Sample records for phosphate olivines limnpo4

  1. Density functional theory study of lithium diffusion at the interface between olivine-type LiFePO4 and LiMnPO4 (United States)

    Shi, Jianjian; Wang, Zhiguo; Qing Fu, Yong


    Coating LiMnPO4 with a thin layer of LiFePO4 shows a better electrochemical performance than the pure LiFePO4 and LiMnPO4, thus it is critical to understand Li diffusion at their interfaces to improve the performance of electrode materials. Li diffusion at the (1 0 0)\\text{LiFeP{{\\text{O}}4}} //(1 0 0)\\text{LiMnP{{\\text{O}}4}} , (0 1 0)\\text{LiFeP{{\\text{O}}4}} //(0 1 0)\\text{LiMnP{{\\text{O}}4}} , and (0 0 1)\\text{LiFeP{{\\text{O}}4}} //(0 0 1)\\text{LiMnP{{\\text{O}}4}} interfaces between LiFePO4 and LiMnPO4 was investigated using density functional theory. The calculated diffusion energy barriers are 0.55 eV for Li to diffuse along the (0 0 1) interface, 0.44 and 0.49 eV for the Li diffusion inside the LiMnPO4 and along the (1 0 0) interface, respectively. When Li diffuses from the LiFePO4 to LiMnPO4 by passing through the (0 1 0) interfaces, the diffusion barriers are 0.45 and 0.60 eV for the Li diffusions in both sides. The diffusion barriers for Li to diffuse in LiMnPO4 near the interfaces decrease compared with those in the pure LiMnPO4. The calculated diffusion coefficient of Li along the (1 0 0) interface is in the range of 3.65  ×  10-11-5.28  ×  10-12 cm2 s-1, which is larger than that in the pure LiMnPO4 with a value of 7.5  ×  10-14 cm2 s-1. Therefore, the charging/discharging rate performance of the LiMnPO4 can be improved by surface coating with the LiFePO4.

  2. Glucose assisted synthesis of hollow spindle LiMnPO_4/C nanocomposites for high performance Li-ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fu, Xiaoning; Chang, Zhaorong; Chang, Kun; Li, Bao; Tang, Hongwei; Shangguan, Enbo; Yuan, Xiao-Zi; Wang, Haijiang


    Graphical abstract: Nano-sized hollow spindle LiMnPO_4 with a well-developed olivine-type structure exhibits a high specific capacity and cycling performance. - Highlights: • A pure and well-crystallized LiMnPO_4 are synthesized via a solution-phase method. • The LiMnPO_4/C composite constitutes highly and uniformly distributed hollow spindles. • The LiMnPO_4/C composite exhibits a high specific capacity and cycling performance. • The growth process of the hollow spindle LiMnPO_4 particles is revealed. - Abstract: Nano-sized hollow spindle LiMnPO_4 with a well-developed olivine-type structure was synthesized with the assistance of glucose in dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO)/H_2O under ambient pressure and 108 °C. The scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscope (TEM) images show that the LiMnPO_4 particles consist of hollow spindles with a mean width of 200 nm, length of 500-700 nm, and wall thickness of about 30-60 nm. The LiMnPO_4/C nanocomposite was obtained by sintering nano-sized LiMnPO_4 with glucose at 650 °C under an inert atmosphere for 4 h. With a coated carbon thickness of about 10 nm, the obtained composite maintained the morphology and size of the hollow spindle. The electrochemical tests show the specific capacity of LiMnPO_4/C nanocomposite is 161.8 mAh g"−"1 at 0.05C, 137.7 mAh g"−"1 at 0.1C and 110.8 mAh g"−"1 at 0.2 C. The retention of discharge capacity maintains 92% after 100 cycles at 0.2 C. After different rate cycles the high capacity of the LiMnPO_4/C nanocomposite can be recovered. This high performance is attributed to the composite material's hollow spindle structure, which facilitates the electrolyte infiltration, resulting in an increased solid-liquid interface. The carbon layer covering the hollow spindle also contributes to the high performance of the LiMnPO_4/C material as the carbon layer improves its electronic conductivity and the nano-scaled wall thickness decreases the paths of Li

  3. Synthesis of flower-like LiMnPO4/C with precipitated NH4MnPO4·H2O as precursor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Jiali; Hu Dongge; Huang Tao; Yu Aishui


    Highlights: ► Flower-like NH 4 MnPO 4 ·H 2 O is obtained by novel precipitating method. ► It is used as the precursor to synthesize LiMnPO 4 /C. ► Subsequent heat treatment would not destroy the precursor morphology. ► As-prepared LiMnPO 4 /C showed discharge capacity of 85 mAh/g at 0.05 C. - Abstract: Ammonium magnesium phosphate monohydrate (NH 4 MnPO 4 ·H 2 O) precursor was prepared by a novel precipitating process with manganese citrate complexes as intermediate. The morphology of the precursor observed by Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) was flower-like which was self-assembled by plate-like particles. Further analysis by X-ray diffraction (XRD) revealed that the lattice of the plate crystal was orientated along (0 1 0) plane. By solid-state reaction of the precursor, with lithium acetate and glucose as carbon source, pure olivine structured LiMnPO 4 /C composite was obtained and meanwhile, the original flower-like morphology could be retained.

  4. Enhanced electrochemical performance and thermal stability of LiNi0.80Co0.15Al0.05O2 via nano-sized LiMnPO4 coating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duan, Jianguo; Wu, Ceng; Cao, Yanbing; Du, Ke; Peng, Zhongdong; Hu, Guorong


    Highlights: • LiMnPO 4 was introduced to modify Ni-rich cathode materials. • LiMnPO 4 uniformly coated NCA composite has been constructed successfully. • Olivine structured skin restrains the formation of residues on NCA during cycling. • LiMnPO 4 improves the structural and thermal stability of NCA@LMP. - Abtract: LiNi 0.80 Co 0.15 Al 0.05 O 2 has been widely pursued as an alternative to LiCoO 2 cathode materials for lithium ion batteries because of its high capacity and acceptable cycling property. However, that NCA can react with commercialized electrolyte during cycling restrains its wide use. Here, olivine structured LiMnPO 4 has been introduced to modify the surface of NCA by a sol-gel method. Characterizations from structure, morphology and composition analysis technologies demonstrate that a LiMnPO 4 layer has been uniformly coated on NCA particles. The electrochemical performance and thermo stability of modified samples are characterized by electrochemical tests, XRD and metallic nail penetration tests. The olivine structured skin, which provides structural and thermal stability, is used to encapsulate the high powered core via using the effective coating technique. The modified material displays a high discharge capacity of 211.0 mAh g −1 at 0.2 C and better rate performance and promoted cycling stability than the uncoated control sample. Furthermore, the thermal stability of coated sample in the delithiated state is upgraded to the pristine powders remarkably.

  5. Synthesis of spherical LiMnPO4/C composite microparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bakenov, Zhumabay; Taniguchi, Izumi


    Highlights: → We could prepare LiMnPO 4 /C composites by a novel preparation method. → The LiMnPO 4 /C composites were spherical particles with a mean diameter of 3.65 μm. → The LiMnPO 4 /C composite cathode exhibited 112 mAh g -1 at 0.05 C. → It also showed a good rate capability up to 5 C at room temperature and 55 o C. -- Abstract: Spherical LiMnPO 4 /C composite microparticles were prepared by a combination of spray pyrolysis and spray drying followed by heat treatment and examined as a cathode material for lithium batteries. The structure, morphology and electrochemical performance of the resulting spherical LiMnPO 4 /C microparticles were characterized by X-ray diffraction, field-emission scanning electron microscopy, transmission electronic microscopy and standard electrochemical techniques. The final sample was identified as a single phase orthorhombic structure of LiMnPO 4 and spherical powders with a geometric mean diameter of 3.65 μm and a geometric standard deviation of 1.34. The electrochemical cells contained the spherical LiMnPO 4 /C microparticles exhibited first discharge capacities of 112 and 130 mAh g -1 at 0.05 C at room temperature and 55 o C, respectively. These also showed a good rate capability up to 5 C at room temperature and 55 o C.

  6. Enhanced electrochemical performance of LiMnPO4 by Li+-conductive Li3VO4 surface coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dong, Youzhong; Zhao, Yanming; Duan, He; Liang, Zhiyong


    By a simple wet ball-milling method, Li 3 VO 4 -coated LiMnPO 4 samples were prepared successfully for the first time. The thin Li 3 VO 4 coating layer with a three-dimensional Li + -ion transport path and high mobility of Li + -ion strongly adhered to the LiMnPO 4 material reduces Mn dissolution and increases the Li + flux through the surface of the LiMnPO 4 itself by preventing formation of phases on the surface that would normally block Li + as well as Li + -ion permeation into the surface of the LiMnPO 4 electrode and therefore improve the rate capability as well as the cycling stability of LiMnPO 4 materials. The electrochemical testing shows that the 5% Li 3 VO 4 -coated LiMnPO 4 sample shows a clear voltage plateau in the charge curves and a much higher reversible capacity at different discharge rates compared with the pristine LiMnPO 4 . EIS results also show that the surface charge transfer resistance and Warburg impedance of the Li 3 VO 4 -coated LiMnPO 4 samples significantly decreased. The surface charge transfer resistance and Warburg impedance for the pristine LiMnPO 4 are 955.1 Ω and 400.3 Ω, respectively. While, for the 5% Li 3 VO 4 -coated LiMnPO 4 , the value are only 400.2 Ω and 283.6 Ω, respectively. The surface charge transfer resistance decreases more than half. All of the improved performance will be favorable for application of the LiMnPO 4 in high-power lithium ion batteries

  7. Mesoporous LiMnPO4/C nanoparticles as high performance cathode material for lithium ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wen, Fang; Shu, Hongbo; Zhang, Yuanyuan; Wan, Jiajia; Huang, Weihua; Yang, Xiukang; Yu, Ruizhi; Liu, Li; Wang, Xianyou


    LiMnPO 4 has been considered as one of the most promising high voltage cathode materials for next-generation lithium ion batteries. However, LiMnPO 4 suffers from intrinsic drawbacks of extremely low electronic conductivity and ionic diffusivity between LiMnPO 4 /MnPO 4 . In this paper, mesoporous LiMnPO 4 nanoparticles are synthesized successfully via a facile glycine-assisted solvothermal rout. The as-prepared mesoporous LiMnPO 4 /C nanoparticles present well-defined abundant mesoporous structure (diameter of 3 ∼ 10 nm), uniform carbon layer (thickness of 3 ∼ 4 nm), high specific surface area (90.1 m 2 /g). As a result, the mesoporous LiMnPO 4 /C nanoparticles achieve excellent electrochemical performance as cathode materials for lithium ion batteries. It demonstrates a high discharge capacity of 167.7, 161.6, 156.4, 148.4 and 128.7 mAh/g at 0.1, 0.5, 1, 2 and 5C, and maintains a discharge capacity of 130.0 mAh/g after 100 cycles at 1C. The good electrochemical performance is attributed to its special interpenetrating mesoporous structure in LiMnPO 4 nanoparticles, which significantly enhances the ionic and electronic transport and additional capacitive behavior to compensate the sluggish kinetics.

  8. The effect of synthesis parameters on the lithium storage performance of LiMnPO4/C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramar, V.; Saravanan, K.; Gajjela, S.R.; Hariharan, S.; Balaya, P.


    Highlights: • An architecture featuring carbon coated, interconnected nano-grains was constructed with mesopores for LiMnPO 4 /C cathodes. • Mesoporous LiMnPO 4 /C delivers 140 mAh g −1 at 0.05 C, one of the best storage performances in galvanostatic charge/discharge mode. • Interdependence of storage performance on carbon, milling time, grain size, surface area, pore size and pore volume is elucidated. • Feasible full cell operation with Li 4 Ti 5 O 12 /C anode. -- Abstract: An architecture featuring carbon coated, interconnected nano-grains constructed with mesopores is developed for LiMnPO 4 cathode material. This architecture facilitates enhanced lithium ionic and electronic transports; favours improved lithium storage performance. Mesoporous LiMnPO 4 /C electrode delivers discharge capacity of 140 mAh g −1 at 0.05 C using galvanostatic cycling mode. This best electrochemical response of LiMnPO 4 /C at constant current mode is complemented by diffusion studies using cyclic voltammetry and impedance spectroscopy. Further, the interdependence of lithium storage performance on carbon content, milling time (2, 4, 6 and 10 h), grain size and porous characteristics (surface area, pore size and pore volume) is also discussed. Finally, the feasibility of LiMnPO 4 /C cathode is evaluated against Li 4 Ti 5 O 12 /C anode in a full cell

  9. Synthesis and structural characterization of manganese olivine lithium phosphate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herrera Robles, Joel O. [Basic Science Department, IIT, Universidad Autónoma de Ciudad Juárez, Av. del Charro 460 norte Cd. Juárez, Chih. C.P. 32310 (Mexico); Fuentes Cobas, Luis E. [Centro de Investigación en Materiales Avanzados CIMAV, Complejo Industrial, M. Cervantes 120, Chihuahua C.P. 31109 (Mexico); Díaz de la Torre, Sebastián [Instituto Politécnico Nacional, Centro de Investigación e Innovación Tecnológica CIITEC, Azcapotzalco, México, D.F. C.P. 02250 (Mexico); Camacho Montes, Héctor, E-mail: [Basic Science Department, IIT, Universidad Autónoma de Ciudad Juárez, Av. del Charro 460 norte Cd. Juárez, Chih. C.P. 32310 (Mexico); Elizalde Galindo, José T.; García Casillas, Perla E.; Rodríguez González, Claudia A. [Basic Science Department, IIT, Universidad Autónoma de Ciudad Juárez, Av. del Charro 460 norte Cd. Juárez, Chih. C.P. 32310 (Mexico); Álvarez Contreras, Lorena [Centro de Investigación en Materiales Avanzados CIMAV, Complejo Industrial, M. Cervantes 120, Chihuahua C.P. 31109 (Mexico)


    Highlights: • LiMnPO{sub 4} was obtained by sol gel method and crystallization in reducing atmosphere. • Magnetic and electric properties are reported for LiMnPO{sub 4}. • Electrochemical properties are also found and enhanced by adding carbon. • SEM and HRTEM show the submicron powder nature. • The multifunctional behavior of LiMnPO{sub 4} is experimentally demonstrated. - Abstract: The manganese olivine lithium phosphate is a multifunctional material. If carbon is added to form a composite LiMnPO{sub 4}–C, electrochemical properties can be enhanced, making this material a good candidate for battery cathode. High magnetic susceptibility is reported for this compound at room temperature. In this work, the magnetic response was measured through a Field Cooling/Zero Field Cooling technique at temperature below 100 K. Weak ferroelectric properties at room temperature were measured. Even though, the promising applications and the interesting properties of this system, the attention received in the literature is relatively low. The synthesis of this material is difficult because of the rapid manganese oxidation and the need of a reducing atmosphere. In fact, only few authors report the synthesis of the pure phase. In the present work, nanostructured LiMnPO{sub 4} is obtained by sol gel chemical method and according to X-ray diffraction patterns, pure LiMnPO{sub 4} is obtained after calcination in a reducing atmosphere (10% H{sub 2} – 90% Ar). Nanostructured LiMnPO{sub 4} is a material with very interesting properties that deserves attentions.

  10. Electrochemical performances of LiMnPO4 synthesized from non-stoichiometric Li/Mn ratio. (United States)

    Xiao, Jie; Chernova, Natasha A; Upreti, Shailesh; Chen, Xilin; Li, Zheng; Deng, Zhiqun; Choi, Daiwon; Xu, Wu; Nie, Zimin; Graff, Gordon L; Liu, Jun; Whittingham, M Stanley; Zhang, Ji-Guang


    In this paper, the influences of the lithium content in the starting materials on the final performances of as-prepared Li(x)MnPO(4) (x hereafter represents the starting Li content in the synthesis step which does not necessarily mean that Li(x)MnPO(4) is a single phase solid solution in this work.) are systematically investigated. It has been revealed that Mn(2)P(2)O(7) is the main impurity when Li Li(3)PO(4) begins to form once x > 1.0. The interactions between Mn(2)P(2)O(7) or Li(3)PO(4) impurities and LiMnPO(4) are studied in terms of the structural, electrochemical, and magnetic properties. At a slow rate of C/50, the reversible capacity of both Li(0.5)MnPO(4) and Li(0.8)MnPO(4) increases with cycling. This indicates a gradual activation of more sites to accommodate a reversible diffusion of Li(+) ions that may be related to the interaction between Mn(2)P(2)O(7) and LiMnPO(4) nanoparticles. Among all of the different compositions, Li(1.1)MnPO(4) exhibits the most stable cycling ability probably because of the existence of a trace amount of Li(3)PO(4) impurity that functions as a solid-state electrolyte on the surface. The magnetic properties and X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) of the MnPO(4)·H(2)O precursor, pure and carbon-coated Li(x)MnPO(4) are also investigated to identify the key steps involved in preparing a high-performance LiMnPO(4). This journal is © the Owner Societies 2011

  11. EG-Assisted Synthesis and Electrochemical Performance of Ultrathin Carbon-Coated LiMnPO4 Nanoplates as Cathodes in Lithium Ion Batteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liwei Su


    Full Text Available Ultrathin carbon-coated LiMnPO4 (ULMP/C nanoplates were prepared through an ethylene glycol- (EG- assisted pyrolysis method. Different from most of LiMnPO4/C works, the obtained ULMP/C possessed relatively small particle size (less than 50 nm in thickness and preferable carbon coating (~1 nm in thickness, 2 wt.%. As a reference, LiMnPO4/C (LMP/C composites were also fabricated via the traditional hydrothermal method. X-ray diffraction (XRD, scanning electron microscopy (SEM, transmission electron microscopy (TEM, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS, thermogravimetric analysis (TG, galvanostatic charge-discharge, and cyclic voltammetry (CV were performed to characterize the crystalline phase, morphology, structure, carbon content, and electrochemical behaviors of samples. The electrochemical performance of bare and carbon-coated LiMnPO4 was evaluated as cathodes in lithium ion batteries. As a result, the obtained ULMP/C nanoplates demonstrated much higher reversible capacities (110.9 mAh g−1 after 50 cycles at 0.1 C and rate performances than pure LMP and LMP/C composites. This facile and efficient EG-assisted pyrolysis method can enlighten us on exploiting advanced routes to modify active materials with ultrathin and homogeneous carbon layers.

  12. Relevance of LiPF6 as Etching Agent of LiMnPO4 Colloidal Nanocrystals for High Rate Performing Li-ion Battery Cathodes. (United States)

    Chen, Lin; Dilena, Enrico; Paolella, Andrea; Bertoni, Giovanni; Ansaldo, Alberto; Colombo, Massimo; Marras, Sergio; Scrosati, Bruno; Manna, Liberato; Monaco, Simone


    LiMnPO4 is an attractive cathode material for the next-generation high power Li-ion batteries, due to its high theoretical specific capacity (170 mA h g(-1)) and working voltage (4.1 V vs Li(+)/Li). However, two main drawbacks prevent the practical use of LiMnPO4: its low electronic conductivity and the limited lithium diffusion rate, which are responsible for the poor rate capability of the cathode. The electronic resistance is usually lowered by coating the particles with carbon, while the use of nanosize particles can alleviate the issues associated with poor ionic conductivity. It is therefore of primary importance to develop a synthetic route to LiMnPO4 nanocrystals (NCs) with controlled size and coated with a highly conductive carbon layer. We report here an effective surface etching process (using LiPF6) on colloidally synthesized LiMnPO4 NCs that makes the NCs dispersible in the aqueous glucose solution used as carbon source for the carbon coating step. Also, it is likely that the improved exposure of the NC surface to glucose facilitates the formation of a conductive carbon layer that is in intimate contact with the inorganic core, resulting in a high electronic conductivity of the electrode, as observed by us. The carbon coated etched LiMnPO4-based electrode exhibited a specific capacity of 118 mA h g(-1) at 1C, with a stable cycling performance and a capacity retention of 92% after 120 cycles at different C-rates. The delivered capacities were higher than those of electrodes based on not etched carbon coated NCs, which never exceeded 30 mA h g(-1). The rate capability here reported for the carbon coated etched LiMnPO4 nanocrystals represents an important result, taking into account that in the electrode formulation 80% wt is made of the active material and the adopted charge protocol is based on reasonable fast charge times.

  13. Theoretical evaluation of high-energy lithium metal phosphate cathode materials in Li-ion batteries (United States)

    Howard, Wilmont F.; Spotnitz, Robert M.

    Lithium metal phosphates (olivines) are emerging as long-lived, safe cathode materials in Li-ion batteries. Nano-LiFePO 4 already appears in high-power applications, and LiMnPO 4 development is underway. Current and emerging Fe- and Mn-based intercalants, however, are low-energy producers compared to Ni and Co compounds. LiNiPO 4, a high voltage olivine, has the potential for superior energy output (>10.7 Wh in 18650 batteries), compared with commercial Li(Co,Ni)O 2 derivatives (up to 9.9 Wh). Speculative Co and Ni olivine cathode materials charged to above 4.5 V will require significant advances in electrolyte compositions and nanotechnology before commercialization. The major drivers toward 5 V battery chemistries are the inherent abuse tolerance of phosphates and the economic benefit of LiNiPO 4: it can produce 34% greater energy per dollar of cell material cost than LiAl 0.05Co 0.15Ni 0.8O 2, today's "standard" cathode intercalant in Li-ion batteries.

  14. Olivine-type cathodes. Achievements and problems (United States)

    Yamada, Atsuo; Hosoya, Mamoru; Chung, Sai-Cheong; Kudo, Yoshihiro; Hinokuma, Koichiro; Liu, Kuang-Yu; Nishi, Yoshio

    The recent progress at Sony in the design of practical olivine-type cathodes is reviewed briefly. First principle calculations revealed LiFePO 4 is a semiconductor with ca. 0.3 eV band gap and LiMnPO 4 is an insulator with ca. 2 eV band gap, which seems the major intrinsic obstacle to a smooth redox reaction at 4 V in the Mn-rich phase. Attention is also focused on the lattice frustration induced by the strong electron (Mn 3+: 3d 4-e gσ ∗)-lattice interaction (Jahn-Teller effect) in the charged state of Li(Mn yFe 1- y)PO 4 (0≤ y≤1). Dense nanocomposite formation with disordered conductive carbon as well as the choice of the appropriate synthetic precursors is highlighted as important engineering aspects, followed by some specific issues concerning tolerance to unusual conditions.

  15. A facile method of preparing LiMnPO4/reduced graphene oxide aerogel as cathodic material for aqueous lithium-ion hybrid supercapacitors (United States)

    Xu, Lin; Wang, Senlin; Zhang, Xiao; He, Taobin; Lu, Fengxia; Li, Huichang; Ye, Junhui


    A facile method of preparing LiMnPO4/reduced graphene oxide aerogel (LMP/rGO) as cathodic material was reported here. LiMnPO4 nano-particles were prepared using a facile polyvinyl pyrrolidone-assisted solvothermal route. Then LMP/rGO aerogel was prepared using the accessible restacking method. The influence of the cathodic electrode composition (ratio of rGO to LiMnPO4) on the performance of the LMP/rGO was evaluated by constant-current discharge tests. When compared with 217C g-1 for the pristine LMP, the best LMP/rGO (the content of rGO is 27.3 wt%) exhibits a higher capacity of 464.5C g-1 (at 0.5 A g-1), which presenting the capacity enhance of 114%. Moreover, a lithium-ion hybrid supercapacitor (LIHS) was successfully assembled by using LMP/rGO aerogel as the cathodic electrode and rGO aerogel as the anodic electrode. The LMP/rGO//rGO device achieves excellent specific energy of 16.46 W h kg-1 at a power density of 0.38 kW kg-1, even under the higher specific power of 4.52 kW kg-1, there still holds the specific energy of 11.79 W h kg-1. The LMP/rGO//rGO device maintains 91.2% of the initial capacity after 10,000 cycles (at 2 A g-1), which displays high rate performance and long cycle life. The 3D LMP/rGO aerogel could be a promising candidate material for the lithium-ion hybrid supercapacitors.

  16. Mapping Structure-Composition-Property Relationships in V- and Fe-Doped LiMnPO4 Cathodes for Lithium-Ion Batteries. (United States)

    Johnson, Ian D; Loveridge, Melanie; Bhagat, Rohit; Darr, Jawwad A


    A series of LiMn 1-x-y Fe x V y PO 4 (LMFVP) nanomaterials have been synthesized using a pilot-scale continuous hydrothermal synthesis process (CHFS) and evaluated as high voltage cathodes in Li-ion batteries at a production rate of 0.25 kg h -1 . The rapid synthesis and screening approach has allowed the specific capacity of the high Mn content olivines to be optimized, particularly at high discharge rates. Consistent and gradual changes in the structure and performance are observed across the compositional region under investigation; the doping of Fe at 20 at% (with respect to Mn) into lithium manganese phosphate, rather than V or indeed codoping of Fe and V, gives the best balance of high capacity and high rate performance.

  17. Multi-walled carbon nanotubes functionalized by carboxylic groups: Activation of TiO{sub 2} (anatase) and phosphate olivines (LiMnPO{sub 4}; LiFePO{sub 4}) for electrochemical Li-storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kavan, Ladislav; Zukalova, Marketa [J. Heyrovsky Institute of Physical Chemistry, v.v.i., Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Dolejskova 3, CZ-18223 Prague 8 (Czech Republic); Bacsa, Revathi; Tunckol, Meltem; Serp, Philippe [Laboratoire de Chimie de Coordination, UPR CNRS 8241, composante ENSIACET, Universite de Toulouse UPS-INP-LCC 4, Allee Emile Monso, BP 74233, 31432, Toulouse (France); Zakeeruddin, Shaik M.; Le Formal, Florian; Graetzel, Michael [Laboratoire de Photonique et Interfaces, EPFL, Ecublens, CH-1015 Lausanne (Switzerland)


    Multi-walled carbon nanotubes functionalized by carboxylic groups, exhibit better affinity towards TiO{sub 2} (P90, Degussa) as compared to that of pristine nanotubes. Also the electrochemical performance of TiO{sub 2} is improved by nanotube networking, but the Li-storage capacity of TiO{sub 2} is unchanged. Whereas the composite of TiO{sub 2} with non-functionalized nanotubes demonstrates simple superposition of the behavior of pure components, the composite with functionalized nanotubes shows unique faradaic pseudocapacitance which is specific for this composite only. The surface functionalization of nanotubes enhances charge storage capacity and reversibility of a composite with LiMnPO{sub 4} (olivine), but mediates also the electrolyte breakdown at potentials >4.2 V. Whereas the electrochemical activation of LiMnPO{sub 4} (olivine) by functionalized nanotubes is quite modest, excellent performance was found for LiFePO{sub 4} (olivine) in composite materials containing only 2 wt% of functionalized nanotubes. (author)

  18. Band structure analysis on olivine LiMPO4 and delithiated MPO4 (M = Fe, Mn) cathode materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yi, Ting-Feng; Fang, Zi-Kui; Xie, Ying; Zhu, Yan-Rong; Dai, Changsong


    Highlights: • The conductivity of Li x MPO 4 were discussed relying on first principles technique. • Relationship between structure properties and microscopic bonding was addressed. • A mechanism responsible for the structural instability of MnPO 4 was proposed. - Abstract: Olivine compounds, i.e. Li x MPO 4 (M = Fe, Mn), are now regarded as the most competitive positive-electrode materials for future applications of large-scale rechargeable lithium batteries. There are significant interests in their electronic structures, because the microscopic information is very important for elucidating the structural stability, electrochemical performance, and electronic conductivity issues of batteries for high-rate applications. The structure stabilities of LiMPO 4 and MPO 4 (M = Fe, Mn) cathode materials are analyzed according to first principles calculations. The result shows that LiMPO 4 (M = Fe, Mn) materials exhibit good structure stability, which is mainly contributed to the extremely strong P-O covalent bonds. Furthermore, the introduction of P ions is also helpful for the chemical potential decrease of the materials. The band structure analysis reveals that the electronic conductance of LiFePO 4 , LiMnPO 4 , and FePO 4 is poor, while MnPO 4 possesses half metallic property. According to the electron distribution, it can be confirmed that Mn-O(II) bonds are weakened after Li + extractions, which is different from the variation trend of Fe-O(II) bonds. The decrease of Mn-O(II) bond strength is thus favorable for the phase transformation observed in experiments

  19. Synthesis of xLiMnPO4·yLi3V2(PO43/C Nanocomposites for Lithium Ion Batteries Using Tributyl Phosphate as Phosphor Source

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanming Wang


    Full Text Available The xLiMnPO4·yLi3V2(PO43/C (x/y = 1 : 0, 12 : 1, 8 : 1, 6 : 1, 4 : 1, 0 : 1 composite cathode materials are synthesized using tributyl phosphate as a novel organic phosphor source via a solid-state reaction process. All obtained xLiMnPO4·yLi3V2(PO43/C composites present similar particles morphology with an average size of ca. 100 nm and low extent agglomeration. The electrochemical performance of pristine LiMnPO4/C can be effectively improved by adding small amounts of Li3V2(PO43 additives. The 4LiMnPO4·Li3V2(PO43/C has a high discharge capacity of 143 mAh g−1 at 0.1 C and keeps its 94% at the end of 100 cycles.

  20. Mineral magnetism of dusty olivine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lappe, Sophie-Charlotte L. L.; Church, Nathan S.; Kasama, Takeshi


    The magnetic properties of olivine-hosted Fe-Ni particles have been studied to assess the potential of "dusty olivine" to retain a pre-accretionary remanence in chondritic meteorites. Both body-centered (bcc) and face-centered cubic (fcc) Fe-Ni phases were formed by reduction of a terrestrial...... olivine precursor. The presence of Ni complicates the magnetic properties during heating and cooling due to the fcc-bcc martensitic transition. First-order reversal curve (FORC) diagrams contain a central ridge with a broad coercivity distribution extending to 600 mT, attributed to non-interacting single......-domain (SD) particles, and a "butterfly" structure extending to 250 mT, attributed to single-vortex (SV) states. SD and SV states were imaged directly using electron holography. The location of the SD/SV boundary is broadly consistent with theoretical predictions. A method to measure the volume of individual...

  1. Novel lithium iron phosphate materials for lithium-ion batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Popovic, Jelena


    Conventional energy sources are diminishing and non-renewable, take million years to form and cause environmental degradation. In the 21st century, we have to aim at achieving sustainable, environmentally friendly and cheap energy supply by employing renewable energy technologies associated with portable energy storage devices. Lithium-ion batteries can repeatedly generate clean energy from stored materials and convert reversely electric into chemical energy. The performance of lithium-ion batteries depends intimately on the properties of their materials. Presently used battery electrodes are expensive to be produced; they offer limited energy storage possibility and are unsafe to be used in larger dimensions restraining the diversity of application, especially in hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) and electric vehicles (EVs). This thesis presents a major progress in the development of LiFePO4 as a cathode material for lithium-ion batteries. Using simple procedure, a completely novel morphology has been synthesized (mesocrystals of LiFePO4) and excellent electrochemical behavior was recorded (nanostructured LiFePO4). The newly developed reactions for synthesis of LiFePO4 are single-step processes and are taking place in an autoclave at significantly lower temperature (200 deg. C) compared to the conventional solid-state method (multi-step and up to 800 deg. C). The use of inexpensive environmentally benign precursors offers a green manufacturing approach for a large scale production. These newly developed experimental procedures can also be extended to other phospho-olivine materials, such as LiCoPO4 and LiMnPO4. The material with the best electrochemical behavior (nanostructured LiFePO4 with carbon coating) was able to deliver a stable 94% of the theoretically known capacity.

  2. Characterization and petrologic interpretation of olivine-rich basalts at Gusev Crater, Mars (United States)

    McSween, H.Y.; Wyatt, M.B.; Gellert, Ralf; Bell, J.F.; Morris, R.V.; Herkenhoff, K. E.; Crumpler, L.S.; Milam, K.A.; Stockstill, K.R.; Tornabene, L.L.; Arvidson, R. E.; Bartlett, P.; Blaney, D.; Cabrol, N.A.; Christensen, P.R.; Clark, B. C.; Crisp, J.A.; Des Marais, D.J.; Economou, T.; Farmer, J.D.; Farrand, W.; Ghosh, A.; Golombek, M.; Gorevan, S.; Greeley, R.; Hamilton, V.E.; Johnson, J. R.; Joliff, B.L.; Klingelhofer, G.; Knudson, A.T.; McLennan, S.; Ming, D.; Moersch, J.E.; Rieder, R.; Ruff, S.W.; Schrorder, C.; de Souza, P.A.; Squyres, S. W.; Wanke, H.; Wang, A.; Yen, A.; Zipfel, J.


    Rocks on the floor of Gusev crater are basalts of uniform composition and mineralogy. Olivine, the only mineral to have been identified or inferred from data by all instruments on the Spirit rover, is especially abundant in these rocks. These picritic basalts are similar in many respects to certain Martian meteorites (olivine-phyric shergottites). The olivine megacrysts in both have intermediate compositions, with modal abundances ranging up to 20-30%. Associated minerals in both include low-calcium and high-calcium pyroxenes, plagioclase of intermediate composition, iron-titanium-chromium oxides, and phosphate. These rocks also share minor element trends, reflected in their nickel-magnesium and chromium-magnesium ratios. Gusev basalts and shergottites appear to have formed from primitive magmas produced by melting an undepleted mantle at depth and erupted without significant fractionation. However, apparent differences between Gusev rocks and shergottites in their ages, plagioclase abundances, and volatile contents preclude direct correlation. Orbital determinations of global olivine distribution and compositions by thermal emission spectroscopy suggest that olivine-rich rocks may be widespread. Because weathering under acidic conditions preferentially attacks olivine and disguises such rocks beneath alteration rinds, picritic basalts formed from primitive magmas may even be a common component of the Martian crust formed during ancient and recent times. Copyright 2006 by the American Geophysical Union.

  3. Raman and FTIR spectroscopy of methane in olivine (United States)

    Smith, A.; Oze, C.; Rossman, G. R.; Celestian, A. J.


    Olivine has been proposed to be a direct source of methane (CH4) in serpentinization systems and experiments. Here, Raman and Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy were used to verify the presence and abundance of CH4 in olivine samples from nine localities, including the San Carlos olivine. Raman analyses did not identify any methane in the olivine samples. As olivine is orthorhombic, three polarized FTIR spectra were obtained for the olivine samples. No methane was detected in any of the olivine samples using FTIR. Overall, olivine investigated in this study does not appear to be a primary source of methane.

  4. Electrochemical potentials of layered oxide and olivine phosphate ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Lithium ion battery; cathodes; density functional theory; density of states; Bader charge analysis; electrochemical ... voltage, ionic diffusion coefficient, phase stability and charge ... routes to synthesis and fabrication techniques. .... from the lithiated one. ..... Ebner W, Fouchard D and Xie L 1994 Solid State Ionics 69 238.

  5. Texture and Elastic Anisotropy of Mantle Olivine (United States)

    Nikitin, A. N.; Ivankina, T. I.; Bourilitchev, D. E.; Klima, K.; Locajicek, T.; Pros, Z.

    Eight olivine rock samples from different European regions were collected for neu- tron texture analyses and for P-wave velocity measurements by means of ultrasonic sounding at various confining pressures. The orientation distribution functions (ODFs) of olivine were determined and pole figures of the main crystallographic planes were calculated. The spatial P-wave velocity distributions were determined at confining pressures from 0.1 to 400 MPa and modelled from the olivine textures. In dependence upon the type of rock (xenolith or dunite) different behavior of both the P-wave veloc- ity distributions and the anisotropy coefficients with various confining pressures was observed. In order to explain the interdependence of elastic anisotropy and hydrostatic pressure, a model for polycrystalline olivine rocks was suggested, which considers the influence of the crystallographic and the mechanical textures on the elastic behaviour of the polycrystal. Since the olivine texture depends upon the active slip systems and the deformation temperature, neutron texture analyses enable us to estimate depth and thermodynamical conditions during texture formation.

  6. Change in Frictional Behavior during Olivine Serpentinization (United States)

    Xing, T.; Zhu, W.; French, M. E.; Belzer, B.


    Hydration of mantle peridotites (serpentinization) is pervasive at plate boundaries. It is widely accepted that serpentinization is intrinsically linked to hydromechanical processes within the sub-seafloor, where the interplay between cracking, fluid supply and chemical reactions is responsible for a spectrum of fault slip, from earthquake swarms at the transform faults, to slow slip events at the subduction zone. Previous studies demonstrate that serpentine minerals can either promote slip or creep depend on many factors that include sliding velocity, temperature, pressure, interstitial fluids, etc. One missing link from the experimental investigation of serpentine to observations of tectonic faults is the extent of alteration necessary for changing the frictional behaviors. We quantify changes in frictional behavior due to serpentinization by conducting experiments after in-situ serpentinization of olivine gouge. In the sample configuration a layer of powder is sandwiched between porous sandstone blocks with 35° saw-cut surface. The starting material of fine-grained (63 120 µm) olivine powder is reacted with deionized water for 72 hours at 150°C before loading starts. Under the conventional triaxial configuration, the sample is stressed until sliding occurs within the gouge. A series of velocity-steps is then performed to measure the response of friction coefficient to variations of sliding velocity from which the rate-and-state parameters are deduced. For comparison, we measured the frictional behavior of unaltered olivine and pure serpentine gouges.Our results confirm that serpentinization causes reduced frictional strength and velocity weakening. In unaltered olivine gouge, an increase in frictional resistance with increasing sliding velocity is observed, whereas the serpentinized olivine and serpentine gouges favor velocity weakening behaviors at the same conditions. Furthermore, we observed that high pore pressures cause velocity weakening in olivine but

  7. Mechanisms of electrical conductivity in olivine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schock, R.N.; Duba, A.G.; Shankland, T.J.


    Data on the electrical conductivity and the thermoelectric effect in single crystals indicate that the charge conduction mechanism in pure magnesium forsterite is electrons. The concentration of electrons can be varied by controlling the number of oxygen vacancies through manipulation of the oxygen pressure. For iron bearing olivine, the conduction mechanism is by electron holes localized on an iron ion. Since iron strongly affects the creep process as well, oxidation of iron is probably accompanied by the production of magnesium vacancies. 15 references

  8. Chemoorganotrophic Bioleaching of Olivine for Nickel Recovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Wai Chiang


    Full Text Available Bioleaching of olivine, a natural nickel-containing magnesium-iron-silicate, was conducted by applying chemoorganotrophic bacteria and fungi. The tested fungus, Aspergillus niger, leached substantially more nickel from olivine than the tested bacterium, Paenibacillus mucilaginosus. Aspergillus niger also outperformed two other fungal species: Humicola grisae and Penicillium chrysogenum. Contrary to traditional acid leaching, the microorganisms leached nickel preferentially over magnesium and iron. An average selectivity factor of 2.2 was achieved for nickel compared to iron. The impact of ultrasonic conditioning on bioleaching was also tested, and it was found to substantially increase nickel extraction by A. niger. This is credited to an enhancement in the fungal growth rate, to the promotion of particle degradation, and to the detachment of the stagnant biofilm around the particles. Furthermore, ultrasonic conditioning enhanced the selectivity of A. niger for nickel over iron to a value of 3.5. Pre-carbonating the olivine mineral, to enhance mineral liberation and change metal speciation, was also attempted, but did not result in improvement as a consequence of the mild pH of chemoorganotrophic bioleaching.

  9. Evaluation of olivine refractories for TES (United States)

    Gay, B. M.; Cochrane, R. L.; Palmour, H., III; Paisley, M. J.


    The principal objectives of this program are to (1) experimentally determine the degree of improvement in thermal and mechanical performance that can be obtained with an olivine thermal storage brick made of domestic materials using advanced processing techniques compared with state-of-the-art as represented by commercial European bricks, (2) conduct an assessment of existing German ceramic process technology and determine its adaptability to domestic raw materials and manufacturing practices, and (3) investigate, on a limited basis, method for further improvement of domestic-olivine brick. To date, accomplishments include (1) installation of improved, computer-based instrumentation, (2) the use of this system to determine performance characteristics of a set of heat storage refractories under cyclic use conditions, (3) acquisition of the services of a knowledgeable European consultant, (4) continued lab-scale process/property optimization studies, and (5) comparative testing of olivine-based and magnesite-based heat storage refractories in the calorimetric test facility at Purdue University.

  10. Cotectic proportions of olivine and spinel in olivine-tholeiitic basalt and evaluation of pre-eruptive processes (United States)

    Roeder, Peter; Gofton, Emma; Thornber, Carl


    The volume %, distribution, texture and composition of coexisting olivine, Cr-spinel and glass has been determined in quenched lava samples from Hawaii, Iceland and mid-oceanic ridges. The volume ratio of olivine to spinel varies from 60 to 2800 and samples with >0·02% spinel have a volume ratio of olivine to spinel of approximately 100. A plot of wt % MgO vs ppm Cr for natural and experimental basaltic glasses suggests that the general trend of the glasses can be explained by the crystallization of a cotectic ratio of olivine to spinel of about 100. One group of samples has an olivine to spinel ratio of approximately 100, with skeletal olivine phenocrysts and small (within olivine phenocrysts is thought to be due to skeletal olivine phenocrysts coming into physical contact with spinel by synneusis during the chaotic conditions of ascent and extrusion. A second group of samples tend to have large olivine phenocrysts relatively free of included spinel, a few large (>100 μm) spinel crystals that show evidence of two stages of growth, and a volume ratio of olivine to spinel of 100 to well over 1000. The olivine and spinel in this group have crystallized more slowly with little physical interaction, and show evidence that they have accumulated in a magma chamber.

  11. Vaporization Studies of Olivine via Knudsen Effusion Mass Spectrometry (United States)

    Costa, G. C. C.; Jacobson, N. S.


    Olivine is the major mineral in the Earth's upper mantle occurring predominantly in igneous rocks and has been identified in meteorites, asteroids, the Moon and Mars. Among many other important applications in planetary and materials sciences, the thermodynamic properties of vapor species from olivine are crucial as input parameters in computational modelling of the atmospheres of hot, rocky exoplanets (lava planets). There are several weight loss studies of olivine vaporization in the literature and one Knudsen Effusion Mass Spectrometry (KEMS) study. In this study, we examine a forsterite-rich olivine (93% forsterite and 7% fayalite, Fo93Fa7) with KEMS to further understand its vaporization and thermodynamic properties.

  12. Dynamic recrystallization and grain growth in olivine rocks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kellermann Slotemaker, A.


    A mechanism based description of the rheology of olivine is essential for modeling of upper mantle geodynamics. Previously, mantle flow has been investigated using flow laws for grain size insensitive (GSI) dislocation creep and/or grain size sensitive (GSS) diffusion creep of olivine. Generally,

  13. The formation of phosphoran olivine and stanfieldite from the pyrometamorphic breakdown of apatite in slags from a prehistoric ritual immolation site (Goldbichl, Igls, Tyrol, Austria) (United States)

    Schneider, Philipp; Tropper, Peter; Kaindl, Reinhard


    In this study we report P-rich olivine and the tric-calcium phosphate (TCP) stanfieldite in partially molten quartzphyllites from the ritual immolation site at the Goldbichl, near Innsbruck in the Tyrol, Austria. During partial melting, foamy patches of dark glassy material formed at the surface of the rocks and also as layers within the rocks. The pyrometamorphic rocks contain mostly the mineral assemblage olivine + orthopyroxene + plagioclase + spinel + glass. During the investigation of slag samples from this prehistoric ritual immolation site, extremely P-rich, apatite-bearing micro-domains were found. In these domains phosphoran olivine was found whose P contents are approaching the maximum P contents in olivine according to the experimental investigations of Boesenberg and Hewins (Geochim Cosmochim Acta 74:1923-1941, 2010). The textures within these domains indicate strongly disequilibrium conditions. The phosphoran olivines formed due to reactions involving apatite and the mineral assemblage of the quartzphyllites, and coexist with plagioclase and a tri-calcium phosphate phase (TCP) showing stanfieldite Ca4(Mg, Fe2+, Mn2+)5(PO4)6 composition. In terms of its chemical composition, olivine shows a wide range in composition with P ranging from 0.3 to 0.54 a.p.f.u, which corresponds to maximal 23 wt.% P2O5. These are the highest P-contents in olivine reported from rocks so far. The incorporation of P correlates with decreasing Si contents according to the charge balancing scheme 2{{P}^{5+ }}+□{{M}_{1,2 }}=2S{{i}^{4+ }}+{{( {Mg,Fe} )}^{2+ }}{{M}_{1,2 }} . Therefore P can only be incorporated in combination with a vacancy on the M1,2 position. Micro-Raman spectroscopy of phosphoran olivines indicates that these olivines can easily be identified with this method due to the strong signals of the SiO4 and PO4 vibrations. The external vibrations of the M1,2 sites at low wave-numbers are more complex than for P-free olivine. This might be due to the effect of P5+ on

  14. Carbon determination in natural crystals of olivines of deeporigin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shilobreeva, S.N.; Kadik, A.A.; Minaev, V.M.; Kazakov, S.S.; Kuz'min, L.E.; Moskovskij Inzhenerno-Fizicheskij Inst.; AN SSSR, Moscow. Inst. Yadernykh Issledovanij)


    Activation analysis and nuclear reaction analysis with registration of energy spectrum of forming prompt particles are used to determine carbon concentration and distribution in monocrystals of olivines. Carbon determination in olivine volume was carried out by activation analysis by 12 C(d, n) 13 N reaction and surface content - by registration of protons resulting from 12 C(d, p) 13 C reaction. The deuteron energy being 1.8-2.7 MeV, carbon determination limit and the analysis error were 10 -3 and 20 relat.%, respectively. By means of IR spectroscopy it is shown that carbon constitutes part of crystal lattice of olivines in monatomic form

  15. Na-doped LiMnPO4 as an electrode material for enhanced lithium ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    and electrochemical performance. Lithium manganese ... bond enables good thermal and cycling stability [4,5]. The ... Moreover, the surface morphologies are an essential factor ... work, electrochemically inactive cations were replaced par-.

  16. Characterization and luminescent properties of thermally annealed olivines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colin-Garcia, Maria; Correcher, Virgilio; Garcia-Guinea, Javier; Heredia-Barbero, Alejandro; Roman-Lopez, Jesus; Ortega-Gutierrez, Fernando; Negron-Mendoza, Alicia; Ramos-Bernal, Sergio


    Olivine is an iron-magnesium solid solution silicate (Mg,Fe) 2 SiO 4 and it is probably one of the most abundant mineral phase in the Solar System, it is present in the primitive carbonaceous meteorites (i.e Allende), and in ordinary chondritic meteorite, comets or terrestrial planets. The olivine grains in those bodies have been exposed to different radiation sources like UV, electrons, cosmic radiation, etc. Here, we explore the effect of ionizing and non ionizing radiation on the luminescence emission of the two well-characterised olivine samples from Mexico and Spain by means of cathodoluminescence and thermoluminescence. The analyses by X-ray dispersive energies in the scanning electron microscopy show differences between the samples in the amount of iron and magnesium and also show traces of rare elements. Olivine exhibits spectral cathodoluminescence emissions of low intensity, explained for the quenching of the luminescence of the iron, and sharp signals assigned as impurities. Cathodoluminescence and thermoluminescence glow curves of the natural, and UV induced olivine samples were obtained. Our results show that thermal treatments at 1100 °C change the mineral molecular structure and the luminescence properties of this mineral phase. These results confirm an active participation of physical factors influencing the luminescent properties of olivine. -- Highlights: ► Luminescent properties of two olivines samples (Mexican and Spanish) were explored. ► EDS show different iron and magnesium content and traces of rare elements on both. ► Olivine exhibits spectral CL emissions of low intensity due to the quenching of iron. ► Treatments at 1100 °C change the mineral structure and its response to UV radiation

  17. Natural fumarolic alteration of fluorapatite, olivine, and basaltic glass, and implications for habitable environments on Mars. (United States)

    Hausrath, Elisabeth M; Tschauner, Oliver


    Fumaroles represent a very important potential habitat on Mars because they contain water and nutrients. Global deposition of volcanic sulfate aerosols may also have been an important soil-forming process affecting large areas of Mars. Here we identify alteration from the Senator fumarole, northwest Nevada, USA, and in low-temperature environments near the fumarole to help interpret fumarolic and acid vapor alteration of rocks and soils on Mars. We analyzed soil samples and fluorapatite, olivine, and basaltic glass placed at and near the fumarole in in situ mineral alteration experiments designed to measure weathering under natural field conditions. Using synchrotron X-ray diffraction, we clearly observe hydroxyl-carbonate-bearing fluorapatite as a fumarolic alteration product of the original material, fluorapatite. The composition of apatites as well as secondary phosphates has been previously used to infer magmatic conditions as well as fumarolic conditions on Mars. To our knowledge, the observations reported here represent the first documented instance of formation of hydroxyl-carbonate-bearing apatite from fluorapatite in a field experiment. Retreat of olivine surfaces, as well as abundant NH4-containing minerals, was also characteristic of fumarolic alteration. In contrast, alteration in the nearby low-temperature environment resulted in formation of large pits on olivine surfaces, which were clearly distinguishable from the fumarolic alteration. Raman signatures of some fumarolically impacted surfaces are consistent with detection of the biological molecules chlorophyll and scytenomin, potentially useful biosignatures. Observations of altered minerals on Mars may therefore help identify the environment of formation and understand the aqueous history and potential habitability of that planet.

  18. Extraction of in situ cosmogenic 14C from olivine (United States)

    Pigati, J.S.; Lifton, N.A.; Timothy, Jull A.J.; Quade, Jay


    Chemical pretreatment and extraction techniques have been developed previously to extract in situ cosmogenic radiocarbon (in situ 14C) from quartz and carbonate. These minerals can be found in most environments on Earth, but are usually absent from mafic terrains. To fill this gap, we conducted numerous experiments aimed at extracting in situ 14C from olivine ((Fe,Mg)2SiO4). We were able to extract a stable and reproducible in situ 14C component from olivine using stepped heating and a lithium metaborate (LiBO2) flux, following treatment with dilute HNO3 over a variety of experimental conditions. However, measured concentrations for samples from the Tabernacle Hill basalt flow (17.3 ?? 0.3 ka4) in central Utah and the McCarty's basalt flow (3.0 ?? 0.2 ka) in western New Mexico were significantly lower than expected based on exposure of olivine in our samples to cosmic rays at each site. The source of the discrepancy is not clear. We speculate that in situ 14C atoms may not have been released from Mg-rich crystal lattices (the olivine composition at both sites was ~Fo65Fa35). Alternatively, a portion of the 14C atoms released from the olivine grains may have become trapped in synthetic spinel-like minerals that were created in the olivine-flux mixture during the extraction process, or were simply retained in the mixture itself. Regardless, the magnitude of the discrepancy appears to be inversely proportional to the Fe/(Fe+Mg) ratio of the olivine separates. If we apply a simple correction factor based on the chemical composition of the separates, then corrected in situ 14C concentrations are similar to theoretical values at both sites. At this time, we do not know if this agreement is fortuitous or real. Future research should include measurement of in situ 14C concentrations in olivine from known-age basalt flows with different chemical compositions (i.e. more Fe-rich) to determine if this correction is robust for all olivine-bearing rocks. ?? 2010 by the Arizona

  19. Arsenic Sorption on Mechanically Activated Magnetite and Olivine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zdenka Bujňáková


    Full Text Available Arsenic sorption on mechanically activated minerals such as magnetite Fe3O4 (Kiruna, Sweden and olivine (Mg,Fe2SiO4 (Ǻheim,Norway has been studied and compared in this work. Experiments were carried out with non-activated and mechanically activatedsamples. The activation of both minerals was performed in a planetary mill at different milling conditions. The specific surface areaand consequent sorption activity were enhanced by mechanical activation. The using of olivine seems to be better than magnetite fromthe point of view of milling time, which is necessary for achievement of the same sorption effect.

  20. Phosphate Salts (United States)

    ... body. They are involved in cell structure, energy transport and storage, vitamin function, and numerous other processes ... Phosphate-containing foods and beverages include cola, wine, beer, whole grain cereals, nuts, dairy products and some ...

  1. Olivine-Based Blended Compounds as Positive Electrodes for Lithium Batteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian M. Julien


    Full Text Available Blended cathode materials made by mixing LiFePO4 (LFP with LiMnPO4 (LMP or LiNi1/3Mn1/3Co1/3O2 (NMC that exhibit either high specific energy and high rate capability were investigated. The layered blend LMP–LFP and the physically mixed blend NMC–LFP are evaluated in terms of particle morphology and electrochemical performance. Results indicate that the LMP–LFP (66:33 blend has a better discharge rate than the LiMn1−yFeyPO4 with the same composition (y = 0.33, and NMC–LFP (70:30 delivers a remarkable stable capacity over 125 cycles. Finally, in situ voltage measurement methods were applied for the evaluation of the phase evolution of blended cathodes and gradual changes in cell behavior upon cycling. We also discuss through these examples the promising development of blends as future electrodes for new generations of Li-ion batteries.

  2. The Effect of Hydrothermal Treatment on Olivine Nano-Silica

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Griend, van de M.C; Lazaro, A.; Brouwers, H.J.H.


    This paper provides an overview of the effects of ripening the olivine nano-silica to form particles with a lower specific surface area for optimal use in high performance concrete. The nano-silica was ripened using a hydrothermal treatment in a mixed batch reactor at 90 C, pH ranging from 8 to 10

  3. Space Weathering Evolution on Airless Bodies - Laboratory Simulations with Olivine

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kohout, Tomáš; Čuda, J.; Bradley, T.; Britt, D.; Filip, J.; Tuček, J.; Malina, O.; Kašlík, J.; Šišková, K.; Zbořil, R.


    Roč. 45, č. 9 (2013), s. 25-26 ISSN 0002-7537. [Annual meeting of the Division for Planetary Sciences of the American Astronomical Society /45./. 06.10.2013-11.10.2013, Denver] Institutional support: RVO:67985831 Keywords : space weathering * asteroid * Moon * olivine Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics

  4. Dielectric and mechanical properties of plasma-sprayed olivine

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ctibor, Pavel; Neufuss, Karel; Pala, Zdeněk; Kotlan, Jiří; Soumar, J.


    Roč. 67, č. 2 (2015), s. 600-616 ISSN 1221-1451. [International Conference on Plasma Physics and Applications/16./. Magurele, Bucharest, 20.06.2013-25.06.2013] Institutional support: RVO:61389021 Keywords : olivine * plasma spraying * dielectric properties Subject RIV: JH - Ceramics, Fire-Resistant Materials and Glass Impact factor: 1.367, year: 2015

  5. Investigating dissolution of mechanically activated olivine for carbonation purposes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haug, Tove Anette; Kleiv, Rolf Arne; Munz, Ingrid Anne


    Research highlights: → Dissolution of mechanically activated olivine increased with 3 orders of magnitude. → Crystallinity changes of olivine is important for the observed dissolution rates. → Activation probably decreases with the degree of dissolution of each particle. - Abstract: Mineral carbonation is one of several alternatives for CO 2 sequestration and storage. The reaction rates of appropriate minerals with CO 2 , for instance olivine and serpentine with vast resources, are relatively slow in a CO 2 sequestration context and the rates have to be increased to make mineral carbonation a good storage alternative. Increasing the dissolution rate of olivine has been the focus of this paper. Olivine was milled with very high energy intensity using a laboratory planetary mill to investigate the effect of mechanical activation on the Mg extraction potential of olivine in 0.01 M HCl solution at room temperature and pressure. Approximately 30-40% of each sample was dissolved and water samples were taken at the end of each experiment. The pH change was used to calculate time series of the Mg concentrations, which also were compared to the final Mg concentrations in the water samples. Percentage dissolved and the specific reaction rates were estimated from the Mg concentration time series. The measured particle size distributions could not explain the rate constants found, but the specific surface area gave a good trend versus dissolution for samples milled wet and the samples milled with a small addition of water. The samples milled dry had the lowest measured specific surface areas ( 2 /g), but had the highest rate constants. The crystallinity calculated from X-ray diffractograms, was the material parameter with the best fit for the observed differences in the rate constants. Geochemical modelling of mechanically activated materials indicated that factors describing the changes in the material properties related to the activation must be included. The

  6. Effect of water activity on rates of serpentinization of olivine. (United States)

    Lamadrid, Hector M; Rimstidt, J Donald; Schwarzenbach, Esther M; Klein, Frieder; Ulrich, Sarah; Dolocan, Andrei; Bodnar, Robert J


    The hydrothermal alteration of mantle rocks (referred to as serpentinization) occurs in submarine environments extending from mid-ocean ridges to subduction zones. Serpentinization affects the physical and chemical properties of oceanic lithosphere, represents one of the major mechanisms driving mass exchange between the mantle and the Earth's surface, and is central to current origin of life hypotheses as well as the search for microbial life on the icy moons of Jupiter and Saturn. In spite of increasing interest in the serpentinization process by researchers in diverse fields, the rates of serpentinization and the controlling factors are poorly understood. Here we use a novel in situ experimental method involving olivine micro-reactors and show that the rate of serpentinization is strongly controlled by the salinity (water activity) of the reacting fluid and demonstrate that the rate of serpentinization of olivine slows down as salinity increases and H 2 O activity decreases.

  7. Effect of water activity on rates of serpentinization of olivine (United States)

    Lamadrid, Hector M.; Rimstidt, J. Donald; Schwarzenbach, Esther M.; Klein, Frieder; Ulrich, Sarah; Dolocan, Andrei; Bodnar, Robert J.


    The hydrothermal alteration of mantle rocks (referred to as serpentinization) occurs in submarine environments extending from mid-ocean ridges to subduction zones. Serpentinization affects the physical and chemical properties of oceanic lithosphere, represents one of the major mechanisms driving mass exchange between the mantle and the Earth's surface, and is central to current origin of life hypotheses as well as the search for microbial life on the icy moons of Jupiter and Saturn. In spite of increasing interest in the serpentinization process by researchers in diverse fields, the rates of serpentinization and the controlling factors are poorly understood. Here we use a novel in situ experimental method involving olivine micro-reactors and show that the rate of serpentinization is strongly controlled by the salinity (water activity) of the reacting fluid and demonstrate that the rate of serpentinization of olivine slows down as salinity increases and H2O activity decreases.

  8. Production and Application of Olivine Nano-Silica in Concrete (United States)

    Mardiana, Oesman; Haryadi


    The aim of this research was to produce nano silica by synthesis of nano silica through extraction and dissolution of ground olivine rock, and applied the nano silica in the design concrete mix. The producing process of amorphous silica used sulfuric acid as the dissolution reagent. The separation of ground olivine rock occurred when the rock was heated in a batch reactor containing sulfuric acid. The results showed that the optimum mole ratio of olivine- acid was 1: 8 wherein the weight ratio of the highest nano silica generated. The heating temperature and acid concentration influenced the mass of silica produced, that was at temperature of 90 °C and 3 M acid giving the highest yield of 44.90%. Characterization using Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR ) concluded that amorphous silica at a wavenumber of 1089 cm-1 indicated the presence of siloxane, Si-O-Si, stretching bond. Characterization using Scanning Electron Microscope - Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (SEM-EDS) showed the surface and the size of the silica particles. The average size of silica particles was between 1-10 μm due to the rapid aggregation of the growing particles of nano silica into microparticles, caused of the pH control was not fully achieved.

  9. Olivine-rich asteroids in the near-Earth space (United States)

    Popescu, Marcel; Perna, D.; Barucci, M. A.; Fornasier, S.; Doressoundiram, A.; Lantz, C.; Merlin, F.; Belskaya, I. N.; Fulchignoni, M.


    In the framework of a 30-night spectroscopic survey of small near-Earth asteroids (NEAs) we present new results regarding the identification of olivine-rich objects. The following NEAs were classified as A-type using visible spectra obtained with 3.6 m NTT telescope: (293726) 2007 RQ17, (444584) 2006 UK, 2012 NP, 2014 YS34, 2015 HB117, 2015 LH, 2015 TB179, 2015 TW144. We determined a relative abundance of 5.4% (8 out of 147 observed targets) A-types at hundred meter size range of NEAs population. The ratio is at least five times larger compared with the previously known A-types, which represent less than ˜1% of NEAs taxonomically classified. By taking into account that part of our targets may not be confirmed as olivine-rich asteroids by their near-infrared spectra, or they can have a nebular origin, our result provides an upper-limit estimation of mantle fragments at size ranges bellow 300m. Our findings are compared with the "battered-to-bits" scenario, claiming that at small sizes the olivine-rich objects should be more abundant when compared with basaltic and iron ones.

  10. Olivine-rich asteroids in the near-Earth space (United States)

    Popescu, Marcel; Perna, D.; Barucci, M. A.; Fornasier, S.; Doressoundiram, A.; Lantz, C.; Merlin, F.; Belskaya, I. N.; Fulchignoni, M.


    In the framework of a 30-night spectroscopic survey of small near-Earth asteroids (NEAs), we present new results regarding the identification of olivine-rich objects. The following NEAs were classified as A-type using visible spectra obtained with 3.6-m New Technology Telescope: (293726) 2007 RQ17, (444584) 2006 UK, 2012 NP, 2014 YS34, 2015 HB117, 2015 LH, 2015 TB179, 2015 TW144. We determined a relative abundance of 5.4 per cent (8 out of 147 observed targets) A-types at a 100-m size range of NEA population. The ratio is at least five times larger compared with the previously known A-types, which represent less than ˜ 1 per cent of NEAs taxonomically classified. By taking into account that part of our targets may not be confirmed as olivine-rich asteroids by their near-infrared spectra, or they can have a nebular origin, our result provides an upper-limit estimation of mantle fragments at size ranges below 300 m. Our findings are compared with the `battered-to-bits' scenario, claiming that at small sizes the olivine-rich objects should be more abundant when compared with basaltic and iron ones.

  11. Ringwoodite growth rates from olivine with ~75 ppmw H2O: Metastable olivine must be nearly anhydrous to exist in the mantle transition zone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Du Frane, Wyatt L. [Arizona State Univ., Tempe, AZ (United States). School of Earth and Space Exploration; Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States). Atmospheric, Earth and Energy Division; Sharp, Thomas G. [Arizona State Univ., Tempe, AZ (United States). School of Earth and Space Exploration; Mosenfelder, Jed L. [California Inst. of Technology (CalTech), Pasadena, CA (United States). Division of Geological and Planetary Sciences; Leinenweber, Kurt [Arizona State Univ., Tempe, AZ (United States). School of Earth and Space Exploration


    It has been previously demonstrated that as little as 300 ppmw H2O increases wadsleyite and ringwoodite growth rates to magnitudes that are inconsistent with the metastable olivine hypothesis. To further test this hypothesis, we present new ringwoodite growth rate measurements from olivine with ~75 ppmw H2O at 18 GPa and 700, 900, and 1100 °C. These growth rates are nearly identical to those from olivine with ~300 ppmw H2O, and significantly higher than those from nominally anhydrous olivine. We infer that transformation of olivine with 75-300 ppmw H2O is primarily enhanced by hydrolytic weakening of reaction rims, which reduces the elastic strain-energy barrier to growth. We present a new method for fitting nonlinear nominally anhydrous data, to demonstrate that reduction of growth rates by elastic strain energy is an additional requirement for metastable olivine. In conclusion, based on previous thermokinetic modeling, these enhanced growth rates are inconsistent with the persistence of metastable olivine wedges into the mantle transition zone. Metastable persistence of olivine into the mantle transition-zone would therefore require < 75 ppmw H2O.

  12. Fe2+-Mg2+ order in an olivine from the lunar anorthosite 67075 and the significance of cation order in lunar and terrestrial olivines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghose, Subrata; Wan, Che'ng; McCallum, I.


    In an olivine, (Fesub(1.010)Mgsub(1.015)Casub(0.002)Mnsub(0.014)SiO 4 , from the lunar anorthosite 67075, Fe 2+ indicates a slight preference for the M1 site, the KD value being 1.197. Available data in synthetic, lunar and terrestrial olivines indicate that for iron-rich olivines (>20 mol percent Fayalite), Fe 2+ prefers the M1 site, the site preference decreasing with decreasing temperature. In magnesium-rich olivines, Fe 2+ prefers the M1 site at high temperature, but may prefer the M2 site at low temperature. The olivine from sample 67075 most likely was cooled from the crystallization temperature to 800 0 C or less in 10 days. (author)

  13. Transport properties of olivine grain boundaries from electrical conductivity experiments (United States)

    Pommier, Anne; Kohlstedt, David L.; Hansen, Lars N.; Mackwell, Stephen; Tasaka, Miki; Heidelbach, Florian; Leinenweber, Kurt


    Grain boundary processes contribute significantly to electronic and ionic transports in materials within Earth's interior. We report a novel experimental study of grain boundary conductivity in highly strained olivine aggregates that demonstrates the importance of misorientation angle between adjacent grains on aggregate transport properties. We performed electrical conductivity measurements of melt-free polycrystalline olivine (Fo90) samples that had been previously deformed at 1200 °C and 0.3 GPa to shear strains up to γ = 7.3. The electrical conductivity and anisotropy were measured at 2.8 GPa over the temperature range 700-1400 °C. We observed that (1) the electrical conductivity of samples with a small grain size (3-6 µm) and strong crystallographic preferred orientation produced by dynamic recrystallization during large-strain shear deformation is a factor of 10 or more larger than that measured on coarse-grained samples, (2) the sample deformed to the highest strain is the most conductive even though it does not have the smallest grain size, and (3) conductivity is up to a factor of 4 larger in the direction of shear than normal to the shear plane. Based on these results combined with electrical conductivity data for coarse-grained, polycrystalline olivine and for single crystals, we propose that the electrical conductivity of our fine-grained samples is dominated by grain boundary paths. In addition, the electrical anisotropy results from preferential alignment of higher-conductivity grain boundaries associated with the development of a strong crystallographic preferred orientation of the grains.

  14. Serpentinization and alteration in an olivine cumulate from the Stillwater Complex, Southwestern Montana (United States)

    Page, N.J.


    Some of the olivine cumulates of the Ultramafic zone of the Stillwater Complex, Montana, are progressively altered to serpentine minerals and thompsonite. Lizardite and chrysotile developed in the cumulus olivine and postcumulus pyroxenes; thompsonite developed in postcumulus plagioclase. The detailed mineralogy, petrology, and chemistry indicate that olivine and plagioclase react to form the alteration products, except for H2O, without changes in the bulk composition of the rocks. ?? 1976 Springer-Verlag.

  15. Chromium valences in ureilite olivine and implications for ureilite petrogenesis (United States)

    Goodrich, C. A.; Sutton, S. R.; Wirick, S.; Jercinovic, M. J.


    Ureilites are a group of ultramafic achondrites commonly thought to be residues of partial melting on a carbon-rich asteroid. They show a large variation in FeO content (olivine Fo values ranging from ∼74 to 95) that cannot be due to igneous fractionation and suggests instead variation in oxidation state. The presence of chromite in only a few of the most ferroan (Fo 75-76) samples appears to support such a model. MicroXANES analyses were used in this study to determine the valence states of Cr (previously unknown) in olivine cores of 11 main group ureilites. The goal of this work was to use a method that is independent of Fo to determine the oxidation conditions under which ureilites formed, in order to evaluate whether the ureilite FeO-variation is correlated with oxidation state, and whether it is nebular or planetary in origin. Two of the analyzed samples, LEW 88774 (Fo 74.2) and NWA 766 (Fo 76.7) contain primary chromite; two others, LAP 03587 (Fo 74.4) and CMS 04048 (Fo 76.2) contain sub-micrometer-sized exsolutions of chromite + Ca-rich pyroxene in olivine; and one, EET 96328 (Fo 85.2) contains an unusual chromite grain of uncertain origin. No chromite has been observed in the remaining six samples (Fo 77.4-92.3). Chromium in olivine in all eleven samples was found to be dominated by the divalent species, with valences ranging from 2.10 ± 0.02 (1σ) to 2.46 ± 0.04. The non-chromite-bearing ureilites have the most reduced Cr, with a weighted mean valence of 2.12 ± 0.01, i.e., Cr2+/Cr3+ = 7.33. All low-Fo chromite-bearing ureilites have more oxidized Cr, with valences ranging from 2.22 ± 0.03 to 2.46 ± 0.04. EET 96328, whose chromite grain we interpret as a late-crystallizing phase, yielded a reduced Cr valence of 2.15 ± 0.07, similar to the non-chromite-bearing samples. Based on the measured Cr valences, magmatic (1200-1300 °C) oxygen fugacities (fO2) of the non-chromite-bearing samples were estimated to be in the range IW-1.9 to IW-2.8 (assuming

  16. Network topology of olivine-basalt partial melts (United States)

    Skemer, Philip; Chaney, Molly M.; Emmerich, Adrienne L.; Miller, Kevin J.; Zhu, Wen-lu


    The microstructural relationship between melt and solid grains in partially molten rocks influences many physical properties, including permeability, rheology, electrical conductivity and seismic wave speeds. In this study, the connectivity of melt networks in the olivine-basalt system is explored using a systematic survey of 3-D X-ray microtomographic data. Experimentally synthesized samples with 2 and 5 vol.% melt are analysed as a series of melt tubules intersecting at nodes. Each node is characterized by a coordination number (CN), which is the number of melt tubules that intersect at that location. Statistically representative volumes are described by coordination number distributions (CND). Polyhedral grains can be packed in many configurations yielding different CNDs, however widely accepted theory predicts that systems with small dihedral angles, such as olivine-basalt, should exhibit a predominant CN of four. In this study, melt objects are identified with CN = 2-8, however more than 50 per cent are CN = 4, providing experimental verification of this theoretical prediction. A conceptual model that considers the role of heterogeneity in local grain size and melt fraction is proposed to explain the formation of nodes with CN ≠ 4. Correctly identifying the melt network topology is essential to understanding the relationship between permeability and porosity, and hence the transport properties of partial molten mantle rocks.

