WorldWideScience

Sample records for phosphide pc code

  1. PC-Reactor-core transient simulation code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakata, H.

    1989-10-01

    PC-REATOR, a reactor core transient simulation code has been developed for the real-time operator training on a IBM-PC microcomputer. The program presents capabilities for on-line exchange of the operating parameters during the transient simulation, by friendly keyboard instructions. The model is based on the point-kinetics approximation, with 2 delayed neutron percursors and up to 11 decay power generating groups. (author) [pt

  2. HOTSPOT Health Physics codes for the PC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Homann, S.G.

    1994-03-01

    The HOTSPOT Health Physics codes were created to provide Health Physics personnel with a fast, field-portable calculation tool for evaluating accidents involving radioactive materials. HOTSPOT codes are a first-order approximation of the radiation effects associated with the atmospheric release of radioactive materials. HOTSPOT programs are reasonably accurate for a timely initial assessment. More importantly, HOTSPOT codes produce a consistent output for the same input assumptions and minimize the probability of errors associated with reading a graph incorrectly or scaling a universal nomogram during an emergency. The HOTSPOT codes are designed for short-term (less than 24 hours) release durations. Users requiring radiological release consequences for release scenarios over a longer time period, e.g., annual windrose data, are directed to such long-term models as CAPP88-PC (Parks, 1992). Users requiring more sophisticated modeling capabilities, e.g., complex terrain; multi-location real-time wind field data; etc., are directed to such capabilities as the Department of Energy`s ARAC computer codes (Sullivan, 1993). Four general programs -- Plume, Explosion, Fire, and Resuspension -- calculate a downwind assessment following the release of radioactive material resulting from a continuous or puff release, explosive release, fuel fire, or an area contamination event. Other programs deal with the release of plutonium, uranium, and tritium to expedite an initial assessment of accidents involving nuclear weapons. Additional programs estimate the dose commitment from the inhalation of any one of the radionuclides listed in the database of radionuclides; calibrate a radiation survey instrument for ground-survey measurements; and screen plutonium uptake in the lung (see FIDLER Calibration and LUNG Screening sections).

  3. HOTSPOT Health Physics codes for the PC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Homann, S.G.

    1994-03-01

    The HOTSPOT Health Physics codes were created to provide Health Physics personnel with a fast, field-portable calculation tool for evaluating accidents involving radioactive materials. HOTSPOT codes are a first-order approximation of the radiation effects associated with the atmospheric release of radioactive materials. HOTSPOT programs are reasonably accurate for a timely initial assessment. More importantly, HOTSPOT codes produce a consistent output for the same input assumptions and minimize the probability of errors associated with reading a graph incorrectly or scaling a universal nomogram during an emergency. The HOTSPOT codes are designed for short-term (less than 24 hours) release durations. Users requiring radiological release consequences for release scenarios over a longer time period, e.g., annual windrose data, are directed to such long-term models as CAPP88-PC (Parks, 1992). Users requiring more sophisticated modeling capabilities, e.g., complex terrain; multi-location real-time wind field data; etc., are directed to such capabilities as the Department of Energy's ARAC computer codes (Sullivan, 1993). Four general programs -- Plume, Explosion, Fire, and Resuspension -- calculate a downwind assessment following the release of radioactive material resulting from a continuous or puff release, explosive release, fuel fire, or an area contamination event. Other programs deal with the release of plutonium, uranium, and tritium to expedite an initial assessment of accidents involving nuclear weapons. Additional programs estimate the dose commitment from the inhalation of any one of the radionuclides listed in the database of radionuclides; calibrate a radiation survey instrument for ground-survey measurements; and screen plutonium uptake in the lung (see FIDLER Calibration and LUNG Screening sections)

  4. A PC version of the Monte Carlo criticality code OMEGA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seifert, E.

    1996-05-01

    A description of the PC version of the Monte Carlo criticality code OMEGA is given. The report contains a general description of the code together with a detailed input description. Furthermore, some examples are given illustrating the generation of an input file. The main field of application is the calculation of the criticality of arrangements of fissionable material. Geometrically complicated arrangements that often appear inside and outside a reactor, e.g. in a fuel storage or transport container, can be considered essentially without geometrical approximations. For example, the real geometry of assemblies containing hexagonal or square lattice structures can be described in full detail. Moreover, the code can be used for special investigations in the field of reactor physics and neutron transport. Many years of practical experience and comparison with reference cases have shown that the code together with the built-in data libraries gives reliable results. OMEGA is completely independent on other widely used criticality codes (KENO, MCNP, etc.), concerning programming and the data base. It is a good practice to run difficult criticality safety problems by different independent codes in order to mutually verify the results. In this way, OMEGA can be used as a redundant code within the family of criticality codes. An advantage of OMEGA is the short calculation time: A typical criticality safety application takes only a few minutes on a Pentium PC. Therefore, the influence of parameter variations can simply be investigated by running many variants of a problem. (orig.)

  5. Code for plant identification (KKS) key in PC version

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pannenbaecker, K.

    1991-01-01

    The plant identification system (KKS) as a common development of german plant operators, erection firms and also power plant oriented organisations have decisively influenced the technical-organizing activities of planning and erections as operations and maintenance of all kind of power plants. Fundamentals are three key parts, operation, armatures and function keys. Their management and application is executed by a plantidentification-key code in a PC version, which is briefly described in this report. (orig.) [de

  6. An Auto sequence Code to Integrate a Neutron Unfolding Code with thePC-MCA Accuspec

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Darsono

    2000-01-01

    In a neutron spectrometry using proton recoil method, the neutronunfolding code is needed to unfold the measured proton spectrum to become theneutron spectrum. The process of the unfolding neutron in the existingneutron spectrometry which was successfully installed last year was doneseparately. This manuscript reports that the auto sequence code to integratethe neutron unfolding code UNFSPEC.EXE with the software facility of thePC-MCA Accuspec has been made and run successfully so that the new neutronspectrometry become compact. The auto sequence code was written based on therules in application program facility of PC-MCA Accuspec and then it wascompiled using AC-EXE. Result of the test of the auto sequence code showedthat for binning width 20, 30, and 40 giving a little different spectrumshape. The binning width around 30 gives a better spectrum in mean of givingsmall error compared to the others. (author)

  7. INDXENDF: A PC code for indexing nuclear data files in ENDF-6 format

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, O.O. de; Corcuera, R.P.; Ferreira, P.A.; Moraes Cunha, M. de.

    1992-01-01

    The PC code INDXENDF which creates visual or printed indexes of nuclear data files in ENDF-6 format, is available from the IAEA Nuclear Data Section on a PC diskette, free of charge upon request. The present document describes the features of this code. (author). 11 refs, 9 figs

  8. IDGAM. A PC code and database to help nuclide identification in activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paviotti Corcuera, R.; Moraes Cunha, M. de; Jayanthi, K.A.

    1994-01-01

    The document describes a PC diskette containing a code and database which helps researchers to identify the nuclides in a radioactive sample. Data can be retrieved by gamma-ray energy, nuclide or element. The PC diskette is available, costfree, from the IAEA Nuclear Data Section, upon request. (author). 6 refs, 5 figs

  9. Code for plant identification (KKS) key in PC version. KKS-Schluessel-Programm in PC-Version

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pannenbaecker, K. (GABO Gesellschaft fuer Ablauforganisation und Informationsverarbeitung mbH, Erlangen (Germany) GABO Gesellschaft fuer Ablauforganisation und Informationsverarbeitung mbH, Muenchen (Germany))

    1991-11-01

    The plant identification system (KKS) as a common development of german plant operators, erection firms and also power plant oriented organisations have decisively influenced the technical-organizing activities of planning and erections as operations and maintenance of all kind of power plants. Fundamentals are three key parts, operation, armatures and function keys. Their management and application is executed by a plantidentification-key code in a PC version, which is briefly described in this report. (orig.).

  10. Codes CONV45 and CONV56 for a PC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rose, P.F.

    1988-03-01

    The codes CONV45 and CONV56 convert data files from ENDF/B-4 to ENDF/B-5 and from ENDF/B-5 to ENDF/B-6 format respectively. The codes which were received from US National Nuclear Data Center were implemented at the IAEA Nuclear Data Section for use on personal computers. (author). 2 refs, 3 tabs

  11. Development of a PC code package for the analysis of research and power reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Urli, N.

    1992-06-01

    Computer codes available for performing reactor physics calculations for nuclear research reactors and power reactors are normally suited for running on mainframe computers. With the fast development in speed and memory of the PCs and affordable prices it became feasible to develop PC versions of commonly used codes. The present work performed under an IAEA sponsored research contract has successfully developed a code package for running on a PC. This package includes a cross-section generating code PSU-LEOPARD and 2D and 1D spatial diffusion codes, MCRAC and MCYC 1D. For adapting PSU-LEOPARD for a PC, the binary library has been reorganized to decimal form, upgraded to FORTRAN-77 standard and arrays and subroutines reorganized to conform to PC compiler. Similarly PC version of MCRAC for FORTRAN-77 and 1D code MCYC 1D have been developed. Tests, verification and bench mark results show excellent agreement with the results obtained from mainframe calculations. The execution speeds are also very satisfactory. 12 refs, 4 figs, 3 tabs

  12. PC-based support programs coupled with the sets code for large fault tree analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hioki, K.; Nakai, R.

    1989-01-01

    Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corporation (PNC) has developed four PC programs: IEIQ (Initiating Event Identification and Quantification), MODESTY (Modular Even Description for a Variety of Systems), FAUST (Fault Summary Tables Generation Program) and ETAAS (Event Tree Analysis Assistant System). These programs prepare the input data for the SETS (Set Equation Transformation System) code and construct and quantify event trees (E/Ts) using the output of the SETS code. The capability of these programs is described and some examples of the results are presented in this paper. With these PC programs and the SETS code, PSA can now be performed with more consistency and less manpower

  13. Vectorial Resilient PC(l) of Order k Boolean Functions from AG-Codes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hao CHEN; Liang MA; Jianhua LI

    2011-01-01

    Propagation criteria and resiliency of vectorial Boolean functions are important for cryptographic purpose (see [1- 4, 7, 8, 10, 11, 16]). Kurosawa, Stoh [8] and Carlet [1]gave a construction of Boolean functions satisfying PC(l) of order k from binary linear or nonlinear codes. In this paper, the algebraic-geometric codes over GF(2m) are used to modify the Carlet and Kurosawa-Satoh's construction for giving vectorial resilient Boolean functions satisfying PC(l) of order k criterion. This new construction is compared with previously known results.

  14. Development a computer codes to couple PWR-GALE output and PC-CREAM input

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuntjoro, S.; Budi Setiawan, M.; Nursinta Adi, W.; Deswandri; Sunaryo, G. R.

    2018-02-01

    Radionuclide dispersion analysis is part of an important reactor safety analysis. From the analysis it can be obtained the amount of doses received by radiation workers and communities around nuclear reactor. The radionuclide dispersion analysis under normal operating conditions is carried out using the PC-CREAM code, and it requires input data such as source term and population distribution. Input data is derived from the output of another program that is PWR-GALE and written Population Distribution data in certain format. Compiling inputs for PC-CREAM programs manually requires high accuracy, as it involves large amounts of data in certain formats and often errors in compiling inputs manually. To minimize errors in input generation, than it is make coupling program for PWR-GALE and PC-CREAM programs and a program for writing population distribution according to the PC-CREAM input format. This work was conducted to create the coupling programming between PWR-GALE output and PC-CREAM input and programming to written population data in the required formats. Programming is done by using Python programming language which has advantages of multiplatform, object-oriented and interactive. The result of this work is software for coupling data of source term and written population distribution data. So that input to PC-CREAM program can be done easily and avoid formatting errors. Programming sourceterm coupling program PWR-GALE and PC-CREAM is completed, so that the creation of PC-CREAM inputs in souceterm and distribution data can be done easily and according to the desired format.

  15. Neutron shielding point kernel integral calculation code for personal computer: PKN-pc

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kotegawa, Hiroshi; Sakamoto, Yukio; Nakane, Yoshihiro; Tomita, Ken-ichi; Kurosawa, Naohiro.

    1994-07-01

    A personal computer version of PKN code, PKN-pc, has been developed to calculate neutron and secondary gamma-ray 1cm depth dose equivalents in water, ordinary concrete and iron for neutron source. Characteristics of PKN code are, to able to calculate dose equivalents in multi-layer three-dimensional system, which are described with two-dimensional surface, for monoenergetic neutron source from 0.01 to 14.9 MeV, 252 Cf fission and 241 Am-Be neutron source quick and easily. In addition to these features, the PKN-pc is possible to process interactive input and to get graphical system configuration and graphical results easily. (author)

  16. Synthesis of ruthenium phosphides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chernogorenko, V.B.; Lynchak, K.A.; Kulik, L.Ya.; Shkaravskij, Yu.F.; Klochkov, L.A.

    1977-01-01

    A method of ampoule synthesis of ruthenium phosphides, Ru 2 P, RuP, and RuP 2 , with stepwise heating of stoichimetric charges in a single-zone furnace is developed. A method for synthesizing ruthenium diphosphide by phosphidization of a ruthenium powder with phosphine at 1150 deg C is worked out. The optimum conditions of its manufacture are found by planning an extremal experiment. Interaction of PH 3 with ruthenium proceeds by the diffusion mechanism and obeys the parabolic law. An extraction-photometric method for determining phosphorus in phosphides is elaborated. Ruthenium phosphides are extremely corrosion-resistant in acids and alkalis. Ru 2 P and RuP exhibit metallic conductivity

  17. SHEAT for PC. A computer code for probabilistic seismic hazard analysis for personal computer, user's manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamada, Hiroyuki; Tsutsumi, Hideaki; Ebisawa, Katsumi; Suzuki, Masahide

    2002-03-01

    The SHEAT code developed at Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute is for probabilistic seismic hazard analysis which is one of the tasks needed for seismic Probabilistic Safety Assessment (PSA) of a nuclear power plant. At first, SHEAT was developed as the large sized computer version. In addition, a personal computer version was provided to improve operation efficiency and generality of this code in 2001. It is possible to perform the earthquake hazard analysis, display and the print functions with the Graphical User Interface. With the SHEAT for PC code, seismic hazard which is defined as an annual exceedance frequency of occurrence of earthquake ground motions at various levels of intensity at a given site is calculated by the following two steps as is done with the large sized computer. One is the modeling of earthquake generation around a site. Future earthquake generation (locations, magnitudes and frequencies of postulated earthquake) is modeled based on the historical earthquake records, active fault data and expert judgment. Another is the calculation of probabilistic seismic hazard at the site. An earthquake ground motion is calculated for each postulated earthquake using an attenuation model taking into account its standard deviation. Then the seismic hazard at the site is calculated by summing the frequencies of ground motions by all the earthquakes. This document is the user's manual of the SHEAT for PC code. It includes: (1) Outline of the code, which include overall concept, logical process, code structure, data file used and special characteristics of code, (2) Functions of subprogram and analytical models in them, (3) Guidance of input and output data, (4) Sample run result, and (5) Operational manual. (author)

  18. Photovoltaic cells employing zinc phosphide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnett, Allen M.; Catalano, Anthony W.; Dalal, Vikram L.; Masi, James V.; Meakin, John D.; Hall, Robert B.

    1984-01-01

    A photovoltaic cell having a zinc phosphide absorber. The zinc phosphide can be a single or multiple crystal slice or a thin polycrystalline film. The cell can be a Schottky barrier, heterojunction or homojunction device. Methods for synthesizing and crystallizing zinc phosphide are disclosed as well as a method for forming thin films.

  19. Fatal aluminium phosphide poisoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meena Mahesh Chand

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Aluminium phosphide (AlP is a cheap solid fumigant and a highly toxic pesticide which is commonly used for grain preservation. AlP has currently aroused interest with a rising number of cases in the past four decades due to increased use for agricultural and non-agricultural purposes. Its easy availability in the markets has increased also its misuse for committing suicide. Phosphine inhibits cellular oxygen utilization and can induce lipid peroxidation. Poisoning with AlP has often occurred in attempts to commit suicide, and that more often in adults than in teenagers. This is a case of suicidal consumption of aluminium phosphide by a 32-year-old young medical anesthetist. Toxicological analyses detected aluminium phosphide. We believe that free access of celphos tablets in grain markets should be prohibited by law.

  20. Application of an integrated PC-based neutronics code system to criticality safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Briggs, J.B.; Nigg, D.W.

    1991-01-01

    An integrated system of neutronics and radiation transport software suitable for operation in an IBM PC-class environment has been under development at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) for the past four years. Four modules within the system are particularly useful for criticality safety applications. Using the neutronics portion of the integrated code system, effective neutron multiplication values (k eff values) have been calculated for a variety of benchmark critical experiments for metal systems (Plutonium and Uranium), Aqueous Systems (Plutonium and Uranium) and LWR fuel rod arrays. A description of the codes and methods used in the analysis and the results of the benchmark critical experiments are presented in this paper. In general, excellent agreement was found between calculated and experimental results. (Author)

  1. PRAAGE-1988: An interactive IBM-PC code for aging analysis of NUREG-1150 systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fullwood, R.R.; Shier, W.G.

    1988-01-01

    Probabilistic Risk Assessments (PRA) contain a great deal of information for estimating the risk of a nuclear power plant but do not consider aging. PRAAGE (PRA+AGE) is an interactive, IBM-PC code for processing PRA-developed system models using non-aged failure rate data in conjunction with user-supplied time-dependent nuclear plant experience component failure rate data to determine the effects of component aging on a system's reliability as well as providing the age-dependent importances of various generic components. This paper describes the structure, use and application of PRAAGE to the aging analysis of the Peach Bottom 2 RHR system in the LPCI and SDC modes of operation. 4 refs., 15 figs., 5 tabs

  2. NUSTART: A PC code for NUclear STructure And Radiative Transition analysis and supplementation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larsen, G.L.; Gardner, D.G.; Gardner, M.A.

    1990-10-01

    NUSTART is a computer program for the IBM PC/At. It is designed for use with the nuclear reaction cross-section code STAPLUS, which is a STAPRE-based CRAY computer code that is being developed at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. The NUSTART code was developed to handle large sets of discrete nuclear levels and the multipole transitions among these levels; it operates in three modes. The Data File Error Analysis mode analyzes an existing STAPLUS input file containing the levels and their multipole transition branches for a number of physics and/or typographical errors. The Interactive Data File Generation mode allows the user to create input files of discrete levels and their branching fractions in the format required by STAPLUS, even though the user enters the information in the (different) format used by many people in the nuclear structure field. In the Branching Fractions Calculations mode, the discrete nuclear level set is read, and the multipole transitions among the levels are computed under one of two possible assumptions: (1) the levels have no collective character, or (2) the levels are all rotational band heads. Only E1, M1, and E2 transitions are considered, and the respective strength functions may be constants or, in the case of E1 transitions, the strength function may be energy dependent. The first option is used for nuclei closed shells; the bandhead option may be used to vary the E1, M1, and E2 strengths for interband transitions. K-quantum number selection rules may be invoked if desired. 19 refs

  3. Chart of the nuclides. NUCHART for Windows version 1.2, Feb 1995. PC code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osorio, V.; Peraza, H.

    1995-01-01

    The PC package NUCHART is described which displays nuclear decay data, including a search routine for assigning gamma-ray energies to radionuclides. The package is available upon request, costfree, from the IAEA. (author)

  4. Description and validation of ANTEO, an optimised PC code the thermalhydraulic analysis of fuel bundles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cevolani, S.

    1995-01-01

    The paper deals with the description of a Personal Computer oriented subchannel code, devoted to the steady state thermal hydraulic analysis of nuclear reactor fuel bundles. The development of such a code was made possible by two facts: firstly, the increase, in the computing power of the desk machines; secondly, the fact that several years of experience into operate subchannels codes have shown how to simplify many of the physical models without a sensible loss of accuracy. For sake of validation, the developed code was compared with a traditional subchannel code, the COBRA one. The results of the comparison show a very good agreement between the two codes. (author)

  5. ANTEO: An optimised PC computer code for the steady state thermal hydraulic analysis of rod bundles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cevolani, S.

    1996-07-01

    The paper deals with the description of a Personal Computer oriented subchannel code, devoted to the steady state thermal hydraulic analysis of nuclear reactor fuel bundles. The development of a such code was made possible by two facts: first, the increase the computing power of the desk machines; secondly, the fact several years of experience into operate subchannels codes have shown how to simplify many of the physical models without a sensible loss of accuracy. For sake of validation, the developed code was compared with a traditional subchannel code, the COBRA one. The results of the comparison show a very good agreement between the two codes

  6. User instructions for levelized power generation cost codes using an IBM-type PC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coen, J.J.; Delene, J.G.

    1989-01-01

    Programs for the calculation of levelized power generation costs using an IBM or compatible PC are described. Cost calculations for nuclear plants and coal-fired plants include capital investment cost, operation and maintenance cost, fuel cycle cost, decommissioning cost, and total levelized power generation cost. 7 refs., 36 figs., 4 tabs

  7. Lattice Dynamics of Gallium Phosphide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yarnell, J.L.; Warren, J.L.; Wenzel, R.G.; Dean, P.J.

    1968-01-01

    Dispersion curves for phonons propagating in the [100], [110], and [111] directions in gallium phosphide have been measured using a triple-axis neutron diffraction spectrometer operating in the constant-Q mode. The sample was a pseudo-single crystal which was prepared by gluing together 36 single crystal plates of gallium phosphide 1 to 2.5 cm in diameter and ∼0.07 cm thick. The plates were grown epitaxially on substrates of gallium arsenide or gallium phosphide, and aligned individually by neutron diffraction. Rocking curves for eight reflections symmetrically distributed in the plane of the experiment had full widths at half maximum in the range 0.52° - 0.58° and were approximately Gaussian in shape. Gallium phosphide crystallizes in the zinc blende structure. A group theoretic analysis of the lattice dynamics of this structure and a shell model fit to the measured dispersion curves are presented. Various optical properties of gallium phosphide are discussed in terms of the phonon dispersion curves. In particular, the phonons which assist indirect electronic transitions are identified as those at the zone boundary in the [100] direction (symmetry point X) in agreement with theoretical and experimental indications that the extrema of the conduction and valence bands are at X and Γ (center of the zone), respectively. The LO branches lie above the TO branches throughout the Brillouin zone in contradiction to the predictions of Keyes and Mitra. The shell model fit indicates that the charge on the gallium atom is negative. (author)

  8. Development of environmental dose assessment system (EDAS) code of PC version

    CERN Document Server

    Taki, M; Kobayashi, H; Yamaguchi, T

    2003-01-01

    A computer code (EDAS) was developed to assess the public dose for the safety assessment to get the license of nuclear reactor operation. This code system is used for the safety analysis of public around the nuclear reactor in normal operation and severe accident. This code was revised and composed for personal computer user according to the Nuclear Safety Guidelines reflected the ICRP1990 recommendation. These guidelines are revised by Nuclear Safety Commission on March, 2001, which are 'Weather analysis guideline for the safety assessment of nuclear power reactor', 'Public dose around the facility assessment guideline corresponding to the objective value for nuclear power light water reactor' and 'Public dose assessment guideline for safety review of nuclear power light water reactor'. This code has been already opened for public user by JAERI, and English version code and user manual are also prepared. This English version code is helpful for international cooperation concerning the nuclear safety assessme...

  9. PC-version of RAM6-code for calculation of parameters of the effective logarithmic boundary condition at the absorbent rod surface in reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Van Ngoc; Ngo Dang Nhan

    1990-01-01

    The RAM-6 code for calculation of parameters of the effective logarithmic boundary condition at the absorbent rod surface in reactor is suitably modofied to work on IBM PC, the instructions for its usage are presented and capabilities of the personal cpmputer oriented RAM-6 code are demonstrated. (author). 4 refs, 5 tabs, 2 figs

  10. Development of environmental dose assessment system (EDAS) code of PC version

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taki, Mitsumasa; Kikuchi, Masamitsu; Kobayashi, Hideo; Yamaguchi, Takenori [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    2003-05-01

    A computer code (EDAS) was developed to assess the public dose for the safety assessment to get the license of nuclear reactor operation. This code system is used for the safety analysis of public around the nuclear reactor in normal operation and severe accident. This code was revised and composed for personal computer user according to the Nuclear Safety Guidelines reflected the ICRP1990 recommendation. These guidelines are revised by Nuclear Safety Commission on March, 2001, which are 'Weather analysis guideline for the safety assessment of nuclear power reactor', 'Public dose around the facility assessment guideline corresponding to the objective value for nuclear power light water reactor' and 'Public dose assessment guideline for safety review of nuclear power light water reactor'. This code has been already opened for public user by JAERI, and English version code and user manual are also prepared. This English version code is helpful for international cooperation concerning the nuclear safety assessment with JAERI. (author)

  11. ANSPipe: An IBM-PC interactive code for pipe-break assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fullwood, R.R.; Harrington, M.

    1988-01-01

    The advanced neutron source (ANS) being designed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory will be the world's highest flux neutron source and best facility for associated basic and applied research. The ANSPipe code was written as an aid for the piping configuration and material selection to enhance safety and availability. The primary calculation is based on the Thomas mode. which models pipe leak or break probabilities as proportional to the length of the segment and diameter and the inverse square of the wall thickness. This scaling, based on experience, is adjusted for radiation effects, using the Regulatory Guide 1.99 model, and for cyclic fatigue, stress corrosion, and inspection, using adaptations form the PRAISE-B code. The key to an ANSPipe analysis is the definition of the pipe segments. A pipe segment is defined as a length of pipe in which all the parameters affecting the pipe are constant or reasonably so. Thus, a segment would be a length of pipe of constant diameter, thickness, material type, internal pressure, flux distribution, stress, and submergence or nonsubmergence

  12. Fabrication of boron-phosphide neutron detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fitzsimmons, M.; Pynn, R.

    1997-01-01

    Boron phosphide is a potentially viable candidate for high neutron flux neutron detectors. The authors have explored chemical vapor deposition methods to produce such detectors and have not been able to produce good boron phosphide coatings on silicon carbide substrates. However, semi-conducting quality films have been produced. Further testing is required

  13. Phonon properties of americium phosphide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arya, B. S., E-mail: bsarya13@yahoo.com [Department of Physics, Govt. Narmada P G College, Hoshangabad -461001 (India); Aynyas, Mahendra [Department of Physics, C. S. A. Govt. P. G. College Sehore-46601 (India); Sanyal, S. P. [Department of Physics, Barkatullah University, Bhopal-462026 (India)

    2016-05-23

    Phonon properties of AmP have been studied by using breathing shell models (BSM) which includes breathing motion of electrons of the Am atoms due to f-d hybridization. The phonon dispersion curves, specific heat calculated from present model. The calculated phonon dispersion curves of AmP are presented follow the same trend as observed in uranium phosphide. We discuss the significance of this approach in predicting the phonon dispersion curves of these compounds and examine the role of electron-phonon interaction.

  14. Effect of dislocations on the open-circuit voltage, short-circuit current and efficiency of heteroepitaxial indium phosphide solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Raj K.; Flood, Dennis J.

    1990-01-01

    Excellent radiation resistance of indium phosphide solar cells makes them a promising candidate for space power applications, but the present high cost of starting substrates may inhibit their large scale use. Thin film indium phosphide cells grown on Si or GaAs substrates have exhibited low efficiencies, because of the generation and propagation of large number of dislocations. Dislocation densities were calculated and its influence on the open circuit voltage, short circuit current, and efficiency of heteroepitaxial indium phosphide cells was studied using the PC-1D. Dislocations act as predominant recombination centers and are required to be controlled by proper transition layers and improved growth techniques. It is shown that heteroepitaxial grown cells could achieve efficiencies in excess of 18 percent AMO by controlling the number of dislocations. The effect of emitter thickness and surface recombination velocity on the cell performance parameters vs. dislocation density is also studied.

  15. PC communication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oh, Jae Cheol

    1992-03-01

    This text book is comprised of five charters, which is about PC communication for beginners who need to learn manners and how to use Ketel and PC serve. So it introduces first, conception of PC and precautions on using PC communication, second, preparation for PC communication with Modem, its program, install, kinds of protocol and how to use protocol, third directions of emulator of PC communication and super session, fourth, instruction of Ketel with join and access, basic command of Ketel, list of Ketel's menu, Ketel editor, service guide, directions of News service, Stock and bond service business and economic figures, exchange rate and interest rate, tax culture and leisure, Ketel BBS service and posting. The last part has a instruction of PC-serve about join, basic command of PC-serve, service guide and practical guideline.

  16. PC communication

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oh, Jae Cheol

    1992-03-15

    This text book is comprised of five charters, which is about PC communication for beginners who need to learn manners and how to use Ketel and PC serve. So it introduces first, conception of PC and precautions on using PC communication, second, preparation for PC communication with Modem, its program, install, kinds of protocol and how to use protocol, third directions of emulator of PC communication and super session, fourth, instruction of Ketel with join and access, basic command of Ketel, list of Ketel's menu, Ketel editor, service guide, directions of News service, Stock and bond service business and economic figures, exchange rate and interest rate, tax culture and leisure, Ketel BBS service and posting. The last part has a instruction of PC-serve about join, basic command of PC-serve, service guide and practical guideline.

  17. InP (Indium Phosphide): Into the future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brandhorst, H.W. Jr.

    1989-03-01

    Major industry is beginning to be devoted to indium phosphide and its potential applications. Key to these applications are high speed and radiation tolerance; however the high cost of indium phosphide may be an inhibitor to progress. The broad applicability of indium phosphide to many devices will be discussed with an emphasis on photovoltaics. Major attention is devoted to radiation tolerance and means of reducing cost of devices. Some of the approaches applicable to solar cells may also be relevant to other devices. The intent is to display the impact of visionary leadership in the field and enable the directions and broad applicability of indium phosphide

  18. InP (Indium Phosphide): Into the future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandhorst, Henry W., Jr.

    1989-01-01

    Major industry is beginning to be devoted to indium phosphide and its potential applications. Key to these applications are high speed and radiation tolerance; however the high cost of indium phosphide may be an inhibitor to progress. The broad applicability of indium phosphide to many devices will be discussed with an emphasis on photovoltaics. Major attention is devoted to radiation tolerance and means of reducing cost of devices. Some of the approaches applicable to solar cells may also be relevant to other devices. The intent is to display the impact of visionary leadership in the field and enable the directions and broad applicability of indium phosphide.

  19. OFFSCALE: A PC input processor for the SCALE code system. The ORIGNATE processor for ORIGEN-S

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bowman, S.M.

    1994-11-01

    OFFSCALE is a suite of personal computer input processor programs developed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory to provide an easy-to-use interface for modules in the SCALE-4 code system. ORIGNATE is a program in the OFFSCALE suite that serves as a user-friendly interface for the ORIGEN-S isotopic generation and depletion code. It is designed to assist an ORIGEN-S user in preparing an input file for execution of light-water-reactor (LWR) fuel depletion and decay cases. ORIGNATE generates an input file that may be used to execute ORIGEN-S in SCALE-4. ORIGNATE features a pulldown menu system that accesses sophisticated data entry screens. The program allows the user to quickly set up an ORIGEN-S input file and perform error checking. This capability increases productivity and decreases the chance of user error

  20. On melting of boron phosphide under pressure

    OpenAIRE

    Solozhenko, Vladimir; Mukhanov, V. A.

    2015-01-01

    Melting of cubic boron phosphide, BP, has been studied at pressures to 9 GPa using synchrotron X-ray diffraction and electrical resistivity measurements. It has been found that above 2.6 GPa BP melts congruently, and the melting curve exhibits negative slope (–60 ± 7 K/GPa), which is indicative of a higher density of the melt as compared to the solid phase.

  1. Mechanism of hydrodenitrogenation on phosphides and sulfides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyama, S Ted; Lee, Yong-Kul

    2005-02-17

    The mechanism of hydrodenitrogenation (HDN) of 2-methylpiperidine was studied over a silica-supported nickel phosphide catalyst (Ni2P/SiO2, Ni/P = 1/2) and a commercial Ni-Mo-S/Al2O3 catalyst in a three-phase trickle-bed reactor operated at 3.1 MPa and 450-600 K. Analysis of the product distribution as a function of contact time indicated that the reaction proceeded in both cases predominantly by a substitution mechanism, with a smaller contribution of an elimination mechanism. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) of the 2-methylpiperidine indicated that at reaction conditions a piperidinium ion intermediate was formed on both the sulfide and the phosphide. It is concluded that the mechanism of HDN on nickel phosphide is very similar to that on sulfides. The mechanism on the nickel phosphide was also probed by comparing the reactivity of piperidine and several of its derivatives in the presence of 3000 ppm S. The relative elimination rates depended on the structure of the molecules, and followed the sequence: 4-methylpiperidine approximately piperidine > 3-methylpiperidine > 2,6-dimethylpiperidine > 2-methylpiperidine. [Chemical structure: see text] This order of reactivity was not dependent on the number of alpha-H or beta-H atoms in the molecules, ruling out their reaction through a single, simple mechanism. It is likely that the unhindered piperidine molecules reacted by an S(N)2 substitution process and the more hindered 2,6-dimethylpiperidine reacted by an E2 elimination process.

  2. Aluminium phosphide poising: a case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirani, S.A.A.; Rahman, A.

    2010-01-01

    This paper reports the case of a family in which three children were presented at Emergency Room (ER) with poisoning after the use of a pesticide at home. Initially, the cases were managed as routine cases of organophosphorus poisoning; however, the death of two children made the health team members realise that the poison's effects were delayed and devastating. Later, the compound was identified as Aluminium Phosphide (ALP), and the life of the last surviving child in the family was saved. (author)

  3. OFFSCALE: A PC input processor for the SCALE code system. The CSASIN processor for the criticality sequences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bowman, S.M.

    1994-11-01

    OFFSCALE is a suite of personal computer input processor programs developed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory to provide an easy-to-use interface for modules in the SCALE-4 code system. CSASIN (formerly known as OFFSCALE) is a program in the OFFSCALE suite that serves as a user-friendly interface for the Criticality Safety Analysis Sequences (CSAS) available in SCALE-4. It is designed to assist a SCALE-4 user in preparing an input file for execution of criticality safety problems. Output from CSASIN generates an input file that may be used to execute the CSAS control module in SCALE-4. CSASIN features a pulldown menu system that accesses sophisticated data entry screens. The program allows the user to quickly set up a CSAS input file and perform data checking. This capability increases productivity and decreases the chance of user error

  4. Head simulation of linear accelerators and spectra considerations using EGS4 Monte Carlo code in a PC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malatara, G.; Kappas, K.; Sphiris, N.

    1994-01-01

    In this work, a Monte Carlo EGS4 code was used to simulate radiation transport through linear accelerators to produce and score energy spectra and angular distributions of 6, 12, 15 and 25 MeV bremsstrahlung photons exiting from different accelerator treatment heads. The energy spectra was used as input for a convolution method program to calculate the tissue-maximum ratio in water. 100.000 histories are recorded in the scoring plane for each simulation. The validity of the Monte Carlo simulation and the precision to the calculated spectra have been verified experimentally and were in good agreement. We believe that the accurate simulation of the different components of the linear accelerator head is very important for the precision of the results. The results of the Monte Carlo and the Convolution Method can be compared with experimental data for verification and they are powerful and practical tools to generate accurate spectra and dosimetric data. (authors)

  5. Microwave-assisted synthesis of transition metal phosphide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viswanathan, Tito

    2014-12-30

    A method of synthesizing transition metal phosphide. In one embodiment, the method has the steps of preparing a transition metal lignosulfonate, mixing the transition metal lignosulfonate with phosphoric acid to form a mixture, and subjecting the mixture to a microwave radiation for a duration of time effective to obtain a transition metal phosphide.

  6. Head simulation of linear accelerators and spectra considerations using EGS4 Monte Carlo code in a PC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malatara, G; Kappas, K [Medical Physics Department, Faculty of Medicine, University of Patras, 265 00 Patras (Greece); Sphiris, N [Ethnodata S.A., Athens (Greece)

    1994-12-31

    In this work, a Monte Carlo EGS4 code was used to simulate radiation transport through linear accelerators to produce and score energy spectra and angular distributions of 6, 12, 15 and 25 MeV bremsstrahlung photons exiting from different accelerator treatment heads. The energy spectra was used as input for a convolution method program to calculate the tissue-maximum ratio in water. 100.000 histories are recorded in the scoring plane for each simulation. The validity of the Monte Carlo simulation and the precision to the calculated spectra have been verified experimentally and were in good agreement. We believe that the accurate simulation of the different components of the linear accelerator head is very important for the precision of the results. The results of the Monte Carlo and the Convolution Method can be compared with experimental data for verification and they are powerful and practical tools to generate accurate spectra and dosimetric data. (authors). 10 refs,5 figs, 2 tabs.

  7. Simulations of cloudy hyperspectral infrared radiances using the HT-FRTC, a fast PC-based multipurpose radiative transfer code

    Science.gov (United States)

    Havemann, S.; Aumann, H. H.; Desouza-Machado, S. G.

    2017-12-01

    The HT-FRTC uses principal components which cover the spectrum at a very high spectral resolution allowing very fast line-by-line-like, hyperspectral and broadband simulations for satellite-based, airborne and ground-based sensors. Using data from IASI and from the Airborne Research Interferometer Evaluation System (ARIES) on board the FAAM BAE 146 aircraft, variational retrievals in principal component space with HT-FRTC as forward model have demonstrated that valuable information on temperature and humidity profiles and on the cirrus cloud properties can be obtained simultaneously. The NASA/JPL/UMBC cloudy RTM inter-comparison project has been working on a global dataset consisting of 7377 AIRS spectra. Initial simulations with HT-FRTC for this dataset have been promising. A next step taken here is to investigate how sensitive the results are with respect to different assumptions in the cloud modelling. One aspect of this is to study how assumptions about the microphysical and related optical properties of liquid/ice clouds impact the statistics of the agreement between model and observations. The other aspect is about the cloud overlap scheme. Different schemes have been tested (maximum, random, maximum random). As the computational cost increases linearly with the number of cloud columns, it will be investigated if there is an optimal number of columns beyond which there is little additional benefit to be gained. During daytime the high wave number channels of AIRS are affected by solar radiation. With full scattering calculations using a monochromatic version of the Edwards-Slingo radiation code the HT-FRTC can model solar radiation reasonably well, but full scattering calculations are relatively expensive. Pure Chou scaling on the other hand can not properly describe scattering of solar radiation by clouds and requires additional refinements.

  8. PC Pricer

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The PC Pricer is a tool used to estimate Medicare PPS payments. The final payment may not be precise to how payments are determined in the Medicare claims processing...

  9. ELIPGRID-PC: Upgraded version

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davidson, J.R.

    1995-12-01

    Evaluating the need for and the effectiveness of remedial cleanup at waste sites often includes finding average contaminant concentrations and identifying pockets of contamination called hot spots. The standard tool for calculating the probability of detecting pockets of contamination called hot spots has been the ELIPGRID code of singer and Wickman. The ELIPGRID-PC program has recently made this algorithm available for an IBM reg-sign personal computer (PC) or compatible. A new version of ELIPGRID-PC, incorporating Monte Carlo test results and simple graphics, is herein described. Various examples of how to use the program for both single and multiple hot spot cases are given. The code for an American National Standards Institute C version of the ELIPGRID algorithm is provided, and limitations and further work are noted. This version of ELIPGRID-PC reliably meets the goal of moving Singer's ELIPGRID algorithm to the PC

  10. A new approach to synthesize supported ruthenium phosphides for hydrodesulfurization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Qingfang; Wang, Zhiqiang; Yin, Xiaoqian; Zhou, Linxi; Zhang, Minghui

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • We bring out a new method to synthesize noble metal phosphides at low temperature. • Both RuP and Ru_2P were synthesized using triphenylphosphine as phosphorus sources. • Ru_2P was the better active phase for HDS than RuP and metal Ru. • RuP/SiO_2 prepared by new method had better HDS activity to that by TPR method. - Abstract: Supported noble metal ruthenium phosphides were synthesized by one-step H_2-thermal treatment method using triphenylphosphine (TPP) as phosphorus sources at low temperatures. Two phosphides RuP and Ru_2P can be prepared by this method via varying the molar ratio of metal salt and TPP. The as-prepared phosphides were characterized by X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), low-temperature N_2 adsorption, CO chemisorption and transmission electronic microscopy (TEM). The supported ruthenium phosphides prepared by new method and conventional method together with contradistinctive metallic ruthenium were evaluated in hydrodesulfurization (HDS) of dibenzothiophene (DBT). The catalytic results showed that metal-rich Ru_2P was the better active phase for HDS than RuP and metal Ru. Besides this, ruthenium phosphide catalyst prepared by new method exhibited superior HDS activity to that prepared by conventional method.

  11. A new approach to synthesize supported ruthenium phosphides for hydrodesulfurization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Qingfang [Tianjin Key Laboratory of Water Environment and Resources, Tianjin Normal University, Tianjin 300387 (China); Key Laboratory of Advanced Energy Materials Chemistry (MOE), Collaborative Innovation Center of Chemical Science and Engineering (Tianjin), College of Chemistry, Nankai University, Tianjin 300071 (China); Wang, Zhiqiang [Tianjin Key Laboratory of Water Environment and Resources, Tianjin Normal University, Tianjin 300387 (China); Yin, Xiaoqian; Zhou, Linxi [Key Laboratory of Advanced Energy Materials Chemistry (MOE), Collaborative Innovation Center of Chemical Science and Engineering (Tianjin), College of Chemistry, Nankai University, Tianjin 300071 (China); Zhang, Minghui, E-mail: zhangmh@nankai.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Advanced Energy Materials Chemistry (MOE), Collaborative Innovation Center of Chemical Science and Engineering (Tianjin), College of Chemistry, Nankai University, Tianjin 300071 (China); College of Chemistry and Environmental Science, Kashgar University, Kashgar 844006 (China)

    2016-02-15

    Highlights: • We bring out a new method to synthesize noble metal phosphides at low temperature. • Both RuP and Ru{sub 2}P were synthesized using triphenylphosphine as phosphorus sources. • Ru{sub 2}P was the better active phase for HDS than RuP and metal Ru. • RuP/SiO{sub 2} prepared by new method had better HDS activity to that by TPR method. - Abstract: Supported noble metal ruthenium phosphides were synthesized by one-step H{sub 2}-thermal treatment method using triphenylphosphine (TPP) as phosphorus sources at low temperatures. Two phosphides RuP and Ru{sub 2}P can be prepared by this method via varying the molar ratio of metal salt and TPP. The as-prepared phosphides were characterized by X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), low-temperature N{sub 2} adsorption, CO chemisorption and transmission electronic microscopy (TEM). The supported ruthenium phosphides prepared by new method and conventional method together with contradistinctive metallic ruthenium were evaluated in hydrodesulfurization (HDS) of dibenzothiophene (DBT). The catalytic results showed that metal-rich Ru{sub 2}P was the better active phase for HDS than RuP and metal Ru. Besides this, ruthenium phosphide catalyst prepared by new method exhibited superior HDS activity to that prepared by conventional method.

  12. Metal Phosphides and Phosphates-based Electrodes for Electrochemical Supercapacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xin; Elshahawy, Abdelnaby M; Guan, Cao; Wang, John

    2017-10-01

    Phosphorus compounds, such as metal phosphides and phosphates have shown excellent performances and great potential in electrochemical energy storage, which are demonstrated by research works published in recent years. Some of these metal phosphides and phosphates and their hybrids compare favorably with transition metal oxides/hydroxides, which have been studied extensively as a class of electrode materials for supercapacitor applications, where they have limitations in terms of electrical and ion conductivity and device stability. To be specific, metal phosphides have both metalloid characteristics and good electric conductivity. For metal phosphates, the open-framework structures with large channels and cavities endow them with good ion conductivity and charge storage capacity. In this review, we present the recent progress on metal phosphides and phosphates, by focusing on their advantages/disadvantages and potential applications as a new class of electrode materials in supercapacitors. The synthesis methods to prepare these metal phosphides/phosphates are looked into, together with the scientific insights involved, as they strongly affect the electrochemical energy storage performance. Particular attentions are paid to those hybrid-type materials, where strong synergistic effects exist. In the summary, the future perspectives and challenges for the metal phosphides, phosphates and hybrid-types are proposed and discussed. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. Cavity optomechanics in gallium phosphide microdisks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitchell, Matthew; Barclay, Paul E.; Hryciw, Aaron C.

    2014-01-01

    We demonstrate gallium phosphide (GaP) microdisk optical cavities with intrinsic quality factors >2.8 × 10 5 and mode volumes 3 , and study their nonlinear and optomechanical properties. For optical intensities up to 8.0 × 10 4 intracavity photons, we observe optical loss in the microcavity to decrease with increasing intensity, indicating that saturable absorption sites are present in the GaP material, and that two-photon absorption is not significant. We observe optomechanical coupling between optical modes of the microdisk around 1.5 μm and several mechanical resonances, and measure an optical spring effect consistent with a theoretically predicted optomechanical coupling rate g 0 /2π∼30 kHz for the fundamental mechanical radial breathing mode at 488 MHz

  14. Identification and Functional Characterization of G6PC2 Coding Variants Influencing Glycemic Traits Define an Effector Transcript at the G6PC2-ABCB11 Locus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mahajan, Anubha; Sim, Xueling; Ng, Hui Jin

    2015-01-01

    . To test this, we analyzed exome-array data from up to 33,231 non-diabetic individuals of European ancestry. We found exome-wide significant (P... and functional effects was only possible when haplotype phase was considered. In contrast to earlier reports suggesting that, paradoxically, glucose-raising alleles at this locus are protective against type 2 diabetes (T2D), the p.Val219Leu G6PC2 variant displayed a modest but directionally consistent...

  15. A Rare but Potentially Fatal Poisoning; Aluminum Phosphide Poisoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orkun Tolunay

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Phosphide, a very toxic gas, is used in our country as aluminium phosphide tablets impregnated in clay. It is widely used since it has a very high diffusion capacity, whereby it can eradicate all living creatures in any form of their life cycle and does not leave any remnants in agricultural products. Aluminum phosphide poisoning is among intoxications for which there are still no true antidotes. Mortality rate varies between 30% and 100%. This paper presents a case of aluminum phosphide poisoning caused by the uncompleted suicide attempt. A 14-year-old girl, who swallowed aluminum phosphate tablets, was brought to the emergency department with the complaints of nausea and vomiting. The patient was treated with gastric lavage and activated charcoal. Since the patient ingested a lethal amount of aluminum phosphide, she was referred to the pediatric intensive care unit. The patient was discharged in stable condition after supportive care and monitoring. Specific antidotes are life-saving in poisonings. However, this case was presented to show how general treatment principles and quick access to health services affect the result of treatment. Also, we aimed to highlight the uncontrolled selling of aluminum phosphate, which results in high mortality rates in case of poisoning.

  16. Predictors of Poor Prognosis in Aluminum Phosphide Intoxication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fakhredin Taghaddosi Nejad

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Aluminum phosphide as a fumigant is extensively used for wheat preservation from rodents and bugs especially in silos worldwide. There is increasing number of acute intoxication with this potentially lethal compound because of its easy availability. We have tried to locate predictors of poor prognosis in patients with aluminum phosphide intoxication in order to find patients who need more strict medical cares. Methods: All cases of aluminum phosphide intoxication that had been referred to our hospital during April 2008 to March 2010 were studied by their medical dossiers. Pertinent data including vital signs, demographic features, clinical and lab findings, and incidence of any complication were collected and analyzed by the relevant statistical methods. Results: Sixty seven cases of aluminum phosphide intoxication were included in the study. 44.8% of them were male. 97% of cases were suicidal. Mean amount of ingestion was 1.23+/- 0.71 tablets. Mortality rate was 41.8%. ECG abnormality and need for mechanical ventilation had negative relation with outcome. Conclusion: Correlation between some findings and complications with outcome in aluminum phosphide intoxication can be used as guidance for risk assessment and treatment planning in the patients.

  17. Acute aluminium phosphide poisoning, what is new?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yatendra Singh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aluminium phosphide (AlP is a cheap solid fumigant and a highly toxic pesticide that is commonly used for grain preservation. AlP has currently generated interest with increasing number of cases in the past four decades because of its increased use for agricultural and nonagricultural purposes, and also its easy availability in the markets has led to its increased misuse to commit suicide. Ingestion is usually suicidal in intent, uncommonly accidental and rarely homicidal. The poison affects all systems, shock, cardiac arrhythmias with varied ECG changes and gastrointestinal features being the most prominent. Diagnosis is made on the basis of clinical suspicion, a positive silver nitrate paper test to phosphine, and gastric aspirate and viscera biochemistry. Treatment includes early gastric lavage with potassium permanganate or a combination of coconut oil and sodium bicarbonate, administration of charcoal and palliative care. Specific therapy includes intravenous magnesium sulphate and oral coconut oil. Unfortunately, the lack of a specific antidote Results in very high mortality and the key to treatment lies in rapid decontamination and institution of resuscitative measures. This article aims to identify the salient features and mechanism of AlP poisoning along with its management strategies and prognostic variables.

  18. Fabrication challenges for indium phosphide microsystems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siwak, N P; Fan, X Z; Ghodssi, R

    2015-01-01

    From the inception of III–V microsystems, monolithically integrated device designs have been the motivating drive for this field, bringing together the utility of single-chip microsystems and conventional fabrication techniques. Indium phosphide (InP) has a particular advantage of having a direct bandgap within the low loss telecommunication wavelength (1550 nm) range, able to support passive waveguiding and optical amplification, detection, and generation depending on the exact alloy of In, P, As, Ga, or Al materials. Utilizing epitaxy, one can envision the growth of a substrate that contains all of the components needed to establish a single-chip optical microsystem, containing detectors, sources, waveguides, and mechanical structures. A monolithic InP MEMS system has, to our knowledge, yet to be realized due to the significant difficulties encountered when fabricating the integrated devices. In this paper we present our own research and consolidate findings from other research groups across the world to give deeper insight into the practical aspects of InP monolithic microsystem development: epitaxial growth of InP-based alloys, etching techniques, common MEMS structures realized in InP, and future applications. We pay special attention to shedding light on considerations that must be taken when designing and fabricating a monolithic InP MEMS device. (topical review)

  19. An update on toxicology of aluminum phosphide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moghadamnia Ali

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Aluminum phosphide (AlP is a cheap solid fumigant and a highly toxic pesticide which is commonly used for grain preservation. In Iran it is known as the “rice tablet”. AlP has currently aroused interest with increasing number of cases in the past four decades due to increased use in agricultural and non-agricultural purposesand also its easy availability in the markets has increased its misuse to commit suicide. Upon contact with moisture in the environment, AlP undergoes a chemical reaction yielding phosphine gas, which is the active pesticidal component. Phosphine inhibits cellular oxygen utilization and can induce lipid peroxidation. It was reported that AlP has a mortality rate more than 50% of intoxication cases. Poisoning with AlP has usually occurred in attempts to suicide. It is a more common case in adults rather than teen agers. In some eastern countries it is a very common agent with rapid action for suicide. Up to date, there is no effective antidote or treatment for its intoxication. Also, some experimental results suggest that magnesium sulfate, N-acetyl cysteine (NAC, glutathione, vitamin C and E, beta-carotenes, coconut oil and melatonin may play an important role in reducing the oxidative outcomes of phosphine. This article reviews the experimental and clinical features of AlP intoxication and tries to suggest a way to encounter its poisoning.

  20. An Update on Toxicology of Aluminum Phosphide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Akbar Moghhadamnia

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Aluminum phosphide (AlP is a cheap solid fumigant and a highly toxic pesticide which is commonly used for grain preservation. In Iran it is known as the "rice tablet". AlP has currently aroused interest with increasing number of cases in the past four decades due to increased use in agricultural and non-agricultural purposes and also its easy availability in the markets has increased its misuse to commit suicide. Upon contact with moisture in the environment, AlP undergoes a chemical reaction yielding phosphine gas, which is the active pesticidal component. Phosphine inhibits cellular oxygen utilization and can induce lipid peroxidation. It was reported that AlP has a mortality rate more than 50% of intoxication cases. Poisoning with AlP has usually occurred in attempts to suicide. It is a more common case in adults rather than teen agers. In some eastern countries it is a very common agent with rapid action for suicide. Up to date, there is no effective antidote or treatment for its intoxication. Also, some experimental results suggest that magnesium sulfate, N-acetyl cysteine (NAC, glutathione, vitamin C and E, beta-carotenes, coconut oil and melatonin may play an important role in reducing the oxidative outcomes of phosphine. This article reviews the experimental and clinical features of AlP intoxication and tries to suggest a way to encounter its poisoning.

  1. [Severity factors of aluminium phosphide poisoning (Phostoxin)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajouji Idrissi, M; Oualili, L; Abidi, K; Abouqal, R; Kerkeb, O; Zeggwagh, A A

    2006-04-01

    To determine characteristics of acute aluminum phosphide poisoning (AAlPP) and to evaluate its severity factors. Retrospective cohort study. Consecutive cases of AAlPP admitted in medical ICU (Hospital Avicenne, Rabat, Morocco) between January 1992 and December 2002 were studied. AAlPP was identified by history, symptoms and toxicological results. Almost 50 parameters have been collected and compared between survivors and non-survivors groups. Data were analyzed using Fisher exact test and Mann-Whitney test. Twenty-eight patients were enrolled: 17 female and 11 male, average age = 24+/-11 years, SAPS II = 24.4+/-14.5. The ingested dose was 3.3+/-1.8 g. The self-poisoning was observed in 27 cases and delay before hospital admission was 11+/-13 hours. Mean Glasgow coma scale was 14+/-2. Shock was found in 22 (79%) cases. Average pH was 7.1+/-0.4 and bicarbonate concentration was 16.3+/-8.8 mmol/l. The ECG abnormalities were noted in 20 (72%) cases. The average mortality rate was 61%. The prognostic factors were SAPS II (p = 0.031), Apache II (p = 0.037), shock (p = 0.022), ECG abnormalities (p = 0.05), use of vasoactive drugs (p = 0.05) and use of mechanical ventilation (p = 0.003). AAlPP induced a significantly high mortality and haemodynamic disturbances were a risk factor of poor outcome.

  2. Thermal expansion and volumetric changes during indium phosphide melting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glazov, V.M.; Davletov, K.; Nashel'skij, A.Ya.; Mamedov, M.M.

    1977-01-01

    The results of the measurements of a thermal expansion were summed up at various temperatures as a diagram in coordinates (Δ 1/1) approximately F(t). It was shown that an appreciable deviation of the relationship (Δ1/1) approximately f(t) from the linear law corresponded to a temperature of 500-550 deg C. It was noted that the said deviation was related to an appreciable thermal decomposition of indium phosphide as temperature increased. The strength of the inter-atomic bond of indium phosphide was calculated. Investigated were the volumetric changes of indium phosphide on melting. The resultant data were analyzed with the aid of the Clausius-Clapeyron equation

  3. A Suicide Attempt Using Zinc Phosphide (A Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aysenur Sumer Coskun

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Zinc phosphide is a toxin that is added to wheat for use in rodent control and is the active ingredient of rodenticide. A 17 year-old male attempted suicide by drinking pesticide [Zinc PHOSPHIDE (Zn3P2] and was subsequently admitted to the emergency department: the patient’s general condition was poor, he was unconscious and vomiting, the skin had a garlic odor and advanced acidosis was present. The patient was treated symptomatically, followed by mechanical ventilation, and was transferred to a psychiatric clinic on the fifth day.

  4. PERCEVAL v4.0: a new PC code for gamma radiation studies based upon most recent development about point kernel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bindel, Laurent; Clouet, Laurent; Castanier, Eric; Bonnet, Jerome; Fleury, Guillaume; Vermuse, Manuel; Gamess, Andre; Lejeune, Eric [Societe Generale pour les techniques Nouvelles, Saint Quentin en Yvelines (France)

    2000-03-01

    The present paper presents the capabilities of a new code named PERCEVAL v4.0 and based on the new point kernel described in an attached issue. Two linked codes named SPECTRE{sub G} and GRAPH{sub 3}D are part of the code package in order to establish the energetic source term and visualize the tri-dimensional scene respectively. (author)

  5. Polyserositis: An Unusual Complication of Aluminum Phosphide Poisoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashish Bhalla

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available   Background: Aluminum phosphide is the common cause of poisoning in adults in India, with a very high case fatality ratio. We studied five patients of aluminum phosphide poisoning with polyserositis. Methods: We enrolled all patients with aluminum phosphide poisoning presenting to emergency medical department, at a tertiary care hospital in northwestern India from January to July 2006. These patients were managed according to a standard treatment protocol and their complications were recorded. Results: During the study period, total of 35 patients were admitted with 57.5% mortality in the first 12 hours. Among the rest, 5 patients were found to develop polyserositis. All these patients had severe hypotension at presentation and developed respiratory distress requiring mechanical ventilation after an average stay of 3.8 days post-ingestion. They were managed conservatively and four of them were discharged from the hospital after the average stay of 10 days. Conclusion: In this case series, features of polyserositis (pleural effusion, ascites and pericardial effusion were found in 15% patients of severe aluminum phosphide poisoning. We postulate systemic capillary leak syndrome, secondary to mitochondrial damage in the endothelium, as a possible mechanism.        

