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Sample records for phosphoryl transfer evaluation

  1. Arginine Coordination in Enzymatic Phosphoryl Transfer: Evaluation of the Effect of Arg166 Mutations in Escherichia Coli Alkaline Phosphatase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Brien, P.J.; Lassila, J.K.; Fenn, T.D.; Zalatan, J.G.; Herschlag, D.

    2008-01-01

    Arginine residues are commonly found in the active sites of enzymes catalyzing phosphoryl transfer reactions. Numerous site-directed mutagenesis experiments establish the importance of these residues for efficient catalysis, but their role in catalysis is not clear. To examine the role of arginine residues in the phosphoryl transfer reaction, we have measured the consequences of mutations to arginine 166 in Escherichia coli alkaline phosphatase on hydrolysis of ethyl phosphate, on individual reaction steps in the hydrolysis of the covalent enzyme-phosphoryl intermediate, and on thio substitution effects. The results show that the role of the arginine side chain extends beyond its positive charge, as the Arg166Lys mutant is as compromised in activity as Arg166Ser. Through measurement of individual reaction steps, we construct a free energy profile for the hydrolysis of the enzyme-phosphate intermediate. This analysis indicates that the arginine side chain strengthens binding by ∼3 kcal/mol and provides an additional 1-2 kcal/mol stabilization of the chemical transition state. A 2.1 (angstrom) X-ray diffraction structure of Arg166Ser AP is presented, which shows little difference in enzyme structure compared to the wild-type enzyme but shows a significant reorientation of the bound phosphate. Altogether, these results support a model in which the arginine contributes to catalysis through binding interactions and through additional transition state stabilization that may arise from complementarity of the guanidinum group to the geometry of the trigonal bipyramidal transition state

  2. Efficient, crosswise catalytic promiscuity among enzymes that catalyze phosphoryl transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed, Mark F; Hollfelder, Florian

    2013-01-01

    The observation that one enzyme can accelerate several chemically distinct reactions was at one time surprising because the enormous efficiency of catalysis was often seen as inextricably linked to specialization for one reaction. Originally underreported, and considered a quirk rather than a fundamental property, enzyme promiscuity is now understood to be important as a springboard for adaptive evolution. Owing to the large number of promiscuous enzymes that have been identified over the last decade, and the increased appreciation for promiscuity's evolutionary importance, the focus of research has shifted to developing a better understanding of the mechanistic basis for promiscuity and the origins of tolerant or restrictive specificity. We review the evidence for widespread crosswise promiscuity amongst enzymes that catalyze phosphoryl transfer, including several members of the alkaline phosphatase superfamily, where large rate accelerations between 10(6) and 10(17) are observed for both native and multiple promiscuous reactions. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Chemistry and mechanism of phosphatases, diesterases and triesterases. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Conserved phosphoryl transfer mechanisms within kinase families and the role of the C8 proton of ATP in the activation of phosphoryl transfer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenyon Colin P

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The kinome is made up of a large number of functionally diverse enzymes, with the classification indicating very little about the extent of the conserved kinetic mechanisms associated with phosphoryl transfer. It has been demonstrated that C8-H of ATP plays a critical role in the activity of a range of kinase and synthetase enzymes. Results A number of conserved mechanisms within the prescribed kinase fold families have been identified directly utilizing the C8-H of ATP in the initiation of phosphoryl transfer. These mechanisms are based on structurally conserved amino acid residues that are within hydrogen bonding distance of a co-crystallized nucleotide. On the basis of these conserved mechanisms, the role of the nucleotide C8-H in initiating the formation of a pentavalent intermediate between the γ-phosphate of the ATP and the substrate nucleophile is defined. All reactions can be clustered into two mechanisms by which the C8-H is induced to be labile via the coordination of a backbone carbonyl to C6-NH2 of the adenyl moiety, namely a "push" mechanism, and a "pull" mechanism, based on the protonation of N7. Associated with the "push" mechanism and "pull" mechanisms are a series of proton transfer cascades, initiated from C8-H, via the tri-phosphate backbone, culminating in the formation of the pentavalent transition state between the γ-phosphate of the ATP and the substrate nucleophile. Conclusions The "push" mechanism and a "pull" mechanism are responsible for inducing the C8-H of adenyl moiety to become more labile. These mechanisms and the associated proton transfer cascades achieve the proton transfer via different family-specific conserved sets of amino acids. Each of these mechanisms would allow for the regulation of the rate of formation of the pentavalent intermediate between the ATP and the substrate nucleophile. Phosphoryl transfer within kinases is therefore a specific event mediated and regulated via the

  4. Phosphoryl transfer is not rate-limiting for the ROCK I-catalyzed kinase reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Futer, Olga; Saadat, Ahmad R; Doran, John D; Raybuck, Scott A; Pazhanisamy, S

    2006-06-27

    Rho-associated coiled-coil kinase, ROCK, is implicated in Rho-mediated cell adhesion and smooth muscle contraction. Animal models suggest that the inhibition of ROCK can ameliorate conditions, such as vasospasm, hypertension, and inflammation. As part of our effort to design novel inhibitors of ROCK, we investigated the kinetic mechanism of ROCK I. Steady-state bisubstrate kinetics, inhibition kinetics, isotope partition analysis, viscosity effects, and presteady-state kinetics were used to explore the kinetic mechanism. Plots of reciprocals of initial rates obtained in the presence of nonhydrolyzable ATP analogues and the small molecule inhibitor of ROCK, Y-27632, against the reciprocals of the peptide concentrations yielded parallel lines (uncompetitive pattern). This pattern is indicative of an ordered binding mechanism, with the peptide adding first. The staurosporine analogue K252a, however, gave a noncompetitive pattern. When a pulse of (33)P-gamma-ATP mixed with ROCK was chased with excess unlabeled ATP and peptide, 0.66 enzyme equivalent of (33)P-phosphate was incorporated into the product in the first turnover. The presence of ATPase activity coupled with the isotope partition data is a clear evidence for the existence of a viable [E-ATP] complex in the kinase reaction and implicates a random binding mechanism. The k(cat)/K(m) parameters were fully sensitive to viscosity (viscosity effects of 1.4 +/- 0.2 and 0.9 +/- 0.3 for ATP and peptide 5, respectively), and therefore, the barriers to dissociation of either substrate are higher than the barrier for the phosphoryl transfer step. As a consequence, not all the binding steps are at fast equilibrium. The observation of a burst in presteady-state kinetics (k(b) = 10.2 +/- 2.1 s(-)(1)) and the viscosity effect on k(cat) of 1.3 +/- 0.2 characterize the phosphoryl transfer step to be fast and the release of product and/or the enzyme isomerization step accompanying it as rate-limiting at V(max) conditions. From

  5. Evaluating Technology Transfer and Diffusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozeman, Barry; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Four articles discuss the evaluation of technology transfer and diffusion: (1) "Technology Transfer at the U.S. National Laboratories: A Framework for Evaluation"; (2) "Application of Social Psychological and Evaluation Research: Lessons from Energy Information Programs"; (3) "Technology and Knowledge Transfer in Energy R and D Laboratories: An…

  6. Escherichia coli Phosphoenolpyruvate-Dependent Phosphotransferase System : Mechanism of Phosphoryl-Group Transfer from Phosphoenolpyruvate to HPr

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Misset, Onno; Robillard, George T.

    1982-01-01

    The mechanism of phosphoryl-group transfer from phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP) to HPr, catalyzed by enzyme I of the Escherichia coli PEP-dependent phosphotransferase system, has been studied in vitro. Steady-state kinetics and isotope exchange measurements revealed that this reaction cannot be described

  7. Aluminum coordination chemistry and the inhibition of phosphoryl-transferring enzymes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furumo, N.C.; Viola, R.E.

    1986-01-01

    Aluminium ion is a potent inhibitor of the enzymes hexokinase (K/sub i/ = 0.16 μM) and glycerokinase (K/sub i/ = 4.0 μM). It has been shown that aluminum forms a complex with ATP that is 80 times more stable than the magnesium complex with ATP which is the normal substrate for phosphoryl-transferring enzymes. Kinetic studies performed on several kinases at pH 7.0 have shown that Al-ATP is a competitive inhibitor vs. Mg-ATP with moderate K/sub i/ values (0.1-0.5 mM) for creatine kinase(CK) and myokinase(MK), and weakly competitive (K/sub i/ > 0.5 mM) with acetate, galactose, arginine and gluconate kinases. Equilibrium dialysis binding studies indicate no significant binding of aluminum ion by the enzymes, while the interaction of aluminum ion with ADP and ATP has been characterized by 13 C, 27 Al, and 31 P NMR spectroscopy. It appears that the inhibition by aluminum is as the Al-nucleotide complex rather than direct binding of free aluminum ion by the enzyme. Kinetic studies indicate that Al 3+ inhibition of CK and MK is pH dependent with decreased values of K/sub i/ at lower pH. At pH 6.1 K/sub i/ = 25 μM for MK (160 μM at pH 7.0) and 53 μM for CK (240 μM at pH 7.0). This may be due to an increased effective concentration of aluminum ion at lower pH

  8. Citrobacter freundii impairs the phosphoryl transfer network in the gills of Rhamdia quelen: Impairment of bioenergetics homeostasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldissera, Matheus D; Souza, Carine F; Junior, Guerino B; Moreira, Karen Luise S; da Veiga, Marcelo L; da Rocha, Maria Izabel U M; Baldisserotto, Bernardo

    2018-04-01

    The precise coupling of spatially separated intracellular adenosine triphosphate (ATP)-producing and ATP-consuming, catalyzed by creatine kinase (CK), adenylate kinase (AK), and pyruvate kinase (PK), is a critical process in the bioenergetics of tissues with high energy demand, such as the branchial tissue. The effects of Citrobacter freundii infection on gills remain poorly understood, limited only to histopathological studies. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate whether experimental infection by C. freundii impairs the enzymes of the phosphoryl transfer network in gills of silver catfish (Rhamdia quelen). The CK (cytosolic and mitochondrial) and AK activities decreased in infected compared to uninfected animals, while the PK activity did not differ between groups. The gill histopathology of infected animals revealed extensive degeneration with fusion and necrosis of secondary lamellae, detachment of superficial epithelium, aneurysm, vessel congestion and inflammatory process. Based on these evidences, the inhibition and absence of an efficient communication between CK compartments caused the impairment of the branchial bioenergetics homeostasis, which was not compensated by the augmentation on branchial AK activity in an attempt to restore energy homeostasis. In summary, these alterations contribute to disease pathogenesis linked to branchial tissue in animals infected with C. freundii. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  9. The Golgi localization of phosphatidylinositol transfer protein beta requires the protein kinase C-dependent phosphorylation of serine 262 and is essential for maintaining plasma membrane sphingomyelin levels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Tiel, Claudia M.; Westerman, Jan; Paasman, Marten A.; Hoebens, Martha M.; Wirtz, Karel W. A.; Snoek, Gerry T.

    2002-01-01

    Recombinant mouse phosphatidylinositol transfer protein (PI-TP)beta is a substrate for protein kinase C (PKC)-dependent phosphorylation in vitro. Based on site-directed mutagenesis and two-dimensional tryptic peptide mapping, Ser(262) was identified as the major site of phosphorylation and Ser(165)

  10. Mechanism of phosphoryl transfer and protein-protein interaction in the PTS system-an NMR study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rajagopal, P.; Klevit, R.E. [Univ. of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States)

    1994-12-01

    HPr and Enzyme IIA{sup Glc} are two of the components of the bacterial PTS (phosphoenolpyruvate: sugar phosphotranferase system) and are involved in the phosphorylation and concomitant translocation of sugars across the membrane. These PTS protein complexes also regulate sugar transport. HPr, phosphorylated at a histidine N1 site by Enzyme I and phosphoenol pyruvate, transfers the phosphoryl group to a histidine N3 position in Enzyme IIA{sup Glc}. HPrs from Gram-positive bacteria undergo regulatory phosphorylation at Ser{sup 46}, whereby phosphorylation of the histidine residue is inhibited. Conversely, histidine phosphorylation inhibits phosphorylation at Ser{sup 46}. HPrs from Gram-negative bacteria possess a serine residue at position 46, but do not undergo regulatory phosphorylation. HPr forms an open-faced sandwich structure with a four-strand S-sheet and 2 to 3 helices lying on top of the sheet. The active-site histidine and Ser{sup 46} occur in conformationally flexible regions. P-His-HPr from the Gram-positive bacterium Bacillus subtilus has been investigated by both homonuclear and heteronuclear two-dimensional and three-dimensional NMR experiments using an in-situ enzymatic regeneration system to maintain a constant level of P-His-HPr. The results show that localized conformational changes occur in the vicinity of the active-site histidine and also near Ser{sup 46}. HPr-Enzyme IIA{sup Glc} complexes from both Bacillus subtilis and Gram-negative Escherichia coli were also studied by a variety of {sup 15}N-edited two-dimensional NMR experiments, which were performed on uniformly {sup 15}N-labeled HPr complexed to unlabeled Enzyme IIA{sup Glc}. The complex is in fast exchange with a molecular weight of about 27 kDa. The focus of our work is to assess the changes undergone by HPr (the smaller of the two components), and so all the experiments were performed with excess Enzyme IIA present in the system.

  11. Phosphorylation-induced conformational changes in short peptides probed by fluorescence resonance energy transfer in the 10A domain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahoo, Harekrushna; Nau, Werner M

    2007-03-26

    Phosphorylation-induced conformational changes in short polypeptides were probed by a fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) method by employing a short-distance FRET pair (R(0) approximately 10 A) based on tryptophan as natural donor and a 2,3-diazabicyclo[2.2.2]oct-2-ene-labeled asparagine (Dbo) as synthetic acceptor. Two substrates for kinases, LeuArgArgTrpSerLeuGly-Dbo (peptide I) and TrpLysArgThrLeuArgArg-Dbo (peptide II), were investigated, with serine and threonine, respectively, as phosphorylation sites. Steady-state and time-resolved fluorescence experiments in H(2)O revealed a decrease in FRET efficiency for peptide I and an increase for peptide II; this suggested that the effective distances between donor and acceptor increased and decreased, respectively. The same trends and similar absolute variations in effective donor-acceptor distances were observed in propylene glycol, a less polar and highly viscous solvent; this suggested that the variations are due to intrinsic structural preferences. Fitting of the time-resolved decay traces according to a distribution function model (Gaussian distribution) provided the mean donor-acceptor distances, which showed an increase upon phosphorylation for peptide I (from 9.7 to 10.5 A) and a decrease for peptide II (from 10.9 to 9.3 A) in H(2)O. The broadness (half-width) of the distributions, which provides a measure of the rigidity of the peptides, remained similar upon phosphorylation of peptide I (3.0 versus 3.1 A), but decreased for peptide II (from 3.1 to 0.73 A in H(2)O); this suggests a more compact, structured conformation upon phosphorylation of the latter peptide. The elongation of the peptide backbone (by ca. 0.7 A) for peptide I is attributed to an increase in steric demand upon phosphorylation, which favors an extended conformation. The contraction (by ca. 1.4 A) and structural rigidification of peptide II is attributed to attractive Coulombic interactions and hydrogen bonding between the

  12. Innovative technology transfer of nondestructive evaluation research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brian Brashaw; Robert J. Ross; Xiping Wang

    2008-01-01

    Technology transfer is often an afterthought for many nondestructive evaluation (NDE) researchers. Effective technology transfer should be considered during the planning and execution of research projects. This paper outlines strategies for using technology transfer in NDE research and presents a wide variety of technology transfer methods used by a cooperative...

  13. Unraveling the evolutionary history of the phosphoryl-transfer chain of the phosphoenolpyruvate:phosphotransferase system through phylogenetic analyses and genome context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zúñiga Manuel

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The phosphoenolpyruvate phosphotransferase system (PTS plays a major role in sugar transport and in the regulation of essential physiological processes in many bacteria. The PTS couples solute transport to its phosphorylation at the expense of phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP and it consists of general cytoplasmic phosphoryl transfer proteins and specific enzyme II complexes which catalyze the uptake and phosphorylation of solutes. Previous studies have suggested that the evolution of the constituents of the enzyme II complexes has been driven largely by horizontal gene transfer whereas vertical inheritance has been prevalent in the general phosphoryl transfer proteins in some bacterial groups. The aim of this work is to test this hypothesis by studying the evolution of the phosphoryl transfer proteins of the PTS. Results We have analyzed the evolutionary history of the PTS phosphoryl transfer chain (PTS-ptc components in 222 complete genomes by combining phylogenetic methods and analysis of genomic context. Phylogenetic analyses alone were not conclusive for the deepest nodes but when complemented with analyses of genomic context and functional information, the main evolutionary trends of this system could be depicted. Conclusion The PTS-ptc evolved in bacteria after the divergence of early lineages such as Aquificales, Thermotogales and Thermus/Deinococcus. The subsequent evolutionary history of the PTS-ptc varied in different bacterial lineages: vertical inheritance and lineage-specific gene losses mainly explain the current situation in Actinobacteria and Firmicutes whereas horizontal gene transfer (HGT also played a major role in Proteobacteria. Most remarkably, we have identified a HGT event from Firmicutes or Fusobacteria to the last common ancestor of the Enterobacteriaceae, Pasteurellaceae, Shewanellaceae and Vibrionaceae. This transfer led to extensive changes in the metabolic and regulatory networks of these bacteria

  14. The Golgi localization of phosphatidylinositol transfer protein beta requires the protein kinase C-dependent phosphorylation of serine 262 and is essential for maintaining plasma membrane sphingomyelin levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Tiel, Claudia M; Westerman, Jan; Paasman, Marten A; Hoebens, Martha M; Wirtz, Karel W A; Snoek, Gerry T

    2002-06-21

    Recombinant mouse phosphatidylinositol transfer protein (PI-TP)beta is a substrate for protein kinase C (PKC)-dependent phosphorylation in vitro. Based on site-directed mutagenesis and two-dimensional tryptic peptide mapping, Ser(262) was identified as the major site of phosphorylation and Ser(165) as a minor phosphorylation site. The phospholipid transfer activities of wild-type PI-TP beta and PI-TP beta(S262A) were identical, whereas PI-TP beta(S165A) was completely inactive. PKC-dependent phosphorylation of Ser(262) also had no effect on the transfer activity of PI-TP beta. To investigate the role of Ser(262) in the functioning of PI-TP beta, wtPI-TP beta and PI-TP beta(S262A) were overexpressed in NIH3T3 fibroblast cells. Two-dimensional PAGE analysis of cell lysates was used to separate PI-TP beta from its phosphorylated form. After Western blotting, wtPI-TP beta was found to be 85% phosphorylated, whereas PI-TP beta(S262A) was not phosphorylated. In the presence of the PKC inhibitor GF 109203X, the phosphorylated form of wtPI-TP beta was strongly reduced. Immunolocalization showed that wtPI-TP beta was predominantly associated with the Golgi membranes. In the presence of the PKC inhibitor, wtPI-TP beta was distributed throughout the cell similar to what was observed for PI-TP beta(S262A). In contrast to wtPI-TP beta overexpressors, cells overexpressing PI-TP beta(S262A) were unable to rapidly replenish sphingomyelin in the plasma membrane upon degradation by sphingomyelinase. This implies that PKC-dependent association with the Golgi complex is a prerequisite for PI-TP beta to express its effect on sphingomyelin metabolism.

  15. Theoretical Investigation of the Enzymatic Phosphoryl Transfer of β-phosphoglucomutase: Revisiting Both Steps of the Catalytic Cycle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elsasser, Brigitta M.; Dohmeier-Fischer, Silvia; Fels, Gregor

    2012-07-12

    Enzyme catalyzed phosphate transfer is a part of almost all metabolic processes. Such reactions are of central importance for the energy balance in all organisms and play important roles in cellular control at all levels. Mutases transfer a phosphoryl group while nucleases cleave the phosphodiester linkages between two nucleotides. The subject of our present study is the Lactococcus lactis β-phosphoglucomutase (β-PGM), which effectively catalyzes the interconversion of β-D-glucose-1-phosphate (β-G1P) to β- D-glucose-6-phosphate (β-G6P) and vice versa via stabile intermediate β-D-glucose-1,6-(bis)phosphate (β-G1,6diP) in the presence of Mg2+. In this paper we revisited the reaction mechanism of the phosphoryl transfer starting from the bisphosphate β-G1,6diP in both directions (toward β-G1P and β-G6P) combining docking techniques and QM/MM theoretical method at the DFT/PBE0 level of theory. In addition we performed NEB (nudged elastic band) and free energy calculations to optimize the path and to identify the transition states and the energies involved in the catalytic cycle. Our calculations reveal that both steps proceed via dissociative pentacoordinated phosphorane, which is not a stabile intermediate but rather a transition state. In addition to the Mg2+ ion, Ser114 and Lys145 also play important roles in stabilizing the large negative charge on the phosphate through strong coordination with the phosphate oxygens and guiding the phosphate group throughout the catalytic process. The calculated energy barrier of the reaction for the β-G1P to β-G1,6diP step is only slightly higher than for the β-G1,6diP to β-G6P step (16.10 kcal mol-1 versus 15.10 kcal mol-1) and is in excellent agreement with experimental findings (14.65 kcal mol-1).

  16. The role of the C8 proton of ATP in the regulation of phosphoryl transfer within kinases and synthetases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nkosi Thokozani C

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The kinome comprises functionally diverse enzymes, with the current classification indicating very little about the extent of conserved regulatory mechanisms associated with phosphoryl transfer. The apparent Km of the kinases ranges from less than 0.4 μM to in excess of 1000 μM for ATP. It is not known how this diverse range of enzymes mechanistically achieves the regulation of catalysis via an affinity range for ATP varying by three-orders of magnitude. Results We have demonstrated a previously undiscovered mechanism in kinase and synthetase enzymes where the overall rate of reaction is regulated via the C8-H of ATP. Using ATP deuterated at the C8 position (C8D-ATP as a molecular probe it was shown that the C8-H plays a direct role in the regulation of the overall rate of reaction in a range of kinase and synthetase enzymes. Using comparative studies on the effect of the concentration of ATP and C8D-ATP on the activity of the enzymes we demonstrated that not only did C8D-ATP give a kinetic isotope effect (KIE but the KIE's obtained are clearly not secondary KIE effects as the magnitude of the KIE in all cases was at least 2 fold and in most cases in excess of 7 fold. Conclusions Kinase and synthetase enzymes utilise C8D-ATP in preference to non-deuterated ATP. The KIE obtained at low ATP concentrations is clearly a primary KIE demonstrating strong evidence that the bond to the isotopically substituted hydrogen is being broken. The effect of the ATP concentration profile on the KIE was used to develop a model whereby the C8H of ATP plays a role in the overall regulation of phosphoryl transfer. This role of the C8H of ATP in the regulation of substrate binding appears to have been conserved in all kinase and synthetase enzymes as one of the mechanisms associated with binding of ATP. The induction of the C8H to be labile by active site residues coordinated to the ATP purine ring may play a significant role in explaining the

  17. EUROPEAN TRANSFERS: EVALUATION AND CONSEQUENCES

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    Lang Eszter

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper is an evaluation of EU regional policy. It asks whether cohesion programmes contribute to the reduction of differences. In the first part of the study the results of three different methodological approaches are briefly examined to analyse effects. The answer to the question is not at all unambiguous, which is why the second half of the paper attempts to find those factors which may cause the regional policy of the EU to fail to achieve its desired objectives. According to the literature review these factors are (1 the crowding out effect, (2 the existence of rent-seeking and moral hazard, (3 the counterbalancing effect of national policies, (4 a concentration of economic activities (mainly industries representing high added value, and (5 the short time frame. Finally the study establishes those preconditions which, when present, can be considered necessary and sufficient for the redistributed funds to initiate growth.

  18. The cellular and compartmental profile of mouse retinal glycolysis, tricarboxylic acid cycle, oxidative phosphorylation, and ~P transferring kinases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rueda, Elda M; Johnson, Jerry E; Giddabasappa, Anand; Swaroop, Anand; Brooks, Matthew J; Sigel, Irena; Chaney, Shawnta Y; Fox, Donald A

    2016-01-01

    The homeostatic regulation of cellular ATP is achieved by the coordinated activity of ATP utilization, synthesis, and buffering. Glucose is the major substrate for ATP synthesis through glycolysis and oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS), whereas intermediary metabolism through the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle utilizes non-glucose-derived monocarboxylates, amino acids, and alpha ketoacids to support mitochondrial ATP and GTP synthesis. Cellular ATP is buffered by specialized equilibrium-driven high-energy phosphate (~P) transferring kinases. Our goals were twofold: 1) to characterize the gene expression, protein expression, and activity of key synthesizing and regulating enzymes of energy metabolism in the whole mouse retina, retinal compartments, and/or cells and 2) to provide an integrative analysis of the results related to function. mRNA expression data of energy-related genes were extracted from our whole retinal Affymetrix microarray data. Fixed-frozen retinas from adult C57BL/6N mice were used for immunohistochemistry, laser scanning confocal microscopy, and enzymatic histochemistry. The immunoreactivity levels of well-characterized antibodies, for all major retinal cells and their compartments, were obtained using our established semiquantitative confocal and imaging techniques. Quantitative cytochrome oxidase (COX) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activity was determined histochemically. The Affymetrix data revealed varied gene expression patterns of the ATP synthesizing and regulating enzymes found in the muscle, liver, and brain. Confocal studies showed differential cellular and compartmental distribution of isozymes involved in glucose, glutamate, glutamine, lactate, and creatine metabolism. The pattern and intensity of the antibodies and of the COX and LDH activity showed the high capacity of photoreceptors for aerobic glycolysis and OXPHOS. Competition assays with pyruvate revealed that LDH-5 was localized in the photoreceptor inner segments. The

  19. Quantitation of movement of the phosphoryl group during catalytic transfer in the arginine kinase reaction: {sup 31}P relaxation measurements on enzyme-bound equilibrium mixtures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ray, Bruce D. [Indiana University, Purdue University at Indianapolis (IUPUI), Department of Physics (United States); Jarori, Gotam K. [Tata Institute of Fundamental Research (India); Nageswara Rao, B.D. [Indiana University, Purdue University at Indianapolis (IUPUI), Department of Physics (United States)], E-mail: brao@iupui.edu

    2002-05-15

    {sup 31}P nuclear spin relaxation measurements have been made on enzyme-bound equilibrium mixtures of lobster-muscle arginine kinase in the presence of substituent activating paramagnetic cation Co(II) (in place of Mg(II)), i.e., on samples in which the reaction, E{center_dot}CoATP{center_dot}arginine {r_reversible} E{center_dot}CoADP{center_dot}P-arginine, is in progress. The results have been analyzed on the basis of a previously published theory (Nageswara Rao, B.D. (1995) J. Magn. Reson., B108, 289-293) to determine the structural changes in the reaction complex accompanying phosphoryl transfer. The analysis enables the determination of the change in the Co(II)-{sup 31}P ({gamma}-P(ATP)) vector as the transferable phosphoryl group moves over and attaches to arginine to form P-arginine. It is shown that the Co(II)-{sup 31}P distance of {approx}3.0 A, representing direct coordination of Co(II) to {gamma}-P(ATP), changes to {approx}4.0 A when P-arginine is formed in the enzyme-bound reaction complex. This elongation of the Co(II)-{sup 31}P vector implies an excursion of at least 1.0 A for the itinerant phosphoryl group on the surface of the enzyme.

  20. Quantitation of movement of the phosphoryl group during catalytic transfer in the arginine kinase reaction: 31P relaxation measurements on enzyme-bound equilibrium mixtures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ray, Bruce D.; Jarori, Gotam K.; Nageswara Rao, B.D.

    2002-01-01

    31 P nuclear spin relaxation measurements have been made on enzyme-bound equilibrium mixtures of lobster-muscle arginine kinase in the presence of substituent activating paramagnetic cation Co(II) (in place of Mg(II)), i.e., on samples in which the reaction, E·CoATP·arginine ↔ E·CoADP·P-arginine, is in progress. The results have been analyzed on the basis of a previously published theory (Nageswara Rao, B.D. (1995) J. Magn. Reson., B108, 289-293) to determine the structural changes in the reaction complex accompanying phosphoryl transfer. The analysis enables the determination of the change in the Co(II)- 31 P (γ-P(ATP)) vector as the transferable phosphoryl group moves over and attaches to arginine to form P-arginine. It is shown that the Co(II)- 31 P distance of ∼3.0 A, representing direct coordination of Co(II) to γ-P(ATP), changes to ∼4.0 A when P-arginine is formed in the enzyme-bound reaction complex. This elongation of the Co(II)- 31 P vector implies an excursion of at least 1.0 A for the itinerant phosphoryl group on the surface of the enzyme

  1. Using positive-ion electrospray ionization mass spectrometry and H/D exchange study phosphoryl group transfer reactions involved in amino acid ester isopropyl phosphoramidates of Brefeldin A

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fang, Mei-Juan; Zhang, He; Liao, Chao; Qiu, Ying-Kun; Fang, Hua; Zheng, Zhen-Yu; Gao, Xiang; Zhao, Yu-Fen; Wu, Zhen

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • ESI-MS n , HRMS and H/D exchange were used. • The fragmentation pathways of NPAAE-BFA in ESI-MS n were described. • Fragment ions involved in phosphorus group’s rearrangement reactions were observed. • Two rearrangement mechanisms about phosphorylation–dephosphorylation were proposed. - Abstract: As mini-chemical models, amino acid ester isopropyl phosphoramidates of Brefeldin A (compounds 2a–2d) were synthesized and investigated by electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry in combination with H/D exchange. To further confirm the fragments’s structures, off-line Fourier transform resonance tandem mass spectrometry (FT-ICR-MS/MS) was also performed. The fragmentation rules of compounds 2a–2d have been summarized and the plausible schemes for the fragmentation pathways were proposed. In this study, one dephosphorylated ion and two phosphorylated ions were observed in ESI-MS 2 spectra of [M + Na] + ions for compounds 2a–2d. The possible mechanisms about phosphorylation and dephosphorylation were proposed and confirmed by H/D exchange. For the “dephosphorylation” rearrangement, a nitrogen atom was migrated from the phosphoryl group to the carbon atom of Brefeldin A’s backbone with losing a molecule of C 3 H 7 PO 3 (122 Da). For the “phosphorylation” rearrangement, an oxygen atom of one phosphoryl group attacked the sideward phosphorus atom to form a nine-member ring intermediate, then two steps of C-H covalent bond cleavage with consecutive migration of hydrogen atom to lose a molecule of C 16 H 20 O 2 (244 Da). The two proposed rearrangement mechanisms about phosphoryl group transfer might be valuable for the structure analysis of other analogs and provide insights into elucidating the dynamic process of the phosphorylation–dephosphorylation of proteins

  2. Using positive-ion electrospray ionization mass spectrometry and H/D exchange study phosphoryl group transfer reactions involved in amino acid ester isopropyl phosphoramidates of Brefeldin A

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fang, Mei-Juan; Zhang, He; Liao, Chao; Qiu, Ying-Kun [School of Pharmaceutical Sciences and the Key Laboratory for Chemical Biology of Fujian Province, Xiamen University, Xiang-An South Road, Xiamen 361102 (China); Fang, Hua [The Third Institute of Oceanography of the State Oceanic Administration, Xiamen 361005 (China); Zheng, Zhen-Yu [College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Department of Chemistry, Xiamen University, Xiamen 361005 (China); Gao, Xiang [School of Pharmaceutical Sciences and the Key Laboratory for Chemical Biology of Fujian Province, Xiamen University, Xiang-An South Road, Xiamen 361102 (China); Zhao, Yu-Fen [School of Pharmaceutical Sciences and the Key Laboratory for Chemical Biology of Fujian Province, Xiamen University, Xiang-An South Road, Xiamen 361102 (China); College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Department of Chemistry, Xiamen University, Xiamen 361005 (China); Wu, Zhen, E-mail: wuzhen@xmu.edu.cn [School of Pharmaceutical Sciences and the Key Laboratory for Chemical Biology of Fujian Province, Xiamen University, Xiang-An South Road, Xiamen 361102 (China)

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • ESI-MS{sup n}, HRMS and H/D exchange were used. • The fragmentation pathways of NPAAE-BFA in ESI-MS{sup n} were described. • Fragment ions involved in phosphorus group’s rearrangement reactions were observed. • Two rearrangement mechanisms about phosphorylation–dephosphorylation were proposed. - Abstract: As mini-chemical models, amino acid ester isopropyl phosphoramidates of Brefeldin A (compounds 2a–2d) were synthesized and investigated by electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry in combination with H/D exchange. To further confirm the fragments’s structures, off-line Fourier transform resonance tandem mass spectrometry (FT-ICR-MS/MS) was also performed. The fragmentation rules of compounds 2a–2d have been summarized and the plausible schemes for the fragmentation pathways were proposed. In this study, one dephosphorylated ion and two phosphorylated ions were observed in ESI-MS{sup 2} spectra of [M + Na]{sup +} ions for compounds 2a–2d. The possible mechanisms about phosphorylation and dephosphorylation were proposed and confirmed by H/D exchange. For the “dephosphorylation” rearrangement, a nitrogen atom was migrated from the phosphoryl group to the carbon atom of Brefeldin A’s backbone with losing a molecule of C{sub 3}H{sub 7}PO{sub 3} (122 Da). For the “phosphorylation” rearrangement, an oxygen atom of one phosphoryl group attacked the sideward phosphorus atom to form a nine-member ring intermediate, then two steps of C-H covalent bond cleavage with consecutive migration of hydrogen atom to lose a molecule of C{sub 16}H{sub 20}O{sub 2} (244 Da). The two proposed rearrangement mechanisms about phosphoryl group transfer might be valuable for the structure analysis of other analogs and provide insights into elucidating the dynamic process of the phosphorylation–dephosphorylation of proteins.

  3. Role of Zinc and Magnesium Ions in the Modulation of Phosphoryl Transfer in Protein Tyrosine Phosphatase 1B.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellomo, Elisa; Abro, Asma; Hogstrand, Christer; Maret, Wolfgang; Domene, Carmen

    2018-03-28

    While the majority of phosphatases are metalloenzymes, the prevailing model for the reactions catalyzed by protein tyrosine phosphatases does not involve any metal ion, yet both metal cations and oxoanions affect their enzymatic activity. Mg 2+ and Zn 2+ activate and inhibit, respectively, protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B). Molecular dynamics simulations, metadynamics, and quantum chemical calculations in combination with experimental investigations demonstrate that Mg 2+ and Zn 2+ compete for the same binding site in the active site only in the closed conformation of the enzyme in its phosphorylated state. The two cations have different effects on the arrangements and activities of water molecules that are necessary for the hydrolysis of the phosphocysteine intermediate in the second catalytic step of the reaction. Remarkable differences between the established structural enzymology of PTP1B investigated ex vivo and the function of PTP1B in vivo become evident. Different reaction pathways are viable when the presence of metal ions and their cellular concentrations are considered. The findings suggest that the substrate delivers the inhibitory Zn 2+ ion to the active site. The inhibition and activation can be ascribed to the different coordination chemistries of Zn 2+ and Mg 2+ ions and the orientation of the metal-coordinated water molecules. Metallochemistry adds an additional dimension to the regulation of PTP1B and presumably other members of this enzyme family.

  4. Plutonium Immobilization Bagless Transfer Can Size Evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kriikku, E.; Stokes, M.; Rogers, L.; Ward, C.

    1998-02-01

    This report identifies and documents the most appropriate bagless transfer can size to support Plutonium Immobilization Can Loading operations. Also, this report considers can diameter, can wall thickness, and can length

  5. Evaluation of novel supports for selective and efficient enrichment of phosphorylated peptides

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Bensadek, D

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available A series of novel emulsion based supports MagReSynTM TiO 2 (A-D) were evaluated using 32P labelled phosphopeptides and nano LC-MS/MS. The performance of MagReSynTM TiO 2 (D) was found to be significantly better in terms of selectivity and specificity...

  6. Automated and high confidence protein phosphorylation site localization using complementary collision-activated dissociation and electron transfer dissociation tandem mass spectrometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Thomas A; Sylvester, Marc; Jensen, Ole N

    2012-01-01

    -site localization and the number of assigned phospho-sites at a fixed false-localization rate. The average calculated Cscore from a large data set (>7000 phosphopeptide MS/MS spectra) was ∼32 compared to ∼23 and ∼17 for the Ascore using collision-activated dissociation (CAD) or electron transfer dissociation (ETD...... peptide fragmentation and the loss of labile phosphate groups complicate identification of the site of the phosphate motif. Here, we have implemented and evaluated a novel approach for phospho-site localization by the combined use of peptide tandem mass spectrometry data obtained using both collision......-activated dissociation and electron transfer dissociation, an approach termed the Cscore. The scoring algorithm used in the Cscore was adapted from the widely used Ascore method. The analytical benefit of integrating the product ion information of both ETD and CAD data are evident by increased confidence in phospho...

  7. Evaluation of multivariate calibration models transferred between spectroscopic instruments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eskildsen, Carl Emil Aae; Hansen, Per W.; Skov, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    In a setting where multiple spectroscopic instruments are used for the same measurements it may be convenient to develop the calibration model on a single instrument and then transfer this model to the other instruments. In the ideal scenario, all instruments provide the same predictions for the ......In a setting where multiple spectroscopic instruments are used for the same measurements it may be convenient to develop the calibration model on a single instrument and then transfer this model to the other instruments. In the ideal scenario, all instruments provide the same predictions...... for the same samples using the transferred model. However, sometimes the success of a model transfer is evaluated by comparing the transferred model predictions with the reference values. This is not optimal, as uncertainties in the reference method will impact the evaluation. This paper proposes a new method...... for calibration model transfer evaluation. The new method is based on comparing predictions from different instruments, rather than comparing predictions and reference values. A total of 75 flour samples were available for the study. All samples were measured on ten near infrared (NIR) instruments from two...

  8. Fostering transfer of web searchers' evaluation skills: A field test of two transfer theories

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Walraven, Amber; Brand-Gruwel, Saskia; Boshuizen, Henny P.A.

    2010-01-01

    Transfer of complex cognitive skills is important when stimulating students to become life long learners. An example of a complex cognitive skill is the skill of evaluating results, information and source while solving information problems using the WWW. Especially the knowledge and use of

  9. Nutritional evaluation of phosphorylated pumpkin seed (Cucurbita moschata) protein concentrate in silver catfish Rhamdia quelen (Quoy and Gaimard, 1824).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovatto, Naglezi de Menezes; Goulart, Fernanda Rodrigues; de Freitas, Silvandro Tonetto; Mombach, Patricia Inês; Loureiro, Bruno Bianch; Bender, Ana Betine Beutinger; Boligon, Aline Augusti; Radünz Neto, João; da Silva, Leila Picolli

    2015-12-01

    An 8-week feeding trial was conducted to evaluate the effect of replacing fish meal with pumpkin seed meal (PSM) or phosphorylated protein concentrate of pumpkin seed meal (PPCPS) on growth and metabolic responses of silver catfish. Five isonitrogenous and isocaloric diets were formulated. Control diet contained fish meal as the main protein source. The treatment groups contained 25 and 50% of either PSM or PPCPS protein replaced the fishmeal protein. A total of 400 silver catfish, with initial mean weight of 24 ± 0.46 g, were distributed into 20 tanks. For data four orthogonal contrasts were applied: control diet versus PSM diets; control diets versus PPCPS diets; control versus other diets; PSM diets versus PPCPS diets. The results indicated that the fish fed PSM diets had lower weight gain when compared to either control diet or PPCPS. The PPCPS do not affect growth and protein efficiency ratio. Lower albumin contents were found for the control diet fish for the contrasts control diet versus PPCPS diet and control diet versus other diets. The hepatic ALAT enzyme activity was higher in the fish fed the control diet (P < 0.05). The hepatic ALP was most active in fish that received the PPCPS diets, when comparing control diet versus PPCPS diets and control diet versus other diets. The hepatosomatic index was higher for fish fed the PPCPS. Our results indicated that PPCPS presents relevant nutritional quality for fish and can replace the fish meal protein up to 50% without affecting growth, PER and intermediate metabolites in silver catfish.

  10. Strategic Evaluation of University Knowledge and Technology Transfer Effectiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Thien Anh

    2013-01-01

    Academic knowledge and technology transfer has been growing in importance both in academic research and practice. A critical question in managing this activity is how to evaluate its effectiveness. The literature shows an increasing number of studies done to address this question; however, it also reveals important gaps that need more research.…

  11. Evaluation method for radiative heat transfer in polydisperse water droplets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maruyama, Shigenao; Nakai, Hirotaka; Sakurai, Atsushi; Komiya, Atsuki

    2008-01-01

    Simplifications of the model for nongray radiative heat transfer analysis in participating media comprised of polydisperse water droplets are presented. Databases of the radiative properties for a water droplet over a wide range of wavelengths and diameters are constructed using rigorous Mie theory. The accuracy of the radiative properties obtained from the database interpolation is validated by comparing them with those obtained from the Mie calculations. The radiative properties of polydisperse water droplets are compared with those of monodisperse water droplets with equivalent mean diameters. Nongray radiative heat transfer in the anisotropic scattering fog layer, including direct and diffuse solar irradiations and infrared sky flux, is analyzed using REM 2 . The radiative heat fluxes within the fog layer containing polydisperse water droplets are compared with those in the layer containing monodisperse water droplets. Through numerical simulation of the radiative heat transfer, polydisperse water droplets can be approximated by using the Sauter diameter, a technique that can be useful in several research fields, such as engineering and atmospheric science. Although this approximation is valid in the case of pure radiative transfer problems, the Sauter diameter is reconfirmed to be the appropriate diameter for approximating problems in radiative heat transfer, although volume-length mean diameter shows better accordance in some cases. The CPU time for nongray radiative heat transfer analysis with a fog model is evaluated. It is proved that the CPU time is decreased by using the databases and the approximation method for polydisperse particulate media

  12. Evaluation of tank waste transfers at 241-AW tank farm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Willis, W.L.

    1998-01-01

    A number of waste transfers are needed to process and feed waste to the private contractors in support of Phase 1 Privatization. Other waste transfers are needed to support the 242-A Evaporator, saltwell pumping, and other ongoing Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) operations. The purpose of this evaluation is to determine if existing or planned equipment and systems are capable of supporting the Privatization Mission of the Tank Farms and continuing operations through the end of Phase 1B Privatization Mission. Projects W-211 and W-314 have been established and will support the privatization effort. Equipment and system upgrades provided by these projects (W-211 and W-314) will also support other ongoing operations in the tank farms. It is recognized that these projects do not support the entire transfer schedule represented in the Tank Waste Remediation system Operation and Utilization Plan. Additionally, transfers surrounding the 241-AW farm must be considered. This evaluation is provided as information, which will help to define transfer paths required to complete the Waste Feed Delivery (WFD) mission. This document is not focused on changing a particular project, but it is realized that new project work in the 241-AW Tank Farm is required

  13. Transferability of economic evaluations of medical technologies: a new technology for orthopedic surgery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steuten, Lotte Maria Gertruda; Vallejo-Torres, Laura; Young, Terry; Buxton, Martin

    2008-01-01

    Transferring results of economic evaluations across countries or jurisdictions can potentially save scarce evaluation resources while helping to make market access and reimbursement decisions in a timely fashion. This article points out why transferring results of economic evaluations is

  14. Product meaning, affective use evaluation, and transfer : a preliminary study

    OpenAIRE

    Helfenstein, Sacha

    2005-01-01

    The first part of this investigation explored the multidimensional nature of product meaning, referring to the variety of connotations and functions a consumer associates with a particular product category. The subsequent experiment examined the moderation effects of product meaning and other attributes of the user on (a) the affective evaluation of an obstructed use interaction, and (b) the transfer of emotion between devices presented as being either of the same or a different brand. Althou...

  15. Technology transfer - insider protection workshop (Safeguards Evaluation Method - Insider Threat)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strait, R.S.; Renis, T.A.

    1986-01-01

    The Safeguards Evaluation Method - Insider Threat, developed by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, is a field-applicable tool to evaluate facility safeguards against theft or diversion of special nuclear material (SNM) by nonviolent insiders. To ensure successful transfer of this technology from the laboratory to DOE field offices and contractors, LLNL developed a three-part package. The package includes a workbook, user-friendly microcomputer software, and a three-day training program. The workbook guides an evaluation team through the Safeguards Evaluation Method and provides forms for gathering data. The microcomputer software assists in the evaluation of safeguards effectiveness. The software is designed for safeguards analysts with no previous computer experience. It runs on an IBM Personal Computer or any compatible machine. The three-day training program is called the Insider Protection Workshop. The workshop students learn how to use the workbook and the computer software to assess insider vulnerabilities and to evaluate the benefits and costs of potential improvements. These activities increase the students' appreciation of the insider threat. The workshop format is informal and interactive, employing four different instruction modes: classroom presentations, small-group sessions, a practical exercise, and ''hands-on'' analysis using microcomputers. This approach to technology transfer has been successful: over 100 safeguards planners and analysts have been trained in the method, and it is being used at facilities through the DOE complex

  16. Product Meaning, Affective Use Evaluation, and Transfer: A Preliminary Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sacha Helfenstein

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The first part of this investigation explored the multidimensional nature of product meaning, referring to the variety of connotations and functions a consumer associates with a particular product category. The subsequent experiment examined the moderation effects of product meaning and other attributes of the user on (a the affective evaluation of an obstructed use interaction, and (b the transfer of emotion between devices presented as being either of the same or a different brand. Although the failure experience essentially caused frustration, this reaction varied substantially among consumers depending on product meaning, age, and gender. The results also showed that the emotion dimensions of pleasure, arousal, and dominance were affected in distinct ways, and that, in addition to the consumer variables, transfer was mainly dependent on the brand relation. Nevertheless, user frustration did not cause general brand aversion, indicating that poor designs do not unconditionally threaten the customer relationship.

  17. Evaluation of heat transfer enhancement in air-heating collectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mattox, D. L.

    1979-06-01

    The present research effort was initiated for the purpose of increasing the thermal efficiency of air heating solar collectors through identification and development of optimum design and operation criteria for solar absorber-to-air heat exchangers. Initially this effort took the form of a solar collector systems analysis to evaluate the impact of various techniques for enhancing the heat transfer between the absorber and air stream on overall thermal performance of the entire solar collector. This systems analysis resulted in the selection of solar collector designs providing ducted cooling air on the absorber shaded side as a base line. A transient heat transfer analysis of a complete solar air heating collector was used to demonstrate that an optimum absorber-to-air heat exchanger design could be provided with several interrupted fin configurations. Additional analyses were performed to establish that the maximum solar collector thermal performance to required pumping power was realized for a Reynolds number range of 1000 to 2000. This Reynolds number range was used to establish a theoretical design limit curve for maximum thermal performance versus required pumping power for all interrupted fin designs as published in the open literature. Heat and momentum transfer empirical relationships were defined for scaling the state-of-the-art high conductance fin designs identified from a compact configuration to the less compact designs needed for solar collectors.

  18. Evaluating the reliability of predictions made using environmental transfer models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    The development and application of mathematical models for predicting the consequences of releases of radionuclides into the environment from normal operations in the nuclear fuel cycle and in hypothetical accident conditions has increased dramatically in the last two decades. This Safety Practice publication has been prepared to provide guidance on the available methods for evaluating the reliability of environmental transfer model predictions. It provides a practical introduction of the subject and a particular emphasis has been given to worked examples in the text. It is intended to supplement existing IAEA publications on environmental assessment methodology. 60 refs, 17 figs, 12 tabs

  19. Oxidative phosphorylation revisited

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nath, Sunil; Villadsen, John

    2015-01-01

    The fundamentals of oxidative phosphorylation and photophosphorylation are revisited. New experimental data on the involvement of succinate and malate anions respectively in oxidative phosphorylation and photophosphorylation are presented. These new data offer a novel molecular mechanistic...

  20. Transfer of Skills Evaluation for Assembly and Maintenance Training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peveri Matteo

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available One of the research topics within the EU-project SKILLS1 was the training of Industrial Maintenance and Assembly (IMA tasks. The IMA demonstrator developed comprehends two different training platforms, one based on technologies of Virtual Reality (VR and the other one on Augmented Reality (AR. To qualify the efficiency of the developed training systems different studies have been conducted, followed by a final “Transfer of Skill” evaluation that has been performed by service technicians at the “SIDEL industrial training centre” in Parma. This evaluation included qualitative methods (feedback collection in questionnaires as well as quantitative methods (experiments with control groups. The results demonstrate that both platforms are useful and suitable training tools for IMA tasks, and that the AR training decreased the number of unsolved errors in the task.

  1. Evaluation of Geometrical Modulation Transfer Function in Optical Lens System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng-Mu Tsai

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents ray tracing algorithms to evaluate the geometrical modulation transfer function (GMTF of optical lens system. There are two kinds of ray tracings methods that can be applied to help simulate the point spread function (PSF in the image plane, for example, paraxial optics and real ray tracings. The paraxial optics ray tracing is used to calculate the first-order properties such as the effective focal length (EFL and the entrance pupil position through less cost of computation. However, the PSF could have a large tolerance by only using paraxial optics ray tracing for simulation. Some formulas for real ray tracing are applied in the sagittal and tangential line spread function (LSF. The algorithms are developed to demonstrate the simulation of LSF. Finally, the GMTF is evaluated after the fast Fourier transform (FFT of the LSF.

  2. Multidimensional single cell based STAT phosphorylation profiling identifies a novel biosignature for evaluation of systemic lupus erythematosus activity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinfang Huang

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Dysregulated cytokine action on immune cells plays an important role in the initiation and progress of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE, a complex autoimmune disease. Comprehensively quantifying basal STATs phosphorylation and their signaling response to cytokines should help us to better understand the etiology of SLE. METHODS: Phospho-specific flow cytometry was used to measure the basal STAT signaling activation in three immune cell types of peripheral-blood mononuclear cells from 20 lupus patients, 9 rheumatoid arthritis (RA patients and 13 healthy donors (HDs. A panel of 27 cytokines, including inflammatory cytokines, was measured with Bio-Plex™ Human Cytokine Assays. Serum Prolactin levels were measured with an immunoradiometric assay. STAT signaling responses to inflammatory cytokines (interferon α [IFNα], IFNγ, interleukin 2 [IL2], IL6, and IL10 were also monitored. RESULTS: We observed the basal activation of STAT3 in SLE T cells and monocytes, and the basal activation of STAT5 in SLE T cells and B cells. The SLE samples clustered into two main groups, which were associated with the SLE Disease Activity Index 2000, their erythrocyte sedimentation rate, and their hydroxychloroquine use. The phosphorylation of STAT5 in B cells was associated with cytokines IL2, granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF, and IFNγ, whereas serum prolactin affected STAT5 activation in T cells. The responses of STAT1, STAT3, and STAT5 to IFNα were greatly reduced in SLE T cells, B cells, and monocytes, except for the STAT1 response to IFNα in monocytes. The response of STAT3 to IL6 was reduced in SLE T cells. CONCLUSIONS: The basal activation of STATs signaling and reduced response to cytokines may be helpful us to identify the activity and severity of SLE.

  3. Transferability of economic evaluations of medical technologies: a new technology for orthopedic surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steuten, Lotte; Vallejo-Torres, Laura; Young, Terry; Buxton, Martin

    2008-05-01

    Transferring results of economic evaluations across countries or jurisdictions can potentially save scarce evaluation resources while helping to make market access and reimbursement decisions in a timely fashion. This article points out why transferring results of economic evaluations is particularly important in the field of medical technologies. It then provides an overview of factors that are previously identified in the literature as affecting transferability of economic evaluations, as well as methods for transferring results in a scientifically sound way. As the current literature almost exclusively relates to transferability of pharmacoeconomic evaluations, this article highlights those factors and methodologies that are of particular relevance to transferring medical technology assessments. Considering the state-of-the-art literature and a worked, real life, example of transferring an economic evaluation of a product used in orthopedic surgery, we provide recommendations for future work in this important area of medical technology assessment.

  4. An evaluation of analytical heat transfer area with various boiling heat transfer correlations in steam generator thermal sizing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, B. R.; Park, H. S.; Chung, D. M.; Baik, S. J.

    1999-01-01

    The computer program SAFE has been used to size and analyze the performance of a steam generator which has two types of heat transfer regions in Korean Standard Nuclear Power Plants (KSNP) and Korean Next Generation Reactor (KNGR) design. The SAFE code calculates the analytical boiling heat transfer area using the modified form of the saturated nucleate pool boiling correlation suggested by Rohsenow. The predicted heat transfer area in the boiling region is multiplied by a constant to obtain a final analytical heat transfer area. The inclusion of the multiplier in the analytical calculation has some disadvantage of loss of complete correlation by the governing heat transfer equation. Several comparative analyses have been performed quantitatively to evaluate the possibility of removing the multiplier in the analytical calculation in the SAFE code. The evaluation shows that the boiling correlation and multiplier used in predicting the boiling region heat transfer area can be replaced with other correlations predicting nearly the same heat transfer area. The removal of multiplier included in the analytical calculation will facilitate a direct use of a set of concerned analytical sizing values that can be exactly correlated by the governing heat transfer equation. In addition this will provide more reasonable basis for the steam generator thermal sizing calculation and enhance the code usability without loss of any validity of the current sizing procedure. (author)

  5. Evaluation of knowledge transfer in an immersive virtual learning environment for the transportation community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-05-01

    Immersive Virtual Learning Environments (IVLEs) are extensively used in training, but few rigorous scientific investigations regarding the : transfer of learning have been conducted. Measurement of learning transfer through evaluative methods is key ...

  6. Evaluating the Quality of Transfer versus Nontransfer Accounting Principles Grades.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colley, J. R.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Using 1989-92 student records from three colleges accepting large numbers of transfers from junior schools into accounting, regression analyses compared grades of transfer and nontransfer students. Quality of accounting principle grades of transfer students was not equivalent to that of nontransfer students. (SK)

  7. Evaluation of piping heat transfer, piping flow regimes, and steam generator heat transfer for the Semiscale Mod-1 isothermal tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    French, R.T.

    1975-08-01

    Selected experimental data pertinent to piping heat transfer, transient fluid flow regimes, and steam generator heat transfer obtained during the Semiscale Mod-1 isothermal blowdown test series (Test Series 1) are analyzed. The tests in this first test series were designed to provide counterparts to the LOFT nonnuclear experiments. The data from the Semiscale Mod-1 intact and broken loop piping are evaluated to determine the surface heat flux and average heat transfer coefficients effective during the blowdown transient and compared with well known heat transfer correlations used in the RELAP4 computer program. Flow regimes in horizontal pipe sections are calculated and compared with data obtained from horizontal and vertical densitometers and with an existing steady state flow map. Effects of steam generator heat transfer are evaluated quantitatively and qualitatively. The Semiscale Mod-1 data and the analysis presented in this report are valuable for evaluating the adequacy and improving the predictive capability of analytical models developed to predict system response to piping heat transfer, piping flow regimes, and steam generator heat transfer during a postulated loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA) in a pressurized water reactor (PWR). 16 references. (auth)

  8. Transfer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wahlgren, Bjarne; Aarkrog, Vibe

    Bogen er den første samlede indføring i transfer på dansk. Transfer kan anvendes som praksis-filosofikum. Den giver en systematisk indsigt til den studerende, der spørger: Hvordan kan teoretisk viden bruges til at reflektere over handlinger i situationer, der passer til min fremtidige arbejdsplads?...

  9. Evaluation of heat transfer characteristics of a sphere-packed pipe for Flibe blanket

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanabe, Atsushi; Ebara, Shinji; Sagara, Akio; Hashizume, Hidetoshi

    2013-01-01

    A Flibe blanket has been proposed to be used in FFHR. Since Flibe has poor heat transfer performance, heat transfer promoter is required, and a sphere-packed pipe (SPP) has been proposed to enhance the heat transfer performance in the Flibe blanket. In this paper, the fluid flow and heat transfer characteristics in the SPP is evaluated numerically using a k–ε turbulent model for the flow field and an algebraic model for the thermal field. As a result, it was shown that bypass flows in the SPP play a significant role in heat transfer. Also it is thought that the turbulent energy can strongly affect heat transfer performance

  10. Evaluating knowledge transfer practices among construction organization in Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaidi, Mohd Azian; Baharuddin, Mohd Nurfaisal; Bahardin, Nur Fadhilah; Yasin, Mohd Fadzil Mat; Nawi, Mohd Nasrun Mohd; Deraman, Rafikullah

    2016-08-01

    The aims of this paper is to identify a key dimension of knowledge transfer component to improve construction organization performance. It investigates the effectiveness of present knowledge transfer practices currently adopted by the Malaysian construction organizations and examines the relationship between knowledge transfer factors and organizational factors. A survey among 151 respondents including a different contractor registration grade was employed for the study. The survey shows that a seven-teen (17) factors known as creating shared awareness for information sharing, communication, personal skills,individual attitude,training, organizational culture, information technology,motivation, monitoring and supervision, service quality,information accessibility, information supply, socialization process,knowledge tools, coaching and monitoring, staff briefing and information sharing were identify as a key dimension for knowledge transfer success. This finding suggest that through improvement of each factor, the recognition of the whole strategic knowledge transfer process can be increase thus helping to strengthen the Malaysian construction organization for competitive advantages.

  11. Selective Sensing of Tyrosine Phosphorylation in Peptides Using Terbium(III Complexes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Sumaoka

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Phosphorylation of tyrosine residues in proteins, as well as their dephosphorylation, is closely related to various diseases. However, this phosphorylation is usually accompanied by more abundant phosphorylation of serine and threonine residues in the proteins and covers only 0.05% of the total phosphorylation. Accordingly, highly selective detection of phosphorylated tyrosine in proteins is an urgent subject. In this review, recent developments in this field are described. Monomeric and binuclear TbIII complexes, which emit notable luminescence only in the presence of phosphotyrosine (pTyr, have been developed. There, the benzene ring of pTyr functions as an antenna and transfers its photoexcitation energy to the TbIII ion as the emission center. Even in the coexistence of phosphoserine (pSer and phosphothreonine (pThr, pTyr can be efficintly detected with high selectivity. Simply by adding these TbIII complexes to the solutions, phosphorylation of tyrosine in peptides by protein tyrosine kinases and dephosphorylation by protein tyrosine phosphatases can be successfully visualized in a real-time fashion. Furthermore, the activities of various inhibitors on these enzymes are quantitatively evaluated, indicating a strong potential of the method for efficient screening of eminent inhibitors from a number of candidates.

  12. Standard protocol for evaluation of environmental transfer factors around NPP sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hegde, A.G.; Verma, P.C.; Rao, D.D.

    2009-01-01

    This document presents the standard procedures for evaluation of site specific environmental transfer factors around NPP sites. The scope of this document is to provide standard protocol to be followed for evaluation of environmental transfer factors around NPP sites. The studies on transfer factors are being carried out at various NPP sites under DAE-BRNS projects for evaluation of site specific transfer factors for radionuclides released from power plants. This document contains a common methodology in terms of sampling, processing, measurements and analysis of elemental/radionuclides, while keeping the site specific requirements also in place. (author)

  13. Quality evaluation of mammography systems: identification of the best region by the transfer function method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schiabel, H.; Frere, A.F.

    1992-01-01

    The evaluation of mammography systems behaviour, using the conventional analysis method of transfer function is discussed. An investigation for evaluating the behaviour of modulation transfer function on several direction of orifices in the radiation field is also presented. (C.G.C.)

  14. Improving NASA's technology transfer process through increased screening and evaluation in the information dissemination program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laepple, H.

    1979-01-01

    The current status of NASA's technology transfer system can be improved if the technology transfer process is better understood. This understanding will only be gained if a detailed knowledge about factors generally influencing technology transfer is developed, and particularly those factors affecting technology transfer from government R and D agencies to industry. Secondary utilization of aerospace technology is made more difficult because it depends on a transfer process which crosses established organizational lines of authority and which is outside well understood patterns of technical applications. In the absence of a sound theory about technology transfer and because of the limited capability of government agencies to explore industry's needs, a team approach to screening and evaluation of NASA generated technologies is proposed which calls for NASA, and other organizations of the private and public sectors which influence the transfer of NASA generated technology, to participate in a screening and evaluation process to determine the commercial feasibility of a wide range of technical applications.

  15. TRANSFER

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper reports on further studies on long range energy transfer between curcumine as donor and another thiazine dye, thionine, which is closely related to methylene blue as energy harvester (Figure 1). Since thionine is known to have a higher quantum yield of singlet oxygen sensitization than methylene blue [8], it is ...

  16. Evaluating transfer capability of economic-driven power markets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xu, Zhao

    2007-01-01

    in the present economic-driven electricity markets. A mathematical model of a multi-objective optimization (MOOP) technique has been adopted and presented here for transfer capability studies; which can be helpful for power system planning and operation procedures. The newly-developed algorithm is being tested......The on-going restructuring of electric power utilities poses great challenges for power system engineers to plan and operate power systems as economical and reliable as possible. This paper discusses an important issue, which has been usually neglected, when quantifying active power transfer levels...

  17. Evaluation of Hose in Hose Transfer Line Service Life for Hanford's Interim Stabilization Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    TORRES, T.D.

    2000-01-01

    RPP-6153, Engineering Task Plan for Hose-in-Hose Transfer System for the Interim Stabilization Program, defines the programmatic goals, functional requirements, and technical criteria for the development and subsequent installation of transfer line equipment to support Hanford's Interim Stabilization Program. RPP-6028, Specification for Hose in Hose Transfer Lines for Hanford's Interim Stabilization Program, has been issued to define the specific requirements for the design, manufacture, and verification of transfer line assemblies for specific waste transfer applications. Included in RPP-6028 are tables defining the chemical constituents of concern to which transfer lines will be exposed. Current Interim Stabilization Program planning forecasts that the at-grade transfer lines will be required to convey pumpable waste for as much as three years after commissioning. Prudent engineering dictates that the equipment placed in service have a working life in excess of this forecasted time period, with some margin to allow for future adjustments to the planned schedule. This document evaluates the effective service life of the Hose-in-Hose Transfer Lines, based on information submitted by the manufacturer and published literature. The effective service life of transfer line assemblies is a function of several factors. Foremost among these are process fluid characteristics, ambient environmental conditions, and the manufacturer's stated shelf life. This evaluation examines the manufacturer's certification of shelf life, the manufacturer's certifications of chemical compatibility with waste, and published literature on the effects of exposure to ionizing radiation on the mechanical properties of elastomeric materials to evaluate transfer line service life

  18. Evaluation of intramolecular charge transfer state of 4-N, N ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. Intramolecular charge transfer of 4-N,N-dimethylamino cinnamaldehyde (DMACA) in vacuum and in five different aprotic solvents has been studied by using time-dependent density functional theory. (TDDFT). Polarizable continuum model (PCM) was employed to consider solvent–solute interactions. The potential ...

  19. Evaluation of heat transfer correlations for HCCI engine modeling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Soyhan, H.S.; Yasar, H.; Walmsley, H.; Head, B.; Kalghatgi, G.T.; Sorusbay, C.

    2009-01-01

    Combustion in HCCI engines is a controlled auto-ignition of well-mixed fuel, air and residual gas. The thermal conditions of the combustion chamber are governed by chemical kinetics strongly coupled with heat transfer from the hot gas to the walls. The heat losses have a critical effect on HCCI

  20. Evaluation of surge transferred overvoltages in distribution transformers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Popov, M.; Sluis, van der L.; Smeets, R.P.P.

    2008-01-01

    The paper presents an analysis of very fast-transient overvoltages that occur because of the capacitive surge transfer from the high-voltage (HV) transformer winding to the low-voltage (LV) transformer winding. The study is done on a 6.6 kV single-phase test transformer. By applying a pulse with a

  1. Chemoselective synthesis and analysis of naturally occurring phosphorylated cysteine peptides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertran-Vicente, Jordi; Penkert, Martin; Nieto-Garcia, Olaia; Jeckelmann, Jean-Marc; Schmieder, Peter; Krause, Eberhard; Hackenberger, Christian P. R.

    2016-09-01

    In contrast to protein O-phosphorylation, studying the function of the less frequent N- and S-phosphorylation events have lagged behind because they have chemical features that prevent their manipulation through standard synthetic and analytical methods. Here we report on the development of a chemoselective synthetic method to phosphorylate Cys side-chains in unprotected peptides. This approach makes use of a reaction between nucleophilic phosphites and electrophilic disulfides accessible by standard methods. We achieve the stereochemically defined phosphorylation of a Cys residue and verify the modification using electron-transfer higher-energy dissociation (EThcD) mass spectrometry. To demonstrate the use of the approach in resolving biological questions, we identify an endogenous Cys phosphorylation site in IICBGlc, which is known to be involved in the carbohydrate uptake from the bacterial phosphotransferase system (PTS). This new chemical and analytical approach finally allows further investigating the functions and significance of Cys phosphorylation in a wide range of crucial cellular processes.

  2. Performance evaluation of packet video transfer over local area networks

    OpenAIRE

    Lu, Jie

    1993-01-01

    This research investigates the implementation and performance of packet video transfer over local area networks. A network architecture is defined for packet video such that most of the processing is performed by the higher layers of the Open Systems Interconnection (OSI) reference model, while the lower layers provide real-time services. Implementation methods are discussed for coding schemes, including data compression, the network interface unit, and the underlying local are...

  3. Evaluation of the effectiveness of training in the Spanish Public Administration: transfer to the job

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Aurelio Alonso García

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper shows the results of the evaluation of training transfer in the Spanish Public Administration with the aim of identifying the factors that influence it.We analyzed 1475 answers and 69 courses organized by the Spanish Public Administration during the first semester of 2016. Direct transfer was evaluated through the Deferred Transfer Scale (CdE; Pineda, Quesada y Ciraso, 2011 while indirect transfer was evaluated through the Training Transfer Factors Scale (FET; Pineda, Quesada y Ciraso, 2013.The results show that trainee factors, organization factors, the orientation towards job requirements and the creation of a professional community all have a positive correlation with training transfer. However the duration of the training, the number of trainees and the number of instructors do not have a correlation with transfer.The time that laps until the trainees finally apply what they learnt in the training has an inverse correlation to transfer.The most important factor when it comes to predicting training transfer is the orientation towards job requirements.

  4. HEAT TRANSFER EVALUATION OF HFC-236EA WITH HIGH PERFORMANCE ENHANCED TUBES IN CONDENSATION AND EVAPORATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report gives results of an evaluation of the heat transfer performance of pure hydrofluorocarbon (HFC)-236ea for high performance enhanced tubes which had not been previously used in Navy shipboard chillers. Shell-side heat transfer coefficient data are presented for condensa...

  5. Evaluation of technology transfer on collider quadrupole manufacture at LBL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boeer, J.; Fechteler, H.; Moryson, H.; Sommer, F.; Grueneberg, H.; Kreutz, R.; Krischel, D.; Bensiek, W.; Ryan, B.

    1992-01-01

    As part of the contract on the collider quadruple magnets a technology transfer to Siemens Power Generation Group (KWU) was performed at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, Berkeley in September 1991. One inner and outer 1 m long coil each should be manufactured under the surveillance of LBL staff to become familiar with the coil production facilities available at LBL. In addition, KWU had the possibility to observe the production process of 5 m quadruple coils. The work is successfully completed and provided additional information for the further hardware operations at the Siemens site

  6. Evaluation of correlations of flow boiling heat transfer of R22 in horizontal channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Zhanru; Fang, Xiande; Li, Dingkun

    2013-01-01

    The calculation of two-phase flow boiling heat transfer of R22 in channels is required in a variety of applications, such as chemical process cooling systems, refrigeration, and air conditioning. A number of correlations for flow boiling heat transfer in channels have been proposed. This work evaluates the existing correlations for flow boiling heat transfer coefficient with 1669 experimental data points of flow boiling heat transfer of R22 collected from 18 published papers. The top two correlations for R22 are those of Liu and Winterton (1991) and Fang (2013), with the mean absolute deviation of 32.7% and 32.8%, respectively. More studies should be carried out to develop better ones. Effects of channel dimension and vapor quality on heat transfer are analyzed, and the results provide valuable information for further research in the correlation of two-phase flow boiling heat transfer of R22 in channels.

  7. Evaluation of ceiling lifts: transfer time, patient comfort and staff perceptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alamgir, Hasanat; Li, Olivia Wei; Yu, Shicheng; Gorman, Erin; Fast, Catherine; Kidd, Catherine

    2009-09-01

    Mechanical lifting devices have been developed to reduce healthcare worker injuries related to patient handling. The purpose of this study was to evaluate ceiling lifts in comparison to floor lifts based on transfer time, patient comfort and staff perceptions in three long-term care facilities with varying ceiling lift coverage. The time required to transfer or reposition patients along with patient comfort levels were recorded for 119 transfers. Transfers performed with ceiling lifts required on average less time (bed to chair transfers: 156.9 seconds for ceiling lift, 273.6 seconds for floor lift) and were found to be more comfortable for patients. In the three facilities, 143 healthcare workers were surveyed on their perceptions of patient handling tasks and equipment. For both transferring and repositioning tasks, staff preferred to use ceiling lifts and also found them to be less physically demanding. Further investigation is needed on repositioning tasks to ensure safe practice.

  8. Conditional cash transfer impact evaluation: an evaluation of the costa rican secondary education program Avancemos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine Mata

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper evaluates the impact of Avancemos, a conditional cash transfer program in Costa Rica. Specifically, this paper measures the impact on student desertion for the first year of the program using a panel created with the Household Surveys for Multiple Purposes for the years 2006 and 2007, elaborated by the National Institute of Statistics and Census. Using econometric tools and quasi-experimental methodologies such as Propensity Score Matching and difference-in-differences, we find a positive impact associated to the program for desertion and reinsertion. Specifically, for between 10 and 16 percent of the students who did not leave high school, it was only due to Avancemos, meaning that without the program they would have abandoned their studies. This is why we can conclude that Avancemos had a positive impact according to its planned objectives of preventing dropouts and ensuring their reinsertion.

