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Sample records for phone radiation inhibits

  1. Mobile phone radiation inhibits Vigna radiata (mung bean) root growth by inducing oxidative stress

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharma, Ved Parkash [Department of Environment and Vocational Studies, Panjab University, Chandigarh 160014 (India); Department of Zoology, Panjab University, Chandigarh 160014 (India); Singh, Harminder Pal, E-mail: hpsingh_01@yahoo.com [Department of Environment and Vocational Studies, Panjab University, Chandigarh 160014 (India); Kohli, Ravinder Kumar; Batish, Daizy Rani [Department of Botany, Panjab University, Chandigarh 160014 (India)

    2009-10-15

    During the last couple of decades, there has been a tremendous increase in the use of cell phones. It has significantly added to the rapidly increasing EMF smog, an unprecedented type of pollution consisting of radiation in the environment, thereby prompting the scientists to study the effects on humans. However, not many studies have been conducted to explore the effects of cell phone EMFr on growth and biochemical changes in plants. We investigated whether EMFr from cell phones inhibit growth of Vigna radiata (mung bean) through induction of conventional stress responses. Effects of cell phone EMFr (power density: 8.55 {mu}W cm{sup -2}; 900 MHz band width; for 1/2, 1, 2, and 4 h) were determined by measuring the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in terms of malondialdehyde and hydrogen peroxide (H{sub 2}O{sub 2}) content, root oxidizability and changes in levels of antioxidant enzymes. Our results showed that cell phone EMFr significantly inhibited the germination (at {>=}2 h), and radicle and plumule growths ({>=}1 h) in mung bean in a time-dependent manner. Further, cell phone EMFr enhanced MDA content (indicating lipid peroxidation), and increased H{sub 2}O{sub 2} accumulation and root oxidizability in mung bean roots, thereby inducing oxidative stress and cellular damage. In response to EMFr, there was a significant upregulation in the activities of scavenging enzymes, such as superoxide dismutases, ascorbate peroxidases, guaiacol peroxidases, catalases and glutathione reductases, in mung bean roots. The study concluded that cell phone EMFr inhibit root growth of mung bean by inducing ROS-generated oxidative stress despite increased activities of antioxidant enzymes.

  2. Mobile phone radiation inhibits Vigna radiata (mung bean) root growth by inducing oxidative stress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, Ved Parkash; Singh, Harminder Pal; Kohli, Ravinder Kumar; Batish, Daizy Rani

    2009-01-01

    During the last couple of decades, there has been a tremendous increase in the use of cell phones. It has significantly added to the rapidly increasing EMF smog, an unprecedented type of pollution consisting of radiation in the environment, thereby prompting the scientists to study the effects on humans. However, not many studies have been conducted to explore the effects of cell phone EMFr on growth and biochemical changes in plants. We investigated whether EMFr from cell phones inhibit growth of Vigna radiata (mung bean) through induction of conventional stress responses. Effects of cell phone EMFr (power density: 8.55 μW cm -2 ; 900 MHz band width; for 1/2, 1, 2, and 4 h) were determined by measuring the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in terms of malondialdehyde and hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ) content, root oxidizability and changes in levels of antioxidant enzymes. Our results showed that cell phone EMFr significantly inhibited the germination (at ≥2 h), and radicle and plumule growths (≥1 h) in mung bean in a time-dependent manner. Further, cell phone EMFr enhanced MDA content (indicating lipid peroxidation), and increased H 2 O 2 accumulation and root oxidizability in mung bean roots, thereby inducing oxidative stress and cellular damage. In response to EMFr, there was a significant upregulation in the activities of scavenging enzymes, such as superoxide dismutases, ascorbate peroxidases, guaiacol peroxidases, catalases and glutathione reductases, in mung bean roots. The study concluded that cell phone EMFr inhibit root growth of mung bean by inducing ROS-generated oxidative stress despite increased activities of antioxidant enzymes.

  3. Mobile Phone Radiation and Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plotz, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    A possible link between cancer and the usage of mobile phones has been widely discussed in the media in the last 10 years. It is no surprise that students keep asking their physics teacher for advice regarding the handling of mobile phones and mobile phone radiation. This article aims to help teachers include this interesting topic in the…

  4. Cell Phone RF Radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdul-Razzaq, Wathiq

    2015-01-01

    In a recent article in "Physics Today," Meredith and Redish emphasized the need to make introductory physics courses beneficial for life sciences majors. In this study, a lab activity is proposed to measure the intensity of electromagnetic waves emitted by cell phones and connect these measurements to various standards, biological…

  5. Phantoms for Radiation Measurements of Mobile Phones

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Gert Frølund

    2001-01-01

    Measurements of radiation efficiency for a handheld phone equipped with a patch and a helical antenna operated near the human user have been performed. Both measurements include a simple head plus hand phantom and live persons are considered. The position of the hand on the phone is found...... to be the main reason for the large variation in radiation efficiency among persons. The tilt angle of the phone and the distance between the head and phone only play a minor role...

  6. A radiation measurement study on cellular phone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohd Yusof Mohd Ali; Rozaimah Abd Rahim; Roha Tukimin; Khairol Nizam Mohamed; Mohd Amirul Nizam Mohamad Thari; Ahmad Fadzli Ahmad Sanusi

    2007-01-01

    This paper will explain the radiation level produced by various selected cellular phone from various models and brands available in the market. The result obtained from this study will also recommend whether a cellular phone is safe for public usage or it might cause any effect on public health. Finally, a database of radiation measurement level produced by selected various cellular phone will also be developed and exhibited in this paper. (Author)

  7. Evaluation of the mobile phone electromagnetic radiation on serum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Evaluation of the mobile phone electromagnetic radiation on serum iron parameters in rats. ... African Health Sciences ... Background: Electromagnetic fields (EMF) created by mobile phones during communication have harmful effects on ...

