; Muehleisen, Ralph T.; Starke, M.; Banerjee, Pranab; Kuruganti, T.; Castello, C.

    2013-04-01

    The Buildings Technologies Office (BTO), within the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), is initiating a new program in Sensor and Controls. The vision of this program is: • Buildings operating automatically and continuously at peak energy efficiency over their lifetimes and interoperating effectively with the electric power grid. • Buildings that are self-configuring, self-commissioning, self-learning, self-diagnosing, self-healing, and self-transacting to enable continuous peak performance. • Lower overall building operating costs and higher asset valuation. The overarching goal is to capture 30% energy savings by enhanced management of energy consuming assets and systems through development of cost-effective sensors and controls. One step in achieving this vision is the publication of this Sensor Characteristics Reference Guide. The purpose of the guide is to inform building owners and operators of the current status, capabilities, and limitations of sensor technologies. It is hoped that this guide will aid in the design and procurement process and result in successful implementation of building sensor and control systems. DOE will also use this guide to identify research priorities, develop future specifications for potential market adoption, and provide market clarity through unbiased information

  16. Nanostructured Basaltfiberconcrete Exploitational Characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saraykina, K. A.; Shamanov, V. A.

    2017-11-01

    The article demonstrates that the mass use of basalt fiber concrete (BFC) is constrained by insufficient study of their durability and serviceability in a variety of environments. This research is aimed at the study of the basalt fiber corrosion processes in the cement stone of BFC, the control of the new products structure formation in order to protect the reinforcing fiber from alkaline destruction and thereby improve the exploitational characteristics of the composite. The research result revealed that the modification of basaltfiber concrete by the dispersion of MWNTs contributes to the directional formation of new products in the cement matrix. The HAM additive in basaltfiberconcrete provides for the binding of portlandite to low-basic calcium hydroaluminosilicates, thus reducing the aggressive effect of the cement environment on the reinforcing fibers properties. The complex modification of BFC with nanostructured additives provides for an increase in its durability and exploitational properties (strength, frost resistance and water resistance) due to basalt fiber protection from alkali corrosion on account of the compacting of the contact zone “basalt fiber - cement stone” and designing of the new products structure and morphology of cement matrix over the fiber surface.

  17. Photoelectric Radial Velocities, Paper XX 45 Years' Monitoring of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ... through the 'Open Horizons' schol- arship programme. She is also grateful to the Institute of Astronomy, Cambridge, for a summer studentship kindly funded personally by Prof. D. Lynden-Bell, to whom also R.F.G. is much indebted for the provision in that way of technical computing skills well beyond his own. References.

  18. Photoelectric Radial Velocities, Paper XVIII Spectroscopic Orbits for ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The fundamental origin of the work presented here rests with the radial-velocity spectrometer that .... surfaces inevitably degrade rather rapidly in the environment in which they are called ...... are not safe to incorporate in the data set here.

  19. Nanostructured germanium deposited on heated substrates with enhanced photoelectric properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stavarache, Ionel; Maraloiu, Valentin Adrian; Prepelita, Petronela; Iordache, Gheorghe

    2016-01-01

    Obtaining high-quality materials, based on nanocrystals, at low temperatures is one of the current challenges for opening new paths in improving and developing functional devices in nanoscale electronics and optoelectronics. Here we report a detailed investigation of the optimization of parameters for the in situ synthesis of thin films with high Ge content (50 %) into SiO 2 . Crystalline Ge nanoparticles were directly formed during co-deposition of SiO 2 and Ge on substrates at 300, 400 and 500 °C. Using this approach, effects related to Ge-Ge spacing are emphasized through a significant improvement of the spatial distribution of the Ge nanoparticles and by avoiding multi-step fabrication processes or Ge loss. The influence of the preparation conditions on structural, electrical and optical properties of the fabricated nanostructures was studied by X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, electrical measurements in dark or under illumination and response time investigations. Finally, we demonstrate the feasibility of the procedure by the means of an Al/n-Si/Ge:SiO 2 /ITO photodetector test structure. The structures, investigated at room temperature, show superior performance, high photoresponse gain, high responsivity (about 7 AW -1 ), fast response time (0.5 µs at 4 kHz) and great optoelectronic conversion efficiency of 900% in a wide operation bandwidth, from 450 to 1300 nm. The obtained photoresponse gain and the spectral width are attributed mainly to the high Ge content packed into a SiO 2 matrix showing the direct connection between synthesis and optical properties of the tested nanostructures. Our deposition approach put in evidence the great potential of Ge nanoparticles embedded in a SiO 2 matrix for hybrid integration, as they may be employed in structures and devices individually or with other materials, hence the possibility of fabricating various heterojunctions on Si, glass or flexible substrates for future development of Si-based integrated optoelectronics.

  20. Nanostructured germanium deposited on heated substrates with enhanced photoelectric properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ionel Stavarache

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Obtaining high-quality materials, based on nanocrystals, at low temperatures is one of the current challenges for opening new paths in improving and developing functional devices in nanoscale electronics and optoelectronics. Here we report a detailed investigation of the optimization of parameters for the in situ synthesis of thin films with high Ge content (50 % into SiO2. Crystalline Ge nanoparticles were directly formed during co-deposition of SiO2 and Ge on substrates at 300, 400 and 500 °C. Using this approach, effects related to Ge–Ge spacing are emphasized through a significant improvement of the spatial distribution of the Ge nanoparticles and by avoiding multi-step fabrication processes or Ge loss. The influence of the preparation conditions on structural, electrical and optical properties of the fabricated nanostructures was studied by X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, electrical measurements in dark or under illumination and response time investigations. Finally, we demonstrate the feasibility of the procedure by the means of an Al/n-Si/Ge:SiO2/ITO photodetector test structure. The structures, investigated at room temperature, show superior performance, high photoresponse gain, high responsivity (about 7 AW−1, fast response time (0.5 µs at 4 kHz and great optoelectronic conversion efficiency of 900% in a wide operation bandwidth, from 450 to 1300 nm. The obtained photoresponse gain and the spectral width are attributed mainly to the high Ge content packed into a SiO2 matrix showing the direct connection between synthesis and optical properties of the tested nanostructures. Our deposition approach put in evidence the great potential of Ge nanoparticles embedded in a SiO2 matrix for hybrid integration, as they may be employed in structures and devices individually or with other materials, hence the possibility of fabricating various heterojunctions on Si, glass or flexible substrates for future development of Si-based integrated optoelectronics.

  1. Photoelectrical behavior of perylene derivative.pi.-conjugated polymer system

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Podhájecká, Klára; Matějíček, P.; Vohlídal, J.; Masuda, T.; Pfleger, Jiří

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 158, 19-20 (2008), s. 775-781 ISSN 0379-6779 R&D Projects: GA ČR GP203/06/P226; GA AV ČR IAA4050406 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40500505 Keywords : poly(diphenylacetylene) * organic photovoltaic s * heterojunction Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 1.962, year: 2008

  2. Photoelectric detectors used in laser based control and alignment equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chis, I.; Ciura, A.I.; Udrea, M.V.

    1988-03-01

    Some theoretical considerations and practical results regarding the utilization of the ROL 50 photovoltaic cell in a leveling control system and glass quality control equipment are presented. (authors)

  3. Photoelectric photometry of the Am star HR = V423 Per

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jerzykiewicz, M.

    1989-01-01

    This spectroscopic binary is the largest amplitude variable among Am stars. UBV observations of the star are presented. They show that in 1964 and 1965 it was constant in B and was only marginally variable in U. The hypothesis of the ellipsoidal variability of HR 976 is then discussed and found untenable. It is pointed out that this result may reopen the issue of light variability of Am stars. 10 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs. (author)

  4. Photoelectrical properties of semiconductor tips in scanning tunneling microscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prins, M.W.J.; Jansen, R.; Groeneveld, R.H.M.; Gelder, Van A.P.; Kempen, van H.

    1996-01-01

    We describe a model as well as experiments on the electrical properties of a photoexcited tunnel junction between a metal and a semiconductor material, as is established in a scanning tunneling microscope. The model treats the case in which carrier transport is mediated by capture and relaxation in

  5. Thin nanodiamond membranes and their microstructural, optical and photoelectrical properties

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mortet, V.; D´Haen, J.; Potměšil, Jiří; Kravets, Roman; Drbohlav, Ivo; Vorlíček, Vladimír; Rosa, Jan; Vaněček, Milan

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 14, - (2005), s. 393-397 ISSN 0925-9635 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LN00A015; GA ČR(CZ) GA202/05/2233; GA MŠk(CZ) LC510 EU Projects: European Commission(XE) HPRN-CT-1999-00139 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100521 Keywords : nanodiamond * structural characterization * optical properties * defect spectroscopy Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 1.988, year: 2005

  6. Characteristics Data Base

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lewis, E.D.; Moore, R.S. (Automated Sciences Group, Inc., Oak Ridge, TN (USA))

    1990-08-01

    The LWR Serial Numbers Database System (SNDB) contains detailed data about individual, historically discharged LWR spent fuel assemblies. This data includes the reactor where used, the year the assemblies were discharged, the pool where they are currently stored, assembly type, burnup, weight, enrichment, and an estimate of their radiological properties. This information is distributed on floppy disks to users in the nuclear industry to assist in planning for the permanent nuclear waste repository. This document describes the design and development of the SNDB. It provides a complete description of the file structures and an outline of the major code modules. It serves as a reference for a programmer maintaining the system, or for others interested in the technical detail of this database. This is the initial version of the SNDB. It contains historical data through December 31, 1987, obtained from the Energy Information Administration (EIA). EIA obtains the data from the utility companies via the RW-859 Survey Form. It evaluates and standardizes the data and distributes the resulting batch level database as a large file on magnetic tape. The Characteristics Data Base obtains this database for use in the LWR Quantities Data Base. Additionally, the CDB obtains the individual assembly level detail from EIA for use in the SNDB. While the Quantities Data Base retains only the level of detail necessary for its reporting, the SNDB does retain and use the batch level data to assist in the identification of a particular assembly serial number. We expect to update the SNDB on an annual basis, as new historical data becomes available.

  7. [Cocaine - Characteristics and addiction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girczys-Połedniok, Katarzyna; Pudlo, Robert; Jarząb, Magdalena; Szymlak, Agnieszka

    Cocaine use leads to health, social and legal problems. The aim of this paper is to discuss cocaine action, addicts characteristics, use patterns and consequences, as well as addiction treatment methods. A literature review was based on the Medline, PubMed, Polish Medical Bibliography databases and the Silesian Library resources. The Police and Central Statistical Office statistics, as well as the World Health Organization, the European Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction and the National Office for Combating Drug Addiction reports were used. Cocaine leads to mood improvement, appetite decrease, physical and intellectual activity enhancement, euphoria, inflated self-esteem, social networking ease and increased sexual desire. Cocaine hydrochloride is mainly used intranasaly, but also as intravenous and subcutaneous injections. Cocaine use and first addiction treatment fall in later age compared to other psychoactive substances. There is a high men to women ratio among addicts. There is a relationship between cocaine addiction, the presence of other disorders and genetic predisposition to addiction development. Polish reports indicate higher popularity of cocaine among people with a high economic and social status. Although Poland is a country with the low percentage of cocaine use, its popularity is growing. The consequences of cocaine use concern somatic and mental health problems, socioeconomic and legal conditions. The drug plays a role in crimes and traffic accidents. Because of the risks associated with cocaine use, it has been listed in a register of drugs attached to the Act on Counteracting Drug Addiction. Addiction treatment includes psychological, pharmacological and harm reduction strategies. Med Pr 2016;67(4):537-544. This work is available in Open Access model and licensed under a CC BY-NC 3.0 PL license.

  8. Characteristic Comparison of CHD for Active Smoker by Smoking Characteristic

    OpenAIRE

    Diastutik, Desy

    2016-01-01

    Coronary Heart Disease (CHD) is a type of cardiovascular disease that has highest level of morbidity and mortality among non communicable disease group. One of the factor that contribute for coronary heart disease is smoking characteristic. The research was aimed to analyze characteristic comparison of coronary heart disease for active smoker by smoking characteristic. The research was observational study using cross sectional design. Thirty eight active smokers were involved as research samp...

  9. Characteristics of Ethical Business Cultures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ardichvili, Alexandre A.; Jondle, Douglas J.; Mitchell, James A.

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify general characteristics attributed to ethical business cultures by executives from a variety of industries. Our research identified five clusters of characteristics: (1) Mission- and Values-Driven; (2) Stakeholder Balance; (3) Leadership Effectiveness; (4) Process Integrity; and (5) Long-term Perspective.…

  10. Plasticity characteristic obtained by indentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mil'man, Yu.V.; Chugunova, S.I.; Goncharova, I.V.

    2011-01-01

    Methods for determination plasticity characteristic δH in the measurement of hardness and nanohardness are considered. Parameter δH characterizes the plasticity of a material by the part of plastic deformation in the total elastic-plastic deformation. The value of δH is defined for metals with different types of crystal lattice, covalent and partially covalent crystals, intermetallics, metallic glasses and quasicrystals. It is discussed the dependence of the plasticity characteristic δH on structural factors and temperature. Parameter δH allows to analyze and compare the plasticity of materials which are brittle at standard mechanical tests. The combination of hardness H, as the strength characteristic, and the plasticity characteristic δH makes possible the better characterization of mechanical behavior of materials than only the hardness H. The examples of plasticity characteristic δH application are represented.

  11. Thermoelectrical-electrothermal feedback (te-et f) enhanced performance characteristics of a high temperature superconductor far-infrared bolometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaila, M.M.; Russell, G.J.

    2000-01-01

    , aside from the normal heat transfer to the thermally conducting substrate. This is a further enhancement of the electrothermal feedback, strategic to the best performance of a photo-electrical bolometer. In this paper we carry out theoretical analysis, starting from the fundamental heat balance equation of the bolometer. Important computational results of the performance characteristics of the new composite bolometer are presented. It is demonstrated that this bolometer requires films in the micron thickness range. The temperature of operation is in the 80-120 K range, depending upon the choice of HTSC material. The bolometer is stable, as it is the temperature difference between hot and cold junctions rather than the absolute temperature of the bolometer that drives the bolometer. Responsivity of 100V / W, response time of ms and noise equivalent power of 1x10 -11 W are a technological reality without the requirement of mK temperatures

  12. Microphysical and chemical characteristics of near-water aerosol over White and Kara Seas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terpugova, S. A.; Polkin, V. V.; Panchenko, M. V.; Golobokova, L. P.; Kozlov, V. S.; Shmargunov, V. P.; Shevchenko, V. P.; Lisitzin, A. P.

    2009-04-01

    The results are presented of five-year-long (2003-2007) study of the spatial - temporal variability of the near-water aerosol in the water area of White and Kara Seas (55, 64, 71 and 80-th cruises of RV "Professor Shtockman"; 53 and 54-th cruises of RV "Akademik Mstislav Keldysh"). Measurements of aerosol microphysical characteristics were carried out by means of the automated mobile aerosol complex consisting of nephelometer, photoelectric counter and aethalometer. The aerosol disperse composition was studied with photoelectric counter in 256 size intervals from 0.4 to 10 m. About 1500 series of measurements were carried out in White Sea, and about 1400 series in Kara Sea. Chemical characteristics of aerosol were determined from samples collected on aerosol filters (92 samples were collected in White Sea and 48 in Kara Sea). The ion composition was determined under laboratory conditions. The H+, Na+, K+, Ca2+, Mg2+, NH4+, Cl-, NO3-, HCO3-, SO42- ions were under examination. Comparing aerosol characteristics of two seas, one can note that the mean values of the aerosol content parameters in Kara Sea are less than in White Sea. The ratio of the aerosol mass concentration are from 2 (Yamal Peninsula, northern part of Novaya Zemlya) to 9 times (Blagopoluchia Bay, Ob' Gulf). The differences in the concentration of black carbon vary from 3 (Yamal Peninsula) to 17 times (Blagopoluchia Bay). The differences in the aerosol number concentration NA are not so big. The values NA near Kara Gate, Yamal Peninsula and northern part of Novaya Zemlya are practically the same as in White Sea. The concentration NA at Ob' gulf is one order of magnitude less than in White sea. The obtained aerosol volume size distributions were approximated by the sums of two fractions, submicron and coarse, with lognormal size distributions. The mean volume size distribution of submicron fraction in White Sea is approximated by the distribution with the variance of the radius logarithm s=0.6 and modal

  13. Machine parameters and characteristic features

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Duff, J.

    1979-01-01

    The design and operating characteristics of LEP are presented. Its probable performance, possible improvements and cost are discussed and some comparisons are drawn with machines currently in operation. (W.D.L.)

  14. Entrepreneurs' characteristics and marketing communication ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Entrepreneurs' characteristics and marketing communication practices of SMEs in South Africa. ... no significant difference in the marketing communication tools adopted by SMEs on the basis of gender ... EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT

  15. 1975 Automotive Characteristics Data Base

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-10-01

    A study of automobile characteristics as a supportive tool for auto energy consumption, fuel economy monitoring, and fleet analysis studies is presented. This report emphasizes the utility of efficient data retrieval methods in fuel economy analysis,...

  16. Airfoil characteristics for wind turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bak, C.; Fuglsang, P.; Sørensen, Niels N.

    1999-01-01

    Airfoil characteristics for use in the Blade Element Momentum (BEM) method calculating the forces on Horizontal Axis Wind Turbines (HAWT) are derived by use of systematic methods. The investigation and derivation of the airfoil characteristics are basedon four different methods: 1) Inverse momentum...... theory, 2) Actuator disc theory, 3) Numerical optimisation and 4) Quasi-3D CFD computations. The two former methods are based on 3D CFD computations and wind tunnel measurements on a 41-m full-scale rotorwith LM 19.1 blades. The derived airfoil characteristics show that the lift coefficient in stall...... to a commonly used set of airfoil characteristics. The numerical optimisation is based on both the 3D CFDcomputations and measurements on a 41-m rotor with LM 19.1 and LM 19.0 blades, respectively. The method requires power and loads from a turbine and is promising since a set of lift and drag curves is derived...

  17. (ajst) pedological characteristics, general fertility

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    Key words: Pedological characteristics, fertility, soil classification, benchmark soils, Morogoro. District, Tanzania ... rigorous soil mapping to show their spatial distribution. Although at the ... experience bimodal rainfall pattern characterized by two .... evaluated based on the standards set by EUROCONSULT ... crop growth.

  18. ADVERGAMES: CHARACTERISTICS, LIMITATIONS AND POTENTIAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gurau Calin

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Advergames represent a new advertising concept that uses Internet technology to implement viral marketing campaigns. Despite the potential of this interactive advertising method, very few academic studies have been initiated to investigate the characteristics of advergames, and their influence on consumers’ perceptions and behaviour. Using secondary data, this paper attempts to evaluate the characteristics of effective advergames, and to analyse the effect of advergames on players’ perceptions and behaviour.

  19. Characteristic manifolds in relativistic hypoelasticity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giambo, S [Messina Univ. (Italy). Istituto di Matematica

    1978-10-02

    The relativistic hypoelasticity is considered and the characteristic manifolds are determined by using the Cauchy-Kovalevski theorem for the Cauchy problem with analytic initial conditions. Taking into account that the characteristic manifold represents the image of the front-wave in the space-time, it is possible to determine the velocities of propagation. Three wave-species are obtained: material waves, longitudinal waves and transverse waves.

  20. Wastewater Characteristics, Treatment and Disposal

    OpenAIRE

    Von Sperling, Marcos

    2007-01-01

    "Wastewater Characteristics, Treatment and Disposal is the first volume in the series Biological Wastewater Treatment, presenting an integrated view of water quality and wastewater treatment. The book covers the following topics: wastewater characteristics (flow and major constituents) impact of wastewater discharges to rivers and lakes overview of wastewater treatment systems complementary items in planning studies. This book, with its clear and practical approach, lays the foundations f...

  1. Technological characteristics of meat - viscosity

    OpenAIRE

    DIBĎÁK, Tomáš

    2012-01-01

    This bachelor thesis is focused on the technological characteristics of meat, mainly viscosity of meat. At the beginning I dealt with construction of meat and various types of meat: beef, veal, pork, mutton, rabbit, poultry and venison. Then I described basic chemical composition of meat and it?s characteristic. In detail I dealt with viscosity of meat. Viscosity is the ability of meat to bind water both own and added. I mentioned influences, which effects viscosity and I presented the possib...

  2. The characteristics of successful entrepreneurs

    OpenAIRE

    Pokrajčić Dragana M.

    2004-01-01

    This paper examines the economic, psychological and social-behavioral theories of the entrepreneur in order to determine the characteristics of a successful entrepreneur. The major contribution of economic theories of the entrepreneur is better understanding of the entrepreneur and his/her role in economic development. The psychological characteristic theory of entrepreneur argues that successful entrepreneurs possess certain personality traits that mark them out as special, and tries to dete...

  3. Properties of estimated characteristic roots

    OpenAIRE

    Bent Nielsen; Heino Bohn Nielsen

    2008-01-01

    Estimated characteristic roots in stationary autoregressions are shown to give rather noisy information about their population equivalents. This is remarkable given the central role of the characteristic roots in the theory of autoregressive processes. In the asymptotic analysis the problems appear when multiple roots are present as this implies a non-differentiablity so the δ-method does not apply, convergence rates are slow, and the asymptotic distribution is non-normal. In finite samples ...

  4. Airfoil characteristics for wind turbines

    OpenAIRE

    Bak, C.; Fuglsang, P.; Sørensen, Niels N.; Aagaard Madsen, Helge; Shen, W.Z.; Sørensen, Jens Nørkær

    1999-01-01

    Airfoil characteristics for use in the Blade Element Momentum (BEM) method calculating the forces on Horizontal Axis Wind Turbines (HAWT) are derived by use of systematic methods. The investigation and derivation of the airfoil characteristics are basedon four different methods: 1) Inverse momentum theory, 2) Actuator disc theory, 3) Numerical optimisation and 4) Quasi-3D CFD computations. The two former methods are based on 3D CFD computations and wind tunnel measurements on a 41-m full-scal...