  6. Wurtzite gallium phosphide has a direct-band gap

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Assali, S.; Zardo, I.; Plissard, S.; Verheijen, M.A.; Haverkort, J.E.M.; Bakkers, E.P.A.M.

    2013-01-01

    Gallium Phosphide (GaP) with the normal cubic crystal structure has an indirect band gap, which severely limits the emission efficiency. We report the fabrication of GaP nanowires with pure hexagonal crystal structure and demonstrate the direct nature of the band gap. We observe strong

  7. Rational Design of Zinc Phosphide Heterojunction Photovoltaics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosco, Jeffrey Paul

    The prospect of terawatt-scale electricity generation using a photovoltaic (PV) device places strict requirements on the active semiconductor optoelectronic properties and elemental abundance. After reviewing the constraints placed on an ``earth-abundant'' solar absorber, we find zinc phosphide (α-Zn 3P2) to be an ideal candidate. In addition to its near-optimal direct band gap of 1.5 eV, high visible-light absorption coefficient (>10. 4cm-1), and long minority-carrier diffusion length (>5 μm), Zn3P 2 is composed of abundant Zn and P elements and has excellent physical properties for scalable thin-film deposition. However, to date, a Zn 3P2 device of sufficient efficiency for commercial applications has not been demonstrated. Record efficiencies of 6.0% for multicrystalline and 4.3% for thin-film cells have been reported, respectively. Performance has been limited by the intrinsic p-type conductivity of Zn3P 2 which restricts us to Schottky and heterojunction device designs. Due to our poor understanding of Zn3P2 interfaces, an ideal heterojunction partner has not yet been found. The goal of this thesis is to explore the upper limit of solar conversion efficiency achievable with a Zn3P2 absorber through the design of an optimal heterojunction PV device. To do so, we investigate three key aspects of material growth, interface energetics, and device design. First, the growth of Zn3P2 on GaAs(001) is studied using compound-source molecular-beam epitaxy (MBE). We successfully demonstrate the pseudomorphic growth of Zn3P2 epilayers of controlled orientation and optoelectronic properties. Next, the energy-band alignments of epitaxial Zn3P2 and II-VI and III-V semiconductor interfaces are measured via high-resolution x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy in order to determine the most appropriate heterojunction partner. From this work, we identify ZnSe as a nearly ideal n-type emitter for a Zn3P 2 PV device. Finally, various II-VI/Zn3P2 heterojunction solar cells designs are

  8. Radiation induced traps of zinc phosphate and phosphide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murali, K.R.; Rao, D.R.

    1980-01-01

    Thermoluminescence (TL) glow curve (TGC) method has been used to study the traps produced by X-irradiation in Zn 3 (PO 4 ) 2 and Zn 3 P 2 . Prominent TL glow peaks were observed at 100 0 and 360 0 C for zinc phosphate while for zinc phosphide only one glow peak at 245 0 C was observed, and in the latter case the TL output was in general quite low compared to zinc phosphate. The TL spectra for both the glow peaks of zinc phosphate indicated emission band in the region around 560 nm, while for zinc phosphide the emission occurred at 575 nm (in the temperature region 200-270 0 C). The low temperature glow peaks below 270 0 C were less stable compared to those above 300 0 C and were completely destroyed when the irradiated samples were stored in darkness for 24 hr at room temperature. Shining by 470 nm light however produced preferential bleaching of the two TL peaks at 100 and 360 0 C with no effect on the 245 0 C glow peak of zinc phosphide. It is concluded that during heat treatment large numbers of Zn-vacancies are formed due to which complexes like Zn-P are produced by irradiation and the TL traps destroyed in a radiative recombination process are related with these complexes. (author)

  9. Indium phosphide space solar cell research: Where we are and where we are going

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, R. K.; Flood, D. J.; Weinberg, Irving

    1995-01-01

    Indium phosphide is considered to be a strong contender for many photovoltaic space applications because of its radiation resistance and its potential for high efficiency. An overview of recent progress is presented, and possible future research directions for indium phosphide space solar cells are discussed. The topics considered include radiation damage studies and space flight experiments.

  10. Biomimicry 1: PC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cumberland, D C; Gunn, J; Malik, N; Holt, C M

    1998-01-01

    The surface properties of stents can be modified by coating them, for example with a polymer. Phosphorylcoline (PC) is the major component of the outer layer of the cell membrane. The haemo- and biocompatibility of a PC-containing polymer is thus based on biomimicry, and has been confirmed by several experiments showing much reduced thrombogenicity of PC-coated surfaces, and porcine coronary artery implants showing no sign of adverse effect. Clinical experience with the PC-coated BiodivYsio appears favourable. The PC coating can be tailored for take up and controlled elution of various drugs for stent-based local delivery, a property which is being actively explored.

  11. Poster session ELIPGRID-PC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davidson, J.R.

    1995-01-01

    ELIPGRID-PC, a new personal computer program, has been developed to provide easy access to Singer's ELIPGRID algorithm for hot-spot detection probabilities. Three features of the program are the ability to determine: (1) the grid size required for specified conditions, (2) the smallest hot spot that can be sampled with a given probability, and (3) the approximate grid size resulting from specified conditions and sampling cost. ELIPGRID-PC also provides probability of detection versus cost data for graphing with spreadsheets or graphics software. The program has been successfully tested using Singer's published ELIPGRID results. An apparent error in the published ELIPGRID code has been uncovered and an appropriate modification incorporated into the new program

  12. Monte Carlo tests of the ELIPGRID-PC algorithm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davidson, J.R.

    1995-04-01

    The standard tool for calculating the probability of detecting pockets of contamination called hot spots has been the ELIPGRID computer code of Singer and Wickman. The ELIPGRID-PC program has recently made this algorithm available for an IBM reg-sign PC. However, no known independent validation of the ELIPGRID algorithm exists. This document describes a Monte Carlo simulation-based validation of a modified version of the ELIPGRID-PC code. The modified ELIPGRID-PC code is shown to match Monte Carlo-calculated hot-spot detection probabilities to within ±0.5% for 319 out of 320 test cases. The one exception, a very thin elliptical hot spot located within a rectangular sampling grid, differed from the Monte Carlo-calculated probability by about 1%. These results provide confidence in the ability of the modified ELIPGRID-PC code to accurately predict hot-spot detection probabilities within an acceptable range of error

  13. Low temperature synthesis of ternary metal phosphides using plasma for asymmetric supercapacitors

    KAUST Repository

    Liang, Hanfeng; Xia, Chuan; Jiang, Qiu; Gandi, Appala; Schwingenschlö gl, Udo; Alshareef, Husam N.

    2017-01-01

    We report a versatile route for the preparation of metal phosphides using PH plasma for supercapacitor applications. The high reactivity of plasma allows rapid and low temperature conversion of hydroxides into monometallic, bimetallic, or even more

  14. Solubility limit and precipitation kinetics of iron-phosphide in ferritic iron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Shigeru

    1992-01-01

    The solubility limit of iron-phosphide in ferritic iron was examined with electrical resistivity measurements by using the relationship between resistivity and the amount of dissolved phosphorous. The temperature dependence of the solubility obtained was in good agreement with previous results. The kinetics of precipitation of the phosphide from a supersaturated Fe-3.75 at.% P alloy was also investigated with changes of the resistivity by isochronal and isothermal annealing. The activation energy for the precipitation process of the phosphide was about 2.6 eV. Diffusivities of phosphorus were estimated from the annealing behaviour and the morphology of the precipitates, which were comparable to those obtained with the tracer method previously. This suggests that the precipitation process of phosphide is rate controlled by diffusion of phosphorus in ferritic iron-phosphorus alloys. (orig.) [de

  15. Aluminum Phosphide; the Most Fatal Rodenticide and Fungicide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Afshari, R.

    2007-01-01

    Introduction: Aluminum phosphide (AP) is a fumigate agent, which is also used to control rodents and pests in grain storage facilities. This agent is commonly used in low income and agricultural communities. AP is easily available, cheap and highly toxic. Ingestion of even half a fresh tablet invariably results in death. Its suicidal or accidental poisoning is a medical emergency, while in some low income countries it reaches to more than two third of poisoning deaths. Methods: PubMed was systematically searched (December 2006) for articles related to aluminium phosphide poisoning. 24 articles were finally included. Mechanism of action; AP on exposure to moisture, liberates highly toxic gas, phosphine. In animal and human models AP rapidly inhibits cytochrome-c oxidase leading to inhibition of mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation and inhibits mitochondrial respiration and has cytotoxic action. Clinical Findings: Initial findings of intoxication may be nonspecific and transient. The symptoms may resolve within several hours after removal from exposure. It, however, produces phosphine gas, which is a mitochondrial poison. Its manufacturing and application pose risks of inhalation of phosphine. CNS; GCS is fine at the beginning. Biochemistry; Metabolic acidosis and liver dysfunction are reported. Shock is frequent. Respiratory Tract; Acute dyspnoea, hypotension, bradycardia and other signs of intoxication were also stated. Gastrointestinal; Reported short-segment esophageal strictures in the upper and mid esophagus, successfully managed by endoscopic dilatation. In sub-chronic use, degenerative changes in liver, heart and kidney of rabbits are reported. Cardiovascular; The ECG abnormalities are common and include hypotension, bradycardia, ST-T changes, Supraventricular tachycardia, ventricular ectopics, life threatening ventricular tachycardia, ventricular fibrillation, atrial flutter/fibrillation, variable degrees of heart block and toxic myocarditis. Haematologic

  16. Changes in Some Hematology Parameters in poisoning with Rice Tablet (Aluminum Phosphide)

    OpenAIRE

    Farshid Fayyaz (PhD)

    2015-01-01

    Background and Objective: Aluminum Phosphide (ALP) is a solid non-organic phosphide with dark gray or dark yellow crystals. It reacts with stomach acid after ingestion and causes phosphine gas to be released. It is thought that phosphine causes toxicity from enzymatic interference and may even lead to cell death. This study aimed to investigate the effects of poisoning with rice tablet on levels of platelets, hemoglobin, white blood cells. Methods: The clinical records of 67 cases of acute...

  17. Solar cells with gallium phosphide/silicon heterojunction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darnon, Maxime; Varache, Renaud; Descazeaux, Médéric; Quinci, Thomas; Martin, Mickaël; Baron, Thierry; Muñoz, Delfina

    2015-09-01

    One of the limitations of current amorphous silicon/crystalline silicon heterojunction solar cells is electrical and optical losses in the front transparent conductive oxide and amorphous silicon layers that limit the short circuit current. We propose to grow a thin (5 to 20 nm) crystalline Gallium Phosphide (GaP) by epitaxy on silicon to form a more transparent and more conducting emitter in place of the front amorphous silicon layers. We show that a transparent conducting oxide (TCO) is still necessary to laterally collect the current with thin GaP emitter. Larger contact resistance of GaP/TCO increases the series resistance compared to amorphous silicon. With the current process, losses in the IR region associated with silicon degradation during the surface preparation preceding GaP deposition counterbalance the gain from the UV region. A first cell efficiency of 9% has been obtained on ˜5×5 cm2 polished samples.

  18. Optical properties of indium phosphide nanowire ensembles at various temperatures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lohn, Andrew J; Onishi, Takehiro; Kobayashi, Nobuhiko P [Baskin School of Engineering, University of California Santa Cruz, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Nanostructured Energy Conversion Technology and Research (NECTAR), Advanced Studies Laboratories, University of California Santa Cruz-NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, CA 94035 (United States)

    2010-09-03

    Ensembles that contain two types (zincblende and wurtzite) of indium phosphide nanowires grown on non-single crystalline surfaces were studied by micro-photoluminescence and micro-Raman spectroscopy at various low temperatures. The obtained spectra are discussed with the emphasis on the effects of differing lattice types, geometries, and crystallographic orientations present within an ensemble of nanowires grown on non-single crystalline surfaces. In the photoluminescence spectra, a typical Varshni dependence of band gap energy on temperature was observed for emissions from zincblende nanowires and in the high temperature regime energy transfer from excitonic transitions and band-edge transitions was identified. In contrast, the photoluminescence emissions associated with wurtzite nanowires were rather insensitive to temperature. Raman spectra were collected simultaneously from zincblende and wurtzite nanowires coexisting in an ensemble. Raman peaks of the wurtzite nanowires are interpreted as those related to the zincblende nanowires by a folding of the phonon dispersion.

  19. AC surface photovoltage of indium phosphide nanowire networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lohn, Andrew J.; Kobayashi, Nobuhiko P. [California Univ., Santa Cruz, CA (United States). Baskin School of Engineering; California Univ., Santa Cruz, CA (US). Nanostructured Energy Conversion Technology and Research (NECTAR); NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, CA (United States). Advanced Studies Laboratories

    2012-06-15

    Surface photovoltage is used to study the dynamics of photogenerated carriers which are transported through a highly interconnected three-dimensional network of indium phosphide nanowires. Through the nanowire network charge transport is possible over distances far in excess of the nanowire lengths. Surface photovoltage was measured within a region 10.5-14.5 mm from the focus of the illumination, which was chopped at a range of frequencies from 15 Hz to 30 kHz. Carrier dynamics were modeled by approximating the nanowire network as a thin film, then fitted to experiment suggesting diffusion of electrons and holes at approximately 75% of the bulk value in InP but with significantly reduced built-in fields, presumably due to screening by nanowire surfaces. (orig.)

  20. Optical properties of indium phosphide nanowire ensembles at various temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lohn, Andrew J; Onishi, Takehiro; Kobayashi, Nobuhiko P

    2010-01-01

    Ensembles that contain two types (zincblende and wurtzite) of indium phosphide nanowires grown on non-single crystalline surfaces were studied by micro-photoluminescence and micro-Raman spectroscopy at various low temperatures. The obtained spectra are discussed with the emphasis on the effects of differing lattice types, geometries, and crystallographic orientations present within an ensemble of nanowires grown on non-single crystalline surfaces. In the photoluminescence spectra, a typical Varshni dependence of band gap energy on temperature was observed for emissions from zincblende nanowires and in the high temperature regime energy transfer from excitonic transitions and band-edge transitions was identified. In contrast, the photoluminescence emissions associated with wurtzite nanowires were rather insensitive to temperature. Raman spectra were collected simultaneously from zincblende and wurtzite nanowires coexisting in an ensemble. Raman peaks of the wurtzite nanowires are interpreted as those related to the zincblende nanowires by a folding of the phonon dispersion.

  1. Thermoelectric properties of boron and boron phosphide CVD wafers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumashiro, Y.; Yokoyama, T.; Sato, A.; Ando, Y. [Yokohama National Univ. (Japan)

    1997-10-01

    Electrical and thermal conductivities and thermoelectric power of p-type boron and n-type boron phosphide wafers with amorphous and polycrystalline structures were measured up to high temperatures. The electrical conductivity of amorphous boron wafers is compatible to that of polycrystals at high temperatures and obeys Mott`s T{sup -{1/4}} rule. The thermoelectric power of polycrystalline boron decreases with increasing temperature, while that of amorphous boron is almost constant in a wide temperature range. The weak temperature dependence of the thermal conductivity of BP polycrystalline wafers reflects phonon scattering by grain boundaries. Thermal conductivity of an amorphous boron wafer is almost constant in a wide temperature range, showing a characteristic of a glass. The figure of merit of polycrystalline BP wafers is 10{sup -7}/K at high temperatures while that of amorphous boron is 10{sup -5}/K.

  2. Phosphorus Dimerization in Gallium Phosphide at High Pressure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lavina, Barbara [High Pressure Science and Engineering Center, University of Nevada, Las Vegas, Nevada 89154, United States; Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Nevada, Las Vegas, Nevada 89154, United States; Kim, Eunja [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Nevada, Las Vegas, Nevada 89154, United States; Cynn, Hyunchae [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94550, United States; Weck, Philippe F. [Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87185, United States; Seaborg, Kelly [High Pressure Science and Engineering Center, University of Nevada, Las Vegas, Nevada 89154, United States; Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Nevada, Las Vegas, Nevada 89154, United States; Siska, Emily [High Pressure Science and Engineering Center, University of Nevada, Las Vegas, Nevada 89154, United States; Meng, Yue [HPCAT, Carnegie Institution of Washington, Argonne, Illinois 60439, United States; Evans, William [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94550, United States

    2018-02-09

    Using combined experimental and computational approaches, we show that at 43 GPa and 1300 K gallium phosphide adopts the super-Cmcm structure, here indicated with its Pearson notation oS24. First-principles enthalpy calculations demonstrate that this structure is more thermodynamically stable above ~20 GPa than previously proposed polymorphs. Here, in contrast to other polymorphs, the oS24 phase shows a strong bonding differentiation and distorted fivefold coordination geometries of both P atoms. The shortest bond of the phase is a single covalent P–P bond measuring 2.171(11) Å at synthesis pressure. Phosphorus dimerization in GaP sheds light on the nature of the super-Cmcm phase and provides critical new insights into the high-pressure polymorphism of octet semiconductors. Bond directionality and anisotropy explain the relatively low symmetry of this high-pressure phase.

  3. A PC based thin film dosimeter system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miller, A.; Hargittai, P.; Kovacs, A.

    2000-01-01

    A dosimeter system based on the Riso B3 dosimeter film, an office scanner for use with PC and the associated software is presented. The scanned image is analyzed either with standard software (Paint Shop Pro 5 or Excel) functions or with the computer code "Scanalizer" that allows presentation...

  4. PC-BLAS, PC Linear Algebra Subroutines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanson, R.J.

    1989-01-01

    1 - Description of program or function: PC-BLAS is a highly optimized version of the Basic Linear Algebra Subprograms (BLAS), a standardized set of 38 routines that perform low-level operations on vectors of numbers in single- and double-precision real and complex arithmetic. Routines are included to find the index of the largest component of a vector, apply a Givens or modified Givens rotation, multiply a vector by a constant, determine the Euclidean length, perform a dot product, swap and copy vectors, and find the norm of a vector. 2 - Restrictions on the complexity of the problem: The number of components in any vector and the spacing or stride between their entries must not exceed 32,767 (2 15 -1). PC-BLAS will not work with an 80286 CPU operating in 'protected' mode

  5. PC clusters at CERN's PC farm

    CERN Multimedia

    Patrice Loïez

    2001-01-01

    These Linux-based PC clusters are mainly used for batch and interactive data processing. When the LHC starts operation in 2008, it will produce enough data every year to fill a stack of CDS 20 km tall, so high quality processing is required. To further facilitate this the LHC Computing Grid (LCG) has been set up to share processing power between facilities around the world.

  6. The PC graphics handbook

    CERN Document Server

    Sanchez, Julio

    2003-01-01

    Part I - Graphics Fundamentals PC GRAPHICS OVERVIEW History and Evolution Short History of PC Video PS/2 Video Systems SuperVGA Graphics Coprocessors and Accelerators Graphics Applications State-of-the-Art in PC Graphics 3D Application Programming Interfaces POLYGONAL MODELING Vector and Raster Data Coordinate Systems Modeling with Polygons IMAGE TRANSFORMATIONS Matrix-based Representations Matrix Arithmetic 3D Transformations PROGRAMMING MATRIX TRANSFORMATIONS Numeric Data in Matrix Form Array Processing PROJECTIONS AND RENDERING Perspective The Rendering Pipeline LIGHTING AND SHADING Lightin

  7. Leo II PC

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — LEO II is a second-generation software system developed for use on the PC, which is designed to convert location references accurately between legal descriptions and...

  8. Novel, high-activity hydroprocessing catalysts: Iron group phosphides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xianqin

    A series of iron, cobalt and nickel transition metal phosphides was synthesized by means of temperature-programmed reduction (TPR) of the corresponding phosphates. The same materials, Fe2P, CoP and NO, were also prepared on a silica (SiO2) support. The phase purity of these catalysts was established by x-ray diffraction (XRD), and the surface properties were determined by N2 BET specific surface area (Sg) measurements and CO chemisorption. The activities of the silica-supported catalysts were tested in a three-phase trickle bed reactor for the simultaneous hydrodenitrogenation (HDN) of quinoline and hydrodesulfurization (HDS) of dibenzothiophene using a model liquid feed at realistic conditions (30 atm, 370°C). The reactivity studies showed that the nickel phosphide (Ni2P/SiO2) was the most active of the catalysts. Compared with a commercial Ni-Mo-S/gamma-Al 2O3 catalyst at the same conditions, Ni2P/silica had a substantially higher HDS activity (100% vs. 76%) and HDN activity (82% vs. 38%). Because of their good hydrotreating activity, an extensive study of the preparation of silica supported nickel phosphides, Ni2P/SiO 2, was carried out. The parameters investigated were the phosphorus content and the weight loading of the active phase. The most active composition was found to have a starting synthesis Ni/P ratio close to 1/2, and the best loading of this sample on silica was observed to be 18 wt.%. Extended x-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) and x-ray absorption near edge spectroscopy (XANES) measurements were employed to determine the structures of the supported samples. The main phase before and after reaction was found to be Ni2P, but some sulfur was found to be retained after reaction. A comprehensive scrutiny of the HDN reaction mechanism was also made over the Ni2P/SiO2 sample (Ni/P = 1/2) by comparing the HDN activity of a series of piperidine derivatives of different structure. It was found that piperidine adsorption involved an alpha-H activation

  9. Gallium Phosphide Integrated with Silicon Heterojunction Solar Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chaomin

    It has been a long-standing goal to epitaxially integrate III-V alloys with Si substrates which can enable low-cost microelectronic and optoelectronic systems. Among the III-V alloys, gallium phosphide (GaP) is a strong candidate, especially for solar cells applications. Gallium phosphide with small lattice mismatch ( 0.4%) to Si enables coherent/pseudomorphic epitaxial growth with little crystalline defect creation. The band offset between Si and GaP suggests that GaP can function as an electron-selective contact, and it has been theoretically shown that GaP/Si integrated solar cells have the potential to overcome the limitations of common a-Si based heterojunction (SHJ) solar cells. Despite the promising potential of GaP/Si heterojunction solar cells, there are two main obstacles to realize high performance photovoltaic devices from this structure. First, the growth of the polar material (GaP) on the non-polar material (Si) is a challenge in how to suppress the formation of structural defects, such as anti-phase domains (APD). Further, it is widely observed that the minority-carrier lifetime of the Si substrates is significantly decreased during epitaxially growth of GaP on Si. In this dissertation, two different GaP growth methods were compared and analyzed, including migration-enhanced epitaxy (MEE) and traditional molecular beam epitaxy (MBE). High quality GaP can be realized on precisely oriented (001) Si substrates by MBE growth, and the investigation of structural defect creation in the GaP/Si epitaxial structures was conducted using high resolution X-ray diffraction (HRXRD) and high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM). The mechanisms responsible for lifetime degradation were further investigated, and it was found that external fast diffusors are the origin for the degradation. Two practical approaches including the use of both a SiNx diffusion barrier layer and P-diffused layers, to suppress the Si minority-carrier lifetime degradation

  10. Optical and Electrical Characterization of Melt-Grown Bulk Indium Gallium Arsenide and Indium Arsenic Phosphide Alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-01

    spectrum, photoluminescence (PL), and refractive index measurements. Other methods such as infrared imagery and micro probe wavelength dispersing ...States. AFIT/DS/ENP/11-M02 OPTICAL AND ELECTRICAL CHARACTERIZATION OF MELT- GROWN BULK INDIUM GALLIUM ARSENIDE AND INDIUM ARSENIC PHOSPHIDE ...CHARACTERIZATION OF MELT-GROWN BULK INDIUM GALLIUM ARSENIDE AND INDIUM ARSENIC PHOSPHIDE ALLOYS Jean Wei, BS, MS Approved

  11. Phosphidation of Li4Ti5O12 nanoparticles and their electrochemical and biocompatible superiority for lithium rechargeable batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jo, Mi Ru; Nam, Ki Min; Lee, Youngmin; Song, Kyeongse; Park, Joon T; Kang, Yong-Mook

    2011-11-07

    Phosphidated-Li(4)Ti(5)O(12) shows high capacity with a significantly enhanced kinetics opening new possibilities for ultra-fast charge/discharge of lithium rechargeable batteries. The in vitro cytotoxicity test proves its fabulous cell viability, indicating that the toxicity problem of nanoparticles can be also solved by phosphidation. This journal is © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2011

  12. Optical Properties of Strained Wurtzite Gallium Phosphide Nanowires

    KAUST Repository

    Greil, J.

    2016-06-08

    Wurtzite gallium phosphide (WZ GaP) has been predicted to exhibit a direct bandgap in the green spectral range. Optical transitions, however, are only weakly allowed by the symmetry of the bands. While efficient luminescence has been experimentally shown, the nature of the transitions is not yet clear. Here we apply tensile strain up to 6% and investigate the evolution of the photoluminescence (PL) spectrum of WZ GaP nanowires (NWs). The pressure and polarization dependence of the emission together with a theoretical analysis of strain effects is employed to establish the nature and symmetry of the transitions. We identify the emission lines to be related to localized states with significant admixture of Γ7c symmetry and not exclusively related to the Γ8c conduction band minimum (CBM). The results emphasize the importance of strongly bound state-related emission in the pseudodirect semiconductor WZ GaP and contribute significantly to the understanding of the optoelectronic properties of this novel material.

  13. Scaling Relations for Adsorption Energies on Doped Molybdenum Phosphide Surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fields, Meredith; Tsai, Charlie; Chen, Leanne D.; Abild-Pedersen, Frank; Nørskov, Jens K.; Chan, Karen

    2017-01-01

    Molybdenum phosphide (MoP), a well-documented catalyst for applications ranging from hydrotreating reactions to electrochemical hydrogen evolution, has yet to be mapped from a more fundamental perspective, particularly in the context of transition-metal scaling relations. In this work, we use periodic density functional theory to extend linear scaling arguments to doped MoP surfaces and understand the behavior of the phosphorus active site. The derived linear relationships for hydrogenated C, N, and O species on a variety of doped surfaces suggest that phosphorus experiences a shift in preferred bond order depending on the degree of hydrogen substitution on the adsorbate molecule. This shift in phosphorus hybridization, dependent on the bond order of the adsorbate to the surface, can result in selective bond weakening or strengthening of chemically similar species. As a result, we discuss how this behavior deviates from transition-metal, sulfide, carbide, and nitride scaling relations, and we discuss potential applications in the context of electrochemical reduction reactions.

  14. Thermal Properties and Phonon Spectral Characterization of Synthetic Boron Phosphide for High Thermal Conductivity Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Joon Sang; Wu, Huan; Hu, Yongjie

    2017-12-13

    Heat dissipation is an increasingly critical technological challenge in modern electronics and photonics as devices continue to shrink to the nanoscale. To address this challenge, high thermal conductivity materials that can efficiently dissipate heat from hot spots and improve device performance are urgently needed. Boron phosphide is a unique high thermal conductivity and refractory material with exceptional chemical inertness, hardness, and high thermal stability, which holds high promises for many practical applications. So far, however, challenges with boron phosphide synthesis and characterization have hampered the understanding of its fundamental properties and potential applications. Here, we describe a systematic thermal transport study based on a synergistic synthesis-experimental-modeling approach: we have chemically synthesized high-quality boron phosphide single crystals and measured their thermal conductivity as a record-high 460 W/mK at room temperature. Through nanoscale ballistic transport, we have, for the first time, mapped the phonon spectra of boron phosphide and experimentally measured its phonon mean free-path spectra with consideration of both natural and isotope-pure abundances. We have also measured the temperature- and size-dependent thermal conductivity and performed corresponding calculations by solving the three-dimensional and spectral-dependent phonon Boltzmann transport equation using the variance-reduced Monte Carlo method. The experimental results are in good agreement with that predicted by multiscale simulations and density functional theory, which together quantify the heat conduction through the phonon mode dependent scattering process. Our finding underscores the promise of boron phosphide as a high thermal conductivity material for a wide range of applications, including thermal management and energy regulation, and provides a detailed, microscopic-level understanding of the phonon spectra and thermal transport mechanisms of

  15. First-principles study of the structural and electronic properties of III-phosphides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahmed, Rashid [Centre for High Energy Physics, University of the Punjab, Lahore 54590 (Pakistan)], E-mail: rasofi@hotmail.com; Fazal-e-Aleem [Centre for High Energy Physics, University of the Punjab, Lahore 54590 (Pakistan); Hashemifar, S. Javad; Akbarzadeh, Hadi [Department of Physics, Isfahan University of Technology, Isfahan 84156 (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2008-05-01

    We use density functional theory and different forms of the exchange-correlation approximation to calculate the structural and electronic properties of tetrahedrally coordinated III-phosphide semiconductors. The computed results for structural properties using generalized gradient approximation (GGA) agree well with the experimental data. For reliable description of energy band gap values, another form of GGA developed by Engel and Vosko has been applied. As anticipated, boron phosphide was found to be the hardest compound due to the strong B-P covalent bonding.

  16. A CASE REPORT ON ZINC PHOSPHIDE POISONING AND ITS RARE EFFECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naga Raghunandan Thota

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Zinc phosphide is widely in use as a rodenticide. After ingestion, it gets converted to phosphine gas, which is subsequently absorbed into the bloodstream through the stomach and the intestines and gets captured by the liver and the lungs. The toxic effects of zinc phosphide poisoning is through the phosphine gas that produces various metabolic and non-metabolic intermediate compounds. Patients develop features of shock, myocarditis, pericarditis, acute pulmonary oedema and congestive heart failure. In this case report, we present a common complication of the poison that manifested earlier than it is depicted in the current literature.

  17. Building the perfect PC

    CERN Document Server

    Thompson, Robert Bruce

    2006-01-01

    This popular Build-It-Yourself (BIY) PC book covers everything you want to know about building your own system: Planning and picking out the right components, step-by-step instructions for assembling your perfect PC, and an insightful discussion of why you'd want to do it in the first place. Most big brand computers from HP, Dell and others use lower-quality components so they can meet their aggressive pricing targets. But component manufacturers also make high-quality parts that you can either purchase directly, or obtain through distributors and resellers. Consumers and corporations

  18. The correspondence between projective codes and 2-weight codes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brouwer, A.E.; Eupen, van M.J.M.; Tilborg, van H.C.A.; Willems, F.M.J.

    1994-01-01

    The hyperplanes intersecting a 2-weight code in the same number of points obviously form the point set of a projective code. On the other hand, if we have a projective code C, then we can make a 2-weight code by taking the multiset of points E PC with multiplicity "Y(w), where W is the weight of

  19. Label swapper device for spectral amplitude coded optical packet networks monolithically integrated on InP

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Muñoz, P.; García-Olcina, R.; Habib, C.; Chen, L.R.; Leijtens, X.J.M.; Vries, de T.; Robbins, D.J.; Capmany, J.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper the design, fabrication and experimental characterization of an spectral amplitude coded (SAC) optical label swapper monolithically integrated on Indium Phosphide (InP) is presented. The device has a footprint of 4.8x1.5 mm2 and is able to perform label swapping operations required in

  20. Acute aluminium phosphide poisoning: Can we predict mortality?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashu Mathai

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In India, acute aluminium phosphide poisoning (AAlPP is a serious health care problem. This study aimed to determine the characteristics of AAlPP and the predictors of mortality at the time of patients′ admission. We studied consecutive admissions of patients with AAlPP admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU between November 2004 and October 2006. We noted 38 parameters at admission to the hospital and the ICU and compared survivor and non-survivor groups. A total of 27 patients were enrolled comprising5 females and 22 males and the mean ingested dose of poison was 0.75 ± 0.745 grams. Hypotension was noted in 24 patients (89% at admission and electrocardiogram abnormalities were noted in 13 patients (48.1%. The mean pH on admission was 7.20 ± 0.14 and the mean bicarbonate concentration was 12.32 ± 5.45 mmol/ L. The mortality from AAlPP was 59.3%. We found the following factors to be associated with an increased risk of mortality: a serum creatinine concentration of more than 1.0 mg % (P = 0.01, pH value less than 7.2 (P = 0.014, serum bicarbonate value less than 15 mmol/L (P = 0.048, need for mechanical ventilation (P = 0.045, need for vasoactive drugs like dobutamine (P = 0.027 and nor adrenaline (P = 0.048 and a low APACHE II score at admission (P = 0.019. AAlPP causes high mortality primarily due to early haemodynamic failure and multi-organ dysfunction

  1. Frequency of Cardiac Arrhythmias in Patients with Aluminum Phosphide Poisoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umair Aziz

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cardiac failure is the major lethal consequence of aluminum phosphide (AlP poisoning. This study was designed to determine the frequency of cardiac arrhythmias in patients with AlP poisoning. Methods: In this prospective cross-sectional study, patients with definitive history of AlP poisoning treated at emergency department of Allied Hospital Faisalabad, Faisalabad, Pakistan, from July 2013 to November 2014 were included. On admission, twelve-lead electrocardiogram (ECG was performed for all patients. During admission, all patients underwent continuous cardiac monitoring using a cardiac monitor. If an arrhythmia was suspected on the cardiac monitor, another ECG was obtained immediately.  Results: During the study period, 100 patients with AlP poisoning (63% men were treated at Allied Hospital Faisalabad. Mean age of the patients was 26.7 ± 7.9 years ranging from 16 to 54 years. Tachycardia was detected in 68 patients and bradycardia in 12 patients. Hypotension was observed in 75 patients. Eighty patients developed cardiac arrhythmia. The most frequent arrhythmia was atrial fibrillation (31% of patients followed by ventricular fibrillation (20%, ventricular tachycardia (17%, 3rd degree AV block (7% and 2nd degree AV block (5%. In total, 78 patients died, depicting a 78% mortality rate following wheat pill poisoning. Among those who died, seventy-one patients had cardiac arrhythmia. Comparison of death rate between patients with and without cardiac arrhythmia showed a significant difference (71/80 (88.8% vs. 7/20 (35%; P < 0.001.  Conclusion: Wheat pill poisoning causes a very high mortality, and circulatory collapse is the major cause of death among these patients. Most of the patients with AlP poisoning develop cardiac arrhythmias which are invariably life threatening. Early detection of cardiac disorders and proper management of arrhythmias may reduce mortalities.

  2. Aluminium Phosphide Poisoning: Two Pediatric Patients and Two Different Clinical Outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faruk Ekinci

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Aluminium phosphide is an insecticide that turns into a quite toxic gas called phosphine when contacts with gastric fluids. Aluminium phosphide poisoning causes severe metabolic acidosis, acute respiratory distress syndrome and multi-organ failure with cardiogenic shock. Our first case was an-18-year-old girl admitted to our emergency department two hours after ingestion of one tablet containing 500 mg aluminium phosphide in a suicide attempt. Venoarterial extracorporeal membrane oxygenation was started one hour after initiation of inotropic agents. Despite improvement in hemodynamic status, she developed refractory arrhythmias at the12th hour and she died 22 hours after admission. The second case was a two-year-old girl who was admitted to our emergency department because of observing a piece of aluminum phosphide 500 mg tablet broken in her mouth. Her vital signs were stable in the follow-up. The patient who had no problems in the follow-up was discharged at 48 hours.

  3. Novel p-n heterojunction copper phosphide/cuprous oxide photocathode for solar hydrogen production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ying-Chu; Chen, Zhong-Bo; Hsu, Yu-Kuei

    2018-08-01

    A Copper phosphide (Cu 3 P) micro-rod (MR) array, with coverage by an n-Cu 2 O thin layer by electrodeposition as a photocathode, has been directly fabricated on copper foil via simple electro-oxidation and phosphidation for photoelectrochemical (PEC) hydrogen production. The morphology, structure, and composition of the Cu 3 P/Cu 2 O heterostructure are systematically analyzed using a scanning electron microscope (SEM), X-ray diffraction and X-ray photoelectron spectra. The PEC measurements corroborate that the p-Cu 3 P/n-Cu 2 O heterostructural photocathode illustrates efficient charge separation and low charge transfer resistance to achieve the highest photocurrent of 430 μA cm -2 that is greater than other transition metal phosphide materials. In addition, a detailed energy diagram of the p-Cu 3 P/n-Cu 2 O heterostructure was investigated using Mott-Schottky analysis. Our study paves the way to explore phosphide-based materials in a new class for solar energy applications. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Low temperature synthesis of ternary metal phosphides using plasma for asymmetric supercapacitors

    KAUST Repository

    Liang, Hanfeng

    2017-04-06

    We report a versatile route for the preparation of metal phosphides using PH plasma for supercapacitor applications. The high reactivity of plasma allows rapid and low temperature conversion of hydroxides into monometallic, bimetallic, or even more complex nanostructured phosphides. These same phosphides are much more difficult to synthesize by conventional methods. Further, we present a general strategy for significantly enhancing the electrochemical performance of monometallic phosphides by substituting extrinsic metal atoms. Using NiCoP as a demonstration, we show that the Co substitution into NiP not only effectively alters the electronic structure and improves the intrinsic reactivity and electrical conductivity, but also stabilizes Ni species when used as supercapacitor electrode materials. As a result, the NiCoP nanosheet electrodes achieve high electrochemical activity and good stability in 1 M KOH electrolyte. More importantly, our assembled NiCoP nanoplates//graphene films asymmetric supercapacitor devices can deliver a high energy density of 32.9 Wh kg at a power density of 1301 W kg, along with outstanding cycling performance (83% capacity retention after 5000 cycles at 20 A g). This activity outperforms most of the NiCo-based materials and renders the NiCoP nanoplates a promising candidate for capacitive storage devices.

  5. Peculiarities of electrooptical characteristics of gallium phosphide light-emitting diodes in high injection level conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. M. Hontaruk

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Electroluminescence of green N-doped gallium phosphide light-emitting diodes was studied. The negative differential resistance region in the current-voltage characteristics was found at low temperature (Т ≤ 90 К. Possible reason of this phenomenon is the redistribution of recombinational flows between annihilation channels on isolated nitrogen atoms and annihilation channel on the NN1 pairs.

  6. Effect of aluminium phosphide on some metabolites of the liver and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aluminium phosphide induced changes in some metabolic parameters in Parophiocephalus obscurus were assessed. Parophiocephalus obscurus (mean length, 18.00±0.09cm and mean weight, 65.03±0.03g) were acclimatized to laboratory condition for 10 days and then exposed to varying sublethal concentrations of ...

  7. Synthesis and catalytic activity of the metastable phase of gold phosphide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernando, Deshani; Nigro, Toni A.E.; Dyer, I.D. [Department of Chemistry, 107 Physical Sciences I, Oklahoma State University, Stillwater, OK 74078 (United States); Alia, Shaun M.; Pivovar, Bryan S. [Chemical and Materials Science Center, National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, CO 80401 (United States); Vasquez, Yolanda, E-mail: yolanda.vasquez@okstate.edu [Department of Chemistry, 107 Physical Sciences I, Oklahoma State University, Stillwater, OK 74078 (United States)

    2016-10-15

    Recently, transition metal phosphides have found new applications as catalysts for the hydrogen evolution reaction that has generated an impetus to synthesize these materials at the nanoscale. In this work, Au{sub 2}P{sub 3} was synthesized utilizing the high temperature decomposition of tri-n-octylphosphine as a source of elemental phosphorous. Gold nanorods were used as morphological templates with the aim of controlling the shape and size of the resulting gold phosphide particles. We demonstrate that the surface capping ligand of the gold nanoparticle precursors can influence the purity and extent to which the gold phosphide phase will form. Gold nanorods functionalized with 1-dodecanethiol undergo digestive ripening to produce discrete spherical particles that exhibit reduced reactivity towards phosphorous, resulting in low yields of the gold phosphide. In contrast, gold phosphide was obtained as a phase pure product when cetyltrimethylammonium bromide functionalized gold nanorods are used instead. The Au{sub 2}P{sub 3} nanoparticles exhibited higher activity than polycrystalline gold towards the hydrogen evolution reaction. - Graphical abstract: Au{sub 2}P{sub 3} was synthesized utilizing the high temperature decomposition of tri-n-octylphosphine as a source of elemental phosphorous and gold nanoparticles as reactants. We demonstrate that the surface capping ligand of the gold nanoparticle precursors influence the purity and extent to which the Au{sub 2}P{sub 3} phase will form. Gold nanorods functionalized with 1-dodecanethiol undergo digestive ripening to produce discrete spherical particles that exhibit reduced reactivity towards phosphorous, resulting in low yields of the gold phosphide. In contrast, gold phosphide was obtained as a phase pure product when cetyltrimethylammonium bromide functionalized gold nanoparticles are used instead. The Au{sub 2}P{sub 3} nanoparticles exhibited higher activity than polycrystalline gold towards the hydrogen evolution

  8. Zinc phosphide toxicity with a trial of tranexamic acid in its management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdel Rahman M. El Naggar

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Zinc phosphide is a highly effective rodenticide used widely to protect grain in stores and domestically to kill rodents. Acute poisoning may be direct by ingestion or indirect through accidental inhalation of phosphine gas generated during its use. This study aims to identify the patterns of intoxication with zinc phosphide among Egyptian patients admitted to the National Egyptian Center of Clinical and Environmental Toxicological Research (NECTR; to study the role of antifibrinolytics in management of zinc phosphide toxicity; and to publish the results of the study, which include recommendations for action towards planning prevention and education programs. The study provides descriptive data and analysis of 188 cases admitted to the NECTR with acute zinc phosphide poisoning over a period of 22 months. Results show that poisoning is more common among females (60.6% of cases than males (39.4%; the mean age is nearly 21 years old. The most common cause of poisoning is suicidal attempts (83.6% followed by accidental exposure (16.4%. The most common causative factors that lead to self-poisoning are marital disharmony, economic hardship, social problems and scolding from other family members. Signs and symptoms of toxicity include gastrointestinal disturbances, respiratory compromise and changes in mental status. Other features include disseminated intravascular coagulation, hepatic and renal impairment. Metabolic disturbances had been reported. Death can result immediately due to pulmonary edema or delayed due to cardiotoxicity. Patients must be admitted to hospital and observed for at least 3 days. Symptomatic and supportive care is the mainstay of therapy. Zinc phosphide poisoning requires gastric lavage with excessive sodium bicarbonate solution. Tranexamic acid – an antifibrinolytic agent – was found to be of help in some cases. Psychosocial counseling in cases of intentional poisoning is an important aspect of overall management of the

  9. Quantum dot infrared photodetectors based on indium phosphide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gebhard, T.

    2011-01-01

    The subject of this work is a systematic study of quantum dot infrared photodetectors based on indium-phosphide substrate by means of various spectroscopic and electronic measurement methods in order to understand the physical and technological processes. This enables a concise definition of strategies in order to realize next generation devices in this material system and to gain overall progress in the research field of quantum dot infrared photodetectors. The interpretation of the experimental results is supported by analytical and numerical simulations. The samples, grown by collaboration partners, were characterized using differential transmission and fast Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, with a special emphasis on the latter one. Therefore, samples both in wedged waveguide geometry and samples with gold coated mesa structures have been processed. A large part of the discussion is dedicated to the current voltage characteristic of the devices, due to its large importance for device optimization, i.e. the reduction of the dark current plays a crucial role in the research field of high temperature infrared photon-detection. Further, results of photoluminescence measurements, performed by collaboration partners, have been used in order to attain a more complete picture of the samples' electronic band structure and in order to obtain complementary information with respect to other measurement methods applied within the experimental work and the simulation of the structures. In agreement to the simulations, a photocurrent response was observed at 6 and at 12 μm up to a temperature of 80 K, depending on the samples' design. The principle of parameter scaling was applied to the samples, in order to assign physical effects either to details in the samples' design or to technological quality aspects, i.e. the doping level and the thickness of the capping layer was varied. In addition to that a quantum well was introduced within a series of samples in order to

  10. A Plasma-Assisted Route to the Rapid Preparation of Transition-Metal Phosphides for Energy Conversion and Storage

    KAUST Repository

    Liang, Hanfeng; Alshareef, Husam N.

    2017-01-01

    with the method of preparation as the electronic, catalytic, and magnetic properties of the metal phosphides strongly depend on their synthesis routes. Commonly practiced processes such as solid-state synthesis and ball milling have proven to be reliable routes

  11. PC Scene Generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buford, James A., Jr.; Cosby, David; Bunfield, Dennis H.; Mayhall, Anthony J.; Trimble, Darian E.

    2007-04-01

    AMRDEC has successfully tested hardware and software for Real-Time Scene Generation for IR and SAL Sensors on COTS PC based hardware and video cards. AMRDEC personnel worked with nVidia and Concurrent Computer Corporation to develop a Scene Generation system capable of frame rates of at least 120Hz while frame locked to an external source (such as a missile seeker) with no dropped frames. Latency measurements and image validation were performed using COTS and in-house developed hardware and software. Software for the Scene Generation system was developed using OpenSceneGraph.

  12. ORPLOT.PC: a graphic utility for ORMGEN.PC and ORVIRT.PC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inversini, C.; Bryson, J.W.

    1986-06-01

    ORPLOT.PC is an interactive graphic utility for ORMGEN.PC and ORVIRT.PC. It executes on an IBM PC/XT or PC/AT equipped with hard disk, graphic card, and 512K minimum memory. The program is capable of: (1) displaying finite-element meshes generated by ORMGEN.PC complete with node numbers, element numbers, and boundary conditions; and (2) generating deformed mesh plots, contour plots, line (X-Y) plots, and developed surface plots of ORVIRT.PC output. A zooming feature allows detailed inspection of any subregion. Because simplicity and ease of use were important objectives during program development, all commands are entered interactively using free format. The option of automatic or user-defined scaling for most plots is another convenience. Plot files may be created and written to hard disk for subsequent hardcopy to printer or plotter. 2 refs., 7 figs

  13. Scaling-resistance of ruthenium- and ruthenium phosphides powders in argon and air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chernogorebko, V.B.; Semenov-Kobzar', A.A.; Kulik, L.Ya.

    1976-01-01

    The thermal stability of ruthenium phosphides in air diminishes as the content of phosphorus in the compound increases. The temperatures at which active oxidation of the powders starts are as follows: Ru-600, Ru 2 P-590, RuP-390, and RuP 2 -270 0 C. The oxidation of phosphorus in the phosphides proceeds in steps. The atoms of phosphorus which are most accessible to oxygen are first oxidated. Phosphorus atoms in the octahedral spaces are oxidated less easily, simultaneously with the oxidation of the ruthenium atoms. When heated in argon, Ru 2 P and RuP fuse congruently at 1,500 and 1,555 0 C respectively, while RuP 2 dissociates at 950 0 C. (author)

  14. Compton scattering studies of the electron momentum distribution in indium phosphide

    CERN Document Server

    Deb, A; Guin, R; Chatterjee, A K

    1999-01-01

    The electron momentum anisotropy of indium phosphide has been studied by measuring the directional Compton profiles of indium phosphide single crystals with the use of radiation from an sup 2 sup 4 sup 1 Am gamma source. Three different samples, cut along the [100], [110] and [111] planes, were used. The experimental anisotropy has been compared with the results based on the linear combination of Gaussian orbitals (LCGO) method. The agreement is very good with our theoretical results. It is found that the extrema appearing in the dependences on q of the anisotropies have an intimate connection with the bonding properties of the semiconductor. A self-consistent, all-electron, local density calculation for the partial density of states, total density of states and the charge analysis is also presented here.

  15. Synthesis of uniform-sized bimetallic iron-nickel phosphide nanorods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoon, Ki Youl; Jang, Youngjin; Park, Jongnam; Hwang, Yosun; Koo, Bonil; Park, Je-Geun; Hyeon, Taeghwan

    2008-01-01

    We synthesized uniform-sized nanorods of iron-nickel phosphides from the thermal decomposition of metal-phosphine complexes. Uniform-sized (Fe x Ni 1-x ) 2 P nanorods (0≤x≤1) of various compositions were synthesized by thermal decomposition of Ni-trioctylphosphine (TOP) complex and Fe-TOP complex. By measuring magnetic properties, we found that blocking temperature and coercive field depend on Ni content in the nanorods. Both parameters were more sensitive to doping compared with bulk samples. - Graphical abstract: We synthesized uniform-sized nanorods of iron-nickel phosphides from thermal decomposition of metal-phosphine complexes. The magnetic studies showed that blocking temperature and coercive field depend on Ni content in the nanorods

  16. 76 FR 5467 - Airworthiness Directives; Pilatus Aircraft Ltd. Models PC-6, PC-6-H1, PC-6-H2, PC-6/350, PC-6/350...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-01

    ...;Prices of new books are listed in the first FEDERAL REGISTER issue of each #0;week. #0; #0; #0; #0;#0..., Fairchild Heli Porter PC-6 airplanes, or Fairchild-Hiller Corporation PC-6 airplanes. Discussion Section... [[Page 5469

  17. Neutron powder diffraction studies of Hydrogen and Denterium in Palladium Phosphides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersson, Y.

    1986-01-01

    The use of the Rietveld-type profile refinements on neutron powder diffraction intensity data for determining crystallographic positions of hydrogen and deuterium in metal hydrides is illustrated by results obtained on some hydrogenated and deuterated palladium phosphides. The structural features of the solid solutions of hydrogen and deuterium in Pd/sb15/P/sb2/ Pd/sb6/P and Pd/sb3/P/sb1-u/ (0< u<0.28) are briefly presented and discussed

  18. Properties of epitaxial films of indium phosphides alloyed with erbium in strong electric fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borisov, V.I.; Dvoryankin, V.F.; Korobkin, V.A.; Kudryashov, A.A.; Lopatin, V.V.; Lyubchenko, V.E.; Telegin, A.A.

    1986-01-01

    Temperature dependences of specific resistance and free charge-carrier mobility at low temperatures for indium phosphide films grown by liquid-phase epitaxial method with erbium additions (0.01-0.1 mass%). The main mechanisms of scattering for different temperature regions: scattering on ionized impurities in the rage from 20 to 40 K and lattice scattering at the temperature above 90 K are determined. The current density dependences on applied electric field strength are presented

  19. Repairing and Upgrading Your PC

    CERN Document Server

    Thompson, Robert

    2009-01-01

    Repairing and Upgrading Your PC delivers start-to-finish instructions, simple enough for even the most inexperienced PC owner, for troubleshooting, repairing, and upgrading your computer. Written by hardware experts Robert Bruce Thompson and Barbara Fritchman Thompson, this book covers it all: how to troubleshoot a troublesome PC, how to identify which components make sense for an upgrade, and how to tear it all down and put it back together. This book shows how to repair and upgrade all of your PC's essential components.

  20. Acetaminophen and zinc phosphide for lethal management of invasive lizards Ctenosaura similis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael L. AVERY, John D. EISEMANN, Kandy L. KEACHER,Peter J. SAVARIE

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Reducing populations of invasive lizards through trapping and shooting is feasible in many cases but effective integrated management relies on a variety of tools, including toxicants. In Florida, using wild-caught non-native black spiny-tailed iguanas Ctenosaura similis, we screened acetaminophen and zinc phosphide to determine their suitability for effective population management of this prolific invasive species. Of the animals that received acetaminophen, none died except at the highest test dose, 240 mg per lizard, which is not practical for field use. Zinc phosphide produced 100% mortality at dose levels as little as 25 mg per lizard, equivalent to about 0.5% in bait which is lower than currently used in commercial baits for commensal rodent control. We conclude that zinc phosphide has potential as a useful tool for reducing populations of invasive lizards such as the black spiny-tailed iguana provided target-selective delivery methods are developed [Current Zoology 57 (5: 625–629, 2011].

  1. Ingestion of gallium phosphide nanowires has no adverse effect on Drosophila tissue function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adolfsson, Karl; Hammarin, Greger; Prinz, Christelle N; Schneider, Martina; Häcker, Udo

    2013-01-01

    Engineered nanoparticles have been under increasing scrutiny in recent years. High aspect ratio nanoparticles such as carbon nanotubes and nanowires have raised safety concerns due to their geometrical similarity to asbestos fibers. III–V epitaxial semiconductor nanowires are expected to be utilized in devices such as LEDs and solar cells and will thus be available to the public. In addition, clean-room staff fabricating and characterizing the nanowires are at risk of exposure, emphasizing the importance of investigating their possible toxicity. Here we investigated the effects of gallium phosphide nanowires on the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster. Drosophila larvae and/or adults were exposed to gallium phosphide nanowires by ingestion with food. The toxicity and tissue interaction of the nanowires was evaluated by investigating tissue distribution, activation of immune response, genome-wide gene expression, life span, fecundity and somatic mutation rates. Our results show that gallium phosphide nanowires applied through the diet are not taken up into Drosophila tissues, do not elicit a measurable immune response or changes in genome-wide gene expression and do not significantly affect life span or somatic mutation rate. (paper)

  2. Plain abdominal radiography: A powerful tool to prognosticate outcome in patients with zinc phosphide poisoning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hassanian-Moghaddam, H.; Shahnazi, Makhtoom; Zamani, N.; Rahimi, M.; Bahrami-Motlagh, H.; Amiri, H.

    2014-01-01

    Aim: To evaluate the clinical features of zinc phosphide poisoning and to investigate whether outcome could be prognosticated based on abdominal radiography on presentation. Materials and methods: All zinc phosphide-poisoned patients who were referred to Loghman-Hakim Hospital between March 2011 and September 2013 were retrospectively reviewed. Data regarding patients' demographic characteristics, characteristics of the poisoning, abdominal radiography results, and patients' outcome were recorded. Results: In 102 patients, the most common presenting signs/symptoms were nausea and vomiting (60%). Four patients died and another seven had developed complications during their hospitalization (metabolic acidosis, liver abnormalities, or acute renal failure). Nineteen patients had radio-opaque abdominal radiographs, nine of whom had died or developed complications (p = 0.001). Plain abdominal radiography had a sensitivity and specificity of 81% and 89% in predicting the patients' death or further development of complications. The positive and negative predictive values were 47% and 97%, respectively. Conclusion: Plain abdominal radiography is a very good tool for prognostication in patients with zinc phosphide poisoning. Immediate abdominal radiography can help stratify patients into high- or low-risk groups and determine treatment strategies. - Highlights: • ZP poisoning may cause severe symptoms or death although less frequent compared to ALP. • ZP-poisoned patients may deteriorate within the first 72 hours post-ingestion. • Abdominal radiography is a good tool to predict death/complications in these patients

  3. Electrocatalytic activity of cobalt phosphide-modified graphite felt toward VO2+/VO2+ redox reaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Zhijun; Wang, Ling; He, Zhangxing; Li, Yuehua; Jiang, Yingqiao; Meng, Wei; Dai, Lei

    2018-04-01

    A novel strategy for improving the electro-catalytic properties of graphite felt (GF) electrode in vanadium redox flow battery (VRFB) is designed by depositing cobalt phosphide (CoP) onto GF surface. The CoP powder is synthesized by direct carbonization of Co-based zeolitic imidazolate framework (ZIF-67) followed by phosphidation. Cyclic voltammetry results confirm that the CoP-modified graphite felt (GF-CoP) electrode has excellent reversibility and electro-catalytic activity to the VO2+/VO2+ cathodic reaction compared with the pristine GF electrode. The cell using GF-CoP electrode shows apparently higher discharge capacity over that based on GF electrode. The cell using GF-CoP electrode has the capacity of 67.2 mA h at 100 mA cm-2, 32.7 mA h larger than that using GF electrode. Compared with cell using GF electrode, the voltage efficiency of the cell based on GF-CoP electrode increases by 5.9% and energy efficiency by 5.4% at a current density of 100 mA cm-2. The cell using GF-CoP electrode can reach 94.31% capacity retention after 50 cycles at a current density of 30 mA cm-2. The results show that the CoP can effectively promote the VO2+/VO2+ redox reaction, implying that metal phosphides are a new kind of potential catalytic materials for VRFB.

  4. Orientation of Zn3P2 films via phosphidation of Zn precursors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katsube, Ryoji; Nose, Yoshitaro

    2017-02-01

    Orientation of solar absorber is an important factor to achieve high efficiency of thin film solar cells. In the case of Zn3P2 which is a promising absorber of low-cost and high-efficiency solar cells, (110)/(001) orientation was only reported in previous studies. We have successfully prepared (101)-oriented Zn3P2 films by phosphidation of (0001)-oriented Zn films at 350 °C. The phosphidation mechanism of Zn is discussed through STEM observations on the partially-reacted sample and the consideration of the relationship between the crystal structures of Zn and Zn3P2 . We revealed that (0001)-oriented Zn led to nucleation of (101)-oriented Zn3P2 due to the similarity in atomic arrangement between Zn and Zn3P2 . The electrical resistivity of the (101)-oriented Zn3P2 film was lower than those of (110)/(001)-oriented films, which is an advantage of the phosphidation technique to the growth processes in previous works. The results in this study demonstrated that well-conductive Zn3P2 films could be obtained by controlling orientations of crystal grains, and provide a guiding principle for microstructure control in absorber materials.

  5. Qualification plan for the Genmod-PC computer program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richardson, R.B.; Wright, G.M.; Dunford, D.W.; Linauskas, S.H.