  8. Mobile Phone Radiation: Physiological & Pathophysiologcal Considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    K Sri, Nageswari

    2015-01-01

    It is documented that electromagnetic emissions from mobile phones can interfere with brain's signal processing activity due to their oscillatory similitude to the inherent rhythms of the brain, akin to "electromagnetic interference" observed while using mobile phones in aeroplanes. At high power density levels, thermal effects occur, some of which can be attributed to heat induced stress mechanisms. The less understood non-thermal effects occur at low radio frequency/microwave power density levels and are not accompanied by any body temperature rise. The safety standards set by international agencies are based on thermal effects. For the mobile phones, ICNIRP 1998 guidelines restrict spatial peak of microwave exposure to 2 W/Kg SAR values averaged over 10 g of tissue for 6 minutes. Some of the reported electromagnetic radiation (EMR) induced adverse effects are brain tumours, male infertility and immune dysfunction with increased susceptibility to infections. Pathophysiological mechanisms of interaction of EMR at plasma membrane are calcium efflux from cell membranes, increased expression of stress proteins, influence on channels/gap junctions in cell membrane, overproduction of reactive oxygen species, ornithine decarboxylase activation, reduction in melatonin levels, decrease in protein kinase C activity, damage to DNA and change in gene expression in brain cells and altered blood-brain barrier. There are equal number of conflicting reports in literature regarding EMR exposure and brain tumours. A comprehensive review concludes "overall the studies published to date do not demonstrate an increased risk within approximately 10 years of use for any tumour of the brain or any other head tumour." Another review summarises that there is "enough data to convince that long-term exposure to low intensity EMR below the ICNIRP guidelines can promote cancer development". However the time limit for exposure has been suggested as more than 10 years. For conducting

  9. Radiation of Base Stations of Mobile Phone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lipnjak, G.

    2003-01-01

    In recent years there has been a rapid expansion of new, technological sources of non-ionizing electromagnetic radiation from mobile phones, microwave ovens, various antennas, transmitters, new ultrasound devices. The category of non-ionizing radiation includes electromagnetic radiation at frequencies below 3 000 000 GHz or at ultrasound frequencies below 500 MHz which in interaction with substances do not generate ions. In view of this trend concerns have been raised about the impact of these new (radiation) sources on human health. An increasing amount of scientific research points to the fact that NIR causes various adverse effects to human health: eyes injuries, irritability, insomnia, temporary changes in the metabolism, hazardous heat stress and even carcinoma. The manufacturers and users of radio wave equipment pay great attention to the influence of the electromagnetic fields on human health. This issue has been taken into serious consideration, which is confirmed by a number of studies carried out either by mobile phone manufacturers or by many independent organizations. The limits of electromagnetic radiation exposure are defined in numerous standards and international rule books, and if these limits are complied with, then, according to present knowledge, there is no risk. Considering the concerns of the employees of Ericsson Nikola Tesla the levels of radiation from various types of base stations on company premises were examined. It was found out that there is no hazard to the health of employees. Still, further research is required and it is initiated both by the users and manufacturers of the mobile telephony equipment. (author)

  10. Study Regarding Electromagnetic Radiation Exposure Generated By Mobile Phone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marica, Lucia; Moraru, Luminita

    2011-12-01

    Number of mobile phone users reached to 5 billion subscribers in 2010 [ABI Research, 2010]. A large number of studies illustrated the public concern about adverse effects of mobile phone radiation and possible health hazards. Position of mobile phone use in close proximity to the head leads the main radiation between the hand and the head. Many investigations studying the possible effects of mobile phone exposure, founded no measurable effects of short-term mobile phone radiation, and there was no evidence for the ability to perceive mobile phone EMF in the general population. In this study, field radiation measurements were performed on different brand and different models of mobile phones in active mode, using an EMF RF Radiation Field Strength Power Meter 1 MHz-8 GHz. The study was effectuated on both the 2G and 3G generations phones connected to the providers operating in the frequency range 450 MHz-1800 MHz. There were recorded values in outgoing call and SMS mode, incoming call and SMS mode. Results were compared with ICNIRP guidelines for exposure to general public.

  11. Study Regarding Electromagnetic Radiation Exposure Generated By Mobile Phone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marica, Lucia; Moraru, Luminita

    2011-01-01

    Number of mobile phone users reached to 5 billion subscribers in 2010 [ABI Research, 2010]. A large number of studies illustrated the public concern about adverse effects of mobile phone radiation and possible health hazards. Position of mobile phone use in close proximity to the head leads the main radiation between the hand and the head. Many investigations studying the possible effects of mobile phone exposure, founded no measurable effects of short-term mobile phone radiation, and there was no evidence for the ability to perceive mobile phone EMF in the general population. In this study, field radiation measurements were performed on different brand and different models of mobile phones in active mode, using an EMF RF Radiation Field Strength Power Meter 1 MHz-8 GHz. The study was effectuated on both the 2G and 3G generations phones connected to the providers operating in the frequency range 450 MHz-1800 MHz. There were recorded values in outgoing call and SMS mode, incoming call and SMS mode. Results were compared with ICNIRP guidelines for exposure to general public.

  12. The development of wireless radiation dose monitoring using smart phone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jin Woo; Jeong, Gyo Seong; Lee, Yun Jong [Advanced Radiation Technology Institute, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Jeongeup (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Chong Yeal [Chonbuk National University, Jeonju (Korea, Republic of); Lim, Chai Wan [REMTECH, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-11-15

    Radiation workers at a nuclear facility or radiation working area should hold personal dosimeters. some types of dosimeters have functions to generate audible or visible alarms to radiation workers. However, such devices used in radiation fields these days have no functions to communicate with other equipment or the responsible personnel. our project aims at the development of a remote wireless radiation dose monitoring system that can be utilized to monitor the radiation dose for radiation workers and to notify the radiation protection manager of the dose information in real time. We use a commercial survey meter for personal radiation measurement and a smart phone for a mobile wireless communication tool and a Beacon for position detection of radiation workers using Blue tooth communication. In this report, the developed wireless dose monitoring of cellular phone is introduced.

  13. [Mobile phones radiate--risk to the health?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jokela, Kari; Auvinen, Anssi; Hämäläinen, Heikki

    2011-01-01

    The mobile phones radiate electromagnetic energy which is partly absorbed into the tissues in the vicinity of the phone. The minor heating, in maximum up to 0.3 degrees C, may cause some alterations in the expression of genes and proteins similar to physiological response to other stimuli. Biophysical studies at the cellular and molecular level have not revealed any well established interaction mechanism, through which mobile phone radiation could induce toxic effects below the thermal effect level. Research results on various biological effects in vitro and in vivo are continuously published but there is no consistent evidence on well established harmful effects. The mobile phone radiation is not carcinogenic for experimental animals or genotoxic for cells. According to epidemiological studies and psychophysiological brain function studies the use of mobile phones does not seem to increase the risk of tumors in the head and brain or disturb the function of central nervous system. However, there is a need for more research on the long-term effects of mobile phone radiation particularly on children.

  14. ELISA reader does not interfere by mobile phone radiofrequency radiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyyed Mohammad Javad Mortazavi

    2016-01-01

    Conclusion: This study showed that ELISA reader does not interfere by mobile phone RF radiation at a closed contact (less than 5 cm distance. However, we recommend that medical institutions discuss these issues in the context of their specific use of technologies and frame a policy that is clear and straightforward to guide staff, patients, and visitors.