  5. Fracture characteristics in Japanese rock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ijiri, Yuji; Sawada, Atsushi; Akahori, Kuniaki

    1999-11-01

    It is crucial for the performance assessment of geosphere to evaluate the characteristics of fractures that can be dominant radionuclide migration pathways from a repository to biosphere. This report summarizes the characteristics of fractures obtained from broad literature surveys and the fields surveys at the Kamaishi mine in northern Japan and at outcrops and galleries throughout the country. The characteristics of fractures described in this report are fracture orientation, fracture shape, fracture frequency, fracture distribution in space, transmissivity of fracture, fracture aperture, fracture fillings, alteration halo along fracture, flow-wetted surface area in fracture, and the correlation among these characteristics. Since granitic rock is considered the archetype fractured media, a large amount of fracture data is available in literature. In addition, granitic rock has been treated as a potential host rock in many overseas programs, and has JNC performed a number of field observations and experiments in granodiorite at the Kamaishi mine. Therefore, the characteristics of fractures in granitic rock are qualitatively and quantitatively clarified to some extent in this report, while the characteristics of fractures in another rock types are not clarified. (author)

  6. Airfoil characteristics for wind turbines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bak, C; Fuglsang, P; Soerensen, N N; Aagaard Madsen, H [Risoe National Lab., Roskilde (Denmark); Shen, Wen Zhong; Noerkaer Soerensen, J [Technical Univ. of Denmark, Lyngby (Denmark)

    1999-03-01

    Airfoil characteristics for use in the Blade Element Momentum (BEM) method calculating the forces on Horizontal Axis Wind Turbines (HAWT) are derived by use of systematic methods. The investigation and derivation of the airfoil characteristics are based on four different methods: 1) Inverse momentum theory, 2) Actuator disc theory, 3) Numerical optimisation and 4) Quasi-3D CFD computations. The two former methods are based on 3D CFD computations and wind tunnel measurements on a 41-m full-scale rotor with LM 19.1 blades. The derived airfoil characteristics show that the lift coefficient in stall at the tip is low and that it is high at the root compared to 2D airfoil characteristics. The use of these characteristics in aeroelastic calculations shows a good agreement in power and flap moments with measurements. Furthermore, a fatigue analysis shows a reduction in the loads of up to 15 % compared to a commonly used set of airfoil characteristics. The numerical optimisation is based on both the 3D CFD computations and measurements on a 41-m rotor with LM 19.1 and LM 19.0 blades, respectively. The method requires power and loads from a turbine and is promising since a set of lift and drag curves is derived that can be used to calculate mean values of power and loads. The lift in stall at the tip is low and at the root it is high compared to 2D airfoil characteristics. In particular the power curves were well calculated by use of the optimised airfoil characteristics. In the quasi-3D CFD computations, the airfoil characteristics are derived directly. This Navier-Stokes model takes into account rotational and 3D effects. The model enables the study of the rotational effect of a rotor blade at computing costs similar to what is typical for 2D airfoil calculations. The depicted results show that the model is capable of determining the correct qualitative behaviour for airfoils subject to rotation. The method shows that lift is high at the root compared to 2D airfoil

  7. Forecasting characteristics of flood effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khamutova, M. V.; Rezchikov, A. F.; Kushnikov, V. A.; Ivaschenko, V. A.; Bogomolov, A. S.; Filimonyuk, L. Yu; Dolinina, O. N.; Kushnikova, E. V.; Shulga, T. E.; Tverdokhlebov, V. A.; Fominykh, D. S.

    2018-05-01

    The article presents the development of a mathematical model of the system dynamics. Mathematical model allows forecasting the characteristics of flood effects. Model is based on a causal diagram and is presented by a system of nonlinear differential equations. Simulated characteristics are the nodes of the diagram, and edges define the functional relationships between them. The numerical solution of the system of equations using the Runge-Kutta method was obtained. Computer experiments to determine the characteristics on different time interval have been made and results of experiments have been compared with real data of real flood. The obtained results make it possible to assert that the developed model is valid. The results of study are useful in development of an information system for the operating and dispatching staff of the Ministry of the Russian Federation for Civil Defence, Emergencies and Elimination of Consequences of Natural Disasters (EMERCOM).

  8. [Collage work characteristics and personality].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Shizuka

    2002-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between personality and characteristics in collage work. Seventy undergraduates filled the Yatabe-Guilford (YG) personality test and produced a piece of collage work. The YG personality types were not different in terms of collage work characteristics. However, emotional adaptation and introvert/extrovert scores were reflected in the number of cuttings used in the piece. General activity score was reflected in the number of vehicle pictures used. Those who used an eye picture had a tendency to be depressed and lacking in confidence. Those who used a "stone circle" picture tended to be more emotionally adapted and extroverted. The results suggested a possibility that personality traits were reflected in specific characteristics in collage work.

  9. Characteristic sounds facilitate visual search.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iordanescu, Lucica; Guzman-Martinez, Emmanuel; Grabowecky, Marcia; Suzuki, Satoru

    2008-06-01

    In a natural environment, objects that we look for often make characteristic sounds. A hiding cat may meow, or the keys in the cluttered drawer may jingle when moved. Using a visual search paradigm, we demonstrated that characteristic sounds facilitated visual localization of objects, even when the sounds carried no location information. For example, finding a cat was faster when participants heard a meow sound. In contrast, sounds had no effect when participants searched for names rather than pictures of objects. For example, hearing "meow" did not facilitate localization of the word cat. These results suggest that characteristic sounds cross-modally enhance visual (rather than conceptual) processing of the corresponding objects. Our behavioral demonstration of object-based cross-modal enhancement complements the extensive literature on space-based cross-modal interactions. When looking for your keys next time, you might want to play jingling sounds.

  10. Characteristics of radiophotoluminescent glass dosimeters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ito, Masashi; Shiraishi, Akemi; Murakami, Hiroyuki [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    2001-07-01

    In Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute, a film badge is recently replaced by a new type radiophotoluminescent (RPL) glass dosimeter for external personal monitoring. Some fundamental characteristics of this dosimeter, such as dose dependence linearity, energy dependence, angular dependence, dose evaluation accuracy at mixed irradiation conditions, fading, etc., were examined at the Facility of Radiation Standard (FRS), JAERI. The results have proved that the RPL glass dosimeter has sufficient characteristics for practical use as a personal dosimeter for all of the items examined. (author)

  11. HTR characteristics affecting reactor physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ehlers, K.

    1980-01-01

    A physical description of high-temperature has-cooled reactors is given, followed by an overview of HTR characteristics. The emphasis is placed on the HTR fuel cycle alternatives and thermohydraulics of pebble bed core. Some prospects of HTRs in the Federal Republic of Germany are also presented

  12. The Characteristics of Informed Trading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aslan, Hadiye; Easley, David; Hvidkjær, Søren

    2011-01-01

    This paper investigates the linkage of microstructure, accounting, and asset pricing. We determine the relationship between firm characteristics as captured by accounting and market data and a firm's probability of private information-based trade (PIN) as estimated from trade data. This allows us...

  13. Characteristic of Rings. Prime Fields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schwarzweller Christoph

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The notion of the characteristic of rings and its basic properties are formalized [14], [39], [20]. Classification of prime fields in terms of isomorphisms with appropriate fields (ℚ or ℤ/p are presented. To facilitate reasonings within the field of rational numbers, values of numerators and denominators of basic operations over rationals are computed.

  14. Characteristics of public roads operation

    OpenAIRE

    Pryimak, V.; Kyiashko, I.

    2009-01-01

    Characteristics of public roads operation have been considered and factors influencing TEC of public roads that go via urban areas have been determined. There have been revealed contradictions in the normative-legal base concerning maintenance of public roads and municipal roads that merge into them.

  15. Automobile characteristics historical data base

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-08-01

    A collection of data concerning the physical, operating, and performance characteristics of automobiles for the model years 1955, 1960, 1965, 1968, and 1970 to 1974. Data is to be added to the data base already established by DOT/TSC, for the 1975 mo...

  16. Characteristics of Suicidality among Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wetzler, Scott; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Examines the characteristics of suicidality and psychopathology (including depression, aggression, impulsivity, and stressful life events) among four groups of depressed adolescent outpatients. The nonsuicidal group was differentiated from the three suicidal groups on the basis of suicidality and psychopathology. The three suicidal groups were…

  17. Tourette's Syndrome: Characteristics and Interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prestia, Kelly

    2003-01-01

    This article overviews the characteristics of children and youth with Tourette syndrome and provides suggestions that can be used in the school setting for addressing academic concerns, social-emotional concerns, and physical concerns. Teachers are urged to break down assignments, allow computer use to complete work, and give preferential seating.…

  18. 233 Haematological Characteristics and Blood

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2008-12-02

    Dec 2, 2008 ... nitrogen of Sokoto Red kids fed varying levels of Fore-stomach digesta (FSD) replacing cowpea husk at 0, 10, 20 and 30 ... Haematological Characteristics and Blood Urea Nitrogen of Sokoto Red Goat Kids Fed …… 228. Formulation of ..... significant rise in Hb level in treatment D. This is an indication that ...

  19. Research of nuclear fragmentation characteristics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richert, J.

    1989-01-01

    Motivations for the study of nuclear fragmentation are presented. Different models and methods which were developed in the past are reviewed, critically discussed and confronted in connection with the experimental information gathered over the past years. Specific aspects related to the onset of the process, its characteristics and the mechanism which governs it are discussed [fr

  20. MRI characteristics of tuberculous spondylitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Currie, S.; Galea-Soler, S.; Barron, D.; Chandramohan, M.; Groves, C.

    2011-01-01

    Spondylitis is the most common osseous manifestation of Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection. Although treatable, it continues to cause significant mortality and morbidity. Early diagnosis through familiarity with its imaging characteristics is essential to permit rapid treatment and prevent potential life-limiting consequences. In this review, we demonstrate the key magnetic resonance imaging features of this disease.

  1. Backgrounds and characteristics of arsonists

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Labree, W.; Nijman, H.L.I.; Marle, H.J.C. van; Rassin, E.

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to gain more insight in the backgrounds and characteristics of arsonists. For this, the psychiatric, psychological, personal, and criminal backgrounds of all arsonists (n = 25), sentenced to forced treatment in the maximum security forensic hospital “De Kijvelanden”, were

  2. Talent Characteristics among frontline bankers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raalskov, Jesper; Liempd, Dennis van; Warming-Rasmussen, Bent

    a talented frontline banker? The literature on talented bankers is scarce, implicit and takes a unilateral approach to the definition of talent. Based on a qualitative case study among talented frontline bankers in the Danish banking industry, this paper offers definitional characteristics that constitute...

  3. Characteristics of Independent Music Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Upitis, Rena; Abrami, Philip C.; Brook, Julia; Boese, Karen; King, Matthew

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to learn about the characteristics of independent music teachers, their beliefs about music teaching, and their studio practices. A self-report survey included questions about the teachers' (a) background experiences, (b) pedagogical approaches, (c) use of digital technologies, and (d) professional development…

  4. Artistic Understanding and Motivational Characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lekue, Pablo

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to analyse artistic understanding in primary and secondary education and the relationship between this understanding and motivational characteristics such as goal orientation, engagement in art activities and attitude to art education at school, which determine (according to prior research) learners' academic achievement, in…

  5. Fusion barrier characteristics of actinides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manjunatha, H. C.; Sridhar, K. N.

    2018-03-01

    We have studied fusion barrier characteristics of actinide compound nuclei with atomic number range 89 ≤ Z ≤ 103 for all projectile target combinations. After the calculation of fusion barrier heights and positions, we have searched for their parameterization. We have achieved the empirical formula for fusion barrier heights (VB), positions (RB), curvature of the inverted parabola (ħω) of actinide compound nuclei with atomic number range 89 ≤ Z ≤ 103 for all projectile target combinations (6 projectile target combinations. The values produced by the present formula are also compared with experiments. The present pocket formula produces fusion barrier characteristics of actinides with the simple inputs of mass number (A) and atomic number (Z) of projectile-targets.

  6. Electric arc radius and characteristics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fang, T.M.

    1980-01-01

    The heat transfer equation of an arc discharge has been solved. The arc is assumed to be a cylinder with negligible axial variation and the dominant heat transfer process is conduction radially inside the column and radiation/convection at the outside edge. The symmetric consideration allows a simple one-dimensional formulation. By taking into account proper variation of the electrical conductivity as function of temperature, the heat balance equation has been solved analytically. The radius of the arc and its current-field characteristics have also been obtained. The conventional results that E approx. I 0 5385 and R approx. I 0 7693 with E being the applied field, I the current, and R the radius of the cylindrical arc, have been proved to be simply limiting cases of our more general characteristics. The results can be applied quite widely including, among others, the neutral beam injection project in nuclear fusion and MHD energy conversion

  7. Characteristic CT signs in oligodendrogliomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marcu, H.; Vonofakos, D.; Hacker, H.

    1980-01-01

    Computed tomography offers valuable aid for improving the diagnostic capabilities for oligodendrogliomas. The authors have attempted to determine more precisely the CT characteristic signs for this type of tumor and to establish criteria for predicting malignancy grade. They can conclude that calcifications are the main signs which lead to the diagnosis of oligodendroglioma, as the most usual calcifying glioma. This finding was known before the CT era, but with the CT one can be more exact with regard to form, growth, number and density of the calcifications and especially the smallest of them, which are not to be seen on the conventional X-ray examination. The cyst formation is another feature of oligodendroglioma. The occurrence of contrast enhancement and cyst formation are the most characteristic signs of malignancy. (C.F.)

  8. Characteristics of potential repository wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-07-01

    This document, and its associated appendices and microcomputer (PC) data bases, constitutes the reference OCRWM data base of physical and radiological characteristics data of radioactive wastes. This Characteristics Data Base (CDB) system includes data on spent nuclear fuel and high-level waste (HLW), which clearly require geologic disposal, and other wastes which may require long-term isolation, such as sealed radioisotope sources. The data base system was developed for OCRWM by the CDB Project at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Various principal or official sources of these data provided primary information to the CDB Project which then used the ORIGEN2 computer code to calculate radiological properties. The data have been qualified by an OCRWM-sponsored peer review as suitable for quality-affecting work meeting the requirements of OCRWM's Quality Assurance Program. The wastes characterized in this report include: light-water reactor (LWR) spent fuel and immobilized HLW

  9. Characteristics of tornado generated missiles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhattacharyya, A.K.; Boritz, R.C.; Niyogi, P.K.

    1975-10-01

    The development of techniques designed to calculate tornado missile velocities is traced. It is shown that there is a need for a consistent method for obtaining missile velocities for a variety of tornado parameters. A consistent method for determination of trajectories and velocities of missiles generated by a tornado is described. The effects of plant layout upon missile impact velocity at a given building are discussed from the point of view of determining the necessary missile barrier characteristics. 19 references

  10. Characteristics of Sissi primary beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nghiem, P.; Payet, J.; Tkatchenko, A.

    1994-01-01

    This study concerns the definition of the Sissi primary beam characteristics. The calculations have been carried out in two steps : -a study of primary and secondary order with the help of BETA matrix code -a study of superior orders with the help of ZGOUBI code which is able to take into consideration the measured fields and in which the movement equations are integrated numerically. (O.L.). 9 figs., 3 tabs

  11. Nuclear design characteristics of SMART

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Chung Chan; Park, Sang Yoon; Lee, Ki Bog; Zee, Sung Quun; Chang, Moon Hee [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1998-12-31

    Nuclear design bases for System-Integrated Modular Advanced ReacTor(SMART) core are presented. Based on the proposed design bases, a SMART core loading pattern is constructed and its nuclear characteristics are studied. The proposed core loading pattern satisfies 3-year cycle length and soluble boron-free operation requirements at any time during the cycle. 10 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab. (Author)

  12. High Ability and Learner Characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huda Hindal

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The outstandingly able learner has been conceptualised, in terms of test and examination performance, as the learner showing superior academic performance which is markedly better than that of peers and in ways regarded as of value by wider society. In Kuwait, such superior examination performance leads to a classification regarded as being ‘gifted’. This study looks at the inter-correlations between performance in various subjects in examinations and then considers how examination performance correlates with measures of working memory capacity, extent of field dependency, extent of divergency and visual-spatial abilities. A very large sample of grade 7 Kuwaiti students (aged ~13 was involved, the sample being selected in such a way that it contained a high proportion of those regarded as ‘gifted’ under the procedures used in Kuwait. While specific learner characteristics have been related to examination performance, this study brings four different characteristics together to gain a picture of the way these characteristics may be seen in those who perform extremely well in examinations. Principal components analysis using varimax rotation, was used to look at the examination data and one factor accounted for 87% of the variance. A consideration of the examination papers led to the conclusion that the national examinations tested only recall-recognition. It was also found that those who performed best in all six subjects tended to be those who are highly divergent and strongly visual-spatial as well as those tending to have higher working memory capacities and being more field independent. The inter-correlations between the various learner characteristics are explained in terms of the way the brain is known to process information. The implications of the findings for assessment and for the way high ability is considered are discussed.

  13. Medicolegal characteristics of domestic violence

    OpenAIRE

    Antović Aleksandra R.; Stojanović Jovan

    2017-01-01

    Introduction/Objective. Domestic violence is a phenomenon as old as the history of human civilization, present in all cultures, epochs and social systems. Despite the fact that domestic violence represents a dangerous and unacceptable social phenomenon, as well as a significant medical problem, there are still no precise data on the prevalence of this phenomenon in our country. This study aims to determine the elementary forensic characteristics of domestic violence that would represented the...

  14. Calculation of gas turbine characteristic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamaev, B. I.; Murashko, V. L.

    2016-04-01

    The reasons and regularities of vapor flow and turbine parameter variation depending on the total pressure drop rate π* and rotor rotation frequency n are studied, as exemplified by a two-stage compressor turbine of a power-generating gas turbine installation. The turbine characteristic is calculated in a wide range of mode parameters using the method in which analytical dependences provide high accuracy for the calculated flow output angle and different types of gas dynamic losses are determined with account of the influence of blade row geometry, blade surface roughness, angles, compressibility, Reynolds number, and flow turbulence. The method provides satisfactory agreement of results of calculation and turbine testing. In the design mode, the operation conditions for the blade rows are favorable, the flow output velocities are close to the optimal ones, the angles of incidence are small, and the flow "choking" modes (with respect to consumption) in the rows are absent. High performance and a nearly axial flow behind the turbine are obtained. Reduction of the rotor rotation frequency and variation of the pressure drop change the flow parameters, the parameters of the stages and the turbine, as well as the form of the characteristic. In particular, for decreased n, nonmonotonic variation of the second stage reactivity with increasing π* is observed. It is demonstrated that the turbine characteristic is mainly determined by the influence of the angles of incidence and the velocity at the output of the rows on the losses and the flow output angle. The account of the growing flow output angle due to the positive angle of incidence for decreased rotation frequencies results in a considerable change of the characteristic: poorer performance, redistribution of the pressure drop at the stages, and change of reactivities, growth of the turbine capacity, and change of the angle and flow velocity behind the turbine.

  15. Nuclear design characteristics of SMART

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Chung Chan; Park, Sang Yoon; Lee, Ki Bog; Zee, Sung Quun; Chang, Moon Hee [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1999-12-31

    Nuclear design bases for System-Integrated Modular Advanced ReacTor(SMART) core are presented. Based on the proposed design bases, a SMART core loading pattern is constructed and its nuclear characteristics are studied. The proposed core loading pattern satisfies 3-year cycle length and soluble boron-free operation requirements at any time during the cycle. 10 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab. (Author)

  16. Linguistic Characteristics of Advertising English

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    易高燕

    2010-01-01

    Advertising language takes form under the influence of linguistics,psychology and sociology,etc,and its way of choosing words and building sentences are quite different from normal English.And as a practical language,advertising English has its specific functions,and it has been distinguished from normal English as an independent language,and it has plentiful values.This paper aims to discuss some linguistic characteristics of advertising English.

  17. Radiation characteristics of helical tomotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeraj, Robert; Mackie, Thomas R.; Balog, John; Olivera, Gustavo; Pearson, Dave; Kapatoes, Jeff; Ruchala, Ken; Reckwerdt, Paul

    2004-01-01

    Helical tomotherapy is a dedicated intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) system with on-board imaging capability (MVCT) and therefore differs from conventional treatment units. Different design goals resulted in some distinctive radiation field characteristics. The most significant differences in the design are the lack of flattening filter, increased shielding of the collimators, treatment and imaging operation modes and narrow fan beam delivery. Radiation characteristics of the helical tomotherapy system, sensitivity studies of various incident electron beam parameters and radiation safety analyses are presented here. It was determined that the photon beam energy spectrum of helical tomotherapy is similar to that of more conventional radiation treatment units. The two operational modes of the system result in different nominal energies of the incident electron beam with approximately 6 MeV and 3.5 MeV in the treatment and imaging modes, respectively. The off-axis mean energy dependence is much lower than in conventional radiotherapy units with less than 5% variation across the field, which is the consequence of the absent flattening filter. For the same reason the transverse profile exhibits the characteristic conical shape resulting in a 2-fold increase of the beam intensity in the center. The radiation leakage outside the field was found to be negligible at less than 0.05% because of the increased shielding of the collimators. At this level the in-field scattering is a dominant source of the radiation outside the field and thus a narrow field treatment does not result in the increased leakage. The sensitivity studies showed increased sensitivity on the incident electron position because of the narrow fan beam delivery and high sensitivity on the incident electron energy, as common to other treatment systems. All in all, it was determined that helical tomotherapy is a system with some unique radiation characteristics, which have been to a large extent

  18. State ownership and efficiency characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Abramov

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the influence of state participation in the ownership structure of companies on their financial efficiency using a sample of 114 largest companies in Russia. As an indirect indicator of efficiency, we used a variety of financial indicators: revenue per employee (gross margin, return on equity, profit margin and debt burden. The effects of direct and indirect state ownership are considered separately. Using econometric analysis, we conclude that the dominance of the block of shares owned by the state has a negative effect on the performance characteristics, and its increase is associated with an increase in the debt burden of the companies. According to our criteria, state-owned enterprises (SOEs perform worse on average than private companies. The mechanism of how changes in the “real sector” affect profitability is examined particularly closely. The study shows that a change in the profitability of private companies is characterized by a significant dependence on the movement of labor productivity characteristics. At the same time, for SOEs, a similar correlation was not revealed. These companies demonstrated no visible relationship between their profitability and performance characteristics. The study shows that increases in the size of direct government ownership lead to lower labor productivity and profitability; the impact of indirect ownership is, seemingly, more complicated.