    2002-07-01

    Genmod-PC is an internal dosimetry code that uses Microsoft Windows operating system, and that currently calculates radionuclide doses and intakes for an adult male. This report provides a plan for specifying the quality assurance measures that conform to the recommendations of the Canadian Standards Association, as well as AECL procedural requirements for a legacy computer program developed at AECL. (author)

  6. USL/DBMS NASA/PC R and D project C programming standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dominick, Wayne D. (Editor); Moreau, Dennis R.

    1984-01-01

    A set of programming standards intended to promote reliability, readability, and portability of C programs written for PC research and development projects is established. These standards must be adhered to except where reasons for deviation are clearly identified and approved by the PC team. Any approved deviation from these standards must also be clearly documented in the pertinent source code.

  7. ELIPGRID-PC: A PC program for calculating hot spot probabilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davidson, J.R.

    1994-10-01

    ELIPGRID-PC, a new personal computer program has been developed to provide easy access to Singer's 1972 ELIPGRID algorithm for hot-spot detection probabilities. Three features of the program are the ability to determine: (1) the grid size required for specified conditions, (2) the smallest hot spot that can be sampled with a given probability, and (3) the approximate grid size resulting from specified conditions and sampling cost. ELIPGRID-PC also provides probability of hit versus cost data for graphing with spread-sheets or graphics software. The program has been successfully tested using Singer's published ELIPGRID results. An apparent error in the original ELIPGRID code has been uncovered and an appropriate modification incorporated into the new program

  8. Engineering absorption and blackbody radiation in the far-infrared with surface phonon polaritons on gallium phosphide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Streyer, W.; Law, S.; Rosenberg, A.; Wasserman, D. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Illinois Urbana Champaign, Urbana, Illinois 61801 (United States); Roberts, C.; Podolskiy, V. A. [Department of Physics and Applied Physics, University of Massachusetts Lowell, Lowell, Massachusetts 01854 (United States); Hoffman, A. J. [Department of Electrical Engineering, University of Notre Dame, South Bend, Indiana 46556 (United States)

    2014-03-31

    We demonstrate excitation of surface phonon polaritons on patterned gallium phosphide surfaces. Control over the light-polariton coupling frequencies is demonstrated by changing the pattern periodicity and used to experimentally determine the gallium phosphide surface phonon polariton dispersion curve. Selective emission via out-coupling of thermally excited surface phonon polaritons is experimentally demonstrated. Samples are characterized experimentally by Fourier transform infrared reflection and emission spectroscopy, and modeled using finite element techniques and rigorous coupled wave analysis. The use of phonon resonances for control of emissivity and excitation of bound surface waves offers a potential tool for the exploration of long-wavelength Reststrahlen band frequencies.

  9. Essential elucidation for preparation of supported nickel phosphide upon nickel phosphate precursor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Xuguang; Xu, Lei; Zhang, Baoquan

    2014-01-01

    Preparation of supported nickel phosphide (Ni 2 P) depends on nickel phosphate precursor, generally related to its chemical composition and supports. Study of this dependence is essential and meaningful for the preparation of supported Ni 2 P with excellent catalytic activity. The chemical nature of nickel phosphate precursor is revealed by Raman and UV–vis spectra. It is found that initial P/Ni mole ratio ≥0.8 prohibits the Ni-O-Ni bridge bonding (i.e., nickel oxide). This chemical bonding will not result in Ni 2 P structure, verified by XRD characterization results. The alumina (namely, γ-Al 2 O 3 , θ-Al 2 O 3 , or α-Al 2 O 3 ) with distinct physiochemical properties also results in diverse chemical nature of nickel phosphate, and then different nickel phosphides. The influence of alumina support on producing Ni 2 P was explained by the theory of surface energy heterogeneity, calculated by the NLDFT method based on N 2 -sorption isotherm. The uniform surface energy of α-Al 2 O 3 results only in the nickel phosphosate precursor and thus the Ni 2 P phase. - Graphical abstract: Surface energy heterogeneity in alumina (namely α-Al 2 O 3 , θ-Al 2 O 3 , and γ-Al 2 O 3 ) supported multi-oxidic precursors with different reducibilities and thus diverse nickel phosphides (i.e., Ni 3 P, Ni 12 P 5 , Ni 2 P). - Highlights: • Preparing pure Ni 2 P. • Elucidating nickel phosphate precursor. • Associating with surface energy

  10. Efficient telecom to visible wavelength conversion in doubly resonant gallium phosphide microdisks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lake, David P.; Mitchell, Matthew; Jayakumar, Harishankar; dos Santos, Laís Fujii; Curic, Davor; Barclay, Paul E.

    2016-01-01

    Resonant second harmonic generation between 1550 nm and 775 nm with normalized outside efficiency > 3.8 × 10 - 4 mW - 1 is demonstrated in a gallium phosphide microdisk supporting high-Q modes at visible ( Q ˜ 10 4 ) and infrared ( Q ˜ 10 5 ) wavelengths. The double resonance condition is satisfied for a specific pump power through intracavity photothermal temperature tuning using ˜ 360 μ W of 1550 nm light input to a fiber taper and coupled to a microdisk resonance. Power dependent efficiency consistent with a simple model for thermal tuning of the double resonance condition is observed.

  11. IBM-PC-based reactor neutronics analysis package

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nigg, D.W.; Wessol, D.E.; Grimesey, R.A.; Parsons, D.K.; Wheeler, F.J.; Yoon, W.Y.; Lake, J.A.

    1985-01-01

    Technical advances over the past few years have led to a situation where a wide range of complex scientific computations can now be done on properly configured microcomputers such as the IBM-PC (personal computer). For a number of reasons, including security, economy, and user convenience, the development of a comprehensive system of reactor neutronics codes suitable for operation on the IBM-PC has been undertaken at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). It is anticipated that a PC-based code system could also have wide applicability in the nuclear engineering education community since conversion of software generated by national laboratories and others to college and university mainframe hardware has historically been a time-consuming process that has sometimes met with only limited success. This paper discusses the philosophy behind the INEL reactor neutronics PC code system and describes those parts of the system that are currently complete, those that are now under development, and those that are still in the planning stage

  12. VIDEO-PC, SVGA Routines for FORTRAN on PC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    1 - Description of program or function: These primitives are the lowest level routines needed to perform super VGA graphics on a PC. A sample main program is included that exercises the primitives. Both Lahey and Microsoft FORTRAN's have graphics libraries. However, the libraries do not support 256 color graphics at resolutions greater than 320x200. The primitives bypass these libraries while still conforming to standard usage of BIOS. The supported graphics modes depend upon the PC graphics card and its memory. Super VGA resolutions of 640x480 and 800x600 have been tested on an ATI VGA Wonder card with 512 K memory and on several 80486 PC's (unknown manufacturers) at retail stores. 2 - Method of solution: Both Lahey and Microsoft primitives depend upon sending the correct parameters to the PC BIOS (basic input output system) as discussed in the references. 3 - Restrictions on the complexity of the problem: The primitives were developed for 256 color VGA applications. It is known, for instance, that some CGA and 16 color VGA video modes will not operate correctly using these primitives. Potential users should try the test program on their PC/video card combination to determine applicability

  13. HDO of Methyl Palmitate over Silica-Supported Ni Phosphides: Insight into Ni/P Effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina V. Deliy

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Two sets of silica-supported nickel phosphide catalysts with a nickel content of about 2.5 and 10 wt % and Ni/P molar ratio 2/1, 1/1 and 1/2 in each set, were prepared by way of a temperature-programmed reduction method using (Ni(CH3COO2 and ((NH42HPO4 as a precursor. The NixPy/SiO2 catalysts were characterized using chemical analysis N2 physisorption, XRD, TEM, 31P MAS NMR. Methyl palmitate hydrodeoxygenation (HDO was performed in a trickle-bed reactor at 3 MPa and 290 °C with LHSV ranging from 0.3 to 16 h−1. The Ni/P ratio was found to affect the nickel phosphide phase composition, POx groups content and catalytic properties in methyl palmitate HDO with the TOF increased along with a decline of Ni/P ratio and a growth of POx groups’ content. Taking into account the possible routes of methyl palmitate conversion (metal-catalyzed hydrogenolysis or acid-catalyzed hydrolysis, we proposed that the enhancement of acid POx groups’ content with the Ni/P ratio decrease provides an enhancement of the rate of methyl palmitate conversion through the acceleration of acid-catalyzed hydrolysis.

  14. Three-dimensional interconnected nickel phosphide networks with hollow microstructures and desulfurization performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Shuna; Zhang, Shujuan; Song, Limin; Wu, Xiaoqing; Fang, Sheng

    2014-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Three-dimensional interconnected nickel phosphide networks with hollow microstructures and desulfurization performance. - Highlights: • Three-dimensional Ni 2 P has been prepared using foam nickel as a template. • The microstructures interconnected and formed sponge-like porous networks. • Three-dimensional Ni 2 P shows superior hydrodesulfurization activity. - Abstract: Three-dimensional microstructured nickel phosphide (Ni 2 P) was fabricated by the reaction between foam nickel (Ni) and phosphorus red. The as-prepared Ni 2 P samples, as interconnected networks, maintained the original mesh structure of foamed nickel. The crystal structure and morphology of the as-synthesized Ni 2 P were characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, automatic mercury porosimetry and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The SEM study showed adjacent hollow branches were mutually interconnected to form sponge-like networks. The investigation on pore structure provided detailed information for the hollow microstructures. The growth mechanism for the three-dimensionally structured Ni 2 P was postulated and discussed in detail. To investigate its catalytic properties, SiO 2 supported three-dimensional Ni 2 P was prepared successfully and evaluated for the hydrodesulfurization (HDS) of dibenzothiophene (DBT). DBT molecules were mostly hydrogenated and then desulfurized by Ni 2 P/SiO 2

  15. GXRD study of 100 MeV Fe9+ ion irradiated indium phosphide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dubey, R.L.; Dubey, S.K.; Kachhap, N.K.; Kanjilal, D.

    2014-01-01

    Swift heavy ions with MeV to GeV kinetic energy offer unique possibilities of modifying material properties. Each projectile passing through the target material causes loss of its energy by ion-electrons and ion-atoms interaction with the target material. The consequence of formal one is to change in surface properties and latter to produces damage deep in the target material near the projected range of projectile. In the present work, indium phosphide samples were irradiated at 100 MeV 56 Fe 9+ ions with different fluences varying from 1x10 12 to 1x10 14 ions cm -2 using the 15UD Pelletron facilities at Inter University Accelerator Centre (IUAC), New Delhi. Grazing angle X-ray diffraction technique was used to investigate the structural properties of irradiated indium phosphide at different depths. The GXRD spectra of non-irradiated and irradiated samples were recorded at different grazing angle i.e 1°, 2°, 3°, 4° and 5° to get the structural information over the projected range. The detailed result will be presented and discussed in the conference. (author)

  16. Moringa oleifera extract (Lam) attenuates Aluminium phosphide-induced acute cardiac toxicity in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gouda, Ahmed S; El-Nabarawy, Nagla A; Ibrahim, Samah F

    2018-01-01

    Moringa oleifera extract (Lam) has many antioxidant and protective properties. Objective: to investigate the antioxidant activities of Lam in counteracting the high oxidative stress caused by acute sub-lethal aluminium phosphide (AlP) intoxication in rat heart. These activities will be detected by histopathological examination and some oxidative stress biomarkers. a single sub-lethal dose of Alp (2 mg/kg body weight) was administered orally, and Lam was given orally at a dose (100 mg/kg body weight) one hour after receiving AlP to rats. aluminium phosphide caused significant cardiac histopathological changes with a significant increase in malondialdehyde (MDA); lipid peroxidation marker; and a significant depletion of antioxidant enzymes (catalase and glutathione reductase). However, treatment with Lam protected efficiently the cardiac tissue of intoxicated rats by increasing antioxidants levels with slight decreasing in MDA production compared to untreated group. This study suggested that Moringa oleifera extract could possibly restore the altered cardiac histopathology and some antioxidant power in AlP intoxicated rats, and it could even be used as adjuvant therapy against AlP-induced cardiotoxicity.

  17. Proceedings of the first international conference on indium phosphide and related materials for advanced electronic and optical devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, R.; Messick, L.J.

    1989-01-01

    This book contains the proceedings of the first international conference on indium phosphide and related materials for advanced electronic and optical devices. Topics covered include: Growth and characterization of bulk and epitaxial films, Passivation technology, Processing technology, High speed optoelectronic integrated circuits, and Solar cells

  18. Transfer and development of the PC version of ABAQUS program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Xiaofeng; Zhu Yuqiao

    1998-01-01

    The transfer and development of the PC version of ABAQUS,a large nonlinear mechanical finite element analysis program, are carried out. Some special problem such as difference of the floating data format in different computers and the computer's unusual dead halt during the data transfer is solved and the visualized I/O capability is added in the redevelopment. Thus, by utilizing the visual capability, the intensity of analysis works is reduced, and the correctness of analysis is ensured. The PC ABAQUS are tested by the standard examples from VAX version of ABAQUS and the calculation results are correct. The results of calculation of stress and deformation for CEFR shell structure with PC ABAQUS and ADINA codes agree very well

  19. Versatile PC-logger for radioisotope measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furman, L.; Petryka, L.; Przewlocki, K.; Stegowski, Z.; Wierzbicki, A.

    1998-01-01

    The logger, a personal computer and software is all to set up a radioisotope measuring system. It may find numerous applications in a wide range of disciplines: kinetics description of flow process in industry, slip velocity measurements in hydrotransport, flow rates evaluation in waste water treatment plants, nucleonic gauges in industry, ect. Readings from up to 4 scintillation detectors, the user has set to log, are stored in regular intervals. The user can set the logger to start and stop logging manually, with keyboard or from a program running on a connected PC. Stored data can be transferred to any computer with RS232 serial interface. The logger works equally well together with conventional PC's and 'lap-tops' for field work. Its internal program is stored in nonvolatile RAM. This makes it possible to upgrade or change the code by just down loading a new one. The logger is internal rechargeable batteries for measuring off-line; they remain as a back-up in case the external supply is disconnected or fails. (author)

  20. One-step facile synthesis of Ni2P/C as cathode material for Ni/Zn aqueous secondary battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, JiLan; Chen, ChangGuo

    2018-01-01

    Nickel phosphides/carbon(Ni2P/C) composites have been successfully synthesized via a simple one-pot hydrothermal method using glucose as carbon source for the first time. By contrast, the pure Ni2P was prepared under the same conditions without glucose. The results show that glucose not only provide the carbon source, but also prevent the aggregation of Ni2P particles. The as-obtained Ni2P/C composites and pure Ni2P were used as cathode material for alkaline Ni/Zn battery. Owing to unique Ni2P/C composites and loose, Ultra thin flower-like shape the synthesized Ni2P/C material delivers high capacity of 176 mAh g-1 at 1 A g-1 and 82 mAh g-1 at 5 A g-1 current density in Ni2P/C-Zn battery. Moreover, it shows a good cycling life that capacity fading only about 6.2% after 1500 cycles. All of these indicate that the prepared Ni2P/C composites may be a new promising cathode material for Ni-Zn rechargeable battery.

  1. Port virtual addressing for PC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bolanos, L.; Arista, E.; Osorio Deliz, J.F.

    1997-01-01

    Instruments for nuclear signal measurements based on add-on card for a personal computer (PC) are designed often. Then one faces the problem of the addressing of data input/output devices which show an integration level or intelligence that makes the use of several port address indispensable, and these are limited in the PC. The virtual addressing offers the advantage of the occupation of few addresses to accede to many of these devices. The principles of this technique and the appliances of a solution in radiometric in a radiometric card based on programmed logic are discussed in this paper

  2. Construction and Analysis of a Novel 2-D Optical Orthogonal Codes Based on Modified One-coincidence Sequence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Jianhua; Wang, Yanfen; Wang, Ke; Xu, Ming; Zhang, Zhipeng; Yang, Shuwen

    2013-09-01

    A new two-dimensional OOC (optical orthogonal codes) named PC/MOCS is constructed, using PC (prime code) for time spreading and MOCS (modified one-coincidence sequence) for wavelength hopping. Compared with PC/PC, the number of wavelengths for PC/MOCS is not limited to a prime number. Compared with PC/OCS, the length of MOCS need not be expanded to the same length of PC. PC/MOCS can be constructed flexibly, and also can use available wavelengths effectively. Theoretical analysis shows that PC/MOCS can reduce the bit error rate (BER) of OCDMA system, and can support more users than PC/PC and PC/OCS.

  3. Junior PC-Kørekort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansbøl, Mikala; Mathiasen, Helle

    udviklingsprojekt med forsøg med DANSK IT's Junior PC-kørekort® som metode og redskab til at evaluere og dokumentere elevernes IT-kompetencer. Projektet blev gennemført i perioden fra 2002-2003 og afsluttet i foråret 2003. Rapporten er baseret på kvalitative case studier af elever og læreres arbejde med Junior PC......-kørekort® prøverne. DANSK IT's Junior PC-kørekort® kan betragtes som et forsøg på at etablere en bestemt fælleskulturel tilgang til elevernes IT-kompetencer i folkeskolen. Ud fra et situeret læringsperspektiv problematiserer rapporten anvendelsen af de standardiserede prøver som metode til at dokumentere og evaluere...... elevernes IT-kompetencer. Rapporten (2MB) fylder 80 sider ekskl. bilag. Bemærk, at forskningsrapporten handler om Dansk IT's Junior PC-kørekort - ikke at forveksle med det IT-bevis for folkeskolens elever, som Undevisningsministeriet har udviklet. Dette IT-bevis koncept skiftede navn i januar 2004, hvor...

  4. Computer code ANISN multiplying media and shielding calculation 2. Code description (input/output)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maiorino, J.R.

    1991-01-01

    The new code CCC-0514-ANISN/PC is described, as well as a ''GENERAL DESCRIPTION OF ANISN/PC code''. In addition to the ANISN/PC code, the transmittal package includes an interactive input generation programme called APE (ANISN Processor and Evaluator), which facilitates the work of the user in giving input. Also, a 21 group photon cross section master library FLUNGP.LIB in ISOTX format, which can be edited by an executable file LMOD.EXE, is included in the package. The input and output subroutines are reviewed. 6 refs, 1 fig., 1 tab

  5. Instability of Yb3+ and Pr3+ low-symmetry luminescence centers in gallium phosphide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kasatkin, V.A.

    1985-01-01

    The stability of γb 3+ and Pr 3+ low-symmetry luminescence centers formed in gallium phosphide during quenching were studied in the process of durable storage and annealing. Observation of the Yb 3+ and Pr 3+ centrer states was accomplished by the photoluminescence spectra at 18 K. It has been established that annealing in the dark under normal conditions results in a reduced integral luminescence intensity of all low-symmetry Yb 3+ and Pr 3+ centers. Annealing of quenched GaP and GaP saples at 400 K results in complete disappearance of intracenter luminescence of Pr 3+ and low-symmetry Yb 3+ centers. Decomposition during storage and low anealing temperature point to the instability of low-symmetry centers of Pr 3+ and Yb 3+ luminescence

  6. Treatment of Aluminium Phosphide Poisoning with a Combination of Intravenous Glucagon, Digoxin and Antioxidant Agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zohreh Oghabian

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Aluminium phosphide (AlP is used to protect stored grains from rodents. It produces phosphine gas (PH3, a mitochondrial poison thought to cause toxicity by blocking the cytochrome c oxidase enzyme and inhibiting oxidative phosphorylation, which results in cell death. AlP poisoning has a high mortality rate among humans due to the rapid onset of cardiogenic shock and metabolic acidosis, despite aggressive treatment. We report a 21-yearold male who was referred to the Afzalipour Hospital, Kerman, Iran, in 2015 after having intentionally ingested a 3 g AlP tablet. He was successfully treated with crystalloid fluids, vasopressors, sodium bicarbonate, digoxin, glucagon and antioxidant agents and was discharged from the hospital six days after admission in good clinical condition. For the treatment of AlP poisoning, the combination of glucagon and digoxin with antioxidant agents should be considered. However, evaluation of further cases is necessary to optimise treatment protocols.

  7. Transition Metal Phosphide Nanoparticles Supported on SBA-15 as Highly Selective Hydrodeoxygenation Catalysts for the Production of Advanced Biofuels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yongxing; Ochoa-Hernández, Cristina; de la Peña O'Shea, Víctor A; Pizarro, Patricia; Coronado, Juan M; Serrano, David P

    2015-09-01

    A series of catalysts constituted by nanoparticles of transition metal (M = Fe, Co, Ni and Mo) phosphides (TMP) dispersed on SBA-15 were synthesized by reduction of the corresponding metal phosphate precursors previously impregnated on the mesostructured support. All the samples contained a metal-loading of 20 wt% and with an initial M/P mole ratio of 1, and they were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), N2 sorption, H2-TPR and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Metal phosphide nanocatalysts were tested in a high pressure continuous flow reactor for the hydrodeoxygenation (HDO) of a methyl ester blend containing methyl oleate (C17H33-COO-CH3) as main component (70%). This mixture constitutes a convenient surrogate of triglycerides present in vegetable oils, and following catalytic hydrotreating yields mainly n-alkanes. The results of the catalytic assays indicate that Ni2P/SBA-15 catalyst presents the highest ester conversion, whereas the transformation rate is about 20% lower for MoP/SBA-15. In contrast, catalysts based on Fe and Co phosphides show a rather limited activity. Hydrocarbon distribution in the liquid product suggests that both hydrodeoxygenation and decarboxylation/decarbonylation reactions occur simultaneously over the different catalysts, although MoP/SBA-15 possess a selectivity towards hydrodeoxygenation exceeding 90%. Accordingly, the catalyst based on MoP affords the highest yield of n-octadecane, which is the preferred product in terms of carbon atom economy. Subsequently, in order to conjugate the advantages of both Ni and Mo phosphides, a series of catalysts containing variable proportions of both metals were prepared. The obtained results reveal that the mixed phosphides catalysts present a catalytic behavior intermediate between those of the monometallic phosphides. Accordingly, only marginal enhancement of the yield of n-octadecane is obtained for the catalysts with a Mo/Ni ratio of 3. Nevertheless, owing to this high selectivity

  8. Process Development of Gallium Nitride Phosphide Core-Shell Nanowire Array Solar Cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuang, Chen

    Dilute Nitride GaNP is a promising materials for opto-electronic applications due to its band gap tunability. The efficiency of GaNxP1-x /GaNyP1-y core-shell nanowire solar cell (NWSC) is expected to reach as high as 44% by 1% N and 9% N in the core and shell, respectively. By developing such high efficiency NWSCs on silicon substrate, a further reduction of the cost of solar photovoltaic can be further reduced to 61$/MWh, which is competitive to levelized cost of electricity (LCOE) of fossil fuels. Therefore, a suitable NWSC structure and fabrication process need to be developed to achieve this promising NWSC. This thesis is devoted to the study on the development of fabrication process of GaNxP 1-x/GaNyP1-y core-shell Nanowire solar cell. The thesis is divided into two major parts. In the first parts, previously grown GaP/GaNyP1-y core-shell nanowire samples are used to develop the fabrication process of Gallium Nitride Phosphide nanowire solar cell. The design for nanowire arrays, passivation layer, polymeric filler spacer, transparent col- lecting layer and metal contact are discussed and fabricated. The property of these NWSCs are also characterized to point out the future development of Gal- lium Nitride Phosphide NWSC. In the second part, a nano-hole template made by nanosphere lithography is studied for selective area growth of nanowires to improve the structure of core-shell NWSC. The fabrication process of nano-hole templates and the results are presented. To have a consistent features of nano-hole tem- plate, the Taguchi Method is used to optimize the fabrication process of nano-hole templates.

  9. PC based uranium enrichment analyser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Madan, V.K.; Gopalakrishana, K.R.; Bairi, B.R.

    1991-01-01

    It is important to measure enrichment of unirradiated nuclear fuel elements during production as a quality control measure. An IBM PC based system has recently been tested for enrichment measurements for Nuclear Fuel Complex (NFC), Hyderabad. As required by NFC, the system has ease of calibration. It is easy to switch the system from measuring enrichment of fuel elements to pellets and also automatically store the data and the results. The system uses an IBM PC plug in card to acquire data. The card incorporates programmable interval timers (8253-5). The counter/timer devices are executed by I/O mapped I/O's. A novel algorithm has been incorporated to make the system more reliable. The application software has been written in BASIC. (author). 9 refs., 1 fig

  10. El blindaje de una PC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Revista Chasqui

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available La navegación en Internet y la consiguiente conexión a una red expone a una computadora a un sinfín de riesgos y peligros. Una PC que no sea utilizada para navegar en Internet o que no esté conectada a una red puede,incluso, ser también afectada por virus, por la utilización de disquetes contaminados que la contaminen con un virus. Para enfrentar esos problemas, la industria informática ha previsto una serie de protecciones y recaudos, de cuyo uso y utilización deben estar plenamente informados los usuarios de una PC.

  11. Preparation and electrical properties of boron and boron phosphide films obtained by gas source molecular beam deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumashiro, Y.; Yokoyama, T.; Sakamoto, T.; Fujita, T. [Yokohama National Univ. (Japan)

    1997-10-01

    Boron and boron phosphide films were prepared by gas source molecular beam deposition on sapphire crystal at various substrate temperatures up to 800{degrees}C using cracked B{sub 2}H{sub 6} (2% in H{sub 2}) at 300{degrees}C and cracked PH{sub 3} (20% in H{sub 2}) at 900{degrees}C. The substrate temperatures and gas flow rates of the reactant gases determined the film growth. The boron films with amorphous structure are p type. Increasing growth times lead to increasing mobilities and decreasing carrier concentrations. Boron phosphide film with maximum P/B ratio is obtained at a substrate temperature of 600{degrees}C, below and above which they become phosphorous deficient due to insufficient supply of phosphorus and thermal desorption of the phosphorus as P{sub 2}, respectively, but they are all n type conductors due to phosphorus vacancies.

  12. Code Cactus; Code Cactus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fajeau, M; Nguyen, L T; Saunier, J [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires de Saclay, 91 - Gif-sur-Yvette (France)

    1966-09-01

    This code handles the following problems: -1) Analysis of thermal experiments on a water loop at high or low pressure; steady state or transient behavior; -2) Analysis of thermal and hydrodynamic behavior of water-cooled and moderated reactors, at either high or low pressure, with boiling permitted; fuel elements are assumed to be flat plates: - Flowrate in parallel channels coupled or not by conduction across plates, with conditions of pressure drops or flowrate, variable or not with respect to time is given; the power can be coupled to reactor kinetics calculation or supplied by the code user. The code, containing a schematic representation of safety rod behavior, is a one dimensional, multi-channel code, and has as its complement (FLID), a one-channel, two-dimensional code. (authors) [French] Ce code permet de traiter les problemes ci-dessous: 1. Depouillement d'essais thermiques sur boucle a eau, haute ou basse pression, en regime permanent ou transitoire; 2. Etudes thermiques et hydrauliques de reacteurs a eau, a plaques, a haute ou basse pression, ebullition permise: - repartition entre canaux paralleles, couples on non par conduction a travers plaques, pour des conditions de debit ou de pertes de charge imposees, variables ou non dans le temps; - la puissance peut etre couplee a la neutronique et une representation schematique des actions de securite est prevue. Ce code (Cactus) a une dimension d'espace et plusieurs canaux, a pour complement Flid qui traite l'etude d'un seul canal a deux dimensions. (auteurs)

  13. A Plasma-Assisted Route to the Rapid Preparation of Transition-Metal Phosphides for Energy Conversion and Storage

    KAUST Repository

    Liang, Hanfeng

    2017-06-06

    Transition-metal phosphides (TMPs) are important materials that have been widely used in catalysis, supercapacitors, batteries, sensors, light-emitting diodes, and magnets. The physical and chemical structure of a metal phosphide varies with the method of preparation as the electronic, catalytic, and magnetic properties of the metal phosphides strongly depend on their synthesis routes. Commonly practiced processes such as solid-state synthesis and ball milling have proven to be reliable routes to prepare TMPs but they generally require high temperature and long reaction time. Here, a recently developed plasma-assisted conversion route for the preparation of TMPs is reviewed, along with their applications in energy conversion and storage, including water oxidation electrocatalysis, sodium-ion batteries, and supercapacitors. The plasma-assisted synthetic route should open up a new avenue to prepare TMPs with tailored structure and morphology for various applications. In fact, the process may be further extended to the synthesis of a wide range of transition-metal compounds such as borides and fluorides at low temperature and in a rapid manner.

  14. Ensembles of indium phosphide nanowires: physical properties and functional devices integrated on non-single crystal platforms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kobayashi, Nobuhiko P.; Lohn, Andrew; Onishi, Takehiro [University of California, Santa Cruz (United States). Baskin School of Engineering; NASA Ames Research Center, Nanostructured Energy Conversion Technology and Research (NECTAR), Advanced Studies Laboratories, Univ. of California Santa Cruz, Moffett Field, CA (United States); Mathai, Sagi; Li, Xuema; Straznicky, Joseph; Wang, Shih-Yuan; Williams, R.S. [Hewlett-Packard Laboratories, Information and Quantum Systems Laboratory, Palo Alto, CA (United States); Logeeswaran, V.J.; Islam, M.S. [University of California Davis, Electrical and Computer Engineering, Davis, CA (United States)

    2009-06-15

    A new route to grow an ensemble of indium phosphide single-crystal semiconductor nanowires is described. Unlike conventional epitaxial growth of single-crystal semiconductor films, the proposed route for growing semiconductor nanowires does not require a single-crystal semiconductor substrate. In the proposed route, instead of using single-crystal semiconductor substrates that are characterized by their long-range atomic ordering, a template layer that possesses short-range atomic ordering prepared on a non-single-crystal substrate is employed. On the template layer, epitaxial information associated with its short-range atomic ordering is available within an area that is comparable to that of a nanowire root. Thus the template layer locally provides epitaxial information required for the growth of semiconductor nanowires. In the particular demonstration described in this paper, hydrogenated silicon was used as a template layer for epitaxial growth of indium phosphide nanowires. The indium phosphide nanowires grown on the hydrogenerated silicon template layer were found to be single crystal and optically active. Simple photoconductors and pin-diodes were fabricated and tested with the view towards various optoelectronic device applications where group III-V compound semiconductors are functionally integrated onto non-single-crystal platforms. (orig.)

  15. Ensembles of indium phosphide nanowires: physical properties and functional devices integrated on non-single crystal platforms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobayashi, Nobuhiko P.; Lohn, Andrew; Onishi, Takehiro; Mathai, Sagi; Li, Xuema; Straznicky, Joseph; Wang, Shih-Yuan; Williams, R.S.; Logeeswaran, V.J.; Islam, M.S.

    2009-01-01

    A new route to grow an ensemble of indium phosphide single-crystal semiconductor nanowires is described. Unlike conventional epitaxial growth of single-crystal semiconductor films, the proposed route for growing semiconductor nanowires does not require a single-crystal semiconductor substrate. In the proposed route, instead of using single-crystal semiconductor substrates that are characterized by their long-range atomic ordering, a template layer that possesses short-range atomic ordering prepared on a non-single-crystal substrate is employed. On the template layer, epitaxial information associated with its short-range atomic ordering is available within an area that is comparable to that of a nanowire root. Thus the template layer locally provides epitaxial information required for the growth of semiconductor nanowires. In the particular demonstration described in this paper, hydrogenated silicon was used as a template layer for epitaxial growth of indium phosphide nanowires. The indium phosphide nanowires grown on the hydrogenerated silicon template layer were found to be single crystal and optically active. Simple photoconductors and pin-diodes were fabricated and tested with the view towards various optoelectronic device applications where group III-V compound semiconductors are functionally integrated onto non-single-crystal platforms. (orig.)

  16. Rodenticide Comparative Effect of Klerat® and Zinc Phosphide for Controlling Zoonotic Cutaneous Leishmaniasis in Central Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arshad VEYSI

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Zoonotic cutaneous leishmaniasis (ZCL is a neglected disease with public health importance that is common in many rural areas of Iran. In recent years, behavioral resistance and/or bait shyness against the common rodenticide among reservoir hosts of ZCL have been reported. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of Klerat® and zinc phosphide against natural reservoir of ZCL.Methods: This survey was carried out in four villages located 45 to 95 km far from Esfahan City Esfahan province, central Iran from April to November 2011. The rodent burrows were counted destroyed and reopened holes baited around all villages. Effect of rodent control operation on the main vector density and incidence of ZCL were evaluated.Results: The reduction rate of rodent burrows after intervention calculated to be at 62.8% in Klerat® and 58.15% in zinc phosphide treated areas. Statistical analysis showed no difference between the densities of the vector in indoors and outdoors in intervention and control areas. The incidence of the disease between treated and control areas after intervention was statistically different (P< 0.05.Conclusion: Klerat® could be a suitable alternative for zinc phosphide in a specific condition such as behavior resistance or occurrence of bait shyness.

  17. Data acquisition techniques using PC

    CERN Document Server

    Austerlitz, Howard

    1991-01-01

    Data Acquisition Techniques Using Personal Computers contains all the information required by a technical professional (engineer, scientist, technician) to implement a PC-based acquisition system. Including both basic tutorial information as well as some advanced topics, this work is suitable as a reference book for engineers or as a supplemental text for engineering students. It gives the reader enough understanding of the topics to implement a data acquisition system based on commercial products. A reader can alternatively learn how to custom build hardware or write his or her own software.

  18. PC based vibration monitoring system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jain, Sanjay K.; Roy, D.A.; Pithawa, C.K.; Patil, R.K.

    2004-01-01

    Health of large rotating machinery gets reflected in the vibration signature of the rotor and supporting structures and proper recording of these signals and their analysis can give a clear picture of the health of the machine. Using these data and their trending, it is possible to predict an impending trouble in the machine so that preventive action can be taken in time and catastrophic failure can be avoided. Continuous monitoring and analysis can give quick warning and enable operator to take preventive measures. Reactor Control Division, BARC is developing a PC based Vibration monitoring system for turbo generator machinery. The System can acquire 20 vibration signals at a rate of 5000 samples per second and also 15 process signals at a rate of 100 samples/ sec. The software for vibration monitoring system includes acquisition modules, analysis modules and Graphical User Interface module. The acquisition module involves initialization, setting of required parameters and acquiring the data from PC-based data acquisition cards. The acquired raw vibration data is then stored for analysis using various software packages. The display and analysis of acquired data is done in LabVIEW 7.0 where the data is displayed in time as well as frequency domain along with the RMS value of the signal. (author)

  19. PC driven integrated vacuum system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Curuia, Marian; Culcer, Mihai; Brandea, Iulian; Anghel, Mihai

    2001-01-01

    The monitoring of industrial plants by virtual instrumentation represents the most modern trend in the domain of electronic equipment. The integrated vacuum system presented here has several facilities, including the automated data storing of measurement results on hard disk and providing warning messages for operators when the measured parameters are lower or higher upper than the fixed values. The system can also work stand-alone, receiving the commands from the keyboards placed on his front panel but, when it is included in a automation complex system, a remote control from PC is necessary . Both parts of the system, power supply unit for turbo-molecular pump and the vacuum gage, are controlled by an 80C31 microcontroller. Because this microcontroller has a built-in circuitry for a serial communication, we established a serial communication between the PC and the power supply unit for turbo-molecular pump and the vacuum gage, according to the RS-232 hardware standard. As software, after careful evaluation of several options, we chose to develop a hybrid software packing using two different software development tools: LabVIEW, and assembly language. We chose LabVIEW because it is dedicated to data acquisition and communications, containing libraries for data collection, analysis, display and storage. (authors)

  20. PC/104 Embedded IOCs at Jefferson Lab

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan, Jianxun; Allison, Trent; Witherspoon, Sue; Cuffe, Anthony

    2009-01-01

    Jefferson Lab has developed embedded IOCs based on PC/104 single board computers (SBC) for low level control systems. The PC/104 IOCs run EPICS on top of the RTEMS operating system. Two types of control system configurations are used in different applications, PC/104 SBC with commercial PC/104 I/O cards and PC/104 SBC with custom designed FPGA-based boards. RTEMS was built with CEXP shell to run on the PC/104 SBC. CEXP shell provides the function of dynamic object loading, which is similar to the widely used VxWorks operating system. Standard software configurations were setup for PC/104 IOC application development to provide a familiar format for new projects as well as ease the conversion of applications from VME based IOCs to PC/104 IOCs. Many new projects at Jefferson Lab are going to employ PC/104 SBCs as IOCs and some applications have already been running them for accelerator operations. The PC/104 - RTEMS IOC provides a free open source Real-Time Operating System (RTOS), low cost/maintenance, easily installed/ configured, flexible, and reliable solution for accelerator control and 12GeV Upgrade projects.

  1. Conversion from 8800 to 8800PC - Evaluation and experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miner, A.E.; Lawson, B.J.

    1998-01-01

    Though a final version of the software is pending the 8800PC operating system host computer is a welcomed change from the old Digital (DEC) host computer. The 8800PC host computer uses the Windows NT operating system and has proven to be very user friendly. Descriptive window messages replace the cryptic coding of the DEC host. Though numerous electrical components were replaced, system calibration remained constant. Calibrated Thermoluminescent (TL) output from a randomly selected 8815 field card was measured before and after the upgrade. The % difference, when comparing calibrated output from an upgraded reader to the non upgraded reader, ranged from 0.2 to 3%. The most disappointing aspect of the upgrade experience was the lag time between hardware installation and software completion

  2. Ellipsometric analysis and optical absorption characterization of gallium phosphide nanoparticulate thin film

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Qi-Xian; Ruan Fang-Ping; Wei Wen-Sheng

    2011-01-01

    Gallium phosphide (GaP) nanoparticulate thin films were easily fabricated by colloidal suspension deposition via GaP nanoparticles dispersed in N,N-dimethylformamide. The microstructure of the film was performed by x-ray diffraction, high resolution transmission electron microscopy and field emission scanning electron microscopy. The film was further investigated by spectroscopic ellipsometry. After the model GaP+void|SiO 2 was built and an effective medium approximation was adopted, the values of the refractive index n and the extinction coefficient k were calculated for the energy range of 0.75 eV–4.0 eV using the dispersion formula in DeltaPsi2 software. The absorption coefficient of the film was calculated from its k and its energy gaps were further estimated according to the Tauc equation, which were further verified by its fluorescence spectrum measurement. The structure and optical absorption properties of the nanoparticulate films are promising for their potential applications in hybrid solar cells. (condensed matter: electronic structure, electrical, magnetic, and optical properties)

  3. Ellipsometric analysis and optical absorption characterization of gallium phosphide nanoparticulate thin film

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qi-Xian; Wei, Wen-Sheng; Ruan, Fang-Ping

    2011-04-01

    Gallium phosphide (GaP) nanoparticulate thin films were easily fabricated by colloidal suspension deposition via GaP nanoparticles dispersed in N,N-dimethylformamide. The microstructure of the film was performed by x-ray diffraction, high resolution transmission electron microscopy and field emission scanning electron microscopy. The film was further investigated by spectroscopic ellipsometry. After the model GaP+void|SiO2 was built and an effective medium approximation was adopted, the values of the refractive index n and the extinction coefficient k were calculated for the energy range of 0.75 eV-4.0 eV using the dispersion formula in DeltaPsi2 software. The absorption coefficient of the film was calculated from its k and its energy gaps were further estimated according to the Tauc equation, which were further verified by its fluorescence spectrum measurement. The structure and optical absorption properties of the nanoparticulate films are promising for their potential applications in hybrid solar cells.

  4. Heterogeneous Bimetallic Phosphide/Sulfide Nanocomposite for Efficient Solar-Energy-Driven Overall Water Splitting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xin, Yanmei; Kan, Xiang; Gan, Li-Yong; Zhang, Zhonghai

    2017-10-24

    Solar-driven overall water splitting is highly desirable for hydrogen generation with sustainable energy sources, which need efficient, earth-abundant, robust, and bifunctional electrocatalysts for both oxygen evolution reaction (OER) and hydrogen evolution reaction (HER). Herein, we propose a heterogeneous bimetallic phosphide/sulfide nanocomposite electrocatalyst of NiFeSP on nickel foam (NiFeSP/NF), which shows superior electrocatalytic activity of low overpotentials of 91 mV at -10 mA cm -2 for HER and of 240 mV at 50 mA cm -2 for OER in 1 M KOH solution. In addition, the NiFeSP/NF presents excellent overall water splitting performance with a cell voltage as low as 1.58 V at a current density of 10 mA cm -2 . Combining with a photovoltaic device of a Si solar cell or integrating into photoelectrochemical (PEC) systems, the bifunctional NiFeSP/NF electrocatalyst implements unassisted solar-driven water splitting with a solar-to-hydrogen conversion efficiency of ∼9.2% and significantly enhanced PEC performance, respectively.

  5. V{sub 18}P{sub 9}C{sub 2}. A complex phosphide carbide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boller, Herbert [Linz Univ. (Austria). Inst. fuer Anorganische Chemie; Effenberger, Herta [Wien Univ. (Austria). Inst. fuer Mineralogie und Kristallographie

    2016-08-01

    V{sub 18}P{sub 9}C{sub 2} crystallizes in the orthorhombic space group Pmma with the lattice parameters a = 17.044(3), b = 3.2219(7), and c = 13.030(2) Aa, Z = 2. The crystal structure is composed of 19 symmetry-independent atoms. The crystal structure is considered as a network formed by the transition metal atoms exhibiting cubic, trigonal prismatic, and octahedral voids centered by V, P, and C atoms, respectively. Vice versa, the V and P atoms form a three-dimensional network. The two CV{sub 6} octahedra are edge- and corner-connected to chains running parallel to [010]. The five unique P atoms are trigonal prismatically coordinated by V atoms with one to three faces capped again by a V atom. The V atoms have mainly cubic environments formed solely by V or by V and P atoms. V{sub 18}P{sub 9}C{sub 2} exhibits some structural relations to other compounds of the ternary system V-P-C as well as to other intermetallic phases. Despite the low carbon content, V{sub 18}P{sub 9}C{sub 2} is considered as a ternary compound rather than an interstitially stabilized (binary) phosphide in view of its special structural features.

  6. Preparation and study of the properties of indium phosphide thin films impregnated with cadmium and zinc

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moutinho, H.R.

    1984-01-01

    Indium phosphide thin films were deposited by vacuum evaporation of indium and phosphorous, using the three-temperature method. The effects of the introduction of cadmium and zinc, group II impurities, on the properties of these films were studied. The introduction of cadmium was achieved by coevaporation of this element during the film deposition. The introduction of zinc was done by diffusion of this element in intrinsic films. Analyses of these films were carried out by the study of the composition, morphology, structure, optical properties and electrical properties. The introduction of cadmium led to the reduction of grain size and increase in the bandgap and in certain cases, even change in morphology. Phases of CdP2 and β-CdP2 were detected and the resistivity increased by some orders of magnitude. The introduction of zinc did not change the morphology, crystalline structure and bandgap. However, a new energy level corresponding to the zinc acceptor level was found and the resistivity increased by some orders of magnitude. (Author) [pt

  7. Triamidoamine-uranium(IV)-stabilized terminal parent phosphide and phosphinidene complexes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gardner, Benedict M.; McMaster, Jonathan; Lewis, William; Blake, Alexander J.; Liddle, Stephen T. [School of Chemistry, University of Nottingham (United Kingdom); Balazs, Gabor; Scheer, Manfred [Institut of Inorganic Chemistry, University of Regensburg (Germany); Tuna, Floriana; McInnes, Eric J.L. [School of Chemistry and Photon Science Institute, University of Manchester (United Kingdom)

    2014-04-22

    Reaction of [U(Tren{sup TIPS})(THF)][BPh{sub 4}] (1; Tren{sup TIPS}=N{CH_2CH_2NSi(iPr)_3}{sub 3}) with NaPH{sub 2} afforded the novel f-block terminal parent phosphide complex [U(Tren {sup TIPS})(PH{sub 2})] (2; U-P=2.883(2) Aa). Treatment of 2 with one equivalent of KCH{sub 2}C{sub 6}H{sub 5} and two equivalents of benzo-15-crown-5 ether (B15C5) afforded the unprecedented metal-stabilized terminal parent phosphinidene complex [U(Tren{sup TIPS})(PH)][K(B15C5){sub 2}] (4; U=P=2.613(2) Aa). DFT calculations reveal a polarized-covalent U=P bond with a Mayer bond order of 1.92. (copyright 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  8. Assembly of phosphide nanocrystals into porous networks: formation of InP gels and aerogels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hitihami-Mudiyanselage, Asha; Senevirathne, Keerthi; Brock, Stephanie L

    2013-02-26

    The applicability of sol-gel nanoparticle assembly routes, previously employed for metal chalcogenides, to phosphides is reported for the case of InP. Two different sizes (3.5 and 6.0 nm) of InP nanoparticles were synthesized by solution-phase arrested precipitation, capped with thiolate ligands, and oxidized with H₂O₂ or O₂/light to induce gel formation. The gels were aged, solvent-exchanged, and then supercritically dried to obtain aerogels with both meso- (2-50 nm) and macropores (>50 nm) and accessible surface areas of ∼200 m²/g. Aerogels showed higher band gap values relative to precursor nanoparticles, suggesting that during the process of assembling nanoparticles into 3D architectures, particle size reduction may have taken place. In contrast to metal chalcogenide gelation, InP gels did not form using tetranitromethane, a non-oxygen-transferring oxidant. The requirement of an oxygen-transferring oxidant, combined with X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy data showing oxidized phosphorus, suggests gelation is occurring due to condensation of phosphorus oxoanionic moieties generated at the interfaces. The ability to link discrete InP nanoparticles into a 3D porous network while maintaining quantum confinement is expected to facilitate exploitation of nanostructured InP in solid-state devices.

  9. Electrostatically driven resonance energy transfer in "cationic" biocompatible indium phosphide quantum dots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devatha, Gayathri; Roy, Soumendu; Rao, Anish; Mallick, Abhik; Basu, Sudipta; Pillai, Pramod P

    2017-05-01

    Indium Phosphide Quantum Dots (InP QDs) have emerged as an alternative to toxic metal ion based QDs in nanobiotechnology. The ability to generate cationic surface charge, without compromising stability and biocompatibility, is essential in realizing the full potential of InP QDs in biological applications. We have addressed this challenge by developing a place exchange protocol for the preparation of cationic InP/ZnS QDs. The quaternary ammonium group provides the much required permanent positive charge and stability to InP/ZnS QDs in biofluids. The two important properties of QDs, namely bioimaging and light induced resonance energy transfer, are successfully demonstrated in cationic InP/ZnS QDs. The low cytotoxicity and stable photoluminescence of cationic InP/ZnS QDs inside cells make them ideal candidates as optical probes for cellular imaging. An efficient resonance energy transfer ( E ∼ 60%) is observed, under physiological conditions, between the cationic InP/ZnS QD donor and anionic dye acceptor. A large bimolecular quenching constant along with a linear Stern-Volmer plot confirms the formation of a strong ground state complex between the cationic InP/ZnS QDs and the anionic dye. Control experiments prove the role of electrostatic attraction in driving the light induced interactions, which can rightfully form the basis for future nano-bio studies between cationic InP/ZnS QDs and anionic biomolecules.

  10. Photoluminescence blue shift of indium phosphide nanowire networks with aluminum oxide coating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fryauf, David M.; Zhang, Junce; Norris, Kate J.; Diaz Leon, Juan J.; Oye, Michael M.; Kobayashi, Nobuhiko P.; Wei, Min

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes our finding that optical properties of semiconductor nanowires were modified by depositing a thin layer of metal oxide. Indium phosphide nanowires were grown by metal organic chemical vapor deposition on silicon substrates with gold catalyst resulting in three-dimensional nanowire networks, and optical properties were obtained from the collective nanowire networks. The networks were coated with an aluminum oxide thin film deposited by plasma-enhanced atomic layer deposition. We studied the dependence of the peak wavelength of photoluminescence spectra on the thickness of the oxide coatings. A continuous blue shift in photoluminescence spectra was observed when the thickness of the oxide coating was increased. The observed blue shift is attributed to the Burstein-Moss effect due to increased carrier concentration in the nanowire cores caused by repulsion from intrinsic negative fixed charges located at the inner oxide surface. Samples were further characterized by scanning electron microscopy, Raman spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and selective area diffractometry to better understand the physical mechanisms for the blue shift. (copyright 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  11. Photoluminescence blue shift of indium phosphide nanowire networks with aluminum oxide coating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fryauf, David M.; Zhang, Junce; Norris, Kate J.; Diaz Leon, Juan J.; Oye, Michael M.; Kobayashi, Nobuhiko P. [Nanostructured Energy Conversion Technology and Research (NECTAR), Advanced Studies Laboratories, University of California, Santa Cruz, CA (United States); Baskin School of Engineering, University of California Santa Cruz, Santa Cruz, CA (United States); NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, CA (United States); Wei, Min [Baskin School of Engineering, University of California Santa Cruz, Santa Cruz, CA (United States); School of Micro-Electronics and Solid-Electronics, University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, Chengdu (China)

    2014-07-15

    This paper describes our finding that optical properties of semiconductor nanowires were modified by depositing a thin layer of metal oxide. Indium phosphide nanowires were grown by metal organic chemical vapor deposition on silicon substrates with gold catalyst resulting in three-dimensional nanowire networks, and optical properties were obtained from the collective nanowire networks. The networks were coated with an aluminum oxide thin film deposited by plasma-enhanced atomic layer deposition. We studied the dependence of the peak wavelength of photoluminescence spectra on the thickness of the oxide coatings. A continuous blue shift in photoluminescence spectra was observed when the thickness of the oxide coating was increased. The observed blue shift is attributed to the Burstein-Moss effect due to increased carrier concentration in the nanowire cores caused by repulsion from intrinsic negative fixed charges located at the inner oxide surface. Samples were further characterized by scanning electron microscopy, Raman spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and selective area diffractometry to better understand the physical mechanisms for the blue shift. (copyright 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  12. High pressure study of the zinc phosphide semiconductor compound in two different phases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mokhtari, Ali

    2009-01-01

    Electronic and structural properties of the zinc phosphide semiconductor compound are calculated at hydrostatic pressure using the full-potential all-electron linearized augmented plane wave plus local orbital (FP-LAPW+lo) method in both cubic and tetragonal phases. The exchange-correlation potential is treated by the generalized gradient approximation within the scheme of Perdew, Burke and Ernzerhof, GGA96 (1996 Phys. Rev. Lett. 77 3865). Also, the Engel and Vosko GGA formalism, EV-GGA (Engel and Vosko 1993 Phys. Rev. B 47 13164), is used to improve the band-gap results. Internal parameters are optimized by relaxing the atomic positions in the force directions using the Hellman-Feynman approach. The lattice constants, internal parameters, bulk modulus, cohesive energy and band structures have been calculated and compared to the available experimental and theoretical results. The structural calculations predict that the stable phase is tetragonal. The effects of hydrostatic pressure on the behavior of band parameters such as band-gap, valence bandwidths and internal gaps (the energy gap between different parts of the valence bands) are studied using both GGA96 and EV-GGA.

  13. Density functional study of the group II phosphide semiconductor compounds under hydrostatic pressure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mokhtari, Ali [Simulation Laboratory, Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Shahrekord University, PB 115, Shahrekord (Iran, Islamic Republic of)], E-mail: mokhtari@sci.sku.ac.ir

    2008-04-02

    The full-potential all-electron linearized augmented plane wave plus local orbital (FP-LAPW+lo) method, as implemented in the suite of software WIEN2k, has been used to systematically investigate the structural and electronic properties of the group II phosphide semiconductor compounds M{sub 3}P{sub 2} (M = Be, Mg and Ca). The exchange-correlation functional was approximated as a generalized gradient functional introduced by Perdew-Burke-Ernzerhof (GGA96) and Engel-Vosko (EV-GGA). Internal parameters were optimized by relaxing the atomic positions in the force directions using the Hellman-Feynman approach. The structural parameters, bulk modules, cohesive energy, band structures and density of states have been calculated and compared to the available experimental and theoretical results. These compounds are predicted to be semiconductors with the direct band gap of about 1.60, 2.55 and 2.62 eV for Be{sub 3}P{sub 2}, Mg{sub 3}P{sub 2} and Ca{sub 3}P{sub 2}, respectively. The effects of hydrostatic pressure on the behavior of band parameters such as band gap, valence bandwidths and anti-symmetric gap (the energy gap between two parts of the valence bands) are investigated using both GGA96 and EV-GGA. The contribution of s, p and d orbitals of different atoms to the density of states is discussed in detail.

  14. Density functional study of the group II phosphide semiconductor compounds under hydrostatic pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mokhtari, Ali

    2008-01-01

    The full-potential all-electron linearized augmented plane wave plus local orbital (FP-LAPW+lo) method, as implemented in the suite of software WIEN2k, has been used to systematically investigate the structural and electronic properties of the group II phosphide semiconductor compounds M 3 P 2 (M = Be, Mg and Ca). The exchange-correlation functional was approximated as a generalized gradient functional introduced by Perdew-Burke-Ernzerhof (GGA96) and Engel-Vosko (EV-GGA). Internal parameters were optimized by relaxing the atomic positions in the force directions using the Hellman-Feynman approach. The structural parameters, bulk modules, cohesive energy, band structures and density of states have been calculated and compared to the available experimental and theoretical results. These compounds are predicted to be semiconductors with the direct band gap of about 1.60, 2.55 and 2.62 eV for Be 3 P 2 , Mg 3 P 2 and Ca 3 P 2 , respectively. The effects of hydrostatic pressure on the behavior of band parameters such as band gap, valence bandwidths and anti-symmetric gap (the energy gap between two parts of the valence bands) are investigated using both GGA96 and EV-GGA. The contribution of s, p and d orbitals of different atoms to the density of states is discussed in detail

  15. High pressure study of the zinc phosphide semiconductor compound in two different phases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mokhtari, Ali [Simulation Laboratory, Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Shahrekord University, PB 115, Shahrekord (Iran, Islamic Republic of)], E-mail: mokhtari@sci.sku.ac.ir

    2009-07-08

    Electronic and structural properties of the zinc phosphide semiconductor compound are calculated at hydrostatic pressure using the full-potential all-electron linearized augmented plane wave plus local orbital (FP-LAPW+lo) method in both cubic and tetragonal phases. The exchange-correlation potential is treated by the generalized gradient approximation within the scheme of Perdew, Burke and Ernzerhof, GGA96 (1996 Phys. Rev. Lett. 77 3865). Also, the Engel and Vosko GGA formalism, EV-GGA (Engel and Vosko 1993 Phys. Rev. B 47 13164), is used to improve the band-gap results. Internal parameters are optimized by relaxing the atomic positions in the force directions using the Hellman-Feynman approach. The lattice constants, internal parameters, bulk modulus, cohesive energy and band structures have been calculated and compared to the available experimental and theoretical results. The structural calculations predict that the stable phase is tetragonal. The effects of hydrostatic pressure on the behavior of band parameters such as band-gap, valence bandwidths and internal gaps (the energy gap between different parts of the valence bands) are studied using both GGA96 and EV-GGA.

  16. Catalytic Activities of Noble Metal Phosphides for Hydrogenation and Hydrodesulfurization Reactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasuharu Kanda

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available In this work, the development of a highly active noble metal phosphide (NMXPY-based hydrodesulfurization (HDS catalyst with a high hydrogenating ability for heavy oils was studied. NMXPY catalysts were obtained by reduction of P-added noble metals (NM-P, NM: Rh, Pd, Ru supported on SiO2. The order of activities for the hydrogenation of biphenyl was Rh-P > NiMoS > Pd-P > Ru-P. This order was almost the same as that of the catalytic activities for the HDS of dibenzothiophene. In the HDS of 4,6-dimethyldibenzothiophene (4,6-DMDBT, the HDS activity of the Rh-P catalyst increased with increasing reaction temperature, but the maximum HDS activity for the NiMoS catalyst was observed at 270 °C. The Rh-P catalyst yielded fully hydrogenated products with high selectivity compared with the NiMoS catalyst. Furthermore, XRD analysis of the spent Rh-P catalysts revealed that the Rh2P phase possessed high sulfur tolerance and resistance to sintering.

  17. Observation of three-component fermions in the topological semimetal molybdenum phosphide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, B. Q.; Feng, Z.-L.; Xu, Q.-N.; Gao, X.; Ma, J.-Z.; Kong, L.-Y.; Richard, P.; Huang, Y.-B.; Strocov, V. N.; Fang, C.; Weng, H.-M.; Shi, Y.-G.; Qian, T.; Ding, H.