  15. SAR and Mobile Phone Radiation Hazard. How Aware are College Students in Delhi?

    OpenAIRE

    Daminee Saini

    2017-01-01

    Mobile phones have become the most common gadget in the world today and are found in the hands of students most of the time. With advancement in mobile technology, usage of mobile phones has increased significantly. Mobile phone functioning uses electromagnetic radiation in the microwave range, which may be harmful to human health. Research has focused on this aspect since the invention of mobile phones and there seems to be a consensus that mobile phone radiations have an impact on human bei...

  16. Radio frequency radiation (RFR) exposures from mobile phones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joyner, K.H.; Lubinas, V.; Wood, M.P.; Saribalas, J.; Adams, J.A.

    1992-01-01

    Measurements of the free space levels of radio frequency radiation (RFR) around a hand-held mobile phone and the specific absorption rate (SAR) induced in the ocular region of a phantom head exposed to RFR from a mobile phone are presented. The level of RFR measured 5 cm from the antenna of a mobile phone transmitting 600 mW was 0.27 mW/cm 2 . The average SAR level measured in the nearside eye of the phantom head containing tissue equivalent jellies was 0.7 W/kg for a 600 mW transmit power which is very much less than the spatial peak limit of 8 W/kg underlying the Australian and other national and international RFR exposure standards. (author)

  17. The impact of cell phone radiation on health

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salakhov, A.Z.

    2013-01-01

    Constant exposure to radio frequency signals from mobile phones and their base stations could adversely affect on human health. As a consequence, as a result of this impact it is appeared frequent headaches, loss of memory and concentration, tension in the eardrum and sudden bouts of fatigue, childhood leukemia, brain tumors, eye cataracts, cardiovascular diseases, disorders of the nervous system. Some people suffer from hyperelectrosensitivity. It should be noted that the analog phones much more harmful to human health than digital ones. Radio frequency of electromagnetic fields which is used by a modern cellular communications is in the range from 450 MHz to 1.9 GHz. Such fields unlike to ionizing radiation can not cause secondary radioactivity in the body. The cell phone is a device having a potential danger to health, so it is advisable wherever possible to protect yourselves from its use, or at least to minimize its use

  18. NMR imaging of cell phone radiation absorption in brain tissue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gultekin, David H.; Moeller, Lothar

    2013-01-01

    A method is described for measuring absorbed electromagnetic energy radiated from cell phone antennae into ex vivo brain tissue. NMR images the 3D thermal dynamics inside ex vivo bovine brain tissue and equivalent gel under exposure to power and irradiation time-varying radio frequency (RF) fields. The absorbed RF energy in brain tissue converts into Joule heat and affects the nuclear magnetic shielding and the Larmor precession. The resultant temperature increase is measured by the resonance frequency shift of hydrogen protons in brain tissue. This proposed application of NMR thermometry offers sufficient spatial and temporal resolution to characterize the hot spots from absorbed cell phone radiation in aqueous media and biological tissues. Specific absorption rate measurements averaged over 1 mg and 10 s in the brain tissue cover the total absorption volume. Reference measurements with fiber optic temperature sensors confirm the accuracy of the NMR thermometry. PMID:23248293

  19. Radiofrequency radiation injures trees around mobile phone base stations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldmann-Selsam, Cornelia; Balmori-de la Puente, Alfonso; Breunig, Helmut; Balmori, Alfonso

    2016-12-01

    In the last two decades, the deployment of phone masts around the world has taken place and, for many years, there has been a discussion in the scientific community about the possible environmental impact from mobile phone base stations. Trees have several advantages over animals as experimental subjects and the aim of this study was to verify whether there is a connection between unusual (generally unilateral) tree damage and radiofrequency exposure. To achieve this, a detailed long-term (2006-2015) field monitoring study was performed in the cities of Bamberg and Hallstadt (Germany). During monitoring, observations and photographic recordings of unusual or unexplainable tree damage were taken, alongside the measurement of electromagnetic radiation. In 2015 measurements of RF-EMF (Radiofrequency Electromagnetic Fields) were carried out. A polygon spanning both cities was chosen as the study site, where 144 measurements of the radiofrequency of electromagnetic fields were taken at a height of 1.5m in streets and parks at different locations. By interpolation of the 144 measurement points, we were able to compile an electromagnetic map of the power flux density in Bamberg and Hallstadt. We selected 60 damaged trees, in addition to 30 randomly selected trees and 30 trees in low radiation areas (n=120) in this polygon. The measurements of all trees revealed significant differences between the damaged side facing a phone mast and the opposite side, as well as differences between the exposed side of damaged trees and all other groups of trees in both sides. Thus, we found that side differences in measured values of power flux density corresponded to side differences in damage. The 30 selected trees in low radiation areas (no visual contact to any phone mast and power flux density under 50μW/m 2 ) showed no damage. Statistical analysis demonstrated that electromagnetic radiation from mobile phone masts is harmful for trees. These results are consistent with the fact

  20. Radiation accident dosimetry: TL properties of mobile phone screen glass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bassinet, C.; Pirault, N.; Baumann, M.; Clairand, I.

    2014-01-01

    Mobile phones are carried by a large part of the population and previous studies have shown that they may be able to function as individual fortuitous dosimeters in case of radiological accident. This study deals with thermoluminescence (TL) properties of mobile phone screen glass. The presence of a significant background signal which partially overlaps with the radiation-induced signal is a serious issue for dose reconstruction. A mechanical method to reduce this signal using a diamond grinding bit is presented. An over-response at low energy (∼50 keV) is observed for two investigated glasses. The results of a dose recovery test using a single-aliquot regenerative-dose (SAR) procedure are discussed. - Highlights: • Mobile phone screen glass is a promising material for retrospective dosimetry. • The TL non-radiation induced background signal can be significantly reduced by a mechanical method. • A dose recovery test using an SAR procedure was successfully carried out for the investigated glass

  1. ELISA reader does not interfere by mobile phone radiofrequency radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mortazavi, Seyyed Mohammad Javad; Baradaran-Ghahfarokhi, Hamid Reza; Abdi, Mohammad Reza; Baradaran-Ghahfarokhi, Milad; Mostafavi, Nayyer Sadat; Mahmoudi, Golshan; Berenjkoub, Nafiseh; Akmali, Zahra; Hossein-Beigi, Fahimeh; Arsang, Vajiheh