  19. Entrepreneurship Psychological Characteristics of Nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dehghanzadeh, Mohammad Reza; Kholasehzadeh, Golrasteh; Birjandi, Masoumeh; Antikchi, Ensieh; Sobhan, Mohamad Reza; Neamatzadeh, Hossein

    2016-09-01

    Nurses are full partners with other health care professionals. Until fairly recently the scope of nurses potential in entrepreneurship has not been widely recognized. The present study tries to evaluate entrepreneurship psychological characteristics among nurses. The survey instrument included scales measuring entrepreneurship psychological characteristics including locus of control, need for achievement, risk taking propensity, ambiguity tolerance, and innovation, among nurses in the Shahid Sadoughi Hospital, Yazd, Iran in 2013. In this study average of entrepreneurship psychological characteristics of nurses which are higher than standard mark. The majority of the nurses have average entrepreneurship (20.4%). It means that they have some strong entrepreneurship. The result show that average of the need for achievement is 34.5%, the locus of control 33.8%, risk taking propensity 33.2%, ambiguity tolerance 34.2%, and innovation 41.6%. The results indicate that the 4 dimensions of the need for achievement, risk taking, Ambiguity Tolerance, and Innovation were significant. However, the locus of control is not significant at a 0.05 significance level. In terms, entrepreneurially nurses are comparatively more innovative, have risk taking attitudes, need for achievement, Ambiguity Tolerance, and Innovation. Results largely support significant positive relationships between psychological traits and entrepreneurial orientations.

  20. Entrepreneurship Psychological Characteristics of Nurses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Reza Dehghanzadeh

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Nurses are full partners with other health care professionals. Until fairly recently the scope of nurses potential in entrepreneurship has not been widely recognized. The present study tries to evaluate entrepreneurship psychological characteristics among nurses. The survey instrument included scales measuring entrepreneurship psychological characteristics including locus of control, need for achievement, risk taking propensity, ambiguity tolerance, and innovation, among nurses in the Shahid Sadoughi Hospital, Yazd, Iran in 2013. In this study average of entrepreneurship psychological characteristics of nurses which are higher than standard mark. The majority of the nurses have average entrepreneurship (20.4%. It means that they have some strong entrepreneurship. The result show that average of the need for achievement is 34.5%, the locus of control 33.8%, risk taking propensity 33.2%, ambiguity tolerance 34.2%, and innovation 41.6%. The results indicate that the 4 dimensions of the need for achievement, risk taking, Ambiguity Tolerance, and Innovation were significant. However, the locus of control is not significant at a 0.05 significance level. In terms, entrepreneurially nurses are comparatively more innovative, have risk taking attitudes, need for achievement, Ambiguity Tolerance, and Innovation. Results largely support significant positive relationships between psychological traits and entrepreneurial orientations.

  1. Human characteristics affecting nuclear safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skof, M.

    1990-01-01

    It is important to collect data about human behavior in work situation and data about work performance. On the basis of these data we can analyse human errors. Human reliability analysis gives us the input data to improve human behavior at a work place. We have tried to define those human characteristics that have impact on safe work and operation. Estimation of a work place was used for determination of important human characteristics. Performance estimations were used to define the availability of workers at a work place. To our experience it is very important to pay attention to R.A. and R.C. also in the area of human factor. Data for quality assurance in the area of human factor should be collected from selection procedure (the level of cognitive and conative abilities, the level of physical characteristics, the level of education and other personal data). Data for quality control should be collected from the periodical examinations of annual checking and evaluation of human working capacity as well as from training. For quality control of every day human performance data of staff estimation of their daily working performance and well-being should also be collected. With all these data more effective analyses of all events in nuclear power plants could be provided. Quality assurance and quality control in the area of human factor could help us to keep the optimum performance level of the plant staff and to avoid human errors. (author). 3 refs, 3 figs

  2. Modelling of hydrothermal characteristics of centrifugal nozzles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yarkho, A.A.; Omelchenko, M.P.; Borshchev, V.A.

    1990-01-01

    Presented for the first time is a method of recalculating the hydrothermal characteristics of centrifugal nozzles obtained in laboratory conditions for full-scale nozzles. From the experimental hydrothermal characteristics of nozzles observed in the laboratory it is allowed to calculate the hydrothermal characteristics of any other centrifugal nozzle whose diameter and dimensionless geometric characteristic are known

  3. Cost and Demand Characteristics of Telecom Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Falch, Morten

    1997-01-01

    The Chapter presents the general characteristics of the cost and demand profiles for telecommunication services and identifies the barriers towards a free competitive market for telecommunication services related to these characteristics.......The Chapter presents the general characteristics of the cost and demand profiles for telecommunication services and identifies the barriers towards a free competitive market for telecommunication services related to these characteristics....

  4. 14 CFR 29.239 - Spray characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Spray characteristics. 29.239 Section 29... AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Flight Ground and Water Handling Characteristics § 29.239 Spray characteristics. If certification for water operation is requested, no spray characteristics...

  5. 14 CFR 27.239 - Spray characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Spray characteristics. 27.239 Section 27... AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Flight Ground and Water Handling Characteristics § 27.239 Spray characteristics. If certification for water operation is requested, no spray characteristics...

  6. Effect of Core-Shell Ag@TiO2 Volume Ratio on Characteristics of TiO2-Based DSSCs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ho Chang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to develop photoanode material required by dye-sensitized solar cells. The material prepared is in the form of Ag@TiO2 core-shell-type nanocomposites. This material is used to replace the titanium oxide powder commonly used in general DSSCs. The prepared Ag@TiO2 core-shell-type nanocomposites are mixed with Degussa P25 TiO2 in different proportions. Triton X-100 is added and polyethylene glycol (PEG at 20 wt% is used as a polymer additive. This study tests the particle size and material properties of Ag@TiO2 core-shell-type nanocomposites and measures the photoelectric conversion efficiency and IPCE of DSSCs. Experimental results show that the DSSC prepared by Ag@TiO2 core-shell-type nanocomposites can achieve a photoelectric conversion efficiency of 3.67%. When Ag@TiO2 core-shell-type nanocomposites are mixed with P25 nanoparticles in specific proportions, and when the thickness of the photoelectrode thin film is 28 μm, the photoelectric conversion efficiency can reach 6.06%, with a fill factor of 0.52, open-circuit voltage of 0.64V, and short-circuit density of 18.22 mAcm−2. Compared to the DSSC prepared by P25 TiO2 only, the photoelectric conversion efficiency can be raised by 38% under the proposed approach.

  7. The characteristics of a pneumatic muscle

    OpenAIRE

    Pietrala Dawid

    2017-01-01

    The article presents static and dynamic characteristics of pneumatic muscles. It presents the structure of the laboratory stand used to test pneumatic muscles. It discusses the methodology for determination of static and dynamic characteristics. The paper also illustrates characteristics showing the relationship of pneumatic muscles length and operating pressure, at a constant loading force (isotonic characteristics). It presents characteristics showing the relationship of pneumatic muscles s...

  8. Characteristics of the quarry as shielding for "2"4"1AmBe neutrons and monoenergetic photons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vega C, H. R.; Hernandez D, V. M.; Letechipia de L, C.; Salas L, M. A.; Rodriguez R, J. A.; Juarez A, C. A.

    2016-09-01

    Shielding is an important element in radiation protection since allows the management of radiation sources. Currently there are different materials of natural or anthropogenic origin that are used as shielding for both photons and neutrons. The quarry is a material of natural origin and abundant in our country, which is used in construction or for the manufacture of sculptures, however its characteristics as shielding have not been reported. In this paper we report some of the properties of the quarry as shielding for monoenergetic photons and for neutrons produced by an isotopic neutron source of "2"4"1AmBe. A quarry piece was used to determine its density and its chemical composition, with the XCOM code the elemental composition was determined and the mass interaction and total attenuation coefficients of the quarry were determined with photons of 10"-"3 to 10"-"5 MeV; the interaction coefficients included coherent dispersion, photoelectric absorption, Compton dispersion and the production of pairs in the nuclear and electronic field. Using the MCNP5 code, a narrow geometry attenuation experiment was modeled and the photon fluence was estimated that reaches a point detector at a distance of 42 cm from a point source, isotropic and monoenergetic photon when the source and the point detector were added quarry pieces of different thicknesses. The reduction of the number of photons as a function of the thickness of the quarry was used to determine the coefficient of linear attenuation of the quarry before photons of 0.03, 0.07, 0.1, 0.3, 1, 2 and 3 MeV that were the same as those calculated with the XCOM code. With the MCNP, the K a and H(10) transmission curves were also calculated. This same model was used to determined the variation of the "2"4"1AmBe neutron spectrum as a function of quarry thickness, as well as the E_R_O_T and H(10) transmission curves. (Author)

  9. Spallation-mechanism and characteristics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strugalski, Z.; Strugalska-Gola, E.; Wojciechowski, A.

    1996-01-01

    Mechanism of spallation is revealed experimentally. Spallation is a complicated nuclear reaction initiated by fast hadron in which three stages may be distinguished: a) the first stage in which the target nucleus is locally damaged, it lasts ∼10 -24 +10 -22 s; b) the slow stage which lasts ∼10 -22 +10 -17 s after the collision started, the damaged and excited nucleus uses to emit the black track leaving particles; c) the final stage in which residual target nucleus uses to split into two or more fragments. Quantitative characteristics of each of the stages are presented. 35 refs

  10. Characteristic wave fronts in magnetohydrodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menon, V.V.; Sharma, V.D.

    1981-01-01

    The influence of magnetic field on the process of steepening or flattening of the characteristic wave fronts in a plane and cylindrically symmetric motion of an ideal plasma is investigated. This aspect of the problem has not been considered until now. Remarkable differences between plane, cylindrical diverging, and cylindrical converging waves are discovered. The discontinuity in the velocity gradient at the wave front is shown to satisfy a Bernoulli-type equation. The discussion of the solutions of such equations reported in the literature is shown to be incomplete, and three general theorems are established. 18 refs

  11. [Characteristics of Bacillus cereus dissociants].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doroshenko, E V; Loĭko, N G; Il'inskaia, O N; Kolpakov, A I; Gornova, I B; Klimanova, E V; El'-Registan, G I

    2001-01-01

    The autoregulation of the phenotypic (populational) variability of the Bacillus cereus strain 504 was studied. The isolated colonial morphotypes of this bacterium were found to differ in their growth characteristics and the synthesis of extracellular proteases. The phenotypic variabilities of vegetative proliferating cells and those germinated from endospores and cystlike refractory cells were different. Bacterial variants also differed in the production of the d1 and d2 factors (the autoinducers of dormancy and autolysis, respectively) and sensitivity to them. The possible role of these factors in the dissociation of microorganisms is discussed.

  12. Loss Aversion and Individual Characteristics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjorth, Katrine; Fosgerau, Mogens

    2011-01-01

    Many studies have shown that loss aversion affects the valuation of non-market goods. Using stated choice data, this paper presents an empirical investigation of how individual-level loss aversion varies with observable personal characteristics and with the choice context. We investigate loss...... aversion with respect to travel time and money, and find significant loss aversion in both dimensions. The degree of loss aversion in the time dimension is larger than in the money dimension, and depends on age and education. Subjects tend to be more loss averse when the reference is well established....

  13. Killings, duality and characteristic polynomials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Álvarez, Enrique; Borlaf, Javier; León, José H.

    1998-03-01

    In this paper the complete geometrical setting of (lowest order) abelian T-duality is explored with the help of some new geometrical tools (the reduced formalism). In particular, all invariant polynomials (the integrands of the characteristic classes) can be explicitly computed for the dual model in terms of quantities pertaining to the original one and with the help of the canonical connection whose intrinsic characterization is given. Using our formalism the physically, and T-duality invariant, relevant result that top forms are zero when there is an isometry without fixed points is easily proved. © 1998

  14. Gaultheria: Phytochemical and Pharmacological Characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ren-Bing Shi

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The genus Gaultheria, comprised of approximately 134 species, is mostly used in ethnic drugs to cure rheumatism and relieve pain. Phytochemical investigations of the genus Gaultheria have revealed the presence of methyl salicylate derivatives, C6-C3 constituents, organic acids, terpenoids, steroids, and other compounds. Methyl salicylate glycoside is considered as a characteristic ingredient in this genus, whose anti-rheumatic effects may have a new mechanism of action. In this review, comprehensive information on the phytochemistry, volatile components and the pharmacology of the genus Gaultheria is provided to explore its potential and advance research.

  15. Characteristics of spent nuclear fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Notz, K.J.

    1988-04-01

    The Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM) is responsible for the spent fuels and other wastes that will, or may, eventually be disposed of in a geological repository. The two major sources of these materials are commercial light-water reactor (LWR) spent fuel and immobilized high-level waste (HLW). Other wastes that may require long-term isolation include non-LWR spent fuels and miscellaneous sources such as activated metals. This report deals with spent fuels, but for completeness, the other sources are described briefly. Detailed characterizations are required for all of these potential repository wastes. These characteristics include physical, chemical, and radiological properties. The latter must take into account decay as a function of time. In addition, the present inventories and projected quantities of the various wastes are needed. This information has been assembled in a Characteristics Data Base which provides data in four formats: hard copy standard reports, menu-driven personal computer (PC) data bases, program-level PC data bases, and mainframe computer files. 5 refs., 3 figs., 4 tabs

  16. Characteristics of potential repository wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Notz, K.J.

    1989-01-01

    The Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM) is responsible for the spent fuels and other wastes that will be disposed of in a geologic repository. The two major sources of these materials are commercial light-water reactor (LWR) spent fuel and immobilized high-level waste (HLW). Other wastes that may require long-term isolation include non-LWR spent fuels and miscellaneous sources such as activated metals. Detailed characterizations are required for all of these potential repository wastes. These characterizations include physical, chemical, and radiological properties. The latter must take into account decay as a function of time. This information has been extracted from primary data sources, evaluated, and assembled in a Characteristics Data Base which provides data in four formats: hard copy standard reports, menu-driven personal computer (PC) data bases, program-level PC data bases, and mainframe computer files. The Characteristics Data Base provides a standard set of self-consistent data to the various areas of responsibility including systems integration and waste stream analysis, storage, transportation, and geologic disposal. The data will be used for design studies, evaluation of alternatives, and system optimization by OCRWM and supporting contractors. 7 refs., 5 figs., 7 tabs

  17. Backgrounds and characteristics of arsonists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labree, Wim; Nijman, Henk; van Marle, Hjalmar; Rassin, Eric

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to gain more insight in the backgrounds and characteristics of arsonists. For this, the psychiatric, psychological, personal, and criminal backgrounds of all arsonists (n=25), sentenced to forced treatment in the maximum security forensic hospital "De Kijvelanden", were compared to the characteristics of a control group of patients (n=50), incarcerated at the same institution for other severe crimes. Apart from DSM-IV Axis I and Axis II disorders, family backgrounds, level of education, treatment history, intelligence (WAIS scores), and PCL-R scores were included in the comparisons. Furthermore, the apparent motives for the arson offences were explored. It was found that arsonists had more often received psychiatric treatment, prior to committing their index offence, and had a history of severe alcohol abuse more often in comparison to the controls. The arsonists turned out to be less likely to suffer from a major psychotic disorder. Both groups did not differ significantly on the other variables, among which the PCL-R total scores and factor scores. Exploratory analyses however, did suggest that arsonists may differentiate from non-arsonists on three items of the PCL-R, namely impulsivity (higher scores), superficial charm (lower scores), and juvenile delinquency (lower scores). Although the number of arsonists with a major psychotic disorder was relatively low (28%), delusional thinking of some form was judged to play a role in causing arson crimes in about half of the cases (52%).

  18. Plasticity characteristic obtained by indentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milman, Yu V

    2008-01-01

    A dimensionless parameter δ H = ε p /ε t (where ε p and ε t are the average values of plastic and total deformation of material on the contact area indenter-specimen) may be used as the plasticity characteristic of materials, which made it possible to characterize the plasticity of materials that are brittle in standard mechanical tests. δ H may be calculated from the values of microhardness HM, Young's modulus E and Poisson's ratio ν. In instrumented indentation the plasticity characteristic δ A = A p /A t (A p and A t are the work of plastic and total deformation during indentation) may be calculated. δ A ∼ δ H for materials with δ H > 0.5, i.e. for all metals and the majority of ceramic materials. In this case, the theoretical equation δ A ∼ δ H = 1-10.2 · (1 - ν - 2ν 2 )(HM/E) is satisfied in experiments with the Berkovich indenter. The influence of the temperature and structural parameters (dislocation density and grain size including nanostructured materials) on δ H is discussed

  19. The characteristics of successful entrepreneurs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pokrajčić Dragana M.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the economic, psychological and social-behavioral theories of the entrepreneur in order to determine the characteristics of a successful entrepreneur. The major contribution of economic theories of the entrepreneur is better understanding of the entrepreneur and his/her role in economic development. The psychological characteristic theory of entrepreneur argues that successful entrepreneurs possess certain personality traits that mark them out as special, and tries to determine and to evaluate these special traits. The social-behavioral theories stress the influence of experience, knowledge, social environment and ability to learn on the entrepreneur’s success as well as his/her personality traits. Neither of the examined theories of entrepreneur gives a satisfactory explanation of the entrepreneur’s success, but taken as a whole, they can explain key factors of entrepreneur’s success. The entrepreneur’s success comes about as a result of his/her personality traits, ability to learn from experience and ability to adjust to his/her environment.

  20. Hydrological characteristics of Japanese rock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ijiri, Yuji; Sawada, Atsushi; Akahori, Kuniaki

    1999-11-01

    It is crucial to evaluate the hydrogeological characteristics of rock in Japan in order to assess the performance of geosphere. This report summarizes the hydrogeological characteristics of various rock types obtained from broad literature surveys and the fields experiments at the Kamaishi mine in northern Japan and at the Tono mine in central Japan. It is found that the hydraulic conductivity of rock mass ranges from 10 -9 m/s to 10 -8 m/s, whereas the hydraulic conductivity of fault zone ranges from 10 -9 m/s to 10 -3 m/s. It is also found that the hydraulic conductivity tends to decrease with depth. Therefore, the hydraulic conductivity of rock mass at the depth of a repository will be smaller than above values. From the investigations at outcrops and galleries throughout the country, fractures are observed as potential pathways in all rock types. All kinds of crystalline rocks and pre-Neogene sedimentary rocks are classified as fractured media where fracture flow is dominant. Among these rocks, granitic rock is considered the archetype fractured media. On the other hand, andesite, tuff and Neogene sedimentary rocks are considered as intermediate between fractured media and porous media where flow in fractures as well as in rock matrix are significant. (author)

  1. Birth characteristics and childhood carcinomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, K J; Carozza, S E; Chow, E J; Fox, E E; Horel, S; McLaughlin, C C; Mueller, B A; Puumala, S E; Reynolds, P; Von Behren, J; Spector, L G

    2011-10-25

    Carcinomas in children are rare and have not been well studied. We conducted a population-based case-control study and examined associations between birth characteristics and childhood carcinomas diagnosed from 28 days to 14 years during 1980-2004 using pooled data from five states (NY, WA, MN, TX, and CA) that linked their birth and cancer registries. The pooled data set contained 57,966 controls and 475 carcinoma cases, including 159 thyroid and 126 malignant melanoma cases. We used unconditional logistic regression to calculate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). White compared with 'other' race was positively associated with melanoma (OR=3.22, 95% CI 1.33-8.33). Older maternal age increased the risk for melanoma (OR(per 5-year age increase)=1.20, 95% CI 1.00-1.44), whereas paternal age increased the risk for any carcinoma (OR=1.10(per 5-year age increase), 95% CI 1.01-1.20) and thyroid carcinoma (OR(per 5-year age increase)=1.16, 95% CI 1.01-1.33). Gestational age birth weight, and birth order were not significantly associated with childhood carcinomas. This exploratory study indicates that some birth characteristics including older parental age and low gestational age may be related to childhood carcinoma aetiology.

  2. Generic adversary characteristics: summary report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stewart, J.B. Jr.; Davidson, J.J.; Jones, H.B.; Fulwiler, C.H.; Mullen, S.A.

    1978-07-01

    The adversaries studied were found to be complex, often unpredictable, and dynamic. The adversary typically goes through a complex decision-making process between the time a potential target is identified and the moment the decision to act is made. This study analyzes the adversary characteristics, and the following conclusions are made: one of the least likely methods of attack is an overt armed assault. Terrorists and psychotics depend upon a high degree of personal dedication. No single generic adversary group or individual exhibits strength in every characteristic. Physical danger appears to have some deterrent effect on all adversaries except the psychotics. Organized and professional criminals often try to recruit insiders. Disoriented persons, white-collar criminals, and disgruntled employees tend to operate as insiders. Professional criminals, many terrorist groups, some extremist protest groups, and certain disoriented persons plan carefully before initiating a criminal mission. Organized crime and miscellaneous criminal adversaries rely on deception and ruse to bypass security. After the decision to commit a crime, the resources deployed by terrorists or organized criminals will be a function of their perception of the operational requirements of the crime. The nature of ''threat'' is dynamic; adversary behavior and capability appear to be related to prevailing political, economic, and social conditions

  3. Family characteristics of stuttering children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simić-Ružić Budimirka

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION Stuttering is a functional impairment of speech, which is manifested by conscious, but nonintentionally interrupted, disharmonic and disrhythmic fluctuation of sound varying in frequency and intensity. Aetiology of this disorder has been conceived within the frame of theoretical models, which tend to connect genetic and epigenetic factors. OBJECTIVE The goal of the paper was to study the characteristics of the family functioning of stuttering children in comparison to the family functioning of children without speech disorder, which confirmed the justification of the introduction of family orientated therapeutic interventions into the therapy spectrum of child stuttering. METHOD Seventy-nine nucleus families of 3 to 6 year-old children were examined; of these, 39 families had stuttering children and 40 had children without speech disorder. The assessment of family characteristics was made using the Family Health Scale, an observer-rating scale which according to semistructured interview and operational criteria, measures 6 basic dimensions of family functioning: Emotional State, Communication, Borders, Alliances, Adaptability & Stability, Family Skills. A total score calculated from the basic dimensions, is considered as a global index of family health. RESULTS Families with stuttering children compared to families with children without speech disorder showed significantly lower scores in all the basic dimension of family functioning, as well as in the total score on the Family Health Scale. CONCLUSION Our research results have shown that stuttering children in comparison with children without speech disorder live in families with unfavorable emotional atmosphere, impaired communication and worse control over situational and developmental difficulties, which affect children's development and well-being. In the light of previous research, the application of family therapy modified according to the child's needs is now considered

  4. [Kleptomania: clinical characteristics and treatment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, Jon E; Odlaug, Brian L

    2008-05-01

    Kleptomania, a disabling impulse control disorder, is characterized by the repetitive and uncontrollable theft of items that are of little use to the afflicted person. Despite its relatively long history, kleptomania remains poorly understood to the general public, clinicians, and sufferers. This article reviews the literature for what is known about the clinical characteristics, family history, neurobiology, and treatment options for individuals with kleptomania. Kleptomania generally has its onset in late adolescence or early adulthood and appears to be more common among women. Lifetime psychiatric comorbidity is frequent, mainly with other impulse control (20-46%), substance use (23-50%) and mood disorders (45-100%). Individuals with kleptomania suffer significant impairment in their ability to function socially and occupationally. Kleptomania may respond to cognitive behavioral therapy and various pharmacotherapies (lithium, anti-epileptics, and opioid antagonists). Kleptomania is a disabling disorder that results in intense shame, as well as legal, social, family, and occupational problems. Large scale treatment studies are needed.