  9. The educational evaluation in Brazil: from the transfer cultural to emancipatory evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adolfo Ignacio Calderón

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses the historical trajectory of educational assessment in the Brazilian academic scenario, pointing out the influence of American literature on the Brazilian scientific production, its models break as well as the efforts in order to construct a theory and a practical assessment applied to the Brazilian reality. It supports the hypothesis that educational evaluation is still an area of knowledge that is in process of setting up and strengthening in the country, the last two decades enabled them to overcome the named «cultural transfer» in the field of scientific production, allowing the constitution and hegemony of an approach grounded on a emancipatory political-pedagogical character in the scientific community

  10. Experimental evaluation of heat transfer coefficients between radiant ceiling and room

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Causone, Francesco; Corgnati, Stefano P.; Filippi, Marco

    2009-01-01

    The heat transfer coefficients between radiant surfaces and room are influenced by several parameters: surfaces temperature distributions, internal gains, air movements. The aim of this paper is to evaluate the heat transfer coefficients between radiant ceiling and room in typical conditions...... of occupancy of an office or residential building. Internal gains were therefore simulated using heated cylinders and heat losses using cooled surfaces. Evaluations were developed by means of experimental tests in an environmental chamber. Heat transfer coefficient may be expressed separately for radiation...

  11. Evaluation method for two-phase flow and heat transfer in a feed-water heater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takamori, Kazuhide; Minato, Akihiko

    1993-01-01

    A multidimensional analysis code for two-phase flow using a two-fluid model was improved by taking into consideration the condensation heat transfer, film thickness, and film velocity, in order to develop an evaluation method for two-phase flow and heat transfer in a feed-water heater. The following results were obtained by a two-dimensional analysis of a feed-water heater for a power plant. (1) In the model, the film flowed downward in laminar flow due to gravity, with droplet entrainment and deposition. For evaluation of the film thickness, Fujii's equation was used in order to account for forced convection of steam flow. (2) Based on the former experimental data, the droplet deposition coefficient and droplet entrainment rate of liquid film were determined. When the ratio at which the liquid film directly flowed from an upper heat transfer tube to a lower heat transfer tube was 0.7, the calculated total heat transfer rate agreed with the measured value of 130 MW. (3) At the upper region of a heat transfer tube bundle where film thickness was thin, and at the outer region of a heat transfer tube bundle where steam velocity was high, the heat transfer rate was large. (author)

  12. Development of design evaluation tools for the JSFR fuel transfer pot

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chikazawa, Yoshitaka, E-mail: chikazawa.yoshitaka@jaea.go.jp [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, 4002 Narita, Oarai, Higashi-ibaraki-gun, Ibaraki 311-1393 (Japan); Hirata, Shingo [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, 4002 Narita, Oarai, Higashi-ibaraki-gun, Ibaraki 311-1393 (Japan); Obata, Hiroyuki [Japan Atomic Power Company Ltd., 1-1, Mitoshiro-chyo, Kanda, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 101-0053 (Japan)

    2014-07-01

    Highlights: • JSFR is going to adopt an advanced fuel handling system. • A three dimensional analysis model for heat transfer evaluation of the JSFR fuel transfer pot has been developed. • The heat transfer models inside and outside the pot have been validated by reference experiments. • For a simpler design tool, a two dimensional analysis model has been developed. - Abstract: JSFR is going to adopt an advanced fuel handling system. As for ex-vessel spent fuel handling, a transfer pot with two fuel subassembly positions has been developed so as to shorten refueling period increasing plant availability. The pot is required to provide sufficient cooling capability in case of transportation malfunction. In this study, a three dimensional analysis model for heat transfer evaluation of the JSFR fuel transfer pot has been developed. The heat transfer models inside and outside the pot have been validated by reference experiments. Using the developed three-dimensional model, the JSFR fuel transfer pot has been analyzed. For a simpler design tool, a two dimensional analysis model has been developed. Comparison of the three and two dimensional analyses shows that two dimensional analyses could estimate pot cooling performance conservatively.

  13. Dissipation, transfer and safety evaluation of emamectin benzoate in tea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Li; Luo, Fengjian; Zhang, Xinzhong; Jiang, Yaping; Lou, Zhengyun; Chen, Zongmao

    2016-07-01

    The dissipation and residue of emamectin benzoate in tea leaves and the residue transfer from tea leaves to tea brew were investigated by modified QuEChERS (quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged and safe) combined with ultra performance liquid chromatography tandem mass (UPLC-MS/MS). The average recoveries ranged 85.3-101.3% with relative standard deviation (RSD) less than 15%. The limits of quantification (LOQ) were 0.005mgkg(-1) in tea leaves and 0.0004mgL(-1) in brew. Emamectin benzoate dissipated rapidly in tea with half-life (t1/2) of 1.0-1.3days. The terminal residues of emamectin benzoate were less than 0.062mgkg(-1). The leaching rate of emamectin benzoate from freshly-made tea to brew was emamectin benzoate at the recommended dosage was negligible to humans depending on risk quotient (RQ) value, that was lower than 1 significantly. This study could provide guidance for the safe use of emamectin benzoate and serve as a reference for the establishment of maximum residue limits (MRLs) in China. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  14. About phosphorylation of lappaconitine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burdelnaya, E.V.; Turmukhambetov, A.Zh.

    2005-01-01

    In the article chemical modifications of alkaloid lappaconitine are investigated. It was shown that synthesis of the phosphorylated derivatives are the ways to create new biologically active compounds. Interaction of lappaconitine with phosphorus pentachloride was used to obtain new phosphoric derivatives of alkaloid. The composition and structure of the new phosphorus-containing compounds were confirmed by elemental analysis: IR, UV and 13 C, 1 H, 31 P NMR -spectroscopy

  15. Evaluation of biolistic gene transfer methods in vivo using non-invasive bioluminescent imaging techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniell Henry

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Gene therapy continues to hold great potential for treating many different types of disease and dysfunction. Safe and efficient techniques for gene transfer and expression in vivo are needed to enable gene therapeutic strategies to be effective in patients. Currently, the most commonly used methods employ replication-defective viral vectors for gene transfer, while physical gene transfer methods such as biolistic-mediated ("gene-gun" delivery to target tissues have not been as extensively explored. In the present study, we evaluated the efficacy of biolistic gene transfer techniques in vivo using non-invasive bioluminescent imaging (BLI methods. Results Plasmid DNA carrying the firefly luciferase (LUC reporter gene under the control of the human Cytomegalovirus (CMV promoter/enhancer was transfected into mouse skin and liver using biolistic methods. The plasmids were coupled to gold microspheres (1 μm diameter using different DNA Loading Ratios (DLRs, and "shot" into target tissues using a helium-driven gene gun. The optimal DLR was found to be in the range of 4-10. Bioluminescence was measured using an In Vivo Imaging System (IVIS-50 at various time-points following transfer. Biolistic gene transfer to mouse skin produced peak reporter gene expression one day after transfer. Expression remained detectable through four days, but declined to undetectable levels by six days following gene transfer. Maximum depth of tissue penetration following biolistic transfer to abdominal skin was 200-300 μm. Similarly, biolistic gene transfer to mouse liver in vivo also produced peak early expression followed by a decline over time. In contrast to skin, however, liver expression of the reporter gene was relatively stable 4-8 days post-biolistic gene transfer, and remained detectable for nearly two weeks. Conclusions The use of bioluminescence imaging techniques enabled efficient evaluation of reporter gene expression in vivo. Our results

  16. Distribution pattern of histone H3 phosphorylation at serine 10

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    We evaluated the pattern of H3 phosphorylation using immunodetection during mitosis and meiosis in both diploid and tetraploid genotypes of Brachiaria species. Results revealed differences in chromosome distribution of H3S10ph when mitosis and meiosis were compared. Whole chromosomes were phosphorylated ...

  17. Studies on the effect of phosphorylation on the dipeptides actions by radiation chemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang Manwei; Wang Zhiyong; Chu Gaosheng; Zhang Zhicheng [Univ. of Science and Technology of China, Hefei (China)

    2000-03-01

    The electron transfer within several dipeptides and their corresponding phosphorylated dipeptides was studied by electron pulse radiolysis, laser photolysis and electron spin resonance. The electron transfer rate constants were calculated by data modeling and kinetic analysis. It is found that the phosphoryl group in peptides participates the electron transfer process, and reduces the electron transfer rate in all cases. These are very important in life science since every biological process refers to the phosphorylation and nonphosphorylation of protein. It may be concerned in personalities and individualities of the personae. (author)

  18. Studies on the effect of phosphorylation on the dipeptides actions by radiation chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Manwei; Wang Zhiyong; Chu Gaosheng; Zhang Zhicheng

    2000-01-01

    The electron transfer within several dipeptides and their corresponding phosphorylated dipeptides was studied by electron pulse radiolysis, laser photolysis and electron spin resonance. The electron transfer rate constants were calculated by data modeling and kinetic analysis. It is found that the phosphoryl group in peptides participates the electron transfer process, and reduces the electron transfer rate in all cases. These are very important in life science since every biological process refers to the phosphorylation and nonphosphorylation of protein. It may be concerned in personalities and individualities of the personae. (author)

  19. Study on Evaluation Indicators System of Crowd Management for Transfer Stations Based on Pedestrian Simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guanghou Zhang

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Improving safety and convenience of transfer is one of the most vital tasks in subway system planning, design and operation management. Because of complicated space layout and crowded pedestrian, crowd control is a big challenge for management of transfer stations. Thus, a quantitative evaluation should be done before improvement measures are carried out. Literature review showed that present evaluation indicators about crowd management in subway system were all based on fixed value or experience. Dynamic effect caused by pedestrian congestion and various facility combination cannot be represented based on these indicators. Thus, in this paper, based on the pedestrian simulation tool, dynamic evaluation indicators system of crowd management was established from the point of safety, cost-effectiveness and comfort. In order to aid decision makers to identify the most appropriate scenario to improve the effectiveness of crowd management, Matter-Element Analysis (MEA was used to rate different scenarios. A pedestrian simulation model of a designing intermodal transfer station was built and four different scenarios were tested to demonstrate how to use this indicators system. Simulation results were evaluated based on the dynamic indicators system and MEA. The application results show that the dynamic evaluation indicators system is operational and can reflect level of the crowd management in transfer station comprehensively and precisely.

  20. Evaluating the relationship between amyloid-β and α-synuclein phosphorylated at Ser129 in dementia with Lewy bodies and Parkinson’s disease

    OpenAIRE

    Swirski, Marta; Miners, J Scott; de Silva, Rohan; Lashley, Tammaryn; Ling, Helen; Holton, Janice; Revesz, Tamas; Love, Seth

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Lewy body and Alzheimer-type pathologies often co-exist. Several studies suggest a synergistic relationship between amyloid-β (Aβ) and α-synuclein (α-syn) accumulation. We have explored the relationship between Aβ accumulation and the phosphorylation of α-syn at serine-129 (pSer129 α-syn), in post-mortem human brain tissue and in SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells transfected to overexpress human α-syn. Methods We measured levels of Aβ40, Aβ42, α-syn and pSer129 α-syn by sandwich enzyme...

  1. A STRUCTURAL INTEGRITY EVALUATION OF THE TANK FARM WASTE TRANSFER SYSTEM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiersma, B.

    2006-03-09

    Radioactive supernate, salt, and/or sludge wastes (i.e., high level wastes) are confined in 49 underground storage tanks at the Savannah River Site (SRS). The waste is transported between tanks within and between the F and H area tank farms and other facilities on site via underground and a limited number of aboveground transfer lines. The Department of Energy - Savannah River Operations Office (DOE-SR) performed a comprehensive assessment of the structural integrity program for the Tank Farm waste transfer system at the SRS. This document addresses the following issues raised during the DOE assessment: (1) Inspections of failed or replaced transfer lines indicated that the wall thickness of some core and jacket piping is less than nominal; (2) No corrosion allowance is utilized in the transfer line structural qualification calculations. No basis for neglecting corrosion was provided in the calculations; (3) Wall loss due to erosion is not addressed in the transfer line structural qualification calculations; and (4) No basis is provided for neglecting intergranular stress corrosion cracking in the transfer line structural qualification calculations. The common theme in most of these issues is the need to assess the potential for occurrence of material degradation of the transfer line piping. The approach used to resolve these issues involved: (1) Review the design and specifications utilized to construct and fabricate the piping system; (2) Review degradation mechanisms for stainless steel and carbon steel and determine their relevance to the transfer line piping; (3) Review the transfer piping inspection data; (4) Life estimation calculations for the transfer lines; and (5) A Fitness-For-Service evaluation for one of the transfer line jackets. The evaluation concluded that the transfer line system piping has performed well for over fifty years. Although there have been instances of failures of the stainless steel core pipe during off-normal service, no significant

  2. CFD evaluation of turbulence model on heat transfer in 5 × 5 rod bundles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chao Yanmeng; Yang Lixin; Zhang Yuxiang; Pang Zhengzheng

    2014-01-01

    Different turbulence models may lead to different results when analyzing fuel assemblies using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) method. In this paper, a 5 × 5 rod bundle model was built to analyze the relationship between flow and heat transfer. The pressure drop and Nu were calculated using ANSYS CFX. Three factors evaluating swirling flow and cross-flow were used to analyze the inner relationship between flow field and heat transfer. The performances of various turbulence models, including eddy viscosity model and Reynold stress model, were evaluated. The comparison between numerical and similar experimental results indicates that Reynold stress model is more appropriate for modeling flow features and heat transfer in spacer grids discussed in this paper. (authors)

  3. Properties of phosphorylated thymidylate synthase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frączyk, Tomasz; Ruman, Tomasz; Wilk, Piotr

    2015-01-01

    by (31)P NMR to be modified only on histidine residues, like potassium phosphoramidate (KPA)-phosphorylated TS proteins. NanoLC-MS/MS, enabling the use of CID and ETD peptide fragmentation methods, identified several phosphohistidine residues, but certain phosphoserine and phosphothreonine residues were...... also implicated. Molecular dynamics studies, based on the mouse TS crystal structure, allowed one to assess potential of several phosphorylated histidine residues to affect catalytic activity, the effect being phosphorylation site dependent....

  4. HEAT TRANSFER EVALUATION OF HFC-236FA IN CONDENSATION AND EVAPORATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report gives results of an evaluation of the shell-side heat transfer performance of hydrofluorocarbon (HFC)-236fa, which is considered to be a potential substitute for chlorofluorocarbon (CFC)-114 in Navy shipboard chillers, for both conventional finned [1024- and 1575-fpm (...

  5. HEAT TRANSFER EVALUATION OF HFC-236EA AND CFC-114 IN CONDENSATION AND EVAPORATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report gives results of a heat transfer evaluation of the refrigerants hexafluoropropane (HFC-236ea) and 1,1,2,2-dichloro-tetrafluoroethane (CFC-114). (NOTE: With the mandatory phase-out of chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), as dictated by the Montreal Protocol and Clean Air Act Ame...

  6. Evaluating user preferences for video transfer methods from a mobile device to a TV screen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fleury, Alexandre; Pedersen, Jakob Schou; Larsen, Lars Bo

    2013-01-01

    This article reports on the evaluation of four methods for transferring video content from a mobile device to a fixed television. The methods have been investigated in a Wizard-of-Oz approach through two consecutive studies. The first experiment aimed at collecting general opinions toward such a ...

  7. Impact evaluation for University-Business Cooperation and Technology Transfer in higher education systems: cluster analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomoe Daniela Hamanaka Gusberti

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Higher education systems evolved in recent decades. Universities must not only provide society with capable professionals but also act in the market for technologies, knowledge, and ideas to promote technological development. This paper discusses the motivational performance evaluation system for technology transfer process, specifically the patterns’ evaluation of academic units considering micro-cultures and idiosyncrasies’ analysis, in the academic context of autonomy. Based on action research, the existing performance evaluation system was assessed, and multivariate cluster analysis was proposed and tested as a method to enable micro cultures’ identification and evaluation. The analysis proposed enabled a tool for reflexive discussion regarding the effectiveness of the institutional innovation system in academic units and Engineering Education, and its implications for social and technological development of industry and society enabled action proposals for improvement in the university’s technology transfer management process.

  8. Evaluating parameterizations of aerodynamic resistance to heat transfer using field measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaomin Liu

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Parameterizations of aerodynamic resistance to heat and water transfer have a significant impact on the accuracy of models of land – atmosphere interactions and of estimated surface fluxes using spectro-radiometric data collected from aircrafts and satellites. We have used measurements from an eddy correlation system to derive the aerodynamic resistance to heat transfer over a bare soil surface as well as over a maize canopy. Diurnal variations of aerodynamic resistance have been analyzed. The results showed that the diurnal variation of aerodynamic resistance during daytime (07:00 h–18:00 h was significant for both the bare soil surface and the maize canopy although the range of variation was limited. Based on the measurements made by the eddy correlation system, a comprehensive evaluation of eight popularly used parameterization schemes of aerodynamic resistance was carried out. The roughness length for heat transfer is a crucial parameter in the estimation of aerodynamic resistance to heat transfer and can neither be taken as a constant nor be neglected. Comparing with the measurements, the parameterizations by Choudhury et al. (1986, Viney (1991, Yang et al. (2001 and the modified forms of Verma et al. (1976 and Mahrt and Ek (1984 by inclusion of roughness length for heat transfer gave good agreements with the measurements, while the parameterizations by Hatfield et al. (1983 and Xie (1988 showed larger errors even though the roughness length for heat transfer has been taken into account.

  9. Ergonomic evaluation of slide boards used by home care aides to assist client transfers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Chuan; Buchholz, Bryan; Quinn, Margaret; Punnett, Laura; Galligan, Catherine; Gore, Rebecca

    2018-07-01

    Home care aides risk musculoskeletal injury because they lift and move clients; the body weight of most adults exceeds the NIOSH recommended limit for lifting. Methods to reduce manual patient lifting in institutional settings are often technically or economically infeasible in home care. Our goal was to identify suitable, safe, low-technology transfer devices for home care use. Sixteen experienced home care aides performed client transfers from wheelchair to bed (upward) and bed to wheelchair (downward) in a simulated home care environment (laboratory), using four different slide boards and by hand without a device. Aides' hand forces were measured during client transfers; aides also evaluated usability of each board. Hand forces exerted while using slide boards were mostly lower than in manual transfer, and forces were lower in downward versus upward transfers. Aides judged a board with a sliding mechanism easier to use than boards without a sliding mechanism. Practitioner Summary: This paper provides quantitative biomechanical measurements showing that slide boards reduced the hand forces needed by home care aides to transfer clients from bed to wheel chair and vice versa, compared to manual lifting. Using a semi-quantitative usability survey, aides identified boards with a sliding mechanism easiest to use.

  10. Evaluation of data on the transfer of radionuclides in the food chain post-Chernobyl action

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Desmet, G.; Sinnaeve, J.

    1992-01-01

    During the accident at Chernobyl large amounts of radioactive materials were released into the atmosphere and distributed all over Europe. Depending on the trajectories of the radioactive clouds and the large variation of rainfall during its passage through, large local and regional differences in deposition were observed, leading to an enhanced contamination of soil and plants. Consequently, the radionuclides entered the foodchain by several pathways. The radiological consequences of radionuclides discharged from nuclear installations usually are evaluated using doses assessment models. In these models the passage from one compartment into another, e.g. the transfer from soil into plants, from plants into milk or meat is defined by transfer factors, which are influenced by various parameters. From the long term point of view only the long-lived nuclides like 134/137 Cs are important for long term radiation risk assessment after the Chernobyl accident. In this accident the release of radioactive materials took place over a longer time period and varied in rate and radionuclide composition. Some regions of Europe were contaminated several times. To improve radiation dose prediction the CEC has initiated the Post-Chernobyl radiation protection programme 'Evaluation of Data on the Transfer of Radionuclides in the Foodchain' including five main items to be studied by different laboratories: 1. Impact of chemical speciation on the radionuclide transfer in terrestrial ecosystems after a core disruptive accident, especially in soils and plants. 2. Transfer paths of radionuclides in seminatural and natural ecosystems and their role in contaminating the foodchain. 3. Validation of soil-to-plant parameters. 4. Transfer of radionuclides to animals and animal products. 5. Transfer paths in aquatic systems and their importance for the contamination of the foodchain

  11. Bi-Level Optimization for Available Transfer Capability Evaluation in Deregulated Electricity Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beibei Wang

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Available transfer capability (ATC is the transfer capability remaining in the physical transmission network for further commercial activity over and above already committed uses which needs to be posted in the electricity market to facilitate competition. ATC evaluation is a complicated task including the determination of total transfer capability (TTC and existing transfer capability (ETC. In the deregulated electricity market, ETC is decided by the independent system operator’s (ISO’s economic dispatch (ED. TTC can then be obtained by a continuation power flow (CPF method or by an optimal power flow (OPF method, based on the given ED solutions as well as the ETC. In this paper, a bi-level optimization framework for the ATC evaluation is proposed in which ATC results can be obtained simultaneously with the ED and ETC results in the deregulated electricity market. In this bi-level optimization model, ATC evaluation is formulated as the upper level problem and the ISO’s ED is the lower level problem. The bi-level model is first converted to a mathematic program with equilibrium constraints (MPEC by recasting the lower level problem as its Karush-Kuhn-Tucher (KKT optimality condition. Then, the MPEC is transformed into a mixed-integer linear programming (MILP problem, which can be solved with the help of available optimization software. In addition, case studies on PJM 5-bus, IEEE 30-bus, and IEEE 118-bus systems are presented to demonstrate the proposed methodology.

  12. Hazard evaluation for transfer of waste from tank 241-SY-101 to tank 241-SY-102

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shultz, M.V.

    1999-01-01

    Tank 241-SY-101 waste level growth is an emergent, high priority issue. The purpose of this document is to record the hazards evaluation process and document potential hazardous conditions that could lead to the release of radiological and toxicological material from the proposed transfer of a limited quantity (approximately 100,000 gallons) of waste from Tank 241-SY-101 to Tank 241-SY-102. The results of the hazards evaluation were compared to the current Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) Basis for Interim Operation (HNF-SD-WM-BIO-001, 1998, Revision 1) to identify any hazardous conditions where Authorization Basis (AB) controls may not be sufficient or may not exist. Comparison to LA-UR-92-3196, A Safety Assessment for Proposed Pump Mixing Operations to Mitigate Episodic Gas Releases in Tank 241-SY-101, was also made in the case of transfer pump removal activities. Revision 1 of this document deletes hazardous conditions no longer applicable to the current waste transfer design and incorporates hazardous conditions related to the use of an above ground pump pit and overground transfer line. This document is not part of the AB and is not a vehicle for requesting authorization of the activity; it is only intended to provide information about the hazardous conditions associated with this activity. The AB Control Decision process will be used to determine the adequacy of controls and whether the proposed activity is within the AB. This hazard evaluation does not constitute an accident analysis

  13. A comprehensive method for evaluating precision of transfer alignment on a moving base

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Hongliang; Xu, Bo; Liu, Dezheng

    2017-09-01

    In this study, we propose the use of the Degree of Alignment (DOA) in engineering applications for evaluating the precision of and identifying the transfer alignment on a moving base. First, we derive the statistical formula on the basis of estimations. Next, we design a scheme for evaluating the transfer alignment on a moving base, for which the attitude error cannot be directly measured. Then, we build a mathematic estimation model and discuss Fixed Point Smoothing (FPS), Returns to Scale (RTS), Inverted Sequence Recursive Estimation (ISRE), and Kalman filter estimation methods, which can be used when evaluating alignment accuracy. Our theoretical calculations and simulated analyses show that the DOA reflects not only the alignment time and accuracy but also differences in the maneuver schemes, and is suitable for use as an integrated evaluation index. Furthermore, all four of these algorithms can be used to identify the transfer alignment and evaluate its accuracy. We recommend RTS in particular for engineering applications. Generalized DOAs should be calculated according to the tactical requirements.

  14. Multiple determinants of transfer of evaluative function after conditioning with free-operant schedules of reinforcement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dack, Charlotte; Reed, Phil; McHugh, Louise

    2010-11-01

    The aim of the four present experiments was to explore how different schedules of reinforcement influence schedule-induced behavior, their impact on evaluative ratings given to conditioned stimuli associated with each schedule through evaluative conditioning, and the transfer of these evaluations through derived stimulus networks. Experiment 1 compared two contrasting response reinforcement rules (variable ratio [VR], variable interval [VI]). Experiment 2 varied the response to reinforcement rule between two schedules but equated the outcome to response rate (differential reinforcement of high rate [DRH] vs. VR). Experiment 3 compared molar and molecular aspects of contingencies of reinforcement (tandem VIVR vs. tandem VRVI). Finally, Experiment 4 employed schedules that induced low rates of responding to determine whether, under these circumstances, responses were more sensitive to the molecular aspects of a schedule (differential reinforcement of low rate [DRL] vs. VI). The findings suggest that the transfer of evaluative functions is determined mainly by differences in response rate between the schedules and the molar aspects of the schedules. However, when neither schedule was based on a strong response reinforcement rule, the transfer of evaluative judgments came under the control of the molecular aspects of the schedule.

  15. Evaluation of Advanced Models for PAFS Condensation Heat Transfer in SPACE Code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bae, Byoung-Uhn; Kim, Seok; Park, Yu-Sun; Kang, Kyung Ho [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Ahn, Tae-Hwan; Yun, Byong-Jo [Pusan National University, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    The PAFS (Passive Auxiliary Feedwater System) is operated by the natural circulation to remove the core decay heat through the PCHX (Passive Condensation Heat Exchanger) which is composed of the nearly horizontal tubes. For validation of the cooling and operational performance of the PAFS, PASCAL (PAFS Condensing Heat Removal Assessment Loop) facility was constructed and the condensation heat transfer and natural convection phenomena in the PAFS was experimentally investigated at KAERI (Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute). From the PASCAL experimental result, it was found that conventional system analysis code underestimated the condensation heat transfer. In this study, advanced condensation heat transfer models which can treat the heat transfer mechanisms with the different flow regimes in the nearly horizontal heat exchanger tube were analyzed. The models were implemented in a thermal hydraulic safety analysis code, SPACE (Safety and Performance Analysis Code for Nuclear Power Plant), and it was evaluated with the PASCAL experimental data. With an aim of enhancing the prediction capability for the condensation phenomenon inside the PCHX tube of the PAFS, advanced models for the condensation heat transfer were implemented into the wall condensation model of the SPACE code, so that the PASCAL experimental result was utilized to validate the condensation models. Calculation results showed that the improved model for the condensation heat transfer coefficient enhanced the prediction capability of the SPACE code. This result confirms that the mechanistic modeling for the film condensation in the steam phase and the convection in the condensate liquid contributed to enhance the prediction capability of the wall condensation model of the SPACE code and reduce conservatism in prediction of condensation heat transfer.

  16. Comparative evaluation of three heat transfer enhancement strategies in a grooved channel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herman, C.; Kang, E. [Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, Johns Hopkins Univ., Baltimore, MD (United States)

    2001-09-01

    Results of a comparative evaluation of three heat transfer enhancement strategies for forced convection cooling of a parallel plate channel populated with heated blocks, representing electronic components mounted on printed circuit boards, are reported. Heat transfer in the reference geometry, the asymmetrically heated parallel plate channel, is compared with that for the basic grooved channel, and the same geometry enhanced by cylinders and vanes placed above the downstream edge of each heated block. In addition to conventional heat transfer and pressure drop measurements, holographic interferometry combined with high-speed cinematography was used to visualize the unsteady temperature fields in the self-sustained oscillatory flow. The locations of increased heat transfer within one channel periodicity depend on the enhancement technique applied, and were identified by analyzing the unsteady temperature distributions visualized by holographic interferometry. This approach allowed gaining insight into the mechanisms responsible for heat transfer enhancement. Experiments were conducted at moderate flow velocities in the laminar, transitional and turbulent flow regimes. Reynolds numbers were varied in the range Re = 200-6500, corresponding to flow velocities from 0.076 to 2.36 m/s. Flow oscillations were first observed between Re = 1050 and 1320 for the basic grooved channel, and around Re = 350 and 450 for the grooved channels equipped with cylinders and vanes, respectively. At Reynolds numbers above the onset of oscillations and in the transitional flow regime, heat transfer rates in the investigated grooved channels exceeded the performance of the reference geometry, the asymmetrically heated parallel plate channel. Heat transfer in the grooved channels enhanced with cylinders and vanes showed an increase by a factor of 1.2-1.8 and 1.5-3.5, respectively, when compared to data obtained for the basic grooved channel; however, the accompanying pressure drop penalties

  17. An evaluation of gas transfer velocity parameterizations during natural convection using DNS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fredriksson, Sam T.; Arneborg, Lars; Nilsson, Hâkan; Zhang, Qi; Handler, Robert A.

    2016-02-01

    Direct numerical simulations (DNS) of free surface flows driven by natural convection are used to evaluate different methods of estimating air-water gas exchange at no-wind conditions. These methods estimate the transfer velocity as a function of either the horizontal flow divergence at the surface, the turbulent kinetic energy dissipation beneath the surface, the heat flux through the surface, or the wind speed above the surface. The gas transfer is modeled via a passive scalar. The Schmidt number dependence is studied for Schmidt numbers of 7, 150 and 600. The methods using divergence, dissipation and heat flux estimate the transfer velocity well for a range of varying surface heat flux values, and domain depths. The two evaluated empirical methods using wind (in the limit of no wind) give reasonable estimates of the transfer velocity, depending however on the surface heat flux and surfactant saturation. The transfer velocity is shown to be well represented by the expression, ks=A |Bν|1/4 Sc-n, where A is a constant, B is the buoyancy flux, ν is the kinematic viscosity, Sc is the Schmidt number, and the exponent n depends on the water surface characteristics. The results suggest that A=0.39 and n≈1/2 and n≈2/3 for slip and no-slip boundary conditions at the surface, respectively. It is further shown that slip and no-slip boundary conditions predict the heat transfer velocity corresponding to the limits of clean and highly surfactant contaminated surfaces, respectively. This article was corrected on 22 MAR 2016. See the end of the full text for details.

  18. Phosphorylation of chicken growth hormone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aramburo, C.; Montiel, J.L.; Donoghue, D.; Scanes, C.G.; Berghman, L.R.

    1990-01-01

    The possibility that chicken growth hormone (cGH) can be phosphorylated has been examined. Both native and biosynthetic cGH were phosphorylated by cAMP-dependent protein kinase (and γ- 32 P-ATP). The extent of phosphorylation was however less than that observed with ovine prolactin. Under the conditions employed, glycosylated cGH was not phosphorylated. Chicken anterior pituitary cells in primary culture were incubated in the presence of 32 P-phosphate. Radioactive phosphate was incorporated in vitro into the fraction immunoprecipitable with antisera against cGH. Incorporation was increased with cell number and time of incubation. The presence of GH releasing factor (GRF) increased the release of 32 P-phosphate labeled immunoprecipitable GH into the incubation media but not content of immunoprecipitable GH in the cells. The molecular weight of the phosphorylated immunoreactive cGH in the cells corresponded to cGH dimer

  19. Evaluation of heat transfer in acupuncture needles: convection and conduction approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tzou, Chieh-Han John; Yang, Tzyy-Yih; Chung, Ya-Chien

    2015-04-01

    Originating in ancient China, acupuncture using needles has been developed for thousands of years and has received attention for its reported medical remedies, such as pain relief and chronic disease treatment. Heat transfer through the needles, which might have effects on the biomechanism of acupuncture, providing a stimulus and regulating homeostasis, has never been studied. This article analyzes the significance of heat transfer through needles via convection and conduction, approached by means of computational analysis. The needle is a cylindrical body, and an axis symmetrical steady-state heat-transfer model that viscosity and static pressure was not applied. This article evaluates heat transfer via acupuncture needles by using five metal materials: silver, copper, brass, iron, and stainless steel. A silver needle of the type extensively applied in acupuncture can dissipate more than seven times as much heat as a stainless steel needle of the same type. Heat transfer through such a needle is significant, compared to natural body-energy consumption over a range of ambient temperatures. The mechanism by which heat flows in or out of the body through the needles may be crucial in the remedial efficacy of acupuncture. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  20. Deriving evaluation indicators for knowledge transfer and dialogue processes in the context of climate research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treffeisen, Renate; Grosfeld, Klaus; Kuhlmann, Franziska

    2017-12-01

    Knowledge transfer and dialogue processes in the field of climate science have captured intensive attention in recent years as being an important part of research activities. Therefore, the demand and pressure to develop a set of indicators for the evaluation of different activities in this field have increased, too. Research institutes are being asked more and more to build up structures in order to map these activities and, thus, are obliged to demonstrate the success of these efforts. This paper aims to serve as an input to stimulate further reflection on the field of evaluation of knowledge transfer and dialogue processes in the context of climate sciences. The work performed in this paper is embedded in the efforts of the German Helmholtz Association in the research field of earth and environment and is driven by the need to apply suitable indicators for knowledge transfer and dialogue processes in climate research center evaluations. We carry out a comparative analysis of three long-term activities and derive a set of indicators for measuring their output and outcome by balancing the wide diversity and range of activity contents as well as the different tools to realize them. The case examples are based on activities which are part of the regional Helmholtz Climate Initiative Regional Climate Change (REKLIM) and the Climate Office for Polar Regions and Sea Level Rise at the Alfred Wegener Institute Helmholtz Centre for Polar and Marine Research. Both institutional units have been working on a wide range of different knowledge transfer and dialogue processes since 2008/2009. We demonstrate that indicators for the evaluation must be based on the unique objectives of the individual activities and the framework they are embedded in (e.g., research foci which provide the background for the performed knowledge transfer and dialogue processes) but can partly be classified in a principle two-dimensional scheme. This scheme might serve as a usable basis for climate

  1. Evaluation of Hose in Hose Transfer Line Service Life for Hanfords Interim Stabilization Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    TORRES, T.D.

    2001-01-01

    RPP-6153, Engineering Task Plan for Hose-in-Hose Transfer System for the Interim Stabilization Program (Torres, 2000a), defines the programmatic goals, functional requirements, and technical criteria for the development and subsequent installation of waste transfer line equipment to support Hanford's Interim Stabilization Program. RPP-6028, Specification for Hose in Hose Transfer Lines for Hanford's Interim Stabilization Program (Torres, 2000b), has been issued to define the specific requirements for the design, manufacture, and verification of transfer line assemblies for specific waste transfer applications associated with Interim Stabilization. Included in RPP-6028 are tables defining the chemical constituents of concern to which transfer lines will be exposed. Current Interim Stabilization Program planning forecasts that the at-grade transfer lines will be required to convey pumpable waste for as much as three years after commissioning, RPP-6028 Section 3.2.7. Performance Incentive Number ORP-05 requires that all the Single Shell Tanks be Interim Stabilized by September 30, 2003. The Tri-Party Agreement (TPA) milestone M-41-00, enforced by a federal consent decree, requires all the Single Shell Tanks to be Interim stabilized by September 30, 2004. By meeting the Performance Incentive the TPA milestone is met. Prudent engineering dictates that the equipment used to transfer waste have a life in excess of the forecasted operational time period, with some margin to allow for future adjustments to the planned schedule. This document evaluates the effective service life of the Hose-in-Hose Transfer Lines, based on information submitted by the manufacturer, published literature and calculations. The effective service life of transfer line assemblies is a function of several factors. Foremost among these are the hose material's resistance to the harmful effects of process fluid characteristics, ambient environmental conditions, exposure to ionizing radiation and the

  2. Radiological safety evaluation for a Waste Transfer Facility at Savannah River Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ades, M.J.

    1993-01-01

    This paper provides a review of the radiological safety evaluation performed for a Waste Transfer Facility (WTF) located at the Savannah River Site (SRS). This facility transfers liquid radioactive waste between various waste processing facilities and waste storage facilities. The WTF includes functional components such as the diversion box and the pump pits, waste transfer lines, and the outside yard service piping and electrical services. The WSRC methodology is used to evaluate the consequences of postulated accidents that result in the release of radioactive material. Such accidents include transfer line breaks, underground liquid pathway release, fire in pump tank cells and HEPA filters, accidents due to natural phenomena, and externally induced events. Chemical hazards accidents are not considered. The analysis results indicate that the calculated mean onsite and offsite radiological consequences are bounded by the corresponding WSRC dose limits for each accident considered. Moreover, the results show that the maximum onsite and offsite doses calculated for the WTF are lower than the maximum doses determined for the whole radioactive waste facility where the WTF is located

  3. Cytochrome C is tyrosine 97 phosphorylated by neuroprotective insulin treatment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas H Sanderson

    Full Text Available Recent advancements in isolation techniques for cytochrome c (Cytc have allowed us to discover post-translational modifications of this protein. We previously identified two distinct tyrosine phosphorylated residues on Cytc in mammalian liver and heart that alter its electron transfer kinetics and the ability to induce apoptosis. Here we investigated the phosphorylation status of Cytc in ischemic brain and sought to determine if insulin-induced neuroprotection and inhibition of Cytc release was associated with phosphorylation of Cytc. Using an animal model of global brain ischemia, we found a ∼50% decrease in neuronal death in the CA1 hippocampal region with post-ischemic insulin administration. This insulin-mediated increase in neuronal survival was associated with inhibition of Cytc release at 24 hours of reperfusion. To investigate possible changes in the phosphorylation state of Cytc we first isolated the protein from ischemic pig brain and brain that was treated with insulin. Ischemic brains demonstrated no detectable tyrosine phosphorylation. In contrast Cytc isolated from brains treated with insulin showed robust phosphorylation of Cytc, and the phosphorylation site was unambiguously identified as Tyr97 by immobilized metal affinity chromatography/nano-liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization mass spectrometry. We next confirmed these results in rats by in vivo application of insulin in the absence or presence of global brain ischemia and determined that Cytc Tyr97-phosphorylation is strongly induced under both conditions but cannot be detected in untreated controls. These data suggest a mechanism whereby Cytc is targeted for phosphorylation by insulin signaling, which may prevent its release from the mitochondria and the induction of apoptosis.

  4. Evaluation of the optimum region for mammographic system using computer simulation to study modulation transfer functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, Isaura N. Sombra; Schiable, Homero; Porcel, Naider T.; Frere, Annie F.; Marques, Paulo M.A.

    1996-01-01

    An investigation of the 'optimum region' of the radiation field considering mammographic systems is studied. Such a region was defined in previous works as the field range where the system has its best performance and sharpest images. This study is based on a correlation of two methods for evaluating radiologic imaging systems, both using computer simulation in order to determine modulation transfer functions (MTFs) due to the X-ray tube focal spot in several field orientation and locations

  5. Pharmacological Evaluation of the SCID T Cell Transfer Model of Colitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindebo Holm, Thomas; Poulsen, Steen Seier; Markholst, Helle

    2012-01-01

    the SCID adoptive transfer colitis model, we have evaluated the effect of currently used IBD drugs and IBD drug candidates, that is, anti-TNF-α, TNFR-Fc, anti-IL-12p40, anti-IL-6, CTLA4-Ig, anti-α4β7 integrin, enrofloxacin/metronidazole, and cyclosporine. We found that anti-TNF-α, antibiotics, anti-IL-12p...

  6. Evaluation of the modulation transfer function for computer tomography by using American Association Physics Medicine Phantom

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Ki Won [Dept. of Radiology, Kyung Hee University Hospital at Gang-dong, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Kwan Woo [Dept. of Radiology, Asan Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Jeong, Hoi Woun [Dept. of Radiological Technology, Baekseok Culture University, Cheonan (Korea, Republic of); Jang, Seo Goo [Dept. of Medical Science, Soonchunhyang University, Asan (Korea, Republic of); Kwon, Kyung Tae [Dept. of Radiological Technology, Dongnam Health University, Suwon (Korea, Republic of); Son, Soon Yong [Dept. of Radiological Technology, Wonkwang Health Science University, Iksan (Korea, Republic of); Son, Jin Hyun; Min, Jung Whan [Dept. of Radiological Technology, Shingu University, Sungnam (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-06-15

    In clinical computed tomography (CT), regular quality assurance (QA) has been required. This study is to evaluate the MTF for analyzing the spatial resolution using AAPM phantom in CT exam. The dual source somatom definition flash (siemens healthcare, forchheim, Germany), the brilliance 64 (philips medical system Netherlands) and aquilion 64 (toshiba medical system, Japan) were used in this study. The quantitative evaluation was performed using the image J (wayne rasband national institutes of health, USA) and chart method which is measurement of modulation transfer function (MTF). In MTF evaluation, the spatial frequencies corresponding to the 50% MTF for the CT systems were 0.58, 0.28, and 0.59 mm-1, respectively and the 10% MTF for the CT systems were 1.63, 0.89, and 1.21 mm-1, respectively. This study could evaluate the characteristic of spatial resolution of MTF using chart method, suggesting the quantitative evaluation method using the data.

  7. Baculovirus-mediated gene transfer and recombinant protein expression do not interfere with insulin dependent phosphorylation of PKB/Akt in human SHSY-5Y and C3A cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selander Martin

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recombinant adenovirus vectors and transfection agents comprising cationic lipids are widely used as gene delivery vehicles for functional expression in cultured cells. Consequently, these tools are utilized to investigate the effects of functional over-expression of proteins on insulin mediated events. However, we have previously reported that cationic lipid reagents cause a state of insulin unresponsiveness in cell cultures. In addition, we have found that cultured cells often do not respond to insulin stimulation following adenovirus treatment. Infection with adenovirus compromises vital functions of the host cell leading to the activation of protein kinases central to insulin signalling, such as protein kinase B/Akt. Therefore, we investigated the effect of adenovirus infection on insulin unresponsiveness by means of Akt activation in cultured cells. Moreover, we investigated the use of baculovirus as a heterologous viral gene delivery vehicle to circumvent these phenomena. Since the finding that baculovirus can efficiently transduce mammalian cells, the applications of this viral system in gene delivery has greatly expanded and one advantage is the virtual absence of cytotoxicity in mammalian cells. Results We show that infection of human neuroblastoma SHSY-5Y and liver C3A cells with recombinant adenovirus results in the activation of Akt in a dose dependent manner. In addition, this activation makes treated cells unresponsive to insulin stimulation as determined by an apparent lack of differential phosphorylation of Akt on serine-473. Our data further indicate that the use of recombinant baculovirus does not increase the phosphorylation of Akt in SHSY-5Y and C3A cells. Moreover, following infection with baculovirus, SHSY-5Y and C3A cells respond to insulin by means of phosphorylation of Akt on serine-473 in the same manner as uninfected cells. Conclusion Widely-used adenovirus vectors for gene delivery cause a state of

  8. Evaluating the Intellectual Capital of Technology Transfer and Learning Public Services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michele Grimaldi

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Since the rise of the knowledge‐based economy, many worldwide companies have begun to deal with different frameworks to manage and evaluate the performance of intellectual capital, especially in the area of knowledge management services. This paper presents a novel conceptual model aiming to support management in evaluating and prioritizing their intellectual capital competitive core competences. Based on the analytic hierarchy process, the model analyses interdependences among intellectual capital elements and determines the impacts of core competences on organizational performance. To validate the model, it is empirically applied in the Technology Transfer Unit of the Italian national agency for new technologies, energy and economic development.

  9. Evaluation of convective heat transfer coefficient of various crops in cyclone type dryer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akpinar, E. Kavak

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, an attempt was made to evaluate the convective heat transfer coefficient during drying of various crops and to investigate the influences of drying air velocity and temperature on the convective heat transfer coefficient. Drying was conducted in a convective cyclone type dryer at drying air temperatures of 60, 70 and 80 deg. C and velocities of 1 and 1.5 m/s using rectangle shaped potato and apple slices (12.5 x 12.5 x 25 mm) and cylindrical shaped pumpkin slices (35 x 5 mm). The temperature changes of the dried crops and the temperature of the drying air were measured during the drying process. It was found that the values of convective heat transfer coefficient varied from crop to crop with a range 30.21406 and 20.65470 W/m 2 C for the crops studied, and it was observed that the convective heat transfer coefficient increased in large amounts with the increase of the drying air velocity but increased in small amounts with the rise of the drying air temperature

  10. Assessment of reflood heat transfer model of COBRA-TIF against ABB-CE evaluation model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, S. I.; Lee, S. Y.; Park, C. E.; Choi, H. R.; Choi, C. J. [Korea Power Engineering Company Inc., Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    2000-05-01

    According to 10 CFR 50 Appendix K, ECCS performance evaluation model should be based on the experimental data of FLECHT and have the conservatism compared with experimental data. To meet this requirement ABB-CE has the complicate code structure as follows: COMPERC-II calculates three reflood rates, and FLELAPC and HTCOF calculate the reflood heat transfer coefficients, and finally STRIKIN-II calculates the cladding temperature using the reflood heat transfer calculated in previous stage. In this paper, to investigate whether or not COBRA-TF satisfies the requirement of Appendix K, the reflood heat transfer coefficient of COBRA-TF was assessed against ABB-CE MOD-2C model. It was found out that COBRA-TF predicts properly the experimental data and has more conservatism than the results of ABB-CE MOD-2C model. Based on these results, it can be concluded that the reflood heat transfer coefficients calculated by COBRA-TF meet the requirement of Appendix K.

  11. Evaluation of Interfacial Heat Transfer Models for Flashing Flow with Two-Fluid CFD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yixiang Liao

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available The complexity of flashing flows is increased vastly by the interphase heat transfer as well as its coupling with mass and momentum transfers. A reliable heat transfer coefficient is the key in the modelling of such kinds of flows with the two-fluid model. An extensive literature survey on computational modelling of flashing flows has been given in previous work. The present work is aimed at giving a brief review on available theories and correlations for the estimation of interphase heat transfer coefficient, and evaluating them quantitatively based on computational fluid dynamics simulations of bubble growth in superheated liquid. The comparison of predictions for bubble growth rate obtained by using different correlations with the experimental as well as direct numerical simulation data reveals that the performance of the correlations is dependent on the Jakob number and Reynolds number. No generally applicable correlations are available. Both conduction and convection are important in cases of bubble rising and translating in stagnant liquid at high Jakob numbers. The correlations combining the analytical solution for heat diffusion and the theoretical relation for potential flow give the best agreement.

  12. Evaluation of convective heat transfer coefficient of various crops in cyclone type dryer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akpinar, E. Kavak [Mechanical Engineering Department, Firat University, 23279 Elazig (Turkey)]. E-mail: eakpinar@firat.edu.tr

    2005-09-15

    In this paper, an attempt was made to evaluate the convective heat transfer coefficient during drying of various crops and to investigate the influences of drying air velocity and temperature on the convective heat transfer coefficient. Drying was conducted in a convective cyclone type dryer at drying air temperatures of 60, 70 and 80 deg. C and velocities of 1 and 1.5 m/s using rectangle shaped potato and apple slices (12.5 x 12.5 x 25 mm) and cylindrical shaped pumpkin slices (35 x 5 mm). The temperature changes of the dried crops and the temperature of the drying air were measured during the drying process. It was found that the values of convective heat transfer coefficient varied from crop to crop with a range 30.21406 and 20.65470 W/m{sup 2} C for the crops studied, and it was observed that the convective heat transfer coefficient increased in large amounts with the increase of the drying air velocity but increased in small amounts with the rise of the drying air temperature.

  13. STATISTICAL EVALUATION OF SMALL SCALE MIXING DEMONSTRATION SAMPLING AND BATCH TRANSFER PERFORMANCE - 12093

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    GREER DA; THIEN MG

    2012-01-12

    The ability to effectively mix, sample, certify, and deliver consistent batches of High Level Waste (HLW) feed from the Hanford Double Shell Tanks (DST) to the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) presents a significant mission risk with potential to impact mission length and the quantity of HLW glass produced. DOE's Tank Operations Contractor, Washington River Protection Solutions (WRPS) has previously presented the results of mixing performance in two different sizes of small scale DSTs to support scale up estimates of full scale DST mixing performance. Currently, sufficient sampling of DSTs is one of the largest programmatic risks that could prevent timely delivery of high level waste to the WTP. WRPS has performed small scale mixing and sampling demonstrations to study the ability to sufficiently sample the tanks. The statistical evaluation of the demonstration results which lead to the conclusion that the two scales of small DST are behaving similarly and that full scale performance is predictable will be presented. This work is essential to reduce the risk of requiring a new dedicated feed sampling facility and will guide future optimization work to ensure the waste feed delivery mission will be accomplished successfully. This paper will focus on the analytical data collected from mixing, sampling, and batch transfer testing from the small scale mixing demonstration tanks and how those data are being interpreted to begin to understand the relationship between samples taken prior to transfer and samples from the subsequent batches transferred. An overview of the types of data collected and examples of typical raw data will be provided. The paper will then discuss the processing and manipulation of the data which is necessary to begin evaluating sampling and batch transfer performance. This discussion will also include the evaluation of the analytical measurement capability with regard to the simulant material used in the demonstration tests. The

  14. Electrokinetic demonstration at Sandia National Laboratories: Use of transference numbers for site characterization and process evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindgren, E.R.; Mattson, E.D.

    1997-01-01

    Electrokinetic remediation is generally an in situ method using direct current electric potentials to move ionic contaminants and/or water to collection electrodes. The method has been extensively studied for application in saturated clayey soils. Over the past few years, an electrokinetic extraction method specific for sandy, unsaturated soils has been developed and patented by Sandia National Laboratories. A RCRA RD ampersand D permitted demonstration of this technology for the in situ removal of chromate contamination from unsaturated soils in a former chromic acid disposal pit was operated during the summer and fall of 1996. This large scale field test represents the first use of electrokinetics for the removal of heavy metal contamination from unsaturated soils in the United States and is part of the US EPA Superfund Innovative Technology Evaluation (SITE) Program. Guidelines for characterizing a site for electrokinetic remediation are lacking, especially for applications in unsaturated soil. The transference number of an ion is the fraction of the current carried by that ion in an electric field and represents the best measure of contaminant removal efficiency in most electrokinetic remediation processes. In this paper we compare the transference number of chromate initially present in the contaminated unsaturated soil, with the transference number in the electrokinetic process effluent to demonstrate the utility of evaluating this parameter

  15. Emergency Food Assistance in Northern Syria: An Evaluation of Transfer Programs in Idleb Governorate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doocy, Shannon; Tappis, Hannah; Lyles, Emily; Witiw, Joseph; Aken, Vicki

    2017-06-01

    The war in Syria has left millions struggling to survive amidst violent conflict, pervasive unemployment, and food insecurity. Although international assistance funding is also at an all-time high, it is insufficient to meet the needs of conflict-affected populations, and there is increasing pressure on humanitarian stakeholders to find more efficient, effective ways to provide assistance. To evaluate 3 different assistance programs (in-kind food commodities, food vouchers, and unrestricted vouchers) in Idleb Governorate of Syria from December 2014 and March 2015. The evaluation used repeated survey data from beneficiary households to determine whether assistance was successful in maintaining food security at the household level. Shopkeeper surveys and program monitoring data were used to assess the impact on markets at the district/governorate levels and compare the cost-efficiency and cost-effectiveness of transfer modalities. Both in-kind food assistance and voucher programs showed positive effects on household food security and economic measures in Idleb; however, no intervention was successful in improving all outcomes measured. Food transfers were more likely to improve food access and food security than vouchers and unrestricted vouchers. Voucher programs were found to be more cost-efficient than in-kind food assistance, and more cost-effective for increasing household food consumption. Continuation of multiple types of transfer programs, including both in-kind assistance and vouchers, will allow humanitarian actors to remain responsive to evolving access and security considerations, local needs, and market dynamics.

  16. EVALUATION OF FROST HEAVE ON WASTE TRANSFER LINES WITH SHALLOW DEPTHS IN DST (DOUBLE SHELL TANK) FARMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    HAQ MA

    2009-05-12

    The purpose of this document is to evaluate the effect of frost heave on waste transfer lines with shallow depths in DST farms. Because of the insulation, well compacted sandy material around waste transfer lines, the type of sandy and gravel soil, and relatively low precipitation at Hanford site, it is concluded that waste transfer lines with one foot of soil covers (sandy cushion material and insulation) are not expected to undergo frost heave damaging effects.

  17. Safety Evaluation for Packaging for onsite Transfer of plutonium recycle test reactor ion exchange columns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, R.J.

    1995-01-01

    The purpose of this Safety Evaluation for Packaging (SEP) is to authorize the use of three U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT) 7A, Type A metal boxes (Capital Industries Part No. S 0600-0600-1080- 0104) to package 12 Plutonium Recycle Test Reactor (PRTR) ion exchange columns as low-level waste (LLW). The packages will be transferred from the 309 Building in the 300 Area to low level waste burial in the 200 West Area. Revision 1 of WHC-SD-TP-SEP-035 (per ECN No. 621467) documents that the boxes containing ion exchange columns and grout will maintain the payload under normal conditions of transport if transferred without the box lids

  18. Application of Interval Arithmetic in the Evaluation of Transfer Capabilities by Considering the Sources of Uncertainty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prabha Umapathy

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Total transfer capability (TTC is an important index in a power system with large volume of inter-area power exchanges. This paper proposes a novel technique to determine the TTC and its confidence intervals in the system by considering the uncertainties in the load and line parameters. The optimal power flow (OPF method is used to obtain the TTC. Variations in the load and line parameters are incorporated using the interval arithmetic (IA method. The IEEE 30 bus test system is used to illustrate the proposed methodology. Various uncertainties in the line, load and both line and load are incorporated in the evaluation of total transfer capability. From the results, it is observed that the solutions obtained through the proposed method provide much wider information in terms of closed interval form which is more useful in ensuring secured operation of the interconnected system in the presence of uncertainties in load and line parameters.

  19. Oxidation and Metal-Insertion in Molybdenite Surfaces: Evaluation of Charge-Transfer Mechanisms and Dynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramana, Chintalapalle V.; Becker, U.; Shutthanandan, V.; Julien, C. M.

    2008-06-05

    Molybdenum sulfide (MoS2), an important representative member of the layered transition-metal dichalcogenides, has been of special importance to the research community of geochemistry, materials and environmental chemistry, and industrial science and technology. Understanding the oxidation behavior and charge-transfer mechanisms in MoS2 is important to gain better insight into the degradation of this mineral in the environment. On the other hand understanding the insertion of metals into molybdenite and evaluation of charge-transfer mechanism and dynamics is quite important to utilize these minerals in technological applications. Furthermore, such a detailed investigation of thermal oxidation behavior and intercalation process will provide a basis to further explore and model the mechanism of adsorption of metal ions on to geomedia. Therefore, the present work was performed to understand the oxidation and intercalation processes of molybdenite surfaces. The results obtained, using a wide variety of analytical techniques, are presented and discussed in this paper.

  20. Evaluation of Contact Heat Transfer Coefficient and Phase Transformation during Hot Stamping of a Hat-Type Part

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Heung-Kyu; Lee, Seong Hyeon; Choi, Hyunjoo

    2015-01-01

    Using an inverse analysis technique, the heat transfer coefficient on the die-workpiece contact surface of a hot stamping process was evaluated as a power law function of contact pressure. This evaluation was to determine whether the heat transfer coefficient on the contact surface could be used for finite element analysis of the entire hot stamping process. By comparing results of the finite element analysis and experimental measurements of the phase transformation, an evaluation was performed to determine whether the obtained heat transfer coefficient function could provide reasonable finite element prediction for workpiece properties affected by the hot stamping process. PMID:28788046

  1. Preclinical evaluation of a Haemophilus influenzae type b conjugate vaccine process intended for technology transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamidi, Ahd; Verdijk, Pauline; Kreeftenberg, Hans

    2014-01-01

    Introduction of Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) vaccine in low- and middle-income countries has been limited by cost and availability of Hib conjugate vaccines for a long time. It was previously recognized by the Institute for Translational Vaccinology (Intravacc, originating from the former Vaccinology Unit of the National Institute of Public Health [RIVM] and the Netherlands Vaccine Institute [NVI]) that local production of a Hib conjugate vaccine would increase the affordability and sustainability of the vaccine and thereby help to speed up Hib introduction in these countries. A new affordable and a non-infringing production process for a Hib conjugate vaccine was developed, including relevant quality control tests, and the technology was transferred to a number of vaccine manufacturers in India, Indonesia, and China. As part of the Hib technology transfer project managed by Intravacc, a preclinical toxicity study was conducted in the Netherlands to test the safety and immunogenicity of this new Hib conjugate vaccine. The data generated by this study were used by the technology transfer partners to accelerate the clinical development of the new Hib conjugate vaccine. A repeated dose toxicity and local tolerance study in rats was performed to assess the reactogenicity and immunogenicity of a new Hib conjugate vaccine compared to a licensed vaccine. The results showed that the vaccine was well tolerated and immunogenic in rats, no major differences in both safety and immunogenicity in rats were found between the vaccine produced according to the production process developed by Intravacc and the licensed one. Rats may be useful to verify the immunogenicity of Hib conjugate vaccines and for preclinical evaluation. In general, nonclinical evaluation of the new Hib conjugate vaccine, including this proof of concept (safety and immunogenicity study in rats), made it possible for technology transfer partners, having implemented the original process with no changes

  2. Evaluation of a cross contamination model describing transfer of Salmonella spp. and Listeria monocytogenes during grinding of pork and beef

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Cleide Oliveira de Almeida; Sant'Ana, A.S.; Hansen, Solvej Katrine Holm

    2016-01-01

    A cross contamination model was challenged and evaluated applying a new approach.•QMRA and Total Transfer Potential (TTP) were included.•Transfer estimates were not applicable for unlike processing.•The risk of disease may be reduced when using a stainless steel grinder.•Well-sharpened knife, and...

  3. Hazard evaluation for transfer of waste from tank 241-SY-101 to tank 241-SY-102

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    SHULTZ, M.V.

    1999-01-01

    Tank 241-SY-101 (SY-101) waste level growth is an emergent, high priority issue. The purpose of this document is to record the hazards evaluation process and document potential hazardous conditions that could lead to the release of radiological and toxicological material from the proposed transfer of a limited quantity (approximately 100,000 gallons) of waste from SY-101 to 241-SY-102 (SY-102). The results of the hazards evaluation will be compared to the current Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) Basis for Interim Operation (HNF-SD-WM-BIO-001, 1998, Revision 1) to identify any hazardous conditions where Authorization Basis (AB) controls may not be sufficient or may not exist. Comparison to LA-UR-92-3196, A Safety Assessment for Proposed Pump Mixing Operations to Mitigate Episodic Gas Releases in Tank 241-SY-101, was also made in the case of transfer pump removal activities. This document is not intended to authorize the activity or determine the adequacy of controls; it is only intended to provide information about the hazardous conditions associated with this activity. The Unreviewed Safety Question (USQ) process will be used to determine the adequacy of controls and whether the proposed activity is within the AB. This hazard evaluation does not constitute an accident analysis

  4. Solid-phase assay for the phosphorylation of proteins blotted on nitrocellulose membrane filters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valtorta, F.; Schiebler, W.; Jahn, R.; Ceccarelli, B.; Greengard, P.

    1986-01-01

    A new procedure for the phosphorylation and assay of phosphoproteins is described. Proteins are solubilized from tissue samples, separated by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, transferred onto nitrocellulose membrane filters, and the blotted polypeptides are phyosphorylated with the catalytic subunit of cyclic AMP (adenosine 3':5'-monophosphate)-dependent protein kinase. The method was developed for the assay of dephosphosynapsin I, but it has also proven suitable for the phosphorylation of other proteins. The patterns of phosphorylation of tissue samples phosphorylated using the new method are similar to those obtained using the conventional test tube assay. Once phosphorylated, the adsorbed proteins can be digested with proteases and subjected to phosphopeptide mapping. The phosphorylated blotted proteins can also be analyzed by overlay techniques for the immunological detection of polypeptides

  5. Local Entropy Production in Turbulent Shear Flows: A Tool for Evaluating Heat Transfer Performance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    H. HERWIG; F. KOCK

    2006-01-01

    Performance evaluation of heat transfer devices can be based on the overall entropy production in these devices.In our study we therefore provide equations for the systematic and detailed determination of local entropy production due to dissipation of mechanical energy and due to heat conduction, both in turbulent flows. After turbulence modeling has been incorporated for the fluctuating parts the overall entropy production can be determined by integration with respect to the whole flow domain. Since, however, entropy production rates show very steep gradients close to the wall, numerical solutions are far more effective with wall functions for the entropy production terms. These wall functions are mandatory when high Reynolds number turbulence models are used. For turbulent flow in a pipe with an inserted twisted tape as heat transfer promoter it is shown that based on the overall entropy production rate a clear statement from a thermodynamic point of view is possible. For a certain range of twist strength there is a decrease in overall entropy production compared to the case without insert. Also, the optimum twist strength can be determined. This information is unavailable when only pressure drop and heat transfer data are given.

  6. Evaluation of heat transfer coefficient of tungsten filaments at low pressures and high temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chondrakis, N.G.; Topalis, F.V.

    2011-01-01

    The paper presents an experimental method for the evaluation of the heat transfer coefficient of tungsten filaments at low pressures and high temperatures. For this purpose an electrode of a T5 fluorescent lamp was tested under low pressures with simultaneous heating in order to simulate the starting conditions in the lamp. It was placed in a sealed vessel in which the pressure was varied from 1 kM (kilo micron) to 760 kM. The voltage applied to the electrode was in the order of the filament's voltage of the lamp at the normal operation with the ballast during the preheating process. The operating frequency ranged from DC to 50 kHz. The experiment targeted on estimating the temperature of the electrode at the end of the first and the ninth second after initiating the heating process. Next, the heat transfer coefficient was calculated at the specific experimental conditions. A mathematical model based on the results was developed that estimates the heat transfer coefficient. The experiments under different pressures confirm that the filament's temperature strongly depends on the pressure.

  7. The geochemical aspect for the evaluations of radioelements transfers in subterranean porous media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rancon, Daniel.

    1978-10-01

    Radiological safety studies upon radioactivity transfers in soils and subterranean waters need geochemical studies to evaluate the retention of radionuclides by the solid matrix of porous media. The interaction between radionuclides water and substratum allow determination of the retention term in the transfer equation and estimation of relative speeds of the pollutant and the water which carries it. The retention, characterized by the distribution coefficient or by the soption isotherms, can be due to several mechanisms: precipitation, adsorption, ions exchange which have to be determined because they introduce the important concepts of reversibility, irreversible fixation and saturation. Retention is a function of various factors which can have a great influence: temperature, nature and texture of the solid, composition and pH of the solution, presence of complexing agent. This report is illustrated by original examples chosen among well know elements (Cs, Sr) and mainly among less studied elements (Co, Ba, Ra, U, Th, Np, Pu). Recommendations are proposed to make these transfer measurements more realistic and more adapted to the natural conditions of subterranean media [fr

  8. Entropy Generation Analysis and Performance Evaluation of Turbulent Forced Convective Heat Transfer to Nanofluids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Ji

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The entropy generation analysis of fully turbulent convective heat transfer to nanofluids in a circular tube is investigated numerically using the Reynolds Averaged Navier–Stokes (RANS model. The nanofluids with particle concentration of 0%, 1%, 2%, 4% and 6% are treated as single phases of effective properties. The uniform heat flux is enforced at the tube wall. To confirm the validity of the numerical approach, the results have been compared with empirical correlations and analytical formula. The self-similarity profiles of local entropy generation are also studied, in which the peak values of entropy generation by direct dissipation, turbulent dissipation, mean temperature gradients and fluctuating temperature gradients for different Reynolds number as well as different particle concentration are observed. In addition, the effects of Reynolds number, volume fraction of nanoparticles and heat flux on total entropy generation and Bejan number are discussed. In the results, the intersection points of total entropy generation for water and four nanofluids are observed, when the entropy generation decrease before the intersection and increase after the intersection as the particle concentration increases. Finally, by definition of Ep, which combines the first law and second law of thermodynamics and attributed to evaluate the real performance of heat transfer processes, the optimal Reynolds number Reop corresponding to the best performance and the advisable Reynolds number Read providing the appropriate Reynolds number range for nanofluids in convective heat transfer can be determined.

  9. Evaluation of upward heat flux in ex-vessel molten core heat transfer using MELCOR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, S.Y.; Park, J.H.; Kim, S.D.; Kim, D.H.; Kim, H.D.

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to share experiences of MELCOR application to resolve the molten corium-concrete interaction (MCCI) issue in the Korea Next Generation Reactor (KNGR). In the evaluation of concrete erosion, the heat transfer modeling from the molten corium internal to the corium pool surface is very important and uncertain. MELCOR employs Kutateladze or Greene's bubble-enhanced heat transfer model for the internal heat transfer. The phenomenological uncertainty is so large that the model provides several model parameters in addition to the phenomenological model for user flexibility. However, the model parameters do not work on Kutateladze correlation at the top of the molten layer. From our experience, a code modification is suggested to match the upward heat flux with the experimental results. In this analysis, minor modification was carried out to calculate heat flux from the top molten layer to corium surface, and efforts were made to find out the best value of the model parameter based on upward heat flux of MACE test M1B. Discussion also includes its application to KNGR. (author)

  10. Methodology for evaluating pattern transfer completeness in inkjet printing with irregular edges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Bo-Cin; Chan, Hui-Ju; Hong, Jian-Wei; Lo, Cheng-Yao

    2016-06-01

    A methodology for quantifying and qualifying pattern transfer completeness in inkjet printing through examining both pattern dimensions and pattern contour deviations from reference design is proposed, which enables scientifically identifying and evaluating inkjet-printed lines, corners, circles, ellipses, and spirals with irregular edges of bulging, necking, and unpredictable distortions resulting from different process conditions. This methodology not only avoids differences in individual perceptions of ambiguous pattern distortions but also indicates the systematic effects of mechanical stresses applied in different directions to a polymer substrate, and is effective for both optical and electrical microscopy in direct and indirect lithography or lithography-free patterning.

  11. Methodology for evaluating pattern transfer completeness in inkjet printing with irregular edges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Bo-Cin; Chan, Hui-Ju; Lo, Cheng-Yao; Hong, Jian-Wei

    2016-01-01

    A methodology for quantifying and qualifying pattern transfer completeness in inkjet printing through examining both pattern dimensions and pattern contour deviations from reference design is proposed, which enables scientifically identifying and evaluating inkjet-printed lines, corners, circles, ellipses, and spirals with irregular edges of bulging, necking, and unpredictable distortions resulting from different process conditions. This methodology not only avoids differences in individual perceptions of ambiguous pattern distortions but also indicates the systematic effects of mechanical stresses applied in different directions to a polymer substrate, and is effective for both optical and electrical microscopy in direct and indirect lithography or lithography-free patterning. (paper)

  12. Building America Case Study: Evaluating Through-Wall Air Transfer Fans, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania (Fact Sheet)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2014-10-01

    In this project, Building America team IBACOS performed field testing in a new construction unoccupied test house in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania to evaluate heating, ventilating, and air conditioning (HVAC) distribution systems during heating, cooling, and midseason conditions. Four air-based HVAC distribution systems were assessed:-a typical airflow ducted system to the bedrooms, a low airflow ducted system to the bedrooms, a system with transfer fans to the bedrooms, and a system with no ductwork to the bedrooms. The relative ability of each system was considered with respect to relevant Air Conditioning Contractors of America and ASHRAE standards for house temperature uniformity and stability, respectively.

  13. Heavy vehicle simulator (HVS) evaluation of load transfer efficiency and continuously reinforced concrete inlays on the N3 near Pietermartizburg

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Du Plessis, L

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper addresses two different heavy Vehicle Simulator (HVS) studies conducted on concrete: Load transfer through aggregate interlock and the use of dowels and the evaluation of the performance of an in-service continuously reinforced concrete...