    2016-01-01

    Background: The increasing number of mobile phones can physically cause electromagnetic interference (EMI) in medical environments; can also cause errors in immunoassays in laboratories. The ELISA readers are widely used as a useful diagnostic tool for Enzymun colorimetric assay in medicine. The aim of this study was to investigate whether the ELISA reader could be interfered by the exposure to the 900 MHz cell phones in the laboratory. Materials and Methods: Human serum samples were collected from 14 healthy donors (9 women and 5 men) and each sample was divided into four aliquots and was placed into four batches for the in-vitro quantitative determination of human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG). During colorimetric reading of the first, second, and third batches, the ELISA reader (Stat Fax 2100, Awareness Technology, Inc., USA) was exposed to 0.5, 1.0, and 2.0 W exposure of 900 MHz radiation, respectively. For the forth batch (control group), no radiation was applied. All experiments were performed comparing ELISA read out results of the I, II, and III batches with the control batch, using the Wilcoxon test with criterion level of P = 0.050. Results: The final scores in the exposed batches I, II, and III were not statistically significant relative to the control batch (P > 0.05). The results showed that 900 MHz radiation exposure did not alter the ELISA measured levels of hCG hormone in I (P = 0.219), II (P = 0.909), and III (P = 0.056) batches compared to the control batch. Conclusion: This study showed that ELISA reader does not interfere by mobile phone RF radiation at a closed contact (less than 5 cm distance). However, we recommend that medical institutions discuss these issues in the context of their specific use of technologies and frame a policy that is clear and straightforward to guide staff, patients, and visitors. PMID:27376040

  2. Radiation safety of mobile phones and base stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jokela, K.; Leszczynski, D.; Paile, W.; Salomaa, S.; Puranen, L.; Hyysalo, P.

    1997-06-01

    The recent expansion of personal telecommunications has led to a rapid increase in the exposure of people to the radio-frequency (RF) radiation. Although the mobile phones are low power devices, the antenna is so close to the head that the local exposure may slightly exceed 2 W/kg, the current exposure limit for the local specific absorption rate SAR for the general public. The increase in the temperature is, however, too small to have any physiological significance. On the basis of experiments with cell cultures it is possible that other biological effects caused by some unknown non-thermal mechanism exist, but thus far there is conclusive biological or epidemiological evidence to suggest any diseases adverse physiological changes below the thermal threshold. The use of a mobile phone by a person wearing a pace-maker, the immunity which against the electromagnetic interference from the mobile phone has not be assured, is not recommended. The exposure caused by the base stations is in almost all practical ceases all below the power density limits for general public. (orig.) (115 refs.)

  3. Tinnitus and cell phones: the role of electromagnetic radiofrequency radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medeiros, Luisa Nascimento; Sanchez, Tanit Ganz

    2016-01-01

    Tinnitus is a multifactorial condition and its prevalence has increased on the past decades. The worldwide progressive increase of the use of cell phones has exposed the peripheral auditory pathways to a higher dose of electromagnetic radiofrequency radiation (EMRFR). Some tinnitus patients report that the abusive use of mobiles, especially when repeated in the same ear, might worsen ipsilateral tinnitus. The aim of this study was to evaluate the available evidence about the possible causal association between tinnitus and exposure to electromagnetic waves. A literature review was performed searching for the following keywords: tinnitus, electromagnetic field, mobile phones, radio frequency, and electromagnetic hypersensitivity. We selected 165 articles that were considered clinically relevant in at least one of the subjects. EMRFR can penetrate exposed tissues and safety exposure levels have been established. These waves provoke proved thermogenic effects and potential biological and genotoxic effects. Some individuals are more sensitive to electromagnetic exposure (electrosensitivity), and thus, present earlier symptoms. There may be a common pathophysiology between this electrosensitivity and tinnitus. There are already reasonable evidences to suggest caution for using mobile phones to prevent auditory damage and the onset or worsening of tinnitus. Copyright © 2015 Associação Brasileira de Otorrinolaringologia e Cirurgia Cérvico-Facial. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  4. Radiation dosimetry properties of smart-phone CMOS sensors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Hoey, Olivier; Salavrakos, Alexia; Marques, Antonio; Nagao, Alexandre; Vanhavere, Filip; Cauwels, Vanessa; Nascimento, Luana F.; Willems, Ruben

    2016-01-01

    During the past years, several smart-phone applications have been developed for radiation detection. These applications measure radiation using the smart-phone camera complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor sensor. They are potentially useful for data collection and personal dose assessment in case of a radiological incident. However, it is important to assess these applications. Six applications were tested by means of irradiations with calibrated X-ray and gamma sources. It was shown that the measurement stabilises only after at least 10-25 min. All applications exhibited a flat dose rate response in the studied ambient dose equivalent range from 2 to 1000 μSv h -1 . Most applications significantly over- or underestimate the dose rate or are not calibrated in terms of dose rate. A considerable energy dependence was observed below 100 keV but not for the higher energy range more relevant for incident scenarios. Photon impact angle variation gave a measured signal variation of only about 10 %. (authors)

  5. Biomarkers in volunteers exposed to mobile phone radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Söderqvist, Fredrik; Carlberg, Michael; Hardell, Lennart

    2015-06-01

    For some time it has been investigated whether low-intensity non-thermal microwave radiation from mobile phones adversely affects the mammalian blood-brain barrier (BBB). All such studies except one have been either in vitro or experimental animal studies. The one carried out on humans showed a statistically significant increase in serum transthyretin (TTR) 60 min after finishing of a 30-min microwave exposure session. The aim of the present study was to follow up on the finding of the previous one using a better study design. Using biomarkers analyzed in blood serum before and after the exposure this single blinded randomized counterbalanced study, including 24 healthy subjects aged 18-30 years that all underwent three exposure conditions (SAR(10G)=2 W/kg, SAR(10G)=0.2 W/kg, sham), tested whether microwaves from an 890-MHz phone-like signal give acute effects on the integrity of brain-shielding barriers. Over time, statistically significant variations were found for two of the three biomarkers (TTR; β-trace protein); however, no such difference was found between the different exposure conditions nor was there any interaction between exposure condition and time of blood sampling. In conclusion this study failed to show any acute clinically or statistically significant effect of short term microwave exposure on the serum levels of S100β, TTR and β-trace protein with a follow up limited to two hours. The study was hampered by the fact that all study persons were regular wireless phone users and thus not naïve as to microwave exposure. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Radiation safety of handheld mobile phones and base stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jokela, K.; Leszczynski, D.; Paile, W.; Salomaa, S.; Puranen, L.; Hyysalo, P.