  5. Densification characteristics of corn cobs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaliyan, Nalladurai; Morey, R. Vance [Department of Bioproducts and Biosystems Engineering, University of Minnesota, 1390 Eckles Avenue, St. Paul, MN 55108 (United States)

    2010-05-15

    Corn cobs are potential feedstocks for producing heat, power, fuels, and chemicals. Densification of corn cobs into briquettes/pellets would improve their bulk handling, transportation, and storage properties. In this study, densification characteristics of corn cobs were studied using a uniaxial piston-cylinder densification apparatus. With a maximum compression pressure of 150 MPa, effects of particle size (0.85 and 2.81 mm), moisture content (10 and 20% w.b.), and preheating temperature (25 and 85 C) on the density and durability of the corn cob briquettes (with diameter of about 19.0 mm) were studied. It was found that the durability (measured using ASABE tumbling can method) of corn cob briquettes made at 25 C was 0%. At both particle sizes, preheating of corn cob grinds with about 10% (w.b.) moisture content to 85 C produced briquettes with a unit density of > 1100 kg m{sup -3} and durability of about 90%. (author)

  6. Scattering characteristics from porous silicon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Sabet-Dariani

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available   Porous silicon (PS layers come into existance as a result of electrochemical anodization on silicon. Although a great deal of research has been done on the formation and optical properties of this material, the exact mechanism involved is not well-understood yet.   In this article, first, the optical properties of silicon and porous silicon are described. Then, previous research and the proposed models about reflection from PS and the origin of its photoluminescence are reveiwed. The reflecting and scattering, absorption and transmission of light from this material, are then investigated. These experiments include,different methods of PS sample preparation their photoluminescence, reflecting and scattering of light determining different characteristics with respect to Si bulk.

  7. Characteristics of potential repository wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cowart, C.G.; Notz, K.J.

    1992-10-01

    This report presents the results of a fully documented peer review of DOE/RW-0184, Rev. 1, ''Characteristics of Potential Repository Wastes''. The peer review was chaired and administered by oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) for the Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM) and was conducted in accordance with OCRWM QA procedure QAAP 3.3 ''Peer Review'' for the purpose of quailing the document for use in OCRWM quality-affecting work. The peer reviewers selected represent a wide range of experience and knowledge particularly suitable for evaluating the subject matter. A total of 596 formal comments were documented by the seven peer review panels, and all were successfully resolved. The peers reached the conclusion that DOE/RW-0184, Rev. 1, is quality determined and suitable for use in quality-affecting work

  8. Prediction of dislocation boundary characteristics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winther, Grethe

    Plastic deformation of both fcc and bcc metals of medium to high stacking fault energy is known to result in dislocation patterning in the form of cells and extended planar dislocation boundaries. The latter align with specific crystallographic planes, which depend on the crystallographic......) and it is found that to a large extent the dislocations screen each other’s elastic stress fields [3]. The present contribution aims at advancing the previous theoretical analysis of a boundary on a known crystallographic plane to actual prediction of this plane as well as other boundary characteristics....... Crystal plasticity calculations combined with the hypothesis that these boundaries separate domains with local differences in the slip system activity are introduced to address precise prediction of the experimentally observed boundaries. The presentation will focus on two cases from fcc metals...

  9. Psychosocial characteristics of bullying personality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bošković Milo

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Violence as a traditional appearance of a criminal nature in modern conditions is expressed in certain specific circumstances, especially the type and application of funds. However, behind the phenomena are violent - offender and victim. Criminology, even in its infancy of science, as well as in the classical theories have always dealt with the issues of violent offender, classifying it in the first criminals of passion. The question is whether modern conditions with changes in the type and nature of violence in recent times this type of crime and became a rational motive, and therefore habitually delinquent or professional criminal. The work in this regard primarily engaged in matters of general (psychological, pathological and social characteristics and dispositions of perpetrators of violence in the area.

  10. Reliability Characteristics of Power Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zbynek Martinek

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the phenomenon of reliability of power plants. It gives an explanation of the terms connected with this topic as their proper understanding is important for understanding the relations and equations which model the possible real situations. The reliability phenomenon is analysed using both the exponential distribution and the Weibull distribution. The results of our analysis are specific equations giving information about the characteristics of the power plants, the mean time of operations and the probability of failure-free operation. Equations solved for the Weibull distribution respect the failures as well as the actual operating hours. Thanks to our results, we are able to create a model of dynamic reliability for prediction of future states. It can be useful for improving the current situation of the unit as well as for creating the optimal plan of maintenance and thus have an impact on the overall economics of the operation of these power plants.

  11. Characteristic Behavior of Bucket Foundations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barari, Amin

    political and industrial forces(particularly in northern Europe) supporting the development of the offshore wind industry. The overall aim of the research presented in this thesis was to improve the design of offshore wind turbine foundations. The work was divided into two main researchefforts: geotechnical...... reduce the risks and costsrelated to offshore geotechnics. The thesis examines: 1.Characteristic Behavior of Bucket Foundations 2. Modeling of Water Flow through Porous Media The outcomes of each of the research contributions are summarized in four research articles, either directly or indirectly...... engineering experiments to gain insight into the behavior of offshore bucket foundations, and development of methods to improve the study of infiltration intounsaturated soils, an important problem in geo-environmental engineering. The outcomes of the research have the potential to directly or indirectly...

  12. Image characteristics of adrenal ganglioneuroma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohishi, Yukihiko; Machida, Toyohei; Tashiro, Kazuya

    1994-01-01

    The image characteristics of adrenal ganglioneuroma observed in various types of imaging were examined. The subjects of the study were 6 cases of adrenal ganglioneuroma which had been histologically confirmed: the ages of the subjects ranged from 25 to 54 (mean age 41), and the maximum diameter of the tumors were 4 to 7 cm. The diagnostic methods employed in their detection were ultrasonography (US) and computed tomography (CT) in all 6 cases, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in 5 cases, and arteriography in 3 cases. On US and CT images, all 6 tumors had clear and smooth boundaries, and were homogeneous. They were hypoechoic on US images and low density on CT images. Of the 5 cases for which contrast CT images had been obtained, one showed a slightly heterogeneous staining. On MRI, the tumors were of lower intensity in comparison to the liver in 4 of 5 cases on the T 1 -weighted images, and the internal structure was homogeneous in 3 cases and heterogeneous in one case. The remaining one case was of isointensity and homogeneous. On the T 2 -weighted images, all 5 cases were of high intensity and heterogeneous. The blood flow distribution in the 3 tumors which were examined by Gd-DTPA dynamic MRI was low and of isointensity to the liver: 2 were heterogeneous and one was homogeneous. T 1 -enhanced images were obtained in 4 cases: 2 were of high intensity and heterogeneous, one was of isointensity and homogeneous, and one was of heterogeneously isointensity. Arteriography indicated that all 3 cases were hypovascular and no vascularization or ruptures were evident. It appeared that the imaging characteristics of adrenal ganglioneuroma were as follows: (1) homogeneous on US and CT images; (2) hypoechoic on US images, low density on CT images and little enhancement on contrast CT images; (3) of low intensity homogeneous on T 1 -weighted images and of high intensity heterogeneous on T 2 -weighted images and little blood flow distribution on dynamic MRI. (author)

  13. The characteristics of a pneumatic muscle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pietrala Dawid

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents static and dynamic characteristics of pneumatic muscles. It presents the structure of the laboratory stand used to test pneumatic muscles. It discusses the methodology for determination of static and dynamic characteristics. The paper also illustrates characteristics showing the relationship of pneumatic muscles length and operating pressure, at a constant loading force (isotonic characteristics. It presents characteristics showing the relationship of pneumatic muscles shortening and values of loading forces, at a constant operational pressure (isobaric characteristics. It also shows the dependence of force generated by the muscle on the operating pressure, at a constant value of pneumatic muscles shortening (isometric characteristics. The paper also presents dynamic characteristics of a pneumatic muscle showing the response of an object to a gradual change in the operating pressure, at a constant loading force acting on the pneumatic muscle.

  14. The characteristics of a pneumatic muscle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pietrala, Dawid

    The article presents static and dynamic characteristics of pneumatic muscles. It presents the structure of the laboratory stand used to test pneumatic muscles. It discusses the methodology for determination of static and dynamic characteristics. The paper also illustrates characteristics showing the relationship of pneumatic muscles length and operating pressure, at a constant loading force (isotonic characteristics). It presents characteristics showing the relationship of pneumatic muscles shortening and values of loading forces, at a constant operational pressure (isobaric characteristics). It also shows the dependence of force generated by the muscle on the operating pressure, at a constant value of pneumatic muscles shortening (isometric characteristics). The paper also presents dynamic characteristics of a pneumatic muscle showing the response of an object to a gradual change in the operating pressure, at a constant loading force acting on the pneumatic muscle.

  15. Developing countries SMEs innovation characteristics and performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vang, Jan; Rezaei, Shahamak; Baklanov, Nikita

    An econometric study analysing developing countries’ SMEs innovation characteristics and their correlation with performance.......An econometric study analysing developing countries’ SMEs innovation characteristics and their correlation with performance....

  16. Energy characteristics of Darrieus rotor ( review)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorelov, D. N.

    2010-09-01

    Presented below is the review of the results of experimental studies of energy characteristics of Darrieus rotor with vertical rotation axis. Influence of main geometry parameters of the rotor on its energy characteristics has been analyzed. It is shown that Darrieus rotor may have the higher level of energy characteristics than the best propeller wind turbines.

  17. 14 CFR 23.239 - Spray characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Spray characteristics. 23.239 Section 23.239 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT... Handling Characteristics § 23.239 Spray characteristics. Spray may not dangerously obscure the vision of...

  18. 33 CFR 66.01-10 - Characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Characteristics. 66.01-10 Section 66.01-10 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY AIDS TO... Characteristics. The characteristics of a private aid to navigation must conform to those prescribed by the United...

  19. 33 CFR 62.45 - Light characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Light characteristics. 62.45... characteristics. (a) Lights on aids to navigation are differentiated by color and rhythm. Lighthouses and range lights may display distinctive light characteristics to facilitate recognition. No special significance...

  20. 30 CFR 7.25 - Critical characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Critical characteristics. 7.25 Section 7.25....25 Critical characteristics. A sample of each batch or lot of brattice cloth and ventilation tubing...-resistance characteristic shall be inspected or tested to ensure that the finished product will meet the...

  1. 30 CFR 7.85 - Critical characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Critical characteristics. 7.85 Section 7.85 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR TESTING, EVALUATION, AND... Underground Coal Mines § 7.85 Critical characteristics. The following critical characteristics shall be...

  2. 30 CFR 7.65 - Critical characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Critical characteristics. 7.65 Section 7.65 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR TESTING, EVALUATION, AND... Critical characteristics. The following critical characteristics shall be inspected or tested on each...

  3. 30 CFR 7.45 - Critical characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Critical characteristics 7.45 Section 7.45 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR TESTING, EVALUATION, AND... characteristics The following critical characteristics shall be inspected or tested on each battery assembly to...

  4. 30 CFR 7.99 - Critical characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Critical characteristics. 7.99 Section 7.99 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR TESTING, EVALUATION, AND... characteristics. The following critical characteristics shall be inspected or tested on each diesel power package...

  5. 30 CFR 7.405 - Critical characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Critical characteristics. 7.405 Section 7.405... Cable Splice Kits § 7.405 Critical characteristics. (a) A sample from each production run, batch, or lot... tested, or (b) A sample of the materials that contribute to the flame-resistant characteristic of the...

  6. 30 CFR 7.305 - Critical characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Critical characteristics. 7.305 Section 7.305 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR TESTING, EVALUATION, AND... characteristics. The following critical characteristics shall be inspected on each motor assembly to which an...

  7. Tier identification (TID) for tiered memory characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Jichuan; Lim, Kevin T; Ranganathan, Parthasarathy

    2014-03-25

    A tier identification (TID) is to indicate a characteristic of a memory region associated with a virtual address in a tiered memory system. A thread may be serviced according to a first path based on the TID indicating a first characteristic. The thread may be serviced according to a second path based on the TID indicating a second characteristic.

  8. THE COMBUSTION CHARACTERISTICS OF LIGNITE BLENDS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cheng Jun; Zhou Junhu; Cao Xinyu; Cen Kefa

    2000-01-01

    The combustion characteristics of lignite blends were studied with a thermogravimetric analyzer (t.g.a.), at constant heating rate.The characteristic temperatures were determined from the burning profiles.It was found that the characteristic times of combustion reaction moved forward, the ignition temperature dropped and the burnout efficiency slightly changed when blending lignites.The characteristic parameters of blends could not be predicted as a linear function of the average values of the individual lignites.when blending with less reactive coal, the ignition and burnout characteristics of lignite turned worse.

  9. Dentomaxillofacial characteristics of ectodermal dysplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakayama, Yumiko; Baba, Yoshiyuki; Tsuji, Michiko; Fukuoka, Hiroki; Ogawa, Takuya; Ohkuma, Mizue; Moriyama, Keiji

    2015-02-01

    The aim of this retrospective hospital-based study was to elucidate the dentomaxillofacial characteristics of ectodermal dysplasia. Six Japanese individuals (one male and five female; age range, 12.7-27.2 years) underwent comprehensive examinations, including history recording, cephalometric analysis, panoramic radiography, and analysis of dental models. All the subjects had two or more major manifestations for clinical diagnosis of ectodermal dysplasia (e.g., defects of hair, teeth, nails, and sweat glands). They presented hypodontia (mean number of missing teeth, 9.5; range, 5-14), especially in the premolar region, and enamel dysplasia. Five subjects had bilateral molar occlusion, whereas one subject had unilateral molar occlusion. The common skeletal features were small facial height, maxillary hypoplasia, counterclockwise rotation of the mandible, and mandibular protrusion. Interestingly, the maxillary first molars were located in higher positions and the upper anterior facial height was smaller than the Japanese norm. The results suggest that vertical and anteroposterior maxillary growth retardation, rather than lack of occlusal support due to hypodontia, leads to reduced anterior facial height in individuals with ectodermal dysplasia. © 2014 Japanese Teratology Society.

  10. Characteristics of Nonallergic Vasomotor Rhinitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    Nonallergic rhinitis (NAR) conditions are currently considered diagnoses by exclusion. A diagnosis of NAR requires negative specific IgE responses by skin or serologic testing and more recently testing to exclude localized production of specific IgE in the nose. Symptoms are classically aggravated by irritant triggers such as tobacco smoke, perfumes/fragrances, and temperature or barometric pressure changes. A previously developed questionnaire survey designed to help physicians recognize differences between allergic rhinitis and nonallergic rhinitis subtypes found that patients with symptom onset later in life (> 35 years), no family history of allergies, no seasonality or cat-induced symptoms, and symptoms induced by perfumes and fragrances had > 95% likelihood of having a physician diagnosis of NAR. Of note, clinical symptoms were not generally useful for differentiating chronic rhinitis subtypes which has also been confirmed in a more recent study investigating the relationship between headaches and chronic rhinitis subtypes (Table 1). In subsequent studies it was found that a significant percentage of NAR patients did not experience irritant-induced symptoms, suggesting that these triggers are not a clinical characteristic that can be uniformly used for all NAR patients. However, a newly developed Irritant Index Scale can be used to reliably differentiate pure allergic rhinitis from nonallergic rhinitis with trigger phenotypes. The use of standardized and validated questionnaires allows objective characterization of chronic rhinitis subtypes that appears to improve the accuracy of clinically diagnosing these patients. PMID:24228982

  11. Physical characteristics of satellite surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veverka, J.; Thomas, P.; Johnson, T.V.; Matson, D.; Housen, K.

    1986-01-01

    Both exogenic and endogenic effects have been proposed to explain the major observed characteristics of satellite surfaces. The current view is that the basic properties of most surfaces result from the intrinsic composition of a body and its geologic history. Exogenic effects have, however, played a role in modifying the appearance of nearly all surfaces. The most important exogenic effect is impact cratering, one manifestation of which is the production of micrometeoroid gardened regoliths on airless bodies. On large, silicate bodies the micrometeoroid bombardment can produce an optically mature, dark agglutinate-rich soil; the nature of regoliths on predominantly icy satellites remains uncertain. Direct accumulation of infalling material does not appear to play a major role in modifying most surfaces. Solar wind radiation effects have not altered greatly the optical properties of solar system objects; magnetospheric charged particles may have modified the optical properties of some outer planet satellites (e.g., sulfur ion bombardment in the case of some of the satellites of Jupiter). Other effects, such as aeolian and liquid/solid chemical weathering, may be important on satellites with atmospheres like Titan and Triton

  12. Deformation Characteristics of Composite Structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theddeus T. AKANO

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The composites provide design flexibility because many of them can be moulded into complex shapes. The carbon fibre-reinforced epoxy composites exhibit excellent fatigue tolerance and high specific strength and stiffness which have led to numerous advanced applications ranging from the military and civil aircraft structures to the consumer products. However, the modelling of the beams undergoing the arbitrarily large displacements and rotations, but small strains, is a common problem in the application of these engineering composite systems. This paper presents a nonlinear finite element model which is able to estimate the deformations of the fibre-reinforced epoxy composite beams. The governing equations are based on the Euler-Bernoulli beam theory (EBBT with a von Kármán type of kinematic nonlinearity. The anisotropic elasticity is employed for the material model of the composite material. Moreover, the characterization of the mechanical properties of the composite material is achieved through a tensile test, while a simple laboratory experiment is used to validate the model. The results reveal that the composite fibre orientation, the type of applied load and boundary condition, affect the deformation characteristics of the composite structures. The nonlinearity is an important factor that should be taken into consideration in the analysis of the fibre-reinforced epoxy composites.

  13. Salivary characteristics of diabetic children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    López María Elena

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Salivary components may suffer variations that can be detected by chemical determinations. The aim of this work was to determine physical and biochemical characteristics of the saliva of a group of diabetic children compared to those of a control group. Relation to oral health indices was also determined. Twenty diabetic children (3-15-years-old and 21 control children (5-12-years-old were included in this study. Total proteins, sugars and calcium were determined by colorimetric methods, and glucose, urea, alpha-amylase and acid phosphatase by enzymatic methods. Our results demonstrated that acidic pH, diminished salivary flow rate and excess foam are usually present in saliva of diabetic children. Total sugars, glucose, urea and total proteins were greater in diabetic patients than controls, while calcium values were decreased. These differences were confirmed by the discrimination test. Diabetic children have higher DMFT-dmft-deft and DMFS-dmfs-defs values compared to those of the control children despite their lower sugar intake. Some salivary components in addition to the diminished flow rate could be involved in the characterization of the oral health state of diabetic children.

  14. Explosive Characteristics of Carbonaceous Nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turkevich, Leonid; Fernback, Joseph; Dastidar, Ashok

    2013-03-01

    Explosion testing has been performed on 20 codes of carbonaceous particles. These include SWCNTs (single-walled carbon nanotubes), MWCNTs (multi-walled carbon nanotubes), CNFs (carbon nanofibers), graphene, diamond, fullerene, carbon blacks and graphites. Explosion screening was performed in a 20 L explosion chamber (ASTM E1226-10 protocol), at a (dilute) concentration of 500 g/m3, using a 5 kJ ignition source. Time traces of overpressure were recorded. Samples exhibited overpressures of 5-7 bar, and deflagration index KSt = V1/3 (dp/pt)max ~ 10 - 80 bar-m/s, which places these materials in European Dust Explosion Class St-1 (similar to cotton and wood dust). There was minimal variation between these different materials. The explosive characteristics of these carbonaceous powders are uncorrelated with particle size (BET specific surface area). Additional tests were performed on selected materials to identify minimum explosive concentration [MEC]. These materials exhibit MEC ~ 101 -102 g/m3 (lower than the MEC for coals). The concentration scans confirm that the earlier screening was performed under fuel-rich conditions (i.e. the maximum over-pressure and deflagration index exceed the screening values); e.g. the true fullerene KSt ~ 200 bar-m/s, placing it borderline St-1/St-2. Work supported through the NIOSH Nanotechnology Research Center (NTRC)

  15. Characteristics of radiation protection legislation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Puig Cardozo, Diva E.

    2001-01-01

    The laws on radiological protection have special characteristics. They can exist laws that regulate dangerous activities that will be also applicable, if it corresponds to the activities that involve radioactive materials. But a law of radiological protection should exist. It foresees the existence of an appropriate regulatory body and specialized institutions, definitions, infractions and sanctions then the respective regulations will be elaborated for the different applications. The objective is to contribute to the development of the nuclear energy in the country and to provide the regulatory basis that assures a reasonable security for radioactive installations. The essential objectives of these laws are: 1. to establish the legislative framework for the development and employment of nuclear energy, without risks, according with treaties and conventions that the countries have approved. 2. To fix the fundamental principles and the conditions of their setting in practice allowing to a specific regulation determining application procedures. 3. To create a structure of regulation of enough authority to be able to control and to watch over in an effective way the authorized activities 4. To guarantee an appropriate financial protection against the derived damages of accidents or nuclear incidents. (author)

  16. Characteristic analysis of servo valve

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ko, J. H.; Ryu, D. R.; Lee, J. H.; Kim, Y. S.; Na, J. C.; Kim, D. S.