    2017-06-01

    In quantum field theory, Lorentz invariance leads to three types of fermion—Dirac, Weyl and Majorana. Although the existence of Weyl and Majorana fermions as elementary particles in high-energy physics is debated, all three types of fermion have been proposed to exist as low-energy, long-wavelength quasiparticle excitations in condensed-matter systems. The existence of Dirac and Weyl fermions in condensed-matter systems has been confirmed experimentally, and that of Majorana fermions is supported by various experiments. However, in condensed-matter systems, fermions in crystals are constrained by the symmetries of the 230 crystal space groups rather than by Lorentz invariance, giving rise to the possibility of finding other types of fermionic excitation that have no counterparts in high-energy physics. Here we use angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy to demonstrate the existence of a triply degenerate point in the electronic structure of crystalline molybdenum phosphide. Quasiparticle excitations near a triply degenerate point are three-component fermions, beyond the conventional Dirac-Weyl-Majorana classification, which attributes Dirac and Weyl fermions to four- and two-fold degenerate points, respectively. We also observe pairs of Weyl points in the bulk electronic structure of the crystal that coexist with the three-component fermions. This material thus represents a platform for studying the interplay between different types of fermions. Our experimental discovery opens up a way of exploring the new physics of unconventional fermions in condensed-matter systems.

  18. Selectivity control of photosensitive structures based on gallium arsenide phosphide solid solutions by changing the rate of surface recombination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tarasov, S A; Andreev, M Y; Lamkin, I A; Solomonov, A V

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we demonstrate the effect of surface recombination on spectral sensitivity of structures based on gallium arsenide phosphide solid solutions. Simulation of the effect for structures based on a p-n junction and a Schottky barrier was carried out. Photodetectors with different rates of surface recombination were fabricated by using different methods of preliminary treatment of the semiconductor surface. We experimentally demonstrated the possibility to control photodetector selectivity by altering the rate of surface recombination. The full width at half maximum was reduced by almost 4 times, while a relatively small decrease in sensitivity at the maximum was observed. (paper)

  19. Studies of the pressure dependence of the charge density distribution in cerium phosphide by the maximum-entropy method

    CERN Document Server

    Ishimatsu, N; Takata, M; Nishibori, E; Sakata, M; Hayashi, J; Shirotani, I; Shimomura, O

    2002-01-01

    The physical properties relating to 4f electrons in cerium phosphide, especially the temperature dependence and the isomorphous transition that occurs at around 10 GPa, were studied by means of x-ray powder diffraction and charge density distribution maps derived by the maximum-entropy method. The compressibility of CeP was exactly determined using a helium pressure medium and the anomaly that indicated the isomorphous transition was observed in the compressibility. We also discuss the anisotropic charge density distribution of Ce ions and its temperature dependence.

  20. Diffusion length variation in 0.5- and 3-MeV-proton-irradiated, heteroepitaxial indium phosphide solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Raj K.; Weinberg, Irving; Flood, Dennis J.

    1993-01-01

    Indium phosphide (InP) solar cells are more radiation resistant than gallium arsenide (GaAs) and silicon (Si) solar cells, and their growth by heteroepitaxy offers additional advantages leading to the development of light weight, mechanically strong, and cost-effective cells. Changes in heteroepitaxial InP cell efficiency under 0.5- and 3-MeV proton irradiations have been explained by the variation in the minority-carrier diffusion length. The base diffusion length versus proton fluence was calculated by simulating the cell performance. The diffusion length damage coefficient, K(sub L), was also plotted as a function of proton fluence.

  1. Computation of USGS Soil UHS and Comparison to NEHRP and PC 1 Seismic Response; FINAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, R.C.

    2000-01-01

    Recently, new site-specific seismic design response spectra were developed for Savannah River Site (SRS) performance category (PC) 1,2,3 and 4 structures, systems and components (SSCs) (WSRC, 1997, 1998) in accordance with DOE Standards. The lower performance categories (PC1 and PC2) site-specific design basis were not compatible with the response spectrum generated if building code guidelines were used (National Earthquake Hazard Reduction Program Recommended Provisions for Seismic Regulations for New Building, (NEHRP), 1997). These differences in criteria and approach should be documented and understood. Thus, Westinghouse Savannah River Company (WSRC) initiated this study to evaluate the difference between the building code hazard assessment (NEHRP) and the site-specific hazard evaluations used for SRS design

  2. ENDF utility codes version 6.8

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McLaughlin, P.K.

    1992-01-01

    Description and operating instructions are given for a package of utility codes operating on evaluated nuclear data files in the formats ENDF-5 and ENDF-6. Included are the data checking codes CHECKER, FIZCON, PSYCHE; the code INTER for retrieving thermal cross-sections and some other data; graphical plotting codes PLOTEF, GRALIB, graphic device interface subroutine library INTLIB; and the file maintenance and retrieval codes LISTEF, SETMDC, GETMAT, STANEF. This program package which is designed for CDC, IBM, DEC and PC computers, can be obtained on magnetic tape or floppy diskette, free of charge, from the IAEA Nuclear Data Section. (author)

  3. Byproduct-free mass production of compound semiconductor nanowires: zinc phosphide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yixi; Polinnaya, Rakesh; Vaddiraju, Sreeram

    2018-05-01

    A method for the mass production of compound semiconductor nanowires that involves the direct reaction of component elements in a chemical vapor deposition chamber (CVD) is presented. This method results in nanowires, without the associated production of any other byproducts such as nanoparticles or three-dimensional (3D) bulk crystals. Furthermore, no unreacted reactants remain mixed with the nanowire product in this method. This byproduct-free nanowire production thus circumvents the need to tediously purify and collect nanowires from a mixture of products/reactants after their synthesis. Demonstration made using zinc phosphide (Zn3P2) material system as an example indicated that the direct reaction of zinc microparticles with phosphorus supplied via the vapor phase results in the production of gram quantities of nanowires. To enhance thermal transport and achieve the complete reaction of zinc microparticles, while simultaneously ensuring that the microparticles do not agglomerate into macroscale zinc particles and partly remain unreacted (owing to diffusion limitations), pellets composed of mixtures of zinc and a sacrificial salt, NH4Cl, were employed as the starting material. The sublimation by decomposition of NH4Cl in the early stages of the reaction leaves a highly porous pellet of zinc composed of only zinc microparticles, which allows for inward diffusion of phosphorus/outward diffusion of zinc and the complete conversion of zinc into Zn3P2 nanowires. NH4Cl also aids in removal of any native oxide layer present on the zinc microparticles that may prevent their reaction with phosphorus. This method may be used to mass produce many other nanowires in a byproduct-free manner, besides Zn3P2.

  4. Pushing indium phosphide quantum dot emission deeper into the near infrared

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saeboe, A. M.; Kays, J.; Mahler, A. H.; Dennis, A. M.

    2018-02-01

    Cadmium-free near infrared (NIR) emitting quantum dots (QDs) have significant potential for multiplexed tissue-depth imaging applications in the first optical tissue window (i.e., 650 - 900 nm). Indium phosphide (InP) chemistry provides one of the more promising cadmium-free options for biomedical imaging, but the full tunability of this material has not yet been achieved. Specifically, InP QD emission has been tuned from 480 - 730 nm in previous literature reports, but examples of samples emitting from 730 nm to the InP bulk bandgap limit of 925 nm are lacking. We hypothesize that by generating inverted structures comprising ZnSe/InP/ZnS in a core/shell/shell heterostructure, optical emission from the InP shell can be tuned by changing the InP shell thickness, including pushing deeper into the NIR than current InP QDs. Colloidal synthesis methods including hot injection precipitation of the ZnSe core and a modified successive ion layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR) method for stepwise shell deposition were used to promote growth of core/shell/shell materials with varying thicknesses of the InP shell. By controlling the number of injections of indium and phosphorous precursor material, the emission peak was tuned from 515 nm to 845 nm (2.41 - 1.47 eV) with consistent full width half maximum (FWHM) values of the emission peak 0.32 eV. To confer water solubility, the nanoparticles were encapsulated in PEGylated phospholipid micelles, and multiplexing of NIR-emitting InP QDs was demonstrated using an IVIS imaging system. These materials show potential for multiplexed imaging of targeted QD contrast agents in the first optical tissue window.

  5. Study of grown-in and radiation-induced defects in indium phosphide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaban, E.H.

    1986-01-01

    This research is focused on (1) conducting detailed theoretical and experimental study of grown-in and radiation-induced defects in liquid encapsulated Czohralski (LEC) grown, Zn-doped P-type indium phosphide (InP), (2) identifying the physical origin of the defects detected using Deep Level Transient Spectroscopy (DLTS) method, and (3) and developing a second-order model to interpret the presence of nonexponential capacitance transients in DLTS method. Analysis of grown-in and radiation-induced defects in P-type InP is undertaken. The main research results are summarized as follows: (1) DLTS analysis of grown-in defects in liquid LEC-grown, Zn-doped, P-type InP is made in this study. A single-hole trap of E/sub v/ + 0.52 eV is detected with a trap density of 1.8 x 10 15 cm -3 . The physical origin of this hole trap is attributed to a phosphorus vacancy or phosphorus interstitial-related defect. (2) One-MeV electron-irradiated P-type InP introduced two new hole traps, namely E/sub v/ + 0.34 and E/sub v/ + 0.58 eV with introduction rates (dN/sub T/d phi) of 0.4 and 1.2 per electron-cm, respectively. (3) A theoretical model is developed to interpret nonexponential capacitance transients in a deep-level transient spectroscopy method when the capture process competes with the dominant thermal-emission process

  6. Atomistic investigations on the mechanical properties and fracture mechanisms of indium phosphide nanowires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pial, Turash Haque; Rakib, Tawfiqur; Mojumder, Satyajit; Motalab, Mohammad; Akanda, M A Salam

    2018-03-28

    The mechanical properties of indium phosphide (InP) nanowires are an emerging issue due to the promising applications of these nanowires in nanoelectromechanical and microelectromechanical devices. In this study, molecular dynamics simulations of zincblende (ZB) and wurtzite (WZ) crystal structured InP nanowires (NWs) are presented under uniaxial tension at varying sizes and temperatures. It is observed that the tensile strengths of both types of NWs show inverse relationships with temperature, but are independent of the size of the nanowires. Moreover, applied load causes brittle fracture by nucleating cleavage on ZB and WZ NWs. When the tensile load is applied along the [001] direction, the direction of the cleavage planes of ZB NWs changes with temperature. It is found that the {111} planes are the cleavage planes at lower temperatures; on the other hand, the {110} cleavage planes are activated at elevated temperatures. In the case of WZ NWs, fracture of the material is observed to occur by cleaving along the (0001) plane irrespective of temperature when the tensile load is applied along the [0001] direction. Furthermore, the WZ NWs of InP show considerably higher strength than their ZB counterparts. Finally, the impact of strain rate on the failure behavior of InP NWs is also studied, and higher fracture strengths and strains at higher strain rates are found. With increasing strain rate, the number of cleavages also increases in the NWs. This paper also provides in-depth understanding of the failure behavior of InP NWs, which will aid the design of efficient InP NWs-based devices.

  7. Monte Carlo simulations on a 9-node PC cluster

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gouriou, J.

    2001-01-01

    Monte Carlo simulation methods are frequently used in the fields of medical physics, dosimetry and metrology of ionising radiation. Nevertheless, the main drawback of this technique is to be computationally slow, because the statistical uncertainty of the result improves only as the square root of the computational time. We present a method, which allows to reduce by a factor 10 to 20 the used effective running time. In practice, the aim was to reduce the calculation time in the LNHB metrological applications from several weeks to a few days. This approach includes the use of a PC-cluster, under Linux operating system and PVM parallel library (version 3.4). The Monte Carlo codes EGS4, MCNP and PENELOPE have been implemented on this platform and for the two last ones adapted for running under the PVM environment. The maximum observed speedup is ranging from a factor 13 to 18 according to the codes and the problems to be simulated. (orig.)

  8. The ENSDF radioactivity data base for IBM-PC and computer network access

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ekstroem, P.; Spanier, L.

    1989-08-01

    A database for about 15000 gamma rays from 2777 radioactive nuclides derived from the international Evaluated Nuclear Structure Data File (ENSDF) is described together with supporting computer codes. The database is available on a PC diskette, costfree, from the IAEA Nuclear Data Section. (author)

  9. Label swapper device for spectral amplitude coded optical packet networks monolithically integrated on InP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz, P; García-Olcina, R; Habib, C; Chen, L R; Leijtens, X J M; de Vries, T; Robbins, D; Capmany, J

    2011-07-04

    In this paper the design, fabrication and experimental characterization of an spectral amplitude coded (SAC) optical label swapper monolithically integrated on Indium Phosphide (InP) is presented. The device has a footprint of 4.8x1.5 mm2 and is able to perform label swapping operations required in SAC at a speed of 155 Mbps. The device was manufactured in InP using a multiple purpose generic integration scheme. Compared to previous SAC label swapper demonstrations, using discrete component assembly, this label swapper chip operates two order of magnitudes faster.

  10. Surface-oxidized cobalt phosphide used as high efficient electrocatalyst in activated carbon air-cathode microbial fuel cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Tingting; Wang, Zhong; Li, Kexun; Liu, Yi; Liu, Di; Wang, Junjie

    2017-09-01

    Herein, we report a simplistic method to fabricate the surface-oxidized cobalt phosphide (CoP) nanocrystals (NCs), which is used as electrocatalyst for oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) in microbial fuel cell (MFC) for the first time. The corallite-like CoP NCs are successfully prepared by a hydrothermal reaction following a phosphating treatment in N2 atmosphere. When used as an ORR catalyst, cobalt phosphide shows comparable onset potential, inferior resistance, as well as a small Tafel slope with long-term stability in neutral media. The maximum power density of MFC embellished with 10% CoP reached 1914.4 ± 59.7 mW m-2, which is 108.5% higher than the control. The four-electron pathway, observed by the RDE, plays a crucial role in electrochemical catalytic activity. In addition, material characterizations indicate that the surface oxide layer (CoOx) around the metallic CoP core is important and beneficial for ORR. Accordingly, it can be expected that the as-synthesized CoP will be a promising candidate of the non-precious metal ORR electrocatalysts for electrochemical energy applications.

  11. Theoretical prediction of sandwiched two-dimensional phosphide binary compound sheets with tunable bandgaps and anisotropic physical properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, C. Y.; Yu, M.

    2018-03-01

    Atomic layers of GaP and InP binary compounds with unique anisotropic structural, electronic and mechanical properties have been predicted from first-principle molecular dynamics simulations. These new members of the phosphide binary compound family stabilize to a sandwiched two-dimensional (2D) crystalline structure with orthorhombic lattice symmetry and high buckling of 2.14 Å-2.46 Å. Their vibration modes are similar to those of phosphorene with six Raman active modes ranging from ˜80 cm-1 to 400 cm-1. The speeds of sound in their phonon dispersions reflect anisotropy in their elastic constants, which was further confirmed by their strong directional dependence of Young’s moduli and effective nonlinear elastic moduli. They show wide bandgap semiconductor behavior with fundamental bandgaps of 2.89 eV for GaP and 2.59 eV for InP, respectively, even wider than their bulk counterparts. Such bandgaps were found to be tunable under strain. In particular, a direct-indirect bandgap transition was found under certain strains along zigzag or biaxial orientations, reflecting their promising applications in strain-induced bandgap engineering in nanoelectronics and photovoltaics. Feasible pathways to realize these novel 2D phosphide compounds are also proposed.

  12. Study of laboratory profile in patients with aluminium phosphide poisoning in the southwest of Iran from 2010 to 2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farkhonde Jamshidi

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction : Aluminium phosphide or rice tablet is one of the most common pesticides around the world. The substance releases phosphine gas in the presence of water, steam or stomach acid which can lead to poisoning. Phosphine poisoning is more about suicide the number of which is increasing day by day. Two-thirds of patients lose their lives. The aim of this study was to evaluate the data on the clinical epidemiology and laboratory changes in patients poisoned with rice tablets. Material and methods : A total of 23 patients poisoned by aluminium phosphide who referred to Ahvaz Razi hospital within the period of 2010–2015 were studied. The data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and statistical tests. Results : The mean age of the patients was 27.2 ±7.3 years and 60.9% of the patients were male. 8.7% of the patients had hyponatremia and 21.7% of the patients had hypokalemia. In the majority of cases the amount of sodium and potassium was normal. 91% of patients had acidosis and serum bicarbonate was reduced in the majority of cases. The average interval between poisoning and admission was 1.48 ±0.76 hours. Conclusions : The pattern to change the electrolytes and other laboratory factors could be a good marker of the severity of the poisoning and the clinical conditions of the patient, which requires more specific research to prove the process.

  13. Intracranial artery velocity measurement using 4D PC MRI at 3 T: comparison with transcranial ultrasound techniques and 2D PC MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meckel, Stephan; Leitner, Lorenz; Schubert, Tilman; Bonati, Leo H.; Lyrer, Philippe; Santini, Francesco; Stalder, Aurelien F.; Markl, Michael; Wetzel, Stephan G.

    2013-01-01

    4D phase contrast MR imaging (4D PC MRI) has been introduced for spatiotemporal evaluation of intracranial hemodynamics in various cerebrovascular diseases. However, it still lacks validation with standards of reference. Our goal was to compare blood flow quantification derived from 4D PC MRI with transcranial ultrasound and 2D PC MRI. Velocity measurements within large intracranial arteries [internal carotid artery (ICA), basilar artery (BA), and middle cerebral artery (MCA)] were obtained in 20 young healthy volunteers with 4D and 2D PC MRI, transcranial Doppler sonography (TCD), and transcranial color-coded duplex sonography (TCCD). Maximum velocities at peak systole (PSV) and end diastole (EDV) were compared using regression analysis and Bland-Altman plots. Correlation of 4D PC MRI measured velocities was higher in comparison with TCD (r = 0.49-0.66) than with TCCD (0.35-0.44) and 2D PC MRI (0.52-0.60). In mid-BA and ICA C7 segment, a significant correlation was found with TCD (0.68-0.81 and 0.65-0.71, respectively). No significant correlation was found in carotid siphon. On average over all volunteers, PSVs and EDVs in MCA were minimally underestimated compared with TCD/TCCD. Minimal overestimation of velocities was found compared to TCD in mid-BA and ICA C7 segment. 4D PC MRI appears as valid alternative for intracranial velocity measurement consistent with previous reference standards, foremost with TCD. Spatiotemporal averaging effects might contribute to vessel size-dependent mild underestimation of velocities in smaller (MCA), and overestimation in larger-sized (BA and ICA) arteries, respectively. Complete spatiotemporal flow analysis may be advantageous in anatomically complex regions (e.g. carotid siphon) relative to restrictions of ultrasound techniques. (orig.)

  14. Pc Card Sony Ericsson: Semiotik Dan Iklan

    OpenAIRE

    Mutmainnah, Yulia

    2014-01-01

    Through advertisement, producers send messages for their product strength to consumers. Those messages are conveyed through various kinds of signs either in the form of language, picture, caption, icon, index, or symbol. There is communicative exchange on GC79 PC Card Sony Ericsson advertisement between sender and receiver. Sender (advertisement maker) of this advertisement makes good use of reward polluter style, which is, persuading comsumers to use PC Card Sony Ericsson product.

  15. PC 11: Symbiotic star or planetary nebulae?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gutierrez-Moreno, A.; Moreno, H.; Cortes, G.

    1987-01-01

    PC 11 is an object listed in Perek and Kohoutek (1967) Catalogue of Galactic Planetary Nebulae as PK 331 -5 0 1. Some authors suggest that it is not a planetary nebula, but that it has some characteristics (though not all) of symbiotic stars. We have made photographic, spectrophotometric and spectroscopic observations of PC 11. The analysis of the results suggests that it is a young planetary nebula. (Author)

  16. Channel coding techniques for wireless communications

    CERN Document Server

    Deergha Rao, K

    2015-01-01

    The book discusses modern channel coding techniques for wireless communications such as turbo codes, low-density parity check (LDPC) codes, space–time (ST) coding, RS (or Reed–Solomon) codes and convolutional codes. Many illustrative examples are included in each chapter for easy understanding of the coding techniques. The text is integrated with MATLAB-based programs to enhance the understanding of the subject’s underlying theories. It includes current topics of increasing importance such as turbo codes, LDPC codes, Luby transform (LT) codes, Raptor codes, and ST coding in detail, in addition to the traditional codes such as cyclic codes, BCH (or Bose–Chaudhuri–Hocquenghem) and RS codes and convolutional codes. Multiple-input and multiple-output (MIMO) communications is a multiple antenna technology, which is an effective method for high-speed or high-reliability wireless communications. PC-based MATLAB m-files for the illustrative examples are provided on the book page on Springer.com for free dow...

  17. Coding Partitions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Burderi

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Motivated by the study of decipherability conditions for codes weaker than Unique Decipherability (UD, we introduce the notion of coding partition. Such a notion generalizes that of UD code and, for codes that are not UD, allows to recover the ``unique decipherability" at the level of the classes of the partition. By tacking into account the natural order between the partitions, we define the characteristic partition of a code X as the finest coding partition of X. This leads to introduce the canonical decomposition of a code in at most one unambiguouscomponent and other (if any totally ambiguouscomponents. In the case the code is finite, we give an algorithm for computing its canonical partition. This, in particular, allows to decide whether a given partition of a finite code X is a coding partition. This last problem is then approached in the case the code is a rational set. We prove its decidability under the hypothesis that the partition contains a finite number of classes and each class is a rational set. Moreover we conjecture that the canonical partition satisfies such a hypothesis. Finally we consider also some relationships between coding partitions and varieties of codes.

  18. SALP-PC, a computer program for fault tree analysis on personal computers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Contini, S.; Poucet, A.

    1987-01-01

    The paper presents the main characteristics of the SALP-PC computer code for fault tree analysis. The program has been developed in Fortran 77 on an Olivetti M24 personal computer (IBM compatible) in order to reach a high degree of portability. It is composed of six processors implementing the different phases of the analysis procedure. This particular structure presents some advantages like, for instance, the restart facility and the possibility to develop an event tree analysis code. The set of allowed logical operators, i.e. AND, OR, NOT, K/N, XOR, INH, together with the possibility to define boundary conditions, make the SALP-PC code a powerful tool for risk assessment. (orig.)

  19. Collaborative Simulation Grid: Multiscale Quantum-Mechanical/Classical Atomistic Simulations on Distributed PC Clusters in the US and Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kikuchi, Hideaki; Kalia, Rajiv; Nakano, Aiichiro; Vashishta, Priya; Iyetomi, Hiroshi; Ogata, Shuji; Kouno, Takahisa; Shimojo, Fuyuki; Tsuruta, Kanji; Saini, Subhash; hide

    2002-01-01

    A multidisciplinary, collaborative simulation has been performed on a Grid of geographically distributed PC clusters. The multiscale simulation approach seamlessly combines i) atomistic simulation backed on the molecular dynamics (MD) method and ii) quantum mechanical (QM) calculation based on the density functional theory (DFT), so that accurate but less scalable computations are performed only where they are needed. The multiscale MD/QM simulation code has been Grid-enabled using i) a modular, additive hybridization scheme, ii) multiple QM clustering, and iii) computation/communication overlapping. The Gridified MD/QM simulation code has been used to study environmental effects of water molecules on fracture in silicon. A preliminary run of the code has achieved a parallel efficiency of 94% on 25 PCs distributed over 3 PC clusters in the US and Japan, and a larger test involving 154 processors on 5 distributed PC clusters is in progress.

  20. PC based 8-parameter data acquisition system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, J.D.; Naik, K.V.; Jain, S.K.; Pathak, R.V.; Suman, B.

    1989-01-01

    Multiparameter data acquisition (MPA) systems which analyse nuclear events with respect to more than one property of the event are essential tools for the study of some complex nuclear phenomena requiring analysis of time coincident spectra. For better throughput and accuracy each parameter is digitized by its own ADC. A stand alone low cost IBM PC based 8-parameter data acquisition system developed by the authors makes use of Address Recording technique for acquiring data from eight 12 bit ADC's in the PC Memory. Two memory buffers in the PC memory are used in ping-pong fashion so that data acquisition in one bank and dumping of data onto PC disk from the other bank can proceed simultaneously. Data is acquired in the PC memory through DMA mode for realising high throughput and hardware interrupt is used for switching banks for data acquisition. A comprehensive software package developed in Turbo-Pascal offers a set of menu-driven interactive commands to the user for setting-up system parameters and control of the system. The system is to be used with pelletron accelerator. (author). 5 figs

  1. PC'eren på arbejde. 3. udgave

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Povl Erik Rostgård

    En generel og ikke-programspecifik introduktion til edb-området med speciel fokus på pc'er og pc-programmel.......En generel og ikke-programspecifik introduktion til edb-området med speciel fokus på pc'er og pc-programmel....

  2. Comparative studies on mitochondrial electron transport chain complexes of Sitophilus zeamais treated with allyl isothiocyanate and calcium phosphide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chao; Wu, Hua; Zhao, Yuan; Ma, Zhiqing; Zhang, Xing

    2016-01-01

    With Sitophilus zeamais as the target organism, the present study for the first time attempted to elucidate the comparative effects between allyl isothiocyanate (AITC) and calcium phosphide (Ca3P2), exposure on mitochondrial electron transport chain (ETC.) complex I & IV and their downstream effects on enzymes relevant to reactive oxygen species (ROS). In vivo, both AITC and Ca3P2 inhibited complex I and IV with similar downstream effects. In contrast with Ca3P2, the inhibition of complex I caused by AITC was dependent on time and dose. In vitro, AITC inhibited complex IV more significantly than complex I. These results indicate that mitochondrial complex IV is the primary target of AITC, and that complex I is another potential target. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. ZrCu2P2 and HfCu2P2 phosphides and their crystal structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lomnitskaya, Ya.F.

    1986-01-01

    Isostructural ZrCu 2 P 2 and HfCu 2 P 2 compounds are prepared for the first time. X-ray diffraction analysis (of powder, DRON-2.0 diffractometer, FeKsub(α) radiation) was used to study crystal structure of HfCu 2 P 2 phosphide belonging to the CaAl 2 Si 2 structural type (sp. group P anti 3 m 1, R=0.095). Lattice parameters the compounds are as follows: for ZrCu 2 P 2 a=0.3810(1), c=0.6184(5); for HfCu 2 P 2 a=0.3799(1), c=0.6160(2) (nm). Atomic parameters in the HfCu 2 P 2 structure and interatomic distances are determined

  4. Peak Pc Prediction in Conjunction Analysis: Conjunction Assessment Risk Analysis. Pc Behavior Prediction Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallejo, J.J.; Hejduk, M.D.; Stamey, J. D.

    2015-01-01

    Satellite conjunction risk typically evaluated through the probability of collision (Pc). Considers both conjunction geometry and uncertainties in both state estimates. Conjunction events initially discovered through Joint Space Operations Center (JSpOC) screenings, usually seven days before Time of Closest Approach (TCA). However, JSpOC continues to track objects and issue conjunction updates. Changes in state estimate and reduced propagation time cause Pc to change as event develops. These changes a combination of potentially predictable development and unpredictable changes in state estimate covariance. Operationally useful datum: the peak Pc. If it can reasonably be inferred that the peak Pc value has passed, then risk assessment can be conducted against this peak value. If this value is below remediation level, then event intensity can be relaxed. Can the peak Pc location be reasonably predicted?

  5. Effects of P/Ni ratio and Ni content on performance of γ-Al_2O_3-supported nickel phosphides for deoxygenation of methyl laurate to hydrocarbons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Zhena; Tang, Mingxiao; Chen, Jixiang

    2016-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • The formation of AlPO_4 was unfavorable for that of nickel phosphides. • The phase compositions of nickel phosphide depended on the amount of reduced P. • Catalytic activity was determined by surface Ni site density and catalyst acidity. • HDO pathway was promoted by increasing P/Ni ratio and Ni content. • Nickel phosphide gave much higher carbon yield and lower H_2 consumption than Ni. - Abstract: γ-Al_2O_3-supported nickel phosphides (mNi-Pn) were prepared by the TPR method and tested for the deoxygenation of methyl laurate to hydrocarbons. The effects of the P/Ni ratio (n = 1.0–2.5) and Ni content (m = 5–15 wt.%) in the precursors on their structure and performance were investigated. Ni/γ-Al_2O_3 was also studied for comparison. It was found that the formation of AlPO_4 in the precursor inhibited the reduction of phosphate and so the formation of nickel phosphides. With increasing the P/Ni ratio and Ni content, the Ni, Ni_3P, Ni_1_2P_5 and Ni_2P phases orderly formed, accompanying with the increases of their particle size and the amount of weak acid sites (mainly due to P-OH group), while the CO uptake and the amount of medium strong acid sites (mainly related to Ni sites) reached maximum on 10%Ni-P1.5. In the deoxygenation reaction, compared with Ni/γ-Al_2O_3, the mNi-Pn catalysts showed much lower activities for decarbonylation, C−C hydrogenolysis and methanation due to the ligand and ensemble effects of P. The conversion and the selectivity to n-C11 and n-C12 hydrocarbons achieved maximum on 10%Ni-P 2.0 for the 10%Ni-Pn catalysts and on 8%Ni-P2.0 for the mNi-P2.0 catalysts, while the turnover frequency (TOF) of methyl laurate mainly increased with the P/Ni ratio and Ni content. We propose that TOF was influenced by the nickel phosphide phases, the catalyst acidity and the particle size as well as the synergetic effect between the Ni site and acid site. Again, the hydrodeoxygenation pathway of methyl

  6. Desain dan Implementasi Sistem Kendali CNC Router Menggunakan PC untuk Flame Cutting Machine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roni Permana Saputra

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on design of router control systems based on computer numerical control (CNC using personal computer (PC implemented in flame cutting machine (FCM. NC-Code entered into the computer translated to be a command signal sent by the PC to a microcontroller to control the end effector’s movement alongthe X and Y axis simultaneously based on linear and circular interpolations calculation on the PC. This control system is implemented on FCM by connecting the output control of the microcontroller with the driver actuator of the FCM in the form of a DC motor. The obtained result is in the form of a CNC router control system prototype to be implemented in the FCM which is capable to perform linear interpolation and circular interpolation. 

  7. Found a USB stick? Go and infect your PC!

    CERN Document Server

    Computer Security Team

    2012-01-01

    Err. Wait. Please no! USB sticks are not innocent little things. They can quickly mutate into malicious nasty beasts! Just in the recent past, at least two physics experiments were suffering as their control and data acquisition PCs, respectively, were infected by USB sticks holding malicious code. A bit longer ago, a series of laptops were infected at a 2008 computing conference as an infected USB stick made its tour around. Bad luck for those who ran a Windows operating system and inserted that stick…   So, you found a USB stick in the cafeteria? Take care. If this were a lollipop, you wouldn’t just pick it up and lick it, would you? So beware of USB sticks whose origin or previous usage you don’t know. They might infect your PC once plugged in. In order to be on the safe side, accept and share only USB sticks whose owner you trust. Run up-to-date anti-virus software on your PC, make sure that its operating system is patched...

  8. Population dose assessment: characteristics of PC CREAM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alonso, Maria T.; Curti, Adriana R.

    2000-01-01

    This paper presents the main features of the PC CREAM, a program for performing radiological impact assessments due to radioactive discharges into the environment during the operation of radioactive and nuclear facilities. PC CREAM is a suite of six programs that can be used to estimate individual and collective radiation doses. The methodology of PC CREAM is based on updated environmental and dosimetric models, including ICRP 60 recommendations. The models include several exposure pathways and the input files are easy to access. The ergonomics of the program improves the user interaction and makes easier the input of local data. This program is useful for performing sensitivity analysis, siting studies and validation of model comparing the activity concentration output data with environmental monitoring data. The methodology of each module is described as well as the output data. (author)

  9. Enhanced activity and durability of platinum anode catalyst by the modification of cobalt phosphide for direct methanol fuel cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Xiang; Wang, Hongjuan; Yu, Hao; Liu, Ziwu; Wang, Haihui; Peng, Feng

    2015-01-01

    Graphical abstract: A novel Pt/CoP/CNTs electrocatalyst with has been designed and prepared, which exhibits high activity and stability for methanol oxidation reaction. - Highlights: • Pt-cobalt phosphide catalyst supported on carbon nanotubes (Pt/CoP/CNTs) is designed. • Pt/CoP/CNTs exhibit high activity and stability for methanol oxidation reaction(MOR). • The effect of CoP content on electrocatalytic performances for MOR is studied. • CoP decreases the Pt particle size and increases the electrochemical surface areas. • The interaction between Pt and CoP is evidenced by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. - Abstract: In this study, carbon nanotubes (CNTs) supported Pt-cobalt phosphide (CoP) electrocatalyst (Pt/CoP/CNTs) is designed and prepared for methanol oxidation (MOR) for the first time. The modification of CoP decreases the Pt particle size significantly and increases the electrochemical surface areas due to the interaction between Pt and CoP, which is evidenced by transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Among all these catalysts, Pt/4%CoP/CNTs catalyst exhibits the best MOR activity of 1600 mA mg −1 Pt , which is six times that of Pt/CNTs. Moreover, this catalyst also exhibits the higher onset current density and steady current density than the other Pt-based catalysts. The work provides a promising method to develop the highly active and stable Pt-based catalyst for direct methanol fuel cells.

  10. Tablet PC Support of Students' Learning Styles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shreya Kothaneth

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In the context of rapid technology development, it comes as no surprise that technology continues to impact the educational domain, challenging traditional teaching and learning styles. This study focuses on how students with different learning styles use instructional technology, and in particular, the tablet PC, to enhance their learning experience. The VARK model was chosen as our theoretical framework as we analyzed responses of an online survey, both from a quantitative and qualitative standpoint. Results indicate that if used correctly, the tablet PC can be used across different learning styles to enrich the educational experience.

  11. PHAST- a spectrum stabilising PC-MCA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mukhopadhyay, P.K.; Satish, P.; Shrivastava, V.D.

    2001-01-01

    Model PHAST, a PC-card with programmable features, incorporates a 100 MHz Wilkinson ADC with conversion gain of 8K. It also provides SCA mode MCS operation. The card caters to the needs of precision nuclear spectroscopy at low to moderate count rates. Spectrum drift may be eliminated by spectrum stabilisation. Proper dead time correction is achieved by Gedcke-Hale or pulse generator based schemes. Multiple cards may be operated together in a single PC in independent operating modes. These cards have onboard histogram memory and updating mechanism. Hence they will usually continue to acquire data in the event of a system crash. (author)

  12. Installation and implementation of PC COSYMA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rossi, J.

    1995-12-01

    COSYMA is a probabilistic reactor accident consequence assessment model developed in the 1980's by the research institutes of the EC countries, primarily by NRPB and KfK. In 1993 a simplified version of the program was released to be implemented on a PC. In the study the PC COSYMA program was applied to calculate as the end points nuclide concentrations, doses received, numbers of health effects, areas affected by countermeasures and other results related to countermeasure strategies. Some results are compared with the results obtained by the ARANO program developed by VTT Energy (Technical Research Centre of Finland) to quarantee proper interpretation of the application. (15 refs.)

  13. Speaking Code

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cox, Geoff

    Speaking Code begins by invoking the “Hello World” convention used by programmers when learning a new language, helping to establish the interplay of text and code that runs through the book. Interweaving the voice of critical writing from the humanities with the tradition of computing and software...

  14. Topotactic Conversion of Copper(I) Phosphide Nanowires for Sensitive Electrochemical Detection of H2O2 Release from Living Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhenzhen; Xin, Yanmei; Wu, Wenlong; Fu, Baihe; Zhang, Zhonghai

    2016-08-02

    In this work, we clearly demonstrate for the first time the use of transition-metal phosphides to set up a new cathodic analysis platform for sensitive and selective electrochemical nonenzymatic detection of H2O2. With the help of a facile topotactic conversion method, the noble metal-free electrocatalyst of copper(I) phosphide nanowires on three-dimensional porous copper foam (Cu3P NWs/CF) is fabricated with electrochemical anodized Cu(OH)2 NWs as precursor. The Cu3P NWs/CF-based sensor presents excellent electrocatalytic activity for H2O2 reduction with a detection limit of 2 nM, the lowest detection limit achieved by noble-metal free electrocatalyst, which guarantees the possibility of sensitive and reliable detection of H2O2 release from living tumorigenic cells, thus showing the potential application as a sensitive cancer cell detection probe.

  15. In situ X-ray absorption fine structure studies on the structure of nickel phosphide catalyst supported on K-USY

    CERN Document Server

    Kawai, T; Suzuki, S

    2003-01-01

    Local structure around Ni in a nickel phosphide catalyst supported on K-USY was investigated by an situ X-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) method during the reduction process of the catalyst and the hydrodesulfurization (HDS) reaction of thiophene. In the passivated sample, Ni phosphide was partially oxidized but after the reduction, 1.1 nm diameter Ni sub 2 P particles were formed with Ni-P and Ni-Ni distances at 0.218 and 0.261 nm, respectively, corresponding to those of bulk Ni sub 2 P. In situ XAFS cleary revealed that the Ni sub 2 P structure was stable under reaction conditions and was an active structure for the HDS process.

  16. Development of GIFT-PC: the software with multi-drawing functions of three dimensional geometries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsuda, Shuichi; Yamaguchi, Yasuhiro

    2001-05-01

    The Combinatorial Geometry (CG) is a general-purpose geometry package used on radiation transport simulation codes. It is quite useful to illustrate the CG geometries on a simulation code because the visible information of the CG geometries used in a calculation can avoid some mistakes in the case of complicated data, and make it easier to understand the calculation models in the case of presentations. GIFT code (Geographic Information For Target) hsa been developed at Ballistic Research Laboratory, US, for the purpose of illustrating the components of a target from any point of view, calculating a projected area or volume and checking the correctness of the geometry description. Using the drawing functions of GIFT code, perspective or isometric views of a target can be obtained from various points of view. The present report describes the overview of GIFT code and the development of GIFT-PC. GIFT-PC, based on GIFT code, has been developed for easier drawings of three-dimensional geometries using the GUI (Graphical User Interface) system of personal computers, and can be used in various fields as a useful drawing tool for CG geometries. (author)

  17. Experience using EPICS on PC platforms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hill, J.O.; Kasemire, K.U.

    1997-03-01

    The Experimental Physics and Industrial Control System (EPICS) has been widely adopted in the accelerator community. Although EPICS is available on many platforms, the majority of implementations have used UNIX workstations as clients, and VME- or VXI-based processors for distributed input output controllers. Recently, a significant portion of EPICS has been ported to personal computer (PC) hardware platforms running Microsoft's operating systems, and also Wind River System's real time vxWorks operating system. This development should significantly reduce the cost of deploying EPICS systems, and the prospect of using EPICS together with the many high quality commercial components available for PC platforms is also encouraging. A hybrid system using both PC and traditional platforms is currently being implemented at LANL for LEDA, the low energy demonstration accelerator under construction as part of the Accelerator Production of Tritium (APT) project. To illustrate these developments the authors compare their recent experience deploying a PC-based EPICS system with experience deploying similar systems based on traditional (UNIX-hosted) EPICS hardware and software platforms

  18. An Introduction To PC-TRIM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    John R. Mills

    1989-01-01

    The timber resource inventory model (TRIM) has been adapted to run on person al computers. The personal computer version of TRIM (PC-TRIM) is more widely used than its mainframe parent. Errors that existed in previous versions of TRIM have been corrected. Information is presented to help users with program input and output management in the DOS environment, to...

  19. Investigasi Serangan Malware Njrat Pada PC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Devi Rizky Septiani

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Malware merupakan salah satu bentuk dari kejahatan komputer yang terjadi pada sebuah sistem jaringan komputer, malware Njrat termasuk jenis Trojan horse. Trojan adalah salah satu jenis malware yang ikut berkembang di dalamnya, yang memungkinkan attacker masuk ke dalam sistem tanpa diketahui oleh pemilik. Penggunaan trojan saat ini lebih ke arah kejahatan dunia maya (cyber crime, salah satu dari malware yang sangat berbahaya karena besarnya dampak kerugian yang ditimbulkan, mulai dari pencurian data penting sampai mengubah hak akses pada PC korban. Sasaran terbanyak penybaran trojan adalah pengguna sistem operasi windows. Penyebaran trojan ini dilakukan dengan metode social engineering, yaitu teknik yang menggunakan kelemahan manusia, sehingga user tanpa curiga langsung mengeksekusi sebuah program yang tidak dikenal.  Aktivitas malware berkaitan erat dengan  performa PC dan juga aktifitas network pada system computer. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui cara kerja malware Njrat dan melakukan investigasi terhadap performa pada system computer. Metodologi yang digunakan dynamic analysis dengan melakukan analisa malware pada suatu sistem dan melihat aktivitas atau proses yang diaktifkan oleh malware tersebut. Dampak perubahan yang terjadi pada PC Target terlihat pada performa masing-masing PC yang telah disisipkan malware. Kata kunci            Malware, Njrat, System computer

  20. An Automation Interface for Kappa PC

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hartvig, Susanne C

    1999-01-01

    The reports documents an automation interface for Kappa PC. The automation interface can be used to embed Kappa applications in 32-bit Windowsapplications.The interface includes functions for initialising Kappa, for loading an application, for settingvalues, for getting values, and for stopping...

  1. Brugervejledning til pc-programmet STLRAMME

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buhelt, M.

    Pc-programmet STLRAMME supplerer SBI-anvisning 187, 'Simple stålrammebygninger. Dimensionering og udførelse'. Programmet kan anvendes til dimensionering af stålrammebygninger med andre mål end dem, der er medtaget i anvisningens tabeller; men det erstatter kun stålramme- og åsetabellerne, ikke an...

  2. CLIPS - C LANGUAGE INTEGRATED PRODUCTION SYSTEM (IBM PC VERSION)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riley, G.

    1994-01-01

    The C Language Integrated Production System, CLIPS, is a shell for developing expert systems. It is designed to allow artificial intelligence research, development, and delivery on conventional computers. The primary design goals for CLIPS are portability, efficiency, and functionality. For these reasons, the program is written in C. CLIPS meets or outperforms most micro- and minicomputer based artificial intelligence tools. CLIPS is a forward chaining rule-based language. The program contains an inference engine and a language syntax that provide a framework for the construction of an expert system. It also includes tools for debugging an application. CLIPS is based on the Rete algorithm, which enables very efficient pattern matching. The collection of conditions and actions to be taken if the conditions are met is constructed into a rule network. As facts are asserted either prior to or during a session, CLIPS pattern-matches the number of fields. Wildcards and variables are supported for both single and multiple fields. CLIPS syntax allows the inclusion of externally defined functions (outside functions which are written in a language other than CLIPS). CLIPS itself can be embedded in a program such that the expert system is available as a simple subroutine call. Advanced features found in CLIPS version 4.3 include an integrated microEMACS editor, the ability to generate C source code from a CLIPS rule base to produce a dedicated executable, binary load and save capabilities for CLIPS rule bases, and the utility program CRSV (Cross-Reference, Style, and Verification) designed to facilitate the development and maintenance of large rule bases. Five machine versions are available. Each machine version includes the source and the executable for that machine. The UNIX version includes the source and binaries for IBM RS/6000, Sun3 series, and Sun4 series computers. The UNIX, DEC VAX, and DEC RISC Workstation versions are line oriented. The PC version and the Macintosh

  3. Aqueous corrosion of phosphide minerals from iron meteorites: a highly reactive source of prebiotic phosphorus on the surface of the early Earth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasek, Matthew A; Lauretta, Dante S

    2005-08-01

    We present the results of an experimental study of aqueous corrosion of Fe-phosphide under conditions relevant to the early Earth. The results strongly suggest that iron meteorites were an important source of reactive phosphorus (P), a requirement for the formation of P-based life. We further demonstrate that iron meteorites were an abundant source of phosphide minerals early in Earth history. Phosphide corrosion was studied in five different solutions: deionized water, deionized water buffered with sodium bicarbonate, deionized water with dissolved magnesium and calcium chlorides, deionized water containing ethanol and acetic acid, and deionized water containing the chlorides, ethanol, and acetic acid. Experiments were performed in the presence of both air and pure Ar gas to evaluate the effect of atmospheric chemistry. Phosphide corrosion in deionized water results in a metastable mixture of mixed-valence, P-bearing ions including pyrophosphate and triphosphate, key components for metabolism in modern life. In a pH-buffered solution of NaHCO(3), the condensed and reduced species diphosphonate is an abundant corrosion product. Corrosion in ethanol- and acetic acid-containing solutions yields additional P-bearing organic molecules, including acetyl phosphonate and a cyclic triphosphorus molecule. Phosphonate is a major corrosion product of all experiments and is the only P-bearing molecule that persists in solutions with high concentrations of magnesium and calcium chlorides, which suggests that phosphonate may have been a primitive oceanic source of P. The stability and reactivity of phosphonate and hypophosphite in solution were investigated to elucidate reaction mechanisms and the role of mineral catalysts on P-solution chemistry. Phosphonate oxidation is rapid in the presence of Fe metal but negligible in the presence of magnetite and in the control sample. The rate of hypophosphite oxidation is independent of reaction substrate.

  4. The 1996 ENDF pre-processing codes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cullen, D.E.

    1996-01-01

    The codes are named 'the Pre-processing' codes, because they are designed to pre-process ENDF/B data, for later, further processing for use in applications. This is a modular set of computer codes, each of which reads and writes evaluated nuclear data in the ENDF/B format. Each code performs one or more independent operations on the data, as described below. These codes are designed to be computer independent, and are presently operational on every type of computer from large mainframe computer to small personal computers, such as IBM-PC and Power MAC. The codes are available from the IAEA Nuclear Data Section, free of charge upon request. (author)

  5. COSYMA, a mainframe and PC program package for assessing the consequences of hypothetical accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, J.A.; Hasemann, I.; Steen, J. van der

    1996-01-01

    COSYMA (Code System from MARIA) is a program package for assessing the off-site consequences of accidental releases of radioactive material to atmosphere, developed as part of the European Commission's MARIA programme (Methods for Assessing the Radiological Impact of Accidents). COSYMA represents a fusion of ideas and modules from the Forschungszetrum Karlsruhe program system UFOMOD, the National Radiological Protection Board program MARC and new model developments together with data libraries from other MARIA contractors. Mainframe and PC versions of COSYMA are distributed to interested users by arrangement with the European Commission. The system was first released in 1990, and has subsequently been updated. The program system uses independent modules for the different parts of the analysis, and so permits a flexible problem-oriented application to different sites, source terms, emergency plans and the needs of users in the various parts of Europe. Users of the mainframe system can choose the most appropriate combination of modules for their particular application. The PC version includes a user interface which selects the required modules for the endpoints specified by the user. This paper describes the structure of the mainframe and PC versions of COSYMA, and summarises the models included in them. The mainframe or PC versions of COSYMA have been distributed to more than 100 organisations both inside and outside the European Union, and have been used in a wide variety of applications. These range from full PRA level 3 analyses of nuclear power and research reactors to investigations on advanced containment concepts and the preplanning of off-site emergency actions. Some of the experiences from these applications are described in the paper. An international COSYMA user group has been established to stimulate communication between the owners, developers and users of the code and to serve as a reference point for questions relating to the code. The group produces

  6. MARS Code in Linux Environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hwang, Moon Kyu; Bae, Sung Won; Jung, Jae Joon; Chung, Bub Dong [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    2005-07-01

    The two-phase system analysis code MARS has been incorporated into Linux system. The MARS code was originally developed based on the RELAP5/MOD3.2 and COBRA-TF. The 1-D module which evolved from RELAP5 alone could be applied for the whole NSSS system analysis. The 3-D module developed based on the COBRA-TF, however, could be applied for the analysis of the reactor core region where 3-D phenomena would be better treated. The MARS code also has several other code units that could be incorporated for more detailed analysis. The separate code units include containment analysis modules and 3-D kinetics module. These code modules could be optionally invoked to be coupled with the main MARS code. The containment code modules (CONTAIN and CONTEMPT), for example, could be utilized for the analysis of the plant containment phenomena in a coupled manner with the nuclear reactor system. The mass and energy interaction during the hypothetical coolant leakage accident could, thereby, be analyzed in a more realistic manner. In a similar way, 3-D kinetics could be incorporated for simulating the three dimensional reactor kinetic behavior, instead of using the built-in point kinetics model. The MARS code system, developed initially for the MS Windows environment, however, would not be adequate enough for the PC cluster system where multiple CPUs are available. When parallelism is to be eventually incorporated into the MARS code, MS Windows environment is not considered as an optimum platform. Linux environment, on the other hand, is generally being adopted as a preferred platform for the multiple codes executions as well as for the parallel application. In this study, MARS code has been modified for the adaptation of Linux platform. For the initial code modification, the Windows system specific features have been removed from the code. Since the coupling code module CONTAIN is originally in a form of dynamic load library (DLL) in the Windows system, a similar adaptation method

  7. MARS Code in Linux Environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwang, Moon Kyu; Bae, Sung Won; Jung, Jae Joon; Chung, Bub Dong

    2005-01-01

    The two-phase system analysis code MARS has been incorporated into Linux system. The MARS code was originally developed based on the RELAP5/MOD3.2 and COBRA-TF. The 1-D module which evolved from RELAP5 alone could be applied for the whole NSSS system analysis. The 3-D module developed based on the COBRA-TF, however, could be applied for the analysis of the reactor core region where 3-D phenomena would be better treated. The MARS code also has several other code units that could be incorporated for more detailed analysis. The separate code units include containment analysis modules and 3-D kinetics module. These code modules could be optionally invoked to be coupled with the main MARS code. The containment code modules (CONTAIN and CONTEMPT), for example, could be utilized for the analysis of the plant containment phenomena in a coupled manner with the nuclear reactor system. The mass and energy interaction during the hypothetical coolant leakage accident could, thereby, be analyzed in a more realistic manner. In a similar way, 3-D kinetics could be incorporated for simulating the three dimensional reactor kinetic behavior, instead of using the built-in point kinetics model. The MARS code system, developed initially for the MS Windows environment, however, would not be adequate enough for the PC cluster system where multiple CPUs are available. When parallelism is to be eventually incorporated into the MARS code, MS Windows environment is not considered as an optimum platform. Linux environment, on the other hand, is generally being adopted as a preferred platform for the multiple codes executions as well as for the parallel application. In this study, MARS code has been modified for the adaptation of Linux platform. For the initial code modification, the Windows system specific features have been removed from the code. Since the coupling code module CONTAIN is originally in a form of dynamic load library (DLL) in the Windows system, a similar adaptation method

  8. CITATION-LDI2, 2-D Multigroup Diffusion, Perturbation, Criticality Search, for PC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    1 - Description of program or function: CITATION is designed to solve problems using the finite difference representation of neutron diffusion theory, treating up to three space dimensions with arbitrary group to group scattering. X-y-z, theta-r-z, hexagonal z, and trigonal z geometries may be treated. Depletion problems may be solved and fuel managed for multi-cycle analysis. Extensive first order perturbation results may be obtained given microscopic data and nuclide concentrations. Statics problems may be solved and perturbation results obtained with microscopic data. This version of CITATION was released by ORNL as CITATION - Rev. 2, Supplement 3 in July 1972 and ran on mainframes. It was first ported to PC by AECL in October 1988. CITATION-PC included in the March 1996 package involved minor changes including the removal of overlay statements introduced in 1988. CITALDI-PC is a new modified version with list-directed input. The codes in this package accept cross sections in CITATION format. Macroscopic data may be entered according to format specifications in Section 008 of the published report. Microscopic data format is specified in Section 105. There are no codes in RSIC's code collection to generate data in CITATION format. 2 - Method of solution: Explicit, finite difference approximations in space and time have been implemented. The neutron-flux-eigenvalue problems are solved by direct iteration to determine the multiplication factor or the nuclide densities required for a critical system

  9. Coding Labour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony McCosker

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available As well as introducing the Coding Labour section, the authors explore the diffusion of code across the material contexts of everyday life, through the objects and tools of mediation, the systems and practices of cultural production and organisational management, and in the material conditions of labour. Taking code beyond computation and software, their specific focus is on the increasingly familiar connections between code and labour with a focus on the codification and modulation of affect through technologies and practices of management within the contemporary work organisation. In the grey literature of spreadsheets, minutes, workload models, email and the like they identify a violence of forms through which workplace affect, in its constant flux of crisis and ‘prodromal’ modes, is regulated and governed.

  10. Ultrasonic Control of welded joints by using specific PC generated AVG diagrams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rondon Torriente, S.; Galeano Alvarez, N.J.; Frometas Castillo, T.; Gonzalez Mastrapa, J.J. Unidad Presupuestada Inversionista Para la Construccion de la Central Electronuclear de Juragua, Juragua . Laboratorio de Metales.

    1996-01-01

    This paper describes an algoritm easy to be implemented in a modern personnel computer (PC), which can be used to obtain the specific AVG diagrams required during the ultrasonic control of welded joints by the AVG method. The algoritm is illustrated by means of the derivation of some specific diagrams corresponding to given inspection testing. Also some results and standard practices given in recent issues of several international codes are outlined, which can be used in recent issues of several international codes are outlined, which can be used to overcome common problems founded during the practical use of the AVG method with conventional shear wave ultrasonic transducers

  11. The SEDA computer code and its utilization for Angra 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandes Filho, T.L.

    1988-11-01

    The implementation of SEDA 2.0 computer code, developed at Ezeiza Atomic Center, Argentine for Angra 1 reactor is described. The SEDA code gives an estimate for radiological consequences of nuclear accidents with release of radiactive materials for the environment. This code is now available for an IBM PC-XT. The computer environment, the files used, data, the programining structure and the models used are presented. The input data and results for two sample case are described. (author) [pt

  12. PC12 polarity on biopolymer nanogratings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cecchini, M; Ferrari, A; Beltram, F

    2008-01-01

    Cell differentiation properties are strongly entangled with the morphology and physical properties of the extracellular environment. A complete understanding of this interaction needs artificial scaffolds with controlled nano-/micro-topography. We induced specific topographies by nanoimprint lithography (NIL) on tissue culture polystyrene (TCPS) dishes substrates and, using light microscopy and high-magnification scanning-electron-microscopy, quantitatively compared the changes in PC12 differentiation phenotype induced by the periodicity of the nanopatterns. This analysis revealed that nanogratings reduce the number of neurites produced by PC12 cells upon treatment with NGF and that neuronal bipolarity correlated with an increased stretching of the cell body and a reduced length of the cell neuronal protrusions

  13. IBM PC enhances the world's future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Jozelle

    1988-01-01

    Although the purpose of this research is to illustrate the importance of computers to the public, particularly the IBM PC, present examinations will include computers developed before the IBM PC was brought into use. IBM, as well as other computing facilities, began serving the public years ago, and is continuing to find ways to enhance the existence of man. With new developments in supercomputers like the Cray-2, and the recent advances in artificial intelligence programming, the human race is gaining knowledge at a rapid pace. All have benefited from the development of computers in the world; not only have they brought new assets to life, but have made life more and more of a challenge everyday.

  14. PC imaging system for reactor NDE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1987-01-01

    PC-based systems have been given recent attention by EPRI to organize and manage inspection data (RP-2405-15, TestPro system); integrate with larger, mainframe computers to maintain dialogue for on-site and remote applications; and, in this project, to aid the operator in providing guidance to render decisions on the data. The PC system configuration for this project consisted of a central processing unit (CPU), a hard disk and a floppy disk, 640K bytes of system memory, a high-resolution graphics card and compatible color monitor, and a mouse for operator interaction with software. The software package was written in FORTRAN under the PC Disk Operating System (PC-DOS) and utilized a graphics package for image display. Application of this package to crack-counterbore discrimination in piping welds was investigated. Present automatic techniques utilize signal features from single, A-scan data to render a decision on whether the reflector is benign (i.e., counterbore, weld root) or a crack. However, experienced manual operators in the field make reliable decisions based on the integrated response from the reflector as the transducer is scanned past the suspicious region. Since this software package could display and manipulate ensemble A-scans, spatial features - similar to those used by experts - were developed as discriminants. Ultrasonic responses from intergranular stress corrosion cracks (IGSCCs) were discovered to vary both in time-of-flight and in their amplitude, whereas counterbore responses were more consistent. The software package contains methods for viewing and quantifying these spatial features

  15. PC 386-based version of DORT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanker, E.

    1992-01-01

    Problems encountered during the adaptation of DORT on a personal computer using a Fortran77 compiler are described, modifications done to solve these are explained. Three test cases were run with the modified version and results are compared with those obtained on an IBM 3090/200. Numerical differences were observed in the last three decimal digits of the computations at most. The running times on the PC were found to be satisfactory for these test cases

  16. CFARMHD -- A MathCAD PC program to evaluate performance and economics of CFARII fusion reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Logan, B.G.

    1992-01-01

    This report describes a PC computer program ''CFARMHD'', developed to evaluate the performance (MHD cycle efficiency) and economics (Cost-of-Electricity CoE) for pulsed fusion reactors using the Compact Fusion Advanced Rankine II (CFARII) MHD Balance of Plant (BoP). The CFARII concept to which this code applies is generic to any fusion driver which can be characterized by an assumed yield Y (GJ), target gain G, and unit cost ($/joule driver). The CFARMHD code models the sizes, masses, energies, mass flows and powers corresponding to the physical systems and optimizes them to minimize CoE for given Y, G, $/joule, and choice of material for the working fluid (cast as solid spherical shells around the target). A description of the models used in the CFARMHD code is given in Section 11, and the CoE minimization procedure used in the code is described in Section III

  17. Glycosaminoglycan composition of PC12 pheochromocytoma cells: a comparison with PC12D cells, a new subline of PC12 cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katoh-Semba, R.; Oohira, A.; Sano, M.; Watanabe, K.; Kitajima, S.; Kashiwamata, S.