  17. Carbon Sequestration in Olivine and Basalt Powder Packed Beds. (United States)

    Xiong, Wei; Wells, Rachel K; Giammar, Daniel E


    Fractures and pores in basalt could provide substantial pore volume and surface area of reactive minerals for carbonate mineral formation in geologic carbon sequestration. In many fractures solute transport will be limited to diffusion, and opposing chemical gradients that form as a result of concentration differences can lead to spatial distribution of silicate mineral dissolution and carbonate mineral precipitation. Glass tubes packed with grains of olivine or basalt with different grain sizes and compositions were used to explore the identity and spatial distribution of carbonate minerals that form in dead-end one-dimensional diffusion-limited zones that are connected to a larger reservoir of water in equilibrium with 100 bar CO 2 at 100 °C. Magnesite formed in experiments with olivine, and Mg- and Ca-bearing siderite formed in experiments with flood basalt. The spatial distribution of carbonates varied between powder packed beds with different powder sizes. Packed beds of basalt powder with large specific surface areas sequestered more carbon per unit basalt mass than powder with low surface area. The spatial location and extent of carbonate mineral formation can influence the overall ability of fractured basalt to sequester carbon.

  18. Diffusion Modeling of Cooling Rates of Relict Olivine in Semarkona Chondrules (United States)

    Hewins, R. H.; Ganguly, J.; Mariani, E.


    Diffusive exchange profiles between relict olivine and melt-grown olivine in Semarkona Type IIA chondrules were oriented by EBSD to correct D. Results for Fe-Mg (D from Dohmen) and Cr (Ito and Ganguly) are concordant at 300°-400°C/hr.

  19. Olivine Major and Trace Element Compositions in Southern Payenia Basalts, Argentina

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søager, Nina; Portnyagin, Maxim; Hoernle, Kaj


    Olivine major and trace element compositions from 12 basalts from the southern Payenia volcanic province in Argentina have been analyzed by electron microprobe and laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. The olivines have high Fe/Mn and low Ca/Fe and many fall at the end of t...

  20. Synthesis of nanometer-sized fayalite and magnesium-iron(II) mixture olivines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qafoku, Odeta; Ilton, Eugene S.; Bowden, Mark E.; Kovarik, Libor; Zhang, Xin; Kukkadapu, Ravi K.; Engelhard, Mark H.; Thompson, Christopher J.; Schaef, Herbert T.; McGrail, Bernard Peter; Rosso, Kevin M.; Loring, John S.


    Olivines are divalent orthosilicates with important geologic, biological, and industrial significance and are typically comprised of mixtures of Mg2+ and Fe2+ ranging from forsterite (Mg2SiO4) to fayalite (Fe2SiO4). Investigating the role of Fe(II) in olivine reactivity requires the ability to synthesize olivines that are nanometer-sized, have different percentages of Mg2+ and Fe2+, and have good bulk and surface purity. This article demonstrates a new method for synthesizing nanosized fayalite and Mg-Fe mixture olivines. First, carbonaceous precursors are generated from sucrose, PVA, colloidal silica, Mg2+, and Fe3+. Second, these precursors are calcined in air to burn carbon and create mixtures of Fe(III)-oxides, forsterite, and SiO2. Finally, calcination in reducing CO-CO2 gas buffer leads to Fe(II)-rich olivines. XRD, Mössbauer, and IR analyses verify good bulk purity and composition. XPS indicates that surface iron is in its reduced Fe(II) form, and surface Si is consistent with olivine. SEM shows particle sizes predominately between 50 and 450 nm, and BET surface areas are 2.8-4.2 m2/g. STEM HAADF analysis demonstrates even distributions of Mg and Fe among the available M1 and M2 sites of the olivine crystals. These nanosized Fe(II)-rich olivines are suitable for laboratory studies with in situ probes that require mineral samples with high reactivity at short timescales.

  1. Preliminary quantification of a shape model for etch-pits formed during natural weathering of olivine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nowicki, M. Anna; Velbel, Michael A.


    Many etch-pits on olivine grains occur as a pair of cone-shaped pits sharing a base, which consequently appear as diamond-shaped etch-pits in cross-section. Quantitative image analysis of back-scattered electron images establishes empirical dimensions of olivine etch-pits in naturally weathered samples from Hawaii and North Carolina. Images of naturally etched olivine were acquired from polished thin-sections by scanning electron microscopy. An average cone-radius-to-height ratio (r:h) of 1.78 was determined for diamond-shaped cross-sections of etch-pits occurring in naturally weathered olivine grains, largely consistent with previous qualitative results. Olivine etch-pit shape as represented by r:h varies from slightly more than half the average value to slightly more than twice the average. Etch-pit shape does not appear to vary systematically with etch-pit size.

  2. Environmental monitoring at the Seqi olivine mine 2010

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søndergaard, Jens; Asmund, Gert

    monitoring studies conducted in 2010. Results from previous years have shown that operation of the mine caused levels of some elements, particularly chromium and nickel, to increase in lichens, blue mussels and seaweed within the surrounding area compared to pre-mining conditions. The main source......The olivine mine at Seqi in West Greenland operated between 2005 and 2010. Since 2004, environmental monitoring studies have been conducted at Seqi every year in order to assess premining conditions and subsequently the impact from mining during operation. This report contains the results from...... of contamination is considered the generation and spreading of metal-contaminated dust from the roads and the ore-crushing facility. Results from 2010 show that levels of chromium and nickel in lichens are still elevated but that dust deposition rates have decreased from 2008 to 2010. Similarly, levels of chromium...

  3. Remote compositional analysis of lunar olivine-rich lithologies with Moon Mineralogy Mapper (M3) spectra (United States)

    Isaacson, P.J.; Pieters, C.M.; Besse, S.; Clark, R.N.; Head, J.W.; Klima, R.L.; Mustard, J.F.; Petro, N.E.; Staid, M.I.; Sunshine, J.M.; Taylor, L.A.; Thaisen, K.G.; Tompkins, S.


    A systematic approach for deconvolving remotely sensed lunar olivine-rich visible to near-infrared (VNIR) reflectance spectra with the Modified Gaussian Model (MGM) is evaluated with Chandrayaan-1 Moon Mineralogy Mapper (M 3) spectra. Whereas earlier studies of laboratory reflectance spectra focused only on complications due to chromite inclusions in lunar olivines, we develop a systematic approach for addressing (through continuum removal) the prominent continuum slopes common to remotely sensed reflectance spectra of planetary surfaces. We have validated our continuum removal on a suite of laboratory reflectance spectra. Suites of olivine-dominated reflectance spectra from a small crater near Mare Moscoviense, the Copernicus central peak, Aristarchus, and the crater Marius in the Marius Hills were analyzed. Spectral diversity was detected in visual evaluation of the spectra and was quantified using the MGM. The MGM-derived band positions are used to estimate the olivine's composition in a relative sense. Spectra of olivines from Moscoviense exhibit diversity in their absorption features, and this diversity suggests some variation in olivine Fe/Mg content. Olivines from Copernicus are observed to be spectrally homogeneous and thus are predicted to be more compositionally homogeneous than those at Moscoviense but are of broadly similar composition to the Moscoviense olivines. Olivines from Aristarchus and Marius exhibit clear spectral differences from those at Moscoviense and Copernicus but also exhibit features that suggest contributions from other phases. If the various precautions discussed here are weighed carefully, the methods presented here can be used to make general predictions of absolute olivine composition (Fe/Mg content). Copyright ?? 2011 by the American Geophysical Union.

  4. Abiotic methane formation during experimental serpentinization of olivine. (United States)

    McCollom, Thomas M


    Fluids circulating through actively serpentinizing systems are often highly enriched in methane (CH 4 ). In many cases, the CH 4 in these fluids is thought to derive from abiotic reduction of inorganic carbon, but the conditions under which this process can occur in natural systems remain unclear. In recent years, several studies have reported abiotic formation of CH 4 during experimental serpentinization of olivine at temperatures at or below 200 °C. However, these results seem to contradict studies conducted at higher temperatures (300 °C to 400 °C), where substantial kinetic barriers to CH 4 synthesis have been observed. Here, the potential for abiotic formation of CH 4 from dissolved inorganic carbon during olivine serpentinization is reevaluated in a series of laboratory experiments conducted at 200 °C to 320 °C. A 13 C-labeled inorganic carbon source was used to unambiguously determine the origin of CH 4 generated in the experiments. Consistent with previous high-temperature studies, the results indicate that abiotic formation of CH 4 from reduction of dissolved inorganic carbon during the experiments is extremely limited, with nearly all of the observed CH 4 derived from background sources. The results indicate that the potential for abiotic synthesis of CH 4 in low-temperature serpentinizing environments may be much more limited than some recent studies have suggested. However, more extensive production of CH 4 was observed in one experiment performed under conditions that allowed an H 2 -rich vapor phase to form, suggesting that shallow serpentinization environments where a separate gas phase is present may be more favorable for abiotic synthesis of CH 4 .

  5. Dislocation Interactions in Olivine Revealed by HR-EBSD (United States)

    Wallis, David; Hansen, Lars N.; Britton, T. Ben; Wilkinson, Angus J.


    Interactions between dislocations potentially provide a control on strain rates produced by dislocation motion during creep of rocks at high temperatures. However, it has been difficult to establish the dominant types of interactions and their influence on the rheological properties of creeping rocks due to a lack of suitable observational techniques. We apply high-angular resolution electron backscatter diffraction to map geometrically necessary dislocation (GND) density, elastic strain, and residual stress in experimentally deformed single crystals of olivine. Short-range interactions are revealed by cross correlation of GND density maps. Spatial correlations between dislocation types indicate that noncollinear interactions may impede motion of proximal dislocations at temperatures of 1000°C and 1200°C. Long-range interactions are revealed by autocorrelation of GND density maps. These analyses reveal periodic variations in GND density and sign, with characteristic length scales on the order of 1-10 μm. These structures are spatially associated with variations in elastic strain and residual stress on the order of 10-3 and 100 MPa, respectively. Therefore, short-range interactions generate local accumulations of dislocations, leading to heterogeneous internal stress fields that influence dislocation motion over longer length scales. The impacts of these short- and/or long-range interactions on dislocation velocities may therefore influence the strain rate of the bulk material and are an important consideration for future models of dislocation-mediated deformation mechanisms in olivine. Establishing the types and impacts of dislocation interactions that occur across a range of laboratory and natural deformation conditions will help to establish the reliability of extrapolating laboratory-derived flow laws to real Earth conditions.

  6. Correlations Between Olivine Abundance and Thermal Inertia: Implications for Global Weathering and/or Alteration on Mars (United States)

    Hamilton, V. E.; McDowell, M. L.; Koeppen, W. C.


    TES data show no global trend between thermal inertia and olivine abundance. But it is premature to conclude that all dark surfaces were once more mafic OR that olivine is not preferentially removed from olivine-enriched outcrops as they erode.

  7. Transfer of olivine crystallographic orientation through a cycle of serpentinisation and dehydration (United States)

    Dunkel, Kristina G.; Austrheim, Håkon; Ildefonse, Benoit; Jamtveit, Bjørn


    Our ability to decipher the mechanisms behind metamorphic transformation processes depends in a major way on the extent to which crystallographic and microstructural information is transferred from one stage to another. Within the Leka Ophiolite Complex in the Central Norwegian Caledonides, prograde olivine veins that formed by dehydration of serpentinite veins in dunites exhibit a characteristic distribution of microstructures: The outer part of the veins comprises coarse-grained olivine that forms an unusual, brick-like microstructure. The inner part of the veins, surrounding a central fault, is composed of fine-grained olivine. Where the fault movement included a dilational component, optically clear, equant olivine occurs in the centre. Electron backscatter diffraction mapping reveals that the vein olivine has inherited its crystallographic preferred orientation (CPO) from the olivine in the porphyroclastic host rock; however, misorientation is weaker and associated to different rotation axes. We propose that prograde olivine grew epitaxially on relics of mantle olivine and thereby acquired its CPO. Growth towards pre-existing microfractures along which serpentinisation had occurred led to straight grain boundaries and a brick-like microstructure in the veins. When dehydration embrittlement induced slip, a strong strain localisation on discrete fault planes prevented distortion of the CPO due to cataclastic deformation; grain size reduction did not significantly modify the olivine CPO. This illustrates how a CPO can be preserved though an entire metamorphic cycle, including hydration, dehydration, and deformation processes, and that the CPO and the microstructures (e.g. grain shape) of one phase do not necessarily record the same event.

  8. H Diffusion in Olivine and Pyroxene from Peridotite Xenoliths and a Hawaiian Magma Speedometer (United States)

    Peslier, A. H.; Bizimis, M.


    Hydrogen is present as a trace element in olivine and pyroxene and its content distribution in the mantle results from melting and metasomatic processes. Here we examine how these H contents can be disturbed during decompression. Hydrogen was analyzed by FTIR in olivine and pyroxene of spinel peridotite xenoliths from Salt Lake Crater (SLC) nephelinites which are part of the rejuvenated volcanism at Oahu (Hawaii) [1,2]. H mobility in pyroxene resulting from spinel exsolution during mantle upwelling Most pyroxenes in SLC peridotites exhibit exsolutions, characterized by spinel inclusions. Pyroxene edges where no exsolution are present have less H then their core near the spinel. Given that H does not enter spinel [3], subsolidus requilibration may have concentrated H in the pyroxene adjacent to the spinel exsolution during mantle upwelling. H diffusion in olivine during xenolith transport by its host magma and host magma ascent rates Olivines have lower water contents at the edge and near fractures compared to at their core, while the concentrations of all other chemical elements appear homogeneous. This suggests that some of the initial water has diffused out of the olivine. Water loss from the olivine is thought to occur during host-magma ascent and xenolith transport to the surface [4-6]. Diffusion modeling matches best the data when the initial water content used is that measured at the core of the olivines, implying that mantle water contents are preserved at the core of the olivines. The 3225 cm(sup -1) OH band at times varies independantly of other OH bands, suggesting uneven H distribution in olivine defects likely acquired during mantle metasomatism just prior to eruption and unequilibrated. Diffusion times (1-48 hrs) combined with depths of peridotite equilibration or of magma start of degassing allow to calculate ascent rates for the host nephelinite of 0.1 to 27 m/s.

  9. Olivine CPO in non-deformed peridotite due to topotactic replacement of antigorite (United States)

    Nagaya, Takayoshi; Wallis, Simon; Kobayashi, Hiroaki; Michibayashi, Katsuyoshi; Mizukami, Tomoyuki; Seto, Yusuke; Miyake, Akira; Matsumoto, Megumi


    Olivine crystallographic preferred orientation (CPO) is thought to be the main cause of seismic anisotropy in the mantle, and its formation is generally considered to be the result of plastic deformation of mantle by dislocation creep. Olivine CPO has been reproduced in laboratory deformation experiments and considerable success has been achieved in understanding the deformation conditions (e.g. stress, temperature and water content) under which different olivine CPO patterns develop. This opens the possibility of mapping conditions in the mantle using seismic anisotropy and has been the subject of considerable study. Here we report an alternative mechanism for olivine CPO without the need for deformation. This process may be important in understanding the seismic properties of mantle in convergent margins. Metamorphic studies show peridotite in the Happo area, central Japan, formed by the dehydration of antigorite-schist related to contact metamorphism around a granite intrusion. Both field and microstructural observations suggest the olivine has not undergone strong plastic deformation. This was confirmed by TEM work that shows the olivine has very low dislocation densities and lacks low angle tilt boundaries. Such tilt boundaries are general stable even after annealing. These features show that peridotite in the Happo area formed in the absence of solid-state deformation. The olivine of the Happo peridotite formed dominantly by the dehydration breakdown of antigorite schist. We propose that the olivine CPO formed as a result of topotactic replacement of antigorite by the newly formed olivine. EBSD measurements in samples where both antigorite and new olivine are present and in contact show a very close crystallographic relationship between the two minerals: the a-axes are parallel, and the b- and c-axes are perpendicular. We conclude the strong olivine CPO in the Happo area was inherited from the original CPO of the antigorite. Such a process is likely to also

  10. Water in Pyroxene and Olivine from Martian Meteorites (United States)

    Peslier, A. H.


    Water in the interior of terrestrial planets can be dissolved in fluids or melts and hydrous phases, but can also be locked as protons attached to structural oxygen in lattice defects in nominally anhydrous minerals (NAM) like olivine, pyroxene, or feldspar [1-3]. Although these minerals contain only tens to hundreds of ppm H2O, this water can amount to at least one ocean in mass when added at planetary scales because of the modal dominance of NAM in the mantle and crust [4]. Moreover these trace amounts of water can have drastic effects on melting temperature, rheology, electrical and heat conductivity, and seismic wave attenuation [5]. There is presently a debate on how much water is present in the martian mantle. Secondary ionization mass spectrometry (SIMS) studies of NAM [6], amphiboles and glass in melt inclusions [7-10], and apatites [11, 12] from Martian meteorites report finding as much water as in the same phases from Earth's igneous rocks. Most martian hydrous minerals, however, generally have the relevant sites filled with Cl and F instead of H [13, 14], and experiments using Cl [15] in parent melts can reproduce Martian basalt compositions as well as those with water [16]. We are in the process of analyzing Martian meteorite minerals by Fourier transform infrared spectrometry (FTIR) in order to constrain the role of water in this planet s formation and magmatic evolution

  11. Uranium from phosphate ores

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hurst, F.J.


    The following topics are described briefly: the way phosphate fertilizers are made; how uranium is recovered in the phosphate industry; and how to detect covert uranium recovery operations in a phsophate plant

  12. Spectroscopy of olivine basalts using FieldSpec and ASTER data: A ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Several volcanic episodes occurred during Early- to Late-. Cretaceous are ... produce a new scene that has the best of orig- ... developed from an olivine basalt parent magma, ..... Marcelino E, Formaggio A and Maeda E 2009 Landslide.

  13. Prevalence of the Ancient Wood-Ljungdahl Pathway in a Subseafloor Olivine Community (United States)

    Smith, A. R.; Mueller, R.; Fisk, M. R.; Mason, O. U.; Popa, R.; Kieft, B.; Colwell, F. S.


    The ancient Wood-Ljungdahl pathway used for biosynthesis and energy generation was found to be the predominant metabolic pathway in a microbial community from olivine grains incubated in the Juan de Fuca subseafloor aquifer.

  14. Mantle-derived trace element variability in olivines and their melt inclusions (United States)

    Neave, David A.; Shorttle, Oliver; Oeser, Martin; Weyer, Stefan; Kobayashi, Katsura


    Trace element variability in oceanic basalts is commonly used to constrain the physics of mantle melting and the chemistry of Earth's deep interior. However, the geochemical properties of mantle melts are often overprinted by mixing and crystallisation processes during ascent and storage. Studying primitive melt inclusions offers one solution to this problem, but the fidelity of the melt-inclusion archive to bulk magma chemistry has been repeatedly questioned. To provide a novel check of the melt inclusion record, we present new major and trace element analyses from olivine macrocrysts in the products of two geographically proximal, yet compositionally distinct, primitive eruptions from the Reykjanes Peninsula of Iceland. By combining these macrocryst analyses with new and published melt inclusion analyses we demonstrate that olivines have similar patterns of incompatible trace element (ITE) variability to the inclusions they host, capturing chemical systematics on intra- and inter-eruption scales. ITE variability (element concentrations, ratios, variances and variance ratios) in olivines from the ITE-enriched Stapafell eruption is best accounted for by olivine-dominated fractional crystallisation. In contrast, ITE variability in olivines and inclusions from the ITE-depleted Háleyjabunga eruption cannot be explained by crystallisation alone, and must have originated in the mantle. Compatible trace element (CTE) variability is best described by crystallisation processes in both eruptions. Modest correlations between host and inclusion ITE contents in samples from Háleyjabunga suggest that melt inclusions can be faithful archives of melting and magmatic processes. It also indicates that degrees of ITE enrichment can be estimated from olivines directly when melt inclusion and matrix glass records of geochemical variability are poor or absent. Inter-eruption differences in olivine ITE systematics between Stapafell and Háleyjabunga mirror differences in melt

  15. Relict olivines in micrometeorites: Precursors and interactions in the earth`s atmosphere

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Rudraswami, N.G.; ShyamPrasad, M.; Dey, S.; Fernandes, D.; Plane, J.M.C.; Feng, W.; Taylor, S.; Carrillo-Sanchez, J.D.

    is therefore useful for identifying the range of chondrites that contributes to the flux of micrometeorites (Steele, 1985a,b; Steele, 1992). The survival of the relict grains also 3    constrains the temperature the particle may have experienced during... elements present in the relict mineral helps narrow down the precursor with greater precision than the bulk chemical composition (Steele, 1985a, b; 1992), particularly because Mg-rich olivine can be compared with Mg-rich olivine in chondritic components...

  16. Chemical zoning and homogenization of olivines in ordinary chondrites and implications for thermal histories of chondrules (United States)

    Miyamoto, Masamichi; Mckay, David S.; Mckay, Gordon A.; Duke, Michael B.


    The extent and degree of homogenization of chemical zoning of olivines in type 3 ordinary chondrites is studied in order to obtain some constraints on cooling histories of chondrites. Based on Mg-Fe and CaO zoning, olivines in type 3 chondrites are classified into four types. A single chondrule usually contains olivines with the same type of zoning. Microporphyritic olivines show all four zoning types. Barred olivines usually show almost homogenized chemical zoning. The cooling rates or burial depths needed to homogenize the chemical zoning are calculated by solving the diffusion equation, using the zoning profiles as an initial condition. Mg-Fe zoning of olivine may be altered during initial cooling, whereas CaO zoning is hardly changed. Barred olivines may be homogenized during initial cooling because their size is relatively small. To simulated microporphyritic olivine chondrules, cooling from just below the liquidus at moderately high rates is preferable to cooling from above the liquidus at low rates. For postaccumulation metamorphism of type 3 chondrites to keep Mg-Fe zoning unaltered, the maximum metamorphic temperature must be less than about 400 C if cooling rates based on Fe-Ni data are assumed. Calculated cooling rates for both Fa and CaO homogenization are consistent with those by Fe-Ni data for type 4 chondrites. A hot ejecta blanket several tens of meters thick on the surface of a parent body is sufficient to homogenize Mg-Fe zoning if the temperature of the blanket is 600-700 C. Burial depths for petrologic types of ordinary chondrites in a parent body heated by Al-26 are broadly consistent with those previously proposed.

  17. A Tale of Two Olivines: Magma Ascent in the Auckland Volcanic Field, New Zealand (United States)

    Smid, E. R.; McGee, L. E.; Smith, I. E.; Lindsay, J. M.


    The Auckland Volcanic Field (AVF) is a nephelinitic to subalkali basaltic monogenetic field centered on the city of Auckland, New Zealand. Lavas are olivine-phyric, and the deposits of several volcanoes in the field contain olivine crystals with chrome spinel (Cr-spinel) inclusions. Microprobe analyses show at least two populations of olivine, categorised by their Mg# and their spinel inclusion compositions: the first has olivines that are euhedral, have compositions slightly less forsteritic than expected for whole rock Mg#, and have Cr-spinel inclusions with relatively low Cr2O3 contents of ~20%. These are interpreted as antecrysts inherited from the mantle source that yielded their host magma. The second population is characterised by olivines that are sub- to euhedral, are significantly more forsteritic than expected from their host whole rock Mg#, and have Cr-spinel inclusons with relatively high Cr2O3 contents of ~50%. These are interpreted as xenocrysts. The composition of these high Cr2O3 spinels very closely resembles the composition of spinels within olivines in dunite sampled from the Dun Mountain Ophiolite on the South Island of New Zealand. The northward extension of the Dun Mountain complex beneath the North Island is defined by the Junction Magnetic Anomaly, marking a crustal terrane boundary that underlies the Auckland Volcanic Field. These data indicate that the magmas that have risen to produce the volcanoes of the Auckland Volcanic Field have carried crystals from an underlying ultramafic crust as well as from their asthenospheric source. Euhedral olivine crystals which do not contain Cr-spinel are also present in AVF lavas and these are interpreted as true phenocrysts that crystallised directly from their host magmas. The lack of reaction textures at crystal margins suggests rapid ascent rates. A crustal origin for the xenocrysts not only has large implications for ascent rate modelling of olivines, but also for the crustal structure of the

  18. Oxygen isotopic composition of relict olivine grains in cosmic spherules: Links to chondrules from carbonaceous chondrites

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Rudraswami, N.G.; ShyamPrasad, M.; Nagashima, K.; Jones, R.H.

    aluminium rich inclusions (CAIs), amoeboid olivine aggregates (AOAs), and some porphyritic chondrules from carbonaceous chondrites. These grains appear to have recorded the initial oxygen isotopic composition of the inner solar nebula. Three olivine... to the major components of meteorites such as chondrules and calcium-aluminium-rich inclusions (CAIs). CAIs, the first solar system objects in the solar nebula, are formed by condensation of refractory minerals at high temperatures. They are 16O...

  19. Olivine Dissolution in Seawater: Implications for CO2 Sequestration through Enhanced Weathering in Coastal Environments (United States)


    Enhanced weathering of (ultra)basic silicate rocks such as olivine-rich dunite has been proposed as a large-scale climate engineering approach. When implemented in coastal environments, olivine weathering is expected to increase seawater alkalinity, thus resulting in additional CO2 uptake from the atmosphere. However, the mechanisms of marine olivine weathering and its effect on seawater–carbonate chemistry remain poorly understood. Here, we present results from batch reaction experiments, in which forsteritic olivine was subjected to rotational agitation in different seawater media for periods of days to months. Olivine dissolution caused a significant increase in alkalinity of the seawater with a consequent DIC increase due to CO2 invasion, thus confirming viability of the basic concept of enhanced silicate weathering. However, our experiments also identified several important challenges with respect to the detailed quantification of the CO2 sequestration efficiency under field conditions, which include nonstoichiometric dissolution, potential pore water saturation in the seabed, and the potential occurrence of secondary reactions. Before enhanced weathering of olivine in coastal environments can be considered an option for realizing negative CO2 emissions for climate mitigation purposes, these aspects need further experimental assessment. PMID:28281750

  20. Diffusive Fractionation of Lithium Isotopes in Olivine Grain Boundaries (United States)

    Homolova, V.; Watson, E. B.


    Diffusive fractionation of isotopes has been documented in silicate melts, aqueous fluids, and single crystals. In polycrystalline rocks, the meeting place of two grains, or grain boundaries, may also be a site of diffusive fractionation of isotopes. We have undertaken an experimental and modeling approach to investigate diffusive fractionation of lithium (Li) isotopes by grain boundary diffusion. The experimental procedure consists of packing a Ni metal capsule with predominantly ground San Carlos olivine and subjecting the capsule to 1100C and 1GPa for two days in a piston cylinder apparatus to create a nominally dry, 'dunite rock'. After this synthesis step, the capsule is sectioned and polished. One of the polished faces of the 'dunite rock' is then juxtaposed to a source material of spodumene and this diffusion couple is subject to the same experimental conditions as the synthesis step. Li abundances and isotopic profiles (ratios of count rates) were analyzed using LA-ICP-MS. Li concentrations linearly decrease away from the source from 550ppm to the average concentration of the starting olivine (2.5ppm). As a function of distance from the source, the 7Li/6Li ratio decreases to a minimum before increasing to the background ratio of the 'dunite rock'. The 7Li/6Li ratio minimum coincides with the lowest Li concentrations above average 'dunite rock' abundances. The initial decrease in the 7Li/6Li ratio is similar to that seen in other studies of diffusive fractionation of isotopes and is thought to be caused by the higher diffusivity (D) of the lighter isotope relative to the heavier isotope. The relationship between D and mass (m) is given by (D1/D2) =(m2/m1)^β, where β is an empirical fractionation factor; 1 and 2 denote the lighter and heavier isotope, respectively. A fit to the Li isotopic data reveals an effective DLi of ~1.2x10^-12 m/s^2 and a β of 0.1. Numerical modelling was utilized to elucidate the relationship between diffusive fractionation

  1. Power law olivine crystal size distributions in lithospheric mantle xenoliths (United States)

    Armienti, P.; Tarquini, S.


    Olivine crystal size distributions (CSDs) have been measured in three suites of spinel- and garnet-bearing harzburgites and lherzolites found as xenoliths in alkaline basalts from Canary Islands, Africa; Victoria Land, Antarctica; and Pali Aike, South America. The xenoliths derive from lithospheric mantle, from depths ranging from 80 to 20 km. Their textures vary from coarse to porphyroclastic and mosaic-porphyroclastic up to cataclastic. Data have been collected by processing digital images acquired optically from standard petrographic thin sections. The acquisition method is based on a high-resolution colour scanner that allows image capturing of a whole thin section. Image processing was performed using the VISILOG 5.2 package, resolving crystals larger than about 150 μm and applying stereological corrections based on the Schwartz-Saltykov algorithm. Taking account of truncation effects due to resolution limits and thin section size, all samples show scale invariance of crystal size distributions over almost three orders of magnitude (0.2-25 mm). Power law relations show fractal dimensions varying between 2.4 and 3.8, a range of values observed for distributions of fragment sizes in a variety of other geological contexts. A fragmentation model can reproduce the fractal dimensions around 2.6, which correspond to well-equilibrated granoblastic textures. Fractal dimensions >3 are typical of porphyroclastic and cataclastic samples. Slight bends in some linear arrays suggest selective tectonic crushing of crystals with size larger than 1 mm. The scale invariance shown by lithospheric mantle xenoliths in a variety of tectonic settings forms distant geographic regions, which indicate that this is a common characteristic of the upper mantle and should be taken into account in rheological models and evaluation of metasomatic models.

  2. Phosphate acquisition efficiency and phosphate starvation tolerance ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    3Department of Genetics and Plant Breeding, College of Agriculture, Lembucherra, Tripura 799 ... vated in soil like red and lateritic or acid, with low soluble phosphate content. ..... activation of genes involved in the adaptation of Arabidopsis to.

  3. Experimental constraints on partitioning and zoning of phosphorus in igneous olivine (United States)

    Ersoy, Ö.; Nikogosian, I.; Mason, P. R. D.; Van Westrenen, W.; van Bergen, M.


    Fast diffusion and homogenization of divalent cations hamper the preservation of original chemical compositions and zoning patterns of igneous olivine phenocrysts. Sluggish intracrystalline diffusion of phosphorus in igneous olivine on the other hand allows the complex zoning patterns to be retained, making it a crucial element for reconstruction of cooling histories and evolution of the host magma. Crystallization rate variations, diffusion controlled growth or compositional controls on melt-mineral partitioning have been put forward as mechanisms controlling zoning of igneous olivine in phosphorus. Here, we investigate partitioning and zoning of phosphorus in igneous olivines by a comparison of natural and experimentally grown olivines. We explore the importance of variable degrees of undercooling and cooling rates in crystallizing melt (M1) with a starting composition equivalent to that of an Italian high-potassium basalt (Tliq=1274 °C). We examine the extent of compositional control on partitioning by varying the amount of alkali enrichment in starting compositions that are otherwise equivalent to melt M1. Olivine crystallization experiments were conducted in rhenium capsules suspended in a vertical 1-atm gas-mixing furnace at Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam (VUA) with fO2 buffered at 1.4 to 1.7 log units below the Ni-NiO buffer. Sets of dynamic crystallization experiments with various degrees of undercooling and controlled cooling rate experiments with varying cooling rates were performed. We compare the results with our extensive EPMA and LA-ICPMS dataset on olivines from Italian K-rich mafic lavas and olivine hosted primitive melt inclusions (MIs). Phosphorus concentrations in the natural olivines reach 435 ppm P and MIs contain up to 2.2 wt.% P2O5. High resolution (1-4 µm per pixel) element maps show both fine oscillatory, patchy and large scale sector zoning in P, uncorrelated with zoning in any other element. The MIs are almost always found in P-poor zones

  4. Zinc phosphate conversion coatings (United States)

    Sugama, Toshifumi


    Zinc phosphate conversion coatings for producing metals which exhibit enhanced corrosion prevention characteristics are prepared by the addition of a transition-metal-compound promoter comprising a manganese, iron, cobalt, nickel, or copper compound and an electrolyte such as polyacrylic acid, polymethacrylic acid, polyitaconic acid and poly-L-glutamic acid to a phosphating solution. These coatings are further improved by the incorporation of Fe ions. Thermal treatment of zinc phosphate coatings to generate .alpha.-phase anhydrous zinc phosphate improves the corrosion prevention qualities of the resulting coated metal.

  5. Hydrothermal synthesis of cathode materials (United States)

    Chen, Jiajun; Wang, Shijun; Whittingham, M. Stanley

    A number of cathodes are being considered for the next generation of lithium ion batteries to replace the expensive LiCoO 2 presently used. Besides the layered oxides, such as LiNi yMn yCo 1-2 yO 2, a leading candidate is lithium iron phosphate with the olivine structure. Although this material is inherently low cost, a manufacturing process that produces electrochemically active LiFePO 4 at a low cost is also required. Hydrothermal reactions are one such possibility. A number of pure phosphates have been prepared using this technique, including LiFePO 4, LiMnPO 4 and LiCoPO 4; this method has also successfully produced mixed metal phosphates, such as LiFe 0.33Mn 0.33Co 0.33PO 4. Ascorbic acid was found to be better than hydrazine or sugar at preventing the formation of ferric ions in aqueous media. When conductive carbons are added to the reaction medium excellent electrochemical behavior is observed.

  6. Olivine, dolomite and ceramic filters in one vessel to produce clean gas from biomass. (United States)

    Rapagnà, Sergio; Gallucci, Katia; Foscolo, Pier Ugo


    Heavy organic compounds produced during almond shells gasification in a steam and/or air atmosphere, usually called tar, are drastically reduced in the product gas by using simultaneously in one vessel a ceramic filter placed in the freeboard and a mixture of olivine and dolomite particles in the fluidized bed of the gasifier. The content of tar in the product gas during a reference gasification test with air, in presence of fresh olivine particles only, was 8600mg/Nm 3 of dry gas. By gasifying biomass with steam at the same temperature level of 820°C in a bed of olivine and dolomite (20% by weight), and in the presence of a catalytic ceramic filter inserted in the freeboard of the fluidized bed gasifier, the level of tar was brought down to 57mg/Nm 3 of dry producct gas, with a decrease of more than two orders of magnitude. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Deriving global Olivine distribution on Hayabusa's target (25143) Itokawa using Near-Infrared Spectrometer data (United States)

    Nardi, L.; Palomba, E.; Longobardo, A.; Galiano, A.; Dirri, F.


    In 2005 Hayabusa spacecraft visited asteroid Itokawa, bringing back surface samples to Earth in 2010. Near-Infrared data taken by NIRS and samples analysis confirmed hypothesis made through ground-based observations, in particular the one that sees Itokawa as an LL-chondrite like asteroid processed by space weathering. In this work, we apply spectral indices for olivine detection. In particular, we define the BAR* and relate it to the olivine abundance, by means of calibration on laboratory data. We present the distribution of BAR* calculated for nearly 38.000 spectra taken from an altitude of 3.5-7 km, defined as Home Position, which was the longest mission observation phase. In addition, a plot of olivine normalized content versus BAR* for RELAB compounds is given.

  8. Low-temperature plasticity of olivine revisited with in situ TEM nanomechanical testing. (United States)

    Idrissi, Hosni; Bollinger, Caroline; Boioli, Francesca; Schryvers, Dominique; Cordier, Patrick


    The rheology of the lithospheric mantle is fundamental to understanding how mantle convection couples with plate tectonics. However, olivine rheology at lithospheric conditions is still poorly understood because experiments are difficult in this temperature range where rocks and mineral become very brittle. We combine techniques of quantitative in situ tensile testing in a transmission electron microscope and numerical modeling of dislocation dynamics to constrain the low-temperature rheology of olivine. We find that the intrinsic ductility of olivine at low temperature is significantly lower than previously reported values, which were obtained under strain-hardened conditions. Using this method, we can anchor rheological laws determined at higher temperature and can provide a better constraint on intermediate temperatures relevant for the lithosphere. More generally, we demonstrate the possibility of characterizing the mechanical properties of specimens, which can be available in the form of submillimeter-sized particles only.


    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rudraswami, N. G.; Prasad, M. Shyam; Dey, S.; Fernandes, D.; Plane, J. M. C.; Feng, W.; Carrillo-Sánchez, J. D.; Taylor, S.


    Antarctica micrometeorites (∼1200) and cosmic spherules (∼5000) from deep sea sediments are studied using electron microscopy to identify Mg-rich olivine grains in order to determine the nature of the particle precursors. Mg-rich olivine (FeO < 5wt%) in micrometeorites suffers insignificant chemical modification during its history and is a well-preserved phase. We examine 420 forsterite grains enclosed in 162 micrometeorites of different types—unmelted, scoriaceous, and porphyritic—in this study. Forsterites in micrometeorites of different types are crystallized during their formation in solar nebula; their closest analogues are chondrule components of CV-type chondrites or volatile rich CM chondrites. The forsteritic olivines are suggested to have originated from a cluster of closely related carbonaceous asteroids that have Mg-rich olivines in the narrow range of CaO (0.1–0.3wt%), Al 2 O 3 (0.0–0.3wt%), MnO (0.0–0.3wt%), and Cr 2 O 3 (0.1–0.7wt%). Numerical simulations carried out with the Chemical Ablation Model (CABMOD) enable us to define the physical conditions of atmospheric entry that preserve the original compositions of the Mg-rich olivines in these particles. The chemical compositions of relict olivines affirm the role of heating at peak temperatures and the cooling rates of the micrometeorites. This modeling approach provides a foundation for understanding the ablation of the particles and the circumstances in which the relict grains tend to survive.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rudraswami, N. G.; Prasad, M. Shyam; Dey, S.; Fernandes, D. [National Institute of Oceanography (Council of Scientific and Industrial Research), Dona Paula, Goa 403004 (India); Plane, J. M. C.; Feng, W.; Carrillo-Sánchez, J. D. [School of Chemistry, University of Leeds, Leeds LS2 9JT (United Kingdom); Taylor, S., E-mail: [Cold Regions Research and Engineering Laboratory, 72 Lyme Road, Hanover, New Hampshire 03755-1290 (United States)


    Antarctica micrometeorites (∼1200) and cosmic spherules (∼5000) from deep sea sediments are studied using electron microscopy to identify Mg-rich olivine grains in order to determine the nature of the particle precursors. Mg-rich olivine (FeO < 5wt%) in micrometeorites suffers insignificant chemical modification during its history and is a well-preserved phase. We examine 420 forsterite grains enclosed in 162 micrometeorites of different types—unmelted, scoriaceous, and porphyritic—in this study. Forsterites in micrometeorites of different types are crystallized during their formation in solar nebula; their closest analogues are chondrule components of CV-type chondrites or volatile rich CM chondrites. The forsteritic olivines are suggested to have originated from a cluster of closely related carbonaceous asteroids that have Mg-rich olivines in the narrow range of CaO (0.1–0.3wt%), Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} (0.0–0.3wt%), MnO (0.0–0.3wt%), and Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3} (0.1–0.7wt%). Numerical simulations carried out with the Chemical Ablation Model (CABMOD) enable us to define the physical conditions of atmospheric entry that preserve the original compositions of the Mg-rich olivines in these particles. The chemical compositions of relict olivines affirm the role of heating at peak temperatures and the cooling rates of the micrometeorites. This modeling approach provides a foundation for understanding the ablation of the particles and the circumstances in which the relict grains tend to survive.

  11. Olivine-type cathode for rechargeable batteries: Role of chelating agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kandhasamy, Sathiyaraj; Singh, Pritam; Thurgate, Stephen; Ionescu, Mihail; Appadoo, Dominique; Minakshi, Manickam


    Highlights: ► Olivine powder was synthesized by sol–gel method using a range of chelating agents. ► Role of chelating agents in olivine cathode was investigated for battery application. ► Battery was fabricated with olivine cathode, Zn anode and aqueous electrolyte. ► Synergetic effect of additives (CA + TEA + PVP) led to improved storage capacity. - Abstract: Olivine (LiCo 1/3 Mn 1/3 Ni 1/3 PO 4 ) powders were synthesized at 550–600 °C for 6 h in air by a sol–gel method using multiple chelating agents and used as a cathode material for rechargeable batteries. Range of chelating agents like a weak organic acid (citric acid – CA), emulsifier (triethanolamine – TEA) and non-ionic surfactant (polyvinylpyrrolidone – PVP) in sol–gel wet chemical synthesis were used. The dependence of the physicochemical properties of the olivine powders such as particle size, morphology, structural bonding and crystallinity on the chelating agent was extensively investigated. Among the chelating agents used, unique cycling behavior (75 mAh/g after 25 cycles) is observed for the PVP assisted olivine. This is due to volumetric change in trapped organic layer for first few cycles. The trapped organic species in the electrode–electrolyte interface enhances the rate of lithium ion diffusion with better capacity retention. In contrast, CA and TEA showed a gradual capacity fade of 30 and 38 mAh/g respectively after multiple cycles. The combination of all the three mixed chelating agents showed an excellent electrochemical behavior of 100 mAh/g after multiple cycles and the synergistic effect of these agents are discussed.

  12. Rocks Whose Compositions are Determined by Flow Differentiation of Olivine- and Sulfide Droplet-Laden Magma: the Jinchuan Story (United States)

    Li, C.; Ripley, E. M.; de Waal, S. A.; Xu, Z.


    The Jinchuan intrusion in western China is an elongated, deeply-dipping dyke-like body of dominantly olivine-rich ultramafic rocks of high magnesium basaltic magma. It hosts the second largest Ni-Cu sulfide deposit in the world. More than 500 million tones of sulfide ore grading 1.2 percent Ni and 0.7 percent Cu occur mostly as next-textured and disseminated sulfide (pyrrhotite, pentlendite and chalcopyrite) with cumulus olivine in about half of the rocks of the intrusion. Based on different petrological zonations, the Jinchuan intrusion is further divided into three segments: eastern, central and western segments. The central segment is characterized by concentric enrichments of cumulus olivine and sulfide, whereas the eastern and western segments are characterized by the increase of both cumulus olivine and sulfide toward the footwall. The forsterite contents of fresh olivine from different segments are similar and vary between 82 and 86 mole percent. The small range of olivine compositional variation corresponds to less than 6 percent of fractional crystallization. Mass balance calculations based on sulfide solubility in basaltic magma indicate that the volume of the parental magma of the sulfide is many times larger than that which is currently represented in the intrusion. Large amounts of cumulus olivine (more than 40 weight percent) in the marginal samples and high concentrations of sulfide in the intrusion are consistent with an interpretation that the Jinchuan intrusion was formed by olivine- and sulfide droplet-laden magma ascending through a subvertical conduit to a higher level. Differentiation processes of the olivine- and sulfide droplet-laden magma varied in different parts of the conduit. Sub-vertical flow differentiation controlled the central segment of the conduit, resulting in further enrichment of olivine crystals and sulfide droplets in the conduit center. In contrast, sub-lateral flow and gravitational differentiation dominated in the eastern

  13. Dehydration breakdown of antigorite and the formation of B-type olivine CPO (United States)

    Nagaya, Takayoshi; Wallis, Simon R.; Kobayashi, Hiroaki; Michibayashi, Katsuyoshi; Mizukami, Tomoyuki; Seto, Yusuke; Miyake, Akira; Matsumoto, Megumi


    Peridotite formed by contact metamorphism and dehydration breakdown of an antigorite schist from the Happo area, central Japan shows a strong olivine crystallographic preferred orientation (Ol CPO). The lack of mesoscale deformation structures associated with the intrusion and the lack of microstructural evidence for plastic deformation of neoblastic grains suggest that olivine CPO in this area did not form as a result of solid-state deformation. Instead, the good correspondence between the original antigorite orientation and the orientation of the newly formed olivine implies the CPO formed by topotactic growth of the olivine after antigorite. Ol CPO is likely to develop by a similar process in subduction zone environments where foliated serpentinite is dragged down to depths where antigorite is no longer stable. The Happo Ol CPO has a strong a-axis concentration perpendicular to the lineation and within the foliation-commonly referred to as B-type Ol CPO. Seismic fast directions parallel to the ocean trench are observed in many convergent margins and are consistent with the presence of B-type Ol CPO in the mantle wedge of these regions. Experimental work has shown that B-type CPO can form by dislocation creep under hydrous conditions at relatively high stresses. There are, however, several discrepancies between the characteristics of natural and laboratory samples with B-type Ol CPO. (1) The formation conditions (stress and temperature) of some natural examples with B-type CPO fall outside those predicted by experiments. (2) In deformation experiments, slip in the crystallographic c-axis direction is important but has not been observed in natural examples of B-type CPO. (3) Experimental work suggests the presence of H2O and either high shear stress or relatively low temperatures are essential for the formation of B-type CPO. These conditions are most likely to be achieved close to subduction boundaries, but these regions are also associated with serpentinization

  14. Olivine Composition of the Mars Trojan 5261 Eureka: Spitzer IRS Data (United States)

    Lim, L. F.; Burt, B. J.; Emery, J. P.; Mueller, M.; Rivkin, A. S.; Trilling, D.


    The largest Mars trojan, 5261 Eureka, is one of two prototype "Sa" asteroids in the Bus-Demeo taxonomy. Analysis of its visible/near-IR spectrum led to the conclusion that it might represent either an angritic analog or an olivine-rich composition such as an R chondrite. Spitzer IRS data (5-30 micrometers) have enabled us to resolve this ambiguity. The thermal-IR spectrum exhibits strong olivine reststrahlen features consistent with a composition of approximately equals Fo60-70. Laboratory spectra of R chondrites, brachinites, and chassignites are dominated by similar features.

  15. Chemical differences between small subsamples of Apollo 15 olivine-normative basalts (United States)

    Shervais, J. W.; Vetter, S. K.; Lindstrom, M. M.


    Results are presented on the chemical and petrological characterization of nine samples of an Apollo 15 mare basalt suite. The results show that all nine samples are low-silica olivine normative basalts (ONBs) similar to those described earlier for low-silica ONBs from Apollo 15 site. The samples were found to vary in texture and grain size, from fine-grained intergranular or subophitic basalts to coarse-grained granular 'microgabbros'. Several displayed macroscopic heterogeneity. Variation diagrams show that the overall trend of the data is consistent with the fractionation of olivine (plus minor Cr-spinel) from a high-MgO parent magma.

  16. Limitations on the Estimation of Parental Magma Temperature Using Olivine-melt Equilibria: Hotspots Not So Hot (United States)

    Natland, J. H.


    Estimates of temperatures of magmas parental to picritic tholeiites using olivine-melt equilibria and FeO-MgO relationships depend strongly on the assumption that a liquid composition, usually a glass, is related to the most magnesian olivine in the rock, or to an olivine composition in equilibrium with mantle peridotite, along an olivine-controlled liquid line of descent. The liquid Fe2+/Fe3+ also has to be known; where data exist, average values from wet chemical determinations are used. Crystallization histories of tholeiitic picrites from islands, spreading ridges, and large igneous provinces, however, usually reveal them to be hybrid rocks that are assembled by two types of magma mixing: 1) between a) differentiated magmas that are on olivine-plagioclase or olivine-plagioclase-clinopyroxene cotectics and b) crystal sludges with abundant olivine that may have accumulated from liquids crystallizing olivine alone; and 2) between primitive magma strains in which olivine crystallized either alone or with other silicate minerals at elevated pressure on separate liquid lines of descent. Many picrites give evidence that both types of mixing have occurred. If either type has occurred, the assumption of olivine-control linking a glass and an olivine composition can only circumstantially be correct. Oxidation state can also be underestimated and therefore FeO contents overestimated if basalts have degassed S, as at Hawaii. In Case 1, hybrid host glass compositions often have higher FeO at given MgO content than liquids which produced many olivine crystals in the rock. In Case 2, the separate parental melt strains are revealed by diversity of compositions of both melt inclusions and Cr-spinel and are most often interpreted to mean local heterogeneity of the mantle source. The inclusions do not always affirm an olivine-controlled liquid line of descent. Instead, inclusions with Gorgona, but not in MORB. Where fresh glass is lacking (e.g., Gorgona), bulk-rock compositions

  17. B-type olivine fabric induced by low temperature dissolution creep during serpentinization and deformation in mantle wedge (United States)

    Liu, Wenlong; Zhang, Junfeng; Barou, Fabrice


    The B-type olivine fabric (i.e., the [010] axes subnormal to foliation and the [001] axes subparallel to the lineation) has been regarded as an important olivine fabric for interpreting global trench-parallel S-wave polarization in fore-arc regions. However, strong serpentinization and cold temperature environment in the mantle wedge should inhibit development of the B-type olivine fabric that requires high temperature to activate solid-state plastic deformation. Here we report fabrics of olivine and antigorite generated at low temperatures (300-370 °C) during serpentinization in a fossil mantle wedge of the Val Malenco area, Central Alps. Olivine in the serpentine matrix develops a pronounced B-type fabric, while antigorite in the same matrix displays a strong crystallographic preferred orientation (CPO) with the (001) planes and the [010] axes subparallel to foliation and lineation, respectively. The following evidence leads to the conclusion that the B-type olivine fabric results from dissolution creep assisted by grain boundary sliding (GBS) and grain rotation, rather than solid-state plastic deformation: (1) serpentinization took place at low temperatures and a fluid-enriched environment, ideal for dissolution-precipitation creep; (2) the voids and zigzag boundaries along the interface between antigorite and olivine suggest a fluid dissolution reaction; (3) the primary coarse olivine develops a nearly random fabric, indicating the B-type fabrics in the fine-grained olivine may not be inherited fabrics. These results document for the first time the B-type olivine CPO formed by dissolution creep at low temperatures during serpentinization and provide a mechanism to reconcile petrofabric observations with geophysical observations of trench parallel fast S-wave seismic anisotropy in fore-arc mantle wedge regions.

  18. Low temperature dissolution creep induced B-type olivine fabric during serpentinization and deformation in mantle wedge (United States)

    Liu, W.; Zhang, J.


    The B-type olivine fabric (i.e., the [010]ol axes subnormal to foliation and the [001]ol axes subparallel to the lineation) has been regarded as an important olivine fabric for interpreting global trench-parallel S-wave polarization in fore-arc regions. However, strong serpentinization and cold temperature environment in the mantle wedge should inhibit development of the B-type olivine fabric that requires high temperature to activate solid-state plastic deformation. Here we report fabrics of olivine and antigorite generated at low temperatures (300-370 oC) during serpentinization in a fossil mantle wedge of the Val Malenco area, Central Alps. Olivine in the serpentine matrix develops a pronounced B-type fabric, while antigorite in the same matrix displays a strong crystallographic orientation (CPO) with the (001) and the [010] subparallel to foliation and lineation, respectively. The following evidence leads to the conclusion that the B-type olivine fabric is resulted from dissolution creep assisted by grain boundaries sliding (GBS) and grain rotation, rather than solid-state plastic deformation: (1) serpentinization took place at low temperatures and a fluid-enriched environment, ideal for dissolution-precipitation creep; (2) the voids and zigzag boundaries along the interface between antigorite and olivine suggest a fluid dissolution reaction; (3) the primary coarse olivine develops a nearly random fabric, indicating the B-type fabrics in the fine-grained olivine can't be inherited fabrics. These results document for the first time the B-type olivine CPO formed by dissolution creep at low temperatures during serpentinization and provide a mechanism to reconcile petrofabric observations with geophysical observations of trench parallel fast S-wave seismic anisotropy in fore-arc mantle wedge regions.

  19. Corona textures in Proterozoic olivine melanorites of the equeefa suite, Natal metamorphic province, South-Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Grantham, GH


    Full Text Available took place during a prolonged history of cooling and partial hydration of the magmatic olivine melanorites from over 1000-degrees-C down to approximately 600-degrees-C. The P-T conditions indicated by the reactions suggest this cooling process...

  20. Catalytic decomposition of biomass tars: Use of dolomite and untreated olivine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Devi, L.; Ptasinski, K.J.; Janssen, F.J.J.G.; Paasen, van S.V.B.; Bergman, P.C.A.; Kiel, J.H.A.


    Although biomass is getting increased attention as a renewable energy source, one of the remaining problems still to be solved is the reduction of the high level of tar present in the product gas from gasification of biomass. The purpose of the present work is to study the activity of olivine and

  1. Moessbauer spectra of olivine-rich achondrites - Evidence for preterrestrial redox reactions (United States)

    Burns, R. G.; Martinez, S. L.


    Moessbauer spectral measurements at 4.2 K were made on several ureilites and the two shergottites found in Antarctica, as well as two ureilite falls, three SNC meteorite falls, and two finds in order to distinguish products of preterrestrial redox reactions from phases formed during oxidative weathering on the earth. The spectra indicated that several ureilites contain major proportions of metallic iron, much of which resulted from preterrestrial carbon-induced reduction of ferrous iron in the outermost 10-100 microns of olivine grains in contact with carbonaceous material in the ureilites. The cryptocrystalline nature of these Fe inclusions in olivine renders the metal extremely vulnerable to aerial oxidation, even in ureilites collected as falls. It is inferred that the nanophase ferric oxides or oxyhydroxides identified in Brachina and Lafayette were produced by terrestrial weather of olivines before the meteorites were found. The absence of goethite in two olivine-bearing Antarctic shergottites suggests that the 2 percent ferric iron determined in their Moessbauer spectra also originated from oxidation on Mars.

  2. Dynamic Solubility Limits in Nanosized Olivine LiFePO4

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wagemaker, Marnix; Singh, Deepak P.; Borghols, Wouter J.H.; Lafont, Ugo; Haverkate, Lucas; Peterson, Vanessa K.; Mulder, Fokko M.


    Because of its stability, nanosized olivine LiFePO4 opens the door toward high-power Li-ion battery technology for large-scale applications as required for plug-in hybrid vehicles. Here, we reveal that the thermodynamics of first-order phase transitions in nanoinsertion materials is distinctly

  3. Diffusion of Water through Olivine and Clinopyroxene: Implications for Melt Inclusion Fidelity (United States)

    Plank, T. A.; Lloyd, A. S.; Ferriss, E.


    The maximum H2O concentrations measured in olivine-hosted melt inclusions (MIs) from arc tephra fall within a narrow range of 3-5 wt%. A major question is whether this reflects parental water concentrations or diffusive exchange through the host crystal during storage and ascent. Laboratory experiments have shown that water can diffuse through 500 micron olivine in minutes to days at 1100°C. We have tested these predictions with a natural experiment using volatile (H2O, CO2, S) diffusion along melt embayments to constrain ascent rates during the 1974 eruption of Volcan Fuego to 5-8 minutes from 7 km depth [1]. Thus, olivine-hosted MIs may move from their storage region to the surface during some eruptions rapidly enough to retain almost all of their original water. Only the smallest MIs (500 microns) and large melt inclusions (>50 microns), and 4) rapid post-eruptive cooling (< 1min, clast sizes < 1 cm). The rapid diffusion of H through olivine and cpx presents a challenge to MI fidelity, but not necessarily if the above conditions are met. [1] Lloyd et al., 2014, JVGR. [2] Ferriss et al., 2016, AmMin.

  4. Meeting the Continental Crust: the Hidden Olivine Trauma in Subduction Settings (United States)

    Salas Reyes, P.; Ruprecht, P.; Rabbia, O. M.; Hernandez, L.


    In a conventional framework, olivine zonation represents concentric growth from an evolving liquid. Alternatively, it has been suggested (e.g. Welsch et al. 2014) that olivine develop dendritic textures and compositional discontinuities due to rapid growth and boundary layer effects, respectively, where any complex zoning is quickly erased through diffusive re-equilibration in the high temperature magmatic environment. In particular, olivine crystals from large volcanic centers in convergent margins rarely preserve such dendritic textures and complex zoning due prolonged magma residence. Small volume, mafic monogenetic vents may bypass such crustal re-equilibration and potentially record the otherwise elusive early olivine growth history. We selected tephra deposits from Los Hornitos, in the Andean arc of Central Chile (35.5˚S), that represents primitive magmas ( 15 wt.% MgO) and contain magnesian olivines (Fo>88) hosting quenched melt inclusions. We obtained detailed quantitative EPMA zoning profiles and measured volatile contents (H, C, S, Cl) in the co-existing melt inclusions. Furthermore, we analyzed mineral morphologies connecting compositional zoning with growth textures. We find that 40% of the olivine crystals retain dendritic shapes while the others are polyhedral with trapped melt inclusions and cavities. The polyhedral crystals are normally zoned (Fo92 to Fo88; Ni 4000 ppm to 1000 ppm), however an oscillatory zonation depicted by concentric -coupled Fo and Ni- enriched layers exist and therefore even those crystals still preserve also a more complete growth history. The related melt inclusions yield values of up to 6000 ppm of S. Such zonation may imply sudden growth during elevated degrees of undercooling (-ΔT > 60°C) as the magmas transit from the hot mantle to the cooler conditions in the crust. Moreover, the preservation of such Fo and Ni zonation requires limited time between crystal growth and eruption. The elevated S content in melt inclusions

  5. Electrical Investigation of Metal-Olivine Systems and Application to the Deep Interior of Mercury (United States)

    Zhang, Zhou; Pommier, Anne


    We report electrical conductivity measurements on metal-olivine systems at about 5 and 6 GPa and up to 1,675°C in order to investigate the electrical properties of core-mantle boundary (CMB) systems. Electrical experiments were conducted in the multianvil apparatus using the impedance spectroscopy technique. The samples are composed of one metal layer (Fe, FeS, FeSi2, or Fe-Ni-S-Si) and one polycrystalline olivine layer, with the metal:olivine ratio ranging from 1:0.7 to 1:9.2. For all samples, we observe that the bulk electrical conductivity increases with temperature from 10-2.5 to 101.8 S/m, which is higher than the conductivity of polycrystalline olivine but lower than the conductivity of the pure metal phase at similar conditions. In some experiments, a conductivity jump is observed at the temperature corresponding to the melting temperature of the metallic phase. Both the metal:olivine ratio and the metal phase geometry control the electrical conductivity of the two-layer samples. By combining electrical results, textural analyses of the samples, and previous studies of the structure and composition of Mercury's interior, we propose an electrical profile of the deep interior of the planet that accounts for a layered CMB-outer core structure. The electrical model agrees with existing conductivity estimates of Mercury's lower mantle and CMB using magnetic observations and thermodynamic calculations, and thus, supports the hypothesis of a layered CMB-outermost core structure in the present-day interior of Mercury. We propose that the layered CMB-outer core structure is possibly electrically insulating, which may influence the planet's structure and cooling history.

  6. Experiments and geochemical modelling of CO{sub 2} sequestration by olivine: Potential, quantification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia, B., E-mail: [Institut Francais du Petrole, 1 et 4 Avenue du Bois Preau, 92852 Rueil Malmaison (France); Beaumont, V.; Perfetti, E.; Rouchon, V.; Blanchet, D. [Institut Francais du Petrole, 1 et 4 Avenue du Bois Preau, 92852 Rueil Malmaison (France); Oger, P.; Dromart, G. [Universite de Lyon, CNRS, UMR 5570, ENS de Lyon, Site Monod, 15 Parvis Rene Descartes BP 7000, Lyon F-69342 (France); Huc, A.-Y.; Haeseler, F. [Institut Francais du Petrole, 1 et 4 Avenue du Bois Preau, 92852 Rueil Malmaison (France)


    Aqueous solutions equilibrated with supercritical CO{sub 2} (150 deg. C and total pressure of 150 bar) were investigated in order to characterize their respective conditions of carbonation. Dissolution of olivine and subsequent precipitation of magnesite with a net consumption of CO{sub 2} were expected. A quantified pure mineral phase (powders with different olivine grain diameter [20-80 {mu}m], [80-125 {mu}m], [125-200 {mu}m] and [>200 {mu}m]), and CO{sub 2} (as dried ice) were placed in closed-batch reactors (soft Au tubes) in the presence of solutions. Different salinities (from 0 to 3400 mM) and different ratios of solution/solid (mineral phase) (from 0.1 to 10) were investigated. Experiments were performed over periods from 2 to 8 weeks. Final solid products were quantified by the Rock-Eval 6 technique, and identified using X-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy, electron microprobe and scanning electron microscopy. Gaseous compounds were quantified by a vacuum line equipped with a Toepler pump and identified and measured by gas chromatography (GC). Carbon mass balances were calculated. Olivine reacted completely with CO{sub 2}, trapping up to 57 {+-} 2% (eqC of initial CO{sub 2}) as magnesite; some amorphous silica also formed. Olivine grain diameter and solution/mineral ratios appeared to be the primary controls on the reaction, salinity acting as a second order parameter. During the experiments, fluid analyses may not be performed with approach adopted but, geochemical modelling was attempted to give information about the solution composition. This showed an interesting mineral matrix evolution. Under the experimental conditions, olivine appeared to be a good candidate for CO{sub 2} trapping into a geologically stable carbonate, magnesite. The possible use of mafic and ultramafic rocks for CO{sub 2} sequestration is discussed.

  7. Emulsion drying synthesis of olivine LiFePO4/C composite and its electrochemical properties as lithium intercalation material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Myung, Seung-Taek; Komaba, Shinichi; Hirosaki, Norimitsu; Yashiro, Hitoshi; Kumagai, Naoaki


    The electroactive LiFePO 4 /C nano-composite has been synthesized by an emulsion drying method. During burning-out the oily emulsion precipitates in an air-limited atmosphere at 300 deg. C, amorphous or low crystalline carbon was generated along with releasing carbon oxide gases, and trivalent iron as a cheap starting material was immediately reduced to the divalent one at this stage as confirmed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, leading to a low crystalline LiFePO 4 /C composite. Heat-treatment of the low crystalline LiFePO 4 /C in an Ar atmosphere resulted in a well-ordered olivine structure, as refined by Rietveld refinement of the X-ray diffraction pattern. From secondary electron microscopic and scanning transmission electron microscopic observations with the corresponding elemental mapping images of iron and phosphorous, it was found that the LiFePO 4 powders are modified by fine carbon. The in situ formation of the nano-sized carbon during crystallization of LiFePO 4 brought about two advantages: (i) an optimized particle size of LiFePO 4 , and (ii) a uniform distribution of fine carbon in the product. These effects of the fine carbon on LiFePO 4 /C composite led to high capacity retention upon cycling at 25 and 50 deg. C and high rate capability, resulting from a great enhancement of electric conductivity as high as 10 -4 S cm -1 . That is, the obtained capacity was higher than 90 mAh (g-phosphate) -1 by applying a higher current density of about 1000 mA g -1 (11 C) at 50 deg. C

  8. Olivine on Vesta as exogenous contaminants brought by impacts: Constraints from modeling Vesta's collisional history and from impact simulations (United States)

    Turrini, D.; Svetsov, V.; Consolmagno, G.; Sirono, S.; Pirani, S.


    The survival of asteroid Vesta during the violent early history of the Solar System is a pivotal constraint on theories of planetary formation. Particularly important from this perspective is the amount of olivine excavated from the vestan mantle by impacts, as this constrains both the interior structure of Vesta and the number of major impacts the asteroid suffered during its life. The NASA Dawn mission revealed that olivine is present on Vesta's surface in limited quantities, concentrated in small patches at a handful of sites not associated with the two large impact basins Rheasilvia and Veneneia. The first detections were interpreted as the result of the excavation of endogenous olivine, even if the depth at which the detected olivine originated was a matter of debate. Later works raised instead the possibility that the olivine had an exogenous origin, based on the geologic and spectral features of the deposits. In this work, we quantitatively explore the proposed scenario of a exogenous origin for the detected vestan olivine to investigate whether its presence on Vesta can be explained as a natural outcome of the collisional history of the asteroid over the last one or more billion years. To perform this study we took advantage of the impact contamination model previously developed to study the origin and amount of dark and hydrated materials observed by Dawn on Vesta, a model we updated by performing dedicated hydrocode impact simulations. We show that the exogenous delivery of olivine by the same impacts that shaped the vestan surface can offer a viable explanation for the currently identified olivine-rich sites without violating the constraint posed by the lack of global olivine signatures on Vesta. Our results indicate that no mantle excavation is in principle required to explain the observations of the Dawn mission and support the idea that the vestan crust could be thicker than indicated by simple geochemical models based on the Howardite

  9. Olivine in Martian Meteorite Allan Hills 84001: Evidence for a High-Temperature Origin and Implications for Signs of Life (United States)

    Shearer, C. K.; Leshin, L. A.; Adcock, C. T.


    Olivine from Martian meteorite Allan Hills (ALH) 84001 occurs as clusters within orthopyroxene adjacent to fractures containing disrupted carbonate globules and feldspathic shock glass. The inclusions are irregular in shape and range in size from approx. 40 microns to submicrometer. Some of the inclusions are elongate and boudinage-like. The olivine grains are in sharp contact with the enclosing orthopyroxene and often contain small inclusions of chromite The olivine exhibits a very limited range of composition from Fo(sub 65) to Fo(sub 66) (n = 25). The delta(sup 18)O values of the olivine and orthopyroxene analyzed by ion microprobe range from +4.3 to +5.3% and are indistinguishable from each other within analytical uncertainty. The mineral chemistries, O-isotopic data, and textural relationships indicate that the olivine inclusions were produced at a temperature greater than 800 C. It is unlikely that the olivines formed during the same event that gave rise to the carbonates in ALH 84001, which have more elevated and variable delta(sup 18)O values, and were probably formed from fluids that were not in isotopic equilibrium with the orthopyroxene or olivine The reactions most likely instrumental in the formation of olivine could be either the dehydration of hydrous silicates that formed during carbonate precipitation or the reduction of orthopyroxene and spinel If the olivine was formed by either reaction during a postcarbonate beating event, the implications are profound with regards to the interpretations of McKay et al. Due to the low diffusion rates in carbonates, this rapid, high-temperature event would have resulted in the preservation of the fine-scale carbonate zoning' while partially devolatilizing select carbonate compositions on a submicrometer scale. This may have resulted in the formation of the minute magnetite grains that McKay et al attributed to biogenic activity.

  10. Olivine weathering in soil, and its effects on growth and nutrient uptake in Ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.: a pot experiment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hein F M ten Berge

    Full Text Available Mineral carbonation of basic silicate minerals regulates atmospheric CO(2 on geological time scales by locking up carbon. Mining and spreading onto the earth's surface of fast-weathering silicates, such as olivine, has been proposed to speed up this natural CO(2 sequestration ('enhanced weathering'. While agriculture may offer an existing infrastructure, weathering rate and impacts on soil and plant are largely unknown. Our objectives were to assess weathering of olivine in soil, and its effects on plant growth and nutrient uptake. In a pot experiment with perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L., weathering during 32 weeks was inferred from bioavailability of magnesium (Mg in soil and plant. Olivine doses were equivalent to 1630 (OLIV1, 8150, 40700 and 204000 (OLIV4 kg ha(-1. Alternatively, the soluble Mg salt kieserite was applied for reference. Olivine increased plant growth (+15.6% and plant K concentration (+16.5% in OLIV4. At all doses, olivine increased bioavailability of Mg and Ni in soil, as well as uptake of Mg, Si and Ni in plants. Olivine suppressed Ca uptake. Weathering estimated from a Mg balance was equivalent to 240 kg ha(-1 (14.8% of dose, OLIV1 to 2240 kg ha(-1 (1.1%, OLIV4. This corresponds to gross CO(2 sequestration of 290 to 2690 kg ha(-1 (29 10(3 to 269 10(3 kg km(-2. Alternatively, weathering estimated from similarity with kieserite treatments ranged from 13% to 58% for OLIV1. The Olsen model for olivine carbonation predicted 4.0% to 9.0% weathering for our case, independent of olivine dose. Our % values observed at high doses were smaller than this, suggesting negative feedbacks in soil. Yet, weathering appears fast enough to support the 'enhanced weathering' concept. In agriculture, olivine doses must remain within limits to avoid imbalances in plant nutrition, notably at low Ca availability; and to avoid Ni accumulation in soil and crop.