    2008-01-01

    Electro-pneumatic servo valve is an electro-mechanical device which converts electric signals into a proper pneumatic flow rate or pressure. In order to improve the overall performance of pneumatic servo systems, electro-pneumatic servo valves are required, which have fast dynamic characteristics, no air leakage at a null point, and can be fabricated at a low-cost. The first objective of this research is to design and to fabricate a new electro-pneumatic servo valve which satisfies the above-mentioned requirements. In order to design the mechanism of the servo valve optimally, the flow inside the valve depending upon the position of spool was analyzed variously, and on the basis of such analysis results, the valve mechanism, which was formed by combination of the spool and the sleeve, was designed and manufactured. And a tester for conducting an overall performance test was designed and manufactured, and as a result of conducting the flow rate test, the pressure test and the frequency test on the developed pneumatic servo valve

  17. Observed characteristics of auroral forms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davis, T.N.

    1978-01-01

    Observations indicate that the extended auroral arc is the basic form of the discrete aurora, the brightest and most obvious kind of aurora. Both motions of auroral arcs and their distortions into convoluted forms indicate the presence of shear processes involving substantial charge excesses and magnetic field-aligned currents. Consequently, strong electric fields, both horizontal and vertical, characterize the discrete aurora. The observations of auroral arcs and observations of associated charged-particle fluxes, electric fields and currents fit together into a relatively cohesive description of the auroral arc which is compatible with at least one proposed model of the causative processes. On the other hand, an equally important type of aurora - pulsating aurora - exhibits quite different characteristics which distinguish it from the discrete aurora and which are difficult to interpret satisfactorily in terms of existing proposed models of particle precipitation and excitation of auroral emission. The lack of shearing behavior in the pulsating aurora indicates that substantial electric fields are not associated with it. Transitional forms of auroras exhibit an intermediate degree of shear motion. (Auth.)

  18. Tsunami sediments and their grain size characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulastya Putra, Purna

    2018-02-01

    Characteristics of tsunami deposits are very complex as the deposition by tsunami is very complex processes. The grain size characteristics of tsunami deposits are simply generalized no matter the local condition in which the deposition took place. The general characteristics are fining upward and landward, poor sorting, and the grain size distribution is not unimodal. Here I review the grain size characteristics of tsunami deposit in various environments: swale, coastal marsh and lagoon/lake. Review results show that although there are similar characters in some environments and cases, but in detail the characteristics in each environment can be distinguished; therefore, the tsunami deposit in each environment has its own characteristic. The local geological and geomorphological condition of the environment may greatly affect the grain size characteristics.

  19. Cocaine – Characteristics and addiction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna Girczys-Połedniok

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Cocaine use leads to health, social and legal problems. The aim of this paper is to discuss cocaine action, addicts characteristics, use patterns and consequences, as well as addiction treatment methods. A literature review was based on the Medline, PubMed, Polish Medical Bibliography databases and the Silesian Library resources. The Police and Central Statistical Office statistics, as well as the World Health Organization, the European Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction and the National Office for Combating Drug Addiction reports were used. Cocaine leads to mood improvement, appetite decrease, physical and intellectual activity enhancement, euphoria, inflated self-esteem, social networking ease and increased sexual desire. Cocaine hydrochloride is mainly used intranasaly, but also as intravenous and subcutaneous injections. Cocaine use and first addiction treatment fall in later age compared to other psychoactive substances. There is a high men to women ratio among addicts. There is a relationship between cocaine addiction, the presence of other disorders and genetic predisposition to addiction development. Polish reports indicate higher popularity of cocaine among people with a high economic and social status. Although Poland is a country with the low percentage of cocaine use, its popularity is growing. The consequences of cocaine use concern somatic and mental health problems, socioeconomic and legal conditions. The drug plays a role in crimes and traffic accidents. Because of the risks associated with cocaine use, it has been listed in a register of drugs attached to the Act on Counteracting Drug Addiction. Addiction treatment includes psychological, pharmacological and harm reduction strategies. Med Pr 2016;67(4:537–544

  20. Autoignition characteristics of oxygenated gasolines

    KAUST Repository

    Lee, Changyoul

    2017-08-14

    Gasoline anti-knock quality, defined by the research and motor octane numbers (RON and MON), is important for increasing spark ignition (SI) engine efficiency. Gasoline knock resistance can be increased using a number of blending components. For over two decades, ethanol has become a popular anti-knock blending agent with gasoline fuels due to its production from bio-derived resources. This work explores the oxidation behavior of two oxygenated certification gasoline fuels and the variation of fuel reactivity with molecular composition. Ignition delay times of Haltermann (RON = 91) and Coryton (RON = 97.5) gasolines have been measured in a high-pressure shock tube and in a rapid compression machine at three pressures of 10, 20 and 40 bar, at equivalence ratios of φ = 0.45, 0.9 and 1.8, and in the temperature range of 650–1250 K. The results indicate that the effects of fuel octane number and fuel composition on ignition characteristics are strongest in the intermediate temperature (negative temperature coefficient) region. To simulate the reactivity of these gasolines, three kinds of surrogates, consisting of three, four and eight components, are proposed and compared with the gasoline ignition delay times. It is shown that more complex surrogate mixtures are needed to emulate the reactivity of gasoline with higher octane sensitivity (S = RON–MON). Detailed kinetic analyses are performed to illustrate the dependence of gasoline ignition delay times on fuel composition and, in particular, on ethanol content.

  1. Radiobiological characteristics of cervical cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kagabu, Teruo; Kobayashi, Takashi; Nanayama, Kunihiko

    1976-01-01

    In order to observe the radiobiological characteristics of cervical cancer, the author carried out irradiation of 60 Co in 16 cases of cervical cancer. The primary lesion of each case was exposed to radiation of 100 R once a day, 40 times in sequence, totaling 4,000 R. To evaluate this results, the vaginal smears were obtained everyday and examined for changes in cancerous cells caused by the irradiation. The results of our study showed that cervical cancer could be classified into three groups according to the radiosensitivity of its cancerous cells. In the group of low-radiosensitivity (11 cases of 16), the cancerous cells decreased gradually, and enlargement of the nuclei of the cancerous cells was observed from 2,000 R of irradiation, but the majority of the cancerous cells were those of nucleus after the irradiation of 4,000 R. In all of the 5 uterus removed, residual cancer lesion was noted. The radiocuability was unfavourable. In the group of high-radiosensitivity (4 cases of 16), the cancerous cells decreased remarkablly. Enlargement of nucleus was noted from 1,000 R of the irradiation, the cancerous cells of small-sized nucleus appeared with the irradiation of 3,000 R but the cancerous cells almost disappeared with the irradiation of 4,000 R. The radiocuability was favourable. In the group of combination of high-radiosensitivity and low-radiosensitivity portions (one case of 16), the cancerous cells decreased remarkablly until the exposure to the radiation of 2,000 R but thereafter did slowly. In a removed uterus, the cancer lesion was noted, but the prognosis was favourable. The foregoing results suggest that changes in the nuclear diameter of the cancerous cells in vaginal smears during irradiation can tell the radiosensitivity of the cancerous cells. (Kanao, N.)

  2. Characteristics of the quarry as shielding for {sup 241}AmBe neutrons and monoenergetic photons; Caracteristicas de la cantera como blindaje para los neutrones del {sup 241}AmBe y fotones monoenergeticos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vega C, H. R.; Hernandez D, V. M.; Letechipia de L, C.; Salas L, M. A. [Universidad Autonoma de Zacatecas, Unidad Academica de Estudios Nucleares, Cipres No. 10, Fracc. La Penuela, 98068 Zacatecas, Zac. (Mexico); Rodriguez R, J. A.; Juarez A, C. A., E-mail: fermineutron@yahoo.com [Universidad Autonoma de Nuevo Leon, Facultad de Ingenieria Civil, Pedro de Alba s/n, San Nicolas de los Garza, Nuevo Leon (Mexico)

    2016-09-15

    Shielding is an important element in radiation protection since allows the management of radiation sources. Currently there are different materials of natural or anthropogenic origin that are used as shielding for both photons and neutrons. The quarry is a material of natural origin and abundant in our country, which is used in construction or for the manufacture of sculptures, however its characteristics as shielding have not been reported. In this paper we report some of the properties of the quarry as shielding for monoenergetic photons and for neutrons produced by an isotopic neutron source of {sup 241}AmBe. A quarry piece was used to determine its density and its chemical composition, with the XCOM code the elemental composition was determined and the mass interaction and total attenuation coefficients of the quarry were determined with photons of 10{sup -3} to 10{sup -5} MeV; the interaction coefficients included coherent dispersion, photoelectric absorption, Compton dispersion and the production of pairs in the nuclear and electronic field. Using the MCNP5 code, a narrow geometry attenuation experiment was modeled and the photon fluence was estimated that reaches a point detector at a distance of 42 cm from a point source, isotropic and monoenergetic photon when the source and the point detector were added quarry pieces of different thicknesses. The reduction of the number of photons as a function of the thickness of the quarry was used to determine the coefficient of linear attenuation of the quarry before photons of 0.03, 0.07, 0.1, 0.3, 1, 2 and 3 MeV that were the same as those calculated with the XCOM code. With the MCNP, the K a and H(10) transmission curves were also calculated. This same model was used to determined the variation of the {sup 241}AmBe neutron spectrum as a function of quarry thickness, as well as the E{sub ROT} and H(10) transmission curves. (Author)

  3. Characteristics of liver tissue for attenuate the gamma radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arcos P, A.; Rodriguez N, S.; Pinedo S, A.; Amador V, P.; Chacon R, A.; Vega C, H.R.

    2005-01-01

    It was determined the lineal attenuation coefficient of hepatic tissue before gamma radiation of a source of 137 Cs. When exposing organic material before X or gamma radiation fields, part of the energy of the photons is absorbed by the material, while another part crosses it without producing any effect. The quantity of energy that is absorbed is a measure of the dose that receives the material. The three main mechanisms by means of which the gamma rays interacting with the matter are: The Photoelectric Effect, the Compton dispersion and the Even production; the sum of these three processes is translated in the attenuation coefficient of the radiation. In this work we have used hepatic tissue of bovine, as substitute of the human hepatic tissue, and we have measured the lineal attenuation coefficient for photons of 0.662 MeV. Through a series of calculations we have determined the lineal attenuation coefficient for photons from 10 -3 to 10 -5 MeV and the measured coefficient was compared with the one calculated. (Author)

  4. Injection characteristics of dimethyl ether

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glensvig, M.

    1996-09-01

    Dimethyl ether (DME) has proved to be a new ultra-clean alternative fuel for diesel engines. Engine tests have shown considerably lower NO{sub x} emissions, no particle emissions and lower noise compared to that obtained from normal diesel engine operation. DME also has demonstrated favorable response to Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR). The purpose of this investigation was to achieve a better understanding of the fundamental spray behavior of DME. Fundamental spray behaviour was characterized by fuel spray penetration and angle, atomization and droplet size and evaporation. The influence of fuel characteristics, nozzle geometry and ambient pressure on the DME and diesel spray behavior was investigated. Fuel was injected into an unheated injection chamber with a ambient pressure of 15 bar and 25 bar, respectively, giving a simplified simulation of the environment in an operating engine. Two nozzles were studied: a single hole nozzle and a pintle nozzle. A conventional fuel injection system was used for both nozzles. Injection parameters of RPM, throttle position, fuel line length and chamber environment were held constant for both nozzles. The sprays were visualized using schlieren and high speed photography. Results show that the general appearance of the DME spray is similar to that of diesel spray. The core of the DME spray seems less dense and the spray tip less sharp compared to diesel spray, indicating smaller droplets with a lower momentum in the core of the DME spray. Schlieren film shows that with both DME and diesel fuel, the spray tip only consists of liquid and that evaporation occurs after a brief time interval. Penetration of DME is about one third that of diesel using the pintle nozzle. Also, the spray angle is considerably larger for the DME spray compared to the diesel spray. A comparatively smaller difference in penetration is observed using the hole nozzle. Differences in penetration for the hole nozzle are within the limit of the penetration

  5. Audiometric Characteristics of Hyperacusis Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacqueline eSheldrake

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Hyperacusis is a frequent auditory disorder where sounds of normal volume are perceived as too loud or even painfully loud. There is a high degree of co-morbidity between hyperacusis and tinnitus, most hyperacusis patients also have tinnitus, but only about 30-40% of tinnitus patients also show symptoms of hyperacusis. In order to elucidate the mechanisms of hyperacusis, detailed measurements of loudness discomfort levels (LDLs across the hearing range would be desirable. However, previous studies have only reported LDLs for a restricted frequency range, e.g. from 0.5 to 4 kHz, or from 1 to 8 kHz. We have measured audiograms and LDLs in 381 patients with a primary complaint of hyperacusis for the full standard audiometric frequency range from 0.125 to 8 kHz. On average, patients had mild high-frequency hearing loss, but more than a third of the tested ears had normal hearing thresholds, i.e. ≤ 20 dB HL. LDLs were found to be significantly decreased compared to a normal-hearing reference group, with average values around 85 dB HL across the frequency range. However, receiver operating characteristic analysis showed that LDL measurements are neither sensitive nor specific enough to serve as a single test for hyperacusis. There was a moderate positive correlation between hearing thresholds and LDLs (r = 0.36, i.e. LDLs tended to be higher at frequencies where hearing loss was present, suggesting that hyperacusis is unlikely to be caused by hearing threshold increase, in contrast to tinnitus for which hearing loss is a main trigger. Moreover, our finding that LDLs are decreased across the full range of audiometric frequencies, regardless of the pattern or degree of hearing loss, indicates that hyperacusis might be due to a generalized increase in auditory gain. Tinnitus on the other hand is thought to be caused by neuroplastic changes in a restricted frequency range, suggesting that tinnitus and hyperacusis might not share a common mechanism.

  6. CHARACTERISTICS OF SLUDGE BOTTOM MESH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamil Szydłowski

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The main aim of the study was to assess the selected heavy metals pollution of bottom sediments of small water bodies of different catchment management. Two ponds located in Mostkowo village were chosen for investigation. The first small water reservoir is surrounded by the cereal fields, cultivated without the use of organic and mineral fertilizers (NPK. The second reservoir is located in a park near rural buildings. Sediment samples were collected by the usage of KC Denmark sediments core probe. Samples were taken from 4 layers of sediment, from depth: 0–5, 5–10, 10–20 and 20–30 cm. Sampling was made once during the winter period (2014 year when ice occurred on the surface of small water bodies, from three points. The material was prepared for further analysis according to procedures used in soil science. The content of heavy metals (Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn were determined by atomic absorption spectrometry by usage of ASA ICE 3000 Thermo Scientific after prior digestion in the mixture (5: 1 of concentrated acids (HNO3 and HClO4. Higher pH values ​​were characteristic for sediments of pond located in a park than in pond located within the agricultural fields. In both small water bodies the highest heavy metal concentrations occurred in the deepest points of the research. In the sediments of the pond located within crop fields the highest concentration of cadmium, copper, lead and zinc were observed in a layer of 0–5 cm, wherein the nickel and chromium in a layer of 20–30 cm. In the sediments of the pond, located in the park the highest values ​​occurred at the deepest sampling point in the layer taken form 10–20 cm. Sediments from second reservoir were characterized by the largest average concentrations of heavy metals, except the lead content in sediment form the layer of 10–20 cm. According to the geochemical evaluation of sediments proposed by Bojakowska and Sokołowska [1998], the majority of samples belongs to Ist

  7. Saint Venant's equation and theory of characteristics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daubert, Andre

    1978-01-01

    This theory, in its general scope, will be dealt with through the concrete example of Saint Venant's equations which govern the waves in channels. 1. Finding the characteristic directions. The aim is to interpret the hyperbolic sort of equations to show that there is a way of combining them in order to shape them so that they express a linear relation between the variations of the unknowns when moving along particular differential paths. In certain cases, this differential relation can integrate to lead to Rieman's invariants. 2. Relation between the theory of characteristics and the wave equation. In the linear systems case, it is worthwhile showing simply, how the method of characteristics is linked to the conventional treatment of the wave equation. 3. Relation between the theory of characteristics and the Cauchy problem. The theory of characteristics is frequently introduced as from the Cauchy problem, the characteristics forming the conditions of indetermination of the Cauchy problem [fr

  8. Formirovanie politicheskoj jelity Litvy na rubezhe 1980 — 1990-h godov: rol' «politikov morali» [The formation of the political elite in Lithuania at the turn of the 1980s—1990s: the role of “moral politicians”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smirnov Vadim

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This article considers the trend of structural changes in the political elite of the Republic of Lithuania in the post-Soviet period through analyzing the role of the so-called “moral politicians” — intellectuals, artists, and cultural figures, who played a decisive role in the period of the communist system disintegration and further development of the country's policy. The role of the political elite, which is understood according to R. Putnam and J. Higley's definition, is considered in the conditions of political instability and uncertainty typical of transformation processes. In this context, the role of key actors is interpreted on the basis of the methodological structure of the so-called Stanford model developed by G. Almond and P. Bourdieu's theory of capital. This article reconstructs the course of political changes in the Republic of Lithuania at the initial stage of its independence, in the framework of which the key role was played by «moral politicians», most of whom subsequently retired from politics. Focusing on the situation in Lithuania, this research sets out to show the continuous dependence of today's policies of the Baltic States on the key choices made by the authorities at the turn of 1980s—1990s. Today, Russian political science lacks concrete regional studies into the issues of changes of elites in the context of research on the processes of postcommunist transformations. This work addresses the scientific interpretation of the content of mechanisms of «new» political elite development in postcommunist societies under the influence of endogenous and exogenous factors in the course of transformation. The stabilisation of elite formation processes in Lithuania, the assessment of patterns and trends, the identification of power centres and the character of intra-elite interaction, and a profound understanding of the functioning of Lithuanian political system in general will allow Russia to formulate a more efficient policy towards the Baltic States, which would promptly respond to emerging challenges.

  9. Some characteristics of a miniature neutron spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sekimoto, H.; Oishi, K.; Hojo, K.; Hojo, T.

    1984-01-01

    Some characteristics of an NE213 miniature spherical spectrometer for in-assembly fast-neutron spectrometry were measured. As the bubbling time changed, the pulse-height did not change appreciably, but the n-γ discrimination characteristics changed considerably. As the count rate changed, the pulse-height did not change appreciably, and the change of the n-γ discrimination characteristics was acceptable. The neutron response function was measured to be almost isotropic except for the backward direction. (orig.)

  10. Spatial characteristics of magnetotail reconnection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genestreti, Kevin J.

    We examine the properties of magnetic reconnection as it occurs in the Earth's magnetosphere, first focusing on the spatial characteristics of the near-Earth magnetotail reconnection site, then analyzing the properties of cold plasma that may affect reconnection at the dayside magnetopause. Two models are developed that empirically map the position and occurrence rate of the nightside ion diffusion region, which are based upon Geotail data (first model) and a combination of Geotail and Cluster data (second model). We use these empirical models to estimate that NASA's MMS mission will encounter the ion-scale reconnection site 11+/-4 times during its upcoming magnetotail survey phase. We also find that the occurrence of magnetotail reconnection is localized and asymmetric, with reconnection occurring most frequently at the duskside magnetotail neutral sheet near YGSM* = 5 RE. To determine the physics that governs this asymmetry and localization, we analyze the time history of the solar wind, the instantaneous properties of the magnetotail lobes and current sheet, as well as the geomagnetic activity levels, all for a larger set of Geotail and Cluster reconnection site observations. We find evidence in our own results and in the preexisting literature that localized (small DeltaY) reconnection sites initially form near YGSM* = 5 RE due to an asymmetry in the current sheet thickness. If the solar wind driving remains strong, then localized reconnection sites may expand in the +/-Y direction. The DeltaY extent of the reconnection site ap- pears to be positively correlated with the geomagnetic activity level, which is to be expected for a simplified "energy in equals energy out"-type picture of 3D reconnection. We develop two new methods for determining the temperatures of plasmas that are largely below the energy detection range of electrostatic analyzer instruments. The first method involves the direct application of a theoretical fit to the visible, high-energy portion

  11. Enhancing Authentication Models Characteristic Metrics via ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this work, we derive the universal characteristic metrics set for authentication models based on security, usability and design issues. We then compute the probability of the occurrence of each characteristic metrics in some single factor and multifactor authentication models in order to determine the effectiveness of these ...

  12. Binge Eating in Obesity: Associated MMPI Characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolotkin, Ronette L.; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Determined Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI) characteristics' association with binge-eating severity among obese women. Indicated much variability in binge severity among obese women seeking treatment. MMPI characteristics were significantly related to binge severity. As binge severity increased, so did psychological disturbance,…

  13. Study of characteristics of linac with TWRR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Y.L.; Toyama, S.; Emoto, T.; Nomura, M.; Takahashi, N.; Oshita, H.; Hirano, K.; Sato, I.

    1994-01-01

    High power electron linac which is developed by PNC is an electron linac with the TWRR (Traveling Wave Resonant Ring). Some phenomena occurred on our high power test are mentioned. Some important characteristics such as stability and phase characteristic are discussed. (author)

  14. Prospective Teachers' Personal Characteristics to Multicultural Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eskici, Menekse

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to determine prospective teachers' personal characteristics to multicultural education. It is also aimed to reveal whether there are meaningful differences in prospective teachers' personal characteristics to multicultural education according to their genders, age and number of siblings. The descriptive model was chosen to…

  15. Some Structural Characteristics of Music Television Videos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fry, Donald L.; Fry, Virginia H.

    1987-01-01

    Indicates, by analyzing two types of montage structures, that music television is a hybrid form of television programing displaying visual characteristics of both television commercials and drama. Argues that this amalgam of different characteristics gives music television its distinctive look and power as a promotional tool for the record…

  16. Photosynthetic characteristics of Lycoris aurea and monthly ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The leaf photosynthetic characteristics of Lycoris aurea, the monthly dynamics in lycorine and galantamine contents in its bulb and the correlation among the photosynthetic characteristics and the lycorine and galantamine during the annual growth period were studied by using LI-6400 portable photosynthetic measurement ...

  17. Clinical characteristics and management of children with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    reflux (VUR), including the clinical characteristics and management. Summary background data The association ... different clinical characteristics compared with the other two groups of patients with high-grade VUR. .... way ANOVA test; while qualitative data were analyzed using Chi square. The difference was considered.

  18. morphological characteristics and classification of soils derived

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prof. Ekwueme

    MORPHOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS AND CLASSIFICATION OF. SOILS DERIVED FROM DIVERSE PARENT MATERIALS IN CENTRAL. CROSS RIVER STATE, NIGERIA. 271. M. E. NSOR and I. J. IBANGA. (Received 5 October 2007; Revision Accepted 5 December 2007). ABSTRACT. Variation in soil characteristics ...