    1999-01-01

    The recent expansion of personal telecommunications has led to a rapid increase in the exposure of people to the radio-frequency (RF) radiation. Although the mobile phones are low power devices, the antenna is so close to the head that the local exposure may slightly exceed 2 W/kg, the current exposure limit for the local specific absorption rate SAR for the general public. The increase in the temperature is, however, too small to have any physiological significance. On the basis of experiments with cell cultures it is possible that other biological effects caused by some unknown non-thermal mechanism exist, but thus far there is no conclusive biological or epidemiological evidence to suggest any diseases or adverse physiological changes below the thermal threshold. The use of a mobile phone by a person wearing a pace-maker, is not recommended, if the immunity of the pace-maker has not been assured. The exposure caused by the base stations is in all practical cases well below the power density limits for general public. (author)

  7. Radiation safety of handheld mobile phones and base stations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jokela, K.; Leszczynski, D.; Paile, W.; Salomaa, S.; Puranen, L.; Hyysalo, P

    1999-01-01

    The recent expansion of personal telecommunications has led to a rapid increase in the exposure of people to the radio-frequency (RF) radiation. Although the mobile phones are low power devices, the antenna is so close to the head that the local exposure may slightly exceed 2 W/kg, the current exposure limit for the local specific absorption rate SAR for the general public. The increase in the temperature is, however, too small to have any physiological significance. On the basis of experiments with cell cultures it is possible that other biological effects caused by some unknown non-thermal mechanism exist, but thus far there is no conclusive biological or epidemiological evidence to suggest any diseases or adverse physiological changes below the thermal threshold. The use of a mobile phone by a person wearing a pace-maker, is not recommended, if the immunity of the pace-maker has not been assured. The exposure caused by the base stations is in all practical cases well below the power density limits for general public. (author) 118 refs.

  8. Effect of mobile phone electromagnetic radiation on somitogenesis of birds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yakimenko, I.L.; Khenshel', D.; Sidorik, E.P.; Tsybulin, A.S.; Rozumnyuk, V.T.; Yakimenko, I.L.; Khenshel', D.; Sidorik, E.P.; Tsybulin, A.S.; Rozumnyuk, V.T.; Yakimenko, I.L.; Khenshel', D.; Sidorik, E.P.; Tsybulin, A.S.; Rozumnyuk, V.T.

    2011-01-01

    We have assessed the early embryo development of quails after the irradiation of incubation eggs by a standard mobile phone handset. Fresh fertilized quail eggs of exposed groups were irradiated periodically during 2 days before the incubation and in the first day of incubation by commercial mobile phone in the 'receiving a call' position (Motorola W230, GSM 850 MHz, SAR 0.75 W/kg, intensity of RF radiation in the zone of exposure 5-15 μW/cm 2 , total duration of exposure 20 h). Microscopic analysis of 40-hour embryos revealed that embryos of the exposed groups did not differ significantly from the control in the stage of development according to the quantity of pairs of differentiated somites. But embryos of the exposed groups had more abnormalities of their development as compared with the control. Consolidated data of two experiments revealed a statistically significant (p<0.05) increase of abnormalities in exposed embryos (33.33%) as compared with the control (9.68%). Most malformations in the exposed embryos appeared as the deformations of the first few pairs of differentiated somites. Such a kind of malformations was not found in control embryos.

  9. The influence of the cellular phone radiation on the growth of mark145 cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Ruifang; Sun Jie; Yang Lili

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To explore the effects of radiation of cellular phone on the growth of cells. Methods: A radiation cycle was designed as working 25 minutes and then resting for 5 minutes for cellular phone. The Mark145 cell bottles were divided into six groups. The first two groups were radiated for two cycles, and the second two groups for four cycles, and the third two groups for five cycles. Each two groups were put 10cm far away from cellular phone and attach to it separately. Results: After culturing for 3 days there are many dead cells in the bottles. After culturing for 6 days, there is few living cells. Conclusions: cellular phone radiation is fatal to Mark145 cells, and the quantity of the dead cells change with the radiation time and the distance to radiation. That is to say, with the prolonging of radiation time and the shortening of the distance, the quantity of the dead cells is increasing. (authors)

  10. Study on the immunity state of mouse exposed to mobile phone radiation during embryonic phase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pei Yinhui; Gao Hui

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To study the effect of mobile phone radiation on mouse which exposed to radiation during embryonic phase. Methods: Pregnant mice were exposed to mobile phone radiation. The mice's netrophile phage percentage and spleen lymphocyte transformation rate were detected respectively 2 months after birth. Results: The netrophile phage percentage of experimental mice was seemly the same as that of control group, and there was no significant difference (P>0.05), but the spleen transformation rate showed the diverse trend. Conclusion: The specific cellular immunity of mice, which ex- posed to mobile phone radiation during embryonic phase, was seen to be in a state of decreasement. (authors)

  11. Radiofrequency electromagnetic radiation from cell phone causes defective testicular function in male Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyewopo, A O; Olaniyi, S K; Oyewopo, C I; Jimoh, A T

    2017-12-01

    Cell phones have become an integral part of everyday life. As cell phone usage has become more widespread, concerns have increased regarding the harmful effects of radiofrequency electromagnetic radiation from these devices. The current study was undertaken to investigate the effects of the emitted radiation by cell phones on testicular histomorphometry and biochemical analyses. Adult male Wistar rats weighing 180-200 g were randomly allotted to control, group A (switched off mode exposure), group B (1-hr exposure), group C (2-hr exposure) and group D (3-hr exposure). The animals were exposed to radiofrequency electromagnetic radiation of cell phone for a period of 28 days. Histomorphometry, biochemical and histological investigations were carried out. The histomorphometric parameters showed no significant change (p electromagnetic radiation of cell phone leads to defective testicular function that is associated with increased oxidative stress and decreased gonadotropic hormonal profile. © 2017 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  12. Radiation from mobile phone systems: Is it perceived as a threat to people's health?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristiansen, Ivar S.; Elstein, Arthur S; Gyrd-Hansen, Dorte

    2009-01-01

    technologies. More than two thirds of the respondents felt that they had received inadequate public information about the 3G system. The results of the study indicate that the majority of the population has little concern about mobile phone radiation while a small minority is very concerned.......The aim of this study was to explore the prevalence, nature and determinants of concerns about mobile phone radiation. We used data from a 2006 telephone survey of 1004 people aged 15+ years in Denmark. Twenty-eight percent of the respondents were concerned about exposure to mobile phone radiation......% thought it was equivalent to tobacco-induced lung cancer (approximately 500 fatalities per million per year). Among women, concerns about mobile phone radiation were positively associated with educational attainment, perceived mobile phone mortality risk and concerns about unknown consequences of new...