  14. Glycogen phosphorylation and Lafora disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roach, Peter J

    2015-12-01

    Covalent phosphorylation of glycogen, first described 35 years ago, was put on firm ground through the work of the Whelan laboratory in the 1990s. But glycogen phosphorylation lay fallow until interest was rekindled in the mid 2000s by the finding that it could be removed by a glycogen-binding phosphatase, laforin, and that mutations in laforin cause a fatal teenage-onset epilepsy, called Lafora disease. Glycogen phosphorylation is due to phosphomonoesters at C2, C3 and C6 of glucose residues. Phosphate is rare, ranging from 1:500 to 1:5000 phosphates/glucose depending on the glycogen source. The mechanisms of glycogen phosphorylation remain under investigation but one hypothesis to explain C2 and perhaps C3 phosphate is that it results from a rare side reaction of the normal synthetic enzyme glycogen synthase. Lafora disease is likely caused by over-accumulation of abnormal glycogen in insoluble deposits termed Lafora bodies in neurons. The abnormality in the glycogen correlates with elevated phosphorylation (at C2, C3 and C6), reduced branching, insolubility and an enhanced tendency to aggregate and become insoluble. Hyperphosphorylation of glycogen is emerging as an important feature of this deadly childhood disease. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Oxidation and metal-insertion in molybdenite surfaces: evaluation of charge-transfer mechanisms and dynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shutthanandan V

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Molybdenum disulfide (MoS2, a layered transition-metal dichalcogenide, has been of special importance to the research community of geochemistry, materials and environmental chemistry, and geotechnical engineering. Understanding the oxidation behavior and charge-transfer mechanisms in MoS2 is important to gain better insight into the degradation of this mineral in the environment. In addition, understanding the insertion of metals into molybdenite and evaluation of charge-transfer mechanism and dynamics is important to utilize these minerals in technological applications. Furthermore, a detailed investigation of thermal oxidation behavior and metal-insertion will provide a basis to further explore and model the mechanism of adsorption of metal ions onto geomedia. The present work was performed to understand thermal oxidation and metal-insertion processes of molybdenite surfaces. The analysis was performed using atomic force microscopy (AFM, scanning electron microscopy (SEM, transmission electron microscopy (TEM, Rutherford backscattering spectrometry (RBS, and nuclear reaction analysis (NRA. Structural studies using SEM and TEM indicate the local-disordering of the structure as a result of charge-transfer process between the inserted lithium and the molybdenite layer. Selected area electron diffraction measurements indicate the large variations in the diffusivity of lithium confirming that the charge-transfer is different along and perpendicular to the layers in molybdenite. Thermal heating of molybenite surface in air at 400°C induces surface oxidation, which is slow during the first hour of heating and then increases significantly. The SEM results indicate that the crystals formed on the molybdenite surface as a result of thermal oxidation exhibit regular thin-elongated shape. The average size and density of the crystals on the surface is dependent on the time of annealing; smaller size and high density during the first one-hour and

  16. Oxidation and metal-insertion in molybdenite surfaces: evaluation of charge-transfer mechanisms and dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramana, C V; Becker, U; Shutthanandan, V; Julien, C M

    2008-06-05

    Molybdenum disulfide (MoS2), a layered transition-metal dichalcogenide, has been of special importance to the research community of geochemistry, materials and environmental chemistry, and geotechnical engineering. Understanding the oxidation behavior and charge-transfer mechanisms in MoS2 is important to gain better insight into the degradation of this mineral in the environment. In addition, understanding the insertion of metals into molybdenite and evaluation of charge-transfer mechanism and dynamics is important to utilize these minerals in technological applications. Furthermore, a detailed investigation of thermal oxidation behavior and metal-insertion will provide a basis to further explore and model the mechanism of adsorption of metal ions onto geomedia.The present work was performed to understand thermal oxidation and metal-insertion processes of molybdenite surfaces. The analysis was performed using atomic force microscopy (AFM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Rutherford backscattering spectrometry (RBS), and nuclear reaction analysis (NRA).Structural studies using SEM and TEM indicate the local-disordering of the structure as a result of charge-transfer process between the inserted lithium and the molybdenite layer. Selected area electron diffraction measurements indicate the large variations in the diffusivity of lithium confirming that the charge-transfer is different along and perpendicular to the layers in molybdenite. Thermal heating of molybenite surface in air at 400 degrees C induces surface oxidation, which is slow during the first hour of heating and then increases significantly. The SEM results indicate that the crystals formed on the molybdenite surface as a result of thermal oxidation exhibit regular thin-elongated shape. The average size and density of the crystals on the surface is dependent on the time of annealing; smaller size and high density during the first one-hour and significant

  17. Bad phosphorylation as a target of inhibition in oncology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bui, Ngoc-Linh-Chi; Pandey, Vijay; Zhu, Tao; Ma, Lan; Basappa; Lobie, Peter E

    2018-02-28

    Bcl-2 agonist of cell death (BAD) is a BH3-only member of the Bcl-2 family which possesses important regulatory function in apoptosis. BAD has also been shown to possess many non-apoptotic functions closely linked to cancer including regulation of glycolysis, autophagy, cell cycle progression and immune system development. Interestingly, BAD can be either pro-apoptotic or pro-survival depending on the phosphorylation state of three specific serine residues (human S75, S99 and S118). Expression of BAD and BAD phosphorylation patterns have been shown to influence tumor initiation and progression and play a predictive role in disease prognosis, drug response and chemosensitivity in various cancers. This review aims to summarize the current evidence on the functional role of BAD phosphorylation in human cancer and evaluate the potential utility of modulating BAD phosphorylation in cancer. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Propofol directly increases tau phosphorylation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert A Whittington

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In Alzheimer's disease (AD and other tauopathies, the microtubule-associated protein tau can undergo aberrant hyperphosphorylation potentially leading to the development of neurofibrillary pathology. Anesthetics have been previously shown to induce tau hyperphosphorylation through a mechanism involving hypothermia-induced inhibition of protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A activity. However, the effects of propofol, a common clinically used intravenous anesthetic, on tau phosphorylation under normothermic conditions are unknown. We investigated the effects of a general anesthetic dose of propofol on levels of phosphorylated tau in the mouse hippocampus and cortex under normothermic conditions. Thirty min following the administration of propofol 250 mg/kg i.p., significant increases in tau phosphorylation were observed at the AT8, CP13, and PHF-1 phosphoepitopes in the hippocampus, as well as at AT8, PHF-1, MC6, pS262, and pS422 epitopes in the cortex. However, we did not detect somatodendritic relocalization of tau. In both brain regions, tau hyperphosphorylation persisted at the AT8 epitope 2 h following propofol, although the sedative effects of the drug were no longer evident at this time point. By 6 h following propofol, levels of phosphorylated tau at AT8 returned to control levels. An initial decrease in the activity and expression of PP2A were observed, suggesting that PP2A inhibition is at least partly responsible for the hyperphosphorylation of tau at multiple sites following 30 min of propofol exposure. We also examined tau phosphorylation in SH-SY5Y cells transfected to overexpress human tau. A 1 h exposure to a clinically relevant concentration of propofol in vitro was also associated with tau hyperphosphorylation. These findings suggest that propofol increases tau phosphorylation both in vivo and in vitro under normothermic conditions, and further studies are warranted to determine the impact of this anesthetic on the acceleration of

  19. Process-level model evaluation: a snow and heat transfer metric

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slater, Andrew G.; Lawrence, David M.; Koven, Charles D.

    2017-04-01

    Land models require evaluation in order to understand results and guide future development. Examining functional relationships between model variables can provide insight into the ability of models to capture fundamental processes and aid in minimizing uncertainties or deficiencies in model forcing. This study quantifies the proficiency of land models to appropriately transfer heat from the soil through a snowpack to the atmosphere during the cooling season (Northern Hemisphere: October-March). Using the basic physics of heat diffusion, we investigate the relationship between seasonal amplitudes of soil versus air temperatures due to insulation from seasonal snow. Observations demonstrate the anticipated exponential relationship of attenuated soil temperature amplitude with increasing snow depth and indicate that the marginal influence of snow insulation diminishes beyond an effective snow depth of about 50 cm. A snow and heat transfer metric (SHTM) is developed to quantify model skill compared to observations. Land models within the CMIP5 experiment vary widely in SHTM scores, and deficiencies can often be traced to model structural weaknesses. The SHTM value for individual models is stable over 150 years of climate, 1850-2005, indicating that the metric is insensitive to climate forcing and can be used to evaluate each model's representation of the insulation process.

  20. An Evaluation of Effective Factors in Learning Transfer of Nursing On-the-Job Training Courses in Work-Environment Based on Holton’s Transfer Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    mehdi mohammadi

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Background of Objective: Nursing is one of the health care jobs. In addition to health care, they need to continue education for individual development and be aware of the latest medical science achievements. The main purpose of this study was an evaluation of effective factors in learning transfer of nursing on the job training courses in work environment based on Holton’s transfer model. Materials and Methods: This was a descriptive, cross-sectional study in which the population was all of Jahrom University of Medical Sciences nurses. Passing on-the-job training courses in 2015 was inclusion criterion. Using random sampling method and Cocran formula, 95 nurses were selected. Research instrument was learning transfer system inventory that was distributed after its validity and reliability were calculated. Data was analyzed by inferential statistical methods and SPSS21. Results: The results showed that effective individual, organizational and educational factors in learning transfer of on-the-job training courses in work environment are important. Also, they showed that individual was the most dominant effective factor (P< 0.05. Conclusion: With special attention to the nurse's on- the -job training courses, it is possible to transfer learning to work environment.

  1. Evaluation of empirical heat transfer models using TFG heat flux sensors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Cuyper, T.; Broekaert, S.; Chana, K.; De Paepe, M.; Verhelst, S.

    2017-01-01

    Thermodynamic engine cycle models are used to support the development of the internal combustion engine (ICE) in a cost and time effective manner. The sub model which describes the in-cylinder heat transfer from the working gases to the combustion chamber walls plays an important role in the accuracy of these simulation tools. The heat transfer affects the power output, engine efficiency and emissions of the engine. The most common heat transfer models in engine research are the models of Annand and Woschni. These models provide an instantaneous spatial averaged heat flux. In this research, prototype thin film gauge (TFG) heat flux sensors are used to capture the transient in-cylinder heat flux behavior within a production spark ignition (SI) engine as they are small, robust and able to capture the highly transient temperature swings. An inlet valve and two different zones of the cylinder head are instrumented with multiple TFG sensors. The heat flux traces are used to calculate the convection coefficient which includes all information of the convective heat transfer phenomena inside the combustion chamber. The implementation of TFG sensors inside the combustion chamber and the signal processing technique are discussed. The heat transfer measurements are used to analyze the spatial variation in heat flux under motored and fired operation. Spatial variation in peak heat flux was observed even under motored operation. Under fired operation the observed spatial variation is mainly driven by the flame propagation. Next, the paper evaluates the models of Annand and Woschni. These models fail to predict the total heat loss even with calibration of the models coefficients using a reference motored operating condition. The effect of engine speed and inlet pressure is analyzed under motored operation after calibration of the models. The models are able to predict the trend in peak heat flux value for a varying engine speed and inlet pressure. Next, the accuracy of the

  2. Defense-in-depth evaluation for the New Waste Transfer Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayes, T.G.; Kelly, J.L.

    1995-01-01

    This report fulfills part of the requirements of References 2 and 3 by documenting a Defense-In-Depth evaluation for the New Waste Transfer Facility (NWTF). This evaluation was performed using methodology similar to that used in an evaluation for the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF). It differs because the DWPF evaluation was based on an existing Process Hazards Analysis (PHA) while NWTF's is based on a Preoperational Process Hazards Review (PHR) (Ref. 1). The accidents in the Process Hazards Review (PHR) were reviewed to determine those that might have significant consequences. Significance was based on the findings of the PHR, The facility design was reviewed to determine the Structures, Systems, and Components (SSCs) and administrative controls available before and after each accident. From this was developed a list of the Lines of Defense (LODs) available to contain the hazard associated with the accident. A summary of these LODs is given in Appendix C. Items are tabulated that are suggested for consideration in the functional classification as worker protection items. The specific criteria used in the evaluation is given in the methodology section of this report. The results are documented in Appendices A, B, C, and D

  3. Inhibition of peptide aggregation by means of enzymatic phosphorylation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristin Folmert

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available As is the case in numerous natural processes, enzymatic phosphorylation can be used in the laboratory to influence the conformational populations of proteins. In nature, this information is used for signal transduction or energy transfer, but has also been shown to play an important role in many diseases like tauopathies or diabetes. With the goal of determining the effect of phosphorylation on amyloid fibril formation, we designed a model peptide which combines structural characteristics of α-helical coiled-coils and β-sheets in one sequence. This peptide undergoes a conformational transition from soluble structures into insoluble amyloid fibrils over time and under physiological conditions and contains a recognition motif for PKA (cAMP-dependent protein kinase that enables enzymatic phosphorylation. We have analyzed the pathway of amyloid formation and the influence of enzymatic phosphorylation on the different states along the conformational transition from random-coil to β-sheet-rich oligomers to protofilaments and on to insoluble amyloid fibrils, and we found a remarkable directing effect from β-sheet-rich structures to unfolded structures in the initial growth phase, in which small oligomers and protofilaments prevail if the peptide is phosphorylated.

  4. Evaluation of Hose in Hose Transfer Line Service Life for Hanford's Interim Stabilization Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    TORRES, T.D.

    2000-08-24

    RPP-6153, Engineering Task Plan for Hose-in-Hose Transfer System for the Interim Stabilization Program, defines the programmatic goals, functional requirements, and technical criteria for the development and subsequent installation of transfer line equipment to support Hanford's Interim Stabilization Program. RPP-6028, Specification for Hose in Hose Transfer Lines for Hanford's Interim Stabilization Program, has been issued to define the specific requirements for the design, manufacture, and verification of transfer line assemblies for specific waste transfer applications. Included in RPP-6028 are tables defining the chemical constituents of concern to which transfer lines will be exposed. Current Interim Stabilization Program planning forecasts that the at-grade transfer lines will be required to convey pumpable waste for as much as three years after commissioning. Prudent engineering dictates that the equipment placed in service have a working life in excess of this forecasted time period, with some margin to allow for future adjustments to the planned schedule. This document evaluates the effective service life of the Hose-in-Hose Transfer Lines, based on information submitted by the manufacturer and published literature. The effective service life of transfer line assemblies is a function of several factors. Foremost among these are process fluid characteristics, ambient environmental conditions, and the manufacturer's stated shelf life. This evaluation examines the manufacturer's certification of shelf life, the manufacturer's certifications of chemical compatibility with waste, and published literature on the effects of exposure to ionizing radiation on the mechanical properties of elastomeric materials to evaluate transfer line service life.

  5. SYMPOSIUM ON PLANT PROTEIN PHOSPHORYLATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    JOHN C WALKER

    2011-11-01

    Protein phosphorylation and dephosphorylation play key roles in many aspects of plant biology, including control of cell division, pathways of carbon and nitrogen metabolism, pattern formation, hormonal responses, and abiotic and biotic responses to environmental signals. A Symposium on Plant Protein Phosphorylation was hosted on the Columbia campus of the University of Missouri from May 26-28, 2010. The symposium provided an interdisciplinary venue at which scholars studying protein modification, as it relates to a broad range of biological questions and using a variety of plant species, presented their research. It also provided a forum where current international challenges in studies related to protein phosphorylation could be examined. The symposium also stimulated research collaborations through interactions and networking among those in the research community and engaged students and early career investigators in studying issues in plant biology from an interdisciplinary perspective. The proposed symposium, which drew 165 researchers from 13 countries and 21 States, facilitated a rapid dissemination of acquired knowledge and technical expertise regarding protein phosphorylation in plants to a broad range of plant biologists worldwide.

  6. Tyrosine phosphorylation in human lymphomas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haralambieva, E; Jones, M.; Roncador, GM; Cerroni, L; Lamant, L; Ott, G; Rosenwald, A; Sherman, C; Thorner, P; Kusec, R; Wood, KM; Campo, E; Falini, B; Ramsay, A; Marafioti, T; Stein, H; Kluin, PM; Pulford, K; Mason, DY

    2002-01-01

    In a previous study, we showed that the high level of protein tyrosine phosphorylation present in lymphomas containing an anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) can be demonstrated in routinely processed paraffin tissue sections using immunolabelling techniques. In the present study we investigated

  7. Characterisation and properties of homo- and heterogenously phosphorylated nanocellulose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kokol, Vanja; Božič, Mojca; Vogrinčič, Robert; Mathew, Aji P

    2015-07-10

    Nano-sized cellulose ester derivatives having phosphoryl side groups were synthesised by phosphorylation of nanofibrilated cellulose (NFC) and nanocrystaline cellulose (NCC), using different heterogeneous (in water) and homogeneous (in molten urea) processes with phosphoric acid as phosphoryl donor. The phosphorylation mechanism, efficacy, stability, as well as its influence on the NC crystallinity and thermal properties, were evaluated using ATR-FTIR and (13)C NMR spectroscopies, potentiometric titration, capillary electrophoresis, X-ray diffraction, colorimetry, thermogravimmetry and SEM. Phosphorylation under both processes created dibasic phosphate and monobasic tautomeric phosphite groups at C6 and C3 positioned hydroxyls of cellulose, yielded 60-fold (∼1,173 mmol/kg) and 2-fold (∼1.038 mmol/kg) higher surface charge density for p-NFC and p-NCC, respectively, under homogenous conditions. None of the phosphorylations affected neither the NC crystallinity degree nor the structure, and noticeably preventing the derivatives from weight loss during the pyrolysis process. The p-NC showed high hydrolytic stability to water at all pH mediums. Reusing of the treatment bath was examined after the heterogeneous process. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. One Size Fits All: Evaluation of the Transferability of a New "Learning" Histologic Image Analysis Application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arlt, Janine; Homeyer, André; Sänger, Constanze; Dahmen, Uta; Dirsch, Olaf

    2016-01-01

    Quantitative analysis of histologic slides is of importance for pathology and also to address surgical questions. Recently, a novel application was developed for the automated quantification of whole-slide images. The aim of this study was to test and validate the underlying image analysis algorithm with respect to user friendliness, accuracy, and transferability to different histologic scenarios. The algorithm splits the images into tiles of a predetermined size and identifies the tissue class of each tile. In the training procedure, the user specifies example tiles of the different tissue classes. In the subsequent analysis procedure, the algorithm classifies each tile into the previously specified classes. User friendliness was evaluated by recording training time and testing reproducibility of the training procedure of users with different background. Accuracy was determined with respect to single and batch analysis. Transferability was demonstrated by analyzing tissue of different organs (rat liver, kidney, small bowel, and spleen) and with different stainings (glutamine synthetase and hematoxylin-eosin). Users of different educational background could apply the program efficiently after a short introduction. When analyzing images with similar properties, accuracy of >90% was reached in single images as well as in batch mode. We demonstrated that the novel application is user friendly and very accurate. With the "training" procedure the application can be adapted to novel image characteristics simply by giving examples of relevant tissue structures. Therefore, it is suitable for the fast and efficient analysis of high numbers of fully digitalized histologic sections, potentially allowing "high-throughput" quantitative "histomic" analysis.

  9. Biomechanical evaluation of heel elevation on load transfer — experimental measurement and finite element analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luximon, Yan; Luximon, Ameersing; Yu, Jia; Zhang, Ming

    2012-02-01

    In spite of ill-effects of high heel shoes, they are widely used for women. Hence, it is essential to understand the load transfer biomechanics in order to design better fit and comfortable shoes. In this study, both experimental measurement and finite element analysis were used to evaluate the biomechanical effects of heel height on foot load transfer. A controlled experiment was conducted using custom-designed platforms. Under different weight-bearing conditions, peak plantar pressure, contact area and center of pressure were analyzed. A three-dimensional finite element foot model was used to simulate the high-heel support and to predict the internal stress distributions and deformations for different heel heights. Results from both experiment and model indicated that heel elevations had significant effects on all variables. When heel elevation increased, the center of pressure shifted from the midfoot region to the forefoot region, the contact area was reduced by 26% from 0 to 10.2 cm heel and the internal stress of foot bones increased. Prediction results also showed that the strain and total tension force of plantar fascia was minimum at 5.1 cm heel condition. This study helps to better understand the biomechanical behavior of foot, and to provide better suggestions for design parameters of high heeled shoes.

  10. Letter Report (ETN-98-0005) S-farm Overground Transfer (OGT) Line Design Comparison and BIO Evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    HICKS, D.F.

    1999-01-01

    This document provides an evaluation of the detailed design for the 2414 Overground Transfer (OGT) line between S-Farm valve pits 241-S-B and 2414-0. The evaluation compares the design calculations to the design features, the important assumptions, and the required controls for TWRS BIO representative accident scenarios

  11. Thermal Interface Evaluation of Heat Transfer from a Pumped Loop to Titanium-Water Thermosyphons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaworske, Donald A.; Sanzi, James L.; Gibson, Marc A.; Sechkar, Edward A.

    2009-01-01

    Titanium-water thermosyphons are being considered for use in the heat rejection system for lunar outpost fission surface power. Key to their use is heat transfer between a closed loop heat source and the heat pipe evaporators. This work describes laboratory testing of several interfaces that were evaluated for their thermal performance characteristics, in the temperature range of 350 to 400 K, utilizing a water closed loop heat source and multiple thermosyphon evaporator geometries. A gas gap calorimeter was used to measure heat flow at steady state. Thermocouples in the closed loop heat source and on the evaporator were used to measure thermal conductance. The interfaces were in two generic categories, those immersed in the water closed loop heat source and those clamped to the water closed loop heat source with differing thermal conductive agents. In general, immersed evaporators showed better overall performance than their clamped counterparts. Selected clamped evaporator geometries offered promise.

  12. Evaluation of heat transfer tube failure propagation due to sodium-water reaction in steam generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nei, Hiromichi

    1978-01-01

    An evaluation was made of heat transfer tube failure propagation due to sodium-water reaction wastage in a sodium heated steam generator, by comparing an empirically derived wastage equation with leak detector responses. The experimental data agreed well with the wastage equation even for different values of distance-to-nozzle diameter ratio, though the formula had been based on wastage data obtained for only one given distance. The time taken for failure propagation was estimated for a prototype steam generator, and compared with the responses characteristics of acoustic detectors and level gages. It was found that there exists a range of leak rate between 0.5 and 100 g/sec, where the level gage can play a useful role in leak detection. The acoustic detector can be expected to respond more rapidly than the cover gas pressure gage, if noise is kept below ten times the value observed in an experimental facility, SWAT-2. (auth.)

  13. A review of performance standards to monitor, evaluate and assess the impact of technology transfer offices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sibongile Gumbi

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The conversion of scientific discoveries to new products and processes and their launch onto the market can be a lengthy process. Similarly, it takes many years before the impact of scientific research on society and the economy is realised and a further length of time before its performance can be measured. Higher education and research institutions, and their governments, often make significant investments into intellectual property management and technology transfer activities through legislative and policy development, human resource development, financial allocation and infrastructure improvement. Since returns on such investments are not immediately apparent, it is important to establish a means by which the impact of their efforts can be determined. In this paper, I examined the measures and indicators that could be developed by institutions and their stakeholders in order to monitor, evaluate and determine the impact of research output and outcomes on the market.

  14. [Evaluation of two closed-system drug transfer device in the antineoplastic drug elaboration process].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Álvarez, Sandra; Porta-Oltra, Begoña; Hernandez-Griso, Marta; Pérez-Labaña, Francisca; Climente-Martí, Mónica

    2016-01-01

    to assess the impact of two closed-system drug transfer device on the local and environmental contamination and preparation times in the process of preparation of parenteral chemotherapy compared to the standard system. prospective observational study. Two different closed- systems providers, Care Fusion® and Icu Medical®, were compared to standard preparation. 15 nurses of Pharmacy Department prepared 5 preparations each one, one with the standard procedure and four using closed-systems. To evaluate the contamination, a fluorescein solution 0.5% was prepared. Two kind of contamination were evaluated, local (three points connection: closed-system connect vial, syringe and final infusion bags) and environmental (gloves and countertop). Percentage of contaminated preparations was obtained in each one. Time taken by each nurse in each preparation was recorded. 75 preparations were prepared. Local contamination was reduced 21% and 75% in closed-system Icu Medical® and Care Fusion® respectively. Care Fusion® closed system, local contamination was significantly lower than the standard system to the vial, syringe and final package, while Icu Medical® closed-systems only was significantly lower in the connection to the vial. Time of preparation was increased significantly with the use of closed-system between 23.4 and 30.5 seconds. both closed-systems drug transfer device have shown an improvement in contamination than the use of the standard system. However, preparation time has been significantly increased with the use of both systems. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  15. Evaluating radiative transfer schemes treatment of vegetation canopy architecture in land surface models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braghiere, Renato; Quaife, Tristan; Black, Emily

    2016-04-01

    Incoming shortwave radiation is the primary source of energy driving the majority of the Earth's climate system. The partitioning of shortwave radiation by vegetation into absorbed, reflected, and transmitted terms is important for most of biogeophysical processes, including leaf temperature changes and photosynthesis, and it is currently calculated by most of land surface schemes (LSS) of climate and/or numerical weather prediction models. The most commonly used radiative transfer scheme in LSS is the two-stream approximation, however it does not explicitly account for vegetation architectural effects on shortwave radiation partitioning. Detailed three-dimensional (3D) canopy radiative transfer schemes have been developed, but they are too computationally expensive to address large-scale related studies over long time periods. Using a straightforward one-dimensional (1D) parameterisation proposed by Pinty et al. (2006), we modified a two-stream radiative transfer scheme by including a simple function of Sun zenith angle, so-called "structure factor", which does not require an explicit description and understanding of the complex phenomena arising from the presence of vegetation heterogeneous architecture, and it guarantees accurate simulations of the radiative balance consistently with 3D representations. In order to evaluate the ability of the proposed parameterisation in accurately represent the radiative balance of more complex 3D schemes, a comparison between the modified two-stream approximation with the "structure factor" parameterisation and state-of-art 3D radiative transfer schemes was conducted, following a set of virtual scenarios described in the RAMI4PILPS experiment. These experiments have been evaluating the radiative balance of several models under perfectly controlled conditions in order to eliminate uncertainties arising from an incomplete or erroneous knowledge of the structural, spectral and illumination related canopy characteristics typical

  16. Model-based economic evaluations in smoking cessation and their transferability to new contexts: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg, Marrit L; Cheung, Kei Long; Hiligsmann, Mickaël; Evers, Silvia; de Kinderen, Reina J A; Kulchaitanaroaj, Puttarin; Pokhrel, Subhash

    2017-06-01

    To identify different types of models used in economic evaluations of smoking cessation, analyse the quality of the included models examining their attributes and ascertain their transferability to a new context. A systematic review of the literature on the economic evaluation of smoking cessation interventions published between 1996 and April 2015, identified via Medline, EMBASE, National Health Service (NHS) Economic Evaluation Database (NHS EED), Health Technology Assessment (HTA). The checklist-based quality of the included studies and transferability scores was based on the European Network of Health Economic Evaluation Databases (EURONHEED) criteria. Studies that were not in smoking cessation, not original research, not a model-based economic evaluation, that did not consider adult population and not from a high-income country were excluded. Among the 64 economic evaluations included in the review, the state-transition Markov model was the most frequently used method (n = 30/64), with quality adjusted life years (QALY) being the most frequently used outcome measure in a life-time horizon. A small number of the included studies (13 of 64) were eligible for EURONHEED transferability checklist. The overall transferability scores ranged from 0.50 to 0.97, with an average score of 0.75. The average score per section was 0.69 (range = 0.35-0.92). The relative transferability of the studies could not be established due to a limitation present in the EURONHEED method. All existing economic evaluations in smoking cessation lack in one or more key study attributes necessary to be fully transferable to a new context. © 2017 The Authors. Addiction published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Society for the Study of Addiction.

  17. Model‐based economic evaluations in smoking cessation and their transferability to new contexts: a systematic review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg, Marrit L.; Cheung, Kei Long; Hiligsmann, Mickaël; Evers, Silvia; de Kinderen, Reina J. A.; Kulchaitanaroaj, Puttarin

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Aims To identify different types of models used in economic evaluations of smoking cessation, analyse the quality of the included models examining their attributes and ascertain their transferability to a new context. Methods A systematic review of the literature on the economic evaluation of smoking cessation interventions published between 1996 and April 2015, identified via Medline, EMBASE, National Health Service (NHS) Economic Evaluation Database (NHS EED), Health Technology Assessment (HTA). The checklist‐based quality of the included studies and transferability scores was based on the European Network of Health Economic Evaluation Databases (EURONHEED) criteria. Studies that were not in smoking cessation, not original research, not a model‐based economic evaluation, that did not consider adult population and not from a high‐income country were excluded. Findings Among the 64 economic evaluations included in the review, the state‐transition Markov model was the most frequently used method (n = 30/64), with quality adjusted life years (QALY) being the most frequently used outcome measure in a life‐time horizon. A small number of the included studies (13 of 64) were eligible for EURONHEED transferability checklist. The overall transferability scores ranged from 0.50 to 0.97, with an average score of 0.75. The average score per section was 0.69 (range = 0.35–0.92). The relative transferability of the studies could not be established due to a limitation present in the EURONHEED method. Conclusion All existing economic evaluations in smoking cessation lack in one or more key study attributes necessary to be fully transferable to a new context. PMID:28060453

  18. Tyrosine phosphorylation of WW proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reuven, Nina; Shanzer, Matan

    2015-01-01

    A number of key regulatory proteins contain one or two copies of the WW domain known to mediate protein–protein interaction via proline-rich motifs, such as PPxY. The Hippo pathway components take advantage of this module to transduce tumor suppressor signaling. It is becoming evident that tyrosine phosphorylation is a critical regulator of the WW proteins. Here, we review the current knowledge on the involved tyrosine kinases and their roles in regulating the WW proteins. PMID:25627656

  19. A novel post-translational modification in nerve terminals: O-linked N-acetylglucosamine phosphorylation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Graham, Mark E; Thaysen-Andersen, Morten; Bache, Nicolai

    2011-01-01

    Protein phosphorylation and glycosylation are the most common post-translational modifications observed in biology, frequently on the same protein. Assembly protein AP180 is a synapse-specific phosphoprotein and O-linked beta-N-acetylglucosamine (O-GlcNAc) modified glycoprotein. AP180 is involved......NAc-P to a Thr residue was confirmed by electron transfer dissociation MS. A second AP180 tryptic peptide was also glycosyl phosphorylated, but the site of modification was not assigned. Sequence similarities suggest there may be a common motif within AP180 involving glycosyl phosphorylation and dual flanking...... phosphorylation sites within 4 amino acid residues. This novel type of protein glycosyl phosphorylation adds a new signaling mechanism to the regulation of neurotransmission and more complexity to the study of O-GlcNAc modification....

  20. Development of custom measurement system for biomechanical evaluation of independent wheelchair transfers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koontz, Alicia M; Lin, Yen-Sheng; Kankipati, Padmaja; Boninger, Michael L; Cooper, Rory A

    2011-01-01

    This study describes a new custom measurement system designed to investigate the biomechanics of sitting-pivot wheelchair transfers and assesses the reliability of selected biomechanical variables. Variables assessed include horizontal and vertical reaction forces underneath both hands and three-dimensional trunk, shoulder, and elbow range of motion. We examined the reliability of these measures between 5 consecutive transfer trials for 5 subjects with spinal cord injury and 12 nondisabled subjects while they performed a self-selected sitting pivot transfer from a wheelchair to a level bench. A majority of the biomechanical variables demonstrated moderate to excellent reliability (r > 0.6). The transfer measurement system recorded reliable and valid biomechanical data for future studies of sitting-pivot wheelchair transfers.We recommend a minimum of five transfer trials to obtain a reliable measure of transfer technique for future studies.

  1. Evaluation of the Impact of Slab Foundation Heat Transfer on Heating and Cooling in Florida

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parker, D. [Building America Partnership for Improved Residential Construction, Cocoa, FL (United States); Kono, J. [Building America Partnership for Improved Residential Construction, Cocoa, FL (United States); Vieira, R. [Building America Partnership for Improved Residential Construction, Cocoa, FL (United States); Gu, L. [Building America Partnership for Improved Residential Construction, Cocoa, FL (United States)

    2016-09-01

    During the last three decades of energy-efficiency research, there has been limited study of heat transfer to slab-on-grade foundations in cooling-dominated climates. Most experimental research has focused on the impact of slab-on-grade foundations and insulation schemes on heat losses in heating-dominated climates. This is surprising because the floor area in single-family homes is generally equal to wall area, window area, or attic area, all of which have been extensively evaluated for heat-transfer properties. Moreover, slab foundations are the most common foundation type in cooling-dominated climates. Slab-on-grade construction is very popular in southern states, accounting for 77% of new home floors according to 2014 U.S. Census data. There is a widespread perception that tile flooring, as opposed to carpet, provides a cooler home interior in warm climates. Empirical research is needed because building energy simulation software programs running DOE-2 and EnergyPlus engines often rely on simplified models to evaluate the influence of flooring on interior temperature, even though in some cases more detailed models exist. The U.S. Department of Energy Building America Partnership for Improved Residential Construction (BA-PIRC) performed experiments in the Florida Solar Energy Center’s Flexible Residential Test Facility intended to assess for the first time (1) how slab-on-grade construction influences interior cooling in a cooling-dominated climate and (2) how the difference in a carpeted versus uncarpeted building might influence heating and cooling energy use. Two nominally identical side-by-side residential buildings were evaluated during the course of 1 year, from 2014 to 2015: the east building with a pad and carpet floor and the west building with a bare slab floor. A detailed grid shows temperature measurements taken on the slab surface at various locations as well as at depths of 1.0 ft, 2 ft, 5.0 ft, 10.0 ft, and 20.0 ft below the surface. Temperature

  2. Replacement of the cross-site transfer system liquid waste transport alternatives evaluation, Project W-058

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vo, D.V.; Epperson, E.M.

    1995-05-01

    This document examines high-/low-level radioactive liquid waste transport alternatives. Radioactive liquid waste will be transported from the 200 West Area to the 200 East Area and within the 200 East Areas for safe storage and disposal. The radioactive waste transport alternatives are the Aboveground Transport System (French LR-56 Cask System [3,800 L (1,000 gal)]), 19,000-L (5,000-gal) trailer tanker system, 75,700-L (20,000-gal) rail tanker system and Underground Transport System (buried pipe [unlimited transfer volume capability]). The evaluation focused on the following areas: initial project cost, operational cost, secondary waste generation, radiation exposure, and final decommissioning. The evaluation was based on the near term (1995 to 2005) estimated volume of 49.509 million L (13.063 million gal) and long term (1995 to 2028) estimated volume of 757.1 million L (200 million gal). The conclusion showed that the buried pipe (Underground Transport System) resulted in the lowest overall total cost for near and long term, the trailer container resulted in the highest total cost for near and long term, and the French truck was operationally impractical and cost prohibitive

  3. Accurate evaluation of modulation transfer function using the Fourier shift theorem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yong Gwon; Ryu, Yeunchul

    2017-12-01

    Accurate determination of the line spread function (LSF) on the basis of the edge processing algorithm in X-ray imaging systems is one of the most basic procedures for evaluating the performance of such systems. Extensive research has been focused on algorithms for the precise or fast measurement of the LSF in digital X-ray systems. Most of the standard methods for evaluating the performance of an imaging system are based on a fully digitalized radiographic system or a film-based system. However, images obtained by computed radiography (CR), which converts a captured analog signal into a digital image through an analog-to-digital converting scanner, show the combined characteristics of analog and digital imaging systems. Fundamentally, the characteristics of digital imaging systems differ substantially from those of film imaging systems because of their different methods of acquiring and displaying image data. In addition, a system with both analog and digital component has characteristics that differ from those of both digital and analog systems. In this research, we present a new modulation transfer function (MTF) that mimics the existing MTF in terms of measurement but satisfies existing standard protocols through modification of the hypothesis contents. In the case of the LSF and the point spread function measured with a CR system, the developed edge algorithm shows better performance than the conventional methods. We also demonstrate the usefulness of this method in an actual measurement with a CR digital X-ray imaging system.

  4. Evaluation of specific tritium transfer parameters in equilibrium conditions for Cernavoda area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paunescu, N.; Galeriu, D.; Mocanu, N.; Margineanu, R.

    1998-01-01

    In Romania, a CANDU nuclear power plant with five reactors of 600 MWe is under construction. The first unit reached its criticality on April 1996 and became operational at full power on December 1996. The nuclear power plant is placed in Cernavoda area, in the S-E of Romania, between the Danube River and the Danube-Black Sea Canal. The prevalent local climate is continental and agricultural activity in the neighbourhood of the nuclear power plant is of intensive type. The routine atmospheric tritium release from the 3 GWe nuclear power plant is expected to be about 460 TBq/year and the aqueous release is expected to be 350 TBq/year. The aim of this study was to evaluate the environmental tritium reference level before commissioning the nuclear power plant. Representative samples for Cernavoda area were analysed: air humidity; water from Danube River, Danube-Black Sea Canal, lakes; drinking and ground water, rain (snow) water; soil at different depths; tissue free water tritium in vegetal and animal foodstuff relevant for human diet: cereals (wheat, maize, barley), vegetables (potato, tomato, cabbage, onion, bean), fruits, grapes, wine and milk; organically bound tritium in wheat and maize grains. The equipment and methods used were: Liquid scintillation analyzer of type TRICARB 1900 TR; scintillation cocktails of Instagel and Pico Fluor LLT type; sampling system for trapping the atmospheric tritium on molecular sieves; furnace; vacuum line and freeze trap (-60 deg. C); equipment for simple, fractionating and azeotropic distillation. The background level of tritium concentration was determined in environmental samples in Cernavoda area, in preoperational stage of nuclear power plant. The mean values determined during 1994-early 1996 are : (7.4±5.5) Bq/L in air humidity, (3.1±1.0) Bq/L in water, (3.53±0.4) Bq/L in tissue water from vegetable and (4.9±1.7) Bq/L in tissue water from cereals (grains). The values of tritium concentration in air, water, soil and

  5. Evaluation of the effect of indomethacin and piroxicam administration before embryo transfer on pregnancy rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumbasar, Serkan; Gül, Özer; Şık, Aytek

    2017-03-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) administration before embryo transfer (ET) on pregnancy rates in women undergoing in vitro fertilization/intracytoplasmic sperm injection ET. Our study included 255 patients diagnosed with primary or secondary infertility caused by a male or tubal-related factor, endometriosis or unexplained factors. The patients were divided randomly into three groups. Two groups were administered oral piroxicam (10 mg capsules) or 100 mg indomethacin (rectal suppository), respectively, 1-2 h before ET. As a control, the third group did not receive any form of treatment before ET. Basal levels of follicle-stimulating hormone, luteinizing hormone, and level 17β-estradiol on the day of human chorionic gonadotropin administration, the collected and transferred number of embryos, and the number of grade A embryos obtained were determined in all patients. The implantation, clinical pregnancy, and miscarriage rates of the groups were compared. The clinical pregnancy rate per ET and the implantation rate were 35.2% and 12.15% in the piroxicam group, 31.7% and 10.9% in the indomethacin group, and 32.9% and 12.5% in the control, respectively. The miscarriage rates of groups 1, 2 and 3 were 12%, 11.7% and 11.7%, respectively (P = 0.964). The differences in clinical pregnancy rates among the groups were not statistically significant (P = 0.887). There were also no significant differences in the implantation rates (P = 0.842). These results suggest that NSAID administration before ET has no additional effect on pregnancy outcome in patients undergoing in vitro fertilization. © 2017 Japan Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  6. Evaluating psychological markers for human nicotine dependence: tobacco choice, extinction, and Pavlovian-to-instrumental transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogarth, Lee; Chase, Henry W

    2012-06-01

    Individual differences in drug dependence may be mediated by several abnormalities in associative learning, including perseveration of drug-seeking following contingency change, greater control over drug-seeking by Pavlovian stimuli, or greater sensitivity to drug reinforcement establishing higher rates of drug-seeking. To evaluate these three candidate markers for nicotine dependence, Experiment 1 contrasted daily (N = 22) and nondaily smoker groups (N = 22) on a novel instrumental learning task, where one S+ was first trained as a predictor of tobacco reward before being extinguished. Experiment 2 compared daily (N = 18) and nondaily smoker groups (N = 18) on a concurrent-choice task for tobacco and chocolate reward before an extinction test in which the tobacco response was extinguished, followed by a Pavlovian-to-instrumental transfer test, wherein the impact of tobacco and chocolate cues on concurrent choice was measured (gender was balanced within each smoker group). The results showed no group difference in sensitivity to extinction of either the stimulus-drug or response-drug contingency in Experiments 1 and 2, respectively, nor did groups show a difference in Pavlovian-to-instrumental transfer of control over tobacco choice. By contrast, nicotine-dependence status was marked by a higher frequency of tobacco choice in the concurrent-choice procedure, and this choice preference was associated with subjective craving (gender did not affect any behavioral measure). These results favor the view that nicotine dependence in this sample is not determined by individual predilection for perseveration or stimulus-control over drug-seeking, but by greater sensitivity to reinforcement of instrumental drug choice. Value-based decision theories of dependence are discussed.

  7. Evaluation of radiation heat transfer in porous medial: Application for a pebble bed modular reactor cooled by CO2 gas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sidi-Ali Kamel

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This work analyses the contribution of radiation heat transfer in the cooling of a pebble bed modular reactor. The mathematical model, developed for a porous medium, is based on a set of equations applied to an annular geometry. Previous major works dealing with the subject have considered the forced convection mode and often did not take into account the radiation heat transfer. In this work, only free convection and radiation heat transfer are considered. This can occur during the removal of residual heat after shutdown or during an emergency situation. In order to derive the governing equations of radiation heat transfer, a steady-state in an isotropic and emissive porous medium (CO2 is considered. The obtained system of equations is written in a dimensionless form and then solved. In order to evaluate the effect of radiation heat transfer on the total heat removed, an analytical method for solving the system of equations is used. The results allow quantifying both radiation and free convection heat transfer. For the studied situation, they show that, in a pebble bed modular reactor, more than 70% of heat is removed by radiation heat transfer when CO2 is used as the coolant gas.

  8. Critical evaluation of the literature concerning the transfer feed/meat of strontium, radium, technetium in domestic animals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fliegl, E.; Schelenz, R.; Fischer, E.

    1981-12-01

    A literature study concerning the transfer of Sr, Ra, Te, Co and Fe from feed to meat of domestic animals has been carried out. Approx. 4200 publications from 1950-1980 have been evaluated. General criteria for the influence of experimental conditions on the transfer factor have been pointed out. The transfer factor of growing animals is greater than that of adult animals. After completion of growth the transfer factor is independent of age. The transfer factors differ with various animal species. From these findings the following average transfer factors meat/feed in d/kg have been derived during steady state equilibrium between daily intake and excretion of the isotope. For Sr: cattle 6x10 -4 , calf 2x10 -3 , sheep 2,1x10 -3 , goat 3.3x10 -3 , pig 3,6x10 -4 , hen 1,8x10 -2 . For Ra: cattle 6x10 -4 , pig 2,6x10 -4 , caribou 2,3x10 -3 . These values have been derived mainly from metabolic experiments and from literature values of concentrations in feed and meat. For Te, Co and Fe it was not possible to find relevant values. A transfer factor for Tc of 8x10 -3 d/kg for beef was derived indirectly using values of meat and vegetables. (orig.) [de

  9. Monitoring protein phosphorylation by acrylamide pendant Phos-Tag™ in various plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slavka eBekesova

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study is to rationalize acrylamide pendant Phos-Tag™ in-gel discrimination of phosphorylated and non-phosphorylated plant protein species with standard immunoblot analysis, and optimize sample preparation, efficient electrophoretic separation and transfer. We tested variants of the method including extraction buffers suitable for preservation of phosphorylated protein species in crude extracts from plants and we addressed the importance of the cation (Mn2+ or Zn2+ used in the gel recipe for efficient transfer to PVDF membranes for further immunoblot analysis. We demonstrate the monitoring of Medicago sativa stress-induced mitogen activated protein kinase (SIMK in stress-treated wild type plants and transgenic SIMKK RNAi line. We further show the hyperosmotically-induced phosphorylation of the previously uncharacterized HvMPK4 of barley. The method is validated using inducible phosphorylation of barley and wheat α-tubulin and of Arabidopsis MPK6. Acrylamide pendant Phos-Tag™ offers a flexible tool for studying protein phosphorylation in crops and Arabidopsis circumventing radioactive labeling and the use of phosphorylation specific antibodies.

  10. Study on heat transfer characteristics in a mixing tee pipe to evaluate for thermal fatigue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyoshi, Koji; Nakamura, Akira; Utanohara, Yoichi

    2016-01-01

    Thermal fatigue racking may initiate at a tee pipe where high and low temperature fluids flow in from different directions and mix. Thermal stress fluctuations are caused by movement of a hot spot on the pipe inner surface. It is important to investigate the heat transfer from the fluid to the structure around the hot spot. The heat transfer characteristic in the mixing tee pipe was investigated by tests in this study. The unsteady heat transfer coefficients around the hot spot were estimated with the fluid and wall temperature, which were measured with thermocouples. The estimated heat transfer coefficient varied from 1.2 to 3.5 times of the steady state heat transfer coefficient. The heat transfer coefficient was 2.9 times of the steady state value at the position for the maximum stress fluctuation, which was calculated with the measured wall temperature distribution. (author)

  11. Evaluation of the electron transfer flavoprotein as an antibacterial target in Burkholderia cenocepacia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stietz, Maria S; Lopez, Christina; Osifo, Osasumwen; Tolmasky, Marcelo E; Cardona, Silvia T

    2017-10-01

    There are hundreds of essential genes in multidrug-resistant bacterial genomes, but only a few of their products are exploited as antibacterial targets. An example is the electron transfer flavoprotein (ETF), which is required for growth and viability in Burkholderia cenocepacia. Here, we evaluated ETF as an antibiotic target for Burkholderia cepacia complex (Bcc). Depletion of the bacterial ETF during infection of Caenorhabditis elegans significantly extended survival of the nematodes, proving that ETF is essential for survival of B. cenocepacia in this host model. In spite of the arrest in respiration in ETF mutants, the inhibition of etf expression did not increase the formation of persister cells, when treated with high doses of ciprofloxacin or meropenem. To test if etf translation could be inhibited by RNA interference, antisense oligonucleotides that target the etfBA operon were synthesized. One antisense oligonucleotide was effective in inhibiting etfB translation in vitro but not in vivo, highlighting the challenge of reduced membrane permeability for the design of drugs against B. cenocepacia. This work contributes to the validation of ETF of B. cenocepacia as a target for antibacterial therapy and demonstrates the utility of a C. elegans liquid killing assay to validate gene essentiality in an in vivo infection model.

  12. Evaluation of the maternal-fetal transfer of granisetron in an ex vivo placenta perfusion model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Julius, Justin M; Tindall, Andrew; Moise, Kenneth J; Refuerzo, Jerrie S; Berens, Pamela D; Smith, Judith A

    2014-11-01

    The objective of this study was to estimate maternal-fetal transplacental passage of granisetron in an ex vivo placental perfusion model. Term human placentas (N=8) were collected immediately after delivery. A single cotyledon from each placenta was perfused granisetron concentration to mimic systemic maternal peak plasma concentrations following either IV (50ng/mL) or transdermal administration (5ng/mL). To assess drug transfer and accumulation, samples were collected from maternal and fetal compartments. In the 50ng/mL open model, the mean transport fraction was 0.21±0.08 with clearance index of 0.53±0.66. Fetal peak concentrations achieved was 5.6±6.6ng/mL with mean accumulation of 5.35±6.4ng/mL. No drug was detected in the fetal compartment with the 5ng/mL models. Transplacental passage of granisetron was inconsistent at the 50ng/mL concentration that achieved with IV dosing. However, there consistently was no detectable passage in all the placentas evaluated of the granisetron at 5ng/mL concentration that would be achieved after transdermal patch administration. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Performance Evaluation of the Scent Transfer Unit (STU) for Organic Compound Collection and Release

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eckenrode, Brian A. [Federal Bureau of Investigation; Ramsey, Scott A. [Federal Bureau of Investigation; StockhamMFS, Rex A. [Federal Bureau of Investigation; Van Berkel, Gary J [ORNL; Asano, Keiji G [ORNL; Wolf, Dennis A [ORNL

    2006-01-01

    The Scent Transfer UnitTM (STU-100) is a portable vacuum that uses airflow through a sterile gauze pad to capture a volatiles profile over evidentiary items for subsequent canine presentation to assist law enforcement personnel. This device was evaluated to determine its ability to trap and release organic compounds at ambient temperature under controlled laboratory conditions. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analyses using a five-component volatiles mixture in methanol injected directly into a capture pad indicated that compound release could be detected initially and three days after time of collection. Additionally, fifteen compounds of a 39-component toxic organics gaseous mixture (10-1,000 ppbv) were trapped, released, and detected in the headspace of a volatiles capture pad after being exposed to this mixture using the STU-100 with analysis via GC-MS. Component release efficiencies at ambient temperature varied with the analyte; however, typical values of approximately 10 percent were obtained. Desorption at elevated temperatures of reported human odor/scent chemicals and colognes trapped by the STU-100 pads was measured and indicated that the STU-100 has a significant trapping efficiency at ambient temperature. Multivariate statistical analysis of subsequent mass spectral patterns was also performed.

  14. Performance evaluation of the Scent Transfer Unit (STU-100) for organic compound collection and release.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckenrode, Brian A; Ramsey, Scott A; Stockham, Rex A; Van Berkel, Gary J; Asano, Keiji G; Wolf, Dennis A

    2006-07-01

    The Scent Transfer Unit (STU-100) is a portable vacuum that uses airflow through a sterile gauze pad to capture a volatiles profile over evidentiary items for subsequent canine presentation to assist law enforcement personnel. This device was evaluated to determine its ability to trap and release organic compounds at ambient temperature under controlled laboratory conditions. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analyses using a five-component volatiles mixture in methanol injected directly into a capture pad indicated that compound release could be detected initially and 3 days after the time of collection. Additionally, 15 compounds of a 39-component toxic organic gaseous mixture (10-1000 parts per billion by volume [p.p.b.(v)]) were trapped, released, and detected in the headspace of a volatiles capture pad after being exposed to this mixture using the STU-100 with analysis via GC-MS. Component release efficiencies at ambient temperature varied with the analyte; however, typical values of c. 10% were obtained. Desorption at elevated temperatures of reported human odor/scent chemicals and colognes trapped by the STU-100 pads was measured and indicated that the STU-100 has a significant trapping efficiency at ambient temperature. Multivariate statistical analysis of subsequent mass spectral patterns was also performed.

  15. Evaluation of Wavelength Detuning to Mitigate Cross-Beam Energy Transfer Using the Nike Laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenty, P. W.; Marozas, J. A.; Weaver, J.; Obenschain, S. P.; Schmitt, A. J.

    2015-11-01

    Cross-beam energy transfer (CBET) has become a serious threat to the overall success of direct-drive experiments, and especially for polar-direct-drive (PDD) ignition experiments. CBET redirects incident laser light before it can be absorbed into the target, thereby degrading overall target performance. CBET is particularly detrimental over the equator of the target, which is hydrodynamically very sensitive to such losses in the PDD configuration. A promising solution uses laser wavelength detuning between beams to shift the resonance, thereby reducing the interaction cross section between them. Testing this process for direct drive is now underway at the Nike laser at the Naval Research Laboratory. Calculations evaluating the effect CBET has on the scattered-light signals indicate such an experiment will demonstrate the benefits of wavelength detuning for direct-drive implosions. Two-dimensional simulation results will be presented, predicting the effect for both spherical and cylindrical experiments. This material is based upon work supported by the Department of Energy National Nuclear Security Administration under Award Number DE-NA0001944.

  16. Performance of SEM scintillation detector evaluated by modulation transfer function and detective quantum efficiency function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bok, Jan; Schauer, Petr

    2014-01-01

    In the paper, the SEM detector is evaluated by the modulation transfer function (MTF) which expresses the detector's influence on the SEM image contrast. This is a novel approach, since the MTF was used previously to describe only the area imaging detectors, or whole imaging systems. The measurement technique and calculation of the MTF for the SEM detector are presented. In addition, the measurement and calculation of the detective quantum efficiency (DQE) as a function of the spatial frequency for the SEM detector are described. In this technique, the time modulated e-beam is used in order to create well-defined input signal for the detector. The MTF and DQE measurements are demonstrated on the Everhart-Thornley scintillation detector. This detector was alternated using the YAG:Ce, YAP:Ce, and CRY18 single-crystal scintillators. The presented MTF and DQE characteristics show good imaging properties of the detectors with the YAP:Ce or CRY18 scintillator, especially for a specific type of the e-beam scan. The results demonstrate the great benefit of the description of SEM detectors using the MTF and DQE. In addition, point-by-point and continual-sweep e-beam scans in SEM were discussed and their influence on the image quality was revealed using the MTF. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. From SNOMED CT to Uberon: Transferability of evaluation methodology between similarly structured ontologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elhanan, Gai; Ochs, Christopher; Mejino, Jose L V; Liu, Hao; Mungall, Christopher J; Perl, Yehoshua

    2017-06-01

    To examine whether disjoint partial-area taxonomy, a semantically-based evaluation methodology that has been successfully tested in SNOMED CT, will perform with similar effectiveness on Uberon, an anatomical ontology that belongs to a structurally similar family of ontologies as SNOMED CT. A disjoint partial-area taxonomy was generated for Uberon. One hundred randomly selected test concepts that overlap between partial-areas were matched to a same size control sample of non-overlapping concepts. The samples were blindly inspected for non-critical issues and presumptive errors first by a general domain expert whose results were then confirmed or rejected by a highly experienced anatomical ontology domain expert. Reported issues were subsequently reviewed by Uberon's curators. Overlapping concepts in Uberon's disjoint partial-area taxonomy exhibited a significantly higher rate of all issues. Clear-cut presumptive errors trended similarly but did not reach statistical significance. A sub-analysis of overlapping concepts with three or more relationship types indicated a much higher rate of issues. Overlapping concepts from Uberon's disjoint abstraction network are quite likely (up to 28.9%) to exhibit issues. The results suggest that the methodology can transfer well between same family ontologies. Although Uberon exhibited relatively few overlapping concepts, the methodology can be combined with other semantic indicators to expand the process to other concepts within the ontology that will generate high yields of discovered issues. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Supervisor/Peer Involvement in Evaluation Transfer of Training Process and Results Reliability: A Research in an Italian Public Body

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capaldo, Guido; Depolo, Marco; Rippa, Pierluigi; Schiattone, Domenico

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this paper is to present a study performed in conjunction with a branch of the Italian Public Italian Administration, the ISSP (Istituto Superiore di Studi Penitenziari--the Higher Institute of Penitentiary Studies). The study aimed to develop a Transfer of Training (ToT) evaluation methodology that would be both scientifically…

  19. Evaluation of the modulation transfer function of megavoltage X-rays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Min, Jung-Whan [The Catholic University of Korea, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); The Shingu University College of Korea, Seongnam (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Ki-Won [Samsung Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jung-Min; Choi, In-Seok [Korea University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Jeong, Hoi-Woun [The Baekseok Culture University College of Korea, Cheon-an (Korea, Republic of); Son, Soon-Yong; Back, Geum-Mun [Asan Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Jung, Jae-Hong [Soonchunhyang University Bucheon Hospital, Bucheon (Korea, Republic of); Jung, Jae-Yong; Choe, Bo-Young [The Catholic University of Korea, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-12-15

    The modulation transfer function (MTF) must be measured against the requirements of the specific digital imaging application under consideration in order to evaluate the performance of detector equipment and to further develop the detector by performing quality-assurance (QA) procedures. The purpose of this study was to measure the MTF in digital megavoltage images (DMVs) for radiation therapy (RT) by using an edge block. We used 6 megavolts (MVs) of energy for the pre-sampling MTF, along with a photo-stimulating phosphor-based computed radiography (CR) system and a hexalon lead screen that contained a terbium-doped gadolinium oxysulfide granular phosphor (Gd{sub 2}O{sub 2}S:Tb). The DMV MTF was measured at both low and high resolutions according to changes in the dose in monitor units (MUs) by using four different detector combinations: CR-IP (image plate: photo-stimulable phosphor screen), CR-IP-Lead (image plate + lead screen), CR-IPRegular (fast front screen + image plate + fast front screen) and CR-IP-Fast (fast back screen + image plate + fast front screen). At a low resolution, the MTF 50% and the MTF 10% when using the CR-IP detector increased by about 30% and 46%, in proportion to the increase in the dose from 1 to 20 MU, respectively. At a high resolution, the CR-IP and the CR-IP-Lead detectors showed increases in the MTF of about 8% or 10% when the dose increased from 1 to 20 MU. The present study, therefore, evaluates how edge methods can be helpful in taking MTF measurements during QA tests of a megavoltage imaging (MVI) system.

  20. Evaluation of the modulation transfer function of megavoltage X-rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Min, Jung-Whan; Kim, Ki-Won; Kim, Jung-Min; Choi, In-Seok; Jeong, Hoi-Woun; Son, Soon-Yong; Back, Geum-Mun; Jung, Jae-Hong; Jung, Jae-Yong; Choe, Bo-Young

    2014-01-01

    The modulation transfer function (MTF) must be measured against the requirements of the specific digital imaging application under consideration in order to evaluate the performance of detector equipment and to further develop the detector by performing quality-assurance (QA) procedures. The purpose of this study was to measure the MTF in digital megavoltage images (DMVs) for radiation therapy (RT) by using an edge block. We used 6 megavolts (MVs) of energy for the pre-sampling MTF, along with a photo-stimulating phosphor-based computed radiography (CR) system and a hexalon lead screen that contained a terbium-doped gadolinium oxysulfide granular phosphor (Gd 2 O 2 S:Tb). The DMV MTF was measured at both low and high resolutions according to changes in the dose in monitor units (MUs) by using four different detector combinations: CR-IP (image plate: photo-stimulable phosphor screen), CR-IP-Lead (image plate + lead screen), CR-IPRegular (fast front screen + image plate + fast front screen) and CR-IP-Fast (fast back screen + image plate + fast front screen). At a low resolution, the MTF 50% and the MTF 10% when using the CR-IP detector increased by about 30% and 46%, in proportion to the increase in the dose from 1 to 20 MU, respectively. At a high resolution, the CR-IP and the CR-IP-Lead detectors showed increases in the MTF of about 8% or 10% when the dose increased from 1 to 20 MU. The present study, therefore, evaluates how edge methods can be helpful in taking MTF measurements during QA tests of a megavoltage imaging (MVI) system.

  1. Accounting for unknown foster dams in the genetic evaluation of embryo transfer progeny.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suárez, M J; Munilla, S; Cantet, R J C

    2015-02-01

    Animals born by embryo transfer (ET) are usually not included in the genetic evaluation of beef cattle for preweaning growth if the recipient dam is unknown. This is primarily to avoid potential bias in the estimation of the unknown age of dam. We present a method that allows including records of calves with unknown age of dam. Assumptions are as follows: (i) foster cows belong to the same breed being evaluated, (ii) there is no correlation between the breeding value (BV) of the calf and the maternal BV of the recipient cow, and (iii) cows of all ages are used as recipients. We examine the issue of bias for the fixed level of unknown age of dam (AOD) and propose an estimator of the effect based on classical measurement error theory (MEM) and a Bayesian approach. Using stochastic simulation under random mating or selection, the MEM estimating equations were compared with BLUP in two situations as follows: (i) full information (FI); (ii) missing AOD information on some dams. Predictions of breeding value (PBV) from the FI situation had the smallest empirical average bias followed by PBV obtained without taking measurement error into account. In turn, MEM displayed the highest bias, although the differences were small. On the other hand, MEM showed the smallest MSEP, for either random mating or selection, followed by FI, whereas ignoring measurement error produced the largest MSEP. As a consequence from the smallest MSEP with a relatively small bias, empirical accuracies of PBV were larger for MEM than those for full information, which in turn showed larger accuracies than the situation ignoring measurement error. It is concluded that MEM equations are a useful alternative for analysing weaning weight data when recipient cows are unknown, as it mitigates the effects of bias in AOD by decreasing MSEP. © 2014 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  2. Phosphorylation regulates SIRT1 function.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsutomu Sasaki

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: SIR2 is an NAD(+-dependent deacetylase [1]-[3] implicated in the regulation of lifespan in species as diverse as yeast [4], worms [5], and flies [6]. We previously reported that the level of SIRT1, the mammalian homologue of SIR2 [7], [8], is coupled to the level of mitotic activity in cells both in vitro and in vivo[9]. Cells from long-lived mice maintained SIRT1 levels of young mice in tissues that undergo continuous cell replacement by proliferating stem cells. Changes in SIRT1 protein level were not associated with changes in mRNA level, suggesting that SIRT1 could be regulated post-transcriptionally. However, other than a recent report on sumoylation [10] and identification of SIRT1 as a nuclear phospho-protein by mass spectrometry [11], post-translational modifications of this important protein have not been reported. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We identified 13 residues in SIRT1 that are phosphorylated in vivo using mass spectrometry. Dephosphorylation by phosphatases in vitro resulted in decreased NAD(+-dependent deacetylase activity. We identified cyclinB/Cdk1 as a cell cycle-dependent kinase that forms a complex with and phosphorylates SIRT1. Mutation of two residues phosphorylated by Cyclin B/Cdk1 (threonine 530 and serine 540 disturbs normal cell cycle progression and fails to rescue proliferation defects in SIRT1-deficient cells [12], [13]. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Pharmacological manipulation of SIRT1 activity is currently being tested as a means of extending lifespan in mammals. Treatment of obese mice with resveratrol, a pharmacological activator of SIRT1, modestly but significantly improved longevity and, perhaps more importantly, offered some protection against the development of type 2 diabetes mellitus and metabolic syndrome [14]-[16]. Understanding the endogenous mechanisms that regulate the level and activity of SIRT1, therefore, has obvious relevance to human health and disease. Our results identify

  3. Economic evaluations of single- versus double-embryo transfer in IVF

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fiddelers, A. A. A.; Severens, J. L.; Dirksen, C. D.; Dumoulin, J. C. M.; Land, J. A.; Evers, J. L. H.

    2007-01-01

    Multiple pregnancies lead to complications and induce high costs. The most successful way to decrease multiple pregnancies in IVF is to transfer only one embryo, which might reduce the efficacy of treatment. The objective of this review is to determine which embryo-transfer policy is most

  4. Evaluation in practice: identifying factors for improving transfer of training in technical domains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barnard, Y.F.; Veldhuis, G.J.; Rooij, J.C.G.M. van

    2001-01-01

    The main goal of training is to prepare trainees for the tasks they are going to perform on their jobs. In other words, training aims at transfer from the classroom to the work floor. Transfer of training can be defined as the extent to which trainees are able to use effectively in their work

  5. Phosphorylated nano-diamond/ Polyimide Nanocomposites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beyler-Çiǧil, Asli; Çakmakçi, Emrah; Kahraman, Memet Vezir

    2014-01-01

    In this study, a novel route to synthesize polyimide (PI)/phosphorylated nanodiamond films with improved thermal and mechanical properties was developed. Surface phosphorylation of nano-diamond was performed in dichloromethane. Phosphorylation dramatically enhanced the thermal stability of nano-diamond. Poly(amic acid) (PAA), which is the precursor of PI, was successfully synthesized with 3,3',4,4'-Benzophenonetetracarboxylic dianhydride (BTDA) and 4,4'-oxydianiline (4,4'-ODA) in the solution of N,N- dimethylformamide (DMF). Pure BTDA-ODA polyimide films and phosphorylated nanodiamond containing BTDA-ODA PI films were prepared. The PAA displayed good compatibility with phosphorylated nano-diamond. The morphology of the polyimide (PI)/phosphorylated nano-diamond was characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Chemical structure of polyimide and polyimide (PI)/phosphorylated nano-diamond was characterized by FTIR. SEM and FTIR results showed that the phosphorylated nano-diamond was successfully prepared. Thermal properties of the polyimide (PI)/phosphorylated nanodiamond was characterized by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). TGA results showed that the thermal stability of (PI)/phosphorylated nano-diamond film was increased

  6. Tyrosine phosphorylation in signal transduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roberts, T.M.; Kaplan, D.; Morgan, W.; Keller, T.; Mamon, H.; Piwnica-Worms, H.; Druker, B.; Whitman, M.; Morrison, D.; Cohen, B.; Schaffhausen, B.; Cantley, L.; Rapp, U.

    1988-01-01

    Recent work has focused on the elucidation of the mechanisms by which membrane-bound tyrosine kinases transmit signals within the cell. To examine the role of tyrosine phosphorylation the authors have employed the following strategy. First, they have utilized antibodies to phosphotyrosine (anti-P.Tyr) to identify candidate substrates of various tyrosine kinases, such as pp60 c-src , the CSF- receptor, or the platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) receptor. Second, they have attempted to characterize the biochemical properties of the putative substrates and to determine in what manner these properties are modified by phosphorylation on tyrosine residues. In this endeavor, they are recapitulating the classic biochemical analysis used to study the effect of kinases on metabolism. The final portion of our work consists of using modern molecular biological strategies to clone the genes or cDNAs for the substrates and overproduce the relevant proteins for studies in vitro in defined systems. This paper describes the first and second aspects of this strategy, the identification and characterization of novel substrate molecules

  7. Conformational Clusters of Phosphorylated Tyrosine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelrasoul, Maha; Ponniah, Komala; Mao, Alice; Warden, Meghan S; Elhefnawy, Wessam; Li, Yaohang; Pascal, Steven M

    2017-12-06

    Tyrosine phosphorylation plays an important role in many cellular and intercellular processes including signal transduction, subcellular localization, and regulation of enzymatic activity. In 1999, Blom et al., using the limited number of protein data bank (PDB) structures available at that time, reported that the side chain structures of phosphorylated tyrosine (pY) are partitioned into two conserved conformational clusters ( Blom, N.; Gammeltoft, S.; Brunak, S. J. Mol. Biol. 1999 , 294 , 1351 - 1362 ). We have used the spectral clustering algorithm to cluster the increasingly growing number of protein structures with pY sites, and have found that the pY residues cluster into three distinct side chain conformations. Two of these pY conformational clusters associate strongly with a narrow range of tyrosine backbone conformation. The novel cluster also highly correlates with the identity of the n + 1 residue, and is strongly associated with a sequential pYpY conformation which places two adjacent pY side chains in a specific relative orientation. Further analysis shows that the three pY clusters are associated with distinct distributions of cognate protein kinases.

  8. SOIL PHOSPHORUS THRESHOLDS IN EVALUATING RISK OF ENVIRONMENTAL TRANSFER TO SURFACE WATERS IN SANTA CATARINA, BRAZIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciano Colpo Gatiboni

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The State of Santa Catarina, Brazil, has agricultural and livestock activities, such as pig farming, that are responsible for adding large amounts of phosphorus (P to soils. However, a method is required to evaluate the environmental risk of these high soil P levels. One possible method for evaluating the environmental risk of P fertilization, whether organic or mineral, is to establish threshold levels of soil available P, measured by Mehlich-1 extractions, below which there is not a high risk of P transfer from the soil to surface waters. However, the Mehlich-1 extractant is sensitive to soil clay content, and that factor should be considered when establishing such P-thresholds. The objective of this study was to determine P-thresholds using the Mehlich-1 extractant for soils with different clay contents in the State of Santa Catarina, Brazil. Soil from the B-horizon of an Oxisol with 800 g kg-1 clay was mixed with different amounts of sand to prepare artificial soils with 200, 400, 600, and 800 g kg-1 clay. The artificial soils were incubated for 30 days with moisture content at 80 % of field capacity to stabilize their physicochemical properties, followed by additional incubation for 30 days after liming to raise the pH(H2O to 6.0. Soil P sorption curves were produced, and the maximum sorption (Pmax was determined using the Langmuir model for each soil texture evaluated. Based on the Pmax values, seven rates of P were added to four replicates of each soil, and incubated for 20 days more. Following incubation, available P contents (P-Mehlich-1 and P dissolved in the soil solution (P-water were determined. A change-point value (the P-Mehlich-1 value above which P-water starts increasing sharply was calculated through the use of segmented equations. The maximum level of P that a soil might safely adsorb (P-threshold was defined as 80 % of the change-point value to maintain a margin for environmental safety. The P-threshold value, in mg dm-3

  9. Evaluation of shrinkage polymerization and temperature of different acrylic resins used to splinting transfer copings in indirect impression technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franco, Ana Paula G. O.; Karam, Leandro Z.; Galvão, José R.; Kalinowski, Hypolito J.

    2015-09-01

    The aim of the present study was evaluate the shrinkage polymerization and temperature of different acrylic resins used to splinting transfer copings in indirect impression technique. Two implants were placed in an artificial bone, with the two transfer copings joined with dental floss and acrylic resins; two dental resins are used. Measurements of deformation and temperature were performed with Fiber Braggs grating sensor for 17 minutes. The results revealed that one type of resin shows greater values of polymerization shrinkage than the other. Pattern resins did not present lower values of shrinkage, as usually reported by the manufacturer.

  10. Threonine phosphorylation of rat liver glycogen synthase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arino, J.; Arro, M.; Guinovart, J.J.

    1985-01-01

    32 P-labeled glycogen synthase specifically immunoprecipitated from 32 P-phosphate incubated rat hepatocytes contains, in addition to [ 32 P] phosphoserine, significant levels of [ 32 P] phosphothreonine. When the 32 P-immunoprecipitate was cleaved with CNBr, the [ 32 P] phosphothreonine was recovered in the large CNBr fragment (CB-2, Mapp 28 Kd). Homogeneous rat liver glycogen synthase was phosphorylated by all the protein kinases able to phosphorylate CB-2 in vitro. After analysis of the immunoprecipitated enzyme for phosphoaminoacids, it was observed that only casein kinase II was able to phosphorylate on threonine and 32 P-phosphate was only found in CB-2. These results demonstrate that rat liver glycogen synthase is phosphorylated at threonine site(s) contained in CB-2 and strongly indicate that casein kinase II may play a role in the ''in vivo'' phosphorylation of liver glycogen synthase. This is the first protein kinase reported to phosphorylate threonine residues in liver glycogen synthase

  11. Evaluation of mixing and mass transfer in a stirred pilot scale bioreactor utilizing CFD

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bach, Christian; Yang, Jifeng; Larsson, Hilde Kristina

    2017-01-01

    Knowledge and prediction of mixing and mass transfer in agitated bioreactors is fundamental for process development and scale up. In particular key process parameters such as mixing time and volumetric mass transfer coefficient are essential for bioprocess development. In this work the mixing...... and mass transfer performance of a high power agitated pilot scale bioreactor has been characterized using a novel combination of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) and experimental investigations. The effect of turbulence inside the vessel was predicted using a standard RANS k-ε model. Mixing time...... transfer coefficients were in accordance with the experimental data. This work illustrates the possibility of predicting the two phase fluid dynamic performance of an agitated pilot scale bioreactor using validated CFD models. These models can be applied to illustrate the effect of changing the physical...

  12. Micro-PIXE evaluation of radioactive cesium transfer in contaminated soil samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujishiro, F.; Ishii, K.; Matsuyama, S.; Arai, H.; Ishizaki, A.; Osada, N.; Sugai, H.; Kusano, K.; Nozawa, Y.; Yamauchi, S.; Karahashi, M.; Oshikawa, S.; Kikuchi, K.; Koshio, S.; Watanabe, K.; Suzuki, Y.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • There are radioactively contaminated soils having a radioactive cesium transfer of 0.01. • Micro-PIXE analysis has revealed an existence of phosphorus in a contaminated soil. • Radioactive cesium captured by phosphorus compound would be due to radioactive transfer. -- Abstract: Micro-PIXE analysis has been performed on two soil samples with high cesium activity concentrations. These soil samples were contaminated by fallout from the accident at Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant. One exhibits a radioactive cesium transfer of ∼0.01, and the other shows a radioactive cesium transfer of less than 0.001, even though both samples have high cesium activity concentrations exceeding 10,000 Bq/kg. X-ray spectra and elemental images of the soil samples revealed the presence of chlorine, which can react with cesium to produce an inorganic soluble compound, and phosphorus-containing cesium-capturable organic compounds

  13. Experimental evaluation on natural convection heat transfer of microencapsulated phase change materials slurry in a rectangular heat storage tank

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Yanlai; Rao Zhonghao; Wang Shuangfeng; Zhang Zhao; Li Xiuping

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► It gives heat transfer characteristics in a rectangular heat storage tank as the basic unit for reservoir of thermal storage. ► Onset of natural convection gets easier for the MPCMS with a higher mass concentration. ► It enhances the heat transfer ability of natural convection for the MPCMS. ► Obtained the relationship between Ra and Nu of the MPCMS. - Abstract: The main purpose of this experiment is to evaluate natural convection heat transfer characteristics of microencapsulated PCM (phase change material) slurry (MPCMS) during phase change process in a rectangular heat storage tank heated from the bottom and cooled at the top. The microencapsulated PCM is several material compositions of n-paraffin waxes (mainly nonadecane) as the core materials, outside a layer of a melamine resin wrapped. In the present study, its slurry is used mixing with water. And the specific heat capacity with latent heat shows a peak value at the temperature of about T = 31 °C. We investigate the influences of the phase change process of the MPCMS on natural convection heat transfer. The experimental results indicate that phase change process of the MPCMS promote natural convection heat transfer. The local maximum heat transfer enhancement occurs at approximately T H = 34 °C corresponding to the heated plate temperature. With high mass concentration C m , the onset of natural convection gets easier for the MPCMS. The temperature gradient is larger near top plate and bottom plate of a rectangular heat storage tank. Heat transfer coefficient increases with the phase change of the PCM. And it summarizes that the phase change process of the PCM promote the occurrence of natural convection.