  19. Wave characteristics around Sittwe Port, Myanmar

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Mandal, S.; SanilKumar, V.

    characteristics were estimated using the DOLPHIN Model. Thereafter, nearshore wave characteristics were estimated from the offshore waves using refraction-diffraction model. As there is a considerable fetch of around 5 km, for winds blowing from 20o to 180o...

  20. Sport Management Graduate Programs: Characteristics of Effectiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ming; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Reports a study that examined the characteristics that enable graduate sport management programs to achieve their objectives. Surveys of sport management educators found they agreed on 11 characteristics that indicated a sport management program's effectiveness. Respondents believed an effective program should produce sport managers, not…

  1. 46 CFR 109.564 - Maneuvering characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Maneuvering characteristics. 109.564 Section 109.564 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) A-MOBILE OFFSHORE DRILLING UNITS OPERATIONS Miscellaneous § 109.564 Maneuvering characteristics. (a) The master or person in charge of each...

  2. 10 CFR 61.56 - Waste characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Waste characteristics. 61.56 Section 61.56 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSING REQUIREMENTS FOR LAND DISPOSAL OF RADIOACTIVE WASTE Technical Requirements for Land Disposal Facilities § 61.56 Waste characteristics. (a) The following requirements are...

  3. 14 CFR 25.203 - Stall characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Stall characteristics. 25.203 Section 25.203 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Flight Stalls § 25.203 Stall characteristics. (a) It must...

  4. 28 CFR 571.12 - General characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false General characteristics. 571.12 Section 571.12 Judicial Administration BUREAU OF PRISONS, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE COMMUNITY PROGRAMS AND RELEASE RELEASE FROM CUSTODY Release Preparation Program § 571.12 General characteristics. (a) Staff shall...

  5. 49 CFR 236.717 - Characteristics, operating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Characteristics, operating. 236.717 Section 236.717 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD... § 236.717 Characteristics, operating. The measure of electrical values at which electrical or electronic...

  6. Charts for interpreting wildland fire behavior characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patricia L. Andrews; Richard C. Rothermel

    1982-01-01

    The fire characteristics chart is proposed as a graphical method ofpresenting two primary characteristics of fire behavior – spread rate and intensity. Its primary use is communicating and interpreting either site-specific predictions of fire behavior or National Fire-Danger Rating System (NFDRS) indexes and components. Rate of spread, heat per unit area, flame length...

  7. Computing modal dispersion characteristics of radially Asymmetric ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We developed a matrix theory that applies to with non-circular/circular but concentric layers fibers. And we compute the dispersion characteristics of radially unconventional fiber, known as Asymmetric Bragg fiber. An attempt has been made to determine how the modal characteristics change as circular Bragg fiber is ...

  8. Bearing Health Assessment Based on Chaotic Characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Lu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Vibration signals extracted from rotating parts of machinery carry a lot of useful information about the condition of operating machine. Due to the strong non-linear, complex and non-stationary characteristics of vibration signals from working bearings, an accurate and reliable health assessment method for bearing is necessary. This paper proposes to utilize the selected chaotic characteristics of vibration signal for health assessment of a bearing by using self-organizing map (SOM. Both Grassberger-Procaccia algorithm and Takens' theory are employed to calculate the characteristic vector which includes three chaotic characteristics, such as correlation dimension, largest Lyapunov exponent and Kolmogorov entropy. After that, SOM is used to map the three corresponding characteristics into a confidence value (CV which represents the health state of the bearing. Finally, a case study based on vibration datasets of a group of testing bearings was conducted to demonstrate that the proposed method can reliably assess the health state of bearing.

  9. MODEL OF EMERGENCY DEPARTMENT NURSE PERFORMANCE IMPROVEMENT BASED ON ASSOCIATION OF INDIVIDUAL CHARACTERISTIC, ORGANIZATION CHARACTERISTIC AND JOB CHARACTERISTIC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Margaretha Bogar

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Nursing care is integral part of health care and having important role in management of patient with emergency condition. The purpose of this research was to develop nurse performance improvement model based on individual, organization and job characteristics association in Emergency Department of RSUD dr TC Hillers Maumere. Method: This was an explanative survey by cross sectional approach held on July -August 2012. Respondents in this study were 22 nurses and 44 patients were obtained by purposive sampling technique. Data were analyzed by partial least square test and signi fi cant t value > 1.64 (alpha 10%. Result: Results showed that individual characteristic had effect on nurse performance (t = 7.59, organization characteristic had effect on nurse performance (t = 2.03 and job characteristic didn’t have effect on nurse performance (t = 0.88. Nurse performance had effect on patient satisfaction (t = 6.54 but nurse satisfaction didn’t have effect on nurse performance (t = 1.31, and nurse satisfaction didn’t have effect either on patient satisfaction (t = 0.94. Discussion: This research concluded that individual characteristics which in fl uence nurse performance in nursing care were ability and skill, experience, age, sex, attitude and motivation. Organization characteristic that influence nurse performance was reward while job characteristic that include job design and feedback didn’t influence nurse performance in nursing care. Nurse performance influenced patient satisfaction but nurse satisfaction didn’t influence patient satisfaction and nurse performance.

  10. Evaluation of computational models and cross sections used by MCNP6 for simulation of characteristic X-ray emission from thick targets bombarded by kiloelectronvolt electrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poškus, A., E-mail: andrius.poskus@ff.vu.lt

    2016-09-15

    This paper evaluates the accuracy of the single-event (SE) and condensed-history (CH) models of electron transport in MCNP6.1 when simulating characteristic K{sub α}, total K (=K{sub α} + K{sub β}) and L{sub α} X-ray emission from thick targets bombarded by electrons with energies from 5 keV to 30 keV. It is shown that the MCNP6.1 implementation of the CH model for the K-shell impact ionization leads to underestimation of the K yield by 40% or more for the elements with atomic numbers Z < 15 and overestimation of the K{sub α} yield by more than 40% for the elements with Z > 25. The L{sub α} yields are underestimated by more than an order of magnitude in CH mode, because MCNP6.1 neglects X-ray emission caused by electron-impact ionization of L, M and higher shells in CH mode (the L{sub α} yields calculated in CH mode reflect only X-ray fluorescence, which is mainly caused by photoelectric absorption of bremsstrahlung photons). The X-ray yields calculated by MCNP6.1 in SE mode (using ENDF/B-VII.1 library data) are more accurate: the differences of the calculated and experimental K yields are within the experimental uncertainties for the elements C, Al and Si, and the calculated K{sub α} yields are typically underestimated by (20–30)% for the elements with Z > 25, whereas the L{sub α} yields are underestimated by (60–70)% for the elements with Z > 49. It is also shown that agreement of the experimental X-ray yields with those calculated in SE mode is additionally improved by replacing the ENDF/B inner-shell electron-impact ionization cross sections with the set of cross sections obtained from the distorted-wave Born approximation (DWBA), which are also used in the PENELOPE code system. The latter replacement causes a decrease of the average relative difference of the experimental X-ray yields and the simulation results obtained in SE mode to approximately 10%, which is similar to accuracy achieved with PENELOPE. This confirms that the DWBA inner

  11. Quantifying physical characteristics of wildland fuels using the fuel characteristic classification system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cynthia L. Riccardi; Susan J. Prichard; David V. Sandberg; Roger D. Ottmar

    2007-01-01

    Wildland fuel characteristics are used in many applications of operational fire predictions and to understand fire effects and behaviour. Even so, there is a shortage of information on basic fuel properties and the physical characteristics of wildland fuels. The Fuel Characteristic Classification System (FCCS) builds and catalogues fuelbed descriptions based on...

  12. Structural-chemical characteristics of implanted metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kozejkin, B.V.; Pavlov, P.V.; Pitirimova, E.A.; Frolov, A.I.

    1988-01-01

    Corrosion and structural characteristics of metallic layers implanted by ions of chemically active impurities and noble gases are studied. Dependence of experimental results on parameters of initial materials and technological conditions of implantation is established. In studying corrosion characteristics of implanted metals a strong dependence of chemical passivation effect on technological conditions of ion-implantation and structure of initial material is stated. On the basis of developed mathematical model of chemical passivation effect it is shown that increase of corrosion characteristics of implanted metals is defined by superposition of surface and volumetric mechanisms

  13. Personality characteristics in patients with somatized disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ekaterina Anatolyevna Tolkach

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to study personality characteristics, behavioral style, and modes of relations with their people in patients with somatized disorder. Subjects and methods. Eighty-six patients diagnosed as having somatized disorder were examined using Leary's interpersonal diagnosis system. Results. The author revealed the following personality characteristics and behavioral styles: a depressed need for authoritarianism, dominance, autonomy, aggressiveness, a display of qualities, such as superfriendliness, benevolence, submissiveness, dependency, and suspiciousness. These characteristics give an insight into the development of somatization in patients with somatized disorder.

  14. Characteristics of manipulative in mathematics laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Istiandaru, A.; Istihapsari, V.; Prahmana, R. C. I.; Setyawan, F.; Hendroanto, A.

    2017-12-01

    A manipulative is a teaching aid designed such that students could understand mathematical concepts by manipulating it. This article aims to provide an insight to the characteristics of manipulatives produced in the mathematics laboratory of Universitas Ahmad Dahlan, Indonesia. A case study was conducted to observe the existing manipulatives produced during the latest three years and classified the manipulatives based on the characteristics found. There are four kinds of manipulatives: constructivism manipulative, virtual manipulative, informative manipulative, and game-based manipulative. Each kinds of manipulative has different characteristics and impact towards the mathematics learning.

  15. Power System Oscillatory Behaviors: Sources, Characteristics, & Analyses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Follum, James D. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Tuffner, Francis K. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Dosiek, Luke A. [Union College, Schenectady, NY (United States); Pierre, John W. [Univ. of Wyoming, Laramie, WY (United States)

    2017-05-17

    This document is intended to provide a broad overview of the sources, characteristics, and analyses of natural and forced oscillatory behaviors in power systems. These aspects are necessarily linked. Oscillations appear in measurements with distinguishing characteristics derived from the oscillation’s source. These characteristics determine which analysis methods can be appropriately applied, and the results from these analyses can only be interpreted correctly with an understanding of the oscillation’s origin. To describe oscillations both at their source within a physical power system and within measurements, a perspective from the boundary between power system and signal processing theory has been adopted.

  16. Directional Characteristics of Inner Shelf Internal Tides

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Crabbe, Kendra L

    2007-01-01

    .... Isothermal displacements paired with concurrent velocity observations in the water column were used to assess the events individual characteristics as the internal tidal bores shoal and approach the surf zone...

  17. AN EXAMINATION OF THE CHARACTERISTICS OF ESAN ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mitch

    very functional because no event passed by in African societies without profuse music making. African music has its own unique attributes or characteristics. ... Traditional music in Esan is by no means an independent art; it is highly interwoven ...

  18. On characteristic classes and continuous cohomology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bott, R.

    1986-01-01

    The paper was presented at the workshop on 'Supersymmetry and its applications', Cambridge, United Kingdom, 1985. Six theorems on characteristic classes and continuous cohomology are described, in connection with the theory of anomalies. (UK)

  19. Agronomic evaluation and quality characteristics of three ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr ADJOU

    2016-11-02

    Nov 2, 2016 ... known to be essential for human health (Schippers,. 2004). All parts of the .... Agronomic characteristic of three species of Cucurbitaceae cultivated. Species .... those reported in locust bean pulp (Dahouenon-. Ahoussi et al.

  20. Geochemical and mineralogical characteristics of Lithomargic clay

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    Geochemical and mineralogical characteristics of Lithomargic clay. GEOCHEMICAL AND .... tries, as filling material in the pulp and paper, toothpaste and paint industries as well ..... tions very vital to human health and other ac- tivities of man.

  1. Frequency characteristics of geomagnetic induction anomalies in ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    P V Vijaya Kumar

    2017-10-07

    Oct 7, 2017 ... characteristics of electrical conductivity distribution are presented in the form of induction arrows. From ... High resistive block related to underplating mantle material has .... Recent seismic tomography studies indicate low.

  2. Assessment of antibiotic susceptibilities, genotypic characteristics ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-09-28

    Sep 28, 2011 ... Staphylococcus aureus and Salmonella Typhimurium ... This study was designed to evaluate the antibiotic susceptibilities, genotypic characteristics and ..... Distribution of reference and virulence genes among antibiotic-sensitive S. aureus (SAS), .... environmental factors such as temperature, water activity,.

  3. Hydrogeological Characteristics of Groundwater Yield in Shallow ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hydrogeological Characteristics of Groundwater Yield in Shallow Wells of the ... of Water Resources and Lower Niger River Basin Development Authority in Ilorin. ... moment correlation, multiple and stepwise multiple regression analysis.

  4. Battery Electric Vehicles: characteristics and research projects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Besselink, I.J.M.

    2010-01-01

    This presentation discusses briefly the history of the electric car and its main characteristics. Two projects introduced: the battery electric VW Lupo EL and URE05e electric Formula Student racecar. Presentation slides.

  5. STOCHASTIC CHARACTERISTICS AND MODELING OF RELATIVE ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Test

    Results are highly accurate and promising for all models based on Lewis' criteria. ... hydrological cycle. Future increases in ... STOCHASTIC CHARACTERISTICS AND MODELING OF RELATIVE HUMIDITY OF OGUN BASIN, NIGERIA. 71 ...

  6. clinical characteristics of cataract patients with pseudoexfoliation

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    the clinical characteristics of pseudoexfoliation syndrome among cataract patients examined at ... CONCLUSION: A significant number of patients with PEX had poor zonular integrity and high IOP ... Poor zonular integrity may give rise to.

  7. Section 10: Ground Water - Waste Characteristics & Targets

    Science.gov (United States)

    HRS Training. The waste characteristics factor category in the ground water pathway is made up of two components: the toxicity/mobility of the most hazardous substance associated with the site and the hazardous waste quantity at the site.

  8. Changes in germination characteristics and seedling growth ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Changes in germination characteristics and seedling growth between storage ... for up to 1 year and the second group was used for un-stored germination test. ... seed germination performance without loss of longevity of tall fescue species, ...

  9. Thermoset-cellulose nanocomposites: Flammability characteristics

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mngomezulu, Mfiso E

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available . They have remarkable combination of properties including light weight, high mechanical, thermal and thermo-mechanical characteristics, excellent dielectric properties, dimensional stability and are easy to process. Furthermore, these composite materials show...

  10. Trip generation characteristics of special generators

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-01

    Special generators are introduced in the sequential four-step modeling procedure to represent certain types of facilities whose trip generation characteristics are not fully captured by the standard trip generation module. They are also used in the t...

  11. Schoolyard Characteristics, Physical Activity, and Sedentary Behavior

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Van Kann, Dave H H; de Vries, Sanne I; Schipperijn, Jasper

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Physical activity (PA) is decreasing among children, while sedentary behavior (SB) is increasing. Schoolyards seem suitable settings to influence children's PA behavior. This study investigated the associations between schoolyard characteristics and moderate-to-vigorous physical activ...

  12. PHYSICO-CHEMICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF MESUA FERREA ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    a

    2Department of Chemistry, Rajshahi University of Engineering and ... Studies on the physico-chemical characteristics of seed oils of Mesua ferrea collected ..... Sarkar, Subodh Kumar M.Phil Thesis, Rajshahi University, Bangladesh; 2001; p 91 ...

  13. Pedological characteristics, general fertility and classification of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Pedological characteristics, general fertility and classification of some benchmark ... on existing soils information coupled with reconnaissance field soil survey. ... systems i.e. the United States Department of Agriculture Soil Taxonomy and the ...

  14. Imaginary Play Companions: Characteristics and Functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalyan-Masih, V.

    1986-01-01

    Investigates some of the following characteristics associated with young children playing with imaginary play companions (IPCs): intelligence, parental and socioeconomic and educational background, family size, and birth order. Compares these children to those without IPCs. (HOD)

  15. Demographic Characteristics Related To Wholesale Marketing Of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Demographic Characteristics Related To Wholesale Marketing Of Yam In Delta State, Nigeria. ... analysis reveals that wholesale yam marketing in the study area was male - dominated (78.8%), most of ... EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT

  16. FINANCIAL ACCOUNTING QUALITY AND ITS DEFINING CHARACTERISTICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andra M. ACHIM

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The importance ofhigh-quality financial statements is highlighted by the main standard-setting institutions activating in the field of accounting and reporting. These have issued Conceptual Frameworks which state and describe the qualitative characteristics of accounting information. In this qualitative study, the research methodology consists of reviewing the literature related to the definition of accounting quality and striving for understanding how it can be explained. The main objective of the study is to identify the characteristics information should possess in order to be of high quality. These characteristics also contribute to the way of defining financial accounting quality. The main conclusions that arise from this research are represented by the facts that indeed financial accounting quality cannot be uniquely defined and that financial information is of good quality when it enhances the characteristics incorporated in the conceptual frameworks issued by both International Accounting Standards Board and Financial Accounting Standards Board.

  17. Improvement of the Material's Mechanical Characteristics using ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    pc

    2018-03-05

    Mar 5, 2018 ... to Hardening Process Control (HPC) in order to improvement of the material's ... particular circumstances of the models characteristics used and the exact definition ..... In the case of simulation and testing in Matlab of the HFC.

  18. Characteristics of leadership-oriented women

    OpenAIRE

    Htun, Tin Tin; Yamamoto, Mariko

    2001-01-01

    The present study explores within-gender differences between high leadership-oriented women and low leadership-oriented women regarding their characteristics and attitudes. One hundred and ninety-two Japanese ...

  19. Characteristics of the ISABELLE vacuum system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aggus, J.R.; Edwards, D. Jr.; Halama, H.J.; Herrera, J.C.

    1977-01-01

    A discussion is given of the complete vacuum system of ISABELLE, emphasizing those design characteristics dictated by high vacuum, the avoidance of beam current loss, and the reduction of background. The experimental and theoretical justifications for the design are presented

  20. HVDC System Characteristics and Simulation Models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moon, S.I.; Han, B.M.; Jang, G.S. [Electric Enginnering and Science Research Institute, Seoul (Korea)

    2001-07-01

    This report deals with the AC-DC power system simulation method by PSS/E and EUROSTAG for the development of a strategy for the reliable operation of the Cheju-Haenam interconnected system. The simulation using both programs is performed to analyze HVDC simulation models. In addition, the control characteristics of the Cheju-Haenam HVDC system as well as Cheju AC system characteristics are described in this work. (author). 104 figs., 8 tabs.

  1. Identification and characteristics of vaccine refusers

    OpenAIRE

    Wei, Feifei; Mullooly, John P; Goodman, Mike; McCarty, Maribet C; Hanson, Ann M; Crane, Bradley; Nordin, James D

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background This study evaluated the utility of immunization registries in identifying vaccine refusals among children. Among refusers, we studied their socioeconomic characteristics and health care utilization patterns. Methods Medical records were reviewed to validate refusal status in the immunization registries of two health plans. Racial, education, and income characteristics of children claiming refusal were collected based on the census tract of each child. Health care utilizat...

  2. Modeling of Activated Sludge Floc Characteristics

    OpenAIRE

    Ibrahim H. Mustafa; G. Ibrahim; Ali Elkamel; A. H. Elahwany

    2009-01-01

    Problem Statement: The activated sludge system needs to improve the operational performance and to achieve more effective control. To realize this, a better quantitative understanding of the biofloc characteristics is required. The objectives of this study were to: (i) Study the biofloc characteristics from kinetics-mass transfer interaction point of view by quantification of the weight of the aerobic portion of the activated sludge floc to the total floc weight. (ii) Study the effect of bulk...

  3. Cyclic characteristics of earthquake time histories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hall, J.R. Jr; Shukla, D.K.; Kissenpfennig, J.F.

    1977-01-01

    From an engineering standpoint, an earthquake record may be characterized by a number of parameters, one of which is its 'cyclic characteristics'. The cyclic characteristics are most significant in fatigue analysis of structures and liquefaction analysis of soils where, in addition to the peak motion, cyclic buildup is significant. Whereas duration peak amplitude and response spectra for earthquakes have been studied extensively, the cyclic characteristics of earthquake records have not received an equivalent attention. Present procedures to define the cyclic characteristics are generally based upon counting the number of peaks at various amplitude ranges on a record. This paper presents a computer approach which describes a time history by an amplitude envelope and a phase curve. Using Fast Fourier Transform Techniques, an earthquake time history is represented as a projection along the x-axis of a rotating vector-the length the vector is given by the amplitude spectra-and the angle between the vector and x-axis is given by the phase curve. Thus one cycle is completed when the vector makes a full rotation. Based upon Miner's cumulative damage concept, the computer code automatically combines the cycles of various amplitudes to obtain the equivalent number of cycles of a given amplitude. To illustrate the overall results, the cyclic characteristics of several real and synthetic earthquake time histories have been studied and are presented in the paper, with the conclusion that this procedure provides a physical interpretation of the cyclic characteristics of earthquakes. (Auth.)

  4. An assessment on seasonal analysis of wind energy characteristics and wind turbine characteristics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akpinar, E. Kavak; Akpinar, S.