  11. Geometrically necessary dislocation densities in olivine obtained using high-angular resolution electron backscatter diffraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wallis, David, E-mail: [Department of Earth Sciences, University of Oxford, South Parks Road, Oxford, Oxfordshire, OX1 3AN (United Kingdom); Hansen, Lars N. [Department of Earth Sciences, University of Oxford, South Parks Road, Oxford, Oxfordshire, OX1 3AN (United Kingdom); Ben Britton, T. [Department of Materials, Imperial College London, Royal School of Mines, Exhibition Road, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); Wilkinson, Angus J. [Department of Materials, University of Oxford, Parks Road, Oxford, Oxfordshire, OX1 3PH (United Kingdom)


    Dislocations in geological minerals are fundamental to the creep processes that control large-scale geodynamic phenomena. However, techniques to quantify their densities, distributions, and types over critical subgrain to polycrystal length scales are limited. The recent advent of high-angular resolution electron backscatter diffraction (HR-EBSD), based on diffraction pattern cross-correlation, offers a powerful new approach that has been utilised to analyse dislocation densities in the materials sciences. In particular, HR-EBSD yields significantly better angular resolution (<0.01°) than conventional EBSD (~0.5°), allowing very low dislocation densities to be analysed. We develop the application of HR-EBSD to olivine, the dominant mineral in Earth's upper mantle by testing (1) different inversion methods for estimating geometrically necessary dislocation (GND) densities, (2) the sensitivity of the method under a range of data acquisition settings, and (3) the ability of the technique to resolve a variety of olivine dislocation structures. The relatively low crystal symmetry (orthorhombic) and few slip systems in olivine result in well constrained GND density estimates. The GND density noise floor is inversely proportional to map step size, such that datasets can be optimised for analysing either short wavelength, high density structures (e.g. subgrain boundaries) or long wavelength, low amplitude orientation gradients. Comparison to conventional images of decorated dislocations demonstrates that HR-EBSD can characterise the dislocation distribution and reveal additional structure not captured by the decoration technique. HR-EBSD therefore provides a highly effective method for analysing dislocations in olivine and determining their role in accommodating macroscopic deformation. - Highlights: • Lattice orientation gradients in olivine were measured using HR-EBSD. • The limited number of olivine slip systems enable simple least squares inversion for GND

  12. Grafted NiO on natural olivine for dry reforming of methane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grafted NiO on natural olivine for dry reforming of methane C Courson, L Udron, C Petit and A Kiennemann Sci. Technol. Adv. Mater. 3 No 3 (June 2002 271-282 Abstract | References Full text: Acrobat PDF (1.10 MB


    Full Text Available Natural olivine is used for gasification of biomass in a fluidised bed. Characterisations by X-ray diffraction and electron microscopies (SEM and TEM have proved the presence of a (Mg,Fe2SiO4 structure (Mg/Fe ratio: 9/1 with a rather broad distribution in elemental composition. Temperature programmed reduction has revealed equally the presence of iron oxides outside of this structure. The nature of free iron oxides can be both modified by increasing the temperature of calcination and confirmed by measurements of magnetism.The introduction of nickel oxide upon natural olivine is obtained by impregnation with a nitrate salt. The type of interaction of nickel oxide with olivine is different depending upon the preparation method and the calcination temperature. For calcination at 1100 °C, the effects of the amount of NiO and the number of impregnation have been studied. At a high temperature of calcination (1400 °C, NiO is integrated into the olivine structure and the amount of free iron increases. Integrated NiO on olivine is non-reducible, resulting in an inactive catalyst. At lower calcination temperatures grafted NiO is formed, a species which is reduced under catalytic test conditions without aggregation of particles. A single impregnation of nickel (5.5 wt% of NiO gives a stable catalyst activated directly under reaction conditions (CH4+CO2 yielding 96% CO and 76% H2. Catalysts with lower amounts of NiO or a double impregnation of nickel salt lead to a less stable system.Analysis reveals that no change in olivine structure nor size of nickel deposit occurs under test conditions. Equally there are no carbon deposits formed on these catalysts. A model of the evolution of each catalytic system arising from the different preparation methods is proposed. The observed deactivation of such catalysts is attributed to the increase in the amount of free iron, which favours the oxidative properties of the catalytic system.

  13. Potential Temperatures of Sources of MORB, OIB and LIPs Based on AL Partitioning Between Olivine and Spinel (United States)

    Sobolev, A. V.; Batanova, V. G.; Krasheninnikov, S.; Borisov, A.; Arndt, N.; Kuzmin, D.; Krivolutskaya, N.; Sushevskaya, N.


    Knowledge of potential temperatures of convecting mantle is required for the understanding the global processes on the Earth [1]. The common way to estimate these is the reconstruction of primary melt compositions and liquidus temperatures based on the Fe-Mg partitioning between olivine and melt. This approach requires knowledge of the compositions of primitive melts in equilibrium with olivine alone as well as composition of olivine equilibrium with primary melts. This information is in most cases unavailable or of questionable quality. Here we report a new approach to obtain crystallization temperatures of primary melts based on the olivine-spinel Al-Cr geothermometer [2]. The advantages of this approach are: (1) low rate of diffusion of Al in the olivine, which promises to preserve high magmatic temperatures and (2) common presence of spinel in assemblage with high-Mg olivine. In order to decipher influence of elevated Ti concentrations in spinel we have run several experiments at high temperatures (1400-1200 degree C), atmospheric pressure and controled oxygen fugacity. We also analysed over two thousand spinel inclusions and high-Mg host olivines from different MORB, OIB, LIP and Archean komatiites on the JXA-8230 EPMA at ISTerre, Grenoble, France. Concentrations of Al, Ti, Na, P, Zn, Cr, Mn, Ca, Co, Ni were determined with a precision of 10 ppm (2 standard errors) using a newly developed protocol [3]. When available, we also analysed matrix glass and glass inclusions in olivine and found that temperature estimations from olivine-spinel (Al-Cr) and olivine-melt (Fe-Mg) [4] equilibrium match within (+/-30 degree C). The results show contrasting crystallization temperatures of Mg-rich olivine of the same Fo content from different types of mantle-derived magmas, from the lowest (down to 1220 degree C) for MORB to the highest (up to 1550 degree C) for komatiites and Siberian meimechites. These results match predictions from Fe-Mg olivine-melt equilibrium and

  14. Phosphate control in dialysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cupisti A


    Full Text Available Adamasco Cupisti,1 Maurizio Gallieni,2 Maria Antonietta Rizzo,2 Stefania Caria,3 Mario Meola,4 Piergiorgio Bolasco31Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, University of Pisa, Pisa, Italy; 2Nephrology and Dialysis Unit, San Carlo Borromeo Hospital, Milan, Italy; 3Territorial Department of Nephrology and Dialysis, ASL Cagliari, Italy; 4Sant'Anna School of Advanced Studies, University of Pisa, Pisa, ItalyAbstract: Prevention and correction of hyperphosphatemia is a major goal of chronic kidney disease–mineral and bone disorder (CKD–MBD management, achievable through avoidance of a positive phosphate balance. To this aim, optimal dialysis removal, careful use of phosphate binders, and dietary phosphate control are needed to optimize the control of phosphate balance in well-nourished patients on a standard three-times-a-week hemodialysis schedule. Using a mixed diffusive–convective hemodialysis tecniques, and increasing the number and/or the duration of dialysis tecniques are all measures able to enhance phosphorus (P mass removal through dialysis. However, dialytic removal does not equal the high P intake linked to the high dietary protein requirement of dialysis patients; hence, the use of intestinal P binders is mandatory to reduce P net intestinal absorption. Unfortunately, even a large dose of P binders is able to bind approximately 200–300 mg of P on a daily basis, so it is evident that their efficacy is limited in the case of an uncontrolled dietary P load. Hence, limitation of dietary P intake is needed to reach the goal of neutral phosphate balance in dialysis, coupled to an adequate protein intake. To this aim, patients should be informed and educated to avoid foods that are naturally rich in phosphate and also processed food with P-containing preservatives. In addition, patients should preferentially choose food with a low P-to-protein ratio. For example, patients could choose egg white or protein from a vegetable source

  15. Uranium production from phosphates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ketzinel, Z.; Folkman, Y.


    According to estimates of the world's uranium consumption, exploitation of most rich sources is expected by the 1980's. Forecasts show that the rate of uranium consumption will increase towards the end of the century. It is therefore desirable to exploit poor sources not yet in use. In the near future, the most reasonable source for developing uranium is phosphate rock. Uranium reserves in phosphates are estimated at a few million tons. Production of uranium from phosphates is as a by-product of phosphate rock processing and phosphoric acid production; it will then be possible to save the costs incurred in crushing and dissolving the rock when calculating uranium production costs. Estimates show that the U.S. wastes about 3,000 tons of uranium per annum in phosphoric acid based fertilisers. Studies have also been carried out in France, Yugoslavia and India. In Israel, during the 1950's, a small plant was operated in Haifa by 'Chemical and Phosphates'. Uranium processes have also been developed by linking with the extraction processes at Arad. Currently there is almost no activity on this subject because there are no large phosphoric acid plants which would enable production to take place on a reasonable scale. Discussions are taking place about the installation of a plant for phosphoric acid production utilising the 'wet process', producing 200 to 250,000 tons P 2 O 5 per annum. It is necessary to combine these facilities with uranium production plant. (author)

  16. Sintering mantle mineral aggregates with submicron grains: examples of olivine and clinopyroxene (United States)

    Tsubokawa, Y.; Ishikawa, M.


    Physical property of the major mantle minerals play an important role in the dynamic behavior of the Earth's mantle. Recently, it has been found that nano- to sub-micron scale frictional processes might control faulting processes and earthquake instability, and ultrafine-grained mineral aggregates thus have attracted the growing interest. Here we investigated a method for preparing polycrystalline clinoyproxene and polycrystalline olivine with grain size of sub-micron scale from natural crystals, two main constituents of the upper mantle. Nano-sized powders of both minerals are sintered under argon flow at temperatures ranging from 1130-1350 °C for 0.5-20 h. After sintering at 1180 °C and 1300 °C, we successfully fabricated polycrystalline clinopyroxene and polycrystalline olivine with grain size of physical properties of Earth's mantle.

  17. Traces of heavy and superheavy cosmic nuclei in olivins of extraterrestial origin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ignatova, R.; Taneva, T.


    The paths of traces of WH nuclei from cosmic rays have been measured in olivines from the meteorites Maryalakhti, Eagle Stein, Liposki khutor with radiation ages 175, 45 and 220 million years respectively. 3 cm 3 olivines of these meteorites have been examined and more than 500 traces of nuclei with Z(>=)90 have been found measured including 3 traces 1.5-1.8 times longer than the traces created by the uranium and thorium nuclei. These traces may be left by nuclei with Z(>=)110. The crystals were chosen from localizations situated at 2-7 cm, 8-9 cm and 10-12 cm from the outside atmospheric surface of the meteorite. The abundancy of the Z(>=)50 nuclei in gigantic cosmic rays, averaged for a period of ( =)110 in galactic cosmic rays. It is 1.4 x 10 -9 from that of the iron group nuclei. (authors)

  18. Diffusion-driven magnesium and iron isotope fractionation in Hawaiian olivine (United States)

    Teng, F.-Z.; Dauphas, N.; Helz, R.T.; Gao, S.; Huang, S.


    Diffusion plays an important role in Earth sciences to estimate the timescales of geological processes such as erosion, sediment burial, and magma cooling. In igneous systems, these diffusive processes are recorded in the form of crystal zoning. However, meaningful interpretation of these signatures is often hampered by the fact that they cannot be unambiguously ascribed to a single process (e.g., magmatic fractionation, diffusion limited transport in the crystal or in the liquid). Here we show that Mg and Fe isotope fractionations in olivine crystals can be used to trace diffusive processes in magmatic systems. Over sixty olivine fragments from Hawaiian basalts show isotopically fractionated Mg and Fe relative to basalts worldwide, with up to 0.4??? variation in 26Mg/24Mg ratios and 1.6??? variation in 56Fe/54Fe ratios. The linearly and negatively correlated Mg and Fe isotopic compositions [i.e., ??56Fe=(??3.3??0.3)????26Mg], co-variations of Mg and Fe isotopic compositions with Fe/Mg ratios of olivine fragments, and modeling results based on Mg and Fe elemental profiles demonstrate the coupled Mg and Fe isotope fractionation to be a manifestation of Mg-Fe inter-diffusion in zoned olivines during magmatic differentiation. This characteristic can be used to constrain the nature of mineral zoning in igneous and metamorphic rocks, and hence determine the residence times of crystals in magmas, the composition of primary melts, and the duration of metamorphic events. With improvements in methodology, in situ isotope mapping will become an essential tool of petrology to identify diffusion in crystals. ?? 2011 Elsevier B.V.

  19. Densification and Grain Growth in Polycrystalline Olivine Rocks Synthesized By Evacuated Hot-Pressing (United States)

    Meyers, C. D.; Kohlstedt, D. L.; Zimmerman, M. E.


    Experiments on laboratory-synthesized olivine-rich rocks form the starting material for many investigations of physical processes in the Earth's upper mantle (e.g., creep behavior, ionic diffusion, and grain growth). Typically, a fit of a constitutive law to experimental data provides a description of the kinetics of a process needed to extrapolate across several orders of magnitude from laboratory to geological timescales. Although grain-size is a critical parameter in determining physical properties such as viscosity, broad disagreement persists amongst the results of various studies of grain growth kinetics in olivine-rich rocks. Small amounts of impurities or porosity dramatically affect the kinetics of grain growth. In this study, we developed an improved method for densifying olivine-rich rocks fabricated from powdered, gem-quality single crystals that involves evacuating the pore space, with the aim of refining measurements of the kinetics of mantle materials. In previous studies, olivine powders were sealed in a metal can and hydrostatically annealed at roughly 300 MPa and 1250 °C. These samples, which appear opaque and milky-green, typically retain a small amount of porosity. Consequently, when annealed at 1 atm, extensive pore growth occurs, inhibiting grain growth. In addition, Fourier-transform infrared and confocal Raman spectroscopy reveal absorption peaks characteristic of CO2 in the pores of conventionally hot-pressed material. To avoid trapping of adsorbed contaminants, we developed an evacuated hot-pressing method, wherein the pore space of powder compacts is vented to vacuum during heating and pressurization. This method produces a highly dense, green-tinted, transparent material. No CO2 absorptions peaks exist in evacuated hot-pressed material. When reheated to annealing temperatures at 1 atm, the evacuated hot-pressed material undergoes limited pore growth and dramatically enhanced grain-growth rates. High-strain deformation experiments on

  20. Steam reforming of bio-oil from coconut shell pyrolysis over Fe/olivine catalyst

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quan, Cui; Xu, Shaoping; Zhou, Congcong


    Highlights: • Steam reforming of the actual bio-oil was investigated with Fe/olivine catalyst. • Most of phenols in bio-oil were converted into gas products. • A carbon conversion of 97.2% was obtained under optimized conditions. - Abstract: Catalytic steam reforming of coconut shell pyrolysis bio-oil over Fe/olivine catalyst was conducted in a fixed-bed quartz reactor. The effects of calcination temperature, iron loading, reaction temperature, steam to carbon ratio (S/C), bio-oil weight hourly space velocity (W b HSV) on gas composition and carbon conversion were investigated. The results indicate that Fe/olivine has good activity for steam reforming of bio-oil, the couple Fe 2+/3+ /Fe 2+ may be sufficiently efficient for C–C, C–O and C–H breaking. After steam reforming, most of the phenolics in pyrolysis oil are converted into light molecular compounds such as H 2 , CO, CO 2 , and CH 4 . The H 2 concentration and carbon conversion were enhanced by increasing reaction temperature from 750 to 800 °C and the S/C from 1.5 to 2, but decreased with increasing calcination temperature. In the W b HSV range of 0.5–0.6, the hydrogen concentration decreased obviously, whereas it decreased slightly by further increasing W b HSV. The highest hydrogen concentration of 47.6 vol% was obtained among the catalysts tested, and the best carbon conversion was 97.2% over 10% Fe/olivine catalyst under the reforming conditions of temperature = 800 °C, W b HSV = 0.5, S/C = 2.

  1. Hydration-reduced lattice thermal conductivity of olivine in Earth's upper mantle. (United States)

    Chang, Yun-Yuan; Hsieh, Wen-Pin; Tan, Eh; Chen, Jiuhua


    Earth's water cycle enables the incorporation of water (hydration) in mantle minerals that can influence the physical properties of the mantle. Lattice thermal conductivity of mantle minerals is critical for controlling the temperature profile and dynamics of the mantle and subducting slabs. However, the effect of hydration on lattice thermal conductivity remains poorly understood and has often been assumed to be negligible. Here we have precisely measured the lattice thermal conductivity of hydrous San Carlos olivine (Mg 0.9 Fe 0.1 ) 2 SiO 4 (Fo90) up to 15 gigapascals using an ultrafast optical pump-probe technique. The thermal conductivity of hydrous Fo90 with ∼7,000 wt ppm water is significantly suppressed at pressures above ∼5 gigapascals, and is approximately 2 times smaller than the nominally anhydrous Fo90 at mantle transition zone pressures, demonstrating the critical influence of hydration on the lattice thermal conductivity of olivine in this region. Modeling the thermal structure of a subducting slab with our results shows that the hydration-reduced thermal conductivity in hydrated oceanic crust further decreases the temperature at the cold, dry center of the subducting slab. Therefore, the olivine-wadsleyite transformation rate in the slab with hydrated oceanic crust is much slower than that with dry oceanic crust after the slab sinks into the transition zone, extending the metastable olivine to a greater depth. The hydration-reduced thermal conductivity could enable hydrous minerals to survive in deeper mantle and enhance water transportation to the transition zone.

  2. Syndeformation Chrome Spinels Inclusions in the Plastically Deformed Olivine Aggregates (Kraka Ophiolites, the Southern Urals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. E. Saveliev


    Full Text Available This article presents the results of structural, petrographic, mineralogical and chemical studies of dunite veinlets in spinel peridotite from the Kraka ophiolites. It is demonstrated that plastic deformation of polycrystalline olivine, which form dunite, was accompanied by precipitation of impurities (aluminum and chrome as newly formed chrome spinels. The thinnest acicular inclusions of 0.3-0.5 micron thick are aligned in olivine grains along [010] axis. Bigger elongated irregular chrome spinel grains usually occur along grain and sub-grain olivine boundaries, and, occasionally, inside the grains along [100] axis. Alteration from the fine xenomorphic grains of chrome spinels to the bigger idiomorphic crystals was observed. Analogically to dynamic ageing (dispersion hardening in metals, the structural and chemical alterations in dunites are interpreted as deformation induced segregation of impurities. It is suggested that the euhedral chrome spinel grains typical for ophiolitic dunites were formed by coalescence and spheroidization. This process may be a key factor in the formation of ophiolitic chrome ore deposits.

  3. Geoengineering impact of open ocean dissolution of olivine on atmospheric CO2, surface ocean pH and marine biology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Köhler, Peter; Abrams, Jesse F; Völker, Christoph; Hauck, Judith; Wolf-Gladrow, Dieter A


    Ongoing global warming induced by anthropogenic emissions has opened the debate as to whether geoengineering is a ‘quick fix’ option. Here we analyse the intended and unintended effects of one specific geoengineering approach, which is enhanced weathering via the open ocean dissolution of the silicate-containing mineral olivine. This approach would not only reduce atmospheric CO 2 and oppose surface ocean acidification, but would also impact on marine biology. If dissolved in the surface ocean, olivine sequesters 0.28 g carbon per g of olivine dissolved, similar to land-based enhanced weathering. Silicic acid input, a byproduct of the olivine dissolution, alters marine biology because silicate is in certain areas the limiting nutrient for diatoms. As a consequence, our model predicts a shift in phytoplankton species composition towards diatoms, altering the biological carbon pumps. Enhanced olivine dissolution, both on land and in the ocean, therefore needs to be considered as ocean fertilization. From dissolution kinetics we calculate that only olivine particles with a grain size of the order of 1 μm sink slowly enough to enable a nearly complete dissolution. The energy consumption for grinding to this small size might reduce the carbon sequestration efficiency by ∼30%. (letter)

  4. Recovering uranium from phosphates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergeret, M [Compagnie de Produits Chimiques et Electrometallurgiques Pechiney-Ugine Kuhlmann, 75 - Paris (France)


    Processes for the recovery of the uranium contained in phosphates have today become competitive with traditional methods of working uranium sources. These new possibilities will make it possible to meet more rapidly any increases in the demand for uranium: it takes ten years to start working a new uranium deposit, but only two years to build a recovery plant.

  5. Temperature dependence of sulfide and sulfate solubility in olivine-saturated basaltic magmas (United States)

    Beermann, O.; Botcharnikov, R. E.; Holtz, F.; Diedrich, O.; Nowak, M.


    The sulfur concentration at pyrrhotite- and anhydrite-saturation in primitive hydrous basaltic melt of the 2001-2002 eruption of Mt. Etna was determined at 200 MPa, T = 1050-1250 °C and at log fO 2 from FMQ to FMQ+2.2 (FMQ is Fayalite-Magnetite-Quartz oxygen buffer). At 1050 °C Au sample containers were used. A double-capsule technique, using a single crystal olivine sample container closed with an olivine piston, embedded in a sealed Au 80Pd 20 capsule, was developed to perform experiments in S-bearing hydrous basaltic systems at T > 1050 °C. Pyrrhotite is found to be a stable phase coexisting with melt at FMQ-FMQ+0.3, whereas anhydrite is stable at FMQ+1.4-FMQ+2.2. The S concentration in the melt increases almost linearly from 0.12 ± 0.01 to 0.39 ± 0.02 wt.% S at FeS-saturation and from 0.74 ± 0.01 to 1.08 ± 0.04 wt.% S at anhydrite-saturation with T ranging from 1050-1250 °C. The relationships between S concentration at pyrrhotite and/or anhydrite saturation, MgO content of the olivine-saturated melt, T, and log fO 2 observed in this study and from previous data are used to develop an empirical model for estimating the magmatic T and fO 2 from the S and MgO concentrations of H 2O-bearing olivine-saturated basaltic melts. The model can also be used to determine maximum S concentrations, if fO 2 and MgO content of the melt are known. The application of the model to compositions of melt inclusions in olivines from Mt. Etna indicates that the most primitive magmas trapped in inclusions might have been stored at log fO 2 slightly higher than FMQ+1 and at T = 1100-1150 °C, whereas more evolved melts could have been trapped at T ⩽ 1100 °C. These values are in a good agreement with the estimates obtained by other independent methods reported in the literature.

  6. Crystallization history of enriched shergottites from Fe and Mg isotope fractionation in olivine megacrysts (United States)

    Collinet, Max; Charlier, Bernard; Namur, Olivier; Oeser, Martin; Médard, Etienne; Weyer, Stefan


    Martian meteorites are the only samples available from the surface of Mars. Among them, olivine-phyric shergottites are basalts containing large zoned olivine crystals with highly magnesian cores (Fo 70-85) and rims richer in Fe (Fo 45-60). The Northwest Africa 1068 meteorite is one of the most primitive "enriched" shergottites (high initial 87Sr/86Sr and low initial ε143Nd). It contains olivine crystals as magnesian as Fo 77 and is a major source of information to constrain the composition of the parental melt, the composition and depth of the mantle source, and the cooling and crystallization history of one of the younger magmatic events on Mars (∼180 Ma). In this study, Fe-Mg isotope profiles analyzed in situ by femtosecond-laser ablation MC-ICP-MS are combined with compositional profiles of major and trace elements in olivine megacrysts. The cores of olivine megacrysts are enriched in light Fe isotopes (δ56FeIRMM-14 = -0.6 to -0.9‰) and heavy Mg isotopes (δ26MgDSM-3 = 0-0.2‰) relative to megacryst rims and to the bulk martian isotopic composition (δ56Fe = 0 ± 0.05‰, δ26Mg = -0.27 ± 0.04‰). The flat forsterite profiles of megacryst cores associated with anti-correlated fractionation of Fe-Mg isotopes indicate that these elements have been rehomogenized by diffusion at high temperature. We present a 1-D model of simultaneous diffusion and crystal growth that reproduces the observed element and isotope profiles. The simulation results suggest that the cooling rate during megacryst core crystallization was slow (43 ± 21 °C/year), and consistent with pooling in a deep crustal magma chamber. The megacryst rims then crystallized 1-2 orders of magnitude faster during magma transport toward the shallower site of final emplacement. Megacryst cores had a forsterite content 3.2 ± 1.5 mol% higher than their current composition and some were in equilibrium with the whole-rock composition of NWA 1068 (Fo 80 ± 1.5). NWA 1068 composition is thus close to a

  7. Comparison of electrochemical performances of olivine NaFePO4 in sodium-ion batteries and olivine LiFePO4 in lithium-ion batteries. (United States)

    Zhu, Yujie; Xu, Yunhua; Liu, Yihang; Luo, Chao; Wang, Chunsheng


    Carbon-coated olivine NaFePO(4) (C-NaFePO(4)) spherical particles with a uniform diameter of ∼80 nm are obtained by chemical delithiation and subsequent electrochemical sodiation of carbon-coated olivine LiFePO(4) (C-LiFePO(4)), which is synthesized by a solvothermal method. The C-NaFePO(4) electrodes are identical (particle size, particle size distribution, surface coating, and active material loading, etc.) to C-LiFePO(4) except that Li ions in C-LiFePO(4) are replaced by Na ions, making them ideal for comparison of thermodynamics and kinetics between C-NaFePO(4) cathode in sodium-ion (Na-ion) batteries and C-LiFePO(4) in lithium-ion (Li-ion) batteries. In this paper, the equilibrium potentials, reaction resistances, and diffusion coefficient of Na in C-NaFePO(4) are systematically investigated by using the galvanostatic intermittent titration technique (GITT), electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and cyclic voltammetry (CV), and compared to those of the well-known LiFePO(4) cathodes in Li-ion batteries. Due to the lower diffusion coefficient of Na-ion and higher contact and charge transfer resistances in NaFePO(4) cathodes, the rate performance of C-NaFePO(4) in Na-ion batteries is much worse than that of C-LiFePO(4) in Li-ion batteries. However, the cycling stability of C-NaFePO(4) is almost comparable to C-LiFePO(4) by retaining 90% of its capacity even after 100 charge-discharge cycles at a charge-discharge rate of 0.1 C.

  8. Vaporization and thermodynamics of forsterite-rich olivine and some implications for silicate atmospheres of hot rocky exoplanets (United States)

    Costa, Gustavo C. C.; Jacobson, Nathan S.; Fegley, Bruce, Jr.


    We describe an experimental and theoretical study of olivine [Mg2SiO4 (Fo)-Fe2SiO4 (Fa)] vaporization. The vaporization behavior and thermodynamic properties of a fosterite-rich olivine (Fo95Fa5) have been explored by high-temperature Knudsen effusion mass spectrometry (KEMS) from 1750 to 2250 K. The gases observed (in order of decreasing partial pressure) are Fe, SiO, Mg, O2 and O. We measured the solidus temperature (∼2050 K), partial pressures of individual gases, the total vapor pressure, and thermodynamic activities and partial molar enthalpies of MgO, 'FeO', and SiO2 for the Fo95Fa5 olivine. The results are compared to other measurements and models of the olivine system. Our experimental data show olivine vaporizes incongruently. We discuss this system both as a psuedo-binary of Fo-Fa and a psuedo-ternary of MgO-'FeO'-SiO2. Iron/magnesium molar ratios in the sample before (∼0.05) and after (∼0.04) vaporization are consistent with the small positive deviations from ideality of fayalite (γ ∼ 1.17) in olivine of the composition studied (e.g., Nafziger and Muan, 1967). Our data for olivine + melt confirm prior theoretical models predicting fractional vaporization of Fe relative to Mg from molten silicates (Fegley and Cameron, 1987; Schaefer and Fegley, 2009; Ito et al., 2015). If loss of silicate atmospheres occurs from hot rocky exoplanets with magma oceans the residual planet may be enriched in magnesium relative to iron.

  9. Renal phosphate handling: Physiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narayan Prasad


    Full Text Available Phosphorus is a common anion. It plays an important role in energy generation. Renal phosphate handling is regulated by three organs parathyroid, kidney and bone through feedback loops. These counter regulatory loops also regulate intestinal absorption and thus maintain serum phosphorus concentration in physiologic range. The parathyroid hormone, vitamin D, Fibrogenic growth factor 23 (FGF23 and klotho coreceptor are the key regulators of phosphorus balance in body.

  10. Chemical 3D-imaging of glass inclusions from allende (CV3) olivine via SIMS: A new insight on chondrule formation conditions (United States)

    Florentin, L.; Deloule, E.; Faure, F.; Mangin, D.


    Natural glass inclusions - hosted in Mg-rich olivines from Allende (CV3) type I chondrules - and synthetic melt inclusions - trapped in forsterite crystallized from CMAS (CaO-MgO-Al2O3-SiO2) melts - were mapped by Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry (SIMS) for CMAS major oxides. The first ever 3D chemical images of extra-terrestrial glass inclusions were obtained, along with chemical depth profiles for each oxide. Results show similar patterns for both synthetic glass inclusions (trapped in olivine formed by slow crystallization in a magmatic liquid) and natural inclusions from Allende's olivines. No incompatible-rich boundary layer or diffusion pattern was observed in either case. The absence of an incompatible-rich boundary layer suggests that the olivine overgrowth surrounding glass inclusions in Allende's olivines was formed during slow cooling of the host olivine and likely the surrounding chondrule. This provides new constraints on the cooling rates of type I chondrules.

  11. Experimental measurements of 3He and 4He mobility in olivine and clinopyroxene at magmatic temperatures (United States)

    Trull, T. W.; Kurz, M. D.


    In-vacuo heating of 0.5 -0.7 mm olivine and clinopyroxene grains separated from Hawaiian ultramafic xenoliths leads to complete He loss within hours to days for temperatures of 700-1400°C. Diffusivities calculated from the observed release rates assuming spherical grains and initially homogeneous He distributions define Arrhenius relations with activation energies of 420 ± 20 and 290 ± 40 Kj/mol and log 10D0 of +5.1 ± .7 and +2.1 ± 1.2 cm 2/s in olivine and pyroxene, respectively. Values at 1350°C are 5.3 × 10 -9 cm 2/s in olivine and 10 times faster in pyroxene (4.7 × 10 -8 cm 2/s). These values include small corrections for grain size variations and, in the case of olivine, about 15% prior diffusive He loss. However, an important factor that has not been considered in previous studies of this type, is that the xenolith He resides predominantly within CO 2 rich fluid inclusions. Theoretical description of He loss in such a case demonstrates that the diffusivities calculated using the standard approach actually represent the product of the true volume diffusivity ( D) and the helium solubility, as represented by the distribution coefficient KDv (defined by C crystal/C fluid). Although He solubility in crystals is not well determined, estimates based on the CO 2 concentrations in these samples suggest that it is very low ( KDv of 3 × 10 -4 for pyroxene and 6 × 10 -6 for olivine; which also implies low crystal-melt distribution coefficients of .05 and .001). The resultant corrected diffusion rates are significantly faster than those obtained by the standard approach (~ 10 -4 cm 2/s at 1350°C and are thus higher than basaltic melt values). The most reasonable interpretation of this result is that He release is enhanced by internal grain fractures, including the planar healed cracks along which most fluid inclusions are arrayed. This treatment illustrates the difficulties involved in extrapolating laboratory He release measurements to nature, in particular

  12. Size effects in olivine control strength in low-temperature plasticity regime (United States)

    Kumamoto, K. M.; Thom, C.; Wallis, D.; Hansen, L. N.; Armstrong, D. E. J.; Goldsby, D. L.; Warren, J. M.; Wilkinson, A. J.


    The strength of the lithospheric mantle during deformation by low-temperature plasticity controls a range of geological phenomena, including lithospheric-scale strain localization, the evolution of friction on deep seismogenic faults, and the flexure of tectonic plates. However, constraints on the strength of olivine in this deformation regime are difficult to obtain from conventional rock-deformation experiments, and previous results vary considerably. We demonstrate via nanoindentation that the strength of olivine in the low-temperature plasticity regime is dependent on the length-scale of the test, with experiments on smaller volumes of material exhibiting larger yield stresses. This "size effect" has previously been explained in engineering materials as a result of the role of strain gradients and associated geometrically necessary dislocations in modifying plastic behavior. The Hall-Petch effect, in which a material with a small grain size exhibits a higher strength than one with a large grain size, is thought to arise from the same mechanism. The presence of a size effect resolves discrepancies among previous experimental measurements of olivine, which were either conducted using indentation methods or were conducted on polycrystalline samples with small grain sizes. An analysis of different low-temperature plasticity flow laws extrapolated to room temperature reveals a power-law relationship between length-scale (grain size for polycrystalline deformation and contact radius for indentation tests) and yield strength. This suggests that data from samples with large inherent length scales best represent the plastic strength of the coarse-grained lithospheric mantle. Additionally, the plastic deformation of nanometer- to micrometer-sized asperities on fault surfaces may control the evolution of fault roughness due to their size-dependent strength.

  13. Triphenyl phosphate allergy from spectacle frames

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carlsen, L; Andersen, K E; Egsgaard, Helge


    A case of triphenyl phosphate allergy from spectacle frames is reported. Patch tests with analytical grade triphenyl phosphate, tri-m-cresyl phosphate, and tri-p-cresyl phosphate in the concentrations 5%, 0.5% and 0.05% pet. showed positive reactions to 0.05% triphenyl phosphate and 0.5% tri......-m-cresyl phosphate, but no reaction to tri-p-cresyl phosphate. Gas chromatography of the tricresyl phosphate 5% pet. patch test material supplied from Trolab showed that it contained a mixture of a wide range of triaryl phosphates, including 0.08% triphenyl phosphate which is above the threshold for detecting...

  14. An Analytical Finite-Strain Parameterization for Texture Evolution in Deformed Olivine Polycrystals (United States)

    Ribe, N. M.; Castelnau, O.


    Current methods for calculating the evolution of flow-induced seismic anisotropy in the upper mantle describe crystal preferred orientation (CPO) using ensembles of 103-104 individual grains, and are too computationally expensive to be used in three-dimensional time-dependent convection models. We propose a much faster method based on the hypothesis that CPO of olivine polycrystals is a unique function of the finite strain. Our goal is then to determine how the CPO depends on the ratios r12 and r23 of the axes of the finite strain ellipsoid and on the two independent ratios p12 and p23 of the strengths (critical resolved shear stresses) of the three independent slip systems of olivine. To do this, we introduce a new analytical representation of olivine CPO in terms of three `structured basis functions' (SBFs) Fs(g, r12, r23) (s = 1, 2, 3), where g is the set of three Eulerian angles that describe the orientation of a crystal lattice relative to an external reference frame. Each SBF represents the virtual CPO that would be produced by the action of only one of the slip systems of olivine, and can be determined analytically to within an unknown time-dependent amplitude. The amplitudes are then determined by fitting the SBFs to the predictions of the second-order self-consistent (SOSC) model of Ponte-Castaneda (2002). To implement the SBF representation, we express the orientation distribution function (ODF) f(g) of the polycrystal approximately as a linear superposition of SBFs with weighting coefficients Cs. Substituting the superposition into the general evolution equation for the ODF and minimizing the residual error, we find that the weighting coefficients Cs(t) satisfy coupled evolution equations of the form αisCs + βisCs + γs = 0 where the coefficients αis, βis and γs can be calculated in advance from the expressions for the SBFs. These equations are solved numerically for different values of p12 and p23, yielding numerical values of Cs(r12, r23, p12, p23

  15. Anion and cation partitioning between olivine, plagioclase phenocrysts and the host magma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yurimoto, Hisayoshi; Sueno, Shigeho


    Partition coefficients for -1, -2, -3, +1, +2, +3, +4 and +5 valent ions between the groundmass of tholeiite basalt and coexisting olivine and plagioclase phenocrysts from the Mid-Atlantic Ridge have been determined by secondary ion mass spectrometry. The present cation partitioning strongly supports the 'crystal structure control' mechanism. The partition coefficient for an anion is also under control of the crystal structure, so that each of the cation and anion positions in the crystal structure gives rise to a parabola-shaped peak on the partition coefficient vs. ionic radius diagram. (author)

  16. Formation of Diastereoisomeric Piperazine-2,5-dione from dl-Alanine in the Presence of Olivine and Water (United States)

    Fuchida, Shigeshi; Naraoka, Hiroshi; Masuda, Harue


    dl-Alanine (Ala) was heated with/without powdered olivine and water at 120 °C for 8 days to investigate the formation of the diastereoisomers of piperazine-2,5-dione (diketopiperazine, DKP). When only dl-Ala was heated with a small amount of water, 3.0 % of dl-Ala changed to cis- and trans-DKP after 8 days. DKPs were not detected after heating when no water was added. The presence of a small amount of water is important factor controlling peptide production rates under thermal conditions. When DL-Ala was heated with olivine powder for 8 days, the yields of cis- and trans-DKP were 6.8 and 4.9 %, respectively. The high yield of cis-DKP compared with trans-DKP was attributed to greater thermal stability of cis-DKP. After heating for 8 days, the diastereoisomeric excess of cis-DKP without olivine was 7.3 %, whereas a much higher value of 16.3 % was obtained in the presence of olivine. Taken together, these results show that olivine is not only an efficient catalyst for the formation of DKPs but that it also play a significant role in determining the diastereoisomer selectivity of these cyclic dipeptides.

  17. Integrated assessment of the phosphate industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryan, M.T.; Cotter, S.J.


    The phosphate industry in the United States includes three major activities, namely, mining and milling of phosphate rock, phosphate product manufacture, and phosphate product use. Phosphatic materials contain uranium, thorium, and their decay products in greater than background amounts. This assessment of the radiological impacts associated with the redistribution of radioactive components of phosphate materials may provide insight into the effects of uranium extraction from phosphate materials for use in the nuclear fuel cycle

  18. Vanadium K XANES of synthetic olivine: Valence determinations and crystal orientation effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sutton, S.R.; Newville, M.


    Vanadium can exist in a large number of valence states in nature (2+?, 3+, 4+ and 5+) and determinations of V valence is therefore valuable in defining the oxidation states of earth and planetary materials over a large redox range. Synchrotron-based x-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) spectroscopy is well-suited for measurements of V valence with ∼micrometer spatial resolution and ∼ppm elemental sensitivity. Applications of microXANES have been demonstrated for basaltic glasses. Applications to minerals are feasible but complicated by orientation effects (e.g. due to polarization of the synchrotron x-ray beam) and some results for spinel have been reported. Here we report initial results for olivine from laboratory crystallization ex-periments. The goal is to define the valence partition-ing between olivine and melt and quantify the magnitude of orientation effects, the latter tested by measuring grains at a variety of orientations in the same charge.

  19. Water-rock interaction in a high-FeO olivine rock in nature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hellmuth, K.H.; Lindberg, A.; Tullborg, E.L.


    The long-term behaviour in nature of high-FeO olivine rock in contact with surface water has been studied at the Lovasjaervi instrusion, SE-Finland. The rock has been proposed as a high-capasity, higly reactive redox-buffer backfill in a repository for spent fuel. Favourable groundwater chemistry is a major parameter relevant to safety of such a repository. Reducing conditions favour the retardation of long-lived, redox-sensitive radionuclides. Weathering influences have been studied at the natural outcrop of the rock mass. The interaction of oxidizing surface waters with rock at greater depths has been studied by using fissure filling minerals. Investigation of weathered rock from the outcrop indicates that the olivine rock is highly reactive on a geological time scale and its redox capasity is available although the instrusion as a whole is surprisingly well preserved. The fissure fillings studied allow the conclusion that oxygen seems to be efficiently removed from intruding surface water. Oxidation seem to have caused visible effects only along very conducting fractures and near the contact zones of the surrounding granitic rock. Stable isotope data of fissure filling calcites indicate that the influence of surface waters can be traced clearly down to a depth of about 50 m, but also at greater depths re-equilibration has occurred. Groundwater data from the site were not available. (orig.)

  20. Transient shallow reservoirs beneath small eruptive centres: Constraints from Mg-Fe interdiffusion in olivine (United States)

    Morgado, E.; Parada, M. A.; Morgan, D. J.; Gutiérrez, F.; Castruccio, A.; Contreras, C.


    Small eruptive centres commonly have more primitive lavas than those associated with stratovolcanoes, an observation that has been taken to indicate a short magma residence in the crust relative to those reservoirs below stratovolcanoes. The Caburgua cones of the Andean Southern Volcanic Zone from a basaltic small eruptive centre where this can be tested. Here, we use MELTS simulations, and the available thermobarometry data to determine the conditions of olivine crystal rim formation and the Mg-Fe diffusion modelling to determine the magma residence times of those rims in the crust. Results yield timescales varying from a few days to dozens of days, and if freezing is to be avoided, can only be explained by some form of storage or slow transport through at least one shallow magma body. The longest durations of magma residence seen in the olivine rim zones are up to 471 days. These timescales are shorter than those estimated (decadal) from the nearby, more-differentiated, and well-established stratovolcano, Villarrica, which has a dominantly basaltic andesite composition. For Caburgua cones, we propose the existence of a transient reservoir, in contrast to a long-lived reservoir such as that inferred beneath the adjacent Villarrica stratovolcano.

  1. Partitioning of water between point defects, dislocations, and grain boundaries in olivine (United States)

    Tielke, J. A.; Mecklenburgh, J.; Mariani, E.; Wheeler, J.


    Estimates of the storage capacity of water in the interior of the Earth and other terrestrial planets vary significantly. One interpretation is that water in planetary interiors exists primarily as hydrogen ions, dissociated from liquid water, that are associated with point defects in the crystal structure of nominally anhydrous minerals. However, dislocations and grain boundaries may contribute significantly to the storage capacity of water in planetary interiors, but hydrogen concentrations in dislocations and grain boundaries are difficult to quantify. To measure the water storage capacity of dislocations and grain boundaries, we are analyzing results from high-temperature and high-pressure experiments where deuterium, a stable isotope of hydrogen, was incorporated into olivine, the dominate phase in the upper mantle. Compared to hydrogen, deuterium concentrations can be determined at much higher spatial resolution using secondary-ion mass spectroscopy. The concentration of deuterium in the samples will also be quantified using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy for comparison to results for hydrogen-bearing olivine. The spatial distribution of regions with different densities of geometrically-necessary dislocations and the locations of grain boundaries will be determined using electron-backscatter diffraction (EBSD) analyses. Correlation of the concentration of deuterium with dislocation densities and grain boundaries will be used to examine the partitioning of water-derived species between the different types of defects. Ultimately, these data will be used to place more realistic bounds on the storage capacity of water in the interior of Earth and of other terrestrial planets.

  2. Better prospects for phosphate production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    The extraction of uranium as a by product of phosphate production is discussed. Techniques being commercially developed are described. The trend towards the wet process, in which sulphuric acid is used to dissolve the phosphate, producing phosphoric acid, is also the preferred method for uranium recovery. Recovery from a wet process phosphoric acid stream, integrated with phosphate fertilizer manufacture, is becoming increasingly commercially viable for the production of yellow-cake.

  3. on association of trialkyl phosphates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petkovic, D.M.; Maksimovic, Z.B.


    The association constants of tri-n-butyl (TBP), tri-n-propyl (TPP) and triethyl phosphate (TEP) with chloroform, carbon tetrachloride and benzene were determined by dielectric constant, proton magnetic resonance and vapor pressure measurements. Correlation of the trialkyl phosphate-chloroform association constants, using the Hammett equation, showed their increase with the number of carbon atoms in the aliphatic radicals. The change of trialkyl phosphate reactivity with temperature was used to determine the thermodynamic quantities. (author)

  4. Comment on ;Dehydration breakdown of antigorite and the formation of B-type olivine CPO; by Nagaya et al. (2014) (United States)

    Nozaka, Toshio


    Recently, Nagaya et al. (2014) have reported the B-type crystallographic preferred orientation (CPO) of olivine in thermally metamorphosed serpentinites from the Happo ultramafic complex, central Japan, and interpreted the CPO as a result of topotactic growth of olivine after antigorite. Their conclusions require the reconsideration of the genesis of B-type olivine CPO, which is generally believed to be formed by plastic deformation of hydrous peridotites, and could have an impact on structural models of supra-subduction zones. I appreciate the detailed observations by Nagaya et al. (2014) but have to point out that they committed significant misinterpretation of facts and failed to show robust evidence and rationale for their argument.

  5. Multi-scale three-dimensional characterization of iron particles in dusty olivine: Implications for paleomagnetism of chondritic meteorites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Einsle, Joshua F.; Harrison, Richard J.; Kasama, Takeshi


    Dusty olivine (olivine containing multiple sub-micrometer inclusions of metallic iron) in chondritic meteorites is considered an ideal carrier of paleomagnetic remanence, capable of maintaining a faithful record of pre-accretionary magnetization acquired during chondrule formation. Here we show how......-dimensional (3D) volume reconstruction of a dusty olivine grain, obtained by selective milling through a region of interest in a series of sequential 20 nm slices, which are then imaged using scanning electron microscopy. The data provide a quantitative description of the iron particle ensemble, including...... axes of the particles and the remanence vector imparted in different fields. Although the orientation of the vortex core is determined largely by the ellipsoidal geometry (i.e., parallel to the major axis for prolate ellipsoids and parallel to the minor axis for oblate ellipsoids), the core...

  6. Origin of spinel lamella and/or inclusions in olivine of harzburgite form the Pauza ultramafic rocks from the Kurdistan region, northeastern Iraq (United States)

    Mohammad, Y.; Maekawa, H.; Karim, K.


    Exsolution lamellae and octahedral inclusions of chromian spinel occur in olivine of harzburgite of the Pauza ultramafic rocks, Kurdistan region, northeastern Iraq. The lamella is up to 80μm long and up to 50 μm wide. The lamellae and octahedral inclusions of chromian spinel are distributed heterogeneously in the host olivine crystal. They are depleted in Al2O3 relative to the subhedral spinel grains in the matrix and spinel lamella in orthopyroxene. Olivine (Fo92 - 93) with spinel lamellae occurs as fine-grained crystals around orthopyroxene, whereas olivine (Fo90-91) free from spinel is found in matrix. Based on back-scattered images analyses, enrichments of both Cr # and Fe+3 in the chromian spinel lamella in olivine (replacive olivine) relative to that in adjacent orthopyroxene. As well as the compositions of chromian spinel lamellae host olivine are more Mg-rich than the matrix olivine. Furthermore the restriction of olivine with spinel lamellae and octahedral inclusions on around orthopyroxene, and the similarity of spinel lamella orientations in both olivine and adjacent orthopyroxene. This study concludes that the spinel inclusions in olivine are remnant (inherited from former orthopyroxene) spinel exsolution lamella in orthopyroxene, that has been formed in upper mantle conditions ( T = 1200 °C, P = 2.5 GPa ). Replacive olivine are formed by reaction of ascending silica poor melt and orthopyroxene in harzburgite as pressure decrease the solubility of silica-rich phase (orthopyroxene) in the system increase, therefore ascending melt dissolve pyroxene with spinel exsolution lamella and precipitate replacive olivine with spinel inclusions. We can conclude that the olivines with spinel lamella are not necessary to be original and presenting ultrahigh-pressure and/or ultra deep-mantle conditions as previously concluded. It has been formed by melting of orthopyroxene (orthopyroxene with spinel exsolution lamella = olivine with spinel lamellae and octahedral

  7. Spinels of Variscan olivine hornblendites related to the Montnegre granitoids revisited (NE Spain): petrogenetic evidence of mafic magma mixing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galán, G.; Enrique, P.; Butjosa, L.; Fernández-Roig, L.


    Olivine hornblendites (cortlandtites) form part of the Montnegre mafic complex related to late-Variscan I-type granitoids in the Catalan Coastal Ranges. Two generations of spinel are present in these hornblendites: Spl1 forms euhedral crystals included in both olivine and Spl2. Spl2 forms euhedral to anhedral crystals associated with phlogopite and fibrous colourless amphibole forming pseudomorphs after olivine. Compositions of Spl1 are picotite-Al chromite (Fe#: 77.78-66.60; Cr#: 30.12-52.22; Fe3+/R3+: 6.99-21.89; 0.10< TiO2%< 0.62). Compositions of Spl2 are pleonaste (Fe#: 37.86-52.12; Cr#: 1.00-15.45; Fe3+/R3+: 0.31-5.21; TiO2% <0.10%). The two types of spinel follow a CrAl trend, mainly due to the substitution (Fe2+)-1Cr-1= MgAl, which is interpreted as the result of mixing between two different mantle-derived melts. The compositions of early Spl1 crystals included in olivine are characteristic of Al-rich basalts. More aluminous Spl2 would result from reaction of olivine with a less evolved, Al and K-rich mantle-derived melt after new refilling of the magma chamber or channel. As a whole, spinels from similar examples of Variscan olivine hronblendites also follow a CrAl trend with high Fe# and starting at higher Cr# than other trends of this type. Cr# heterogeneity in the early spinels from these Variscan hornblendites would be inherited from the variable Al content of the mafic melts involved in their genesis.

  8. Catalytic reforming of toluene as tar model compound: effect of Ce and Ce-Mg promoter using Ni/olivine catalyst. (United States)

    Zhang, Ruiqin; Wang, Huajian; Hou, Xiaoxue


    Tar produced by biomass gasification as a route of renewable energy must be removed before the gas can be used. This study was undertaken using toluene as a model tar compound for evaluating its steam reforming conversion with three Ni-based catalysts, Ni/olivine, Ni-Ce/olivine and Ni-Ce-Mg/olivine. Effects of Ce and Mg promoters on the reaction activity and coke deposition were studied. Overall the performance of Ce and Mg promoted Ni/olivine catalysts is better than that of only Ce promoter and Ni/olivine alone. The experimental results indicate that Ni-Ce-Mg/olivine catalysts could improve the resistance to carbon deposition, enhance energy gases yield and resist 10ppm H2S poison at 100mLmin(-1) for up to 400min. Furthermore, the activity of catalysts was related to the steam/carbon (S/C) ratios; at S/C ratio=5, T=790°C, space velocity=782h(-1) and t=2h, the Ni-Ce-Mg/olivine system yielded 89% toluene conversion, 5.6Lh(-1) product gas rate, 62.6mol% H2 content and 10% (mol useful gas mol(-1) toluene) energy yield. Moreover, at low S/C ratio, it had higher reaction activity and better ability to prevent coking. There is a small amount of carbon deposition in the form of amorphous carbon after 7h. Various characterization techniques such as XRD, FTIR and thermogravimetric were performed to investigate the coke deposition of Ni/olivine, Ni-Ce/olivine and Ni-Ce-Mg/olivine. It is suggested that 3% Ni-1% Ce-1% Mg/olivine was the most promising catalyst due to its minimum coke amount and the lower activation energy of coke burning. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  9. In situ oxygen isotope compositions in olivines of different types of cosmic spherules: An assessment of relationships to chondritic particles

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Rudraswami, N.G.; ShyamPrasad, M.; Jones, R.H.; Nagashima, K.

    bearing cosmic spherules (Rudraswami et al., 2015b). In addition, some Mg-rich relict olivine grains are very 16O-rich, with 17O ranging from −21.9 to -18.7‰, similar to oxygen isotopic compositions observed in calcium aluminium rich inclusions (CAIs... isotope analyses of the olivine grains are provided in Appendix B and Table 1, respectively. 5    Four scoriaceous spherules namely, AAS62-61-P64, AAS62-9-P43, AAS62-9-P51 and AAS62-9- P54 were identified for oxygen isotope studies (Fig. 1a...

  10. Melting mode and source lithology inferred from trace element systematic in historical olivine from Lanzarote, Canary Islands (United States)

    Gómez-Ulla, Alejandra; Sigmarsson, Olgeir; Guðfinnsson, Guðmundur H.


    Trace element concentrations and ratios in olivine phenocrysts, such as fractionation-corrected Ni x (FeO/MgO) and Fe/Mn, have been shown useful as probes of pyroxenite derived component in mixtures of primary mantle melts (e.g. Sobolev et al., 2007). For instance, higher Ni and lower Mn and Ca contents are expected in partial melts of pyroxenite compared to those of lherzolite. We have measured trace element concentrations in olivine from 1730-1736 AD (Timanfaya) and 1824 AD eruptions in Lanzarote (Canary Islands), which erupted mafic and mantle nodule bearing magmas, ranging in composition from highly silica-undersaturated basanite through alkali basalt to tholeiite. The early basanite exhibit the largest olivine trace element variation covering the range of those from MORB and OIB worldwide, whereas later erupted tholeiite have values typical from pyroxenite derived melts. The Fo value decreased systematically with time during the 1730-36 eruption and the proportion of silica-saturated primary melt increased in the parental magma mixture with time. At the end of the eruption, tholeiite magmas crystallized olivine with, increasing concentrations of Mn and Ca and higher Ca/Al at relatively uniform Ni x (FeO/MgO) and Fe/Mn, all of which is readily explained by increased decompression melting at lower temperature. The basanite from the eruption that took place in 1824 AD has olivine with even higher Fo value and trace element variability similar those of the Timanfaya basanite. The fact that the Lanzarote basanite contain olivine with trace element systematic spanning that of MORB and pyroxenite melt can be explained by CO2-flux melting of a lithologically heterogeneous source, generating the diverse compositions. Initial reactive porous flow through depleted oceanic lithosphere and equilibration with dunitic restite of percolating pyroxenite melt may have amplified the observed Ni depletion in olivine of the earliest basanite. The fact that olivine compositions and

  11. NiO and Fe/Mn in Fo-rich olivines from OIB, MORB, and mantle peridotites (United States)

    Li, H.; Baker, M.; Hofmann, A. E.; Clague, D.; Stolper, E.


    Olivines from mantle peridotites have a narrow range of NiO (0.36±0.03 [1σ] wt%), but NiO of olivines in basalts suggest NiO in mantle olivines is actually more variable: e.g., Hawaiian phenocrysts (Fo>90) have NiO >0.55%, and olivines from continental flood basalts can have >0.5% NiO. At the other end of the spectrum, some basaltic suites (e.g., Iceland, MORBs) have Fo>90 olivines with NiO >0.2%. Partial melting calculations on peridotites show it is difficult to generate liquids that crystallize Fo>90 olivines with >0.4% NiO without resorting to complex processes. Hypotheses to explain the variability of NiO in mantle-derived olivines include (1) reaction of peridotite with silica-rich melts of eclogite results in decreasing modal abundance of olivine and increasing NiO in olivine [1,2]; (2) magmas with NiO-rich olivines come from sources enriched in NiO due to a core-derived component [3]. [4] proposed that high Fe/Mn of Hawaiian vs. Icelandic and MORB lavas reflect a core-derived component in their sources. Possible core incorporation is poorly constrained but FeO and NiO are expected to increase by such processes, leading to correlations between NiO and Fe/Mn in mantle rocks with significant core-derived components. We present high-precision analyses of Fo-rich olivines from OIBs, MORBs, komatiites, and mantle peridotites, focusing on NiO contents and Fe/Mn ratios. Our goal is to test hypotheses to explain elevated NiO of Fo-rich olivines in basalts. Olivines are Fo85.1-93.4; more were analyzed, but we focused on this range to avoid complications due to decreasing NiO in olivine with crystallization. Errors (1σ) are 0.01 wt% in NiO and 1.5 in Fe/Mn (wt). Our data show several features: (1) NiO contents and Fe/Mn ratios of Fo>88 olivines are positively correlated, with the low end of the trend (NiO ~0.23%, Fe/Mn ~61) defined by MORB and Iceland and the high end of the trend (NiO ~0.55%, Fe/Mn ~80) by Reunion and Hawaii. Between these end points, there is a

  12. Phosphate Recovery From Sewage Sludge Containing Iron Phosphate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wilfert, P.K.


    The scope of this thesis was to lay the basis for a phosphate recovery technology that can be applied on sewage sludge containing iron phosphate. Such a technology should come with minimal changes to the existing sludge treatment configuration while keeping the use of chemicals or energy as small as

  13. 21 CFR 137.175 - Phosphated flour. (United States)


    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Phosphated flour. 137.175 Section 137.175 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN... Related Products § 137.175 Phosphated flour. Phosphated flour, phosphated white flour, and phosphated...

  14. Genetic relationship between deformation and low-Ca content in olivine from magmatic systems: evidence from the Poyi ultramafic intrusion, NW China (United States)

    Yao, Zhuo-sen; Qin, Ke-zhang; Xue, Sheng-chao


    The deformation features (e.g., undulose extinction and subgrain boundaries) and low Ca content (causing the widespread deformation observed in Ca-depleted olivine from Poyi and other intrusions. What is more important, this work fills the gaps in the interpretation of this type of olivine in volcanic rocks.

  15. Deformation of Olivine at Subduction Zone Conditions Determined from In situ Measurements with Synchrotron Radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    H Long; D Weidner; L Li; J Chen; L Wang


    We report measurements of the deformation stress for San Carlos olivine at pressures of 3-5 GPa, temperatures of 25-1150 C, and strain rates of 10{sup -7}-10{sup -5} s{sup -1}. We determine a deformation stress of approximately 2.5 GPa that is relatively temperature and strain rate independent in the temperature range of 400-900 C. The deformation experiments have been carried out on a deformation DIA (D-DIA) apparatus, Sam85, at X17B2, NSLS. Powder samples are used in these experiments. Enstatite (MgSiO{sub 3}) (3-5% total quality of sample) is used as the buffer to control the activity of silica. Ni foil is used in some experiments to buffer the oxygen fugacity. Water content is confirmed by IR spectra of the recovered samples. Samples are compressed at room temperature and are then annealed at 1200 C for at least 2 h before deformation. The total (plastic and elastic) strains (macroscopic) are derived from the direct measurements of the images taken by X-ray radiograph technique. The differential stresses are derived from the diffraction determined elastic strains. In the regime of 25-400 C, there is a small decrease of stress at steady state as temperature increases; in the regime of 400 C to the 'transition temperature', the differential stress at steady state ({approx}2.5 GPa) is relatively insensitive to the changes of temperature and strain rate; however, it drastically decreases to about 1 GPa and becomes temperature-dependent above the transition temperature and thereafter. The transition temperature is near 900 C. Above the transition temperature, the flow agrees with power law creep measurements of previous investigations. The anisotropy of differential stress in individual planes indicates that the deformation of olivine at low temperature is dominated by [0 0 1](1 0 0). Accounting to a slower strain rate in the natural system, the transition temperature for the olivine in the slab is most likely in the range of 570-660 C.

  16. Experimental investigation of As, Sb and Cs behavior during olivine serpentinization in hydrothermal alkaline systems (United States)

    Lafay, Romain; Montes-Hernandez, German; Janots, Emilie; Munoz, Manuel; Auzende, Anne Line; Gehin, Antoine; Chiriac, Rodica; Proux, Olivier


    While Fluid-Mobile Elements (FMEs) such as B, Sb, Li, As or Cs are particularly concentrated in serpentinites, data on FME fluid-serpentine partitioning, distribution, and sequestration mechanisms are missing. In the present experimental study, the behavior of Sb, As and Cs during San Carlos olivine serpentinization was investigated using accurate mineralogical, geochemical, and spectroscopic characterization. Static-batch experiments were conducted at 200 °C, under saturated vapor pressure (≈1.6 MPa), for initial olivine grain sizes of coefficient increasing such as CsDp/fl = 1.5-1.6 elements are however substantially different. While the As partition coefficient remains constant throughout the serpentinization reaction, the Cs partition coefficient decreases abruptly in the first stages of the reaction to reach a constant value after the reaction is 40-60% complete. Both As and Cs partitioning appear to decrease with increasing initial olivine grain size, but there is no significant difference in the partitioning coefficient between the 30-56 and 56-150 μm grain size after complete serpentinization. X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) measurements combined with X-ray chemical measurements reveal that the As(V) is mainly adsorbed onto the serpentinization products, especially brucite. In contrast, mineralogical characterization combined with XAS spectroscopy reveal redox sensitivity for Sb sequestration within serpentine products, depending on the progress of the reaction. When serpentinization is coefficient compared to that of the serpentine and brucite assemblage. Antimony reduction appears linked to water reduction accompanying the bulk iron oxidation, as half the initial Fe(II) is oxidized into Fe(III) and incorporated into the serpentine products once the reaction is over. The reduction of Sb implies a decrease of its solubility, but the type of secondary Sb-rich phases identified here might not be representative of natural systems where Sb

  17. Influence of Fe content on the creep properties of olivine under anhydrous and hydrous conditions (United States)

    Trimmer, M. B.; Zhao, Y.; Zimmerman, M. E.; Kohlstedt, D. L.


    High-temperature, high-pressure compressive creep experiments were performed on both wet and dry aggregates of Fa75 in a gas-medium deformation apparatus. The results from these experiments are compared with those for San Carlos olivine, Fa10, and our previous results on Fa30 and Fa50 in order to provide a basis for comparing convection models for the mantle of Earth with those for the more iron-rich mantle of Mars. Samples were fabricated from powders of Fa75 that were synthesized from mixtures of Fe2O3 and SiO2 combined with San Carlos olivine. The Fa75 powders were cold-pressed into Fe capsules and then hot-pressed at 300 MPa, 1473 K for 3 h. The average grain size of the resultant hot-pressed samples was ~40 μm. For experiments under hydrous conditions, three drops of deionized water were added before sealing the sample within telescoping Fe cans for deformation. Water bubbles were present both within olivine grains and along grain boundaries, demonstrating that the samples were water-saturated. Triaxial compressive creep experiments were carried out in a servo-controlled, internally heated gas-medium apparatus at 50 K intervals between 1273 and 1423 K and a confining pressure of 300 MPa with differential stress of 10 to 300 MPa. For each sample, creep tests were performed at several differential stresses at a constant temperature to determine the stress exponent or at several temperatures to determine the activation energy for creep. Under anhydrous conditions the viscosity of samples of Fa75 is more than a factor of 10 lower than the viscosity of Fa50. Previous experiments showed a similar relationship between Fa50 and Fa30 and Fa30 and Fa10. Under hydrous conditions the viscosity of samples of Fa75 are about a factor of 5 lower than the viscosity of Fa50, which is less than that observed between Fa50 and Fa30 or Fa30 and Fa10. The viscosity of a sample of a specific Fe:Mg ratio deformed under hydrous conditions is a factor of 10 lower than its counterpart

  18. Effect of iron content on the creep behavior of Olivine: 2. Hydrous conditions (United States)

    Zhao, Yong-Hong; Zimmerman, Mark E.; Kohlstedt, David L.


    We have undertaken an experimental investigation of the effect of iron content on the viscosity of Fe-Mg olivine aggregates deformed under hydrous conditions in order to provide a basis for comparing convection models for the mantle of Earth with those for the more iron-rich mantle of Mars. Fine-grained samples of Fe-bearing olivine with fayalite contents, Fax, of x = 100, 75, 50, 30 and 10 were deformed in triaxial compressive creep primarily in the dislocation creep regime under water-saturated conditions at temperatures of 1273 to 1473 K and a confining pressure of 300 MPa. Nickel sleeves around the samples of Fa10, Fa30 and Fa50 set the oxygen fugacity at the Ni:NiO buffer and thus the water fugacity at ≲300 MPa, while Fe sleeves around samples of Fa75 and Fa100 set the oxygen fugacity at the Fe:FeO buffer and thus the water fugacity at ≲200 MPa. Samples were deformed in triaxial compression to a maximum strain of 0.2 at differential stresses from 10 to 300 MPa and strain rates from 10-7 to 10-3 s-1. In the dislocation creep field at a given temperature, the viscosity of samples of Fa50 is a factor of ∼10 smaller than the viscosity of samples of Fa30, while the viscosity of samples of Fa30 is a factor of ∼10 smaller than that of samples of Fa10. Our experimental results can be described by the flow law ε˙disl =Cdisl(σ/μ) ndisl XFa pdisl exp(-(Qdisl0 +αdislXFa)/RT) fH2Omdisl with Cdisl = 99.7 MPa-5/4 s-1, ndisl = 3.7, pdisl = 0.5, Qdisl0 = 510 kJ/mol, αdisl = -120 kJ/mol, and mdisl = 5/4. This flow law indicates that the viscosity of olivine of a specific Fe:Mg ratio is a factor of ∼10 smaller than its counterpart deformed under anhydrous conditions. In a hydrous environment at the same thermodynamic conditions, the viscosity of the more Fe-rich mantle (∼Fa19) of Mars is a factor of ∼5 lower than that of the mantle (∼Fa8) of Earth.

  19. Phosphate glasses, containing nitrogen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lisitsyna, E.A.; Khalilev, V.D.; Koryavin, A.A.; Goncharova, L.N.


    Possibilities of nitrogen-containing glass synthesis by the introduction into the charge of ammonium salts, as well as aluminium nitride, are studied. Zinc alumoyttrium phosphate glass (mol. %) Zn(PO 3 ) 2 - 4O, Al(PO 3 ) 3 - 3O, Y(PO 3 ) 3 -3O is suggested as a matrix. It is shown that the effect of amide and imide groups on the properties of the glass is less noticeable than the effect of nitride groups. Direct introduction of nitride constituent was realized using AlN, but aluminium introduction was taken into account so that the oxide was subtracted. The attempt to introduce more than 2.5 mass % of nitrogen into initial matrix by aluminium nitride has failed due to repeated restoration of glass with amorphous phosphorus isolation

  20. Oriented growth due to topotactic replacement of antigorite by olivine as a mechanism for the formation of B-type olivine CPO in convergent margins (United States)

    Nagaya, T.; Wallis, S.; Kobayashi, H.; Michibayashi, K.; Mizukami, T.


    B-type olivine (Ol) CPO patterns are characterized by an a-axis concentration parallel to the intermediate principle axis of strain and have been proposed by many workers as the cause of seismic anisotropy in the mantle wedge of subduction zones that shows the fast direction perpendicular to the plate movement direction. Experimental work has shown that B-type Ol CPO can form by dislocation creep at relatively high stresses and in the presence of water. Natural examples of B-type Ol CPO have also been reported, but there are several discrepancies with the experimental results. 1) Some natural B-type CPO formed at relatively high temperatures and low stress outside the ranges predicted by experiments. 2) Natural examples lack evidence for the c-slip expected for the formation of B-type Ol CPO by dislocation creep. 3) The high shear stresses expected along subduction boundaries promote the formation of B-type Ol CPO, but these regions are also expected to be associated with the formation of serpentine minerals and even relatively small amounts prevent strong CPO patterns from forming because of grain-boundary sliding occurring between Ol and serpentine. We show B-type Ol CPO can form as a result of static topotactic growth of olivine after high-temperature breakdown of antigorite (Atg) schist. In the Happo-One region of the Hida Marginal belt, Japan, dehydration of foliated Atg produces non-deformed secondary Ol formed in veins or patches and peridotite-hornfels where the conversion is complete.The CPO of non-deformed Ol in veins and in the hornfels shows a strong B-type fabric. The veins show consistent Ol CPO irrespective of the vein orientation, implying the CPO is not related to the vein opening direction. The CPO of Atg bordering the vein Ol shows a strong concentration of c-axes at a high angle to the foliation and a strong alignment of b-axes parallel to the lineation. Numerous recent studies have shown this type of Atg CPO is the most widespread in the

  1. Reply to comment by Nozaka (2014) on ;Dehydration breakdown of antigorite and the formation of B-type olivine CPO; (United States)

    Nagaya, Takayoshi; Wallis, Simon R.; Kobayashi, Hiroaki; Michibayashi, Katsuyoshi; Mizukami, Tomoyuki; Seto, Yusuke; Miyake, Akira; Matsumoto, Megumi


    We would like to thank Dr. Nozaka for his interest in our work and also for supplying some of the crystal orientation data that we used in our study. He presents a detailed discussion of differences in interpretation between our two studies. The main difference is whether the strong B-type olivine CPO developed as a result of topotactic static growth after breakdown of antigorite (Nagaya et al., 2014) or if it developed due to homoepitaxial growth on a limited number of olivine grains that already showed a general B-type CPO (Nozaka, 2014). In both of our studies static growth of olivine due to the breakdown of antigorite is key in the strengthening or formation of B-type olivine CPO. This conclusion has potentially far reaching implications for the interpretation of mantle seismic anisotropy in subduction zones and is the most important take home message. However, the details of interpretation are also important. In our reply, we focus on what we consider to be the 5 main points of disagreement. We refer to Fig. 1 to explain different microstructural domains.