  14. Sensory methods and electronic nose as innovative tools for the evaluation of the aroma transfer properties of food plastic bags.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torri, Luisa; Piochi, Maria

    2016-07-01

    Despite the key role of the sensory quality for food acceptance, the aroma transfer properties of food packaging materials have not yet been studied using sensory approaches. This research investigated the suitability of sensory and electronic nose methods to evaluate the aroma transfer properties of plastic materials that come in contact with food. Four (W, X, Y, and Z) commercial freezer bags (polyethylene) for domestic uses were compared. The degree of the aroma transfer through the materials was estimated as the sensory contamination of an odor absorber food (bread) by an odor releaser food (onion), separated by the bags and stored under frozen conditions. Bread samples were analyzed by means of an electronic nose, and 42 assessors used three different sensory methods (triangle, scoring, and partial sorted Napping tests). From the triangle test, none of the plastic bags acted as a complete aroma barrier, showing a sensory contamination of bread stored in all four materials. Partial sorting Napping results clearly described the sensory contamination of bread as "onion flavor", due to the aroma transfer from the odor releaser food to the odor absorber food through the plastic bag. Scoring tests showed significant (pbags, revealing the highest aroma permeation for W (3.1±0.1), the lowest aroma transfer for X and Y (2.0±0.1), and intermediate aroma transfer properties for Z (2.6±0.1). Electronic nose data were in good agreement with the sensory responses, and a high correlation with the scoring data was observed (R 2 =0.988). The presented approaches had suitable results to provide meaningful information on the aroma transfer properties of freezer plastic bags, and could advantageously be applied in the future for analyzing other finished food containers (e.g. plastic trays, boxes, etc.) or packaging materials of a different nature (multilayer plastic films, biodegradable materials, composites, etc.). Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Evaluating disparities in the U.S. technology transfer ecosystem to improve bench to business translation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weis, James; Bashyam, Ashvin; Ekchian, Gregory J; Paisner, Kathryn; Vanderford, Nathan L

    2018-01-01

    Background: A large number of highly impactful technologies originated from academic research, and the transfer of inventions from academic institutions to private industry is a major driver of economic growth, and a catalyst for further discovery. However, there are significant inefficiencies in academic technology transfer. In this work, we conducted a data-driven assessment of translational activity across United States (U.S.) institutions to better understand how effective universities are in facilitating the transfer of new technologies into the marketplace. From this analysis, we provide recommendations to guide technology transfer policy making at both the university and national level. Methods: Using data from the Association of University Technology Managers U.S. Licensing Activity Survey, we defined a commercialization pipeline that reflects the typical path intellectual property takes; from initial research funding to startup formation and gross income. We use this pipeline to quantify the performance of academic institutions at each step of the process, as well as overall, and identify the top performing institutions via mean reciprocal rank. The corresponding distributions were visualized and disparities quantified using the Gini coefficient. Results: We found significant discrepancies in commercialization activity between institutions; a small number of institutions contribute to the vast majority of total commercialization activity. By examining select top performing institutions, we suggest improvements universities and technology transfer offices could implement to emulate the environment at these high-performing institutions. Conclusion: Significant disparities in technology transfer performance exist in which a select set of institutions produce a majority share of the total technology transfer activity. This disparity points to missed commercialization opportunities, and thus, further investigation into the distribution of technology transfer

  16. Mapping of p140Cap phosphorylation sites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Repetto, Daniele; Aramu, Simona; Boeri Erba, Elisabetta

    2013-01-01

    phosphorylation and tunes its interactions with other regulatory molecules via post-translation modification. In this work, using mass spectrometry, we found that p140Cap is in vivo phosphorylated on tyrosine (Y) within the peptide GEGLpYADPYGLLHEGR (from now on referred to as EGLYA) as well as on three serine...... residues. Consistently, EGLYA has the highest score of in silico prediction of p140Cap phosphorylation. To further investigate the p140Cap function, we performed site specific mutagenesis on tyrosines inserted in EGLYA and EPLYA, a second sequence with the same highest score of phosphorylation. The mutant...

  17. Heat transfer and flow structure evaluation of a synthetic jet emanating from a planar heat sink

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manning, Paul; Persoons, Tim; Murray, Darina

    2014-01-01

    Direct impinging synthetic jets are a proven method for heat transfer enhancement, and have been subject to extensive research. However, despite the vast amount of research into direct synthetic jet impingement, there has been little research investigating the effects of a synthetic jet emanating from a heated surface, this forms the basis of the current research investigation. Both single and multiple orifices are integrated into a planar heat sink forming a synthetic jet, thus allowing the heat transfer enhancement and flow structures to be assessed. The heat transfer analysis highlighted that the multiple orifice synthetic jet resulted in the greatest heat transfer enhancements. The flow structures responsible for these enhancements were identified using a combination of flow visualisation, thermal imaging and thermal boundary layer analysis. The flow structure analysis identified that the synthetic jets decreased the thermal boundary layer thickness resulting in a more effective convective heat transfer process. Flow visualisation revealed entrainment of local air adjacent to the heated surface; this occurred from vortex roll-up at the surface of the heat sink and from the highly sheared jet flow. Furthermore, a secondary entrainment was identified which created a surface impingement effect. It is proposed that all three flow features enhance the heat transfer characteristics of the system.

  18. Transfer Pricing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rohde, Carsten; Rossing, Christian Plesner

    trade internally as the units have to decide what prices should be paid for such inter-unit transfers. One important challenge is to uncover the consequences that different transfer prices have on the willingness in the organizational units to coordinate activities and trade internally. At the same time...... the determination of transfer price will affect the size of the profit or loss in the organizational units and thus have an impact on the evaluation of managers‟ performance. In some instances the determination of transfer prices may lead to a disagreement between coordination of the organizational units...

  19. Phosphorylation of human link proteins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oester, D.A.; Caterson, B.; Schwartz, E.R.

    1986-01-01

    Three link proteins of 48, 44 and 40 kDa were purified from human articular cartilage and identified with monoclonal anti-link protein antibody 8-A-4. Two sets of lower molecular weight proteins of 30-31 kDa and 24-26 kDa also contained link protein epitopes recognized by the monoclonal antibody and were most likely degradative products of the intact link proteins. The link proteins of 48 and 40 kDa were identified as phosphoproteins while the 44 kDa link protein did not contain 32 P. The phosphorylated 48 and 40 kDa link proteins contained approximately 2 moles PO 4 /mole link protein

  20. Petri net-based prediction of therapeutic targets that recover abnormally phosphorylated proteins in muscle atrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Jinmyung; Kwon, Mijin; Bae, Sunghwa; Yim, Soorin; Lee, Doheon

    2018-03-05

    Muscle atrophy, an involuntary loss of muscle mass, is involved in various diseases and sometimes leads to mortality. However, therapeutics for muscle atrophy thus far have had limited effects. Here, we present a new approach for therapeutic target prediction using Petri net simulation of the status of phosphorylation, with a reasonable assumption that the recovery of abnormally phosphorylated proteins can be a treatment for muscle atrophy. The Petri net model was employed to simulate phosphorylation status in three states, i.e. reference, atrophic and each gene-inhibited state based on the myocyte-specific phosphorylation network. Here, we newly devised a phosphorylation specific Petri net that involves two types of transitions (phosphorylation or de-phosphorylation) and two types of places (activation with or without phosphorylation). Before predicting therapeutic targets, the simulation results in reference and atrophic states were validated by Western blotting experiments detecting five marker proteins, i.e. RELA, SMAD2, SMAD3, FOXO1 and FOXO3. Finally, we determined 37 potential therapeutic targets whose inhibition recovers the phosphorylation status from an atrophic state as indicated by the five validated marker proteins. In the evaluation, we confirmed that the 37 potential targets were enriched for muscle atrophy-related terms such as actin and muscle contraction processes, and they were also significantly overlapping with the genes associated with muscle atrophy reported in the Comparative Toxicogenomics Database (p-value net. We generated a list of the potential therapeutic targets whose inhibition recovers abnormally phosphorylated proteins in an atrophic state. They were evaluated by various approaches, such as Western blotting, GO terms, literature, known muscle atrophy-related genes and shortest path analysis. We expect the new proposed strategy to provide an understanding of phosphorylation status in muscle atrophy and to provide assistance towards

  1. SIMAC - A phosphoproteomic strategy for the rapid separation of mono-phosphorylated from multiply phosphorylated peptides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thingholm, Tine E; Jensen, Ole N; Robinson, Phillip J

    2008-01-01

    spectrometric analysis, such as immobilized metal affinity chromatography or titanium dioxide the coverage of the phosphoproteome of a given sample is limited. Here we report a simple and rapid strategy - SIMAC - for sequential separation of mono-phosphorylated peptides and multiply phosphorylated peptides from...... and an optimized titanium dioxide chromatographic method. More than double the total number of identified phosphorylation sites was obtained with SIMAC, primarily from a three-fold increase in recovery of multiply phosphorylated peptides....

  2. Phosphorylated alpha(1 leads to 4) glucans as substrate for potato starch-branching enzyme I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vikso-Nielsen, A.; Blennow, A.; Nielsen, T.H.; Moller, B.L.

    1998-01-01

    The possible involvement of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) starch-branching enzyme I (PSBE-I) in the in vivo synthesis of phosphorylated amylopectin was investigated in in vitro experiments with isolated PSBE-I using 33P-labeled phosphorylated and 3H end-labeled nonphosphorylated alpha(1 leads to 4) glucans as the substrates. From these radiolabeled substrates PSBE-I was shown to catalyze the formation of dual-labeled (3H/33P) phosphorylated branched polysaccharides with an average degree of polymerization of 80 to 85. The relatively high molecular mass indicated that the product was the result of multiple chain-transfer reactions. The presence of alpha(1 leads to 6) branch points was documented by isoamylase treatment and anion-exchange chromatography. Although the initial steps of the in vivo mechanism responsible for phosphorylation of potato starch remains elusive, the present study demonstrates that the enzyme machinery available in potato has the ability to incorporate phosphorylated alpha(1 leads to 4) glucans into neutral polysaccharides in an interchain catalytic reaction. Potato mini tubers synthesized phosphorylated starch from exogenously supplied 33PO4(3-) and [U-14C]Glc at rates 4 times higher than those previously obtained using tubers from fully grown potato plants. This system was more reproducible compared with soil-grown tubers and was therefore used for preparation of 33P-labeled phosphorylated alpha(1 leads to 4) glucan chains

  3. Change of plans: an evaluation of the effectiveness and underlying mechanisms of successful talent transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Rosie; Collins, Dave; MacNamara, Aine; Jones, Martin Ian

    2014-01-01

    Talent transfer (TT) is a recently formalised process used to identify and develop talented athletes by selecting individuals who have already succeeded in one sport and transferring them to another. Despite the increasing popularity of TT amongst national organisations and sport governing body professionals, however, there is little empirical evidence as to its efficacy or how it may be most efficiently employed. Accordingly, this investigation was designed to gain a deeper understanding of the effectiveness and underlying mechanisms of TT, achieved through a two-part study. Stage 1 provided a quantitative analysis of the incidence and distribution or, in this respect, epidemiology of TT, finding the most popular transfer to be sprinting to bobsleigh, with an average transfer age of 19 years. Stage 2 scrutinised the TT process and explored the specific cases revealed in stage 1 by examining the perceptions of four sport science support specialists who had worked in TT settings, finding several emergent themes which, they felt, could explain the TT processes. The most prominent theme was the psychosocial mechanism of TT, an aspect currently missing from TT initiatives, suggesting that current TT systems are poorly structured and should redress their approach to develop a more integrated scheme that encompasses all potential mechanisms of transfer.

  4. Available transfer capability evaluation and enhancement using various FACTS controllers: Special focus on system security

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Venkateswara Rao

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, because of the deregulation of the power industry the continuous increase of the load increases the necessity of calculation of available transfer capability (ATC of a system to analyze the system security. With this calculation, the scheduling of generator can be decided to decrease the system severity. Further, constructing new transmission lines, new substations are very cost effective to meet the increasing load and to increase the transfer capability. Hence, an alternative way to increase the transfer capability is use of flexible ac transmission system (FACTS controllers. In this paper, SSSC, STACOM and UPFC are considered to show the effect of these controllers in enhancing system ATC. For this, a novel current based modeling and optimal location strategy of these controllers are presented. The proposed methodology is tested on standard IEEE-30 bus and IEEE-57 bus test systems with supporting numerical and graphical results.

  5. Analysis and hazard evaluation of heat-transfer fluids for the direct contact cooling system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hong, Joo Hi; Lee, Yeon Hee; Shin, You Hwan; Karng, Sarng Woo; Kim, Seo Young; Kim, Young Gil

    2006-01-01

    This paper discusses several low-temperature heat-transfer fluids, including water-based inorganic salt, organic salt, alcohol/glycol mixtures, silicones, and halogenated hydrocarbons in order to choose the best heat-transfer fluid for the newly designed direct contact refrigeration system. So, it contains a survey on commercial products such as propylene glycol and potassium formate as newly used in super market and food processing refrigeration. The stability of commercial fluids at the working temperature of -20 .deg. C was monitored as a function of time up to two months. And organic and inorganic compositions of candidate fluids were obtained by analytical instruments such as ES, XRF, AAS, ICP-AES, GC, and GC-MS. Analysis results indicate that commercial propylene glycol is very efficient and safe heat transfer fluids for the direct cooling system with liquid phase

  6. Development of tube rupture evaluation code for FBR steam generator (II). Modification of heat transfer model in sodium side

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamada, H.; Kurihara, A.

    2003-05-01

    The thermal effect of sodium-water reaction jet on neighboring heat transfer tubes was examined to rationally evaluate the structural integrity of the tube for overheating rupture under a water leak in an FBR steam generator. Then, the development of new heat transfer model and the application analysis were carried out. Main results in this paper are as follows. (1) The evaluation method of heat flux and heat transfer coefficient (HTC) on the tube exposed to reaction jet was developed. By using the method, it was confirmed that the heat flux could be realistically evaluated in comparison with the previous method. (2) The HTC between reaction jet and the tube was theoretically examined in the two-phase flow model, and new heat transfer model considering the effect of fluid temperature and cover gas pressure was developed. By applying the model, a tentative experimental correlation was conservatively obtained by using SWAT-1R test data. (3) The new model was incorporated to the Tube Rupture Evaluation Code (TRUE), and the conservatism of the model was confirmed by using sodium-water reaction data such as the SWAT-3 tests. (4) In the application analysis of the PFR large leak event, there was no significant difference of calculation results between the new model and previous one; the importance of depressurization in the tube was confirmed. (5) In the application analysis of the Monju evaporator, it was confirmed that the calculation result in the previous model would be more conservative than that in the new one and that the maximum cumulative damage of 25% could be reduced in the new model. (author)

  7. Process evaluation of knowledge transfer across industries: Leveraging Coca-Cola's supply chain expertise for medicine availability in Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linnander, Erika; Yuan, Christina T; Ahmed, Shirin; Cherlin, Emily; Talbert-Slagle, Kristina; Curry, Leslie A

    2017-01-01

    Persistent gaps in the availability of essential medicines have slowed the achievement of global health targets. Despite the supply chain knowledge and expertise that ministries of health might glean from other industries, limited empirical research has examined the process of knowledge transfer from other industries into global public health. We examined a partnership designed to improve the availability of medical supplies in Tanzania by transferring knowledge from The Coca-Cola system to Tanzania's Medical Stores Department (MSD). We conducted a process evaluation including in-depth interviews with 70 participants between July 2011 and May 2014, corresponding to each phase of the partnership, with focus on challenges and strategies to address them, as well as benefits perceived by partners. Partners faced challenges in (1) identifying relevant knowledge to transfer, (2) translating operational solutions from Coca-Cola to MSD, and (3) maintaining momentum between project phases. Strategies to respond to these challenges emerged through real-time problem solving and included (1) leveraging the receptivity of MSD leadership, (2) engaging a boundary spanner to identify knowledge to transfer, (3) promoting local recognition of commonalities across industries, (4) engaging external technical experts to manage translation activities, (5) developing tools with visible benefits for MSD, (6) investing in local relationships, and (7) providing time and space for the partnership model to evolve. Benefits of the partnership perceived by MSD staff included enhanced collaboration and communication, more proactive orientations in managing operations, and greater attention to performance management. Benefits perceived by Coca-Cola staff included strengthened knowledge transfer capability and enhanced job satisfaction. Linking theoretical constructs with practical experiences from the field, we highlight the challenges, emergent strategies, and perceived benefits of a partnership

  8. Process evaluation of knowledge transfer across industries: Leveraging Coca-Cola’s supply chain expertise for medicine availability in Tanzania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Christina T.; Ahmed, Shirin; Cherlin, Emily; Talbert-Slagle, Kristina; Curry, Leslie A.

    2017-01-01

    Persistent gaps in the availability of essential medicines have slowed the achievement of global health targets. Despite the supply chain knowledge and expertise that ministries of health might glean from other industries, limited empirical research has examined the process of knowledge transfer from other industries into global public health. We examined a partnership designed to improve the availability of medical supplies in Tanzania by transferring knowledge from The Coca-Cola system to Tanzania’s Medical Stores Department (MSD). We conducted a process evaluation including in-depth interviews with 70 participants between July 2011 and May 2014, corresponding to each phase of the partnership, with focus on challenges and strategies to address them, as well as benefits perceived by partners. Partners faced challenges in (1) identifying relevant knowledge to transfer, (2) translating operational solutions from Coca-Cola to MSD, and (3) maintaining momentum between project phases. Strategies to respond to these challenges emerged through real-time problem solving and included (1) leveraging the receptivity of MSD leadership, (2) engaging a boundary spanner to identify knowledge to transfer, (3) promoting local recognition of commonalities across industries, (4) engaging external technical experts to manage translation activities, (5) developing tools with visible benefits for MSD, (6) investing in local relationships, and (7) providing time and space for the partnership model to evolve. Benefits of the partnership perceived by MSD staff included enhanced collaboration and communication, more proactive orientations in managing operations, and greater attention to performance management. Benefits perceived by Coca-Cola staff included strengthened knowledge transfer capability and enhanced job satisfaction. Linking theoretical constructs with practical experiences from the field, we highlight the challenges, emergent strategies, and perceived benefits of a

  9. Process evaluation of knowledge transfer across industries: Leveraging Coca-Cola's supply chain expertise for medicine availability in Tanzania.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erika Linnander

    Full Text Available Persistent gaps in the availability of essential medicines have slowed the achievement of global health targets. Despite the supply chain knowledge and expertise that ministries of health might glean from other industries, limited empirical research has examined the process of knowledge transfer from other industries into global public health. We examined a partnership designed to improve the availability of medical supplies in Tanzania by transferring knowledge from The Coca-Cola system to Tanzania's Medical Stores Department (MSD. We conducted a process evaluation including in-depth interviews with 70 participants between July 2011 and May 2014, corresponding to each phase of the partnership, with focus on challenges and strategies to address them, as well as benefits perceived by partners. Partners faced challenges in (1 identifying relevant knowledge to transfer, (2 translating operational solutions from Coca-Cola to MSD, and (3 maintaining momentum between project phases. Strategies to respond to these challenges emerged through real-time problem solving and included (1 leveraging the receptivity of MSD leadership, (2 engaging a boundary spanner to identify knowledge to transfer, (3 promoting local recognition of commonalities across industries, (4 engaging external technical experts to manage translation activities, (5 developing tools with visible benefits for MSD, (6 investing in local relationships, and (7 providing time and space for the partnership model to evolve. Benefits of the partnership perceived by MSD staff included enhanced collaboration and communication, more proactive orientations in managing operations, and greater attention to performance management. Benefits perceived by Coca-Cola staff included strengthened knowledge transfer capability and enhanced job satisfaction. Linking theoretical constructs with practical experiences from the field, we highlight the challenges, emergent strategies, and perceived benefits of a

  10. Micro-PIXE evaluation of radioactive cesium transfer in contaminated soil samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujishiro, F.; Ishii, K.; Matsuyama, S.; Arai, H.; Ishizaki, A.; Osada, N.; Sugai, H.; Kusano, K.; Nozawa, Y.; Yamauchi, S.; Karahashi, M.; Oshikawa, S.; Kikuchi, K.; Koshio, S.; Watanabe, K.; Suzuki, Y.

    2014-01-01

    Micro-PIXE analysis has been performed on two soil samples with high cesium activity concentrations. These soil samples were contaminated by fallout from the accident at Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant. One exhibits a radioactive cesium transfer of ˜0.01, and the other shows a radioactive cesium transfer of less than 0.001, even though both samples have high cesium activity concentrations exceeding 10,000 Bq/kg. X-ray spectra and elemental images of the soil samples revealed the presence of chlorine, which can react with cesium to produce an inorganic soluble compound, and phosphorus-containing cesium-capturable organic compounds.

  11. An Evaluation of the Tax-Transfer Treatment of Married Couples in European Countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Immervoll, Herwig; Kleven, Henrik Jacobsen; Kreiner, Claus Thustrup

    negatively on the earnings of the spouse. This stands in contrast to the previous literature on this question, which has focused on a specific form of positive jointness. The presence of negative jointness is driven by family-based and means-tested transfer programs combined with tax systems that usually...... feature very little jointness. Second, we consider the labor supply distortion on secondary earners relative to primary earners implied by the current tax-transfer systems, and study the welfare effects of small reforms that change the relative taxation of spouses. By adopting a small-reform methodology...

  12. An Evaluation of the Tax-Transfer Treatment of Married Couples in European Countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Immervoll, Herwig; Kleven, Henrik Jacobsen; Kreiner, Claus Thustrup

    2009-01-01

    negatively on the earnings of the spouse. This stands in contrast to the previous literature on this question, which has focused on a specific form of positive jointness. The presence of negative jointness is driven by family-based and means-tested transfer programs combined with tax systems that usually...... feature very little jointness. Second, we consider the labour supply distortion on secondary earners relative to primary earners implied by the current tax-transfer systems, and study the welfare effects of small reforms that change the relative taxation of spouses. By adopting a small-reform methodology...

  13. Continued Evaluation of the Pulse-Echo Ultrasonic Instrument for Critical Velocity Determination during Hanford Tank Waste Transfer Operations - 12518

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Denslow, Kayte M.; Bontha, Jagannadha R.; Adkins, Harold E.; Jenks, Jeromy W.J.; Burns, Carolyn A.; Schonewill, Philip P.; Hopkins, Derek F. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, Washington 99354 (United States); Thien, Michael G.; Wooley, Theodore A. [Washington River Protection Solutions, Richland, Washington 99354 (United States)

    2012-07-01

    The delivery of Hanford double-shell tank waste to the Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) will be governed by specific Waste Acceptance Criteria that are identified in ICD 19 - Interface Control Document for Waste Feed. Waste must be certified as acceptable before it can be delivered to the WTP. The fluid transfer velocity at which solid particulate deposition occurs in waste slurry transport piping (critical velocity) is a key waste parameter that must be accurately characterized to determine if the waste is acceptable for transfer to the WTP. In 2010 Washington River Protection Solutions and the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory began evaluating the ultrasonic PulseEcho instrument to accurately identify critical velocities in a horizontal slurry transport pipeline for slurries containing particles with a mean particle diameter of >50 micrometers. In 2011 the PulseEcho instrument was further evaluated to identify critical velocities for slurries containing fast-settling, high-density particles with a mean particle diameter of <15 micrometers. This two-year evaluation has demonstrated the ability of the ultrasonic PulseEcho instrument to detect the onset of critical velocity for a broad range of physical and rheological slurry properties that are likely encountered during the waste feed transfer operations between the Hanford tank farms and the WTP. (authors)

  14. Global proteomic profiling of phosphopeptides using electron transfer dissociation tandem mass spectrometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Molina, Henrik; Horn, David M; Tang, Ning

    2007-01-01

    Electron transfer dissociation (ETD) is a recently introduced mass spectrometric technique that provides a more comprehensive coverage of peptide sequences and posttranslational modifications. Here, we evaluated the use of ETD for a global phosphoproteome analysis. In all, we identified a total...... of 1,435 phosphorylation sites from human embryonic kidney 293T cells, of which 1,141 ( approximately 80%) were not previously described. A detailed comparison of ETD and collision-induced dissociation (CID) modes showed that ETD identified 60% more phosphopeptides than CID, with an average of 40% more...... fragment ions that facilitated localization of phosphorylation sites. Although our data indicate that ETD is superior to CID for phosphorylation analysis, the two methods can be effectively combined in alternating ETD and CID modes for a more comprehensive analysis. Combining ETD and CID, from this single...

  15. Transfer Entropy for Nonparametric Granger Causality Detection : An Evaluation of Different Resampling Methods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Diks, C.; Fang, H.

    2017-01-01

    The information-theoretical concept transfer entropy is an ideal measure for detecting conditional independence, or Granger causality in a time series setting. The recent literature indeed witnesses an increased interest in applications of entropy-based tests in this direction. However, those tests

  16. Evaluating Transfer Entropy for Normal and y-Order Normal Distributions

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hlaváčková-Schindler, Kateřina; Toulias, T. L.; Kitsos, C. P.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 17, č. 5 (2016), s. 1-20 ISSN 2231-0851 Institutional support: RVO:67985556 Keywords : Transfer entropy * time series * Kullback-Leibler divergence * causality * generalized normal distribution Subject RIV: BC - Control Systems Theory http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2016/AS/hlavackova-schindler-0461261.pdf

  17. Economic evaluations of single- versus double-embryo transfer in IVF.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiddelers, A A A; Severens, J L; Dirksen, C D; Dumoulin, J C M; Land, J A; Evers, J L H

    2007-01-01

    Multiple pregnancies lead to complications and induce high costs. The most successful way to decrease multiple pregnancies in IVF is to transfer only one embryo, which might reduce the efficacy of treatment. The objective of this review is to determine which embryo-transfer policy is most cost-effective: elective single-embryo transfer (eSET) or double-embryo transfer (DET). Several databases were searched for (cost* or econ*) and (single embryo* or double embryo* or one embryo* or two embryo* or elect* embryo or multip* embryo*). On the basis of five exclusion criteria, titles and abstracts were screened by two individual reviewers. The remaining papers were read for further selection, and data were extracted from the selected studies. A total of 496 titles were identified through the searches and resulted in the selection of one observational study and three randomized studies. Study characteristics, total costs and probability of live births were extracted. Besides this, cost-effectiveness and incremental cost-effectiveness were derived. It can be concluded that DET is the most expensive strategy. DET is also most effective if performed in one fresh cycle. eSET is only preferred from a cost-effectiveness point of view when performed in good prognosis patients and when frozen/thawed cycles are included. If frozen/thawed cycles are excluded, the choice between eSET and DET depends on how much society is willing to pay for one extra successful pregnancy.

  18. Evaluation of the Standard Ion Transfer Potentials for PVC Plasticized Membranes from Voltammetric Measurements

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Langmaier, Jan; Stejskalová, Květoslava; Samec, Zdeněk

    2001-01-01

    Roč. 496, č. 1 (2001), s. 143-147 ISSN 0022-0728. [Symposium in Kyoto. Kyoto, 02.03.2000] R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA4040902 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z4040901 Keywords : ion voltammetry * PVC plasticized membrane * standard ion transfer potential Subject RIV: CG - Electrochemistry Impact factor: 1.960, year: 2001

  19. Evaluation of magnetization transfer ratios for breast tissues and breast diseases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sasaki, Fumio; Murai, Hiroshi; Takeuchi, Thouru; Iwase, Takuji; Miura, Shigeto; Mastushima, Shigeru; Oosaki, Hikaru [Aichi Cancer Center, Nagoya (Japan). Hospital; Kinosada, Yasuomi

    1997-03-01

    To determine MTRs for normal structures and benign diseases in the breast two-dimensional magnetization transfer imaging was performed in 62 patients and in 3 young female volunteers. With regard to the MTRs of measurements in the normal breast tissues, fat tissues which is close to simple cysts in MTRs show little transfer of longitudinal magnetization. MTRs of the muscles was 15.15{+-}6.22%, which exceeded those of breast parenchyma. The breast parenchyma didn`t show the change of MTR value due to the difference of patient age and due to variable amount of fat and fibrous tissues. Breast parenchyma in the two young volunteers clearly showed biphasic change of MTR values in accordance with the menstrual cycle; little transfer value was due to hydration in the postovulatory period and high transfer value was due to dehydration in the preovulatory period. In the remaining one volunteer during lactation period, mammary parenchyma shows sever decrease in MTR, because mammary gland is loaded with massive fluid, showing a very high signal intensity on First IR and T2-weighted images. MTR values of benign breast diseases including mastopathy, fibroadenoma and phyllodes tumor had no significant difference from those of the breast parenchyma and muscle. Non-invasive ductal carcinoma was equivalent to breast parenchyma in MTR. (K.H.)

  20. Evaluating Ubiquitous Media Usability Challenges: Content Transfer and Channel Switching Delays

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fleury, Alexandre; Pedersen, Jakob Schou; Larsen, Lars Bo

    2011-01-01

    As ubiquitous media is developing rapidly, new HCI challenges emerge. In this paper, we address usability issues related to the transfer of content between fixed and mobile devices, as well as channel switching delays on mobile devices. We first provide an extensive review of the field. We...

  1. Evaluation of conjugate, radial heat transfer in an internally insulated composite pipe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reurings, C.; Koussios, S.; Bergsma, O.K.; Vergote, K.

    2015-01-01

    In order to compete with steel, a fibre-reinforced composite exhaust wall with a general-purpose resin system requires an effective but lightweight insulation layer. However a lack of experimental methods for heat transfer from turbulent gas flow to pipe walls lined with a porous insulation layer

  2. Activation of purified calcium channels by stoichiometric protein phosphorylation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nunoki, K.; Florio, V.; Catterall, W.A. (Univ. of Washington, Seattle (USA))

    1989-09-01

    Purified dihydropyridine-sensitive calcium channels from rabbit skeletal muscle were reconstituted into phosphatidylcholine vesicles to evaluate the effect of phosphorylation by cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase (PK-A) on their function. Both the rate and extent of {sup 45}Ca{sup 2+} uptake into vesicles containing reconstituted calcium channels were increased severalfold after incubation with ATP and PK-A. The degree of stimulation of {sup 45}Ca{sup 2+} uptake was linearly proportional to the extent of phosphorylation of the alpha 1 and beta subunits of the calcium channel up to a stoichiometry of approximately 1 mol of phosphate incorporated into each subunit. The calcium channels activated by phosphorylation were determined to be incorporated into the reconstituted vesicles in the inside-out orientation and were completely inhibited by low concentrations of dihydropyridines, phenylalkylamines, Cd{sup 2+}, Ni{sup 2+}, and Mg{sup 2+}. The results demonstrate a direct relationship between PK-A-catalyzed phosphorylation of the alpha 1 and beta subunits of the purified calcium channel and activation of the ion conductance activity of the dihydropyridine-sensitive calcium channels.

  3. Activation of purified calcium channels by stoichiometric protein phosphorylation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nunoki, K.; Florio, V.; Catterall, W.A.

    1989-01-01

    Purified dihydropyridine-sensitive calcium channels from rabbit skeletal muscle were reconstituted into phosphatidylcholine vesicles to evaluate the effect of phosphorylation by cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase (PK-A) on their function. Both the rate and extent of 45 Ca 2+ uptake into vesicles containing reconstituted calcium channels were increased severalfold after incubation with ATP and PK-A. The degree of stimulation of 45 Ca 2+ uptake was linearly proportional to the extent of phosphorylation of the alpha 1 and beta subunits of the calcium channel up to a stoichiometry of approximately 1 mol of phosphate incorporated into each subunit. The calcium channels activated by phosphorylation were determined to be incorporated into the reconstituted vesicles in the inside-out orientation and were completely inhibited by low concentrations of dihydropyridines, phenylalkylamines, Cd 2+ , Ni 2+ , and Mg 2+ . The results demonstrate a direct relationship between PK-A-catalyzed phosphorylation of the alpha 1 and beta subunits of the purified calcium channel and activation of the ion conductance activity of the dihydropyridine-sensitive calcium channels

  4. Pinpointing Phosphorylation Sites: Quantitative Filtering and a Novel Site-specific x-Ion Fragment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kelstrup, Christian D; Hekmat, Omid; Francavilla, Chiara

    2011-01-01

    Phosphoproteomics deals with the identification and quantification of thousands of phosphopeptides. Localizing the phosphorylation site is however much more difficult than establishing the identity of a phosphorylated peptide. Further, recent findings have raised doubts of the validity of the site......-phase phosphate rearrangement reactions during collision-induced dissociation (CID) and used these spectra to devise a quantitative filter that by comparing signal intensities of putative phosphorylated fragment ions with their nonphosphorylated counterparts allowed us to accurately pinpoint which fragment ions...... contain a phosphorylated residue and which ones do not. We also evaluated higher-energy collisional dissociation (HCD) and found this to be an accurate method for correct phosphorylation site localization with no gas-phase rearrangements observed above noise level. Analyzing a large set of HCD spectra...

  5. Identification and evaluation of modularization practices in an automotive supplier: progressivity analysis of transferring activities in the supply chain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evandro Prieto

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The automotive value chain has more and more been making room to a strategy of which activities of product design and production have been transferred to the module suppliers. The transfer of value-added activities occurs from assembler to the module suppliers. The former assume the role of integrators within the supply chain. The supply chain participants have started to strengths their competencies in order to obtain advantages in the economy of scale and scope. In this context, the present work aims at investigating the valued-added transfer between first and second tiers of automotive supply chain in new product development and production. The work was carried out from an evaluation of a supplier with regard to modularization. The theoretical background considers the concepts of integrated and modular architecture as well as the progressiveness of competencies among suppliers. It adopts single cased as the research methodological approach. The literature points out that the process of modularization either in product development or in production offer benefits for both sides: assemblers and suppliers. The results from the investigated supplier shows inherent benefits due to the acquisition of new technologies that enable an increase of technical and management learning in projects of new products. Therefore, it demonstrates that in this modularity environment, the potential of value-added transfer is associated to the level of progressiveness of competencies that are incorporated to deliver module solutions to assemblers; the investigated supplier can be categorized in an “embrionary” stage.

  6. Technology transfer in the energy domain in the Canton of Berne. Evaluation 1996. Final Report; Technologievermittlung im Energiebereich des Kantons Bern. Begleitende Evaluation 1996. Schlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meier, R.; Schaerer, H.U.; Jakob, E.; Kriesi, R.; Spahr, I.; Schaefer, H.; Kuster, J.

    1996-12-01

    The Canton of Bern has promoted the transfer of technology since 1993. Together with the Department of Energy Economy, it began a pilot project in this field in 1995. An energy expert from the private sector was given the task of building up contacts between the energy research and industry. In this report, an independent expert evaluates this pilot project as positive and recommends its continuation. (author) figs., tabs., 10 refs.

  7. Modulation of P1798 lymphosarcoma proliferation by protein phosphorylation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michnoff, C.A.H.

    1983-01-01

    The role of protein kinases in modulating cell proliferation was examined. Studies characterized the regulation of cell proliferation by adenosine 3':5'-monophosphate-dependent protein kinase (cA-Pk). Calcium/calmodulin-dependent myosin light chain kinase (MLCK) was isolated and examined as a potential substrate regulated by cA-PK in the rapidly proliferating P1798 lymphosarcoma. Modulation of cell proliferation by cA-PK was characterized by quantitating cell division by [methyl- 3 H] thymidine ([ 3 H]-dT) incorporation into DNA, cAMP accumulations, and activation of cA-PK using P1798 lymphosarcoma cells. Epinephrine and prostaglandin E 1 (PGE 1 ) were demonstrated to suppress [ 3 H]-dT incorporation into DNA, to stimulate cAMP accumulation, and to activate cA-PK with dose-dependency. Calcium/calmodulin-dependent MLCK was partially purified from P1798 lymphosarcoma. P1798 MLCK phosphorylated myosin regulatory light chains (P-LC) from thymus, cardiac and skeletal muscles. One mol [ 32 Pi] was transferred into one mol cardiac or skeletal P-LC by P1798 MLCK. Apparent Km values of 65 μM and 51 μM were determined for ATP and cardiac P-LC, respectively. The apparent molecular weight of P1798 MLCK was 135,000. P1798 MLCK was phosphorylated by cA-PK. Phosphorylated MLCK showed a 41% decrease in calcium-dependent activity. Two additional protein kinases from P1798 lymphosarcoma phosphorylated cardiac and skeletal light chains

  8. Experimental analysis and evaluation of the mass transfer process in a trickle-bed reactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.D. Silva

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available A transient experimental analysis of a three-phase descendent-cocurrent trickle-bed H2O/CH4-Ar/g -Al2O3 system was made using the stimulus-response technique, with the gas phase as a reference. Methane was used as a tracer and injected into the argon feed and the concentration vs time profiles were obtained at the entrance and exit of the bed, which were maintained at 298K and 1.013 10(5 Pa. A mathematical model for the tracer was developed to estimate the axial dispersion overall gas-liquid mass transfer and liquid-solid mass transfer coefficients. Experimental and theoretical results were compared and shown to be in good agreement. The model was validated by two additional experiments, and the values of the coefficients obtained above were confirmed.

  9. Design Evaluation of UIS and In-vessel Fuel Transfer Machine for a 1200MWe SFR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jae Han; Kim, Seok Hoon; Park, Chang Gyu; Lee, Su Yeon

    2008-11-15

    The report describes the structural applicability of the upper internal structure (UIS) and the in-vessel fuel transfer machine for a 1200MWe sodium cooled fast reactor (SFR) of a pool type. In the conceptual design, a two rotating plug type as a refueling system is considered. For the two rotating plug type, the diameters of large and small rotating plugs are determined by 7.2m and 5.6m, respectively. Through the use of an inner fuel transfer machine and the lift change machine with a fixed arm length of 1.10m installed on a small rotating plug, all the core assemblies are accessed within 7mm accuracy. The UIS diameter is determined by 4.7m, which includes the all control drive lines in upper part, the diameter of UIS lower part is restricted by 4.4 m to secure the rotation angle of a refueling machine.

  10. Evaluation of food chain transfer data for use in accident consequence assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coughtrey, P.J.; Kirton, J.A.; Mitchell, N.G.

    1991-01-01

    Input data for the food chain transport component of radiological assessment models are summarised in the context of the sources of information available prior to the Chernobyl accident and those derived after the accident. Particular attention is devoted to interception and retention soil-to-plant, and plant-to-animal transfer, and to the applicability of environmental data to both equilibrium and time-dependent models. It is argued that much of the current uncertainty in parameter values for use in radiological assessment models reflects lack of understanding of processes involved in the various stages of transfer of radionuclides to man. The Chernobyl accident highlighted this lack of fundamental knowledge and illustrated a number of areas where further research and model development is justified. These areas are identified and suggestions given for appropriate research to support model development

  11. Evaluation of the induced electric field and compliance procedure for a wireless power transfer system in an electrical vehicle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laakso, Ilkka; Hirata, Akimasa

    2013-01-01

    In this study, an induced electric field in a human body is evaluated for the magnetic field leaked from a wireless power transfer system for charging an electrical vehicle. The magnetic field from the wireless power transfer system is modelled computationally, and its effectiveness is confirmed by comparison with the field measured in a previous study. The induced electric field in a human standing around the vehicle is smaller than the allowable limit prescribed in international guidelines, although the magnetic field strength in the human body is locally higher than the allowable external field strength. Correlation between the external magnetic field and the induced electric field is confirmed to be reasonable at least in the standing posture, which is the case discussed in the international standard. Based on this finding, we discussed and confirmed the applicability of a three-point magnetic field measurement at heights of 0.5, 1.0, and 1.5 m for safety compliance. (paper)

  12. Confirmation of quasi-static approximation in SAR evaluation for a wireless power transfer system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirata, Akimasa; Ito, Fumihiro; Laakso, Ilkka

    2013-09-07

    The present study discusses the applicability of the magneto-quasi-static approximation to the calculation of the specific absorption rate (SAR) in a cylindrical model for a wireless power transfer system. Resonant coils with different parameters were considered in the 10 MHz band. A two-step quasi-static method that is comprised of the method of moments and the scalar-potential finite-difference methods is applied, which can consider the effects of electric and magnetic fields on the induced SAR separately. From our computational results, the SARs obtained from our quasi-static method are found to be in good agreement with full-wave analysis for different positions of the cylindrical model relative to the wireless power transfer system, confirming the applicability of the quasi-static approximation in the 10 MHz band. The SAR induced by the external electric field is found to be marginal as compared to that induced by the magnetic field. Thus, the dosimetry for the external magnetic field, which may be marginally perturbed by the presence of biological tissue, is confirmed to be essential for SAR compliance in the 10 MHz band or lower. This confirmation also suggests that the current in the coil rather than the transferred power is essential for SAR compliance.

  13. Confirmation of quasi-static approximation in SAR evaluation for a wireless power transfer system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirata, Akimasa; Ito, Fumihiro; Laakso, Ilkka

    2013-01-01

    The present study discusses the applicability of the magneto-quasi-static approximation to the calculation of the specific absorption rate (SAR) in a cylindrical model for a wireless power transfer system. Resonant coils with different parameters were considered in the 10 MHz band. A two-step quasi-static method that is comprised of the method of moments and the scalar-potential finite-difference methods is applied, which can consider the effects of electric and magnetic fields on the induced SAR separately. From our computational results, the SARs obtained from our quasi-static method are found to be in good agreement with full-wave analysis for different positions of the cylindrical model relative to the wireless power transfer system, confirming the applicability of the quasi-static approximation in the 10 MHz band. The SAR induced by the external electric field is found to be marginal as compared to that induced by the magnetic field. Thus, the dosimetry for the external magnetic field, which may be marginally perturbed by the presence of biological tissue, is confirmed to be essential for SAR compliance in the 10 MHz band or lower. This confirmation also suggests that the current in the coil rather than the transferred power is essential for SAR compliance. (note)

  14. Did you have an impact? A theory-based method for planning and evaluating knowledge-transfer and exchange activities in occupational health and safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, Desré M; Wells, Richard P; Carlan, Nicolette; Aversa, Theresa; Bigelow, Philip P; Dixon, Shane M; McMillan, Keith

    2013-01-01

    Few evaluation tools are available to assess knowledge-transfer and exchange interventions. The objective of this paper is to develop and demonstrate a theory-based knowledge-transfer and exchange method of evaluation (KEME) that synthesizes 3 theoretical frameworks: the promoting action on research implementation of health services (PARiHS) model, the transtheoretical model of change, and a model of knowledge use. It proposes a new term, keme, to mean a unit of evidence-based transferable knowledge. The usefulness of the evaluation method is demonstrated with 4 occupational health and safety knowledge transfer and exchange (KTE) implementation case studies that are based upon the analysis of over 50 pre-existing interviews. The usefulness of the evaluation model has enabled us to better understand stakeholder feedback, frame our interpretation, and perform a more comprehensive evaluation of the knowledge use outcomes of our KTE efforts.

  15. Membrane phosphorylation and nerve cell function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baer, P.R.

    1982-01-01

    This thesis deals with the phosphorylation of membrane components. In part I a series of experiments is described using the hippocampal slice as a model system. In part II a different model system - cultured hybrid cells - is used to study protein and lipid phosphorylation, influenced by incubation with neuropeptides. In part III in vivo and in vitro studies are combined to study protein phosphorylation after neuroanatomical lesions. In a section of part II (Page 81-90) labelling experiments of the membrane inositol-phospholipids are described. 32 P-ATP was used to label phospholipids in intact hybrid cells, and short incubations were found to be the most favourable. (C.F.)

  16. Protein-Tyrosine Phosphorylation in Bacillus subtilis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mijakovic, Ivan; Petranovic, Dina; Bottini, N.

    2005-01-01

    phosphorylation, indicating that this post-translational modifi cation could regulate physiological processes ranging from stress response and exopolysaccharide synthesis to DNA metabolism. Some interesting work in this fi eld was done in Bacillus subtilis , and we here present the current state of knowledge...... on protein-tyrosine phosphorylation in this gram-positive model organism. With its two kinases, two kinase modulators, three phosphatases and at least four different tyrosine-phosphorylated substrates, B. subtilis is the bacterium with the highest number of presently known participants in the global network...

  17. Evaluation of appearance transfer and persistence in central face transplantation: a computer simulation analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pomahac, Bohdan; Aflaki, Pejman; Nelson, Charles; Balas, Benjamin

    2010-05-01

    Partial facial allotransplantation is an emerging option in reconstruction of central facial defects, providing function and aesthetic appearance. Ethical debate partly stems from uncertainty surrounding identity aspects of the procedure. There is no objective evidence regarding the effect of donors' transplanted facial structures on appearance change of the recipients and its influence on facial recognition of donors and recipients. Full-face frontal view color photographs of 100 volunteers were taken at a distance of 150 cm with a digital camera (Nikon/DX80). Photographs were taken in front of a blue background, and with a neutral facial expression. Using image-editing software (Adobe-Photoshop-CS3), central facial transplantation was performed between participants. Twenty observers performed a familiar 'facial recognition task', to identify 40 post-transplant composite faces presented individually on the screen at a viewing distance of 60 cm, with an exposure time of 5s. Each composite face comprised of a familiar and an unfamiliar face to the observers. Trials were done with and without external facial features (head contour, hair and ears). Two variables were defined: 'Appearance Transfer' refers to transfer of donor's appearance to the recipient. 'Appearance Persistence' deals with the extent of recipient's appearance change post-transplantation. A t-test was run to determine if the rates of Appearance Transfer differed from Appearance Persistence. Average Appearance Transfer rate (2.6%) was significantly lower than Appearance Persistence rate (66%) (P<0.001), indicating that donor's appearance transfer to the recipient is negligible, whereas recipients will be identified the majority of the time. External facial features were important in facial recognition of recipients, evidenced by a significant rise in Appearance Persistence from 19% in the absence of external features to 66% when those features were present (P<0.01). This study may be helpful in the

  18. Insulin treatment promotes tyrosine phosphorylation of PKR and inhibits polyIC induced PKR threonine phosphorylation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swetha, Medchalmi; Ramaiah, Kolluru V A

    2015-11-01

    Tyrosine phosphorylation of insulin receptor beta (IRβ) in insulin treated HepG2 cells is inversely correlated to ser(51) phosphorylation in the alpha-subunit of eukaryotic initiation factor 2 (eIF2α) that regulates protein synthesis. Insulin stimulates interaction between IRβ and PKR, double stranded RNA-dependent protein kinase, also known as EIF2AK2, and phosphorylation of tyrosine residues in PKR, as analyzed by immunoprecipitation and pull down assays using anti-IRβ and anti-phosphotyrosine antibodies, recombinant IRβ and immunopurified PKR. Further polyIC or synthetic double stranded RNA-induced threonine phosphorylation or activation of immunopurified and cellular PKR is suppressed in the presence of insulin treated purified IRβ and cell extracts. Acute, but not chronic, insulin treatment enhances tyrosine phosphorylation of IRβ, its interaction with PKR and tyrosine phosphorylation of PKR. In contrast, lipopolysaccharide that stimulates threonine phosphorylation of PKR and eIF2α phosphorylation and AG 1024, an inhibitor of the tyrosine kinase activity of IRβ, reduces PKR association with the receptor, IRβ in HepG2 cells. These findings therefore may suggest that tyrosine phosphorylated PKR plays a role in the regulation of insulin induced protein synthesis and in maintaining insulin sensitivity, whereas, suppression of polyIC-mediated threonine phosphorylation of PKR by insulin compromises its ability to fight against virus infection in host cells. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. 41 CFR 102-75.75 - What is the most important consideration in evaluating a proposed transfer of excess real property?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What is the most... Guidelines § 102-75.75 What is the most important consideration in evaluating a proposed transfer of excess real property? In every case of a proposed transfer of excess real property, the most important...

  20. Acoustic transfer function of cavity and its application to rapid evaluation of sound field at low frequency band

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YIN Gang; CHEN Hualing; HU Xuanli; HUANG Xieqing

    2001-01-01

    A new method to obtain numerical solution of Acoustic Transfer Function (ATF) by BEM is presented. For a simply supported panel backed by a rectangular cavity at low frequency band (0-200 Hz), the frequency property of ATF is analyzed. The relation between the accuracy of the rapid evaluation of sound field and the discretization schemes of the vibrational panel is discussed. The result shows that the method to obtain ATF and the rapid evaluation of sound field using the ATF is suitable to low frequency band. If an appropriate discretization scheme is choosed based on the frequency involved and the effort to obtain ATF, the accuracy of the rapid evaluation of sound field is acceptable.

  1. Evaluation of technology transferring: The experiences of the first Navy Domestic Technology Transfair. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1989-12-31

    In August 1989 the Office of the Chief of Naval Research and the American Defense Preparedness Association conducted the first Navy Domestic Technology Transfair. The objective of the Transfair was to expose the US Navy`s years of solid experience across a broad span of technology to organizations outside of the Navy. It was an opportunity for private industry to capitalize on the Navy developed technology and this opening for industry was the primary focus of the Transfair. The event provided a unique forum to meet leading Navy scientific and engineering innovators face-to-face. Information was available concerning licensing of naval technology that was for sale to the private sector. Further, discussions covered opportunities for new cooperative research and development agreements with Navy laboratories and R&D activities. These agreements were authorized under the Federal Technology Transfer Act of 1986. The Transfair program was conducted in such a manner as to allow each Navy inventor, either scientist or engineer, to present a system, piece of hardware, or licensable concept in a formal paper presentation. Then, the Navy inventors were available in two, two-hour periods in which individual discussions were conducted, with attendees pursuing specific venues of cooperative agreements as desired. This report provides specifics concerning the technologies that were made available for transfer to the private sector during the Transfair. The Transfair concept sought to add special emphasis to the opening that the 1988 Technology Transfer Act brought to the marketplace. The experience was a step in the education of the possibilities for cooperation between the government and the private sector to share technology. Of additional significance is the economic enhancement for business expansion with the application of the technology to markets beyond defense.

  2. Evaluation of the results of the IAEA/FAO CRP on tropical transfer factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Twining, J.

    1998-01-01

    Future development of tropical countries will include nuclear power. This is particularly true following the recent attention given to the urgent need to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. From this, it is apparent that there is a need to have the ability to undertake dose assessments within tropical and sub-tropical regions. This includes knowledge of appropriate biological transfer factors for the region. However, most previous transfer factor studies were undertaken within temperate regions, predominantly in the Northern Hemisphere. Following a preliminary data survey, there was thus found to be a paucity of data for tropical and sub-tropical regions (excluding marine ecosystems). In an attempt to rectify this situation, the IAEA and FAO instigated a cooperative research program (CRP) entitled 'Transfer of radionuclides from air, soil and freshwater to the food chain of man in tropical and subtropical environments.' This paper is a synopsis of the findings of the three year CRP project. It is important to recognize that the data used in this presentation are derived from contributors and their colleagues in several countries. A list of chief investigators is given. Dr Martin Frissel, Secretary, European IUR, deserves a special mention for his collation of the CRP data. Some of his figures were used in the presentation or reproduced in this synopsis. The participants undertook regional literature and data surveys, field sampling and experimental investigations. The experimental studies were run by following, as closely as practicable, a suite of standard protocols that helped to reduce variability and errors. The experimental studies comprised two main groups: soil to plant, and: freshwater to fish. Quality assurance on analytical work was performed using intercomparison tests with standard reference materials. The reporting of data was also standardised to facilitate collation and subsequent multivariate statistical analysis. The statistical analysis of the entire

  3. Evaluation of transfer functions of power transformers; Automatisierte Auswertung der Uebertragungsfunktionen von Leistungstransformatoren

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leibfried, T. [Siemens Transformatorenwerk, Nuernberg (Germany); Feser, K. [Stuttgart Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Energieuebertragung und Hochspannungstechnik

    1998-01-12

    A new method of automated processing of transfer functions from impulse measurements in the test laboratory or from on-site measurements is presented. Using this method a computer is able to provide a preliminary decision whether a transformer failure occurred or not, without needing support by staff. (orig.) [Deutsch] Die Verfasser beschreiben eine neue Methode zur automatisierten Auswertung von Uebertragungsfunktionen von Leistungstransformatoren. Die Uebertragungsfunktion kann dabei entweder aus den bei der Stossspannungspruefung oder bei Vor-Ort-Messungen aufgezeichneten transienten Signalen berechnet werden. Mit dieser Methode kann der Rechner eine Vorentscheidung ueber einen eventuell vorhandenen Defekt im Transformator liefern, ohne dass dazu das Eingreifen von Fachpersonal notwendig ist. (orig.)

  4. Protein phosphorylation in bcterial signaling and regulation

    KAUST Repository

    Mijakovic, Ivan

    2016-01-01

    . Evolutionary studies based on genome comparison indicate that BY-kinases exist only in bacteria. They are non-essential (present in about 40% bacterial genomes), and their knockouts lead to pleiotropic phenotypes, since they phosphorylate many substrates

  5. Light-regulated phosphorylation of maize phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase plays a vital role in its activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Qing; Liu, Xiao-Yu; Mei, Ying-Chang; Gao, Zhi-Fang; Chen, Yi-Bo; Qian, Chun-Rong; Hao, Yu-Bo; Wang, Bai-Chen

    2014-05-01

    Phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK)-the major decarboxylase in PEPCK-type C4 plants-is also present in appreciable amounts in the bundle sheath cells of NADP-malic enzyme-type C4 plants, such as maize (Zea mays), where it plays an apparent crucial role during photosynthesis (Wingler et al., in Plant Physiol 120(2):539-546, 1999; Furumoto et al., in Plant Mol Biol 41(3):301-311, 1999). Herein, we describe the use of mass spectrometry to demonstrate phosphorylation of maize PEPCK residues Ser55, Thr58, Thr59, and Thr120. Western blotting indicated that the extent of Ser55 phosphorylation dramatically increases in the leaves of maize seedlings when the seedlings are transferred from darkness to light, and decreases in the leaves of seedlings transferred from light to darkness. The effect of light on phosphorylation of this residue is opposite that of the effect of light on PEPCK activity, with the decarboxylase activity of PEPCK being less in illuminated leaves than in leaves left in the dark. This inverse relationship between PEPCK activity and the extent of phosphorylation suggests that the suppressive effect of light on PEPCK decarboxylation activity might be mediated by reversible phosphorylation of Ser55.

  6. Development of a Technology Transfer Score for Evaluating Research Proposals: Case Study of Demand Response Technologies in the Pacific Northwest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estep, Judith

    Investment in Research and Development (R&D) is necessary for innovation, allowing an organization to maintain a competitive edge. The U.S. Federal Government invests billions of dollars, primarily in basic research technologies to help fill the pipeline for other organizations to take the technology into commercialization. However, it is not about just investing in innovation, it is about converting that research into application. A cursory review of the research proposal evaluation criteria suggests that there is little to no emphasis placed on the transfer of research results. This effort is motivated by a need to move research into application. One segment that is facing technology challenges is the energy sector. Historically, the electric grid has been stable and predictable; therefore, there were no immediate drivers to innovate. However, an aging infrastructure, integration of renewable energy, and aggressive energy efficiency targets are motivating the need for research and to put promising results into application. Many technologies exist or are in development but the rate at which they are being adopted is slow. The goal of this research is to develop a decision model that can be used to identify the technology transfer potential of a research proposal. An organization can use the model to select the proposals whose research outcomes are more likely to move into application. The model begins to close the chasm between research and application--otherwise known as the "valley of death". A comprehensive literature review was conducted to understand when the idea of technology application or transfer should begin. Next, the attributes that are necessary for successful technology transfer were identified. The emphasis of successful technology transfer occurs when there is a productive relationship between the researchers and the technology recipient. A hierarchical decision model, along with desirability curves, was used to understand the complexities of the

  7. Gene doping detection: evaluation of approach for direct detection of gene transfer using erythropoietin as a model system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baoutina, A; Coldham, T; Bains, G S; Emslie, K R

    2010-08-01

    As clinical gene therapy has progressed toward realizing its potential, concern over misuse of the technology to enhance performance in athletes is growing. Although 'gene doping' is banned by the World Anti-Doping Agency, its detection remains a major challenge. In this study, we developed a methodology for direct detection of the transferred genetic material and evaluated its feasibility for gene doping detection in blood samples from athletes. Using erythropoietin (EPO) as a model gene and a simple in vitro system, we developed real-time PCR assays that target sequences within the transgene complementary DNA corresponding to exon/exon junctions. As these junctions are absent in the endogenous gene due to their interruption by introns, the approach allows detection of trace amounts of a transgene in a large background of the endogenous gene. Two developed assays and one commercial gene expression assay for EPO were validated. On the basis of ability of these assays to selectively amplify transgenic DNA and analysis of literature on testing of gene transfer in preclinical and clinical gene therapy, it is concluded that the developed approach would potentially be suitable to detect gene doping through gene transfer by analysis of small volumes of blood using regular out-of-competition testing.

  8. Evaluation of a cross contamination model describing transfer of salmonella spp. and listeria monocytogenes during grinding of pork and beef

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Cleide Oliveira de Almeida; Hansen, Tina Beck; Aabo, Søren

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: The cross contamination model (Møller et al. 2012) was evaluated to investigate its capability of describing transfer of Salmonella spp. and Listeria monocytogenes during grinding of pork and beef of varying sizes (50 – 324 g) and numbers of pieces to be ground (10 – 100), in two...... processing. QMRA risk estimates and TTP both revealed that risk attribution from grinding was mainly influenced by sharpness of grinder knife > specific grinder > grinding temperature whereas the specific pathogen was of minor importance....

  9. In vitro evaluation of genotoxic effects under magnetic resonant coupling wireless power transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizuno, Kohei; Shinohara, Naoki; Miyakoshi, Junji

    2015-04-07

    Wireless power transfer (WPT) technology using the resonant coupling phenomenon has been widely studied, but there are very few studies concerning the possible relationship between WPT exposure and human health. In this study, we investigated whether exposure to magnetic resonant coupling WPT has genotoxic effects on WI38VA13 subcloned 2RA human fibroblast cells. WPT exposure was performed using a helical coil-based exposure system designed to transfer power with 85.4% efficiency at a 12.5-MHz resonant frequency. The magnetic field at the positions of the cell culture dishes is approximately twice the reference level for occupational exposure as stated in the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP) guidelines. The specific absorption rate at the positions of the cell culture dishes matches the respective reference levels stated in the ICNIRP guidelines. For assessment of genotoxicity, we studied cell growth, cell cycle distribution, DNA strand breaks using the comet assay, micronucleus formation, and hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyltransferase (HPRT) gene mutation, and did not detect any significant effects between the WPT-exposed cells and control cells. Our results suggest that WPT exposure under the conditions of the ICNIRP guidelines does not cause detectable cellular genotoxicity.

  10. A dynamic compartment model for evaluating transfer of radionuclide into rice-plant after acute release

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keum, D.K.; Lee, H.S.; Choi, H.J.; Kang, H.S.; Lee, C.W.

    2004-01-01

    In this paper a dynamic compartment model is presented to estimate the transfer of radionuclides deposited on rice-fields after an accidental release. The present model includes a surface water compartment and a direct shoot-base absorption from the surface water to the rice plant to account for the flooded condition of rice-fields, which are major features discriminating the present model from the existing model. In order to test the validity of model, a number of simulated Cs-137 deposition experiments were performed while growing rice-plant in a green house. For the experiments the radionuclide was indirectly treated in the root zone soil before transplanting and on the surface water without a direct contamination of rice-plant after transplanting. In the first year of deposition the shoot-base absorption was a predominant process for the transfer of radionuclide into rice when the radionuclide was treated on the surface water, and from the second year, the root-uptake was dominant. The model calculation predicted reasonably well the first year experimental result showing the importance of shoot base absorption as well as the concentration of rice-body and grain measured from respective rice-plant grown consecutively on the contaminated soils for years. (author)

  11. In Vitro Evaluation of Genotoxic Effects under Magnetic Resonant Coupling Wireless Power Transfer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kohei Mizuno

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Wireless power transfer (WPT technology using the resonant coupling phenomenon has been widely studied, but there are very few studies concerning the possible relationship between WPT exposure and human health. In this study, we investigated whether exposure to magnetic resonant coupling WPT has genotoxic effects on WI38VA13 subcloned 2RA human fibroblast cells. WPT exposure was performed using a helical coil-based exposure system designed to transfer power with 85.4% efficiency at a 12.5-MHz resonant frequency. The magnetic field at the positions of the cell culture dishes is approximately twice the reference level for occupational exposure as stated in the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP guidelines. The specific absorption rate at the positions of the cell culture dishes matches the respective reference levels stated in the ICNIRP guidelines. For assessment of genotoxicity, we studied cell growth, cell cycle distribution, DNA strand breaks using the comet assay, micronucleus formation, and hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyltransferase (HPRT gene mutation, and did not detect any significant effects between the WPT-exposed cells and control cells. Our results suggest that WPT exposure under the conditions of the ICNIRP guidelines does not cause detectable cellular genotoxicity.

  12. Evaluation of water transfer from saturated lightweight aggregate to cement paste matrix by neutron radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maruyama, I.; Kanematsu, M.; Noguchi, T.; Iikura, H.; Teramoto, A.; Hayano, H.

    2009-01-01

    In high-strength concrete with low water-cement ratio, self-desiccation occurs due to cement hydration and causes shrinkage and an increased risk of cracking. While high-strength concrete has a denser matrix than normal-strength concrete, resulting in lower permeability, early-age cracks would cancel out this advantage. For the mitigation of this self-desiccation and resultant shrinkage, water-saturated porous aggregate, such as artificial lightweight aggregate, may be used in high-strength concrete. In this contribution, for the purpose of clarification of the volume change of high-strength concrete containing water-saturated lightweight aggregate, water transfer from the lightweight aggregate to cement paste matrix is visualized by neutron radiography. As a result, it is clear that water was supplied to the cement paste matrix in the range 3-8 mm from the surface of the aggregate, and the osmotic forces may yield water transfer around lightweight aggregate in a few hours after mixing.

  13. Evaluation of magnetization transfer ratio in ascites and pelvic cystic masses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okada, Susumu [Nippon Medical School, Inba, Chiba (Japan). Chiba-Hokuso Hospital; Kato, Tomoyasu; Yamashita, Takashi [and others

    1997-12-01

    To investigate the feasibility of magnetization transfer contrast (MTC) in characterization of pelvic cystic masses and ascites, in vitro studies were performed. Cystic fluids were taken from operative specimens of ten ovarian cystic masses (five mucinous cystadenomas, one cystadenocarcinoma, two serous cystadenocarcinomas, two clear cell carcinomas) and three non-ovarian pelvic cysts (one paraovarian cyst, one pseudomyxoma peritonei, one pelvic abscess). Samples of ascitic flied were drawn by peritoneal puncture in twenty patients (thirteen with peritonitis carcinomatosa, five with liver dysfunction, two with renal dysfunction). Total protein content in ascitic fluids was measured. Magnetization transfer ratio (MTR) was calculated by the signal intensities under the gradient echo sequence with and without the application of off-resonance pulses. The relative signal intensities (RSI) relative to water in T{sub 1} and T{sub 2} weighted images were obtained using spin echo sequence. There was no correlation between histological type of pelvic mass and MTR and RSI. Good correlation (R{sup 2}=0.761) was obtained between MTR and protein content in ascitic fluids, whereas no correlation was noted between RSI and protein content in ascitic fluids. These results suggest that MTC is not useful in the characterization of pelvic masses but is applicable in the differentiation between exudative ascites and transudative ascites. (author)

  14. An Evaluation of Organizational and Experience Factors Affecting the Perceived Transfer of U.S. Air Force Basic Combat Skills Training

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Crow, Shirley D

    2007-01-01

    ... they learned in training on the job or in a hostile environment. The analysis used structural equation modeling to evaluate the paths between each of the factors and perceived training transfer...

  15. An Evaluation of Organizational and Experience Factors Affecting the Perceived Transfer of U.S. Air Force Basic Combat Skills Training

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Crow, Shirley D

    2007-01-01

    .... In this study, basic combat skills training was evaluated using a number of training factors that potentially affect trainees' perception of training transfer, or their ability to apply the skills...

  16. Fibronectin phosphorylation by ecto-protein kinase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imada, Sumi; Sugiyama, Yayoi; Imada, Masaru

    1988-01-01

    The presence of membrane-associated, extracellular protein kinase (ecto-protein kinase) and its substrate proteins was examined with serum-free cultures of Swiss 3T3 fibroblast. When cells were incubated with [γ- 32 ]ATP for 10 min at 37 degree C, four proteins with apparent molecular weights between 150 and 220 kDa were prominently phosphorylated. These proteins were also radiolabeled by lactoperoxidase catalyzed iodination and were sensitive to mild tryptic digestion, suggesting that they localized on the cell surface or in the extracellular matrix. Phosphorylation of extracellular proteins with [γ- 32 P]ATP in intact cell culture is consistent with the existence of ecto-protein kinase. Anti-fibronectin antibody immunoprecipitated one of the phosphoproteins which comigrated with a monomer and a dimer form of fibronectin under reducing and nonreducing conditions of electrophoresis, respectively. The protein had affinity for gelatin as demonstrated by retention with gelatin-conjugated agarose. This protein substrate of ecto-protein kinase was thus concluded to be fibronectin. The sites of phosphorylation by ecto-protein kinase were compared with those of intracellularly phosphorylated fibronectin by the analysis of radiolabeled amino acids and peptides. Ecto-protein kinase phosphorylated fibronectin at serine and threonine residues which were distinct from the sites of intracellular fibronectin phosphorylation

  17. Phosphorylation of human skeletal muscle myosin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Houston, M.E.; Lingley, M.D.; Stuart, D.S.; Hoffman-Goetz, L.

    1986-01-01

    Phosphorylation of the P-light chains (phosphorylatable light chains) in human skeletal muscle myosin was studied in vitro and in vivo under resting an d contracted conditions. biopsy samples from rested vastus lateralis muscle of male and female subjects were incubated in oxygenated physiological solution at 30 0 C. Samples frozen following a quiescent period showed the presence of only unphosphorylated P-light chains designated LC2f (light chain two of fast myosin) CL2s and LC2s'(light chains two of slow myosin). Treatment with caffeine (10 mM) or direct electrical stimulation resulted in the appearance of three additional bands which were identified as the phosphorylated forms of the P-light chains i.e. LC2f-P, LC2s-P and LC2s'-P. The presence of phosphate was confirmed by prior incubation with ( 30 P) orthophosphate. Muscle samples rapidly frozen from resting vastus lateralis muscle revealed the presence of unphosphorylated and phosphorylated P-light chains in approximately equal ratios. Muscle samples rapidly frozen following a maximal 10 second isometric contraction showed virtually only phosphorylated fast and slow P-light chains. These results reveal that the P-light chains in human fast and slow myosin may be rapidly phosphorylated, but the basal level of phosphorylation in rested human muscle considerably exceeds that observed in animal muscles studied in vitro or in situ

  18. Protein phosphorylation during coconut zygotic embryo development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Islas-Flores, I.; Oropeza, C.; Hernandez-Sotomayor, S.M.T.