  13. Radiation level survey of a mobile phone base station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campos, M.C.; Schaffer, S.R.

    2006-01-01

    Electromagnetic field (E.M.F.) evaluations were carried out in the surroundings of a roof-top mobile-phone radio-base station (R.B.S.). Four of its sector-panel antennas are installed on two parallel vertical masts, each supporting two panels in a vertical collinear-array. The geometry is such that the vertical plane containing both masts is about 10 meters distant and parallel to the backside of an educational institution. This proximity provoked great anxiety among the local community members regarding potential health hazards.1. Introduction: To keep up with the expansion of the mobile-phone services, the number of Radio-Base Stations (R.B.S.) installations is increasing tremendously in Brazil. Efficient control and radiation monitoring to assess R.B.S. compliance to existing regulations are still lacking and particularly in big cities, clearly non - compliant R.B.S. can be seen which represent potentially hazardous E.M.F. sources to the nearby population. This first survey of an irregular R.B.S. revealed significant E-field strengths outside, as well as inside a classroom of an educational building where an usually prolonged stay is necessary. These results confirm that this problem deserves further attention, moreover, if one considers that public and occupational exposure limits set by I.C.N.I.R.P. (also adopted in Brazil) are exclusively based on the immediate thermal effects of acute exposure, disregarding any potential health risk from prolonged exposure to lower level radiation. Research activities focusing on quantitative aspects of electromagnetic radiation from R.B.S., as well as on biological and adverse health effects are still at a very incipient level, urging for immediate actions to improve this scenario in our country. 2. Material, methods and results Measurements were carried out with a broadband field strength monitor, E.M.R.-300 (W and G) coupled to an isotropic E-field probe (100 khz to 3 GHz). Preliminary measurements helped locating

  14. Hypospermatogenesis and spermatozoa maturation arrest in rats induced by mobile phone radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meo, Sultan Ayoub; Arif, Muhammad; Rashied, Shahzad; Khan, Muhammad Mujahid; Vohra, Muhammad Saeed; Usmani, Adnan Mahmood; Imran, Muhammad Babar; Al-Drees, Abdul Majeed

    2011-05-01

    To determine the morphological changes induced by mobile phone radiation in the testis of Wistar albino rats. Cohort study. Department of Physiology, College of Medicine, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, from April 2007 to June 2008. Forty male Wistar albino rats were divided in three groups. First group of eight served as the control. The second group [group B, n=16] was exposed to mobile phone radiation for 30 minutes/day and the third group [group C, n=16] was exposed to mobile phone radiation for 60 minutes/day for a total period of 3 months. Morphological changes in the testes induced by mobile phone radiations were observed under a light microscope. Exposure to mobile phone radiation for 60 minutes/day caused 18.75% hypospermatogenesis and 18.75% maturation arrest in the testis of albino rats compared to matched controls. However, no abnormal findings were observed in albino rats that were exposed to mobile phone radiation for 30 minutes/day for a total period of 3 months. Long-term exposure to mobile phone radiation can cause hypospermatogenesis and maturation arrest in the spermatozoa in the testis of Wistar albino rats.

  15. Influence of electromagnetic radiation produced by mobile phone on some biophysical blood properties in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Bediwi, Abu Bakr; Saad, Mohamed; El-kott, Attall F; Eid, Eman

    2013-04-01

    Effects of electromagnetic radiation produced by mobile phone on blood viscosity, plasma viscosity, hemolysis, Osmotic fragility, and blood components of rats have been investigated. Experimental results show that there are significant change on blood components and its viscosity which affects on a blood circulation due to many body problems. Red blood cells, White blood cells, and Platelets are broken after exposure to electromagnetic radiation produced by mobile phone. Also blood viscosity and plasma viscosity values are increased but Osmotic fragility value decreased after exposure to electromagnetic radiation produced by mobile phone.

  16. EEG Changes Due to Experimentally Induced 3G Mobile Phone Radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roggeveen, Suzanne; van Os, Jim; Viechtbauer, Wolfgang; Lousberg, Richel

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether a 15-minute placement of a 3G dialing mobile phone causes direct changes in EEG activity compared to the placement of a sham phone. Furthermore, it was investigated whether placement of the mobile phone on the ear or the heart would result in different outcomes. Thirty-one healthy females participated. All subjects were measured twice: on one of the two days the mobile phone was attached to the ear, the other day to the chest. In this single-blind, cross-over design, assessments in the sham phone condition were conducted directly preceding and following the mobile phone exposure. During each assessment, EEG activity and radiofrequency radiation were recorded jointly. Delta, theta, alpha, slowbeta, fastbeta, and gamma activity was computed. The association between radiation exposure and the EEG was tested using multilevel random regression analyses with radiation as predictor of main interest. Significant radiation effects were found for the alpha, slowbeta, fastbeta, and gamma bands. When analyzed separately, ear location of the phone was associated with significant results, while chest placement was not. The results support the notion that EEG alterations are associated with mobile phone usage and that the effect is dependent on site of placement. Further studies are required to demonstrate the physiological relevance of these findings.

  17. SAR and Mobile Phone Radiation Hazard. How Aware are College Students in Delhi?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daminee Saini

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Mobile phones have become the most common gadget in the world today and are found in the hands of students most of the time. With advancement in mobile technology, usage of mobile phones has increased significantly. Mobile phone functioning uses electromagnetic radiation in the microwave range, which may be harmful to human health. Research has focused on this aspect since the invention of mobile phones and there seems to be a consensus that mobile phone radiations have an impact on human beings. However, no concrete scientific assessment of the impact of mobile phone radiation (MPR on human beings has been made available. As a result, impact of MPR on human health is a research area requiring greater investigation. The following research contribution attempts to assess the awareness of undergraduate student community about radiation threat posed by the usage of mobile phones. We find that while students are concerned about various specifications of their mobile phones, the knowledge and awareness about MPRs is wanting.