  2. Geochemistry and oxygen isotope composition of main-group pallasites and olivine-rich clasts in mesosiderites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Greenwood, Richard C.; Barrat, Jean-Alix; Scott, Edward R. D.


    origin. Although the Dawn mission did not detect mesosiderite-like material on Vesta, evidence linking the mesosiderites and HEDs includes: (i) theirnearly identical oxygen isotope compositions; (ii) the presence in both of coarse-grained Mg-rich olivines; (iii) both have synchronous Lu-Hf and Mn-Cr ages...

  3. Constraining Thermal Histories by Monte Carlo Simulation of Mg-Fe Isotopic Profiles in Olivine (United States)

    Sio, C. K. I.; Dauphas, N.


    In thermochronology, random time-temperature (t-T) paths are generated and used as inputs to model fission track data. This random search method is used to identify a range of acceptable thermal histories that can describe the data. We have extended this modeling approach to magmatic systems. This approach utilizes both the chemical and stable isotope profiles measured in crystals as model constraints. Specifically, the isotopic profiles are used to determine the relative contribution of crystal growth vs. diffusion in generating chemical profiles, and to detect changes in melt composition. With this information, tighter constraints can be placed on the thermal evolution of magmatic bodies. We use an olivine phenocryst from the Kilauea Iki lava lake, HI, to demonstrate proof of concept. We treat this sample as one with little geologic context, then compare our modeling results to the known thermal history experienced by that sample. To complete forward modeling, we use MELTS to estimate the boundary condition, initial and quench temperatures. We also assume a simple relationship between crystal growth and cooling rate. Another important parameter is the isotopic effect for diffusion (i.e., the relative diffusivity of the light vs. heavy isotope of an element). The isotopic effects for Mg and Fe diffusion in olivine have been estimated based on natural samples; experiments to better constrain these parameters are underway. We find that 40% of the random t-T paths can be used to fit the Mg-Fe chemical profiles. However, only a few can be used to simultaneously fit the Mg-Fe isotopic profiles. These few t-T paths are close to the independently determined t-T history of the sample. This modeling approach can be further extended other igneous and metamorphic systems where data exist for diffusion rates, crystal growth rates, and isotopic effects for diffusion.

  4. Microseismic Monitoring of the Olivine → Spinel Transition in Fayalite Under Non-Hydrostatic Stress (United States)

    Officer, T.; Secco, R. A.


    In subduction zones, deep earthquakes are thought to be associated with faulting that arises from phase transformations. In order to test the viability of this mechanism experimentally, it is necessary to make microseismic measurements while the mineral under investigation is subjected to the pressure and temperature (P,T) environment at depth. A system has been developed capable of making in situ acoustic emission (AE) measurements on samples under P,T conditions representative of the upper mantle and transition zone. Experiments are performed in a 3000-ton multi-anvil press using an 18/11 octahedral cell with 6 piezoelectric transducers mounted on the rear side of the anvils. AE signals are collected at a sampling rate of 40 MHz using a triggered system and a data buffer for continuous recording so full waveforms of AE events are captured. The use of multiple transducers distributed in a microseismic array allows for events to be located within the sample through automatic arrival time picking and least squares inversion techniques. The multi-anvil apparatus constitutes an inherently noisy environment both acoustically and electrically, therefore methods of noise reduction were developed and will be discussed. This technique has been used to measure acoustic signals generated from the fracturing of quartz beads during high pressure deformation and to investigate the possibility that the phase transformation from olivine to spinel, known to occur in subduction zones, is associated with deep-focus earthquakes (300 - 690 km depth). The analog material fayalite (Fe2SiO4), the iron end member of olivine, has been examined. Information about its synthesis and sintering will be discussed as well as results of AE experiments on samples experiencing deviatoric stress under high pressure (P = 4-9 GPa) and high temperature (T = 773-1273 K) conditions in the spinel stability field.

  5. Key new pieces of the HIMU puzzle from olivines and diamond inclusions. (United States)

    Weiss, Yaakov; Class, Cornelia; Goldstein, Steven L; Hanyu, Takeshi


    Mantle melting, which leads to the formation of oceanic and continental crust, together with crust recycling through plate tectonics, are the primary processes that drive the chemical differentiation of the silicate Earth. The present-day mantle, as sampled by oceanic basalts, shows large chemical and isotopic variability bounded by a few end-member compositions. Among these, the HIMU end-member (having a high U/Pb ratio, μ) has been generally considered to represent subducted/recycled basaltic oceanic crust. However, this concept has been challenged by recent studies of the mantle source of HIMU magmas. For example, analyses of olivine phenocrysts in HIMU lavas indicate derivation from the partial melting of peridotite, rather than from the pyroxenitic remnants of recycled oceanic basalt. Here we report data that elucidate the source of these lavas: high-precision trace-element analyses of olivine phenocrysts point to peridotite that has been metasomatized by carbonatite fluids. Moreover, similarities in the trace-element patterns of carbonatitic melt inclusions in diamonds and HIMU lavas indicate that the metasomatism occurred in the subcontinental lithospheric mantle, fused to the base of the continental crust and isolated from mantle convection. Taking into account evidence from sulfur isotope data for Archean to early Proterozoic surface material in the deep HIMU mantle source, a multi-stage evolution is revealed for the HIMU end-member, spanning more than half of Earth's history. Before entrainment in the convecting mantle, storage in a boundary layer, upwelling as a mantle plume and partial melting to become ocean island basalt, the HIMU source formed as Archean-early Proterozoic subduction-related carbonatite-metasomatized subcontinental lithospheric mantle.

  6. Magma transport and olivine crystallization depths in Kīlauea’s East Rift Zone inferred from experimentally rehomogenized melt inclusions (United States)

    Tuohy, Robin M; Wallace, Paul J.; Loewen, Matthew W; Swanson, Don; Kent, Adam J R


    Concentrations of H2O and CO2 in olivine-hosted melt inclusions can be used to estimate crystallization depths for the olivine host. However, the original dissolved CO2concentration of melt inclusions at the time of trapping can be difficult to measure directly because in many cases substantial CO2 is transferred to shrinkage bubbles that form during post-entrapment cooling and crystallization. To investigate this problem, we heated olivine from the 1959 Kīlauea Iki and 1960 Kapoho (Hawai‘i) eruptions in a 1-atm furnace to temperatures above the melt inclusion trapping temperature to redissolve the CO2 in shrinkage bubbles. The measured CO2 concentrations of the experimentally rehomogenized inclusions (⩽590 ppm for Kīlauea Iki [n=10]; ⩽880 ppm for Kapoho, with one inclusion at 1863 ppm [n=38]) overlap with values for naturally quenched inclusions from the same samples, but experimentally rehomogenized inclusions have higher within-sample median CO2 values than naturally quenched inclusions, indicating at least partial dissolution of CO2 from the vapor bubble during heating. Comparison of our data with predictions from modeling of vapor bubble formation and published Raman data on the density of CO2 in the vapor bubbles suggests that 55-85% of the dissolved CO2 in the melt inclusions at the time of trapping was lost to post-entrapment shrinkage bubbles. Our results combined with the Raman data demonstrate that olivine from the early part of the Kīlauea Iki eruption crystallized at <6 km depth, with the majority of olivine in the 1-3 km depth range. These depths are consistent with the interpretation that the Kīlauea Iki magma was supplied from Kīlauea’s summit magma reservoir (∼2-5 km depth). In contrast, olivine from Kapoho, which was the rift zone extension of the Kīlauea Iki eruption, crystallized over a much wider range of depths (∼1-16 km). The wider depth range requires magma transport during the Kapoho eruption from deep beneath the

  7. Magma transport and olivine crystallization depths in Kīlauea's east rift zone inferred from experimentally rehomogenized melt inclusions (United States)

    Tuohy, Robin M.; Wallace, Paul J.; Loewen, Matthew W.; Swanson, Donald A.; Kent, Adam J. R.


    Concentrations of H2O and CO2 in olivine-hosted melt inclusions can be used to estimate crystallization depths for the olivine host. However, the original dissolved CO2 concentration of melt inclusions at the time of trapping can be difficult to measure directly because in many cases substantial CO2 is transferred to shrinkage bubbles that form during post-entrapment cooling and crystallization. To investigate this problem, we heated olivine from the 1959 Kīlauea Iki and 1960 Kapoho (Hawai'i) eruptions in a 1-atm furnace to temperatures above the melt inclusion trapping temperature to redissolve the CO2 in shrinkage bubbles. The measured CO2 concentrations of the experimentally rehomogenized inclusions (⩽590 ppm for Kīlauea Iki [n = 10]; ⩽880 ppm for Kapoho, with one inclusion at 1863 ppm [n = 38]) overlap with values for naturally quenched inclusions from the same samples, but experimentally rehomogenized inclusions have higher within-sample median CO2 values than naturally quenched inclusions, indicating at least partial dissolution of CO2 from the vapor bubble during heating. Comparison of our data with predictions from modeling of vapor bubble formation and published Raman data on the density of CO2 in the vapor bubbles suggests that 55-85% of the dissolved CO2 in the melt inclusions at the time of trapping was lost to post-entrapment shrinkage bubbles. Our results combined with the Raman data demonstrate that olivine from the early part of the Kīlauea Iki eruption crystallized at <6 km depth, with the majority of olivine in the 1-3 km depth range. These depths are consistent with the interpretation that the Kīlauea Iki magma was supplied from Kīlauea's summit magma reservoir (∼2-5 km depth). In contrast, olivine from Kapoho, which was the rift zone extension of the Kīlauea Iki eruption, crystallized over a much wider range of depths (∼1-16 km). The wider depth range requires magma transport during the Kapoho eruption from deep beneath the summit

  8. Electrochemical Reduction of Zinc Phosphate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Chang Hwan; Lee, Jung Hyun; Shin, Woon Sup


    We demonstrated first that the electrochemical reduction of zinc phosphate in neutral phosphate buffer is possible and potentially applicable to bio-compatible rechargeable battery. The actual redox component is Zn(s)/Zn phosphate(s) and the future research about the control of crystal formation for the better cyclability is required. In lead-acid battery, the electrochemical redox reaction of Pb (s) /PbSO 4(s) is used by reducing Pb(II) and oxidizing Pb(0) in sulfate rich solution. Since both reduced form and oxidized form are insoluble, they cannot diffuse to the opposite electrodes and react. It is a very common strategy to make a stable battery electrode that a metal element is reduced and oxidized in solution containing an abundance of anion readily precipitating with the metal ion. For the application of this strategy to construction of rechargeable battery using bio-compatible electrode materials and electrolytes, the use of phosphate ion can be considered as anion readily precipitating with metal ions. If phosphate buffer with neutral pH is used as electrolyte, the better bio-compatibility will be achieved than most of rechargeable battery using strong acid, strong base or organic solvent as electrolyte solution. There are many metal ions readily precipitating with phos-phate ion, and zinc is one of them

  9. Formation of H2 and CH4 by weathering of olivine at temperatures between 30 and 70°C

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Crill Patrick


    Full Text Available Abstract Hydrocarbons such as CH4 are known to be formed through the Fischer-Tropsch or Sabatier type reactions in hydrothermal systems usually at temperatures above 100°C. Weathering of olivine is sometimes suggested to account for abiotic formation of CH4 through its redox lowering and water splitting properties. Knowledge about the CH4 and H2 formation processes at low temperatures is important for the research about the origin and cause of early Earth and Martian CH4 and for CO2 sequestration. We have conducted a series of low temperature, long-term weathering experiments in which we have tested the CH4 and H2 formation potential of forsteritic olivine. The results show low temperature CH4 production that is probably influenced by chromite and magnetite as catalysts. Extensive analyses of a potential CH4 source trapped in the crystal structure of the olivine showed no signs of incorporated CH4. Also, the available sources of organic carbon were not enough to support the total amount of CH4 detected in our experiments. There was also a linear relationship between silica release into solution and the net CH4 accumulation into the incubation bottle headspaces suggesting that CH4 formation under these conditions could be a qualitative indicator of olivine dissolution. It is likely that minerals such as magnetite, chromite and other metal-rich minerals found on the olivine surface catalyze the formation of CH4, because of the low temperature of the system. This may expand the range of environments plausible for abiotic CH4 formation both on Earth and on other terrestrial bodies.

  10. Olivine-bearing lithologies on the Moon: Constraints on origins and transport mechanisms from M3 spectroscopy, radiative transfer modeling, and GRAIL crustal thickness (United States)

    Corley, Laura M.; McGovern, Patrick J.; Kramer, Georgiana Y.; Lemelin, Myriam; Trang, David; Gillis-Davis, Jeffrey J.; Taylor, G. Jeffrey; Powell, Kathryn E.; Kiefer, Walter S.; Wieczorek, Mark; Zuber, Maria T.


    High-resolution hyperspectral data from Chandrayaan-1's Moon Mineralogy Mapper (M3) allow detection of olivine on the lunar surface. Olivine exposed at the surface may originate as mantle material or igneous products (intrusive or extrusive). Potential transport mechanisms include excavation of the mantle or lower crustal material by impacts that form basins and complex craters, differentiation of impact melt sheets, or magmatic emplacement of lavas, cumulates, or xenoliths. A sample of the lunar mantle, which has not been conclusively identified in the lunar sample collection, would yield fundamental new insights into the composition, structure, and evolution of the lunar interior. Olivine identified in remote spectral data is generally accepted to originate from the primary mantle, because abundant olivine is expected to exist in the mantle and lower crust, yet have sparse occurrences in the upper crust. In this study, we identified 111 M3 single-pixel spectra with characteristic absorption features consistent with olivine at Crisium, Nectaris, and Humorum basins and near the craters Roche and Tsiolkovsky. In an effort to determine the origins and transport mechanisms that led to these individual exposures, we estimated mineral abundances using radiative transfer modeling and examined crustal thickness estimates, topography and slope maps, and images from the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Camera (LROC). At Crisium basin, where crustal thickness is near 0 km (Wieczorek et al., 2013), mantle olivine may have been exposed by basin-forming impact and deposited on the rim. Picard crater, which is superposed on the floor of Crisium, also exhibits potential mantle olivine in its ejecta. Within Nectaris basin, olivine exposures are confined to the rims of small craters on the mare, which are inferred to excavate a layer of olivine-rich mare basalt. Olivine occurrences on the rim of Humorum basin, including those located on a graben, are likely to be cumulates of shallow

  11. Hydrogen permeation resistant phosphate coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McGuire, J.C.


    A method for reducing hydrogen diffusion through metal wherein the metal is coated with a phosphate-radical-containing, phosphate-glass-forming material on at least one surface thereof. The coating is then heated to at least 350 0 C to form a phosphate glass. This method is especially applicable to nuclear reactors to minimize tritium diffusion. The coating is preferably formed with a solution of phosphoric acid which may also contain compounds such as MnSO 4 , SiO 2 and Na 2 Cr 2 0 7 . (author)

  12. Hydrogen permeation resistant phosphate coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McGuire, J.C.


    A method for reducing hydrogen diffusion through metal is described. The metal is coated with a phosphate-radical-containing, phosphate-glass-forming material on at least one surface. The coating is then heated to at least 350 0 C to form a phosphate glass. This method is especially applicable to nuclear reactors to minimize tritium diffusion. The coating is preferably formed with a solution of phosphoric acid which may also contain compounds such as MnSO 4 , SiO 2 and Na 2 Cr 2 O 7 . (author)

  13. Calcium phosphates for biomedical applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Canillas


    Full Text Available The history of calcium phosphates in the medicine field starts in 1769 when the first evidence of its existence in the bone tissue is discovered. Since then, the interest for calcium phosphates has increased among the scientific community. Their study has been developed in parallel with new advances in materials sciences, medicine or tissue engineering areas. Bone tissue engineering is the field where calcium phosphates have had a great importance. While the first bioceramics are selected according to bioinert, biocompatibility and mechanical properties with the aim to replace bone tissue damaged, calcium phosphates open the way to the bone tissue regeneration challenge. Nowadays, they are present in the majority of commercial products directed to repair or regenerate damaged bone tissue. Finally, in the last few decades, they have been suggested and studied as drug delivering devices and as vehicles of DNA and RNA for the future generation therapies.

  14. Variability of nitrate and phosphate

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sardessai, S.; Sundar, D.

    Nitrate and phosphate are important elements of the biogeochemical system of an estuary. Observations carried out during the dry season April-May 2002, and March 2003 and wet season September 2002, show temporal and spatial variability of these two...

  15. Preparation of calcium phosphate paste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohd Reusmaazran Yusof; Norzita Yaacob; Idris Besar; Che Seman Mahmood; Rusnah Mustafa


    Calcium phosphate paste were prepared by mixing between calcium sodium potassium phosphate, Ca 2 NaK (PO 4 ) 2 (CSPP) and monocalcium phosphate monohydrate, Ca(H 2 PO 4 ) 2 .H 2 O (MCPM). CSPP were obtained by reaction between calcium hydrogen phosphate (CaHPO 4 ), potassium carbonate (K 2 CO 3 ) and sodium carbonate (Na 2 CO 3 ) in solid state sintering process followed by quenching in air at 1000 degree Celsius. The paste was aging in simulated body fluid (SBF) for 0.5, 1, 3, 6, 12, 24, 48 hrs, 3, 7 and 14 days. The morphological investigation indicated the formation of apatite crystal were first growth after 24 hours. The obvious growth of apatite crystal was shown at 3 days. The obvious growth of apatite crystal was shown in 7 and 14 days indicated the prediction of paste would have rapid reaction with bone after implantation. (author)

  16. Calcium phosphates for biomedical applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Canillas, M.; Pena, P.; Aza, A.H. de; Rodriguez, M.A.


    The history of calcium phosphates in the medicine field starts in 1769 when the first evidence of its existence in the bone tissue is discovered. Since then, the interest for calcium phosphates has increased among the scientific community. Their study has been developed in parallel with new advances in materials sciences, medicine or tissue engineering areas. Bone tissue engineering is the field where calcium phosphates have had a great importance. While the first bioceramics are selected according to bioinert, biocompatibility and mechanical properties with the aim to replace bone tissue damaged, calcium phosphates open the way to the bone tissue regeneration challenge. Nowadays, they are present in the majority of commercial products directed to repair or regenerate damaged bone tissue. Finally, in the last few decades, they have been suggested and studied as drug delivering devices and as vehicles of DNA and RNA for the future generation therapies. (Author)

  17. Phosphate solubilization and multiple plant growth promoting ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Phosphate solubilizing efficiencies of the strains were analyzed using different insoluble phosphorus sources and the results show that most isolates released a substantial amount of soluble phosphate from tricalcium phosphate, rock phosphate and bone meal. Screening for multiple plant growth promoting attributes ...

  18. Electrical properties of phosphate glasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mogus-Milankovic, A; Santic, A; Reis, S T; Day, D E


    Investigation of the electrical properties of phosphate glasses where transition metal oxide such as iron oxide is the network former and network modifier is presented. Phosphate glasses containing iron are electronically conducting glasses where the polaronic conduction is due to the electron hopping from low to high iron valence state. The identification of structural defects caused by ion/polaron migration, the analysis of dipolar states and electrical conductivity in iron phosphate glasses containing various alkali and mixed alkali ions was performed on the basis of the impedance spectroscopy (IS). The changes in electrical conductivity from as-quenched phosphate glass to fully crystallized glass (glass-ceramics) by IS are analyzed. A change in the characteristic features of IS follows the changes in glass and crystallized glass network. Using IS, the contribution of glass matrix, crystallized grains and grain boundary to the total electrical conductivity for iron phosphate glasses was analyzed. It was shown that decrease in conductivity is caused by discontinuities in the conduction pathways as a result of the disruption of crystalline network where two or more crystalline phases are formed. Also, phosphate-based glasses offer a unique range of biomaterials, as they form direct chemical bonding with hard/soft tissue. The surface charges of bioactive glasses are recognized to be the most important factors in determining biological responses. The improved bioactivity of the bioactive glasses as a result of the effects of the surface charges generated by electrical polarization is discussed.

  19. Water sensitivity of the seismic properties of upper-mantle olivine (United States)

    Cline, Christopher; David, Emmanuel; Faul, Ulrich; Berry, Andrew; Jackson, Ian


    The wave speeds and attenuation of seismic waves in the upper mantle are expected to be strongly influenced by the defect chemistry of olivine grain interiors and the associated chemical complexity of grain-boundary regions. Changes in chemical environment (oxygen fugacity and/or water fugacity) can impose different defect chemistries, including the creation and retention of hydrous defects, and therefore can directly influence anelastic relaxation involving stress-induced migration of lattice defects and/or grain-boundary sliding. Here we report the first low-frequency experimental study of the seismic properties of olivine under water-undersaturated conditions. Three synthetic sol-gel derived olivine (Fo90) specimens were fabricated by hot-pressing in welded Pt capsules with various concentrations of hydroxyl, chemically bound as doubly protonated Si vacancies, charge balanced by substitution of Ti on a neighboring M-site (i.e., the Ti-clinohumite-like defect). Hydroxyl contents, determined following the subsequent mechanical testing within Pt sleeves, increased systematically with the amount of added Ti-dopant. Added Ti concentrations ranged between 176 and 802 atom ppm Ti/Si, resulting in concentrations of bound hydrogen in the three samples ranging between 330 and 1150 atom ppm H/Si. Each hot-pressed specimen was precision ground and then sleeved in Pt for mechanical testing in forced torsional oscillation under water-undersaturated conditions. Forced-oscillation tests were conducted at seismic periods of 1 - 1000 s and 200 MPa confining pressure during slow staged cooling from 1200 to 25°C. Each Ti-doped specimen showed mechanical behavior of the high-temperature background type involving monotonically increasing dissipation and decreasing shear modulus with increasing oscillation period and increasing temperature. Comparison of the mechanical data acquired in these water-undersaturated conditions with a similarly tested, but dry, Ti-bearing specimen

  20. Femtosecond laser irradiation of olivine single crystals: Experimental simulation of space weathering (United States)

    Fazio, A.; Harries, D.; Matthäus, G.; Mutschke, H.; Nolte, S.; Langenhorst, F.


    Space weathering is one of the most common surface process occurring on atmosphere-free bodies such as asteroids and the Moon. It is caused mainly by solar wind irradiation and the impact of micrometeoroids. In order to simulate space weathering effects, in particular those produced by hypervelocity impacts, we produced microcraters via ultra-short (∼100 fs) laser irradiation of crystallographically oriented slices of forsterite-rich (Fo94.7) olivine. The main advantages of the application of a femtosecond laser radiation to reproduce the space weathering effects are (1) the high peak irradiance (1015 W cm-2), which generates the propagation of the shock wave at the nanosecond timescale (i.e., timescale of the micrometeoroid impacts); (2) the rapid transfer of energy to the target material, which avoids the interaction of laser light with the developing vapor plume; (3) a small laser beam, which allows the effects of a single impact to be simulated. The results of our spectroscopic and electron microscopic investigation validate this approach: the samples show strong darkening and reddening of the reflectance spectra and structural damages similar to the natural microcraters found on regolith grains of the Moon and asteroid 25143 Itokawa. Detailed investigations of several microcrater cross-sections by transmission electron microscopy allowed the detection of shock-induced defect microstructures. From the top to the bottom of the grain, the shock wave causes evaporation, melting, solid-state recrystallization, misorientation, fracturing, and the propagation of dislocations with Burgers vectors parallel to [001]. The formation of a short-lived vapor plume causes the kinetic fractionation of the gas and the preferential loss of lighter elements, mostly magnesium and oxygen. The high temperatures within the melt layer and the kinetic loss of oxygen promote the thermal reduction of iron and nickel, which leads to the formation of metallic nanoparticles (npFe0). The

  1. Possible Association of Ferrous Phosphates and Ferric Sulfates in S-rich Soil on Mars (United States)

    Mao, J.; Schroeder, C.; Haderlein, S.


    NASA Mars Exploration Rover (MER) Spirit explored Gusev Crater to look for signs of ancient aqueous activity, assess past environmental conditions and suitability for life. Spirit excavated light-toned, S-rich soils at several locations. These are likely of hydrothermal, possibly fumarolic origin. At a location dubbed Paso Robles the light-toned soil was also rich in P - a signature from surrounding rock. While S is mainly bound in ferric hydrated sulfates [1], the mineralogy of P is ill-constrained [2]. P is a key element for life and its mineralogy constrains its availability. Ferrous phases observed in Paso Robles Mössbauer spectra may represent olivine and pyroxene from surrounding basaltic soil [1] or ferrous phosphate minerals [3]. Phosphate is well-known to complex and stabilize Fe 2+ against oxidation to Fe 3+ . Schröder et al. [3] proposed a formation pathway of ferrous phosphate/ferric sulfate associations: sulfuric acid reacts with basalt containing apatite, forming CaSO4 and phosphoric acid. The phosphoric and/or excess sulfuric acid reacts with olivine, forming Fe2+-phosphate and sulfate. The phosphate is less soluble and precipitates. Ferrous sulfate remains in solution and is oxidized as pH increases. To verify this pathway, we dissolved Fe2+-chloride and Na-phosphate salts in sulfuric acid inside an anoxic glovebox. The solution was titrated to pH 6 by adding NaOH when a first precipitate formed, which was ferrous phosphate according to Mössbauer spectroscopy (MB). At that point the solution was removed from the glovebox and allowed to evaporate in the presence of atmospheric oxygen, leading to the oxidation of Fe2+. The evaporation rate was controlled by keeping the suspensions at different temperatures; pH was monitored during the evaporation process. The final precipitates were analyzed by MB and X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF), comparable to MER MB and Alpha Particle X-ray Spectrometer instrument datasets, and complementary techniques such as X

  2. Irreversible adsorption of atmospheric helium on olivine: A lobster pot analogy (United States)

    Protin, Marie; Blard, Pierre-Henri; Marrocchi, Yves; Mathon, François


    This study reports new experimental results that demonstrate that large amounts of atmospheric helium may be adsorbed onto the surfaces of olivine grains. This behavior is surface-area-related in that this contamination preferentially affects grains that are smaller than 125 μm in size. One of the most striking results of our study is that in vacuo heating at 900 °C for 15 min is not sufficient to completely remove the atmospheric contamination. This suggests that the adsorption of helium may involve high-energy trapping of helium through irreversible anomalous adsorption. This trapping process of helium can thus be compared to a ;lobster pot; adsorption: atmospheric helium easily gets in, but hardly gets out. While this type of behavior has previously been reported for heavy noble gases (Ar, Kr, Xe), this is the first time that it has been observed for helium. Adsorption of helium has, until now, generally been considered to be negligible on silicate surfaces. Our findings have significant implications for helium and noble gas analysis of natural silicate samples, such as for cosmic-ray exposure dating or noble gas characterization of extraterrestrial material. Analytical procedures in future studies should be adapted in order to avoid this contamination. The results of this study also allow us to propose an alternative explanation for previously described matrix loss of cosmogenic 3He.

  3. Heterogeneity in small aliquots of Apolllo 15 olivine-normative basalt: Implications for breccia clast studies (United States)

    Lindstrom, Marilyn M.; Shervais, John W.; Vetter, Scott K.


    Most of the recent advances in lunar petrology are the direct result of breccia pull-apart studies, which have identified a wide array of new highland and mare basalt rock types that occur only as clasts within the breccias. These rocks show that the lunar crust is far more complex than suspected previously, and that processes such as magma mixing and wall-rock assimilation were important in its petrogenesis. These studies are based on the implicit assumption that the breccia clasts, which range in size from a few mm to several cm across, are representative of the parent rock from which they were derived. In many cases, the aliquot allocated for analysis may be only a few grain diameters across. While this problem is most acute for coarse-grained highland rocks, it can also cause considerable uncertainty in the analysis of mare basalt clasts. Similar problems arise with small aliquots of individual hand samples. Our study of sample heterogeneity in 9 samples of Apollo 15 olivine normative basalt (ONB) which exhibit a range in average grain size from coarse to fine are reported. Seven of these samples have not been analyzed previously, one has been analyzed by INAA only, and one has been analyzed by XRF+INAA. Our goal is to assess the effects of small aliquot size on the bulk chemistry of large mare basalt samples, and to extend this assessment to analyses of small breccia clasts.

  4. Water in Earth's mantle: Hydrogen analysis of mantle olivine, pyroxenes and garnet using the SIMS (United States)

    Kurosawa, Masanori; Yurimoto, Hisayoshi; Sueno, Shigeho


    Hydrogen (or water) in the Earth's interior plays a key role in the evolution and dynamics of the planet. However, the abundance and the existence form of the hydrogen have scarcely been clear in practice. Hydrogen in the mantle was incorporated in the interior during the formation of the Earth. The incorporated hydrogen was hardly possible to concentrate locally inside the Earth considering its high mobility and high reactivity. The hydrogen, preferably, could be distributed homogeneously over the mantle and the core by the subsequent physical and chemical processes. Therefore, hydrogen in the mantle could be present in the form of trace hydrogen in nominally anhydrous mantle minerals. The hydrogen and the other trace elements in mantle olivines, orthopyroxenes, clinopyroxenes, and garnets were determined using secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) for elucidating (1) the exact hydrogen contents, (2) the correlation between the hydrogen and the other trace elements, (3) the dependence of the hydrogen contents on the depth, and (4) the dependence of the whole rock water contents on the depth.

  5. Elevated olivine weathering rates and sulfate formation at cryogenic temperatures on Mars. (United States)

    Niles, Paul B; Michalski, Joseph; Ming, Douglas W; Golden, D C


    Large Hesperian-aged (~3.7 Ga) layered deposits of sulfate-rich sediments in the equatorial regions of Mars have been suggested to be evidence for ephemeral playa environments. But early Mars may not have been warm enough to support conditions similar to what occurs in arid environments on Earth. Instead cold, icy environments may have been widespread. Under cryogenic conditions sulfate formation might be blocked, since kinetics of silicate weathering are typically strongly retarded at temperatures well below 0 °C. But cryo-concentration of acidic solutions may counteract the slow kinetics. Here we show that cryo-concentrated acidic brines rapidly chemically weather olivine minerals and form sulfate minerals at temperatures as low as -60 °C. These experimental results demonstrate the viability of sulfate formation under current Martian conditions, even in the polar regions. An ice-hosted sedimentation and weathering model may provide a compelling description of the origin of large Hesperian-aged layered sulfate deposits on Mars.

  6. Structure and transport at grain boundaries in polycrystalline olivine: An atomic-scale perspective (United States)

    Mantisi, Boris; Sator, Nicolas; Guillot, Bertrand


    Structure and transport properties at grain boundaries in polycrystalline olivine have been investigated at the atomic scale by molecular dynamics simulation (MD) using an empirical ionocovalent interaction potential. On the time scale of the simulation (a few tens of nanoseconds for a system size of ∼650,000 atoms) grain boundaries and grain interior were identified by mapping the atomic displacements along the simulation run. In the investigated temperature range (1300-1700 K) the mean thickness of the grain boundary phase is evaluated between 0.5 and 2 nm, a value which depends on temperature and grain size. The structure of the grain boundary phase is found to be disordered (amorphous-like) and is different from the one exhibited by the supercooled liquid. The self-diffusion coefficients of major elements in the intergranular region range from ∼10-13 to 10-10 m2/s between 1300 and 1700 K (with DSigb Kubo relation expressing the viscosity as function of the stress tensor time correlation function. In spite of a slow convergence of the calculation by MD, the grain boundary viscosity was estimated about ∼105 Pa s at 1500 K, a value in agreement with high-temperature viscoelastic relaxation data. An interesting information gained from MD is that sliding at grain boundaries is essentially controlled by the internal friction between the intergranular phase and the grain edges.

  7. Unexpected formation by pulsed laser deposition of nanostructured Fe/olivine thin films on MgO substrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Legrand, C.; Dupont, L.; Davoisne, C.; Le Marrec, F.; Perriere, J.; Baudrin, E.


    Olivine-type LiFePO 4 thin films were grown on MgO (1 0 0) substrates by pulsed laser deposition (PLD). The formation of an original nanostructure is evidenced by transmission electron microscopy measurements. Indeed, on focused ion beam prepared cross sections of the thin film, we observe, the amazing formation of metallic iron/olivine nanostructures. The appearance of such a structure is explained owing to a topotactic relation between the two phases as well as a strong Mg diffusion from the substrate to the film surface. Magnesium migration is thus concomitant with the creation of metallic iron domains that grow from the core of the film to the surface leading to large protuberances. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on iron extrusion from the olivine-type LiFePO 4 . -- Graphical Abstract: HRTEM image of olivine/Fe nanostructure obtained by PLD. Display Omitted Research highlights: → This manuscript describes the attempt to prepare textured LiFePO 4 by PLD. This is presently a challenge to better understand the physical properties of the material, used as cathode in lithium ion batteries. → We describe for the first time the iron extrusion from this material. Indeed, there were recent reports on the possible non-stoichiometry, i.e. lithium or oxygen. However, on the iron side, only some defect were observed for hydrothermally prepared material but the extrusion is new in this paper. → We prepared interesting nanostructures which could be used for different fundamental studies: electric and magnetic measurements.

  8. Partition of Ni between olivine and sulfide: the effect of temperature, f_{{text{O}}_{text{2}} } and f_{{text{S}}_{text{2}} } (United States)

    Fleet, M. E.; Macrae, N. D.


    The experimental distribution coefficient for Ni/ Fe exchange between olivine and monosulfide (KD3) is 35.6±1.1 at 1385° C, f_{{text{O}}_{text{2}} } = 10^{ - 8.87} ,f_{{text{S}}_{text{2}} } = 10^{ - 1.02} , and olivine of composition Fo96 to Fo92. These are the physicochemical conditions appropriate to hypothesized sulfur-saturated komatiite magma. The present experiments equilibrated natural olivine grains with sulfide-oxide liquid in the presence of a (Mg, Fe)-alumino-silicate melt. By a variety of different experimental procedures, K D3 is shown to be essentially constant at about 30 to 35 in the temperature range 900 to 1400° C, for olivine of composition Fo97 to FoO, monosulfide composition with up to 70 mol. % NiS, and a wide range of f_{{text{O}}_{text{2}} } and f_{{text{S}}_{text{2}} }.

  9. The dissolution of high-FeO olivine rock from the Lovasjaervi intrusion (SE-Finland) at 25 deg. C as a function of pH

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duro, Lara; El Aamrani, Fatima; Rovira, Miquel; Gimenez, Javier; Casas, Ignasi; Pablo, Joan de; Bruno, Jordi


    The high-FeO olivine-rich rock from the Lovasjaervi intrusion (65% olivine, 20% plagioclase, 8% magnetite, 4% pyroxene and 3% serpentine) has been proposed as a potential redox-active backfill-additive in deep high level nuclear waste repositories. In this work, the authors report on kinetic dissolution studies of this solid under different pH and redox conditions performed by using a flow-through methodology. Assuming that silicon is mainly released to solution from the olivine contained in the solid, the experimental results have been adjusted to an empirical rate law as a function of proton concentration. The proton concentration reaction orders agree with results found in the literature for both acidic and alkaline pH ranges. The calculations conducted with the reactive transport code RETRASO show that at alkaline pH, the olivine rock might have a lower redox buffer capacity than expected

  10. A model of chemical etching of olivine in the vicinity of the trajectory of a swift heavy ion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gorbunov, S.A., E-mail: [Lebedev Physical Institute of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Leninskij pr. 53, 119991 Moscow (Russian Federation); Rymzhanov, R.A. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Joliot-Curie 6, 141980 Dubna, Moscow Region (Russian Federation); Starkov, N.I. [Lebedev Physical Institute of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Leninskij pr. 53, 119991 Moscow (Russian Federation); Volkov, A.E. [Lebedev Physical Institute of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Leninskij pr. 53, 119991 Moscow (Russian Federation); Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Joliot-Curie 6, 141980 Dubna, Moscow Region (Russian Federation); National Research Centre ‘Kurchatov Institute’, Kurchatov Sq. 1, 123182 Moscow (Russian Federation); Malakhov, A.I. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Joliot-Curie 6, 141980 Dubna, Moscow Region (Russian Federation)


    Searching of superheavy elements, the charge spectra of heavy nuclei in Galactic Cosmic Rays was investigated within the OLYMPIA experiment using the database of etched ion tracks in meteorite olivine. Etching results in the formation of hollow syringe-like channels with diameters of 1–10 μm along the trajectories of these swift heavy ions (SHI). According to the activated complex theory, the local chemical activity is determined by an increase of the specific Gibbs energy of the lattice stimulated by structure transformations, long-range elastic fields, and interatomic bonds breaking generated in the vicinity of the ion trajectory. To determine the dependencies of the Gibbs free energy increase in SHI tracks in olivine on the mass, energy and charge of a projectile, we apply a multiscale model of excitation and relaxation of materials in the vicinity of the SHI trajectory (SHI tracks). Effect of spreading of fast electrons from the ion trajectory causing neutralization of metallic atoms resulting in an increase of the chemical activity of olivine at long distances from the ion trajectory (up to 5 μm) is estimated and discussed.

  11. Uranium endowments in phosphate rock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ulrich, Andrea E.; Schnug, Ewald; Prasser, Horst-Michael; Frossard, Emmanuel


    This study seeks to identify and specify the components that make up the prospects of U recovery from phosphate rock. A systems approach is taken. The assessment includes i) reviewing past recovery experience and lessons learned; ii) identifying factors that determine recovery; and iii) establishing a contemporary evaluation of U endowments in phosphate rock reserves, as well as the available and recoverable amounts from phosphate rock and phosphoric acid production. We find that in the past, recovery did not fulfill its potential and that the breakup of the Soviet Union worsened then-favorable recovery market conditions in the 1990s. We find that an estimated 5.7 million tU may be recoverable from phosphate rock reserves. In 2010, the recoverable tU from phosphate rock and phosphoric acid production may have been 15,000 tU and 11,000 tU, respectively. This could have filled the world U supply-demand gap for nuclear energy production. The results suggest that the U.S., Morocco, Tunisia, and Russia would be particularly well-suited to recover U, taking infrastructural considerations into account. We demonstrate future research needs, as well as sustainability orientations. We conclude that in order to promote investment and production, it seems necessary to establish long-term contracts at guaranteed prices, ensuring profitability for phosphoric acid producers. - Highlights: • We identify components that underlie the recovery of uranium from phosphate rock. • We estimate that 11,000 tU may have been recoverable from phosphoric acid in 2010. • Recovery is a resource conservation and environmental pollution control strategy. • To ensure investment in recovery technology, profitability needs to be secured

  12. Uranium endowments in phosphate rock

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ulrich, Andrea E., E-mail: [Institute for Environmental Decisions (IED), Natural and Social Science Interface, ETH Zurich Universitässtrasse 22, 8092 Zurich (Switzerland); Institute for Agricultural Sciences, Plant Nutrition, ETH Zurich, Eschikon 33, 8315 Lindau (Switzerland); Schnug, Ewald, E-mail: [Department of Life Sciences, Technical University of Braunschweig, Pockelsstraße 14, D-38106 Braunschweig (Germany); Prasser, Horst-Michael, E-mail: [Institute of Energy Technology, Laboratory of Nuclear Energy Systems, ETH Zurich, Sonneggstrasse 3, 8092 Zurich (Switzerland); Frossard, Emmanuel, E-mail: [Institute for Agricultural Sciences, Plant Nutrition, ETH Zurich, Eschikon 33, 8315 Lindau (Switzerland)


    This study seeks to identify and specify the components that make up the prospects of U recovery from phosphate rock. A systems approach is taken. The assessment includes i) reviewing past recovery experience and lessons learned; ii) identifying factors that determine recovery; and iii) establishing a contemporary evaluation of U endowments in phosphate rock reserves, as well as the available and recoverable amounts from phosphate rock and phosphoric acid production. We find that in the past, recovery did not fulfill its potential and that the breakup of the Soviet Union worsened then-favorable recovery market conditions in the 1990s. We find that an estimated 5.7 million tU may be recoverable from phosphate rock reserves. In 2010, the recoverable tU from phosphate rock and phosphoric acid production may have been 15,000 tU and 11,000 tU, respectively. This could have filled the world U supply-demand gap for nuclear energy production. The results suggest that the U.S., Morocco, Tunisia, and Russia would be particularly well-suited to recover U, taking infrastructural considerations into account. We demonstrate future research needs, as well as sustainability orientations. We conclude that in order to promote investment and production, it seems necessary to establish long-term contracts at guaranteed prices, ensuring profitability for phosphoric acid producers. - Highlights: • We identify components that underlie the recovery of uranium from phosphate rock. • We estimate that 11,000 tU may have been recoverable from phosphoric acid in 2010. • Recovery is a resource conservation and environmental pollution control strategy. • To ensure investment in recovery technology, profitability needs to be secured.

  13. Rolling stones. Fast weathering of olivine in shallow seas for cost-effective CO2 capture and mitigation of global warming and ocean acidification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schuiling, R.D.; De Boer, P.L. [Department of Earth Sciences, Utrecht University, P.O. Box 80.021, 3508TA Utrecht (Netherlands)


    Human CO2 emissions may drive the Earth into a next greenhouse state. They can be mitigated by accelerating weathering of natural rock under the uptake of CO2. We disprove the paradigm that olivine weathering in nature would be a slow process, and show that it is not needed to mill olivine to very fine, 10 {mu}m-size grains in order to arrive at a complete dissolution within 1-2 year. In high-energy shallow marine environments olivine grains and reaction products on the grain surfaces, that otherwise would greatly retard the reaction, are abraded so that the chemical reaction is much accelerated. When kept in motion even large olivine grains rubbing and bumping against each other quickly produce fine clay- and silt-sized olivine particles that show a fast chemical reaction. Spreading of olivine in the world's 2% most energetic shelf seas can compensate a year's global CO2 emissions and counteract ocean acidification against a price well below that of carbon credits.

  14. Trace elements in olivine of ultramafic lamprophyres controlled by phlogopite-rich mineral assemblages in the mantle source (United States)

    Veter, Marina; Foley, Stephen F.; Mertz-Kraus, Regina; Groschopf, Nora


    Carbonate-rich ultramafic lamprophyres (aillikites) and associated rocks characteristically occur during the early stages of thinning and rifting of cratonic mantle lithosphere, prior to the eruption of melilitites, nephelinites and alkali basalts. It is accepted that they require volatile-rich melting conditions, and the presence of phlogopite and carbonate in the source, but the exact source rock assemblages are debated. Melts similar to carbonate-rich ultramafic lamprophyres (aillikites) have been produced by melting of peridotites in the presence of CO2 and H2O, whereas isotopes and trace elements appear to favor distinct phlogopite-bearing rocks. Olivine macrocrysts in aillikites are usually rounded and abraded, so that it is debated whether they are phenocrysts or mantle xenocrysts. We have analyzed minor and trace element composition in olivines from the type aillikites from Aillik Bay in Labrador, Canada. We characterize five groups of olivines: [1] mantle xenocrysts, [2] the main phenocryst population, and [3] reversely zoned crystals interpreted as phenocrysts from earlier, more fractionated, magma batches, [4] rims on the phenocrysts, which delineate aillikite melt fractionation trends, and [5] rims around the reversely zoned olivines. The main phenocryst population is characterized by mantle-like Ni (averaging 3400 μg g- 1) and Ni/Mg at Mg# of 88-90, overlapping with phenocrysts in ocean island basalts and Mediterranean lamproites. However, they also have low 100 Mn/Fe of 0.9-1.3 and no correlation between Ni and other trace elements (Sc, Co, Li) that would indicate recycled oceanic or continental crust in their sources. The low Mn/Fe without high Ni/Mg, and the high V/Sc (2-5) are inherited from phlogopite in the source that originated by solidification of lamproitic melts at the base of the cratonic lithosphere in a previous stage of igneous activity. The olivine phenocryst compositions are interpreted to result from phlogopite and not high modal

  15. Phosphorus release from phosphate rock and iron phosphate by low-molecular-weight organic acids. (United States)

    Xu, Ren-kou; Zhu, Yong-guan; Chittleborough, David


    Low-molecular-weight(LMW) organic acids widely exist in soils, particularly in the rhizosphere. A series of batch experiments were carried out to investigate the phosphorus release from rock phosphate and iron phosphate by low-molecular-weight organic acids. Results showed that citric acid had the highest capacity to solubilize P from both rock and iron phosphate. P solubilization from rock phosphate and iron phosphate resulted in net proton consumption. P release from rock phosphate was positively correlated with the pKa values. P release from iron phosphate was positively correlated with Fe-organic acid stability constants except for aromatic acids, but was notcorrelated with pKa. Increase in the concentrations of organic acids enhanced P solubilization from both rock and iron phosphate almost linearly. Addition of phenolic compounds further increased the P release from iron phosphate. Initial solution pH had much more substantial effect on P release from rock phosphate than from iron phosphate.

  16. Preliminary Report on U-Th-Pb Isotope Systematics of the Olivine-Phyric Shergottite Tissint (United States)

    Moriwaki, R.; Usui, T.; Yokoyama, T.; Simon, J. I.; Jones, J. H.


    Geochemical studies of shergottites suggest that their parental magmas reflect mixtures between at least two distinct geochemical source reservoirs, producing correlations between radiogenic isotope compositions, and trace element abundances.. These correlations have been interpreted as indicating the presence of a reduced, incompatible-element- depleted reservoir and an oxidized, incompatible-element-rich reservoir. The former is clearly a depleted mantle source, but there has been a long debate regarding the origin of the enriched reservoir. Two contrasting models have been proposed regarding the location and mixing process of the two geochemical source reservoirs: (1) assimilation of oxidized crust by mantle derived, reduced magmas, or (2) mixing of two distinct mantle reservoirs during melting. The former clearly requires the ancient martian crust to be the enriched source (crustal assimilation), whereas the latter requires a long-lived enriched mantle domain that probably originated from residual melts formed during solidification of a magma ocean (heterogeneous mantle model). This study conducts Pb isotope and U-Th-Pb concentration analyses of the olivine-phyric shergottite Tissint because U-Th-Pb isotope systematics have been intensively used as a powerful radiogenic tracer to characterize old crust/sediment components in mantle- derived, terrestrial oceanic island basalts. The U-Th-Pb analyses are applied to sequential acid leaching fractions obtained from Tissint whole-rock powder in order to search for Pb isotopic source components in Tissint magma. Here we report preliminary results of the U-Th-Pb analyses of acid leachates and a residue, and propose the possibility that Tissint would have experienced minor assimilation of old martian crust.

  17. Uranium abundance in some sudanese phosphate ores

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adam, A.A.; Eltayeb, M.A.H.


    This work was carried out mainly to analysis of some Sudanese phosphate ores, for their uranium abundance and total phosphorus content measured as P 2 O 5 %. For this purpose, 30 samples of two types of phosphate ore from Eastern Nuba Mountains, in Sudan namely, Kurun and Uro areas were examined. In addition, the relationship between uranium and major, and trace elements were obtained, also, the natural radioactivity of the phosphate samples was measured, in order to characterize and differentiate between the two types of phosphate ores. The uranium abundance in Uro phosphate with 20.3% P 2 O 5 is five time higher than in Kurun phosphate with 26.7% P 2 O 5 . The average of uranium content was found to be 56.6 and 310 mg/kg for Kurun and Uro phosphate ore, respectively. The main elements in Kurun and Uro phosphate ore are silicon, aluminum, and phosphorus, while the most abundant trace elements in these two ores are titanium, strontium and barium. Pearson correlation coefficient revealed that uranium in Kurun phosphate shows strong positive correlation with P 2 O 5 , and its distribution is essentially controlled by the variations of P2O5 concentration, whereas uranium in Uro phosphate shows strong positive correlation with strontium, and its distribution is controlled by the variations of Sr concentration. Uranium behaves in different ways in Kurun phosphate and in Uro phosphate. Uro phosphate shows higher concentrations of all the estimated radionuclides than Kurun phosphate. According to the obtained results, it can be concluded that Uro phosphate is consider as secondary uranium source, and is more suitable for uranium recovery, because it has high uranium abundance and low P 2 O 5 %, than Kurun phosphate. (authors) [es

  18. Occurrence and functioning of phosphate solubilizing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Occurrence and functioning of phosphate solubilizing microorganisms from oil palm tree ( Elaeis guineensis ) rhizosphere in Cameroon. ... While the use of soluble mineral phosphate fertilizers is the obvious best means to combat phosphate ... in order to improve agricultural production, using low inputs technology. Isolates ...

  19. Comparative in situ X-ray Diffraction Study of San Carlos Olivine: Influence of Water on the 410 km Seismic Velocity Jump in Earth’s Mantle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J Chen; H Liu; J Girard


    A comparative study of the equation of states of hydrous (0.4 wt% H{sub 2}O) and anhydrous San Carlos olivine (<30 ppm H2O) was conducted using synchrotron X-rays up to 11 GPa in a diamond anvil cell (DAC) at ambient temperature. Both samples were loaded in the same high-pressure chamber of the DAC to eliminate the possible pressure difference in different experiments. The obtained compression data were fitted to the third-order Birch-Murnaghan equation of state, yielding a bulk modulus K{sub 0} = 123(3) GPa for hydrous olivine and K{sub 0} = 130(4) GPa for anhydrous olivine as K{sub 0}' is fixed at 4.6. Therefore, 0.4 wt% H{sub 2}2O in olivine results in a 5% reduction in bulk modulus. Previous studies reported bulk modulus reduction by water in olivine's high-pressure polymorph (wadsleyite), to which the transformation from olivine gives rise to the seismic discontinuity at 410 km depth. The new data results in a reduction in the magnitude of the discontinuity by 50% in v{sub P} and 30% in v{sub S} (for 1:5 water partitioning between olivine and wadsleyite) with respect to anhydrous mantle. Previous knowledge of the influence of water on this phase transition has been in opposition to a large amount of water [e.g., 200 ppm by Wood (1995)] existing at 410 km depth. Calculation of the seismic velocities based on newly available elasticity data of the hydrous phases indicates that the presence of water is favorable for the mineral composition model (pyrolite) and seismic observations in terms of the magnitude of the 410 km discontinuity.

  20. Water, lithium and trace element compositions of olivine from Lanzo South replacive mantle dunites (Western Alps): New constraints into melt migration processes at cold thermal regimes (United States)

    Sanfilippo, Alessio; Tribuzio, Riccardo; Ottolini, Luisa; Hamada, Morihisa


    Replacive mantle dunites are considered to be shallow pathways for extraction of mantle melts from their source region. Dunites offer a unique possibility to unravel the compositional variability of the melts produced in the upper mantle, before mixing and crystal fractionation modify their original signature. This study includes a quantification of H2O, Li and trace elements (Ni, Mn, Co, Sc, V, Ti, Zr, Y and HREE) in olivine from large replacive dunite bodies (>20 m) within a mantle section exposed in the Western Italian Alps (Lanzo South ophiolite). On the basis of olivine, clinopyroxene and spinel compositions, these dunites were previously interpreted to be formed by melts with a MORB signature. Variations in Ni, Mn, Co and Ca contents in olivine from different dunite bodies suggested formation by different melt batches. The variable H2O and Li contents of these olivines agree with this idea. Compared to olivine from residual peridotites and olivine phenocrysts in MORB (both having H2O 1 ppm), the Lanzo South dunite olivine has high H2O (18-40 ppm) and low Li (0.35-0.83 ppm) contents. Geochemical modelling suggests that the dunite-forming melts were produced by low melting degrees of a mixed garnet-pyroxenite-peridotite mantle source, with a contribution of a garnet pyroxenite component variable from 20 to 80%. The Lanzo dunites experienced migration of melts geochemically enriched and mainly produced in the lowermost part of the melting region. Extraction of enriched melts through dunite channels are probably characteristic of cold thermal regimes, where low temperatures and a thick mantle lithosphere inhibit mixing with melts produced at shallower depths.

  1. Recent progress and developments in lithium cobalt phosphate chemistry- Syntheses, polymorphism and properties (United States)

    Ludwig, Jennifer; Nilges, Tom


    This review summarizes the development, investigation, and optimization of polymorphic lithium cobalt phosphate LiCoPO4. One of the three polymorphs known to date, olivine-type or Pnma-LiCoPO4, shows intriguing electrochemical properties as a high-voltage cathode material, which are of interest for next-generation lithium-ion batteries with higher energy density. Hence, scientists have developed optimization strategies to improve its performance for commercial applications. Herein, a number of procedures for the synthesis of Pnma-LiCoPO4 is presented, including thermodynamic as well as kinetically controlled approaches. The continuous improvement of its electrochemical performance is illustrated, which was realized by the development of solvothermal techniques that allow a precise particle size and morphology control. In the course of these investigations, two new polymorphs, Pna21-LiCoPO4 and Cmcm-LiCoPO4, have been discovered which show different physical and structural properties compared to Pnma-LiCoPO4. Despite their significantly poorer electrochemical performance, these polymorphs allow interesting insights into the variable structure chemistry of transition-metal phosphates, which canalizes in intriguing magnetic and thermal properties. The similarities and differences in the chemical and physical properties of Pnma-LiCoPO4, Pna21-LiCoPO4, and Cmcm-LiCoPO4 are discussed.

  2. Tracking the Martian Mantle Signature in Olivine-Hosted Melt Inclusions of Basaltic Shergottites Yamato 980459 and Tissint (United States)

    Peters, T. J.; Simon, J. I.; Jones, J. H.; Usui, T.; Moriwaki, R.; Economos, R.; Schmitt, A.; McKeegan, K.


    The Martian shergottite meteorites are basaltic to lherzolitic igneous rocks that represent a period of relatively young mantle melting and volcanism, approximately 600-150 Ma (e.g. [1,2]). Their isotopic and elemental composition has provided important constraints on the accretion, evolution, structure and bulk composition of Mars. Measurements of the radiogenic isotope and trace element concentrations of the shergottite meteorite suite have identified two end-members; (1) incompatible trace element enriched, with radiogenic Sr and negative epsilon Nd-143, and (2) incompatible traceelement depleted, with non-radiogenic Sr and positive epsilon 143-Nd(e.g. [3-5]). The depleted component represents the shergottite martian mantle. The identity of the enriched component is subject to debate, and has been proposed to be either assimilated ancient martian crust [3] or from enriched domains in the martian mantle that may represent a late-stage magma ocean crystallization residue [4,5]. Olivine-phyric shergottites typically have the highest Mg# of the shergottite group and represent near-primitive melts having experienced minimal fractional crystallization or crystal accumulation [6]. Olivine-hosted melt inclusions (MI) in these shergottites represent the most chemically primitive components available to understand the nature of their source(s), melting processes in the martian mantle, and origin of enriched components. We present trace element compositions of olivine hosted melt inclusions in two depleted olivinephyric shergottites, Yamato 980459 (Y98) and Tissint (Fig. 1), and the mesostasis glass of Y98, using Secondary Ionization Mass Spectrometry (SIMS). We discuss our data in the context of understanding the nature and origin of the depleted martian mantle and the emergence of the enriched component.

  3. Petrochemistry of a xenolith-bearing Neogene alkali olivine basalt from northeastern Iran (United States)

    Saadat, Saeed; Stern, Charles R.


    A small isolated Neogene, possibly Quaternary, monogenetic alkali olivine basalt cone in northeastern Iran contains both mantle peridotite and crustal gabbroic xenoliths, as well as plagioclase megacrysts. The basaltic magma rose to the surface along pathways associated with local extension at the junction between the N-S right-lateral and E-W left-lateral strike slip faults that form the northeastern boundary of the Lut microcontinental block. This basalt is enriched in LREE relative to HREE, and has trace-element ratios similar to that of oceanic island basalts (OIB). Its 87Sr/86Sr (0.705013 to 0.705252), 143Nd/144Nd (0.512735 to 0.512738), and Pb isotopic compositions all fall in the field of OIB derived from enriched (EM-2) mantle. It formed by mixing of small melt fractions from both garnet-bearing asthenospheric and spinel-facies lithospheric mantle. Plagioclase (An26-32) megacrysts, up to 4 cm in length, have euhedral crystal faces and show no evidence of reaction with the host basalt. Their trace-element concentrations suggest that these megacrysts are co-genetic with the basalt host, although their 87Sr/86Sr (0.704796) and 143Nd/144Nd (0.512687) ratios are different than this basalt. Round to angular, medium-grained granoblastic meta-igneous gabbroic xenoliths, ranging from ~ 1 to 6 cm in dimension, are derived from the lower continental crust. Spinel-peridotite xenoliths equilibrated in the subcontinental lithosphere at depths of 30 to 60 km and temperatures of 965 °C to 1065 °C. These xenoliths do not preserve evidence of extensive metasomatic enrichment as has been inferred for the mantle below the Damavand volcano further to the west in north-central Iran, and clinopyroxenes separated from two different mantle xenoliths have 87Sr/86Sr (0.704309 and 0.704593) and 143Nd/144Nd (0.512798) ratios which are less radiogenic than either their host alkali basalt or Damavand basalts, implying significant regional variations in the composition and extent of

  4. Adsorption of methane and CO2 onto olivine surfaces in Martian dust conditions (United States)

    Escamilla-Roa, Elizabeth; Martin-Torres, Javier; Sainz-Díaz, C. Ignacio


    Methane has been detected on all planets of our Solar System, and most of the larger moons, as well as in dwarf-planets like Pluto and Eric. The presence of this molecule in rocky planets is very interesting because its presence in the Earth's atmosphere is mainly related to biotic processes. Space instrumentation in orbiters around Mars has detected olivine on the Martian soil and dust. On the other hand the measurements of methane from the Curiosity rover report detection of background levels of atmospheric methane with abundance that is lower than model estimates of ultraviolet degradation of accreted interplanetary dust particles or carbonaceous chondrite material. Additionally, elevated levels of methane about this background have been observed implying that Mars is episodically producing methane from an additional unknown source, making the reasons of these temporal fluctuations of methane a hot topic in planetary research. The goal of this study is to investigate at atomic level the interactions during the adsorption processes of methane and other Mars atmospheric species (CO2, H2O) on forsterite surfaces, through electronic structure calculations based on the Density Functional Theory (DFT). We propose two models to simulate the interaction of adsorbates with the surface of dust mineral, such as binary mixtures (5CH4+5H2O/5CH4+5CO2) and as a semi-clathrate adsorption. We have obtained interesting results of the adsorption process in the mixture 5CH4+5CO2. Associative and dissociative adsorptions were observed for water and CO2 molecules. The methane molecules were only trapped and held by water or CO2 molecules. In the dipolar surface, the adsorption of CO2 molecules produced new species: one CO from a CO2 dissociation, and, two CO2 molecules chemisorbed to mineral surface forming in one case a carbonate group. Our results suggest that CO2 has a strong interaction with the mineral surface when methane is present. These results could be confirmed after the

  5. Geo-engineering with olivine, remedy against the greenhouse effect?; Geo-engineering met olivijn, remedie tegen broeikaseffect?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sliggers, J. [Rijksinstituut voor Volksgezondheid en Milieu RIVM, Bilthoven (Netherlands)


    Olivine is sometimes mentioned as a possible solution to the climate problem. The rock is abundantly available, low-cost and binds CO2. This article investigated whether this really is the simple, low-cost and environment-friendly solution to the climate problem. [Dutch] Olivijn wordt soms genoemd als een mogelijke oplossing voor het klimaatprobleem. Het gesteente is overvloedig aanwezig, goedkoop en bindt CO2. In dit artikel wordt echter de vraag gesteld of dit werkelijk de simpele, goedkope en milieuvriendelijke oplossing is voor het klimaatprobleem.

  6. Chromite and olivine in type II chondrules in carbonaceous and ordinary chondrites - Implications for thermal histories and group differences (United States)

    Johnson, Craig A.; Prinz, Martin


    Unequilibrated chromite and olivine margin compositions in type II chondrules are noted to differ systematically among three of the chondrite groups, suggesting that type II liquids differed in composition among the groups. These differences may be interpreted as indicators of different chemical compositions of the precursor solids which underwent melting, or, perhaps, as differences in the extent to which immiscible metal sulfide droplets were lost during chondrule formation. Because zinc is detectable only in type II chromites which have undergone reequilibration, the high zinc contents reported for chondritic chromites in other studies probably reflect redistribution during thermal metamorphism.

  7. Constraining the timescale of magma stagnation beneath Mauna Kea volcano, Hawaii,using diffusion profiles in olivine phenocrysts (United States)

    Bloch, E. M.; Ganguly, J.


    Fe-Mg diffusion profiles have been measured in olivine xenocrysts within alkalic basalts in order to constrain the timescales of magma stagnation beneath Mauna Kea volcano, Hawaii. It has been suggested that during the main tholeiitic shield-building stage, and postshield eruptive stages of Mauna Kea, magmas were stalled and stagnated near the Moho, at a depth of ~15 km. Evidence in support of this hypothesis comes from cumulates formed by gravity-settling and in situ crystallization within magma chambers (Fodor and Galar, 1997), and from clinopyroxene-wholerock thermobarometry on Hamakua basalts (Putirka, in press). The cumulates represent a ‘fossil’ magma chamber which formed primarily from tholeiitic basalts; during the later capping-lava stage of Mauna Kea, alkalic basalts tore off chunks of these cumulates during ascent to the surface. We have measured several diffusion profiles in olivine xenocrysts from a single basalt sample. Because these xenocrysts have homogenous core compositions identical to a neighboring dunite cumulate, and because they are much larger and texturally distinct from compositionally dissimilar olivine phenocrysts, they are interpreted to be cumulate olivines which were dislodged during magma recharge/mixing in the stagnation zone. Although the orientations of the phenocrysts are not yet known, the diffusion profiles have been fit using diffusion coefficients parallel to the c and a crystallographic axes (i.e. minimum and maximum values). Modeling diffusion profiles yields ∫Ddt ≤4.5 x 10-5 cm2. Assuming that the xenocrysts were broken off from the cumulate immediately when the magma chamber was recharged, it is possible to calculate the maximum stagnation time of the basalts. Thus, the retrieved ∫Ddt value yields a maximum stagnation time of ~0.7 years. References: Fodor RV, Galar, PA (1997). A View into the Subsurface of Mauna Kea Volcano, Hawaii: Crystallization Processes Interpreted through the Petrology and Petrography of

  8. Chemical Analysis of Reaction Rims on Olivine Crystals in Natural Samples of Black Dacite Using Energy-Dispersive X-Ray Spectroscopy, Lassen Peak, CA. (United States)

    Graham, N. A.


    Lassen Volcanic Center is the southernmost volcanic region in the Cascade volcanic arc formed by the Cascadia Subduction Zone. Lassen Peak last erupted in 1915 in an arc related event producing a black dacite material containing xenocrystic olivine grains with apparent orthopyroxene reaction rims. The reaction rims on these olivine grains are believed to have formed by reactions that ensued from a mixing/mingling event that occurred prior to eruption between the admixed mafic andesitic magma and a silicic dacite host material. Natural samples of the 1915 black dacite from Lassen Peak, CA were prepared into 15 polished thin sections and carbon coated for analysis using a FEI Quanta 250 Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) to identify and measure mineral textures and disequilibrium reaction rims. Observed mineralogical textures related to magma mixing include biotite and amphibole grains with apparent dehydration/breakdown rims, pyroxene-rimmed quartz grains, high concentration of microlites in glass matrix, and pyroxene/amphibole reaction rims on olivine grains. Olivine dissolution is evidenced as increased iron concentration toward convolute edges of olivine grains as observed by Backscatter Electron (BSE) imagery and elemental mapping using NSS spectral imaging software. In an attempt to quantify the area of reaction rim growth on olivine grains within these samples, high-resolution BSE images of 30 different olivine grains were collected along with Energy-Dispersive X-Ray Spectroscopy (EDS) of different phases. Olivine cores and rims were extracted from BSE images using Photoshop and saved as separate image files. ImageJ software was used to calculate the area (μm2) of the core and rim of these grains. Average pyroxene reaction rim width for 30 grains was determined to be 11.68+/-1.65 μm. Rim widths of all 30 grains were averaged together to produce an overall average rim width for the Lassen Peak black dacite. By quantifying the reaction rims on olivine grains

  9. Zirconium Phosphate Supported MOF Nanoplatelets. (United States)

    Kan, Yuwei; Clearfield, Abraham


    We report a rare example of the preparation of HKUST-1 metal-organic framework nanoplatelets through a step-by-step seeding procedure. Sodium ion exchanged zirconium phosphate, NaZrP, nanoplatelets were judiciously selected as support for layer-by-layer (LBL) assembly of Cu(II) and benzene-1,3,5-tricarboxylic acid (H3BTC) linkers. The first layer of Cu(II) is attached to the surface of zirconium phosphate through covalent interaction. The successive LBL growth of HKUST-1 film is then realized by soaking the NaZrP nanoplatelets in ethanolic solutions of cupric acetate and H3BTC, respectively. The amount of assembled HKUST-1 can be readily controlled by varying the number of growth cycles, which was characterized by powder X-ray diffraction and gas adsorption analyses. The successful construction of HKUST-1 on NaZrP was also supported by its catalytic performance for the oxidation of cyclohexene.

  10. Phosphate-a poison for humans? (United States)

    Komaba, Hirotaka; Fukagawa, Masafumi


    Maintenance of phosphate balance is essential for life, and mammals have developed a sophisticated system to regulate phosphate homeostasis over the course of evolution. However, due to the dependence of phosphate elimination on the kidney, humans with decreased kidney function are likely to be in a positive phosphate balance. Phosphate excess has been well recognized as a critical factor in the pathogenesis of mineral and bone disorders associated with chronic kidney disease, but recent investigations have also uncovered toxic effects of phosphate on the cardiovascular system and the aging process. Compelling evidence also suggests that increased fibroblastic growth factor 23 and parathyroid hormone levels in response to a positive phosphate balance contribute to adverse clinical outcomes. These insights support the current practice of managing serum phosphate in patients with advanced chronic kidney disease, although definitive evidence of these effects is lacking. Given the potential toxicity of excess phosphate, the general population may also be viewed as a target for phosphate management. However, the widespread implementation of dietary phosphate intervention in the general population may not be warranted due to the limited impact of increased phosphate intake on mineral metabolism and clinical outcomes. Nonetheless, the increasing incidence of kidney disease or injury in our aging society emphasizes the potential importance of this issue. Further work is needed to more completely characterize phosphate toxicity and to establish the optimal therapeutic strategy for managing phosphate in patients with chronic kidney disease and in the general population. Copyright © 2016 International Society of Nephrology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Temperature dependence of the quadrupole splitting of olivine and pyroxene from the Plains of Gusev Crater on Mars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agresti, David G.


    In the present work, we report application of simultaneous fitting procedures to Mössbauer data acquired on the Plains of Gusev Crater by the MIMOS II spectrometer on board the Mars Exploration Rover Spirit. Based on a quantitative measure of spectrum quality, the 34 best of the ∼126 spectra acquired on the Plains are grouped together for a single simultaneous fit with a common least-squares criterion. Fitted values for the quadrupole splitting (QS) of olivine (Ol) from 200 K to 260 K are shown to lie between reported trend lines for Fo50 and Fo30 olivine, with a temperature gradient of (−11.2 ± 1.2) × 10  − 4 mm/s/K, a nearly five-fold improvement in precision over the previously reported value, enabling extrapolation to QS(Ol) = (2.93 ± 0.01) mm/s at 295 K. QS of pyroxene fit as a single doublet exhibits a temperature gradient of (−7.3 ± 2.3) × 10  − 4 mm/s/K.

  12. Compositional controls on spinel clouding and garnet formation in plagioclase of olivine metagabbros, Adirondack Mountains, New York (United States)

    McLelland, J.M.; Whitney, P.R.