    1989-03-01

    PC12D cells, a new subline of conventional PC12 cells, respond not only to nerve growth factor but also to cyclic AMP by extending their neurites. These cells are flat in shape and are similar in appearance to PC12 cells that have been treated with nerve growth factor for a few days. In both cell lines, we have characterized the glycosaminoglycans, the polysaccharide moieties of proteoglycans, which are believed to play an important role in cell adhesion and in cell morphology. Under the present culture conditions, only chondroitin sulfate was detected in the media from PC12 and PC12D cells, whereas both chondroitin sulfate and heparan sulfate were found in the cell layers. The levels of cell-associated heparan sulfate and chondroitin sulfate were about twofold and fourfold higher in PC12D cells than in PC12 cells, respectively. Compared to PC12 cells, the amounts of (/sup 35/S)sulfate incorporated for 48 h into chondroitin sulfate were twofold lower but those into heparan sulfate were 35% higher in PC12D cells. The amount of chondroitin sulfate released by PC12D cells into the medium was about a half of that released by PC12 cells. The ratio of (/sup 35/S)sulfate-labeled heparan sulfate to chondroitin sulfate was 6.2 in PC12D cells and 2.2 in PC12 cells. These results suggest that there may be some correlation between the increase in content of glycosaminoglycans and the change in cell morphology, which is followed by neurite outgrowth.

  18. Pc-based car license plate reading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanabe, Katsuyoshi; Marubayashi, Eisaku; Kawashima, Harumi; Nakanishi, Tadashi; Shio, Akio

    1994-03-01

    A PC-based car license plate recognition system has been developed. The system recognizes Chinese characters and Japanese phonetic hiragana characters as well as six digits on Japanese license plates. The system consists of a CCD camera, vehicle sensors, a strobe unit, a monitoring center, and an i486-based PC. The PC includes in its extension slots: a vehicle detector board, a strobe emitter board, and an image grabber board. When a passing vehicle is detected by the vehicle sensors, the strobe emits a pulse of light. The light pulse is synchronized with the time the vehicle image is frozen on an image grabber board. The recognition process is composed of three steps: image thresholding, character region extraction, and matching-based character recognition. The recognition software can handle obscured characters. Experimental results for hundreds of outdoor images showed high recognition performance within relatively short performance times. The results confirmed that the system is applicable to a wide variety of applications such as automatic vehicle identification and travel time measurement.

  19. VENTURE-PC 1.1, Reactor Analysis System with Sensitivity and Burnup

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    1 - Description of program or function: The VENTURE program solves the usual neutronics eigenvalue, adjoint, fixed source, and criticality search problems. It treats up to three dimensions, maps power density, and does first-order perturbation analysis at the macroscopic cross section level. The BURNER code solves the nuclide chain equations to estimate the nuclide concentrations and burnup at the end of an exposure time or after a shutdown period. This package is based on the CCC-459/BOLD VENTURE IV code system developed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. In January 1989 the University of Cincinnati contributed the first VENTURE-PC package to RSICC's collection. It was a subset of the mainframe version consisting of the VENTURE and BURNER modules plus several processing modules. VENTURE-PC was distributed as CCC-459 until July 1997 when a new version (with updated source code compatible with newer FORTRAN-77 compilers, some revisions, and extensions to solve much larger problems) was contributed by Argonne National Laboratory. The principle code modules included in the VENTURE-PC system are: VENTURE: Multigroup neutronics finite-difference diffusion theory. BURNER: Depletion calculation for reactor core analysis. Other modules within VENTURE-PC are: DVENTR: Venture input processor; DCRSPR: Neutron cross section processor; DUTLIN: Control file (CNTRL) input processor; DCMACR: Citation format cross section input processor; CRXSPR: Cross section processor; DENMAN: Fuel repositioning module. In August of 1999, Argonne again contributed an updated version of the code which overcomes problem size constraints caused by binary record length limits inherent to the Fortran 90 compiler. The need for long records is detected and avoided by sub-blocking them. Also, the latest Fortran 95 compiler offers substantial speed gains on the newest processors. The source code is updated to be compatible with either Fortran 90 or Fortran 95. In August 2002, the package was updated with

  20. Speech coding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ravishankar, C., Hughes Network Systems, Germantown, MD

    1998-05-08

    Speech is the predominant means of communication between human beings and since the invention of the telephone by Alexander Graham Bell in 1876, speech services have remained to be the core service in almost all telecommunication systems. Original analog methods of telephony had the disadvantage of speech signal getting corrupted by noise, cross-talk and distortion Long haul transmissions which use repeaters to compensate for the loss in signal strength on transmission links also increase the associated noise and distortion. On the other hand digital transmission is relatively immune to noise, cross-talk and distortion primarily because of the capability to faithfully regenerate digital signal at each repeater purely based on a binary decision. Hence end-to-end performance of the digital link essentially becomes independent of the length and operating frequency bands of the link Hence from a transmission point of view digital transmission has been the preferred approach due to its higher immunity to noise. The need to carry digital speech became extremely important from a service provision point of view as well. Modem requirements have introduced the need for robust, flexible and secure services that can carry a multitude of signal types (such as voice, data and video) without a fundamental change in infrastructure. Such a requirement could not have been easily met without the advent of digital transmission systems, thereby requiring speech to be coded digitally. The term Speech Coding is often referred to techniques that represent or code speech signals either directly as a waveform or as a set of parameters by analyzing the speech signal. In either case, the codes are transmitted to the distant end where speech is reconstructed or synthesized using the received set of codes. A more generic term that is applicable to these techniques that is often interchangeably used with speech coding is the term voice coding. This term is more generic in the sense that the

  1. Phosphatidylcholine (PC) biosynthesis in pancreatic islets of Langerhans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoffman, J.M.; Laychock, S.G.

    1986-01-01

    Islets of Langerhans isolated from rat pancreata were incubated with [ 14 C]choline to determine the biosynthesis of PC by the CDP choline to determine the biosynthesis of PC by the CDPcholine pathway. Recovery of [ 14 C]PC in islet membranes was time-related, and stimulated by glucose (17mM) during 60 min. The rate of PC synthesis was constant during 60 min with glucose stimulation. In contrast, the sulfonylurea tolbutamide (2 mM) reduced the recovery of [ 14 C]choline in PC, and 8-bromo-cyclic AMP (5 mM) did not significantly affect [ 14 C]PC recovery. Incubation of islets in Ca 2+ -free medium enhanced glucose-stimulated recovery of [ 14 C]choline-labeled PC due to the inhibition of phospholipase and phospholipid hydrolysis. Inhibition of CTP:phosphocholine cytidylyltransferase with 5-deoxy-5'-isobutylthioadenosine (SIBA) reduced [ 14 C]PC levels and insulin release in a concentration dependent manner. Treatment with SIBA also reduced Mg 2+ -dependent Ca 2+ -ATPase activity in islet microsomes. Quantitation of membrane PC showed that glucose stimulation did not alter islet P levels. Thus, islet PC biosynthesis is linked to glucose stimulation and contributes to the maintenance of PC levels in membranes undergoing exocytosis and phospholipid hydrolysis. Adequate PC levels support Ca 2+ pump activity and secretory mechanisms

  2. The USL NASA PC R and D development environment standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dominick, Wayne D. (Editor); Moreau, Dennis R.

    1984-01-01

    The development environment standards which have been established in order to control usage of the IBM PC/XT development systems and to prevent interference between projects being currently developed on the PC's are discussed. The standards address the following areas: scheduling PC resources; login/logout procedures; training; file naming conventions; hard disk organization; diskette care; backup procedures; and copying policies.

  3. Optimal codes as Tanner codes with cyclic component codes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høholdt, Tom; Pinero, Fernando; Zeng, Peng

    2014-01-01

    In this article we study a class of graph codes with cyclic code component codes as affine variety codes. Within this class of Tanner codes we find some optimal binary codes. We use a particular subgraph of the point-line incidence plane of A(2,q) as the Tanner graph, and we are able to describe ...

  4. Aztheca Code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quezada G, S.; Espinosa P, G.; Centeno P, J.; Sanchez M, H.

    2017-09-01

    This paper presents the Aztheca code, which is formed by the mathematical models of neutron kinetics, power generation, heat transfer, core thermo-hydraulics, recirculation systems, dynamic pressure and level models and control system. The Aztheca code is validated with plant data, as well as with predictions from the manufacturer when the reactor operates in a stationary state. On the other hand, to demonstrate that the model is applicable during a transient, an event occurred in a nuclear power plant with a BWR reactor is selected. The plant data are compared with the results obtained with RELAP-5 and the Aztheca model. The results show that both RELAP-5 and the Aztheca code have the ability to adequately predict the behavior of the reactor. (Author)

  5. Vocable Code

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Soon, Winnie; Cox, Geoff

    2018-01-01

    a computational and poetic composition for two screens: on one of these, texts and voices are repeated and disrupted by mathematical chaos, together exploring the performativity of code and language; on the other, is a mix of a computer programming syntax and human language. In this sense queer code can...... be understood as both an object and subject of study that intervenes in the world’s ‘becoming' and how material bodies are produced via human and nonhuman practices. Through mixing the natural and computer language, this article presents a script in six parts from a performative lecture for two persons...

  6. NSURE code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rattan, D.S.

    1993-11-01

    NSURE stands for Near-Surface Repository code. NSURE is a performance assessment code. developed for the safety assessment of near-surface disposal facilities for low-level radioactive waste (LLRW). Part one of this report documents the NSURE model, governing equations and formulation of the mathematical models, and their implementation under the SYVAC3 executive. The NSURE model simulates the release of nuclides from an engineered vault, their subsequent transport via the groundwater and surface water pathways tot he biosphere, and predicts the resulting dose rate to a critical individual. Part two of this report consists of a User's manual, describing simulation procedures, input data preparation, output and example test cases

  7. A new algorithm for coding geological terminology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apon, W.

    The Geological Survey of The Netherlands has developed an algorithm to convert the plain geological language of lithologic well logs into codes suitable for computer processing and link these to existing plotting programs. The algorithm is based on the "direct method" and operates in three steps: (1) searching for defined word combinations and assigning codes; (2) deleting duplicated codes; (3) correcting incorrect code combinations. Two simple auxiliary files are used. A simple PC demonstration program is included to enable readers to experiment with this algorithm. The Department of Quarternary Geology of the Geological Survey of The Netherlands possesses a large database of shallow lithologic well logs in plain language and has been using a program based on this algorithm for about 3 yr. Erroneous codes resulting from using this algorithm are less than 2%.

  8. The 1992 ENDF Pre-processing codes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cullen, D.E.

    1992-01-01

    This document summarizes the 1992 version of the ENDF pre-processing codes which are required for processing evaluated nuclear data coded in the format ENDF-4, ENDF-5, or ENDF-6. Included are the codes CONVERT, MERGER, LINEAR, RECENT, SIGMA1, LEGEND, FIXUP, GROUPIE, DICTION, MIXER, VIRGIN, COMPLOT, EVALPLOT, RELABEL. Some of the functions of these codes are: to calculate cross-sections from resonance parameters; to calculate angular distributions, group average, mixtures of cross-sections, etc; to produce graphical plottings and data comparisons. The codes are designed to operate on virtually any type of computer including PC's. They are available from the IAEA Nuclear Data Section, free of charge upon request, on magnetic tape or a set of HD diskettes. (author)

  9. Chemical Reaction between Boric Acid and Phosphine Indicates Boric Acid as an Antidote for Aluminium Phosphide Poisoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Motahareh Soltani

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Aluminium phosphide (AlP is a fumigant pesticide which protects stored grains from insects and rodents. When it comes into contact with moisture, AlP releases phosphine (PH3, a highly toxic gas. No efficient antidote has been found for AlP poisoning so far and most people who are poisoned do not survive. Boric acid is a Lewis acid with an empty p orbital which accepts electrons. This study aimed to investigate the neutralisation of PH3 gas with boric acid. Methods: This study was carried out at the Baharlou Hospital, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran, between December 2013 and February 2014. The volume of released gas, rate of gas evolution and changes in pH were measured during reactions of AlP tablets with water, acidified water, saturated boric acid solution, acidified saturated boric acid solution, activated charcoal and acidified activated charcoal. Infrared spectroscopy was used to study the resulting probable adduct between PH3 and boric acid. Results: Activated charcoal significantly reduced the volume of released gas (P <0.01. Although boric acid did not significantly reduce the volume of released gas, it significantly reduced the rate of gas evolution (P <0.01. A gaseous adduct was formed in the reaction between pure AlP and boric acid. Conclusion: These findings indicate that boric acid may be an efficient and non-toxic antidote for PH3 poisoning.

  10. An electrocardiographic, molecular and biochemical approach to explore the cardioprotective effect of vasopressin and milrinone against phosphide toxicity in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jafari, Abbas; Baghaei, Amir; Solgi, Reza; Baeeri, Maryam; Chamanara, Mohsen; Hassani, Shokoufeh; Gholami, Mahdi; Ostad, Seyed Nasser; Sharifzadeh, Moahmmad; Abdollahi, Mohammad

    2015-06-01

    The present study was conducted to identify the protective effect of vasopressin (AVP) and milrinone on cardiovascular function, mitochondrial complex activities, cellular ATP reserve, oxidative stress, and apoptosis in rats poisoned by aluminum phosphide (AlP). Rats were divided into five groups (n = 12) including control, AlP (12.5 mg/kg), AlP + AVP (2.0 Units/kg), AlP + milrinone (0.25 mg/kg) and AlP + AVP + milrinone. After treatment, the animals were connected to an electronic cardiovascular monitoring device to monitor electrocardiographic (ECG) parameter. Finally, oxidative stress biomarkers, mitochondrial complex activities, ADP/ATP ratio and apoptosis were evaluated on the heart tissues. Results indicated that AlP administration induced ECG abnormalities along with a decline in blood pressure and heart rate. AVP and milrinone significantly ameliorated these changes in all treated groups. Considerable protective effects on oxidative stress biomarkers, complex IV activity, ADP/ATP ratio and caspase-3 and -9 activities in treated groups were also found. These findings were supported by flow cytometry assay of cardiomyocytes. In conclusion, administration of AVP and milrinone, not only improve cardiovascular functions in AlP poisoned rats in the short time, but after a long time can also restore mitochondrial function and ATP level and reduce the oxidative damage, which prevent cardiomyocytes from entering the apoptotic phase. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Hydrazine-Assisted Formation of Indium Phosphide (InP)-Based Nanowires and Core-Shell Composites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patzke, Greta R; Kontic, Roman; Shiolashvili, Zeinab; Makhatadze, Nino; Jishiashvili, David

    2012-12-27

    Indium phosphide nanowires (InP NWs) are accessible at 440 °C from a novel vapor phase deposition approach from crystalline InP sources in hydrazine atmospheres containing 3 mol % H₂O. Uniform zinc blende (ZB) InP NWs with diameters around 20 nm and lengths up to several tens of micrometers are preferably deposited on Si substrates. InP particle sizes further increase with the deposition temperature. The straightforward protocol was extended on the one-step formation of new core-shell InP-Ga NWs from mixed InP/Ga source materials. Composite nanocables with diameters below 20 nm and shells of amorphous gallium oxide are obtained at low deposition temperatures around 350 °C. Furthermore, InP/Zn sources afford InP NWs with amorphous Zn/P/O-coatings at slightly higher temperatures (400 °C) from analogous setups. At 450 °C, the smooth outer layer of InP-Zn NWs is transformed into bead-shaped coatings. The novel combinations of the key semiconductor InP with isotropic insulator shell materials open up interesting application perspectives in nanoelectronics.

  12. Pure and carbon-doped boron phosphide (6,0) zigzag nanotube: A computational NMR study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arshadi, S., E-mail: sattar_arshadi@yahoo.com [Department of Chemistry, Payame Noor University, 19395-4697, I.R. of Iran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Bekhradnia, A.R., E-mail: abekhradnia@gmail.com [Pharmaceutical Sciences Research Center, Department of Medicinal Chemistry, Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences, Sari (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Department of Chemistry and Molecular Biology, Gothenburg University, Gothenburg (Sweden); Alipour, F.; Abedini, S. [Department of Chemistry, Payame Noor University, 19395-4697, I.R. of Iran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2015-11-15

    Calculations were performed for investigation of the properties of the electronic structure of Carbon- Doped Boron Phosphide Nanotube (CDBPNT). Pristine and three models of C-doped structures of (6,0) zigzag BPNT were studied at density functional theory (DFT) in combination with 6-311G* basis set using Gaussian package of program. The calculated parameters reveal that various {sup 11}B and {sup 31}P nuclei are divided into some layers with equivalent electrostatic properties. The electronic structure properties are highly influenced by replacement of {sup 11}B and {sup 31}P atoms by {sup 12}C atoms in pristine model. Furthermore, the HOMO−LUMO gap energy for suggested doped models (I), (II) and (III) were lower than pure BPNT pristine systems. The dipole moment values of models (II) and (III) were decreased to 1.788 and 1.789, respectively while the dipole moments of model (I) were enhanced to 4.373, in compare to pure pristine one (2.586). The magnitude of changes in Chemical Shielding (CS) tensor parameters revealed that the electron density at the site of {sup 31}P was higher than that at the site of {sup 11}B due to carbon doping.

  13. IBM PC/IX operating system evaluation plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dominick, Wayne D. (Editor); Granier, Martin; Hall, Philip P.; Triantafyllopoulos, Spiros

    1984-01-01

    An evaluation plan for the IBM PC/IX Operating System designed for IBM PC/XT computers is discussed. The evaluation plan covers the areas of performance measurement and evaluation, software facilities available, man-machine interface considerations, networking, and the suitability of PC/IX as a development environment within the University of Southwestern Louisiana NASA PC Research and Development project. In order to compare and evaluate the PC/IX system, comparisons with other available UNIX-based systems are also included.

  14. The Aster code; Code Aster

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delbecq, J.M

    1999-07-01

    The Aster code is a 2D or 3D finite-element calculation code for structures developed by the R and D direction of Electricite de France (EdF). This dossier presents a complete overview of the characteristics and uses of the Aster code: introduction of version 4; the context of Aster (organisation of the code development, versions, systems and interfaces, development tools, quality assurance, independent validation); static mechanics (linear thermo-elasticity, Euler buckling, cables, Zarka-Casier method); non-linear mechanics (materials behaviour, big deformations, specific loads, unloading and loss of load proportionality indicators, global algorithm, contact and friction); rupture mechanics (G energy restitution level, restitution level in thermo-elasto-plasticity, 3D local energy restitution level, KI and KII stress intensity factors, calculation of limit loads for structures), specific treatments (fatigue, rupture, wear, error estimation); meshes and models (mesh generation, modeling, loads and boundary conditions, links between different modeling processes, resolution of linear systems, display of results etc..); vibration mechanics (modal and harmonic analysis, dynamics with shocks, direct transient dynamics, seismic analysis and aleatory dynamics, non-linear dynamics, dynamical sub-structuring); fluid-structure interactions (internal acoustics, mass, rigidity and damping); linear and non-linear thermal analysis; steels and metal industry (structure transformations); coupled problems (internal chaining, internal thermo-hydro-mechanical coupling, chaining with other codes); products and services. (J.S.)

  15. Coding Class

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ejsing-Duun, Stine; Hansbøl, Mikala

    Denne rapport rummer evaluering og dokumentation af Coding Class projektet1. Coding Class projektet blev igangsat i skoleåret 2016/2017 af IT-Branchen i samarbejde med en række medlemsvirksomheder, Københavns kommune, Vejle Kommune, Styrelsen for IT- og Læring (STIL) og den frivillige forening...... Coding Pirates2. Rapporten er forfattet af Docent i digitale læringsressourcer og forskningskoordinator for forsknings- og udviklingsmiljøet Digitalisering i Skolen (DiS), Mikala Hansbøl, fra Institut for Skole og Læring ved Professionshøjskolen Metropol; og Lektor i læringsteknologi, interaktionsdesign......, design tænkning og design-pædagogik, Stine Ejsing-Duun fra Forskningslab: It og Læringsdesign (ILD-LAB) ved Institut for kommunikation og psykologi, Aalborg Universitet i København. Vi har fulgt og gennemført evaluering og dokumentation af Coding Class projektet i perioden november 2016 til maj 2017...

  16. Uplink Coding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, Ken; Divsalar, Dariush; Dolinar, Sam; Moision, Bruce; Hamkins, Jon; Pollara, Fabrizio

    2007-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the objectives, meeting goals and overall NASA goals for the NASA Data Standards Working Group. The presentation includes information on the technical progress surrounding the objective, short LDPC codes, and the general results on the Pu-Pw tradeoff.

  17. ANIMAL code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindemuth, I.R.

    1979-01-01

    This report describes ANIMAL, a two-dimensional Eulerian magnetohydrodynamic computer code. ANIMAL's physical model also appears. Formulated are temporal and spatial finite-difference equations in a manner that facilitates implementation of the algorithm. Outlined are the functions of the algorithm's FORTRAN subroutines and variables

  18. Network Coding

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 15; Issue 7. Network Coding. K V Rashmi Nihar B Shah P Vijay Kumar. General Article Volume 15 Issue 7 July 2010 pp 604-621. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: https://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/015/07/0604-0621 ...

  19. MCNP code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cramer, S.N.

    1984-01-01

    The MCNP code is the major Monte Carlo coupled neutron-photon transport research tool at the Los Alamos National Laboratory, and it represents the most extensive Monte Carlo development program in the United States which is available in the public domain. The present code is the direct descendent of the original Monte Carlo work of Fermi, von Neumaum, and Ulam at Los Alamos in the 1940s. Development has continued uninterrupted since that time, and the current version of MCNP (or its predecessors) has always included state-of-the-art methods in the Monte Carlo simulation of radiation transport, basic cross section data, geometry capability, variance reduction, and estimation procedures. The authors of the present code have oriented its development toward general user application. The documentation, though extensive, is presented in a clear and simple manner with many examples, illustrations, and sample problems. In addition to providing the desired results, the output listings give a a wealth of detailed information (some optional) concerning each state of the calculation. The code system is continually updated to take advantage of advances in computer hardware and software, including interactive modes of operation, diagnostic interrupts and restarts, and a variety of graphical and video aids

  20. Expander Codes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 10; Issue 1. Expander Codes - The Sipser–Spielman Construction. Priti Shankar. General Article Volume 10 ... Author Affiliations. Priti Shankar1. Department of Computer Science and Automation, Indian Institute of Science Bangalore 560 012, India.

  1. Implementasi Penggunaan Smartphone Android untuk Control PC (Personal Computer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imam Solikin

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research is to simplify the control of personal computer (PC such as control pointer, keyboard control and make it easier to do the presentation by controlling the slide remotely using smartphone through wifi connections facility. The smartphone is a multimedia phone that combines PC functionality with microprocessor, memory, and built-in modem to produce smart smartphone gadgets. Problems that occur when performing a presentation such as PC control, control pointer and keyboard control for input should be close to the PC so it is less than optimal in explaining the material. The model used in implementing the use of Android Smartphone for PC control is a conceptual model consisting of several stages: potential and problems, data collection, system testing, test results, and system implementation or implementation. From the results of PC control research can be done by connecting the Smartphone with a PC via wifi network so that PC can be controlled remotely. PC control application is an application that can control PC remotely connected via wifi network connection. Benefits derived from this research make it easy to mengedalikan PC remotely such as facilitate in the percentage and control pointer and control Keyboard for input process.

  2. PC Software for Artificial Intelligence Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epp, H; Kalin, M; Miller, D

    1988-05-06

    Our review has emphasized that AI tools are programming languages inspired by some problem-solving paradigm. We want to underscore their status as programming languages; even if an AI tool seems to fit a problem perfectly, its proficient use still requires the training and practice associated with any programming language. The programming manuals for PC-Plus, Smalltalk/ V, and Nexpert Object are all tutorial in nature, and the corresponding software packages come with sample applications. We find the manuals to be uniformly good introductions that try to anticipate the problems of a user who is new to the technology. All three vendors offer free technical support by telephone to licensed users. AI tools are sometimes oversold as a way to make programming easy or to avoid it altogether. The truth is that AI tools demand programming-but programming that allows you to concentrate on the essentials of the problem. If we had to implement a diagnostic system, we would look first to a product such as PC-Plus rather than BASIC or C, because PC-Plus is designed specifically for such a problem, whereas these conventional languages are not. If we had to implement a system that required graphical interfaces and could benefit from inheritance, we would look first to an object-oriented system such as Smalltalk/V that provides built-in mechanisms for both. If we had to implement an expert system that called for some mix of AI and conventional techniques, we would look first to a product such as Nexpert Object that integrates various problem-solving technologies. Finally, we might use FORTRAN if we were concerned primarily with programming a well-defined numerical algorithm. AI tools are a valuable complement to traditional languages.

  3. Installation and implementation of PC COSYMA; PC COSYMAn kaeyttoeoenotto ja soveltaminen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rossi, J [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland). Nuclear Energy

    1995-12-01

    COSYMA is a probabilistic reactor accident consequence assessment model developed in the 1980`s by the research institutes of the EC countries, primarily by NRPB and KfK. In 1993 a simplified version of the program was released to be implemented on a PC. In the study the PC COSYMA program was applied to calculate as the end points nuclide concentrations, doses received, numbers of health effects, areas affected by countermeasures and other results related to countermeasure strategies. Some results are compared with the results obtained by the ARANO program developed by VTT Energy (Technical Research Centre of Finland) to quarantee proper interpretation of the application. (15 refs.).

  4. Captor of Iodine coupled to PC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arista Romeu, Eduardo; Alonso Abad Dolores; Arteche Diaz, Raul

    2005-01-01

    A measurement - detection system (DETEC -PC) is presented to be used in Iodine Thyroid Uptake Studies. It consists of three elements: the detector with its collimator, a blind measurement module and the application software. The measurement module communicates trough a RS-232 serial interface to the Personal Computer where the application software (DETEC ) resides. The software was designed according to the principles of Object oriented programming using C++ language. It automatically fixes spectrometric measurement parameters and besides patient measurement also performs statistical analysis of a batch of samples. It possesses a PARADOX database with all information of measured patients and an 'on line' help with the system options

  5. PC-assisted translation of photogrammetric papers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Güthner, Karlheinz; Peipe, Jürgen

    A PC-based system for machine translation of photogrammetric papers from the English into the German language and vice versa is described. The computer-assisted translating process is not intended to create a perfect interpretation of a text but to produce a rough rendering of the content of a paper. Starting with the original text, a continuous data flow is effected into the translated version by means of hardware (scanner, personal computer, printer) and software (OCR, translation, word processing, DTP). An essential component of the system is a photogrammetric microdictionary which is being established at present. It is based on several sources, including e.g. the ISPRS Multilingual Dictionary.

  6. PC-based car license plate reader

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Chung-Mu; Shu, Shyh-Yeong; Chen, Wen-Yu; Chen, Yie-Wern; Wen, Kuang-Pu

    1992-11-01

    A car license plate reader (CLPR) using fuzzy inference and neural network algorithm has been developed in Industrial Technology Research Institute (ITRI) and installed in highway toll stations to identify stolen cars. It takes an average of 0.7 seconds to recognize a car license plate by using a PC with 80486-50 CPU. The recognition rate of the system is about 97%. The techniques of CLPR include vehicle sensing, image grab control, optic pre- processing, lighting, and optic character recognition (OCR). The CLPR can be used in vehicle flow statistics, the checking of stolen vehicles, automatic charging systems in parking lots or garage management, and so on.

  7. GPIB interface of IBM-PC compatible microcomputer and multimeter HP3457A for the automatization of temperature measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Migliano, A.C.C.; Sircilli Neto, F.; Passaro, A.

    1990-01-01

    The measurement of temperature distribution of the beam transport devices, utilized in the IEAv linac, takes several hours to be completed. At the beam transport laboratory, these experiments are controlled with the help of a MS-quick BASIC code denominated TERMOJ. This code uses the software of STD-8410 plate to promote the communication between an IBM-PC compatible microcomputer and the programmable multimeter HP3457A via GPIB interface. This work presents information for the automation of experiments using thermocouples to obtain temperature distributions with the TERMOJ code. Also, suggestions of how modify the algorithm of the program for the specific situations are indicated. (author)

  8. Panda code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Altomare, S.; Minton, G.

    1975-02-01

    PANDA is a new two-group one-dimensional (slab/cylinder) neutron diffusion code designed to replace and extend the FAB series. PANDA allows for the nonlinear effects of xenon, enthalpy and Doppler. Fuel depletion is allowed. PANDA has a completely general search facility which will seek criticality, maximize reactivity, or minimize peaking. Any single parameter may be varied in a search. PANDA is written in FORTRAN IV, and as such is nearly machine independent. However, PANDA has been written with the present limitations of the Westinghouse CDC-6600 system in mind. Most computation loops are very short, and the code is less than half the useful 6600 memory size so that two jobs can reside in the core at once. (auth)

  9. CANAL code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gara, P.; Martin, E.

    1983-01-01

    The CANAL code presented here optimizes a realistic iron free extraction channel which has to provide a given transversal magnetic field law in the median plane: the current bars may be curved, have finite lengths and cooling ducts and move in a restricted transversal area; terminal connectors may be added, images of the bars in pole pieces may be included. A special option optimizes a real set of circular coils [fr

  10. PC-based Multiple Information System Interface (PC/MISI) detailed design and implementation plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dominick, Wayne D. (Editor); Hall, Philip P.

    1985-01-01

    The design plan for the personal computer multiple information system interface (PC/MISI) project is discussed. The document is intended to be used as a blueprint for the implementation of the system. Each component is described in the detail necessary to allow programmers to implement the system. A description of the system data flow and system file structures is given.

  11. User`s guide and documentation manual for ``PC-Gel`` simulator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Ming-Ming; Gao, Hong W.

    1993-10-01

    PC-GEL is a three-dimensional, three-phase (oil, water, and gas) permeability modification simulator developed by incorporating an in-situ gelation model into a black oil simulator (BOAST) for personal computer application. The features included in the simulator are: transport of each chemical species of the polymer/crosslinker system in porous media, gelation reaction kinetics of the polymer with crosslinking agents, rheology of the polymer and gel, inaccessible pore volume to macromolecules, adsorption of chemical species on rock surfaces, retention of gel on the rock matrix, and permeability reduction caused by the adsorption of polymer and gel. The in-situ gelation model and simulator were validated against data reported in the literature. The simulator PC-GEL is useful for simulating and optimizing any combination of primary production, waterflooding, polymer flooding, and permeability modification treatments. A general background of permeability modification using crosslinked polymer gels is given in Section I and the governing equations, mechanisms, and numerical solutions of PC-GEL are given in Section II. Steps for preparing an input data file with reservoir and gel-chemical transport data, and recurrent data are described in Sections III and IV, respectively. Example data inputs are enclosed after explanations of each input line to help the user prepare data files. Major items of the output files are reviewed in Section V. Finally, three sample problems for running PC-GEL are described in Section VI, and input files and part of the output files of these problems are listed in the appendices. For the user`s reference a copy of the source code of PC-GEL computer program is attached in Appendix A.

  12. The effect of N-acetyl cysteine (NAC) on aluminum phosphide poisoning inducing cardiovascular toxicity: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taghaddosinejad, Fakhreddin; Farzaneh, Esmaeil; Ghazanfari-Nasrabad, Mahdi; Eizadi-Mood, Nastaran; Hajihosseini, Morteza; Mehrpour, Omid

    2016-01-01

    Aluminum phosphide (AlP) is a very effective indoor and outdoor pesticide. We investigated the effects of N-acetyl cysteine (NAC) on the survival time, hemodynamics, and cardiac biochemical parameters at various time intervals in some cases of AlP poisoning. This research was a case-control study to evaluate 63 AlP poisoned patients during 2010-2012. Patients with cardiovascular complications of AlP to be treated with intravenous NAC plus conventional treatment were considered as the case group and compared with patients who did not receive NAC. NAC infusion was administered to the case group at 300 mg/kg for 20 h. The data gathered included age, sex, heart rate, Systolic blood pressure (SBP), creatine phosphokinase (CPK), creatine kinase MB (CK-MB), and ECG at the admission time and 12, 18, and 24 h after admission. Analysis of repeated measures was performed to check the variability of parameters over time. The mean ages in the case and control groups were 26.65 ± 1.06 (19-37 years) and 28.39 ± 1.11 (18-37 years), respectively (P = 0.266). Most of the patients were female (56.5%). CK-MB means were significantly different between the two groups, but no differences between the other variables were observed. Also, CK-MB, CPK, heart rate, and systolic blood pressure means became significantly different over time (0, 12, 18, and 24 h) in both groups (P managed by the positive role of NAC as the biochemical index of cardiotoxicity was found to elevate in both the case and control groups. Therefore, for the management protocol optimization, NAC evaluation should be done in further cases.

  13. PC application in DIII-D neutral beam operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gladd, A.S.

    1986-01-01

    An IBM PC/AT has been implemented to improve operation of the DIII-D neutral beams. The PC system provides centralization of all beam data with reasonable access for online shot-to-shot control and analysis. The PC hardware was configured to interface all four neutral beam host mini-computers, support multi-tasking, and provide storage for approximately one month's accumulation of beam data. The PC software is composed of commercial packages used for performance and statistical analysis (i.e. LOTUS 123, PC PLOT, etc.) host communications software (i.e. PCLINK, KERMIT, etc.) and applications developed software utilizing FORTRAN and BASIC. The objectives of this paper are to describe the implementation of the PC system, the methods of integrating the various software packages, and the scenario for online control and analysis

  14. Organic photovoltaic effects depending on CuPc layer thickness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hur, Sung Woo; Kim, Tae Wan; Chung, Dong Hoe; Oh, Hyun Seok; Kim, Chung Hyeok; Lee, Joon Ung; Park, Jong Wook

    2004-01-01

    Organic photovoltaic effects were studied in device structures of ITO/CuPc/Al and ITO/CuPc/C 60 /BCP/Al by varying the CuPc layer thickness. Since the exciton diffusion length is relatively short in organic semiconductors, a study on the thickness-dependent photovoltaic effects is important. The thickness of the CuPc layer was varied from 10 nm to 50 nm. We found that the optimum CuPc layer thickness was around 40 nm from the analysis of the current density-voltage characteristics in an ITO/CuPc/Al photovoltaic cell. The efficiency of the device shows that the multi-layered heterojunction structure is more appropriate for photovoltaic cells.

  15. From concatenated codes to graph codes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Justesen, Jørn; Høholdt, Tom

    2004-01-01

    We consider codes based on simple bipartite expander graphs. These codes may be seen as the first step leading from product type concatenated codes to more complex graph codes. We emphasize constructions of specific codes of realistic lengths, and study the details of decoding by message passing...

  16. Materials accounting system for an IBM PC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bearse, R.C.; Thomas, R.J.; Henslee, S.P.; Jackson, B.G.; Tracy, D.B.; Pace, D.M.

    1986-01-01

    We have adapted the Los Alamos MASS accounting system for use on an IBM PC/AT at the Fuels Manufacturing Facility (FMF) at Argonne National Laboratory-West (ANL-WEST) in Idaho Falls, Idaho. Cost of hardware and proprietary software was less than $10,000 per station. The system consists of three stations between which accounting information is transferred using floppy disks accompanying special nuclear material shipments. The programs were implemented in dBASEIII and were compiled using the proprietary software CLIPPER. Modifications to the inventory can be posted in just a few minutes, and operator/computer interaction is nearly instantaneous. After the records are built by the user, it takes 4 to 5 seconds to post the results to the database files. A version of this system was specially adapted and is currently in use at the FMF facility at Argonne National Laboratory in Idaho Falls. Initial satisfaction is adequate and software and hardware problems are minimal

  17. Graphics based PC analysis of alpha spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chapman, T.C.

    1991-01-01

    New personal computer (PC) software performs interactive analysis of alpha spectra using EGA graphics. Spectra are collected with a commercial MCA board and analyzed using the software described here. The operator is required to approve each peak integration area before analysis proceeds. Sample analysis can use detector efficiencies or spike yields or both. Background corrections are made and upper limit values are calculated when specified. Nuclide identification uses a library of up to 64 nuclides with up to 8 alpha lines for each nuclide. Any one of 32 subset libraries can be used in an analysis. Analysis time is short and is limited by interaction with the operator, not by calculation time. Utilities include nuclide library editing, library subset editing, energy calibration, efficiency calibration, and background update

  18. Design of multichannel counting system for IBM PC and compatibles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Majeed, B.; Ahmad, Z.; Osman, A.; Ysain, M.M.

    1995-07-01

    A Multichannel Counting System (MCCS), based on IBM-PC and compatible computer systems have been designed. The MCCS consists of a Multichannel Counting System plug-in interface card (MCCS-PC) for IBM PC and compatibles and a NIM-BIN module (MCCS-NB). The MCCS-PC provides simultaneous monitoring of upto seven independent SCA type inputs. An on board programmable timer provides elapsed time measurement. A menu-driven program for data acquisition and timer control has also been developed. (author) 8 figs

  19. The readout performance evaluation of PowerPC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chu Yuanping; Zhang Hongyu; Zhao Jingwei; Ye Mei; Tao Ning; Zhu Kejun; Tang Suqiu; Guo Yanan

    2003-01-01

    PowerPC, as a powerful low-cost embedded computer, is one of the very important research objects in recent years in the project of BESIII data acquisition system. The researches on the embedded system and embedded computer have achieved many important results in the field of High Energy Physics especially in the data acquisition system. The one of the key points to design an acquisition system using PowerPC is to evaluate the readout ability of PowerPC correctly. The paper introduce some tests for the PowerPC readout performance. (authors)

  20. Algebraic solution of the synthesis problem for coded sequences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leukhin, Anatolii N

    2005-01-01

    The algebraic solution of a 'complex' problem of synthesis of phase-coded (PC) sequences with the zero level of side lobes of the cyclic autocorrelation function (ACF) is proposed. It is shown that the solution of the synthesis problem is connected with the existence of difference sets for a given code dimension. The problem of estimating the number of possible code combinations for a given code dimension is solved. It is pointed out that the problem of synthesis of PC sequences is related to the fundamental problems of discrete mathematics and, first of all, to a number of combinatorial problems, which can be solved, as the number factorisation problem, by algebraic methods by using the theory of Galois fields and groups. (fourth seminar to the memory of d.n. klyshko)

  1. Development of NUPREP PC Version and Input Structures for NUCIRC Single Channel Analyses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Churl; Jun, Ji Su; Park, Joo Hwan

    2007-12-15

    The input file for a steady-state thermal-hydraulic code NUCIRC consists of common channel input data and specific channel input data in a case of single channel analysis. Even when all the data is ready for the 380 channels' single channel analyses, it takes long time and requires enormous effort to compose an input file by hand-editing. The automatic pre-processor for this tedious job is a NUPREP code. In this study, a NUPREP PC version has been developed from the source list in the program manual of NUCIRC-MOD2.000 that is imported in a form of an execution file. In this procedure, some errors found in PC executions and lost statements are fixed accordingly. It is confirmed that the developed NUPREP code produces input file correctly for the CANDU-6 single channel analysis. Additionally, the NUCIRC input structure and data format are summarized for a single channel analysis and the input CARDs required for the creep information of aged channels are listed.

  2. Development of NUPREP PC Version and Input Structures for NUCIRC Single Channel Analyses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoon, Churl; Jun, Ji Su; Park, Joo Hwan

    2007-12-01

    The input file for a steady-state thermal-hydraulic code NUCIRC consists of common channel input data and specific channel input data in a case of single channel analysis. Even when all the data is ready for the 380 channels' single channel analyses, it takes long time and requires enormous effort to compose an input file by hand-editing. The automatic pre-processor for this tedious job is a NUPREP code. In this study, a NUPREP PC version has been developed from the source list in the program manual of NUCIRC-MOD2.000 that is imported in a form of an execution file. In this procedure, some errors found in PC executions and lost statements are fixed accordingly. It is confirmed that the developed NUPREP code produces input file correctly for the CANDU-6 single channel analysis. Additionally, the NUCIRC input structure and data format are summarized for a single channel analysis and the input CARDs required for the creep information of aged channels are listed

  3. Tailored surface structure of LiFePO4/C nanofibers by phosphidation and their electrochemical superiority for lithium rechargeable batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yoon Cheol; Han, Dong-Wook; Park, Mihui; Jo, Mi Ru; Kang, Seung Ho; Lee, Ju Kyung; Kang, Yong-Mook

    2014-06-25

    We offer a brand new strategy for enhancing Li ion transport at the surface of LiFePO4/C nanofibers through noble Li ion conducting pathways built along reduced carbon webs by phosphorus. Pristine LiFePO4/C nanofibers composed of 1-dimensional (1D) LiFePO4 nanofibers with thick carbon coating layers on the surfaces of the nanofibers were prepared by the electrospinning technique. These dense and thick carbon layers prevented not only electrolyte penetration into the inner LiFePO4 nanofibers but also facile Li ion transport at the electrode/electrolyte interface. In contrast, the existing strong interactions between the carbon and oxygen atoms on the surface of the pristine LiFePO4/C nanofibers were weakened or partly broken by the adhesion of phosphorus, thereby improving Li ion migration through the thick carbon layers on the surfaces of the LiFePO4 nanofibers. As a result, the phosphidated LiFePO4/C nanofibers have a higher initial discharge capacity and a greatly improved rate capability when compared with pristine LiFePO4/C nanofibers. Our findings of high Li ion transport induced by phosphidation can be widely applied to other carbon-coated electrode materials.

  4. Hierarchical cobalt poly-phosphide hollow spheres as highly active and stable electrocatalysts for hydrogen evolution over a wide pH range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Tianli; Pi, Mingyu; Wang, Xiaodeng; Guo, Weimeng; Zhang, Dingke; Chen, Shijian

    2018-01-01

    Exploring highly-efficient and low-cost non-noble metal electrocatalyst toward the hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) is highly desired for renewable energy system but remains challenging. In this work, three dimensional hierarchical porous cobalt poly-phosphide hollow spheres (CoP3 HSs) were prepared by topotactic phosphidation of the cobalt-based precursor via vacuum encapsulation technique. As a porous HER cathode, the CoP3 HSs delivers remarkable electrocatalytic performance over the wide pH range. It needs overpotentials of -69 mV and -118 mV with a small Tafel slope of 51 mV dec-1 to obtain current densities of 10 mA cm-2 and 50 mA cm-2, respectively, and maintains its electrocatalytic performance over 30 h in acidic solution. In addition, CoP3 also exhibit superior electrocatalytic performance and stability under neutral and alkaline conditions for the HER. Both experimental measurements and density functional theory (DFT) calculations are performed to explore the mechanism behind the excellent HER performance. The results of our study make the porous CoP3 HSs as a promising electrocatalyst for practical applications toward energy conversion system and present a new way for designing and fabricating HER electrodes through high degree of phosphorization and nano-porous architecture.

  5. A finite element code for electric motor design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, C. Warren

    1994-01-01

    FEMOT is a finite element program for solving the nonlinear magnetostatic problem. This version uses nonlinear, Newton first order elements. The code can be used for electric motor design and analysis. FEMOT can be embedded within an optimization code that will vary nodal coordinates to optimize the motor design. The output from FEMOT can be used to determine motor back EMF, torque, cogging, and magnet saturation. It will run on a PC and will be available to anyone who wants to use it.

  6. A Pc-interface module has been developed that provides an easy way to interface PC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rifai, Ahmad; Gunawan, Usep Setia

    2003-01-01

    A pc-interface module has been developed that provides an easy way to interface PC with I/O devices. This MSC51 micro controller based module accepts series of commands from a personal computer through a serial port. The commands are defined to easily control 24 I/O lines available on the module. These lines can be individually used as either input or output that make the module very verstile. A command is received by the module on ASCII string basis. Each character sent to the module will give an interrupt. The firmware's interrupt handler will store the character in a buffer until end of command character arrives. The firmware then parses and interpreters the command and responses accordingly

  7. PC-BEIS: a personal computer version of the biogenic emissions inventory system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pierce, T.E.; Waldruff, P.S.

    1991-01-01

    The US Environmental Protection Agency's Biogenic Emissions Inventory System (BEIS) has been adapted for use on IBM-compatible personal computers (PCs). PC-BEIS estimates hourly emissions of isoprene, α-pinene, other monoterpenes, and unidentified hydrocarbons for any county in the contiguous United States. To run the program, users must provide hourly data on ambient temperature, relative humidity, wind speed, cloud cover, and a code that identifies the particular county. This paper provides an overview of the method used to calculate biogenic emissions, shows an example application, and gives information on how to obtain a copy of the program

  8. Los Alamos radiation transport code system on desktop computing platforms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Briesmeister, J.F.; Brinkley, F.W.; Clark, B.A.; West, J.T.

    1990-01-01

    The Los Alamos Radiation Transport Code System (LARTCS) consists of state-of-the-art Monte Carlo and discrete ordinates transport codes and data libraries. These codes were originally developed many years ago and have undergone continual improvement. With a large initial effort and continued vigilance, the codes are easily portable from one type of hardware to another. The performance of scientific work-stations (SWS) has evolved to the point that such platforms can be used routinely to perform sophisticated radiation transport calculations. As the personal computer (PC) performance approaches that of the SWS, the hardware options for desk-top radiation transport calculations expands considerably. The current status of the radiation transport codes within the LARTCS is described: MCNP, SABRINA, LAHET, ONEDANT, TWODANT, TWOHEX, and ONELD. Specifically, the authors discuss hardware systems on which the codes run and present code performance comparisons for various machines

  9. Verification of the CONPAS (CONtainment Performance Analysis System) code package

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, See Darl; Ahn, Kwang Il; Song, Yong Man; Choi, Young; Park, Soo Yong; Kim, Dong Ha; Jin, Young Ho.

    1997-09-01

    CONPAS is a computer code package to integrate the numerical, graphical, and results-oriented aspects of Level 2 probabilistic safety assessment (PSA) for nuclear power plants under a PC window environment automatically. For the integrated analysis of Level 2 PSA, the code utilizes four distinct, but closely related modules: (1) ET Editor, (2) Computer, (3) Text Editor, and (4) Mechanistic Code Plotter. Compared with other existing computer codes for Level 2 PSA, and CONPAS code provides several advanced features: computational aspects including systematic uncertainty analysis, importance analysis, sensitivity analysis and data interpretation, reporting aspects including tabling and graphic as well as user-friendly interface. The computational performance of CONPAS has been verified through a Level 2 PSA to a reference plant. The results of the CONPAS code was compared with an existing level 2 PSA code (NUCAP+) and the comparison proves that CONPAS is appropriate for Level 2 PSA. (author). 9 refs., 8 tabs., 14 figs

  10. A NICE approach to managing large numbers of desktop PC's

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foster, David

    1996-01-01

    The problems of managing desktop systems are far from resolved. As we deploy increasing numbers of systems, PC's Mackintoshes and UN*X Workstations. This paper will concentrate on the solution adopted at CERN for the management of the rapidly increasing numbers of desktop PC's in use in all parts of the laboratory. (author)

  11. Application of simplified PC-SAFT to glycol ethers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Avlund, Ane Søgaard; Kontogeorgis, Georgios; Michelsen, Michael Locht

    2012-01-01

    The simplified PC-SAFT (sPC-SAFT) equation of state is applied for binary glycol ether-containing mixtures, and it is investigated how the results are influenced by inclusion of intramolecular association in the association theory. Three different glycol ethers are examined: 2-methoxyethanol, 2...

  12. PC Assisted Anatomical Measurements in 3D Using CT Data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvidtfeldt, Mogens; Pedersen, Steen

    1999-01-01

    To assess facilities and applications of a programme for a PC based CT measurements in 3D of anatomical angelse in the skeleton.......To assess facilities and applications of a programme for a PC based CT measurements in 3D of anatomical angelse in the skeleton....

  13. PrPC from stem cells to cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Séverine eMartin-Lannerée

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The cellular prion protein PrPC was initially discovered as the normal counterpart of the pathological scrapie prion protein PrPSc, the main component of the infectious agent of Transmissible Spongiform Encephalopathies. While clues as to the physiological function of this ubiquitous protein were greatly anticipated from the development of knock-out animals, PrP-null mice turned out to be viable and to develop without major phenotypic abnormalities. Notwithstanding, the discovery that hematopoietic stem cells from PrP-null mice have impaired long-term repopulating potential has set the stage for investigating into the role of PrPC in stem cell biology. A wealth of data have now exemplified that PrPC is expressed in distinct types of stem cells and regulates their self-renewal as well as their differentiation potential. A role for PrPC in the fate restriction of embryonic stem cells has further been proposed. Paralleling these observations, an overexpression of PrPC has been documented in various types of tumours. In line with the contribution of PrPC to stemness and to the proliferation of cancer cells, PrPC was recently found to be enriched in subpopulations of tumour-initiating cells. In the present review, we summarize the current knowledge of the role played by PrPC in stem cell biology and discuss how the subversion of its function may contribute to cancer progression.

  14. Transforming PC Power Supplies into Smart Car Battery Conditioners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez-Ascariz, J. M.; Boquete-Vazquez, L.

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes a laboratory project consisting of a PC power supply modification into an intelligent car-battery conditioner with both wireless and wired networking capabilities. Adding a microcontroller to an average PC power supply transforms it into a flexible, intelligent device that can be configured and that is suitable to keep car…

  15. COMBINE/PC - a portable neutron spectrum and cross-section generation program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nigg, D.W.; Grimesey, R.A.; Curtis, R.L.

    1990-01-01

    Use of personal computers and engineering workstations for complex scientific computations has expanded rapidly in the past few years. This trend is expected to continue in the future with the introduction of increasingly sophisticated microprocessors and microcomputer systems. In response to this, an integrated system of neutronics and radiation transport software suitable for operation in an IBM personal computer (PC)-class environment has been under development at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) for the past 3 years. A key component of this system will be module to produce application-specific multigroup cross-section libraries that can be used in various neutron transport and diffusion theory code modules. This software module, referred to as COMBINE/PC, was recently completed at INEL and is the subject of this paper. COMBINE/PC was developed to provide an ENDF/B-based neutron cross-section generation capability of sufficient sophistication to handle a wide variety of practical fission and fusion-related applications while maintaining a compact machine-independent structure

  16. 100 pc renewable energies: the last obstacles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Claustre, Raphael; Bringault, Anne; Mery, Jane; Regnier, Yannick; Leca, Christel; Jedliczka, Marc; Houssard, Pascal; Gaboriau, Denis

    2015-01-01

    As some countries or territories have set a target of 100 pc of renewable energies by 2015, a first article discusses the different components of a scenario corresponding to this objective: reduction of primary energy consumption, sobriety, efficiency, electricity and heat production, mobility, development of exchanges and solidarities between territories, new roles for the different actors. A second article briefly presents the situation of different cities and territories in terms of production of renewable energies and of energy savings (Vancouver, Costa Rica, Canaries Islands, the region of Thouars in France, Denmark, Frankfurt, and Bangladesh). Two persons belonging either to a company or to a public body, both committed in energy efficiency issues, give their opinion on issues of governance and innovation. The next article outlines that, despite the content of the law on energy transition, there is still much to be done to develop the empowerment of local communities or, in other words, to introduce an energetic decentralisation. A researcher then outlines the need to introduce a strong tax system in relationship with carbon emission to support the development of renewable energies. An article then describes the example of the Vendee district which has been developing since 2012 an infrastructure of charging points for electric vehicles. The last article outlines the role of training organisations which will have to adapt themselves to new professions in various sectors

  17. Pc-Based Floating Point Imaging Workstation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzak, Chris J.; Pier, Richard M.; Chinn, Patty; Kim, Yongmin

    1989-07-01

    The medical, military, scientific and industrial communities have come to rely on imaging and computer graphics for solutions to many types of problems. Systems based on imaging technology are used to acquire and process images, and analyze and extract data from images that would otherwise be of little use. Images can be transformed and enhanced to reveal detail and meaning that would go undetected without imaging techniques. The success of imaging has increased the demand for faster and less expensive imaging systems and as these systems become available, more and more applications are discovered and more demands are made. From the designer's perspective the challenge to meet these demands forces him to attack the problem of imaging from a different perspective. The computing demands of imaging algorithms must be balanced against the desire for affordability and flexibility. Systems must be flexible and easy to use, ready for current applications but at the same time anticipating new, unthought of uses. Here at the University of Washington Image Processing Systems Lab (IPSL) we are focusing our attention on imaging and graphics systems that implement imaging algorithms for use in an interactive environment. We have developed a PC-based imaging workstation with the goal to provide powerful and flexible, floating point processing capabilities, along with graphics functions in an affordable package suitable for diverse environments and many applications.

  18. Automatic coding method of the ACR Code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Kwi Ae; Ihm, Jong Sool; Ahn, Woo Hyun; Baik, Seung Kook; Choi, Han Yong; Kim, Bong Gi

    1993-01-01

    The authors developed a computer program for automatic coding of ACR(American College of Radiology) code. The automatic coding of the ACR code is essential for computerization of the data in the department of radiology. This program was written in foxbase language and has been used for automatic coding of diagnosis in the Department of Radiology, Wallace Memorial Baptist since May 1992. The ACR dictionary files consisted of 11 files, one for the organ code and the others for the pathology code. The organ code was obtained by typing organ name or code number itself among the upper and lower level codes of the selected one that were simultaneous displayed on the screen. According to the first number of the selected organ code, the corresponding pathology code file was chosen automatically. By the similar fashion of organ code selection, the proper pathologic dode was obtained. An example of obtained ACR code is '131.3661'. This procedure was reproducible regardless of the number of fields of data. Because this program was written in 'User's Defined Function' from, decoding of the stored ACR code was achieved by this same program and incorporation of this program into program in to another data processing was possible. This program had merits of simple operation, accurate and detail coding, and easy adjustment for another program. Therefore, this program can be used for automation of routine work in the department of radiology

  19. Error-correction coding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinds, Erold W. (Principal Investigator)

    1996-01-01

    This report describes the progress made towards the completion of a specific task on error-correcting coding. The proposed research consisted of investigating the use of modulation block codes as the inner code of a concatenated coding system in order to improve the overall space link communications performance. The study proposed to identify and analyze candidate codes that will complement the performance of the overall coding system which uses the interleaved RS (255,223) code as the outer code.

  20. Dynamic Shannon Coding

    OpenAIRE

    Gagie, Travis

    2005-01-01

    We present a new algorithm for dynamic prefix-free coding, based on Shannon coding. We give a simple analysis and prove a better upper bound on the length of the encoding produced than the corresponding bound for dynamic Huffman coding. We show how our algorithm can be modified for efficient length-restricted coding, alphabetic coding and coding with unequal letter costs.

  1. Fundamentals of convolutional coding

    CERN Document Server

    Johannesson, Rolf

    2015-01-01

    Fundamentals of Convolutional Coding, Second Edition, regarded as a bible of convolutional coding brings you a clear and comprehensive discussion of the basic principles of this field * Two new chapters on low-density parity-check (LDPC) convolutional codes and iterative coding * Viterbi, BCJR, BEAST, list, and sequential decoding of convolutional codes * Distance properties of convolutional codes * Includes a downloadable solutions manual

  2. Codes Over Hyperfields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atamewoue Surdive

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we define linear codes and cyclic codes over a finite Krasner hyperfield and we characterize these codes by their generator matrices and parity check matrices. We also demonstrate that codes over finite Krasner hyperfields are more interesting for code theory than codes over classical finite fields.

  3. PC/FRAM, Version 3.2 User Manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kelley, T.A.; Sampson, T.E.

    1999-01-01

    This manual describes the use of version 3.2 of the PC/FRAM plutonium isotopic analysis software developed in the Safeguards Science and Technology Group, NE-5, Nonproliferation and International Security Division Los Alamos National Laboratory. The software analyzes the gamma ray spectrum from plutonium-bearing items and determines the isotopic distribution of the plutonium 241Am content and concentration of other isotopes in the item. The software can also determine the isotopic distribution of uranium isotopes in items containing only uranium. The body of this manual descenies the generic version of the code. Special facility-specific enhancements, if they apply, will be described in the appendices. The information in this manual applies equally well to version 3.3, which has been licensed to ORTEC. The software can analyze data that is stored in a file on disk. It understands several storage formats including Canberra's S1OO format, ORTEC'S 'chn' and 'SPC' formats, and several ASCII text formats. The software can also control data acquisition using an MCA and then store the results in a file on disk for later analysis or analyze the spectrum directly after the acquisition. The software currently only supports the control of ORTEC MCB'S. Support for Canbema's Genie-2000 Spectroscopy Systems will be added in the future. Support for reading and writing CAM files will also be forthcoming. A versatile parameter fde database structure governs all facets of the data analysis. User editing of the parameter sets allows great flexibility in handling data with different isotopic distributions, interfering isotopes, and different acquisition parameters such as energy calibration, and detector type. This manual is intended for the system supervisor or the local user who is to be the resident expert. Excerpts from this manual may also be appropriate for the system operator who will routinely use the instrument

  4. PC-SEAPAK - ANALYSIS OF COASTAL ZONE COLOR SCANNER AND ADVANCED VERY HIGH RESOLUTION RADIOMETER DATA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mcclain, C. R.