    1998-01-01

    Evidence was obtained on the occurrence of protein threonine, serine, and tyrosine (Tyr) kinases in developing coconut (Cocos nucifera L.) zygotic embryos, based on in vitro phosphorylation of proteins in the presence of [gamma-32P]ATP, alkaline treatment, and thin-layer chromatography analysis, which showed the presence of [32P]phosphoserine, [32P]phosphothreonine, and [32P]phosphotyrosine in [32P]-labeled protein hydrolyzates. Tyr kinase activity was further confirmed in extracts of embryos at different stages of development using antiphosphotyrosine monoclonal antibodies and the synthetic peptide derived from the amino acid sequence surrounding the phosphorylation site in pp60src (RR-SRC), which is specific for Tyr kinases. Anti-phosphotyrosine western blotting revealed a changing profile of Tyr-phosphorylated proteins during embryo development. Tyr kinase activity, as assayed using RR-SRC, also changed during embryo development, showing two peaks of activity, one during early and another during late embryo development. In addition, the use of genistein, a Tyr kinase inhibitor, diminished the ability of extracts to phosphorylate RR-SRC. Results presented here show the occurrence of threonine, serine, and Tyr kinases in developing coconut zygotic embryos, and suggest that protein phosphorylation, and the possible inference of Tyr phosphorylation in particular, may play a role in the coordination of the development of embryos in this species

  19. Evaluation of a cross contamination model describing transfer of Salmonella spp. and Listeria monocytogenes during grinding of pork and beef.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Møller, C O A; Sant'Ana, A S; Hansen, S K H; Nauta, M J; Silva, L P; Alvarenga, V O; Maffei, D; Silva, F F P; Lopes, J T; Franco, B D G M; Aabo, S; Hansen, T B

    2016-06-02

    In a previous study, a model was developed to describe the transfer and survival of Salmonella during grinding of pork (Møller, C.O.A., Nauta, M.J., Christensen, B.B., Dalgaard, P., Hansen, T.B., 2012. Modelling transfer of Salmonella typhimurium DT104 during simulation of grinding of pork. Journal of Applied Microbiology 112 (1), 90-98). The robustness of this model is now evaluated by studying its performance for predicting the transfer and survival of Salmonella spp. and Listeria monocytogenes during grinding of different types of meat (pork and beef), using two different grinders, different sizes and different numbers of pieces of meats to be ground. A total of 19 grinding trials were collected. Acceptable Simulation Zone (ASZ), visual inspection of the data, Quantitative Microbiological Risk Assessment (QMRA), as well as the Total Transfer Potential (TTP) were used as approaches to evaluate model performance and to access the quality of the cross contamination model predictions. Using the ASZ approach and considering that 70% of the observed counts have to be inside a defined acceptable zone of ±0.5 log10CFU per portion, it was found that the cross contamination parameters suggested by Møller et al. (2012) were not able to describe all 19 trials. However, for each of the collected grinding trials, the transfer event was well described when fitted to the model structure proposed by Møller et al. (2012). Parameter estimates obtained by fitting observed trials performed at different conditions, such as size and number of pieces of meat to be ground, may not be applied to describe cross contamination of unlike processing. Nevertheless, the risk estimates, as well as the TTP, revealed that the risk of disease may be reduced when the grinding of meat is performed in a grinder made of stainless steel (for all surfaces in contact with the meat), using a well-sharpened knife and holding at room temperatures lower than 4°C. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All

  20. PKA regulates calcineurin function through the phosphorylation of RCAN1: Identification of a novel phosphorylation site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Seon Sook; Lee, Eun Hye; Lee, Kooyeon; Jo, Su-Hyun; Seo, Su Ryeon

    2015-01-01

    Calcineurin is a calcium/calmodulin-dependent phosphatase that has been implicated in T cell activation through the induction of nuclear factors of activated T cells (NFAT). We have previously suggested that endogenous regulator of calcineurin (RCAN1, also known as DSCR1) is targeted by protein kinase A (PKA) for the control of calcineurin activity. In the present study, we characterized the PKA-mediated phosphorylation site in RCAN1 by mass spectrometric analysis and revealed that PKA directly phosphorylated RCAN1 at the Ser 93. PKA-induced phosphorylation and the increase in the half-life of the RCAN1 protein were prevented by the substitution of Ser 93 with Ala (S93A). Furthermore, the PKA-mediated phosphorylation of RCAN1 at Ser 93 potentiated the inhibition of calcineurin-dependent pro-inflammatory cytokine gene expression by RCAN1. Our results suggest the presence of a novel phosphorylation site in RCAN1 and that its phosphorylation influences calcineurin-dependent inflammatory target gene expression. - Highlights: • We identify novel phosphorylation sites in RCAN1 by LC-MS/MS analysis. • PKA-dependent phosphorylation of RCAN1 at Ser 93 inhibits calcineurin-mediated intracellular signaling. • We show the immunosuppressive function of RCAN1 phosphorylation at Ser 93 in suppressing cytokine expression

  1. Evaluation of porcine stem cells competence for somatic cell nuclear transfer and production of cloned animals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Secher, Jan; Liu, Ying; Petkov, Stoyan

    2017-01-01

    Porcine somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) has been used extensively to create genetically modified pigs, but the efficiency of the methodology is still low. It has been hypothesized that pluripotent or multipotent stem cells might result in increased SCNT efficacy as these cells are closer than...... somatic cells to the epigenetic state found in the blastomeres and therefore need less reprogramming. Our group has worked with porcine SCNT during the last 20 years and here we describe our experience with SCNT of 3 different stem cell lines. The porcine stem cells used were: Induced pluripotent stem...... cells (iPSCs) created by lentiviral doxycycline-dependent reprogramming and cultered with a GSK3β- and MEK-inhibitor (2i) and leukemia inhibitor factor (LIF) (2i LIF DOX-iPSCs), iPSCs created by a plasmid-based reprogramming and cultured with 2i and fibroblast growth factor (FGF) (2i FGF Pl...

  2. Internal Thermal Control System Hose Heat Transfer Fluid Thermal Expansion Evaluation Test Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wieland, P. O.; Hawk, H. D.

    2001-01-01

    During assembly of the International Space Station, the Internal Thermal Control Systems in adjacent modules are connected by jumper hoses referred to as integrated hose assemblies (IHAs). A test of an IHA has been performed at the Marshall Space Flight Center to determine whether the pressure in an IHA filled with heat transfer fluid would exceed the maximum design pressure when subjected to elevated temperatures (up to 60 C (140 F)) that may be experienced during storage or transportation. The results of the test show that the pressure in the IHA remains below 227 kPa (33 psia) (well below the 689 kPa (100 psia) maximum design pressure) even at a temperature of 71 C (160 F), with no indication of leakage or damage to the hose. Therefore, based on the results of this test, the IHA can safely be filled with coolant prior to launch. The test and results are documented in this Technical Memorandum.

  3. Spontaneous trait inference and spontaneous trait transference are both unaffected by prior evaluations of informants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zengel, Bettina; Ambler, James K; McCarthy, Randy J; Skowronski, John J

    2017-01-01

    This article reports results from a study in which participants encountered either (a) previously known informants who were positive (e.g. Abraham Lincoln), neutral (e.g., Jay Leno), or negative (e.g., Adolf Hitler), or (b) previously unknown informants. The informants ostensibly described either a trait-implicative positive behavior, a trait-implicative negative behavior, or a neutral behavior. These descriptions were framed as either the behavior of the informant or the behavior of another person. Results yielded evidence of informant-trait linkages for both self-informants and for informants who described another person. These effects were not moderated by informant type, behavior valence, or the congruency or incongruency between the prior knowledge of the informant and the behavior valence. Results are discussed in terms of theories of Spontaneous Trait Inference and Spontaneous Trait Transference.

  4. Evaluation of an effective multifaceted implementation strategy for elective single-embryo transfer after in vitro fertilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreuwel, I A M; van Peperstraten, A M; Hulscher, M E J L; Kremer, J A M; Grol, R P T M; Nelen, W L D M; Hermens, R P M G

    2013-02-01

    What is the relationship between the rate of elective single-embryo transfer (eSET) and couples' exposure to different elements of a multifaceted implementation strategy? Additional elements in a multifaceted implementation strategy do not result in an increased eSET rate. A multifaceted eSET implementation strategy with four different elements is effective in increasing the eSET rate by 11%. It is unclear whether every strategy element contributes equally to the strategy's effectiveness. An observational study was performed among 222 subfertile couples included in a previously performed randomized controlled trial. Of the 222 subfertile couples included, 109 couples received the implementation strategy and 113 couples received standard IVF care. A multivariate regression analysis assessed the effectiveness of four different strategy elements on the decision about the number embryos to be transferred. Questionnaires evaluated the experiences of couples with the different elements. Of the couples who received the implementation strategy, almost 50% (52/109) were exposed to all the four elements of the strategy. The remaining 57 couples who received two or three elements of the strategy could be divided into two further classes of exposure. Our analysis demonstrated that additional elements do not result in an increased eSET rate. In addition to the physician's advice, couples rated a decision aid and a counselling session as more important for their decision to transfer one or two embryos, compared with a phone call and a reimbursement offer (P implementation strategy does not always result in an increased effectiveness, which is in concordance with recent literature. This in-depth evaluation of a multifaceted intervention strategy could therefore help to modify strategies, by making them more effective and less expensive.

  5. Evaluation of Water Distribution and Oxygen Mass Transfer in Sponge Support Media for a Down-flow Hanging Sponge Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uemura, S.; Okubo, T.; Maeno, K.; Takahashi, M.; Kubota, K.; Harada, H.

    2016-01-01

    A down-flow hanging sponge reactor has been developed for sewage treatment, mainly in developing countries. This novel reactor employs polyurethane sponge material as a support medium, which promises a proliferation of a large amount of biomass, offering excellent pollutant removal capability. Three types of sponge medium were evaluated with respect to water distribution and oxygen mass transfer. Water was supplied to the device, which consisted of 40 pieces of sponge media connected in series, and a tracer experiment was carried out. The ratios of actual hydraulic retention time to theoretical hydraulic retention time were in the range of 25-67% depending on the type of support medium. By supplying deoxygenated water from the top of the device, the overall volumetric oxygen transfer coefficient, K L a, was evaluated. Despite the non-aerated conditions, the K L a values of the support media were very high, in the range of 0.56-4.88 (1/min), surpassing those of other mechanically aerated processes. Furthermore, it was found that the suspended solids concentration in the influent played a role in increasing the actual hydraulic retention time/theoretical hydraulic retention time ratio, suggesting that managing the influent suspended solids concentration is prerequisite for preventing clogging problems in the down-flow hanging.

  6. Phosphorylated form of adrenocorticotropin and corticotropin-like intermediary lobe peptide in human tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Massias, J.F.; Hardouin, S.; Vieau, D.; Lenne, F.; Bertagna, X.

    1994-01-01

    Many peptides contribute to the heterogeneity of immunoreactive adrenocorticotropin (ACTH) in man. The use of a radioimmunoassay (RIA) specifically directed against the C-terminal end of ACTH allowed the precise study of the following four peptides: ACTH itself, corticotropin-like intermediary lobe peptide (CLIP) or ACTH and their phosphorylated forms on SeR 31 . The authors have set up a high-performance liquid chromatography system that separates these four molecules in a single run, to establish their relative distributions in tumors responsible for Cushing's disease or for the ectopic ACTH syndrome, and to evaluate the possible interference of phospho-Ser 31 on various RIA or immuno-radiometric assay (IRMA) recognition systems for ACTH. In this system, alkaline phosphatase treatment shifted the retention time of the phosphorylated peptides to that of their non-phosphorylated counterparts. In three tumors responsible for the ectopic ACTH syndrome, CLIP peptides were predominant in two and phosphorylated molecules represented between 22% and 50% of immuno-reactive materials. In five pituitary tumors responsible for Cushing's disease, ACTH peptides were predominant and the phosphorylated molecules varied between 35% and 75% in four of them. In the same tumor the ratios of phosphorylated to non-phosphorylated CLIP or ACTH were identical. The presence of phospho-Ser 31 did not affect the recognition ability of two mid-ACTH and two C-terminal ACTH RIA's, nor of the ACTH IRMA. 15 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs

  7. Historical performance evaluation of Iowa pavement treatments using data analytics : tech transfer summary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    Evaluate the performance of the most-used pavement treatments in Iowa by considering different parameters such as type of treatment, treatment thickness, traffic, and pavement type : Estimate a service life for each treatment based on the obs...

  8. Evaluation of chlorpyrifos transferred from contaminated feed to duck commodities and dietary risks to Chinese consumers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Rui; Ji, Xiaofeng; He, Liang; Liu, Zhiqiang; Wei, Wei; Qiang, Mingrong; Wang, Qiang; Yuan, Yuwei

    2015-06-03

    The present study describes chlorpyrifos residues in duck commodities through the duck food chain, transfer factors, and dietary risks to Chinese consumers. After duck feeding experiments with pellet feed that lasted for 42 days, chlorpyrifos residues found in all samples collected from the ducks on maximum estimated dose group (3.20 mg/kg level) were from chlorpyrifos had a low persistency in duck meat and metabolism organs. The chronic exposure assessment revealed that only 0.034-0.150% of the acceptable daily intake (ADI; 0-0.01 mg/kg/bw/day) of chlorpyrifos was consumed via the duck commodities for different age and gender groups in China. The acute exposure assessments of different age and gender groups were only 0.019-0.082% of the acute reference dose (ARfD; 0-0.1 mg/kg/bw). The results show that the single dietary exposure risk of chlorpyrifos raised by the intake of duck commodities was quite low in China.

  9. Evaluation of wetlands designed to transfer and transform selected metals in an aqueous matrix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hawkins, W.B.; Gillespie, W.B. Jr.; Rodgers, J.H. Jr.

    1995-01-01

    Constructed wetlands can be used as an alternative to traditional wastewater treatment. Two wetlands were constructed at a Louisiana petroleum refinery and were used to study transfers and transformations of selected metals (Zn, Pb, and Cu) in a refinery effluent. In order to optimize metal removal from the aqueous matrix and subsequently decrease metal bioavailability, the hydroperiod, hydrosoil, and vegetation were specifically selected and incorporated into the wetland design. To test the metal removal efficiency of the constructed wetlands, refinery effluent was amended with 4 mg Zn/L as ZnCl 2 for 150 d. From influent to effluent, average total recoverable and soluble zinc concentrations decreased by 41 and 72%, respectively. Toxicity tests (7 d) using Ceriodaphnia dubia and Pimephales promelas illustrated a decrease in zinc bioavailability. Average C. dubia survival increased from 0--73% as a result of wetland treatment; for P. promelas, the increase in average survival was 37--94%. Based upon this field experiment, constructed wetlands can be specifically designed for zinc removal and concomitant decreases in toxicity

  10. Transfer-induced fission in inverse kinematics: Impact on experimental and evaluated nuclear data bases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farget, F.; Schmidt, K.H.; Clement, E.; Delaune, O.; Derkx, X.; Dijon, A.; Golabek, C.; Lemasson, A.; Roger, T.; Schmitt, C. [CEA/DSM-CNRS/IN2P3, GANIL, Caen (France); Caamano, M.; Ramos, D.; Benlliure, J.; Cortina, D.; Fernandez-Dominguez, B.; Paradela, C. [Universidade de Santiago de Compostela, Santiago de Compostela (Spain); Rodriguez-Tajes, C. [CEA/DSM-CNRS/IN2P3, GANIL, Caen (France); Universidade de Santiago de Compostela, Santiago de Compostela (Spain); Audouin, L. [Universite Paris-Sud 11, CNRS/IN2P3, Institut de Physique Nucleaire, Orsay (France); Casarejos, E. [Universidade de Vigo, Vigo (Spain); Dore, D.; Salsac, M.D. [Centre de Saclay, CEA, Irfu, Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Gaudefroy, L. [CEA DAM Ile-de-France, BP 12, Bruyeres-le-Chatel (France); Heinz, A. [Chalmers Tekniska Hoegskola, Fundamental Fysik, Goeteborg (Sweden); Jurado, B. [Universite Bordeaux, CENBG, UMR 5797 CNRS/IN2P3, Gradignan (France)

    2015-12-15

    Inverse kinematics is a new tool to study nuclear fission. Its main advantage is the possibility to measure with an unmatched resolution the atomic number of fission fragments, leading to new observables in the properties of fission-fragment distributions. In addition to the resolution improvement, the study of fission based on nuclear collisions in inverse kinematics beneficiates from a larger view with respect to the neutron-induced fission, as in a single experiment the number of fissioning systems and the excitation energy range are widden. With the use of spectrometers, mass and kinetic-energy distributions may now be investigated as a function of the proton and neutron number sharing. The production of fissioning nuclei in transfer reactions allows studying the isotopic yields of fission fragments as a function of the excitation energy. The higher excitation energy resulting in the fusion reaction leading to the compound nucleus {sup 250}Cf at an excitation energy of 45MeV is also presented. With the use of inverse kinematics, the charge polarisation of fragments at scission is now revealed with high precision, and it is shown that it cannot be neglected, even at higher excitation energies. In addition, the kinematical properties of the fragments inform on the deformation configuration at scission. (orig.)

  11. Evaluation of carbon transfers in cattle and humans using 13C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masuda, Tsuyoshi; Tako, Yasuhiro; Nakamura, Yuji

    2010-01-01

    In the safety assessment made around the spent nuclear fuel reprocessing plant in Rokkasho, Aomori, among radioactive nuclides released from the plant, 14 C is expected to be the largest contributor to radiation dose received by the neighboring population through agricultural and dairy products. The objectives of this study are to clarify the transfer of 14 C from grass to beef and milk and its metabolism in the human body experimentally. (1) 13 C-labeled grass was fed for 28 days to beef cattle and cows. 13 C isotopic ratio was measured in serum and other samples including muscle of beef cattle and milk of dairy cow. The 13 C rations in milk, breath air, urine and feces decreased very rapidly within 3 day after cessation of the administration of 13 C-labeled feed. However, a slow decrease in 13 C ratio was observed in muscle and serum. (2) 13 C isotopic ratios were measured in breath air, urine, feces and serum over 16 weeks in humans who were orally administered of 13 C labeled leucine, palmitic acid, glucose, boiled rice and soymilk, respectively. Residual 13 C in their bodies experimentally observed were lower than the estimates by the ICRP metabolic model for organic carbon ingestion. (author)

  12. Estimation of uncertainties in predictions of environmental transfer models: evaluation of methods and application to CHERPAC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koch, J.; Peterson, S-R.

    1995-10-01

    Models used to simulate environmental transfer of radionuclides typically include many parameters, the values of which are uncertain. An estimation of the uncertainty associated with the predictions is therefore essential. Difference methods to quantify the uncertainty in the prediction parameter uncertainties are reviewed. A statistical approach using random sampling techniques is recommended for complex models with many uncertain parameters. In this approach, the probability density function of the model output is obtained from multiple realizations of the model according to a multivariate random sample of the different input parameters. Sampling efficiency can be improved by using a stratified scheme (Latin Hypercube Sampling). Sample size can also be restricted when statistical tolerance limits needs to be estimated. Methods to rank parameters according to their contribution to uncertainty in the model prediction are also reviewed. Recommended are measures of sensitivity, correlation and regression coefficients that can be calculated on values of input and output variables generated during the propagation of uncertainties through the model. A parameter uncertainty analysis is performed for the CHERPAC food chain model which estimates subjective confidence limits and intervals on the predictions at a 95% confidence level. A sensitivity analysis is also carried out using partial rank correlation coefficients. This identified and ranks the parameters which are the main contributors to uncertainty in the predictions, thereby guiding further research efforts. (author). 44 refs., 2 tabs., 4 figs

  13. Application of gamma ray spectrometry for evaluation of transfer factors in environmental matrices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rao, D.D.

    2008-01-01

    Gamma Ray Spectrometry (GRS) is performed using a variety of radiation detectors, to identify and determine radioactivity concentration of gamma emitting radionuclides qualitatively, in a wide range of samples. The samples can be of a high inventory power plant origin, NORM category or low level environmental samples, around a power plant. The method is usually applied to non-destructive analysis of environmental samples. However, it can also be applied to destructive analysis i.e. following extraction/separation of the analyte from the sample, if there is a need to pre-concentrate the analyte. The accuracy and precision of the method, depends on the quality of calibration, correction methods employed, stability of the system components, computational algorithms used, analysis of sources of uncertainties etc. The transfer factors among the environmental matrices are simple ratios, but the methodologies used in generating the respective concentrations have to be appropriately documented, including the validity of measurements. Validation mechanisms can include the results of international inter-comparison exercises, the certificates of standards issued by quality-accredited international laboratories. A few parameters involved in the qualitative analysis of gamma spectrometry are discussed here

  14. Estimation of uncertainties in predictions of environmental transfer models: evaluation of methods and application to CHERPAC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koch, J. [Israel Atomic Energy Commission, Yavne (Israel). Soreq Nuclear Research Center; Peterson, S-R.

    1995-10-01

    Models used to simulate environmental transfer of radionuclides typically include many parameters, the values of which are uncertain. An estimation of the uncertainty associated with the predictions is therefore essential. Difference methods to quantify the uncertainty in the prediction parameter uncertainties are reviewed. A statistical approach using random sampling techniques is recommended for complex models with many uncertain parameters. In this approach, the probability density function of the model output is obtained from multiple realizations of the model according to a multivariate random sample of the different input parameters. Sampling efficiency can be improved by using a stratified scheme (Latin Hypercube Sampling). Sample size can also be restricted when statistical tolerance limits needs to be estimated. Methods to rank parameters according to their contribution to uncertainty in the model prediction are also reviewed. Recommended are measures of sensitivity, correlation and regression coefficients that can be calculated on values of input and output variables generated during the propagation of uncertainties through the model. A parameter uncertainty analysis is performed for the CHERPAC food chain model which estimates subjective confidence limits and intervals on the predictions at a 95% confidence level. A sensitivity analysis is also carried out using partial rank correlation coefficients. This identified and ranks the parameters which are the main contributors to uncertainty in the predictions, thereby guiding further research efforts. (author). 44 refs., 2 tabs., 4 figs.

  15. Evaluation of gap heat transfer model in ELESTRES for CANDU fuel element under normal operating conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Kang Moon; Ohn, Myung Ryong; Im, Hong Sik; Choi, Jong Hoh; Hwang, Soon Taek

    1995-01-01

    The gap conductance between the fuel and the sheath depends strongly on the gap width and has a significant influence on the amount of initial stored energy. The modified Ross and Stoute gap conductance model in ELESTRES is based on a simplified thermal deformation model for steady-state fuel temperature calculations. A review on a series of experiments reveals that fuel pellets crack, relocate, and are eccentrically positioned within the sheath rather than solid concentric cylinders. In this paper, the two recently-proposed gap conductance models (offset gap model and relocated gap model) are described and are applied to calculate the fuel-sheath gap conductances under experimental conditions and normal operating conditions in CANDU reactors. The good agreement between the experimentally-inferred and calculated gap conductance values demonstrates that the modified Ross and Stoute model was implemented correctly in ELESTRES. The predictions of the modified Ross and Stoute model provide conservative values for gap heat transfer and fuel surface temperature compared to the offset gap and relocated gap models for a limiting power envelope. 13 figs., 3 tabs., 16 refs. (Author)

  16. Pro-Tumorigenic Phosphorylation of p120 Catenin in Renal and Breast Cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonis Kourtidis

    Full Text Available Altered protein expression and phosphorylation are common events during malignant transformation. These perturbations have been widely explored in the context of E-cadherin cell-cell adhesion complexes, which are central in the maintenance of the normal epithelial phenotype. A major component of these complexes is p120 catenin (p120, which binds and stabilizes E-cadherin to promote its adhesive and tumor suppressing function. However, p120 is also an essential mediator of pro-tumorigenic signals driven by oncogenes, such as Src, and can be phosphorylated at multiple sites. Although alterations in p120 expression have been extensively studied by immunohistochemistry (IHC in the context of tumor progression, little is known about the status and role of p120 phosphorylation in cancer. Here we show that tyrosine and threonine phosphorylation of p120 in two sites, Y228 and T916, is elevated in renal and breast tumor tissue samples. We also show that tyrosine phosphorylation of p120 at its N-terminus, including at the Y228 site is required for its pro-tumorigenic potential. In contrast, phosphorylation of p120 at T916 does not affect this p120 function. However, phosphorylation of p120 at T916 interferes with epitope recognition of the most commonly used p120 antibody, namely pp120. As a result, this antibody selectively underrepresents p120 levels in tumor tissues, where p120 is phosphorylated. Overall, our data support a role of p120 phosphorylation as a marker and mediator of tumor transformation. Importantly, they also argue that the level and localization of p120 in human cancer tissues immunostained with pp120 needs to be re-evaluated.

  17. Protein phosphorylation systems in postmortem human brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walaas, S.I.; Perdahl-Wallace, E.; Winblad, B.; Greengard, P.

    1989-01-01

    Protein phosphorylation systems regulated by cyclic adenosine 3',5'-monophosphate (cyclic AMP), or calcium in conjunction with calmodulin or phospholipid/diacylglycerol, have been studied by phosphorylation in vitro of particulate and soluble fractions from human postmortem brain samples. One-dimensional or two-dimensional gel electrophoretic protein separations were used for analysis. Protein phosphorylation catalyzed by cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase was found to be highly active in both particulate and soluble preparations throughout the human CNS, with groups of both widely distributed and region-specific substrates being observed in different brain nuclei. Dopamine-innervated parts of the basal ganglia and cerebral cortex contained the phosphoproteins previously observed in rodent basal ganglia. In contrast, calcium/phospholipid-dependent and calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein phosphorylation systems were less prominent in human postmortem brain than in rodent brain, and only a few widely distributed substrates for these protein kinases were found. Protein staining indicated that postmortem proteolysis, particularly of high-molecular-mass proteins, was prominent in deeply located, subcortical regions in the human brain. Our results indicate that it is feasible to use human postmortem brain samples, when obtained under carefully controlled conditions, for qualitative studies on brain protein phosphorylation. Such studies should be of value in studies on human neurological and/or psychiatric disorders

  18. Technology Transfer External Metrics, Research, Success Stories, and Participation on Evaluation Team for the Reusable Launch Vehicle (RLV)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trivoli, George W.

    1996-01-01

    This research report is divided into four sections. The first section is related to participation on the team that evaluated the proposals for the X-33 project and the Reusable Launch Vehicle (RLV) during mid-May; prior to beginning the 1996 Summer Faculty Fellowship. The second section discusses the various meetings attended related to the technology evaluation process. The third section is related to various research and evaluation activities engaged in by this researcher. The final section discusses several success stories this researcher aided in preparing. Despite the fact that this researcher is not an engineer or science faculty, invaluable knowledge and experience have been gained at MSFC. Although related to the previous summer's research, the research has been new, varied, and challenging. This researcher was fortunate to have had maximum interaction with NASA colleague, David Cockrell. It would be a privilege and honor to continue a relationship with the Technology Transfer Office. In addition, we will attempt to aid in the establishment of a continuous formalized relationship between MSFC and Jacksonville State University. Dr. David Watts, Vice President for Academic Affairs, J.S.U., is interested in having the Technology Division cooperating with MSFC in sharing information and working tech transfer inquiries. The principal benefits gained by this researcher include the opportunity to conduct research in a non-academic, real world environment. In addition, the opportunity to be involved in aiding with the decision process for the choice of the next generation of space transportation system was a once in a lifetime experience. This researcher has gained enhanced respect and understanding of MSFC/NASA staff and facilities.

  19. Performance Evaluation of 14 Neural Network Architectures Used for Predicting Heat Transfer Characteristics of Engine Oils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Ajmi, R. M.; Abou-Ziyan, H. Z.; Mahmoud, M. A.

    2012-01-01

    This paper reports the results of a comprehensive study that aimed at identifying best neural network architecture and parameters to predict subcooled boiling characteristics of engine oils. A total of 57 different neural networks (NNs) that were derived from 14 different NN architectures were evaluated for four different prediction cases. The NNs were trained on experimental datasets performed on five engine oils of different chemical compositions. The performance of each NN was evaluated using a rigorous statistical analysis as well as careful examination of smoothness of predicted boiling curves. One NN, out of the 57 evaluated, correctly predicted the boiling curves for all cases considered either for individual oils or for all oils taken together. It was found that the pattern selection and weight update techniques strongly affect the performance of the NNs. It was also revealed that the use of descriptive statistical analysis such as R2, mean error, standard deviation, and T and slope tests, is a necessary but not sufficient condition for evaluating NN performance. The performance criteria should also include inspection of the smoothness of the predicted curves either visually or by plotting the slopes of these curves.

  20. Evaluative Conditioning 2.0: Direct versus Associative Transfer of Affect to Brands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.T.L.R. Sweldens (Steven)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractA basic assumption in advertising is that brands become more well-liked after they were presented in positive contexts. This assumption is warranted because studies on ‘evaluative conditioning’ have demonstrated that when a brand is repeatedly presented together with positive affective

  1. Tank 241-SY-101 surface level rise remediation test and evaluation plan for transfer system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    BAUER, R.E.

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of this testing and evaluation plan (TEP) is to provide the high level guidance on testing requirements for ensuring that the equipment and systems to be implemented for remediation of the SY-101 waste level rise USQ are effective

  2. Going beyond Kirkpatrick's Training Evaluation Model: The Role of Workplace Factors in Distance Learning Transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aluko, F. R.; Shonubi, O. K.

    2014-01-01

    This article emanates from a longitudinal study of the impact of a distance education programme for teacher training on graduates' job performance, in which the authors built on the findings of a previous pilot study. After using Kirkpatrick's Training Evaluation Model in a previous study, one of the authors found there to be a strong relationship…

  3. A Three-Dimensional Radiation Transfer Model to Evaluate Performance of Compound Parabolic Concentrator-Based Photovoltaic Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingjing Tang

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available In the past, two-dimensional radiation transfer models (2-D models were widely used to investigate the optical performance of linear compound parabolic concentrators (CPCs, in which the radiation transfer on the cross-section of CPC troughs is considered. However, the photovoltaic efficiency of solar cells depends on the real incidence angle instead of the projection incidence angle, thus 2-D models can’t reasonably evaluate the photovoltaic performance of CPC-based photovoltaic systems (CPVs. In this work, three-dimensional radiation transfer (3-D model within CPC-θa/θe, the CPC with a maximum exit angle θe for radiation within its acceptance angle (θa, is investigated by means of vector algebra, solar geometry and imaging principle of plane mirror, and effects of geometry of CPV-θa/θe on its annual electricity generation are studied. Analysis shows that, as compared to similar photovoltaic (PV panels, the use of CPCs makes the incident angle of solar rays on solar cells increase thus lowers the photovoltaic conversion efficiency of solar cells. Calculations show that, 2-D models can reasonably predict the optical performance of CPVs, but such models always overestimate the photovoltaic performance of CPVs, and even can’t predict the variation trend of annual power output of CPV-θa/θe with θe. Results show that, for full CPV-θa/θe with a given θa, the annual power output increases with θe first and then comes to a halt as θe > 83°, whereas for truncated CPV-θa/θe with a given geometric concentration (Ct, the annual power output decreases with θe.

  4. Evaluation of Hand Lay-Up and Resin Transfer Molding in Composite Wind Turbine Blade Manufacturing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    CAIRNS,DOUGLAS S.; SHRAMSTAD,JON D.

    2000-06-01

    The majority of the wind turbine blade industry currently uses low cost hand lay-up manufacturing techniques to process composite blades. While there are benefits to the hand lay-up process, drawbacks inherent to this process along with advantages of other techniques suggest that better manufacturing alternatives may be available. Resin Transfer Molding (RTM) was identified as a processing alternative and shows promise in addressing the shortcomings of hand lay-up. This report details a comparison of the RTM process to hand lay-up of composite wind turbine blade structures. Several lay-up schedules and critical turbine blade structures were chosen for comparison of their properties resulting from RTM and hand lay-up processing. The geometries investigated were flat plate, thin and thick flanged T-stiffener, I-beam, and root connection joint. It was found that the manufacturing process played an important role in laminate thickness, fiber volume, and weight for the geometries investigated. RTM was found to reduce thickness and weight and increase fiber volumes for all substructures. RTM resulted in tighter material transition radii and eliminated the need for most secondary bonding operations. These results would significantly reduce the weight of wind turbine blades. Hand lay-up was consistently slower in fabrication times for the structures investigated. A comparison of mechanical properties showed no significant differences after employing fiber volume normalization techniques to account for geometry differences resulting from varying fiber volumes. The current root specimen design does not show significant mechanical property differences according to process and exceeds all static and fatigue requirements.

  5. Project W-314 specific test and evaluation plan for SN-635 transfer line (241-AY-01A to 241-AY-02A) and SN-633 transfer line tie in

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hays, W.H.

    1998-01-01

    This Specific Test and Evaluation Plan (STEP) defines the test and evaluation activities encompassing the installation of the SN-635 transfer line for the W-314 Project. The purpose of this Specific Test and Evaluation Plan (STEP) is to provide a detailed written plan for the systematic testing of modifications made by the addition of the SN-635 transfer line and the tie in of SN-633 to the AY-02A pit by the W-314 Project. The STEP develops the outline for test procedures that verify the system's performance to the established Project design criteria. The STEP is a lower tier document based on the W-314 Test and Evaluation Plan (TEP)

  6. Single-well monitoring of protein-protein interaction and phosphorylation-dephosphorylation events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arcand, Mathieu; Roby, Philippe; Bossé, Roger; Lipari, Francesco; Padrós, Jaime; Beaudet, Lucille; Marcil, Alexandre; Dahan, Sophie

    2010-04-20

    We combined oxygen channeling assays with two distinct chemiluminescent beads to detect simultaneously protein phosphorylation and interaction events that are usually monitored separately. This novel method was tested in the ERK1/2 MAP kinase pathway. It was first used to directly monitor dissociation of MAP kinase ERK2 from MEK1 upon phosphorylation and to evaluate MAP kinase phosphatase (MKP) selectivity and mechanism of action. In addition, MEK1 and ERK2 were probed with an ATP competitor and an allosteric MEK1 inhibitor, which generated distinct phosphorylation-interaction patterns. Simultaneous monitoring of protein-protein interactions and substrate phosphorylation can provide significant mechanistic insight into enzyme activity and small molecule action.

  7. Pharmacological Evaluation of the SCID T Cell Transfer Model of Colitis: As a Model of Crohn's Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Lindebo Holm

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Animal models are important tools in the development of new drug candidates against the inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis. In order to increase the translational value of these models, it is important to increase knowledge relating to standard drugs. Using the SCID adoptive transfer colitis model, we have evaluated the effect of currently used IBD drugs and IBD drug candidates, that is, anti-TNF-α, TNFR-Fc, anti-IL-12p40, anti-IL-6, CTLA4-Ig, anti-α4β7 integrin, enrofloxacin/metronidazole, and cyclosporine. We found that anti-TNF-α, antibiotics, anti-IL-12p40, anti-α4β7 integrin, CTLA4-Ig, and anti-IL-6 effectively prevented onset of colitis, whereas TNFR-Fc and cyclosporine did not. In intervention studies, antibiotics, anti-IL-12p40, and CTLA4-Ig induced remission, whereas the other compounds did not. The data suggest that the adoptive transfer model and the inflammatory bowel diseases have some main inflammatory pathways in common. The finding that some well-established IBD therapeutics do not have any effect in the model highlights important differences between the experimental model and the human disease.

  8. Compilation and evaluation of radioecological data on soil/plant transfer in consideration of local variabilities in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cierjacks, A.; Albers, B.

    2004-01-01

    Publications on soil-to-plant transfer factors (TFs) for radiocesium, radiostrontium, plutonium and iodine-129 in Germany were evaluated. Over 100 publications with relevant TFs were identified, whereof 54 were intensively analyzed and rated according to quality criteria. A database was created which gives a comprehensive survey of the transfer factors, important related soil and plant parameters and peculiarities of sampling and analyses. For better comparability, TFs were standardized and expressed in units of [Bq kg -1 plant dry matter / Bq kg -1 soil dry matter]. To enable statistical analyses, soil and plant parameters were standardized, too. Standardization also prepares data as input for modelling. The database contains 4800 records which represent singular and aggregated values of more than 7300 samples taken in Germany. Mean values of individual combinations radionuclide/crop can be queried easily using a special software module. Additional information about the experimental design, nuclide contents in plants and soil, important parameters and detailed remarks allow a classification of each record

  9. Evaluation of an experiment modelling heat transfer from the melt pool for use in VVER 440/213 reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skop, J.

    2003-12-01

    The strategy of confining core melt within the reactor vessel is among promising strategies to mitigate severe accidents of VVER 440/213 reactors. This strategy consists in residual heat removal from the melt by external vessel cooling from the outside, using water from the flooded reactor downcomer. This approach can only be successful if the critical heat flux on the external vessel surface is not exceeded. This can be assessed based on the parameters of heat transfer from the core melt pool in the conditions of natural circulation within the pool. Those parameters are the subject of the report. A basic description of the terms and physical basis of the strategy of confining core melt inside the vessel is given in Chapter 2, which also briefly explains similarity theory, based on which the results obtained on experimental facilities, using simulation materials, can be related to the actual situation inside a real reactor. Chapter 3 presents an overview of experimental work addressing the characteristics of heat transfer from the core melt pool in natural circulation conditions and a description of the experimental facilities. An overview of the results emerging from the experiments and their evaluation with respect to their applicability to reactors in Czech nuclear power plants are given in Chapter 4

  10. Evaluation of the induced electric field and compliance procedure for a wireless power transfer system in an electrical vehicle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laakso, Ilkka; Hirata, Akimasa

    2013-11-07

    In this study, an induced electric field in a human body is evaluated for the magnetic field leaked from a wireless power transfer system for charging an electrical vehicle. The magnetic field from the wireless power transfer system is modelled computationally, and its effectiveness is confirmed by comparison with the field measured in a previous study. The induced electric field in a human standing around the vehicle is smaller than the allowable limit prescribed in international guidelines, although the magnetic field strength in the human body is locally higher than the allowable external field strength. Correlation between the external magnetic field and the induced electric field is confirmed to be reasonable at least in the standing posture, which is the case discussed in the international standard. Based on this finding, we discussed and confirmed the applicability of a three-point magnetic field measurement at heights of 0.5, 1.0, and 1.5 m for safety compliance.

  11. Performance Evaluation Criterion at Equal Pumping Power for Enhanced Performance Heat Transfer Surfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajendra Karwa

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The existing equations for the thermal performance evaluation, at equal pumping power for the artificially roughened and smooth surfaced multitube and rectangular duct heat exchangers, have been critically reviewed because the literature survey indicates that a large number of researchers have not interpreted these equations correctly. Three of the most widely used equations have been restated with clearly defined constraints and conditions for their application. Two new equations have been developed for the design constraints not covered earlier.

  12. Software vulnerability: Definition, modelling, and practical evaluation for E-mail: transfer software

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kimura, Mitsuhiro

    2006-01-01

    This paper proposes a method of assessing software vulnerability quantitatively. By expanding the concept of the IPO (input-program-output) model, we first define the software vulnerability and construct a stochastic model. Then we evaluate the software vulnerability of the sendmail system by analyzing the actual security-hole data, which were collected from its release note. Also we show the relationship between the estimated software reliability and vulnerability of the analyzed system

  13. Src kinase regulation by phosphorylation and dephosphorylation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roskoski, Robert

    2005-01-01

    Src and Src-family protein-tyrosine kinases are regulatory proteins that play key roles in cell differentiation, motility, proliferation, and survival. The initially described phosphorylation sites of Src include an activating phosphotyrosine 416 that results from autophosphorylation, and an inhibiting phosphotyrosine 527 that results from phosphorylation by C-terminal Src kinase (Csk) and Csk homologous kinase. Dephosphorylation of phosphotyrosine 527 increases Src kinase activity. Candidate phosphotyrosine 527 phosphatases include cytoplasmic PTP1B, Shp1 and Shp2, and transmembrane enzymes include CD45, PTPα, PTPε, and PTPλ. Dephosphorylation of phosphotyrosine 416 decreases Src kinase activity. Thus far PTP-BL, the mouse homologue of human PTP-BAS, has been shown to dephosphorylate phosphotyrosine 416 in a regulatory fashion. The platelet-derived growth factor receptor protein-tyrosine kinase mediates the phosphorylation of Src Tyr138; this phosphorylation has no direct effect on Src kinase activity. The platelet-derived growth factor receptor and the ErbB2/HER2 growth factor receptor protein-tyrosine kinases mediate the phosphorylation of Src Tyr213 and activation of Src kinase activity. Src kinase is also a substrate for protein-serine/threonine kinases including protein kinase C (Ser12), protein kinase A (Ser17), and CDK1/cdc2 (Thr34, Thr46, and Ser72). Of the three protein-serine/threonine kinases, only phosphorylation by CDK1/cdc2 has been demonstrated to increase Src kinase activity. Although considerable information on the phosphoprotein phosphatases that catalyze the hydrolysis of Src phosphotyrosine 527 is at hand, the nature of the phosphatases that mediate the hydrolysis of phosphotyrosine 138 and 213, and phosphoserine and phosphothreonine residues has not been determined

  14. Identifying protein phosphorylation sites with kinase substrate specificity on human viruses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neil Arvin Bretaña

    Full Text Available Viruses infect humans and progress inside the body leading to various diseases and complications. The phosphorylation of viral proteins catalyzed by host kinases plays crucial regulatory roles in enhancing replication and inhibition of normal host-cell functions. Due to its biological importance, there is a desire to identify the protein phosphorylation sites on human viruses. However, the use of mass spectrometry-based experiments is proven to be expensive and labor-intensive. Furthermore, previous studies which have identified phosphorylation sites in human viruses do not include the investigation of the responsible kinases. Thus, we are motivated to propose a new method to identify protein phosphorylation sites with its kinase substrate specificity on human viruses. The experimentally verified phosphorylation data were extracted from virPTM--a database containing 301 experimentally verified phosphorylation data on 104 human kinase-phosphorylated virus proteins. In an attempt to investigate kinase substrate specificities in viral protein phosphorylation sites, maximal dependence decomposition (MDD is employed to cluster a large set of phosphorylation data into subgroups containing significantly conserved motifs. The experimental human phosphorylation sites are collected from Phospho.ELM, grouped according to its kinase annotation, and compared with the virus MDD clusters. This investigation identifies human kinases such as CK2, PKB, CDK, and MAPK as potential kinases for catalyzing virus protein substrates as confirmed by published literature. Profile hidden Markov model is then applied to learn a predictive model for each subgroup. A five-fold cross validation evaluation on the MDD-clustered HMMs yields an average accuracy of 84.93% for Serine, and 78.05% for Threonine. Furthermore, an independent testing data collected from UniProtKB and Phospho.ELM is used to make a comparison of predictive performance on three popular kinase

  15. Identifying protein phosphorylation sites with kinase substrate specificity on human viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bretaña, Neil Arvin; Lu, Cheng-Tsung; Chiang, Chiu-Yun; Su, Min-Gang; Huang, Kai-Yao; Lee, Tzong-Yi; Weng, Shun-Long

    2012-01-01

    Viruses infect humans and progress inside the body leading to various diseases and complications. The phosphorylation of viral proteins catalyzed by host kinases plays crucial regulatory roles in enhancing replication and inhibition of normal host-cell functions. Due to its biological importance, there is a desire to identify the protein phosphorylation sites on human viruses. However, the use of mass spectrometry-based experiments is proven to be expensive and labor-intensive. Furthermore, previous studies which have identified phosphorylation sites in human viruses do not include the investigation of the responsible kinases. Thus, we are motivated to propose a new method to identify protein phosphorylation sites with its kinase substrate specificity on human viruses. The experimentally verified phosphorylation data were extracted from virPTM--a database containing 301 experimentally verified phosphorylation data on 104 human kinase-phosphorylated virus proteins. In an attempt to investigate kinase substrate specificities in viral protein phosphorylation sites, maximal dependence decomposition (MDD) is employed to cluster a large set of phosphorylation data into subgroups containing significantly conserved motifs. The experimental human phosphorylation sites are collected from Phospho.ELM, grouped according to its kinase annotation, and compared with the virus MDD clusters. This investigation identifies human kinases such as CK2, PKB, CDK, and MAPK as potential kinases for catalyzing virus protein substrates as confirmed by published literature. Profile hidden Markov model is then applied to learn a predictive model for each subgroup. A five-fold cross validation evaluation on the MDD-clustered HMMs yields an average accuracy of 84.93% for Serine, and 78.05% for Threonine. Furthermore, an independent testing data collected from UniProtKB and Phospho.ELM is used to make a comparison of predictive performance on three popular kinase-specific phosphorylation site

  16. Estimation and evaluation of the radioactive contamination through a food web in an aquatic ecosystem, (2). System analysis of the transfer of radionuclides through a food web

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aoyama, Isao; Inoue, Yoriteru [Kyoto Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1975-06-01

    In order to estimate and evaluate the radioactivity concentration in an aquatic ecosystem, the transfer of radioactivity through a food web should be considered. In this paper, systems analysis on the above problem was performed and a quantity of radioactivity in organisms concentrated through their diet was presented. It was found from numerical evaluation that whether the transfer of radioactivity through a diet is significant or not depended on such ecological factors as ration rates, assimilation rates, uptake rates, and turnover rates. The degree of the importance of these parameters on the concentration process of radioactivity was quantitatively evaluated by the mathematical technique of sensitivity analysis.

  17. Potential Transferability of Economic Evaluations of Programs Encouraging Physical Activity in Children and Adolescents across Different Countries—A Systematic Review of the Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katharina Korber

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Physical inactivity is an increasing problem. Owing to limited financial resources, one method of getting information on the cost-effectiveness of different types of prevention programs is to examine existing programs and their results. The aim of this paper is to give an overview of the transferability of cost-effectiveness results of physical activity programs for children and adolescents to other contexts. Based on a systematic review of the literature, the transferability of the studies found was assessed using a sub-checklist of the European Network of Health Economic Evaluation Databases (EURONHEED. Thirteen studies of different physical activity interventions were found and analyzed. The results for transferability ranged from “low” to “very high”. A number of different factors influence a program’s cost-effectiveness (i.e., discount rate, time horizon, etc.. Therefore, transparency with regard to these factors is one fundamental element in the transferability of the results. A major point of criticism is that transferability is often limited because of lack of transparency. This paper is the first to provide both an overview and an assessment of transferability of economic evaluations of existing programs encouraging physical activity in children and adolescents. This allows decision makers to gain an impression on whether the findings are transferable to their decision contexts, which may lead to time and cost savings.

  18. Patterns and processes of nutrient transfers from land to water: a catchment approach to evaluate Good Agricultural Practice in Ireland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mellander, P.-E.; Melland, A. R.; Shortle, G.; Wall, D.; Mechan, S.; Buckley, C.; Fealy, R.; Jordan, P.

    2009-04-01

    Eutrophication of fresh, transitional and coastal waters by excessive nutrient inputs is one of the most widespread water quality problems in developed countries. Sources of nutrient nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) can come from a multiplicity of sources and be dependent on numerous hydrological controls from catchments with both urban and agricultural landuses. Aquatic impacts are widely reported as a result of excessive nutrient transfers from land to water and include changes in ecological integrity and loss of amenity. In the European Union, the Water Framework Directive (WFD) and associated Directives are the key structures with which member states must develop national and often trans-national polices to deal with issues of water resources management. The linked Nitrates Directive is particularly concerned with integrating sustainable agriculture and good water quality objectives and is written into national polices. In Ireland this policy is the Nitrates Directive National Action Programme (NAP), Statutory Instruction 378, Good Agricultural Practise regulation, and amongst other things, sets targets and limits on the use of organic and inorganic fertilisers, soil fertility and slurry/fertiliser spreading and cultivation times. To evaluate the effectiveness of this policy, Teagasc, the Irish Agriculture and Food Development Authority, is undertaking a catchment scale audit on sources, sinks, and changes in nutrient use and export over several years. The Agricultural Catchments Programme is based on a science-stakeholder-management partnership to generate knowledge and specifically to protect water quality from nitrogen and phosphorus transfers within the constraints of the requirements of modern Irish agricultural practises. Eight catchments of 5-12 km2 have been selected for the programme to represent a range of agricultural intensities and vulnerabilities to nitrogen and phosphorus loss including catchments that are situated on permeable and impermeable

  19. Technology Transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Nanette R.

    1995-01-01

    The objective of this summer's work was to attempt to enhance Technology Application Group (TAG) ability to measure the outcomes of its efforts to transfer NASA technology. By reviewing existing literature, by explaining the economic principles involved in evaluating the economic impact of technology transfer, and by investigating the LaRC processes our William & Mary team has been able to lead this important discussion. In reviewing the existing literature, we identified many of the metrics that are currently being used in the area of technology transfer. Learning about the LaRC technology transfer processes and the metrics currently used to track the transfer process enabled us to compare other R&D facilities to LaRC. We discuss and diagram impacts of technology transfer in the short run and the long run. Significantly, it serves as the basis for analysis and provides guidance in thinking about what the measurement objectives ought to be. By focusing on the SBIR Program, valuable information regarding the strengths and weaknesses of this LaRC program are to be gained. A survey was developed to ask probing questions regarding SBIR contractors' experience with the program. Specifically we are interested in finding out whether the SBIR Program is accomplishing its mission, if the SBIR companies are providing the needed innovations specified by NASA and to what extent those innovations have led to commercial success. We also developed a survey to ask COTR's, who are NASA employees acting as technical advisors to the SBIR contractors, the same type of questions, evaluating the successes and problems with the SBIR Program as they see it. This survey was developed to be implemented interactively on computer. It is our hope that the statistical and econometric studies that can be done on the data collected from all of these sources will provide insight regarding the direction to take in developing systematic evaluations of programs like the SBIR Program so that they can

  20. Evaluation of angular integrals in the generation of transfer matrices for multigroup transport codes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia, R.D.M.

    1985-01-01

    The generalization of a semi-analytical technique for the evaluation of angular integrals that appear in the generation of elastic and discrete inelastic tranfer matrices for transport codes is carried out. In contrast to the generalized series expansions which are found to be too complex and thus of little practical value, when compared to the Gaussian quadrature technique, the recursion relations developed in this work are superior to the quadrature scheme, for those cases where the round-off error propagation is not significant. (Author) [pt

  1. Evaluation of the Transfer of International Traffic in Arms Regulations-Controlled Missile Defense Technology to the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-07-13

    120.19) occurs. He said even where an export does occur, in many cases transfers between U.S. Government agencies are exempted under ITAR 126.4 from...services is not an export under the ITAR and, to the extent it is, that any exemptions to license requirements are properly applied. Importantly, the...National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2015,” we conducted an evaluation of the transfer of specific International Traffic in Arms

  2. GARLIC — A general purpose atmospheric radiative transfer line-by-line infrared-microwave code: Implementation and evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schreier, Franz; Gimeno García, Sebastián; Hedelt, Pascal; Hess, Michael; Mendrok, Jana; Vasquez, Mayte; Xu, Jian

    2014-01-01

    A suite of programs for high resolution infrared-microwave atmospheric radiative transfer modeling has been developed with emphasis on efficient and reliable numerical algorithms and a modular approach appropriate for simulation and/or retrieval in a variety of applications. The Generic Atmospheric Radiation Line-by-line Infrared Code — GARLIC — is suitable for arbitrary observation geometry, instrumental field-of-view, and line shape. The core of GARLIC's subroutines constitutes the basis of forward models used to implement inversion codes to retrieve atmospheric state parameters from limb and nadir sounding instruments. This paper briefly introduces the physical and mathematical basics of GARLIC and its descendants and continues with an in-depth presentation of various implementation aspects: An optimized Voigt function algorithm combined with a two-grid approach is used to accelerate the line-by-line modeling of molecular cross sections; various quadrature methods are implemented to evaluate the Schwarzschild and Beer integrals; and Jacobians, i.e. derivatives with respect to the unknowns of the atmospheric inverse problem, are implemented by means of automatic differentiation. For an assessment of GARLIC's performance, a comparison of the quadrature methods for solution of the path integral is provided. Verification and validation are demonstrated using intercomparisons with other line-by-line codes and comparisons of synthetic spectra with spectra observed on Earth and from Venus. - Highlights: • High resolution infrared-microwave radiative transfer model. • Discussion of algorithmic and computational aspects. • Jacobians by automatic/algorithmic differentiation. • Performance evaluation by intercomparisons, verification, validation

  3. Volatile trace compounds released from municipal solid waste at the transfer stage: Evaluation of environmental impacts and odour pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yan; Lu, Wenjing; Wang, Hongtao

    2015-12-30

    Odour pollution caused by municipal solid waste is a public concern. This study quantitatively evaluated the concentration, environmental impacts, and olfaction of volatile trace compounds released from a waste transfer station. Seventy-six compounds were detected, and ethanol presented the highest releasing rate and ratio of 14.76 kg/d and 12.30 g/t of waste, respectively. Life cycle assessment showed that trichlorofluoromethane and dichlorodifluoromethane accounted for more than 99% of impact potentials to global warming and approximately 70% to human toxicity (non-carcinogenic). The major contributor for both photochemical ozone formation and ecotoxicity was ethanol. A detection threshold method was also used to evaluate odour pollution. Five compounds including methane thiol, hydrogen sulphide, ethanol, dimethyl disulphide, and dimethyl sulphide, with dilution multiples above one, were considered the critical compounds. Methane thiol showed the highest contribution to odour pollution of more than 90%, as indicated by its low threshold. Comparison of the contributions of the compounds to different environmental aspects indicated that typical pollutants varied based on specific evaluation targets and therefore should be comprehensively considered. This study provides important information and scientific methodology to elucidate the impacts of odourant compounds to the environment and odour pollution. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Proteasome phosphorylation regulates cocaine-induced sensitization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzales, Frankie R; Howell, Kristin K; Dozier, Lara E; Anagnostaras, Stephan G; Patrick, Gentry N

    2018-04-01

    Repeated exposure to cocaine produces structural and functional modifications at synapses from neurons in several brain regions including the nucleus accumbens. These changes are thought to underlie cocaine-induced sensitization. The ubiquitin proteasome system plays a crucial role in the remodeling of synapses and has recently been implicated in addiction-related behavior. The ATPase Rpt6 subunit of the 26S proteasome is phosphorylated by Ca 2+ /calmodulin-dependent protein kinases II alpha at ser120 which is thought to regulate proteasome activity and distribution in neurons. Here, we demonstrate that Rpt6 phosphorylation is involved in cocaine-induced locomotor sensitization. Cocaine concomitantly increases proteasome activity and Rpt6 S120 phosphorylation in cultured neurons and in various brain regions of wild type mice including the nucleus accumbens and prefrontal cortex. In contrast, cocaine does not increase proteasome activity in Rpt6 phospho-mimetic (ser120Asp) mice. Strikingly, we found a complete absence of cocaine-induced locomotor sensitization in the Rpt6 ser120Asp mice. Together, these findings suggest a critical role for Rpt6 phosphorylation and proteasome function in the regulation cocaine-induced behavioral plasticity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Regulation of protein phosphorylation in oat mitochondria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pike, C.; Kopeck, K.; Sceppa, E.

    1989-01-01

    We sought to identify phosphorylated proteins in isolated oat mitocchondria and to characterize the enzymatic and regulatory properties of the protein kinase(s). Mitochondria from oats (Avena sativa L. cv. Garry) were purified on Percoll gradients. Mitochondria were incubated with 32 P-γ-ATP; proteins were separated by SDS-PAGE. A small number of bands was detected on autoradiograms, most prominently at 70 kD and 42 kD; the latter band has been tentatively identified as a subunit of the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex, a well-known phosphoprotein. The protein kinase(s) could also phosphorylate casein, but not histone. Spermine enhanced the phosphorylation of casein and inhibited the phosphorylation of the 42 kD band. These studies were carried out on both intact and burst mitochondria. Control by calcium and other ions was investigated. The question of the action of regulators on protein kinase or protein phosphatase was studied by the use of 35 S-adenosine thiotriphosphate

  6. Tyrosine phosphorylation switching of a G protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Bo; Tunc-Ozdemir, Meral; Urano, Daisuke; Jia, Haiyan; Werth, Emily G; Mowrey, David D; Hicks, Leslie M; Dokholyan, Nikolay V; Torres, Matthew P; Jones, Alan M

    2018-03-30

    Heterotrimeric G protein complexes are molecular switches relaying extracellular signals sensed by G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) to downstream targets in the cytoplasm, which effect cellular responses. In the plant heterotrimeric GTPase cycle, GTP hydrolysis, rather than nucleotide exchange, is the rate-limiting reaction and is accelerated by a receptor-like regulator of G signaling (RGS) protein. We hypothesized that posttranslational modification of the Gα subunit in the G protein complex regulates the RGS-dependent GTPase cycle. Our structural analyses identified an invariant phosphorylated tyrosine residue (Tyr 166 in the Arabidopsis Gα subunit AtGPA1) located in the intramolecular domain interface where nucleotide binding and hydrolysis occur. We also identified a receptor-like kinase that phosphorylates AtGPA1 in a Tyr 166 -dependent manner. Discrete molecular dynamics simulations predicted that phosphorylated Tyr 166 forms a salt bridge in this interface and potentially affects the RGS protein-accelerated GTPase cycle. Using a Tyr 166 phosphomimetic substitution, we found that the cognate RGS protein binds more tightly to the GDP-bound Gα substrate, consequently reducing its ability to accelerate GTPase activity. In conclusion, we propose that phosphorylation of Tyr 166 in AtGPA1 changes the binding pattern with AtRGS1 and thereby attenuates the steady-state rate of the GTPase cycle. We coin this newly identified mechanism "substrate phosphoswitching." © 2018 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  7. Evaluate the accuracy of the numerical solution of hydrogeological problems of mass transfer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yevhrashkina G.P.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In the hydrogeological task on quantifying pollution of aquifers the error are starting add up with moment organization of regime observation network as a source of information on the pollution of groundwater in order to evaluate migration options for future prognosis calculations. Optimum element regime observation network should consist of three drill holes on the groundwater flow at equal distances from one another and transversely to the flow of the three drill holes, and at equal distances. If the target of observation drill holes coincides with the stream line on which will then be decided by direct migration task, the error will be minimal. The theoretical basis and results of numerical experiments to assess the accuracy of direct predictive tasks planned migration of groundwater in the area of full water saturation. For the vadose zone, we consider problems of vertical salt transport moisture. All studies were performed by comparing the results of fundamental and approximate solutions in a wide range of characteristics of the processes, which are discussed in relation to ecological and hydrogeological conditions of mining regions on the example of the Western Donbass.

  8. Phosphorylation regulates human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 Rex function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ward Michael

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1 is a pathogenic complex deltaretrovirus, which is the causative agent of adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATL and HTLV-1-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis. In addition to the structural and enzymatic viral gene products, HTLV-1 encodes the positive regulatory proteins Tax and Rex along with viral accessory proteins. Tax and Rex proteins orchestrate the timely expression of viral genes important in viral replication and cellular transformation. Rex is a nucleolar-localizing shuttling protein that acts post-transcriptionally by binding and facilitating the export of the unspliced and incompletely spliced viral mRNAs from the nucleus to the cytoplasm. HTLV-1 Rex (Rex-1 is a phosphoprotein and general protein kinase inhibition correlates with reduced function. Therefore, it has been proposed that Rex-1 function may be regulated through site-specific phosphorylation. Results We conducted a phosphoryl mapping of Rex-1 over-expressed in transfected 293 T cells using a combination of affinity purification and liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. We achieved 100% physical coverage of the Rex-1 polypeptide and identified five novel phosphorylation sites at Thr-22, Ser-36, Thr-37, Ser-97, and Ser-106. We also confirmed evidence of two previously identified residues, Ser-70 and Thr-174, but found no evidence of phosphorylation at Ser-177. The functional significance of these phosphorylation events was evaluated using a Rex reporter assay and site-directed mutational analysis. Our results indicate that phosphorylation at Ser-97 and Thr-174 is critical for Rex-1 function. Conclusion We have mapped completely the site-specific phosphorylation of Rex-1 identifying a total of seven residues; Thr-22, Ser-36, Thr-37, Ser-70, Ser-97, Ser-106, and Thr-174. Overall, this work is the first to completely map the phosphorylation sites in Rex-1 and provides important insight into

  9. Additional cash incentive within a conditional cash transfer scheme: a 'controlled before and during' design evaluation study from India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahariya, Chandrakant; Mishra, Ashok; Nandan, Deoki; Gautam, Praveen; Gupta, Sanjay

    2011-01-01

    Conditional Cash Transfer (CCT) schemes have shown largely favorable changes in the health seeking behavior. This evaluation study assesses the process and performance of an Additional Cash Incentive (ACI) scheme within an ongoing CCT scheme in India, and document lessons. A controlled before and during design study was conducted in Madhya Pradesh state of India, from August 2007 to March 2008, with increased in institutional deliveries as a primary outcome. In depth interviews, focus group discussions and household surveys were done for data collection. Lack of awareness about ACI scheme amongst general population and beneficiaries, cumbersome cash disbursement procedure, intricate eligibility criteria, extensive paper work, and insufficient focus on community involvement were the major implementation challenges. There were anecdotal reports of political interference and possible scope for corruption. At the end of implementation period, overall rate of institutional deliveries had increased in both target and control populations; however, the differences were not statistically significant. No cause and effect association could be proven by this study. Poor planning and coordination, and lack of public awareness about the scheme resulted in low utilization. Thus, proper IEC and training, detailed implementation plan, orientation training for implementer, sufficient budgetary allocation, and community participation should be an integral part for successful implementation of any such scheme. The lesson learned this evaluation study may be useful in any developing country setting and may be utilized for planning and implementation of any ACI scheme in future.

  10. Evaluation by fluorescence resonance energy transfer of the stability of nonviral gene delivery vectors under physiological conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itaka, Keiji; Harada, Atsushi; Nakamura, Kozo; Kawaguchi, Hiroshi; Kataoka, Kazunori

    2002-01-01

    The stability in physiological medium of polyplex- and lipoplex-type nonviral gene vectors was evaluated by detecting the conformational change of complexed plasmid DNA (pDNA) labeled simultaneously with fluorescein (energy donor) and X-rhodamine (energy acceptor) through fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET). Upon mixing with cationic components, such as LipofectAMINE, poly(L-lysine), and poly(ethylene glycol)-poly(L-lysine) block copolymer (PEG-PLys), the fluorescence spectrum of doubly labeled pDNA underwent a drastic change due to the occurrence of FRET between the donor-acceptor pair on pDNA taking a globular conformation (condensed state) through complexation. The measurement was carried out also in the presence of 20% serum, under which conditions FRET from condensed pDNA was clearly monitored without interference from coexisting components in the medium, allowing evaluation of the condensed state of pDNA in nonviral gene vectors under physiological conditions. Serum addition immediately induced a sharp decrease in FRET for the LipofectAMINE/pDNA (lipoplex) system, which was consistent with the sharp decrease in the transfection efficiency of the lipoplex system in serum-containing medium. In contrast, the PEG-PLys/pDNA polyplex (polyion complex micelle) system maintained appreciable transfection efficiency even in serum-containing medium, and FRET efficiency remained constant for up to 12 h, indicating the high stability of the polyion complex micelle under physiological conditions.

  11. Magnetisation transfer MR imaging of the kidney: evaluation at 3.0 T in association with renal function

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ito, Katsuyoshi [Kawasaki Medical School, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Kurashiki, Okayama (Japan); Kurashiki Daiichi Hospital, Department of Radiology, Kurashiki, Okayama (Japan); Hayashida, Minoru; Izumitani, Shogo; Fujimine, Tomoko; Onishi, Takeo; Genba, Katsuhiro [Kurashiki Daiichi Hospital, Department of Radiology, Kurashiki, Okayama (Japan)

    2013-08-15

    To evaluate the feasibility of using magnetisation transfer (MT) MRI of the kidney at 3.0 T to assess renal function. Forty-four patients who underwent abdominal MRI on a 3.0-T system including gradient-echo (GRE) sequences with and without MT pulse were included. In each patient, MT ratio (MTR) of the renal cortex and medulla was measured by using regions of interest (ROIs) placed on the MTR map image. Regression analysis showed good correlation between estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) and MTR of the renal cortex (r = -0.645, P < 0.0001). Among 44 patients, 22 were categorised as the normal renal function group and 22 were classified as the decreased eGFR group. The mean MTR of the renal cortex in patients with decreased eGFR (mean MTR, 30.7 {+-} 3.2 %) was significantly higher (P < 0.0001) than that in patients with normal renal function (mean MTR, 25.3 {+-} 2.2 %), although the mean MTRs of the renal medulla in the two groups were not significantly different. There was good correlation between eGFR and MTR of the renal cortex derived from MT MRI at 3.0 T. This technique may have the potential to evaluate the degree of renal function non-invasively in patients with renal impairment. (orig.)

  12. Magnetisation transfer MR imaging of the kidney: evaluation at 3.0 T in association with renal function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ito, Katsuyoshi; Hayashida, Minoru; Izumitani, Shogo; Fujimine, Tomoko; Onishi, Takeo; Genba, Katsuhiro

    2013-01-01

    To evaluate the feasibility of using magnetisation transfer (MT) MRI of the kidney at 3.0 T to assess renal function. Forty-four patients who underwent abdominal MRI on a 3.0-T system including gradient-echo (GRE) sequences with and without MT pulse were included. In each patient, MT ratio (MTR) of the renal cortex and medulla was measured by using regions of interest (ROIs) placed on the MTR map image. Regression analysis showed good correlation between estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) and MTR of the renal cortex (r = -0.645, P < 0.0001). Among 44 patients, 22 were categorised as the normal renal function group and 22 were classified as the decreased eGFR group. The mean MTR of the renal cortex in patients with decreased eGFR (mean MTR, 30.7 ± 3.2 %) was significantly higher (P < 0.0001) than that in patients with normal renal function (mean MTR, 25.3 ± 2.2 %), although the mean MTRs of the renal medulla in the two groups were not significantly different. There was good correlation between eGFR and MTR of the renal cortex derived from MT MRI at 3.0 T. This technique may have the potential to evaluate the degree of renal function non-invasively in patients with renal impairment. (orig.)

  13. Thermal performance evaluation of a massive brick wall under real weather conditions via the Conduction Transfer function method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilio Sassine

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The reliable estimation of buildings energy needs for cooling and heating is essential for any eventual thermal improvement of the envelope or the HVAC equipment. This paper presents an interesting method to evaluate the thermal performance of a massive wall by using the frequency-domain regression (FDR method to calculate CTF coefficients by means of the Fourier transform. The method is based on the EN ISO 13786 (2007 procedure by using the Taylor expansion for the elements of the heat matrix. Numerical results were validated through an experimental heating box with stochastic boundary conditions on one side of the wall representing real weather conditions and constant temperature profile on the other side representing the inside ambiance in real cases. Finally, a frequency analysis was performed in order to assess the validity and accuracy of the method used. The results show that development to the second order is sufficient to predict the thermal behavior of the studied massive wall in the range of frequencies encountered in the building applications (one hour time step. This method is useful for thermal transfer analysis in real weather conditions where the outside temperature is stochastic; it also allows the evaluation of the thermal performance of a wall through a frequency analysis.

  14. From hydro-geomorphological mapping to sediment transfer evaluation in the Upper Guil Catchment (Queyras, French Alps)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lissak, Candide; Fort, Monique; Arnaud-Fassetta, Gilles; Mathieu, Alexandre; Malet, Jean-Philippe; Carlier, Benoit; Betard, François; Cossart, Etienne; Madelin, Malika; Viel, Vincent; Charney, Bérengère; Bletterie, Xavier

    2014-05-01

    The Guil River catchment (Queyras, Southern French Alps) is prone to hydro-geomorphic hazards related to catastrophic floods, with an amplification of their impacts due to strong hillslope-channel connectivity such as in 1957 (> R.I. 100 yr), and more recently in 2000 (R.I. 30 yr). In both cases, the rainfall intensity, aggravated by pre-existing saturated soils, explained the immediate response of the fluvial system and the subsequent destabilisation of slopes. This resulted in serious damages to infrastructure and buildings in the valley bottom, mostly along some specific reaches and confluences with debris flow prone tributaries. After each event, new protective structures are built. One of the purposes of this study, undertaken in the frame of the SAMCO (ANR) project, was to understand the hydro-geomorphological functioning of this upper Alpine catchment in a context of hazards mitigation and sustainable management of sediment yield, transfer and deposition. To determine the main sediment storages that could be mobilised during the next major hydro-meteorological events, the first step of our study consists in the identification and characterisation of areas that play a role into the sediment transfer processing. From environmental characteristics (channel geometric, vegetation cover…) and anthropogenic factors (hydraulic infrastructures, urban development…), a semi-automatic method provides a typology of contribution areas with sediment storages sensitive to erosion, or areas that will be prone to deposition of sediments during the next flooding event. The second step of the study is focused on the sediment storages with their characterisation and connectivity to the trunk channel. Taking into account the entire catchment and including the torrential system, this phase analyses the sedimentary transfers from the identification and classification of sediment storages to the evaluation of the degree of connectivity with the main or secondary channels. The

  15. Evaluation of nerve transfer options for treating total brachial plexus avulsion injury: A retrospective study of 73 participants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Kai-Ming; Hu, Jing-Jing; Lao, Jie; Zhao, Xin

    2018-03-01

    Despite recent great progress in diagnosis and microsurgical repair, the prognosis in total brachial plexus-avulsion injury remains unfavorable. Insufficient number of donors and unreasonable use of donor nerves might be key factors. To identify an optimal treatment strategy for this condition, we conducted a retrospective review. Seventy-three patients with total brachial plexus avulsion injury were followed up for an average of 7.3 years. Our analysis demonstrated no significant difference in elbow-flexion recovery between phrenic nerve-transfer (25 cases), phrenic nerve-graft (19 cases), intercostal nerve (17 cases), or contralateral C 7 -transfer (12 cases) groups. Restoration of shoulder function was attempted through anterior accessory nerve (27 cases), posterior accessory nerve (10 cases), intercostal nerve (5 cases), or accessory + intercostal nerve transfer (31 cases). Accessory nerve + intercostal nerve transfer was the most effective method. A significantly greater amount of elbow extension was observed in patients with intercostal nerve transfer (25 cases) than in those with contralateral C 7 transfer (10 cases). Recovery of median nerve function was noticeably better for those who received entire contralateral C 7 transfer (33 cases) than for those who received partial contralateral C 7 transfer (40 cases). Wrist and finger extension were reconstructed by intercostal nerve transfer (31 cases). Overall, the recommended surgical treatment for total brachial plexus-avulsion injury is phrenic nerve transfer for elbow flexion, accessory nerve + intercostal nerve transfer for shoulder function, intercostal nerves transfer for elbow extension, entire contralateral C 7 transfer for median nerve function, and intercostal nerve transfer for finger extension. The trial was registered at ClinicalTrials.gov (identifier: NCT03166033).

  16. Evaluation of nerve transfer options for treating total brachial plexus avulsion injury: a retrospective study of 73 participants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Kai-ming; Hu, Jing-jing; Lao, Jie; Zhao, Xin

    2018-01-01

    Despite recent great progress in diagnosis and microsurgical repair, the prognosis in total brachial plexus-avulsion injury remains unfavorable. Insufficient number of donors and unreasonable use of donor nerves might be key factors. To identify an optimal treatment strategy for this condition, we conducted a retrospective review. Seventy-three patients with total brachial plexus avulsion injury were followed up for an average of 7.3 years. Our analysis demonstrated no significant difference in elbow-flexion recovery between phrenic nerve-transfer (25 cases), phrenic nerve-graft (19 cases), intercostal nerve (17 cases), or contralateral C7-transfer (12 cases) groups. Restoration of shoulder function was attempted through anterior accessory nerve (27 cases), posterior accessory nerve (10 cases), intercostal nerve (5 cases), or accessory + intercostal nerve transfer (31 cases). Accessory nerve + intercostal nerve transfer was the most effective method. A significantly greater amount of elbow extension was observed in patients with intercostal nerve transfer (25 cases) than in those with contralateral C7 transfer (10 cases). Recovery of median nerve function was noticeably better for those who received entire contralateral C7 transfer (33 cases) than for those who received partial contralateral C7 transfer (40 cases). Wrist and finger extension were reconstructed by intercostal nerve transfer (31 cases). Overall, the recommended surgical treatment for total brachial plexus-avulsion injury is phrenic nerve transfer for elbow flexion, accessory nerve + intercostal nerve transfer for shoulder function, intercostal nerves transfer for elbow extension, entire contralateral C7 transfer for median nerve function, and intercostal nerve transfer for finger extension. The trial was registered at ClinicalTrials.gov (identifier: NCT03166033). PMID:29623932

  17. Feed-in Tariff Pricing and Social Burden in Japan: Evaluating International Learning through a Policy Transfer Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yugo Tanaka

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Feed-in tariff (FiT policy approaches for renewable energy (RE deployment are employed in many nations around the world. Although FiTs are considered effective in boosting RE deployment, the issue of increasing energy bills and social burden is an often-reported negative impact of their use. The FiT has been employed in Japan since 2012, following after many developed countries, and, as was experienced in other nations, led to a social burden imparted on society significantly higher than initial government estimates. Although policy decision making does not necessarily reflect international policy experience, it is still prudent to ask how international policy experiences of social burden increase were considered within the Japanese approach. In this research, we analyzed the transfer process by adapting a conventional model to develop more objective observations than was previously possible, by setting a benchmark for evaluation based on prior international experiences. We identified two streams of policy transfer, each led by different actors; the government and representatives of the National Diet of Japan (Diet. Both actors were exposed to the same experiences, however the interpretation, application to policy development and priority settings employed were vastly different. Although the framework can only assess policy learning processes, we have found that the government undertook a reasonable and rational process toward learning, while, on the other hand, the modified bill developed by the Diet members did not thoroughly derive learnings in the same way, due to cognitive and political reasons, and specifically, the issue of limiting social burden was not addressed.