    Olivine metagabbros from the Adirondacks usually contain both clear and spinel-clouded plagioclase, as well as garnet. The latter occurs primarily as the outer rim of coronas surrounding olivine and pyroxene, and less commonly as lamellae or isolated grains within plagioclase. The formation of garnet and metamorphic spinel is dependent upon the anorthite content of the plagioclase. Plagioclase more sodic than An38??2 does not exhibit spinel clouding, and garnet rarely occurs in contact with plagioclase more albitic than An36??4. As a result of these compositional controls, the distribution of spinel and garnet mimics and visually enhances original igneous zoning in plagioclase. Most features of the arrangement of clear (unclouded) plagioclase, including the shells or moats of clear plagioclase which frequently occur inside the garnet rims of coronas, can be explained on the basis of igneous zoning. The form and distribution of the clear zones may also be affected by the metamorphic reactions which have produced the coronas, and by redistribution of plagioclase in response to local volume changes during metamorphism. ?? 1980 Springer-Verlag.

  13. The deformation record of olivine in mylonitic peridotites from the Finero Complex, Ivrea Zone: Separate deformation cycles during exhumation (United States)

    Matysiak, Agnes K.; Trepmann, Claudia A.


    Mylonitic peridotites from the Finero complex are investigated to detect characteristic olivine microfabrics that can resolve separate deformation cycles at different metamorphic conditions. The heterogeneous olivine microstructures are characterized by deformed porphyroclasts surrounded by varying amounts of recrystallized grains. A well-developed but only locally preserved foam structure is present in recrystallized grain aggregates. This indicates an early stage of dynamic recrystallization and subsequent recovery and recrystallization at quasi-static stress conditions, where the strain energy was reduced such that a reduction in surface energy controlled grain boundary migration. Ultramylonites record a renewed stage of localized deformation and recrystallization by a second generation of recrystallized grains that do not show a foam structure. This second generation of recrystallized grains as well as sutured grain and kink band boundaries of porphyroclasts indicate that these microstructures developed during a stage of localized deformation after development of the foam structure. The heterogeneity of the microfabrics is interpreted to represent several (at least two) cycles of localized deformation separated by a marked hiatus with quasi-static recrystallization and recovery and eventually grain growth. The second deformation cycle did not only result in reactivation of preexisting shear zones but instead also locally affected the host rock that was not deformed in the first stage. Such stress cycles can result from sudden increases in differential stress imposed by seismic events, i.e., high stress-loading rates, during exhumation of the Finero complex.

  14. Thermal equation of state of (Mg 0.9Fe 0.1) 2SiO 4 olivine (United States)

    Liu, Wei; Li, Baosheng


    In situ synchrotron X-ray diffraction measurements have been carried out on San Carlos olivine (Mg 0.9Fe 0.1) 2SiO 4 up to 8 GPa and 1073 K. Data analysis using the high-temperature Birch-Murnaghan (HTBM) equation of state (EoS) yields the temperature derivative of the bulk modulus (∂ KT/∂ T) P = -0.019 ± 0.002 GPa K -1. The thermal pressure (TH) approach gives αKT = 4.08 ± 0.10 × 10 -3 GPa K -1, from which (∂ KT/∂ T) P = -0.019 ± 0.001 GPa K -1 is derived. Fitting the present data to the Mie-Grüneisen-Debye (MGD) formalism, the Grüneisen parameter at ambient conditions γ0 is constrained to be 1.14 ± 0.02 with fixed volume dependence q = 1. Combining the present data with previous results on iron-bearing olivine and fitting to MGD EoS, we obtain γ0 = 1.11 ± 0.01 and q = 0.54 ± 0.36. In this study the thermoelastic parameters obtained from various approaches are in good agreement with one another and previous results.

  15. Order-disorder in olivine minerals by synchrotron X-ray absorption near-edge structure (Xane) spectroscopy at the Mg, Fe and Ca K edges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Z.; Marcelli, A.; Cibin, G. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Frascati, RM (Italy). Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati; Mottana, A. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Frascati, RM (Italy). Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati; Rome Univ. Roma Tre, Rome (Italy). Dipt. di Scienze Geologiche; Paris, E.; Giuli, G [INFM, Camerino Univ., Camerino, MC (Italy). Dipt. di Scienze della Terra


    In this paper, are presented new, high-resolution experimental spectra at the Mg and Fe K edges for the two Fe-Mg end members F o and F a, and for three other olivines. Two are the Ca end members of the family, namely monticellite (Mtc: CaMgSiO4) and kirschsteinite (Krs: CaFeSiO4). The main purpose of this work is to investigate the effects of Mg, Fe, and Ca partition in the Pbnm (or {alpha}) olivine structure on the electronic properties, as well as the relationships that exist between chemical substitutions and features occurring in Xanes spectra. One wants to explore the relationships that intervene between LRO, as determined by XRD, and SRO, as determined by Xanes, on the endmembers and on a well-known intermediate member as well, and deduce from it a model for the behavior of the entire olivine solid-solution system.

  16. Order-disorder in olivine minerals by synchrotron X-ray absorption near-edge structure (Xane) spectroscopy at the Mg, Fe and Ca K edges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Z.; Marcelli, A.; Cibin, G.; Mottana, A.; Rome Univ. Roma Tre, Rome; Paris, E.; Giuli, G.


    In this paper, are presented new, high-resolution experimental spectra at the Mg and Fe K edges for the two Fe-Mg endmembers F o and F a, and for three other olivines. Two are the Ca endmembers of the family, namely monticellite (Mtc: CaMgSiO4) and kirschsteinite (Krs: CaFeSiO4). The main purpose of this work is to investigate the effects of Mg, Fe, and Ca partition in the Pbnm (or α) olivine structure on the electronic properties, as well as the relationships that exist between chemical substitutions and features occurring in Xanes spectra. One wants to explore the relationships that intervene between LRO, as determined by XRD, and SRO, as determined by Xanes, on the endmembers and on a well-known intermediate member as well, and deduce from it a model for the behavior of the entire olivine solid-solution system

  17. Diversity of minor elements in olivines from mantle xenoliths (Wołek Hill, SW Poland) - PIXE measurements (United States)

    Nowak, Monika; Munnik, Frans; Michalak, Przemysław P.; Renno, Axel


    Wołek Hill is one of the best examined exposures of Cenozoic volcanic rocks from SW Poland (Nowak, 2012). This is related with two facts: a great amount of mantle xenoliths were collected from that outcrop and this is one of two occurrences in Poland were modal metasomatism (related with amphibole crystals presence) was recognized. Wołek Hill is a relatively small exposure and belongs to the Złotoryja Volcanic Field, which is one of the volcanic concentrations in the Polish part of the Central European Volcanic Province (Ladenberger et al. 2006). Based on previous observations olivine crystals from the inside part of xenoliths occasionally display internal inhomogeneity visible on a BSE image. Such inhomogeneity has been related to olivine "sub-grains" with slightly shifted crystal axis. Those "sub-grains" are visible in optical microscope as transitional lamellae (Nowak, Stawikowski 2009). Besides the mentioned visible inhomogeneity olivine crystals also show diversity in Ca content inside single crystals (sometimes even more than 200 ppm). EPMA standard measurements (15 kV, 20 nA, time: 40 seconds) were limited to beam size and detection limits of the microprobe (most of the obtained results oscillate close to the detection limits - or even below it). Special conditions EPMA analyses (15 kV, 100nA, time: 100s) confirmed the differences in Ca content in the studied olivines, but did not provide any idea on how to interpret the results (Nowak, 2012). In this short summary we present preliminary data of olivine minor element composition (Ca, Zn, Cr, Ti, Co, K and also Mn, Ni, Fe) obtained with Particle Induced X-ray Emission(PIXE) measurements performed at the HZDR in Dresden using a 3 MeV proton beam, 1-1.5 nA current and an acquisition time of 3 hrs for each scan. The size of individual scans varied from ca. 30 μm up to 60-65 μm, with 8 x 8 measurement points - min. 4 μm in diameter. The measurements have been analysed with the GeoPIXE software (Ryan, 2001

  18. Olivine-hosted melt inclusions as an archive of redox heterogeneity in magmatic systems (United States)

    Hartley, Margaret E.; Shorttle, Oliver; Maclennan, John; Moussallam, Yves; Edmonds, Marie


    The redox state of volcanic products determines their leverage on the oxidation of Earth's oceans and atmosphere, providing a long-term feedback on oxygen accumulation at the planet's surface. An archive of redox conditions in volcanic plumbing systems from a magma's mantle source, through crustal storage, to eruption, is carried in pockets of melt trapped within crystals. While melt inclusions have long been exploited for their capacity to retain information on a magma's history, their permeability to fast-diffusing elements such as hydrogen is now well documented and their retention of initial oxygen fugacities (fO2) could be similarly diffusion-limited. To test this, we have measured Fe3+/ΣFe by micro-XANES spectroscopy in a suite of 65 olivine-hosted melt inclusions and 9 matrix glasses from the AD 1783 Laki eruption, Iceland. This eruption experienced pre-eruptive mixing of chemically diverse magmas, syn-eruptive degassing at the vent, and post-eruptive degassing during lava flow up to 60 km over land, providing an ideal test of whether changes in the fO2 of a magma may be communicated through to its cargo of crystal-hosted melt inclusions. Melt inclusions from rapidly quenched tephra samples have Fe3+/ΣFe of 0.206 ± 0.008 (ΔQFM of +0.7 ± 0.1), with no correlation between their fO2 and degree of trace element enrichment or differentiation. These inclusions preserve the redox conditions of the mixed pre-eruptive Laki magma. When corrected for fractional crystallisation to 10 wt.% MgO, these inclusions record a parental magma [Fe3+/ΣFe](10) of 0.18 (ΔQFM of +0.4), significantly more oxidised than the Fe3+/ΣFe of 0.10 that is often assumed for Icelandic basalt magmas. Melt inclusions from quenched lava selvages are more reduced than those from the tephra, having Fe3+/ΣFe between 0.133 and 0.177 (ΔQFM from -0.4 to +0.4). These inclusions have approached equilibrium with their carrier lava, which has been reduced by sulfur degassing. The progressive re

  19. Olivine-melt relationships and syneruptive redox variations in the 1959 eruption of K$\\bar{i}$lauea Volcano as revealed by XANES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Helz, R. T.; Cottrell, E.; Brounce, M. N.; Kelley, K. A.


    The 1959 summit eruption of K$\\bar{i}$lauea Volcano exhibited high lava fountains of gas-rich, primitive magma, containing olivine + chromian spinel in highly vesicular brown glass. Microprobe analysis of these samples shows that euhedral rims on olivine phenocrysts, in direct contact with glass, vary significantly in forsterite (Fo) content, at constant major-element melt composition, as do unzoned groundmass olivine crystals. Ferric/total iron (Fe+ 3/FeT)ratios for matrix and interstitial glasses, plus olivine-hosted glass inclusions in eight 1959 scoria samples have been determined by micro X-ray absorption near-edge structure spectroscopy (μ-XANES). These data show that much of the variation in Fo content reflects variation in oxidation state of iron in the melt, which varies with sulfur concentration in the glass and (locally) with proximity to scoria edges in contact with air. Data for 24 olivine-melt pairs in the better-equilibrated samples from later in the eruption show KD averaging 0.280 ± 0.03 for the exchange of Fe and Mg between olivine and melt, somewhat displaced from the value of 0.30 ± 0.03 given by Roeder and Emslie (1970). This may reflect the low SiO2 content of the 1959 magmas, which is lower than that in most K$\\bar{i}$lauea tholeiites. More broadly, we show the potential of μ-XANES and electron microprobe to revisit and refine the value of KD in natural systems.

  20. Phosphate vibrations as reporters of DNA hydration (United States)

    Corcelli, Steven

    The asymmetric phosphate stretch vibrational frequency is extraordinarily sensitive to its local solvent environment. Using density functional theory calculations on the model compound dimethyl phosphate, the asymmetric phosphate stretch vibrational frequency was found to shift linearly with the magnitude of an electric field along the symmetry axis of the PO2 moiety (i.e. the asymmetric phosphate stretch is an excellent linear vibrational Stark effect probe). With this linear relationship established, asymmetric phosphate stretch vibrational frequencies were computed during the course of a molecular dynamics simulation of fully hydrated DNA. Moreover, contributions to shifts in the frequencies from subpopulations of water molecules (e.g. backbone, minor groove, major groove, etc.) were calculated to reveal how phosphate vibrations report the onset of DNA hydration in experiments that vary the relative humidity of non-condensing (dry) DNA samples.

  1. Application of Calcium Phosphate Materials in Dentistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jabr S. Al-Sanabani


    Full Text Available Calcium phosphate materials are similar to bone in composition and in having bioactive and osteoconductive properties. Calcium phosphate materials in different forms, as cements, composites, and coatings, are used in many medical and dental applications. This paper reviews the applications of these materials in dentistry. It presents a brief history, dental applications, and methods for improving their mechanical properties. Notable research is highlighted regarding (1 application of calcium phosphate into various fields in dentistry; (2 improving mechanical properties of calcium phosphate; (3 biomimetic process and functionally graded materials. This paper deals with most common types of the calcium phosphate materials such as hydroxyapatite and tricalcium phosphate which are currently used in dental and medical fields.

  2. Crystalline cerium(IV) phosphates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herman, R.G.; Clearfield, A.


    The ion exchange behaviour of seven crystalline cerium(IV) phosphates towards some of the alkali metal cations is described. Only two of the compounds (A and C) possess ion exchange properties in acidic solutions. Four others show some ion exchange characteristics in basic media with some of the alkali cations. Compound G does not behave as an ion exchanger in solutions of pH + , but show very little Na + uptake. Compound E undergoes ion exchange with Na + and Cs + , but not with Li+. Both Li + and Na + are sorbed by compounds A and C. The results are indicative of structures which show steric exclusion phenomena. (author)

  3. Radiological impact of use of phosphate fertilizers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shukla, V.K.; Chinnaesakki, S.; Sartandel, S.J.; Shanbhag, A.A.; Puranik, V.D.


    The paper describes the results of gamma spectrometric measurements of 238 U, 233 Th, 226 Ra and 40 K in rock phosphates and various types of phosphate fertilizers and by-products. The increase in soil natural radioactivity has been assessed for major Indian crops. No significant increase in soil natural radioactivity is expected due to the application of phosphate fertilizers for agricultural productions. (author)

  4. Uranium and heavy metals in phosphate fertilizers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khater, Ashraf E.M.; King Saud University, Riyadh


    Full text: Agricultural applications of chemical fertilizers are a worldwide practice. The specific activity of uranium-238 and heavy metals in phosphate fertilizers depends on the phosphate ore from which the fertilizer produced and on the chemical processing of the ore. Composite phosphate fertilizers samples were collected and the uranium-238 specific activity, in Bq/kg, and As, Cd, Cu, Pb, Se concentration were measured. The annual addition of these elements in soil due to soil fertilization were calculated and discussed. (author)

  5. Calcium phosphates: what is the evidence? (United States)

    Larsson, Sune


    A number of different calcium phosphate compounds such as calcium phosphate cements and solid beta-tricalcium phosphate products have been introduced during the last decade. The chemical composition mimics the mineral phase of bone and as a result of this likeness, the materials seem to be remodeled as for normal bone through a cell-mediated process that involves osteoclastic activity. This is a major difference when compared with, for instance, calcium sulphate compounds that after implantation dissolve irrespective of the new bone formation rate. Calcium phosphates are highly biocompatible and in addition, they act as synthetic osteoconductive scaffolds after implantation in bone. When placed adjacent to bone, osteoid is formed directly on the surface of the calcium phosphate with no soft tissue interposed. Remodeling is slow and incomplete, but by adding more and larger pores, like in ultraporous beta-tricalcium phosphate, complete or nearly complete resorption can be achieved. The indications explored so far include filling of metaphyseal fracture voids or bone cysts, a volume expander in conjunction with inductive products, and as a carrier for various growth factors and antibiotics. Calcium phosphate compounds such as calcium phosphate cement and beta-tricalcium phosphate will most certainly be part of the future armamentarium when dealing with fracture treatment. It is reasonable to believe that we have so far only seen the beginning when it comes to clinical applications.

  6. Biosynthesis and characterization of layered iron phosphate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Weijia; He Wen; Wang Meiting; Zhang Xudong; Yan Shunpu; Tian Xiuying; Sun Xianan; Han Xiuxiu; Li Peng


    Layered iron phosphate with uniform morphology has been synthesized by a precipitation method with yeast cells as a biosurfactant. The yeast cells are used to regulate the nucleation and growth of layered iron phosphate. The uniform layered structure is characterized by small-angle x-ray diffraction (SAXD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) analyses. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) is used to analyze the chemical bond linkages in organic–inorganic hybrid iron phosphate. The likely synthetic mechanism of nucleation and oriented growth is discussed. The electrical conductivity of hybrid iron phosphate heat-treated at different temperatures is presented

  7. [Phosphate-solubilizing activity of aerobic methylobacteria]. (United States)

    Agafonova, N V; Kaparullina, E N; Doronina, N V; Trotsenko, Iu A


    Phosphate-solubilizing activity was found in 14 strains of plant-associated aerobic methylobacteria belonging to the genera Methylophilus, Methylobacillus, Methylovorus, Methylopila, Methylobacterium, Delftia, and Ancyclobacter. The growth of methylobacteria on medium with methanol as the carbon and energy source and insoluble tricalcium phosphate as the phosphorus source was accompanied by a decrease in pH due to the accumulation of up to 7 mM formic acid as a methanol oxidation intermediate and by release of 120-280 μM phosphate ions, which can be used by both bacteria and plants. Phosphate-solubilizing activity is a newly revealed role of methylobacteria in phytosymbiosis.

  8. Synthesis of amorphous acid iron phosphate nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palacios, E.; Leret, P.; Fernández, J. F.; Aza, A. H. De; Rodríguez, M. A.


    A simple method to precipitate nanoparticles of iron phosphate with acid character has been developed in which the control of pH allows to obtain amorphous nanoparticles. The acid aging of the precipitated amorphous nanoparticles favored the P–O bond strength that contributes to the surface reordering, the surface roughness and the increase of the phosphate acid character. The thermal behavior of the acid iron phosphate nanoparticles has been also studied and the phosphate polymerization at 400 °C produces strong compacts of amorphous nanoparticles with interconnected porosity.

  9. Method of stripping plutonium from tributyl phosphate solution which contains dibutyl phosphate-plutonium stable complexes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ochsenfeld, W.; Schmieder, H.


    Fast breeder fuel elements which have been highly burnt-up are reprocessed by extracting uranium and plutonium into an organic solution containing tributyl phosphate. The tributyl phosphate degenerates at least partially into dibutyl phosphate and monobutyl phosphate, which form stable complexes with tetravalent plutonium in the organic solution. This tetravalent plutonium is released from its complexed state and stripped into aqueous phase by contacting the organic solution with an aqueous phase containing tetravalent uranium. 6 claims, 1 drawing figure

  10. Stress evolution and associated microstructure during transient creep of olivine at 1000-1200 °C (United States)

    Thieme, M.; Demouchy, S.; Mainprice, D.; Barou, F.; Cordier, P.


    We study the mechanical response and correlated microstructure of axial deformed fine-grained olivine aggregates as a function of incremental finite strains. Deformation experiments were conducted in uniaxial compression in an internally heated gas-medium deformation apparatus at temperatures of 1000 and 1200 °C, at strain rates of 10-6 s-1 to 10-5 s-1 and at confining pressure of 300 MPa. Sample volumes are around 1.2 cm3. Finite strains range from 0.1 to 8.6% and corresponding maximal (final) differential stresses range from 80 to 1073 MPa for deformation at 1000 °C and from 71 to 322 MPa for deformation at 1200 °C. At 1200 °C, samples approach steady state deformation after about 8% of strain. At 1000 °C, significant strain hardening leads to stresses exceeding the confining pressure by a factor of 3.5 with brittle deformation after 3% of strain. Deformed samples were characterized by electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). EBSD maps with step sizes as low as 50 nm were acquired without introducing analytical artifacts for the first time. The grain size of deformed samples ranges from 2.1 to 2.6 μm. Despite clear strain hardening, texture or microstructure do not change as a function of stress or finite strain. This observation is supported by a constant texture strength (J-index) and symmetry (BA-index), constant grain shape and aspect ratio, constant density of geometrically necessary dislocations, grain orientation spread, and constant subgrain boundary spacing and misorientation in between samples. TEM shows that all samples exhibit unambiguous dislocation activity but with a highly heterogeneous dislocation distribution. Olivine grains display evidence of [1 0 0] and [0 0 1] slip activity, but there is no evidence of interaction between the dislocations from the different slip systems. Several observations of grain boundaries acting as dislocation sources have been found. We find no confirmation of

  11. Discerning crystal growth from diffusion profiles in zoned olivine by in situ Mg–Fe isotopic analyses (United States)

    Sio, Corliss Kin I.; Dauphas, Nicolas; Teng, Fang-Zhen; Chaussidon, Marc; Helz, Rosalind T.; Roskosz, Mathieu


    Mineral zoning is used in diffusion-based geospeedometry to determine magmatic timescales. Progress in this field has been hampered by the challenge to discern mineral zoning produced by diffusion from concentration gradients inherited from crystal growth. A zoned olivine phenocryst from Kilauea Iki lava lake (Hawaii) was selected for this study to evaluate the potential of Mg and Fe isotopes for distinguishing these two processes. Microdrilling of the phenocryst (∼300 μm drill holes) followed by MC-ICPMS analysis of the powders revealed negatively coupled Mg and Fe isotopic fractionations (δ26Mg from +0.1‰ to −0.2‰ and δ56Fe from −1.2‰ to −0.2‰ from core to rim), which can only be explained by Mg–Fe exchange between melt and olivine. The data can be explained with ratios of diffusivities of Mg and Fe isotopes in olivine scaling as D2/D1 = (m1/m2)β with βMg ∼0.16 and βFe ∼0.27. LA-MC-ICPMS and MC-SIMS Fe isotopic measurements are developed and are demonstrated to yield accurate δ56Fe measurements within precisions of ∼0.2‰ (1 SD) at spatial resolutions of ∼50 μm. δ56Fe and δ26Mg stay constant with Fo# in the rim (late-stage overgrowth), whereas in the core (original phenocryst) δ56Fe steeply trends toward lighter compositions and δ26Mg trends toward heavier compositions with higher Fo#. A plot of δ56Fe vs. Fo# immediately distinguishes growth-controlled from diffusion-controlled zoning in these two regions. The results are consistent with the idea that large isotopic fractionation accompanies chemical diffusion in crystals, whereas fractional crystallization induces little or no isotopic fractionation. The cooling timescale inferred from the chemical-isotope zoning profiles is consistent with the documented cooling history of the lava lake. In the absence of geologic context, in situ stable isotopic measurements may now be used to interpret the nature of mineral zoning. Stable isotope measurements by LA-MC-ICPMS and MC

  12. Bio-treatment of phosphate from synthetic wastewater using ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this study, the efficient phosphate utilizing isolates were used to remove phosphate from synthetic phosphate wastewater was tested using batch scale process. Hence the objective of the present study was to examine the efficiency of bacterial species individually for the removal of phosphate from synthetic phosphate ...

  13. Pentose phosphates in nucleoside interconversion and catabolism. (United States)

    Tozzi, Maria G; Camici, Marcella; Mascia, Laura; Sgarrella, Francesco; Ipata, Piero L


    Ribose phosphates are either synthesized through the oxidative branch of the pentose phosphate pathway, or are supplied by nucleoside phosphorylases. The two main pentose phosphates, ribose-5-phosphate and ribose-1-phosphate, are readily interconverted by the action of phosphopentomutase. Ribose-5-phosphate is the direct precursor of 5-phosphoribosyl-1-pyrophosphate, for both de novo and 'salvage' synthesis of nucleotides. Phosphorolysis of deoxyribonucleosides is the main source of deoxyribose phosphates, which are interconvertible, through the action of phosphopentomutase. The pentose moiety of all nucleosides can serve as a carbon and energy source. During the past decade, extensive advances have been made in elucidating the pathways by which the pentose phosphates, arising from nucleoside phosphorolysis, are either recycled, without opening of their furanosidic ring, or catabolized as a carbon and energy source. We review herein the experimental knowledge on the molecular mechanisms by which (a) ribose-1-phosphate, produced by purine nucleoside phosphorylase acting catabolically, is either anabolized for pyrimidine salvage and 5-fluorouracil activation, with uridine phosphorylase acting anabolically, or recycled for nucleoside and base interconversion; (b) the nucleosides can be regarded, both in bacteria and in eukaryotic cells, as carriers of sugars, that are made available though the action of nucleoside phosphorylases. In bacteria, catabolism of nucleosides, when suitable carbon and energy sources are not available, is accomplished by a battery of nucleoside transporters and of inducible catabolic enzymes for purine and pyrimidine nucleosides and for pentose phosphates. In eukaryotic cells, the modulation of pentose phosphate production by nucleoside catabolism seems to be affected by developmental and physiological factors on enzyme levels.

  14. Geologic history of quartz-normative and olivine-normative basalts in the vicinity of Hadley Rille (Apollo 15)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grove, T.L.


    The geologic history of the quartz normative (QNB) and olivine normative (ONB) basalt types at Hadley Rille are discussed. A model for the geology of the mare basalts was constructed from a combination of field observations, sample chemistry, sample petrology and personal bias from terrestrial experience. The model proposes that the QNBs are the only mare lava type that is present as outcrop in the area traversed by the astronauts during the Apollo 15 mission. The returned QNB samples formed during a single eruptive phase of the Hadley Rille lava tube system. The ONB lavas are an exotic component transported to the site by a cratering event, or the ONBs are samples excavated from older are bedrock that was partly covered by the QNB lavas

  15. Evidence for a pressure-induced spin transition in olivine-type LiFePO4 triphylite (United States)

    Núñez Valdez, Maribel; Efthimiopoulos, Ilias; Taran, Michail; Müller, Jan; Bykova, Elena; McCammon, Catherine; Koch-Müller, Monika; Wilke, Max


    We present a combination of first-principles and experimental results regarding the structural and magnetic properties of olivine-type LiFePO4 under pressure. Our investigations indicate that the starting P b n m phase of LiFePO4 persists up to 70 GPa. Further compression leads to an isostructural transition in the pressure range of 70-75 GPa, inconsistent with a former theoretical study. Considering our first-principles prediction for a high-spin to low-spin transition of Fe2 + close to 72 GPa, we attribute the experimentally observed isostructural transition to a change in the spin state of Fe2 + in LiFePO4. Compared to relevant Fe-bearing minerals, LiFePO4 exhibits the largest onset pressure for a pressure-induced spin state transition.

  16. The P3 kimberlite and P4 lamproite, Wajrakarur kimberlite field, India: mineralogy, and major and minor element compositions of olivines as records of their phenocrystic vs xenocrystic origin (United States)

    Shaikh, Azhar M.; Kumar, Satya P.; Patel, Suresh C.; Thakur, Satyajeet S.; Ravi, Subramanian; Behera, Duryadhan


    Distinctly different groundmass mineralogy characterise the hypabyssal facies, Mesoproterozoic diamondiferous P3 and P4 intrusions from the Wajrakarur Kimberlite Field, southern India. P3 is an archetypal kimberlite with macrocrysts of olivine and phlogopite set in a groundmass dominated by phlogopite and monticellite with subordinate amounts of serpentine, spinel, perovskite, apatite, calcite and rare baddeleyite. P4 contains mega- and macrocrysts of olivine set in a groundmass dominated by clinopyroxene and phlogopite with subordinate amounts of serpentine, spinel, perovskite, apatite, and occasional gittinsite, and is mineralogically interpreted as an olivine lamproite. Three distinct populations of olivine, phlogopite and clinopyroxene are recognized based on their microtextural and compositional characteristics. The first population includes glimmerite and phlogopite-clinopyroxene nodules, and Mg-rich olivine macrocrysts (Fo 90-93) which are interpreted to be derived from disaggregated mantle xenoliths. The second population comprises macrocrysts of phlogopite and Fe-rich olivine (Fo 81-89) from P3, megacrysts and macrocrysts of Fe-rich olivine (Fo 85-87) from P4 and a rare olivine-clinopyroxene nodule from P4 which are suggested to have a genetic link with the precursor melt of the respective intrusions. The third population represents clearly magmatic minerals such as euhedral phenocrysts of Fe-rich olivine (Fo 85-90) crystallised at mantle depths, and olivine overgrowth rims formed contemporaneously with groundmass minerals at crustal levels. Close spatial association and contemporaneous emplacement of P3 kimberlite and P4 lamproite is explained by a unifying petrogenetic model which involves the interaction of a silica-poor carbonatite melt with differently metasomatised wall rocks in the lithospheric mantle. It is proposed that the metasomatised wall rock for lamproite contained abundant MARID-type and phlogopite-rich metasomatic veins, while that for

  17. Removal of phosphate from solution by adsorption and precipitation of calcium phosphate onto monohydrocalcite. (United States)

    Yagi, Shintaro; Fukushi, Keisuke


    The sorption behavior and mechanism of phosphate on monohydrocalcite (CaCO(3)·H(2)O: MHC) were examined using batch sorption experiments as a function of phosphate concentrations, ionic strengths, temperatures, and reaction times. The mode of PO(4) sorption is divisible into three processes depending on the phosphate loading. At low phosphate concentrations, phosphate is removed by coprecipitation of phosphate during the transformation of MHC to calcite. The sorption mode at the low-to-moderate phosphate concentrations is most likely an adsorption process because the sorption isotherm at the conditions can be fitted reasonably with the Langmuir equation. The rapid sorption kinetics at the conditions is also consistent with the adsorption reaction. The adsorption of phosphate on MHC depends strongly on ionic strength, but slightly on temperature. The maximum adsorption capacities of MHC obtained from the regression of the experimental data to the Langmuir equation are higher than those reported for stable calcium carbonate (calcite or aragonite) in any conditions. At high phosphate concentrations, the amount of sorption deviates from the Langmuir isotherm, which can fit the low-to-moderate phosphate concentrations. Speciation-saturation analyses of the reacted solutions at the conditions indicated that the solution compositions which deviate from the Langmuir equation are supersaturated with respect to a certain calcium phosphate. The obtained calcium phosphate is most likely amorphous calcium phosphate (Ca(3)(PO(4))(2)·xH(2)O). The formation of the calcium phosphate depends strongly on ionic strength, temperature, and reaction times. The solubility of MHC is higher than calcite and aragonite because of its metastability. Therefore, the higher solubility of MHC facilitates the formation of the calcium phosphates more than with calcite and aragonite. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. A Parent Magma for the Nakhla Martian Meteorite: Reconciliation of Estimates from 1-Bar Experiments, Magmatic Inclusions in Olivine, and Magmatic Inclusions in Augite (United States)

    Treiman, Allan H.; Goodrich, Cyrena Anne


    The composition of the parent magma for the Nakhla (martian) meteorite has been estimated from mineral-melt partitioning and from magmatic inclusions in olivine and in augite. These independent lines of evidence have converged on small range of likely compositions. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  19. Melt, fluid and crystal inclusions in olivine phenocrysts from Kerguelen plume-derived picritic basalts: evidence for interaction with the Kerguelen Plateau lithosphere.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Borisova, A.U.; Nikogosian, I.; Shimizu, N.; Weis, D.; Scoates, J.S.; Touret, J.L.R.; Damasceno, D.


    Melt, fluid and crystal inclusions have been studied in olivine phenocrysts from a suite of picritic basalts dredged during the "Marion Dufresne" MD 109 cruise (Dredge 6) from a seamount located between the Kerguelen Archipelago and Heard Island (Southern Indian Ocean). A two-stage polybaric

  20. Hydration kinetics study of class G oil-well cement and olivine nano-silica mixtures at 20–60 °C

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Quercia Bianchi, G.; Brouwers, H.J.H.; Sobolev, K.; Shah, S.P.


    In this study the heat evolution of standard density slurries (1.89 g/cm3) of Class G oil-well cement and olivine nano-silica additions (0.5–2.0 % bwoc), cured under different temperatures (20–60 °C) and atmospheric pressure, were examined by isothermal calorimetry. Under isothermal and isobaric

  1. Two Contrasting Fabric Patterns of Olivine Observed in Garnet and Spinel Peridotite from a Mantle-derived Ultramafic Mass Enclosed in Felsic Granulite, the Moldanubian Zone, Czech Republic

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kamei, A.; Obata, M.; Michibayashi, K.; Hirajima, T.; Svojtka, Martin


    Roč. 51, 1/2 (2010), s. 101-123 ISSN 0022-3530 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30130516 Keywords : garnet peridotite * spinel peridotite * olivine fabrics * Bohemian Massif Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy Impact factor: 3.842, year: 2010

  2. Cyanotoxins: a poison that frees phosphate. (United States)

    Raven, John A


    Autotrophic organisms obtain phosphorus from the environment by secreting alkaline phosphatases that act on esters, resulting in inorganic phosphate that is then taken up. New work shows that the cyanobacterium Aphanizomenon ovalisporum obtains inorganic phosphate by secreting the cyanotoxin cylindrospermopsin, which induces alkaline phosphatase in other phytoplankton species. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Phosphate recycling in the phosphorus industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schipper, W.J.; Klapwijk, A.; Potjer, A.; Rulkens, W.H.; Temmink, B.G.; Kiestra, F.D.G.; Lijmbach, A.C.M.


    The feasibility of phosphate recycling in the white phosphorus production process is discussed. Several types of materials may be recycled, provided they are dry inorganic materials, low in iron, copper and zinc. Sewage sludge ash may be used if no iron is used for phosphate precipitation in the

  4. Photoelectron spectroscopy of phosphites and phosphates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chattopadhyay, S.; Findley, G.L.; McGlynn, S.P.


    The ultraviolet photoelectron spectra (UPS) of trimethyl and triethyl phosphite, trimethyl and triethyl phosphate and four substituted phosphates are presented. Assignments are based on analogies to the UPS of phosphorus trichloride and phosphoryl trichloride and are substantiated by CNDO/2 computations. The mechanisms of P-O (axial) bond formation is discussed.

  5. Phosphate recycling in the phosphorus industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schipper, W.J.; Klapwijk, A.; Potjer, B.; Rulkens, W.H.; Temmink, B.G.; Kiestra, F.D.G.; Lijmbach, A.C.M.


    The article describes the potential and limitations for recovery of phosphate from secondary materials in the production process for white phosphorus. This thermal process involves the feeding of phosphate rock, cokes and pebbles to a furnace. The reducing conditions in the furnace promote the

  6. Rock phosphate solubilization by the ectomycorrhizal fungus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)



    Jun 18, 2014 ... To evaluate phosphate solubilization of ... and MHB had the potential to solubilize these phosphates by decreasing the pH and confirmed that ... Minerals like N, P, K, Ca, S, Zn, Cu and Sr are ... sterile distilled water, chopped, homogenized in 10 ml sterile .... The role of carbon source is important in mineral.

  7. Genetics Home Reference: glucose phosphate isomerase deficiency (United States)

    ... glycolytic pathway; in this step, a molecule called glucose-6-phosphate is converted to another molecule called fructose-6-phosphate. When GPI remains a single molecule (a monomer) it is involved in the development and maintenance of nerve cells ( neurons ). In this context, it is often known as ...

  8. Mineral phosphate solubilizing bacterial community in agro-ecosystem

    African Journals Online (AJOL)



    Dec 15, 2009 ... patterns. Four insoluble phosphate sources; purulia rock phosphate (PRP), mussourie rock phosphate. (MRP) ... community composition analysis (Garland, 1996a) and ..... the threshold level that enabled only a few species to.

  9. Scrap tire pyrolysis using a new type two-stage pyrolyzer: Effects of dolomite and olivine on producing a low-sulfur pyrolysis oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Gyung-Goo; Oh, Seung-Jin; Kim, Joo-Sik


    Scrap tire pyrolysis was performed using a two-stage pyrolyzer consisting of an auger reactor and a fluidized bed reactor to produce a low-sulfur pyrolysis oil. In the experiments, the effect of the residence time of the feed material in the auger reactor was investigated at ∼300 (auger reactor) and 500 °C (fluidized bed reactor). In addition, natural dolomite and olivine and calcined dolomite and olivine were used as the fluidized bed materials to examine their effects on reducing the sulfur content of pyrolysis oil. In the experiments, the yields of the oil from the auger reactor were 1.4–3.7 wt%, and it was enriched with DL-limonene whose content in the oil was 40–50 wt%. The yields of the oil from the fluidized bed reactor were 42–46 wt%. The optimum residence time of the feed material in the auger reactor turned out to be 3.5 min. Calcined dolomite and olivine significantly decreased the sulfur content of pyrolysis oil. Metal oxides of the additives appeared to react with H_2S to form metal sulfides. The sulfur content of pyrolysis oil obtained with calcined olivine was 0.45 wt%. - Highlights: • Scrap tires were successfully pyrolyzed in a new type two-stage pyrolyzer. • The two-stage pyrolyzer is composed of an auger and fluidized bed reactors. • Calcination of olivine and dolomite led to a strong decrease in sulfur. • The lowest sulfur content of pyrolysis oil was 0.45 wt%. • Pyrolysis oil yields from the fluidized bed reactor were 43–46 wt%.

  10. Sonochemical precipitation of amorphous uranium phosphates from trialkyl phosphate solutions and their thermal conversion to UP2O7

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Doroshenko, I.; Žurková, J.; Moravec, Z.; Bezdička, Petr; Pinkas, J.


    Roč. 26, SEP (2015), s. 157-162 ISSN 1350-4177 Institutional support: RVO:61388980 Keywords : Uranium * Phosphates * Sonochemistry * Nuclear waste * Trimethyl phosphate * Triethyl phosphate Subject RIV: CA - Inorganic Chemistry Impact factor: 4.556, year: 2015

  11. Are Polyphosphates or Phosphate Esters Prebiotic Reagents? (United States)

    Keefe, Anthony D.; Miller, Stanley L.


    It is widely held that there was a phosphate compound in prebiotic chemistry that played the role of adenosine triphosphate and that the first living organisms had ribose-phosphate in the backbone of their genetic material. However, there are no known efficient prebiotic synthesis of high-energy phosphates or phosphate esters. We review the occurrence of phosphates in nature, the efficiency of the volcanic synthesis of P4O10, the efficiency of polyphosphate synthesis by heating phosphate minerals under geological conditions, and the use of high-energy organic compounds such as cyanamide or hydrogen cyanide. These are shown to be inefficient processes especially when the hydrolysis of the polyphosphates is taken into account. For example, if a whole atmosphere of methane or carbon monoxide were converted to cyanide which somehow synthesized polyphosphates quantitatively, the polyphosphate concentration in the ocean would still have been insignificant. We also attempted to find more efficient high-energy polymerizing agents by spark discharge syntheses, but without success. There may still be undiscovered robust prebiotic syntheses of polyphosphates, or mechanisms for concentrating them, but we conclude that phosphate esters may not have been constituents of the first genetic material. Phosphoanhydrides are also unlikely as prebiotic energy sources.

  12. How do arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi handle phosphate? New insight into fine-tuning of phosphate metabolism. (United States)

    Ezawa, Tatsuhiro; Saito, Katsuharu


    Contents Summary I. Introduction II. Foraging for phosphate III. Fine-tuning of phosphate homeostasis IV. The frontiers: phosphate translocation and export V. Conclusions and outlook Acknowledgements References SUMMARY: Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi form symbiotic associations with most land plants and deliver mineral nutrients, in particular phosphate, to the host. Therefore, understanding the mechanisms of phosphate acquisition and delivery in the fungi is critical for full appreciation of the mutualism in this association. Here, we provide updates on physical, chemical, and biological strategies of the fungi for phosphate acquisition, including interactions with phosphate-solubilizing bacteria, and those on the regulatory mechanisms of phosphate homeostasis based on resurveys of published genome sequences and a transcriptome with reference to the latest findings in a model fungus. For the mechanisms underlying phosphate translocation and export to the host, which are major research frontiers in this field, not only recent advances but also testable hypotheses are proposed. Lastly, we briefly discuss applicability of the latest tools to gene silencing in the fungi, which will be breakthrough techniques for comprehensive understanding of the molecular basis of fungal phosphate metabolism. © 2018 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2018 New Phytologist Trust.

  13. Titrimetric determination of uranium in tributyl phosphate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sobkowska, A.


    The titrimetric method involving the reduction of U(VI) to uranium(IV) by iron(II) in phosphoric acid, selective oxidation of the excess of iron(II) and potentiometric titration with dichromate was directly used for the determination of uranium in tributyl phosphate mixtures. The procedure was applied to solutions containing more than 2 mg of uranium in the sample but the highest precision and accuracy were obtained in the range from 20 to 200 mg of uranium. Dibutyl phosphate and monobutyl phosphate as well as the other radiolysis products of TBP had no influence on the results of determinations. (author)

  14. Uranium and heavy metals in phosphate fertilizers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khater, A.E.M.


    Agricultural applications of chemical fertilizers are a worldwide practice. The specific activity of uranium-238 and heavy metals in phosphate fertilizers depends on the phosphate ore from which the fertilizer produced and on the chemical processing of the ore. Composite phosphate fertilizers samples where collected and the uranium-238 specific activity, in Bq/kg, and As, Cd, Cu, Pb, Se concentration, in ppm, were measured. The annual addition of these elements in soil due to fertilization were calculated and discussed. (author)(tk)

  15. Global radiological impact of the phosphate fertilizers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morales, Rudnei Karam; Alves, Rex Nazare


    About ninety percent of the products obtained in the phosphate industry are directly used in agriculture as fertilizers. The uranium, thorium and radium content in phosphate fertilizers pollute the soil, water and air, creating risks due to associated natural radiation. This work shows the concentration of radionuclides present in various products of the national and American phosphate fertilizers industry, and compared them with worldwide mean values. The radiological impact of the products on the environment is evaluated and suggestions are presented in order to minimize the risks due to radioactivity. (author)

  16. Sphingosine 1-phosphate and cancer. (United States)

    Pyne, Nigel J; El Buri, Ashref; Adams, David R; Pyne, Susan


    The bioactive lipid, sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P) is produced by phosphorylation of sphingosine and this is catalysed by two sphingosine kinase isoforms (SK1 and SK2). Here we discuss structural functional aspects of SK1 (which is a dimeric quaternary enzyme) that relate to coordinated coupling of membrane association with phosphorylation of Ser225 in the 'so-called' R-loop, catalytic activity and protein-protein interactions (e.g. TRAF2, PP2A and G q ). S1P formed by SK1 at the plasma-membrane is released from cells via S1P transporters to act on S1P receptors to promote tumorigenesis. We discuss here an additional novel mechanism that can operate between cancer cells and fibroblasts and which involves the release of the S1P receptor, S1P 2 in exosomes from breast cancer cells that regulates ERK-1/2 signalling in fibroblasts. This novel mechanism of signalling might provide an explanation for the role of S1P 2 in promoting metastasis of cancer cells and which is dependent on the micro-environmental niche. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  17. Radiation doses from phosphate fertilizers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)



    The activity concentrations determined of 226 Ra, 232 Th and 40 K in nCi/kg P 2 O 5 for the five most important kinds of fertilizer as well as their percent share in the economy year 1973/74 in the FRG are compiled in a table. From these values, the consumption of 0.917 million tons P 2 O 5 and from an average annual fertilizer coverage of 68.3 kg/ha, one can calculate a distribution of 32 Ci 226 Ra, 1 Ci 232 Th and 543 Ci 40 K over the total agriculturally used area, in other words, a deposit of 2.4 μCi 226 Ra, 0.07 μCi 232 Th and 40.5 μCi 40 K per ha. Taking a pessimistic view, an external radiation exposure of 0.11 mrad/a was calculated for gonads and bone marrow. If the total accumulation of 226 Ra (38% of the radiation exposure) from phosphate fertilizers from the ground during the last 80 years is assumed, then there is an exposure of 1.7 mrad/a for individual members of the population and 2.0 mrad/a for those occupied in agriculture. (HP/LH) [de

  18. Natural radioactivity in phosphate fertilizers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arndt, J.; Aurand, K.; Ruehle, H.; Schmier, H.; Wolter, R.


    The activity concentrations determined of 226 Ra, 232 Th and 40 K in nCi/kg P 2 O 5 for the five most important kinds of fertilizer as well as their percent share in the economy year 1973/74 in the FRG are compiled in a table. From these values, the consumption of 0.917 million tons P 2 O 5 and from an average annual fertilizer covering of 68.3 kg/ha, one can calculate a distribution of 32 Ci 226 Ra, 1 Ci 232 Th and 543 Ci 40 K over the total agriculturally used area, in other words a deposit of 2.4 μCi 226 Ra, 0.07 μCi 232 Th and 40.5 μCi 40 K per ha. Taking a pessimistic view, an external radiation exposure of 0.11 mrad/a was calculated for gonads and bone marrow. If the total accumulation of 226 Ra (38% of the radiation exposure) from phosphate fertilizers from the ground during the last 80 years is assumed, then there is an exposure of 1.7 mrad/a for individual members of the population and 2.0 mrad/a for those occupied in agriculture. (HP/LH) [de

  19. Hemodialysis for near-fatal sodium phosphate toxicity in a child receiving sodium phosphate enemas. (United States)

    Becknell, Brian; Smoyer, William E; O'Brien, Nicole F


    This study aimed to demonstrate the importance of considering hemodialysis as a treatment option in the management of sodium phosphate toxicity. This is a case report of a 4-year-old who presented to the emergency department with shock, decreased mental status, seizures, and tetany due to sodium phosphate toxicity from sodium phosphate enemas. Traditional management of hyperphosphatemia with aggressive hydration and diuretics was insufficient to reverse the hemodynamic and neurological abnormalities in this child. This is the first report of the use of hemodialysis in a child without preexisting renal failure for the successful management of near-fatal sodium phosphate toxicity. Hemodialysis can safely be used as an adjunctive therapy in sodium phosphate toxicity to rapidly reduce serum phosphate levels and increase serum calcium levels in children not responding to conventional management.

  20. Boron isotopic composition of olivine-hosted melt inclusions from Gorgona komatiites, Colombia: New evidence supporting wet komatiite origin (United States)

    Gurenko, Andrey A.; Kamenetsky, Vadim S.


    A fundamental question in the genesis of komatiites is whether these rocks originate from partial melting of dry and hot mantle, 400-500 °C hotter than typical sources of MORB and OIB magmas, or if they were produced by hydrous melting of the source at much lower temperatures, similar or only moderately higher than those known today. Gorgona Island, Colombia, is a unique place where Phanerozoic komatiites occur and whose origin is directly connected to the formation of the Caribbean Large Igneous Province. The genesis of Gorgona komatiites remains controversial, mostly because of the uncertain origin of volatile components which they appear to contain. These volatiles could equally result from shallow level magma contamination, melting of a "damp" mantle or fluid-induced partial melting of the source due to devolatilization of the ancient subducting plate. We have analyzed boron isotopes of olivine-hosted melt inclusions from the Gorgona komatiites. These inclusions are characterized by relatively high contents of volatile components and boron (0.2-1.0 wt.% H 2O, 0.05-0.08 wt.% S, 0.02-0.03 wt.% Cl, 0.6-2.0 μg/g B), displaying positive anomalies in the overall depleted, primitive mantle (PM) normalized trace element and REE spectra ([La/Sm] n = 0.16-0.35; [H 2O/Nb] n = 8-44; [Cl/Nb] n = 27-68; [B/Nb] n = 9-30, assuming 300 μg/g H 2O, 8 μg/g Cl and 0.1 μg/g B in PM; Kamenetsky et al., 2010. Composition and temperature of komatiite melts from Gorgona Island constrained from olivine-hosted melt inclusions. Geology 38, 1003-1006). The inclusions range in δ11B values from - 11.5 to + 15.6 ± 2.2‰ (1 SE), forming two distinct trends in a δ11B vs. B-concentration diagram. Direct assimilation of seawater, seawater-derived components, altered oceanic crust or marine sediments by ascending komatiite magma cannot readily account for the volatile contents and B isotope variations. Alternatively, injection of < 3wt.% of a 11B enriched fluid to the mantle source could

  1. NanoSIMS results from olivine-hosted melt embayments: Magma ascent rate during explosive basaltic eruptions (United States)

    Lloyd, Alexander S.; Ruprecht, Philipp; Hauri, Erik H.; Rose, William; Gonnermann, Helge M.; Plank, Terry


    The explosivity of volcanic eruptions is governed in part by the rate at which magma ascends and degasses. Because the time scales of eruptive processes can be exceptionally fast relative to standard geochronometers, magma ascent rate remains difficult to quantify. Here we use as a chronometer concentration gradients of volatile species along open melt embayments within olivine crystals. Continuous degassing of the external melt during magma ascent results in diffusion of volatile species from embayment interiors to the bubble located at their outlets. The novel aspect of this study is the measurement of concentration gradients in five volatile elements (CO2, H2O, S, Cl, F) at fine-scale (5-10 μm) using the NanoSIMS. The wide range in diffusivity and solubility of these different volatiles provides multiple constraints on ascent timescales over a range of depths. We focus on four 100-200 μm, olivine-hosted embayments erupted on October 17, 1974 during the sub-Plinian eruption of Volcán de Fuego. H2O, CO2, and S all decrease toward the embayment outlet bubble, while F and Cl increase or remain roughly constant. Compared to an extensive melt inclusion suite from the same day of the eruption, the embayments have lost both H2O and CO2 throughout the entire length of the embayment. We fit the profiles with a 1-D numerical diffusion model that allows varying diffusivities and external melt concentrations as a function of pressure. Assuming a constant decompression rate from the magma storage region at approximately 220 MPa to the surface, H2O, CO2 and S profiles for all embayments can be fit with a relatively narrow range in decompression rates of 0.3-0.5 MPa/s, equivalent to 11-17 m/s ascent velocity and an 8 to 12 minute duration of magma ascent from ~ 10 km depth. A two stage decompression model takes advantage of the different depth ranges over which CO2 and H2O degas, and produces good fits given an initial stage of slow decompression (0.05-0.3 MPa/s) at high

  2. Performance of pineapple slips inoculated with diazotrophic phosphate-solubilizing bacteria and rock phosphate


    Lílian Estrela Borges Baldotto; Marihus Altoé Baldotto; Fábio Lopes Olivares; Adriane Nunes de Souza


    Besides fixing N2, some diazotrophic bacteria or diazotrophs, also synthesize organic acids and are able to solubilize rock phosphates, increasing the availability of P for plants. The application of these bacteria to pineapple leaf axils in combination with rock phosphate could increase N and P availability for the crop, due to the bacterial activity of biological nitrogen fixation and phosphate solubilization. The objectives of this study were: (i) to select and characterize diazotrophs abl...

  3. Uranium recovery from phosphate rocks concentrated

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azevedo, M.F. de.


    The reserves, geological data, chemical data and technical flowsheet from COPEBRAS and Goiasfertil ores are described, including the process of mining ore concentration. Samples of Goiasfertil ores are analysed by gravimetric analysis, for phosphate, and spectrofluorimetry for uranium. (author)

  4. Hanford phosphate precipitation filtration process evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walker, B.W.; McCabe, D.J.


    The purpose of this filter study was to evaluate cross-flow filtration as effective solid-liquid separation technology for treating Hanford wastes, outline operating conditions for equipment, examine the expected filter flow rates, and determine proper cleaning. A proposed Hanford waste pre-treatment process uses sodium hydroxide at high temperature to remove aluminum from sludge. This process also dissolves phosphates. Upon cooling to 40 degrees centigrade the phosphates form a Na7(PO4)2F9H2O precipitate which must be removed prior to further treatment. Filter studies were conducted with a phosphate slurry simulant to evaluate whether 0.5 micron cross-flow sintered metal Mott filters can separate the phosphate precipitate from the wash solutions. The simulant was recirculated through the filters at room temperature and filtration performance data was collected

  5. short communication agronomic effectiveness of novel phosphate

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    igneous Dorowa (Zimbabwe) phosphate rock was investigated in a greenhouse ... are higher than the levels considered desirable for acidulation was selected based on proportions ... The analysis for dry matter yield of and P uptake by maize ...

  6. Phosphate coating on stainless steel 304 sensitized

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cruz V, J. P.; Vite T, J.; Castillo S, M.; Vite T, M.


    The stainless steel 304 can be sensitized when welding processes are applied, that causes the precipitation of chromium carbide in the grain limits, being promoted in this way the formation of galvanic cells and consequently the corrosion process. Using a phosphate coating is possible to retard the physiochemical damages that can to happen in the corrosion process. The stainless steel 304 substrate sensitized it is phosphate to base of Zn-Mn, in a immersion cell very hot. During the process was considered optimization values, for the characterization equipment of X-rays diffraction and scanning electron microscopy was used. The XRD technique confirmed the presence of the phases of manganese phosphate, zinc phosphate, as well as the phase of the stainless steel 304. When increasing the temperature from 60 to 90 C in the immersion process a homogeneous coating is obtained. (Author)

  7. Issues of natural radioactivity in phosphates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schnug, E.; Haneklaus, S.; Schnier, C.; Scholten, L.C.


    The fertilization of phosphorus (P) fertilizers is essential in agricultural production, but phosphates contain in dependence on their origin different amounts of trace elements. The problem of cadmium (Cd) loads and other heavy metals is well known. However, only a limited number of investigations examined the contamination of phosphates with the two heaviest metals, uranium (U) and thorium (Th), which are radioactive. Also potassium (K) is lightly radioactive. Measurements are done n the radioactivity content of phosphates, P fertilizers and soils. The radiation doses to workers and public as well as possible contamination of soils from phosphate rock or fertilizer caused by these elements or their daughter products is of interest with regard to radiation protection. The use of P fertilizers is necessary for a sustainable agriculture, but it involves radioactive contamination of soils. The consequences of the use of P fertilizers is discussed, also with regard to existing and proposed legislation. 11 refs., 2 figs., 7 tabs

  8. Geochemistry and mineralogy of Ogun phosphate rock

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    m deep) within the same location. The pellets ... diffracted rays are collected by a detector and the information relayed to a ... Ogun phosphate deposits were formed in shallow marine ... process thus confirming the earlier work done by Jones.

  9. Rock phosphate solubilization by the ectomycorrhizal fungus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)



    Jun 18, 2014 ... phosphate solubilization is accompanied by acid production. Thus, the evidence ..... of organic acids. (Khan et al., 2010) such as acetate, lactate, oxalate, ... (2014) also observed that oxalic acid was secreted by L. fraterna to ...

  10. Thermal stability of phosphate coatings on steel

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pokorný, P.; Szelag, P.; Novák, M.; Mastný, L.; Brožek, Vlastimil


    Roč. 54, č. 3 (2015), s. 489-492 ISSN 0543-5846 Institutional support: RVO:61389021 Keywords : Steel * phosphates * coatings * structure Subject RIV: CA - Inorganic Chemistry Impact factor: 0.959, year: 2014

  11. Corrosion inhibition by lithium zinc phosphate pigment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alibakhshi, E.; Ghasemi, E.; Mahdavian, M.


    Highlights: •Synthesis of lithium zinc phosphate (LZP) by chemical co-precipitation method. •Corrosion inhibition activity of pigments compare with zinc phosphate (ZP). •LZP showed superior corrosion inhibition effect in EIS measurements. •Evaluation of adhesion strength and dispersion stability. -- Abstract: Lithium zinc phosphate (LZP) has been synthesized through a co-precipitation process and characterized by XRD and IR spectroscopy. The inhibitive performances of this pigment for corrosion of mild steel have been discussed in comparison with the zinc phosphate (ZP) in the pigment extract solution by means of EIS and in the epoxy coating by means of salt spray. The EIS and salt spray results revealed the superior corrosion inhibitive effect of LZP compared to ZP. Moreover, adhesion strength and dispersion stability of the pigmented epoxy coating showed the advantage of LZP compared to ZP

  12. Synthesis and characterization of porous calcium phosphate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Granados C, F.; Serrano G, J.; Bonifacio M, J.


    The porous calcium phosphate was prepared by the continuous precipitation method using Ca(NO 3 ) 2 .4H 2 O and NH 4 H 2 PO 4 salts. The synthesized material was structurally and superficially characterized using the XRD, BET, IR TGA and SEM techniques. The obtained inorganic material was identified as calcium phosphate that presents a great specific area for what can be efficiently used as adsorbent material for adsorption studies in the radioactive wastes treatment present in aqueous solution. (Author)

  13. Removal of organic wastes containing tributyl phosphate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drobnik, S.

    TBP in dodecane and kerosene is one of the waste solutions from the reprocessing of spent nuclear fuels by the Purex process. The following methods were investigated for removing the organic solvents: adsorption on suitable solids, extraction, reaction with neutral salts, and saponification with acids or alkalis. Results showed that the best method of TBP removal is saponification with alkali hydroxides, either with dibutyl phosphate or with ortho-phosphate

  14. Kinetics of strontium sorption in calcium phosphate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bacic, S.; Komarov, V.F.; Vukovic, Z.


    Kinetics of strontium sorption by highly dispersed solids: tricalcium phosphate (Ca 3 (PO 4 ) 2 , TCP) and hydroxyapatite (Ca 5 (PO 4 ) 3 )H, HAP) were investigated. Analysis of sorption data was made taking into consideration composition and morphology of ultra micro particles. Conclusion is that the isomorphous strontium impurity is structurally sensitive element for calcium phosphate. It was determined that the beginning of strontium desorption corresponds to the beginning of transformation of the TCP - HAP (author)

  15. Phosphate transporter mediated lipid accumulation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae under phosphate starvation conditions. (United States)

    James, Antoni W; Nachiappan, Vasanthi


    In the current study, when phosphate transporters pho88 and pho86 were knocked out they resulted in significant accumulation (84% and 43%) of triacylglycerol (TAG) during phosphate starvation. However in the presence of phosphate, TAG accumulation was only around 45% in both pho88 and pho86 mutant cells. These observations were confirmed by radio-labeling, fluorescent microscope and RT-PCR studies. The TAG synthesizing genes encoding for acyltransferases namely LRO1 and DGA1 were up regulated. This is the first report for accumulation of TAG in pho88Δ and pho86Δ cells under phosphate starvation conditions. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  16. Phosphate rock costs, prices and resources interaction. (United States)

    Mew, M C


    This article gives the author's views and opinions as someone who has spent his working life analyzing the international phosphate sector as an independent consultant. His career spanned two price hike events in the mid-1970's and in 2008, both of which sparked considerable popular and academic interest concerning adequacy of phosphate rock resources, the impact of rising mining costs and the ability of mankind to feed future populations. An analysis of phosphate rock production costs derived from two major industry studies performed in 1983 and 2013 shows that in nominal terms, global average cash production costs increased by 27% to $38 per tonne fob mine in the 30 year period. In real terms, the global average cost of production has fallen. Despite the lack of upward pressure from increasing costs, phosphate rock market prices have shown two major spikes in the 30 years to 2013, with periods of less volatility in between. These price spike events can be seen to be related to the escalating investment cost required by new mine capacity, and as such can be expected to be repeated in future. As such, phosphate rock price volatility is likely to have more impact on food prices than rising phosphate rock production costs. However, as mining costs rise, recycling of P will also become increasingly driven by economics rather than legislation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Sphingosine 1-Phosphate and Atherosclerosis (United States)

    Yatomi, Yutaka


    Sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P) is a potent lipid mediator that works on five kinds of S1P receptors located on the cell membrane. In the circulation, S1P is distributed to HDL, followed by albumin. Since S1P and HDL share several bioactivities, S1P is believed to be responsible for the pleiotropic effects of HDL. Plasma S1P levels are reportedly lower in subjects with coronary artery disease, suggesting that S1P might be deeply involved in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. In basic experiments, however, S1P appears to possess both pro-atherosclerotic and anti-atherosclerotic properties; for example, S1P possesses anti-apoptosis, anti-inflammation, and vaso-relaxation properties and maintains the barrier function of endothelial cells, while S1P also promotes the egress and activation of lymphocytes and exhibits pro-thrombotic properties. Recently, the mechanism for the biased distribution of S1P on HDL has been elucidated; apolipoprotein M (apoM) carries S1P on HDL. ApoM is also a modulator of S1P, and the metabolism of apoM-containing lipoproteins largely affects the plasma S1P level. Moreover, apoM modulates the biological properties of S1P. S1P bound to albumin exerts both beneficial and harmful effects in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis, while S1P bound to apoM strengthens anti-atherosclerotic properties and might weaken the pro-atherosclerotic properties of S1P. Although the detailed mechanisms remain to be elucidated, apoM and S1P might be novel targets for the alleviation of atherosclerotic diseases in the future. PMID:28724841

  18. Synthesis and electrochemical properties of olivine LiFePO{sub 4} prepared by a carbothermal reduction method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Hui-ping; Wang, Zhi-xing; Li, Xin-hai; Guo, Hua-jun; Peng, Wen-jie; Zhang, Yun-he; Hu, Qi-yang [School of Metallurgical Science and Engineering, Central South University, Changsha 410083 (China)


    LiFePO{sub 4}/C composite cathode material was prepared by carbothermal reduction method, which uses NH{sub 4}H{sub 2}PO{sub 4}, Li{sub 2}CO{sub 3} and cheap Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} as starting materials, acetylene black and glucose as carbon sources. The precursor of LiFePO{sub 4}/C was characterized by differential thermal analysis and thermogravimetry. X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) micrographs showed that the LiFePO{sub 4}/C is olivine-type phase, and the addition of the carbon reduced the LiFePO{sub 4} grain size. The carbon is dispersed between the grains, ensuring a good electronic contact. The products sintered at 700 C for 8 h with glucose as carbon source possessed excellent electrochemical performance. The synthesized LiFePO{sub 4} composites showed a high electrochemical capacity of 159.3 mAh g{sup -1} at 0.1C rate, and the capacity fading is only 2.2% after 30 cycles. (author)

  19. Two Dimensional X-Ray Diffraction (2D-XRD) studies on Olivine of U.S.A

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jabeen, S.; Raza, S.M.; Ahmed, M.A.; Zai, M.Y.; Elacher, K.


    The Olivine (Mg, Fe) 2SiO/sub 4/ of USA has been studied with two dimensional X-ray diffractometer (D8 discover with GADDS). The two distinct phases of orthorhombic structure, one with Mg/sub 8/[Fe/sub 2/SiO/sub 4/] and the other with Mg/sub 2/SiO/sub 4/ is observed. We also observed phase transitions due to presence of iron and Silicon preferably the structural change of Mg/sub 8/[Fe/sub 2/SiO/sub 4/] from orthorhombic to spinel like (spinel chord) structure. Magnesium ions in Mg/sub 8/[Fe/sub 2/SiO/sub 4/] shuffle, arrange at the five vertices of a pentagon and the remaining three at the central but with displaced position from the plane of the pentagon, Thus resulting into a three dimensional spinel chord like structure. We evidenced the same from diverse orientations of phase peaks and indeed from Kossel lines. (author)

  20. Lead Isotope Compositions of Acid Residues from Olivine-Phyric Shergottite Tissint: Implications for Heterogeneous Shergottite Source Reservoirs (United States)

    Moriwaki, R.; Usui, T.; Yokoyama, T.; Simon, J. I.; Jones, J. H.


    Geochemical studies of shergottites suggest that their parental magmas reflect mixtures between at least two distinct geochemical source reservoirs, producing correlations between radiogenic isotope compositions and trace element abundances. These correlations have been interpreted as indicating the presence of a reduced, incompatible element- depleted reservoir and an oxidized, incompatible- element-enriched reservoir. The former is clearly a depleted mantle source, but there is ongoing debate regarding the origin of the enriched reservoir. Two contrasting models have been proposed regarding the location and mixing process of the two geochemical source reservoirs: (1) assimilation of oxidized crust by mantle derived, reduced magmas, or (2) mixing of two distinct mantle reservoirs during melting. The former requires the ancient Martian crust to be the enriched source (crustal assimilation), whereas the latter requires isolation of a long-lived enriched mantle domain that probably originated from residual melts formed during solidification of a magma ocean (heterogeneous mantle model). This study conducts Pb isotope and trace element concentration analyses of sequential acid-leaching fractions (leachates and the final residues) from the geochemically depleted olivine-phyric shergottite Tissint. The results suggest that the Tissint magma is not isotopically uniform and sampled at least two geochemical source reservoirs, implying that either crustal assimilation or magma mixing would have played a role in the Tissint petrogenesis.

  1. Deducing Water Concentrations in the Parent Magma of Cumulate Clinopyroxene and Olivine: Implications for a Hydrous Parent Melt of a Primitive Deccan Lava (United States)

    Seaman, S. J.


    Water concentrations of clinopyroxene megacrysts in the Powai ankaramite flow, located near Mumbai, Deccan province, India, indicate that the parent magma of the flow hosted at least 4.3 wt.% water, an unusually high water concentration for a continental flood basalt magma. The Powai flow hosts clinopyroxene and olivine phenocrysts. Chatterjee and Sheth (2015) showed that phenocrysts in the flow were part of a cumulate layer intruded by basaltic melt at 6 kb and 1230oC, so the phenocrysts record characteristics of the cumulate parent melt. Clinopyroxene phenocrysts are oscillatorily zoned in water, Mg, Fe, and Ca concentrations, and have concentric bands 100-200 microns thick of 10-20 micron diameter melt inclusions. Olivine phenocrysts host only larger isolated melt inclusions. Zones in the cpx phenocrysts where melt inclusion-rich concentric bands occur have higher concentrations of water than inclusion-free zones. Water concentrations of cpx were used to calculate water concentrations in the melt from which the crystals formed using partition coefficients of Hauri et al. (2004). Water concentrations in the parent magma were between 4.3 and 8.2 wt. % based on water concentrations in cpx. Both Mg and Fe are relatively depleted in the water- and melt inclusion-rich zones in cpx, and Ca is enriched in these zones. Oscillatory zoning in cpx may be a result of repeated growth of cpx in water- richer and water-poorer boundary layers where water lowered melt viscosity and enhanced diffusion and crystal growth rates. Water-enhanced growth rates may have resulted in capture of melt inclusions preserved in water-rich cpx zones. Melt inclusions in olivine phenocrysts preserve lower water concentrations ( 1.2 wt. %) than those indicated by water concentration in cpx phenocrysts. This disparity may be evidence of water loss from melt inclusions in olivine (Gaetani et al., 2009) or may indicate that cpx and ol crystals did not crystallize from the same parent at the same time.

  2. Magnetism in olivine-type LiCo(1-x)Fe(x)PO4 cathode materials: bridging theory and experiment. (United States)

    Singh, Vijay; Gershinsky, Yelena; Kosa, Monica; Dixit, Mudit; Zitoun, David; Major, Dan Thomas


    In the current paper, we present a non-aqueous sol-gel synthesis of olivine type LiCo1-xFexPO4 compounds (x = 0.00, 0.25, 0.50, 0.75, 1.00). The magnetic properties of the olivines are measured experimentally and calculated using first-principles theory. Specifically, the electronic and magnetic properties are studied in detail with standard density functional theory (DFT), as well as by including spin-orbit coupling (SOC), which couples the spin to the crystal structure. We find that the Co(2+) ions exhibit strong orbital moment in the pure LiCoPO4 system, which is partially quenched upon substitution of Co(2+) by Fe(2+). Interestingly, we also observe a non-negligible orbital moment on the Fe(2+) ion. We underscore that the inclusion of SOC in the calculations is essential to obtain qualitative agreement with the observed effective magnetic moments. Additionally, Wannier functions were used to understand the experimentally observed rising trend in the Néel temperature, which is directly related to the magnetic exchange interaction paths in the materials. We suggest that out of layer M-O-P-O-M magnetic interactions (J⊥) are present in the studied materials. The current findings shed light on important differences observed in the electrochemistry of the cathode material LiCoPO4 compared to the already mature olivine material LiFePO4.