    1994-01-01

    incompatibilities between the MVP-AT image board and ZENITH computers. Also, the MVP-AT image board is not necessarily compatible with 486-based systems; users of 486-based systems should consult with Matrox about compatibility concerns. Other PC-SEAPAK requirements include a Microsoft mouse (serial version), 2Mb RAM, and 100Mb hard disk space. For data ingest and backup, 9-track tape, 8mm tape and optical disks are supported and recommended. PC-SEAPAK has been under development since 1988. Version 4.0 was updated in 1992, and is distributed without source code. It is available only as a set of 36 1.2Mb 5.25 inch IBM MS-DOS format diskettes. PC-SEAPAK is a copyrighted product with all copyright vested in the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. Phar Lap's DOS_Extender run-time version is integrated into several of the programs; therefore, the PC-SEAPAK programs may not be duplicated. Three of the distribution diskettes contain DOS_Extender files. One of the distribution diskettes contains Media Cybernetics' HALO88 font files, also licensed by NASA for dissemination but not duplication. IBM is a registered trademark of International Business Machines. MS-DOS is a registered trademark of Microsoft Corporation. HALO88 is a registered trademark of Media Cybernetics, but the product was discontinued in 1991.

  5. Effects of P/Ni ratio and Ni content on performance of γ-Al2O3-supported nickel phosphides for deoxygenation of methyl laurate to hydrocarbons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhena; Tang, Mingxiao; Chen, Jixiang

    2016-01-01

    γ-Al2O3-supported nickel phosphides (mNi-Pn) were prepared by the TPR method and tested for the deoxygenation of methyl laurate to hydrocarbons. The effects of the P/Ni ratio (n = 1.0-2.5) and Ni content (m = 5-15 wt.%) in the precursors on their structure and performance were investigated. Ni/γ-Al2O3 was also studied for comparison. It was found that the formation of AlPO4 in the precursor inhibited the reduction of phosphate and so the formation of nickel phosphides. With increasing the P/Ni ratio and Ni content, the Ni, Ni3P, Ni12P5 and Ni2P phases orderly formed, accompanying with the increases of their particle size and the amount of weak acid sites (mainly due to P-OH group), while the CO uptake and the amount of medium strong acid sites (mainly related to Ni sites) reached maximum on 10%Ni-P1.5. In the deoxygenation reaction, compared with Ni/γ-Al2O3, the mNi-Pn catalysts showed much lower activities for decarbonylation, Csbnd C hydrogenolysis and methanation due to the ligand and ensemble effects of P. The conversion and the selectivity to n-C11 and n-C12 hydrocarbons achieved maximum on 10%Ni-P 2.0 for the 10%Ni-Pn catalysts and on 8%Ni-P2.0 for the mNi-P2.0 catalysts, while the turnover frequency (TOF) of methyl laurate mainly increased with the P/Ni ratio and Ni content. We propose that TOF was influenced by the nickel phosphide phases, the catalyst acidity and the particle size as well as the synergetic effect between the Ni site and acid site. Again, the hydrodeoxygenation pathway of methyl laurate was promoted with increasing P/Ni ratio and Ni content, ascribed to the phase change in the order of Ni, Ni3P, Ni12P5 and Ni2P in the prepared catalysts.

  6. Application of PC-SAFT to glycol containing systems - PC-SAFT towards a predictive approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grenner, Andreas; Kontogeorgis, Georgios; von Solms, Nicolas

    2007-01-01

    for estimating pure compound parameters from low molecular weight data and extrapolate to complex compounds. For associating compounds this is not trivial since the two parameters for association (association energy and association volume) need to be fixed for a group. In this work, which focuses on glycols, new...... general pure compound parameters were obtained for PC-SAFT which are able to perform well for both vapor-liquid equilibria (VLE) and liquid-liquid equilibria (LLE). Linear trends of non-association parameters were obtained with respect to the molar mass. However, identical values for the association...

  7. Study of nuclear computer code maintenance and management system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryu, Chang Mo; Kim, Yeon Seung; Eom, Heung Seop; Lee, Jong Bok; Kim, Ho Joon; Choi, Young Gil; Kim, Ko Ryeo

    1989-01-01

    Software maintenance is one of the most important problems since late 1970's.We wish to develop a nuclear computer code system to maintenance and manage KAERI's nuclear software. As a part of this system, we have developed three code management programs for use on CYBER and PC systems. They are used in systematic management of computer code in KAERI. The first program is embodied on the CYBER system to rapidly provide information on nuclear codes to the users. The second and the third programs were embodied on the PC system for the code manager and for the management of data in korean language, respectively. In the requirement analysis, we defined each code, magnetic tape, manual and abstract information data. In the conceptual design, we designed retrieval, update, and output functions. In the implementation design, we described the technical considerations of database programs, utilities, and directions for the use of databases. As a result of this research, we compiled the status of nuclear computer codes which belonged KAERI until September, 1988. Thus, by using these three database programs, we could provide the nuclear computer code information to the users more rapidly. (Author)

  8. A TDC-PC based DPAC spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mayer, A.; Lindgren, B.

    1988-09-01

    In spectroscopies like muon spin rotation or the time differential perturbed angular correlation method the experimentally determined quantity is a time interval between two events. The transformation of this time into a physically handy signal has in most cases been performed by a time-to-amplitude converter (TAC). The resulting voltage has been digitized in a separate analog-to-digital converter (ADC) and entered some type of multichannel analyser (MCA). Apart from not being very convenient the systems have some significant weaknesses: The available size of the total spectrum area is limited due to the MCA. Nonlinearities in TACs and ADCs and noise in the analog part are well known complications. There is no way to see the experimental result, besides the raw data, during the course of the experiment. Here a new type of data collecting system is described. The basic idea, is to substitute the TAC and EDC for a time-to-digital converter (TDC), that is coupled to a personal computer (PC). The computer, used here, is with 256 kbyte of memory, which is sufficient for both the data collection and for the TDC controlling and data treating program DEPACK. The spectrum area is variable, with a predefined standard size of 8 * 2048 channels. On-line data treatment can be performed with the DEPACK program. With the choice of a TDC all problems related to analog parts in the equipment can be circumvented. The TDC can measure both positive and negative times, which enables in a standard 4 detector setup, the simultaneous collection of 8 spectra. If not objected for other reasons, all fast circuit start and stop signals may access the TDC. Since the maximum conversion frequency of the module is 1 MHz an overload protection is not required

  9. Calculation of neutron spectra for a 252Cf transport cask using ANISN running on a PC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    West, L.; Akin, B.P.; Lemley, E.C.

    1995-01-01

    Neutron spectra have been calculated using the ANISN one-dimensional discrete ordinates code for the case of a 152 Cf source in a transport cask of a particular design. All computations were done on personal computers (PCs) (mostly 486 models) with the ANISN-ORNL (486 version) computer code. With a source of 252 Cf fission neutrons, the neutron flux spectrum in the cask cannot be characterized as open-quotes moderated.close quotes Concern about an appropriate choice for the cross-section data set has led to a comparison, for this application, of three different cross-section libraries: DABL, HILO, and BUGLE-80. Although the cross-section sets were not originally designed for PC use, the libraries have been successfully employed for PC computations. Work with yet another data library, BUGLE-93, is incomplete at this stage. From neutron flux spectra on the surface of the cask, personnel dosimetric quantities (such as dose equivalent) have been determined for the DABL, HILO, and BUGLE-80 ANISN calculations

  10. A photometric map of interstellar reddening within 100 PC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, C. L.; Johnston, L.; Crawford, D. L.

    1982-12-01

    Color excesses and distances are calculated for 300 bright, northern, late F stars using uvby beta photometric indices. The data allow an extension of the earlier maps by Perry and Johnston of the spatial distribution of interstellar reddening into the local (r less than 100 pc) solar neighborhood. Some definite conclusions are made regarding the distribution of interstellar dust in the northern hemisphere and within 300 pc of the sun by merging these results and the polarimetric observations by Tinbergen (1982) for 180 stars within 35 pc of the sun.

  11. PC Farms for Offline Event Reconstruction at Fermilab

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beretvas, A.

    1997-03-01

    Fermilab is investigating the use of PC's for HEP computing. As a first step we have built a full offline environment under Linux on a set of Pentium (P5) and Pentium Pro (P6) machines (the ''PC Farm''). The Pythia simulation has been ported to run serially and in parallel (using CPS) on the PC Farm. Fermilab software products and CDF offline packages have also been ported to Linux. Run 1 CDF data has been analyzed on both Linux and SGI (Irix) with essentially identical results. The performance of the system is compared to results with commercial UNIX systems

  12. JEF-PC 2.0. A PC program for viewing evaluated and experimental data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konieczny, M.

    1997-01-01

    In an attempt to make nuclear data more easily accessible to a wider user community, as well as providing a useful tool for experienced users, the NEA has supported the development of PC software for accessing and displaying nuclear data in a user-friendly and intuitive manner. The data contained in JEF-PC version 2.0 is predominantly taken from the Joint Evaluated File (JEF-2.2). The JEF-2.2 library comprises sets of evaluated nuclear data, mainly for fission reactor applications; it contains a number of different types of data, including neutron interaction data, radioactive decay data and fission yield data. The package consists of a central 'driver' program displaying an electronic representation of the Chart of the Nuclides, from which a target nuclide is selected. Through this interface a number of peripheral database modules, containing different categories of basic nuclear data, can be accessed. Cross section data, radioactive decay data, and fission yield data are available in separate modules named CROSS, DECAY and FISSION respectively. (K.A.)

  13. Vector Network Coding Algorithms

    OpenAIRE

    Ebrahimi, Javad; Fragouli, Christina

    2010-01-01

    We develop new algebraic algorithms for scalar and vector network coding. In vector network coding, the source multicasts information by transmitting vectors of length L, while intermediate nodes process and combine their incoming packets by multiplying them with L x L coding matrices that play a similar role as coding c in scalar coding. Our algorithms for scalar network jointly optimize the employed field size while selecting the coding coefficients. Similarly, for vector coding, our algori...

  14. Assessing the efficiency of aluminium phosphide and arsenic trioxide in controlling the Indian crested porcupine (hystrix indica) in an irrigated forest plantation or Punjab, Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, A.A.

    2010-01-01

    The Indian crested porcupine, Hystrix indica, is widely distributed in the irrigated forests of Punjab, Pakistan and causes serious damage to trees, nursery stocking, field crops and vegetables. Field trials were conducted to determine the efficacy of aluminium phosphide (Phostoxin, 3g tablets) and arsenic trioxide bait (at 2.5g per apple) against the porcupine in a forest plantation. For fumigation with phostoxin, tablets were used at the rate of four, five, six and seven tablets per den. Observations showed that four tablets were ineffective, five and six tablets provided partial control, while seven tablets provided complete control of porcupines. Baiting with arsenic trioxide also resulted in 89 % reduction of the porcupine population occupying the treated dens. (author)

  15. Results from Coupled Optical and Electrical Sentaurus TCAD Models of a Gallium Phosphide on Silicon Electron Carrier Selective Contact Solar Cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Limpert, Steven; Ghosh, Kunal; Wagner, Hannes; Bowden, Stuart; Honsberg, Christiana; Goodnick, Stephen; Bremner, Stephen; Green, Martin

    2014-06-09

    We report results from coupled optical and electrical Sentaurus TCAD models of a gallium phosphide (GaP) on silicon electron carrier selective contact (CSC) solar cell. Detailed analyses of current and voltage performance are presented for devices having substrate thicknesses of 10 μm, 50 μm, 100 μm and 150 μm, and with GaP/Si interfacial quality ranging from very poor to excellent. Ultimate potential performance was investigated using optical absorption profiles consistent with light trapping schemes of random pyramids with attached and detached rear reflector, and planar with an attached rear reflector. Results indicate Auger-limited open-circuit voltages up to 787 mV and efficiencies up to 26.7% may be possible for front-contacted devices.

  16. Design and fabrication of anti-reflection coating on Gallium Phosphide, Zinc Selenide and Zinc Sulfide substrates for visible and infrared application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mokrý P.

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Results of design and fabrication of a dual-band anti-reflection coating on a gallium phosphide (GaP, zinc selenide (ZnSe and zinc sulfide (ZnS substrates are presented. A multilayer stack structure of antireflection coatings made of zinc sulfide and yttrium fluoride (YF3 was theoretically designed for optical bands between 0.8 and 0.9 μm and between 9.5 and 10.5 μm. This stack was designed as efficient for these materials (GaP, ZnS, ZnSe together. Multilayer stack structure was deposited using thermal evaporation method. Theoretically predicted transmittance spectra were compared with transmitted spectra measured on coated substrates. Efficiency of anti-reflection coating is estimated and discrepancies are analyzed and discussed.

  17. Homological stabilizer codes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, Jonas T., E-mail: jonastyleranderson@gmail.com

    2013-03-15

    In this paper we define homological stabilizer codes on qubits which encompass codes such as Kitaev's toric code and the topological color codes. These codes are defined solely by the graphs they reside on. This feature allows us to use properties of topological graph theory to determine the graphs which are suitable as homological stabilizer codes. We then show that all toric codes are equivalent to homological stabilizer codes on 4-valent graphs. We show that the topological color codes and toric codes correspond to two distinct classes of graphs. We define the notion of label set equivalencies and show that under a small set of constraints the only homological stabilizer codes without local logical operators are equivalent to Kitaev's toric code or to the topological color codes. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We show that Kitaev's toric codes are equivalent to homological stabilizer codes on 4-valent graphs. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We show that toric codes and color codes correspond to homological stabilizer codes on distinct graphs. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We find and classify all 2D homological stabilizer codes. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We find optimal codes among the homological stabilizer codes.

  18. Software Defined Radio Datalink Implementation Using PC-Type Computers

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Zafeiropoulos, Georgios

    2003-01-01

    The objective of this thesis was to examine the feasibility of implementation and the performance of a Software Defined Radio datalink, using a common PC type host computer and a high level programming language...

  19. PC data station for Hitachi F-2000 spectrofluorimeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yakub Ali, Mohd; Dhoble, A.R.; Jadhav, R.T.; Godbole, S.V.

    2004-01-01

    The paper describes the PC based data station for stand-alone HIT ACHI F-2000 Spectrofluorimeter, for data acquisition, storage and analysis. The hardware link between the instrument and PC is made through RS232 serial port. The state of art software for control and data management is designed, developed and implemented in Visual Basic (Version 6). The software features on-screen editing of all operation parameters of the instrument and the operational control is achieved by Visual Basic command words communicated through serial port. Using this system, in addition to acquiring and storage of spectral data, it was possible to obtain the normalized absorption spectra of the samples. PC adapted Hitachi F-2000 Spectrofluorimeter can be successfully used for various operations such as photometric detection of UO22+ ions, recording of emission and excitation spectra and time evolution of fluorescence intensity on continuous UV irradiation. The data storage achieved through PC adaptation has also enabled recording of absorption spectra. (author)

  20. 2010 ME70 Workshop (PC1003, EK60)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The third leg of the 2010 SEAMAP Reeffish Survey, PC 1003, was originally scheduled as an experimental multibeam sonar workshop. However, on July 12, 2010, FSV...

  1. Software Reviews. PC Software for Artificial Intelligence Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epp, Helmut; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Contrasts artificial intelligence and conventional programming languages. Reviews Personal Consultant Plus, Smalltalk/V, and Nexpert Object, which are PC-based products inspired by problem-solving paradigms. Provides information on background and operation of each. (RT)

  2. (PC) tablet penetration among undergraduate students of University ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Random sampling technique was adopted to select 200 students from ... The findings of the study revealed that PC tablet is a learning tool as students easily view ... computer, information and communication technology, mobile technologies ...

  3. Select PC/windows flat to develop data acquisition system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Jin

    1993-01-01

    Through needing analysis, and also, considering user's ability of payment, the characteristic of China computer market, the computer developing tending, and the system's compatibility and up grade capability, PC/Windows flat are selected to develop a data acquisition system

  4. PC analysis of stochastic differential equations driven by Wiener noise

    KAUST Repository

    Le Maitre, Olivier; Knio, Omar

    2015-01-01

    A polynomial chaos (PC) analysis with stochastic expansion coefficients is proposed for stochastic differential equations driven by additive or multiplicative Wiener noise. It is shown that for this setting, a Galerkin formalism naturally leads

  5. AERO2S - SUBSONIC AERODYNAMIC ANALYSIS OF WINGS WITH LEADING- AND TRAILING-EDGE FLAPS IN COMBINATION WITH CANARD OR HORIZONTAL TAIL SURFACES (IBM PC VERSION)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, H. W.

    1994-01-01

    necessary only to add an identification record and the namelist data that are to be changed from the previous run. This code was originally developed in 1989 in FORTRAN V on a CDC 6000 computer system, and was later ported to an MS-DOS environment. Both versions are available from COSMIC. There are only a few differences between the PC version (LAR-14458) and CDC version (LAR-14178) of AERO2S distributed by COSMIC. The CDC version has one main source code file while the PC version has two files which are easier to edit and compile on a PC. The PC version does not require a FORTRAN compiler which supports NAMELIST because a special INPUT subroutine has been added. The CDC version includes two MODIFY decks which can be used to improve the code and prevent the possibility of some infrequently occurring errors while PC-version users will have to make these code changes manually. The PC version includes an executable which was generated with the Ryan McFarland/FORTRAN compiler and requires 253K RAM and an 80x87 math co-processor. Using this executable, the sample case requires about four hours to execute on an 8MHz AT-class microcomputer with a co-processor. The source code conforms to the FORTRAN 77 standard except that it uses variables longer than six characters. With two minor modifications, the PC version should be portable to any computer with a FORTRAN compiler and sufficient memory. The CDC version of AERO2S is available in CDC NOS Internal format on a 9-track 1600 BPI magnetic tape. The PC version is available on a set of two 5.25 inch 360K MS-DOS format diskettes. IBM AT is a registered trademark of International Business Machines. MS-DOS is a registered trademark of Microsoft Corporation. CDC is a registered trademark of Control Data Corporation. NOS is a trademark of Control Data Corporation.

  6. Diagnostic Coding for Epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Korwyn; Nuwer, Marc R; Buchhalter, Jeffrey R

    2016-02-01

    Accurate coding is an important function of neurologic practice. This contribution to Continuum is part of an ongoing series that presents helpful coding information along with examples related to the issue topic. Tips for diagnosis coding, Evaluation and Management coding, procedure coding, or a combination are presented, depending on which is most applicable to the subject area of the issue.

  7. Coding of Neuroinfectious Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barkley, Gregory L

    2015-12-01

    Accurate coding is an important function of neurologic practice. This contribution to Continuum is part of an ongoing series that presents helpful coding information along with examples related to the issue topic. Tips for diagnosis coding, Evaluation and Management coding, procedure coding, or a combination are presented, depending on which is most applicable to the subject area of the issue.

  8. Aspartame-induced apoptosis in PC12 cells

    OpenAIRE

    Horio, Yukari; Sun, Yongkun; Liu, Chuang; Saito, Takeshi; Kurasaki, Masaaki

    2014-01-01

    Aspartame is an artificial sweetner added to many low-calorie foods. The safety of aspartame remains controversial even though there are many studies on its risks. In this study, to understand the physiological effects of trace amounts of artificial sweetners on cells, the effects of aspartame on apoptosis were investigated using a PC12 cell system. In addition, the mechanism of apoptosis induced by aspartame in PC12 cells and effects on apoptotic factors such as cytochrome c, apoptosis-induc...

  9. Multi drop bus controller for IBM PC/AT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bardik, Yu.I.; Kalistratov, E.N.; Matyushin, A.A.; Obukhov, G.A.; Trofimov, N.N.

    1993-01-01

    The module PC-AT-PBC gives a possibility to create a working place based on the computer IBM PC/AT for testing of hardware which is compatible with the multi drop bus. The KP1830BE31 micro program change turns the module into timing generator for power supply controllers of the UNK correction system. The structure of the module, functional parts, library functions and two application programs have been described. 4 refs., 9 figs

  10. Progress on DART code optimization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taboada, Horacio; Solis, Diego; Rest, Jeffrey

    1999-01-01

    This work consists about the progress made on the design and development of a new optimized version of DART code (DART-P), a mechanistic computer model for the performance calculation and assessment of aluminum dispersion fuel. It is part of a collaboration agreement between CNEA and ANL in the area of Low Enriched Uranium Advanced Fuels. It is held by the Implementation Arrangement for Technical Exchange and Cooperation in the Area of Peaceful Uses of Nuclear Energy, signed on October 16, 1997 between US DOE and the National Atomic Energy Commission of the Argentine Republic. DART optimization is a biannual program; it is operative since February 8, 1999 and has the following goals: 1. Design and develop a new DART calculation kernel for implementation within a parallel processing architecture. 2. Design and develop new user-friendly I/O routines to be resident on Personal Computer (PC)/WorkStation (WS) platform. 2.1. The new input interface will be designed and developed by means of a Visual interface, able to guide the user in the construction of the problem to be analyzed with the aid of a new database (described in item 3, below). The new I/O interface will include input data check controls in order to avoid corrupted input data. 2.2. The new output interface will be designed and developed by means of graphical tools, able to translate numeric data output into 'on line' graphic information. 3. Design and develop a new irradiated materials database, to be resident on PC/WS platform, so as to facilitate the analysis of the behavior of different fuel and meat compositions with DART-P. Currently, a different version of DART is used for oxide, silicide, and advanced alloy fuels. 4. Develop rigorous general inspection algorithms in order to provide valuable DART-P benchmarks. 5. Design and develop new models, such as superplasticity, elastoplastic feedback, improved models for the calculation of fuel deformation and the evolution of the fuel microstructure for

  11. PC based 8K multichannel analyser for nuclear spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jain, S.K.; Gupta, J.D.; Suman Kumari, B.

    1989-01-01

    An IBM-PC based 8K multichannel analyser(MCA) has been developed which incorporates all the features of an advanced system like very high throughput for data acquisition in PHA as well as MCS modes, fast real-time display, extensive display manipulation facilities, various present controls and concurrent data processing. The compact system hardware consists of a 2 bit wide NIM module and a PC add-on card. Because of external acquisition hardware, the system after initial programming by PC can acquire data independently allowing the PC to be switched off. To attain very high throughput, the most desirable feature of an MCA, a dual-port memory architecture has been used. The asymmetric dual-port RAM, housed in the NIM module offers 24 bit parallel access to the ADC and 8 bit wide access to PC which results in fast real-time histogramic display on the monitor. PC emulation software is menu driven and user friendly. It integrates a comprehensive set of commonly required application routines for concurrent data processing. After the transfer of know-how to the Electronic Corporation of India Ltd. (ECIL), this system is bein g produced at ECIL. (author). 5 refs., 4 figs

  12. ENDF/B Pre-Processing Codes: Implementing and testing on a Personal Computer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McLaughlin, P.K.

    1987-05-01

    This document describes the contents of the diskettes containing the ENDF/B Pre-Processing codes by D.E. Cullen, and example data for use in implementing and testing these codes on a Personal Computer of the type IBM-PC/AT. Upon request the codes are available from the IAEA Nuclear Data Section, free of charge, on a series of 7 diskettes. (author)

  13. CoPc and CoPcF16 on gold: Site-specific charge-transfer processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fotini Petraki

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Interface properties of cobalt(II phthalocyanine (CoPc and cobalt(II hexadecafluoro-phthalocyanine (CoPcF16 to gold are investigated by photo-excited electron spectroscopies (X-ray photoemission spectroscopy (XPS, ultraviolet photoemission spectroscopy (UPS and X-ray excited Auger electron spectroscopy (XAES. It is shown that a bidirectional charge transfer determines the interface energetics for CoPc and CoPcF16 on Au. Combined XPS and XAES measurements allow for the separation of chemical shifts based on different local charges at the considered atom caused by polarization effects. This facilitates a detailed discussion of energetic shifts of core level spectra. The data allow the discussion of site-specific charge-transfer processes.

  14. PC Mobile Warrior with a built-in cellular phone; Keitai denwa naizogata PC 'Mobile warrior

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    A PC Mobile Warrior with a built-in cellular phone has been developed from PC Libretto through cooperation with the NTT DoCoMo. The new personal computer incorporates into itself some distinguished mobile PC features such as Wake On Radio and Wake On Ring which are defined by MCPC (Mobile Computing Promotion Consortium). Wake On Radio is a function that activates the PC upon entry into the zone from outside, and Wake On Ring is another function that does the same upon arrival of a phone call. Installed on these lower order functions are an application program for automatic transmission of stored e-mails making use of the former function and another for automatic reception of FAX messages making use of the latter function. (translated by NEDO)

  15. Guest Foreword by Lord Phillips KG PC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas A. Phillips

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The Rt Hon The Lord Phillips of Worth Matravers KG PC, President of the Supreme Court of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland Ambition and excellence. Those two words epitomize Qatar. Under the leadership of his Highness the Emir, this small State has set out to make an impact on the world that belies its size. Ambitious was the plan to have an international broadcasting station. Ambitious was the plan to build from scratch a Museum of Islamic Art. Ambitious was the bid – the successful bid to host the World Cup in 2022. Ambitious is the bid to stage the Olympic Games in 2020. Qatar not merely has ambitions, it realizes its ambitions. And when it does so it is not enough to say that the result is ‘world class’, for Qatar sets out to be a world leader in whatever it puts its hand to. Excellence is the norm. Al Jazeera has established itself as the broadcasting station of choice for many throughout the world. The Doha Museum of Islamic Art is recognized as being second to none. In addition, the scale and standard of development in Doha itself is setting new standards of excellence in the fields of architecture and civil engineering. Thus when Qatar focuses its energies on education and the law, high achievements are expected. I shall have the honour of helping to achieve those expectations when I succeed Lord Woolf as President of Qatar’s new and impressive Civil and Commercial Court. The College of Law at Qatar University is already achieving excellence in the field of legal education. So, naturally, all expect great things of this new International Review of Law and I am delighted to have been invited to welcome it by this foreword. The range of the first edition is both international and topical. Those countries that have experienced the turbulence of the Arab Spring are settling new constitutions, and other countries are bent on constitutional reform designed to avoid such turbulence. So an erudite article on

  16. Vector Network Coding

    OpenAIRE

    Ebrahimi, Javad; Fragouli, Christina

    2010-01-01

    We develop new algebraic algorithms for scalar and vector network coding. In vector network coding, the source multicasts information by transmitting vectors of length L, while intermediate nodes process and combine their incoming packets by multiplying them with L X L coding matrices that play a similar role as coding coefficients in scalar coding. Our algorithms for scalar network jointly optimize the employed field size while selecting the coding coefficients. Similarly, for vector co...

  17. Entropy Coding in HEVC

    OpenAIRE

    Sze, Vivienne; Marpe, Detlev

    2014-01-01

    Context-Based Adaptive Binary Arithmetic Coding (CABAC) is a method of entropy coding first introduced in H.264/AVC and now used in the latest High Efficiency Video Coding (HEVC) standard. While it provides high coding efficiency, the data dependencies in H.264/AVC CABAC make it challenging to parallelize and thus limit its throughput. Accordingly, during the standardization of entropy coding for HEVC, both aspects of coding efficiency and throughput were considered. This chapter describes th...

  18. Generalized concatenated quantum codes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grassl, Markus; Shor, Peter; Smith, Graeme; Smolin, John; Zeng Bei

    2009-01-01

    We discuss the concept of generalized concatenated quantum codes. This generalized concatenation method provides a systematical way for constructing good quantum codes, both stabilizer codes and nonadditive codes. Using this method, we construct families of single-error-correcting nonadditive quantum codes, in both binary and nonbinary cases, which not only outperform any stabilizer codes for finite block length but also asymptotically meet the quantum Hamming bound for large block length.

  19. Rateless feedback codes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Jesper Hemming; Koike-Akino, Toshiaki; Orlik, Philip

    2012-01-01

    This paper proposes a concept called rateless feedback coding. We redesign the existing LT and Raptor codes, by introducing new degree distributions for the case when a few feedback opportunities are available. We show that incorporating feedback to LT codes can significantly decrease both...... the coding overhead and the encoding/decoding complexity. Moreover, we show that, at the price of a slight increase in the coding overhead, linear complexity is achieved with Raptor feedback coding....

  20. Salinomycin Exerts Anticancer Effects on PC-3 Cells and PC-3-Derived Cancer Stem Cells In Vitro and In Vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunsheng Zhang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Salinomycin is an antibiotic isolated from Streptomyces albus that selectively kills cancer stem cells (CSCs. However, the antitumor mechanism of salinomycin is unclear. This study investigated the chemotherapeutic efficacy of salinomycin in human prostate cancer PC-3 cells. We found that cytotoxicity of salinomycin to PC-3 cells was stronger than to nonmalignant prostate cell RWPE-1, and exposure to salinomycin induced G2/M phage arrest and apoptosis of PC-3 cells. A mechanistic study found salinomycin suppressed Wnt/β-catenin pathway to induce apoptosis of PC-3 cells. An in vivo experiment confirmed that salinomycin suppressed tumorigenesis in a NOD/SCID mice xenograft model generated from implanted PC-3 cells by inhibiting the Wnt/β-catenin pathway, since the total β-catenin protein level was reduced and the downstream target c-Myc level was significantly downregulated. We also showed that salinomycin, but not paclitaxel, triggered more apoptosis in aldehyde dehydrogenase- (ALDH- positive PC-3 cells, which were considered as the prostate cancer stem cells, suggesting that salinomycin may be a promising chemotherapeutic to target CSCs. In conclusion, this study suggests that salinomycin reduces resistance and relapse of prostate tumor by killing cancer cells as well as CSCs.

  1. Advanced video coding systems

    CERN Document Server

    Gao, Wen

    2015-01-01

    This comprehensive and accessible text/reference presents an overview of the state of the art in video coding technology. Specifically, the book introduces the tools of the AVS2 standard, describing how AVS2 can help to achieve a significant improvement in coding efficiency for future video networks and applications by incorporating smarter coding tools such as scene video coding. Topics and features: introduces the basic concepts in video coding, and presents a short history of video coding technology and standards; reviews the coding framework, main coding tools, and syntax structure of AV

  2. Coding for dummies

    CERN Document Server

    Abraham, Nikhil

    2015-01-01

    Hands-on exercises help you learn to code like a pro No coding experience is required for Coding For Dummies,your one-stop guide to building a foundation of knowledge inwriting computer code for web, application, and softwaredevelopment. It doesn't matter if you've dabbled in coding or neverwritten a line of code, this book guides you through the basics.Using foundational web development languages like HTML, CSS, andJavaScript, it explains in plain English how coding works and whyit's needed. Online exercises developed by Codecademy, a leading online codetraining site, help hone coding skill

  3. PC Tutor. Bericht uber ein PC-gestutzes Tutorensystem = PC Tutor. Report on a Tutoring System with Personal Computer. ZIFF Papiere 75.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fritsch, Helmut

    A project was conducted to increase as well as to professionalize communication between tutors and learners in a West German university's distance education program by the use of personal computers. Two tutors worked on the systematic development of a PC-based correcting system. The goal, apart from developing general language skills in English,…

  4. Spray pyrolysis synthesis of γ-Al_2O_3 supported metal and metal phosphide catalysts and their activity in the hydrodeoxygenation of a bio-oil model compound

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ly, Hoang Vu; Im, Kyungmin; Go, Youngchae; Galiwango, Emmanuel; Kim, Seung-Soo; Kim, Jinsoo; Choi, Jae Hyung; Woo, Hee Chul

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Spherical γ-Al_2O_3 supported metal and metal phosphide catalysts were synthesized by spray pyrolysis method. • Hydrodeoxygenation (HDO) of 2-furyl methyl ketone (FMK) was conducted using metal/metal phosphide catalysts. • FMK was converted into 2-allyl furan and methyl cyclohexane. • The highest FMK conversion of 83% was achieved over 10 wt% Ni/γ-Al_2O_3 catalysts at reaction temperature of 400 °C. - Abstract: In this study, spherical γ-Al_2O_3 supported metal and metal phosphide (Ni, Co, Ni_2P and CoP) catalysts were successfully prepared by combining sol-gel and spray pyrolysis methods. First boehmite sol was prepared based on the Yoldas process and then the corresponding metal salts were added to the sol at the desired concentration, followed by spray pyrolysis of the mixed solution. As the well-mixed solution was transformed to spherical γ-Al_2O_3 supported metal and metal phosphide catalysts during spray pyrolysis process, the metal species were uniformly distributed in the mesoporous γ-Al_2O_3 supports. The product catalysts were investigated under different conditions for hydrodeoxygenation of bio-oil model compound, 2-furyl methyl ketone (FMK), which is the main component of the bio-oil product from pyrolysis of Saccharina japonica. Among the investigated catalysts, the 10 wt% Ni/γ-Al_2O_3 catalyst after calcination at 800 °C showed the highest FMK conversion of 83.02% at the reaction temperature of 400 °C. The gas and liquid products were analyzed by gas chromatography (GC) with TCD/FID detectors and GC–MS, respectively, to determine the product compositions.

  5. Synthesis and characterization of low-valence actinide phosphide tellurides and ternary selenium-halide iridium complexes; Synthese und Charakterisierung niedervalenter Actinoidphosphidtelluride und ternaerer Selen-Halogenid-Komplexe des Iridiums

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stolze, Karoline

    2016-04-07

    The thesis on the synthesis and characterization of low-valence actinide phosphide tellurides and ternary selenium-halide iridium complexes includes two parts: a description of the experimental synthesis of UPTe and U2PTe2O and ThPTe and the synthesis of selenium-chloride iridium complexes and selenium-bromide iridium complexes. The characterization included X-ray diffraction and phase studies.

  6. PC as physics computer for LHC?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jarp, Sverre; Simmins, Antony; Tang, Hong

    1996-01-01

    In the last five years, we have seen RISC workstations take over the computing scene that was once controlled by mainframes and supercomputers. In this paper we will argue that the same phenomenon might happen again. A project, active since March this year in the Physics Data Processing group of CERN's CN division is described where ordinary desktop PCs running Windows (NT and 3.11) have been used for creating an environment for running large LHC batch jobs (initially the DICE simulation job of Atlas). The problems encountered in porting both the CERN library and the specific Atlas codes are described together with some encouraging benchmark results when comparing to existing to existing RISC workstation in use by the Atlas collaboration. The issues of establishing the batch environment (Batch monitor, staging software, etc) are also covered. Finally a quick extrapolation of commodity computing power available in the future is touched upon to indicate what kind of cost envelope could be sufficient for the simulation farms required by the LHC experiments. (author)

  7. PC as physics computer for LHC?

    CERN Document Server

    Jarp, S; Simmins, A; Yaari, R; Jarp, Sverre; Tang, Hong; Simmins, Antony; Yaari, Refael

    1995-01-01

    In the last five years, we have seen RISC workstations take over the computing scene that was once controlled by mainframes and supercomputers. In this paper we will argue that the same phenomenon might happen again. A project, active since March this year in the Physics Data Processing group of CERN's CN division is described where ordinary desktop PCs running Windows (NT and 3.11) have been used for creating an environment for running large LHC batch jobs (initially the DICE simulation job of Atlas). The problems encountered in porting both the CERN library and the specific Atlas codes are described together with some encouraging benchmark results when comparing to existing RISC workstations in use by the Atlas collaboration. The issues of establishing the batch environment (Batch monitor, staging software, etc.) are also covered. Finally a quick extrapolation of commodity computing power available in the future is touched upon to indicate what kind of cost envelope could be sufficient for the simulation fa...

  8. Pc as Physics Computer for Lhc ?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarp, Sverre; Simmins, Antony; Tang, Hong; Yaari, R.

    In the last five years, we have seen RISC workstations take over the computing scene that was once controlled by mainframes and supercomputers. In this paper we will argue that the same phenomenon might happen again. A project, active since March this year in the Physics Data Processing group, of CERN's CN division is described where ordinary desktop PCs running Windows (NT and 3.11) have been used for creating an environment for running large LHC batch jobs (initially the DICE simulation job of Atlas). The problems encountered in porting both the CERN library and the specific Atlas codes are described together with some encouraging benchmark results when comparing to existing RISC workstations in use by the Atlas collaboration. The issues of establishing the batch environment (Batch monitor, staging software, etc.) are also covered. Finally a quick extrapolation of commodity computing power available in the future is touched upon to indicate what kind of cost envelope could be sufficient for the simulation farms required by the LHC experiments.

  9. Novel elastic, lattice dynamics and thermodynamic properties of metallic single-layer transition metal phosphides: 2H-M 2P (Mo2P, W2P, Nb2P and Ta2P)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Jiuren; Wu, Bozhao; Wang, Yanggang; Li, Zhimi; Yao, Yuanpeng; Jiang, Yong; Ding, Yanhuai; Xu, Fu; Zhang, Ping

    2018-04-01

    Recently, there has been a surge of interest in the research of two-dimensional (2D) phosphides due to their unique physical properties and wide applications. Transition metal phosphides 2H-M 2Ps (Mo2P, W2P, Nb2P and Ta2P) show considerable catalytic activity and energy storage potential. However, the electronic structure and mechanical properties of 2D 2H-M 2Ps are still unrevealed. Here, first-principles calculations are employed to investigate the lattice dynamics, elasticity and thermodynamic properties of 2H-M 2Ps. Results show that M 2Ps with lower stiffness exhibit remarkable lateral deformation under unidirectional loads. Due to the largest average Grüneisen parameter, single-layer Nb2P has the strongest anharmonic vibrations, resulting in the highest thermal expansion coefficient. The lattice thermal conductivities of Ta2P, W2P and Nb2P contradict classical theory, which would predict a smaller thermal conductivity due to the much heavier atom mass. Moreover, the calculations also demonstrate that the thermal conductivity of Ta2P is the highest as well as the lowest thermal expansion, owing to its weak anharmonic phonon scattering and the lowest average Grüneisen parameter. The insight provided by this study may be useful for future experimental and theoretical studies concerning 2D transition metal phosphide materials.

  10. A PC Mathcad-based computational aid for severe accident analysis and its application to a BWR small LOCA sequence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Laung-Kuang T.; Lee, S.J.

    2004-01-01

    A PC-based Mathcad program is used to develop a computational aid for analyzing severe accident phenomena. This computational aid uses simple engineering expressions and empirical correlations to estimate key quantities and timings at various stages of accident progressions. In this paper, the computational aid is applied to analyze an early phase of a BWR small LOCA sequence. The accident phenomena analyzed include: break flow rates, boiled-up water level in the core, core uncovery time, depressurization of the reactor pressure vessel, core heat-up, onset of clad oxidation, hydrogen generation, and onset of fuel relocation. The results are compared with those obtained running the MAAP 3.0B code. This PC-based computational aid can be used to train plant personnel in understanding severe accident phenomena and to assist them in managing severe accidents. (author)

  11. Empirically modelled Pc3 activity based on solar wind parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Heilig

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available It is known that under certain solar wind (SW/interplanetary magnetic field (IMF conditions (e.g. high SW speed, low cone angle the occurrence of ground-level Pc3–4 pulsations is more likely. In this paper we demonstrate that in the event of anomalously low SW particle density, Pc3 activity is extremely low regardless of otherwise favourable SW speed and cone angle. We re-investigate the SW control of Pc3 pulsation activity through a statistical analysis and two empirical models with emphasis on the influence of SW density on Pc3 activity. We utilise SW and IMF measurements from the OMNI project and ground-based magnetometer measurements from the MM100 array to relate SW and IMF measurements to the occurrence of Pc3 activity. Multiple linear regression and artificial neural network models are used in iterative processes in order to identify sets of SW-based input parameters, which optimally reproduce a set of Pc3 activity data. The inclusion of SW density in the parameter set significantly improves the models. Not only the density itself, but other density related parameters, such as the dynamic pressure of the SW, or the standoff distance of the magnetopause work equally well in the model. The disappearance of Pc3s during low-density events can have at least four reasons according to the existing upstream wave theory: 1. Pausing the ion-cyclotron resonance that generates the upstream ultra low frequency waves in the absence of protons, 2. Weakening of the bow shock that implies less efficient reflection, 3. The SW becomes sub-Alfvénic and hence it is not able to sweep back the waves propagating upstream with the Alfvén-speed, and 4. The increase of the standoff distance of the magnetopause (and of the bow shock. Although the models cannot account for the lack of Pc3s during intervals when the SW density is extremely low, the resulting sets of optimal model inputs support the generation of mid latitude Pc3 activity predominantly through

  12. Discussion on LDPC Codes and Uplink Coding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, Ken; Divsalar, Dariush; Dolinar, Sam; Moision, Bruce; Hamkins, Jon; Pollara, Fabrizio

    2007-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the progress that the workgroup on Low-Density Parity-Check (LDPC) for space link coding. The workgroup is tasked with developing and recommending new error correcting codes for near-Earth, Lunar, and deep space applications. Included in the presentation is a summary of the technical progress of the workgroup. Charts that show the LDPC decoder sensitivity to symbol scaling errors are reviewed, as well as a chart showing the performance of several frame synchronizer algorithms compared to that of some good codes and LDPC decoder tests at ESTL. Also reviewed is a study on Coding, Modulation, and Link Protocol (CMLP), and the recommended codes. A design for the Pseudo-Randomizer with LDPC Decoder and CRC is also reviewed. A chart that summarizes the three proposed coding systems is also presented.

  13. Test of radiation hardness of pcCVD detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schlemme, Steffen [GSI Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung, Darmstadt (Germany); Technische Universitaet Darmstadt (Germany); Enders, Joachim [Technische Universitaet Darmstadt (Germany); Figuera, P.; Salamone, S. [LNS-INFN Catania (Italy); Fruehauf, J.; Kis, Mladen; Kratz, A.; Kurz, N.; Loechner, S.; Nociforo, Chiara; Schirru, Fabio; Szczepanczyk, B.; Traeger, M.; Visinka, R. [GSI Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung, Darmstadt (Germany); Musumarra, A. [LNS-INFN Catania (Italy); University of Catania (Italy)

    2016-07-01

    The new in-flight separator Super-FRS is under construction at the Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research (FAIR, Darmstadt). Ion rates up to 3 x 10{sup 11} {sup 238}U/spill demand an adaption of detectors to a high radiation environment. A test experiment to investigate the radiation hardness of polycrystalline diamond detectors (pcCVD) was performed at the LNS-INFN in Catania using a {sup 12}C beam at 62 MeV/u and intensities of up to 1.5 pnA. The setup consisted of pcCVD strip detectors to measure the beam profile, a single crystal diamond detector to calibrate the ionisation chamber working in current mode as a beam intensity monitor and a pcCVD sample to be irradiated. The IC used was designed for FAIR and showed a stable counting rate allowing us to calibrate and perform beam intensity measurements with it. The total measured counts on the sample were 8.25 x 10{sup 11} counts/mm{sup 2} over a period of 60 hours. Digital waveforms of the pcCVD signals were taken with an oscilloscope and analysed. The results showed no change of the pcCVD signal properties during the entire irradiation.

  14. Monte Carlo Simulation for Neptun 10 PC medical linear accelerator and calculations of electron beam parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bahreyni Toossi, M.T.; Hashemi, S.M.; Momen Nezhad, M.

    2008-01-01

    In recent decades, cancer has been one of the main ever increasing causes of death in developed countries. In order to fulfill the aforementioned considerations different techniques have been used, one of which is Monte Carlo simulation technique. High accuracy of the Monte Carlo simulation has been one of the main reason for its wide spread application. In this study, MCNP-4C code was employed to simulate electron mode of the Neptun 10 PC Linac, dosimetric quantities for conventional fields have also been both measured and calculated. Although Neptun 10 PC Linac is no longer licensed for installation in European and some other countries but regrettably nearly 10 of them have been installed in different centers around the country and are in operation. Therefore, in this circumstance, to improve the accuracy of treatment planning, Monte Carlo simulation for Neptun 10 PC was recognized as a necessity. Simulated and measured values of depth dose curves, off axis dose distributions for 6 , 8 and 10 MeV electrons applied for four different size fields, 6 x 6 cm 2 , 10 x 10 cm 2 , 15 x 15 cm 2 and 20 x 20 cm 2 were obtained. The measurements were carried out by a Welhofer-Scanditronix dose scanning system, Semiconductor Detector and Ionization Chamber. The results of this study have revealed that the values of two main dosimetric quantities depth dose curves and off axis dose distributions, acquired by MCNP-4C simulation and the corresponding values achieved by direct measurements are in a very good agreement (within 1% to 2% difference). In general, very good consistency of simulated and measured results, is a good proof that the goal of this work has been accomplished. In other word where measurements of some parameters are not practically achievable, MCNP-4C simulation can be implemented confidently. (author)

  15. Locally orderless registration code

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2012-01-01

    This is code for the TPAMI paper "Locally Orderless Registration". The code requires intel threadding building blocks installed and is provided for 64 bit on mac, linux and windows.......This is code for the TPAMI paper "Locally Orderless Registration". The code requires intel threadding building blocks installed and is provided for 64 bit on mac, linux and windows....

  16. Decoding Codes on Graphs

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Shannon limit of the channel. Among the earliest discovered codes that approach the. Shannon limit were the low density parity check (LDPC) codes. The term low density arises from the property of the parity check matrix defining the code. We will now define this matrix and the role that it plays in decoding. 2. Linear Codes.

  17. Manually operated coded switch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnette, J.H.

    1978-01-01

    The disclosure related to a manually operated recodable coded switch in which a code may be inserted, tried and used to actuate a lever controlling an external device. After attempting a code, the switch's code wheels must be returned to their zero positions before another try is made

  18. Coding in Muscle Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Lyell K; Ney, John P

    2016-12-01

    Accurate coding is critically important for clinical practice and research. Ongoing changes to diagnostic and billing codes require the clinician to stay abreast of coding updates. Payment for health care services, data sets for health services research, and reporting for medical quality improvement all require accurate administrative coding. This article provides an overview of administrative coding for patients with muscle disease and includes a case-based review of diagnostic and Evaluation and Management (E/M) coding principles in patients with myopathy. Procedural coding for electrodiagnostic studies and neuromuscular ultrasound is also reviewed.

  19. QR Codes 101

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crompton, Helen; LaFrance, Jason; van 't Hooft, Mark

    2012-01-01

    A QR (quick-response) code is a two-dimensional scannable code, similar in function to a traditional bar code that one might find on a product at the supermarket. The main difference between the two is that, while a traditional bar code can hold a maximum of only 20 digits, a QR code can hold up to 7,089 characters, so it can contain much more…

  20. PcToll2 positively regulates the expression of antimicrobial peptides by promoting PcATF4 translocation into the nucleus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lan, Jiang-Feng; Zhao, Li-Juan; Wei, Shun; Wang, Yuan; Lin, Li; Li, Xin-Cang

    2016-11-01

    Drosophila Toll and mammalian Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are a family of evolutionarily conserved immune receptors that play a crucial role in the first-line defense against intruded pathogens. Activating transcription factor 4 (ATF4), a member of the ATF/CREB transcription factor family, is an important factor that participates in TLR signaling and other physiological processes. However, in crustaceans, whether ATF4 homologs were involved in TLR signaling remains unclear. In the current study, we identified a Toll homolog PcToll2 and a novel ATF4 homolog PcATF4 from Procambarus clarkii, and analyzed the likely regulatory activity of PcATF4 in PcToll2 signaling. The complete cDNA sequence of PcToll2 was 4175 bp long containing an open reading frame of 2820 bp encoding a 939-amino acid protein, and the cDNA sequence of PcATF4 was 2027 bp long with an open reading frame of 1296 bp encoding a 431-amino acid protein. PcToll2 and human TLR4 shared the high identity and they were grouped into a cluster. Furthermore, PcToll2 had a close relationship with other shrimp TLRs that possessed potential antibacterial activity. PcToll2 was highly expressed in the hemocytes, heart and gills, while PcATF4 mainly distributed in gills. Upon challenge with Vibrio parahemolyticus, PcToll2 and PcATF4 together with the antimicrobial peptides of ALF1 and ALF2 were significantly up-regulated in the hemocytes, and the PcATF4 was translocated into the nucleus. After PcToll2 silencing and challenge with Vibrio, the translocation of PcATF4 into the nucleus was inhibited and the expression of ALF1 and ALF2 was reduced, but the expression of PcDorsal and PcSTAT was not affected. Furthermore, after PcATF4 knockdown and challenge with or without Vibrio, the expression of ALF1 and ALF2 was also decreased while the expression of PcToll2 was upregulated. These results suggested that PcToll2 might regulate the expression of ALF1 and ALF2 by promoting the import of PcATF4, instead of the routine

  1. A PC [personal computer]-based version of KENO V.a

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nigg, D.A.; Atkinson, C.A.; Briggs, J.B.; Taylor, J.T.

    1990-01-01

    The use of personal computers (PCs) and engineering workstations for complex scientific computations has expanded rapidly in the last few years. This trend is expected to continue in the future with the introduction of increasingly sophisticated microprocessors and microcomputer systems. For a number of reasons, including security, economy, user convenience, and productivity, an integrated system of neutronics and radiation transport software suitable for operation in an IBM PC-class environment has been under development at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) for the past 3 yr. Nuclear cross-section data and resonance parameters are preprocessed from the Evaluated Nuclear Data Files Version 5 (ENDF/B-V) and supplied in a form suitable for use in a PC-based spectrum calculation and multigroup cross-section generation module. This module produces application-specific data libraries that can then be used in various neutron transport and diffusion theory code modules. This paper discusses several details of the Monte Carlo criticality module, which is based on the well-known highly-sophisticated KENO V.a package developed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory and previously released in mainframe form by the Radiation Shielding Information Center (RSIC). The conversion process and a variety of benchmarking results are described

  2. Demonstration of a PC 25 Fuel Cell in Russia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John C. Trocciola; Thomas N. Pompa; Linda S. Boyd

    2004-09-01

    This project involved the installation of a 200kW PC25C{trademark} phosphoric-acid fuel cell power plant at Orgenergogaz, a Gazprom industrial site in Russia. In April 1997, a PC25C{trademark} was sold by ONSI Corporation to Orgenergogaz, a subsidiary of the Russian company ''Gazprom''. Due to instabilities in the Russian financial markets, at that time, the unit was never installed and started by Orgenergogaz. In October of 2001 International Fuel Cells (IFC), now known as UTC Fuel Cells (UTCFC), received a financial assistance award from the United States Department of Energy (DOE) entitled ''Demonstration of PC 25 Fuel Cell in Russia''. Three major tasks were part of this award: the inspection of the proposed site and system, start-up assistance, and installation and operation of the powerplant.

  3. Aspartame-induced apoptosis in PC12 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horio, Yukari; Sun, Yongkun; Liu, Chuang; Saito, Takeshi; Kurasaki, Masaaki

    2014-01-01

    Aspartame is an artificial sweetner added to many low-calorie foods. The safety of aspartame remains controversial even though there are many studies on its risks. In this study, to understand the physiological effects of trace amounts of artificial sweetners on cells, the effects of aspartame on apoptosis were investigated using a PC12 cell system. In addition, the mechanism of apoptosis induced by aspartame in PC12 cells and effects on apoptotic factors such as cytochrome c, apoptosis-inducing factor, and caspase family proteins were studied by Western blotting and RT-PCR. Aspartame-induced apoptosis in PC12 cells in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, aspartame exposure increased the expressions of caspases 8 and 9, and cytochrome c. These results indicate that aspartame induces apoptosis mainly via mitochondrial pathway involved in apoptosis due to oxigen toxicity. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Wind tunnel test on PC cable-stayed bridge; PC shachokyo no taifu seino shiken

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kubo, Y. [Kyushu Inst. of Technology, Kitakyushu (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1997-05-30

    This paper describes the wind tunnel test on a PC cable-stayed bridge. The aerodynamic force that acts on a building is represented by the drag that works in the wind direction, the lift that works perpendicularly to the wind direction, and the aerodynamic moment that causes rotation. In the measurement of wind load, a girder is partially extracted in the wind tunnel and set in a three-component balance, and the drag, lift, and aerodynamic moment are measured using a strain meter while blowing the wind. In a wind tunnel experiment, the similarity on Reynolds number, field number, rigidity, hydraulic force, structural attenuation, and reduced wind velocity is required. However, the wind velocity in the actual bridge uses the same air as that in an experiment. The similarity rule on the Reynolds is not thus satisfied. It is necessary to cause no self-excited vibration (galloping and flutter) as wind-resistant performance and suppress the eddy excitation to less than the allowable amplitude. Moreover, the three-dimensional experiment using an elastic model is conducted in addition to the two-dimensional experiment using a rigid model. In the three-dimensional experiment, various vibration modes that occur in the actual bridge appear. 12 refs., 15 figs.

  5. Design of Usui bridge (PC cable stayed bridge). Usuihashi (PC shachokyo) no sekkei ni tsuite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kido, M.; Iizuka, Y. (Japan Highway Public Corp., Tokyo (Japan)); Tanaka, S.; Otsuka, K. (P.S. Concrete Co. Ltd. Kajima Corp. Joint Venture, Tokyo (Japan)); Kitakuni, S. (Kajima Corp., Tokyo (Japan))

    1991-11-30

    Structure and design of single suspension PC cable bridge, which is first kind of high way bridge in Japan and aiming to start for general use by March, 1993, are reported. As a construction outline, main construction quantity and general layout of the whole bridge together with the selective detail and characteristics of the diagonal member, tower, main girder and tower support member, are cited. Design conditions( load, materials, allowable stress and others ), basic plan of the design, and structure analysis( surface stress framed structure analysis, stereoscopic framework analysis and FEM analysis of local stress ) are explained. Design of structure member like main girder is based on diagonal member tension, wave shearing force, level of diagonal strain stress, bending stress when diagonal member anchors the deformed main tower caused by living load during earth quake, principal stress of main tower junction and local stress etc. Main tower support member design is based on the results of corbel shearing force at varied cross section and main stress, and diagonal member design is decided by allowable stress. Diagonal member anchorage traverse beam design depends on bending moment of traverse beam and shearing force. 3 refs., 15 figs., 1 tab.

  6. Laser ablation synthesis of new gold phosphides using red phosphorus and nanogold as precursors. Laser desorption ionisation time-of-flight mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panyala, Nagender Reddy; Peña-Méndez, Eladia María; Havel, Josef

    2012-05-15

    Gold phosphides show unique optical or semiconductor properties and there are extensive high technology applications, e.g. in laser diodes, etc. In spite of the various AuP structures known, the search for new materials is wide. Laser ablation synthesis is a promising screening and synthetic method. Generation of gold phosphides via laser ablation of red phosphorus and nanogold mixtures was studied using laser desorption ionisation time-of-flight mass spectrometry (LDI TOFMS). Gold clusters Au(m)(+) (m = 1 to ~35) were observed with a difference of one gold atom and their intensities were in decreasing order with respect to m. For P(n)(+) (n = 2 to ~111) clusters, the intensities of odd-numbered phosphorus clusters are much higher than those for even-numbered phosphorus clusters. During ablation of P-nanogold mixtures, clusters Au(m)(+) (m = 1-12), P(n)(+) (n = 2-7, 9, 11, 13-33, 35-95 (odd numbers)), AuP(n)(+) (n = 1, 2-88 (even numbers)), Au(2)P(n)(+) (n = 1-7, 14-16, 21-51 (odd numbers)), Au(3)P(n)(+) (n = 1-6, 8, 9, 14), Au(4)P(n)(+) (n = 1-9, 14-16), Au(5)P(n)(+) (n = 1-6, 14, 16), Au(6)P(n)(+) (n = 1-6), Au(7)P(n)(+) (n = 1-7), Au(8)P(n)(+) (n = 1-6, 8), Au(9)P(n)(+) (n = 1-10), Au(10)P(n)(+) (n = 1-8, 15), Au(11)P(n)(+) (n = 1-6), and Au(12)P(n)(+) (n = 1, 2, 4) were detected in positive ion mode. In negative ion mode, Au(m)(-) (m = 1-5), P(n)(-) (n = 2, 3, 5-11, 13-19, 21-35, 39, 41, 47, 49, 55 (odd numbers)), AuP(n)(-) (n = 4-6, 8-26, 30-36 (even numbers), 48), Au(2)P(n)(-) (n = 2-5, 8, 11, 13, 15, 17), A(3) P(n)(-) (n = 6-11, 32), Au(4)P(n)(-) (n = 1, 2, 4, 6, 10), Au(6)P(5)(-), and Au(7)P(8)(-) clusters were observed. In both modes, phosphorus-rich Au(m)P(n) clusters prevailed. The first experimental evidence for formation of AuP(60) and gold-covered phosphorus Au(12)P(n) (n = 1, 2, 4) clusters is given. The new gold phosphides generated might inspire synthesis of

  7. STATUS OF THE LINUX PC CLUSTER FOR BETWEEN-PULSE DATA ANALYSES AT DIII-D

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    PENG, Q; GROEBNER, R.J; LAO, L.L; SCHACHTER, J.; SCHISSEL, D.P; WADE, M.R.