  18. The assessment of electromagnetic field radiation exposure for mobile phone users

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Buckus Raimondas

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. During recent years, the widespread use of mobile phones has resulted in increased human exposure to electromagnetic field radiation and to health risks. Increased usage of mobile phones at the close proximity raises questions and doubts in safety of mobile phone users. The aim of the study was to assess an electromagnetic field radiation exposure for mobile phone users by measuring electromagnetic field strength in different settings at the distance of 1 to 30 cm from the mobile user. Methods. In this paper, the measurements of electric field strength exposure were conducted on different brand of mobile phones by the call-related factors: urban/rural area, indoor/outdoor setting and moving/stationary mode during calls. The different types of mobile phone were placed facing the field probe at 1 cm, 10 cm, 20 cm and 30 cm distance. Results. The highest electric field strength was recorded for calls made in rural area (indoors while the lowest electric field strength was recorded for calls made in urban area (outdoors. Calls made from a phone in a moving car gave a similar result like for indoor calls; however, calls made from a phone in a moving car exposed electric field strength two times more than that of calls in a standing (motionless position. Conclusion. Electromagnetic field radiation depends on mobile phone power class and factors, like urban or rural area, outdoor or indoor, moving or motionless position, and the distance of the mobile phone from the phone user. It is recommended to keep a mobile phone in the safe distance of 10, 20 or 30 cm from the body (especially head during the calls.

  19. Cell phone radiation effects on cytogenetic abnormalities of oral mucosal cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daroit, Natália Batista; Visioli, Fernanda; Magnusson, Alessandra Selinger; Vieira, Geila Radunz; Rados, Pantelis Varvaki

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of exposure to cell phone electromagnetic radiation on the frequency of micronuclei, broken eggs cells, binucleated cells, and karyorrhexis in epithelial cells of the oral mucosa. The sample was composed of 60 cell phone users, who were non-smokers and non-drinkers, and had no clinically visible oral lesions. Cells were obtained from anatomical sites with the highest incidence of oral cancer: lower lip, border of the tongue, and floor of the mouth. The Feulgen reaction was used for quantification of nuclear anomalies in 1,000 cells/slide. A slightly increase in the number of micronucleated cells in the lower lip and in binucleated cells on the floor of the mouth was observed in individuals who used their phones > 60 minutes/week. The analysis also revealed an increased number of broken eggs in the tongue of individuals owning a cell phone for over eight years. Results suggest that exposure to electromagnetic waves emitted by cell phones can increase nuclear abnormalities in individuals who use a cell phone for more than 60 minutes per week and for over eight years. Based on the present findings, we suggest that exposure to electromagnetic radiation emitted by cell phones may interfere with the development of metanuclear anomalies. Therefore, it is demonstrated that, despite a significant increase in these anomalies, the radiation emitted by cell phones among frequent users is within acceptable physiological limits.

  20. Cell phone radiation effects on cytogenetic abnormalities of oral mucosal cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natália Batista DAROIT

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of exposure to cell phone electromagnetic radiation on the frequency of micronuclei, broken eggs cells, binucleated cells, and karyorrhexis in epithelial cells of the oral mucosa. The sample was composed of 60 cell phone users, who were non-smokers and non-drinkers, and had no clinically visible oral lesions. Cells were obtained from anatomical sites with the highest incidence of oral cancer: lower lip, border of the tongue, and floor of the mouth. The Feulgen reaction was used for quantification of nuclear anomalies in 1,000 cells/slide. A slightly increase in the number of micronucleated cells in the lower lip and in binucleated cells on the floor of the mouth was observed in individuals who used their phones > 60 minutes/week. The analysis also revealed an increased number of broken eggs in the tongue of individuals owning a cell phone for over eight years. Results suggest that exposure to electromagnetic waves emitted by cell phones can increase nuclear abnormalities in individuals who use a cell phone for more than 60 minutes per week and for over eight years. Based on the present findings, we suggest that exposure to electromagnetic radiation emitted by cell phones may interfere with the development of metanuclear anomalies. Therefore, it is demonstrated that, despite a significant increase in these anomalies, the radiation emitted by cell phones among frequent users is within acceptable physiological limits.

  1. Effect of electromagnetic radiations from mobile phone base stations on general health and salivary function

    OpenAIRE

    Singh, Kushpal; Nagaraj, Anup; Yousuf, Asif; Ganta, Shravani; Pareek, Sonia; Vishnani, Preeti

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Cell phones use electromagnetic, nonionizing radiations in the microwave range, which some believe may be harmful to human health. The present study aimed to determine the effect of electromagnetic radiations (EMRs) on unstimulated/stimulated salivary flow rate and other health-related problems between the general populations residing in proximity to and far away from mobile phone base stations. Materials and Methods: A total of four mobile base stations were randomly selected from...

  2. Mobile phone radiation health risk controversy: the reliability and sufficiency of science behind the safety standards

    OpenAIRE

    Leszczynski Dariusz; Xu Zhengping

    2010-01-01

    Abstract There is ongoing discussion whether the mobile phone radiation causes any health effects. The International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection, the International Committee on Electromagnetic Safety and the World Health Organization are assuring that there is no proven health risk and that the present safety limits protect all mobile phone users. However, based on the available scientific evidence, the situation is not as clear. The majority of the evidence comes from in ...

  3. Potential Hazards of Cellular Phone Radiation: Responses to Fear and Uncertainty

    OpenAIRE

    Wisz, Jamie T.

    2002-01-01

    In recent years, the public has become concerned that the electromagnetic radio-frequency radiation (“RF radiationâ€) emitted by cellular telephones may pose serious health risks, including the risk of cancer. There are over 110 million cell phone users in the United States and many of them may not know that cell phones actually send electromagnetic waves into the user’s brain. Depending on how close the cell phone antenna is to oneâ&euro...

  4. Determination of Electromagnetic Radiation Levels from Cell Phones

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DELL

    associated with the technology, as well as enable epidemiologists in .... max,av battery level, signal reception level, and phone ... across the world against the continued adoption of ICNIRP's .... important factor in our safe exploitation of EM.

  5. Electromagnetic Radiofrequency Radiation Emitted from GSM Mobile Phones Decreases the Accuracy of Home Blood Glucose Monitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mortazavi, SMJ; Gholampour, M; Haghani, M; Mortazavi, G; Mortazavi, AR

    2014-01-01

    Mobile phones are two-way radios that emit electromagnetic radiation in microwave range. As the number of mobile phone users has reached 6 billion, the bioeffects of exposure to mobile phone radiation and mobile phone electromagnetic interference with electronic equipment have received more attention, globally. As self-monitoring of blood glucose can be a beneficial part of diabetes control, home blood glucose testing kits are very popular. The main goal of this study was to investigate if radiofrequency radiation emitted from a common GSM mobile phone can alter the accuracy of home blood glucose monitors. Forty five female nondiabetic students aged 17-20 years old participated in this study. For Control-EMF group (30 students), blood glucose concentration for each individual was measured in presence and absence of radiofrequency radiation emitted by a common GSM mobile phone (HTC touch, Diamond 2) while the phone was ringing. For Control- Repeat group (15 students), two repeated measurements were performed for each participant in the absence of electromagnetic fields. The magnitude of the changes between glucose levels in two repeated measurements (|ΔC|) in Control-Repeat group was 1.07 ± 0.88 mg/dl while this magnitude for Control-EMF group was 7.53 ± 4.76 mg/dl (P electromagnetic interference in home blood glucose monitors. It can be concluded that electromagnetic interference from mobile phones has an adverse effect on the accuracy of home blood glucose monitors. We suggest that mobile phones should be used at least 50 cm away from home blood glucose monitors. PMID:25505778