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents seasonal variations of the wind characteristics and wind turbine characteristics in the regions around Elazig, namely Maden, Agin and Keban. Mean wind speed data in measured hourly time series format is statistically analyzed for the six year period 1998-2003. The probability density distributions are derived from the time series data and their distributional parameters are identified. Two probability density functions are fitted to the measured probability distributions on a seasonal basis. The wind energy characteristics of all the regions is studied based on the Weibull and Rayleigh distributions. Energy calculations and capacity factors for the wind turbine characteristics were determined for wind machines of different sizes between 300 and 2300 kW. It was found that Maden is the best region, among the regions analyzed, for wind characteristics and wind turbine characteristics

  5. FY 1974 report on the results of the Sunshine Project. Study of the hydrogen production technology mainly using photoconductor; 1974 nendo hikari handotai wo shutai to suru suiso seizo gijutsu no kenkyu seika hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1975-05-28

    Among semiconductor materials which absorb solar light and produce great photoelectromotive force, materials usable to the electrode of photoelectric cell were sought, the photoelectrode reaction of various electrode materials was investigated, and the photosensitization phenomenon in the solar light region was studied. As to electrode materials, semiconductor materials were sought which have a characteristic of band gap of 1-3eV, and the photosensitization polarization characteristic of a part of the semiconductor materials was measured. Concerning photoelectric cells, the photoelectric cell characteristic was measured by the combination of semiconductor electrode, for the study of the structure of photoelectric cell such as kinds, combination, etc. of electrode materials. As electrode materials, various semiconductors were acquired such as TiO{sub 2}, CdS, GaP, GaAs, Si, Ge, etc., and the electrochemical base photoelectrode characteristic under light irradiation was measured. It was confirmed that GaP and GaAs have good photosensitization polarization characteristics. As the result of the measurement of photoelectric cell characteristics, n-type GaP and n-type GaAs showed good characteristics to anode, and p-type GaP and p-type GaAs to cathode. It was confirmed that there is a possibility of hydrogen production in the solar light wavelength region by the measurement of photoelectric cell characteristics of xenon light and the filter penetration light of xenon light. (NEDO)

  6. Control characteristics of inert gas recovery plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mikawa, Hiroji; Kato, Yomei; Kamiya, Kunio

    1980-01-01

    This paper presents a dynamic simulator and the control characteristics for a radioactive inert gas recovery plant which uses a cryogenic liquefying process. The simulator was developed to analyze the operational characteristics and is applicable to gas streams which contain nitrogen, argon, oxygen and krypton. The characteristics analysis of the pilot plant was performed after the accuracy of the simulator was checked using data obtained in fundamental experiments. The relationship between the reflux ratio and krypton concentration in the effluent gas was obtained. The decontamination factor is larger than 10 9 when the reflux ratio is more than 2. 0. The control characteristics of the plant were examined by changing its various parameters. These included the amount of gas to be treated, the heater power inside the evaporator and the liquid nitrogen level in the condenser. These characteristics agreed well with the values obtained in the pilot plant. The results show that the krypton concentration in the effluent gas increases when the liquid nitrogen level is decreased. However, in this case, the krypton concentration can be minimized by applying a feed forward control to the evaporator liquid level controller. (author)

  7. Learner characteristics involved in distance learning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cernicek, A.T.; Hahn, H.A.

    1991-01-01

    Distance learning represents a strategy for leveraging resources to solve educational and training needs. Although many distance learning programs have been developed, lessons learned regarding differences between distance learning and traditional education with respect to learner characteristics have not been well documented. Therefore, we conducted a survey of 20 distance learning professionals. The questionnaire was distributed to experts attending the second Distance Learning Conference sponsored by Los Alamos National Laboratory. This survey not only acquired demographic information from each of the respondents but also identified important distance learning student characteristics. Significant distance learner characteristics, which were revealed statistically and which influence the effectiveness of distance learning, include the following: reading level, student autonomy, and self-motivation. Distance learning cannot become a more useful and effective method of instruction without identifying and recognizing learner characteristics. It will be important to consider these characteristics when designing all distance learning courses. This paper will report specific survey findings and their implications for developing distance learning courses. 9 refs., 6 tabs.

  8. The Characteristics of an Effective Nuclear Regulator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheok, Michael; Wertelaers, An; Lojk, Robert; Santini, Miguel; Alm-Lytz, Kirsi; Rigail, Anne-Cecile; Weidenbruck, Kai-Jochen; Stoppa, Gisela; Rainieri, Roberto; Aoki, Masahiro; Gonzalez-Mercado; Miroshnichenko, Mikhail; Kuznetsov, Nikolay; Kudryavtsev, Evgeny; Cid, Rafael; Franzen, Anna; Skanberg, Lars; Gibson, Steve; Golshan, Mina; Cheok, Michael; Nicic, Adriana; Salgado, Nancy; Creswell, Len

    2014-01-01

    Both national and international organisations agree that the fundamental objective of all nuclear safety regulatory bodies - the regulator's prime purpose - is to ensure that nuclear licensees operate their facilities at all times in a safe manner. Much has been written about ways to improve regulatory processes or to improve the effectiveness of a regulatory body, including in previous OECD/NEA regulatory guidance booklets. But until now, none have focused on the characteristics of an effective nuclear safety regulator. Effective organisations are those that have good leadership and are able to transform strategic direction into operational programmes. Effectiveness is about how well the organisation is achieving its fundamental purpose - in the case of a nuclear safety regulator, ensuring that licensees operate their facilities and discharge their obligations in a safe manner. This regulatory guidance booklet describes the characteristics of an effective nuclear safety regulator in terms of roles and responsibilities, principles and attributes. Each of the characteristics discussed in this report is a necessary feature of an effective nuclear safety regulator but no one characteristic is sufficient on its own. It is the combination of these characteristics that leads to the effectiveness of a nuclear regulatory body. The report provides a unique resource to countries with existing, mature regulators and can be used for benchmarking as well as training and developing staff. It will also be useful for new entrant countries in the process of developing and maintaining an effective nuclear safety regulator. (authors)

  9. JOYO MK-II core characteristics database

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tabuchi, Shiro; Aoyama, Takafumi; Nagasaki, Hideaki; Kato, Yuichi

    1998-12-01

    The experimental fast reactor JOYO served as the MK-II irradiation bed core for testing fuel and material for FBR development for 15 years from 1982 to 1997. During the MK-II operation, extensive data were accumulated from the core characteristics tests conducted in thirty-one duty operations and thirteen special test operations. These core management data and core characteristics data were compiled into a database. The code system MAGI has been developed and used for core management of JOYO MK-II, and the core characteristics and the irradiation test conditions were calculated using MAGI on the basis of three dimensional diffusion theory with seven neutron energy groups. The core management data include extensive data, which were recorded on CD-ROM for user convenience. The data are specifications and configurations of the core, and for about 300 driver fuel subassemblies and about 60 uninstrumented irradiation subassemblies are core composition before and after irradiation, neutron flux, neutron fluences, fuel and control rod burn-up, and temperature and power distributions. MK-II core characteristics and test conditions were stored in the database for post analysis. Core characteristics data include excess reactivities, control rod worths, and reactivity coefficients, e.g., temperature, power and burn-up. Test conditions include both measured and calculated data for irradiation conditions. (author)

  10. Mexican-American Adolescents’ Gender-Typed Characteristics: The Role of Sibling and Friend Characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, Lorey A.; Updegraff, Kimberly A.; Schaefer, David R.

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the role of sibling and friend characteristics in Mexican-American youth’s gender-typed characteristics (i.e., attitudes, interests, and leisure activities) in early versus middle adolescence using a sibling design. Mexican-American 7th graders (M = 12.51 years; SD = .58) and their older siblings (M = 15.48 years; SD = 1.57) from 246 families participated in home interviews and a series of seven nightly phone calls. Results revealed that younger/early adolescent siblings reported more traditional gender role attitudes than their older/middle adolescent siblings and older brothers were more traditional in their attitudes than older sisters. When comparing siblings’ gender-typed interests and leisure activities, boys reported more masculine orientations than girls and girls reported more feminine orientations than boys. Older brothers’ gender-typed characteristics were associated with the amount of time spent with and gender characteristics of their friendship group, but for younger brothers, sibling characteristics were associated with their gender-typed characteristics. In contrast, both sibling and friendship characteristics were significantly associated with older and younger sisters’ gender-typed characteristics. The discussion addressed the different correlates of older and younger sisters’ and brothers’ gender-typed characteristics. PMID:25539774

  11. Mexican-American Adolescents' Gender-Typed Characteristics: The Role of Sibling and Friend Characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez-Brena, Norma J; Wheeler, Lorey A; Updegraff, Kimberly A; Schaefer, David R

    2015-07-01

    This study examined the role of sibling and friend characteristics in Mexican-American youth's gender-typed characteristics (i.e., attitudes, interests, and leisure activities) in early versus middle adolescence using a sibling design. Mexican-American 7th graders (M = 12.51 years; SD = .58) and their older siblings (M = 15.48 years; SD = 1.57) from 246 families participated in home interviews and a series of seven nightly phone calls. Results revealed that younger/early adolescent siblings reported more traditional gender role attitudes than their older/middle adolescent siblings and older brothers were more traditional in their attitudes than older sisters. When comparing siblings' gender-typed interests and leisure activities, boys reported more masculine orientations than girls and girls reported more feminine orientations than boys. Older brothers' gender-typed characteristics were associated with the amount of time spent with and gender characteristics of their friendship group, but for younger brothers, sibling characteristics were associated with their gender-typed characteristics. In contrast, both sibling and friendship characteristics were significantly associated with older and younger sisters' gender-typed characteristics. The discussion addressed the different correlates of older and younger sisters' and brothers' gender-typed characteristics.

  12. Optical Properties of Multilayer CdSe/POLYMER Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Red'Ko, V. P.; Voitenkov, A. I.; Kovalenko, O. E.

    The effects of preparation condition, concentration and size of particles upon optical and photoelectrical characteristics of multilayer structures CdSe/polyethylene terephthalate obtained by electron-beam evaporation were investigated.

  13. Characteristics of the General Physics student population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, Gary L.

    2006-12-01

    Are pre-medical students different than the other students in a General physics class? They often appear to be different, based on how often they seek help from the instructor or how nervous they are about 2 points on a lab report. But are these students different in a measurable characteristic? The purpose of this study is to better understand the characteristics of the students in the introductory physics classes. This is the first step toward improving the instruction. By better understanding the students the classroom, the organization and pedagogy can be adjusted to optimize student learning. The characteristics to be investigated during this study are: · student epistemological structure, · student attitudes, · science course preparation prior to this course, · study techniques used, · physics concepts gained during the class · performance in the class. The data will be analyzed to investigate differences between groups. The groups investigated will be major, gender, and traditional/nontraditional students.

  14. Dead zone characteristics of a gas counter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nohtomi, Akihiro; Sakae, Takeji; Matoba, Masaru; Koori, Norihiko.

    1990-01-01

    The dead zone was recently defined as the product of dead length and dead time in order to describe the characteristics of the self-quenching streamer (SQS) mode of a gas counter. Investigation of the dead zone characteristics has been extended for the proportional and GM modes, and the measured dead zone has been compared with that of the SQS mode. Accurate values for the dead zone could be determined by means of a newly developed method with a pulse interval time to amplitude converter. Each operation mode indicates distinct dead zone characteristics. Properties of gas counters for high counting rates may be improved on the basis of measurements of the dead zone. (author)

  15. Board characteristics, governance objectives, and hospital performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thiel, Andrea; Winter, Vera; Büchner, Vera Antonia

    2018-01-01

    membership relates to board characteristics and financial performance. METHODOLOGY: Using factor analysis, we identify latent classes of governance objectives and use hierarchical cluster analysis to detect distinct clusters with varying emphasis on the classes. We then use multinomial regression to explore...... the associations between cluster membership and board characteristics (size, gender diversity, and occupational diversity) and examine the associations between clusters and financial performance using OLS regression. RESULTS: Classes of objectives reflecting three governance theories-agency theory, stewardship...... and hospital financial performance, with two of three groups performing significantly better than the reference group. CONCLUSION: High performance in hospitals can be the result of governance logics, which, compared to simple board characteristics, are associated with better financial outcomes. PRACTICE...

  16. Gate Control Coefficient Effect on CNFET Characteristic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanudin, Rahmat; Ma'Radzi, Ahmad Alabqari; Nayan, Nafarizal

    2009-01-01

    The development of carbon nanotube field-effect transistor (CNFET) as alternative to existing transistor technology has long been published and discussed. The emergence of this device offers new material and structure in building a transistor. This paper intends to do an analysis of gate control coefficient effect on CNFET performance. The analysis is based on simulation study of current-voltage (I-V) characteristic of ballistic CNFET. The simulation study used the MOSFET-like CNFET mathematical model to establish the device output characteristic. Based on the analysis of simulation result, it is found that the gate control coefficient contributes to a significant effect on the performance of CNFET. The result also shown the parameter could help to improve the device performance in terms of its output and response as well. Nevertheless, the characteristic of the carbon nanotube that acts as the channel is totally important in determining the performance of the transistor as a whole.

  17. Code ATOM for calculation of atomic characteristics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vainshtein, L.A.

    1990-01-01

    In applying atomic physics to problems of plasma diagnostics, it is necessary to determine some atomic characteristics, including energies and transition probabilities, for very many atoms and ions. Development of general codes for calculation of many types of atomic characteristics has been based on general but comparatively simple approximate methods. The program ATOM represents an attempt at effective use of such a general code. This report gives a brief description of the methods used, and the possibilities of and limitations to the code are discussed. Characteristics of the following processes can be calculated by ATOM: radiative transitions between discrete levels, radiative ionization and recombination, collisional excitation and ionization by electron impact, collisional excitation and ionization by point heavy particle (Born approximation only), dielectronic recombination, and autoionization. ATOM explores Born (for z=1) or Coulomb-Born (for z>1) approximations. In both cases exchange and normalization can be included. (N.K.)

  18. Prediction for swelling characteristics of compacted bentonite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Komine, H.; Ogata, N.

    1996-01-01

    Compacted bentonites are attracting greater attention as back-filling (buffer) materials for high-level nuclear waste repositories. For this purpose, it is very important to quantitatively evaluate the swelling characteristics of compacted bentonite. New equations for evaluating the relationship between the swelling deformation of compacted bentonite and the distance between two montmorillonite layers are derived. New equations for evaluating the ion concentration of pore water and the specific surface of bentonite, which significantly influence the swelling characteristics of compacted bentonite, are proposed. Furthermore, a prediction method for the swelling characteristics of compacted bentonite is presented by combining the new equations with the well-known theoretical equations of repulsive and attractive forces between two montmorillonite layers. The applicability of this method was investigated by comparing the predicted results with laboratory test results on the swelling deformation and swelling pressure of compacted bentonites. (author) 31 refs., 8 tabs., 12 figs

  19. Design Characteristics of Soft Control for APR+

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Yongsoo; Sung, Chanho; Jung, Yeonsub [KHNP CRI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    In the global nuclear industry, the design requirements have been largely divided into the US and the European ones. The APR+ design, based on the proven APR1400 design, was developed to fully comply with the US regulatory and utility requirements. It was also developed to improve the technical competitiveness and enlarge the export market share through design uniqueness and the improvement of safety. The robust design of safety and its validation were requested Post-Fukushima accident. So MMIS design and validation for reinforcing safety were accomplished in APR+ development project. In this paper, the design characteristics of soft control for APR+ are presented to enhance the safety of MMIS design. In this paper, the major design characteristics of soft control for APR+ were introduced to increase the safety of MMIS design. In addition to the design characteristics of soft control described above, the following should be investigated closely for APR+ to get into the global nuclear industry.

  20. Sensory characteristics of different cod products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sveinsdottir, K.; Martinsdottir, E.; Hyldig, Grethe

    2010-01-01

    atmosphere) were evaluated with quantitative descriptive analysis by a trained sensory panel. Signal-to-noise analysis, p*MSE (discrimination and repeatability) and line plots proved to be very useful in studying panelists' performance. Most sensory attributes described significant differences between...... the products, and principal component analysis provided an overview of the differences and similarities between the products with regard to sensory characteristics. Farmed cod had different sensory characteristics compared with wild cod, such as more meat flavor, and rubbery and meaty texture. Different...... storage methods had minor influence on sensory characteristics of cod fillets after short storage time, but after extended storage, the groups were different with regard to most attributes. PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS This paper presents different ways of analyzing sensory data. The process of analysis...

  1. The dioxins - essential characteristics. Pt. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brunn, H.

    1993-01-01

    Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDD) belong to the group of persistent chlorinated hydrocarbons. They are predominantly of anthropogenic origin, except for those originating from fires caused by lightning or volcanic eruption. PCDD, according to the present knowledge, are absolutely useless. They are toxic, lipophilic, hardly degradable, and therefore ubiquitous in environment and food chain. PCDD have also been found in breast milk. Because their carcinogenic mechanism of action is little known, the toxicological evaluation of PCDD is still incomplete. Even lowest concentrations of PCDD may be detrimental to health. These characteristics are reason with enough to group PCDD not with xenobiotics, but with harmful substances. Closely related to PCDD in their origin and characteristics are polychlorinated dibenzofuranes (PCDF), which therefore are frequently ranked among ''the dioxins'': Essential characteristics of PCDD and PCDF are discussed. (orig.) [de

  2. Spray Behavior and Atomization Characteristics of Biodiesel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Seung-Hun; Oh, Young-Taig

    Biodiesel has large amount of oxygen in itself, which make it very efficient in reducing exhaust emission by improving combustion inside an engine. But biodiesel has a low temperature flow problem because it has a high viscosity. In this study, the spray behavior and atomization characteristics were investigated to confirm of some effect for the combination of non-esterification biodiesel and fuel additive WDP and IPA. The process of spray was visualized through the visualization system composed of a halogen lamp and high speed camera, and atomization characteristics were investigated through LDPA. When blending WDP and IPA with biodiesel, atomization and spray characteristics were improved. Through this experimental result, SMD of blended fuel, WDP 25% and biodiesel 75%, was 33.9% reduced at distance 6cm from a nozzle tip under injection pressure 30MPa.

  3. Effect of Biochar on Soil Physical Characteristics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sun, Zhencai; Møldrup, Per; Vendelboe, Anders Lindblad

    Biochar addition to agricultural soil has been reported to reduce climate gas emission, as well as improve soil fertility and crop productivity. Little, however, is known about biochar effects on soil structural characteristics. This study investigates if biochar-application changes soil structural...... characteristics, as indicated from water retention and gas transport measurements on intact soil samples. Soil was sampled from a field experiment on a sandy loam with four control plots (C) without biochar and four plots (B) with incorporated biochar at a rate of 20 tons per hectare (plot size, 6 x 8 m). The C...... and B plots were placed in a mixed sequence (C-B-C-B-C-B-C-B) and at the same time the eight plots formed a natural pH gradient ranging from pH 7.7 to 6.3. We determined bulk density, saturated hydraulic conductivity (K-sat), soil water retention characteristics, soil-air permeability, and soil...

  4. Design Characteristics of Soft Control for APR+

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Yongsoo; Sung, Chanho; Jung, Yeonsub

    2016-01-01

    In the global nuclear industry, the design requirements have been largely divided into the US and the European ones. The APR+ design, based on the proven APR1400 design, was developed to fully comply with the US regulatory and utility requirements. It was also developed to improve the technical competitiveness and enlarge the export market share through design uniqueness and the improvement of safety. The robust design of safety and its validation were requested Post-Fukushima accident. So MMIS design and validation for reinforcing safety were accomplished in APR+ development project. In this paper, the design characteristics of soft control for APR+ are presented to enhance the safety of MMIS design. In this paper, the major design characteristics of soft control for APR+ were introduced to increase the safety of MMIS design. In addition to the design characteristics of soft control described above, the following should be investigated closely for APR+ to get into the global nuclear industry

  5. Intracranial Infections: Clinical and Imaging Characteristics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foerster, B.R.; Thurnher, M.M.; Malani, P.N.; Petrou, M.; Carets-Zumelzu, F.; Sundgren, P.C. [Dept. of Radiology, and Divisions of Infectious Diseases and G eriatric Medicine, Dept. of Internal Medicine, Univ. of Michigan Medical Center, Ann Arbor, MI (United States)

    2007-10-15

    The radiologist plays a crucial role in identifying and narrowing the differential diagnosis of intracranial infections. A thorough understanding of the intracranial compartment anatomy and characteristic imaging findings of specific pathogens, as well incorporation of the clinical information, is essential to establish correct diagnosis. Specific types of infections have certain propensities for different anatomical regions within the brain. In addition, the imaging findings must be placed in the context of the clinical setting, particularly in immunocompromised and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive patients. This paper describes and depicts infections within the different compartments of the brain. Pathology-proven infectious cases are presented in both immunocompetent and immunocompromised patients, with a discussion of the characteristic findings of each pathogen. Magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) characteristics for several infections are also discussed.

  6. Imaging characteristics of primary cranial Ewing sarcoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Wai-Yung; Saunders, Dawn E.; Brock, Penelope

    2005-01-01

    Ewing sarcoma accounts for 10-15% of all childhood malignant bone tumours and is second in prevalence to osteosarcoma. The skull bones are an unusual site of origin of primary Ewing sarcoma in children. Previous reports concentrate on the neurosurgical aspects and relatively good outcome compared to other bone tumours of the calvarium. Reported cases mainly describe the imaging characteristics on CT. To describe the MRI and CT features of primary cranial Ewing sarcoma. The neuroimaging of three cases of primary cranial Ewing sarcoma are reviewed. Our three cases show an extra-axial mass that is high attenuation on CT and low signal on T2-weighted MRI. Haemorrhagic components, dural extension and contrast enhancement are also characteristic features. CT attenuation and magnetic resonance signal characteristics reflect sheets of densely packed cells seen in Ewing sarcoma. (orig.)

  7. Flood-frequency characteristics of Wisconsin streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, John F.; Peppler, Marie C.; Danz, Mari E.; Hubbard, Laura E.

    2017-05-22

    Flood-frequency characteristics for 360 gaged sites on unregulated rural streams in Wisconsin are presented for percent annual exceedance probabilities ranging from 0.2 to 50 using a statewide skewness map developed for this report. Equations of the relations between flood-frequency and drainage-basin characteristics were developed by multiple-regression analyses. Flood-frequency characteristics for ungaged sites on unregulated, rural streams can be estimated by use of the equations presented in this report. The State was divided into eight areas of similar physiographic characteristics. The most significant basin characteristics are drainage area, soil saturated hydraulic conductivity, main-channel slope, and several land-use variables. The standard error of prediction for the equation for the 1-percent annual exceedance probability flood ranges from 56 to 70 percent for Wisconsin Streams; these values are larger than results presented in previous reports. The increase in the standard error of prediction is likely due to increased variability of the annual-peak discharges, resulting in increased variability in the magnitude of flood peaks at higher frequencies. For each of the unregulated rural streamflow-gaging stations, a weighted estimate based on the at-site log Pearson type III analysis and the multiple regression results was determined. The weighted estimate generally has a lower uncertainty than either the Log Pearson type III or multiple regression estimates. For regulated streams, a graphical method for estimating flood-frequency characteristics was developed from the relations of discharge and drainage area for selected annual exceedance probabilities. Graphs for the major regulated streams in Wisconsin are presented in the report.