    2001-08-01

    OAK-B135 Some analyses that survey experimental data are carried out at a sparse sample rate between pulses during tokamak operation and/or completed as a batch job overnight because the complete analysis on a single fast workstation cannot fit in the narrow time window between two pulses. Scientists therefore miss the opportunity to use these results to guide experiments quickly. With a dedicated Beowulf type cluster at a cost less than that of a workstation, these analyses can be accomplished between pulses and the analyzed data made available for the research team during the tokamak operation. A Linux PC cluster comprises of 12 processors was installed at DIII-D National Fusion Facility in CY00 and expanded to 24 processors in CY01 to automatically perform between-pulse magnetic equilibrium reconstructions using the EFIT code written in Fortran, CER analyses using CERQUICK code written in IDL and full profile fitting analyses (n e , T e , T i , V r , Z eff ) using IDL code ZIPFIT. This paper reports the current status of the system and discusses some problems and concerns raised during the implementation and expansion of the system

  8. Feature of extradosed PC bridge and its design; Daihenshin keburu PC kyo no tokucho to sono sekkei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Komiya, M. [Japan Bridge and Structure Institute Inc., Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-03-31

    A PC bridge with the eccentricity of the external cable increased by protruding the deviated member to the outside of the beam for more effective use of the external cable is called a `PC bridge with tendons of large eccentricity.` The extradosed bridge of main beam/cable joint type is a PC bridge with the external cable arranged via a tower-shaped eccentric member provided at the intermediate support, and resembles morphologically a cable stayed bridge having a very low tower. There are two types of extradosed bridges, i.e. a type with concrete coated external cable (cable stayed slab bridge) and the other with non-coated external cable (external cable stayed bridge). Features, structural planning and designing of the general external cable stayed bridge are shown. The features are the possession of intermediate characteristics of those of the PC beam bridge and the PC cable stayed bridge from the viewpoints of structural property, workability, economic efficiency, and scenic property. Outline of the plan, selection of structural data, design of the external cable, and structural characteristics in the ultimate state are discussed. 19 refs., 18 figs., 15 tabs.

  9. Analysis of parallel computing performance of the code MCNP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Lei; Wang Kan; Yu Ganglin

    2006-01-01

    Parallel computing can reduce the running time of the code MCNP effectively. With the MPI message transmitting software, MCNP5 can achieve its parallel computing on PC cluster with Windows operating system. Parallel computing performance of MCNP is influenced by factors such as the type, the complexity level and the parameter configuration of the computing problem. This paper analyzes the parallel computing performance of MCNP regarding with these factors and gives measures to improve the MCNP parallel computing performance. (authors)

  10. PC-based digital feedback control for scanning force microscope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohd Ashhar Khalid

    2002-01-01

    In the past, most digital feedback implementation for scanned-probe microscope were based on a digital signal processor (DSP). At present DSP plug-in card with the input-output interface module is still expensive compared to a fast pentium PC motherboard. For a magnetic force microscope (MFM) digital feedback has an advantage where the magnetic signal can be easily separated from the topographic signal. In this paper, a simple low-cost PC-based digital feedback and imaging system for Scanning Force Microscope (SFM) is presented. (Author)

  11. CC-3 CAMAC crate controller for IBM PC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khare, A.N.; Ghodgaonkar, M.D.; Bairi, B.R.

    1991-01-01

    The specifications and implementation details of CAMAC Crate Controller CC-3 for IBM-PC compatible as a host computer, having capability to transfer high speed data with direct memory access (DMA) scheme and logic to execute CAMAC cycles directly from the crate controller, to implement the block algorithms specified in ANSI/IEEE Std. 683-1976 (Reaff-1981) are described. The maximum data transfer rate measured with 8 bit interface of PC-AT is 240K byte per second. This work is carried out under Seventh Five Year Plan Project on Modernisation of reactor Control Instrumentation and Development of CAMAC and Fastbus Instrumentation. (author). 9 refs., 5 figs., 4 appendixes

  12. Data Communication PC/NaI-borehole probe (Hardware & Software)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Peter Buch

    Development of new hard- & software to a NaI borehole probe on a PC. Save data from the probe each 10'th sec, handle the data from the probe and make calculations every 10'th sec and show the results on the monitor.......Development of new hard- & software to a NaI borehole probe on a PC. Save data from the probe each 10'th sec, handle the data from the probe and make calculations every 10'th sec and show the results on the monitor....

  13. Performance Evaluation of a Multipurpose Bare PC Gateway

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tsetse, Anthony; Appiah-Kubi, Patrick; Loukili, Alae

    2015-01-01

    . Different solutions (6to4 tunneling, IVI translation, NAT64, DNS64 etc.), have being proposed but these are all standalone systems. In this paper we discuss the design,implementation and performance evaluation of a multipurpose Bare PC Gateway which incorporates Network Address translation (NAT), 6to4...... results indicate a relatively better performance (18%-45%) of the Bare PC gateway compared to a Linux gateway (running the functionalities as standalone systems). We believe the proposed solution could easily scale to wide area networks and also provide a cost efficient solution...

  14. PC add on card for processing of LSC signals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jadhav, S.R.; Nikhare, D.M.; Gurna, R.K.; Paulson, Molly; Kulkarni, C.P.; Vaidya, P.P.

    2001-01-01

    This paper describes PC- add on card developed at Electronics Division for processing of LSC signals. This card uses highly integrated digital and analog circuits, for entire processing of signals available from preamplifiers to get complete beta energy spectrum corresponding to coincident events in Liquid Scintillation Counting. LSC card along with High Voltage PC-add on card gives complete electronics required for LSC system. This card is also used in automatic LSC system along with interface circuits, which are used to control mechanical movements. (author)

  15. A PC-based computer program for simulation of containment pressurization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seifaee, F.

    1990-01-01

    This paper reports that a PC-based computer program has been developed to simulate a pressurized water reactor (PWR) containment during various transients. This containment model is capable of determining pressure and temperature history of a PWR containment in the event of a loss of coolant accident, as well as main steam line breaks inside the containment. Conservation of mass and energy equations are applied to the containment model. Development of the program is based on minimization of input specified information and user friendliness. Maximization of calculation efficiency is obtained by superseding the traditional trial and error procedure for determination of the state variables and implementation of an explicit solution for pressure. The program includes simplified models for active heat removal systems. The results are in close agreement between the present model and CONTEMPT-MOD5 computer code for pressure and temperature inside the containment

  16. A PC-based discrete tomography imaging software system for assaying radioactive waste containers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palacios, J.C.; Longoria, L.C.; Santos, J.; Perry, R.T.

    2003-01-01

    A PC-based discrete tomography imaging software system for assaying radioactive waste containers for use in facilities in Mexico has been developed. The software system consists of three modules: (i) for reconstruction transmission tomography, (ii) for reconstruction emission tomography, and (iii) for simulation tomography. The Simulation Module is an interactive computer program that is used to create simulated databases for input to the Reconstruction Modules. These databases may be used in the absence of physical measurements to insure that the tomographic theoretical models are valid and that the coding accurately describes these models. Simulation may also be used to determine the detection limits of the reconstruction methodology. A description of the system, the theory, and a demonstration of the systems capabilities is provided in the paper. The hardware for this system is currently under development

  17. Simulation of the Heber geothermal field, a TOUGH2/PC application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antunez, E.; Lippmann, M. [Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, Berkeley, CA (United States); Ali Khan, M. [California Department of Conservation, Santa Rosa, CA (United States)

    1995-03-01

    A numerical simulation model for the Heber geothermal field in southern California is being developed under a technology transfer agreement between the Department of Energy/LBL and the California Department of Conservation, Division of Oil, Gas, and Geothermal Resources (Division). The two objectives of the cooperation are: (1) to train Division personnel in the use of the TOUGH2/PC computer code; and (2) to develop a module compatible with TOUGH2 to investigate the effects of production/injection operations on the ground surface subsidence-rebound phenomenon observed in the field. The compaction of the rock formation will be handled assuming an elastic behavior of the rock-fluid system. Considered will be changes in pore volume and in-grid block dimensions, as well as, the process by which the change in formation volume is transmitted to the surface (vertical deformation; subsidence and rebound).

  18. Codes and curves

    CERN Document Server

    Walker, Judy L

    2000-01-01

    When information is transmitted, errors are likely to occur. Coding theory examines efficient ways of packaging data so that these errors can be detected, or even corrected. The traditional tools of coding theory have come from combinatorics and group theory. Lately, however, coding theorists have added techniques from algebraic geometry to their toolboxes. In particular, by re-interpreting the Reed-Solomon codes, one can see how to define new codes based on divisors on algebraic curves. For instance, using modular curves over finite fields, Tsfasman, Vladut, and Zink showed that one can define a sequence of codes with asymptotically better parameters than any previously known codes. This monograph is based on a series of lectures the author gave as part of the IAS/PCMI program on arithmetic algebraic geometry. Here, the reader is introduced to the exciting field of algebraic geometric coding theory. Presenting the material in the same conversational tone of the lectures, the author covers linear codes, inclu...

  19. Quality assessment of platelet concentrates prepared by platelet rich plasma-platelet concentrate, buffy coat poor-platelet concentrate (BC-PC and apheresis-PC methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singh Ravindra

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Platelet rich plasma-platelet concentrate (PRP-PC, buffy coat poor-platelet concentrate (BC-PC, and apheresis-PC were prepared and their quality parameters were assessed. Study Design: In this study, the following platelet products were prepared: from random donor platelets (i platelet rich plasma - platelet concentrate (PRP-PC, and (ii buffy coat poor- platelet concentrate (BC-PC and (iii single donor platelets (apheresis-PC by different methods. Their quality was assessed using the following parameters: swirling, volume of the platelet concentrate, platelet count, WBC count and pH. Results: A total of 146 platelet concentrates (64 of PRP-PC, 62 of BC-PC and 20 of apheresis-PC were enrolled in this study. The mean volume of PRP-PC, BC-PC and apheresis-PC was 62.30±22.68 ml, 68.81±22.95 ml and 214.05±9.91 ml and ranged from 22-135 ml, 32-133 ml and 200-251 ml respectively. The mean platelet count of PRP-PC, BC-PC and apheresis-PC was 7.6±2.97 x 1010/unit, 7.3±2.98 x 1010/unit and 4.13±1.32 x 1011/unit and ranged from 3.2-16.2 x 1010/unit, 0.6-16.4 x 1010/unit and 1.22-8.9 x 1011/unit respectively. The mean WBC count in PRP-PC (n = 10, BC-PC (n = 10 and apheresis-PC (n = 6 units was 4.05±0.48 x 107/unit, 2.08±0.39 x 107/unit and 4.8±0.8 x 106/unit and ranged from 3.4 -4.77 x 107/unit, 1.6-2.7 x 107/unit and 3.2 - 5.2 x 106/unit respectively. A total of 26 units were analyzed for pH changes. Out of these units, 10 each were PRP-PC and BC-PC and 6 units were apheresis-PC. Their mean pH was 6.7±0.26 (mean±SD and ranged from 6.5 - 7.0 and no difference was observed among all three types of platelet concentrate. Conclusion: PRP-PC and BC-PC units were comparable in terms of swirling, platelet count per unit and pH. As expected, we found WBC contamination to be less in BC-PC than PRP-PC units. Variation in volume was more in BC-PC than PRP-PC units and this suggests that further standardization is required for preparation of BC-PC

  20. The FOCON96 1.0 computer code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merle-Szeremeta, A.; Thomassin, A.

    1999-01-01

    The Institute of Protection and Nuclear Safety (I.P.S.N.) has developed a computer code, FOCON96 1.0 to calculate the dosimetric consequences of atmospheric radioactive releases from nuclear installations after several years of usual operation. This communication describes the principal characteristics of FOCON96 1.0 and its functionalities. The principal elements of a comparison between FOCON96 1.0 and PC-CREAM ( European computer code developed by the N.R.P.B. and answering the same criteria) are given here. (N.C.)

  1. Development of the integrated system reliability analysis code MODULE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, S.H.; Yoo, K.J.; Kim, T.W.

    1987-01-01

    The major components in a system reliability analysis are the determination of cut sets, importance measure, and uncertainty analysis. Various computer codes have been used for these purposes. For example, SETS and FTAP are used to determine cut sets; Importance for importance calculations; and Sample, CONINT, and MOCUP for uncertainty analysis. There have been problems when the codes run each other and the input and output are not linked, which could result in errors when preparing input for each code. The code MODULE was developed to carry out the above calculations simultaneously without linking input and outputs to other codes. MODULE can also prepare input for SETS for the case of a large fault tree that cannot be handled by MODULE. The flow diagram of the MODULE code is shown. To verify the MODULE code, two examples are selected and the results and computation times are compared with those of SETS, FTAP, CONINT, and MOCUP on both Cyber 170-875 and IBM PC/AT. Two examples are fault trees of the auxiliary feedwater system (AFWS) of Korea Nuclear Units (KNU)-1 and -2, which have 54 gates and 115 events, 39 gates and 92 events, respectively. The MODULE code has the advantage that it can calculate the cut sets, importances, and uncertainties in a single run with little increase in computing time over other codes and that it can be used in personal computers

  2. Turbo Pascal Computer Code for PIXE Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Darsono

    2002-01-01

    To optimal utilization of the 150 kV ion accelerator facilities and to govern the analysis technique using ion accelerator, the research and development of low energy PIXE technology has been done. The R and D for hardware of the low energy PIXE installation in P3TM have been carried on since year 2000. To support the R and D of PIXE accelerator facilities in harmonize with the R and D of the PIXE hardware, the development of PIXE software for analysis is also needed. The development of database of PIXE software for analysis using turbo Pascal computer code is reported in this paper. This computer code computes the ionization cross-section, the fluorescence yield, and the stopping power of elements also it computes the coefficient attenuation of X- rays energy. The computer code is named PIXEDASIS and it is part of big computer code planed for PIXE analysis that will be constructed in the near future. PIXEDASIS is designed to be communicative with the user. It has the input from the keyboard. The output shows in the PC monitor, which also can be printed. The performance test of the PIXEDASIS shows that it can be operated well and it can provide data agreement with data form other literatures. (author)

  3. LERC-SLAM - THE NASA LEWIS RESEARCH CENTER SATELLITE LINK ATTENUATION MODEL PROGRAM (IBM PC VERSION)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manning, R. M.

    1994-01-01

    antenna required to establish a link with the satellite, the statistical parameters that characterize the rainrate process at the terminal site, the length of the propagation path within the potential rain region, and its projected length onto the local horizontal. The IBM PC version of LeRC-SLAM (LEW-14979) is written in Microsoft QuickBASIC for an IBM PC compatible computer with a monitor and printer capable of supporting an 80-column format. The IBM PC version is available on a 5.25 inch MS-DOS format diskette. The program requires about 30K RAM. The source code and executable are included. The Macintosh version of LeRC-SLAM (LEW-14977) is written in Microsoft Basic, Binary (b) v2.00 for Macintosh II series computers running MacOS. This version requires 400K RAM and is available on a 3.5 inch 800K Macintosh format diskette, which includes source code only. The Macintosh version was developed in 1987 and the IBM PC version was developed in 1989. IBM PC is a trademark of International Business Machines. MS-DOS is a registered trademark of Microsoft Corporation. Macintosh is a registered trademark of Apple Computer, Inc.

  4. An Apple for Your IBM PC--The Quadlink Board.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owen, G. Scott

    1984-01-01

    Describes nature and installation of the QUADLINK board which allows Apple software to be run on IBM PC microcomputers. Although programs tested ran without problems, users should test their own programs since there are some copy protection schemes that can baffle the board. (JN)

  5. Mathematics Programming on the Apple II and IBM PC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, Roy E.; Schneider, David I.

    1987-01-01

    Details the features of BASIC used in mathematics programming and provides the information needed to translate between the Apple II and IBM PC computers. Discusses inputing a user-defined function, setting scroll windows, displaying subscripts and exponents, variable names, mathematical characters and special symbols. (TW)

  6. Characteristics of CoPc/CdS hybrid diode device

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    CdS/CoPc hybrid heterojunctions were fabricated and characterized. CdS films were deposited by the spray pyrolysis technique on indium tin oxide (ITO)-coated glass substrates and ... ing solution was prepared by dissolving 0.025 M CdCl2.

  7. A linear algebra course with PC-MATLAB : some experiences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smits, J.G.M.M.; Rijpkema, J.J.M.

    1992-01-01

    The authors present their views on the impact that the use of computers and software packages should have on the contents of a first service course on linear algebra. Furthermore they report on their experiences using the software package PC-MATLAB in such a course.

  8. Desktop Publishing in a PC-Based Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sims, Harold A.

    1987-01-01

    Identifies, considers, and interrelates the functionality of hardware, firmware, and software types; discusses the relationship of input and output devices in the PC-based desktop publishing environment; and reports some of what has been experienced in three years of working intensively in/with desktop publishing devices and solutions. (MES)

  9. Teaching Mathematics in the PC Lab--The Students' Viewpoints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Karsten; Kohler, Anke

    2013-01-01

    The Matrix Algebra portion of the intermediate mathematics course at the Schmalkalden University Faculty of Business and Economics has been moved from a traditional classroom setting to a technology-based setting in the PC lab. A Computer Algebra System license was acquired that also allows its use on the students' own PCs. A survey was carried…

  10. PC-ECONPACK Version 3.0 Users Manual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-11-01

    for inclusi on in cost sensitivity analysis UPDer Limit of the Change (%). PC-ECONPACK varies all the stipulated expense items both in an upward...Assumptions as stated in the Assumptions text information block. This section is used to discuss why certain alternatives were selected for inclusi ,n in the

  11. PC version of PRIS (Power Reactor Information System)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukala, J.; Stanik, Z.; White, D.

    1990-05-01

    The IAEA has been collecting operating experience data on nuclear power plants in the Member States since 1970. In 1980 a computerized database was established, the IAEA Power Reactor Information System (PRIS). To make PRIS data available to the Member States in a more convenient format, the development of a PC version of PRIS started in 1989

  12. IBM PC based automatic drive system for Bulat setup

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luchaninov, A.A.; Tolok, V.T.

    1999-01-01

    Non-expensive computer drive system for Bulat setup is described. System's hardware consists of IBM PC and conjunction block, providing 12 output channels, Software includes the main program, utilities and technology processes database. System may be used at surface modification processes, especially multilayer multicomponent coatings deposition

  13. Group Contribution sPC-SAFT Equation of State

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tihic, Amra

    2008-01-01

    Modellering af termodynamiske egenskaber og faseligevægte er en udfordring for den kemiske industri. Forenklet Perturbed Chains-Statistical Associating Fluid Theory (sPC-SAFT) er en tilstandsligning med udbredt anvendelse i en række industrielle sammenhænge. Modellen anvender tre parametre: segment...

  14. Design and Development of a PC- Based temperature monitoring ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The design of the work involves a circuit that measures the surrounding temperature using appropriate sensors and the sensor output is then converted to digital signals after due processing and conditioning of the signals. There is also an interface circuit configured to make it compatible with the PC hardware. This design ...

  15. Privacy Impact Assessment for the PC Label System

    Science.gov (United States)

    The PC Label System collects contact information for individuals with an interest in EPA's Region 1. Learn how this data will be collected in the system, how it will be used, access to the data, the purpose of data collection, and record retention policies

  16. Electronic States of IC60BA and PC71BM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheng Chun-Qi; Wang Peng; Shen Ying; Li Wen-Jie; Li Hong-Nian; Zhang Wen-Hua; Zhu Jun-Fa; Lai Guo-Qiao

    2013-01-01

    We investigate the electronic states of IC 60 BA and PC 71 BM using first-principles calculations and photoelectron spectroscopy (PES) measurements. The energy level structures for all possible isomers are reported and compared with those of C 60 , C 70 and PC 61 BM. The attachment of the side chains can raise the LUMO energies and decrease the HOMO-LUMO gaps, and thus helps to increase the power-conversion efficiency of bulk heterojunction solar cells. In the PES studies, we prepared IC 60 BA and PC 71 BM films on Si:H(111) substrates to construct adsorbate/substrate interfaces describable with the integer charge-transfer (ICT) model. Successful measurements then revealed that one of the most important material properties for an electron acceptor, the energy of the negative integer charge-transfer state (E ICT− ), is 4.31 eV below the vacuum level for PC 71 BM. The E ICT− of IC 60 BA is smaller than 4.14 eV

  17. CLIPS - C LANGUAGE INTEGRATED PRODUCTION SYSTEM (IBM PC VERSION WITH CLIPSITS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riley, , .

    1994-01-01

    The C Language Integrated Production System, CLIPS, is a shell for developing expert systems. It is designed to allow artificial intelligence research, development, and delivery on conventional computers. The primary design goals for CLIPS are portability, efficiency, and functionality. For these reasons, the program is written in C. CLIPS meets or outperforms most micro- and minicomputer based artificial intelligence tools. CLIPS is a forward chaining rule-based language. The program contains an inference engine and a language syntax that provide a framework for the construction of an expert system. It also includes tools for debugging an application. CLIPS is based on the Rete algorithm, which enables very efficient pattern matching. The collection of conditions and actions to be taken if the conditions are met is constructed into a rule network. As facts are asserted either prior to or during a session, CLIPS pattern-matches the number of fields. Wildcards and variables are supported for both single and multiple fields. CLIPS syntax allows the inclusion of externally defined functions (outside functions which are written in a language other than CLIPS). CLIPS itself can be embedded in a program such that the expert system is available as a simple subroutine call. Advanced features found in CLIPS version 4.3 include an integrated microEMACS editor, the ability to generate C source code from a CLIPS rule base to produce a dedicated executable, binary load and save capabilities for CLIPS rule bases, and the utility program CRSV (Cross-Reference, Style, and Verification) designed to facilitate the development and maintenance of large rule bases. Five machine versions are available. Each machine version includes the source and the executable for that machine. The UNIX version includes the source and binaries for IBM RS/6000, Sun3 series, and Sun4 series computers. The UNIX, DEC VAX, and DEC RISC Workstation versions are line oriented. The PC version and the Macintosh

  18. The materiality of Code

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Soon, Winnie

    2014-01-01

    This essay studies the source code of an artwork from a software studies perspective. By examining code that come close to the approach of critical code studies (Marino, 2006), I trace the network artwork, Pupufu (Lin, 2009) to understand various real-time approaches to social media platforms (MSN......, Twitter and Facebook). The focus is not to investigate the functionalities and efficiencies of the code, but to study and interpret the program level of code in order to trace the use of various technological methods such as third-party libraries and platforms’ interfaces. These are important...... to understand the socio-technical side of a changing network environment. Through the study of code, including but not limited to source code, technical specifications and other materials in relation to the artwork production, I would like to explore the materiality of code that goes beyond technical...

  19. Coding for optical channels

    CERN Document Server

    Djordjevic, Ivan; Vasic, Bane

    2010-01-01

    This unique book provides a coherent and comprehensive introduction to the fundamentals of optical communications, signal processing and coding for optical channels. It is the first to integrate the fundamentals of coding theory and optical communication.

  20. SEVERO code - user's manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sacramento, A.M. do.

    1989-01-01

    This user's manual contains all the necessary information concerning the use of SEVERO code. This computer code is related to the statistics of extremes = extreme winds, extreme precipitation and flooding hazard risk analysis. (A.C.A.S.)

  1. Occupational phosphine gas poisoning at veterinary hospitals from dogs that ingested zinc phosphide--Michigan, Iowa, and Washington, 2006-2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-27

    Zinc phosphide (Zn3P2) is a readily available rodenticide that, on contact with stomach acid and water, produces phosphine (PH3), a highly toxic gas. Household pets that ingest Zn3P2 often will regurgitate, releasing PH3 into the air. Veterinary hospital staff members treating such animals can be poisoned from PH3 exposure. During 2006-2011, CDC's National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) received reports of PH3 poisonings at four different veterinary hospitals: two in Michigan, one in Iowa, and one in Washington. Each of the four veterinary hospitals had treated a dog that ingested Zn3P2. Among hospital workers, eight poisoning victims were identified, all of whom experienced transient symptoms related to PH3 inhalation. All four dogs recovered fully. Exposure of veterinary staff members to PH3 can be minimized by following phosphine product precautions developed by the American Veterinary Medical Association (AVMA). Exposure of pets, pet owners, and veterinary staff members to PH3 can be minimized by proper storage, handling, and use of Zn3P2 and by using alternative methods for gopher and mole control, such as snap traps.

  2. New Intermetallic Ternary Phosphide Chalcogenide AP2-xXx (A = Zr, Hf; X = S, Se) Superconductors with PbFCl-Type Crystal Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitô, Hijiri; Yanagi, Yousuke; Ishida, Shigeyuki; Oka, Kunihiko; Gotoh, Yoshito; Fujihisa, Hiroshi; Yoshida, Yoshiyuki; Iyo, Akira; Eisaki, Hiroshi

    2014-07-01

    We have synthesized a series of intermetallic ternary phosphide chalcogenide superconductors, AP2-xXx (A = Zr, Hf; X = S, Se), using the high-pressure synthesis technique. These materials have a PbFCl-type crystal structure (space group P4/nmm) when x is greater than 0.3. The superconducting transition temperature Tc changes systematically with x, yielding dome-like phase diagrams. The maximum Tc is achieved at approximately x = 0.7, at which point the Tc is 6.3 K for ZrP2-xSex (x = 0.75), 5.5 K for HfP2-xSex (x = 0.7), 5.0 K for ZrP2-xSx (x = 0.675), and 4.6 K for Hfp2-xSx (x = 0.5). They are typical type-II superconductors and the upper and lower critical fields are estimated to be 2.92 T at 0 K and 0.021 T at 2 K for ZrP2-xSex (x = 0.75), respectively.

  3. NASA Lewis Steady-State Heat Pipe Code Architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mi, Ye; Tower, Leonard K.

    2013-01-01

    NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) has developed the LERCHP code. The PC-based LERCHP code can be used to predict the steady-state performance of heat pipes, including the determination of operating temperature and operating limits which might be encountered under specified conditions. The code contains a vapor flow algorithm which incorporates vapor compressibility and axially varying heat input. For the liquid flow in the wick, Darcy s formula is employed. Thermal boundary conditions and geometric structures can be defined through an interactive input interface. A variety of fluid and material options as well as user defined options can be chosen for the working fluid, wick, and pipe materials. This report documents the current effort at GRC to update the LERCHP code for operating in a Microsoft Windows (Microsoft Corporation) environment. A detailed analysis of the model is presented. The programming architecture for the numerical calculations is explained and flowcharts of the key subroutines are given

  4. Prostate carcinoma (PC) - an organ-related specific pathological neoplasm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Massmann, J.; Funk, A.; Altwein, J.; Praetorius, M.

    2003-01-01

    The organ- and tumour-related specific characteristics of prostate carcinoma (PC) are presented in an overview under various aspects. It is the key for understanding pathological changes, including PC, to consider the subdivision of the prostate into anatomically and functionally distinguishable zones, especially the transitional zone (TZ) and the peripheral zone (PZ). The pseudoneoplastic hyperplasia of the TZ, combined with inflammatory consequences and age-related changes, forms a differential diagnostic challenge to both clinico-radiological diagnosis and macroscopic and microscopic examination. High-degree prostatic intra-epithelial neoplasia (PIN III) and atypical adenomatous hyperplasia (AAH) are presented as precursor lesions of PC with varying significance and assessment. Moreover, there are discussed the following characteristic features of PC: localisation types, focality, volume, progression, double-graduation according to Gleason, tumour stage, and prognosis. The most important prognosis factors of PC (category I) include the categories of the TNM system, such as stage, surgical marginal situation, degree and also the preoperative PSA level as a (poor) substitute for the tumour volume. Potential prognosis parameters (category II) show the tumour volume and the DNS ploidy, while there continues to exist a large number of non-established parameters (category III). The prognostic validity of the pathological examinations depends, on the one hand, on the tissue extent (needle biopsy, transurethral resection (TURP), so-called simple prostatectomy, radical prostatectomy (RPE)) and the prostate zones covered. On the other hand, the prognostic certainty also depends on the tumour-adequate macroscopic and microscopic assessment of an RPE that can only be a partial or complete handling in transversal large-area sections. (orig.) [de

  5. Induction of cytoprotective autophagy in PC-12 cells by cadmium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Qiwen; Zhu, Jiaqiao; Zhang, Kangbao; Jiang, Chenyang; Wang, Yi; Yuan, Yan; Bian, Jianchun; Liu, Xuezhong; Gu, Jianhong; Liu, Zongping

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: •Cadmium can promote early upregulation of autophagy in PC-12 cells. •Autophagy precedes apoptosis in cadmium-treated PC-12 cells. •Cadmium-induced autophagy is cytoprotective in PC-12 cells. •Class III PI3K/beclin-1/Bcl-2 signaling pathway plays a positive role in cadmium-triggered autophagy. -- Abstract: Laboratory data have demonstrated that cadmium (Cd) may induce neuronal apoptosis. However, little is known about the role of autophagy in neurons. In this study, cell viability decreased in a dose- and time-dependent manner after treatment with Cd in PC-12 cells. As cells were exposed to Cd, the levels of LC3-II proteins became elevated, specific punctate distribution of endogenous LC3-II increased, and numerous autophagosomes appeared, which suggest that Cd induced a high level of autophagy. In the late stages of autophagy, an increase in the apoptosis ratio was observed. Likewise, pre-treatment with chloroquine (an autophagic inhibitor) and rapamycin (an autophagic inducer) resulted in an increased and decreased percentage of apoptosis in contrast to other Cd-treated groups, respectively. The results indicate that autophagy delayed apoptosis in Cd-treated PC-12 cells. Furthermore, co-treatment of cells with chloroquine reduced autophagy and cell activity. However, rapamycin had an opposite effect on autophagy and cell activity. Moreover, class III PI3 K/beclin-1/Bcl-2 signaling pathways served a function in Cd-induced autophagy. The findings suggest that Cd can induce cytoprotective autophagy by activating class III PI3 K/beclin-1/Bcl-2 signaling pathways. In sum, this study strongly suggests that autophagy may serve a positive function in the reduction of Cd-induced cytotoxicity

  6. Efficient Server-Aided 2PC for Mobile Phones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohassel Payman

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Secure Two-Party Computation (2PC protocols allow two parties to compute a function of their private inputs without revealing any information besides the output of the computation. There exist low cost general-purpose protocols for semi-honest parties that can be efficiently executed even on smartphones. However, for the case of malicious parties, current 2PC protocols are significantly less efficient, limiting their use to more resourceful devices. In this work we present an efficient 2PC protocol that is secure against malicious parties and is light enough to be used on mobile phones. The protocol is an adaptation of the protocol of Nielsen et al. (Crypto, 2012 to the Server-Aided setting, a natural relaxation of the plain model for secure computation that allows the parties to interact with a server (e.g., a cloud who is assumed not to collude with any of the parties. Our protocol has two stages: In an offline stage - where no party knows which function is to be computed, nor who else is participating - each party interacts with the server and downloads a file. Later, in the online stage, when two parties decide to execute a 2PC together, they can use the files they have downloaded earlier to execute the computation with cost that is lower than the currently best semi-honest 2PC protocols. We show an implementation of our protocol for Android mobile phones, discuss several optimizations and report on its evaluation for various circuits. For example, the online stage for evaluating a single AES circuit requires only 2.5 seconds and can be further reduced to 1 second (amortized time with multiple executions.

  7. Synthesizing Certified Code

    OpenAIRE

    Whalen, Michael; Schumann, Johann; Fischer, Bernd

    2002-01-01

    Code certification is a lightweight approach for formally demonstrating software quality. Its basic idea is to require code producers to provide formal proofs that their code satisfies certain quality properties. These proofs serve as certificates that can be checked independently. Since code certification uses the same underlying technology as program verification, it requires detailed annotations (e.g., loop invariants) to make the proofs possible. However, manually adding annotations to th...

  8. FERRET data analysis code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmittroth, F.

    1979-09-01

    A documentation of the FERRET data analysis code is given. The code provides a way to combine related measurements and calculations in a consistent evaluation. Basically a very general least-squares code, it is oriented towards problems frequently encountered in nuclear data and reactor physics. A strong emphasis is on the proper treatment of uncertainties and correlations and in providing quantitative uncertainty estimates. Documentation includes a review of the method, structure of the code, input formats, and examples

  9. Stylize Aesthetic QR Code

    OpenAIRE

    Xu, Mingliang; Su, Hao; Li, Yafei; Li, Xi; Liao, Jing; Niu, Jianwei; Lv, Pei; Zhou, Bing

    2018-01-01

    With the continued proliferation of smart mobile devices, Quick Response (QR) code has become one of the most-used types of two-dimensional code in the world. Aiming at beautifying the appearance of QR codes, existing works have developed a series of techniques to make the QR code more visual-pleasant. However, these works still leave much to be desired, such as visual diversity, aesthetic quality, flexibility, universal property, and robustness. To address these issues, in this paper, we pro...

  10. Enhancing QR Code Security

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Linfan; Zheng, Shuang

    2015-01-01

    Quick Response code opens possibility to convey data in a unique way yet insufficient prevention and protection might lead into QR code being exploited on behalf of attackers. This thesis starts by presenting a general introduction of background and stating two problems regarding QR code security, which followed by a comprehensive research on both QR code itself and related issues. From the research a solution taking advantages of cloud and cryptography together with an implementation come af...

  11. A computerized energy systems code and information library at Soreq

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silverman, I; Shapira, M; Caner, D; Sapier, D [Israel Atomic Energy Commission, Yavne (Israel). Soreq Nuclear Research Center

    1996-12-01

    In the framework of the contractual agreement between the Ministry of Energy and Infrastructure and the Division of Nuclear Engineering of the Israel Atomic Energy Commission, both Soreq-NRC and Ben-Gurion University have agreed to establish, in 1991, a code center. This code center contains a library of computer codes and relevant data, with particular emphasis on nuclear power plant research and development support. The code center maintains existing computer codes and adapts them to the ever changing computing environment, keeps track of new code developments in the field of nuclear engineering, and acquires the most recent revisions of computer codes of interest. An attempt is made to collect relevant codes developed in Israel and to assure that proper documentation and application instructions are available. En addition to computer programs, the code center collects sample problems and international benchmarks to verify the codes and their applications to various areas of interest to nuclear power plant engineering and safety evaluation. Recently, the reactor simulation group at Soreq acquired, using funds provided by the Ministry of Energy and Infrastructure, a PC work station operating under a Linux operating system to give users of the library an easy on-line way to access resources available at the library. These resources include the computer codes and their documentation, reports published by the reactor simulation group, and other information databases available at Soreq. Registered users set a communication line, through a modem, between their computer and the new workstation at Soreq and use it to download codes and/or information or to solve their problems, using codes from the library, on the computer at Soreq (authors).

  12. A computerized energy systems code and information library at Soreq

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silverman, I.; Shapira, M.; Caner, D.; Sapier, D.

    1996-01-01

    In the framework of the contractual agreement between the Ministry of Energy and Infrastructure and the Division of Nuclear Engineering of the Israel Atomic Energy Commission, both Soreq-NRC and Ben-Gurion University have agreed to establish, in 1991, a code center. This code center contains a library of computer codes and relevant data, with particular emphasis on nuclear power plant research and development support. The code center maintains existing computer codes and adapts them to the ever changing computing environment, keeps track of new code developments in the field of nuclear engineering, and acquires the most recent revisions of computer codes of interest. An attempt is made to collect relevant codes developed in Israel and to assure that proper documentation and application instructions are available. En addition to computer programs, the code center collects sample problems and international benchmarks to verify the codes and their applications to various areas of interest to nuclear power plant engineering and safety evaluation. Recently, the reactor simulation group at Soreq acquired, using funds provided by the Ministry of Energy and Infrastructure, a PC work station operating under a Linux operating system to give users of the library an easy on-line way to access resources available at the library. These resources include the computer codes and their documentation, reports published by the reactor simulation group, and other information databases available at Soreq. Registered users set a communication line, through a modem, between their computer and the new workstation at Soreq and use it to download codes and/or information or to solve their problems, using codes from the library, on the computer at Soreq (authors)

  13. Opening up codings?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steensig, Jakob; Heinemann, Trine

    2015-01-01

    doing formal coding and when doing more “traditional” conversation analysis research based on collections. We are more wary, however, of the implication that coding-based research is the end result of a process that starts with qualitative investigations and ends with categories that can be coded...

  14. Gauge color codes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bombin Palomo, Hector

    2015-01-01

    Color codes are topological stabilizer codes with unusual transversality properties. Here I show that their group of transversal gates is optimal and only depends on the spatial dimension, not the local geometry. I also introduce a generalized, subsystem version of color codes. In 3D they allow...

  15. Refactoring test code

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. van Deursen (Arie); L.M.F. Moonen (Leon); A. van den Bergh; G. Kok

    2001-01-01

    textabstractTwo key aspects of extreme programming (XP) are unit testing and merciless refactoring. Given the fact that the ideal test code / production code ratio approaches 1:1, it is not surprising that unit tests are being refactored. We found that refactoring test code is different from

  16. Seismic Adequacy Review of PC012 SCEs that are Potential Seismic Hazards with PC3 SCEs - CVD Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    OCOMA, E.C.

    1999-01-01

    This document provides seismic adequacy review of PCO12 Systems, Components L Equipment anchorage that are potential seismic interaction hazards with PC3 SCEs during a Design Basis Earthquake. The PCO12 items are identified in the Safety Equipment List as 3/1 SCEs

  17. The comparison of CAP88-PC version 2.0 versus CAP88-PC version 1.0

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yakubovich, B.A.; Klee, K.O.; Palmer, C.R.; Spotts, P.B.

    1997-12-01

    40 CFR Part 61 (Subpart H of the NESHAP) requires DOE facilities to use approved sampling procedures, computer models, or other approved procedures when calculating Effective Dose Equivalent (EDE) values to members of the public. Currently version 1.0 of the approved computer model CAP88-PC is used to calculate EDE values. The DOE has upgraded the CAP88-PC software to version 2.0. This version provides simplified data entry, better printing characteristics, the use of a mouse, and other features. The DOE has developed and released version 2.0 for testing and comment. This new software is a WINDOWS based application that offers a new graphical user interface with new utilities for preparing and managing population and weather data, and several new decay chains. The program also allows the user to view results before printing. This document describes a test that confirmed CAP88-PC version 2.0 generates results comparable to the original version of the CAP88-PC program

  18. Surface-type nonvolatile electric memory elements based on organic-on-organic CuPc-H2Pc heterojunction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karimov, Khasan S.; Muqeet Rehman, M.; Zameer Abbas, S.; Ahmad, Zubair; Touati, Farid; Mahroof-Tahir, M.

    2015-01-01

    A novel surface-type nonvolatile electric memory elements based on organic semiconductors CuPc and H 2 Pc are fabricated by vacuum deposition of the CuPc and H 2 Pc films on preliminary deposited metallic (Ag and Cu) electrodes. The gap between Ag and Cu electrodes is 30–40 μm. For the current–voltage (I–V) characteristics the memory effect, switching effect, and negative differential resistance regions are observed. The switching mechanism is attributed to the electric-field-induced charge transfer. As a result the device switches from a low to a high-conductivity state and then back to a low conductivity state if the opposite polarity voltage is applied. The ratio of resistance at the high resistance state to that at the low resistance state is equal to 120–150. Under the switching condition, the electric current increases ∼ 80–100 times. A comparison between the forward and reverse I–V characteristics shows the presence of rectifying behavior. (paper)

  19. Implementation of the SCDAP/RELAP5 Mod. 3.3 and MAAP/VVER codes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duspiva, J.; Vokac, P.; Dienstbier, J.

    2001-05-01

    The SR5 code was installed on a Hewlett/Packard workstation, and test problems, supplied with the software, were solved. Finally, the tool for graphical processing of the calculation results was prepared and tested. The MAAP/VVER code was installed on a HP J210 workstation and, in particular, on PC. The code was tested on two problems, supplied with the software. The transformation of the output from MAAP/VVER to the graphical format was carried out by using the support tools obtained as well as by using tools that have been in use at the Institute for other codes to analyze severe accidents. (P.A.)

  20. ENDF utility codes release 6.10. Description and operating instructions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dunford, C.L.

    1995-01-01

    Description and operating instructions are given for a package of utility codes operating on evaluated nuclear data files in the formats ENDF-6 (and ENDF-5). Included are the data checking codes CHECKER, FIZCON, PSYCHE; the code INTER for retrieving thermal cross-sections and some other data; graphical plotting subroutines PLOTEF, GRALIB, INTLIB; and the file maintenance and retrieval codes LISTEF, SETMDC, GETMAT, STANEF. This program package which is designed for CDC, IBM, DEC and PC computers, can be obtained on magnetic tape or floppy diskette, free of charge, from the IAEA Nuclear Data Section. (author)

  1. Code for calculation of spreading of radioactivity in reactor containment systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vertes, P.

    1992-09-01

    A detailed description of the new version of TIBSO code is given, with applications for accident analysis in a reactor containment system. The TIBSO code can follow the nuclear transition and the spatial migration of radioactive materials. The modelling of such processes is established in a very flexible way enabling the user to investigate a wide range of problems. The TIBSO code system is described in detail, taking into account the new developments since 1983. Most changes improve the capabilities of the code. The new version of TIBSO system is written in FORTRAN-77 and can be operated both under VAX VMS and PC DOS. (author) 5 refs.; 3 figs.; 21 tabs

  2. Overexpression of 15-lipoxygenase-1 in PC-3 human prostate cancer cells increases tumorigenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelavkar, U P; Nixon, J B; Cohen, C; Dillehay, D; Eling, T E; Badr, K F

    2001-11-01

    The effect of overexpression of 15-lipoxygenase-1 (15-LO-1) was studied in the human prostate cancer cell line, PC-3. Stable PC-3 cell lines were generated by transfection with 15-LO-1-sense (15-LOS), 15-LO-1-antisense (15-LOAS) or vector (Zeo) and selection with Zeocin. After characterization by RT-PCR, western and HPLC, a PC3-15LOS clone was selected that possessed 10-fold 15-LO-1 enzyme activity compared with parental PC-3 cells. The PC3-15LOAS clone displayed little or no 15-LO-1 activity. These PC-3 cell lines were characterized for properties of tumorigenesis. The proliferation rates of the cell lines were as follows: PC3-15LOS > PC-3 = PC3-Zeo > PC3-15LOAS. Addition of a specific 15-LO-1 inhibitor, PD146176, caused a dose-dependent inhibition of proliferation in vitro. Overexpression of 15-LO-1 also caused [(3)H]thymidine incorporation to increase by 4.0-fold (P < 0.01). Compared with parental and PC-3-Zeo cells, PC3-15LOS enhanced whereas PC3-15LOAS reduced the ability of PC-3 cells to grow in an anchorage-independent manner, as assessed by colony formation in soft agar. These data suggested a pro-tumorigenic role for 15-LO-1 in PC-3 cells in vitro. Therefore, to clarify the role of 15-LO-1 in vivo, the effect of 15-LO-1 expression on the growth of tumors in nude mice was investigated. The PC-3 cell lines were inoculated subcutaneously into athymic nude mice. The frequency of tumor formation was increased and the sizes of the tumors formed were much larger in the PC3-15LOS compared with PC3-15LOAS, parental PC-3 and PC-3-Zeo cells. Immunohistochemistry for 15-LO-1 confirmed expression throughout the duration of the experiment. The expression of factor VIII, an angiogenesis marker, in tumor sections was increased in tumors derived from PC3-15LOS cells and decreased in those from PC3-15LOAS cells compared with tumors from parental or Zeo cells. These data further supported the evaluation by ELISA of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) secretion by PC-3

  3. Software Certification - Coding, Code, and Coders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Havelund, Klaus; Holzmann, Gerard J.

    2011-01-01

    We describe a certification approach for software development that has been adopted at our organization. JPL develops robotic spacecraft for the exploration of the solar system. The flight software that controls these spacecraft is considered to be mission critical. We argue that the goal of a software certification process cannot be the development of "perfect" software, i.e., software that can be formally proven to be correct under all imaginable and unimaginable circumstances. More realistically, the goal is to guarantee a software development process that is conducted by knowledgeable engineers, who follow generally accepted procedures to control known risks, while meeting agreed upon standards of workmanship. We target three specific issues that must be addressed in such a certification procedure: the coding process, the code that is developed, and the skills of the coders. The coding process is driven by standards (e.g., a coding standard) and tools. The code is mechanically checked against the standard with the help of state-of-the-art static source code analyzers. The coders, finally, are certified in on-site training courses that include formal exams.

  4. Tokamak plasma power balance calculation code (TPC code) outline and operation manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujieda, Hirobumi; Murakami, Yoshiki; Sugihara, Masayoshi.

    1992-11-01

    This report is a detailed description on the TPC code, that calculates the power balance of a tokamak plasma according to the ITER guidelines. The TPC code works on a personal computer (Macintosh or J-3100/ IBM-PC). Using input data such as the plasma shape, toroidal magnetic field, plasma current, electron temperature, electron density, impurities and heating power, TPC code can determine the operation point of the fusion reactor (Ion temperature is assumed to be equal to the electron temperature). Supplied flux (Volt · sec) and burn time are also estimated by coil design parameters. Calculated energy confinement time is compared with various L-mode scaling laws and the confinement enhancement factor (H-factor) is evaluated. Divertor heat load is predicted by using simple scaling models (constant-χ, Bohm-type-χ and JT-60U empirical scaling models). Frequently used data can be stored in a 'device file' and used as the default values. TPC code can generate 2-D mesh data and the POPCON plot is drawn by a contour line plotting program (CONPLT). The operation manual about CONPLT code is also described. (author)

  5. COMPUTATION FORMAT computer codes X4TOC4 and PLOTC4. Implementing and Testing on a Personal Computer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McLaughlin, P.K.

    1987-05-01

    This document describes the contents of the diskette containing the COMPUTATION FORMAT codes X4TOC4 and PLOTC4 by D.E. Cullen, and example data for use in implementing and testing these codes on a Personal Computer of the type IBM-PC/AT. Upon request the codes are available from the IAEA Nuclear Data Section, free of charge, on a single diskette. (author)

  6. Prostate carcinoma (PC) - an organ-related specific pathological neoplasm; Prostatakarzinom (PC) - eine organspezifische Neoplasie aus der Sicht der Pathologie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Massmann, J.; Funk, A. [Gemeinschaftspraxis Pathologie Massmann-Funk-Dettmar, Muenchen (Germany); Altwein, J. [Krankenhaus der Barmherzigen Brueder, Muenchen (Germany); Praetorius, M.

    2003-06-01

    The organ- and tumour-related specific characteristics of prostate carcinoma (PC) are presented in an overview under various aspects. It is the key for understanding pathological changes, including PC, to consider the subdivision of the prostate into anatomically and functionally distinguishable zones, especially the transitional zone (TZ) and the peripheral zone (PZ). The pseudoneoplastic hyperplasia of the TZ, combined with inflammatory consequences and age-related changes, forms a differential diagnostic challenge to both clinico-radiological diagnosis and macroscopic and microscopic examination. High-degree prostatic intra-epithelial neoplasia (PIN III) and atypical adenomatous hyperplasia (AAH) are presented as precursor lesions of PC with varying significance and assessment. Moreover, there are discussed the following characteristic features of PC: localisation types, focality, volume, progression, double-graduation according to Gleason, tumour stage, and prognosis. The most important prognosis factors of PC (category I) include the categories of the TNM system, such as stage, surgical marginal situation, degree and also the preoperative PSA level as a (poor) substitute for the tumour volume. Potential prognosis parameters (category II) show the tumour volume and the DNS ploidy, while there continues to exist a large number of non-established parameters (category III). The prognostic validity of the pathological examinations depends, on the one hand, on the tissue extent (needle biopsy, transurethral resection (TURP), so-called simple prostatectomy, radical prostatectomy (RPE)) and the prostate zones covered. On the other hand, the prognostic certainty also depends on the tumour-adequate macroscopic and microscopic assessment of an RPE that can only be a partial or complete handling in transversal large-area sections. (orig.) [German] Die organ- und tumorspezifischen Besonderheiten des Prostatakarzinoms (PC) werden in einer Uebersicht unter verschiedenen

  7. CARES/PC - CERAMICS ANALYSIS AND RELIABILITY EVALUATION OF STRUCTURES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szatmary, S. A.

    1994-01-01

    The beneficial properties of structural ceramics include their high-temperature strength, light weight, hardness, and corrosion and oxidation resistance. For advanced heat engines, ceramics have demonstrated functional abilities at temperatures well beyond the operational limits of metals. This is offset by the fact that ceramic materials tend to be brittle. When a load is applied, their lack of significant plastic deformation causes the material to crack at microscopic flaws, destroying the component. CARES/PC performs statistical analysis of data obtained from the fracture of simple, uniaxial tensile or flexural specimens and estimates the Weibull and Batdorf material parameters from this data. CARES/PC is a subset of the program CARES (COSMIC program number LEW-15168) which calculates the fast-fracture reliability or failure probability of ceramic components utilizing the Batdorf and Weibull models to describe the effects of multi-axial stress states on material strength. CARES additionally requires that the ceramic structure be modeled by a finite element program such as MSC/NASTRAN or ANSYS. The more limited CARES/PC does not perform fast-fracture reliability estimation of components. CARES/PC estimates ceramic material properties from uniaxial tensile or from three- and four-point bend bar data. In general, the parameters are obtained from the fracture stresses of many specimens (30 or more are recommended) whose geometry and loading configurations are held constant. Parameter estimation can be performed for single or multiple failure modes by using the least-squares analysis or the maximum likelihood method. Kolmogorov-Smirnov and Anderson-Darling goodness-of-fit tests measure the accuracy of the hypothesis that the fracture data comes from a population with a distribution specified by the estimated Weibull parameters. Ninety-percent confidence intervals on the Weibull parameters and the unbiased value of the shape parameter for complete samples are provided

  8. METHANE de-NOX for Utility PC Boilers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruce Bryan; Serguei Nester; Joseph Rabovitser; Stan Wohadlo

    2005-09-30

    The overall project objective is the development and validation of an innovative combustion system, based on a novel coal preheating concept prior to combustion, that can reduce NO{sub x} emissions to 0.15 lb/million Btu or less on utility pulverized coal (PC) boilers. This NO{sub x} reduction should be achieved without loss of boiler efficiency or operating stability, and at more than 25% lower levelized cost than state-of-the-art SCR technology. A further objective is to ready technology for full-scale commercial deployment to meet the market demand for NO{sub x} reduction technologies. Over half of the electric power generated in the U.S. is produced by coal combustion, and more than 80% of these units utilize PC combustion technology. Conventional measures for NOx reduction in PC combustion processes rely on combustion and post-combustion modifications. A variety of combustion-based NO{sub x} reduction technologies are in use today, including low-NO{sub x} burners (LNBs), flue gas recirculation (FGR), air staging, and natural gas or other fuel reburning. Selective non-catalytic reduction (SNCR) and selective catalytic reduction (SCR) are post-combustion techniques. NO{sub x} reduction effectiveness from these technologies ranges from 30 to 60% and up to 90-93% for SCR. Typically, older wall-fired PC burner units produce NO{sub x} emissions in the range of 0.8-1.6 lb/million Btu. Low-NO{sub x} burner systems, using combinations of fuel staging within the burner and air staging by introduction of overfire air in the boiler, can reduce NO{sub x} emissions by 50-60%. This approach alone is not sufficient to meet the desired 0.15 lb/million Btu NO{sub x} standard with a range of coals and boiler loads. Furthermore, the heavy reliance on overfire air can lead to increased slagging and corrosion in furnaces, particularly with higher-sulfur coals, when LNBs are operated at sub-stoichiometric conditions to reduce fuel-derived NOx in the flame. Therefore, it is desirable

  9. The network code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    The Network Code defines the rights and responsibilities of all users of the natural gas transportation system in the liberalised gas industry in the United Kingdom. This report describes the operation of the Code, what it means, how it works and its implications for the various participants in the industry. The topics covered are: development of the competitive gas market in the UK; key points in the Code; gas transportation charging; impact of the Code on producers upstream; impact on shippers; gas storage; supply point administration; impact of the Code on end users; the future. (20 tables; 33 figures) (UK)

  10. Coding for Electronic Mail

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, R. F.; Lee, J. J.

    1986-01-01

    Scheme for coding facsimile messages promises to reduce data transmission requirements to one-tenth current level. Coding scheme paves way for true electronic mail in which handwritten, typed, or printed messages or diagrams sent virtually instantaneously - between buildings or between continents. Scheme, called Universal System for Efficient Electronic Mail (USEEM), uses unsupervised character recognition and adaptive noiseless coding of text. Image quality of resulting delivered messages improved over messages transmitted by conventional coding. Coding scheme compatible with direct-entry electronic mail as well as facsimile reproduction. Text transmitted in this scheme automatically translated to word-processor form.

  11. NAGRADATA. Code key. Geology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueller, W.H.; Schneider, B.; Staeuble, J.

    1984-01-01

    This reference manual provides users of the NAGRADATA system with comprehensive keys to the coding/decoding of geological and technical information to be stored in or retreaved from the databank. Emphasis has been placed on input data coding. When data is retreaved the translation into plain language of stored coded information is done automatically by computer. Three keys each, list the complete set of currently defined codes for the NAGRADATA system, namely codes with appropriate definitions, arranged: 1. according to subject matter (thematically) 2. the codes listed alphabetically and 3. the definitions listed alphabetically. Additional explanation is provided for the proper application of the codes and the logic behind the creation of new codes to be used within the NAGRADATA system. NAGRADATA makes use of codes instead of plain language for data storage; this offers the following advantages: speed of data processing, mainly data retrieval, economies of storage memory requirements, the standardisation of terminology. The nature of this thesaurian type 'key to codes' makes it impossible to either establish a final form or to cover the entire spectrum of requirements. Therefore, this first issue of codes to NAGRADATA must be considered to represent the current state of progress of a living system and future editions will be issued in a loose leave ringbook system which can be updated by an organised (updating) service. (author)

  12. XSOR codes users manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jow, Hong-Nian; Murfin, W.B.; Johnson, J.D.

    1993-11-01

    This report describes the source term estimation codes, XSORs. The codes are written for three pressurized water reactors (Surry, Sequoyah, and Zion) and two boiling water reactors (Peach Bottom and Grand Gulf). The ensemble of codes has been named ''XSOR''. The purpose of XSOR codes is to estimate the source terms which would be released to the atmosphere in severe accidents. A source term includes the release fractions of several radionuclide groups, the timing and duration of releases, the rates of energy release, and the elevation of releases. The codes have been developed by Sandia National Laboratories for the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) in support of the NUREG-1150 program. The XSOR codes are fast running parametric codes and are used as surrogates for detailed mechanistic codes. The XSOR codes also provide the capability to explore the phenomena and their uncertainty which are not currently modeled by the mechanistic codes. The uncertainty distributions of input parameters may be used by an. XSOR code to estimate the uncertainty of source terms

  13. Reactor lattice codes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kulikowska, T.

    1999-01-01

    The present lecture has a main goal to show how the transport lattice calculations are realised in a standard computer code. This is illustrated on the example of the WIMSD code, belonging to the most popular tools for reactor calculations. Most of the approaches discussed here can be easily modified to any other lattice code. The description of the code assumes the basic knowledge of reactor lattice, on the level given in the lecture on 'Reactor lattice transport calculations'. For more advanced explanation of the WIMSD code the reader is directed to the detailed descriptions of the code cited in References. The discussion of the methods and models included in the code is followed by the generally used homogenisation procedure and several numerical examples of discrepancies in calculated multiplication factors based on different sources of library data. (author)

  14. DLLExternalCode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2014-05-14

    DLLExternalCode is the a general dynamic-link library (DLL) interface for linking GoldSim (www.goldsim.com) with external codes. The overall concept is to use GoldSim as top level modeling software with interfaces to external codes for specific calculations. The DLLExternalCode DLL that performs the linking function is designed to take a list of code inputs from GoldSim, create an input file for the external application, run the external code, and return a list of outputs, read from files created by the external application, back to GoldSim. Instructions for creating the input file, running the external code, and reading the output are contained in an instructions file that is read and interpreted by the DLL.

  15. CLIPS 6.0 - C LANGUAGE INTEGRATED PRODUCTION SYSTEM, VERSION 6.0 (IBM PC VERSION)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donnell, B.