  18. The Performance Evaluation of Overall Heat Transfer and Pumping Power of γ-Al2O3/water Nanofluid as Coolant in Automotive Diesel Engine Radiator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Navid Bozorgan

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The efficiency of γ-Al2O3/water nanofluid as coolant is investigated in the present study. γ-Al2O3 nanoparticles with diameters of 20 nm dispersed in water with volume concentrations up 2% are selected and their performance in a radiator of Chevrolet Suburban diesel engine under turbulent flow conditions are numerically studied. The performance of an automobile radiator is a function of overall heat transfer coefficient and total heat transfer area. The heat transfer relations between nanofluid and airflow have been investigated to evaluate the overall heat transfer and the pumping power of γ-Al2O3/water nanofluid in the radiator with a given heat exchange capacity. In the present paper, the effects of the automotive speed and Reynolds number of the nanofluid in the different volume concentrations on the radiator performance are also investigated. As an example, the results show that for 2% γ-Al2O3 nanoparticles in water with Renf=6000 in the radiator while the automotive speed is 50 mph, the overall heat transfer coefficient and pumping power are approximately 11.11% and 29.17% more than that of water for given conditions, respectively. These results confirm that γ-Al2O3/water nanofluid offers higher overall heat transfer performance than water and can be reduced the total heat transfer area of the radiator.

  19. Evaluation of the radiative transfer in the core of a Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) during the reflooding step of a Loss Of Coolant Accident (LOCA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerardin, J.

    2012-01-01

    We developed a method of resolution of radiative transfer inside a medium of vapor-droplets surrounded by hot walls, in order to couple it with a simulation of the flow at the CFD scale. The scope is the study of the cooling of the core of nuclear reactor following a Loss Of Coolant Accident (LOCA). The problem of radiative transfer can be cut into two sub problems, one concerning the evaluation of the radiative properties of the medium and a second concerning the solution of the radiative transfer equation. The radiative properties of the droplets have been computed with the use of the Mie Theory and those of the vapor have been computed with a Ck model. The medium made of vapor and droplets is an absorbing, anisotropically scattering, emissive, non grey, non homogeneous medium. Hence, owing to the possible variations of the flow properties (diameter and volumetric fraction of the droplets, temperature and pressure of the vapor), the medium can be optically thin or thick. Consequently, a method is required which solves the radiative transfer accurately, with a moderate calculation time for all of these prerequisites. The IDA has been chosen, derived from the well-known P1-approximation. Its accuracy has been checked on academical cases found in the literature and by comparison with experimental data. Simulations of LOCA flows have been conducted taking account of the radiative transfer, evaluating the radiative fluxes and showing that radiative transfer influence cannot be neglected. (author)

  20. TRANSFERENCE BEFORE TRANSFERENCE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonaminio, Vincenzo

    2017-10-01

    This paper is predominantly a clinical presentation that describes the transmigration of one patient's transference to another, with the analyst functioning as a sort of transponder. It involves an apparently accidental episode in which there was an unconscious intersection between two patients. The author's aim is to show how transference from one case may affect transference in another, a phenomenon the author calls transference before transference. The author believes that this idea may serve as a tool for understanding the unconscious work that takes place in the clinical situation. In a clinical example, the analyst finds himself caught up in an enactment involving two patients in which he becomes the medium of what happens in session. © 2017 The Psychoanalytic Quarterly, Inc.

  1. Protein phosphorylation in isolated human adipocytes - Adrenergic control of the phosphorylation of hormone-sensitive lipase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smiley, R.M.; Paul, S.; Browning, M.D.; Leibel, R.L.; Hirsch, J.

    1990-01-01

    The effect of adrenergic agents on protein phosphorylation in human adipocytes was examined. Freshly isolated human fat cells were incubated with 32 PO 4 in order to label intracellular ATP, then treated with a variety of adrenergic and other pharmacologic agents. Treatment with the β-adrenergic agonist isoproterenol led to a significant increase in phosphate content of at least five protein bands (M r 52, 53, 63, 67, 84 kDa). The increase in phosphorylation was partially inhibited by the α-2 agonist clonidine. Epinephrine, a combined α and β agonist, was less effective at increasing phosphate content of the proteins than was isoproterenol. Neither insulin nor the α-1 agonist phenylephrine had any discernible effect on the pattern of protein phosphorylation. The 84 kDa phosphorylated peptide band appears to contain hormone-sensitive lipase, a key enzyme in the lipolytic pathway which is activated by phosphorylation. These results are somewhat different than previously reported results for rat adipocytes, and represent the first report of overall pattern and adrenergic modulation of protein phosphorylation in human adipocytes

  2. Flux control through protein phosphorylation in yeast

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Yu; Nielsen, Jens

    2016-01-01

    Protein phosphorylation is one of the most important mechanisms regulating metabolism as it can directly modify metabolic enzymes by the addition of phosphate groups. Attributed to such a rapid and reversible mechanism, cells can adjust metabolism rapidly in response to temporal changes. The yeast...... as well as identify mechanisms underlying human metabolic diseases. Here we collect functional phosphorylation events of 41 enzymes involved in yeast metabolism and demonstrate functional mechanisms and the application of this information in metabolic engineering. From a systems biology perspective, we...... describe the development of phosphoproteomics in yeast as well as approaches to analysing the phosphoproteomics data. Finally, we focus on integrated analyses with other omics data sets and genome-scale metabolic models. Despite the advances, future studies improving both experimental technologies...

  3. Solid polymer electrolyte from phosphorylated chitosan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fauzi, Iqbal, E-mail: arcana@chem.itb.ac.id; Arcana, I Made, E-mail: arcana@chem.itb.ac.id [Inorganic and Physical Chemistry Research Groups, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Institut Teknologi Bandung, Jl. Ganesha 10, Bandung 40132 (Indonesia)

    2014-03-24

    Recently, the need of secondary battery application continues to increase. The secondary battery which using a liquid electrolyte was indicated had some weakness. A solid polymer electrolyte is an alternative electrolytes membrane which developed in order to replace the liquid electrolyte type. In the present study, the effect of phosphorylation on to polymer electrolyte membrane which synthesized from chitosan and lithium perchlorate salts was investigated. The effect of the component’s composition respectively on the properties of polymer electrolyte, was carried out by analyzed of it’s characterization such as functional groups, ion conductivity, and thermal properties. The mechanical properties i.e tensile resistance and the morphology structure of membrane surface were determined. The phosphorylation processing of polymer electrolyte membrane of chitosan and lithium perchlorate was conducted by immersing with phosphoric acid for 2 hours, and then irradiated on a microwave for 60 seconds. The degree of deacetylation of chitosan derived from shrimp shells was obtained around 75.4%. Relative molecular mass of chitosan was obtained by viscometry method is 796,792 g/mol. The ionic conductivity of chitosan membrane was increase from 6.33 × 10{sup −6} S/cm up to 6.01 × 10{sup −4} S/cm after adding by 15 % solution of lithium perchlorate. After phosphorylation, the ionic conductivity of phosphorylated lithium chitosan membrane was observed 1.37 × 10{sup −3} S/cm, while the tensile resistance of 40.2 MPa with a better thermal resistance. On the strength of electrolyte membrane properties, this polymer electrolyte membrane was suggested had one potential used for polymer electrolyte in field of lithium battery applications.

  4. Protein phosphorylation in bcterial signaling and regulation

    KAUST Repository

    Mijakovic, Ivan

    2016-01-26

    In 2003, it was demonstrated for the first time that bacteria possess protein-tyrosine kinases (BY-kinases), capable of phosphorylating other cellular proteins and regulating their activity. It soon became apparent that these kinases phosphorylate a number of protein substrates, involved in different cellular processes. More recently, we found out that BY-kinases can be activated by several distinct protein interactants, and are capable of engaging in cross-phosphorylation with other kinases. Evolutionary studies based on genome comparison indicate that BY-kinases exist only in bacteria. They are non-essential (present in about 40% bacterial genomes), and their knockouts lead to pleiotropic phenotypes, since they phosphorylate many substrates. Surprisingly, BY-kinase genes accumulate mutations at an increased rate (non-synonymous substitution rate significantly higher than other bacterial genes). One direct consequence of this phenomenon is no detectable co-evolution between kinases and their substrates. Their promiscuity towards substrates thus seems to be “hard-wired”, but why would bacteria maintain such promiscuous regulatory devices? One explanation is the maintenance of BY-kinases as rapidly evolving regulators, which can readily adopt new substrates when environmental changes impose selective pressure for quick evolution of new regulatory modules. Their role is clearly not to act as master regulators, dedicated to triggering a single response, but they might rather be employed to contribute to fine-tuning and improving robustness of various cellular responses. This unique feature makes BY-kinases a potentially useful tool in synthetic biology. While other bacterial kinases are very specific and their signaling pathways insulated, BY-kinase can relatively easily be engineered to adopt new substrates and control new biosynthetic processes. Since they are absent in humans, and regulate some key functions in pathogenic bacteria, they are also very promising

  5. Peroxides and radiation impairment of oxidative phosphorylation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dovgii, I E; Akoev, I G

    1975-09-01

    An increase in the peroxidase activity of the mitochondria and a simultaneous rise in the amount of peroxide compounds, which are half lipid-like substances, are detected within the first 10 minutes after irradiation (1000 r). A mechanism of radiation impairment of oxidative phosphorylation is connected with the penetration of its inhibitors to the mitochondria due to the disturbed permeability of membranes affected by peroxides.

  6. Phosphorylation of proteins in Clostridium thermohydrosulfuricum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Londesborough, J.

    1986-01-01

    Cell extracts of the thermophile Clostridium thermohydrosulfuricum catalyzed the phosphorylation by (γ- 32 P)ATP of several endogenous proteins with M/sub r/s between 13,000 and 100,000. Serine and tyrosine were the main acceptors. Distinct substrate proteins were found in the soluble (e.g., proteins p66, p63, and p53 of M/sub r/s 66,000, 63,000, and 53,000, respectively) and particulate (p76 and p30) fractions, both of which contained protein kinase and phosphatase activity. The soluble fraction suppressed the phosphorylation of particulate proteins and contained a protein kinase inhibitor. Phosphorylation of p53 was promoted by 10μM fructose 1,6-bisphosphate or glucose 1,6-bisphosphate and suppressed by hexose monophosphates, whereas p30 and p13 were suppressed by 5 μM brain (but not spinach) calmodulin. Polyamines, including the odd polyamines characteristic of thermophiles, modulated the labeling of most of the phosphoproteins. Apart from p66, all the proteins labeled in vitro were also rapidly labeled in intact cells by 32 P/sub i/. Several proteins strongly labeled in vivo were labeled slowly or not at all in vitro

  7. Evaluation of power transfer efficiency for a high power inductively coupled radio-frequency hydrogen ion source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, P.; Recchia, M.; Cavenago, M.; Fantz, U.; Gaio, E.; Kraus, W.; Maistrello, A.; Veltri, P.

    2018-04-01

    Neutral beam injection (NBI) for plasma heating and current drive is necessary for International Thermonuclear Experimental reactor (ITER) tokamak. Due to its various advantages, a radio frequency (RF) driven plasma source type was selected as a reference ion source for the ITER heating NBI. The ITER relevant RF negative ion sources are inductively coupled (IC) devices whose operational working frequency has been chosen to be 1 MHz and are characterized by high RF power density (˜9.4 W cm-3) and low operational pressure (around 0.3 Pa). The RF field is produced by a coil in a cylindrical chamber leading to a plasma generation followed by its expansion inside the chamber. This paper recalls different concepts based on which a methodology is developed to evaluate the efficiency of the RF power transfer to hydrogen plasma. This efficiency is then analyzed as a function of the working frequency and in dependence of other operating source and plasma parameters. The study is applied to a high power IC RF hydrogen ion source which is similar to one simplified driver of the ELISE source (half the size of the ITER NBI source).

  8. GARLIC - A general purpose atmospheric radiative transfer line-by-line infrared-microwave code: Implementation and evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreier, Franz; Gimeno García, Sebastián; Hedelt, Pascal; Hess, Michael; Mendrok, Jana; Vasquez, Mayte; Xu, Jian

    2014-04-01

    A suite of programs for high resolution infrared-microwave atmospheric radiative transfer modeling has been developed with emphasis on efficient and reliable numerical algorithms and a modular approach appropriate for simulation and/or retrieval in a variety of applications. The Generic Atmospheric Radiation Line-by-line Infrared Code - GARLIC - is suitable for arbitrary observation geometry, instrumental field-of-view, and line shape. The core of GARLIC's subroutines constitutes the basis of forward models used to implement inversion codes to retrieve atmospheric state parameters from limb and nadir sounding instruments. This paper briefly introduces the physical and mathematical basics of GARLIC and its descendants and continues with an in-depth presentation of various implementation aspects: An optimized Voigt function algorithm combined with a two-grid approach is used to accelerate the line-by-line modeling of molecular cross sections; various quadrature methods are implemented to evaluate the Schwarzschild and Beer integrals; and Jacobians, i.e. derivatives with respect to the unknowns of the atmospheric inverse problem, are implemented by means of automatic differentiation. For an assessment of GARLIC's performance, a comparison of the quadrature methods for solution of the path integral is provided. Verification and validation are demonstrated using intercomparisons with other line-by-line codes and comparisons of synthetic spectra with spectra observed on Earth and from Venus.

  9. Evaluation of experimental studies on technetium transfers to sediments and benthic marine species, and comparison with in situ data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aprosi, G [Electricite de France, 78 - Chatou; Masson, M [Commisariat a l' Energie Atomique, Institut de Protection et de Surete Nucleaire, 50 - Cherbourg (France)

    1984-01-01

    To obtain basic information for the evaluation of the radiological impact of technetium (Tc) on the marine environment, investigations are performed by different laboratories. Technetium is not a natural element and the main source of production is the nuclear fuel cycle. Under anoxic conditions, in presence of reducing sediments, the distribution coefficients are very high (Ksub(D)=10/sup 3/). Concentration factors from water to species are mostly very low (FC 1 to 10); however, concentration factors up to 1000 have been observed for a few species such as macrophytic brown algae, worms and lobster. Biochemical analysis shows that Tc is bound with protein. The transfer factors between sediment and species are very low (FT<0,5). The biological half-life (Tb) was determined in some marine organisms which had accumulated the radionuclide from water-contamined food or from sediments. The loss is biphasic in storage organs (liver and kidney); uptake in the edible parts is low. Among the parameters studied (light for algae, physico-chemical form of Tc, salinity and temperature) only light and the physico-chemical forms have an effect on the accumulation of technetium. Analyses of /sup 99/Tc concentrations in species collected near the La Hague and Windscale (Sellafield) reprocessing plants confirm the experimental studies. Since sea water is likely to be an oxidant environment, technetium appears as a conservative element.

  10. Evaluation of fission-product gases in program GAPCON series and FREG-3 to estimate the gap heat transfer coefficient

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohki, Naohisa; Harayama, Yasuo; Takeda, Tsuneo; Izumi, Fumio.

    1977-12-01

    In safety evaluation of a fuel rod, estimation of the stored energy in the fuel rod is indispensable. For this estimation, the temperature distribution in the fuel rod is calculated. Most important in determination of the temperature distribution is the gap heat transfer coefficient (gap conductance) between pellet surface and cladding inner surface. Under fuel rod operating condition, the mixed gas in the gap is composed of He, Xe and Kr. He is initial seald gas. Xe and Kr are fission-product gases, of which the quantities depend on the fuel burn-up. In program GAPCON series (GAPCON and GAPCON-THERMAL-1 and -2) and FREG-3, these quantities are given as a function of the irradiation time, power rating and neutron flux in estimation of the thermal conductivity of the mixed gas. The methods of calculating the quantities of Xe and Kr in the programs have been examined. Input of the neutron flux which influences F.P. gas production rates is better than the determination from the fuel-rod power rating. (auth.)

  11. An Evaluation Study of an Executive Master of Business Administration (EMBA) Program in an Urban City: Examining the Transfer of Knowledge and Leadership Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Hye Lim

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the effectiveness of the Executive Master of Business Administration (EMBA) degree program in terms of transfer of knowledge and leadership practices. Based on a review of literature related to adult learning theories, EMBA programs, the importance of evaluation practices, and leadership practices, this study was designed to…

  12. [Development of Patient Transfer Techniques based on Postural-stability Principles for the Care Helpers in Nursing Homes and Evaluation of Effectiveness].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Ryewon; Jung, Dukyoo

    2016-02-01

    This study was done to develop a postural-stability patient transfer technique for care helpers in nursing homes and to evaluate its effectiveness. Four types of patient transfer techniques (Lifting towards the head board of the bed, turning to the lateral position, sitting upright on the bed, transferring from wheel chair to bed) were practiced in accordance with the following three methods; Care helpers habitually used transfer methods (Method 1), patient transfer methods according to care helper standard textbooks (Method 2), and a method developed by the author ensuring postural-stability (Method 3). The care helpers' muscle activity and four joint angles were measured. The collected data were analyzed using the program SPSS Statistic 21.0. To differentiate the muscle activity and joint angle, the Friedman test was executed and the post-hoc analysis was conducted using the Wilcoxon Signed Rank test. Muscle activity was significantly lower during Method 3 compared to Methods 1 and 2. In addition, the joint angle was significantly lower for the knee and shoulder joint angle while performing Method 3 compared to Methods 1 and 2. Findings indicate that using postural-stability patient transfer techniques can contribute to the prevention of musculoskeletal disease which care helpers suffer from due to physically demanding patient care in nursing homes.

  13. Alternatives evaluation and decommissioning study on shielded transfer tanks at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DeVore, J.R.; Hinton, R.R.

    1994-08-01

    The shielded transfer tanks (STTs) are five obsolete cylindrical shipping casks which were used to transport high specific activity radioactive solutions by rail during the 1960s and early 1970s. The STTs are currently stored at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory under a shed roof. This report is an evaluation to determine the preferred alternative for the final disposition of the five STTs. The decommissioning alternatives assessed include: (1) the no action alternative to leave the STTs in their present location with continued surveillance and maintenance; (2) solidification of contents within the tanks and holding the STTs in long term retrievable storage; (3) sale of one or more of the used STTs to private industry for use at their treatment facility with the remaining STTs processed as in Alternative 4; and (4) removal of tank contents for de-watering/retrievable storage, limited decontamination to meet acceptance criteria, smelting the STTs to recycle the metal through the DOE contaminated scrap metal program, and returning the shielding lead to the ORNL lead recovery program because the smelting contractor cannot reprocess the lead. To completely evaluate the alternatives for the disposition of the STTs, the contents of the tanks must be characterized. Shielding and handling requirements, risk considerations, and waste acceptance criteria all require that the radioactive inventory and free liquids residual in the STTs be known. Because characterization of the STT contents in the field was not input into a computer model to predict the probable inventory and amount of free liquid. The four alternatives considered were subjected to a numerical scoring procedure. Alternative 4, smelting the STTs to recycle the metal after removal/de-watering of the tank contents, had the highest score and is, therefore, recommended as the preferred alternative. However, if a buyer for one or more STT could be found, it is recommended that Alternative 3 be reconsidered

  14. Designing Training for Temporal and Adaptive Transfer: A Comparative Evaluation of Three Training Methods for Process Control Tasks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kluge, Annette; Sauer, Juergen; Burkolter, Dina; Ritzmann, Sandrina

    2010-01-01

    Training in process control environments requires operators to be prepared for temporal and adaptive transfer of skill. Three training methods were compared with regard to their effectiveness in supporting transfer: Drill & Practice (D&P), Error Training (ET), and procedure-based and error heuristics training (PHT). Communication…

  15. Inability of p53-reactivating compounds Nutlin-3 and RITA to overcome p53 resistance in tumor cells deficient in p53Ser46 phosphorylation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Teng; Yamada, Shumpei; Ichwan, Solachuddin J A; Iseki, Sachiko; Ohtani, Kiyoshi; Otsu, Megumi; Ikeda, Masa-Aki

    2012-01-20

    The p53 tumor suppressor protein plays key roles in protecting cells from tumorigenesis. Phosphorylation of p53 at Ser46 (p53Ser46) is considered to be a crucial modification regulating p53-mediated apoptosis. Because the activity of p53 is impaired in most human cancers, restoration of wild-type p53 (wt-p53) function by its gene transfer or by p53-reactivating small molecules has been extensively investigated. The p53-reactivating compounds Nutlin-3 and RITA activate p53 in the absence of genotoxic stress by antagonizing the action of its negative regulator Mdm2. Although controversial, Nutlin-3 was shown to induce p53-mediated apoptosis in a manner independent of p53 phosphorylation. Recently, RITA was shown to induce apoptosis by promoting p53Ser46 phosphorylation. Here we examined whether Nutlin-3 or RITA can overcome resistance to p53-mediated apoptosis in p53-resistant tumor cell lines lacking the ability to phosphorylate p53Ser46. We show that Nutlin-3 did not rescue the apoptotic defect of a Ser46 phosphorylation-defective p53 mutant in p53-sensitive tumor cells, and that RITA neither restored p53Ser46 phosphorylation nor induced apoptosis in p53Ser46 phosphorylation-deficient cells retaining wt-p53. Furthermore, treatment with Nutlin-3 or RITA together with adenoviral p53 gene transfer also failed to induce apoptosis in p53Ser46 phosphorylation-deficient cells either expressing or lacking wt-p53. These results indicate that neither Nutlin-3 nor RITA in able to induce p53-mediated apoptosis in the absence of p53Ser46 phosphorylation. Thus, the dysregulation of this phosphorylation in tumor cells may be a critical factor that limits the efficacy of these p53-based cancer therapies. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Unraveling a phosphorylation event in a folded protein by NMR spectroscopy: phosphorylation of the Pin1 WW domain by PKA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smet-Nocca, Caroline, E-mail: caroline.smet@univ-lille1.fr; Launay, Helene; Wieruszeski, Jean-Michel; Lippens, Guy; Landrieu, Isabelle, E-mail: isabelle.landrieu@univ-lille1.fr [Universite de Lille-Nord de France, Institut Federatif de Recherches 147, CNRS UMR 8576 (France)

    2013-04-15

    The Pin1 protein plays a critical role in the functional regulation of the hyperphosphorylated neuronal Tau protein in Alzheimer's disease and is by itself regulated by phosphorylation. We have used Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) spectroscopy to both identify the PKA phosphorylation site in the Pin1 WW domain and investigate the functional consequences of this phosphorylation. Detection and identification of phosphorylation on serine/threonine residues in a globular protein, while mostly occurring in solvent-exposed flexible loops, does not lead to chemical shift changes as obvious as in disordered proteins and hence does not necessarily shift the resonances outside the spectrum of the folded protein. Other complications were encountered to characterize the extent of the phosphorylation, as part of the {sup 1}H,{sup 15}N amide resonances around the phosphorylation site are specifically broadened in the unphosphorylated state. Despite these obstacles, NMR spectroscopy was an efficient tool to confirm phosphorylation on S16 of the WW domain and to quantify the level of phosphorylation. Based on this analytical characterization, we show that WW phosphorylation on S16 abolishes its binding capacity to a phosphorylated Tau peptide. A reduced conformational heterogeneity and flexibility of the phospho-binding loop upon S16 phosphorylation could account for part of the decreased affinity for its phosphorylated partner. Additionally, a structural model of the phospho-WW obtained by molecular dynamics simulation and energy minimization suggests that the phosphate moiety of phospho-S16 could compete with the phospho-substrate.

  17. Unraveling a phosphorylation event in a folded protein by NMR spectroscopy: phosphorylation of the Pin1 WW domain by PKA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smet-Nocca, Caroline; Launay, Hélène; Wieruszeski, Jean-Michel; Lippens, Guy; Landrieu, Isabelle

    2013-01-01

    The Pin1 protein plays a critical role in the functional regulation of the hyperphosphorylated neuronal Tau protein in Alzheimer’s disease and is by itself regulated by phosphorylation. We have used Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) spectroscopy to both identify the PKA phosphorylation site in the Pin1 WW domain and investigate the functional consequences of this phosphorylation. Detection and identification of phosphorylation on serine/threonine residues in a globular protein, while mostly occurring in solvent-exposed flexible loops, does not lead to chemical shift changes as obvious as in disordered proteins and hence does not necessarily shift the resonances outside the spectrum of the folded protein. Other complications were encountered to characterize the extent of the phosphorylation, as part of the 1 H, 15 N amide resonances around the phosphorylation site are specifically broadened in the unphosphorylated state. Despite these obstacles, NMR spectroscopy was an efficient tool to confirm phosphorylation on S16 of the WW domain and to quantify the level of phosphorylation. Based on this analytical characterization, we show that WW phosphorylation on S16 abolishes its binding capacity to a phosphorylated Tau peptide. A reduced conformational heterogeneity and flexibility of the phospho-binding loop upon S16 phosphorylation could account for part of the decreased affinity for its phosphorylated partner. Additionally, a structural model of the phospho-WW obtained by molecular dynamics simulation and energy minimization suggests that the phosphate moiety of phospho-S16 could compete with the phospho-substrate.

  18. Phos-tag-based analysis of myosin regulatory light chain phosphorylation in human uterine myocytes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hector N Aguilar

    Full Text Available The 'phosphate-binding tag' (phos-tag reagent enables separation of phospho-proteins during SDS-PAGE by impeding migration proportional to their phosphorylation stoichiometry. Western blotting can then be used to detect and quantify the bands corresponding to the phospho-states of a target protein. We present a method for quantification of data regarding phospho-states derived from phos-tag SDS-PAGE. The method incorporates corrections for lane-to-lane loading variability and for the effects of drug vehicles thus enabling the comparison of multiple treatments by using the untreated cellular set-point as a reference. This method is exemplified by quantifying the phosphorylation of myosin regulatory light chain (RLC in cultured human uterine myocytes.We have evaluated and validated the concept that, when using an antibody (Ab against the total-protein, the sum of all phosphorylation states in a single lane represents a 'closed system' since all possible phospho-states and phosphoisotypes are detected. Using this approach, we demonstrate that oxytocin (OT and calpeptin (Calp induce RLC kinase (MLCK- and rho-kinase (ROK-dependent enhancements in phosphorylation of RLC at T18 and S19. Treatment of myocytes with a phorbol ester (PMA induced phosphorylation of S1-RLC, which caused a mobility shift in the phos-tag matrices distinct from phosphorylation at S19.We have presented a method for analysis of phospho-state data that facilitates quantitative comparison to a reference control without the use of a traditional 'loading' or 'reference' standard. This analysis is useful for assessing effects of putative agonists and antagonists where all phospho-states are represented in control and experimental samples. We also demonstrated that phosphorylation of RLC at S1 is inducible in intact uterine myocytes, though the signal in the resting samples was not sufficiently abundant to allow quantification by the approach used here.

  19. Identification of the protein kinase C phosphorylation site in neuromodulin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Apel, E.D.; Byford, M.F.; Au, D.; Walsh, K.A.; Storm, D.R.

    1990-01-01

    Neuromodulin (P-57, GAP-43, B-50, F-1) is a neurospecific calmodulin binding protein that is phosphorylated by protein kinase C. Phosphorylation by protein kinase C has been shown to abolish the affinity of neuromodulin for calmodulin and the authors have proposed that the concentration of free CaM in neurons may be regulated by phosphorylation and dephosphorylation of neuromodulin. The purpose of this study was to identify the protein kinase C phosphorylation site(s) in neuromodulin using recombinant neuromodulin as a substrate. Toward this end, it was demonstrated that recombinant neuromodulin purified from Escherichia coli and bovine neuromodulin were phosphorylated with similar K m values and stoichiometries and that protein kinase C mediated phosphorylation of both proteins abolished binding to calmodulin-Sepharose. Recombinant neuromodulin was phosphorylated by using protein kinase C and [γ- 32 P]ATP and digested with trypsin, and the resulting peptides were separated by HPLC. Only one 32 P-labeled tryptic peptide was generated from phosphorylated neuromodulin. They conclude that serine-41 is the protein kinase C phosphorylation site of neuromodulin and that phosphorylation of this amino acid residue blocks binding of calmoculin to neuromodulin. The proximity of serine-41 to the calmodulin binding domain in neuromodulin very likely explains the effect of phosphorylation on the affinity of neuromodulin for calmodulin

  20. Metal ion interaction with phosphorylated tyrosine analogue monolayers on gold.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petoral, Rodrigo M; Björefors, Fredrik; Uvdal, Kajsa

    2006-11-23

    Phosphorylated tyrosine analogue molecules (pTyr-PT) were assembled onto gold substrates, and the resulting monolayers were used for metal ion interaction studies. The monolayers were characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), infrared reflection-absorption spectroscopy (IRAS), cyclic voltammetry (CV), and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), both prior to and after exposure to metal ions. XPS verified the elemental composition of the molecular adsorbate and the presence of metal ions coordinated to the phosphate groups. Both the angle-dependent XPS and IRAS results were consistent with the change in the structural orientation of the pTyr-PT monolayer upon exposure to metal ions. The differential capacitance of the monolayers upon coordination of the metal ions was evaluated using EIS. These metal ions were found to significantly change the capacitance of the pTyr-PT monolayers in contrast to the nonphosphorylated tyrosine analogue (TPT). CV results showed reduced electrochemical blocking capabilities of the phosphorylated analogue monolayer when exposed to metal ions, supporting the change in the structure of the monolayer observed by XPS and IRAS. The largest change in the structure and interfacial capacitance was observed for aluminum ions, compared to calcium, magnesium, and chromium ions. This type of monolayer shows an excellent capability to coordinate metal ions and has a high potential for use as sensing layers in biochip applications to monitor the presence of metal ions.

  1. Technical note: Evaluation of digital refractometers to estimate serum immunoglobulin G concentration and passive transfer in Jersey calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCracken, M M; Morrill, K M; Fordyce, A L; Tyler, H D

    2017-10-01

    Previous data have demonstrated that refractometers can be used to estimate serum IgG, and that a cut-point of 7.8% Brix should be used to identify failure of passive transfer (FPT) in 1-d-old Holstein calves. The objective of the present study was to validate the use of refractometry to estimate serum IgG concentrations and evaluate FPT in Jersey calves. Blood samples (n = 97) were obtained from 1- to 3-d-old Jersey calves and centrifuged at 3,300 × g for 20 min at 25°C. Serum was analyzed for % Brix, total protein (TP), and refractive index (nD) using a Sper Scientific Digital Refractometer (model #300036, Sper Scientific, Scottsdale, AZ) within 12 h of sampling. Samples were then frozen and later analyzed in the laboratory for IgG by radial immunodiffusion. The mean serum IgG concentration for all calves was 23.7 mg/mL (SD = 12.5), with a range of 2.3 to 65.5 mg/mL. Mean serum % Brix was 8.9 (SD = 1.1; range 6.5 to 12.0). Serum % Brix was moderately correlated with IgG concentration (r = 0.77). Total protein and IgG were moderately correlated (r = 0.790). Regression was used to determine cut-points for approximately 10, 12, and 14 mg of IgG/mL and to determine the sensitivity and specificity of refractometry to identify FPT (serum IgG refractometry is an acceptable and rapid method to estimate immunoglobulin G in Jersey calf serum. Copyright © 2017 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Multicenter evaluation of a new closed system drug-transfer device in reducing surface contamination by antineoplastic hazardous drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartel, Sylvia B; Tyler, Timothy G; Power, Luci A

    2018-02-15

    Results of a study to evaluate the effectiveness of a recently introduced closed system drug-transfer device (CSTD) in reducing surface contamination during compounding and simulated administration of antineoplastic hazardous drugs (AHDs) are reported. Wipe samples were collected from 6 predetermined surfaces in compounding and infusion areas of 13 U.S. cancer centers to establish preexisting levels of surface contamination by 2 marker AHDs (cyclophosphamide and fluorouracil). Stainless steel templates were placed over the 6 previously sampled surfaces, and the marker drugs were compounded and infused per a specific protocol using all components of the CSTD. Wipe samples were collected from the templates after completion of tasks and analyzed for both marker AHDs. Aggregated results of wipe sampling to detect preexisting contamination at the 13 study sites showed that overall, 66.7% of samples (104 of 156) had detectable levels of at least 1 marker AHD; subsequent testing after CSTD use per protocol found a sample contamination rate of 5.8% (9 of 156 samples). In the administration areas alone, the rate of preexisting contamination was 78% (61 of 78 samples); with use of the CSTD protocol, the contamination rate was 2.6%. Twenty-six participants rated the CSTD for ease of use, with 100% indicating that they were satisfied or extremely satisfied. A study involving a rigorous protocol and 13 cancer centers across the United States demonstrated that the CSTD reduced surface contamination by cyclophosphamide and fluorouracil during compounding and simulated administration. Participants reported that the CSTD was easy to use. Copyright © 2018 by the American Society of Health-System Pharmacists, Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Quantitative evaluation of the hazards involved in transferring foreign cells and tissues to immunologically suppressed or deficient subjects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bekkum, D.W. van

    1971-04-01

    It has already been pointed out in a preceding chapter that a successful take of allogenic bone marrow in primates inevitably entails a most severe early or acute form of secondary disease caused by a violent immunological reaction of the immune competent cells of the graft directed against the host. In mice and rats such an acute graft versus host disease is not seen following grafting of allogenic bone marrow, but only if substantial numbers of spleen or lymph node cells are transferred. Apparently, primate bone marrow is exceptionally aggressive compared to rodent bone marrow and it is not possible to prevent this reaction by decreasing the number of infused bone marrow cells without simultaneously eliminating the restorative effect of the graft. There are many reasons for assuming that the property to elicit a graft versus host reaction resides exclusively in the lymphoid cell series. These cells are normally to be found not only in the bone marrow and the lymphatic organs but also in the peripheral blood and in other tissues. Since surprisingly small numbers of lymphoid cells have been shown to cause graft versus host disease in completely non-reactive recipients, a calculation of the risks involved in transfusing sizable amounts of fresh blood or leukocyte concentrates to human recipients appears to be opportune. Moreover, the current attempts to restore immunological function in agammaglobulinaemic patients by implantations of allogenic foetal thymus tissue and by infusion of foetal liver and bone marrow cell suspensions (Dooren et al., 1968; Hong et al., 1968) require a critical analysis of the risks involved. Finally, the rapidly advancing clinical transplantation of organs - all of which contain scattered lymphoid cells - seems to necessitate a re-evaluation of this potential hazard in the light of the present knowledge of the induction of graft versus host disease. Most of our factual information concerning graft versus host reactions comes from

  4. Evaluating the influence of goal setting on intravenous catheterization skill acquisition and transfer in a hybrid simulation training context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brydges, Ryan; Mallette, Claire; Pollex, Heather; Carnahan, Heather; Dubrowski, Adam

    2012-08-01

    Educators often simplify complex tasks by setting learning objectives that focus trainees on isolated skills rather than the holistic task. We designed 2 sets of learning objectives for intravenous catheterization using goal setting theory. We hypothesized that setting holistic goals related to technical, cognitive, and communication skills would result in superior holistic performance, whereas setting isolated goals related to technical skills would result in superior technical performance. We randomly assigned practicing health care professionals to set holistic (n = 14) or isolated (n = 15) goals. All watched an instructional video and studied a list of 9 goals specific to their group. Participants practiced independently in a hybrid simulation (standardized patient combined with an arm simulator). The first and the last practice trials were videotaped for analysis. One-week later, participants completed a transfer test in another hybrid simulation scenario. Blinded experts evaluated performance on all 3 trials using the Direct Observation of Procedural Skills tool. The holistic group scored higher than the isolated group on the holistic Direct Observation of Procedural Skills score for all 3 trials [mean (SD), 45.0 (9.16) vs. 38.4 (9.17); P = 0.01]. The isolated group did not perform better than the holistic group on the technical skills score [10.3 (2.73) vs. 11.6 (3.01); P = 0.11]. Our results suggest that asking learners to set holistic goals did not interfere with their attaining competent holistic and technical skills during hybrid simulation training. This exploratory trial provides preliminary evidence for how to consider integrating hybrid simulation into medical curricula and for the design of learning goals in simulation-based education.

  5. Evaluation of Data Transfer Performance Between Moving Sender and Receiver in Mobile Communication Networks for Heterogeneous Service Support

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dalė Dzemydienė

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Vehicular communication networks are acquiring more and more commercial relevance because of recent advances in inter-vehicular communications via the DSRC/WAVE standard, which stimulates a brand new family of visionary services for vehicles, from road safety to entertainment and multimedia applications. After deep analysis of the literature it was decided to investigate evaluation of data transfer performance between moving sender and receiver in mobile communication network for heterogeneous service support. After careful analysis of the simulation tools the NCTUns 6.0 software package was chosen for planned investigations. The results illustrate that the longest communication can be maintained at the maximum number of vehicles participating on the network, but the quality of communication is inversely proportional to the number of vehicles. On this changing topology network when growing number of nodes (vehicles increases flooding of network with the data packages and it determines many collisions. The number of rejected packages increases directly in proportion to the number of vehicles. When the number of nodes (vehicle increases—it is increasing the number of the received same packages which are received from different nodes in the recipient node. On the sender node, the packages are rejected because the collisions occur due to improperly functioning access channel allocation mechanisms. It can be concluded that the routing protocols created for a normal MANET networks is useless in a fast-changing topology large-scale vehicle communication network. To provide heterogeneous services new routing protocols and channel access methods are needed, specifically for vehicle communication networks.

  6. Evaluation of Data Transfer Performance Between Moving Sender and Receiver in Mobile Communication Networks for Heterogeneous Service Support

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dalė Dzemydienė

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Vehicular communication networks are acquiring more and more commercial relevance because of recent advances in inter-vehicular communications via the DSRC/WAVE standard, which stimulates a brand new family of visionary services for vehicles, from road safety to entertainment and multimedia applications. After deep analysis of the literature it was decided to investigate evaluation of data transfer performance between moving sender and receiver in mobile communication network for heterogeneous service support. After careful analysis of the simulation tools the NCTUns 6.0 software package was chosen for planned investigations. The results illustrate that the longest communication can be maintained at the maximum number of vehicles participating on the network, but the quality of communication is inversely proportional to the number of vehicles. On this changing topology network when growing number of nodes (vehicles increases flooding of network with the data packages and it determines many collisions. The number of rejected packages increases directly in proportion to the number of vehicles. When the number of nodes (vehicle increases—it is increasing the number of the received same packages which are received from different nodes in the recipient node. On the sender node, the packages are rejected because the collisions occur due to improperly functioning access channel allocation mechanisms. It can be concluded that the routing protocols created for a normal MANET networks is useless in a fast-changing topology large-scale vehicle communication network. To provide heterogeneous services new routing protocols and channel access methods are needed, specifically for vehicle communication networks.

  7. Phosphoryl functionalized mesoporous silica for uranium adsorption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xue, Guo; Yurun, Feng; Li, Ma; Dezhi, Gao; Jie, Jing; Jincheng, Yu; Haibin, Sun; Hongyu, Gong; Yujun, Zhang

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Phosphoryl functionalized mesoporous silica (TBP-SBA-15) is synthesized. • The amino and phosphoryl groups are successfully grafted on SBA-15. • TBP-SBA-15 has high and rapid uranium adsorption capacity in broad pH range. • The U(VI) adsorption of TBP-SBA-15 is spontaneous and belongs to chemical adsorption. - Abstract: Phosphoryl functionalized mesoporous silica (TBP-SBA-15) was synthesized by modified mesoporous silica with γ-amino propyl triethoxy silane and tributyl phosphate. The obtained samples were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), small angle X-ray diffraction (SAXRD), thermo-gravimetric/differential thermalanalyzer (TG/DTA), N_2 adsorption–desorption (BET) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) techniques. Results showed that TBP-SBA-15 had large surface areas with ordered channel structure. Moreover, the effects of adsorption time, sorbent dose, solution pH, initial uranium concentration and temperature on the uranium adsorption behaviors were investigated. TBP-SBA-15 showed a high uranium adsorption capacity in a broad range of pH values. The U(VI) adsorption rate of TBP-SBA-15 was fast and nearly achieved completion in 10 min with the sorbent dose of 1 g/L. The U(VI) adsorption of TBP-SBA-15 followed the pseudo-second-order kinetic model and Freundlich isotherm model, indicating that the process was belonged to chemical adsorption. Furthermore, the thermodynamic parameters (ΔG"0, ΔH"0 and ΔS"0) confirmed that the adsorption process was endothermic and spontaneous.

  8. Phosphoryl functionalized mesoporous silica for uranium adsorption

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xue, Guo; Yurun, Feng; Li, Ma; Dezhi, Gao; Jie, Jing; Jincheng, Yu; Haibin, Sun [Key Laboratory for Liquid-Solid Structural Evolution & Processing of Materials of Ministry of Education, Shandong University, Jinan 250061 (China); Key Laboratory of Special Functional Aggregated Materials, Ministry of Education, Shandong University, Jinan 250061 (China); Hongyu, Gong, E-mail: gong_hongyu@163.com [Key Laboratory for Liquid-Solid Structural Evolution & Processing of Materials of Ministry of Education, Shandong University, Jinan 250061 (China); Key Laboratory of Special Functional Aggregated Materials, Ministry of Education, Shandong University, Jinan 250061 (China); Yujun, Zhang, E-mail: yujunzhangcn@163.com [Key Laboratory for Liquid-Solid Structural Evolution & Processing of Materials of Ministry of Education, Shandong University, Jinan 250061 (China); Key Laboratory of Special Functional Aggregated Materials, Ministry of Education, Shandong University, Jinan 250061 (China)

    2017-04-30

    Highlights: • Phosphoryl functionalized mesoporous silica (TBP-SBA-15) is synthesized. • The amino and phosphoryl groups are successfully grafted on SBA-15. • TBP-SBA-15 has high and rapid uranium adsorption capacity in broad pH range. • The U(VI) adsorption of TBP-SBA-15 is spontaneous and belongs to chemical adsorption. - Abstract: Phosphoryl functionalized mesoporous silica (TBP-SBA-15) was synthesized by modified mesoporous silica with γ-amino propyl triethoxy silane and tributyl phosphate. The obtained samples were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), small angle X-ray diffraction (SAXRD), thermo-gravimetric/differential thermalanalyzer (TG/DTA), N{sub 2} adsorption–desorption (BET) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) techniques. Results showed that TBP-SBA-15 had large surface areas with ordered channel structure. Moreover, the effects of adsorption time, sorbent dose, solution pH, initial uranium concentration and temperature on the uranium adsorption behaviors were investigated. TBP-SBA-15 showed a high uranium adsorption capacity in a broad range of pH values. The U(VI) adsorption rate of TBP-SBA-15 was fast and nearly achieved completion in 10 min with the sorbent dose of 1 g/L. The U(VI) adsorption of TBP-SBA-15 followed the pseudo-second-order kinetic model and Freundlich isotherm model, indicating that the process was belonged to chemical adsorption. Furthermore, the thermodynamic parameters (ΔG{sup 0}, ΔH{sup 0} and ΔS{sup 0}) confirmed that the adsorption process was endothermic and spontaneous.

  9. Monitoring HPV-16 E7 phosphorylation events

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nogueira, Marcela O.; Hošek, Tomáš; Calçada, Eduardo O.; Castiglia, Francesca [Magnetic Resonance Center (CERM) and Department of Chemistry “Ugo Schiff”, University of Florence, via Luigi Sacconi 6, Sesto Fiorentino (Italy); Massimi, Paola; Banks, Lawrence [International Centre for Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology (ICGEB), Padriciano 99, Trieste (Italy); Felli, Isabella C., E-mail: felli@cerm.unifi.it [Magnetic Resonance Center (CERM) and Department of Chemistry “Ugo Schiff”, University of Florence, via Luigi Sacconi 6, Sesto Fiorentino (Italy); Pierattelli, Roberta, E-mail: pierattelli@cerm.unifi.it [Magnetic Resonance Center (CERM) and Department of Chemistry “Ugo Schiff”, University of Florence, via Luigi Sacconi 6, Sesto Fiorentino (Italy)

    2017-03-15

    HPV-16 E7 is one of the key proteins that, by interfering with the host metabolism through many protein-protein interactions, hijacks cell regulation and contributes to malignancy. Here we report the high resolution investigation of the CR3 region of HPV-16 E7, both as an isolated domain and in the full-length protein. This opens the way to the atomic level study of the many interactions in which HPV-16 E7 is involved. Along these lines we show here the effect of one of the key post-translational modifications of HPV-16 E7, the phosphorylation by casein kinase II.

  10. Experimental estimation of migration and transfer of organic substances from consumer articles to cotton wipes: Evaluation of underlying mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clausen, Per Axel; Spaan, Suzanne; Brouwer, Derk H; Marquart, Hans; le Feber, Maaike; Engel, Roel; Geerts, Lieve; Jensen, Keld Alstrup; Kofoed-Sørensen, Vivi; Hansen, Brian; De Brouwere, Katleen

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this work was to identify the key mechanisms governing transport of organic chemical substances from consumer articles to cotton wipes. The results were used to establish a mechanistic model to improve assessment of dermal contact exposure. Four types of PVC flooring, 10 types of textiles and one type of inkjet printed paper were used to establish the mechanisms and model. Kinetic extraction studies in methanol demonstrated existence of matrix diffusion and indicated the presence of a substance surface layer on some articles. Consequently, the proposed substance transfer model considers mechanical transport from a surface film and matrix diffusion in an article with a known initial total substance concentration. The estimated chemical substance transfer values to cotton wipes were comparable to the literature data (relative transfer ∼ 2%), whereas relative transfer efficiencies from spiked substrates were high (∼ 50%). For consumer articles, high correlation (r(2)=0.92) was observed between predicted and measured transfer efficiencies, but concentrations were overpredicted by a factor of 10. Adjusting the relative transfer from about 50% used in the model to about 2.5% removed overprediction. Further studies are required to confirm the model for generic use.

  11. Construction of phosphorylation interaction networks by text mining of full-length articles using the eFIP system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tudor, Catalina O; Ross, Karen E; Li, Gang; Vijay-Shanker, K; Wu, Cathy H; Arighi, Cecilia N

    2015-01-01

    Protein phosphorylation is a reversible post-translational modification where a protein kinase adds a phosphate group to a protein, potentially regulating its function, localization and/or activity. Phosphorylation can affect protein-protein interactions (PPIs), abolishing interaction with previous binding partners or enabling new interactions. Extracting phosphorylation information coupled with PPI information from the scientific literature will facilitate the creation of phosphorylation interaction networks of kinases, substrates and interacting partners, toward knowledge discovery of functional outcomes of protein phosphorylation. Increasingly, PPI databases are interested in capturing the phosphorylation state of interacting partners. We have previously developed the eFIP (Extracting Functional Impact of Phosphorylation) text mining system, which identifies phosphorylated proteins and phosphorylation-dependent PPIs. In this work, we present several enhancements for the eFIP system: (i) text mining for full-length articles from the PubMed Central open-access collection; (ii) the integration of the RLIMS-P 2.0 system for the extraction of phosphorylation events with kinase, substrate and site information; (iii) the extension of the PPI module with new trigger words/phrases describing interactions and (iv) the addition of the iSimp tool for sentence simplification to aid in the matching of syntactic patterns. We enhance the website functionality to: (i) support searches based on protein roles (kinases, substrates, interacting partners) or using keywords; (ii) link protein entities to their corresponding UniProt identifiers if mapped and (iii) support visual exploration of phosphorylation interaction networks using Cytoscape. The evaluation of eFIP on full-length articles achieved 92.4% precision, 76.5% recall and 83.7% F-measure on 100 article sections. To demonstrate eFIP for knowledge extraction and discovery, we constructed phosphorylation-dependent interaction

  12. SH3 domain tyrosine phosphorylation--sites, role and evolution.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zuzana Tatárová

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: SH3 domains are eukaryotic protein domains that participate in a plethora of cellular processes including signal transduction, proliferation, and cellular movement. Several studies indicate that tyrosine phosphorylation could play a significant role in the regulation of SH3 domains. RESULTS: To explore the incidence of the tyrosine phosphorylation within SH3 domains we queried the PhosphoSite Plus database of phosphorylation sites. Over 100 tyrosine phosphorylations occurring on 20 different SH3 domain positions were identified. The tyrosine corresponding to c-Src Tyr-90 was by far the most frequently identified SH3 domain phosphorylation site. A comparison of sequences around this tyrosine led to delineation of a preferred sequence motif ALYD(Y/F. This motif is present in about 15% of human SH3 domains and is structurally well conserved. We further observed that tyrosine phosphorylation is more abundant than serine or threonine phosphorylation within SH3 domains and other adaptor domains, such as SH2 or WW domains. Tyrosine phosphorylation could represent an important regulatory mechanism of adaptor domains. CONCLUSIONS: While tyrosine phosphorylation typically promotes signaling protein interactions via SH2 or PTB domains, its role in SH3 domains is the opposite - it blocks or prevents interactions. The regulatory function of tyrosine phosphorylation is most likely achieved by the phosphate moiety and its charge interfering with binding of polyproline helices of SH3 domain interacting partners.

  13. Systematic inference of functional phosphorylation events in yeast metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yu; Wang, Yonghong; Nielsen, Jens

    2017-07-01

    Protein phosphorylation is a post-translational modification that affects proteins by changing their structure and conformation in a rapid and reversible way, and it is an important mechanism for metabolic regulation in cells. Phosphoproteomics enables high-throughput identification of phosphorylation events on metabolic enzymes, but identifying functional phosphorylation events still requires more detailed biochemical characterization. Therefore, development of computational methods for investigating unknown functions of a large number of phosphorylation events identified by phosphoproteomics has received increased attention. We developed a mathematical framework that describes the relationship between phosphorylation level of a metabolic enzyme and the corresponding flux through the enzyme. Using this framework, it is possible to quantitatively estimate contribution of phosphorylation events to flux changes. We showed that phosphorylation regulation analysis, combined with a systematic workflow and correlation analysis, can be used for inference of functional phosphorylation events in steady and dynamic conditions, respectively. Using this analysis, we assigned functionality to phosphorylation events of 17 metabolic enzymes in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae , among which 10 are novel. Phosphorylation regulation analysis cannot only be extended for inference of other functional post-translational modifications but also be a promising scaffold for multi-omics data integration in systems biology. Matlab codes for flux balance analysis in this study are available in Supplementary material. yhwang@ecust.edu.cn or nielsenj@chalmers.se. Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com

  14. Heat transfer characteristics evaluation of heat exchangers of mock-up test facility with full-scale reaction tube for HTTR hydrogen production system (Contract research)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimizu, Akira; Ohashi, Hirofumi; Kato, Michio; Hayashi, Koji; Aita, Hideki; Nishihara, Tetsuo; Inaba, Yoshitomo; Takada, Shoji; Morisaki, Norihiro; Sakaki, Akihiro; Maeda, Yukimasa; Sato, Hiroyuki; Inagaki, Yoshiyuki; Hanawa, Hiromi; Fujisaki, Katsuo; Yonekawa, Hideo

    2005-06-01

    Connection of hydrogen production system by steam reforming of methane to the High Temperature Engineering Test Reactor (HTTR) of the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI) has been surveyed until now. Mock-up test facility of this steam reforming system with full-scale reaction tube was constructed in FY 2001 and hydrogen of 120 Nm 3 /h was successfully produced in overall performance test. Totally 7 times operational tests were performed from March 2002 to December 2004. A lot of operational test data on heat exchanges were obtained in these tests. In this report specifications and structures of steam reformer, steam superheater, steam generator, condenser, helium gas cooler, feed gas heater and feed gas superheater were described. Heat transfer correlation equations for inside and outside tube were chosen from references. Spreadsheet programs were newly made to evaluate heat transfer characteristics from measured test data such as inlet and outlet temperature pressure and flow-rate. Overall heat-transfer coefficients obtained from the experimental data were compared and evaluated with the calculated values with heat transfer correlation equation. As a result, actual measurement values of all heat exchangers gave close agreement with the calculated values with correlation equations. Thermal efficiencies of the heat exchangers were adequate as they were well accorded with design value. (author)

  15. Phenobarbital Meets Phosphorylation of Nuclear Receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negishi, Masahiko

    2017-05-01

    Phenobarbital was the first therapeutic drug to be characterized for its induction of hepatic drug metabolism. Essentially at the same time, cytochrome P450, an enzyme that metabolizes drugs, was discovered. After nearly 50 years of investigation, the molecular target of phenobarbital induction has now been delineated to phosphorylation at threonine 38 of the constitutive androstane receptor (NR1I3), a member of the nuclear receptor superfamily. Determining this mechanism has provided us with the molecular basis to understand drug induction of drug metabolism and disposition. Threonine 38 is conserved as a phosphorylation motif in the majority of both mouse and human nuclear receptors, providing us with an opportunity to integrate diverse functions of nuclear receptors. Here, I review the works and accomplishments of my laboratory at the National Institutes of Health National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences and the future research directions of where our study of the constitutive androstane receptor might take us. U.S. Government work not protected by U.S. copyright.

  16. Regulation of cardiac C-protein phosphorylation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Titus, F.L.

    1985-01-01

    Molecular mechanisms of cardiac sympathetic and parasympathetic responses were addressed by studying subcellular changes in protein phosphorylation, cAMP-dependent protein kinase activity and protein phosphatase activity in frog hearts. B-adrenergic agonists increased and muscarinic cholinergic agonists decreased [ 32 P]phosphate incorporation into C-protein, a thick filament component. Regulation of protein phosphatase activity by Iso and methacholine (MCh) was assayed using extracts of drug treated frog hearts and [ 32 P]phospho-C-protein as substrate. Total phosphatase activity decreased 21% in extracts from hearts perfused with 0.1 μM Iso and 17% in hearts exposed to Iso plus 1 μM methacholine. This decrease reflected decreased phosphatase-2A activity. No changes in total phosphatase activity were measurable in broken cells treated with Iso or MCh. The results suggest adrenergic stimulation changes contractile activity in frog hearts by activating cAMP-dependent protein kinase associated with particulate cellular elements and inactivating soluble protein phosphatase-2A. This is the first demonstration of coordinated regulation of these enzymes by B-adrenergic agonists favoring phosphorylation of effector proteins. Coordinated regulation by methacholine in the presence of Iso was not observed

  17. Modelling the Krebs cycle and oxidative phosphorylation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korla, Kalyani; Mitra, Chanchal K

    2014-01-01

    The Krebs cycle and oxidative phosphorylation are the two most important sets of reactions in a eukaryotic cell that meet the major part of the total energy demands of a cell. In this paper, we present a computer simulation of the coupled reactions using open source tools for simulation. We also show that it is possible to model the Krebs cycle with a simple black box with a few inputs and outputs. However, the kinetics of the internal processes has been modelled using numerical tools. We also show that the Krebs cycle and oxidative phosphorylation together can be combined in a similar fashion - a black box with a few inputs and outputs. The Octave script is flexible and customisable for any chosen set-up for this model. In several cases, we had no explicit idea of the underlying reaction mechanism and the rate determining steps involved, and we have used the stoichiometric equations that can be easily changed as and when more detailed information is obtained. The script includes the feedback regulation of the various enzymes of the Krebs cycle. For the electron transport chain, the pH gradient across the membrane is an essential regulator of the kinetics and this has been modelled empirically but fully consistent with experimental results. The initial conditions can be very easily changed and the simulation is potentially very useful in a number of cases of clinical importance.

  18. Water transfer and major environmental provisions of the Central Valley Project Improvement Act: A preliminary economic evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loomis, John B.

    1994-06-01

    Increasing block water pricing, water transfer, and wildlife refuge water supply provisions of the Central Valley Project (CVP) Improvement Act are analyzed in terms of likely farmer response and economic efficiency of these provisions. Based on a simplified partial equilibrium analysis, we estimate small, but significant water conservation savings due to pricing reform, the potential for substantial water transfers to non-CVP customers in severe drought years when the water price exceeds 110 per acre foot (1 acre foot equals 1.234 × 103 m3) and positive net benefits for implementation of the wildlife refuge water supply provisions. The high threshold water price is partly a result of requiring farmers to pay full cost on transferred water plus a surcharge of 25 per acre foot if the water is transferred to a non-CVP user. The act also sets an important precedent for water pricing reform, water transfer provisions, and environmental surcharges on water users that may find their way to other Bureau of Reclamation projects.

  19. Evaluation of critical distances for energy transfer between Pr{sup 3+} and Ce{sup 3+} in yttrium aluminium garnet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zeng, Peng; Wei, Xiantao; Yin, Min; Chen, Yonghu, E-mail: yhuchen@ustc.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Strongly-Coupled Quantum Matter Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, School of Physical Sciences, University of Science and Technology of China, No. 96 Jinzhai Road, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China); Zhou, Shaoshuai [Key Laboratory of Strongly-Coupled Quantum Matter Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, School of Physical Sciences, University of Science and Technology of China, No. 96 Jinzhai Road, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China); Department of Physics, Qufu Normal University, Qufu, Shandong 273165 (China)

    2016-09-07

    A series of Pr{sup 3+}/Ce{sup 3+} doped yttrium aluminium garnet (Y{sub 3}Al{sub 5}O{sub 12} or simply YAG) phosphors were synthesized to investigate the energy transfer between Pr{sup 3+} and Ce{sup 3+} for their potential application in a white light-emitting diode and quantum information storage and processing. The excitation and emission spectra of YAG:Pr{sup 3+}/Ce{sup 3+} were measured and analyzed, and it revealed that the reabsorption between Pr{sup 3+} and Ce{sup 3+} was so weak that it can be ignored, and the energy transfer from Pr{sup 3+} (5d) to Ce{sup 3+} (5d) and Ce{sup 3+} (5d) to Pr{sup 3+} ({sup 1}D{sub 2}) did occur. By analyzing the excitation and the emission spectra, the energy transfer from Pr{sup 3+} (5d) to Ce{sup 3+} (5d) and Ce{sup 3+} (5d) to Pr{sup 3+} ({sup 1}D{sub 2}) was examined in detail with an original strategy deduced from fluorescence dynamics and the Dexter energy transfer theory, and the critical distances of energy transfer were derived to be 7.9 Å and 4.0 Å for Pr{sup 3+} (5d) to Ce{sup 3+} (5d) and Ce{sup 3+} (5d) to Pr{sup 3+} ({sup 1}D{sub 2}), respectively. The energy transfer rates of the two processes of various concentrations were discussed and evaluated. Furthermore, for the purpose of sensing a single Pr{sup 3+} state with a Ce{sup 3+} ion, the optimal distance of Ce{sup 3+} from Pr{sup 3+} was evaluated as 5.60 Å, where the probability of success reaches its maximum value of 78.66%, and meanwhile the probabilities were evaluated for a series of Y{sup 3+} sites in a YAG lattice. These results will be of valuable reference for achievement of the optimal energy transfer efficiency in Pr{sup 3+}/Ce{sup 3+} doped YAG and other similar systems.

  20. Engineering Evaluation of Proposed Alternative Salt Transfer Method for the Molten Salt Reactor Experiment for the Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlberg, Jon A.; Roberts, Kenneth T.; Kollie, Thomas G.; Little, Leslie E.; Brady, Sherman D.

    2009-01-01

    This evaluation was performed by Pro2Serve in accordance with the Technical Specification for an Engineering Evaluation of the Proposed Alternative Salt Transfer Method for the Molten Salt Reactor Experiment at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (BJC 2009b). The evaluators reviewed the Engineering Evaluation Work Plan for Molten Salt Reactor Experiment Residual Salt Removal, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee (DOE 2008). The Work Plan (DOE 2008) involves installing a salt transfer probe and new drain line into the Fuel Drain Tanks and Fuel Flush Tank and connecting them to the new salt transfer line at the drain tank cell shield. The probe is to be inserted through the tank ball valve and the molten salt to the bottom of the tank. The tank would then be pressurized through the Reactive Gas Removal System to force the salt into the salt canisters. The Evaluation Team reviewed the work plan, interviewed site personnel, reviewed numerous documents on the Molten Salt Reactor (Sects. 7 and 8), and inspected the probes planned to be used for the transfer. Based on several concerns identified during this review, the team recommends not proceeding with the salt transfer via the proposed alternate salt transfer method. The major concerns identified during this evaluation are: (1) Structural integrity of the tanks - The main concern is with the corrosion that occurred during the fluorination phase of the uranium removal process. This may also apply to the salt transfer line for the Fuel Flush Tank. Corrosion Associated with Fluorination in the Oak Ridge National Laboratory Fluoride Volatility Process (Litman 1961) shows that this problem is significant. (2) Continued generation of Fluorine - Although the generation of Fluorine will be at a lower rate than experienced before the uranium removal, it will continue to be generated. This needs to be taken into consideration regardless of what actions are taken with the salt. (3) More than one phase of material

  1. Coulomb interactions between cytoplasmic electric fields and phosphorylated messenger proteins optimize information flow in cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert A Gatenby

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Normal cell function requires timely and accurate transmission of information from receptors on the cell membrane (CM to the nucleus. Movement of messenger proteins in the cytoplasm is thought to be dependent on random walk. However, Brownian motion will disperse messenger proteins throughout the cytosol resulting in slow and highly variable transit times. We propose that a critical component of information transfer is an intracellular electric field generated by distribution of charge on the nuclear membrane (NM. While the latter has been demonstrated experimentally for decades, the role of the consequent electric field has been assumed to be minimal due to a Debye length of about 1 nanometer that results from screening by intracellular Cl- and K+. We propose inclusion of these inorganic ions in the Debye-Huckel equation is incorrect because nuclear pores allow transit through the membrane at a rate far faster than the time to thermodynamic equilibrium. In our model, only the charged, mobile messenger proteins contribute to the Debye length.Using this revised model and published data, we estimate the NM possesses a Debye-Huckel length of a few microns and find this is consistent with recent measurement using intracellular nano-voltmeters. We demonstrate the field will accelerate isolated messenger proteins toward the nucleus through Coulomb interactions with negative charges added by phosphorylation. We calculate transit times as short as 0.01 sec. When large numbers of phosphorylated messenger proteins are generated by increasing concentrations of extracellular ligands, we demonstrate they generate a self-screening environment that regionally attenuates the cytoplasmic field, slowing movement but permitting greater cross talk among pathways. Preliminary experimental results with phosphorylated RAF are consistent with model predictions.This work demonstrates that previously unrecognized Coulomb interactions between phosphorylated messenger

  2. Orbital transfer vehicle concept definition and system analysis study. Volume 2: OTV concept definition and evaluation. Book 1: Mission and system requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kofal, Allen E.

    1987-01-01

    The mission and system requirements for the concept definition and system analysis of the Orbital Transfer Vehicle (OTV) are established. The requirements set forth constitute the single authority for the selection, evaluation, and optimization of the technical performance and design of the OTV. This requirements document forms the basis for the Ground and Space Based OTV concept definition analyses and establishes the physical, functional, performance and design relationships to STS, Space Station, Orbital Maneuvering Vehicle (OMV), and payloads.

  3. Experimental evaluation of the oxygen transfer in bubble aeration systems. Full scale experiences in lengthened activated sludge reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andreottola, G.; Ragazzi, M.; Tatano, F.

    1999-01-01

    The results of some full-scale oxygen transfer measurements conduced at the lengthened activate sludge tanks of two WWTPs of Trentino Region, are presented and discussed. As far at the tests in clean water are concerned, the non-liner regression method seems non accurate; important conclusion on the correlation between oxygen transfer process and typical parameters (i.e., fine-bubble diffusers, specific air flux) are derived. As far as the test in the wastewater is concerned, an increase of α-value from the inlet to the end of aeration tanks has been observed in the 'Andalo' WWTP [it

  4. Phosphorylation of mouse serine racemase regulates D-serine synthesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foltyn, Veronika N; Zehl, Martin; Dikopoltsev, Elena

    2010-01-01

    Serine racemase (SR) catalyses the synthesis of the transmitter/neuromodulator D-serine, which plays a major role in synaptic plasticity and N-methyl D-aspartate receptor neurotoxicity. We now report that SR is phosphorylated at Thr71 and Thr227 as revealed by mass spectrometric analysis and in v...... with a phosphorylation-deficient SR mutant indicate that Thr71 phosphorylation increases SR activity, suggesting a novel mechanism for regulating D-serine production....

  5. The in vivo phosphorylation sites of rat brain dynamin I

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Graham, Mark E; Anggono, Victor; Bache, Nicolai

    2007-01-01

    -824). To resolve the discrepancy and to better understand the biological roles of dynI phosphorylation, we undertook a systematic identification of all phosphorylation sites in rat brain nerve terminal dynI. Using phosphoamino acid analysis, exclusively phospho-serine residues were found. Thr(780) phosphorylation...... of their relative abundance and relative responses to depolarization. The multiple phospho-sites suggest subtle regulation of synaptic vesicle endocytosis by new protein kinases and new protein-protein interactions. The homologous dynI and dynIII phosphorylation indicates a high mechanistic similarity. The results...

  6. Altered phosphorylation of rhodopsin in retinal dystrophic Irish Setters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cunnick, J.; Takemoto, D.J.; Takemoto, L.J.

    1986-01-01

    The carboxyl-terminus of rhodopsin in retinal dystrophic (rd) Irish Setters is altered near a possible phosphorylation site. To determine if this alteration affects ATP-mediated phosphorylation they compared the phosphorylation of rhodopsin from rd affected Irish Setters and normal unaffected dogs. Retinas from 8-week-old Irish Setters were phosphorylated with γ- 32 P-ATP and separated on SDS-PAGE. Compared to unaffected normal retinas, equalized for rhodopsin content, phosphorylation of rd rhodopsin was drastically reduced. When rd retinas were mixed with normal dog retinas, phosphorylation of the latter was inhibited. Inhibition also occurred when bovine retinas were mixed with rd retinas. The rd-mediated inhibition of phosphorylation was prevented by including 1mM NaF in the reaction mixture. Likewise, 1mM NaF restored phosphorylation of rd rhodopsin to normal levels. Phosphopeptide maps of rd and normal rhodopsin were identical and indicated 5 phosphopeptides present in each. Results suggest that one cause of the depressed rd rhodopsin phosphorylation is an increased phosphatase activity

  7. Cisplatinum and Taxol Induce Different Patterns of p53 Phosphorylation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanna Damia

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Posttranslational modifications of p53 induced by two widely used anticancer agents, cisplatinum (DDP and taxol were investigated in two human cancer cell lines. Although both drugs were able to induce phosphorylation at serine 20 (Ser20, only DDP treatment induced p53 phosphorylation at serine 15 (Ser15. Moreover, both drug treatments were able to increase p53 levels and consequently the transcription of waf1 and mdm-2 genes, although DDP treatment resulted in a stronger inducer of both genes. Using two ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM cell lines, the role of ATM in druginduced p53 phosphorylations was investigated. No differences in drug-induced p53 phosphorylation could be observed, indicating that ATM is not the kinase involved in these phosphorylation events. In addition, inhibition of DNA-dependent protein kinase activity by wortmannin did not abolish p53 phosphorylation at Ser15 and Ser20, again indicating that DNA-PK is unlikely to be the kinase involved. After both taxol and DDP treatments, an activation of hCHK2 was found and this is likely to be responsible for phosphorylation at Ser20. In contrast, only DDP was able to activate ATR, which is the candidate kinase for phosphorylation of Ser15 by this drug. This data clearly suggests that differential mechanisms are involved in phosphorylation and activation of p53 depending on the drug type.

  8. Tyrosine phosphorylation of Grb14 by Tie2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dumont Daniel J

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Growth factor receptor bound (Grb proteins 7, 10 and 14 are a family of structurally related multi-domain adaptor proteins involved in a variety of biological processes. Grb7, 10 and 14 are known to become serine and/or threonine phosphorylated in response to growth factor (GF stimulation. Grb7 and 10 have also been shown to become tyrosine phosphorylated under certain conditions. Under experimental conditions Grb7 is tyrosine phosphorylated by the Tie2/Tie-2/Tek angiogenic receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK. Furthermore, Grb14 has also been shown to interact with Tie2, however tyrosine phosphorylation of this Grb family member has yet to be reported. Results Here we report for the first time tyrosine phosphorylation of Grb14. This phosphorylation requires a kinase competent Tie2 as well as intact tyrosines 1100 and 1106 (Y1100 and Y1106 on the receptor. Furthermore, a complete SH2 domain on Grb14 is required for Grb14 tyrosine phosphorylation by Tie2. Grb14 was also able to become tyrosine phosphorylated in primary endothelial cells when treated with a soluble and potent variant of the Tie2 ligand, cartilage oligomeric matrix protein (COMP Ang1. Conclusion Our results show that Grb14, like its family members Grb7 and Grb10, is able to be tyrosine phosphorylated. Furthermore, our data indicate a role for Grb14 in endothelial signaling downstream of the Tie2 receptor.