  3. Role of Phosphate Transport System Component PstB1 in Phosphate Internalization by Nostoc punctiforme. (United States)

    Hudek, L; Premachandra, D; Webster, W A J; Bräu, L


    In bacteria, limited phosphate availability promotes the synthesis of active uptake systems, such as the Pst phosphate transport system. To understand the mechanisms that facilitate phosphate accumulation in the cyanobacterium Nostoc punctiforme, phosphate transport systems were identified, revealing a redundancy of Pst phosphate uptake systems that exists across three distinct operons. Four separate PstB system components were identified. pstB1 was determined to be a suitable target for creating phenotypic mutations that could result in the accumulation of excessive levels of phosphate through its overexpression or in a reduction of the capacity to accumulate phosphate through its deletion. Using quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR), it was determined that pstB1 mRNA levels increased significantly over 64 h in cells cultured in 0 mM added phosphate and decreased significantly in cells exposed to high (12.8 mM) phosphate concentrations compared to the level in cells cultured under normal (0.8 mM) conditions. Possible compensation for the loss of PstB1 was observed when pstB2, pstB3, and pstB4 mRNA levels increased, particularly in cells starved of phosphate. The overexpression of pstB1 increased phosphate uptake by N. punctiforme and was shown to functionally complement the loss of PstB in E. coli PstB knockout (PstB - ) mutants. The knockout of pstB1 in N. punctiforme did not have a significant effect on cellular phosphate accumulation or growth for the most part, which is attributed to the compensation for the loss of PstB1 by alterations in the pstB2, pstB3, and pstB4 mRNA levels. This study provides novel in vivo evidence that PstB1 plays a functional role in phosphate uptake in N. punctiforme IMPORTANCE: Cyanobacteria have been evolving over 3.5 billion years and have become highly adept at growing under limiting nutrient levels. Phosphate is crucial for the survival and prosperity of all organisms. In bacteria, limited phosphate availability promotes the

  4. Translocation of metal phosphate via the phosphate inorganic transport system of Escherichia coli

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Veen, H.W; Abee, T.; Kortstee, G.J J; Konings, W.N; Zehnder, A.J B


    P-i transport via the phosphate inorganic transport system (Pit) of Escherichia coil was studied in natural and artificial membranes. P-i uptake via Pit is dependent on the presence of divalent cations, like Mg2+, Ca2+, Co2+, or Mn2+, which form a soluble, neutral metal phosphate (MeHPO(4)) complex.

  5. Storage of CO2 by mineral carbonation of olivine: Study of the global process for the recovery of the reaction products and the separation of chromite particles by flotation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turri, Laura


    This work deals with the study of direct carbonation of olivine in solution, for the chemical transformation of CO 2 emitted by the industries. The influence of operating conditions is evaluated in order to optimize the yield of the reaction. However, for environmental acceptability and economic viability of the project, the beneficiation of recoverable metals and products is considered. Chromite particles contained in olivine are unreactive during the carbonation reaction: the separation is developed by flotation upstream of the reaction. According to the results, the extraction of chromite by magnetic separation is also conceivable. Gravimetric separation by sedimentation is considered to recover residual olivine in the reaction products, in order to recycle them in the carbonation process. Products sieving allowed to concentrate carbonates (less than 40 μm) and silica (between 40 and 106 μm). However, the co-precipitation of mixed carbonates due to the presence of iron and nickel included in the magnesium matrix, compromises the purification and the optimal valorization of the solids. Moreover, the formation of a passivation layer on the particles surface limits the conversion of olivine. Pretreatment of olivine is envisaged for the leaching of nickel in ammoniac solution. Besides, preliminary dissolution of olivine and selective precipitation of species with pH control of the solution can be an interesting alternative for higher carbonation extent and more efficient purification of the products. (author)

  6. Olivine-melt relationships and syneruptive redox variations in the 1959 eruption of Kīlauea Volcano as revealed by XANES (United States)

    Helz, Rosalind L.; Cottrell, Elizabeth; Brounce, Maryjo N.; Kelley, Katherine A.


    The 1959 summit eruption of Kīlauea Volcano exhibited high lava fountains of gas-rich, primitive magma, containing olivine + chromian spinel in highly vesicular brown glass. Microprobe analysis of these samples shows that euhedral rims on olivine phenocrysts, in direct contact with glass, vary significantly in forsterite (Fo) content, at constant major-element melt composition, as do unzoned groundmass olivine crystals. Ferric/total iron (Fe+ 3/FeT)ratios for matrix and interstitial glasses, plus olivine-hosted glass inclusions in eight 1959 scoria samples have been determined by micro X-ray absorption near-edge structure spectroscopy (μ-XANES). These data show that much of the variation in Fo content reflects variation in oxidation state of iron in the melt, which varies with sulfur concentration in the glass and (locally) with proximity to scoria edges in contact with air. Data for 24 olivine-melt pairs in the better-equilibrated samples from later in the eruption show KD averaging 0.280 ± 0.03 for the exchange of Fe and Mg between olivine and melt, somewhat displaced from the value of 0.30 ± 0.03 given by Roeder and Emslie (1970). This may reflect the low SiO2 content of the 1959 magmas, which is lower than that in most Kīlauea tholeiites. More broadly, we show the potential of μ-XANES and electron microprobe to revisit and refine the value of KD in natural systems.The observed variations of Fe+ 3/FeT ratios in the glasses reflect two distinct processes. The main process, sulfur degassing, produces steady decrease of the Fe+ 3/FeT ratio. Melt inclusions in olivine are high in sulfur (1060–1500 ppm S), with Fe+ 3/FeT = 0.160–0.175. Matrix glasses are degassed (mostly S eruption and (2) the melts originally had Fe+ 3/FeT ≥ 0.175, consistent with oxygen fugacity (fO2) at least 0.4 log units above the fayalite-magnetite-quartz (FMQ) buffer at 1 atm and magmatic temperature of 1200 °C.The second process is interaction between the

  7. Mn-Cr dating of Fe- and Ca-rich olivine from 'quenched' and 'plutonic' angrite meteorites using Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry (United States)

    McKibbin, Seann J.; Ireland, Trevor R.; Amelin, Yuri; Holden, Peter


    Angrite meteorites are suitable for Mn-Cr relative dating (53Mn decays to 53Cr with a half life of 3.7 Myr) using Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry (SIMS) because they contain olivine and kirschsteinite with very high 55Mn/52Cr ratios arising from very low Cr concentrations. Discrepant Mn-Cr and U-Pb time intervals between the extrusive or 'quenched' angrite D'Orbigny and some slowly cooled or 'plutonic' angrites suggests that some have been affected by secondary disturbances, but this seems to have occurred in quenched rather than in slow-cooled plutonic angrites, where such disturbance or delay of isotopic closure might be expected. Using SIMS, we investigate the Mn-Cr systematics of quenched angrites to higher precision than previously achieved by this method and extend our investigation to non-quenched (plutonic or sub-volcanic) angrites. High values of 3.54 (±0.18) × 10-6 and 3.40 (±0.19) × 10-6 (2-sigma) are found for the initial 53Mn/55Mn of the quenched angrites D'Orbigny and Sahara 99555, which are preserved by Cr-poor olivine and kirschsteinite. The previously reported initial 53Mn/55Mn value of D'Orbigny obtained from bulk-rock and mineral separates is slightly lower and was probably controlled by Cr-rich olivine. Results can be interpreted in terms of the diffusivity of Cr in this mineral. Very low Cr concentrations in Ca-rich olivine and kirschsteinite are probably charge balanced by Al; this substitutes for Si and likely diffuses at a very slow rate because Si is the slowest-diffusing cation in olivine. Diffusion in Cr-rich Mg-Fe olivine is probably controlled by cation vacancies because of deficiency in charge-balancing Al and is therefore more prone to disturbance. The higher initial 53Mn/55Mn found by SIMS for extrusive angrites is more likely to reflect closure of Cr in kirschsteinite at the time of crystallisation, simultaneous with closure of U-Pb and Hf-W isotope systematics for these meteorites obtained from pyroxenes. For the younger

  8. The responses of the four main substitution mechanisms of H in olivine to H2O activity at 1050 °C and 3 GPa (United States)

    Tollan, Peter M. E.; Smith, Rachel; O'Neill, Hugh St. C.; Hermann, Jörg


    The water solubility in olivine ({C}_{{H}_2O}) has been investigated at 1050 °C and 3 GPa as a function of water activity ({a}_{{H}_2O}) at subsolidus conditions in the piston-cylinder apparatus, with {a}_{{H}_2O} varied using H2O-NaCl fluids. Four sets of experiments were conducted to constrain the effect of {a}_{{H}_2O} on the four main substitution mechanisms. The experiments were designed to grow olivine in situ and thus achieve global equilibrium (G-type), as opposed to hydroxylating olivine with a pre-existing point-defect structure and impurity content (M-type). Olivine grains from the experiments were analysed with polarised and unpolarised FTIR spectroscopy, and where necessary, the spectra have been deconvoluted to quantify the contribution of each substitution mechanism. Olivine buffered with magnesiowüstite produced absorbance bands at high wavenumbers ranging from 3566 to 3612 cm-1. About 50% of the total absorbance was found parallel to the a-axis, 30% parallel to the b-axis and 20% parallel to the c-axis. The total absorbance and hence water concentration in olivine follows the relationship of {C}_{{H}_2O}∝ {a_{{H}_2O}}^2 , indicating that the investigated defect must involve four H atoms substituting for one Si atom (labelled as [Si]). Forsterite buffered with enstatite produced an absorbance band exclusively aligned parallel the c-axis at 3160 cm-1. The band position, polarisation and observed {C}_{{H}_2O}∝ {a}_{{H}_2O} are consistent with two H substituting for one Mg (labelled as [Mg]). Ti-doped, enstatite-buffered olivine displays absorption bands, and polarisation typical of Ti-clinohumite point defects where two H on the Si-site are charge-balanced by one Ti on a Mg-site (labelled as [Ti]). This is further supported by {C}_{{H}_2O}∝ {a}_{{H}_2O} and a 1:1 relationship of molar H2O and TiO2 in these experiments. Sc-doped, enstatite-buffered experiments display a main absorption band at 3355 cm-1 with {C}_{{H}_2O}∝ {a_{{H}_2O}}^{0

  9. Isolation and screening phosphate solubilizers from composts as biofertilizer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phua Choo Kwai Hoe; Khairuddin Abdul Rahim; Latiffah Norddin; Abdul Razak Ruslan


    Phosphate solubilizers are miroorganisms that able to solubilize insoluble inorganic phosphate compounds or hydrolyze organic phosphate to inorganic P. Therefore make the P to be available for plant and consequently enhance plant growth and yield. Recently, phosphate solubilizing microorganisms has been shown to play an important role in the biofertilizer industry. Fifty-one bacterial were isolated from eleven composts. Most of the phosphate solubilizers were isolated from natural farming composted compost and normal composting compost. This shows that both of these composts are more suitable to use for phosphate solubilizer isolation compare commercial composts. Fourteen of the isolates were found to be phosphate solubilizers. These isolates produced a clear zone on the phosphate agar plates, showing their potential as biofertilizer. AP3 was significantly produced the largest clear zone compared with other isolates. This indicates that isolate AP 3 could be a good phosphate solubilizer. Thus, their effectiveness in the greenhouse and field should be evaluated. (Author)

  10. [Phosphate solubilization of Aureobasidium pullulan F4 and its mechanism]. (United States)

    Wang, Dan; Zhan, Jing; Sun, Qing-Ye


    The Aureobasidium pullulans F4 was isolated from the rhizosphere of Hippochaete ramosissimum in Tongguanshan mine wasteland in Tongling City, Anhui Province. Liquid culture was conducted with four kinds of phosphorus sources, calcium phosphate, aluminum phosphate, ferric phosphate and rock phosphate to determine the pH, dissolved phosphorus, phosphorus in the bacteria and organic acid in the solution. The results showed that the phosphate solubilization by A. pullulans F4 varied with phosphorus sources, which decreased in order of aluminum phosphate > ferric phosphate, calcium phosphate > rock phosphate. The amounts of dissolved phosphorus in the different treatments were all higher than 200 mg x L(-1). The pH of the medium dropped immediately in 48 h, and the aluminum phosphate and ferric phosphate treatments showed a greater decrease in pH than the calcium phosphate and rock phosphate treatments. The organic acid synthesized by A. pullulans F4 included oxalic acid, citric acid and tartaric acid, and oxalic acid, among which oxalic acid was the dominated component. The phosphate dissolving capacity of A. pullulans F4 showed no significant correlation with organic acid, but significantly correlated with the pH. The available phosphorus was significantly improved with the combined application of A. pullulans F4 and glucose, suggesting A. pullulans F4 was a potent candidate for remediation of copper mine wastelands.

  11. Anelasticity of olivine single crystals investigated by stress-reduction tests and high-angular resolution electron backscatter diffraction (United States)

    Wallis, D.; Hansen, L. N.; Kempton, I.; Wilkinson, A. J.


    Geodynamic phenomena, including glacial isostatic adjustment and postseismic deformation, can involve transient deformation in response to changes in differential stress acting on mantle rocks. As such, rheological models of transient deformation are incorporated in predictions of associated processes, including sea-level rise and stress redistribution after earthquakes. However, experimental constraints on rheological models for transient deformation of mantle materials are sparse. In particular, experiments involving stress reductions have been lacking. Moreover, a material's response to a reduction in stress can provide clues to the microphysical processes controlling deformation. To constrain models of transient deformation of mantle rocks we performed stress-reduction tests on single crystals of olivine at 1250-1300°C. Mechanical and piezoelectric actuators controlled constant initial stress during creep. At various strain intervals stress was reduced near-instantaneously using the piezoelectric actuator, inducing both elastic and anelastic (time-dependent) lengthening of the samples. A range of magnitudes of stress reduction were applied, typically unloading 10-90% of the initial stress. High-angular resolution electron backscatter diffraction (HR-EBSD), based on cross-correlation of diffraction patterns, was used to map dislocation density and elastic strain distributions in the recovered samples. Magnitudes of anelastic back-strain increase with increasing magnitudes of stress reduction and show a marked increase when stress reductions exceed 50% of the initial stress, consistent with previous observations in metals and alloys. This observation is inconsistent with the Burgers rheological model commonly used to describe transient behaviour and suggests that the style of rheological behaviour depends on the magnitude of stress change. HR-EBSD maps reveal that the crystal lattices are smoothly curved and generally lack subgrain boundaries and elastic strain

  12. Removal mechanism of phosphate from aqueous solution by fly ash. (United States)

    Lu, S G; Bai, S Q; Zhu, L; Shan, H D


    This work studied the effectiveness of fly ash in removing phosphate from aqueous solution and its related removal mechanism. The adsorption and precipitation of phosphate by fly ash were investigated separately in order to evaluate their role in the removal of phosphate. Results showed that the removal of phosphate by fly ash was rapid. The removal percentage of phosphate in the first 5min reached 68-96% of the maximum removal of phosphate by fly ash. The removal processes of phosphate by fly ash included a fast and large removal representing precipitation, then a slower and longer removal due to adsorption. The adsorption of phosphate on fly ash could be described well by Freundlich isotherm equation. The pH and Ca2+ concentration of fly ash suspension were decreased with the addition of phosphate, which suggests that calcium phosphate precipitation is a major mechanism of the phosphate removal. Comparison of the relative contribution of the adsorption and precipitation to the total removal of phosphate by fly ash showed that the adsorption accounted for 30-34% of the total removal of phosphate, depending on the content of CaO in fly ash. XRD patterns of the fly ash before and after phosphate adsorption revealed that phosphate salt (CaHPO4 x 2H2O) was formed in the adsorption process. Therefore, the removal of phosphate by fly ash can be attributed to the formation of phosphate precipitation as a brushite and the adsorption on hydroxylated oxides. The results suggested that the use of fly ash could be a promising solution to the removal of phosphate in the wastewater treatment and pollution control.

  13. Structural basis for phosphatidylinositol-phosphate biosynthesis (United States)

    Clarke, Oliver B.; Tomasek, David; Jorge, Carla D.; Dufrisne, Meagan Belcher; Kim, Minah; Banerjee, Surajit; Rajashankar, Kanagalaghatta R.; Shapiro, Lawrence; Hendrickson, Wayne A.; Santos, Helena; Mancia, Filippo


    Phosphatidylinositol is critical for intracellular signalling and anchoring of carbohydrates and proteins to outer cellular membranes. The defining step in phosphatidylinositol biosynthesis is catalysed by CDP-alcohol phosphotransferases, transmembrane enzymes that use CDP-diacylglycerol as donor substrate for this reaction, and either inositol in eukaryotes or inositol phosphate in prokaryotes as the acceptor alcohol. Here we report the structures of a related enzyme, the phosphatidylinositol-phosphate synthase from Renibacterium salmoninarum, with and without bound CDP-diacylglycerol to 3.6 and 2.5 Å resolution, respectively. These structures reveal the location of the acceptor site, and the molecular determinants of substrate specificity and catalysis. Functional characterization of the 40%-identical ortholog from Mycobacterium tuberculosis, a potential target for the development of novel anti-tuberculosis drugs, supports the proposed mechanism of substrate binding and catalysis. This work therefore provides a structural and functional framework to understand the mechanism of phosphatidylinositol-phosphate biosynthesis.

  14. Radionuclide containment in soil by phosphate treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, S.Y.; Francis, C.W.; Timpson, M.E.; Elless, M.P.


    Radionuclide transport from a contaminant source to groundwater and surface water is a common problem faced by most US Department of Energy (DOE) facilities. Containment of the radionuclide plume, including strontium-90 and uranium, is possible using phosphate treatment as a chemical stabilizer. Such a chemical process occurs in soils under natural environmental conditions. Therefore, the concept of phosphate amendment for radiostrontium and uranium immobilization is already a proven principle. In this presentation, results of bench-scale experiments and the concept of a field-scale demonstration are discussed. The phosphate treatment is possible at the source or near the advancing contaminant plume. Cleanup is still the ideal concept; however, containment through stabilization is a more practical and costeffective concept that should be examined by DOE Environmental Restoration programs

  15. Phosphate Phosphors for Solid-State Lighting

    CERN Document Server

    Shinde, Kartik N; Swart, H C; Park, Kyeongsoon


    The idea for this book arose out of the realization that, although excellent surveys and a phosphor handbook are available, there is no single source covering the area of phosphate based phosphors especially for lamp industry. Moreover, as this field gets only limited attention in most general books on luminescence, there is a clear need for a book in which attention is specifically directed toward this rapidly growing field of solid state lighting and its many applications. This book is aimed at providing a sound introduction to the synthesis and optical characterization of phosphate phosphor for undergraduate and graduate students as well as teachers and researchers. The book provides guidance through the multidisciplinary field of solid state lighting specially phosphate phosphors for beginners, scientists and engineers from universities, research organizations, and especially industry. In order to make it useful for a wide audience, both fundamentals and applications are discussed, together.

  16. Monte Carlo Simulations of Phosphate Polyhedron Connectivity in Glasses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    Monte Carlo simulations of phosphate tetrahedron connectivity distributions in alkali and alkaline earth phosphate glasses are reported. By utilizing a discrete bond model, the distribution of next-nearest neighbor connectivities between phosphate polyhedron for random, alternating and clustering bonding scenarios was evaluated as a function of the relative bond energy difference. The simulated distributions are compared to experimentally observed connectivities reported for solid-state two-dimensional exchange and double-quantum NMR experiments of phosphate glasses. These Monte Carlo simulations demonstrate that the polyhedron connectivity is best described by a random distribution in lithium phosphate and calcium phosphate glasses.

  17. Method of decomposing treatment for radioactive organic phosphate wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uki, Kazuo; Ichihashi, Toshio; Hasegawa, Akira; Sato, Tatsuaki


    Purpose: To decompose the organic phosphoric-acid ester wastes containing radioactive material, which is produced from spent fuel reprocessing facilities, into inorganic materials using a simple device, under moderate conditions and at high decomposing ratio. Method: Radioactive organic phosphate wates are oxidatively decomposed by H 2 O 2 in an aqueous phosphoric-acid solution of metal phosphate salts. Copper phosphates are used as the metal phosphate salts and the decomposed solution of the radioactive organic phosphate wastes is used as the aqueous solution of the copper phosphate. The temperature used for the oxidizing decomposition ranges from 80 to 100 0 C. (Ikeda, J.)

  18. Synthesis of β-tricalcium phosphate. (United States)

    Chaair, H; Labjar, H; Britel, O


    Ceramics play a key role in several biomedical applications. One of them is bone grafting, which is used for treating bone defects caused by injuries or osteoporosis. Calcium-phosphate based ceramic are preferred as bone graft biomaterials in hard tissue surgery because their chemical composition is close to the composition of human bone. They also have a marked bioresorbability and bioactivity. In this work, we have developed methods for synthesis of β-tricalcium phosphate apatite (β-TCP). These products were characterized by different techniques such as X-ray diffraction, infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy and chemical analysis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  19. Potentially Prebiotic Syntheses of Condensed Phosphates (United States)

    Keefe, Anthony D.; Miller, Stanley L.


    In view of the importance of a prebiotic source of high energy phosphates, we have investigated a number of potentially prebiotic processes to produce condensed phosphates from orthophosphate and cyclic trimetaphosphate from tripolyphosphate. The reagents investigated include polymerizing nitriles, acid anhydrides, lactones, hexamethylene tetramine and carbon suboxide. A number of these processes give substantial yields of pyrophosphate from orthophosphate and trimetaphosphate from tripolyphosphate. Although these reactions may have been applicable in local areas, they are not sufficiently robust to have been of importance in the prebiotic open ocean.

  20. Automated back titration method to measure phosphate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Comer, J.; Tehrani, M.; Avdeef, A.; Ross, J. Jr.


    Phosphate was measured in soda drinks and as an additive in flour, by a back titration method in which phosphate was precipitated with lanthanum, and the excess lanthanum was titrated with fluoride. All measurements were performed using the Orion fluoride electrode and the Orion 960 Autochemistry System. In most commercial automatic titrators, the inflection point of the titration curve, calculated from the first derivative of the curve, is used to find the equivalence polar of the titration. The inflection technique is compared with a technique based on Gran functions, which uses data collected after the end point and predicts the equivalence point accordingly

  1. Calcium phosphate ceramics in drug delivery (United States)

    Bose, Susmita; Tarafder, Solaiman; Edgington, Joe; Bandyopadhyay, Amit


    Calcium phosphate (CaP) particulates, cements and scaffolds have attracted significant interest as drug delivery vehicles. CaP systems, including both hydroxyapaptite and tricalcium phosphates, possess variable stoichiometry, functionality and dissolution properties which make them suitable for cellular delivery. Their chemical similarity to bone and thus biocompatibility, as well as variable surface charge density contribute to their controlled release properties. Among specific research areas, nanoparticle size, morphology, surface area due to porosity, and chemistry controlled release kinetics are the most active. This article discusses CaP systems in their particulate, cements, and scaffold forms for drug, protein, and growth factor delivery toward orthopedic and dental applications.

  2. Performance of pineapple slips inoculated with diazotrophic phosphate-solubilizing bacteria and rock phosphate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lílian Estrela Borges Baldotto


    Full Text Available Besides fixing N2, some diazotrophic bacteria or diazotrophs, also synthesize organic acids and are able to solubilize rock phosphates, increasing the availability of P for plants. The application of these bacteria to pineapple leaf axils in combination with rock phosphate could increase N and P availability for the crop, due to the bacterial activity of biological nitrogen fixation and phosphate solubilization. The objectives of this study were: (i to select and characterize diazotrophs able to solubilize phosphates in vitro and (ii evaluate the initial performance of the pineapple cultivars Imperial and Pérola in response to inoculation with selected bacteria in combination with rock phosphate. The experiments were conducted at Universidade Estadual do Norte Fluminense Darcy Ribeiro, in 2009. In the treatments with bacteria the leaf contents of N, P and K were higher than those of the controls, followed by an increase in plant growth. These results indicate that the combined application of diazotrophic phosphate-solubilizing bacteria Burkholderia together with Araxá rock phosphate can be used to improve the initial performance of pineapple slips.

  3. Formulation of single super phosphate fertilizer from rock phosphate of Hazara, Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matiullah Khan


    Full Text Available Phosphorus deficiency is wide spread in soils of Pakistan. It is imperative to explore the potential and economics of indigenous Hazara rock phosphate for preparation of single super phosphate fertilizer. For the subject study rock phosphate was collected from Hazara area ground at 160 mesh level with 26% total P2O5 content for manual preparation of single super phosphate fertilizer. The rock phosphate was treated with various concentrations of sulfuric acid (98.9%, diluted or pure in the field. The treatments comprised of 20 and 35% pure acid and diluted with acid-water ratios of 1:5, 1:2, 1:1 and 2:1 v/v for acidulation at the rate of 60 liters 100 kg-1 rock phosphate. The amount was prior calculated in the laboratory for complete wetting of rock phosphate. A quantity of 150 kg rock phosphate was taken as treatment. The respective amount of acid was applied with the spray pump of stainless steel or poured with bucket. After proper processing, chemical analysis of the products showed a range of available P2O5 content from 9.56 to 19.24% depending upon the amount of acid and its dilution. The results reveal at that 1:1 dilutions gave the highest P2O5 content (19.24%, lowest free acid (6 % and 32% weight increase. The application of acid beyond or below this combination either pure or diluted gave hygroscopic product and higher free acids. The cost incurred upon the manual processing was almost half the prevailing rates in the market. These results lead to conclude that application of sulfuric acid at the rate of 60 liters 100 kg-1 with the dilution of 50% (v/v can yield better kind of SSP from Hazara rock phosphate at lower prices.

  4. Evaluation of intestinal phosphate binding to improve the safety profile of oral sodium phosphate bowel cleansing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stef Robijn

    Full Text Available Prior to colonoscopy, bowel cleansing is performed for which frequently oral sodium phosphate (OSP is used. OSP results in significant hyperphosphatemia and cases of acute kidney injury (AKI referred to as acute phosphate nephropathy (APN; characterized by nephrocalcinosis are reported after OSP use, which led to a US-FDA warning. To improve the safety profile of OSP, it was evaluated whether the side-effects of OSP could be prevented with intestinal phosphate binders. Hereto a Wistar rat model of APN was developed. OSP administration (2 times 1.2 g phosphate by gavage with a 12h time interval induced bowel cleansing (severe diarrhea and significant hyperphosphatemia (21.79 ± 5.07 mg/dl 6h after the second OSP dose versus 8.44 ± 0.97 mg/dl at baseline. Concomitantly, serum PTH levels increased fivefold and FGF-23 levels showed a threefold increase, while serum calcium levels significantly decreased from 11.29 ± 0.53 mg/dl at baseline to 8.68 ± 0.79 mg/dl after OSP. OSP administration induced weaker NaPi-2a staining along the apical proximal tubular membrane. APN was induced: serum creatinine increased (1.5 times baseline and nephrocalcinosis developed (increased renal calcium and phosphate content and calcium phosphate deposits on Von Kossa stained kidney sections. Intestinal phosphate binding (lanthanum carbonate or aluminum hydroxide was not able to attenuate the OSP induced side-effects. In conclusion, a clinically relevant rat model of APN was developed. Animals showed increased serum phosphate levels similar to those reported in humans and developed APN. No evidence was found for an improved safety profile of OSP by using intestinal phosphate binders.

  5. Phosphate application to firing range soils for Pb immobilization: The unclear role of phosphate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chrysochoou, Maria; Dermatas, Dimitris; Grubb, Dennis G.


    Phosphate treatment has emerged as a widely accepted approach to immobilize Pb in contaminated soils and waste media, relying on the formation of the highly insoluble mineral pyromorphite as solubility-controlling phase for Pb. As such, phosphate treatment has been proposed as a Best Management Practice (BMP) for firing ranges where Pb occurs in its metallic forms and several other phases (carbonates, oxides). While pyromorphite thermodynamically has the potential to control Pb solubility at low levels, its formation is kinetically controlled by pH, the solubility of the phosphate source, and the solubility of Pb species. Treatability studies have shown that excess quantities of soluble and acidic phosphate sources, such as phosphoric acid, are necessary for successful in situ treatment. Even under these conditions, Extended X-ray Absorption Fine Structure (EXAFS), the only reliable method to identify and quantify Pb speciation, showed that Pb conversion to pyromorphite in in situ treated soils was less than 45% after 32 months. Furthermore, the use of lime (CaO) to restore soil pH in acidified soil treatments inhibited further conversion. Additionally, phosphate treatment is known to reduce bioavailability through pyromorphite formation in the intestinal tract, and the phytoaccumulation of Pb; both desirable effects for Pb-impacted areas. Given the costs of phosphate treatment, the use of biogenic phosphate sources, such as bone meal, may be a more environmentally sustainable approach toward this end. In the many studies focusing on phosphate treatment, the attendant P leaching and eutrophication have been largely overlooked, along with other issues such as the enhanced leaching of oxyanionic contaminants, such as Se, As and W. The success and sustainability of applying phosphate as a BMP in firing range soils therefore remain questionable

  6. Uranium-phosphate relationship in phosphated chalks of the Mons and Picardie Bassins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quinif, Y; Charlet, J M; Dupuis, C; Robaszynski, F [Faculte Polytechnique de Mons (Belgium)


    The lithological and geochemical conditions relative to the ''Senonian'' phosphatic chalks are relatively simple in the Basins of Mons (Belgium) and of Picardy (France). Their characteristics permit us to study chiefly the uranium-phosphate relation. It appears a very good linear correlation between the phosphate and the uranium. The coefficient U/P/sub 2/O/sub 5/ remains a constant from the bottom to the top of the same section, but changes in space for synchronic formations (lateral variation of geochemical facies) and in time for two separated basins.

  7. Molecular identification of phosphate solubilizing bacterium ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A phosphate solubilizing bacterium was isolated from the rhizosphere soil of upland rice and identified by 16S rRNA gene sequencing. The gene sequence showed 99% homology with Alcaligenes faecalis. Based on the gene sequence homology, it was identified as A. faecalis. Interaction effect of this bacterium on growth ...

  8. Biodegradation of tert-butylphenyl diphenyl phosphate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heitkamp, M.A.; Freeman, J.P.; Cerniglia, C.E.


    The biodegradation of tert-butylphenyl diphenyl phosphate (BPDP) was examined in microcosms containing sediment and water from five different ecosystems as part of studies to elucidate the environmental fate of phosphate ester flame retardants. Biodegradation of [ 14 C]BPDP was monitored in the environmental microcosms by measuring the evolution of 14 CO 2 . Over 37% of BPDP was mineralized after 8 weeks in microcosms from an ecosystem which had chronic exposure to agricultural chemicals. In contrast, only 1.7% of BPDP was degraded to 14 CO 2 in samples collected from a noncontaminated site. The exposure concentration of BPDP affected the percentage which was degraded to 14 CO 2 in microcosms from the two most active ecosystems. Mineralization was highest at a concentration of 0.1 mg of BPDP and was inhibited with 10- and 100-fold higher concentrations of BPDP. The authors observed adaptive increases in both microbial populations and phosphoesterase enzymes in some sediments acclimated to BPDP. Chemical analyses of the residues in the microcosms indicated undegraded BPDP and minor amounts of phenol, tert-butylphenol, diphenyl phosphate, and triphenyl phosphate as biodegradation products. These data suggest that the microbial degradation of BPDP results from at least three catabolic processes and is highest when low concentrations of BPDP are exposed to sediment microorganisms of eutrophic ecosystems which have high phosphotri- and diesterase activities and previous exposure to anthropogenic chemicals

  9. Cadmium versus phosphate in the world ocean

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baar, Hein J.W. de; Saager, Paul M.; Nolting, Rob F.; Meer, Jaap van der


    Cadmium (Cd) is one of the best studied trace metals in seawater and at individual stations exhibits a more or less linear relation with phosphate. The compilation of all data from all oceans taken from over 30 different published sources into one global dataset yields only a broad scatterplot of Cd

  10. Characterization of Fe -doped silver phosphate glasses

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ... to their several spe- cial properties such as large thermal expansion coefficients, ... increase the conductivity of these glasses is to increase the modifier or dopant ... phosphate glasses were measured by the a.c. impedance spectroscopic .... and Fe2O3-doped Ag2O–P2O5 glasses were determined from. DSC curves and ...

  11. Metal complex derivatives of hydrogen uranyl phosphate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grohol, D.; Blinn, E.L.


    Derivatives of hydrogen uranyl phosphate were prepared by incorporating transition metal complexes into the uranyl phosphate matrix. The transition metal complexes employed include bis(ethylenediamine)copper(II), bis(1,3-propanediamine)copper(II) chloride, (triethylenetetramine)copper(II), (1,4,8,11-tetraazacyclotetradecane)copper(II), (1,4,8,12-tetraazacyclopentadecane)copper(II), (1,4,8,11-tetraazacyclotetradecane)nickel(II) chloride, (triethylenetetramine)nickel(II) and others. The chemical analyses of these derivatives indicated that the incorporation of the transition metal complexes into the uranyl phosphate matrix via ion exchange was not stoichiometric. The extent of ion exchange is dependent on the size and structure of the transition metal complex. All complexes were characterized by X-ray powder diffractometry, electronic and infrared spectra, thermal analyses and chemical analysis. An attempt was made to correlate the degree of quenching of the luminescence of the uranyl ion to the spacing between the uranyl phosphate layers in the derivatives

  12. (VAM) and phosphate solubilizing bacteria (PSB)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)



    Sep 18, 2013 ... mycorrhiza (VAM), and phosphate solubilising bacteria (PSB) individually and in .... Two-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) was carried out at a 0.05 level of significance on the data and SPSS version 13.0 was used.

  13. Bismuth phosphates as intermediate temperature proton conductors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huang, Yunjie; Christensen, Erik; Shuai, Qin


    by scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, FT-IR, thermogravimetric analysis and AC impedance. Under dry atmosphere the pure crystalline and amorphous phosphates exhibit an intrinsic conductivity of up to 10-5 S cm-1 at 250 °C. In the presence of atmospheric humidity the conductivity of both types...

  14. Nuclear waste immobilization in iron phosphate glasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia, D.A.; Rodriguez, Diego A.; Menghini, Jorge E.; Bevilacqua, Arturo


    Iron-phosphate glasses have become important in the nuclear waste immobilization area because they have some advantages over silicate-based glasses, such as a lower processing temperature and a higher nuclear waste load without losing chemical and mechanical properties. Structure and chemical properties of iron-phosphate glasses are determined in terms of the main components, in this case, phosphate oxide along with the other oxides that are added to improve some of the characteristics of the glasses. For example, Iron oxide improves chemical durability, lead oxide lowers fusion temperature and sodium oxide reduces viscosity at high temperature. In this work a study based on the composition-property relations was made. We used different techniques to characterize a series of iron-lead-phosphate glasses with uranium and aluminium oxide as simulated nuclear waste. We used the Arquimedes method to determine the bulk density, differential temperature analysis (DTA) to determine both glass transition temperature and crystallization temperature, dilatometric analysis to calculate the linear thermal expansion coefficient, chemical durability (MCC-1 test) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). We also applied some theoretic models to calculate activation energies associated with the glass transition temperature and crystallization processes. (author)

  15. Spectrophotometric Determination of Nitrate and Phosphate Levels ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Twelve drinking water samples from boreholes were collected from various sampling sites around the vicinity of Kura irrigated farmlands using polythene plastic containers and were analysed for the nitrate and phosphate levels using uV – visible spectrophotometer. From the results, it was found that all the samples had ...

  16. Mesoporous titanium phosphates and related molecular sieves ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    phosphate using a dilute H2O2 oxidant supports the tetrahedral coordination of Ti in ... production of H2 by photo-reduction of water under UV light irradiation. ... have been extensively studied and used as acid catalysts, adsorbents and ion ... mesoporous silica materials is also of outstanding interest because of their ...

  17. Electrosprayed calcium phosphate coatings for biomedical purposes.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leeuwenburgh, S.C.G.


    In this thesis, the suitability of the Electrostatic Spray Deposition (ESD) technique was studied for biomedical purposes, i.e., deposition of calcium phosphate (CaP) coatings onto titanium substrates. Using ESD, which is a simple and cheap deposition method for inorganic and organic coatings, it

  18. Serum Calcium, Inorganic Phosphates and some Haematological ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives: Sickle cell disease has long been associated with bone deformities and pain. Mineral salts such as calcium and inorganic phosphate are critical in bone formation and metabolism. This investigation was designed to study the serum concentration of these minerals as well as some haematological parameters in ...

  19. Isolation and Characterization of Efficient Phosphate Solubilizing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    ABSTRACT. Applications of biofertilizer have great practical importance for increasing fertility of the soil and reducing environmental pollution. Screening and characterizing phosphate solubilizing Bacillus. (PSB) strains from different agroecologies of Tigray soil and in vitro assessment for the adaptability under different ...

  20. Isolation and characterization of efficient Phosphate Solubilizing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Applications of biofertilizer have great practical importance for increasing fertility of the soil and reducing environmental pollution. Screening and characterizing phosphate solubilizing Bacillus (PSB) strains from different agroecologies of Tigray soil and in vitro assessment for the adaptability under different abiotic stress ...

  1. Thermochemical investigations on uranyl phosphates and arsenates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barten, H.


    Results are described of a study of the thermochemical stability of anhydrous phosphates and arsenates. The results of phase studies deal with compound formation and characterization, coexisting phases and limiting physical or chemical properties. The uranyl phosphates evolve oxygen at higher temperatures and the arsenates lose arsenic oxide vapour. These phenomena give the possibility to describe their thermodynamic stabilities. Thus oxygen pressures of uranyl phosphates have been measured using a static, non-isothermal method. Having made available the pure anhydrous compounds in the course of this investigation, molar thermodynamic quantities have been measured as well. These include standard enthalpies of formation from solution calorimetry and high-temperature heat-capacity functions derived from enthalpy increments measured. Some attention is given to compounds with uranium in valencies lower than six which have been met during the investigation. An evaluation is made of the thermodynamics of the compounds studied, to result in tabulized high-temperature thermodynamic functions. Relative stabilities within the systems are discussed and comparisons of the uranyl phosphates and the arsenates are made. (Auth.)

  2. Thermochemical investigations on uranyl phosphates and arsenates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barten, H.


    The results are described of a study of the thermochemical stability of anhydrous uranyl phosphates and arsenates. A number of aspects of chemical technological importance are indicated in detail. The synthesized anhydrous uranyl phosphates and arsenates were very hygroscopic, so that experiments on these compounds had to be carried out under moisture-free conditions. Further characterisation of these compounds are given, including a study of their thermal stabilities and phase relations. The uranyl phosphates reduced reversibly at temperatures of the order of 1100 to 1600 0 C. This makes it possible to express their relative stabilities quantitatively, in terms of the oxygen pressures of the reduction reactions. The thermal decomposition of uranyl arsenates did not occur by reduction, as for the phosphates, but by giving off arsenic oxide vapour. The results of measurements of enthalpies of solution led to the determination of the enthalpies of formation, heat capacity and the standard entropies of the uranyl arsenates. The thermochemical functions at high-temperatures could consequently be calculated. Attention is paid to the possible formation of uranium arsenates, whose uranium has a valency lower than six, hitherto not reported in literature. It was not possible to prepare arsenates of tetravalent uranium. However, three new compounds were observed, one of these, UAsO 5 , was studied in some detail. (Auth.)

  3. Spectrophotometric Determination of Nitrate and Phosphate Levels ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)



    Apr 9, 2013 ... may help in the growth of algae (Beavington,. 1977). Determination of phosphate ion in drinking water. 50cm3 of water sample was pipetted into a 500cm3 volumetric flask, 5cm3 of Ammonium molybdate solution and 3.0cm3 of ascorbic acid were added with swirling, the mixture was diluted to the mark with ...


    Kroll, Arnold J.; Kuwabara, Toichiro


    The prevention of phosphate-induced mitochondrial swelling in the whole retina of the rabbit was studied with the electron microscope. It was found that a mixture of ATP, Mg++, and bovine serum albumin protected the mitochondria in vitro. This finding confirmed the results obtained spectrophotometrically with isolated rat liver mitochondria by Lehninger. PMID:13927020

  5. Substoichiometric determination of uranium in phosphate rock

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suzuki, N; Hanzawa, K; Imura, H


    The substoichiometric isotope dilution analysis for U(VI) in a synergic extraction system of an excess amount of a chelating agent hexafluoroacetylacetone (HHFA) and a substoichiometric amount of U(VI) can be precisely extracted, and U down to ppm levels can be accurately determined by the present method. This method was applied to the analysis of a phosphate rock.

  6. TUCS/phosphate mineralization of actinides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nash, K.L. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)


    This program has as its objective the development of a new technology that combines cation exchange and mineralization to reduce the concentration of heavy metals (in particular actinides) in groundwaters. The treatment regimen must be compatible with the groundwater and soil, potentially using groundwater/soil components to aid in the immobilization process. The delivery system (probably a water-soluble chelating agent) should first concentrate the radionuclides then release the precipitating anion, which forms thermodynamically stable mineral phases, either with the target metal ions alone or in combination with matrix cations. This approach should generate thermodynamically stable mineral phases resistant to weathering. The chelating agent should decompose spontaneously with time, release the mineralizing agent, and leave a residue that does not interfere with mineral formation. For the actinides, the ideal compound probably will release phosphate, as actinide phosphate mineral phases are among the least soluble species for these metals. The most promising means of delivering the precipitant would be to use a water-soluble, hydrolytically unstable complexant that functions in the initial stages as a cation exchanger to concentrate the metal ions. As it decomposes, the chelating agent releases phosphate to foster formation of crystalline mineral phases. Because it involves only the application of inexpensive reagents, the method of phosphate mineralization promises to be an economical alternative for in situ immobilization of radionuclides (actinides in particular). The method relies on the inherent (thermodynamic) stability of actinide mineral phases.

  7. Isolation and Characterization of Efficient Phosphate Solubilizing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Research Article Momona Ethiopian Journal of Science (MEJS), V9(2):262-273,2017 ©CNCS, Mekelle University, ISSN:2220-184X. Isolation and Characterization of Efficient Phosphate Solubilizing Bacillus (PSB) from Different Agro-ecological Zones of Tigray Soil, Ethiopia. Kibrom, F.G.

  8. Intercalation of cyclic ketones into vanadyl phosphate

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Zima, Vítězslav; Melánová, Klára; Beneš, L.; Trchová, Miroslava; Dybal, Jiří


    Roč. 178, č. 1 (2005), s. 314-320 ISSN 0022-4596 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KSK4050111 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40500505 Keywords : vanadyl phosphate Subject RIV: CA - Inorganic Chemistry Impact factor: 1.725, year: 2005

  9. Calcium phosphate saturation in seawater around the Andaman Island

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Naik, S.; Reddy, C.V.G.

    Ionic product (IP) of calcium phosphate is calculated at some stations around Andaman Island. The depthwise variations of the ionic product of calcium phosphate seem to follow a normal trend with maximum saturation value between 100 to 200 m. Using...

  10. Genetics Home Reference: glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency (United States)

    ... deficiency Encyclopedia: Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase test Encyclopedia: Hemolytic anemia Encyclopedia: Newborn jaundice Health Topic: Anemia Health Topic: G6PD Deficiency Health Topic: Newborn Screening Genetic and Rare Diseases Information Center (1 link) Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase ...

  11. Preparation of Edible Corn Starch Phosphate with Highly Reactive ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1Food & Bioengineering Department, Henan University of Science and Technology, Luoyang, Henan 471003 ... Purpose: To prepare edible corn starch phosphate under optimized experimental conditions. ... In food industry, starch phosphate.

  12. Calcium phosphate saturation in the western Bay of Bengal

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Naik, S.; Reddy, C.V.G.

    Temperature, inorganic phosphate concentration and pH seem to be the major factors influencing the degree of saturation of calcium phosphate in sea water. Two water regions can be demarcated in the study area based on the saturation patterns...

  13. Analyses of uranium in some phosphate commercial products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamel, N.H.M.; Sohsah, M.; Mohammad, H.M.; Sadek, M.


    The raw materials used in manufacturing of phosphate fertilizer products were derived from rocks. Rocks contain a remarkable of natural radioactivity. Uranium and phosphorous were originally initiated at the same time of the initiated rocks. The purpose of this research is to investigate solubility of uranium phosphate species at the phosphate fertilizer samples, samples including; raw phosphate material, single super phosphates (SSP) granules and powdered, triple super phosphates (TSP) and phosphogypsum samples were obtained from Abu-Zabal factory in Egypt. Solubility of uranium phosphate species was estimated. It was found that, less than half of the uranium phosphate species are soluble in water. The soluble uranium may be enter into the food chains by plant. Therefore, restriction should be done in order to limit contamination of land and the public

  14. Recovery of uranium and the lanthanides from phosphate rock

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Habashi, F; Awadalla, F T; Zailaf, M


    A process is proposed for the treatment of phosphate rock for the recovery of uranium and lanthanides. The process assures the production of phosphatic fertilisers without polluting the environment with radioactive material.

  15. Cloning and expression of pineapple sucrose- phosphate synthase ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)



    Dec 6, 2010 ... phosphate; EDTA, ethylene diamine tetraacetic acid; Ivr, invertase; SS .... phenolics, tannins and artifacts due to differences of tissue composition ..... Banana sucrose-phosphate synthase gene expression during fruit ripening.

  16. An experimental study of Fe-Ni exchange between sulfide melt and olivine at upper mantle conditions: implications for mantle sulfide compositions and phase equilibria (United States)

    Zhang, Zhou; von der Handt, Anette; Hirschmann, Marc M.


    The behavior of nickel in the Earth's mantle is controlled by sulfide melt-olivine reaction. Prior to this study, experiments were carried out at low pressures with narrow range of Ni/Fe in sulfide melt. As the mantle becomes more reduced with depth, experiments at comparable conditions provide an assessment of the effect of pressure at low-oxygen fugacity conditions. In this study, we constrain the Fe-Ni composition of molten sulfide in the Earth's upper mantle via sulfide melt-olivine reaction experiments at 2 GPa, 1200 and 1400 °C, with sulfide melt X_{{{Ni}}}^{{{Sulfide}}}={{Ni}}/{{Ni+{Fe}}} (atomic ratio) ranging from 0 to 0.94. To verify the approach to equilibrium and to explore the effect of {f_{{{O}2}}} on Fe-Ni exchange between phases, four different suites of experiments were conducted, varying in their experimental geometry and initial composition. Effects of Ni secondary fluorescence on olivine analyses were corrected using the PENELOPE algorithm (Baró et al., Nucl Instrum Methods Phys Res B 100:31-46, 1995), "zero time" experiments, and measurements before and after dissolution of surrounding sulfides. Oxygen fugacities in the experiments, estimated from the measured O contents of sulfide melts and from the compositions of coexisting olivines, were 3.0 ± 1.0 log units more reduced than the fayalite-magnetite-quartz (FMQ) buffer (suite 1, 2 and 3), and FMQ - 1 or more oxidized (suite 4). For the reduced (suites 1-3) experiments, Fe-Ni distribution coefficients K_{{D}}{}={(X_{{{Ni}}}^{{{sulfide}}}/X_{{{Fe}}}^{{{sulfide}}})}/{(X_{{{Ni}}^{{{olivine}}}/X_{{{Fe}}}^{{{olivine}}})}} are small, averaging 10.0 ± 5.7, with little variation as a function of total Ni content. More oxidized experiments (suite 4) give larger values of K D (21.1-25.2). Compared to previous determinations at 100 kPa, values of K D from this study are chiefly lower, in large part owing to the more reduced conditions of the experiments. The observed difference does not seem

  17. Olivine and climate change

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schuiling, R.D.


    The greenhouse effect, thanks mainly to the water vapor in our atmosphere, has created a livable climate on Earth. Climate change, however, may potentially have dire consequences. It is generally assumed that the rise in CO2 levels in the atmosphere is the main culprit, although several other

  18. Iron phosphate glass containing simulated fast reactor waste: Characterization and comparison with pristine iron phosphate glass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joseph, Kitheri; Asuvathraman, R.; Venkata Krishnan, R.; Ravindran, T.R.; Govindaraj, R.; Govindan Kutty, K.V.; Vasudeva Rao, P.R.


    Detailed characterization was carried out on an iron phosphate glass waste form containing 20 wt.% of a simulated nuclear waste. High temperature viscosity measurement was carried out by the rotating spindle method. The Fe 3+ /Fe ratio and structure of this waste loaded iron phosphate glass was investigated using Mössbauer and Raman spectroscopy respectively. Specific heat measurement was carried out in the temperature range of 300–700 K using differential scanning calorimeter. Isoconversional kinetic analysis was employed to understand the crystallization behavior of the waste loaded iron phosphate glass. The glass forming ability and glass stability of the waste loaded glass were also evaluated. All the measured properties of the waste loaded glass were compared with the characteristics of pristine iron phosphate glass

  19. Transfer of Some Major and Trace Elements From Phosphate Rock to Super-Phosphate Fertilizers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Reefya, H.I.; Bin-Jaz, A.A.; Zaied, M.E.; Badran, H.M.; Badran, H.M.


    This study assesses the transfer of some major and trace elements from phosphate rock (PR) to single (SSP) and triple (TSP) superphosphate fertilizers. Samples from a fertilizer plant and local market were collected and analyzed using inductively coupled plasma spectrometer. Cluster analysis indicated that the inner-relationship among the concentration of the elements in PR, SSP, and TSP are different. Only one element (Mo) has concentration in SSP higher than phosphate rock. The production process of these two types of superphosphate leads to transfer higher portion of Mn, B, Cu, Mo, Sr, and V present in the phosphate rock to SSP than TSP. The potentially hazardous element Cd is also transmitted more to SSP than TSP, and Cr is equally transferred to both types. The mean elemental concentrations normalized to the percentage of P 2 O 5 demonstrate that for most elements they are the higher concentrations in SSP are linked to the phosphate contents

  20. Radioactivity of phosphate ores from Karatas-Mazidag phosphate deposit of Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akyuez, T.; Varinlioglu, A.; Kose, A.; Akyuez, S.


    The specific activities of 238 U, 226 Ra, 232 Th and 40 K in the composite samples of phosphate ores of type I (grey-coloured ore, with high P 2 O 5 (21-35%) and low calcite content) and of type II (grey coloured calcite ore, with low P 2 O 5 content (5-17%)) of Karatas-Mazidag phosphate deposit, Turkey, have been determined by gamma spectrometry together with phosphatic animal feed ingredients. The concentrations of 238 U, 226 Ra, 232 Th and 40 K were found to be up to 557, 625, 26 and 297 Bq x kg -1 , respectively. Radium equivalent activities of samples were calculated and compared with those given in the literature. Uranium concentration of the individual phosphate samples, from which composite samples of ores of type I and II have been prepared, were found to show and increasing trend with increasing P 2 O 5 and F concentrations. (author)

  1. Sorption of cesium on titanium and zirconium phosphates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lebedev, V.N.; Mel'nik, N.A.; Rudenko, A.V.


    Titanium and zirconium phosphates were prepared from mineral raw materials of the Kola Peninsula. Their capability to recover cesium cations from the model solutions and liquid radioactive waste (LRW) was studied. Titanium phosphate prepared from solutions formed by titanite breakdown demonstrates greater distribution coefficients of cesium as compared to zirconium phosphate. Titanium phosphate as a cheaper agent featuring greater sorption capacity was recommended for treatment of LRW to remove cesium [ru

  2. Bacterial formation of phosphatic laminites off Peru. (United States)

    Arning, E T; Birgel, D; Brunner, B; Peckmann, J


    Authigenic phosphatic laminites enclosed in phosphorite crusts from the shelf off Peru (10 degrees 01' S and 10 degrees 24' S) consist of carbonate fluorapatite layers, which contain abundant sulfide minerals including pyrite (FeS(2)) and sphalerite (ZnS). Low delta(34)S(pyrite) values (average -28.8 per thousand) agree with bacterial sulfate reduction and subsequent pyrite formation. Stable sulfur isotopic compositions of sulfate bound in carbonate fluorapatite are lower than that of sulfate from ambient sea water, suggesting bacterial reoxidation of sulfide by sulfide-oxidizing bacteria. The release of phosphorus and subsequent formation of the autochthonous phosphatic laminites are apparently caused by the activity of sulfate-reducing bacteria and associated sulfide-oxidizing bacteria. Following an extraction-phosphorite dissolution-extraction procedure, molecular fossils of sulfate-reducing bacteria (mono-O-alkyl glycerol ethers, di-O-alkyl glycerol ethers, as well as the short-chain branched fatty acids i/ai-C(15:0), i/ai-C(17:0) and 10MeC(16:0)) are found to be among the most abundant compounds. The fact that these molecular fossils of sulfate-reducing bacteria are distinctly more abundant after dissolution of the phosphatic laminite reveals that the lipids are tightly bound to the mineral lattice of carbonate fluorapatite. Moreover, compared with the autochthonous laminite, molecular fossils of sulfate-reducing bacteria are: (1) significantly less abundant and (2) not as tightly bound to the mineral lattice in the other, allochthonous facies of the Peruvian crusts consisting of phosphatic coated grains. These observations confirm the importance of sulfate-reducing bacteria in the formation of the phosphatic laminite. Model calculations highlight that organic matter degradation by sulfate-reducing bacteria has the potential to liberate sufficient phosphorus for phosphogenesis.

  3. Heterogeneity of the Caribbean plateau mantle source: Sr, O and He isotopic compositions of olivine and clinopyroxene from Gorgona Island (United States)

    Révillon, S.; Chauvel, C.; Arndt, N. T.; Pik, R.; Martineau, F.; Fourcade, S.; Marty, B.


    The composition of the mantle plumes that created large oceanic plateaus such as Ontong Java or the Caribbean is still poorly known. Geochemical and isotopic studies on accreted portions of the Caribbean plateau have shown that the plume source was heterogeneous and contained isotopically depleted and relatively enriched portions. A distinctive feature of samples from the Caribbean plateau is their unusual Sr isotopic compositions, which, at a given Nd isotopic ratio, are far higher than in samples from other oceanic plateaus. Sr, O and He isotopic compositions of whole rocks and magmatic minerals (clinopyroxene or olivine) separated from komatiites, gabbros and peridotites from Gorgona Island in Colombia were determined to investigate the origin of these anomalously radiogenic compositions. Sequentially leached clinopyroxenes have Sr isotopic compositions in the range 87Sr/ 86Sr=0.70271-0.70352, systematically lower than those of leached and unleached whole rocks. Oxygen isotopic ratios of clinopyroxene vary within the range δ 18O=5.18-5.35‰, similar to that recorded in oceanic island basalts. He isotopic ratios are high ( R/ Ra=8-19). The lower 87Sr/ 86Sr ratios of most of the clinopyroxenes shift the field of the Caribbean plateau in Nd-Sr isotope diagrams toward more 'normal' values, i.e. a position closer to the field defined by mid-ocean ridge basalts and oceanic-island basalts. Three clinopyroxenes have slightly higher 87Sr/ 86Sr ratios that cannot be explained by an assimilation model. The high 87Sr/ 86Sr and variations of 143Nd/ 144Nd are interpreted as a source characteristic. Trace-element ratios, however, are controlled mainly by fractionation during partial melting. We combine these isotopic data in a heterogeneous plume source model that accounts for the diversity of isotopic signatures recorded on Gorgona Island and throughout the Caribbean plateau. The heterogeneities are related to old recycled oceanic lithosphere in the plume source; the high 3

  4. Comparative study on in vitro biocompatibility of synthetic octacalcium phosphate and calcium phosphate ceramics used clinically. (United States)

    Morimoto, Shinji; Anada, Takahisa; Honda, Yoshitomo; Suzuki, Osamu


    The present study was designed to investigate the extent to which calcium phosphate bone substitute materials, including osteoconductive octacalcium phosphate (OCP), display cytotoxic and inflammatory responses based on their dissolution in vitro. Hydroxyapatite (HA) and β-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) ceramics, which are clinically used, as well as dicalcium phosphate dihydrate (DCPD) and synthesized OCP were compared. The materials were well characterized by chemical analysis, x-ray diffraction and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Calcium and phosphate ion concentrations and the pH of culture media after immersion of the materials were determined. The colony forming rate of Chinese hamster lung fibroblasts was estimated with extraction of the materials. Proliferation of bone marrow stromal ST-2 cells and inflammatory cytokine TNF-α production by THP-1 cells grown on the material-coated plates were examined. The materials had characteristics that corresponded to those reported. DCPD was shown to dissolve the most in the culture media, with a marked increase in phosphate ion concentration and a reduction in pH. ST-2 cells proliferated well on the materials, with the exception of DCPD, which markedly inhibited cellular growth. The colony forming capacity was the lowest on DCPD, while that of the other calcium phosphates was not altered. In contrast, TNF-α was not detected even in cells grown on DCPD, suggesting that calcium phosphate materials are essentially non-inflammatory, while the solubility of the materials can affect osteoblastic and fibroblastic cellular attachment. These results indicate that OCP is biocompatible, which is similar to the materials used clinically, such as HA. Therefore, OCP could be clinically used as a biocompatible bone substitute material.

  5. Phosphate and phosphate fertilizer sector: structure and future prospects. [Uranium recovery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zenaidi, B


    A statement of the past evolution of this sector's structure is given. Various prospective studies which have been made are reviewed and lead to the precision of the phosphate requirement in the year 2000 which is between 200 and 250 Mt. Only a small section p. 696-697 is devoted to recovery of uranium contained in phosphate and prospects in this field are given.

  6. Physico-chemical characterization of Ogun and Sokoto phosphate ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Gypsum, calcite and lime were associated with both rock phosphates indicating their liming potential in the soil. ORP was more soluble in water, probably because it ... fertilizers and direct application in crop production. Keywords: Phosphorus, apatite, crop production, fertilizer, Ogun rock phosphate, Sokoto rock phosphate ...

  7. The phosphate balance : current developments and future outlook

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Enk, van R.J.; Vee, van der G.; Acera, L.K.; Schuiling, R.; Ehlert, P.A.I.


    Phosphate is essential for agricultural production and therefore plays a key role in the global production of food and biofuels. There are no agricultural alternatives for phosphate, and a substantial fraction of our annual phosphate consumption is dispersed into the environment where it is largely

  8. The phosphate balance : Current developments and future outlook

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Enk, R.J. van; Acera, L.K.; Schuiling, R.D.; Ehlert, P.; de Wilt, J.G.; van Haren, R.J.F.


    Phosphate is essential for agricultural production and therefore plays a key role in the global production of food and biofuels. There are no agricultural alternatives for phosphate, and a substantial fraction of our annual phosphate consumption is dispersed into the environment where it is largely

  9. 21 CFR 582.5697 - Riboflavin-5-phosphate. (United States)


    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Riboflavin-5-phosphate. 582.5697 Section 582.5697 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Supplements 1 § 582.5697 Riboflavin-5-phosphate. (a) Product. Riboflavin-5-phosphate. (b) Conditions of use...

  10. 21 CFR 582.1781 - Sodium aluminum phosphate. (United States)


    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sodium aluminum phosphate. 582.1781 Section 582.1781 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... Additives § 582.1781 Sodium aluminum phosphate. (a) Product. Sodium aluminum phosphate. (b) Conditions of...

  11. 21 CFR 182.1781 - Sodium aluminum phosphate. (United States)


    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Sodium aluminum phosphate. 182.1781 Section 182.1781 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... Food Substances § 182.1781 Sodium aluminum phosphate. (a) Product. Sodium aluminum phosphate. (b...

  12. Radiological impact of natural radioactivity in Egyptian phosphate rocks, phosphogypsum and phosphate fertilizers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Bahi, S.M.; Sroor, A.; Mohamed, Gehan Y.; El-Gendy, N.S.


    In this study, the activity concentrations of the natural radionuclides in phosphate rocks and its products were measured using a high- purity germanium detector (HPGe). The obtained activity results show remarkable wide variation in the radioactive contents for the different phosphate samples. The average activity concentration of "2"3"5U, "2"3"8U, "2"2"6Ra, "2"3"2Th and "4"0K was found as (45, 1031, 786, 85 and 765 Bq/kg) for phosphate rocks, (28, 1234, 457, 123 and 819 Bq/kg) for phosphate fertilizers, (47, 663, 550, 79 and 870 Bq/kg) for phosphogypsum and (25, 543, 409, 54 and 897 Bq/kg) for single super phosphate respectively. Based on the measured activities, the radiological parameters (activity concentration index, absorbed gamma dose rate in outdoor and indoor and the corresponding annual effective dose rates and total excess lifetime cancer risk) were estimated to assess the radiological hazards. The total excess lifetime cancer risk (ELCR) has been calculated and found to be high in all samples, which related to high radioactivity, representing radiological risk for the health of the population. - Highlights: • Level of radioactivity of phosphate rocks and by-products samples. • The radiological health hazard parameters. • Radiological risk to the health of the population. • The excess lifetime cancer risk factor.

  13. Phosphate uptake kinetics for four species of submerged freshwater macrophytes measured by a 33P phosphate radioisotope technique

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Nina Høj; Andersen, Frede Østergaard; Jensen, Henning S.


    Phosphate (Pi) uptake kinetics were determined in shoot and root tissues for four freshwater macrophyte species, Littorella uniflora, Potamogeton perfoliatus, Myriophyllum alterniflorum and Elodea canadensis, using a radioactive 33P phosphate technique. Collection of plant material in the oligotr...

  14. Infrared-spectroscopy analysis of zinc phosphate and nickel and manganese modified zinc phosphate coatings on electrogalvanized steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandes, Kirlene Salgado; Alvarenga, Evandro de Azevedo; Lins, Vanessa de Freitas Cunha


    Hopeite-type phosphate coatings in which zinc is partially replaced by other metals like manganese and nickel are of great interest for the automotive and home appliance industries. Such industries use phosphate conversion coatings on galvanized steels in association with cataphoretic electro painting. Zinc phosphates modified with manganese and nickel are isomorphic with the hopeite, and the phase identification using X-ray diffraction is difficult. In this paper, the phosphate coatings are identified using the Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). (author)

  15. Phosphate additives in food--a health risk. (United States)

    Ritz, Eberhard; Hahn, Kai; Ketteler, Markus; Kuhlmann, Martin K; Mann, Johannes


    Hyperphosphatemia has been identified in the past decade as a strong predictor of mortality in advanced chronic kidney disease (CKD). For example, a study of patients in stage CKD 5 (with an annual mortality of about 20%) revealed that 12% of all deaths in this group were attributable to an elevated serum phosphate concentration. Recently, a high-normal serum phosphate concentration has also been found to be an independent predictor of cardiovascular events and mortality in the general population. Therefore, phosphate additives in food are a matter of concern, and their potential impact on health may well have been underappreciated. We reviewed pertinent literature retrieved by a selective search of the PubMed and EU databases (,, with the search terms "phosphate additives" and "hyperphosphatemia." There is no need to lower the content of natural phosphate, i.e. organic esters, in food, because this type of phosphate is incompletely absorbed; restricting its intake might even lead to protein malnutrition. On the other hand, inorganic phosphate in food additives is effectively absorbed and can measurably elevate the serum phosphate concentration in patients with advanced CKD. Foods with added phosphate tend to be eaten by persons at the lower end of the socioeconomic scale, who consume more processed and "fast" food. The main pathophysiological effect of phosphate is vascular damage, e.g. endothelial dysfunction and vascular calcification. Aside from the quality of phosphate in the diet (which also requires attention), the quantity of phosphate consumed by patients with advanced renal failure should not exceed 1000 mg per day, according to the guidelines. Prospective controlled trials are currently unavailable. In view of the high prevalence of CKD and the potential harm caused by phosphate additives to food, the public should be informed that added phosphate is damaging to health. Furthermore, calls for labeling

  16. Impaired Phosphate Tolerance Revealed With an Acute Oral Challenge. (United States)

    Turner, Mandy E; White, Christine A; Hopman, Wilma M; Ward, Emilie C; Jeronimo, Paul S; Adams, Michael A; Holden, Rachel M


    Elevated serum phosphate is consistently linked with cardiovascular disease (CVD) events and mortality in the setting of normal and impaired kidney function. However, serum phosphate does not often exceed the upper limit of normal until glomerular filtration rate (GFR) falls below 30 mL/min/m 2 . It was hypothesized that the response to an oral, bioavailable phosphate load will unmask impaired phosphate tolerance, a maladaptation not revealed by baseline serum phosphate concentrations. In this study, rats with varying kidney function as well as normo-phosphatemic human subjects, with inulin-measured GFR (13.2 to 128.3mL/min), received an oral phosphate load. Hormonal and urinary responses were evaluated over 2 hours. Results revealed that the more rapid elevation of serum phosphate was associated with subjects and rats with higher levels of kidney function, greater responsiveness to acute changes in parathyroid hormone (PTH), and significantly more urinary phosphate at 2 hours. In humans, increases in urinary phosphate to creatinine ratio did not correlate with baseline serum phosphate concentrations but did correlate strongly to early increase of serum phosphate. The blunted rise in serum phosphate in rats with CKD was not the result of altered absorption. This result suggests acute tissue deposition may be altered in the setting of kidney function impairment. Early recognition of impaired phosphate tolerance could translate to important interventions, such as dietary phosphate restriction or phosphate binders, being initiated at much higher levels of kidney function than is current practice. © 2017 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research. © 2017 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research.

  17. Application of Potential Phosphate-Solubilizing Bacteria and Organic Acids on Phosphate Solubilization from Phosphate Rock in Aerobic Rice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qurban Ali Panhwar


    Full Text Available A study was conducted at Universiti Putra Malaysia to determine the effect of phosphate-solubilizing bacteria (PSB and organic acids (oxalic & malic on phosphate (P solubilization from phosphate rock (PR and growth of aerobic rice. Four rates of each organic acid (0, 10, 20, and 30 mM, and PSB strain (Bacillus sp. were applied to aerobic rice. Total bacterial populations, amount of P solubilization, P uptake, soil pH, and root morphology were determined. The results of the study showed significantly high P solubilization in PSB with organic acid treatments. Among the two organic acids, oxalic acid was found more effective compared to malic acid. Application of oxalic acid at 20 mM along with PSB16 significantly increased soluble soil P (28.39 mg kg−1, plant P uptake (0.78 P pot−1, and plant biomass (33.26 mg. Addition of organic acids with PSB and PR had no influence on soil pH during the planting period. A higher bacterial population was found in rhizosphere (8.78 log10 cfu g−1 compared to the nonrhizosphere and endosphere regions. The application of organic acids along with PSB enhanced soluble P in the soil solution, improved root growth, and increased plant biomass of aerobic rice seedlings without affecting soil pH.

  18. Prevention of radioactive contamination in the manufacture of phosphate fertilizers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romero G, E.T.


    In this work was studied the separation of uranium from the phosphate rock to decrease the level of radioactivity in the phosphate fertilizers, this prevents the redistribution of uranium in the environment. The uranium leaching conditions from phosphate rock were estimated using alkaline solutions. The changes in the natural phosphate rock after leaching were studied. The amenability to separate the uranium from phosphate rock with ammonium carbonate / bicarbonate solution was determined. The uranium extraction was approximately 40%. The leaching conditions showed high selectivity for uranium without changes in the ore structure. The bulk ore was not dissolved. (Author)

  19. Adiabats of quartz, coesite, olivine, and magnesium oxide to 50 kbar and 1000 K, and the adiabatic gradient in the Earth's mantle (United States)

    Boehler, R.


    The adiabats of olivine, magnesium oxide, and quartz were measured up to 50kbar and 1000 K. An end-loaded piston-cylinder apparatus with an in situ pressure gauge and a very fine thermocouple was used to measure (∂T/∂P)s during adiabatic compression. A power law between (∂T/∂P)s and compression yields values of the power n = -∂ ln (∂T/∂P)s/∂ ln ρ that agree with previous results from salts, metals, and fluids. Assuming constant values for n, the adiabtic gradient for an olivine upper mantle and a magnesium oxide lower mantle was calculated. The results agree well with some previous theoretical estimates. The volume dependence of the Grüneisen parameter γ was calculated from the thermodynamic equation ∂ ln γ/∂ ln ρ = ∂B/∂P - n, where B is the isothermal bulk modulus. γ is found to a good approximation to be proportional to volume. Table 6 is available with entire article on microfiche. Order from American Geophysical Union, 2000 Florida Avenue, N.W., Washington, D.C. 20009. Document J82-002; $1.00. Payment must accompany order.

  20. Radical-induced dephosphorylation of fructose phosphates in aqueous solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zegota, H.; Sonntag, C. von


    Oxygen free N 2 O-saturated aqueous solutions of D-fructose-1-phosphate and D-fructose-6-phosphate were γ-irradiated. Inorganic phosphate and phosphate free sugars (containing four to six carbon atoms) were identified and their G-values measured. D-Fructose-1-phosphate yields (G-values in parentheses) inorganic phosphate (1.6), hexos-2-ulose (0.12), 6-deoxy-2,5-hexodiulose (0.16), tetrulose (0.05) and 3-deoxytetrulose (0.15). D-Fructose-6-phosphate yields inorganic phosphate (1.7), hexos-5-ulose (0.1), 6-deoxy-2,5-hexodiulose (0.36), 3-deoxy-2,5-hexodiulose and 2-deoxyhexos-5-ulose (together 0.18). On treatment with alkaline phosphatase further deoxy sugars were recognized and in fructose-1-phosphate G(6-deoxy-2,5-hexodiulose) was increased to a G-value of 0.4. Dephosphorylation is considered to occur mainly after OH attack at C-5 and C-1 in fructose-1-phosphate and at C-5 and C-6 in fructose-6-phosphate. Reaction mechanisms are discussed. (orig.)