  8. Characteristics of the patient with an ostomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pittman, Joyce

    2011-01-01

    Complications following intestinal and urinary diversion (OSTOMY) surgery are a significant problem for many individuals. Patient characteristics or risk factors have been associated with the development of ostomy complications, but research in this area is limited. To examine the demographic and clinical characteristics of new ostomy patients. Descriptive, cross-sectional study. A convenience sample of 144 new ostomy patients was recruited from a large midwest urban level i trauma teaching hospital system. A descriptive, cross-sectional design was used to examine the demographic and clinical characteristics in persons with a new ostomy. demographic and clinical characteristics included were age, gender, disposition, diagnosis, ostomy type, type of procedure (emergent or elective), stoma type (temporary or permanent), technique of stoma creation (loop or end), stoma site marked preoperatively, body type, stoma height, and complicating factors. Data were collected through a medical record review and direct observation by the WOC nurse. Significant differences were found among demographic and clinical characteristics and ostomy type and disposition. Age, type of procedure, reason for surgery, stoma type, stoma site marking, and complicating factors were significantly different by ostomy type. The majority of stomas were not marked preoperatively (67%). Sixty-eight percent of persons with a stoma above skin level versus 38% with a stoma below skin level were discharged to their home. Statistically significant relationships were found among disposition and type of procedure (P = .036), stoma height (P = .003), reason for surgery (P = .000), and age (P = .005). This study provides additional information regarding specific patient characteristics (demographic and clinical) and their relationship to ostomy type and disposition.

  9. 14 CFR 25.253 - High-speed characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false High-speed characteristics. 25.253 Section...-speed characteristics. (a) Speed increase and recovery characteristics. The following speed increase and recovery characteristics must be met: (1) Operating conditions and characteristics likely to cause...

  10. Characteristics of Acupoint Selection in Treating Apoplexy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Chao-rong; ZHANG Yan; GU Hong; ZHOU Yun; XIAO Yuan-chun

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To explore the characteristics of acupoint selection in the treatment of apoplexy. Method:This paper reviews and analyzes the ancient and current medical literature, and then summarizes the characteris -tics of acupoint selection in treating apoplexy. Results:Four characteristics are presented: the acupoints on the head are mostly used; the acupoints are principally selected according to the course of nerves; the acupoints of the yang meridians are usually selected; the special acupoints and empirical acupoints are often combined.Conclusion: Above principles may be adopted in the selection of acupoints to treat apoplexy.

  11. Investigation of vibration characteristics of electric motors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakshis, A. K.; Tamoshyunas, Y. K.

    1973-01-01

    The vibration characteristics of electric motors were analyzed using mathematical statistics methods. The equipment used and the method of conducting the test are described. Curves are developed to show the visualization of the electric motor vibrations in the vertical direction. Additional curves are included to show the amplitude-phase frequency characteristic of dynamic rotor-housing vibrations at the first lug and the same data for the second lug of the electric motor. Mathematical models were created to show the transmission function of the dynamic rotor housing system.

  12. Acceptance of spent fuel of varying characteristics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Short, S.M.

    1990-03-01

    This paper is a preliminary overview of a study with the primary objective of establishing a set of acceptance selection criteria and corresponding spent fuel characteristics to be incorporated as a component of requirements for the Federal Waste Management System (FWMS). A number of alternative acceptance allocations and selection rules were analyzed to determine the operational sensitivity of each element of the FWMS to the resultant spent fuel characteristics. Preliminary recommendations of the study include three different sets of selection rules to be included in the FWMS design basis. 2 refs., 4 figs., 4 tabs

  13. Characteristics of peer violence in schools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sinobad Sandra

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the author analyses types and main characteristics of peer violence in schools as well as forms of their manifestation. The analysis refers to data about the prevalence of peer violence in schools in Serbia, and in particular to forms of peer violence within our country as well as in the world. The part of the text refers to characteristics of perpetrators and their victims as well as on consequences that spring up from long term exposure to violence. Finally, the article has been pointed out an importance of introducing intervention programs in schools, by which use peer violence could be significantly decreased.

  14. Liposomal cancer therapy: exploiting tumor characteristics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaasgaard, Thomas; Andresen, Thomas Lars

    2010-01-01

    an overview of current strategies for improving the different stages of liposomal cancer therapy, which involve transporting drug-loaded liposomes through the bloodstream, increasing tumor accumulation, and improving drug release and cancer cell uptake after accumulation at the tumor target site. What...... the reader will gain: The review focuses on strategies that exploit characteristic features of solid tumors, such as abnormal vasculature, overexpression of receptors and enzymes, as well as acidic and thiolytic characteristics of the tumor microenvironment. Take home message: It is concluded that the design...

  15. Characteristic of combustion of Colombian gases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gil B, Edison; Maya, Ruben; Andres, Amel A.

    1996-01-01

    The variety of gas locations in the country, makes that the gas that will be distributed by the net of present gas pipeline a very different composition, what bears to that these they behave in a different way during its use. In this work the main characteristics of the combustion are calculated for the Colombian gases, basically the properties of the combustion and the characteristics of the smoke, as basic information for the design and operation of the gas teams and their certification. These properties were calculated with the special help software for combustion developed by the authors

  16. A minimalist model of characteristic earthquakes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vázquez-Prada, M.; González, Á.; Gómez, J.B.

    2002-01-01

    In a spirit akin to the sandpile model of self- organized criticality, we present a simple statistical model of the cellular-automaton type which simulates the role of an asperity in the dynamics of a one-dimensional fault. This model produces an earthquake spectrum similar to the characteristic-earthquake...... behaviour of some seismic faults. This model, that has no parameter, is amenable to an algebraic description as a Markov Chain. This possibility illuminates some important results, obtained by Monte Carlo simulations, such as the earthquake size-frequency relation and the recurrence time...... of the characteristic earthquake....

  17. Modelling of dc characteristics for granular semiconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varpula, Aapo; Sinkkonen, Juha; Novikov, Sergey

    2010-01-01

    The dc characteristics of granular n-type semiconductors are calculated analytically with the drift-diffusion theory. Electronic trapping at the grain boundaries (GBs) is taken into account. The use of quadratic and linear GB potential profiles in the calculation is compared. The analytical model is verified with numerical simulation performed by SILVACO ATLAS. The agreement between the analytical and numerical results is excellent in a large voltage range. The results show that electronic trapping at the GBs has a remarkable effect on the highly nonlinear I-V characteristics of the material.

  18. Modelling of dc characteristics for granular semiconductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Varpula, Aapo; Sinkkonen, Juha; Novikov, Sergey, E-mail: aapo.varpula@tkk.f [Department of Micro and Nanosciences, Aalto University, PO Box 13500, FI-00076 Aalto, Espoo (Finland)

    2010-11-01

    The dc characteristics of granular n-type semiconductors are calculated analytically with the drift-diffusion theory. Electronic trapping at the grain boundaries (GBs) is taken into account. The use of quadratic and linear GB potential profiles in the calculation is compared. The analytical model is verified with numerical simulation performed by SILVACO ATLAS. The agreement between the analytical and numerical results is excellent in a large voltage range. The results show that electronic trapping at the GBs has a remarkable effect on the highly nonlinear I-V characteristics of the material.

  19. Characteristics of silent countingin synchronized swimmers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergey V. Leonov

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This article describes the temporal characteristics of silent counting as used duringa competition by the Russian youth team of synchronized swimmers. Theathletes listened to the music that accompanied their performance at the competition.Diff erent indices of silent counting were defi ned, such as the beginningand cessation of diff erent periods of counting, counting frequency, the stabilityof the temporal structure of silent counting, the degree of synchronization of silentcounting at diff erent moments during the sports program. We studied therelationship of these characteristics of counting with expert estimates of the athletes’sense of tempo, coordination of movements, and choreographic abilities.

  20. Long-term characteristics of nuclear emulsion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naganawa, N; Kuwabara, K

    2010-01-01

    Long-term characteristics of the nuclear emulsion so called 'OPERA film' used in the neutrino oscillation experiment, OPERA, has been studied for 8 years since its production or refreshing after it. In the results, it turned out to be excellent in sensitivity, amount of random noise, and refreshing characteristics. The retention capacity of latent image of tracks was also studied. The result will open the way to the recycling of 7,000,000 emulsion films which will remain not developed after 5 years of OPERA's run, and other long-term experiments with emulsion.

  1. Long-term characteristics of nuclear emulsion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naganawa, N.; Kuwabara, K.

    2010-02-01

    Long-term characteristics of the nuclear emulsion so called ``OPERA film'' used in the neutrino oscillation experiment, OPERA, has been studied for 8 years since its production or refreshing after it. In the results, it turned out to be excellent in sensitivity, amount of random noise, and refreshing characteristics. The retention capacity of latent image of tracks was also studied. The result will open the way to the recycling of 7,000,000 emulsion films which will remain not developed after 5 years of OPERA's run, and other long-term experiments with emulsion.

  2. The characteristics of mechanical engineering systems

    CERN Document Server

    Holmes, R

    1977-01-01

    The Characteristics of Mechanical Engineering Systems focuses on the characteristics that must be considered when designing a mechanical engineering system. Mechanical systems are presented on the basis of component input-output relationships, paying particular attention to lumped-parameter problems and the interrelationships between lumped components or """"black-boxes"""" in an engineering system. Electric motors and generators are treated in an elementary manner, and the principles involved are explained as far as possible from physical and qualitative reasoning. This book is comprised of

  3. Measurements of image characteristics of DSA installations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Busch, H.P.; Strauss, L.G.; Freimarck, R.D.

    1984-01-01

    Measurements for quantifying the image characteristics were carried out on three DSA installations (DVI 1 - Philips, Angiotron - Siemens and DF 3000 - General Eletric). Contrast resolution was measured with a vessel phantom (General Electric) and spatial resolution with a lead grid. A further parameter was the dose entering the image intensifier. The Angiotron was used with an intensifier with 53 cm. diameter and the DF 3000 with temporal subtraction of the video images and the subtraction of dual energy images (hybrid technique). These measurements can be carried out quickly and easily and are a step towards standardisation of measurements of image characteristics of DSA installations. (orig.) [de

  4. Switching Characteristics of Ferroelectric Transistor Inverters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laws, Crystal; Mitchell, Coey; MacLeod, Todd C.; Ho, Fat D.

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents the switching characteristics of an inverter circuit using a ferroelectric field effect transistor, FeFET. The propagation delay time characteristics, phl and plh are presented along with the output voltage rise and fall times, rise and fall. The propagation delay is the time-delay between the V50% transitions of the input and output voltages. The rise and fall times are the times required for the output voltages to transition between the voltage levels V10% and V90%. Comparisons are made between the MOSFET inverter and the ferroelectric transistor inverter.

  5. Static Characteristics of the Ferroelectric Transistor Inverter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Cody; Laws, crystal; MacLeond, Todd C.; Ho, Fat D.

    2010-01-01

    The inverter is one of the most fundamental building blocks of digital logic, and it can be used as the foundation for understanding more complex logic gates and circuits. This paper presents the characteristics of an inverter circuit using a ferroelectric field-effect transistor. The voltage transfer characteristics are analyzed with respect to varying parameters such as supply voltage, input voltage, and load resistance. The effects of the ferroelectric layer between the gate and semiconductor are examined, and comparisons are made between the inverters using ferroelectric transistors and those using traditional MOSFETs.

  6. Frequency characteristics of the laser film digitizer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishimitsu, Y.; Taira, R.K.; Huang, H.K.

    1988-01-01

    The frequency characteristics of the laser film digitizer in the parallel and in the perpendicular scan direction are different. Because of this difference, moire pattern artifacts may appear in the digitized image. The authors found that this phenomenon is due to the frequency transfer characteristics of the various components in the laser film digitizer. From this observation, they derive a relationship between the spatial frequency content of the original image and the laser beam spot size based on the concept of image contrast. This relationship can be utilized to avoid the appearance of the moire pattern in the digitized image

  7. Basic natural circulation characteristics of SBWR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuran, S.; Soekmen, C. N.

    2001-01-01

    Natural circulation is an important passive heat removal mechanism for both existing and next generation light water reactors. Simplified Boiling Water Reactor (SBWR) is one of the advanced light water reactors that rely on natural circulation for normal as well as emergency core cooling. In this study, basic natural circulation characteristics of this reactor are examined on a flow loop that simulates the operation of SBWR. On this model, effect of system operating parameters on the steady state natural circulation characteristics inside the loop is studied via solving the transcendental equation for loop flow rate

  8. Abdominal vascular syndromes: characteristic imaging findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cardarelli-Leite, Leandro; Velloni, Fernanda Garozzo; Salvadori, Priscila Silveira; Lemos, Marcelo Delboni; D'Ippolito, Giuseppe

    2016-01-01

    Abdominal vascular syndromes are rare diseases. Although such syndromes vary widely in terms of symptoms and etiologies, certain imaging findings are characteristic. Depending on their etiology, they can be categorized as congenital - including blue rubber bleb nevus syndrome, Klippel-Trenaunay syndrome, and hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia (Rendu-Osler-Weber syndrome) - compressive - including 'nutcracker' syndrome, median arcuate ligament syndrome, Cockett syndrome (also known as May-Thurner syndrome), and superior mesenteric artery syndrome. In this article, we aimed to illustrate imaging findings that are characteristic of these syndromes, through studies conducted at our institution, as well as to perform a brief review of the literature on this topic. (author)

  9. Abdominal vascular syndromes: characteristic imaging findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cardarelli-Leite, Leandro; Velloni, Fernanda Garozzo; Salvadori, Priscila Silveira; Lemos, Marcelo Delboni; D' Ippolito, Giuseppe, E-mail: leandrocleite@gmail.com [Universidade Federal de Sao Paulo (EPM/UNIFESP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Escola Paulista de Mediciana. Departmento de Diagnostico por Imagem

    2016-07-15

    Abdominal vascular syndromes are rare diseases. Although such syndromes vary widely in terms of symptoms and etiologies, certain imaging findings are characteristic. Depending on their etiology, they can be categorized as congenital - including blue rubber bleb nevus syndrome, Klippel-Trenaunay syndrome, and hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia (Rendu-Osler-Weber syndrome) - compressive - including 'nutcracker' syndrome, median arcuate ligament syndrome, Cockett syndrome (also known as May-Thurner syndrome), and superior mesenteric artery syndrome. In this article, we aimed to illustrate imaging findings that are characteristic of these syndromes, through studies conducted at our institution, as well as to perform a brief review of the literature on this topic. (author)

  10. Low-flow characteristics of Virginia streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austin, Samuel H.; Krstolic, Jennifer L.; Wiegand, Ute

    2011-01-01

    Low-flow annual non-exceedance probabilities (ANEP), called probability-percent chance (P-percent chance) flow estimates, regional regression equations, and transfer methods are provided describing the low-flow characteristics of Virginia streams. Statistical methods are used to evaluate streamflow data. Analysis of Virginia streamflow data collected from 1895 through 2007 is summarized. Methods are provided for estimating low-flow characteristics of gaged and ungaged streams. The 1-, 4-, 7-, and 30-day average streamgaging station low-flow characteristics for 290 long-term, continuous-record, streamgaging stations are determined, adjusted for instances of zero flow using a conditional probability adjustment method, and presented for non-exceedance probabilities of 0.9, 0.8, 0.7, 0.6, 0.5, 0.4, 0.3, 0.2, 0.1, 0.05, 0.02, 0.01, and 0.005. Stream basin characteristics computed using spatial data and a geographic information system are used as explanatory variables in regional regression equations to estimate annual non-exceedance probabilities at gaged and ungaged sites and are summarized for 290 long-term, continuous-record streamgaging stations, 136 short-term, continuous-record streamgaging stations, and 613 partial-record streamgaging stations. Regional regression equations for six physiographic regions use basin characteristics to estimate 1-, 4-, 7-, and 30-day average low-flow annual non-exceedance probabilities at gaged and ungaged sites. Weighted low-flow values that combine computed streamgaging station low-flow characteristics and annual non-exceedance probabilities from regional regression equations provide improved low-flow estimates. Regression equations developed using the Maintenance of Variance with Extension (MOVE.1) method describe the line of organic correlation (LOC) with an appropriate index site for low-flow characteristics at 136 short-term, continuous-record streamgaging stations and 613 partial-record streamgaging stations. Monthly

  11. SPT+-IGBT characteristics and optimization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chu Weili; Zhu Yangjun; Hu Aibin; Zhang Jie

    2013-01-01

    A novel advanced soft punch through (SPT) IGBT signed as SPT + -IGBT is investigated. Static and dynamic characteristics are simulated based on the 1200 V device structure and adopted technology. Extensive research on the structure optimization of SPT + -IGBT is presented and discussed. Compared with the structure of conventional IGBT, SPT + -IGBT has a much lower collector—emitter saturation voltage and better switching characteristics. Therefore it is very suitable for applications blocking a voltage higher than 3000 V. In addition, due to the improvement of switching speed achieved by using a thinner chip, SPT + -IGBT is also very competitive in 1200 V and 1700 V applications. (semiconductor devices)

  12. Fusibility and sintering characteristics of ash

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ots, A. A., E-mail: aots@sti.ttu.ee [Tallinn University of Technology (Estonia)

    2012-03-15

    The temperature characteristics of ash fusibility are studied for a wide range of bituminous and brown coals, lignites, and shales with ratios R{sub B/A} of their alkaline and acid components between 0.03 and 4. Acritical value of R{sub B/A} is found at which the fusion temperatures are minimal. The sintering properties of the ashes are determined by measuring the force required to fracture a cylindrical sample. It is found that the strength of the samples increases sharply at certain temperatures. The alkali metal content of the ashes has a strong effect on their sintering characteristics.

  13. Young Children's Sibling Relationship Interactional Types: Associations with Family Characteristics, Parenting, and Child Characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamble, Wendy C.; Yu, Jeong Jin

    2014-01-01

    Research Findings: This study examines patterns of sibling relationship qualities or interactional types and their association with family characteristics, parenting, and the characteristics of 1 of those children. Participants were 65 children (34 boys; Time 1 mean age = 51 months), their mothers, fathers, and Head Start teachers. Approximately…

  14. Key characteristics of different management styles

    OpenAIRE

    AGADZHANYAN A.S.

    2015-01-01

    The article reveals main management styles practiсed by managers all over the world. The author considers key characteristics of management styles, conditions of their using. The paper analyzes cultural differences in management styles in the West and in the East.

  15. Compressibility characteristics of Sabak Bernam Marine Clay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lat, D. C.; Ali, N.; Jais, I. B. M.; Baharom, B.; Yunus, N. Z. M.; Salleh, S. M.; Azmi, N. A. C.

    2018-04-01

    This study is carried out to determine the geotechnical properties and compressibility characteristics of marine clay collected at Sabak Bernam. The compressibility characteristics of this soil are determined from 1-D consolidation test and verified by existing correlations by other researchers. No literature has been found on the compressibility characteristics of Sabak Bernam Marine Clay. It is important to carry out this study since this type of marine clay covers large coastal area of west coast Malaysia. This type of marine clay was found on the main road connecting Klang to Perak and the road keeps experiencing undulation and uneven settlement which jeopardise the safety of the road users. The soil is indicated in the Generalised Soil Map of Peninsular Malaysia as a CLAY with alluvial soil on recent marine and riverine alluvium. Based on the British Standard Soil Classification and Plasticity Chart, the soil is classified as a CLAY with very high plasticity (CV). Results from laboratory test on physical properties and compressibility parameters show that Sabak Bernam Marine Clay (SBMC) is highly compressible, has low permeability and poor drainage characteristics. The compressibility parameters obtained for SBMC is in a good agreement with other researchers in the same field.

  16. Dynamical systems of proper characteristic 0

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmad, K.H.; Hamoui, A.

    1991-07-01

    Flows with orbits of proper characteristics 0 exhibit recurrent behaviour, a feature of basic importance in the description of their dynamics. Here, we analyze flows with such orbits relating them with recurrent flows and with flows that exhibit orbital, Poisson or Lagrange stability. (author). 11 refs

  17. Assessment of railway wagon suspension characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soukup, Josef; Skočilas, Jan; Skočilasová, Blanka

    2017-05-01

    The article deals with assessment of railway wagon suspension characteristics. The essential characteristics of a suspension are represented by the stiffness constants of the equivalent springs and the eigen frequencies of the oscillating movements in reference to the main central inertia axes of a vehicle. The premise of the experimental determination of these characteristic is the knowledge of the gravity center position and the knowledge of the main central inertia moments of the vehicle frame. The vehicle frame performs the general spatial movement when the vehicle moves. An analysis of the frame movement generally arises from Euler's equations which are commonly used for the description of the spherical movement. This solution is difficult and it can be simplified by applying the specific assumptions. The eigen frequencies solutions and solutions of the suspension stiffness are presented in the article. The solutions are applied on the railway and road vehicles with the simplifying conditions. A new method which assessed the characteristics is described in the article.

  18. Physicochemical and microbiological characteristics of Italian salami ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate and compare the inclusion of different levels of pequi (Caryocar Brasiliense, Cambess) pulp in the processing of Italian salami made of lamb for the evaluation of their physicochemical and microbiological characteristics. Six formulations of Italian salamis were processed: no pequi ...

  19. Physical characteristics related to bra fit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chin-Man; LaBat, Karen; Bye, Elizabeth

    2010-04-01

    Producing well-fitting garments has been a challenge for retailers and manufacturers since mass production began. Poorly fitted bras can cause discomfort or pain and result in lost sales for retailers. Because body contours are important factors affecting bra fit, this study analyses the relationship of physical characteristics to bra-fit problems. This study has used 3-D body-scanning technology to extract upper body angles from a sample of 103 college women; these data were used to categorise physical characteristics into shoulder slope, bust prominence, back curvature and acromion placement. Relationships between these physical categories and bra-fit problems were then analysed. Results show that significant main effects and two-way interactions of the physical categories exist in the fit problems of poor bra support and bra-motion restriction. The findings are valuable in helping the apparel industry create better-fitting bras. STATEMENT OF RELEVANCE: Poorly fitted bras can cause discomfort or pain and result in lost sales for retailers. The findings regarding body-shape classification provide researchers with a statistics method to quantify physical characteristics and the findings regarding the relationship analysis between physical characteristics and bra fit offer bra companies valuable information about bra-fit perceptions attributable to women with figure variations.

  20. Mechanical Characteristics of Some Deepwater Floater

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Zhen-Zhe; Tarp-Johansen, Niels Jacob; Jensen, Jørgen Juncher

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents an initial study of the mechanical characteristics of some deepwater floater designs for offshore wind turbines. Three different concepts (NREL TLP, Dutch Trifloater, and Japanese SPAR) are summarized, based on data from the available studies. A 5 MW Horizontal Axis Wind Turbine...