  9. PTEN gene and phosphorylation of Akt protein expression in the LPS-induced lung fibroblast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mao-lin HUANG

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate PTEN gene expression and the Akt phosphorylation of protein expression in the LPS-induced lung fibroblast, to initially reveal the relation between PTEN gene and the Akt phosphorylated proteins to LPS-induced lung fibroblast proliferation mechanism. Methods: BrdU experiments was performed to evaluate the LPS-induced lung fibroblast proliferation,  RT-PCR and Western Blot analysis were used to analyze the PTEN gene expression and Western blot was performed to analyze Akt phosphorylated protein expression. Results: PTEN mRNA level of the experimental group were significantly lower than the control group (P<0.05 with LPS simulation for 24h and 72h , and there were no significant difference between the experimental group and control group the experimental group and control group (P>0.05 . PTEN protein expression levels of the experimental group were significantly lower than the control group (P<0.05 , at 72h, and PTEN mRNA levels had no significant differences between these of the experimental and control group at 6h,12h and 24h(p>0.05. Phosphorylation Akt protein level (relative to total Akt protein was significantly higer than the control group (P<0.05 at 24h and 72h, and phosphorylation Akt protein levels had no significant differences between these of the experimental and control group at 6h and 12h (P>0.05 .Conclusion: PTEN gene and phosphorylation Akt protein involve in LPS-induced lung fibroblast proliferation signal transduction pathway.

  10. Evaluation of the transfer of heat from the coil of the LHC dipole magnet to Helium II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richter, D.; Sevred, A.; Fleiter, J.; Baudouy, B.; Devred, A.

    2007-01-01

    During operation of the Large Hadron Collider at CERN, heat will be generated inside the coils of its superconducting magnets as a consequence of ramping of magnetic field, and of the interaction of lost beam particles with the magnet mass. Heat has to be transferred from the conductor into the He II coolant and removed from the magnet environment. During the LHC R and D stage, this transfer has been extensively studied on simulated coil segments at CEA/Saclay, and by analyzing dynamic behavior of short model magnets at CERN. Owing to the importance of efficient cooling for the design of future superconducting accelerator magnets, study of heat transfer has been restored at CERN and in frame of the Next European Dipole Collaboration. The article features two recently performed works: 1) Attempt to analyse archived high ramp rate quench data of 1-m-long LHC model dipole magnets of the 2. generation. 2) Development of a method for direct measurement of heat transfer on segments of production LHC dipole magnet coils. (authors)

  11. An evaluation of incentives and policies that affect research institutions' knowledge transfer activities at researcher and management level

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bekkers, R.N.A.

    2010-01-01

    This paper addresses the effects of incentives and policies on transferring research results from public organisations (e.g. universities, public research centres) to firms. The views in this paper are, for a large part, based on the findings of an extensive survey of academic papers and reports

  12. Evaluation of genetic components in traits related to superovulation, in vitro fertilization, and embryo transfer in Holstein cattle

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objectives of this study were to estimate variance components and identify regions of the genome associated with traits related to embryo transfer in Holsteins. Reproductive technologies are used in the dairy industry to increase the reproductive rate of superior females. A drawback of these met...

  13. Förster resonance energy transfer, absorption and emission spectra in multichromophoric systems. III. Exact stochastic path integral evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moix, Jeremy M; Ma, Jian; Cao, Jianshu

    2015-03-07

    A numerically exact path integral treatment of the absorption and emission spectra of open quantum systems is presented that requires only the straightforward solution of a stochastic differential equation. The approach converges rapidly enabling the calculation of spectra of large excitonic systems across the complete range of system parameters and for arbitrary bath spectral densities. With the numerically exact absorption and emission operators, one can also immediately compute energy transfer rates using the multi-chromophoric Förster resonant energy transfer formalism. Benchmark calculations on the emission spectra of two level systems are presented demonstrating the efficacy of the stochastic approach. This is followed by calculations of the energy transfer rates between two weakly coupled dimer systems as a function of temperature and system-bath coupling strength. It is shown that the recently developed hybrid cumulant expansion (see Paper II) is the only perturbative method capable of generating uniformly reliable energy transfer rates and emission spectra across a broad range of system parameters.

  14. Non-destructive observation of damage in mortar and concrete during mechanical loading for the evaluation of moisture transfer profiles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rouchier, Simon; Janssen, Hans; Rode, Carsten

    2012-01-01

    Coupled heat and mass transfer modelling in building materials now plays an important part in the design of energy-efficient buildings. However, concrete and other construction materials subjected to mechanical loading and atmospheric excitation inevitably develop fractures patterns during...... characterization with a hygric modelling can provide an appropriate prediction of the water infiltration in fractured porous building materials....

  15. Evaluation of an effective multifaceted implementation strategy for elective single-embryo transfer after in vitro fertilization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kreuwel, I.A.M.; Peperstraten, A.M. van; Hulscher, M.E.J.L.; Kremer, J.A.M.; Grol, R.P.T.M.; Nelen, W.L.D.M.; Hermens, R.P.M.G.

    2013-01-01

    STUDY QUESTION: What is the relationship between the rate of elective single-embryo transfer (eSET) and couples' exposure to different elements of a multifaceted implementation strategy? SUMMARY ANSWER: Additional elements in a multifaceted implementation strategy do not result in an increased eSET

  16. Parkinson's disease associated with impaired oxidative phosphorylation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Finsterer, J.; Jarius, C.; Baumgartner, M.

    2001-01-01

    Parkinson's disease may be due to primary or secondary oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) defects. In a 76-year-old man with Parkinson's disease since 1992, slightly but recurrently elevated creatine phosphokinase, recurrently elevated blood glucose, thickening of the left ventricular myocardium, bifascicular block and hypacusis were found. Cerebral MRI showed atrophy, periventricular demyelination, multiple, disseminated, supra- and infratentorial lacunas, and haemosiderin deposits in both posterior horns. Muscle biopsy showed typical features of an OXPHOS defect. Whether the association of Parkinson's disease and impaired OXPHOS was causative or coincidental remains unknown. Possibly, the mitochondrial defect acted as an additional risk factor for Parkinson's disease or the OXPHOS defect worsened the preexisting neurological impairments by a cumulative or synergistic mechanism. In conclusion, this case shows that Parkinson's disease may be associated with a mitochondrially or nuclearly encoded OXPHOS defect, manifesting as hypacusis, myopathy, axonal polyneuropathy, cardiomyopathy and recurrent subclinical ischaemic strokes and haemorrhages. (orig.)

  17. Distinct chromatin environment associated with phosphorylated H3S10 histone during pollen mitosis I in orchids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Santosh Kumar; Yamamoto, Maki; Mukai, Yasuhiko

    2017-01-01

    Pollen developmental pathway in plants involving synchronized transferal of cellular divisions from meiosis (microsporogenesis) to mitosis (pollen mitosis I/II) eventually offers a unique "meiosis-mitosis shift" at pollen mitosis I. Since the cell type (haploid microspore) and fate of pollen mitosis I differ from typical mitosis (in meristem cells), it is immensely important to analyze the chromosomal distribution of phosphorylated H3S10 histone during atypical pollen mitosis I to comprehend the role of histone phosphorylation in pollen development. We investigated the chromosomal phosphorylation of H3S10 histone during pollen mitosis I in orchids using immunostaining technique. The chromosomal distribution of H3S10ph during pollen mitosis I revealed differential pattern than that of typical mitosis in plants, however, eventually following the similar trends of mitosis in animals where H3S10 phosphorylation begins in the pericentromeric regions first, later extending to the whole chromosomes, and finally declining at anaphase/early cytokinesis (differentiation of vegetative and generative cells). The study suggests that the chromosomal distribution of H3S10ph during cell division is not universal and can be altered between different cell types encoded for diverse cellular processes. During pollen development, phosphorylation of histone might play a critical role in chromosome condensation events throughout pollen mitosis I in plants.

  18. Identification of novel PAMP-triggered phosphorylation and dephosphorylation events in arabidopsis thaliana by quantitative phosphoproteomic analysis

    KAUST Repository

    Rayapuram, Naganand; Bonhomme, Ludovic; Bigeard, Jean; Haddadou, Kahina; Przybylski, Cé dric; Hirt, Heribert; Pflieger, Delphine

    2014-01-01

    Signaling cascades rely strongly on protein kinase-mediated substrate phosphorylation. Currently a major challenge in signal transduction research is to obtain high confidence substrate phosphorylation sites and assign them to specific kinases. In response to bacterial flagellin, a pathogen-associated molecular pattern (PAMP), we searched for rapidly phosphorylated proteins in Arabidopsis thaliana by combining multistage activation (MSA) and electron transfer dissociation (ETD) fragmentation modes, which generate complementary spectra and identify phosphopeptide sites with increased reliability. Of a total of 825 phosphopeptides, we identified 58 to be differentially phosphorylated. These peptides harbor kinase motifs of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) and calcium-dependent protein kinases (CDPKs), as well as yet unknown protein kinases. Importantly, 12 of the phosphopeptides show reduced phosphorylation upon flagellin treatment. Since protein abundance levels did not change, these results indicate that flagellin induces not only various protein kinases but also protein phosphatases, even though a scenario of inhibited kinase activity may also be possible. © 2014 American Chemical Society.

  19. Identification of novel PAMP-triggered phosphorylation and dephosphorylation events in arabidopsis thaliana by quantitative phosphoproteomic analysis

    KAUST Repository

    Rayapuram, Naganand

    2014-04-04

    Signaling cascades rely strongly on protein kinase-mediated substrate phosphorylation. Currently a major challenge in signal transduction research is to obtain high confidence substrate phosphorylation sites and assign them to specific kinases. In response to bacterial flagellin, a pathogen-associated molecular pattern (PAMP), we searched for rapidly phosphorylated proteins in Arabidopsis thaliana by combining multistage activation (MSA) and electron transfer dissociation (ETD) fragmentation modes, which generate complementary spectra and identify phosphopeptide sites with increased reliability. Of a total of 825 phosphopeptides, we identified 58 to be differentially phosphorylated. These peptides harbor kinase motifs of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) and calcium-dependent protein kinases (CDPKs), as well as yet unknown protein kinases. Importantly, 12 of the phosphopeptides show reduced phosphorylation upon flagellin treatment. Since protein abundance levels did not change, these results indicate that flagellin induces not only various protein kinases but also protein phosphatases, even though a scenario of inhibited kinase activity may also be possible. © 2014 American Chemical Society.

  20. Evaluation of heat transfer mathematical models and multiple linear regression to predict the inside variables in semi-solar greenhouse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Taki

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Controlling greenhouse microclimate not only influences the growth of plants, but also is critical in the spread of diseases inside the greenhouse. The microclimate parameters were inside air, greenhouse roof and soil temperature, relative humidity and solar radiation intensity. Predicting the microclimate conditions inside a greenhouse and enabling the use of automatic control systems are the two main objectives of greenhouse climate model. The microclimate inside a greenhouse can be predicted by conducting experiments or by using simulation. Static and dynamic models are used for this purpose as a function of the metrological conditions and the parameters of the greenhouse components. Some works were done in past to 2015 year to simulation and predict the inside variables in different greenhouse structures. Usually simulation has a lot of problems to predict the inside climate of greenhouse and the error of simulation is higher in literature. The main objective of this paper is comparison between heat transfer and regression models to evaluate them to predict inside air and roof temperature in a semi-solar greenhouse in Tabriz University. Materials and Methods In this study, a semi-solar greenhouse was designed and constructed at the North-West of Iran in Azerbaijan Province (geographical location of 38°10′ N and 46°18′ E with elevation of 1364 m above the sea level. In this research, shape and orientation of the greenhouse, selected between some greenhouses common shapes and according to receive maximum solar radiation whole the year. Also internal thermal screen and cement north wall was used to store and prevent of heat lost during the cold period of year. So we called this structure, ‘semi-solar’ greenhouse. It was covered with glass (4 mm thickness. It occupies a surface of approximately 15.36 m2 and 26.4 m3. The orientation of this greenhouse was East–West and perpendicular to the direction of the wind prevailing

  1. A grammar inference approach for predicting kinase specific phosphorylation sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Datta, Sutapa; Mukhopadhyay, Subhasis

    2015-01-01

    Kinase mediated phosphorylation site detection is the key mechanism of post translational mechanism that plays an important role in regulating various cellular processes and phenotypes. Many diseases, like cancer are related with the signaling defects which are associated with protein phosphorylation. Characterizing the protein kinases and their substrates enhances our ability to understand the mechanism of protein phosphorylation and extends our knowledge of signaling network; thereby helping us to treat such diseases. Experimental methods for predicting phosphorylation sites are labour intensive and expensive. Also, manifold increase of protein sequences in the databanks over the years necessitates the improvement of high speed and accurate computational methods for predicting phosphorylation sites in protein sequences. Till date, a number of computational methods have been proposed by various researchers in predicting phosphorylation sites, but there remains much scope of improvement. In this communication, we present a simple and novel method based on Grammatical Inference (GI) approach to automate the prediction of kinase specific phosphorylation sites. In this regard, we have used a popular GI algorithm Alergia to infer Deterministic Stochastic Finite State Automata (DSFA) which equally represents the regular grammar corresponding to the phosphorylation sites. Extensive experiments on several datasets generated by us reveal that, our inferred grammar successfully predicts phosphorylation sites in a kinase specific manner. It performs significantly better when compared with the other existing phosphorylation site prediction methods. We have also compared our inferred DSFA with two other GI inference algorithms. The DSFA generated by our method performs superior which indicates that our method is robust and has a potential for predicting the phosphorylation sites in a kinase specific manner.

  2. A Grammar Inference Approach for Predicting Kinase Specific Phosphorylation Sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Datta, Sutapa; Mukhopadhyay, Subhasis

    2015-01-01

    Kinase mediated phosphorylation site detection is the key mechanism of post translational mechanism that plays an important role in regulating various cellular processes and phenotypes. Many diseases, like cancer are related with the signaling defects which are associated with protein phosphorylation. Characterizing the protein kinases and their substrates enhances our ability to understand the mechanism of protein phosphorylation and extends our knowledge of signaling network; thereby helping us to treat such diseases. Experimental methods for predicting phosphorylation sites are labour intensive and expensive. Also, manifold increase of protein sequences in the databanks over the years necessitates the improvement of high speed and accurate computational methods for predicting phosphorylation sites in protein sequences. Till date, a number of computational methods have been proposed by various researchers in predicting phosphorylation sites, but there remains much scope of improvement. In this communication, we present a simple and novel method based on Grammatical Inference (GI) approach to automate the prediction of kinase specific phosphorylation sites. In this regard, we have used a popular GI algorithm Alergia to infer Deterministic Stochastic Finite State Automata (DSFA) which equally represents the regular grammar corresponding to the phosphorylation sites. Extensive experiments on several datasets generated by us reveal that, our inferred grammar successfully predicts phosphorylation sites in a kinase specific manner. It performs significantly better when compared with the other existing phosphorylation site prediction methods. We have also compared our inferred DSFA with two other GI inference algorithms. The DSFA generated by our method performs superior which indicates that our method is robust and has a potential for predicting the phosphorylation sites in a kinase specific manner. PMID:25886273

  3. Project W-314 specific test and evaluation plan for SN-633 transfer line (241-AX-B to 241-AY-02A)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hays, W.H.

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of this Specific Test and Evaluation Plan (STEP) is to provide a detailed written plan for the systematic testing of modifications made by the addition of the SN-633 transfer line by the W-314 Project. The STEP develops the outline for test procedures that verify the system's performance to the established Project design criteria. The STEP is a lower tier document based on the W-314 Test and Evaluation Plan (TEP). This STEP encompasses all testing activities required to demonstrate compliance to the project design criteria as it relates to the addition of transfer line SN-633. The Project Design Specifications (PDS) identify the specific testing activities required for the Project. Testing includes Validations and Verifications (e.g., Commercial Grade Item Dedication activities), Factory Acceptance Tests (FATs), installation tests and inspections, Construction Acceptance Tests (CATs), Acceptance Test Procedures (ATPs), Pre-Operational Test Procedures (POTPs), and Operational Test Procedures (OTPs). It should be noted that POTPs are not required for testing of the transfer line addition. The STEP will be utilized in conjunction with the TEP for verification and validation

  4. PAK6 Phosphorylates 14-3-3γ to Regulate Steady State Phosphorylation of LRRK2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Civiero

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Mutations in Leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 (LRRK2 are associated with Parkinson's disease (PD and, as such, LRRK2 is considered a promising therapeutic target for age-related neurodegeneration. Although the cellular functions of LRRK2 in health and disease are incompletely understood, robust evidence indicates that PD-associated mutations alter LRRK2 kinase and GTPase activities with consequent deregulation of the downstream signaling pathways. We have previously demonstrated that one LRRK2 binding partner is P21 (RAC1 Activated Kinase 6 (PAK6. Here, we interrogate the PAK6 interactome and find that PAK6 binds a subset of 14-3-3 proteins in a kinase dependent manner. Furthermore, PAK6 efficiently phosphorylates 14-3-3γ at Ser59 and this phosphorylation serves as a switch to dissociate the chaperone from client proteins including LRRK2, a well-established 14-3-3 binding partner. We found that 14-3-3γ phosphorylated by PAK6 is no longer competent to bind LRRK2 at phospho-Ser935, causing LRRK2 dephosphorylation. To address whether these interactions are relevant in a neuronal context, we demonstrate that a constitutively active form of PAK6 rescues the G2019S LRRK2-associated neurite shortening through phosphorylation of 14-3-3γ. Our results identify PAK6 as the kinase for 14-3-3γ and reveal a novel regulatory mechanism of 14-3-3/LRRK2 complex in the brain.

  5. Phosphorylated benzimedazoles. 8. Synthesis of phosphorylated with /sup 32/P benzimidazoles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Makarov, A M; Matevosyan, G L; Zavlin, P M [Leningradskij Sel' skokhozyajstvennyj Inst. (USSR)

    1983-03-01

    Accessible methods of synthesis and identification of phosphorylated benzimidazoles with specific activity close to the maximum permissible with labelled /sup 32/P are developed. These methods permit to determine the permissible residual amounts of the above preparations in nutrition products and the maximum permissible amounts of growth regulators in different objects of the environment, because it is impossible to detect, for example, tri(1-benzimidazolido)phosphate with other physico-chemical methods with the existing concentration of 10/sup -9/%.

  6. IGF-I Stimulates Cooperative Interaction between the IGF-I Receptor and CSK Homologous Kinase that Regulates SHPS-1 Phosphorylation in Vascular Smooth Muscle Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radhakrishnan, Yashwanth; Shen, Xinchun; Maile, Laura A.; Xi, Gang

    2011-01-01

    IGF-I plays an important role in smooth muscle cell proliferation and migration. In vascular smooth muscle cells cultured in 25 mm glucose, IGF-I stimulated a significant increase in Src homology 2 domain containing protein tyrosine phosphatase substrate-1 (SHPS-1) phosphorylation compared with 5 mm glucose and this increase was required for smooth muscle cell proliferation. A proteome-wide screen revealed that carboxyl-terminal SRC kinase homologous kinase (CTK) bound directly to phosphotyrosines in the SHPS-1 cytoplasmic domain. Because the kinase(s) that phosphorylates these tyrosines in response to IGF-I is unknown, we determined the roles of IGF-I receptor (IGF-IR) and CTK in mediating SHPS-1 phosphorylation. After IGF-I stimulation, CTK was recruited to IGF-IR and subsequently to phospho-SHPS-1. Expression of an IGF-IR mutant that eliminated CTK binding reduced CTK transfer to SHPS-1, SHPS-1 phosphorylation, and cell proliferation. IGF-IR phosphorylated SHPS-1, which provided a binding site for CTK. CTK recruitment to SHPS-1 resulted in a further enhancement of SHPS-1 phosphorylation. CTK knockdown also impaired IGF-I-stimulated SHPS-1 phosphorylation and downstream signaling. Analysis of specific tyrosines showed that mutation of tyrosines 428/452 in SHPS-1 to phenylalanine reduced SHPS-1 phosphorylation but allowed CTK binding. In contrast, the mutation of tyrosines 469/495 inhibited IGF-IR-mediated the phosphorylation of SHPS-1 and CTK binding, suggesting that IGF-IR phosphorylated Y469/495, allowing CTK binding, and that CTK subsequently phosphorylated Y428/452. Based on the above findings, we conclude that after IGF-I stimulation, CTK is recruited to IGF-IR and its recruitment facilitates CTK's subsequent association with phospho-SHPS-1. This results in the enhanced CTK transfer to SHPS-1, and the two kinases then fully phosphorylate SHPS-1, which is necessary for IGF-I stimulated cellular proliferation. PMID:21799000

  7. Evaluation of Outcomes in Adolescent Inflammatory Bowel Disease Patients Following Transfer From Pediatric to Adult Health Care Services: Case for Transition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Rebecca; Ashok, Dhandapani; Razack, Abdul; Azaz, Amer; Sebastian, Shaji

    2015-08-01

    We aimed to evaluate the impact of a transition service on clinical and developmental outcomes in adolescent Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD) patients on transfer to adult health care services. We reviewed the records of IBD patients diagnosed in pediatric care following their transfer/attendance to the adult IBD service. The data on patients who attended the transition service were compared with those who did not pass through the transition service. Seventy-two patients were included in the study 41M and 31F. Forty-four patients went through the transition system (Group A), and 28 had no formalized transition arrangement before transfer (Group B). A significantly higher number of Group B patients needed surgery within 2 years of transfer when compared with patients in Group A (46% vs. 25%, p = .01). Sixty-one percent of patients in Group B needed at least one admission within 2 years of transfer when compared with 29% of Group A patients (p = .002). Nonattendance at clinics was higher in Group B patients with 78% having at least one nonattendance, whereas 29% of Group A failed to attend at least one appointment (p = .001). In addition, drug compliance rates were higher in the transition group when compared with Group B (89% and 46%, respectively; p = .002). A higher proportion of transitioned patients achieved their estimated maximum growth potential when completing adolescence. There was a trend toward higher dependence on opiates and smoking in Group B patients. In adolescent IBD patients, transition care is associated with better disease specific and developmental outcomes. Prospective studies of different models of transition care in IBD are needed. Copyright © 2015 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Assessment of the horizontal transfer of functional genes as a suitable approach for evaluation of the bioremediation potential of petroleum-contaminated sites: a mini-review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahi, Aiyoub; Ince, Bahar; Aydin, Sevcan; Ince, Orhan

    2017-06-01

    Petroleum sludge contains recalcitrant residuals. These compounds because of being toxic to humans and other organism are of the major concerns. Therefore, petroleum sludge should be safely disposed. Physicochemical methods which are used by this sector are mostly expensive and need complex devices. Bioremediation methods because of being eco-friendly and cost-effective overcome most of the limitations of physicochemical treatments. Microbial strains capable to degrade petroleum hydrocarbons are practically present in all soils and sediments and their population density increases in contact with contaminants. Bacterial strains cannot degrade alone all kinds of petroleum hydrocarbons, rather microbial consortium should collaborate with each other for degradation of petroleum hydrocarbon mixtures. Horizontal transfer of functional genes between bacteria plays an important role in increasing the metabolic potential of the microbial community. Therefore, selecting a suitable degrading gene and tracking its horizontal transfer would be a useful approach to evaluate the bioremediation process and to assess the bioremediation potential of contaminated sites.

  9. Separation Options for Phosphorylated Osteopontin from Transgenic Microalgae Chlamydomonas reinhardtii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayswarya Ravi

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Correct folding and post-translational modifications are vital for therapeutic proteins to elicit their biological functions. Osteopontin (OPN, a bone regenerative protein present in a range of mammalian cells, is an acidic phosphoprotein with multiple potential phosphorylation sites. In this study, the ability of unicellular microalgae, Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, to produce phosphorylated recombinant OPN in its chloroplast is investigated. This study further explores the impact of phosphorylation and expression from a “plant-like” algae on separation of OPN. Chromatography resins ceramic hydroxyapatite (CHT and Gallium-immobilized metal affinity chromatography (Ga-IMAC were assessed for their binding specificity to phosphoproteins. Non-phosphorylated recombinant OPN expressed in E. coli was used to compare the specificity of interaction of the resins to phosphorylated OPN. We observed that CHT binds OPN by multimodal interactions and was better able to distinguish phosphorylated proteins in the presence of 250 mM NaCl. Ga-IMAC interaction with OPN was not selective to phosphorylation, irrespective of salt, as the resin bound OPN from both algal and bacterial sources. Anion exchange chromatography proved an efficient capture method to partially separate major phosphorylated host cell protein impurities such as Rubisco from OPN.

  10. Phosphorylation of eukaryotic aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pendergast, A.M.

    1986-01-01

    The phosphorylation of the highly purified aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase complex from rabbit reticulocytes was examined. The synthetase complex contained, in addition to eight aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases, three unidentified proteins and was free of endogenous protein kinase activity. Incubation of the complex with casein kinase I in the presence of ATP resulted in the phosphorylation of four synthetases, the glutamyl-, isoleucyl-, methionyl-, and lysyl-tRNA synthetases. Phosphorylation by casein kinase I altered binding to tRNA-Sepharose such that the phosphorylated complex eluted at 190 mM NaCl instead of the 275 mM salt observed for the nonphosphorylated form. Phosphorylation by casein kinase I resulted in a significant inhibition of aminoacylation with the four synthetases; the activities of the nonphosphorylated synthetases were unchanged. One of the unidentified proteins in the complex (M/sub r/ 37,000) was also an excellent substrate for casein kinase I. A comparison of the properties and two-dimensional phosphopeptide pattern of this protein with that of casein kinase I suggest that the 37,000 dalton protein in the synthetase complex is an inactive form of casein kinase I. Two other protein kinases were shown to phosphorylate aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases in the complex. The phosphorylation of threonyl-tRNA synthetase was also investigated. Five aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases in the high molecular weight complex were shown to be phosphorylated in rabbit reticulocytes following labeling with ( 32 P)orthophosphate

  11. Quantitative phosphoproteomics reveals widespread full phosphorylation site occupancy during mitosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miller, Martin Lee; Brunak, Søren; Olsen, JV

    2010-01-01

    and phosphorylation sites were grouped according to their cell cycle kinetics and compared to publicly available messenger RNA microarray data. Most detected phosphorylation sites and more than 20% of all quantified proteins showed substantial regulation, mainly in mitotic cells. Kinase-motif analysis revealed global...

  12. Myosin light chain kinase phosphorylation in tracheal smooth muscle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stull, J.T.; Hsu, L.C.; Tansey, M.G.; Kamm, K.E.

    1990-01-01

    Purified myosin light chain kinase from smooth muscle is phosphorylated by cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase, protein kinase C, and the multifunctional calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II. Because phosphorylation in a specific site (site A) by any one of these kinases desensitizes myosin light chain kinase to activation by Ca2+/calmodulin, kinase phosphorylation could play an important role in regulating smooth muscle contractility. This possibility was investigated in 32 P-labeled bovine tracheal smooth muscle. Treatment of tissues with carbachol, KCl, isoproterenol, or phorbol 12,13-dibutyrate increased the extent of kinase phosphorylation. Six primary phosphopeptides (A-F) of myosin light chain kinase were identified. Site A was phosphorylated to an appreciable extent only with carbachol or KCl, agents which contract tracheal smooth muscle. The extent of site A phosphorylation correlated to increases in the concentration of Ca2+/calmodulin required for activation. These results show that cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase and protein kinase C do not affect smooth muscle contractility by phosphorylating site A in myosin light chain kinase. It is proposed that phosphorylation of myosin light chain kinase in site A in contracting tracheal smooth muscle may play a role in the reported desensitization of contractile elements to activation by Ca2+

  13. Novel Role of Src in Priming Pyk2 Phosphorylation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming Zhao

    Full Text Available Proline-rich tyrosine kinase 2 (Pyk2 is a member of the focal adhesion kinase (FAK family of non-receptor tyrosine kinases and plays an important role in diverse cellular events downstream of the integrin-family of receptors, including cell migration, proliferation and survival. Here, we have identified a novel role for Src kinase in priming Pyk2 phosphorylation and subsequent activation upon cell attachment on the integrin-ligand fibronectin. By using complementary methods, we show that Src activity is indispensable for the initial Pyk2 phosphorylation on the Y402 site observed in response to cell attachment. In contrast, the initial fibronectin-induced autophosphorylation of FAK in the homologous Y397 site occurs in a Src-independent manner. We demonstrate that the SH2-domain of Src is required for Src binding to Pyk2 and for Pyk2 phosphorylation at sites Y402 and Y579. Moreover, Y402 phosphorylation is a prerequisite for the subsequent Y579 phosphorylation. While this initial phosphorylation of Pyk2 by Src is independent of Pyk2 kinase activity, subsequent autophosphorylation of Pyk2 in trans is required for full Pyk2 phosphorylation and activation. Collectively, our studies reveal a novel function of Src in priming Pyk2 (but not FAK phosphorylation and subsequent activation downstream of integrins, and shed light on the signaling events that regulate the function of Pyk2.

  14. Evaluation of flow accelerated corrosion by coupled analysis of corrosion and flow dynamics (2), flow dynamics calculations for determining mixing factors and mass transfer coefficients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uehara, Yasushi; Uchida, Shunsuke; Naitoh, Masanori; Okada, Hidetoshi; Koshizuka, Seiichi

    2009-01-01

    In order to predict and mitigate flow accelerated corrosion (FAC) of carbon steel piping in PWR and BWR secondary systems, computer program packages for evaluating FAC have been developed by coupling one through three dimensional (1-3D) computational flow dynamics (CFD) models and corrosion models. To evaluate corrosive conditions, e.g., oxygen concentration and electrochemical corrosion potential (ECP) along the flow path, flow pattern and temperature in each elemental volume were obtained with 1D computational flow dynamics (CFD) codes. Precise flow turbulence and mass transfer coefficients at the structure surface were calculated with 3D CFD codes to determine wall thinning rates. One of the engineering options is application of k-ε calculation as a 3D CFD code, which has limitation of detail evaluation of flow distribution at very surface of large scale piping. A combination of k-ε calculation and wall function was proposed to evaluate precise distribution of mass transfer coefficients with reasonable CPU volume and computing time and, at the same time, reasonable accuracy. (author)

  15. Effects of protein phosphorylation on color stability of ground meat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Meng; Li, Xin; Xin, Jianzeng; Li, Zheng; Li, Guixia; Zhang, Yan; Du, Manting; Shen, Qingwu W; Zhang, Dequan

    2017-03-15

    The influence of protein phosphorylation on meat color stability was investigated in this study. Phosphatase and protein kinase inhibitors were added to minced ovine Longissimus thoracis et lumborum (LTL) muscle to manipulate the global phosphorylation of sarcoplasmic proteins. The data obtained show that the rate and extent of pH decline, along with lactate accumulation in postmortem muscle, were related to protein phosphorylation. Analysis of meat color and the relative content of myoglobin redox forms revealed that meat color stability was inversely related to the phosphorylation of sarcoplasmic proteins. Thus, this study suggests that protein phosphorylation may be involved in meat color development by regulating glycolysis and the redox stability of myoglobin. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Interaction of butylated hydroxyanisole with mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fusi, F; Sgaragli, G; Murphy, M P

    1992-03-17

    The antioxidant, butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA), has a number of effects on mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation. In this study we apply the novel approach developed by Brand (Brand MD, Biochim Biophys Acta 1018: 128-133, 1990) to investigate the site of action of BHA on oxidative phosphorylation in rat liver mitochondria. Using this approach we show that BHA increases the proton leak through the mitochondrial inner membrane and that it also inhibits the delta p (proton motive force across the mitochondrial inner membrane) generating system, but has no effect on the phosphorylation system. This demonstrates that compounds having pleiotypic effects on mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation in vitro can be analysed and their many effects distinguished. This approach is of general use in analysing many other compounds of pharmacological interest which interact with mitochondria. The implications of these results for the mechanism of interaction of BHA with mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation are discussed.

  17. Importance of tyrosine phosphorylation in receptor kinase complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macho, Alberto P; Lozano-Durán, Rosa; Zipfel, Cyril

    2015-05-01

    Tyrosine phosphorylation is an important post-translational modification that is known to regulate receptor kinase (RK)-mediated signaling in animals. Plant RKs are annotated as serine/threonine kinases, but recent work has revealed that tyrosine phosphorylation is also crucial for the activation of RK-mediated signaling in plants. These initial observations have paved the way for subsequent detailed studies on the mechanism of activation of plant RKs and the biological relevance of tyrosine phosphorylation for plant growth and immunity. In this Opinion article we review recent reports on the contribution of RK tyrosine phosphorylation in plant growth and immunity; we propose that tyrosine phosphorylation plays a major regulatory role in the initiation and transduction of RK-mediated signaling in plants. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Phosphorylation of the Epstein-Barr virus nuclear antigen 2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grässer, F A; Göttel, S; Haiss, P

    1992-01-01

    A major in vivo phosphorylation site of the Epstein-Barr virus nuclear antigen 2 (EBNA-2) was found to be localized at the C-terminus of the protein. In vitro phosphorylation studies using casein kinase 1 (CK-1) and casein kinase 2 (CK-2) revealed that EBNA-2 is a substrate for CK-2, but not for CK......-1. The CK-2 specific phosphorylation site was localized in the 140 C-terminal amino acids using a recombinant trpE-C-terminal fusion protein. In a similar experiment, the 58 N-terminal amino acids expressed as a recombinant trpE-fusion protein were not phosphorylated. Phosphorylation of a synthetic...

  19. Structural characterization by NMR of a double phosphorylated chimeric peptide vaccine for treatment of Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramírez-Gualito, Karla; Richter, Monique; Matzapetakis, Manolis; Singer, David; Berger, Stefan

    2013-04-26

    Rational design of peptide vaccines becomes important for the treatment of some diseases such as Alzheimer's disease (AD) and related disorders. In this study, as part of a larger effort to explore correlations of structure and activity, we attempt to characterize the doubly phosphorylated chimeric peptide vaccine targeting a hyperphosphorylated epitope of the Tau protein. The 28-mer linear chimeric peptide consists of the double phosphorylated B cell epitope Tau₂₂₉₋₂₃₇[pThr231/pSer235] and the immunomodulatory T cell epitope Ag85B₂₄₁₋₂₅₅ originating from the well-known antigen Ag85B of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis, linked by a four amino acid sequence -GPSL-. NMR chemical shift analysis of our construct demonstrated that the synthesized peptide is essentially unfolded with a tendency to form a β-turn due to the linker. In conclusion, the -GPSL- unit presumably connects the two parts of the vaccine without transferring any structural information from one part to the other. Therefore, the double phosphorylated epitope of the Tau peptide is flexible and accessible.

  20. The Fic protein Doc uses an inverted substrate to phosphorylate and inactivate EF-Tu.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro-Roa, Daniel; Garcia-Pino, Abel; De Gieter, Steven; van Nuland, Nico A J; Loris, Remy; Zenkin, Nikolay

    2013-12-01

    Fic proteins are ubiquitous in all of the domains of life and have critical roles in multiple cellular processes through AMPylation of (transfer of AMP to) target proteins. Doc from the doc-phd toxin-antitoxin module is a member of the Fic family and inhibits bacterial translation by an unknown mechanism. Here we show that, in contrast to having AMPylating activity, Doc is a new type of kinase that inhibits bacterial translation by phosphorylating the conserved threonine (Thr382) of the translation elongation factor EF-Tu, rendering EF-Tu unable to bind aminoacylated tRNAs. We provide evidence that EF-Tu phosphorylation diverged from AMPylation by antiparallel binding of the NTP relative to the catalytic residues of the conserved Fic catalytic core of Doc. The results bring insights into the mechanism and role of phosphorylation of EF-Tu in bacterial physiology as well as represent an example of the catalytic plasticity of enzymes and a mechanism for the evolution of new enzymatic activities.

  1. Coupled motions in the SH2 and kinase domains of Csk control Src phosphorylation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Lilly; Lieser, Scot A; Miyashita, Osamu; Miller, Meghan; Tasken, Kjetil; Onuchic, Josè N; Adams, Joseph A; Woods, Virgil L; Jennings, Patricia A

    2005-08-05

    The C-terminal Src kinase (Csk) phosphorylates and down-regulates Src family tyrosine kinases. The Csk-binding protein (Cbp) localizes Csk close to its substrates at the plasma membrane, and increases the specific activity of the kinase. To investigate this long-range catalytic effect, the phosphorylation of Src and the conformation of Csk were investigated in the presence of a high-affinity phosphopeptide derived from Cbp. This peptide binds tightly to the SH2 domain and enhances Src recognition (lowers K(m)) by increasing the apparent phosphoryl transfer rate in the Csk active site, a phenomenon detected in rapid quench flow experiments. Previous studies demonstrated that the regulation of Csk activity is linked to conformational changes in the enzyme that can be probed with hydrogen-deuterium exchange methods. We show that the Cbp peptide impacts deuterium incorporation into its binding partner (the SH2 domain), and into the SH2-kinase linker and several sequences in the kinase domain, including the glycine-rich loop in the active site. These findings, along with computational data from normal mode analyses, suggest that the SH2 domain moves in a cantilever fashion with respect to the small lobe of the kinase domain, ordering the active site for catalysis. The binding of a small Cbp-derived peptide to the SH2 domain of Csk modifies these motions, enhancing Src recognition.

  2. FE-ANN based modeling of 3D Simple Reinforced Concrete Girders for Objective Structural Health Evaluation : Tech Transfer Summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-01

    The objective of this study was to develop an objective, quantitative method for evaluating damage to bridge girders by using artificial neural networks (ANNs). This evaluation method, which is a supplement to visual inspection, requires only the res...

  3. Sequential phosphorylation of GRASP65 during mitotic Golgi disassembly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danming Tang

    2012-09-01

    GRASP65 phosphorylation during mitosis and dephosphorylation after mitosis are required for Golgi disassembly and reassembly during the cell cycle. At least eight phosphorylation sites on GRASP65 have been identified, but whether they are modified in a coordinated fashion during mitosis is so far unknown. In this study, we raised phospho-specific antibodies that recognize phosphorylated T220/T224, S277 and S376 residues of GRASP65, respectively. Biochemical analysis showed that cdc2 phosphorylates all three sites, while plk1 enhances the phosphorylation. Microscopic studies using these antibodies for double and triple labeling demonstrate sequential phosphorylation and dephosphorylation during the cell cycle. S277 and S376 are phosphorylated from late G2 phase through metaphase until telophase when the new Golgi is reassembled. T220/224 is not modified until prophase, but is highly modified from prometaphase to anaphase. In metaphase, phospho-T220/224 signal localizes on both Golgi haze and mitotic Golgi clusters that represent dispersed Golgi vesicles and Golgi remnants, respectively, while phospho-S277 and S376 labeling is more concentrated on mitotic Golgi clusters. Expression of a phosphorylation-resistant GRASP65 mutant T220A/T224A inhibited mitotic Golgi fragmentation to a much larger extent than the expression of the S277A and S376A mutants. In cytokinesis, T220/224 dephosphorylation occurs prior to that of S277, but after S376. This study provides evidence that GRASP65 is sequentially phosphorylated and dephosphorylated during mitosis at different sites to orchestrate Golgi disassembly and reassembly during cell division, with phosphorylation of the T220/224 site being most critical in the process.

  4. Stat1 phosphorylation determines Ras oncogenicity by regulating p27 kip1.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuo Wang

    Full Text Available Inactivation of p27 Kip1 is implicated in tumorigenesis and has both prognostic and treatment-predictive values for many types of human cancer. The transcription factor Stat1 is essential for innate immunity and tumor immunosurveillance through its ability to act downstream of interferons. Herein, we demonstrate that Stat1 functions as a suppressor of Ras transformation independently of an interferon response. Inhibition of Ras transformation and tumorigenesis requires the phosphorylation of Stat1 at tyrosine 701 but is independent of Stat1 phosphorylation at serine 727. Stat1 induces p27 Kip1 expression in Ras transformed cells at the transcriptional level through mechanisms that depend on Stat1 phosphorylation at tyrosine 701 and activation of Stat3. The tumor suppressor properties of Stat1 in Ras transformation are reversed by the inactivation of p27 Kip1. Our work reveals a novel functional link between Stat1 and p27 Kip1, which act in coordination to suppress the oncogenic properties of activated Ras. It also supports the notion that evaluation of Stat1 phosphorylation in human tumors may prove a reliable prognostic factor for patient outcome and a predictor of treatment response to anticancer therapies aimed at activating Stat1 and its downstream effectors.

  5. Human lymphocyte damage and phosphorylation of H2AX and ATM induced by γ-rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tian Mei; Pan Yan; Liu Jianxiang; Ruan Jianlei; Su Xu

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To investigate 60 Co γ-ray induced damage in lymphocytes and the relationship between doses of 60 Co γ-ray irradiation and the levels of phosphorylated H2AX and ATM. Methods: Cells were irradiated with 60 Co γ-rays in the range of 0-8 Gy. The levels of phosphorylated H2AX and ATM were detected by Western blot and FACScan,respectively. The micronucleus(MN)was analyzed by CB method to evaluate DNA damage. Results: FACScan results showed the dose-effect relationship of γ-H2AX expression were linear.square at 0.5 h post-irradiation to different doses, and the fitting curve was shown as Y=3.96+11.29D-0.45D 2 . The level of phosphorylated ATM (p-ATM) was not changed significantly by using the same method. Western blot showed that p-ATM protein expression was significantly increased after irradiation compared with sham, irradiated group. The MN assay which represented DNA damage was sensitive to different doses. Conclusions: γ-ray irradiation could induce the phosphorylation of H2AX and ATM, which may play an important role in indicating DNA damage. Both of H2AX and ATM have the potential as sensitive biomarker and biodosimeter for radiation damage. (authors)

  6. Radioecology. Transfers of radioelements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foulquier, L.

    2002-01-01

    The study of the cycle of radioelements in the environment requires the measurement of the radionuclides present in all parts of the ecosystems. The knowledge of the mechanisms of radioactive pollutant transfers and of the kinetics of the exchanges between a source term, the vectors and the constituents of the biosphere represents heart of the work of radio-ecologists. This article describes briefly the techniques used for the measurement of radionuclides in the environment and for the study of their physical dispersion mechanisms. Then, it treats more carefully of the transfer mechanisms in different environments: 1 - tools for the evaluation of transfers: metrology, atmospheric and liquid dispersion phenomena; 2 - processes of radioelement transfers: transfers in aquatic ecosystems, transfers in terrestrial environment. (J.S.)

  7. Conserved phosphoryl transfer mechanisms within kinase families and the role of the C8 proton of ATP in the activation of phosphoryl transfer

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Kenyon, CP

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available mechanisms associated with 21 of the kinase families within 10 of the fold groups where sufficient structural information is available. To this end, the PDB (the database) was searched for structures repre- senting kinases within each family, based... in the ATP- and ADP-bound structures in the residues associated with the ?push? mechanism demon- strated significant reduction in the inter-atomic distances (PDB: 3M0E and 1NY6[14,15]. The inter-atomic distances for the ADP- and ATP-bound structures...

  8. Heat transfer

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Overview Graphics. Heat transfer. Heat conduction in solid slab. Convective heat transfer. Non-linear temperature. variation due to flow. HEAT FLUX AT SURFACE. conduction/diffusion.

  9. Heat transfer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saad, M.A.

    1985-01-01

    Heat transfer takes place between material systems as a result of a temperature difference. The transmission process involves energy conversions governed by the first and second laws of thermodynamics. The heat transfer proceeds from a high-temperature region to a low-temperature region, and because of the finite thermal potential, there is an increase in entropy. Thermodynamics, however, is concerned with equilibrium states, which includes thermal equilibrium, irrespective of the time necessary to attain these equilibrium states. But heat transfer is a result of thermal nonequilibrium conditions, therefore, the laws of thermodynamics alone cannot describe completely the heat transfer process. In practice, most engineering problems are concerned with the rate of heat transfer rather than the quantity of heat being transferred. Resort then is directed to the particular laws governing the transfer of heat. There are three distinct modes of heat transfer: conduction, convection, and radiation. Although these modes are discussed separately, all three types may occur simultaneously

  10. Evaluation of soil-plant transfer factors of iodine. Estimation of annual ingestion for iodine from the diet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saas, Arsene.

    1980-11-01

    The author presents the iodine middle contents of the soils and vegetables. A synthesis on the iodine evolution in the soils and vegetables allows to conclude that the vegetable absorption of this isotope is correlated with the isotopiquely exchangeable iodine of the soil. The soil-plant transfer-factors are calculated for the vegetables, cereals, fruits from the stable iodine quantitative analysis. The annual iodine ingestion has been estimated from the dietary of the European Communites areas. This one is a little different of the quantity estimated by CRESTA-LACOURLY-R 2979, yet the contribution by consummation unity is different [fr

  11. Development capacity of pre- and postpubertal pig oocytes evaluated by somatic cell nuclear transfer and parthenogenetic activation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skovsgaard, Hanne; Li, Rong; Liu, Ying

    2013-01-01

    Most of the porcine oocytes used for in vitro studies are collected from gilts. Our aims were to study development capacity of gilt v. sow oocytes (pre- and postpubertal respectively) using 2 techniques illustrating development competence [parthenogenetic activation (PA) and somatic cell nuclear...... transfer (SCNT)], and to describe a simple method to select the most competent oocytes. Inside-ZP diameter of in vitro-matured gilt oocytes was measured (µm; small ≤110; medium >110; large ≥120). Gilt and sow oocytes were morphologically grouped as good (even cytoplasm, smooth cell membrane, visible...

  12. Experimental evaluation of enthalpy efficiency and gas-phase contaminant transfer in an enthalpy recovery unit with polymer membrane foils

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nie, Jinzhe; Yang, Jianrong; Fang, Lei

    2015-01-01

    Experimental studies were conducted in a laboratory setting to investigate the enthalpy efficiency and gas-phase contaminant transfer in a polymer membrane enthalpy recovery unit. One commercially available polymer membrane enthalpy recovery unit was used as a reference unit. Simulated indoor air...... and outdoor air by twin chambers was connected to the unit. Three chemical gases were dosed to the indoor exhaust air to mimic indoor air contaminants. Based on the measurements of temperature, humidity ratio, and contaminant concentrations of the indoor exhaust air and outdoor air supply upstream...

  13. Measuring brain glucose phosphorylation with labeled glucose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brondsted, H.E.; Gjedde, A.

    1988-01-01

    This study tested whether glucose labeled at the C-6 position generates metabolites that leave brain so rapidly that C-6-labeled glucose cannot be used to measure brain glucose phosphorylation (CMRGlc). In pentobarbital-anesthetized rats, the parietal cortex uptake of [ 14 C]glucose labeled in the C-6 position was followed for times ranging from 10 s to 60 min. We subtracted the observed radioactivity from the radioactivity expected with no loss of labeled metabolites from brain by extrapolation of glucose uptake in an initial period when loss was negligible. The observed radioactivity was a monoexponentially declining function of the total radioactivity expected in the absence of metabolite loss. The constant of decline was 0.0077.min-1 for parietal cortex. Metabolites were lost from the beginning of the experiment. However, with correction for the loss of labeled metabolites, it was possible to determine an average CMRGlc between 4 and 60 min of circulation of 64 +/- 4 (SE; n = 49) mumol.hg-1.min-1

  14. Phosphorylation site on yeast pyruvate dehydrogenase complex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uhlinger, D.J.

    1986-01-01

    The pyruvate dehydrogenase complex was purified to homogeneity from baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae). Yeast cells were disrupted in a Manton-Gaulin laboratory homogenizer. The pyruvate dehydrogenase complex was purified by fractionation with polyethylene glycol, isoelectric precipitation, ultracentrifugation and chromatography on hydroxylapatite. Final purification of the yeast pyruvate dehydrogenase complex was achieved by cation-exchange high pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC). No endogenous pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase activity was detected during the purification. However, the yeast pyruvate dehydrogenase complex was phosphorylated and inactivated with purified pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase from bovine kidney. Tryptic digestion of the 32 P-labeled complex yielded a single phosphopeptide which was purified to homogeniety. The tryptic digest was subjected to chromatography on a C-18 reverse phase HPLC column with a linear gradient of acetonitrile. Radioactive fractions were pooled, concentrated, and subjected to anion-exchange HPLC. The column was developed with a linear gradient of ammonium acetate. Final purification of the phosphopeptide was achieved by chromatography on a C-18 reverse phase HPLC column developed with a linear gradient of acetonitrile. The amino acid sequence of the homogeneous peptide was determined by manual modified Edman degradation

  15. Roles of phosphorylation and nucleotide binding domains in calcium transport by sarcoplasmic reticulum adenosinetriphosphatase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teruel, J.A.; Inesi, G.

    1988-01-01

    The roles of the phosphorylation (phosphorylated enzyme intermediate) and nucleotide binding domains in calcium transport were studied by comparing acetyl phosphate and ATP as substrates for the Ca 2+ -ATPase of sarcoplasmic reticulum vesicles. The authors found that the maximal level of phosphoenzyme obtained with either substrate is approximately 4 nmol/mg of protein, corresponding to the stoichiometry of catalytic sites in their preparation. The initial burst of phosphoenzyme formation observed in the transient state, following addition of either substrate, is accompanied by internalization of 2 mol of calcium per mole of phosphoenzyme. The internalized calcium is then translocated with a sequential pattern, independent of the substrate used. Following a rate-limiting step, the phosphoenzyme undergoes hydrolytic cleavage and proceeds to the steady-state activity which is soon back inhibited by the rise of Ca 2+ concentration in the lumen of the vesicles. When the back inhibition is released by the addition of oxalate, substrate utilization and calcium transport occur with a ratio of 1:2, independent of the substrate and its concentration. When the nucleotide binding site is derivatized with FITP, the enzyme can still utilize acetyl phosphate (but not ATP) for calcium transport. These observations demonstrate that the basic coupling mechanism of catalysis and calcium transport involves the phosphorylation and calcium binding domains, and not the nucleotide binding domain. On the other hand, occupancy of the FITC-sensitive nucleotide site is involved in kinetic regulation not only with respect to utilization of substrate for the phosphoryl transfer reaction but also for subsequent steps related to calcium translocation and phosphoenzyme turnover

  16. Transfer Pricing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Søren Bo

    2014-01-01

    Against a background of rather mixed evidence about transfer pricing practices in multinational enterprises (MNEs) and varying attitudes on the part of tax authorities, this paper explores how multiple aims in transfer pricing can be pursued across four different transfer pricing regimes. A MNE h...

  17. Performance evaluation and mass transfer study of CO2 absorption in flat sheet membrane contactor using novel porous polysulfone membrane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nabian, Nima; Ghoreyshi, Ali Asghar; Rahimpour, Ahmad; Shakeri, Mohsen

    2015-01-01

    The performance of gas-liquid membrane contactor for CO 2 capture was investigated using a novel polysulfone (PSF) flat membrane prepared via non-solvent phase inversion method. Polyvinyl pyrrolidone (PVP) was used as an additive in the dope solution of PSF membranes. Morphological studies by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis revealed that PSF membrane with PVP has a finger-like structure, but the PSF membrane without PVP has a sponge-like structure. Also, characterization results through atomic force microscopy (AFM) and contact angle measurement demonstrated that the porosity, surface roughness and hydrophobicity of the PSF membrane increased with addition of PVP to the dope solution. Mass transfer resistance analysis, based on CO 2 absorption flux, displayed that addition of PVP to the dope solution of PSF membrane decreased membrane mass transfer resistance, and significantly improved CO 2 absorption flux up to 2.7 and 1.8 times of absorption fluxes of PSF membrane without PVP and commercial PVDF, respectively.

  18. Synthesis and systematic evaluation of dark resonance energy transfer (DRET)-based library and its application in cell imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Dongdong; Teoh, Chai Lean; Kang, Nam-Young; Yu, Xiaotong; Sahu, Srikanta; Chang, Young-Tae

    2015-03-01

    In this paper, we report a new strategy for constructing a dye library with large Stokes shifts. By coupling a dark donor with BODIPY acceptors of tunable high quantum yield, a novel dark resonance energy transfer (DRET)-based library, named BNM, has been synthesized. Upon excitation of the dark donor (BDN) at 490 nm, the absorbed energy is transferred to the acceptor (BDM) with high efficiency, which was tunable in a broad range from 557 nm to 716 nm, with a high quantum yield of up to 0.8. It is noteworthy to mention that the majority of the non-radiative energy loss of the donor was converted into the acceptor's fluorescence output with a minimum leak of donor emission. Fluorescence imaging tested in live cells showed that the BNM compounds are cell-permeable and can also be employed for live-cell imaging. This is a new library which can be excited through a dark donor allowing for strong fluorescence emission in a wide range of wavelengths. Thus, the BNM library is well suited for high-throughput screening or multiplex experiments in biological applications by using a single laser excitation source. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. Phosphorylation sites of Arabidopsis MAP Kinase Substrate 1 (MKS1)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Caspersen, M.B.; Qiu, J.-L.; Zhang, X.

    2007-01-01

    The Arabidopsis MAP kinase 4 (MPK4) substrate MKS1 was expressed in Escherichia coli and purified, full-length, 6x histidine (His)-tagged MKS1 was phosphorylated in vitro by hemagglutinin (HA)-tagged MPK4 immuno-precipitated from plants. MKS1 phosphorylation was initially verified by electrophore......The Arabidopsis MAP kinase 4 (MPK4) substrate MKS1 was expressed in Escherichia coli and purified, full-length, 6x histidine (His)-tagged MKS1 was phosphorylated in vitro by hemagglutinin (HA)-tagged MPK4 immuno-precipitated from plants. MKS1 phosphorylation was initially verified...... phosphopeptide detection. As MAP kinases generally phosphorylate serine or threonine followed by proline (Ser/Thr-Pro), theoretical masses of potentially phosphorylated peptides were calculated and mass spectrometric peaks matching these masses were fragmented and searched for a neutral-loss signal...... at approximately 98 Da indicative of phosphorylation. Additionally, mass spectrometric peaks present in the MPK4-treated MKS1, but not in the control peptide map of untreated MKS1, were fragmented. Fragmentation spectra were subjected to a MASCOT database search which identified three of the twelve Ser-Pro serine...

  20. Reconstruction and analysis of nutrient-induced phosphorylation networks in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guangyou eDuan

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Elucidating the dynamics of molecular processes in living organisms in response to external perturbations is a central goal in modern systems biology. We investigated the dynamics of protein phosphorylation events in Arabidopsis thaliana exposed to changing nutrient conditions. Phosphopeptide expression levels were detected at five consecutive time points over a time interval of 30 minutes after nutrient resupply following prior starvation. The three tested inorganic, ionic nutrients NH4+, NO3-, PO43- elicited similar phosphosignaling responses that were distinguishable from those invoked by the sugars mannitol, sucrose. When embedded in the protein-protein interaction network of Arabidopsis thaliana, phosphoproteins were found to exhibit a higher degree compared to average proteins. Based on the time-series data, we reconstructed a network of regulatory interactions mediated by phosphorylation. The performance of different network inference methods was evaluated by the observed likelihood of physical interactions within and across different subcellular compartments and based on gene ontology semantic similarity. The dynamic phosphorylation network was then reconstructed using a Pearson correlation method with added directionality based on partial variance differences. The topology of the inferred integrated network corresponds to an information dissemination architecture, in which the phosphorylation signal is passed on to an increasing number of phosphoproteins stratified into an initiation, processing, and effector layer. Specific phosphorylation peptide motifs associated with the distinct layers were identified indicating the action of layer-specific kinases. Despite the limited temporal resolution, combined with information on subcellular location, the available time-series data proved useful for reconstructing the dynamics of the molecular signaling cascade in response to nutrient stress conditions in the plant Arabidopsis thaliana.

  1. Developing the Model for Optimal Learning and Transfer (MOLT) Following an Evaluation of Outdoor Groupwork Skills Programmes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooley, Sam Joseph; Cumming, Jennifer; Holland, Mark J. G.; Burns, Victoria E.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to evaluate the perceived efficacy of outdoor groupwork skills programmes for the undergraduate and postgraduate students, and the factors that influence its success. It also illustrates the use of Kirkpatrick's (1994) 4-level model of training evaluation as a framework for qualitative investigation of learning and…

  2. Phosphorylation of KasB Regulates Virulence and Acid-Fastness in Mycobacterium tuberculosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilchèze, Catherine; Molle, Virginie; Carrère-Kremer, Séverine; Leiba, Jade; Mourey, Lionel; Shenai, Shubhada; Baronian, Grégory; Tufariello, Joann; Hartman, Travis; Veyron-Churlet, Romain; Trivelli, Xavier; Tiwari, Sangeeta; Weinrick, Brian; Alland, David; Guérardel, Yann; Jacobs, William R.; Kremer, Laurent

    2014-01-01

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis bacilli display two signature features: acid-fast staining and the capacity to induce long-term latent infections in humans. However, the mechanisms governing these two important processes remain largely unknown. Ser/Thr phosphorylation has recently emerged as an important regulatory mechanism allowing mycobacteria to adapt their cell wall structure/composition in response to their environment. Herein, we evaluated whether phosphorylation of KasB, a crucial mycolic acid biosynthetic enzyme, could modulate acid-fast staining and virulence. Tandem mass spectrometry and site-directed mutagenesis revealed that phosphorylation of KasB occurred at Thr334 and Thr336 both in vitro and in mycobacteria. Isogenic strains of M. tuberculosis with either a deletion of the kasB gene or a kasB_T334D/T336D allele, mimicking constitutive phosphorylation of KasB, were constructed by specialized linkage transduction. Biochemical and structural analyses comparing these mutants to the parental strain revealed that both mutant strains had mycolic acids that were shortened by 4–6 carbon atoms and lacked trans-cyclopropanation. Together, these results suggested that in M. tuberculosis, phosphorylation profoundly decreases the condensing activity of KasB. Structural/modeling analyses reveal that Thr334 and Thr336 are located in the vicinity of the catalytic triad, which indicates that phosphorylation of these amino acids would result in loss of enzyme activity. Importantly, the kasB_T334D/T336D phosphomimetic and deletion alleles, in contrast to the kasB_T334A/T336A phosphoablative allele, completely lost acid-fast staining. Moreover, assessing the virulence of these strains indicated that the KasB phosphomimetic mutant was attenuated in both immunodeficient and immunocompetent mice following aerosol infection. This attenuation was characterized by the absence of lung pathology. Overall, these results highlight for the first time the role of Ser/Thr kinase

  3. Phosphorylation of KasB regulates virulence and acid-fastness in Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine Vilchèze

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Mycobacterium tuberculosis bacilli display two signature features: acid-fast staining and the capacity to induce long-term latent infections in humans. However, the mechanisms governing these two important processes remain largely unknown. Ser/Thr phosphorylation has recently emerged as an important regulatory mechanism allowing mycobacteria to adapt their cell wall structure/composition in response to their environment. Herein, we evaluated whether phosphorylation of KasB, a crucial mycolic acid biosynthetic enzyme, could modulate acid-fast staining and virulence. Tandem mass spectrometry and site-directed mutagenesis revealed that phosphorylation of KasB occurred at Thr334 and Thr336 both in vitro and in mycobacteria. Isogenic strains of M. tuberculosis with either a deletion of the kasB gene or a kasB_T334D/T336D allele, mimicking constitutive phosphorylation of KasB, were constructed by specialized linkage transduction. Biochemical and structural analyses comparing these mutants to the parental strain revealed that both mutant strains had mycolic acids that were shortened by 4-6 carbon atoms and lacked trans-cyclopropanation. Together, these results suggested that in M. tuberculosis, phosphorylation profoundly decreases the condensing activity of KasB. Structural/modeling analyses reveal that Thr334 and Thr336 are located in the vicinity of the catalytic triad, which indicates that phosphorylation of these amino acids would result in loss of enzyme activity. Importantly, the kasB_T334D/T336D phosphomimetic and deletion alleles, in contrast to the kasB_T334A/T336A phosphoablative allele, completely lost acid-fast staining. Moreover, assessing the virulence of these strains indicated that the KasB phosphomimetic mutant was attenuated in both immunodeficient and immunocompetent mice following aerosol infection. This attenuation was characterized by the absence of lung pathology. Overall, these results highlight for the first time the role of

  4. Dipole-Guided Electron Capture Causes Abnormal Dissociations of Phosphorylated Pentapeptides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moss, Christopher L.; Chung, Thomas W.; Wyer, Jean

    2011-01-01

    energies and fluoranthene anion radicals in an ion trap resulted in the loss of a hydrogen atom, ammonia, and backbone cleavages forming complete series of sequence z ions. Elimination of phosphoric acid was negligible. In contrast, capture of lowenergy electrons by doubly charged ions in a Penning ion...... mapping of the potential energy surface provided structures for the precursor phosphopeptide dications. Electron attachment produces a multitude of low lying electronic states in charge-reduced ions that determine their reactivity in backbone dissociations and H- atom loss. The predominant loss of H atoms......Abstract Electron transfer and capture mass spectra of a series of doubly charged ions that were phosphorylated pentapeptides of a tryptic type (pS,A,A,A,R) showed conspicuous differences in dissociations of charge-reduced ions. Electron transfer from both gaseous cesium atoms at 100 keV kinetic...

  5. Amino acid chirality breaking by N-phosphorylation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Yufen; Yan Qingjin.

    1995-01-01

    The chirality breaking of amino acid is a focus issue in the origin of life. For chemists, there are some interesting chemical approaches to solve the symmetry breaking problem. Our previous experiments indicated that when amino acids were phosphorylated, there were many bio-mimic reactions happened. In this paper, it was found that there had significant difference between the N-phosphoryl L- and D- amino acids such as serine and threonine. The optical rotation tracing experiments of the racemic N-phosphoamino acids also showed the similar results. The chirality breaking of amino acids by N-phosphorylation was a novel phenomena. (author). 3 refs, 1 fig. Abstract only

  6. Rat1p maintains RNA polymerase II CTD phosphorylation balance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jimeno-González, Silvia; Schmid, Manfred; Malagon, Francisco

    2014-01-01

    . Here we describe a function of Rat1p in regulating phosphorylation levels of the C-terminal domain (CTD) of the largest RNAPII subunit, Rpb1p, during transcription elongation. The rat1-1 mutant exhibits highly elevated levels of CTD phosphorylation as well as RNAPII distribution and transcription...... termination defects. These phenotypes are all rescued by overexpression of the CTD phosphatase Fcp1p, suggesting a functional relationship between the absence of Rat1p activity, elevated CTD phosphorylation, and transcription defects. We also demonstrate that rat1-1 cells display increased RNAPII...

  7. Evaluation of Heat Transfer to the Implant-Bone Interface During Removal of Metal Copings Cemented onto Titanium Abutments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cakan, Umut; Cakan, Murat; Delilbasi, Cagri

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this investigation was to measure the temperature increase due to heat transferred to the implant-bone interface when the abutment screw channel is accessed or a metal-ceramic crown is sectioned buccally with diamond or tungsten carbide bur using an air rotor, with or without irrigation. Cobalt-chromium copings were cemented onto straight titanium abutments. The temperature changes during removal of the copings were recorded over a period of 1 minute. The sectioning of coping with diamond bur and without water irrigation generated the highest temperature change at the cervical part of the implant. Both crown removal methods resulted in an increase in temperature at the implant-bone interface. However, this temperature change did not exceed 47°C, the potentially damaging threshold for bone reported in the literature.

  8. Orbital transfer vehicle concept definition and system analysis study, 1985. Volume 2: OTV concept definition and evaluation. Book 4: Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Jack C.; Keeley, J. T.

    1985-01-01

    The benefits of the reusable Space Shuttle and the advent of the new Space Station hold promise for increasingly effective utilization of space by the scientific and commercial as well as military communities. A high energy reusable oribital transfer vehicle (OTV) represents an additional capability which also exhibits potential for enhancing space access by allowing more ambitious missions and at the same time reducing launch costs when compared to existing upper stages. This section, Vol. 2: Book 4, covers launch operations and flight operations. The launch operations section covers analyses of ground based and space based vehicles, launch site facilities, logistics requirements, propellant loading, space based maintenance and aft cargo carrier access options. The flight operations sections contain summary descriptions of ground based and space based OTV missions, operations and support requirements, and a discussion of fleet implications.

  9. Rosamines targeting the cancer oxidative phosphorylation pathway.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siang Hui Lim

    Full Text Available Reprogramming of energy metabolism is pivotal to cancer, so mitochondria are potential targets for anticancer therapy. A prior study has demonstrated the anti-proliferative activity of a new class of mitochondria-targeting rosamines. This present study describes in vitro cytotoxicity of second-generation rosamine analogs, their mode of action, and their in vivo efficacies in a tumor allografted mouse model. Here, we showed that these compounds exhibited potent cytotoxicity (average IC50<0.5 µM, inhibited Complex II and ATP synthase activities of the mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation pathway and induced loss of mitochondrial transmembrane potential. A NCI-60 cell lines screen further indicated that rosamine analogs 4 and 5 exhibited potent antiproliferative effects with Log10GI50 = -7 (GI50 = 0.1 µM and were more effective against a colorectal cancer sub-panel than other cell lines. Preliminary in vivo studies on 4T1 murine breast cancer-bearing female BALB/c mice indicated that treatment with analog 5 in a single dosing of 5 mg/kg or a schedule dosing of 3 mg/kg once every 2 days for 6 times (q2d×6 exhibited only minimal induction of tumor growth delay. Our results suggest that rosamine analogs may be further developed as mitochondrial targeting agents. Without a doubt proper strategies need to be devised to enhance tumor uptake of rosamines, i.e. by integration to carrier molecules for better therapeutic outcome.

  10. Evaluation of radionuclides transfer from soil-to-edible flora and estimation of radiological dose to the Malaysian populace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khandaker, Mayeen Uddin; Mohd Nasir, Noor Liyana; Asaduzzaman, Kh; Olatunji, Michael Adekunle; Amin, Yusoff Mohd; Kassim, Hasan Abu; Bradley, D A; Jojo, P J; Alrefae, Tareq

    2016-07-01

    Malaysia, a rapidly growing industrial country, is susceptible to pollution via large-scale industrial engagements and associated human activities. One particular concern is the potential impact upon the quality of locally resourced vegetables, foodstuffs that contain important nutrients necessary for good health, forming an essential part of the Malaysian diet. As a part of this, it is of importance for there to be accurate knowledge of radioactive material uptake in these vegetables, not least in respect of any public health detriment. Herein, using HPGe γ-ray spectrometry, quantification has been performed of naturally occurring radionuclides in common edible vegetables and their associated soils. From samples analyses, the soil activity concentration ranges (in units of Bq/kg) for (226)Ra, (232)Th and (40)K were respectively 1.33-30.90, 0.48-26.80, 7.99-136.5 while in vegetable samples the ranges were 0.64-3.80, 0.21-6.91, 85.53-463.8. Using the corresponding activities, the transfer factors (TFs) from soil-to-vegetables were estimated, the transfers being greatest for (40)K, an expected outcome given the essentiality of this element in support of vigorous growth. The TFs of (226)Ra and (232)Th were found to be in accord with available literature data, the values indicating the mobility of these radionuclides to be low in the studied soils. Committed effective dose and the associated life-time cancer risk was estimated, being found to be below the permissible limit proposed by UNSCEAR. Results for the studied media show that the prevalent activities and mobilities pose no significant threat to human health, the edible vegetables being safe for consumption. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Fabrication and Evaluation of Graphite Fiber-Reinforced Polyimide Composite Tube Forms Using Modified Resin Transfer Molding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Exum, Daniel B.; Ilias, S.; Avva, V. S.; Sadler, Bob

    1997-01-01

    The techniques necessary for the fabrication of a complex three-dimensional tubular form using a PMR-type resin have been developed to allow for the construction of several tubes with good physical and mechanical properties. Employing established resin transfer molding practices, the relatively non-hazardous AMB-21 in acetone formulation was used to successfully impregnate four layers of AS4 braided graphite fiber preform previously loaded around an aluminum cylindrical core in an enclosed mold cavity. Using heat and vacuum, the solvent was evaporated to form a prepreg followed by a partial imidization and removal of condensation products. The aluminum core was replaced by a silicone rubber bladder and the cure cycle continued to the final stage of 550 F with a bladder internal pressure of 200 lbs/sq in while simultaneously applying a strong vacuum to the prepreg for removal of any additional imidization products. A combination of several modifications to the standard resin transfer molding methodology enabled the mold to 'breathe', allowing the imidization products a pathway for escape. AMB-21 resin was chosen because of the carcinogenic nature of the primary commercial polyimide PMR-15. The AMB-21 resin was formulated using commercially available monomers or monomer precursors and dissolved in a mixture of methyl alcohol and acetone. The viscosity of the resulting monomer solution was checked by use of a Brookfield rheometer and adjusted by adding acetone to an easily pumpable viscosity of about 600 cP. In addition, several types of chromatographic and thermal analyses were of the braids, and excess handling of the preforms broke some of the microscopic fibers, needlessly decreasing the strength of the finished part. In addition, three dimensional braided preforms with fibers along the length of the tube will be significantly stronger in tension than the braided preforms used in this study.

  12. Development of corrosion testing equipment under heat transfer and irradiation conditions to evaluate corrosion resistance of materials used in acid recovery evaporator. Contract research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Motooka, Takafumi; Numata, Masami; Kiuchi, Kiyoshi

    2002-01-01

    We have been evaluated the safety for corrosion of various metals applied to acid recovery evaporators by the mock-up tests using small scaled equipment and the reference tests in laboratories with small specimens. These tests have been conducted under-radioactive environment. The environment in practical reprocessing plants has many radioactive species. Therefore, the effect of irradiation on corrosion should be evaluated in detail. In this study, we have developed the corrosion testing equipment, which is employed to simulate environments in the acid recovery evaporators. This report describes the specification of corrosion testing equipment and the results of primary, reference and hot tests. Using the equipment, the corrosion test under heat transfer and irradiation conditions have been carried out for 930 hours in safety. It is expectable that useful corrosion test data in radioactive environment are accumulated with this equipment in future, and help the adequate choice of corrosion test condition in laboratories. (author)

  13. Cytochrome c Is Tyrosine 97 Phosphorylated by Neuroprotective Insulin Treatment

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sanderson, T. H.; Mahapatra, G.; Pecina, Petr; Ji, Q.; Yu, K.; Sinkler, Ch.; Varughese, A.; Kumar, R.; Bukowski, M. J.; Tousignant, R. N.; Salomon, A. R.; Lee, I.; Hüttemann, M.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 8, č. 11 (2013), e78627 E-ISSN 1932-6203 Institutional support: RVO:67985823 Keywords : cytochrome c * tyrosine phosphorylation * brain ischemia * insulin Subject RIV: ED - Physiology Impact factor: 3.534, year: 2013

  14. Genetics Home Reference: combined oxidative phosphorylation deficiency 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a severe condition that primarily impairs neurological and liver function. Most people with combined oxidative phosphorylation deficiency 1 have severe brain dysfunction (encephalopathy) that worsens over time; they also have difficulty ...