  1. Radiophotoluminescence from silver-doped phosphate glass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyamoto, Y.; Takei, Y.; Nanto, H.; Kurobori, T.; Konnai, A.; Yanagida, T.; Yoshikawa, A.; Shimotsuma, Y.; Sakakura, M.


    Glass dosimeter utilizing radiophotoluminescence (RPL) is one of accumulation type solid state dosimeters, which is based on luminescence phenomenon of silver (Ag + ions)-doped phosphate glass exposed to ionizing radiation. In this study, to clarify the emission mechanism of yellow and blue RPL peaks, optical properties of Ag + -doped glass, such as optical absorption spectrum, RPL excitation spectrum before and after X-ray irradiation as well as the lifetime of both RPL peaks are measured. From the results, we discuss the emission mechanism of yellow (peaked at 2.21 eV) and blue (peaked at 2.70 eV) RPL using a proposed energy band diagram for RPL emission and excitation in Ag + -doped phosphate glass. It is found that the radiative lifetime of blue RPL is three orders of magnitude faster than that of yellow RPL.

  2. Sphingosine-1-phosphate and renal vasoconstriction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Boye L


    ) and in conjunction with increased S1P release in pathophysiological situations like sepsis and ischemia-reperfusion incidents, this effect could be relevant in acute kidney injury with parallel decreases in renal blood flow and GFR. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.......In the present issue of Acta Physiologica, Guan et al. in their article "Mechanisms of sphingosine-1-phosphate-mediated vasoconstriction of rat afferent arterioles" (1) address the signaling events associated with sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P)-mediated renal afferent vasoconstriction and show in......, technically demanding, blood-perfused juxtamedullary nephron preparation that S1P signaling relies predominantly on transmembrane calcium influx from the extracellular fluid through L-type calcium channels with contribution from oxidative stress metabolites(1) . So not only is new information on S1P signaling...

  3. Radon Progeny in Egyptian Underground Phosphate Mines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Hady, M.A.; Mohammed, A.; El-Hussein, A.; Ali, A.E.; Ahmed, A.A.


    In addition to the workers in uranium mines, the staff of other underground mines, such as workers in underground phosphate mines, can be exposed to 222 Rn and its progeny. In this study the individual radon progeny concentrations were measured in three Egyptian underground phosphate mines to estimate the occupational exposure of the workers at those sites. A filter method was used to measure individual radon progeny concentrations ( 218 Po, 214 Pb and 214 Po). The reported mean values of radon progeny concentrations exceed the action levels which are recommended by ICRP 65 (1993). Based on the measured individual radon progeny concentrations ( 218 Po, 214 Pb and 214 Po) in these mines, the annual effective dose for the workers has been calculated using the lung dose model of ICRP 66 (1994). According to the obtained results, some countermeasures were recommended in this study to minimise these exposure levels. (author)

  4. Environmental prospects of uranium from mineral phosphates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schnug, Ewald; Haneklaus, Nils


    Uranium (U) is a natural resource that is found in rock phosphates (P). Each year farmers apply unwittingly 167 t/yr U to their soils by P fertilisation. If extracted and used for electricity generation with state of the art nuclear power plants this amount of U could cover the energy demand of 2.4 x 10 6 average German households. Otherwise this finite resource is wasted. U from P fertilisers is an uncommon contribution of agriculture to climate protection. Using the key to calculate the CO 2 depending German car tax band, 1 kilogram P would be valued with 1.8 Euro. More than that the extraction of U from rock phosphates is an efficient measure to avoid U entering the food chain. In particular translocation processes in soils of fertiliser-applied U by run-off and leaching which result in the contamination of surface waters and finally drinking water can be impeded efficiently. (orig.)

  5. Infrared spectroscopy of different phosphates structures. (United States)

    Jastrzębski, W; Sitarz, M; Rokita, M; Bułat, K


    Infrared (IR) spectroscopic studies of mineral and synthetic phosphates have been presented. The interpretation of the spectra has been preceded by the isolated [PO(4)](3-) tetrahedron spectra analyse. The K(3)PO(4) saturated aqueous solution was measured in the special cell for liquids. The obtained IR results have been compared with the theoretical number of IR-active modes. The number and positions of the bands due to P-O vibrations have been established. The phase composition of the phosphates has been determined using XRD and IR spectroscopy methods. The influence of non-tetrahedral cations on the shape of the spectra and the positions of bands has been analysed and the crystalline field splitting effect has been discussed. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. TTPIXE analysis of phosphate rocks and phosphogypsum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, J.E.; Respaldiza, M.A.; Ontalba, M.A.; Garcia-Tenorio, R.; Bolivar, J.P.; Silva, M.F. da


    The TTPIXE technique was used for the determination of the concentrations of major, minor and trace elements in phosphate rock and phosphogypsum samples. All the samples came from a fertilizer industry site in Huelva (SW of Spain). The analyses were done using proton beams from the 3 MV Van de Graaff accelerator of the 'Instituto Tecnologico e Nuclear' (ITN), Sacavem (Portugal). The aim was to obtain data about the distribution of the different elements in the process of P 2 O 5 production in the factory. The information obtained allowed evaluation of the effectiveness of the chemical treatment employed, and gave a detailed information about the elemental composition of phosphogypsum, the main by-product of phosphate fertilizer production. These data can be useful to define the phosphogypsum management and to evaluate its environmental impact

  7. Aluminum phosphate ceramics for waste storage (United States)

    Wagh, Arun; Maloney, Martin D


    The present disclosure describes solid waste forms and methods of processing waste. In one particular implementation, the invention provides a method of processing waste that may be particularly suitable for processing hazardous waste. In this method, a waste component is combined with an aluminum oxide and an acidic phosphate component in a slurry. A molar ratio of aluminum to phosphorus in the slurry is greater than one. Water in the slurry may be evaporated while mixing the slurry at a temperature of about C. The mixed slurry may be allowed to cure into a solid waste form. This solid waste form includes an anhydrous aluminum phosphate with at least a residual portion of the waste component bound therein.

  8. Phosphate sorption characteristics of European alpine soils

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kaňa, Jiří; Kopáček, Jiří; Camarero, L.; Garcia-Pausas, J.


    Roč. 75, č. 3 (2011), s. 862-870 ISSN 0361-5995 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA526/09/0567; GA AV ČR(CZ) KJB600960907 Grant - others:EU EMERGE(CZ) EVK1-CT-1999-00032 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60170517 Keywords : phosphate sorption * alpine soil s * acidification Subject RIV: DJ - Water Pollution ; Quality Impact factor: 1.979, year: 2011

  9. Phosphate solubilizing bacteria around Indian peninsula

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    DeSouza, M.J.B.D.; Nair, S.; Chandramohan, D.

    nitrophenylphosphate by the culture. One mole of nitrophenol is equivalent to 1 atom of phosphorus. The absorbance was read at 418 nm using DU-6 Beckmann spectrophotometer. The activity was expressed as ?mol.Pml-1d-1. The cultures which showed good phosphate... suitable controls. Growth was measured at 600 nm using DU-6 Beckmann spectrophotometer and phosphatase activity was measured as described earlier. For testing the rate of survival of PSB on various carriers 2 g of finely powdered sediment, rice...

  10. Phosphate Barriers for Immobilization of Uranium Plumes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burns, Peter C.


    Uranium contamination of the subsurface has remained a persistent problem plaguing remedial design at sites across the U.S. that were involved with production, handling, storage, milling, and reprocessing of fissile uranium for both civilian and defense related purposes. Remediation efforts to date have relied upon excavation, pump-and-treat, or passive remediation barriers (PRB's) to remove or attenuate uranium mobility. Documented cases convincingly demonstrate that excavation and pump-and-treat methods are ineffective for a number of highly contaminated sites. There is growing concern that use of conventional PRB?s, such as zero-valent iron, are a temporary solution to a problem that will persist for thousands of years. Alternatives to the standard treatment methods are therefore warranted. The core objective of our research is to demonstrate that a phosphorus amendment strategy will result in a reduction of dissolved uranium to below the proposed drinking water standard. Our hypothesis is that long-chain polyphosphate compounds forestall precipitation of sparingly soluble uranyl phosphate compounds, which is key to preventing fouling of wells at the point of injection. Our other fundamental objective is to synthesize and correctly characterize the uranyl phosphate phases that form in the geochemical conditions under consideration. This report summarizes work conducted at the University of Notre Dame through November of 2003 under DOE grant DE-FG07-02ER63489, which has been funded since September, 2002. The objectives at Notre Dame are development of synthesis techniques for uranyl phosphate phases, together with detailed structural and chemical characterization of the myriad of uranyl phosphate phases that may form under geochemical conditions under consideration

  11. Electrosprayed calcium phosphate coatings for biomedical purposes.


    Leeuwenburgh, S.C.G.


    In this thesis, the suitability of the Electrostatic Spray Deposition (ESD) technique was studied for biomedical purposes, i.e., deposition of calcium phosphate (CaP) coatings onto titanium substrates. Using ESD, which is a simple and cheap deposition method for inorganic and organic coatings, it was possible to obtain thin CaP layers with an extremely wide range of chemical and morphological characteristics. Various CaP phases and phase mixtures were deposited and a broad diversity of coatin...

  12. Biodiesel production over copper vanadium phosphate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Lei; Yin, Ping; Liu, Xiguang; Yang, Lixia; Yu, Zhongxi; Guo, Xin; Xin, Xinquan


    In the present study, copper vanadium phosphate (CuVOP) with three-dimensional network structure was synthesized by hydrothermal method, and was characterized by Infrared spectrum (IR), elemental analysis (EA), EDXRF (energy dispersive X ray fluorescence) etc. Moreover, soybean oil was used as feedstock for producing biodiesel, and biodiesel was produced by CuVOP-catalyzed transesterification process. Response surface methodology was employed to statistically evaluate and optimize the conditions for the maximum conversion to biodiesel, and the effects of amount of catalyst, ratio of methanol to oil, reaction time and reaction temperature were investigated by the 2 4 full-factorial central composite design. The maximum conversion is obtained at amount of catalyst of 1.5%, methanol/oil molar ratio of 6.75, reaction temperature of 65 o C and reaction time of 5 h. Copper vanadium phosphate CuVOP resulted very active in the transesterification reaction for biodiesel production. -- Research highlights: → Copper vanadium phosphate CuVOP with three-dimensional network structure was prepared successfully. Moreover, for the transesterification reaction of soybean oil with methanol under atmospheric pressure, CuVOP had higher catalytic activity and the effects of production conditions such as amount of catalysts etc. were analyzed by response surface methodology.

  13. Trehalose 6-phosphate phosphatases of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. (United States)

    Cross, Megan; Biberacher, Sonja; Park, Suk-Youl; Rajan, Siji; Korhonen, Pasi; Gasser, Robin B; Kim, Jeong-Sun; Coster, Mark J; Hofmann, Andreas


    The opportunistic bacterium Pseudomonas aeruginosa has been recognized as an important pathogen of clinical relevance and is a leading cause of hospital-acquired infections. The presence of a glycolytic enzyme in Pseudomonas, which is known to be inhibited by trehalose 6-phosphate (T6P) in other organisms, suggests that these bacteria may be vulnerable to the detrimental effects of intracellular T6P accumulation. In the present study, we explored the structural and functional properties of trehalose 6-phosphate phosphatase (TPP) in P. aeruginosa in support of future target-based drug discovery. A survey of genomes revealed the existence of 2 TPP genes with either chromosomal or extrachromosomal location. Both TPPs were produced as recombinant proteins, and characterization of their enzymatic properties confirmed specific, magnesium-dependent catalytic hydrolysis of T6P. The 3-dimensional crystal structure of the chromosomal TPP revealed a protein dimer arising through β-sheet expansion of the individual monomers, which possess the overall fold of halo-acid dehydrogenases.-Cross, M., Biberacher, S., Park, S.-Y., Rajan, S., Korhonen, P., Gasser, R. B., Kim, J.-S., Coster, M. J., Hofmann, A. Trehalose 6-phosphate phosphatases of Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

  14. Phosphate phosphors for solid-state lighting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shinde, Kartik N. [N.S. Science and Arts College, Bhadrawati (India). Dept. of Physics; Swart, H.C. [University of the Orange Free State, Bloemfontein (South Africa). Dept. of Physics; Dhoble, S.J. [R.T.M. Nagpur Univ. (India). Dept. of Physics; Park, Kyeongsoon [Sejong Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of). Faculty of Nanotechnology and Advanced Materials Engineering


    Essential information for students in researchers working towards new and more efficient solid-state lighting. Comprehensive survey based on the authors' long experience. Useful both for teaching and reference. The idea for this book arose out of the realization that, although excellent surveys and a phosphor handbook are available, there is no single source covering the area of phosphate based phosphors especially for lamp industry. Moreover, as this field gets only limited attention in most general books on luminescence, there is a clear need for a book in which attention is specifically directed toward this rapidly growing field of solid state lighting and its many applications. This book is aimed at providing a sound introduction to the synthesis and optical characterization of phosphate phosphor for undergraduate and graduate students as well as teachers and researchers. The book provides guidance through the multidisciplinary field of solid state lighting specially phosphate phosphors for beginners, scientists and engineers from universities, research organizations, and especially industry. In order to make it useful for a wide audience, both fundamentals and applications are discussed, together.

  15. Radiochemical studies on amorphous zirconium phosphate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dyer, A; Moores, G E [Salford Univ. (UK). Dept. of Chemistry and Applied Chemistry


    Amorphous zirconium phosphate (ZrP) is used in some hemodialysis machines for the regeneration of dialysate. Its function is to adsorb ammonium ions formed by the pretreatment of urea by urease. It also adsorbs Ca, Mg and K ions but leaches phosphate ions which are then removed (along with F/sup -/ ions) by a bed of hydrous zirconium oxide. The sodium form of ZrP is used although other forms have been suggested for use. The work reported here describes some preliminary radiochemical studies on the mechanism of release of phosphate ions and its possible relationship to sodium ion-exchange. /sup 32/P labelled material (HHZrP) was used for elution experiments with deionized water and buffer solutions having the pH's 4.2, 7.0 and 9.2. Buffer solutions used were as supplied by BDH. Elution was at four different temperatures in the range 293 to 363/sup 0/C. In the second series of experiments HHZrP was suspended in a NaCl solution labelled with /sup 22/Na. From this, /sup 22/Na labelled ZrP (NaHZrP) was prepared and eluted in the same way as the HHZrP. Results are given and discussed.

  16. Calcium phosphate cement scaffolds with PLGA fibers. (United States)

    Vasconcellos, Letícia Araújo; dos Santos, Luís Alberto


    The use of calcium phosphate-based biomaterials has revolutionized current orthopedics and dentistry in repairing damaged parts of the skeletal system. Among those biomaterials, the cement made of hydraulic grip calcium phosphate has attracted great interest due to its biocompatibility and hardening "in situ". However, these cements have low mechanical strength compared with the bones of the human body. In the present work, we have studied the attainment of calcium phosphate cement powders and their addition to poly (co-glycolide) (PLGA) fibers to increase mechanical properties of those cements. We have used a new method that obtains fibers by dripping different reagents. PLGA fibers were frozen after lyophilized. With this new method, which was patented, it was possible to obtain fibers and reinforcing matrix which furthered the increase of mechanical properties, thus allowing the attainment of more resistant materials. The obtained materials were used in the construction of composites and scaffolds for tissue growth, keeping a higher mechanical integrity. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Phosphine from rocks: mechanically driven phosphate reduction? (United States)

    Glindemann, Dietmar; Edwards, Marc; Morgenstern, Peter


    Natural rock and mineral samples released trace amounts of phosphine during dissolution in mineral acid. An order of magnitude more phosphine (average 1982 ng PH3 kg rock and maximum 6673 ng PH3/kg rock) is released from pulverized rock samples (basalt, gneiss, granite, clay, quartzitic pebbles, or marble). Phosphine was correlated to hardness and mechanical pulverization energy of the rocks. The yield of PH3 ranged from 0 to 0.01% of the total P content of the dissolved rock. Strong circumstantial evidence was gathered for reduction of phosphate in the rock via mechanochemical or "tribochemical" weathering at quartz and calcite/marble inclusions. Artificial reproduction of this mechanism by rubbing quartz rods coated with apatite-phosphate to the point of visible triboluminescence, led to detection of more than 70 000 ng/kg PH3 in the apatite. This reaction pathway may be considered a mechano-chemical analogue of phosphate reduction from lightning or electrical discharges and may contribute to phosphine production via tectonic forces and processing of rocks.

  18. Fourier transform Raman spectroscopy of synthetic and biological calcium phosphates. (United States)

    Sauer, G R; Zunic, W B; Durig, J R; Wuthier, R E


    Fourier-transform (FT) Raman spectroscopy was used to characterize the organic and mineral components of biological and synthetic calcium phosphate minerals. Raman spectroscopy provides information on biological minerals that is complimentary to more widely used infrared methodologies as some infrared-inactive vibrational modes are Raman-active. The application of FT-Raman technology has, for the first time, enabled the problems of high sample fluorescence and low signal-to-noise that are inherent in calcified tissues to be overcome. Raman spectra of calcium phosphates are dominated by a very strong band near 960 cm-1 that arises from the symmetric stretching mode (v1) of the phosphate group. Other Raman-active phosphate vibrational bands are seen at approximately 1075 (v3), 590 (v4), and 435 cm-1 (v2). Minerals containing acidic phosphate groups show additional vibrational modes. The different calcium phosphate mineral phases can be distinguished from one another by the relative positions and shapes of these bands in the Raman spectra. FT-Raman spectra of nascent, nonmineralized matrix vesicles (MV) show a distinct absence of the phosphate v1 band even though these structures are rich in calcium and phosphate. Similar results were seen with milk casein and synthetic Ca-phosphatidyl-serine-PO4 complexes. Hence, the phosphate and/or acidic phosphate ions in these noncrystalline biological calcium phosphates is in a molecular environment that differs from that in synthetic amorphous calcium phosphate. In MV, the first distinct mineral phase to form contained acidic phosphate bands similar to those seen in octacalcium phosphate. The mineral phase present in fully mineralized MV was much more apatitic, resembling that found in bones and teeth.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  19. Phosphate Reduction in Emulsifi ed Meat Products: Impact of Phosphate Type and Dosage on Quality Characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seline Glorieux


    Full Text Available Phosphate reduction is of important industrial relevance in the manufacturing of emulsifi ed meat products because it may give rise to a healthier product. The eff ect of seven diff erent phosphate types was tested on the physicochemical and quality characteristics to select the most promising phosphate type for further cooked sausage manufacturing. Next, phosphate mass fraction was gradually reduced. Tetrasodium di- or pyrophosphate (TSPP and sodium tripolyphosphate (STPP increased pH, reduced structural properties, resulted in the highest emulsion stability, lowest cooking loss and had litt le eff ect on hardness. Based on the viscoelastic properties, a minimum mass fraction of 0.06 % TSPP was suffi cient to obtain an acceptable quality product. Rheology proved to be a very useful tool to evaluate the quality of meat products, as it gives insight in the structure of the meat product and especially the functional properties of meat proteins. Based on the obtained results, it can be concluded that the current amount of phosphate added to emulsifi ed meat products can be signifi cantly reduced with minimal loss of product quality.

  20. Phosphate Reduction in Emulsified Meat Products: Impact of Phosphate Type and Dosage on Quality Characteristics. (United States)

    Glorieux, Seline; Goemaere, Olivier; Steen, Liselot; Fraeye, Ilse


    Phosphate reduction is of important industrial relevance in the manufacturing of emulsified meat products because it may give rise to a healthier product. The effect of seven different phosphate types was tested on the physicochemical and quality characteristics to select the most promising phosphate type for further cooked sausage manufacturing. Next, phosphate mass fraction was gradually reduced. Tetrasodium di- or pyrophosphate (TSPP) and sodium tripolyphosphate (STPP) increased pH, reduced structural properties, resulted in the highest emulsion stability, lowest cooking loss and had little effect on hardness. Based on the viscoelastic properties, a minimum mass fraction of 0.06% TSPP was sufficient to obtain an acceptable quality product. Rheology proved to be a very useful tool to evaluate the quality of meat products, as it gives insight in the structure of the meat product and especially the functional properties of meat proteins. Based on the obtained results, it can be concluded that the current amount of phosphate added to emulsified meat products can be significantly reduced with minimal loss of product quality.

  1. The variable charge of andisols as affected by nanoparticles of rock phosphate and phosphate solubilizing bacteria (United States)

    Arifin, M.; Nurlaeny, N.; Devnita, R.; Fitriatin, B. N.; Sandrawati, A.; Supriatna, Y.


    Andisols has a great potential as agriculture land, however, it has a high phosphorus retention, variable charge characteristics and high value of zero net charge or pH0. The research is aimed to study the effects of nanoparticles of rock phosphate (NPRP) and biofertilizer (phosphate solubilizing bacteria/PSB) on soil pH, pHo (zero point of charge, ZPC) and organic-C in one subgroup of Andisols, namely Acrudoxic Durudands, Ciater Region West Java. The research was conducted from October 2016 to February 2017 in Soil Physics Laboratory and Laboratory of Soil Chemistry and Fertility, Soil Science Department, Faculty of Agriculture, Universitas Padjadjaran. This experiment used a completely randomized factorial design, consisting of two factors and three replications. The first factor was nanoparticles of rock phosphate consist of 4 doses 0; 25; 50 and 75 g/1 kg soil and the second factor was biofertilizer dose consist of g/1 kg soil and without biofertilizer. Total treatment combinations were 8 with 3 replications, so there were 24 experimental plots. The results showed that in general NPRR and biofertilizer will decrease the value of soil pH throughout the incubation periods. There is an interaction between nanoparticles of rock phosphate and biofertilizer in decreasing pHo in the first month of incubation, but after 4-month incubation period, NPRP increased. Interaction between 75 g nanoparticles of rock phosphate with 1 g biofertilizer/1 kg soil in fourth months of incubation decreased soil organic-C to 3.35%.

  2. Effects of education on low-phosphate diet and phosphate binder intake to control serum phosphate among maintenance hemodialysis patients: A randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eunsoo Lim


    Full Text Available Background : For phosphate control, patient education is essential due to the limited clearance of phosphate by dialysis. However, well-designed randomized controlled trials about dietary and phosphate binder education have been scarce. Methods : We enrolled maintenance hemodialysis patients and randomized them into an education group (n = 48 or a control group (n = 22. We assessed the patients' drug compliance and their knowledge about the phosphate binder using a questionnaire. Results : The primary goal was to increase the number of patients who reached a calcium-phosphorus product of lower than 55. In the education group, 36 (75.0% patients achieved the primary goal, as compared with 16 (72.7% in the control group (P = 0.430. The education increased the proportion of patients who properly took the phosphate binder (22.9% vs. 3.5%, P = 0.087, but not to statistical significance. Education did not affect the amount of dietary phosphate intake per body weight (education vs. control: -1.18 ± 3.54 vs. -0.88 ± 2.04 mg/kg, P = 0.851. However, the dietary phosphate-to-protein ratio tended to be lower in the education group (-0.64 ± 2.04 vs. 0.65 ± 3.55, P = 0.193. The education on phosphate restriction affected neither the Patient-Generated Subjective Global Assessment score (0.17 ± 4.58 vs. -0.86 ± 3.86, P = 0.363 nor the level of dietary protein intake (-0.03 ± 0.33 vs. -0.09 ± 0.18, P = 0.569. Conclusion : Education did not affect the calcium-phosphate product. Education on the proper timing of phosphate binder intake and the dietary phosphate-to-protein ratio showed marginal efficacy.

  3. Research and engineering assessment of biological solubilization of phosphate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rogers, R.D.; McIlwain, M.E.; Losinski, S.J.; Taylor, D.D.


    This research and engineering assessment examined a microbial phosphate solubilization process as a method of recovering phosphate from phosphorus containing ore compared to the existing wet acid and electric arc methods. A total of 860 microbial isolates, collected from a range of natural environments were tested for their ability to solubilize phosphate from rock phosphate. A bacterium (Pseudomonas cepacia) was selected for extensive characterization and evaluation of the mechanism of phosphate solubilization and of process engineering parameters necessary to recover phosphate from rock phosphate. These studies found that concentration of hydrogen ion and production of organic acids arising from oxidation of the carbon source facilitated microbial solubilization of both pure chemical insoluble phosphate compounds and phosphate rock. Genetic studies found that phosphate solubilization was linked to an enzyme system (glucose dehydrogenase). Process-related studies found that a critical solids density of 1% by weight (ore to liquid) was necessary for optimal solubilization. An engineering analysis evaluated the cost and energy requirements for a 2 million ton per year sized plant, whose size was selected to be comparable to existing wet acid plants.

  4. The Oxygen Isotopic Composition of Phosphate: A Tracer for Phosphate Sources and Cycling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mclaughlin, K. [Southern California Coastal Water Research Project, Costa Mesa, University of California, CA (United States); Young, M. B.; Paytan, A.; Kendall, C. [U.S. Geological Survey, University of California, CA (United States)


    Phosphorus (P) is a limiting macro-nutrient for primary productivity and anthropogenic P-loading to aquatic ecosystems is one of the leading causes of eutrophication in many ecosystems throughout the world. Because P has only one stable isotope, traditional isotope techniques are not possible for tracing sources and cycling of P in aquatic systems. However, much of the P in nature is bonded to four oxygen (O) atoms as orthophosphate (PO{sub 4}{sup 3-}). The P-O bonds in orthophosphate are strongly resistant to inorganic hydrolysis and do not exchange oxygen with water without biological mediation (enzyme-mediated recycling). Thus, the oxygen isotopic composition of dissolved inorganic phosphate ({delta}{sup 18}O{sub p}) may be used as a tracer for phosphate sources and cycling in aquatic ecosystems. Recently, several studies have been conducted utilizing {delta}{sup 18}O{sub p} as a tracer for phosphate sources and cycling in various aquatic environments. Specifically, work to date indicates that {delta}{sup 18}O{sub p} is useful for determining sources of phosphate to aquatic systems if these sources have unique isotopic signatures and phosphate cycling within the system is limited compared to input fluxes. In addition, because various processes imprint specific fractionation effects, the {delta}{sup 18}O{sub p} tracer can be utilized to determine the degree of phosphorous cycling and processing through the biomass. This chapter reviews several of these studies and discusses the potential to utilize the {delta}{sup 18}O{sub p} of phosphate in rivers and streams. (author)

  5. Dielectric aluminium phosphate thin films. Couches minces dielectriques de phosphate d'aluminium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daviero, S. (Lab. Physicochimie des Materiaux Solides, 34 - Montpellier (France)); Avinens, C. (Lab. Physicochimie des Materiaux Solides, 34 - Montpellier (France)); Ibanez, A. (Lab. Physicochimie des Materiaux Solides, 34 - Montpellier (France)); Giuntini, J.C. (Lab. Physicochimie des Materiaux Solides, 34 -Montpellier (France)); Philippot, E. (Lab. Physicochimie des Materiaux Solides, 34 - Montpellier (France))


    Aluminium phosphate thin films on silicium substrate have been carried out from tributylphosphate and aluminium acetylacetonate precursors in solution through the ''pyrosol'' process. It can be observed a large range of chemical analysis in terms of experimental conditions. These thin films have been characterized by X-ray diffraction and infrared spectrometry. Their electrical characteristics, defined from direct current and alternative current measurements, are quite different to those of the crystallized phosphate and can be explained by P-O and Al-O ''dangling bond'' existence. (orig.).

  6. Reduction of nucleotides by ionizing radiation: uridine 5' phosphate, and cytidine 3' phosphate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Box, H.C.; Potter, W.R.; Budzinski, E.E.


    Anions formed by the addition of an electron to the uracil base were observed in single crystals of the barium salt of uridine 5' phosphate x irradiated at 4.2 0 K. The hyperfine coupling tensor for the C 6 -H proton was deduced from ENDOR measurements; the principal values are -59.12, -32.92 and -16.24 MHz. Similar measurements were made on single crystals of cytidine 3' phosphate. The principal values for the C 6 -H proton hyperfine coupling in the anion formed on the cytosine base are -59.26, -33.98 and -14.68 MHz. (U.S.)

  7. The reduction of nucleotides by ionizing radiation: uridine 5' phosphate and cytidine 3' phosphate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Box, H.C.; Potter, W.R.; Budzinski, E.E.


    Anions formed by the addition of an electron to the uracil base were observed in single crystals of the barium salt of uridine 5' phosphate x-irradiated at 4.2 degreeK. The hyperfine coupling tensor for the C 6 --H proton was deduced from ENDOR measurements; the principal values are -59.12, -32.92, and -16.24 MHz. Similar measurements were made on single crystals of cytidine 3' phosphate. The principal values for the C 6 --H proton hyperfine coupling in the anion formed on the cytosine base are -59.26, -33.98, and -14.68 MHz

  8. Primary magmas and mantle sources of Emeishan basalts constrained from major element, trace element and Pb isotope compositions of olivine-hosted melt inclusions (United States)

    Ren, Zhong-Yuan; Wu, Ya-Dong; Zhang, Le; Nichols, Alexander R. L.; Hong, Lu-Bing; Zhang, Yin-Hui; Zhang, Yan; Liu, Jian-Qiang; Xu, Yi-Gang


    Olivine-hosted melt inclusions within lava retain important information regarding the lava's primary magma compositions and mantle sources. Thus, they can be used to infer the nature of the mantle sources of large igneous provinces, which is still not well known and of the subject of debate. We have analysed the chemical compositions and Pb isotopic ratios of olivine-hosted melt inclusions in the Dali picrites, Emeishan Large Igneous Province (LIP), SW China. These are the first in-situ Pb isotope data measured for melt inclusions found in the Emeishan picrites and allow new constraints to be placed on the source lithology of the Emeishan LIP. The melt inclusions show chemical compositional variations, spanning low-, intermediate- and high-Ti compositions, while their host whole rocks are restricted to the intermediate-Ti compositions. Together with the relatively constant Pb isotope ratios of the melt inclusions, the compositional variations suggest that the low-, intermediate- and high-Ti melts were derived from compositionally similar sources. The geochemical characteristics of melt inclusions, their host olivines, and whole-rocks from the Emeishan LIP indicate that Ca, Al, Mn, Yb, and Lu behave compatibly, and Ti, Rb, Sr, Zr, and Nb behave incompatibly during partial melting, requiring a pyroxenite source for the Emeishin LIP. The wide range of Ti contents in the melt inclusions and whole-rocks of the Emeishan basalts reflects different degrees of partial melting in the pyroxenite source at different depths in the melting column. The Pb isotope compositions of the melt inclusions and the OIB-like trace element compositions of the Emeishan basalts imply that mixing of a recycled ancient oceanic crust (EM1-like) component with a peridotite component from the lower mantle (FOZO-like component) could have underwent solid-state reaction, producing a secondary pyroxenite source that was subsequently partially melted to form the basalts. This new model of pyroxenite

  9. Adsorptive removal of arsenic by novel iron/olivine composite: Insights into preparation and adsorption process by response surface methodology and artificial neural network. (United States)

    Ghosal, Partha S; Kattil, Krishna V; Yadav, Manoj K; Gupta, Ashok K


    Olivine, a low-cost natural material, impregnated with iron is introduced in the adsorptive removal of arsenic. A wet impregnation method and subsequent calcination were employed for the preparation of iron/olivine composite. The major preparation process parameter, viz., iron loading and calcination temperature were optimized through the response surface methodology coupled with a factorial design. A significant variation of adsorption capacity of arsenic (measured as total arsenic), i.e., 63.15 to 310.85 mg/kg for arsenite [As(III) T ] and 76.46 to 329.72 mg/kg for arsenate [As(V) T ] was observed, which exhibited the significant effect of the preparation process parameters on the adsorption potential. The iron loading delineated the optima at central points, whereas a monotonous decreasing trend of adsorption capacity for both the As(III) T and As(V) T was observed with the increasing calcination temperature. The variation of adsorption capacity with the increased iron loading is more at lower calcination temperature showing the interactive effect between the factors. The adsorbent prepared at the optimized condition of iron loading and calcination temperature, i.e., 10% and 200 °C, effectively removed the As(III) T and As(V) T by more than 96 and 99%, respectively. The material characterization of the adsorbent showed the formation of the iron compound in the olivine and increase in specific surface area to the tune of 10 multifold compared to the base material, which is conducive to the enhancement of the adsorption capacity. An artificial neural network was applied for the multivariate optimization of the adsorption process from the experimental data of the univariate optimization study and the optimized model showed low values of error functions and high R 2 values of more than 0.99 for As(III) T and As(V) T . The adsorption isotherm and kinetics followed Langmuir model and pseudo second order model, respectively demonstrating the chemisorption in this

  10. 31P-Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Determination of Phosphate Compartmentation in Leaves of Reproductive Soybeans (Glycine max L.) as Affected by Phosphate Nutrition 1 (United States)

    Lauer, Michael J.; Blevins, Dale G.; Sierzputowska-Gracz, Hanna


    Most leaf phosphorus is remobilized to the seed during reproductive development in soybean. We determined, using 31P-NMR, the effect phosphorus remobilization has on vacuolar inorganic phosphate pool size in soybean (Glycine max [L.] Merr.) leaves with respect to phosphorus nutrition and plant development. Phosphate compartmentation between cytoplasmic and vacuolar pools was observed and followed in intact tissue grown hydroponically, at the R2, R4, and R6 growth stages. As phosphorus in the nutrient solution decreased from 0.45 to 0.05 millimolar, the vacuolar phosphate peak became less prominent relative to cytoplasmic phosphate and hexose monophosphate peaks. At a nutrient phosphate concentration of 0.05 millimolar, the vacuolar phosphate peak was not detectable. At higher levels of nutrient phosphate, as plants progressed from the R2 to the R6 growth stage, the vacuolar phosphate peak was the first to disappear, suggesting that storage phosphate was remobilized to a greater extent than metabolic phosphate. Under suboptimal phosphate nutrition (≤ 0.20 millimolar), the hexose monophosphate and cytoplasmic phosphate peaks declined earlier in reproductive development than when phosphate was present in optimal amounts. Under low phosphate concentrations (0.05 millimolar) cytoplasmic phosphate was greatly reduced. Carbon metabolism was coincidently disrupted under low phosphate nutrition as shown by the appearance of large, prominent starch grains in the leaves. Cytoplasmic phosphate, and leaf carbon metabolism dependent on it, are buffered by vacuolar phosphate until late stages of reproductive growth. Images Figure 4 PMID:16666705

  11. Occupational radiation risks in conveyance of bulk phosphate and potash

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grof, Y.; Even, O.; Schlesinger, T.; Margaliot, M.


    The issue of occupational ionizing radiation risks encountered in the conveyance and storage of Phosphates and Potash as loose cargo got very minor attention from the national health and occupational safety authorities in the world. In Israel, the Phosphates include an average 100- 150 ppm of Uranium in equilibrium with its daughters, while in Phosphates produced in most other countries the inaction reaches regularly only few ppm up to 50 ppm. Because of the high content of the Uranium in the Phosphate in Israel we must take into consideration the radiological implications involved in the handling of this mineral. The radiological implications of handling Potash are less significant but can not be neglected as we demonstrate bellow In this presentation we will estimate the occupational radiological risks involved in the storing and transportation of Phosphate and Potash. Note, that the main risk in working with Phosphate and Potash is the risk from the dust itself (authors)

  12. Phosphate removal from digested sludge supernatant using modified fly ash. (United States)

    Xu, Ke; Deng, Tong; Liu, Juntan; Peng, Weigong


    The removal of phosphate in digested sludge supernatant by modified coal fly ash was investigated in this study. Modification of the fly ash by the addition of sulfuric acid could significantly enhance its immobilization ability. The experimental results also showed that adsorption of phosphate by the modified fly ash was rapid with the removal percentage of phosphate reaching an equilibrium of 98.62% in less than 5 minutes. The optimum pH for phosphate removal was 9 and the removal percentage increased with increasing adsorbent dosage. The effect of temperature on phosphate removal efficiency was not significant from 20 to 40 degrees C. X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscope analyses showed that phosphate formed an amorphous precipitate with water-soluble calcium, aluminum, and iron ions in the modified fly ash.

  13. Occupational radiation risks in conveyance of bulk phosphate and potash

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grof, Y; Even, O; Schlesinger, T; Margaliot, M [Israel Atomic Energy Commission, Yavne (Israel). Soreq Nuclear Research Center


    The issue of occupational ionizing radiation risks encountered in the conveyance and storage of Phosphates and Potash as loose cargo got very minor attention from the national health and occupational safety authorities in the world. In Israel, the Phosphates include an average 100- 150 ppm of Uranium in equilibrium with its daughters, while in Phosphates produced in most other countries the inaction reaches regularly only few ppm up to 50 ppm. Because of the high content of the Uranium in the Phosphate in Israel we must take into consideration the radiological implications involved in the handling of this mineral. The radiological implications of handling Potash are less significant but can not be neglected as we demonstrate bellow In this presentation we will estimate the occupational radiological risks involved in the storing and transportation of Phosphate and Potash. Note, that the main risk in working with Phosphate and Potash is the risk from the dust itself (authors).

  14. Reducing the cadmium content of crude phosphates and mineral fertilizers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Plessen, H von; Schimmel, G


    Crude sedimentary phosphates generally contain cadmium together with traces of other heavy metals. These Cd traces generally end up in fertilizers produced from the crude phosphates. Processes have therefore been developed to separate the Cd from the crude phosphate or from the crude phosphoric acids arising therefrom as intermediates. In this way, the Cd content of the crude phosphate can be reduced to less the 10% of its original value, and to 50% thereof by extractive treatment with acidic calcium nitrate solution. Older calcination processes for crude phosphate have been improved to give residual Cd contents of 10 to 50% at temperatures of 800 to 1000/sup 0/C. Cadmium can be removed almost quantitatively from crude phosphate by means of dialkyl dithiophosphoric acid esters by extraction, binding to adsorbents, or ion flotation. Cadmium can be extracted from crude acids in high yield by long-chained amines. After partial neutralization of the crude acids, precipitation as cadmium sulphide is also possible.

  15. Preparation of Porous Calcium Phosphate Bioceramic

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    Porous calcium phosphate ceramics were prepared by slip casting and molding method respectively. By these two different methods, different microstructures can be got. By slip casting method, the pore size was 100- 350μm and 20- 80μm; pores were opened, interconnected and ball-like; the grain size was 2- 4 μm.By molding method, the pore size was 100-500 μm and 1-10μm; the grain size was 2-8μm. By slip casting method regular and interconnected pores can be got. By molding method the porosity and strength can be adjusted easily.

  16. Neonatal jaundice and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase


    Leite, Amauri Antiquera [UNESP


    A deficiência de glicose-6-fosfato desidrogenase em neonatos pode ser a responsável pela icterícia neonatal. Este comentário científico é decorrente do relato sobre o tema publicado neste fascículo e que preocupa diversos autores de outros países em relação às complicações em neonatos de hiperbilirrubinemia, existindo inclusive proposições de alguns autores em incluir o teste para identificar a deficiência de glicose-6-fosfato desidrogenase nos recém-nascidos.Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase...

  17. Preparation and characterization of bioceramics produced from calcium phosphate cements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andriotis, O.; Katsamenis, O.L. [Department of Materials Science, University of Patras, 26504, Patras (Greece); Mouzakis, D.E. [Technological Educational Institute of Larisa, Department of Mechanical Engineering, T.E.I of Larissa, 411 10, Larissa (Greece); Bouropoulos, N. [Foundation for Research and Technology, Hellas, Institute of Chemical Engineering and High Temperature Chemical Processes, FORTH/ICE-HT, P.O. Box 1414, 26504 Rio Patras (Greece)


    The present work reports a method for preparing calcium phosphate ceramics by calcination of calcium phosphate cements composed mainly of calcium deficient hydroxyapatite (CDHA). It was found that hardened cements calcinied at temperatures from to 600 to 1300 C were transformed to tricalcium phosphates. Moreover the compressive strength was determined and porosity was estimated as a function of the calcination temperature. (copyright 2010 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  18. Preparation and Characterization of Porous Calcium Phosphate Bioceramics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Honglian Dai; Xinyu Wang; Yinchao Han; Xin Jiang; Shipu Li


    β-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) powder and Na2O-CaO-MgO-P2O5 glass binder were synthesized and mixed, and then the biodegradable porous calcium phosphate ceramics were successfully prepared by foaming and sintering at 850℃. The as-prepared ceramics possess a high porosity with partial three-dimension interconnected macro- and micro-pores. As in vitro experiment testified, the calcium phosphate ceramics (CPCs) has good degradability.

  19. Immobilization of transition metal ions on zirconium phosphate monolayers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melezhik, A.V.; Brej, V.V.


    It is shown that ions of transition metals (copper, iron, vanadyl, titanium) are adsorbed on zirconium phosphate monolayers. The zirconium phosphate threshold capacity corresponds to substitution of all protons of hydroxyphosphate groups by equivalent amounts of copper, iron or vanadyl. Adsorption of polynuclear ions is possible in case of titanium. The layered substance with specific surface up to 300 m 2 /g, wherein ultradispersed titanium dioxide particles are intercalirated between zirconium-phosphate layers, is synthesized

  20. Apollo 15 yellow-brown volcanic glass: Chemistry and petrogenetic relations to green volcanic glass and olivine-normative mare basalts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hughes, S.S.; Schmitt, R.A.; (Oregon State Univ., Corvallis (USA)); Delano, J.W. (State Univ. of New York, Albany (USA))


    Apollo 15 yellow-brown glass is one of twenty-five, high Mg, primary magmas emplaced on the lunar surface in pyroclastic eruptions. Forty spherules of this glass were individually analyzed by electron microprobe and INAA for major- and trace-elements. The abundances demonstrate that this primary magma was produced by partial melting of differentiated cumulates in the lunar mantle. Models are developed to explain the possible source-regions of several Apollo 15 and Apollo 12 low-Ti mare magmas as being products of hybridization involving three ancient differentiated components of a primordial lunar magma ocean: (a) early olivine {plus minus} orthopyroxene cumulates; (b) late-stage clinopyroxene + pigeonite + ilmenite + plagioclase cumulates; and (c) late-stage inter-cumulus liquid.

  1. Characterization of the denitrifying fraction of phosphate accumulating organisms in biological phosphate removal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meinhold, Jens; Filipe, Carlos D.M.; Daigger, Glen T.


    fractions of PAO are performed and compared. This study extends on previously reported results (Kerrn-Jespersen and Henze, 1993) in that the pH was controlled to around pH 7 to assure that phosphate precipitation was minimal, and in the measurement of PHB and PHV. With regards to the latter, the paper also...

  2. Determination of radioactivity in Chinese phosphate rock and fertilizer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Jingjian; Zhu Yongyi; Yang Juncheng


    The presented paper reported the radioactivity of U-238, Ra-226, Th-232 and K-40 in Chinese phosphate rocks by gamma spectrographic analysis during 1985-1990. The results showed that the decay chain of U-238-Ra-226 was the main source of radionuclides in phosphate rocks. The radionuclides in phosphate fertilizer differed from the forms of phosphate fertilizer. U-238 was the most important radionuclide in phosphoric compound fertilizer. The transfer rate of radionuclides was also estimated. (2 figs., 1 tab.)

  3. Aqueous phosphate removal using nanoscale zero-valent iron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Almeelbi, Talal; Bezbaruah, Achintya


    Nanoscale zero-valent iron (NZVI) particles have been used for the remediation of a wide variety of contaminants. NZVI particles have high reactivity because of high reactive surface area. In this study, NZVI slurry was successfully used for phosphate removal and recovery. Batch studies conducted using different concentrations of phosphate (1, 5, and 10 mg PO 4 3− -P/L with 400 mg NZVI/L) removed ∼96 to 100 % phosphate in 30 min. Efficacy of the NZVI in phosphate removal was found to 13.9 times higher than micro-ZVI (MZVI) particles with same NZVI and MZVI surface area concentrations used in batch reactors. Ionic strength, sulfate, nitrate, and humic substances present in the water affected in phosphate removal by NZVI but they may not have any practical significance in phosphate removal in the field. Phosphate recovery batch study indicated that better recovery is achieved at higher pH and it decreased with lowering of the pH of the aqueous solution. Maximum phosphate recovery of ∼78 % was achieved in 30 min at pH 12. The successful rapid removal of phosphate by NZVI from aqueous solution is expected to have great ramification for cleaning up nutrient rich waters.

  4. New lithium ion batteries exploiting conversion/alloying anode and LiFe0.25Mn0.5Co0.25PO4 olivine cathode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lecce, Daniele Di; Verrelli, Roberta; Hassoun, Jusef


    Highlights: • New Li-ion batteries are reported. • LiFe 0.25 Mn 0.5 Co 0.25 PO 4 olivine is used as the cathode. • Either Sn-C or Sn-Fe 2 O 3 -C composites are used as anodes. • The electrode/electrolyte interfaces are monitored by EIS. • The systems are considered suitable for energy storage - Abstract: New Li-ion cells are formed by combining a LiFe 0.25 Mn 0.5 Co 0.25 PO 4 olivine cathode either with Sn-Fe 2 O 3 -C or with Sn-C composite anodes. These active materials exhibit electrochemical properties very attractive in view of practical use, including the higher working voltage of the LiFe 0.25 Mn 0.5 Co 0.25 PO 4 cathode with respect to conventional LiFePO 4 , as well as the remarkable capacity and rate capability of Sn-Fe 2 O 3 -C and Sn-C anodes. The stable electrode/electrolyte interfaces, demonstrated by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, along with proper mass balancing and anode pre-lithiation, allow stable galvanostatic cycling of the full cells. The two batteries, namely Sn-Fe 2 O 3 -C/LiFe 0.25 Mn 0.5 Co 0.25 PO 4 and Sn-C/LiFe 0.25 Mn 0.5 Co 0.25 PO 4 , reversibly operate revealing promising electrochemical features in terms of delivered capacity, working voltage and stability, thus suggesting these electrodes combinations as suitable alternatives for an efficient energy storage.

  5. Phosphate analysis of natural sausage casings preserved in brines with phosphate additives as inactivating agent - Method validation. (United States)

    Wijnker, J J; Tjeerdsma-van Bokhoven, J L M; Veldhuizen, E J A


    Certain phosphates have been identified as suitable additives for the improvement of the microbial and mechanical properties of processed natural sausage casings. When mixed with NaCl (sodium chloride) and used under specific treatment and storage conditions, these phosphates are found to prevent the spread of foot-and-mouth disease and classical swine fever via treated casings. The commercially available Quantichrom™ phosphate assay kit has been evaluated as to whether it can serve as a reliable and low-tech method for routine analysis of casings treated with phosphate. The outcome of this study indicates that this particular assay kit has sufficient sensitivity to qualitatively determine the presence of phosphate in treated casings without interference of naturally occurring phosphate in salt used for brines in which casings are preserved.

  6. Water diffusion in phosphate-containing hydrogels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    George, K.A.; Wentrup-Byrne, E.; Hill, D.J.T.; Whittaker, A.K.


    An understanding of the kinetics and diffusion of liquids through polymeric hydrogels is critical for the successful design and application of these materials in biomedical field, particularly as controlled drug delivery systems. In this study, the mechanisms of water transport and parameters that describe the diffusion process in crosslinked poly(2-hydroxyethylmethacrylate-co-methyloxyethylene phosphate), poly(HEMA-co-MOEP) polymers were investigated. The copolymerisation of HEMA with MOEP was initiated by γ radiolysis with full conversion of monomer to polymer. The sorption of water into the polymers with 0 - 30 mol% MOEP was monitored gravimetrically over a period of 2 - 3 weeks. This study provided an insight into the diffusion mechanism and showed that the PHEMA hydrogel displayed concentration-independent Fickian diffusion. As the concentration of MOEP in the network increased, the diffusion rate and the rigidity of the network also increased in a linear fashion. NMR imaging was used in conjunction with the gravimetric study to elucidate the transport mechanisms, diffusion coefficients and proportionality constants governing the water diffusion in the phosphate-containing polymers. The hydrogels with 3 - 20 mol% MOEP exhibited exponential concentration-dependent Fickian diffusion and the transport mechanism in the system with 30 mol% MOEP was shown to be anomalous. The systems with greater concentrations of MOEP displayed a high degree of fracturing during water sorption and resulted in the ultimate destruction of the cylindrical geometry

  7. Computational Design of Biomimetic Phosphate Scavengers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gruber, Mathias Felix; Wood, Elizabeth Baker; Truelsen, Sigurd Friis


    Phosphorus has long been the target of much research, but in recent years the focus has shifted from being limited only to reducing its detrimental environmental impact, to also looking at how it is linked to the global food security. Therefore, the interest in finding novel techniques for phosph......Phosphorus has long been the target of much research, but in recent years the focus has shifted from being limited only to reducing its detrimental environmental impact, to also looking at how it is linked to the global food security. Therefore, the interest in finding novel techniques...... for phosphorus recovery, as well as improving existing techniques, has increased. In this study we apply a hybrid simulation approach of molecular dynamics and quantum mechanics to investigate the binding modes of phosphate anions by a small intrinsically disordered peptide. Our results confirm...... phosphate could be the starting point of new novel technological approaches toward phosphorus recovery, and they represent an excellent model system for investigating the nature and dynamics of functional de novo designed intrinsically disordered proteins....

  8. Environmental prospects of uranium from mineral phosphates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schnug, Ewald [Technische Univ. Braunschweig (Germany). Faculty 2 - Life Sciences; Haneklaus, Nils [Stuttgart Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Kernenergetik und Energiesysteme


    Uranium (U) is a natural resource that is found in rock phosphates (P). Each year farmers apply unwittingly 167 t/yr U to their soils by P fertilisation. If extracted and used for electricity generation with state of the art nuclear power plants this amount of U could cover the energy demand of 2.4 x 10{sup 6} average German households. Otherwise this finite resource is wasted. U from P fertilisers is an uncommon contribution of agriculture to climate protection. Using the key to calculate the CO{sub 2} depending German car tax band, 1 kilogram P would be valued with 1.8 Euro. More than that the extraction of U from rock phosphates is an efficient measure to avoid U entering the food chain. In particular translocation processes in soils of fertiliser-applied U by run-off and leaching which result in the contamination of surface waters and finally drinking water can be impeded efficiently. (orig.)

  9. The effect of different phosphate ion concentrations and ph of the phosphate buffer on lipase bioproduction by rhizopus oligosporus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haq, I.; Ali, S.; Awan, U.F.; Javed, W.; Mirza, S.


    In the present investigation, we report the effect of phosphate ion concentration and different ph of the phosphate buffer (as diluent) on lipase bioproduction by Rhizopus oligosporus. For this purpose, solid state fermentation was employed. Different agricultural by-products such as wheat bran, rice husk, almond meal, soybean meal and sunflower meal were used as substrate. The maximum lipase activity (72.60 U/g) was observed with the almond meal. Addition of phosphate ions (K/sub 2/HPO/sub 4/) influenced the lipase production. The ph of the phosphate buffer (7.0) was found to be effective for higher yield of lipase. (author)

  10. Effect of submarine groundwater discharge containing phosphate on coral calcification (United States)

    Yasumoto, J.; Yasumoto, K.; Iijima, M.; Nozaki, M.; Asai, K.; Yasumoto, M. H.


    It is well known that the anthropogenic eutrophication enriched with various substances including phosphate in coastal waters has resulted in coral degradation. However, to the best of our knowledge, the phosphate threshold value to inhibit the coral calcification has been unclear, due to the unknown mechanisms involved in the inhibition of the calcification by phosphate. In island regions, groundwater is one of the most important clues to transport the nutrients contained in livestock or agricultural wastewaters. However, the actual conditions of coastal pollution with such nutrients have not been understood because of unperceived submarine groundwater discharge (SGD). In this study, to quantify of extremely rapid and localized SGD from Ryukyu limestone aquifer, we investigated the rate and concentration of phosphate of SGD using automated seepage mater in Yoron Island, which is located southern part of Japan. And, to elucidate the inhibition mechanisms for phosphate against coral calcification, we examined its effect on the bottom skeleton formation in primary polyps of Acropora digitifera by using the fluorescence derivatizing reagent having phosphate group (FITC-AA). As a result, the SGD was found to contain 1 to 2 µM of phosphate as much as the concentration in the coastal ground water under agricultural land. Moreover, the amount of phosphate contained in the surface layers of bottom calcareous sands close to the region of SGD were about 5 µmol/g. When the primary polyps were treated with 50 µM of FITC-AA, the bottom skeleton of the primary polyps showed the fluorescence from FITC-AA within a few minutes, suggesting the phosphate binding. Furthermore, when the polyps were treated with 10 µM of FITC-AA, irregular patterns of the elongated skeleton were observed. These results led us to conclude that phosphate is transported via a paracellular pathway to the subcalicoblastic extracellular calcifying medium. These results indicate that the phosphate adsorbed

  11. Investigating the stability of cathode materials for rechargeable lithium ion batteries (United States)

    Huang, Yiqing

    Lithium ion batteries are widely used in portable electronic devices and electric vehicles. However, safety is one of the most important issues for the Li-ion batteries' use. Some cathode materials, such as LiCoO 2, are thermally unstable in the charged state. Upon decomposition these cathode materials release O2, which could react with organic electrolyte, leading to a thermal runaway. Thus understanding the stability of the cathode materials is critical to the safety of lithium ion batteries. Olivine-type LiMnPO4 is a promising cathode material for lithium ion batteries because of its high energy density. We have revealed the critical role of carbon in the stability and thermal behaviour of olivine MnPO 4 obtained by chemical delithiation of LiMnPO4. (Li)MnPO 4 samples with various particle sizes and carbon contents were studied. Carbon-free LiMnPO4 obtained by solid state synthesis in O 2 becomes amorphous upon delithiation. Small amounts of carbon (0.3 wt.%) help to stabilize the olivine structure, so that completely delithiated crystalline olivine MnPO4 can be obtained. Larger amount of carbon (2 wt.%) prevents full delithiation. Heating in air, O2, or N 2 results in structural disorder (cathode materials and the electrolyte. The thermal stability of electrochemically delithiated Li0.1N 0.8C0.15Al0.05O2 (NCA), FePO4 (FP), Mn0.8Fe0.2PO4 (MFP), hydrothermally synthesized VOPO4, LiVOPO4 and electrochemically lithiated Li2VOPO4 is investigated by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and thermogravimetric analysis, coupled with mass spectrometry (TGA-MS). The thermal stability is found in the order: NCA< VOPO4< MFP< FP=LiVOPO4=Li2VOPO4. Sealed capsule high pressure experiments show a phase transformation of VOPO4 → HVOPO4 → H2VOPO4 when VOPO4 reacts with electrolyte (1 M LiPF6 in EC: DMC=1:1) between 200 and 300 °C. Finally, we characterize the lithium storage and release mechanism of V2O5 aerogels by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). We study the

  12. Standard characterization of phosphate rock samples from the FAO/IAEA phosphate project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Binh, Truong; Zapata, F.


    Phosphate rocks (PR) are phosphate-bearing minerals that vary widely in their inherent characteristics and consequently their agronomic potential. In the framework of a FAO/IAEA networked research project, the evaluation of the agronomic effectiveness of natural and modified PR products under a variety of soil climate and crop management conditions was carried out. The characterization of phosphate rocks is the first and essential step in evaluating their suitability for direct application. If several PR sources are utilized, standardized methods should be used for comparison purposes to determine their agronomic potential. This paper describes the standard characterization of phosphate rock products utilized in the project, in particular the mineralogical and crystallographic analyses, physical analyses, chemical composition and solubility in conventional reagents. A total of 28 phosphate rock samples from 15 countries were collected and analyzed in specialized laboratories. The data on mineralogy, chemical composition and solubility in conventional reagents are closely interrelated. An arbitrary classification of the reactivity of the PR samples was made based on the solubility indices in conventional reagents. On another hand, the results of the crystallographic parameters, calculated indices of absolute solubility, specific surface and porosity reflect the variability of the physical state and the sample pre-conditioning treatment of the analyzed products. A proper characterization of phosphate rock samples should provide the maximum of basic information that can be obtained in a cost-effective manner in normal chemical laboratories. Based on the results of this characterization, the following determinations are recommended: a description of the sample, major elemental (total P, Ca, Mg) composition, solubility in conventional reagents (neutral ammonium citrate, citric and formic acid) and particle size analysis. The classification of PR samples for direct

  13. Hybrid calcium phosphate coatings for implants (United States)

    Malchikhina, Alena I.; Shesterikov, Evgeny V.; Bolbasov, Evgeny N.; Ignatov, Viktor P.; Tverdokhlebov, Sergei I.


    Monophasic biomaterials cannot provide all the necessary functions of bones or other calcined tissues. It is necessary to create for cancer patients the multiphase materials with the structure and composition simulating the natural bone. Such materials are classified as hybrid, obtained by a combination of chemically different components. The paper presents the physical, chemical and biological studies of coatings produced by hybrid technologies (HT), which combine primer layer and calcium phosphate (CaP) coating. The first HT type combines the method of vacuum arc titanium primer layer deposition on a stainless steel substrate with the following micro-arc oxidation (MAO) in phosphoric acid solution with addition of calcium compounds to achieve high supersaturated state. MAO CaP coatings feature high porosity (2-8%, pore size 5-7 µm) and surface morphology with the thickness greater than 5 µm. The thickness of Ti primer layer is 5-40 µm. Amorphous MAO CaP coating micro-hardness was measured at maximum normal load Fmax = 300 mN. It was 3.1 ± 0.8 GPa, surface layer elasticity modulus E = 110 ± 20 GPa, roughness Ra = 0.9 ± 0.1 µm, Rz = 7.5 ± 0.2 µm, which is less than the titanium primer layer roughness. Hybrid MAO CaP coating is biocompatible, able to form calcium phosphates from supersaturated body fluid (SBF) solution and also stimulates osteoinduction processes. The second HT type includes the oxide layer formation by thermal oxidation and then CaP target radio frequency magnetron sputtering (RFMS). Oxide-RFMS CaP coating is a thin dense coating with good adhesion to the substrate material, which can be used for metal implants. The RFMS CaP coating has thickness 1.6 ± 0.1 µm and consists of main target elements calcium and phosphorus and Ca/P ratio 2.4. The second HT type can form calcium phosphates from SBF solution. In vivo study shows that hybrid RFMS CaP coating is biocompatible and produces fibrointegration processes.

  14. Mercury stabilization in chemically bonded phosphate ceramics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wagh, A. S.; Singh, D.; Jeong, S. Y.


    Mercury stabilization and solidification is a significant challenge for conventional stabilization technologies. This is because of the stringent regulatory limits on leaching of its stabilized products. In a conventional cement stabilization process, Hg is converted at high pH to its hydroxide, which is not a very insoluble compound; hence the preferred route for Hg sulfidation to convert it into insoluble cinnabar (HgS). Unfortunately, efficient formation of this compound is pH-dependent. At a high pH, one obtains a more soluble Hg sulfate, in a very low pH range, insufficient immobilization occurs because of the escape of hydrogen sulfide, while efficient formation of HgS occurs only in a moderately acidic region. Thus, the pH range of 4 to 8 is where stabilization with Chemically Bonded Phosphate Ceramics (CBPC) is carried out. This paper discusses the authors experience on bench-scale stabilization of various US Department of Energy (DOE) waste streams containing Hg in the CBPC process. This process was developed to treat DOE's mixed waste streams. It is a room-temperature-setting process based on an acid-base reaction between magnesium oxide and monopotassium phosphate solution that forms a dense ceramic within hours. For Hg stabilization, addition of a small amount ( 2 S or K 2 S is sufficient in the binder composition. Here the Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP) results on CBPC waste forms of surrogate waste streams representing secondary Hg containing wastes such as combustion residues and Delphi DETOXtrademark residues are presented. The results show that although the current limit on leaching of Hg is 0.2 mg/L, the results from the CBPC waste forms are at least one order lower than this stringent limit. Encouraged by these results on surrogate wastes, they treated actual low-level Hg-containing mixed waste from their facility at Idaho. TCLP results on this waste are presented here. The efficient stabilization in all these cases is

  15. Phosphate retention by soil in relation to waste disposal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beek, J.


    The disposal of large amounts of domestic sewage water and liquid manure, both containing dissolved phosphates, is often problematic. Discharge of these into (shallow and standing) surface waters is highly undesirable, as phosphate is considered to be one of the prime causes of eutrophication. If,

  16. Development of a fully injectable calcium phosphate cement

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Permanent link: Keywords. Calcium phosphate cements; hydroxyapatite; bioceramics; bone substitute; orthopedic; dental. Abstract. A study on the development of a fully injectable calcium phosphate cement for orthopedic and dental applications is presented.

  17. Radiological impacts of uranium recovery in the phosphate industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryan, M.T.


    This article characterizes the occupational and public radiological health impacts associated with phosphate mining and milling. These impacts are related to the phosphate industry's uranium production potential and are compared with those associated with conventional uranium mining and milling. The radiological impacts resulting from occupational and nonoccupational exposures are assessed. Occupational exposures in phosphate facilities are compared to background exposures and radiological population dose assessments, which characterize important radionuclides and exposure pathways. The following conclusions were reached: (1) public consequences of phosphate mining will occur whether or not uranium is recovered as a by-product, (2) radiological consequences of phosphate mining may be comparable to those associated with uranium mining and milling per unit uranium production, (3) radiological impacts via surface waterways and crops fertilized with uranium-bearing phosphates are of minor consequence, and (4) major radiological public health problems associated with phosphate mining are related to radon and radon progeny exposures in structures built on reclaimed lands or with phosphate mining residues, although the magnitudes of these impacts are difficult to evaluate with current data

  18. Removal of phosphate and nitrate from aqueous solution using ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of the present study was the removal of phosphate and nitrate by sodium alginate seagrass (Cymodocea rotundata) beads from aqueous solutions. The adsorption characteristics of phosphate and nitrate on the seagrass beads were optimized under different operational parameters like adsorbent dosage, initial ...

  19. Engineering potato starch with a higher phosphate content

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Xu, Xuan; Huang, Xing Feng; Visser, Richard G.F.; Trindade, Luisa M.


    Phosphate esters are responsible for valuable and unique functionalities of starch for industrial applications. Also in the cell phosphate esters play a role in starch metabolism, which so far has not been well characterized in storage starch. Laforin, a human enzyme composed of a

  20. Biotemplate synthesis of monodispersed iron phosphate hollow microspheres

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cao Feng; Li Dongxu


    Monodispersed iron phosphate hollow microspheres with a high degree of crystallization were prepared through a facile in situ deposition method using rape pollen grains as a biotemplate. The functional group on the surface of the pollen grains could adsorb Fe 3+ , which provided the nucleation sites for growth of iron phosphate nanoparticles. After being sintered at 600 deg. C for 10 h, the pollen grains were removed and iron phosphate hollow microspheres were obtained. A scanning electron microscope and x-ray diffraction were applied to characterize the morphology and crystalline structure of the pollen grains, iron phosphate-coated pollen grains and iron phosphate hollow microspheres. Differential scanning calorimetry and thermogravity analyses were performed to investigate the thermal behavior of the iron phosphate-coated pollen grains during the calcinations. Energy dispersive spectroscopy and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy were utilized to investigate the interaction between the pollen grains and iron phosphate. The effect of the pollen wall on the surface morphology of these iron phosphate hollow microspheres was also proven in this work.

  1. Biotemplate synthesis of monodispersed iron phosphate hollow microspheres

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cao Feng; Li Dongxu, E-mail: [College of Materials Science and Engineering, Nanjing University of Technology, Jiangsu Nanjing 210009 (China)


    Monodispersed iron phosphate hollow microspheres with a high degree of crystallization were prepared through a facile in situ deposition method using rape pollen grains as a biotemplate. The functional group on the surface of the pollen grains could adsorb Fe{sup 3+}, which provided the nucleation sites for growth of iron phosphate nanoparticles. After being sintered at 600 deg. C for 10 h, the pollen grains were removed and iron phosphate hollow microspheres were obtained. A scanning electron microscope and x-ray diffraction were applied to characterize the morphology and crystalline structure of the pollen grains, iron phosphate-coated pollen grains and iron phosphate hollow microspheres. Differential scanning calorimetry and thermogravity analyses were performed to investigate the thermal behavior of the iron phosphate-coated pollen grains during the calcinations. Energy dispersive spectroscopy and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy were utilized to investigate the interaction between the pollen grains and iron phosphate. The effect of the pollen wall on the surface morphology of these iron phosphate hollow microspheres was also proven in this work.

  2. Osteogenecity of octacalcium phosphate coatings applied on porous metal implants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barrère, F.; van der Valk, Chantal M.; Dalmeijer, Remco A.J.; Meijer, Gert; van Blitterswijk, Clemens; de Groot, K.; Layrolle, Pierre


    The biomimetic route allows the homogeneous deposition of calcium phosphate (Ca-P) coatings on porous implants by immersion in simulated physiologic solution. In addition, various Ca-P phases, such as octacalcium phosphate (OCP) or bone-like carbonated apatite (BCA), which are stable only at low

  3. Aluminum and iron contents in phosphate treated swamp rice farm ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In 2006 aluminum and iron contents were determined in phosphate treated swamp rice farm of Mbiabet, Akwa Ibom State. The objectives were to determine the aluminum and iron contents, the effect of drying, phosphate and lime application in an acid sulphate soil grown to rice in Nigeria. The soil samples used were ...

  4. Evaluation methods used for phosphate-solubilizing bacteria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This work aimed to evaluate the different selection methods and select inorganic phosphorus-solubilizing bacteria as potential plant-growth promoters. Bacterial isolates obtained from sugarcane roots and soil were tested using solid growth media containing bicalcium phosphate and Irecê Apatite ground rock phosphate as ...

  5. Chemistry Misconceptions Associated with Understanding Calcium and Phosphate Homeostasis (United States)

    Cliff, William H.


    Successful learning of many aspects in physiology depends on a meaningful understanding of fundamental chemistry concepts. Two conceptual diagnostic questions measured student understanding of the chemical equilibrium underlying calcium and phosphate homeostasis. One question assessed the ability to predict the change in phosphate concentration…

  6. Effect of nitrogen and phosphate limitation on utilization of bitumen ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The degradation of bitumen was found to be associated with the production of carbon (IV) oxide, natural gas and oil. As a result of using nitrogen limited and phosphate limited media, 1750 and 1250 cm3 of gas and 0.95 and 0.85 g/l of oil were obtained respectively. Nitrogen and phosphate limitation have profound effect on ...

  7. Effect of humic substances on the precipitation of calcium phosphate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SONG Yong-hui; Hermann H. HAHN; Erhard HOFFMANN; Peter G. WEIDLER


    For phosphorus (P) recovery from wastewater, the effect of humic substances (HS) on the precipitation of calcium phosphate was studied. Batch experiments of calcium phosphate precipitation were undertaken with synthetic water that contained 20 mg/L phosphate (as P) and 20 mg/L HS (as dissolved organic carbon, DOC) at a constant pH value in the range of 8.0-10.0. The concentration variations of phosphate, calcium (Ca) and HS were measured in the precipitation process; the crystalline state and compositions of the precipitates were analysed by powder X-ray diffraction (XRD) and chemical methods, respectively. It showed that at solution pH 8.0, the precipitation rate and removal efficiency of phosphate were greatly reduced by HS, but at solution pH ≥9.0,the effect of HS was very small. The Ca consumption for the precipitation of phosphate increased when HS was added; HS was also removed from solution with the precipitation of calcium phosphate. At solution pH 8.0 and HS concentrations ≤ 3.5 mg/L, and at pH ≥ 9.0 and HS concentrations ≤ 10 mg/L, the final precipitates were proved to be hydroxyapatite (HAP) by XRD. The increases of solution pH value and initial Ca/P ratio helped reduce the influence of HS on the precipitation of phosphate.

  8. Interaction between calcium and phosphate adsorption on goethite

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rietra, R.P.J.J.; Hiemstra, T.; Riemsdijk, van W.H.