    1994-01-01

    COOL (that is, a rule can pattern match on objects created using COOL). CLIPS 6.0 provides the capability to define functions, overloaded functions, and global variables interactively. In addition, CLIPS can be embedded within procedural code, called as a subroutine, and integrated with languages such as C, FORTRAN and Ada. CLIPS can be easily extended by a user through the use of several well-defined protocols. CLIPS provides several delivery options for programs including the ability to generate stand alone executables or to load programs from text or binary files. CLIPS 6.0 provides support for the modular development and execution of knowledge bases with the defmodule construct. CLIPS modules allow a set of constructs to be grouped together such that explicit control can be maintained over restricting the access of the constructs by other modules. This type of control is similar to global and local scoping used in languages such as C or Ada. By restricting access to deftemplate and defclass constructs, modules can function as blackboards, permitting only certain facts and instances to be seen by other modules. Modules are also used by rules to provide execution control. The CRSV (Cross-Reference, Style, and Verification) utility included with previous version of CLIPS is no longer supported. The capabilities provided by this tool are now available directly within CLIPS 6.0 to aid in the development, debugging, and verification of large rule bases. COSMIC offers four distribution versions of CLIPS 6.0: UNIX (MSC-22433), VMS (MSC-22434), MACINTOSH (MSC-22429), and IBM PC (MSC-22430). Executable files, source code, utilities, documentation, and examples are included on the program media. All distribution versions include identical source code for the command line version of CLIPS 6.0. This source code should compile on any platform with an ANSI C compiler. Each distribution version of CLIPS 6.0, except that for the Macintosh platform, includes an executable for the

  16. Calculation of criticality of the AP600 reactor with KENO V.a code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krumbein, A; Caner, M; Shapira, M [Israel Atomic Energy Commission, Yavne (Israel). Soreq Nuclear Research Center

    1996-12-01

    The Westinghouse AP600 PWR has been modeled using the KENO V.a three dimensional Monte Carlo criticality program of the SCALE-PC code system. These calculations and the use of a Monte Carlo neutron transport code such as KENO will provide us with an independent check on our WIMS/CITATION calculations for the AP600 as well as for other reactors. It will also enable us to model more complicated geometries. (authors).

  17. Computer codes for level 1 probabilistic safety assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-06-01

    Probabilistic Safety Assessment (PSA) entails several laborious tasks suitable for computer codes assistance. This guide identifies these tasks, presents guidelines for selecting and utilizing computer codes in the conduct of the PSA tasks and for the use of PSA results in safety management and provides information on available codes suggested or applied in performing PSA in nuclear power plants. The guidance is intended for use by nuclear power plant system engineers, safety and operating personnel, and regulators. Large efforts are made today to provide PC-based software systems and PSA processed information in a way to enable their use as a safety management tool by the nuclear power plant overall management. Guidelines on the characteristics of software needed for management to prepare a software that meets their specific needs are also provided. Most of these computer codes are also applicable for PSA of other industrial facilities. The scope of this document is limited to computer codes used for the treatment of internal events. It does not address other codes available mainly for the analysis of external events (e.g. seismic analysis) flood and fire analysis. Codes discussed in the document are those used for probabilistic rather than for phenomenological modelling. It should be also appreciated that these guidelines are not intended to lead the user to selection of one specific code. They provide simply criteria for the selection. Refs and tabs

  18. Electronic transitions and band offsets in C60:SubPc and C60:MgPc on MoO3 studied by modulated surface photovoltage spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fengler, S.; Dittrich, Th.; Rusu, M.

    2015-01-01

    Electronic transitions at interfaces between MoO 3 layers and organic layers of C 60 , SubPc, MgPc, and nano-composite layers of SubPc:C 60 and MgPc:C 60 have been studied by modulated surface photovoltage (SPV) spectroscopy. For all systems, time dependent and modulated SPV signals pointed to dissociation of excitons at the MoO 3 /organic layer interfaces with a separation of holes towards MoO 3 . The highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO)-lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (LUMO) gaps (E HL ) of C 60 , SubPc, and MgPc and the effective E HL of SubPc:C 60 and MgPc:C 60 were measured. The offsets between the LUMO (ΔE L ) or HOMO (ΔE H ) bands were obtained with high precision and amounted to 0.33 or 0.73 eV for SubPc:C 60 , respectively, and to −0.33 or 0.67 eV for MgPc:C 60 , respectively. Exponential tails below E HL and most pronounced sub-bandgap transitions were characterized and ascribed to disorder and transitions from HOMO bands to unoccupied defect states

  19. Effects of P/Ni ratio and Ni content on performance of γ-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}-supported nickel phosphides for deoxygenation of methyl laurate to hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Zhena; Tang, Mingxiao; Chen, Jixiang, E-mail: jxchen@tju.edu.cn

    2016-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • The formation of AlPO{sub 4} was unfavorable for that of nickel phosphides. • The phase compositions of nickel phosphide depended on the amount of reduced P. • Catalytic activity was determined by surface Ni site density and catalyst acidity. • HDO pathway was promoted by increasing P/Ni ratio and Ni content. • Nickel phosphide gave much higher carbon yield and lower H{sub 2} consumption than Ni. - Abstract: γ-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}-supported nickel phosphides (mNi-Pn) were prepared by the TPR method and tested for the deoxygenation of methyl laurate to hydrocarbons. The effects of the P/Ni ratio (n = 1.0–2.5) and Ni content (m = 5–15 wt.%) in the precursors on their structure and performance were investigated. Ni/γ-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} was also studied for comparison. It was found that the formation of AlPO{sub 4} in the precursor inhibited the reduction of phosphate and so the formation of nickel phosphides. With increasing the P/Ni ratio and Ni content, the Ni, Ni{sub 3}P, Ni{sub 12}P{sub 5} and Ni{sub 2}P phases orderly formed, accompanying with the increases of their particle size and the amount of weak acid sites (mainly due to P-OH group), while the CO uptake and the amount of medium strong acid sites (mainly related to Ni sites) reached maximum on 10%Ni-P1.5. In the deoxygenation reaction, compared with Ni/γ-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, the mNi-Pn catalysts showed much lower activities for decarbonylation, C−C hydrogenolysis and methanation due to the ligand and ensemble effects of P. The conversion and the selectivity to n-C11 and n-C12 hydrocarbons achieved maximum on 10%Ni-P 2.0 for the 10%Ni-Pn catalysts and on 8%Ni-P2.0 for the mNi-P2.0 catalysts, while the turnover frequency (TOF) of methyl laurate mainly increased with the P/Ni ratio and Ni content. We propose that TOF was influenced by the nickel phosphide phases, the catalyst acidity and the particle size as well as the synergetic effect between the Ni site and

  20. Conversion of a mainframe simulation for maintenance performance to a PC environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gertman, D.I.

    1991-01-01

    A computer-based simulation capable of generating human error probabilities (HEPs) for maintenance activities is presented. The HEPs are suitable for use in probabilistic risk assessments (PRAs) and are an important source of information for data management systems such as NUCLARR- the Nuclear Computerized Library for Assessing Reactor Reliability. (1) The basic computer model MAPPS--the maintenance personnel performance simulation has been developed and validated by the US NRC in order to improve maintenance practices and procedures at nuclear power plants. This model validated previously, has now been implemented and improved, in a PC environment, and renamed MicroMAPPS. The model is stochastically based, able to simulate the performance of 2 to 15 person crews for a variety of maintenance conditions. These conditions include aspects of crew actions as potentially influenced by the task, the environment, or characteristics of the personnel involved. The nature of the software code makes it particularly appropriate for determining changes in HEP rates due to fluctuations in important task, environment,. or personnel parameters. The presentation presents a brief review of the mainframe version of the code and presents a summarization of the enhancements which dramatically change the nature of the human computer interaction

  1. Progress in 3D Space-charge Calculations in the GPT Code

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pöplau, G.; Rienen, van U.; Loos, de M.J.; Geer, van der S.B.

    2004-01-01

    The mesh-based 3D space-charge routine in the GPT (General Particle Tracer, Pulsar Physics) code scales linearly with the number of particles in terms of CPU time and allows a million particles to be tracked on a normal PC. The crucial ingredient of the routine is a non-equidistant multi-grid

  2. Substrate analysis of the Pneumocystis carinii protein kinases PcCbk1 and PcSte20 using yeast proteome microarrays provides a novel method for Pneumocystis signalling biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kottom, Theodore J; Limper, Andrew H

    2011-10-01

    Pneumocystis carinii (Pc) undergoes morphological transitions between cysts and trophic forms. We have previously described two Pc serine/threonine kinases, termed PcCbk1 and PcSte20, with PcSte20 belonging to a family of kinases involved in yeast mating, while PcCbk1 is a member of a group of protein kinases involved in regulation of cell cycle, shape, and proliferation. As Pc remains genetically intractable, knowledge on specific substrates phosphorylated by these kinases remains limited. Utilizing the phylogenetic relatedness of Pc to Saccharomyces cerevisiae, we interrogated a yeast proteome microarray containing >4000 purified protein based peptides, leading to the identification of 18 potential PcCbk1 and 15 PcSte20 substrates (Z-score > 3.0). A number of these potential protein substrates are involved in bud site selection, polarized growth, and response to mating α factor and pseudohyphal and invasive growth. Full-length open reading frames suggested by the PcCbk1 and PcSte20 protoarrays were amplified and expressed. These five proteins were used as substrates for PcCbk1 or PcSte20, with each being highly phosphorylated by the respective kinase. Finally, to demonstrate the utility of this method to identify novel PcCbk1 and PcSte20 substrates, we analysed DNA sequence data from the partially complete Pc genome database and detected partial sequence information of potential PcCbk1 kinase substrates PcPxl1 and PcInt1. We additionally identified the potential PcSte20 kinase substrate PcBdf2. Full-length Pc substrates were cloned and expressed in yeast, and shown to be phosphorylated by the respective Pc kinases. In conclusion, the yeast protein microarray represents a novel crossover technique for identifying unique potential Pc kinase substrates. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. Tablet PC Enabled Body Sensor System for Rural Telehealth Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nitha V. Panicker

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Telehealth systems benefit from the rapid growth of mobile communication technology for measuring physiological signals. Development and validation of a tablet PC enabled noninvasive body sensor system for rural telehealth application are discussed in this paper. This system includes real time continuous collection of physiological parameters (blood pressure, pulse rate, and temperature and fall detection of a patient with the help of a body sensor unit and wireless transmission of the acquired information to a tablet PC handled by the medical staff in a Primary Health Center (PHC. Abnormal conditions are automatically identified and alert messages are given to the medical officer in real time. Clinical validation is performed in a real environment and found to be successful. Bland-Altman analysis is carried out to validate the wrist blood pressure sensor used. The system works well for all measurements.

  4. PC communication world and Yiyagi 5.3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-11-01

    This book is comprised of four parts about Yiyagi 5.3. It describes how to use Yiyagi 5.3 : the way to save 5.3 into floppy disk and Hard disk, to store modem, how to communicate with Hitel and PC-serve in the first part, how to use the various function : function key, control key, alt key, text editor of Yiyagi 5.3 and mouse in the second part, to be good at using communication : Modem, screen control, RS-232C and Null Modem, script and Multitasking in the third part. It has an appendix about compression and decompression of file, BBS list, PC application such as VGA graphic, UNIX/ XENIX and DOS, RS-232C and Modem and GR.exe.

  5. Pocket PC-based portable gamma-ray spectrometer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamontip Ploykrachang

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available A portable gamma-ray spectrometer based on a Pocket PC has been developed. A 12-bit pipeline analog-to-digitalconverter (ADC associated with an implemented pulse height histogram function on field programmable gate array (FPGAoperating at 15 MHz is employed for pulse height analysis from built-in pulse amplifier. The system, which interfaces withthe Pocket PC via an enhanced RS-232 serial port under the microcontroller facilitation, is utilized for spectrum acquisition,display and analysis. The pulse height analysis capability of the system was tested and it was found that the ADC integralnonlinearity of ±0.45% was obtained with the throughput rate at 160 kcps. The overall system performance was tested usinga PIN photodiode-CsI(Tl crystal coupled scintillation detector and gamma standard radioactive sources of Cs-137 andCo-60. Low cost and the compact system size as a result of the implemented logical function are also discussed.

  6. PC analysis of stochastic differential equations driven by Wiener noise

    KAUST Repository

    Le Maitre, Olivier

    2015-03-01

    A polynomial chaos (PC) analysis with stochastic expansion coefficients is proposed for stochastic differential equations driven by additive or multiplicative Wiener noise. It is shown that for this setting, a Galerkin formalism naturally leads to the definition of a hierarchy of stochastic differential equations governing the evolution of the PC modes. Under the mild assumption that the Wiener and uncertain parameters can be treated as independent random variables, it is also shown that the Galerkin formalism naturally separates parametric uncertainty and stochastic forcing dependences. This enables us to perform an orthogonal decomposition of the process variance, and consequently identify contributions arising from the uncertainty in parameters, the stochastic forcing, and a coupled term. Insight gained from this decomposition is illustrated in light of implementation to simplified linear and non-linear problems; the case of a stochastic bifurcation is also considered.

  7. CuPc/C60 heterojunction thin film optoelectronic devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murtaza, Imran; Karimov, Khasan S.; Qazi, Ibrahim

    2010-01-01

    The optoelectronic properties of heterojunction thin film devices with ITO/CuPc/C 60 /Al structure have been investigated by analyzing their current-voltage characteristics, optical absorption and photocurrent. In this organic photovoltaic device, CuPc acts as an optically active layer, C 60 as an electron-transporting layer and ITO and Al as electrodes. It is observed that, under illumination, excitons are formed, which subsequently drift towards the interface with C 60 , where an internal electric field is present. The excitons that reach the interface are subsequently dissociated into free charge carriers due to the electric field present at the interface. The experimental results show that in this device the total current density is a function of injected carriers at the electrode-organic semiconductor surface, the leakage current through the organic layer and collected photogenerated current that results from the effective dissociation of excitons. (semiconductor devices)

  8. Radioimmunoassay data processing program for IBM PC computers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-06-01

    The Medical Applications Section of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) has previously developed several programs for use on the Hewlett-Packard HP-41C programmable calculator to facilitate better quality control in radioimmunoassay through improved data processing. The program described in this document is designed for off-line analysis using an IBM PC (or compatible) for counting data from standards and unknown specimens (i.e. for analysis of counting data previously recorded by a counter), together with internal quality control (IQC) data both within and between batch. The greater computing power of the IBM PC has enabled the imprecision profile and IQC control curves which were unavailable on the HP-41C version. It is intended that the program would make available good data processing capability to laboratories having limited financial resources and serious problems of quality control. 3 refs

  9. EZVIDEO, DISSPLA Graphics Software Simulation on IBM PC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    1 - Description of program or function: EZVIDEO simulates a subset of the DISSPLA plotting package to make plots on the IBM PC screen. Screen dumps can also be made to an attached LaserJet or Epson printer to make hard copy without using terminal emulators. The forerunner of EZVIDEO was called EZPLOT. 2 - Method of solution: The subroutines in the EZVIDEO system are based on the Hewlett Packard HP 9000 simulation of DISSPLA. These routines manipulate the pen movements on the screen and are also capable of capturing these same movements so that a hardcopy can be made to dot matrix or laser printer. 3 - Restrictions on the complexity of the problem: For plotting on the IBM PC, the plotting emulator PCPLOT is needed

  10. Flexible missile autopilot design studies with PC-MATLAB/386

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruth, Michael J.

    1989-01-01

    Development of a responsive, high-bandwidth missile autopilot for airframes which have structural modes of unusually low frequency presents a challenging design task. Such systems are viable candidates for modern, state-space control design methods. The PC-MATLAB interactive software package provides an environment well-suited to the development of candidate linear control laws for flexible missile autopilots. The strengths of MATLAB include: (1) exceptionally high speed (MATLAB's version for 80386-based PC's offers benchmarks approaching minicomputer and mainframe performance); (2) ability to handle large design models of several hundred degrees of freedom, if necessary; and (3) broad extensibility through user-defined functions. To characterize MATLAB capabilities, a simplified design example is presented. This involves interactive definition of an observer-based state-space compensator for a flexible missile autopilot design task. MATLAB capabilities and limitations, in the context of this design task, are then summarized.

  11. Introduction of the EISA-PC into existing fusion experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tenten, W.; Bertschinger, G.; Mueller, K.D.; Reinhart, P.; Rongen, F.

    1995-01-01

    A general problem in the data acquisition field in fusion research is the lack of sufficient local memory for the storage of information acquired during a single discharge. While it is absolutely necessary to keep these data locally before transferring them to a central node, there has been a steadily increasing demand for more capacity. The introduction of an EISA-Personal-Computer with its vast and cheap memory resources is presenting a very interesting solution for the upgrade of existing installations and the design of new experiments. An innovative PC interface using Programmable Logic techniques was developed that allows easy and fast integration of a PC into an existing experimental setup. Several typical applications of this method are presented, that are of special interest for fusion experiments. (orig.)

  12. A PC based control system for the CERN ISOLDE separators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Billinge, R.; Bret, A.; Deloose, I.; Pace, A.; Shering, G.

    1992-01-01

    The control system of the two isotope separators of CERN, named ISOLDE, is being completely redesigned with the goal of having a flexible, high performance and inexpensive system. A new architecture that makes heavy use of the commercial software and hardware available for the huge Personal Computer (PC) market is being implemented on the 1700 geographically distributed control channels of the separators. 8 MS-DOS TM i386-based PCs with about 80 acquisition/control boards are used to access the equipments while 3 other PCs running Microsoft Windows TM and Microsoft Excel TM are used as consoles, the whole through a Novell TM Local Area Network with a PC Disk Server used as a database. This paper describes the interesting solutions found and discusses the reduced programming work load and costs that are expected to build the system before the start of the separators in March 1992. (author)

  13. Metal Detector By Using PIC Microcontroller Interfacing With PC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yin Min Theint

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This system proposes metal detector by using PIC microcontroller interfacing with PC. The system uses PIC microcontroller as the main controller whether the detected metal is ferrous metal or non-ferrous metal. Among various types of metal sensors and various types of metal detecting technologies concentric type induction coil sensor and VLF very low frequency metal detecting technology are used in this system. This system consists of two configurations Hardware configuration and Software configuration. The hardware components include induction coil sensors which senses the frequency changes of metal a PIC microcontroller personal computer PC buzzer light emitting diode LED and webcam. The software configuration includes a program controller interface. PIC MikroCprogramming language is used to implement the control system. This control system is based on the PIC 16F887 microcontroller.This system is mainly used in mining and high security places such as airport plaza shopping mall and governmental buildings.

  14. Superoxide dismutase in radioresistant PC-3 human prostate carcinoma cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prokopovic, J.; Adzic M; Niciforovic, A.; Vucic, V.; Zaric, B.; Radojcic, M. B.

    2006-01-01

    The molecular mechanism of gamma-ionizing radiation (IR) resistance of human prostate cancer cells PC-3 is not known. Since low-LET-IR effects are primarily achieved through generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), IR-induced expression of ROS-metabolizing antioxidant enzymes, Mn- and CuZn-superoxide dismutase (Mn- and CuZnSOD) and catalase (CAT), and their upstream regulator transcription factor NFκB was followed. Significant elevation of both SODs was found in cells irradiated with 10- and 20 Gy, while CAT and NFκB expression was unchanged. Since, such conditions lead to accumulation of H 2 O 2 , it is concluded that radioresistance of PC-3 cells may emerge from positive feed-forward vicious circle established between H 2 O 2 activation of NFκB and elevated MnSOD activity. (author)

  15. Toward the optimization of PC-based training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Kohei; Murai, Shunji

    Since 1992, the National Space Development Agency of Japan (NASDA) and the Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific (ESCAP) have been co-organising the Regional Remote Sensing Seminar on Tropical Ecosystem Management (Program Chairman: Prof. Shunji Murai) every year in some country in Asia. In these seminars, the members of the ISPRS Working Group VI/2 'Computer Assisted Teaching' have been performing a PC-based hands-on-training on remote sensing and GIS for beginners. The main objective of the training was to transfer not only knowledge but also the technology of remote sensing and GIS to the beginners. The software and CD-ROM data set provided at the training were well designed not only for training but also for practical data analysis. This paper presents an outline of the training and discusses the optimisation of PC-based training for remote sensing and GIS.

  16. A embedded Linux system based on PowerPC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ye Mei; Zhao Jingwei; Chu Yuanping

    2006-01-01

    The authors will introduce a Embedded Linux System based on PowerPC as well as the base method on how to establish the system. The goal of the system is to build a test system of VMEbus device. It also can be used to setup the small data acquisition and control system. Two types of compiler are provided by the developer system according to the features of the system and the Power PC. At the top of the article some typical embedded Operation system will be introduced and the features of different system will be provided. And then the method on how to build a embedded Linux system as well as the key technique will be discussed in detail. Finally a successful read-write example will be given based on the test system. (authors)

  17. Kondrashov Gammas. PC database for gamma-rays from radionuclides. Summary documentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lemmel, H.D.

    1996-01-01

    A PC database by V. Kondrashov containing energies and yields of gamma-rays from radionuclides is described. The PC diskette is available from the IAEA Nuclear Data Section, cost free upon request. (author)

  18. Efficient Techniques for Formal Verification of PowerPC 750 Executables, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We will develop an efficient tool for formal verification of PowerPC 750 executables. The PowerPC 750 architecture is used in the radiation-hardened RAD750...

  19. Toric Varieties and Codes, Error-correcting Codes, Quantum Codes, Secret Sharing and Decoding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Johan Peder

    We present toric varieties and associated toric codes and their decoding. Toric codes are applied to construct Linear Secret Sharing Schemes (LSSS) with strong multiplication by the Massey construction. Asymmetric Quantum Codes are obtained from toric codes by the A.R. Calderbank P.W. Shor and A.......M. Steane construction of stabilizer codes (CSS) from linear codes containing their dual codes....

  20. A scalable PC-based parallel computer for lattice QCD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fodor, Z.; Katz, S.D.; Pappa, G.

    2003-01-01

    A PC-based parallel computer for medium/large scale lattice QCD simulations is suggested. The Eoetvoes Univ., Inst. Theor. Phys. cluster consists of 137 Intel P4-1.7GHz nodes. Gigabit Ethernet cards are used for nearest neighbor communication in a two-dimensional mesh. The sustained performance for dynamical staggered (wilson) quarks on large lattices is around 70(110) GFlops. The exceptional price/performance ratio is below $1/Mflop

  1. A scalable PC-based parallel computer for lattice QCD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fodor, Z.; Papp, G.

    2002-09-01

    A PC-based parallel computer for medium/large scale lattice QCD simulations is suggested. The Eoetvoes Univ., Inst. Theor. Phys. cluster consists of 137 Intel P4-1.7 GHz nodes. Gigabit Ethernet cards are used for nearest neighbor communication in a two-dimensional mesh. The sustained performance for dynamical staggered(wilson) quarks on large lattices is around 70(110) GFlops. The exceptional price/performance ratio is below $1/Mflop. (orig.)

  2. Bifenthrin inhibits neurite outgrowth in differentiating PC12 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Van; Hoffman, Natalie; Mofunanaya, Adaobi; Pryor, Stephen C; Ojugbele, Olutosin; McLaughlin, Ashlea; Gibson, Lydia; Bonventre, Josephine A; Flynn, Katherine; Weeks, Benjamin S

    2006-02-01

    Bifenthrin is a third generation member of the synthetic pyrethroid family of insecticides. As a new pesticide within a relatively new class of pesticides, bifenthrin is considered relatively safe. Here, we used the PC12 neuronal cell line to examine the effect of bifenthrin on the formation of neurites and the potential developmental neurotoxicity of this pesticide. PC12 cells were exposed to varying concentrations of technical grade bifenthrin or Ortho Home Defense. Cell viability was determined using the AlmarBlue Toxicity Assay. Nontoxic concentrations of these chemicals were concomitantly with nerve growth factor and neurite outgrowth was assessed. Ortho Home Defense preparation reduced PC12 cell viability by approximately 50% and 70% at dilutions that correlate to bifenthrin concentrations of 10(-5) M and 10(-4) M, respectively. In contrast, technical grade bifenthrin, was not toxic to PC12 cells at 10(-3) M, which was the highest concentration tested that was soluble. At "nontoxic" concentrations of 10(-7) M and 10(-6) M, the Ortho Home Defense inhibited nerve growth factor-mediated neurite outgrowth by 30% and 55% respectively. Furthermore the nontoxic concentrations of technical grade bifenthrin of 10(-6) M and 10(-3) M inhibited neurite outgrowth by approximately 35% and 75% respectively. These data suggest that the toxicity of the Ortho Home Defense preparation was due to the "inert" additives in the preparation and not the bifenthrin itself. Further, these data suggest that, even in the absence of overt toxicity, bifenthrin may have deleterious effects to developing nervous system.

  3. Teaching mathematics in the PC lab - the students' viewpoints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Karsten; Köhler, Anke

    2013-04-01

    The Matrix Algebra portion of the intermediate mathematics course at the Schmalkalden University Faculty of Business and Economics has been moved from a traditional classroom setting to a technology-based setting in the PC lab. A Computer Algebra System license was acquired that also allows its use on the students' own PCs. A survey was carried out to analyse the students' attitudes towards the use of technology in mathematics teaching.

  4. Application of miniature heat pipe for notebook PC cooling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moon, S.H.; Hwang, G.; Choy, T.G. [Electronics and Telecommunications research Institute, Taejeon (Korea)

    2001-06-01

    Miniature heat pipe(MHP) with woven-wired wick was used to cool the CPU of a notebook PC. The pipe with circular cross-section was pressed and bent for packaging the MHP into a notebook PC with very limited compact packaging space. A cross-sectional area of the pipe is reduced about 30% as the MHP with 4 mm diameter is pressed to 2 mm thickness. In the present study a performance test has been performed in order to review varying of operating performance according to pressed thickness variation and heat dissipation capacity of MHP cooling module that is packaged on a notebook PC. New wick type was considered for overcoming low heat transfer limit when MHP is pressed to thin-plate. The limiting thickness of pressing is shown to be within the range of 2 mm {approx} 2.5 mm through the performance test with varying the pressing thickness. When the wall thickness of 0.4 mm is reduced to 0.25 mm for minimizing conductive thermal resistance through the wall of heat pipe, heat transfer limit and thermal resistance of MHP were improved about 10%. In the meantime, it is shown that the thermal resistance and heat transfer limit for the MHP with central wick type are higher than those of MHP with existing wick types. The results of performance test for MHP cooling modules with woven-wired wick to cool notebook PC shows the stability as cooling system since T{sub j}(Temperature of Processor Junction) satisfy a demand condition of 0 {approx} 100 deg.C under 11.5 W of CPU heat. (author). 6 refs., 7 figs.

  5. Falling PC Solitaire Cards: An Open-Inquiry Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez-Espada, Wilson J.

    2012-01-01

    Many of us have played the PC Solitaire game that comes as standard software in many computers. Although I am not a great player, occasionally I win a game or two. The game celebrates my accomplishment by pushing the cards forward, one at a time, falling gracefully in what appears to look like a parabolic path in a drag-free environment. One day,…

  6. Practical Pocket PC Application w/Biometric Security

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logan, Julian

    2004-01-01

    I work in the Flight Software Engineering Branch, where we provide design and development of embedded real-time software applications for flight and supporting ground systems to support the NASA Aeronautics and Space Programs. In addition, this branch evaluates, develops and implements new technologies for embedded real-time systems, and maintains a laboratory for applications of embedded technology. The majority of microchips that are used in modern society have been programmed using embedded technology. These small chips can be found in microwaves, calculators, home security systems, cell phones and more. My assignment this summer entails working with an iPAQ HP 5500 Pocket PC. This top-of-the-line hand-held device is one of the first mobile PC's to introduce biometric security capabilities. Biometric security, in this case a fingerprint authentication system, is on the edge of technology as far as securing information. The benefits of fingerprint authentication are enormous. The most significant of them are that it is extremely difficult to reproduce someone else's fingerprint, and it is equally difficult to lose or forget your own fingerprint as opposed to a password or pin number. One of my goals for this summer is to integrate this technology with another Pocket PC application. The second task for the summer is to develop a simple application that provides an Astronaut EVA (Extravehicular Activity) Log Book capability. The Astronaut EVA Log Book is what an astronaut would use to report the status of field missions, crew physical health, successes, future plans, etc. My goal is to develop a user interface into which these data fields can be entered and stored. The applications that I am developing are created using eMbedded Visual C++ 4.0 with the Pocket PC 2003 Software Development Kit provided by Microsoft.

  7. Quantal release of ATP from clusters of PC12 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabbro, Alessandra; Skorinkin, Andrei; Grandolfo, Micaela; Nistri, Andrea; Giniatullin, Rashid

    2004-10-15

    Although ATP is important for intercellular communication, little is known about the mechanism of endogenous ATP release due to a dearth of suitable models. Using PC12 cells known to express the P2X2 subtype of ATP receptors and to store ATP with catecholamines inside dense-core vesicles, we found that clusters of PC12 cells cultured for 3-7 days generated small transient inward currents (STICs) after an inward current elicited by exogenous ATP. The amplitude of STICs in individual cells correlated with the peak amplitude of ATP-induced currents. STICs appeared as asynchronous responses (approximately 20 pA average amplitude) for 1-20 s and were investigated with a combination of patch clamping, Ca2+ imaging, biochemistry and electron microscopy. Comparable STICs were produced by focal KCl pulses and were dependent on extracellular Ca2+. STICs were abolished by the P2X antagonist PPADS and potentiated by Zn2+, suggesting they were mediated by P2X2 receptor activation. The highest probability of observing STICs was after the peak of intracellular Ca2+ increase caused by KCl. Biochemical measurements indicated that KCl application induced a significant release of ATP from PC12 cells. Electron microscopy studies showed narrow clefts without 'synaptic-like' densities between clustered cells. Our data suggest that STICs were caused by quantal release of endogenous ATP by depolarized PC12 cells in close juxtaposition to the recorded cell. Thus, STICs may be a new experimental model to characterize the physiology of vesicular release of ATP and to study the kinetics and pharmacology of P2X2 receptor-mediated quantal currents.

  8. PCNuDAT a PC Nuclear Data program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kinsey, R.R.

    1998-01-01

    The PC program PCNuDat is described which displays nuclear radioactive decay data and thermal cross section data. It requires 45 Megabytes (reduced version of PCNuDat requires 3 Megabytes) of disc space and can be obtained through Internet FTP or WWW from U.S. Nuclear Data Center or Nuclear Data Section of the IAEA. It can be obtained also on CD-ROM upon request sent to Nuclear Data Section. (author)

  9. Metal Detector By Using PIC Microcontroller Interfacing With PC

    OpenAIRE

    Yin Min Theint; Myo Maung Maung; Hla Myo Tun

    2015-01-01

    Abstract This system proposes metal detector by using PIC microcontroller interfacing with PC. The system uses PIC microcontroller as the main controller whether the detected metal is ferrous metal or non-ferrous metal. Among various types of metal sensors and various types of metal detecting technologies concentric type induction coil sensor and VLF very low frequency metal detecting technology are used in this system. This system consists of two configurations Hardware configuration and Sof...

  10. Program EPICSHOW. A computer code to allow interactive viewing of the EPIC data libraries (Version 98-1). Summary documentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pronyaev, V.G.; McLaughlin, P.K.

    1999-01-01

    EPICSHOW (Electron Photon Interactive Code - Show Data) is an interactive graphics code that allows users to view and interact with neutron, photon, electron and light charged particle data. Besides on screen graphics the code provides hard copy in the form of tabulated listings and Postscript output files. The code has been implemented on UNIX, IBM-PC, Power MAC, and even Laptop computers. It should be relatively easy to use it on almost any computer. All of the data included in this system is based on the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Databases and the neutron and photon data is used in the TART97 Monte Carlo transport code system. (author)

  11. GeP and (Ge1−xSnx)(P1−yGey) (x≈0.12, y≈0.05): Synthesis, structure, and properties of two-dimensional layered tetrel phosphides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Kathleen; Synnestvedt, Sarah; Bellard, Maverick; Kovnir, Kirill

    2015-01-01

    GeP and Sn-doped GeP were synthesized from elements in bismuth and tin flux, respectively. The layered crystal structures of these compounds were characterized by single crystal X-ray diffraction. Both phosphides crystallize in a GaTe structure type in the monoclinic space group C2/m (No. 12) with GeP: a=15.1948(7) Å, b=3.6337(2) Å, c=9.1941(4) Å, β=101.239(2)°; Ge 0.93(3) P 0.95(1) Sn 0.12(3) : a=15.284(9) Å, b=3.622(2) Å, c=9.207(5) Å, β=101.79(1)°. The crystal structure of GeP consists of 2-dimensional GeP layers held together by weak electron lone pair interactions between the phosphorus atoms that confine the layer. Each layer is built of Ge–Ge dumbbells surrounded by a distorted antiprism of phosphorus atoms. Sn-doped GeP has a similar structural motif, but with a significant degree of disorder emphasized by the splitting of all atomic positions. Resistivity measurements together with quantum-chemical calculations reveal semiconducting behavior for the investigated phosphides. - Graphical abstract: Layered phosphides GeP and Sn-doped GeP were synthesized from elements in bismuth and tin flux, respectively. The crystal structure of GeP consists of 2-dimensional GeP layers held together by weak electron lone pair interactions between the phosphorus atoms that confine the layer. Sn-doped GeP has a similar structural motif with a significant degree of disorder emphasized by the splitting of all atomic positions. Resistivity measurements together with quantum-chemical calculations reveal semiconducting behavior for the investigated phosphides. - Highlights: • GeP crystallizes in a layered crystal structure. • Doping of Sn into GeP causes large structural distortions. • GeP is narrow bandgap semiconductor. • Sn-doped GeP exhibits an order of magnitude higher resistivity due to disorder

  12. LACEwING: A New Moving Group Analysis Code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riedel, Adric R. [Department of Astronomy, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Blunt, Sarah C.; Faherty, Jacqueline K. [Department of Astrophysics, American Museum of Natural History, New York, NY 10024 (United States); Lambrides, Erini L. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Rice, Emily L. [Department of Engineering Science and Physics, The College of Staten Island, Staten Island, NY 10314 (United States); Cruz, Kelle L., E-mail: arr@astro.caltech.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Hunter College, New York, NY 10065 (United States)

    2017-03-01

    We present a new nearby young moving group (NYMG) kinematic membership analysis code, LocAting Constituent mEmbers In Nearby Groups (LACEwING), a new Catalog of Suspected Nearby Young Stars, a new list of bona fide members of moving groups, and a kinematic traceback code. LACEwING is a convergence-style algorithm with carefully vetted membership statistics based on a large numerical simulation of the Solar Neighborhood. Given spatial and kinematic information on stars, LACEwING calculates membership probabilities in 13 NYMGs and three open clusters within 100 pc. In addition to describing the inputs, methods, and products of the code, we provide comparisons of LACEwING to other popular kinematic moving group membership identification codes. As a proof of concept, we use LACEwING to reconsider the membership of 930 stellar systems in the Solar Neighborhood (within 100 pc) that have reported measurable lithium equivalent widths. We quantify the evidence in support of a population of young stars not attached to any NYMGs, which is a possible sign of new as-yet-undiscovered groups or of a field population of young stars.

  13. PC based alpha, beta and gamma counting system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhattacharya, S.; Gopalakrishnan, K.R.; Bairi, B.R.

    1992-01-01

    In the field of radiation protection and safety a large number of samples have to be assayed for estimation of their radioactivity at various stages in nuclear fuel. A PC based alpha, beta and gamma counting system has been designed for the above application. The system is fully automatic and requires minimum of operator intervention. The main units in the system are detector and pulse processing electronics, sample changer and assembly and IBM PC interface and supporting software. The main function of interface is to control the sample changer which is basically loading and unloading of sample, data acquisition and further processing by software. The pulses from detector are analysed in a pulse shape discriminator. A pulse identified as an alpha, beta or gamma event is converted to digital pulse. These digital pulses are accumulated in the three channels on PC interface each corresponding to alpha, beta and gamma. The sample movements are controlled by interface depending upon sample position. The software has been developed so as to maintain user friendliness and convenience of the operator. Various selection modes for parameters and operation of system provide lot of flexibility in operation of the system. (author). 1 fig

  14. Tablet PC interaction with digital micromirror device (DMD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Refai, Hakki H.; Dahshan, Mostafa H.; Sluss, James J., Jr.

    2007-02-01

    Digital light processing (DLP) is an innovative display technology that uses an optical switch array, known as a digital micromirror device (DMD), which allows digital control of light. To date, DMDs have been used primarily as high-speed spatial light modulators for projector applications. A tablet PC is a notebook or slate-shaped mobile PC. Its touch screen or digitizing tablet technology allows the user to operate the notebook with a stylus or digital pen instead of using a keyboard or mouse. In this paper, we describe an interface solution that translates any sketch on the tablet PC screen to an identical mirror-copy over the cross-section of the DMD micromirrors such that the image of the sketch can be projected onto a special screen. An algorithm has been created to control each single micromirror of the hundreds of thousands of micromirrors that cover the DMD surface. We demonstrate the successful application of a DMD to a high-speed two-dimensional (2D) scanning environment, acquiring the data from the tablet screen and launching its contents to the projection screen; with very high accuracy up to 13.68 μm x 13.68 μm of mirror pitch.

  15. The reactor physics computer programs in PC's era

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nainer, O.; Serghiuta, D.

    1995-01-01

    The main objective of reactor physics analysis is the evaluation of flux and power distribution over the reactor core. For CANDU reactors sophisticated computer programs, such as FMDP and RFSP, were developed 20 years ago for mainframe computers. These programs were adapted to work on workstations with UNIX or DOS, but they lack a feature that could improve their use and that is 'user friendly'. For using these programs the users need to deal with a great amount of information contained in sophisticated files. To modify a model is a great challenge. First of all, it is necessary to bear in mind all the geometrical dimensions and accordingly, to modify the core model to match the new requirements. All this must be done in a line input file. For a DOS platform, using an average performance PC system, could it be possible: to represent and modify all the geometrical and physical parameters in a meaningful way, on screen, using an intuitive graphic user interface; to reduce the real time elapsed in order to perform complex fuel-management analysis 'at home'; to avoid the rewrite of the mainframe version of the program? The author's answer is a fuel-management computer package operating on PC, 3 time faster than on a CDC-Cyber 830 mainframe one (486DX/33MHz/8MbRAM) or 20 time faster (Pentium-PC), respectively. (author). 5 refs., 1 tab., 5 figs

  16. Feasibility study of BES data processing and physics analysis on a PC/Linux platform

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rong Gang; He Kanglin; Zhao Jiawei; Heng Yuekun; Zhang Chun

    1999-01-01

    The authors report a feasibility study of off-line BES data processing (data reconstruction and Detector simulation) on a PC/Linux platform and an application of the PC/Linux system in D/Ds physics analysis. The authors compared the results obtained from the PC/Linux with that from HP workstation. It shows that PC/Linux platform can do BES data offline analysis as good as UNIX workstation do, but it is much powerful and economical

  17. An Optimal Linear Coding for Index Coding Problem

    OpenAIRE

    Pezeshkpour, Pouya

    2015-01-01

    An optimal linear coding solution for index coding problem is established. Instead of network coding approach by focus on graph theoric and algebraic methods a linear coding program for solving both unicast and groupcast index coding problem is presented. The coding is proved to be the optimal solution from the linear perspective and can be easily utilize for any number of messages. The importance of this work is lying mostly on the usage of the presented coding in the groupcast index coding ...

  18. BAR-MOM code and its application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Shunuan

    2002-01-01

    BAR-MOM code for calculating the height of the fission barrier Bf , the energy of the ground state is presented; the compound nucleus stability by limit with respect to fission, i.e., the angular momentum (the spin value) L max at which the fission barrier disappears, the three principal axis moments of inertia at saddle point for a certain nucleus with atomic number Z, atomic mass number A and angular momentum L in units of ℎ for 19< Z<102, and the model used are introduced briefly. The generalized BAR-MOM code to include the results for Z ≥ 102 by using more recent parameterization of the Thomas Fermi fission barrier is also introduced briefly. We have learned the models used in Code BAR-MOM, and run it successfully and correctly for a certain nucleus with atomic mass number A, atomic number Z, and angular momentum L on PC by Fortran-90. The testing calculation values to check the implementation of the program show that the results of the present work are in good agreement with the original one

  19. The Aesthetics of Coding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Christian Ulrik

    2007-01-01

    Computer art is often associated with computer-generated expressions (digitally manipulated audio/images in music, video, stage design, media facades, etc.). In recent computer art, however, the code-text itself – not the generated output – has become the artwork (Perl Poetry, ASCII Art, obfuscated...... code, etc.). The presentation relates this artistic fascination of code to a media critique expressed by Florian Cramer, claiming that the graphical interface represents a media separation (of text/code and image) causing alienation to the computer’s materiality. Cramer is thus the voice of a new ‘code...... avant-garde’. In line with Cramer, the artists Alex McLean and Adrian Ward (aka Slub) declare: “art-oriented programming needs to acknowledge the conditions of its own making – its poesis.” By analysing the Live Coding performances of Slub (where they program computer music live), the presentation...

  20. Majorana fermion codes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bravyi, Sergey; Terhal, Barbara M; Leemhuis, Bernhard

    2010-01-01

    We initiate the study of Majorana fermion codes (MFCs). These codes can be viewed as extensions of Kitaev's one-dimensional (1D) model of unpaired Majorana fermions in quantum wires to higher spatial dimensions and interacting fermions. The purpose of MFCs is to protect quantum information against low-weight fermionic errors, that is, operators acting on sufficiently small subsets of fermionic modes. We examine to what extent MFCs can surpass qubit stabilizer codes in terms of their stability properties. A general construction of 2D MFCs is proposed that combines topological protection based on a macroscopic code distance with protection based on fermionic parity conservation. Finally, we use MFCs to show how to transform any qubit stabilizer code to a weakly self-dual CSS code.

  1. Theory of epigenetic coding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elder, D

    1984-06-07

    The logic of genetic control of development may be based on a binary epigenetic code. This paper revises the author's previous scheme dealing with the numerology of annelid metamerism in these terms. Certain features of the code had been deduced to be combinatorial, others not. This paradoxical contrast is resolved here by the interpretation that these features relate to different operations of the code; the combinatiorial to coding identity of units, the non-combinatorial to coding production of units. Consideration of a second paradox in the theory of epigenetic coding leads to a new solution which further provides a basis for epimorphic regeneration, and may in particular throw light on the "regeneration-duplication" phenomenon. A possible test of the model is also put forward.

  2. DISP1 code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vokac, P.

    1999-12-01

    DISP1 code is a simple tool for assessment of the dispersion of the fission product cloud escaping from a nuclear power plant after an accident. The code makes it possible to tentatively check the feasibility of calculations by more complex PSA3 codes and/or codes for real-time dispersion calculations. The number of input parameters is reasonably low and the user interface is simple enough to allow a rapid processing of sensitivity analyses. All input data entered through the user interface are stored in the text format. Implementation of dispersion model corrections taken from the ARCON96 code enables the DISP1 code to be employed for assessment of the radiation hazard within the NPP area, in the control room for instance. (P.A.)

  3. The USL NASA PC R and D project: General specifications of objectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dominick, Wayne D. (Editor)

    1984-01-01

    Given here are the general specifications of the objectives of the University of Southwestern Louisiana Data Base Management System (USL/DBMS) NASA PC R and D Project, a project initiated to address future R and D issues related to PC-based processing environments acquired pursuant to the NASA contract work; namely, the IBM PC/XT systems.

  4. File list: InP.Prs.50.AllAg.PC-3 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available InP.Prs.50.AllAg.PC-3 hg19 Input control Prostate PC-3 SRX539667,SRX084520,SRX43319...9,SRX433195,SRX1021636,SRX1021637,SRX181768,SRX540851 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/InP.Prs.50.AllAg.PC-3.bed ...

  5. Multi-satellite study of the excitation of Pc3 and Pc4-5 ULF waves and their penetration across the plasmapause during the 2003 Halloween superstorm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balasis, G.; Daglis, I. A.; Mann, I. R.; Papadimitriou, C.; Zesta, E.; Georgiou, M.; Haagmans, R.; Tsinganos, K.

    2015-10-01

    We use multi-satellite and ground-based magnetic data to investigate the concurrent characteristics of Pc3 (22-100 mHz) and Pc4-5 (1-22 mHz) ultra-low-frequency (ULF) waves on the 31 October 2003 during the Halloween magnetic superstorm. ULF waves are seen in the Earth's magnetosphere, topside ionosphere, and Earth's surface, enabling an examination of their propagation characteristics. We employ a time-frequency analysis technique and examine data from when the Cluster and CHAMP spacecraft were in good local time (LT) conjunction near the dayside noon-midnight meridian. We find clear evidence of the excitation of both Pc3 and Pc4-5 waves, but more significantly we find a clear separation in the L shell of occurrence of the Pc4-5 and Pc3 waves in the equatorial inner magnetosphere, separated by the density gradients at the plasmapause boundary layer. A key finding of the wavelet spectral analysis of data collected from the Geotail, Cluster, and CHAMP spacecraft and the CARISMA and GIMA magnetometer networks was a remarkably clear transition of the waves' frequency into dominance in a higher-frequency regime within the Pc3 range. Analysis of the local field line resonance frequency suggests that the separation of the Pc4-5 and Pc3 emissions across the plasmapause is consistent with the structure of the inhomogeneous field line resonance Alfvén continuum. The Pc4-5 waves are consistent with direct excitation by the solar wind in the plasma trough, as well as Pc3 wave absorption in the plasmasphere following excitation by upstream waves originating at the bow shock in the local noon sector. However, despite good solar wind coverage, our study was not able to unambiguously identify a clear explanation for the sharp universal time (UT) onset of the discrete frequency and large-amplitude Pc3 wave power.

  6. Multi-satellite study of the excitation of Pc3 and Pc4-5 ULF waves and their penetration across the plasmapause during the 2003 Halloween superstorm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Balasis

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available We use multi-satellite and ground-based magnetic data to investigate the concurrent characteristics of Pc3 (22–100 mHz and Pc4-5 (1–22 mHz ultra-low-frequency (ULF waves on the 31 October 2003 during the Halloween magnetic superstorm. ULF waves are seen in the Earth's magnetosphere, topside ionosphere, and Earth's surface, enabling an examination of their propagation characteristics. We employ a time–frequency analysis technique and examine data from when the Cluster and CHAMP spacecraft were in good local time (LT conjunction near the dayside noon–midnight meridian. We find clear evidence of the excitation of both Pc3 and Pc4-5 waves, but more significantly we find a clear separation in the L shell of occurrence of the Pc4-5 and Pc3 waves in the equatorial inner magnetosphere, separated by the density gradients at the plasmapause boundary layer. A key finding of the wavelet spectral analysis of data collected from the Geotail, Cluster, and CHAMP spacecraft and the CARISMA and GIMA magnetometer networks was a remarkably clear transition of the waves' frequency into dominance in a higher-frequency regime within the Pc3 range. Analysis of the local field line resonance frequency suggests that the separation of the Pc4-5 and Pc3 emissions across the plasmapause is consistent with the structure of the inhomogeneous field line resonance Alfvén continuum. The Pc4-5 waves are consistent with direct excitation by the solar wind in the plasma trough, as well as Pc3 wave absorption in the plasmasphere following excitation by upstream waves originating at the bow shock in the local noon sector. However, despite good solar wind coverage, our study was not able to unambiguously identify a clear explanation for the sharp universal time (UT onset of the discrete frequency and large-amplitude Pc3 wave power.

  7. Phonological coding during reading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leinenger, Mallorie

    2014-11-01

    The exact role that phonological coding (the recoding of written, orthographic information into a sound based code) plays during silent reading has been extensively studied for more than a century. Despite the large body of research surrounding the topic, varying theories as to the time course and function of this recoding still exist. The present review synthesizes this body of research, addressing the topics of time course and function in tandem. The varying theories surrounding the function of phonological coding (e.g., that phonological codes aid lexical access, that phonological codes aid comprehension and bolster short-term memory, or that phonological codes are largely epiphenomenal in skilled readers) are first outlined, and the time courses that each maps onto (e.g., that phonological codes come online early [prelexical] or that phonological codes come online late [postlexical]) are discussed. Next the research relevant to each of these proposed functions is reviewed, discussing the varying methodologies that have been used to investigate phonological coding (e.g., response time methods, reading while eye-tracking or recording EEG and MEG, concurrent articulation) and highlighting the advantages and limitations of each with respect to the study of phonological coding. In response to the view that phonological coding is largely epiphenomenal in skilled readers, research on the use of phonological codes in prelingually, profoundly deaf readers is reviewed. Finally, implications for current models of word identification (activation-verification model, Van Orden, 1987; dual-route model, e.g., M. Coltheart, Rastle, Perry, Langdon, & Ziegler, 2001; parallel distributed processing model, Seidenberg & McClelland, 1989) are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved).

  8. The aeroelastic code FLEXLAST

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Visser, B. [Stork Product Eng., Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    1996-09-01

    To support the discussion on aeroelastic codes, a description of the code FLEXLAST was given and experiences within benchmarks and measurement programmes were summarized. The code FLEXLAST has been developed since 1982 at Stork Product Engineering (SPE). Since 1992 FLEXLAST has been used by Dutch industries for wind turbine and rotor design. Based on the comparison with measurements, it can be concluded that the main shortcomings of wind turbine modelling lie in the field of aerodynamics, wind field and wake modelling. (au)

  9. Static and Dynamic Energetic Disorders in the C 60 , PC 61 BM, C 70 , and PC 71 BM Fullerenes

    KAUST Repository

    Tummala, Naga Rajesh

    2015-09-17

    We use a combination of molecular dynamics simulations and density functional theory calculations to investigate the energetic disorder in fullerene systems. We show that the energetic disorder evaluated from an ensemble average contains contributions of both static origin (time-independent, due to loose packing) and dynamic origin (time-dependent, due to electron-vibration interactions). In order to differentiate between these two contributions, we compare the results obtained from an ensemble average approach with those derived from a time average approach. It is found that in both amorphous C60 and C70 bulk systems, the degrees of static and dynamic disorder are comparable, while in the amorphous PC61BM and PC71BM systems, static disorder is about twice as large as dynamic disorder. © 2015 American Chemical Society.

  10. MORSE Monte Carlo code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cramer, S.N.

    1984-01-01

    The MORSE code is a large general-use multigroup Monte Carlo code system. Although no claims can be made regarding its superiority in either theoretical details or Monte Carlo techniques, MORSE has been, since its inception at ORNL in the late 1960s, the most widely used Monte Carlo radiation transport code. The principal reason for this popularity is that MORSE is relatively easy to use, independent of any installation or distribution center, and it can be easily customized to fit almost any specific need. Features of the MORSE code are described

  11. QR codes for dummies

    CERN Document Server

    Waters, Joe

    2012-01-01

    Find out how to effectively create, use, and track QR codes QR (Quick Response) codes are popping up everywhere, and businesses are reaping the rewards. Get in on the action with the no-nonsense advice in this streamlined, portable guide. You'll find out how to get started, plan your strategy, and actually create the codes. Then you'll learn to link codes to mobile-friendly content, track your results, and develop ways to give your customers value that will keep them coming back. It's all presented in the straightforward style you've come to know and love, with a dash of humor thrown

  12. Tokamak Systems Code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reid, R.L.; Barrett, R.J.; Brown, T.G.

    1985-03-01

    The FEDC Tokamak Systems Code calculates tokamak performance, cost, and configuration as a function of plasma engineering parameters. This version of the code models experimental tokamaks. It does not currently consider tokamak configurations that generate electrical power or incorporate breeding blankets. The code has a modular (or subroutine) structure to allow independent modeling for each major tokamak component or system. A primary benefit of modularization is that a component module may be updated without disturbing the remainder of the systems code as long as the imput to or output from the module remains unchanged

  13. Silicon dioxide with a silicon interfacial layer as an insulating gate for highly stable indium phosphide metal-insulator-semiconductor field effect transistors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapoor, V. J.; Shokrani, M.

    1991-01-01

    A novel gate insulator consisting of silicon dioxide (SiO2) with a thin silicon (Si) interfacial layer has been investigated for high-power microwave indium phosphide (InP) metal-insulator-semiconductor field effect transistors (MISFETs). The role of the silicon interfacial layer on the chemical nature of the SiO2/Si/InP interface was studied by high-resolution X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The results indicated that the silicon interfacial layer reacted with the native oxide at the InP surface, thus producing silicon dioxide, while reducing the native oxide which has been shown to be responsible for the instabilities in InP MISFETs. While a 1.2-V hysteresis was present in the capacitance-voltage (C-V) curve of the MIS capacitors with silicon dioxide, less than 0.1 V hysteresis was observed in the C-V curve of the capacitors with the silicon interfacial layer incorporated in the insulator. InP MISFETs fabricated with the silicon dioxide in combination with the silicon interfacial layer exhibited excellent stability with drain current drift of less than 3 percent in 10,000 sec, as compared to 15-18 percent drift in 10,000 sec for devices without the silicon interfacial layer. High-power microwave InP MISFETs with Si/SiO2 gate insulators resulted in an output power density of 1.75 W/mm gate width at 9.7 GHz, with an associated power gain of 2.5 dB and 24 percent power added efficiency.

  14. An overview of the evaluation plan for PC/MISI: PC-based Multiple Information System Interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dominick, Wayne D. (Editor); Lim, Bee Lee; Hall, Philip P.

    1985-01-01

    An initial evaluation plan for the personal computer multiple information system interface (PC/MISI) project is discussed. The document is intend to be used as a blueprint for the evaluation of this system. Each objective of the design project is discussed along with the evaluation parameters and methodology to be used in the evaluation of the implementation's achievement of those objectives. The potential of the system for research activities related to more general aspects of information retrieval is also discussed.

  15. PC-CIMACT. A near real time materials accountancy software package for use on an IBM or compatible PC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, D.E.; Gale, R.

    1990-03-01

    This report describes the 'PC-CIMACT' Near Real Time Materials Accountancy computer package. It has been derived from 'CIMACT', which is in daily use at the UKAEA's Dounreay Nuclear Power Establishment. The scope of the package is presented, together with the statistical analyses it encompasses. Several of the analyses are illustrated by the treatment of data from a simulated reprocessing campaign. A user guide providing detailed instructions is also included. (author)

  16. Ion and solvent diffusion and ion conduction of PC-DEC and PC-DME binary solvent electrolytes of LiN(SO2CF3)2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayamizu, Kikuko; Aihara, Yuichi

    2004-01-01

    Two binary mixed solvent systems typically used for lithium batteries were studied by measuring the self-diffusion coefficients of the solvent, lithium ion and anion, independently by using the multi-nuclear pulsed field-gradient spin-echo (PGSE) 1 H, 7 Li and 19 F NMR method. One system was propylene carbonate (PC) and diethyl carbonate (DEC) system and the other binary system was PC and 1,2-dimethoxyethane (DME), and the lithium salt used was LiN(SO 2 CF 3 ) 2 (LiTFSI). The relative ratio of the PC was changed from zero (pure DME and DEC) to 100% (pure PC) in the DME-PC and the DEC-PC systems, respectively. The self-diffusion coefficients of the solvents were measured with and without the lithium salt, and the two solvents had almost the same diffusion coefficient in the DEC-PC system, while DME diffused faster than PC in the DME-PC system. In the electrolytes the solvents diffused the fastest, followed by the anion with the lithium ion diffusing the slowest. The degree of ion dissociation was estimated for each electrolyte by comparing the ionic conductivities estimated from the ion diffusion and those measured directly by the electrochemical method

  17. Efficient Coding of Information: Huffman Coding -RE ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    to a stream of equally-likely symbols so as to recover the original stream in the event of errors. The for- ... The source-coding problem is one of finding a mapping from U to a ... probability that the random variable X takes the value x written as ...

  18. NR-code: Nonlinear reconstruction code

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yu; Pen, Ue-Li; Zhu, Hong-Ming

    2018-04-01

    NR-code applies nonlinear reconstruction to the dark matter density field in redshift space and solves for the nonlinear mapping from the initial Lagrangian positions to the final redshift space positions; this reverses the large-scale bulk flows and improves the precision measurement of the baryon acoustic oscillations (BAO) scale.

  19. Italian electricity supply contracts optimization: ECO computer code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Napoli, G.; Savelli, D.

    1993-01-01

    The ECO (Electrical Contract Optimization) code written in the Microsoft WINDOWS 3.1 language can be handled with a 286 PC and a minimum of RAM. It consists of four modules, one for the calculation of ENEL (Italian National Electricity Board) tariffs, one for contractual time-of-use tariffs optimization, a table of tariff coefficients, and a module for monthly power consumption calculations based on annual load diagrams. The optimization code was developed by ENEA (Italian Agency for New Technology, Energy and the Environment) to help Italian industrial firms comply with new and complex national electricity supply contractual regulations and tariffs. In addition to helping industrial firms determine optimum contractual arrangements, the code also assists them in optimizing their choice of equipment and production cycles

  20. Analysis of ATLAS Cold Leg SBLOCA Using SPACE Code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Doo Hyuk; Suh, Jae Seung; Kim, Se Yun

    2012-01-01

    SPACE Code has been developed to predict the thermal-hydraulic responses of nuclear steam supply system to the anticipated transients and postulated accidents and adopted advanced physical modeling of two-phase flows, mainly two-fluid, three-field models that comprise gas, continuous liquid, and droplet fields and has the capability to simulate 3D effects by the use of structured and/or non-structured meshes. In this paper, a cold-leg SBLOCA which is the experiment, SB-CL-09, of the ATLAS integral effect test facility during the second domestic stand problem (DSP-02) was analyzed. The results were compared with those of MARS-KS code simulations. The SPACE code with a 1.0 version was released by KHNP in 2012. The analysis has been performed in a desktop PC with Windows 7 environment