  15. In vivo phosphorylation of a peptide tag for protein purification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goux, Marine; Fateh, Amina; Defontaine, Alain; Cinier, Mathieu; Tellier, Charles

    2016-05-01

    To design a new system for the in vivo phosphorylation of proteins in Escherichia coli using the co-expression of the α-subunit of casein kinase II (CKIIα) and a target protein, (Nanofitin) fused with a phosphorylatable tag. The level of the co-expressed CKIIα was controlled by the arabinose promoter and optimal phosphorylation was obtained with 2 % (w/v) arabinose as inductor. The effectiveness of the phosphorylation system was demonstrated by electrophoretic mobility shift assay (NUT-PAGE) and staining with a specific phosphoprotein-staining gel. The resulting phosphorylated tag was also used to purify the phosphoprotein by immobilized metal affinity chromatography, which relies on the specific interaction of phosphate moieties with Fe(III). The use of a single tag for both the purification and protein array anchoring provides a simple and straightforward system for protein analysis.

  16. PhosphoBase: a database of phosphorylation sites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blom, Nikolaj; Kreegipuu, Andres; Brunak, Søren

    1998-01-01

    PhosphoBase is a database of experimentally verified phosphorylation sites. Version 1.0 contains 156 entries and 398 experimentally determined phosphorylation sites. Entries are compiled and revised from the literature and from major protein sequence databases such as SwissProt and PIR. The entries...... provide information about the phosphoprotein and the exact position of its phosphorylation sites. Furthermore, part of the entries contain information about kinetic data obtained from enzyme assays on specific peptides. To illustrate the use of data extracted from PhosphoBase we present a sequence logo...... displaying the overall conservation of positions around serines phosphorylated by protein kinase A (PKA). PhosphoBase is available on the WWW at http://www.cbs.dtu.dk/databases/PhosphoBase/....

  17. Annealing properties of potato starches with different degrees of phosphorylation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Muhrbeck, Per; Svensson, E

    1996-01-01

    Changes in the gelatinization temperature interval and gelatinization enthalpy with annealing time at 50 degrees C were followed for a number of potato starch samples, with different degrees of phosphorylation, using differential scanning calorimetry. The gelatinization temperature increased...

  18. Exploring the diversity of protein modifications: special bacterial phosphorylation systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mijakovic, Ivan; Grangeasse, Christophe; Turgay, Kürşad

    2016-01-01

    Protein modifications not only affect protein homeostasis but can also establish new cellular protein functions and are important components of complex cellular signal sensing and transduction networks. Among these post-translational modifications, protein phosphorylation represents the one that ...

  19. [Transfer of the AGnES concept to the regular German health-care system: legal evaluation, reimbursement, qualification].

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Berg, N; Kleinke, S; Heymann, R; Oppermann, R F; Jakobi, B; Hoffmann, W

    2010-05-01

    According to an amendment of German social security legislation, the AGnES concept of delegation of certain tasks of medical care, especially house calls, by general practitioners (GPs) to qualified practice employees (AGnES employees), will be transferred into the regular German health care system from January 2009 onward. The concept was developed to support GPs in regions with imminent gaps in primary care. Patient data, the specifically delegated and all other activities carried out by the AGnES employees in the AGnES projects were digitally documented. Additionally, the participating GPs, AGnES employees and patients underwent a set of standardised interviews. A curriculum to qualify the AGnES employees and to define the requirements needed was developed. A legal assessment of all delegated activities was carried out, and an economical model to calculate the necessary allowance was calculated. In seven model projects in four federal states in Germany, 11,228 house calls were carried out involving 1,424, mostly multimorbid, patients (mean age: 78.6 years). A modular structured curriculum, considering the basic education and acquired competences, was developed. It allows for an individual qualification of the AGnES employees. The result of the legal assessment was the central relevance of the qualification of the practice employees according to the AGnES curriculum as the essential condition for carrying out the entire range of activities of the AGnES concept. The economic model revealed euro 21.58 for a house call by an AGnES employee. The underlying model referred to underserved regions. A successful transfer of the AGnES concept with a high standard of quality into regular health-care depends on several factors. Of particular importance is the specific qualification of the practice employees, which is a central legal condition for the delegation of medical tasks from GPs to AGnEs employees. A second determining factor is also an adequate reimbursement within

  20. CAPS Activity in Priming Vesicle Exocytosis Requires CK2 Phosphorylation*

    OpenAIRE

    Nojiri, Mari; Loyet, Kelly M.; Klenchin, Vadim A.; Kabachinski, Gregory; Martin, Thomas F. J.

    2009-01-01

    CAPS (Ca2+-dependent activator protein for secretion) functions in priming Ca2+-dependent vesicle exocytosis, but the regulation of CAPS activity has not been characterized. Here we show that phosphorylation by protein kinase CK2 is required for CAPS activity. Dephosphorylation eliminated CAPS activity in reconstituting Ca2+-dependent vesicle exocytosis in permeable and intact PC12 cells. Ser-5, -6, and -7 and Ser-1281 were identified by mass spectrometry as the major phosphorylation sites in...

  1. LRRK2 mediated Rab8a phosphorylation promotes lipid storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Miao; Arshad, Muhammad; Wang, Wenmin; Zhao, Dongyu; Xu, Li; Zhou, Linkang

    2018-02-27

    Several mutations in leucine rich repeat kinase 2 (LRRK2) gene have been associated with pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease (PD), a neurodegenerative disorder marked by resting tremors, and rigidity, leading to Postural instability. It has been revealed that mutations that lead to an increase of kinase activity of LRRK2 protein are significantly associated with PD pathogenesis. Recent studies have shown that some Rab GTPases, especially Rab8, serve as substrates of LRRK2 and undergo phosphorylation in its switch II domain upon interaction. Current study was performed in order to find out the effects of the phosphorylation of Rab8 and its mutants on lipid metabolism and lipid droplets growth. The phosphorylation status of Rab8a was checked by phos-tag gel. Point mutant construct were generated to investigate the function of Rab8a. 3T3L1 cells were transfected with indicated plasmids and the lipid droplets were stained with Bodipy. Fluorescent microscopy experiments were performed to examine the sizes of lipid droplets. The interactions between Rab8a and Optineurin were determined by immunoprecipitation and western blot. Our assays demonstrated that Rab8a was phosphorylated by mutated LRRK2 that exhibits high kinase activity. Phosphorylation of Rab8a on amino acid residue T72 promoted the formation of large lipid droplets. T72D mutant of Rab8a had higher activity to promote the formation of large lipid droplets compared with wild type Rab8a, with increase in average diameter of lipid droplets from 2.10 μm to 2.46 μm. Moreover, phosphorylation of Rab8a weakened the interaction with its effector Optineurin. Y1699C mutated LRRK2 was able to phosphorylate Rab8a and phosphorylation of Rab8a on site 72 plays important role in the fusion and enlargement of lipid droplets. Taken together, our study suggests an indirect relationship between enhanced lipid storage capacity and PD pathogenesis.

  2. Cortactin Tyrosine Phosphorylation Promotes Its Deacetylation and Inhibits Cell Spreading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meiler, Eugenia; Nieto-Pelegrín, Elvira; Martinez-Quiles, Narcisa

    2012-01-01

    Background Cortactin is a classical Src kinase substrate that participates in actin cytoskeletal dynamics by activating the Arp2/3 complex and interacting with other regulatory proteins, including FAK. Cortactin has various domains that may contribute to the assembly of different protein platforms to achieve process specificity. Though the protein is known to be regulated by post-translational modifications such as phosphorylation and acetylation, how tyrosine phosphorylation regulates cortactin activity is poorly understood. Since the basal level of tyrosine phosphorylation is low, this question must be studied using stimulated cell cultures, which are physiologically relevant but unreliable and difficult to work with. In fact, their unreliability may be the cause of some contradictory findings about the dynamics of tyrosine phosphorylation of cortactin in different processes. Methodology/Principal Findings In the present study, we try to overcome these problems by using a Functional Interaction Trap (FIT) system, which involves cotransfecting cells with a kinase (Src) and a target protein (cortactin), both of which are fused to complementary leucine-zipper domains. The FIT system allowed us to control precisely the tyrosine phosphorylation of cortactin and explore its relationship with cortactin acetylation. Conclusions/Significance Using this system, we provide definitive evidence that a competition exists between acetylation and tyrosine phosphorylation of cortactin and that phosphorylation inhibits cell spreading. We confirmed the results from the FIT system by examining endogenous cortactin in different cell types. Furthermore, we demonstrate that cell spreading promotes the association of cortactin and FAK and that tyrosine phosphorylation of cortactin disrupts this interaction, which may explain how it inhibits cell spreading. PMID:22479425

  3. Technology transfer of Cornell university

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoo, Wan Sik

    2010-01-01

    This book introduces technology transfer of Cornell university which deals with introduction of Cornell university, composition of organization and practice of technology transfer : a research contract, research perform, invention report, evaluation and succession of invention, a patent application and management, marketing, negotiation and writing contract, management of contract, compensation, result of technology transfer, cases of success on technical commercialization and daily life of technology transfer center.

  4. Measurement of unsaturated hydraulic properties and evaluation of property-transfer models for deep sedimentary interbeds, Idaho National Laboratory, Idaho

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perkins, Kimberlie; Johnson, Brittany D.; Mirus, Benjamin B.

    2014-01-01

    Operations at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) have the potential to contaminate the underlying Eastern Snake River Plain (ESRP) aquifer. Methods to quantitatively characterize unsaturated flow and recharge to the ESRP aquifer are needed to inform water-resources management decisions at INL. In particular, hydraulic properties are needed to parameterize distributed hydrologic models of unsaturated flow and transport at INL, but these properties are often difficult and costly to obtain for large areas. The unsaturated zone overlying the ESRP aquifer consists of alternating sequences of thick fractured volcanic rocks that can rapidly transmit water flow and thinner sedimentary interbeds that transmit water much more slowly. Consequently, the sedimentary interbeds are of considerable interest because they primarily restrict the vertical movement of water through the unsaturated zone. Previous efforts by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) have included extensive laboratory characterization of the sedimentary interbeds and regression analyses to develop property-transfer models, which relate readily available physical properties of the sedimentary interbeds (bulk density, median particle diameter, and uniformity coefficient) to water retention and unsaturated hydraulic conductivity curves.

  5. Evaluation of modulation transfer function of optical lens system by support vector regression methodologies - A comparative study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petković, Dalibor; Shamshirband, Shahaboddin; Saboohi, Hadi; Ang, Tan Fong; Anuar, Nor Badrul; Rahman, Zulkanain Abdul; Pavlović, Nenad T.

    2014-07-01

    The quantitative assessment of image quality is an important consideration in any type of imaging system. The modulation transfer function (MTF) is a graphical description of the sharpness and contrast of an imaging system or of its individual components. The MTF is also known and spatial frequency response. The MTF curve has different meanings according to the corresponding frequency. The MTF of an optical system specifies the contrast transmitted by the system as a function of image size, and is determined by the inherent optical properties of the system. In this study, the polynomial and radial basis function (RBF) are applied as the kernel function of Support Vector Regression (SVR) to estimate and predict estimate MTF value of the actual optical system according to experimental tests. Instead of minimizing the observed training error, SVR_poly and SVR_rbf attempt to minimize the generalization error bound so as to achieve generalized performance. The experimental results show that an improvement in predictive accuracy and capability of generalization can be achieved by the SVR_rbf approach in compare to SVR_poly soft computing methodology.

  6. Evaluation of the Intramolecular Charge-Transfer Properties in Solvatochromic and Electrochromic Zinc Octa(carbazolyl)phthalocyanines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majeed, Shereen A; Ghazal, Basma; Nevonen, Dustin E; Goff, Philip C; Blank, David A; Nemykin, Victor N; Makhseed, Saad

    2017-10-02

    2,3,9,10,16,17,23·24-Octakis-(9H-carbazol-9-yl) phthalocyaninato zinc(II) (3) and 2,3,9,10,16,17,23·24-octakis-(3,6-di-tert-butyl-9H-carbazole) phthalocyaninato zinc(II) (4) complexes were prepared and characterized by NMR and UV-vis spectroscopies, magnetic circular dichroism (MCD), matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization mass spectrometry, and X-ray crystallography. UV-vis and MCD data are indicative of the interligand charge-transfer nature of the broad band observed in 450-500 nm range for 3 and 4. The redox properties of 3 and 4 were probed by electrochemical and spectro-electrochemical methods, which are suggestive of phthalocyanine-centered first oxidation and reduction processes. Photophysics of 3 and 4 were investigated by steady-state fluorescence and time-resolved transient absorption spectroscopy demonstrating the influence of the carbazole substituents on deactivation from the first excited state in 3 and 4. Protonation of the meso-nitrogen atoms in 3 results in much faster deactivation kinetics from the first excited state. Spectroscopic data were correlated with density functional theory (DFT) and time-dependent DFT calculations on 3 and 4.

  7. Technology Transfer and Technology Transfer Intermediaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Stephen M.; Flagg, Jennifer L.

    2010-01-01

    A standard and comprehensive model is needed to evaluate and compare technology transfer systems and the stakeholders within these systems. The principle systems considered include federal laboratories, U.S. universities, the rehabilitation engineering research centers (RERCs), and large small business innovation research programs. An earlier…

  8. Protein phosphorylation in isolated hepatocytes of septic and endotoxemic rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deaciuc, I.V.; Spitzer, J.A.

    1989-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate possible alterations induced by sepsis and endotoxicosis in the late phase of Ca2+-dependent signaling in rat liver. Hepatocytes isolated from septic or chronically endotoxin (ET)-treated rats were labeled with [32P]H3PO4 and stimulated with various agents. Proteins were resolved by one-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and autoradiographed. Vasopressin (VP)- and phenylephrine (PE)-induced responses were attenuated in both septic and ET-treated rats for cytosolic and membrane proteins compared with their respective controls. Glucagon and 12-O-myristate phorbol-13-acetate (TPA) affected only the phosphorylation of membrane proteins. Glucagon-induced changes in the phosphorylation of membrane proteins were affected by both sepsis and endotoxicosis, whereas TPA-stimulated phosphorylation was lowered only in endotoxicosis. Response to the Ca2+ ionophore A23187 was depressed in septic rats for cytosolic proteins. The phosphorylation of two cytosolic proteins, i.e., 93 and 61 kDa (previously identified as glycogen phosphorylase and pyruvate kinase, respectively), in response to VP, PE, and A23187 was severely impaired by endotoxicosis and sepsis. TPA did not affect the phosphorylation state of these two proteins. The results show that sepsis and endotoxicosis produce perturbations of the phosphorylation step in Ca2+ transmembrane signaling. Such changes can explain alterations of glycogenolysis and gluconeogenesis associated with sepsis and endotoxicosis

  9. Protein phosphorylation and its role in archaeal signal transduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esser, Dominik; Hoffmann, Lena; Pham, Trong Khoa; Bräsen, Christopher; Qiu, Wen; Wright, Phillip C.; Albers, Sonja-Verena; Siebers, Bettina

    2016-01-01

    Reversible protein phosphorylation is the main mechanism of signal transduction that enables cells to rapidly respond to environmental changes by controlling the functional properties of proteins in response to external stimuli. However, whereas signal transduction is well studied in Eukaryotes and Bacteria, the knowledge in Archaea is still rather scarce. Archaea are special with regard to protein phosphorylation, due to the fact that the two best studied phyla, the Euryarchaeota and Crenarchaeaota, seem to exhibit fundamental differences in regulatory systems. Euryarchaeota (e.g. halophiles, methanogens, thermophiles), like Bacteria and Eukaryotes, rely on bacterial-type two-component signal transduction systems (phosphorylation on His and Asp), as well as on the protein phosphorylation on Ser, Thr and Tyr by Hanks-type protein kinases. Instead, Crenarchaeota (e.g. acidophiles and (hyper)thermophiles) only depend on Hanks-type protein phosphorylation. In this review, the current knowledge of reversible protein phosphorylation in Archaea is presented. It combines results from identified phosphoproteins, biochemical characterization of protein kinases and protein phosphatases as well as target enzymes and first insights into archaeal signal transduction by biochemical, genetic and polyomic studies. PMID:27476079

  10. ZDHHC3 Tyrosine Phosphorylation Regulates Neural Cell Adhesion Molecule Palmitoylation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lievens, Patricia Marie-Jeanne; Kuznetsova, Tatiana; Kochlamazashvili, Gaga; Cesca, Fabrizia; Gorinski, Natalya; Galil, Dalia Abdel; Cherkas, Volodimir; Ronkina, Natalia; Lafera, Juri; Gaestel, Matthias

    2016-01-01

    The neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM) mediates cell-cell and cell-matrix adhesion. It is broadly expressed in the nervous system and regulates neurite outgrowth, synaptogenesis, and synaptic plasticity. Previous in vitro studies revealed that palmitoylation of NCAM is required for fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF2)-stimulated neurite outgrowth and identified the zinc finger DHHC (Asp-His-His-Cys)-containing proteins ZDHHC3 and ZDHHC7 as specific NCAM-palmitoylating enzymes. Here, we verified that FGF2 controlled NCAM palmitoylation in vivo and investigated molecular mechanisms regulating NCAM palmitoylation by ZDHHC3. Experiments with overexpression and pharmacological inhibition of FGF receptor (FGFR) and Src revealed that these kinases control tyrosine phosphorylation of ZDHHC3 and that ZDHHC3 is phosphorylated by endogenously expressed FGFR and Src proteins. By site-directed mutagenesis, we found that Tyr18 is an FGFR1-specific ZDHHC3 phosphorylation site, while Tyr295 and Tyr297 are specifically phosphorylated by Src kinase in cell-based and cell-free assays. Abrogation of tyrosine phosphorylation increased ZDHHC3 autopalmitoylation, enhanced interaction with NCAM, and upregulated NCAM palmitoylation. Expression of ZDHHC3 with tyrosine mutated in cultured hippocampal neurons promoted neurite outgrowth. Our findings for the first time highlight that FGFR- and Src-mediated tyrosine phosphorylation of ZDHHC3 modulates ZDHHC3 enzymatic activity and plays a role in neuronal morphogenesis. PMID:27247265

  11. Cholinergic regulation of protein phosphorylation in bovine adrenal chromaffin cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haycock, J.W.; Browning, M.D.; Greengard, P.

    1988-01-01

    Chromaffin cells were isolated from bovine adrenal medullae and maintained in primary culture. After prelabeling with 32 PO 4 , exposure of the chromaffin cells to acetylcholine increased the phosphorylation of a M/sub r/ ≅ 100,000 protein and a M/sub r/ ≅ 60,000 protein (tyrosine hydroxylase), visualized after separation of total cellular proteins in NaDodSO 4 /polyacrylamide gels. Immunoprecipitation with antibodies to three known phosphoproteins (100-kDa, 87-kDa, and protein III) revealed an acetylcholine-dependent phosphorylation of these proteins. These three proteins were also shown to be present in bovine adrenal chromaffin cells by immunolabeling techniques. 100-kDa is a M/sub r/ ≅ 100,000 protein selectively phosphorylated by calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase III, 87-kDa is a M/sub r/ ≅ 87,000 protein selectively phosphorylated by protein kinase C, and protein III is a phosphoprotein doublet of M/sub r/ ≅ 74,000 (IIIa) and M/sub r/ ≅ 55,000 (IIIb) phosphorylated by cAMP-dependent protein kinase and calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase I. The data demonstrate that cholinergic activation of chromaffin cells increases the phosphorylation of several proteins and that several protein kinase systems may be involved in these effects

  12. Assessment of current mass spectrometric workflows for the quantification of low abundant proteins and phosphorylation sites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Bauer

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The data described here provide a systematic performance evaluation of popular data-dependent (DDA and independent (DIA mass spectrometric (MS workflows currently used in quantitative proteomics. We assessed the limits of identification, quantification and detection for each method by analyzing a dilution series of 20 unmodified and 10 phosphorylated synthetic heavy labeled reference peptides, respectively, covering six orders of magnitude in peptide concentration with and without a complex human cell digest background. We found that all methods performed very similarly in the absence of background proteins, however, when analyzing whole cell lysates, targeted methods were at least 5–10 times more sensitive than directed or DDA methods. In particular, higher stage fragmentation (MS3 of the neutral loss peak using a linear ion trap increased dynamic quantification range of some phosphopeptides up to 100-fold. We illustrate the power of this targeted MS3 approach for phosphopeptide monitoring by successfully quantifying 9 phosphorylation sites of the kinetochore and spindle assembly checkpoint component Mad1 over different cell cycle states from non-enriched pull-down samples. The data are associated to the research article ‘Evaluation of data-dependent and data-independent mass spectrometric workflows for sensitive quantification of proteins and phosphorylation sites׳ (Bauer et al., 2014 [1]. The mass spectrometry and the analysis dataset have been deposited to the ProteomeXchange Consortium (http://proteomecentral.proteomexchange.org via the PRIDE partner repository with the dataset identifier PXD000964.

  13. Effect of Curcumin on Phosphorylation of AMPK and ACC in C2C12 Skeletal Muscle Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F Ghanbarzadeh

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: AMP activated protein kinase (AMPK as key regulators of cell metabolism, plays a major role in the activation of catabolic pathways, such as glucose transport and fatty acid oxidation. Thus, activation of this pathway can be used in the treatment of diabetes and metabolic syndrome. Many studied proposed the effectiveness of the polyphenols present in rhizomes of turmeric (curcumin on diabetes and its related complications. Therefore, this study investigated the effects of curcumin as an activator of AMPK pathway in C2C12 muscle cells. Methods: This study was done on C2C12 skeletal muscle cell line. The cells were classified into two distinct groups: first group was treated with 40µM curcumin and the second one with 0.1% DMSO as a negative control. The phosphorylated (AMPK and phosphorylated acetyl COA carboxylase (ACC were evaluated and compared by Western blotting technique. Results: intracellular phosphorylated AMPK protein content in Curcumin-treated group was 132.6% and ACC protein phosphorylated was 366.47%. Conclusion: This study showed that the levels of phosphorylated AMPK and ACC protein in cells treated with curcumin are higher than the negative control. Thus curcumin can be regarded as an activator of AMPK activity in these cells and can assist as a potential target for making anti diabetic medecine that has a synergistic activity with insulin.

  14. EVALUATION OF BEST AVAILABLE CONTROL TECHNOLOGY FOR TOXICS (TBACT) DOUBLE SHELL TANK FARMS PRIMARY VENTILATION SYSTEM SUPPORTING WASTE TRANSFER OPERATIONS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kelly, S.E.; Haass, C.C.; Kovach, J.L.; Turner, D.A.

    2010-01-01

    This report is an evaluation of Best Available Control Technology for Toxics (tBACT) for installation and operation of the Hanford double shell (DST) tank primary ventilation systems. The DST primary ventilation systems are being modified to support Hanford's waste retrieval, mixing, and delivery of single shell tank (SST) and DST waste through out the DST storage system to the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP).

  15. EVALUATION OF BEST AVAILABLE CONTROL TECHNOLOGY FOR TOXICS (TBACT) DOUBLE SHELL TANK FARMS PRIMARY VENTILATION SYSTEMS SUPPORTING WASTE TRANSFER OPERATIONS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haas, C.C.; Kovach, J.L.; Kelly, S.E.; Turner, D.A.

    2010-01-01

    This report is an evaluation of Best Available Control Technology for Toxics (tBACT) for installation and operation of the Hanford double shell (DST) tank primary ventilation systems. The DST primary ventilation systems are being modified to support Hanford's waste retrieval, mixing, and delivery of single shell tank (SST) and DST waste through the DST storage system to the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP).

  16. Second ordinance concerning transfer of competence for monitoring and evaluating activities in accordance with the Preventive Radiation Protection Act

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    The Federal Fishery Research Institute is given the competence to carry out on behalf of the Federal Government measuring and evaluating activities for monitoring the radioactivity levels in marine organisms in the North Sea and the Baltic Sea, including coastal waters. The Federal Office for Radiation Protection shall be competent for measuring the ambient gamma dose rate by means of airborne equipment in the case of events possibly leading considerable radiological effects. (orig./HP) [de

  17. EVALUATION OF BEST AVAILABLE CONTROL TECHNOLOGY FOR TOXICS (TBACT) DOUBLE SHELL TANK FARMS PRIMARY VENTILATION SYSTEM SUPPORTING WASTE TRANSFER OPERATIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    KELLY SE; HAASS CC; KOVACH JL; TURNER DA

    2010-06-03

    This report is an evaluation of Best Available Control Technology for Toxics (tBACT) for installation and operation of the Hanford double shell (DST) tank primary ventilation systems. The DST primary ventilation systems are being modified to support Hanford's waste retrieval, mixing, and delivery of single shell tank (SST) and DST waste throught the DST storage system to the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP).

  18. EVALUATION OF BEST AVAILABLE CONTROL TECHNOLOGY FOR TOXICS -TBACT- DOUBLE SHELL TANK FARMS PRIMARY VENTILATION SYSTEMS SUPPORTING WASTE TRANSFER OPERATIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    HAAS CC; KOVACH JL; KELLY SE; TURNER DA

    2010-06-24

    This report is an evaluation of Best Available Control Technology for Toxics (tBACT) for installation and operation of the Hanford double shell (DST) tank primary ventilation systems. The DST primary ventilation systems are being modified to support Hanford's waste retrieval, mixing, and delivery of single shell tank (SST) and DST waste through the DST storage system to the Waste Treatment and Immobilizaiton Plant (WTP).

  19. Raptor is phosphorylated by cdc2 during mitosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dana M Gwinn

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The appropriate control of mitotic entry and exit is reliant on a series of interlocking signaling events that coordinately drive the biological processes required for accurate cell division. Overlaid onto these signals that promote orchestrated cell division are checkpoints that ensure appropriate mitotic spindle formation, a lack of DNA damage, kinetochore attachment, and that each daughter cell has the appropriate complement of DNA. We recently discovered that AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK modulates the G2/M phase of cell cycle progression in part through its suppression of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR signaling. AMPK directly phosphorylates the critical mTOR binding partner raptor inhibiting mTORC1 (mTOR-raptor rapamycin sensitive mTOR kinase complex 1. As mTOR has been previously tied to mitotic control, we examined further how raptor may contribute to this process.We have discovered that raptor becomes highly phosphorylated in cells in mitosis. Utilizing tandem mass spectrometry, we identified a number of novel phosphorylation sites in raptor, and using phospho-specific antibodies demonstrated that raptor becomes phosphorylated on phospho-serine/threonine-proline sites in mitosis. A combination of site-directed mutagenesis in a tagged raptor cDNA and analysis with a series of new phospho-specific antibodies generated against different sites in raptor revealed that Serine 696 and Threonine 706 represent two key sites in raptor phosphorylated in mitosis. We demonstrate that the mitotic cyclin-dependent kinase cdc2/CDK1 is the kinase responsible for phosphorylating these sites, and its mitotic partner Cyclin B efficiently coimmunoprecipitates with raptor in mitotic cells.This study demonstrates that the key mTOR binding partner raptor is directly phosphorylated during mitosis by cdc2. This reinforces previous studies suggesting that mTOR activity is highly regulated and important for mitotic progression, and points to a direct

  20. Surveillance-based Mechanisms in MUVEs (MultiUser Virtual Environments used for Monitoring, Data Gathering and Evaluation of Knowledge Transfer in VirtuReality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakub Štogr

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Multiuser virtual environments (MUVEs generate a large amount of data but most of them are not accessible even to users who triggered them. What’s more, most datasets are not even stored for further use; they have only temporary character and very short "halftime of decay" limited f.e. to onesecondlong screen display. Such a huge loss of data makes evaluation of knowledge transfer in MUVEs almost impossible. There is a need to both improve monitoring capabilities of MUVEs to be able to make completion assessment and use MUVEs that enable simulation (reexperience using complete datasets gathered from environment itself. Future research in the field of simulation methodology is suggested.

  1. Touch-flavor transference: Assessing the effect of packaging weight on gustatory evaluations, desire for food and beverages, and willingness to pay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kampfer, Kristina; Leischnig, Alexander; Ivens, Björn Sven; Spence, Charles

    2017-01-01

    Product packaging serves a number of distinct functions and influences the way in which consumers respond to various product offerings. The research reported here examines whether the haptic characteristics of a non-diagnostic product packaging cue, namely its weight, affects the response of consumers. This article reviews existing research on haptic transference and proposes a conceptual framework to explore how the weight of product packaging affects the flavor of the food or beverages, and, in turn, consumers' desire for consumption and willingness to pay. Two studies demonstrate that an increase in packaging weight affects both desire and willingness to pay for the product. These effects are serially mediated by perceived flavor intensity and overall flavor evaluation. Based on these insights, implications for the design of food and beverages packaging are discussed.

  2. Touch-flavor transference: Assessing the effect of packaging weight on gustatory evaluations, desire for food and beverages, and willingness to pay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kampfer, Kristina; Leischnig, Alexander; Spence, Charles

    2017-01-01

    Product packaging serves a number of distinct functions and influences the way in which consumers respond to various product offerings. The research reported here examines whether the haptic characteristics of a non-diagnostic product packaging cue, namely its weight, affects the response of consumers. This article reviews existing research on haptic transference and proposes a conceptual framework to explore how the weight of product packaging affects the flavor of the food or beverages, and, in turn, consumers’ desire for consumption and willingness to pay. Two studies demonstrate that an increase in packaging weight affects both desire and willingness to pay for the product. These effects are serially mediated by perceived flavor intensity and overall flavor evaluation. Based on these insights, implications for the design of food and beverages packaging are discussed. PMID:29020078

  3. Evaluation of the dependence of heat transfer coefficient on the particle diameter of a metal porous medium in a heat removal system using liquid nitrogen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasaki, Shunsuke; Ito, Satoshi; Hashizume, Hidetoshi

    2015-01-01

    Cryogenic cooling system using a bronze-particle-sintered porous medium has been studied for a re mountable high-temperature superconducting magnet. This study evaluates boiling curve of subcooled liquid nitrogen as flowing in a bronze porous medium as a function of the particle diameter of the medium. We obtained Departure from Nuclear Boiling (Dnb) point from the boiling curve and discussed growth of nitrogen vapor bubble inferred from measured pressure drop. The pressure drop decreased significantly at wall superheat before reaching the DNB point whereas that slightly decreased after reaching the DNB point compared to the smallest wall superheat. This result could consider DNB rises with an increase in the particle diameter because larger particle makes vapor to move easily from the heated pore region. The influence of the particle diameter on the heat transfer performance is larger than that of coolant's degree of subcooling. (author)

  4. Evaluation of the applicability of the dual‐domain mass transfer model in porous media containing connected high‐conductivity channels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Gaisheng; Zheng, Chunmiao; Gorelick, Steven M.

    2007-01-01

    This paper evaluates the dual‐domain mass transfer (DDMT) model to represent transport processes when small‐scale high‐conductivity (K) preferential flow paths (PFPs) are present in a homogenous porous media matrix. The effects of PFPs upon solute transport were examined through detailed numerical experiments involving different realizations of PFP networks, PFP/matrix conductivity contrasts varying from 10:1 to 200:1, different magnitudes of effective conductivities, and a range of molecular diffusion coefficients. Results suggest that the DDMT model can reproduce both the near‐source peak and the downstream low‐concentration spreading observed in the embedded dendritic network when there are large conductivity contrasts between high‐K PFPs and the low‐K matrix. The accuracy of the DDMT model is also affected by the geometry of PFP networks and by the relative significance of the diffusion process in the network‐matrix system.

  5. Touch-flavor transference: Assessing the effect of packaging weight on gustatory evaluations, desire for food and beverages, and willingness to pay.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristina Kampfer

    Full Text Available Product packaging serves a number of distinct functions and influences the way in which consumers respond to various product offerings. The research reported here examines whether the haptic characteristics of a non-diagnostic product packaging cue, namely its weight, affects the response of consumers. This article reviews existing research on haptic transference and proposes a conceptual framework to explore how the weight of product packaging affects the flavor of the food or beverages, and, in turn, consumers' desire for consumption and willingness to pay. Two studies demonstrate that an increase in packaging weight affects both desire and willingness to pay for the product. These effects are serially mediated by perceived flavor intensity and overall flavor evaluation. Based on these insights, implications for the design of food and beverages packaging are discussed.

  6. A comparative study of transfer factors of water, iodine and strontium on rye-grass and clover. Development of a model of evaluation of the limits of foliar contamination by wet deposit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Angeletti, Livio; Levi, Emilio.

    1977-07-01

    Transfer factors of water, iodine ( 131 I) and strontium ( 85 Sr) on above-ground parts of rye-grass and clover were determined as a function of aspersion intensities. An analysis of the results showed the effect of aspersion intensities, nature of the chemical element and plant species on the values of transfer factors of iodine and strontium. It also made it possible to propose a simple method of evaluation of contamination limits of the aerial parts of plants by wet deposit, based on transfer values of water on plants only [fr

  7. [Training of communication skills in stationary long care homes--the evaluation of a model project to develop communication skills and transfer it into practice].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinemann-Knoch, M; Korte, E; Heusinger, J; Klünder, M; Knoch, T

    2005-02-01

    The training of communication skills of professional caregivers in six homes for elderly people has been developed and evaluated in a model project. The purpose of the project was to strengthen the staff's orientation towards the residents, their needs, handicaps and abilities. Therefore, a series of 8 in-house training courses as well as procedures to establish the contents of the program into daily care-giving (transfer) have been developed and implemented with six teams during one year. The evaluation included interviews, questionnaires and observations and was realized with participants and non-participants of the program once before the implementation of the training program and once afterwards. We found evidence for positive effects of the training: although the staff's positive self perception of the climate of communication remained stable and mainly not affected by the training, this was contradictory to the observations. The way of giving information to the residents was improved by the training program as well as the quality of relations between staff and residents. Again, sending messages about oneself which are not care-oriented had not been affected by the training-as to the observations of care giving situations. Although the staff's self perception about the change of sending these messages was highly positive.Thus, the further development of the training program has to consider these effects.To establish the transfer of the training program into daily care giving, it proved to be helpful to specify exercises after each session which had to be carried out and discussed by the participants until the next training session.

  8. Survey of Thermal-Fluids Evaluation and Confirmatory Experimental Validation Requirements of Accident Tolerant Cladding Concepts with Focus on Boiling Heat Transfer Characteristics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, Nicholas R. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Wysocki, Aaron J. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Terrani, Kurt A. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Ali, Amir [Univ. of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States); Liu, Maolong [Univ. of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States); Blandford, Edward [Univ. of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2016-06-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy Office of Nuclear Energy (DOE-NE) Advanced Fuels Campaign (AFC) is working closely with the nuclear industry to develop fuel and cladding candidates with potentially enhanced accident tolerance, also known as accident tolerant fuel (ATF). Thermal-fluids characteristics are a vital element of a holistic engineering evaluation of ATF concepts. One vital characteristic related to boiling heat transfer is the critical heat flux (CHF). CHF plays a vital role in determining safety margins during normal operation and also in the progression of potential transient or accident scenarios. This deliverable is a scoping survey of thermal-fluids evaluation and confirmatory experimental validation requirements of accident tolerant cladding concepts with a focus on boiling heat transfer characteristics. The key takeaway messages of this report are: 1. CHF prediction accuracy is important and the correlations may have significant uncertainty. 2. Surface conditions are important factors for CHF, primarily the wettability that is characterized by contact angle. Smaller contact angle indicates greater wettability, which increases the CHF. Surface roughness also impacts wettability. Results in the literature for pool boiling experiments indicate changes in CHF by up to 60% for several ATF cladding candidates. 3. The measured wettability of FeCrAl (i.e., contact angle and roughness) indicates that CHF should be investigated further through pool boiling and flow boiling experiments. 4. Initial measurements of static advancing contact angle and surface roughness indicate that FeCrAl is expected to have a higher CHF than Zircaloy. The measured contact angle of different FeCrAl alloy samples depends on oxide layer thickness and composition. The static advancing contact angle tends to decrease as the oxide layer thickness increases.

  9. An Advanced Radiative Transfer and Neural Network Scheme and Evaluation for Estimating Water Vapor Content from MODIS Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kebiao Mao

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This work made an improvement upon and a further evaluation of previous work for estimating water vapor content from near-infrared around 1 μm from MODIS data. The accuracy of RM-NN is determined by the complicated relationship of the geophysical parameters. An advanced scheme is proposed for building different training databases for different seasons in different regions to reduce the complexity. The training database includes three parts. The first part is a simulation database by MODTRAN for different weather conditions, which is made as a basic database; the second part is reliable field measurement data in observation stations; and the third part is the MYD05_L2 product on clear days, which is produced by the standard product algorithm for water vapor content. The comparative analyses based on simulation data indicate that maximum accuracy of single condition could be improved by about 34% relative to the “all conditions” results. Two study regions in China and America are selected as test areas, and the evaluation shows that the mean and the standard deviation of estimation error are about 0.08 g cm−2 and 0.09 g cm−2, respectively. All the analysis indicates that the advanced scheme can improve the retrieval accuracy of water vapor content, which can make full use of the advantages of previous methods.

  10. An overview of the IAEA Safety Series on procedures for evaluating the reliability of predictions made by environmental transfer models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoffman, F.W.; Hofer, E.

    1987-10-01

    The International Atomic Energy Agency is preparing a Safety Series publication on practical approaches for evaluating the reliability of the predictions made by environmental radiological assessment models. This publication identifies factors that affect the reliability of these predictions and discusses methods for quantifying uncertainty. Emphasis is placed on understanding the quantity of interest specified by the assessment question and distinguishing between stochastic variability and lack of knowledge about either the true value or the true distribution of values for quantity of interest. Among the many approaches discussed, model testing using independent data sets (model validation) is considered the best method for evaluating the accuracy in model predictions. Analytical and numerical methods for propagating the uncertainties in model parameters are presented and the strengths and weaknesses of model intercomparison exercises are also discussed. It is recognized that subjective judgment is employed throughout the entire modelling process, and quantitative reliability statements must be subjectively obtained when models are applied to different situations from those under which they have been tested. (6 refs.)

  11. Analysis and evaluation of WRF microphysical schemes for deep moist convection over south-eastern South America (SESA) using microwave satellite observations and radiative transfer simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sol Galligani, Victoria; Wang, Die; Alvarez Imaz, Milagros; Salio, Paola; Prigent, Catherine

    2017-10-01

    In the present study, three meteorological events of extreme deep moist convection, characteristic of south-eastern South America, are considered to conduct a systematic evaluation of the microphysical parameterizations available in the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model by undertaking a direct comparison between satellite-based simulated and observed microwave radiances. A research radiative transfer model, the Atmospheric Radiative Transfer Simulator (ARTS), is coupled with the WRF model under three different microphysical parameterizations (WSM6, WDM6 and Thompson schemes). Microwave radiometry has shown a promising ability in the characterization of frozen hydrometeors. At high microwave frequencies, however, frozen hydrometeors significantly scatter radiation, and the relationship between radiation and hydrometeor populations becomes very complex. The main difficulty in microwave remote sensing of frozen hydrometeor characterization is correctly characterizing this scattering signal due to the complex and variable nature of the size, composition and shape of frozen hydrometeors. The present study further aims at improving the understanding of frozen hydrometeor optical properties characteristic of deep moist convection events in south-eastern South America. In the present study, bulk optical properties are computed by integrating the single-scattering properties of the Liu(2008) discrete dipole approximation (DDA) single-scattering database across the particle size distributions parameterized by the different WRF schemes in a consistent manner, introducing the equal mass approach. The equal mass approach consists of describing the optical properties of the WRF snow and graupel hydrometeors with the optical properties of habits in the DDA database whose dimensions might be different (Dmax') but whose mass is conserved. The performance of the radiative transfer simulations is evaluated by comparing the simulations with the available coincident

  12. "Transfer Shock" or "Transfer Ecstasy?"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nickens, John M.

    The alleged characteristic drop in grade point average (GPA) of transfer students and the subsequent rise in GPA was investigated in this study. No statistically significant difference was found in first term junior year GPA between junior college transfers and native Florida State University students after the variance accounted for by the…

  13. Phosphorylation of the Yeast Choline Kinase by Protein Kinase C

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Mal-Gi; Kurnov, Vladlen; Kersting, Michael C.; Sreenivas, Avula; Carman, George M.

    2005-01-01

    The Saccharomyces cerevisiae CKI1-encoded choline kinase catalyzes the committed step in phosphatidylcholine synthesis via the Kennedy pathway. The enzyme is phosphorylated on multiple serine residues, and some of this phosphorylation is mediated by protein kinase A. In this work, we examined the hypothesis that choline kinase is also phosphorylated by protein kinase C. Using choline kinase as a substrate, protein kinase C activity was dose- and time-dependent, and dependent on the concentrations of choline kinase (Km = 27 μg/ml) and ATP (Km = 15 μM). This phosphorylation, which occurred on a serine residue, was accompanied by a 1.6-fold stimulation of choline kinase activity. The synthetic peptide SRSSS25QRRHS (Vmax/Km = 17.5 mM-1 μmol min-1 mg-1) that contains the protein kinase C motif for Ser25 was a substrate for protein kinase C. A Ser25 to Ala (S25A) mutation in choline kinase resulted in a 60% decrease in protein kinase C phosphorylation of the enzyme. Phosphopeptide mapping analysis of the S25A mutant enzyme confirmed that Ser25 was a protein kinase C target site. In vivo, the S25A mutation correlated with a decrease (55%) in phosphatidylcholine synthesis via the Kennedy pathway whereas an S25D phosphorylation site mimic correlated with an increase (44%) in phosphatidylcholine synthesis. Whereas the S25A (protein kinase C site) mutation did not affect the phosphorylation of choline kinase by protein kinase A, the S30A (protein kinase A site) mutation caused a 46% reduction in enzyme phosphorylation by protein kinase C. A choline kinase synthetic peptide (SQRRHS30LTRQ) containing Ser30 was a substrate (Vmax/Km = 3.0 mM−1 μmol min−1 mg−1) for protein kinase C. Comparison of phosphopeptide maps of the wild type and S30A mutant choline kinase enzymes phosphorylated by protein kinase C confirmed that Ser30 was also a target site for protein kinase C. PMID:15919656

  14. Folic Acid Reduces Tau Phosphorylation by Regulating PP2A Methylation in Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Miaoyan; Zou, Chen; Li, Mengyue; Huang, Guowei; Gao, Yuxia; Liu, Huan

    2017-01-01

    High incidence rate of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is observed in patients with type 2 diabetes. Aggregated β-amyloid (Aβ) and hyperphosphorylated tau are the hallmarks of AD. Hyperphosphorylated tau has been detected in diabetic animals as well as in diabetic patients. Folates mediate the transfer of one carbon unit, required in various biochemical reactions. The effect of folate on tau phosphorylation in diabetic models still remains unknown. In this study, we investigated the effect and mechanism of folic acid on hyperphosphorylation of tau in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic mice. Diabetic mice induced by STZ, at the age of 10 weeks, were administered with three levels of folic acid: folic acid-deficient diet, diet with normal folic acid content, and 120 μg/kg folic acid diet for 8 weeks. Levels of serum folate and blood glucose were monitored. Tau phosphorylation, protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) methylation, and Glycogen synthase kinase 3β (GSK-3β) phosphorylation were detected using Western blot. The S-adenosyl methionine:S-adenosyl homocysteine ratio (SAM:SAH) in brain tissues was also determined. DNA methyltransferase (DNMT) mRNA expression levels were detected using real-time PCR. Folic acid reduced tau hyperphosphorylation at Ser396 in the brain of diabetes mellitus (DM) mice. In addition, PP2A methylation and DNMT1 mRNA expression were significantly increased in DM mice post folic acid treatment. GSK-3β phosphorylation was not regulated by folic acid administration. Folic acid can reduce tau phosphorylation by regulating PP2A methylation in diabetic mice. These results support that folic acid can serve as a multitarget neuronal therapeutic agent for treating diabetes-associated cognitive dysfunction. PMID:28422052

  15. Neurofilament subunit (NFL) head domain phosphorylation regulates axonal transport of neurofilaments.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Yates, Darran M

    2009-04-01

    Neurofilaments are the intermediate filaments of neurons and are synthesised in neuronal cell bodies and then transported through axons. Neurofilament light chain (NFL) is a principal component of neurofilaments, and phosphorylation of NFL head domain is believed to regulate the assembly of neurofilaments. However, the role that NFL phosphorylation has on transport of neurofilaments is poorly understood. To address this issue, we monitored axonal transport of phosphorylation mutants of NFL. We mutated four known phosphorylation sites in NFL head domain to either preclude phosphorylation, or mimic permanent phosphorylation. Mutation to preclude phosphorylation had no effect on transport but mutation of three sites to mimic permanent phosphorylation inhibited transport. Mutation of all four sites together to mimic permanent phosphorylation proved especially potent at inhibiting transport and also disrupted neurofilament assembly. Our results suggest that NFL head domain phosphorylation is a regulator of neurofilament axonal transport.

  16. beta2-adaptin is constitutively de-phosphorylated by serine/threonine protein phosphatase PP2A and phosphorylated by a staurosporine-sensitive kinase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauritsen, Jens Peter Holst; Menné, C; Kastrup, J

    2000-01-01

    Clathrin-mediated endocytosis includes cycles of assembly and disassembly of the clathrin-coated vesicle constituents. How these cycles are regulated is still not fully known but previous studies have indicated that phosphorylation of coat subunits may play a role. Here we describe that beta2-ada...... the hypothesis that phosphorylation/de-phosphorylation of coat proteins plays a regulatory role in the assembly/disassembly cycle of clathrin-coated vesicles.......Clathrin-mediated endocytosis includes cycles of assembly and disassembly of the clathrin-coated vesicle constituents. How these cycles are regulated is still not fully known but previous studies have indicated that phosphorylation of coat subunits may play a role. Here we describe that beta2......-adaptin undergoes cycles of phosphorylation/de-phosphorylation in intact cells. Thus, beta2-adaptin was constitutively de-phosphorylated by serine/threonine protein phosphatase 2A and phosphorylated by a staurosporine-sensitive kinase in vivo. Confocal laser scanning microscopy demonstrated...

  17. Stimulation of glucose phosphorylation by fructose in isolated rat hepatocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Schaftingen, E; Vandercammen, A

    1989-01-15

    The phosphorylation of glucose was measured by the formation of [3H]H2O from [2-3H]glucose in suspensions of freshly isolated rat hepatocytes. Fructose (0.2 mM) stimulated 2-4-fold the rate of phosphorylation of 5 mM glucose although not of 40 mM glucose, thus increasing the apparent affinity of the glucose phosphorylating system. A half-maximal stimulatory effect was observed at about 50 microM fructose. Stimulation was maximal 5 min after addition of the ketose and was stable for at least 40 min, during which period 60% of the fructose was consumed. The effect of fructose was reversible upon removal of the ketose. Sorbitol and tagatose were as potent as fructose in stimulating the phosphorylation of 5 mM glucose. D-Glyceraldehyde also had a stimulatory effect but at tenfold higher concentrations. In contrast, dihydroxyacetone had no significant effect and glycerol inhibited the detritiation of glucose. Oleate did not affect the phosphorylation of glucose, even in the presence of fructose, although it stimulated the formation of ketone bodies severalfold, indicating that it was converted to its acyl-CoA derivative. These results allow the conclusion that fructose stimulates glucokinase in the intact hepatocyte. They also suggest that this effect is mediated through the formation of fructose 1-phosphate, which presumably interacts with a competitive inhibitor of glucokinase other than long-chain acyl-CoAs.

  18. Tyrosine Phosphorylation in Toll-Like Receptor Signaling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chattopadhyay, Saurabh; Sen, Ganes C.

    2014-01-01

    There is a wealth of knowledge about how different Ser/Thr protein kinases participate in Toll-like receptor (TLR) signaling. In many cases, we know the identities of the Ser/Thr residues of various components of the TLR-signaling pathways that are phosphorylated, the functional consequences of the phosphorylation and the responsible protein kinases. In contrast, the analysis of Tyr-phosphorylation of TLRs and their signaling proteins is currently incomplete, because several existing analyses are not systematic or they do not rely on robust experimental data. Nevertheless, it is clear that many TLRs require, for signaling, ligand-dependent phosphorylation of specific Tyr residues in their cytoplasmic domains; the list includes TLR2, TLR3, TLR4, TLR5, TLR8 and TLR9. In this article, we discuss the current status of knowledge on the effect of Tyr-phosphorylation of TLRs and their signaling proteins on their biochemical and biological functions, the possible identities of the relevant protein tyrosine kinases (PTKs) and the nature of regulations of PTK-mediated activation of TLR signaling pathways. PMID:25022196

  19. Phosphorylation of Large T Antigen Regulates Merkel Cell Polyomavirus Replication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diaz, Jason; Wang, Xin; Tsang, Sabrina H.; Jiao, Jing; You, Jianxin

    2014-01-01

    Merkel Cell Polyomavirus (MCPyV) was recently discovered as a novel human polyomavirus that is associated with ~80% of Merkel Cell Carcinomas. The Large Tumor antigen (LT) is an early viral protein which has a variety of functions, including manipulation of the cell cycle and initiating viral DNA replication. Phosphorylation plays a critical regulatory role for polyomavirus LT proteins, but no investigation of MCPyV LT phosphorylation has been performed to date. In this report mass spectrometry analysis reveals three unique phosphorylation sites: T271, T297 and T299. In vivo replication assays confirm that phosphorylation of T271 does not play a role in viral replication, while modification at T297 and T299 have dramatic and opposing effects on LT’s ability to initiate replication from the viral origin. We test these mutants for their ability to bind, unwind, and act as a functional helicase at the viral origin. These studies provide a framework for understanding how phosphorylation of LT may dynamically regulate viral replication. Although the natural host cell of MCPyV has not yet been established, this work provides a foundation for understanding how LT activity is regulated and provides tools for better exploring this regulation in both natural host cells and Merkel cells

  20. Phosphorylation of Large T Antigen Regulates Merkel Cell Polyomavirus Replication

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diaz, Jason; Wang, Xin; Tsang, Sabrina H. [Department of Microbiology, University of Pennsylvania Perelman School of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA 19104 (United States); Jiao, Jing [Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, Children’s Hospital of Philadelphia, Philadelphia, PA 19104 (United States); You, Jianxin, E-mail: jianyou@mail.med.upenn.edu [Department of Microbiology, University of Pennsylvania Perelman School of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA 19104 (United States)

    2014-07-08

    Merkel Cell Polyomavirus (MCPyV) was recently discovered as a novel human polyomavirus that is associated with ~80% of Merkel Cell Carcinomas. The Large Tumor antigen (LT) is an early viral protein which has a variety of functions, including manipulation of the cell cycle and initiating viral DNA replication. Phosphorylation plays a critical regulatory role for polyomavirus LT proteins, but no investigation of MCPyV LT phosphorylation has been performed to date. In this report mass spectrometry analysis reveals three unique phosphorylation sites: T271, T297 and T299. In vivo replication assays confirm that phosphorylation of T271 does not play a role in viral replication, while modification at T297 and T299 have dramatic and opposing effects on LT’s ability to initiate replication from the viral origin. We test these mutants for their ability to bind, unwind, and act as a functional helicase at the viral origin. These studies provide a framework for understanding how phosphorylation of LT may dynamically regulate viral replication. Although the natural host cell of MCPyV has not yet been established, this work provides a foundation for understanding how LT activity is regulated and provides tools for better exploring this regulation in both natural host cells and Merkel cells.

  1. Lestaurtinib inhibits histone phosphorylation and androgen-dependent gene expression in prostate cancer cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jens Köhler

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Epigenetics is defined as heritable changes in gene expression that are not based on changes in the DNA sequence. Posttranslational modification of histone proteins is a major mechanism of epigenetic regulation. The kinase PRK1 (protein kinase C related kinase 1, also known as PKN1 phosphorylates histone H3 at threonine 11 and is involved in the regulation of androgen receptor signalling. Thus, it has been identified as a novel drug target but little is known about PRK1 inhibitors and consequences of its inhibition. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDING: Using a focused library screening approach, we identified the clinical candidate lestaurtinib (also known as CEP-701 as a new inhibitor of PRK1. Based on a generated 3D model of the PRK1 kinase using the homolog PKC-theta (protein kinase c theta protein as a template, the key interaction of lestaurtinib with PRK1 was analyzed by means of molecular docking studies. Furthermore, the effects on histone H3 threonine phosphorylation and androgen-dependent gene expression was evaluated in prostate cancer cells. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Lestaurtinib inhibits PRK1 very potently in vitro and in vivo. Applied to cell culture it inhibits histone H3 threonine phosphorylation and androgen-dependent gene expression, a feature that has not been known yet. Thus our findings have implication both for understanding of the clinical activity of lestaurtinib as well as for future PRK1 inhibitors.

  2. Changes in tau phosphorylation levels in the hippocampus and frontal cortex following chronic stress

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, C.; Guo, X. [Wuhan University, Renmin Hospital, Department of Psychiatry, Wuhan, China, Department of Psychiatry, Renmin Hospital, Wuhan University, Wuhan (China); Wang, G.H. [Wuhan University, Renmin Hospital, Department of Psychiatry, Wuhan, China, Department of Psychiatry, Renmin Hospital, Wuhan University, Wuhan (China); Wuhan University, Institute of Neuropsychiatry, Wuhan, China, Institute of Neuropsychiatry, Wuhan University, Wuhan (China); Wang, H.L.; Liu, Z.C.; Liu, H.; Zhu, Z.X.; Li, Y. [Wuhan University, Renmin Hospital, Department of Psychiatry, Wuhan, China, Department of Psychiatry, Renmin Hospital, Wuhan University, Wuhan (China)

    2014-03-03

    Studies have indicated that early-life or early-onset depression is associated with a 2- to 4-fold increased risk of developing Alzheimers disease (AD). In AD, aggregation of an abnormally phosphorylated form of the tau protein may be a key pathological event. Tau is known to play a major role in promoting microtubule assembly and stabilization, and in maintaining the normal morphology of neurons. Several studies have reported that stress may induce tau phosphorylation. The main aim of the present study was to investigate possible alterations in the tau protein in the hippocampus and frontal cortex of 32 male Sprague-Dawley rats exposed to chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS) and then re-exposed to CUMS to mimic depression and the recurrence of depression, respectively, in humans. We evaluated the effects of CUMS, fluoxetine, and CUMS re-exposure on tau and phospho-tau. Our results showed that a single exposure to CUMS caused a significant reduction in sucrose preference, indicating a state of anhedonia. The change in behavior was accompanied by specific alterations in phospho-tau protein levels, but fluoxetine treatment reversed the CUMS-induced impairments. Moreover, changes in sucrose preference and phospho-tau were more pronounced in rats re-exposed to CUMS than in those subjected to a single exposure. Our results suggest that changes in tau phosphorylation may contribute to the link between depression and AD.

  3. Changes in tau phosphorylation levels in the hippocampus and frontal cortex following chronic stress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, C.; Guo, X.; Wang, G.H.; Wang, H.L.; Liu, Z.C.; Liu, H.; Zhu, Z.X.; Li, Y.

    2014-01-01

    Studies have indicated that early-life or early-onset depression is associated with a 2- to 4-fold increased risk of developing Alzheimers disease (AD). In AD, aggregation of an abnormally phosphorylated form of the tau protein may be a key pathological event. Tau is known to play a major role in promoting microtubule assembly and stabilization, and in maintaining the normal morphology of neurons. Several studies have reported that stress may induce tau phosphorylation. The main aim of the present study was to investigate possible alterations in the tau protein in the hippocampus and frontal cortex of 32 male Sprague-Dawley rats exposed to chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS) and then re-exposed to CUMS to mimic depression and the recurrence of depression, respectively, in humans. We evaluated the effects of CUMS, fluoxetine, and CUMS re-exposure on tau and phospho-tau. Our results showed that a single exposure to CUMS caused a significant reduction in sucrose preference, indicating a state of anhedonia. The change in behavior was accompanied by specific alterations in phospho-tau protein levels, but fluoxetine treatment reversed the CUMS-induced impairments. Moreover, changes in sucrose preference and phospho-tau were more pronounced in rats re-exposed to CUMS than in those subjected to a single exposure. Our results suggest that changes in tau phosphorylation may contribute to the link between depression and AD

  4. Endothelin-1 stimulates catalase activity through the PKCδ mediated phosphorylation of Serine 167

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafikov, Ruslan; Kumar, Sanjiv; Aggarwal, Saurabh; Hou, Yali; Kangath, Archana; Pardo, Daniel; Fineman, Jeffrey R.; Black, Stephen M.

    2013-01-01

    Our previous studies have shown that endothelin-1 (ET-1) stimulates catalase activity in endothelial cells and lambs with acute increases in pulmonary blood flow (PBF), without altering gene expression. The purpose of this study was to investigate the molecular mechanism by which this occurs. Exposing pulmonary arterial endothelial cells (PAEC) to ET-1 increased catalase activity and decreased cellular hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) levels. These changes correlated with an increase in serine phosphorylated catalase. Using the inhibitory peptide δV1.1, this phosphorylation was shown to be PKCδ dependent. Mass spectrometry identified serine167 as the phosphorylation site. Site-directed mutagenesis was used to generate a phospho-mimic (S167D) catalase. Activity assays using recombinant protein purified from E.coli or transiently transfected COS-7 cells, demonstrated that S167D-catalase had an increased ability to degrade H2O2 compared to the wildtype enzyme. Using a phospho-specific antibody, we were able to verify that pS167 catalase levels are modulated in lambs with acute increases in PBF in the presence and absence of the ET receptor antagonist, tezosentan. S167 is being located on the dimeric interface suggesting it could be involved in regulating the formation of catalase tetramers. To evaluate this possibility we utilized analytical gel-filtration to examine the multimeric structure of recombinant wildtype- and S167D-catalase. We found that recombinant wildtype catalase was present as a mixture of monomers and dimers while S167D catalase was primarily tetrameric. Further, the incubation of wildtype catalase with PKCδ was sufficient to convert wildtype catalase into a tetrameric structure. In conclusion, this is the first report indicating that the phosphorylation of catalase regulates its multimeric structure and activity. PMID:24211614

  5. Station Transfers

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — ixed rail transit external system transfers for systems within the Continental United States, Alaska, Hawaii, the District of Columbia, and Puerto Rico. The modes of...

  6. Technology transfer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    On the base of technological opportunities and of the environmental target of the various sectors of energy system this paper intend to conjugate the opportunity/objective with economic and social development through technology transfer and information dissemination [it

  7. Evaluation of the heat transfer in a geological repository concept containing PWR, VHTR and hybrid ads-fission spent fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jonusan, Raoni A.S.; Pereira, Fernando; Velasquez, Carlos E.; Salome, Jean A.D.; Cardoso, Fabiano; Pereira, Claubia; Fortini, Angela, E-mail: claubia@nuclear.ufmg.br [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Departamento de Engenharia Nuclear

    2017-11-01

    The investigation of the thermal behavior of spent fuel (SF) materials is essential to determining appropriate potential sites to accommodate geological repositories as well as the design of canisters, considering their potential risk to people health and of environmental contamination. This work presents studies of the temperature in a canister containing spent fuels discharged from Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR), Very High-Temperature Reactor (VHTR) and Accelerator-Driven Subcritical Reactor System (ADS) reactor systems in a geological repository concept. The thermal analyses were performed with the software ANSYS, which is widely used to solve engineering problems through the Finite Element Method. The ANSYS Transient Thermal module was used. The spent nuclear fuels were set as heat sources using data of previous studies derived from decay heat curves. The studies were based on comparison of the mean temperature on a canister surface along the time under geological disposal conditions, for a same amount of each type of spent nuclear fuel evaluated. The results conclude that fuels from VHTR and ADS systems are inappropriate to be disposed in a standardized PWR canister, demanding new studies to determine the optimal amount of spent fuel and new internal canister geometries. It is also possible to conclude that the hypothetical situation of a single type of canister being used to accommodate different types of spent nuclear fuels is not technically feasible. (author)

  8. Identification and quantitation of signal molecule-dependent protein phosphorylation

    KAUST Repository

    Groen, Arnoud J.

    2013-09-03

    Phosphoproteomics is a fast-growing field that aims at characterizing phosphorylated proteins in a cell or a tissue at a given time. Phosphorylation of proteins is an important regulatory mechanism in many cellular processes. Gel-free phosphoproteome technique involving enrichment of phosphopeptide coupled with mass spectrometry has proven to be invaluable to detect and characterize phosphorylated proteins. In this chapter, a gel-free quantitative approach involving 15N metabolic labelling in combination with phosphopeptide enrichment by titanium dioxide (TiO2) and their identification by MS is described. This workflow can be used to gain insights into the role of signalling molecules such as cyclic nucleotides on regulatory networks through the identification and quantification of responsive phospho(proteins). © Springer Science+Business Media New York 2013.

  9. Study of ATM Phosphorylation by Cdk5 in Neuronal Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    She, Hua; Mao, Zixu

    2017-01-01

    The phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase-like kinase ATM (ataxia-telangiectasia mutated) plays a central role in coordinating the DNA damage responses including cell cycle checkpoint control, DNA repair, and apoptosis. Mutations of ATM cause a spectrum of defects ranging from neurodegeneration to cancer predisposition. We previously showed that Cdk5 (cyclin-dependent kinase 5) is activated by DNA damage and directly phosphorylates ATM at serine 794 in postmitotic neurons. Phosphorylation at serine 794 precedes and is required for ATM autophosphorylation at serine 1981, and activates ATM kinase activity. Cdk5-ATM pathway plays a crucial role in DNA damage-induced neuronal injury. This chapter describes protocols used in analyzing ATM phosphorylation by Cdk5 in CGNs (cerebellar granule neurons) and its effects on neuronal survival.

  10. Common extraction of Tc, Pd and Eu by phosphorylated calixarenes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Babain, V.; Smirnov, I.; Kvasnitskiy, I.; Karavan, M.; Boiko, V.; Miroshnichenko, V.; Klimchuk, O.; Kalchenko, V.

    2003-01-01

    The present work is aimed at studying the extraction systems based on neutral organophosphorus extractants - phosphorylated calixarenes for recovery of Pd and Tc together with Am and Cm from high-level radioactive wastes. Extraction of Pd, Tc and Eu (Am) was studied for phosphorylated calixarenes in meta-nitrobenzotrifluoride (NBTF). Main results are presented in Table. On the basis of available data one can suggest that type and position of phosphor-organic substituents are not so important for extraction of Tc and Pd, as for Eu and Am extraction. The phosphorylated at upper rim calix[4]arenas with small alkyl substituents at phosphorus atom are of prime interest for joint recovery of europium, americium, technetium and palladium. (authors)

  11. Phosphorylation site dynamics of early T-cell receptor signaling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chylek, Lily A; Akimov, Vyacheslav; Dengjel, Jörn

    2014-01-01

    In adaptive immune responses, T-cell receptor (TCR) signaling impacts multiple cellular processes and results in T-cell differentiation, proliferation, and cytokine production. Although individual protein-protein interactions and phosphorylation events have been studied extensively, we lack...... that diverse dynamic patterns emerge within seconds. We detected phosphorylation dynamics as early as 5 s and observed widespread regulation of key TCR signaling proteins by 30 s. Development of a computational model pointed to the presence of novel regulatory mechanisms controlling phosphorylation of sites...... a systems-level understanding of how these components cooperate to control signaling dynamics, especially during the crucial first seconds of stimulation. Here, we used quantitative proteomics to characterize reshaping of the T-cell phosphoproteome in response to TCR/CD28 co-stimulation, and found...

  12. Histones and their phosphorylation during germination of rice seeds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iqbal Ahmed, C.M.; Padayatti, J.D.

    1980-01-01

    Histones from nuclei of rice embryos were identified by their mobilities on 15% acid-urea polyacrylamide gel electrophoreogram, incorporation of ( 3 H)lysine and ( 14 C) arginine and lack of incorporation of ( 3 H)tryptophan. The ratio of histone to DNA in ungerminated embryos was 2.7 which decreased during germination reaching unity by 48 hr. There was preferential phosphorylation of lysine-rich histones, which paralleled the synthesis of DNA. In the presence of cytosine arabinoside and mitomycin-C, which inhibited the synthesis of DNA to the extend of 75-80% the phosphorylation of lysine-rich histone was reduced by 50-60% suggesting the dependence of phosphorylation on the ongoing synthesis of DNA. (auth.)

  13. Evaluation of gene expression and alginate production in response to oxygen transfer in continuous culture of Azotobacter vinelandii.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alvaro Díaz-Barrera

    Full Text Available Alginates are polysaccharides used as food additives and encapsulation agents in biotechnology, and their functional properties depend on its molecular weight. In this study, different steady-states in continuous cultures of A. vinelandii were established to determine the effect of the dilution rate (D and the agitation rate on alginate production and expression of genes involved in alginate polymerization and depolymerization. Both, the agitation and dilution rates, determined the partitioning of the carbon utilization from sucrose into alginate and CO2 under oxygen-limiting conditions. A low D (0.07 h(-1 and 500 rpm resulted in the highest carbon utilization into alginate (25%. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction was used to determine the transcription level of six genes involved in alginate polymerization and depolymerization. In chemostat cultures at 0.07 h(-1, the gene expression was affected by changes in the agitation rate. By increasing the agitation rate from 400 to 600 rpm, the algE7 gene expression decreased tenfold, whereas alyA1, algL and alyA2 gene expression increased between 1.5 and 2.8 times under similar conditions evaluated. Chemostat at 0.07 h(-1 showed a highest alginate molecular weight (580 kDa at 500 rpm whereas similar molecular weights (480 kDa were obtained at 400 and 600 rpm. The highest molecular weight was not explained by changes in the expression of alg8 and alg44 (genes involved in alginate polymerization. Nonetheless, a different expression pattern observed for lyases could explain the highest alginate molecular weight obtained. Overall, the results suggest that the control of alginate molecular weight in A. vinelandii cells growing in continuous mode is determined by a balance between the gene expression of intracellular and extracellular lyases in response to oxygen availability. These findings better our understanding of the biosynthesis of bacterial alginate and help us progress toward obtain

  14. Sampling for diesel particulate matter in mines : Diesel Emissions Evaluation Program (DEEP), technology transfer initiative, October 2001

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grenier, M.; Gangal, M.; Goyer, N.; McGinn, S.; Penney, J.; Vergunst, J.

    2001-10-01

    The physical and chemical characteristics of diesel particulate matter (DPM) from exhaust gases from diesel powered mining equipment were presented along with guidelines and regulation for exposure monitoring in the workplace. The report addresses issues related to personal and direct exhaust sampling in mines and presents evidence about potential carcinogenicity of the solid fraction of diesel exhaust. The incomplete combustion of diesel fuel results in the formation of solid and liquid particles in the exhaust. DPM is defined as being the portion of diesel exhaust which is made up of solid carbon particles and the attached chemicals such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and inorganics such as sulphate compounds. DPM is a submicron aerosol and as such, it is a respirable dust which penetrates deep into the lungs. In addition, DPMs are not easily removed from the air stream because of their small size. Control of DPM is crucial because once they are airborne, they are likely to remain that way and will affect the workplace where they are produced as well as workplaces downwind. In January 2001, the Mine Safety and Health Administration issued a ruling for U.S. metal and non-metal mines requiring that mines meet a limit of exposure of 0.40 mg/m 3 . Mines are expected to reduce exposure to meet a 0.16 mg/m 3 limit of exposure by January 2006. European mines and tunnel construction projects must also meet DPM exposure limits. DPM sampling in Canada has been regulated for nearly one decade. Sampling protocols in Canada and the United States were described with reference to equipment and procedures testing DPM filtration efficiency of after-treatment modules and to evaluate the impact of diesel equipment maintenance on gaseous particulate emissions. 23 refs., 1 tab., 7 figs

  15. Characterization and Prediction of Protein Phosphorylation Hotspots in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christian, Jan-Ole; Braginets, Rostyslav; Schulze, Waltraud X; Walther, Dirk

    2012-01-01

    The regulation of protein function by modulating the surface charge status via sequence-locally enriched phosphorylation sites (P-sites) in so called phosphorylation "hotspots" has gained increased attention in recent years. We set out to identify P-hotspots in the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana. We analyzed the spacing of experimentally detected P-sites within peptide-covered regions along Arabidopsis protein sequences as available from the PhosPhAt database. Confirming earlier reports (Schweiger and Linial, 2010), we found that, indeed, P-sites tend to cluster and that distributions between serine and threonine P-sites to their respected closest next P-site differ significantly from those for tyrosine P-sites. The ability to predict P-hotspots by applying available computational P-site prediction programs that focus on identifying single P-sites was observed to be severely compromised by the inevitable interference of nearby P-sites. We devised a new approach, named HotSPotter, for the prediction of phosphorylation hotspots. HotSPotter is based primarily on local amino acid compositional preferences rather than sequence position-specific motifs and uses support vector machines as the underlying classification engine. HotSPotter correctly identified experimentally determined phosphorylation hotspots in A. thaliana with high accuracy. Applied to the Arabidopsis proteome, HotSPotter-predicted 13,677 candidate P-hotspots in 9,599 proteins corresponding to 7,847 unique genes. Hotspot containing proteins are involved predominantly in signaling processes confirming the surmised modulating role of hotspots in signaling and interaction events. Our study provides new bioinformatics means to identify phosphorylation hotspots and lays the basis for further investigating novel candidate P-hotspots. All phosphorylation hotspot annotations and predictions have been made available as part of the PhosPhAt database at http://phosphat.mpimp-golm.mpg.de.

  16. Mechanism of APC/CCDC20 activation by mitotic phosphorylation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiao, Renping; Weissmann, Florian; Yamaguchi, Masaya; Brown, Nicholas G; VanderLinden, Ryan; Imre, Richard; Jarvis, Marc A; Brunner, Michael R; Davidson, Iain F; Litos, Gabriele; Ha