    Quantitatively, little is known about the ion interaction processes that are responsible for the binding of phosphate in soil, water, and sediment, which determine the bioavailability and mobility of phosphate. Studies have shown that metal hydroxides are often responsible for the binding of PO4 in

  9. Cerebrospinal Fluid Phosphate in Delirium after Hip Fracture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ane-Victoria Idland


    Full Text Available Aims: Phosphate is essential for neuronal activity. We aimed to investigate whether delirium is associated with altered phosphate concentrations in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF and serum. Methods: Seventy-seven patients with hip fracture were assessed for delirium before and after acute surgery. Prefracture dementia was diagnosed by an expert panel. Phosphate was measured in CSF obtained immediately before spinal anesthesia (n = 77 and in serum (n = 47. CSF from 23 cognitively healthy elderly patients undergoing spinal anesthesia was also analyzed. Results: Hip fracture patients with prevalent delirium had higher CSF phosphate concentrations than those without delirium (median 0.63 vs. 0.55 mmol/L, p = 0.001. In analyses stratified on dementia status, this difference was only significant in patients with dementia. Serum phosphate was ∼1 mmol/L; there was no association between serum phosphate concentration and delirium status. CSF phosphate did not correlate with serum levels. Conclusion: Patients with delirium superimposed on dementia have elevated phosphate levels.

  10. Mineral phosphate solubilizing bacterial community in agro-ecosystem

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mineral phosphate solubilizing bacterial community in agro-ecosystem. N Saha, S Biswas. Abstract. The present communication deals with the assessment of phosphate solubilizing bacterial community structure across artificially created fertility gradient with regards to N, P and K status of soil in the experimental site.

  11. Influence of octacalcium phosphate coating on osteoinductive properties of biomaterials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Habibovic, Pamela; van der Valk, C.M.; van Blitterswijk, Clemens; de Groot, K.


    In this study, we investigated the influence of octacalcium phosphate (OCP) coating on osteoinductive behaviour of the biomaterials. Porous titanium alloy (Ti6Al4V), hydroxyapatite (HA), biphasic calcium phosphate (BCP) and polyethylene glyco terephtalate/polybuthylene terephtalate (PEGT–PBT)

  12. Phosphate adsorption using modified iron oxide-based sorbents (United States)

    Phosphate RemovalThis dataset is associated with the following publication:Lalley , J., C. Han , G. RamMohan , T. Speth , J. Garland , M. Nadagouda , and D. Dionysiou. Phosphate Removal using Modified Bayoxide®E33 Adsorption Media. WATER RESEARCH. Elsevier Science Ltd, New York, NY, USA, issue}: 96-107, (2015).

  13. Uranium determination in phosphatized materials by drop electrode polarography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sequeira, F.M.C. de; Abrao, A.


    An uranium determination procedure in phosphate rocks and crude phosphoric acid is outlined polarography is used. Uranium is previously separedted by extraction with tri-n-byte phosphate 10%-petroleum ether using aluminium nitrate as salting out agent. (M.L.J.) [pt


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanislav Kráčmar


    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to examine the inhibitory effect in vitro of selected sodium phosphates (under the corporate names Hexa 68, Hexa 70, Trikrystal, FST, Pyro 52, KPS, Didi on selected gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria. Seven different concentrations of each phosphate were used. Sensitivity of the bacterial strains to phosphates was observed in broth supplemented with salts. In vitro was showed a negative effect of various phosphates on growth of selected gram-positive bacteria. Orthophosphates and diphosphates (pyrophosphates did not have significant inhibitory effect on tested bacteria at neutral pH. With the exception of phosphate Trikrystal has not been found in vitro significant inhibitory effects on gram-negative bacteria.doi:10.5219/141

  15. Isolation of phosphate solubiliser fungi from Araza rhizosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vera, Diana Fernanda; Perez, Hernando; Valencia Hernando


    Araza is an eatable plant, original from the Amazon region, which has been described as a promising species for commercialization (Quevedo 1995). This plant has high productivity even in low content phosphate soil but the presence of phosphate solubilizing microorganisms may contribute to increase this element availability. In this study we report the isolation and characterization of solubilizing fungi processed using the soil washing method, from soil samples were araza is cultivated at two regions in Guaviare, Colombia. Eighteen isolates of fungi capable of solubilizing phosphate were obtained from 2 different sources. The most important species that solubilized phosphate from calcium were Trichoderma aureoviride, Aspergillus aculeatus, Trichoderma strain 1 y Trichoderma strain 2 and for phosphate from iron: Aspergillus oryzae, Paecilomyces strain 3, Gongronella butleri and Fusarium oxysporum

  16. Magnesium-phosphate-glass cements with ceramic-type properties (United States)

    Sugama, T.; Kukacka, L.E.


    Rapid setting magnesium phosphate (Mg glass) cementitious materials consisting of magnesium phosphate cement paste, polyborax and water-saturated aggregate, exhibits rapid setting and high early strength characteristics. The magnesium glass cement is prepared from a cation-leachable powder and a bivalent metallic ion-accepting liquid such as an aqueous solution of diammonium phosphate and ammonium polyphosphate. The cation-leachable powder includes a mixture of two different magnesium oxide powders processed and sized differently which when mixed with the bivalent metallic ion-accepting liquid provides the magnesium glass cement consisting primarily of magnesium ortho phosphate tetrahydrate, with magnesium hydroxide and magnesium ammonium phosphate hexahydrate also present. The polyborax serves as a set-retarder. The resulting magnesium mono- and polyphosphate cements are particularly suitable for use as a cementing matrix in rapid repair systems for deteriorated concrete structures as well as construction materials and surface coatings for fireproof structures.

  17. Magnesium phosphate glass cements with ceramic-type properties (United States)

    Sugama, Toshifumi; Kukacka, Lawrence E.


    Rapid setting magnesium phosphate (Mg glass) cementitious materials consisting of magnesium phosphate cement paste, polyborax and water-saturated aggregate exhibiting rapid setting and high early strength characteristics. The magnesium glass cement is prepared from a cation-leachable powder and a bivalent metallic ion-accepting liquid such as an aqueous solution of diammonium phosphate and ammonium polyphosphate. The cation-leachable powder includes a mixture of two different magnesium oxide powders processed and sized differently which when mixed with the bivalent metallic ion-accepting liquid provides the magnesium glass cement consisting primarily of magnesium ortho phosphate tetrahydrate, with magnesium hydroxide and magnesium ammonium phosphate hexahydrate also present. The polyborax serves as a set-retarder. The resulting magnesium mono- and polyphosphate cements are particularly suitable for use as a cementing matrix in rapid repair systems for deteriorated concrete structures as well as construction materials and surface coatings for fireproof structures.

  18. A Phosphate Starvation-Inducible Ribonuclease of Bacillus licheniformis. (United States)

    Nguyen, Thanh Trung; Nguyen, Minh Hung; Nguyen, Huy Thuan; Nguyen, Hoang Anh; Le, Thi Hoi; Schweder, Thomas; Jürgen, Britta


    The BLi03719 protein of Bacillus licheniformis DSM13 belongs to the most abundant extracellular proteins under phosphate starvation conditions. In this study, the function of this phosphate starvation inducible protein was determined. An amino-acid sequence analysis of the BLi03719-encoding gene showed a high similarity with genes encoding the barnase of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens FZB42 and binase-like RNase of Bacillus pumilus SARF-032. The comparison of the control strain and a BLi03719-deficient strain revealed a strongly reduced extracellular ribonuclease activity of the mutant. Furthermore, this knockout mutant exhibited delayed growth with yeast RNA as an alternative phosphate and carbon source. These results suggest that BLi03719 is an extracellular ribonuclease expressed in B. licheniformis under phosphate starvation conditions. Finally, a BLi03719 mutant showed an advantageous effect on the overexpression of the heterologous amyE gene under phosphate-limited growth conditions.

  19. A study of phosphate absorption by magnesium iron hydroxycarbonate. (United States)

    Du, Yi; Rees, Nicholas; O'Hare, Dermot


    A study of the mechanism of phosphate adsorption by magnesium iron hydroxycarbonate, [Mg(2.25)Fe(0.75)(OH)(6)](CO(3))(0.37).0.65H(2)O over a range of pH has been carried out. The efficiency of the phosphate removal from aqueous solution has been investigated between pH 3-9 and the resulting solid phases have been studied by elemental analysis, XRD, FT-IR, Raman, HRTEM, EDX and solid-state MAS (31)P NMR. The analytical and spectroscopic data suggest that phosphate removal from solution occurs not by anion intercalation of the relevant phosphorous oxyanion (H(2)PO(4)(-) or HPO(4)(2-)) into the LDH but by the precipitation of either an insoluble iron hydrogen phosphate hydrate and/or a magnesium phosphate hydrate.

  20. Uranyl phosphate mineral in Gapyeong area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, S.J.


    An uranyl phosphate crystal from Gapeong area is studied by means of single crystal x-ray diffraction and electron microscopic qualitative analysis of chemical contents. The crystal is identified as meta-ankoleite which has a unit cell of super structure with a=b=6.99 A, c=17.69 A and space group P4 2 22. There exists some indication in the total fluorescent spectrum of the sample that potassium may be partially substituted by calcium. The chemical formula of this meta-ankoleite may be expressed by Ksub(1-2x)Casub(x)(UO 2 PO 4 ) (H 2 O)sub(3-x). (Author)

  1. Radiation exposure levels in phosphate mining activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Othman, I.; Al-Hushari, M.; Raja, G.


    Radon, radon daughter concentration and gamma ray exposure rate were measured at different places in the phosphate mining areas of Syria. The grab sampling method was used. For radon measurements, discrete air samples without progeny were collected over short periods of time, whereas daughters were collected on filter paper. A three-count procedure was used for the measurement of radon daughter concentrations to improve accuracy. The measurements were carried out at 37 locations selected in the mines, factories, offices and homes in the mining area. The sampling was repeated monthly for a full calendar year. Workers and their families were classified in different categories according to the nature of their jobs. The doses were estimated using proper occupancy factors. The dose equivalent from radon daughters varies from 1 mSv.y -1 to a maximum of 10 mSv.y -1 . Radon concentrations vary from 100 Bq.m -3 to several hundreds. (author)

  2. Measurements of natural radioactivity in phosphate fertilizers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ioannides, K.G.; Mertzimekis, T.J.; Papachristodoulou, C.A.; Tzialla, C.E.


    The natural radioactivity, mainly due to radium ( 226 Ra), in phosphate fertilizers used in north-western Greece has been measured by γ-spectroscopy. Also radioactivity measurements were performed in soil samples and were compared to samples from undisturbed soils. 226 Ra belongs to the 238 U chain and is the precursor of radon gas ( 222 Rn). The radon concentrations in warehouses, where large quantities of fertilizers are kept, were measured with CR-39 SSNTDs. The radium concentrations in the fertilizers ranged from 0 to 4584 Bq kg -1 and the radon concentrations in warehouses were measured 540-3320 Bq m -3 . The results are discussed from the radiation protection point of view

  3. Study of some properties of zirconium phosphate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prospert, J.


    Zirconium phosphate has been studied with a view to using it as an ion exchanger: the first objective was to develop a method of preparation easy to apply and also reproducible. To this end, several tests were carried out varying the molar ratios of phosphorus and of zirconium. Some physical properties such as the diffraction of X-rays were examined. The work then involved certain chemical properties, particularly the percentages of free water and structural water given by the loss on calcination, the Karl-Fisher method and the weight losses by thermogravimetry. Finally an attempts was made to apply the exchanger to the separation of alkaline ions. The static tests showed that the order of fixation of these ions was Cs + > Rb + >> K + > Na + . Tests with columns showed that Na + and K + were easily separable, as was the Rb + -Cs + mixture, this last pair being fairly difficult to dissociate. (author) [fr

  4. Bioavailabilty of deposit phosphates in animal feeding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Godoy, Susmira; Chicco, C.F.


    In order to evaluate the growth, the absorption and the dynamics of phosphorus and calcium phosphates of high fluorine content , triple superphosphates (TSP) and two sedimentary phosphates Riecito (RIO) and Monte Fresco (MONTE) vs dicalcium phosphate (DICAL), they were carried out two experiments with sheep. In the first one, with a duration of 360 days, the group (six animals) consumed DICAL, and at the 330 day of feeding it was divided in two groups, one under the same treatment and to the other one it was added 500 ppm of fluorine like NaF (DICAL+F). In this experiment the growth was evaluated, and at the end of the period, it was determined the phosphorus and calcium absorption and kinetics, the retention of fluorine in different sources, as well as the bony mineralization. In the second experiment, with a duration of 30 days, the phosphorus absorption and kinetics, as and the retention of fluorine in the sources under study, were determined. In both experiments, for the dynamic studies it was used the isotopic dilution technique, by means of the dosage, through jugular injection, of 200 uCi 3 2P and, for via oral, 200 uCi 4 5Ca. The weight gained (g / animal /day ) was 75, 87, 56 and 53 for DICAL, RIO, MONTE and TSP, respectively, with significant differences (P'0.05) in favor of DICAL and RIO. The true absorption of phosphorus (%), for the fed animals during 30 and 360 days, respectively, was 73 and 76 for DICAL, 40 and 57 for RIO, 36 and 57 for MONTE and, 79 and 71 for TSP, being significantly higher (P'0.05), for both periods, the values of DICAL and TSP. The evaluation of 12 months of absorption of RIVER and MONTE was higher than during the period of 30 days. The absorption of calcium at the 362 days was higher for DICAL and RIO in relation to MONTE and TSP. The addition of fluorine during 30 days didn't affect the calcium and phosphorus absorption. The run time to reach the maximum level of specific activity of calcium in blood was higher for RIO, MONTE

  5. Use of phosphate rocks for sustainable agriculture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zapata, F.; Roy, R.N.


    This publication deals with the direct application of phosphate rock (PR) sources to agriculture. Phosphorus (P) is an essential plant nutrient and its deficiency restricts crop yields severely. Tropical and subtropical soils are predominantly acidic, and often extremely P deficient with high P-sorption (fixation) capacities. Therefore, substantial P inputs are required for optimum plant growth and adequate food and fibre production. Manufactured water-soluble P fertilizers such as superphosphates are commonly recommended to correct P deficiencies, but most developing countries import these fertilizers, which are often in limited supply and represent a major outlay for resource-poor farmers. In addition, intensification of agricultural production in these countries necessitates the addition of P not only to increase crop production but also to improve soil P status in order to avoid further soil degradation. Hence, it is imperative to explore alternative P sources. Under certain soil and climate conditions, the direct application of PR, especially where available locally, has proved to be an agronomically and economically sound alternative to the more expensive superphosphates. PR deposits occur worldwide, but few are mined (for use mainly as raw materials to manufacture water-soluble P fertilizers). The Joint FAO/IAEA Division of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture initiated a Coordinated Research Project called 'The use of nuclear and related techniques for evaluating the agronomic effectiveness of phosphatic fertilizers, in particular rock phosphates'. This was implemented by institutes of developing and industrialized countries from 1993 to 1998. The results obtained yielded new information on: chemistry of soil P; tests for available soil P; phosphate nutrition of crops; agronomic effectiveness of PR products; and P fertilizer recommendations with particular emphasis on PR use. Within the framework of the integrated plant nutrition systems promoted by

  6. Phagocytosis in phosphate chromium (III) suspensions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cruz-Arencibia, Jorge; Fano Machín, Yoiz; Cruz-Morales, Ahmed; Tamayo Fuente, Radamés; Morín-Zorrilla, José


    Phagocytosis in vivo and in vitro of a suspension of chromic phosphate (III) labeled with 51 Cr and 32 P is studied. The radioactive particles dispersed in a media of 2 % gelatin in acetate buffer pH 4-4.5 have a predominant size of 0.8 μm and 5 μm. According with biodistribution experiments in rats after 30 minutes near the 80 % of radioactivity is registered in the liver, probably associated with phagocytosis of the particles by liver Kupffer cells. Is also showed that the suspension particles are phagocytized in vitro by mouse peritoneal macrophages. This facts indicate that the studied suspension have appropriate characteristics to be used in radiosynoviorthesis according to the principal action mechanism described for this procedure, particles phagocytosis by cells present in the inflamed synovium. (author)

  7. Inorganic phosphate uptake in unicellular eukaryotes. (United States)

    Dick, Claudia F; Dos-Santos, André L A; Meyer-Fernandes, José R


    Inorganic phosphate (Pi) is an essential nutrient for all organisms. The route of Pi utilization begins with Pi transport across the plasma membrane. Here, we analyzed the gene sequences and compared the biochemical profiles, including kinetic and modulator parameters, of Pi transporters in unicellular eukaryotes. The objective of this review is to evaluate the recent findings regarding Pi uptake mechanisms in microorganisms, such as the fungi Neurospora crassa and Saccharomyces cerevisiae and the parasite protozoans Trypanosoma cruzi, Trypanosoma rangeli, Leishmania infantum and Plasmodium falciparum. Pi uptake is the key step of Pi homeostasis and in the subsequent signaling event in eukaryotic microorganisms. Biochemical and structural studies are important for clarifying mechanisms of Pi homeostasis, as well as Pi sensor and downstream pathways, and raise possibilities for future studies in this field. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Thermal Decomposition of Nitrated Tributyl Phosphate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paddleford, D.F.; Hou, Y.; Barefield, E.K.; Tedder, D.W.; Abdel-Khalik, S.I.


    Contact between tributyl phosphate and aqueous solutions of nitric acid and/or heavy metal nitrate salts at elevated temperatures can lead to exothermic reactions of explosive violence. Even though such operations have been routinely performed safely for decades as an intrinsic part of the Purex separation processes, several so-called ''red oil'' explosions are known to have occurred in the United States, Canada, and the former Soviet Union. The most recent red oil explosion occurred at the Tomsk-7 separations facility in Siberia, in April 1993. That explosion destroyed part of the unreinforced masonry walls of the canyon-type building in which the process was housed, and allowed the release of a significant quantity of radioactive material

  9. Phosphate Solubilizing Bacteria Adaptive to Vinasse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kahar Muzakhar


    Full Text Available Microorganisms identified as phosphate solubilizing bacteria (PSB adaptive to vinasse were successfully screened from sugarcane soil from an agriculatural estate in Jatiroto. By conducting a screening on Pikovskaya’s agar medium (PAM, we found that five different isolates were detected as PSB (pvk-5a, pvk-5b, pvk-6b, pvk-7a, and pvk-8a. Of the five isolates only three could be grown and were found to be adaptive to vinasse based medium without any nutrients added (pvk-5a, pvk-5b and pvk-7a. The three isolates were characterized as coccus and Gram negative with no endospores detected. We suggest that these three isolates can be used as biofertilizer agent to support organic farming.

  10. Potential for phosphate mitigation from agricultural runoff by three aquatic macrophytes (United States)

    Phosphate from agricultural runoff is considered a contributor to eutrophication. Three aquatic macrophyte species, Leersia oryzoides, Typha latifolia, and Sparganium americanum, were investigated for their phosphate mitigation ability. Mesocosms were exposed to flowing phosphate enriched water (1...

  11. Chemistry of tetravalent actinides phosphates. The thorium phosphate-diphosphate as immobilisation matrix of actinides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dacheux, N.


    The author presents in this document its scientific works from 1992 to 2001, in order to obtain the enabling to manage scientific and chemical researches at the university Paris Sud Orsay. The first part gives an abstract of the thesis on the characterizations, lixiviation and synthesis of uranium and thorium based phosphate matrix in the framework of the search for a ceramic material usable in the radioactive waste storage. The second part presents briefly the researches realized at the CEA, devoted to a reliable, independent and accurate measure of some isotopes activity. The last part presents the abstracts of researches activities from 1996 to 2001 on the tetravalent actinides phosphates chemistry, the sintering of PDT and solid solutions of PDTU and the kinetic and thermodynamical studies of the PDT dissolution. Many references and some publication in full text are provided. (A.L.B.)

  12. Study of the tributyl phosphate - 30% dodecane solvent; Etude du solvant phosphate tributylique - 30 % dodecane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leroy, P [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Fontenay-aux-Roses. Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires, 92 (France)


    This study, originating mainly from a literature survey, gives the principal chemical and physical features of the tributyl-phosphate (TBP) agent diluted at 30 volumes per cent in dodecane. The mixture is a very commonly used extractant in nuclear fuel processing. In this paper, the main following points are reported: -) the components (TBP and diluents) -) the TBP-diluents systems (non-loaded), -) the TBP-diluents-water systems, -) TBP-diluents-water-nitric acid systems, and -) industrial solvents. (author) [French] Cette etude, d'origine bibliographique, regroupe les caracteristiques physico-chimiques essentielles du phosphate tributylique (TBP) dilue a 30% en volume dans du dodecane. Ce melange constitue un agent d'extraction tres utilise dans le traitement des combustibles nucleaires. Les principaux points traites sont les suivants: -) les constituants (TBP et diluants), -) les systemes TBP-diluants non charges, -) les systemes TBP-diluants-eau, -) les systemes TBP-diluants-eau-acide nitrique, et -) les solvants industriels. (auteur)

  13. The antimicrobial activity of as-prepared silver-loaded phosphate glasses and zirconium phosphate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jing, Wang; Jiang, Ji Zhi; Yang, Yang; Yan, Zhao Chun; Yan, Wang Xiao; He, Shui Zhong


    The antimicrobial activities of silver-loaded zirconium phosphate (JDG) and silver-loaded phosphate glasses (ZZB) against Escherichia coli were studied. Although the silver content in JDG was higher than that in ZZB, ZZB suspensions showed better antimicrobial property than JDG suspensions, especially at low concentrations. The antimicrobial activity was analyzed using minimum inhibitory concentrations, bacterial inhibition ring tests, and detection of silver ions in the suspensions. Furthermore, the amounts of silver ions in suspensions with/without bacterial cells were analyzed. Results revealed that only a portion of released silver ions could be adsorbed by E. coli cells, which are critical to cell death. The damaged microstructures of E. coli cells observed by transmission electron microscopy may further prove that the adsorbed silver ions play an important role in the antimicrobial process.

  14. The use of phosphates in forestry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tkaczyk Miłosz


    Full Text Available Phosphite preparations are now an important alternative in plant protection against new, invasive pathogens of the genus Phytophthora and/or Pythium. It is crucial to intervene when alien, invasive oomycetes are carried to plantations or forest stands and attack fine roots via zoospores. The aim of this paper was to demonstrate the possibility of phosphite application to induce resistance to tree pathogens. Phosphate-based fertilizers have been used successfully in nurseries, where application is relatively easy by means of foliar sprays. the traditional fungicides, which are effective in combating fungi, however, fail to control oomycetes. Instead, they mask the disease, which, in turn, causes serious damage to seedlings after they have been planted in a suitable environment. Moreover, the number of effective fungicides available for forest plant protection has continued to decrease in the last decade. The effectiveness of the chemicals is reduced due to their frequent use and their similarity in terms of the active compound or the mechanism of action. Given the low diversity of active compounds, it is necessary to monitor the development of resistance of pathogens to fungicides by means of molecular biology (sequencing and quantitative PCR. Minimising the undesired side effects of chemicals on both, mycorrhizal fungi and pathogens can be achieved by strict adherence to rigorous security measures and, where possible, frequently changing the active compounds to alternatives such as phosphites. The significance of phosphate and phosphite uptake by trees is still a matter of debate, especially under field conditions. Nevertheless, phosphites are environmentally friendly compounds, which constitute an alternative or complement to the traditional chemicals (in accordance with the Directive on Integrated Plant management.

  15. Unsymmetrical phosphate as extractant for the extraction of nitric acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaikwad, R.H.; Jayaram, R.V.


    Tri-n-butyl phosphate (TBP) was first used as an extractant in 1944, during Manhattan project for the separation of actinides and further explored by Warf in 1949 for the extraction of Ce(IV) from aqueous nitric acid. TBP was further used as an extractant in the Plutonium Uranium Recovery by Extraction (PUREX) process. To meet the stringent requirements of the nuclear industry TBP has been extensively investigated. In spite of its wide applicability, TBP suffers from various disadvantages such as high aqueous solubility, third phase formation, chemical and radiation degradation leading to the formation of undesired products. It also suffers from incomplete decontamination of the actinides from fission products. Various attempts have been made to overcome the problems associated with TBP by way of using higher homologues of TBP such as Tri-iso amyl phosphate (TiAP), Tri-secondary butyl phosphate (TsBP), Tri amyl phosphate (TAP). It was found that in some cases the results were considerably better than those obtained with TBP for uranium/thorium extraction. The extraction of nitric acid by TBP and its higher homologues which are symmetrical are well documented. However, no solvent has emerged clearly superior than TBP. Here in we report the extraction of nitric acid with neutral unsymmetrical phosphates and study them as extractants for the extraction of nitric acid. Dibutyl secbutyl phosphate, dibutyl pentyl phosphate and dibutyl heptyl phosphate were synthesised for this purpose and the extraction of nitric acid was studied in n-dodecane. The results indicate that the substitution of one of the alkyl groups of the symmetrical phosphate adjacent to the phosphoryl (P=O) group of the phosphate does not have any pronounced effect on the extraction capacity of nitric acid. (author)

  16. Effect of Casein Phosphopeptide-Amorphous Calcium Phosphate and Three Calcium Phosphate on Enamel Microhardness. (United States)

    Haghgou, En Hr; Haghgoo, Roza; Roholahi, Mohamad R; Ghorbani, Zahra


    This study aims to investigate the effect of casein phos-phopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate and three calcium phosphate (CPP-ACP and TCP) on increasing the microhardness of human enamel after induction of erosion. A total of 26 healthy human-impacted third molar teeth were chosen, and their hardness measured using a microhardness testing machine. The samples were immersed in Coca Cola (pH = 4.7) for 8 minutes. Then, micro-hardness was measured again, and these samples were randomly divided into four groups (two control groups and two experimental groups). (1) Negative control group: Artificial saliva was used for 10 minutes, (2) positive control group: Fluoride gel was used for 10 minutes, (3) β-TCP group: TCP was used for 10 minutes, (4) CCP-ACP group: CCP-ACP was used for 10 minutes. The final microhardness of those samples was measured, and the changes in microhardness of teeth within group and between groups were analyzed using the paired and analysis of variance tests respectively. Results were considered statistically significant at a level of p < 0.05. No significant difference was observed in microhard-ness between CPP-ACP group and TCP group (p = 0.368) during the time microhardness significantly dropped after soaking in soda. Casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate and TCP increased the microhardness of teeth. The increase in hardness in the TCP group was higher than in the CPP-ACP group, but this difference was not significant (p = 0.36). Casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate and TCP can affect the remineralization of erosive lesions.

  17. Effect of oxygen fugacity on OH dissolution in olivine under peridotite-saturated conditions: An experimental study at 1.5-7 GPa and 1100-1300 °C (United States)

    Yang, Xiaozhi


    The dissolution of OH in olivine by experimental studies at simulated conditions has attracted increasing interest over the past three decades, and the influence of pressure, temperature and composition has been relatively well constrained. Oxygen fugacity is highly heterogeneous in the upper mantle, on both temporal and spatial scales, and is an important parameter in characterizing many chemical and physical processes in the mantle. However, less attention has been devoted to the effect of oxygen fugacity on OH dissolution in olivine, and the only few available reports on this topic have led to significant inconsistency and debate. In this study, the correlation between oxygen fugacity and OH solubility in Fe-bearing olivine has been systematically investigated by conducting experiments at 1.5-7 GPa and 1100-1300 °C and under peridotite- and fluid-saturated conditions, with natural gem-quality olivine single crystals and fresh peridotite xenoliths as starting materials and with oxygen fugacity controlled by the Fe-FeO, Ni-NiO and Fe2O3-Fe3O4 oxygen buffer pairs. The water concentrations were determined by polarized analyses using a Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy. The results show that, at all the experimental conditions, the OH bands at both high frequency (∼3650-3450 cm-1) and low frequency (∼3450-3100 cm-1) are prominent. The intensity of OH bands at ∼3355 and 3325 cm-1 increases positively with oxygen fugacity, suggesting a dominant role of Fe3+ in their incorporation. Under otherwise identical conditions, the water content is gradually enhanced with increasing pressure, temperature or oxygen fugacity. The effect of oxygen fugacity on the enhancement of OH solubility appears not sensitive to temperature (1100-1300 °C) at a given pressure, but becomes progressively stronger with increasing pressure from 1.5 to 7 GPa given the temperature. Relative to oxygen fugacity buffers, the OH solubility is on average increased by ∼50% between Fe-FeO and

  18. Major, Trace, and Volatile (CO2, H2O, S, F, and Cl) Elements from 1000+ Hawaiian Olivine-hosted Melt Inclusions Reveal the Dynamics of Crustal Recycling (United States)

    Marske, J. P.; Hauri, E. H.; Trusdell, F.; Garcia, M. O.; Pietruszka, A. J.


    Global cycling of volatile elements (H2O, CO2, F, S, Cl) via subduction to deep mantle followed by entrainment and melting within ascending mantle plumes is an enigmatic process that controls key aspects of hot spot volcanism (i.e. melting rate, magma supply, degassing, eruptive style). Variations in radiogenic isotope ratios (e.g.187Os/188Os) at hot spots such as Hawaii reveal magmatic processes within deep-seated mantle plumes (e.g. mantle heterogeneity, lithology, and melt transport). Shield-stage lavas from Hawaii likely originate from a mixed plume source containing peridotite and recycled oceanic crust (pyroxenite) based on variations of radiogenic isotopes. Hawaiian lavas display correlations among isotopes, major and trace elements [1] that might be expected to have an expression in the volatile elements. To investigate this link, we present Os isotopic ratios (n=51), and major, trace, and volatile elements from 1003 olivine-hosted melt inclusions (MI) and their host minerals from tephra from Koolau, Mauna Loa, Hualalai, Kilauea, and Loihi volcanoes. The data show a strong correlation between MI volatile contents and incompatible trace element ratios (La/Yb) with Os isotopes of the same host olivines and reveal large-scale volatile heterogeneity and zonation exists within the Hawaiian plume. 'Loa' chain lavas, which are thought to originate from greater proportions of recycled oceanic crust/pyroxenite, have MIs with lower H2O, S, F, and Cl contents compared to 'Kea' chain lavas that were derived from more peridotite-rich sources. The depletion of volatile elements in the 'Loa' volcano MIs can be explained if they tapped an ancient dehydrated oceanic crust component within the Hawaiian plume. Higher extents of melting beneath 'Loa' volcanoes can also explain these depletions. The presence of dehydrated recycled mafic material in the plume source suggests that subduction effectively devolatilizes part of the oceanic crust. These results are similar to the

  19. Towards Phosphate Detection in Hydroponics Using Molecularly Imprinted Polymer Sensors. (United States)

    Storer, Christopher S; Coldrick, Zachary; Tate, Daniel J; Donoghue, Jack Marsden; Grieve, Bruce


    An interdigitated electrode sensor was designed and microfabricated for measuring the changes in the capacitance of three phosphate selective molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP) formulations, in order to provide hydroponics users with a portable nutrient sensing tool. The MIPs investigated were synthesised using different combinations of the functional monomers methacrylic acid (MAA) and N -allylthiourea, against the template molecules diphenyl phosphate, triethyl phosphate, and trimethyl phosphate. A cross-interference study between phosphate, nitrate, and sulfate was carried out for the MIP materials using an inductance, capacitance, and resistance (LCR) meter. Capacitance measurements were taken by applying an alternating current (AC) with a potential difference of 1 V root mean square (RMS) at a frequency of 1 kHz. The cross-interference study demonstrated a strong binding preference to phosphate over the other nutrient salts tested for each formulation. The size of template molecule and length of the functional monomer side groups also determined that a short chain functional monomer in combination with a template containing large R-groups produced the optimal binding site conditions when synthesising a phosphate selective MIP.

  20. Phosphate limitation induces sporulation in the chytridiomycete Blastocladiella emersonii. (United States)

    Bongiorno, Vagner Alexandre; Ferreira da Cruz, Angela; Nunis da Silva, Antonio; Corrêa, Luiz Carlos


    The cell cycle is controlled by numerous mechanisms that ensure correct cell division. If growth is not possible, cells may eventually promote autophagy, differentiation, or apoptosis. Microorganisms interrupt their growth and differentiate under general nutrient limitation. We analyzed the effects of phosphate limitation on growth and sporulation in the chytridiomycete Blastocladiella emersonii using kinetic data, phase-contrast, and laser confocal microscopy. Under phosphate limitation, zoospores germinated and subsequently formed 2-4 spores, regardless of the nutritional content of the medium. The removal of phosphate at any time during growth induced sporulation of vegetative cells. If phosphate was later added to the same cultures, growth was restored if the cells were not yet committed to sporulation. The cycles of addition and withdrawal of phosphate from growth medium resulted in cycles of germination-growth, germination-sporulation, or germination-growth-sporulation. These results show that phosphate limitation is sufficient to interrupt cell growth and to induce complete sporulation in B. emersonii. We concluded that the determination of growth or sporulation in this microorganism is linked to phosphate availability when other nutrients are not limiting. This result provides a new tool for the dissection of nutrient-energy and signal pathways in cell growth and differentiation.

  1. Engineering Potato Starch with a Higher Phosphate Content.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuan Xu

    Full Text Available Phosphate esters are responsible for valuable and unique functionalities of starch for industrial applications. Also in the cell phosphate esters play a role in starch metabolism, which so far has not been well characterized in storage starch. Laforin, a human enzyme composed of a carbohydrate-binding module and a dual-specificity phosphatase domain, is involved in the dephosphorylation of glycogen. To modify phosphate content and better understand starch (dephosphorylation in storage starch, laforin was engineered and introduced into potato (cultivar Kardal. Interestingly, expression of an (engineered laforin in potato resulted in significantly higher phosphate content of starch, and this result was confirmed in amylose-free potato genetic background (amf. Modified starches exhibited altered granule morphology and size compared to the control. About 20-30% of the transgenic lines of each series showed red-staining granules upon incubation with iodine, and contained higher phosphate content than the blue-stained starch granules. Moreover, low amylose content and altered gelatinization properties were observed in these red-stained starches. Principle component and correlation analysis disclosed a complex correlation between starch composition and starch physico-chemical properties. Ultimately, the expression level of endogenous genes involved in starch metabolism was analysed, revealing a compensatory response to the decrease of phosphate content in potato starch. This study provides a new perspective for engineering starch phosphate content in planta by making use of the compensatory mechanism in the plant itself.

  2. Availability of native and added phosphates for the soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scivittaro, W.B.; Boaretto, A.E.; Muraoka, T.


    In superficial composite samples of two Red-Yellow Latosols with different physical and chemical properties, analyses were carried out on inorganic form of phosphorus as well as the availability of native and added phosphates. The method applied was soil phosphorus fractionation associated with isotopic dilution technique ( 32 P). The samples were taken from pots containing soils incubated for a month with fluid phosphatic fertilizers (phosphoric acid and 10-30-00 suspension) and solid phosphatic fertilizers (mono ammonium phosphate and triple superphosphate), at the rate of 210 mg P 2 O 5 /kg of soil. A control treatment was included. In both soils the availability of inorganic phosphorus fractions decreased at the following order: H 2 O-P > Al-P > Fe-P > CA-P > occluded-P. The water soluble and aluminium phosphates represented the main source of available P for the newly fertilizer, the iron phosphates were also an important source of available phosphorus. The soil phosphorus fixing capacity influenced the availability of native and added phosphates. (author). 17 refs, 3 tabs

  3. Immobilization of radioactive strontium in contaminated soils by phosphate treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, K.H.; Ammons, J.T.


    The feasibility of in situ phosphate- and metal- (calcium, aluminum, and iron) solution treatment for 90 Sr immobilization was investigated. Batch and column experiments were performed to find optimum conditions for coprecipitation of 90 Sr with Ca-, Al-, and Fe-phosphate compounds in contaminated soils. Separate columns were packed with artificially 85 Sr-contaminated acid soil as well as 90 Sr-contaminated soil from the Oak Ridge Reservation. After metal-phosphate treatment, the columns were then leached successively with either tapwater or 0.001 M CaCl 2 solution. Most of the 85 Sr coprecipitated with the metal phosphate compounds. Immobilization of 85 Sr and 90 Sr was affected by such factors as solution pH, metal and phosphate concentration, metal-to-phosphate ratio, and soil characteristics. Equilibration time after treatments also affected 85 Sr immobilization. Many technology aspects still need to be investigated before field applications are feasible, but these experiments indicate that phosphate-based in situ immobilization should prevent groundwater contamination and will be useful as a treatment technology for 90 Sr-contaminated sites. 15 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab

  4. Biodegradation of tributyl phosphate by granular biofilms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joshi, Hiren M.; Nancharaiah, Y.V.; Venugopalan, V.P.


    Full text: Tributyl phosphate (TBP) is used as plasticizer for cellulose esters, lacquers, plastic and vinyl resins and as a solvent extractant of rare earth metals. In nuclear power industry, it is used as a solvent for the extraction of uranium and plutonium salts during fuel reprocessing. TBP does not occur naturally in the environment. It is sparingly soluble in water and once released into soil or aquatic systems, is only moderately biodegradable. There are many proposed mechanisms for TBP biodegradation, which involve stepwise enzymatic hydrolysis to orthophosphate and n-butanol and mono-oxygenase based transformation and then degradation. Microbial processes involving multispecies consortia offer better choice over monoculture processes for degradation of complex wastes. Processes based on immobilized microbial consortia are characterized by significantly reduced settling time, high stability in presence of varying organic load, effective mineralization and amenability to bioaugmentation, which make them a good choice for bioremediation and waste water treatment. The objective of this study was to investigate the suitability of aerobic microbial granules (also known as granular biofilms) for efficient biodegradation of TBP. For this purpose, we set up 4 litre cylindrical sequencing batch reactors (SBR) in triplicates and inoculated them with sludge (mean sludge size ∼ 60 mm) obtained from an operating wastewater treatment plant. The SBRs were operated on a 6h cycle with 66% volumetric exchange ratio. The reactors were fed with synthetic waste water along with 90 mM acetate and 0.5 mM TBP. The concentration of TBP was slowly raised to 2mM. After 3 months of operation, microbial granules (mean size: 2.05 mm) capable of TBP degradation were observed in the reactors. Gas chromatographic analysis of samples showed that after 6h of operational cycle 2 mM initial concentration of TBP was reduced to 0.2 mM, after which there was no further degradation. Cessation

  5. Metal cation controls phosphate release in the myosin ATPase. (United States)

    Ge, Jinghua; Huang, Furong; Nesmelov, Yuri E


    Myosin is an enzyme that utilizes ATP to produce a conformational change generating a force. The kinetics of the myosin reverse recovery stroke depends on the metal cation complexed with ATP. The reverse recovery stroke is slow for MgATP and fast for MnATP. The metal ion coordinates the γ phosphate of ATP in the myosin active site. It is accepted that the reverse recovery stroke is correlated with the phosphate release; therefore, magnesium "holds" phosphate tighter than manganese. Magnesium and manganese are similar ions in terms of their chemical properties and the shell complexation; hence, we propose to use these ions to study the mechanism of the phosphate release. Analysis of octahedral complexes of magnesium and manganese show that the partial charge of magnesium is higher than that of manganese and the slightly larger size of manganese ion makes its ionic potential smaller. We hypothesize that electrostatics play a role in keeping and releasing the abstracted γ phosphate in the active site, and the stronger electric charge of magnesium ion holds γ phosphate tighter. We used stable myosin-nucleotide analog complex and Raman spectroscopy to examine the effect of the metal cation on the relative position of γ phosphate analog in the active site. We found that in the manganese complex, the γ phosphate analog is 0.01 nm further away from ADP than in the magnesium complex. We conclude that the ionic potential of the metal cation plays a role in the retention of the abstracted phosphate. © 2017 The Protein Society.

  6. Industrial hygiene survey. IMC, Phosphate Chemical Complex, New Wales, Florida

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stephenson, F.; Cassady, M.


    An industrial hygiene survey was conducted by NIOSH at IMC Phosphate Chemical Complex, New Wales, Florida, on June 7-11, 1976, as part of a study of the phosphate industry. Phosphate fertilizer manufacturing, the plant, and the medical, safety, and industrial hygiene programs are described. During the study 8-hour time weighted averages were determined for exposure to arsenic, cadmium, chromium, vanadium, phosphoric acid, and sulfuric acid for workers involved in cleaning out phosphoric acid reactor vessels. General area samples were collected for fluorides, radon, and uranium. Several samples were above the NIOSH recommended levels for arsenic and chromium

  7. Iron phosphate materials as cathodes for lithium batteries

    CERN Document Server

    Prosini, Pier Paolo


    ""Iron Phosphate Materials as Cathodes for Lithium Batteries"" describes the synthesis and the chemical-physical characteristics of iron phosphates, and presents methods of making LiFePO4 a suitable cathode material for lithium-ion batteries. The author studies carbon's ability to increase conductivity and to decrease material grain size, as well as investigating the electrochemical behaviour of the materials obtained. ""Iron Phosphate Materials as Cathodes for Lithium Batteries"" also proposes a model to explain lithium insertion/extraction in LiFePO4 and to predict voltage profiles at variou

  8. Dispersion and bioaccumulation of elements from an open-pit olivine mine in Southwest Greenland assessed using lichens, seaweeds, mussels and fish. (United States)

    Søndergaard, Jens


    This study investigated dispersion and bioaccumulation of mining-related elements from an open-pit olivine mine at Seqi in Southwest Greenland (64° N) using lichens (Flavocetraria nivalis), seaweeds (Fucus vesiculosus), mussels (Mytilus edulis) and fish (Myoxocephalus scorpius). The mine operated between 2005 and 2009, and samples were taken every year within a monitoring area 0-17 km from the mine during the period 2004-2011. A total of 46 elements were analysed in the samples. After mining began, highly elevated metal concentrations, especially nickel (Ni), chromium (Cr), iron (Fe) and cobalt (Co), were observed in lichens relative to pre-mining levels (up to a factor of 130) caused by dust dispersion from the mining activity. Elevated metal concentrations could be measured in lichens in distances up to ~5 km from the mine/ore treatment facility. Moderately elevated concentrations of Ni and Cr (up to a factor of 7) were also observed in seaweeds and mussels but only in close vicinity (<1 km) to the mine. Analyses of fish showed no significant changes in element composition. After mine closure, the elevated metal concentrations in lichens, seaweeds and mussels decreased markedly, and in 2011, significantly elevated metal concentrations could only be measured in lichens and only within a distance of 1 km from the mine.

  9. Flotation separation of strontium via phosphate precipitation. (United States)

    Thanh, Luong H V; Liu, J C


    Flotation separation of strontium (Sr) from wastewater via phosphate precipitation was investigated. While 37.33% of Sr precipitated at highly alkaline pH in the absence of PO 4 3- , it completely precipitated as Sr 3 (PO 4 ) 2 at a molar ratio ([PO 4 3- ]:[Sr 2+ ]) of 0.62 at a lower pH value. The presence of Ca 2+ hindered Sr precipitation, yet it could be overcome by increasing the PO 4 3- dose. Sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) was a better collector for dispersed air flotation of Sr 3 (PO 4 ) 2 than cetyl trimethyl ammonium bromide, or mixed collector systems of SDS and saponin. The highest separation efficiency of 97.5% was achieved at an SDS dose of 40 mg/L. The main mechanism in the precipitate flotation is adsorption of anionic SDS on the positively charged surface of colloidal Sr 3 (PO 4 ) 2 via electrostatic interaction. SDS enhanced the aggregation of Sr 3 (PO 4 ) 2 precipitates as the size increased from 1.65 to 28.0 μm, which was beneficial to separation as well.

  10. Phosphate Barriers for Immobilization of Uranium Plumes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burns, Peter C.


    Uranium contamination of the subsurface remains a persistent problem plaguing remedial design at sites across the U.S. that were involved with production, handling, storage, milling, and reprocessing of uranium for both civilian and defense related purposes. Remediation efforts to date have relied upon excavation, pump-and-treat, or passive remediation barriers (PRB?s) to remove or attenuate uranium mobility. Documented cases convincingly demonstrate that excavation and pump-and-treat methods are ineffective for a number of highly contaminated sites. There is growing concern that use of conventional PRB?s, such as zero-valent iron, may be a temporary solution to a problem that will persist for thousands of years. Alternatives to the standard treatment methods are therefore warranted. The core objective of our research is to demonstrate that a phosphorus amendment strategy will result in a reduction of dissolved uranium to below the proposed drinking water standard. Our hypothesis is that long-chain sodium polyphosphate compounds forestall precipitation of sparingly soluble uranyl phosphate compounds, which is paramount to preventing fouling of wells at the point of injection

  11. Phosphate Barriers for Immobilization of Uranium Plumes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Icenhower, Jonathan P.; Burns, Peter C.


    Uranium contamination of the subsurface remains a persistent problem plaguing remedial design at sites across the U.S. that were involved with production, handling, storage, milling, and reprocessing of uranium for both civilian and defense related purposes. Remediation efforts to date have relied upon excavation, pump-and-treat, or passive remediation barriers (PRB?s) to remove or attenuate uranium mobility. Documented cases convincingly demonstrate that excavation and pump-and-treat methods are ineffective for a number of highly contaminated sites. There is growing concern that use of conventional PRB's, such as zero-valent iron, may be a temporary solution to a problem that will persist for thousands of years. Alternatives to the standard treatment methods are therefore warranted. The core objective of our research is to demonstrate that a phosphorous amendment strategy will result in a reduction of dissolved uranium to below the proposed drinking water standard. Our hypothesis is that long-chain sodium polyphosphate compounds forestall precipitation of sparingly soluble uranyl phosphate compounds, which is paramount to preventing fouling of wells at the point of injection

  12. Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency in Singapore. (United States)

    Quak, S H; Saha, N; Tay, J S


    Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) in man is an X-linked enzyme. The deficiency of this enzyme is one of the most common inherited metabolic disorders in man. In Singapore, three clinical syndromes associated with G6PD deficiency had been described: severe haemolysis in neonates with kernicterus, haemoglobinuria and "viral hepatitis"-like syndrome. The human G6PD monomer consists of 515 amino acids. Only the tetrameric or dimeric forms composed of a single type subunit are catylitically active. The complete amino acid sequence of G6PD had been elucidated in man and various other animals. The region of high homology among the enzymes of various animals is presumably functionally active. Among the Chinese in Singapore, three common molecular variants had been identified: Canton (nt 1376 G --> T), Kaiping (nt 1388 G --> A) and Mediterranean (nt 563 C --> T) in frequencies of 24%, 21% and 10% respectively. In addition, two common mutants (Gaozhou, nt 95 A --> G and Chinese 5, nt 1024 C --> T) have been detected in Singapore Chinese in low frequencies. In Malays, 6 different deficient variants are known in Singapore (3 new, 1 Mahidol, 1 Indonesian and 1 Mediterranean).

  13. Separation of tributyl phosphate from degraded solvents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, S.V.; Nadkarni, M.N.; Ramanujam, A.; Venkatesan, M.; Gopalakrishnan, V.; Kazi, J.A.


    A solvent extraction method is described for the recovery of tributyl phosphate (TBP) from degraded process solvents. The method involves the separation of TBP and shell solT(SST) from 30% TBP/SSP mixture by thorium nitrate extraction leading to the formation of a heavy phase (third phase) which contains essentially TBP. The equilibrium experiments revealed that by utilizing thorium feeds of concentrations above 525 g/L in water at 1:1 ratio, a 30% TBP/SST mixture can be effectively separated into TBP and SST fractions with light SST phase having about 3% TBP. Using single stage mixer settler experiments, the feasibility of continuous separation of the three phases was assessed. Since there is a tendency for the degraded products of the diluent to seek the TBP phase, additional treatment steps would be necessary for their removal if the TBP is to be reused. Activated charcoal was investigated for this purpose. If purification of the TBP is not envisaged the volume of the organic waste generated in processing plants could be reduced by separating the diluent and TBP and only the TBP could be sent as concentrated waste. (author)

  14. Glucose 6 phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency in adults

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, M.


    Objective: To determine the frequency of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency in adults presented with anemia. Subjects and Methods: Eighteen months admission data was reviewed for G6PD deficiency as a cause of anemia. Anemia was defined by world health organization (WHO) criteria as haemoglobin less than 11.3 gm%. G6PD activity was measured by Sigma dye decolorisation method. All patients were screened for complications of hemolysis and its possible cause. Patients with more than 13 years of age were included in the study. Results: Out of 3600 patients admitted, 1440 were found anaemic and 49 as G6PD deficient. So the frequency of G6PD deficiency in anaemic patients was 3.4% and the overall frequency is 1.36%. G6PD deficiency among males and females was three and six percent respectively. Antimalarials and antibiotics containing sulphonamide group were the most common precipitating factors for hemolysis. Anemia and jaundice were the most common presentations while malaria was the most common associated disease. Acute renal failure was the most severe complication occurring in five patients with two deaths. Conclusion: G6PD deficiency is a fairly common cause of anemia with medicine as common precipitating factor for hemolysis. Such complications can be avoided with early recognition of the disease and avoiding indiscriminate use of medicine. (author)

  15. Glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase variants in Japan. (United States)

    Miwa, S


    Fifty-four cases of glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency have so far been reported in Japan. Among them, 21 G6PD variants have been characterized. Nineteen out of the 21 variants were characterized in our laboratory and G6PD Heian and "Kyoto" by others. G6PD Tokyo, Tokushima, Ogikubo, Kurume, Fukushima, Yokohama, Yamaguchi, Wakayama, Akita, Heian and "Kyoto" were classified as Class 1, because all these cases showed chronic hemolytic anemia and severe enzyme deficiency. All these variants showed thermal instability. G6PD Mediterranean-like, Ogori, Gifu and Fukuoka were classified as Class 2, whereas G6PD Hofu, B(-) Chinese, Ube, Konan, Kamiube and Kiwa belonged to Class 3. All the 6 Class 3 variants were found as the results of the screening tests. The incidence of the deficiency in Japanese seems to be 0.1-0.5% but that of the cases which may slow drug-induced hemolysis would be much less. G6PD Ube and Konan appear to be relatively common in Japan.

  16. Cesium immobilization into potassium magnesium phosphate matrix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sayenko, S.Y.; Shkuropatenko, V.A.; Bereznyak, O.P.; Hodyreva, Y.S.; Tarasov, R.V.; Virych, V.D.; Ulybkina, E.A.; Pylypenko, O.V.; Kholomeev, G.O.; Zykova, A.V.; Wagh, Arun S.


    The possibility of isomorphous substitution of potassium ions by cesium ions in the structure of potassium magnesium phosphate KMgPO 4 centred dot 6H 2 O (PMP) was shown. It was established, that the Cs included into the PMP matrix does not transfer to the environment during high temperatures heating process (1176 deg C, 3 hours). Analysis of the IR absorption spectrum of the PMP sample has demonstrated that an increase in the amount of additive of the cesium chloride resulted in the shift of the main bands in the spectrum to the low-frequency region with average shift value 10 cm -1 , which indicates the strengthening of bonds in the crystal lattice of matter. The calculated degree of substitution of potassium by cesium during energy release process in the PMP matrix at the level of vitrified high level wastes is about 4%, i. e. the PMP matrix should correspond to the formula K 0.96 Cs 0.04 MgPO 4 centred dot 6H 2 O.

  17. Characterization and in vitro evaluation of biphasic α-tricalcium phosphate/β-tricalcium phosphate cement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arahira, Takaaki; Maruta, Michito, E-mail:; Matsuya, Shigeki


    Biphasic calcium phosphate consisting of hydroxyapatite (HA) and β-tricalcium phosphate(β-TCP) is an excellent bone substitute with controllable bioresorbability. Fabrication of biphasic calcium phosphate with self-setting ability is expected to enhance its potential application as bone substitute. In this study, mixtures of α-TCP and β-TCP with various compositions were prepared through α-β phase transition of α-TCP powder at 1000 °C for various periods. These powders were mixed with 0.25 M Na{sub 2}HPO{sub 4} at a P/L ratio of 2, and then hardened at 37 °C at 100% RH for up to 24 h. Material properties of biphasic HA/β-TCP cement with different α-TCP/β-TCP composition were characterized. These cements were also evaluated with respect to cell response in vitro using MC3T3-E1 cell lines. In conclusion, mechanical and biological properties of HA/β-TCP cement could be controlled by changing the heat treatment time of α-TCP powder at 1000 °C. In vitro results indicated that cell proliferation and ALP activity increased with increase β-TCP content. - Highlights: • We could fabricate biphasic HA/β-TCP cements using heat treated α-TCP powder. • It is easy to control the ratio of α-TCP to β-TCP changing the heat treatment time up to 48 h. • Both cell number and ALP activity increased with increase in β-TCP content. • In vitro results showed that β-TCP has superior cell affinity to HA.

  18. Iron-phosphate-based chemically bonded phosphate ceramics for mixed waste stabilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wagh, A.S.; Jeong, S.Y.; Singh, D.


    In an effort to develop chemically bonded phosphate ceramics for mixed waste stabilization, a collaborative project to develop iron-phosphate based ceramics has been initiated between Argonne National Laboratory and the V. G. Khlopin Radium Institute in St. Petersburg, Russia. The starter powders are oxides of iron that are generated as inexpensive byproduct materials in the iron and steel industry. They contain iron oxides as a mixture of magnetite (Fe 3 O 4 ) and haematite (Fe 2 O 3 ). In this initial phase of this project, both of these compounds were investigated independently. Each was reacted with phosphoric acid solution to form iron phosphate ceramics. In the case of magnetite, the reaction was rapid. Adding ash as the waste component containing hazardous contaminants resulted in a dense and hard ceramic rich in glassy phase. On the other hand, the reaction of phosphoric acid solution with a mixture of haematite and ash waste contaminated with cesium and americium was too slow. Samples had to be molded under pressure. They were cured for 2-3 weeks and then hardened by heating at 350 degrees C for 3 h. The resulting ceramics in both cases were subjected to physical tests for measurement of density, open porosity, compression strength, phase analyses using X-ray diffraction and differential thermal analysis, and leaching tests using toxicity characteristic leaching procedure (TCLP) and ANS 16.1 with 7 days of leaching. Using the preliminary information obtained from these tests, we evaluated these materials for stabilization of Department of Energy's mixed waste streams

  19. A phosphate-starvation-inducible outermembrane protein of Pseudomonas fluorescens Ag1 as an immunological phosphate-starvation marker

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leopold, Kristine; Jacobsen, Susanne; Nybroe, Ole


    A phosphate-starvation-inducible outer-membrane protein of Pseudomonas fluorescens Ag1, expressed at phosphate concentrations below0.08-0.13 mM, was purified and characterized. The purification method involved separation of outer-membrane proteins by SDS-PAGE andextraction of the protein from...... nitrocellulose or PVDF membranes after electrotransfer of proteins to the membranes. The N-terminal amino acidsequence of the purified protein, called Psi1, did not show homology to any known proteins, and in contrast to the phosphate-specific porin OprP ofP. aeruginosa its mobility in SDS-PAGE was not affected...

  20. Metal Phosphates as Intermediate Temperature Proton Conducting Electrolytes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huang, Yunjie; Li, Q.F.; Pan, Chao


    A series of metal phosphates were synthesized and screened as potential proton conductor electrolytes for fuel cells and electrolysers operational at intermediate temperatures. Among the selected, niobium and bismuth phosphates exhibited a proton conductivity of 10-2 and 10-7 S cm-1, respectively......, under the anhydrous atmosphere at 250 °C, showing close correlation with the presence of hydroxyl groups in the phosphate phases. At the water partial pressure of above 0.6 atm, both phosphates possessed a proton conductivity to a level of above 3 x 10-2 S cm-1. Reasonable stability of the proton...... conductivity was observed under either a constant low water partial pressure or under a humidity cycling test within a period of more than 80 hours....

  1. Development of a fully injectable calcium phosphate cement for ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)



    Jan 27, 2003 ... excellent alloplastic material for osseous augmentation because of the ... and basic calcium phosphate compounds on wetting with an aqueous ... ment of acute fracture of the radius through percutaneous administration of ...

  2. Transmission spectra study of sulfate substituted potassium dihydrogen phosphate

    KAUST Repository

    LI, LIANG; Zhang, Jianqin; Sun, Xun; Zhang, Qiang; Zhao, Xian; Zhang, Xixiang


    Potassium dihydrogen phosphate (KDP) crystals with different amounts of sulfate concentration were grown and the transmittance spectrum was studied. A crystal with high sulfate replacement density exhibits heavy absorption property

  3. Root developmental adaptation to phosphate starvation: better safe than sorry. (United States)

    Péret, Benjamin; Clément, Mathilde; Nussaume, Laurent; Desnos, Thierry


    Phosphorus is a crucial component of major organic molecules such as nucleic acids, ATP and membrane phospholipids. It is present in soils in the form of inorganic phosphate (Pi), which has low availability and poor mobility. To cope with Pi limitations, plants have evolved complex adaptive responses that include morphological and physiological modifications. This review describes how the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana adapts its root system architecture to phosphate deficiency through inhibition of primary root growth, increase in lateral root formation and growth and production of root hairs, which all promote topsoil foraging. A better understanding of plant adaptation to low phosphate will open the way to increased phosphorus use efficiency by crops. Such an improvement is needed in order to adjust how we manage limited phosphorus stocks and to reduce the disastrous environmental effects of phosphate fertilizers overuse. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. [Phosphate binders in chronic kidney disease: the positions of sevelamer]. (United States)

    Fomin, V V; Shilov, E M; Svistunov, A A; Milovanov, Iu S


    The paper shows the role of phosphate binders in the correction of phosphorus and calcium metabolic disturbances in chronic kidney disease. The results of clinical trials demonstrating the efficacy and safety of sevelamer are discussed.

  5. Phosphate Rock Dissolution and Availability in Some Soils of Semi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fiifi Baidoo

    crop production with less expensive indigenous phosphate rocks (PRs) merits the attention of ... spectrophoto-meter at 712 nm following the procedure of Murphy & Riley (1962). Laboratory analyses ..... L. M. and Goh K. M. (1989). Effects of ...

  6. physico-chemical characterization of ogun and sokoto phosphate ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    indicating their liming potential in the soil. ORP was more soluble in ... industry as a source of uranium and rare earth metals, ... limestones; and primary phosphatic shales, limestones ..... may help to reduce P leaching and run off losses after.

  7. Effectiveness and cost-efficiency of phosphate binders in hemodialysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zsifkovits, Johannes


    Full Text Available Health political background: In 2006, the prevalence of chronic renal insufficiency in Germany was 91,718, of which 66,508 patients were on dialysis. The tendency is clearly growing. Scientific background: Chronic renal insufficiency results in a disturbance of the mineral balance. It leads to hyperphosphataemia, which is the strongest independent risk factor for mortality in renal patients. Usually, a reduction in the phosphate intake through nutrition and the amount of phosphate filtered out during dialysis are not sufficient to reduce the serum phosphate values to the recommended value. Therefore, phosphate binders are used to bind ingested phosphate in the digestive tract in order to lower the phosphate concentration in the serum. Four different groups of phosphate binders are available: calcium- and aluminium salts are the traditional therapies. Sevelamer and Lanthanum are recent developments on the market. In varying doses, all phosphate binders are able to effectively lower phosphate concentrations. However, drug therapies have achieved recommended phosphate levels in only 50 percent of patients during the last years. Research questions: How effective and efficient are the different phosphate binders in chronic renal insufficient patients? Methods: The systematic literature search yielded 1,251 abstracts. Following a two-part selection process with predefined criteria 18 publications were included in the assessment. Results: All studies evaluated conclude that serum phosphate, serum calcium and intact parathyroid hormone can be controlled effectively with all phosphate binders. Only the number of episodes of hypercalcaemia is higher when using calcium-containing phosphatebinders compared to Sevelamer and Lanthanum. Regarding the mortality rate, the cardiovascular artery calcification and bone metabolism no definite conclusions can be drawn. In any case, the amount of calcification at study start seems to be crucial for the further

  8. Adsorption of 2-mercaptobenzothiazole on copper surface from phosphate solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kazansky, L.P.; Selyaninov, I.A.; Kuznetsov, Yu.I.


    Analysis of the electrochemical and XPS results has shown that adsorption of 2-mercaptobenzothiazole (MBT) on copper electrodes in neutral phosphate solutions proceeds through the formation of the chemical bonds by copper (I) cations with exo-sulfur and nitrogen atoms. A protection layer formed of Cu(I)MBT complex prevents precipitation of copper (II) phosphate on a copper surface. The thickness of the surface film consisting of a complex [Cu(I)MBT] n (having probably polymeric nature), where MBT acts as at least three-dentate ligand, increases depending on the exposure time, reaching 8-9 nm after immersing for 12 h in test solution. Even in a case of the preliminary formation of copper (II) phosphate on the copper electrode at the anodic potential addition of small amounts of MBT results in complete removal of copper (II) phosphate from the surface.

  9. Radioactivity in the phosphate field: actions undertaken by IMPHOS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mrabet, T.; Kotti, M.M.


    In order to prevent a potentially negative impact on the phosphate industry of the European Council Directive 96/29/Euratom, IMPHOS participated in several events where discussions were held on the issue of NORM and the consequences of the application of the Directive for the non-nuclear industries, including all the NORM symposia from September 1997 to May 2004. In addition, IMPHOS has undertaken actions to establish an ad hoc committee with members designated by member companies and to initiate a desktop study conducted by CEPN to review the implications of applying the Directive for the phosphate industry. This study is an important collection of data on radiological protection, including doses expected to be received by exposed individuals and monitoring considerations. The main conclusions of these actions are that the radioactivity in the phosphate industry is relatively insignificant, with the total annual exposure of a phosphate worker being less than three thousandths of the limit recommended by the ICRP. (author)

  10. Characterization of cement calcium phosphate for use dental

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barros, C.M.B.; Oliveira, S.V.; Silva, M.C.; Marques, J.B.; Fook, M.V.L.


    Calcium phosphates are interesting biological and medical attention due to its occurrence in different animal species and humans. Ceramics based on calcium phosphate in the form of implants or porous particulate materials, have proven to be suitable replacements for bone tissue when they are only subjected to small mechanical stresses. Was obtained research laboratory DEMA/UFCG a calcium phosphate phase. The goal is to characterize the material by X-ray diffraction (XRD) in order to analyze what the phases and infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) to identify the absorption bands of the bonding characteristic. Was identified by XRD phase present in the sample is hydroxyapatite Ca/P 1.67. In infrared spectroscopy has absorption bands characteristic of the phosphate group at 1032 cm1 region. (author)

  11. Favourable uranium–phosphate exploration trends guided by the ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    by the application of statistical factor analysis technique ... Keywords. Phosphate and uranium prospecting; aerial spectrometry survey; stratigraphic–structural traps; Syrian desert;. Syria. ... level, this linearity was not as good (Jubeli 1997).

  12. Proton transport properties of tin phosphate, chromotropic acid ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The functionalized materials of tin (IV) phosphate (SnP) like chromotropic acid anchored tin ... elemental analysis (ICP–AES), thermal analysis, X-ray analysis and FTIR spectroscopy. .... nal level below 1 V, interfaced to a minicomputer for data.

  13. Investigation of Wear Coefficient of Manganese Phosphate Coated Tool Steel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Ilaiyavel


    Full Text Available In recent years the properties of the coating in terms of wear resistance is of paramount importance in order to prevent the formation of severe damages. In this study, Wear coefficient of uncoated, Manganese Phosphate coated, Manganese Phosphate coated with oil lubricant, Heat treated Manganese Phosphate coated with oil lubricant on AISI D2 steels was investigated using Archard’s equation. The wear tests were performed in a pin on disk apparatus as per ASTM G-99 Standard. The volumetric wear loss and wear coefficient were evaluated through pin on disc test using a sliding velocity of 3.0 m/s under normal load of 40 N and controlled condition of temperature and humidity. Based on the results of the wear test, the Heat treated Manganese Phosphate with oil lubricant exhibited the lowest average wear coefficient and the lowest wear loss under 40 N load.

  14. Phosphate bonded ceramics as candidate final-waste-form materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, D.; Wagh, A.S.; Cunnane, J.; Sutaria, M.; Kurokawa, S.; Mayberry, J.


    Room-temperature setting phosphate-bonded ceramics were studied as candidate materials for stabilization of DOE low-level problem mixed wastes which cannot be treated by other established stabilization techniques. Phosphates of Mg, Mg-Na, Al and Zr were studied to stabilize ash surrogate waste containing RCRA metals as nitrates and RCRA organics. We show that for a typical loading of 35 wt.% of the ash waste, the phosphate ceramics pass the TCLP test. The waste forms have high compression strength exceeding ASTM recommendations for final waste forms. Detailed X-ray diffraction studies and differential thermal analyses of the waste forms show evidence of chemical reaction of the waste with phosphoric acid and the host matrix. The SEM studies show evidence of physical bonding. The excellent performance in the leaching tests is attributed to a chemical solidification and physical as well as chemical bonding of ash wastes in these phosphate ceramics

  15. application of ascorbic acid 2-phosphate as a new voltammetric

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    acid 2-phosphate (AAP) as a new voltammetric substrate has been described in this paper. In the alkaline buffer .... ALP labeled goat anti-rabbit ..... Classical Michaelis-Menten kinetic experiments were carried out to measure the maximum.

  16. Intercomparison of radon emanation in Moroccan and Tunisian phosphate rocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khalil, A.; Membrey, F.; Klein, D.; Chambaudet, A.; Iraqui, R.


    We suggest a method for measuring the emanation of radon gas of phosphates mineral from different origins using solid state track nuclear detectors (CR39 and LR115) with the aim to determinate radioactivity effects on the human. (author)

  17. Preparation and Characterization of Apatitic Biphasic Calcium Phosphate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thin Thin Nwe; Kyaw Naing; Khin Mar Tun; Nyunt Wynn


    The apatitic biphasic calcium phosphate (ABcp) consisting of hydroxyapatite (HA) and -tricalcium phosphate ( -Tcp) has been prepared by precipitation technique using slaked lime and orthophosphoric acid. The X-ray diffraction analysis of the product I (hydroxyapatite) revealed that ABcp was partially crystalline state. However, on heating at 800 C for 8 hrs, XRD pattern indicated a perfectly crystalline form of ABcp. This observation was supported by FT-IR measurement. The change in morphology regarding in the functional nature was infered by the shift in the FT-IR frequency. The optimization of the apatitic biphasic calcium phosphate was done by the variation of disodium hydrogen phosphate concentration, setting time, hardening time as well as compressive strength. The perpared cement may be used as an artificial substitution bone

  18. Regularities in Low-Temperature Phosphatization of Silicates (United States)

    Savenko, A. V.


    The regularities in low-temperature phosphatization of silicates are defined from long-term experiments on the interaction between different silicate minerals and phosphate-bearing solutions in a wide range of medium acidity. It is shown that the parameters of the reaction of phosphatization of hornblende, orthoclase, and labradorite have the same values as for clayey minerals (kaolinite and montmorillonite). This effect may appear, if phosphotization proceeds, not after silicate minerals with a different structure and composition, but after a secondary silicate phase formed upon interaction between silicates and water and stable in a certain pH range. Variation in the parameters of the reaction of phosphatization at pH ≈ 1.8 is due to the stability of the silicate phase different from that at higher pH values.

  19. 3D printing of octacalcium phosphate bone substitutes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir S. Komlev


    Full Text Available Biocompatible calcium phosphate ceramic grafts are able of supporting new bone formation in appropriate environment. The major limitation of these materials usage for medical implants is the absence of accessible methods for their patient-specific fabrication. 3D printing methodology is an excellent approach to overcome the limitation supporting effective and fast fabrication of individual complex bone substitutes. Here we proposed a relatively simple route for 3D printing of octacalcium phosphates in complexly shaped structures by the combination of inkjet printing with post-treatment methodology. The printed octacalcium phosphate blocks were further implanted in the developed cranial bone defect followed by histological evaluation. The obtained result confirmed the potential of the developed octacalcium phosphates bone substitutes, which allowed 2.5-time reducing of defect’s diameter at 6.5 months in a region where native bone repair is extremely inefficient.

  20. Reagentless phosphate ion sensor system for environmental monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suzuki, M.; Kurata, H.; Inoue, Y.; Shin, H. [Kyushu Institute of Technology, Fukuoka (Japan). Faculty of computer Science and Systems; Kubo, I. [Soka University, Tokyo (Japan). Faculty of Engineering; Nakamura, H.; Ikebukuro, K.; Karube, I. [The University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan). Research Center for Advanced Science and Technology


    Phosphate ion sensor system using an electrochemical detector was developed by the use of recombinant pyruvate oxidase (PyOD) from Lactobacillus plantarum, which needs no addition of thiamine pyrophosphate and flavin adenine dinucleotide for reaction. This system could detect 2 nM hydrogen peroxide. Response time for phosphate ion was 80 s and total measurement time for one sample was 3 min. Citrate buffer solution (pH 6.3) was most suitable for the measurement and optimum flow rate was 0.6 ml/min. Under these optimum conditions minimum detection limit of phosphate ion was 15 nM, which was enough for the determination of phosphate ion in dam-lake. 6 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.