  6. Analysis of the Genotoxic Effects of Mobile Phone Radiation using Buccal Micronucleus Assay: A Comparative Evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Sumita; Singh, Narendra Nath; Sreedhar, Gadiputi; Mukherjee, Saikat

    2016-03-01

    Micronucleus (MN) is considered to be a reliable marker for genotoxic damage and it determines the presence and the extent of the chromosomal damage. The MN is formed due to DNA damage or chromosomal disarrangements. The MN has a close association with cancer incidences. In the new era, mobile phones are constantly gaining popularity specifically in the young generation, but this device uses radiofrequency radiation that may have a possible carcinogenic effect. The available reports related to the carcinogenic effect of mobile radiation on oral mucosa are contradictory. To explore the effects of mobile phone radiation on the MN frequency in oral mucosal cells. The subjects were divided into two major groups: low mobile phone users and high mobile phone users. Subjects who used their mobile phone since less than five years and less than three hours a week comprised of the first group and those who used their mobile since more than five years and more than 10 hours a week comprised of the second group. Net surfing and text messaging was not considered in this study. Exfoliated buccal mucosal cells were collected from both the groups and the cells were stained with DNA-specific stain acridine orange. Thousand exfoliated buccal mucosal cells were screened and the cells which were positive for micronuclei were counted. The micronucleus frequency was represented as mean±SD, and unpaired Student t-test was used for intergroup comparisons. The number of micronucleated cells/ 1000 exfoliated buccal mucosal cells was found to be significantly increased in high mobile phone users group than the low mobile phone users group. The use of mobile phone with the associated complaint of warmth around the ear showed a maximum increase in the number of micronucleated cells /1000 exfoliated buccal mucosal cells. Mobile phone radiation even in the permissible range when used for longer duration causes significant genotoxicity. The genotoxicity can be avoided to some extent by the

  7. Electromagnetic Radiofrequency Radiation Emitted from GSM Mobile Phones Decreases the Accuracy of Home Blood Glucose Monitors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SMJ Mortazavi

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Mobile phones are two-way radios that emit electromagnetic radiation in microwave range. As the number of mobile phone users has reached 6 billion, the bioeffects of exposure to mobile phone radiation and mobile phone electromagnetic interference with electronic equipment have received more attention, globally. As self-monitoring of blood glucose can be a beneficial part of diabetes control, home blood glucose testing kits are very popular. The main goal of this study was to investigate if radiofrequency radiation emitted from a common GSM mobile phone can alter the accuracy of home blood glucose monitors. Forty five female nondiabetic students aged 17-20 years old participated in this study. For Control-EMF group (30 students, blood glucose concentration for each individual was measured in presence and absence of radiofrequency radiation emitted by a common GSM mobile phone (HTC touch, Diamond 2 while the phone was ringing. For Control- Repeat group (15 students, two repeated measurements were performed for each participant in the absence of electromagnetic fields. The magnitude of the changes between glucose levels in two repeated measurements (ΔC in Control-Repeat group was 1.07 ± 0.88 mg/dl while this magnitude for Control-EMF group was 7.53 ± 4.76 mg/dl (P < 0.001, two-tailed test. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to assess the electromagnetic interference in home blood glucose monitors. It can be concluded that electromagnetic interference from mobile phones has an adverse effect on the accuracy of home blood glucose monitors. We suggest that mobile phones should be used at least 50 cm away from home blood glucose monitors.

  8. Effect of Cell Phone Radiations on Orofacial Structures: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chowdhary, Ramesh; Kumari, Shail; Rao, Srinivasa B

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: The widespread use of cell phone in recent years has raised many questions whether their use is safe to operator who is exposed to Electromagnetic Waves (EMV). Aim To find out the effect of cell phone emitted radiations on the orofacial structures. Materials and Methods To identify suitable literature, an electronic search was performed using Medline, Pubmed and EBSCO host database in December 2016. The search was focused on effect of cell phone on orofacial structures. Among the literature available in English, the screening of the related titles and abstracts was done, and only those articles were selected for full text reading that fulfilled the inclusion criteria. Results The initial literature search resulted in 360 articles out of which only 24 articles fulfilled the inclusion criteria and were included in this systematic review. Conclusion Cell phone emitted radiations had their adverse effect on salivary glands and facial nerves. Studies showed that cell phone emitted radiations had effects on oral mucosal cells and causes changes in salivary flow rate. It was still unclear that cell phone radiations cause tumours of the salivary glands. PMID:28658925

  9. Cell Phones

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Radiation-Emitting Products and Procedures Home, Business, and Entertainment Products Cell Phones Cell Phones Share Tweet Linkedin ... Follow FDA on Facebook View FDA videos on YouTube View FDA photos on Flickr FDA Archive Combination ...

  10. Mobile phone radiation health risk controversy: the reliability and sufficiency of science behind the safety standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leszczynski, Dariusz; Xu, Zhengping

    2010-01-27

    There is ongoing discussion whether the mobile phone radiation causes any health effects. The International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection, the International Committee on Electromagnetic Safety and the World Health Organization are assuring that there is no proven health risk and that the present safety limits protect all mobile phone users. However, based on the available scientific evidence, the situation is not as clear. The majority of the evidence comes from in vitro laboratory studies and is of very limited use for determining health risk. Animal toxicology studies are inadequate because it is not possible to "overdose" microwave radiation, as it is done with chemical agents, due to simultaneous induction of heating side-effects. There is a lack of human volunteer studies that would, in unbiased way, demonstrate whether human body responds at all to mobile phone radiation. Finally, the epidemiological evidence is insufficient due to, among others, selection and misclassification bias and the low sensitivity of this approach in detection of health risk within the population. This indicates that the presently available scientific evidence is insufficient to prove reliability of the current safety standards. Therefore, we recommend to use precaution when dealing with mobile phones and, whenever possible and feasible, to limit body exposure to this radiation. Continuation of the research on mobile phone radiation effects is needed in order to improve the basis and the reliability of the safety standards.

  11. Mobile phone radiation health risk controversy: the reliability and sufficiency of science behind the safety standards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leszczynski Dariusz

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract There is ongoing discussion whether the mobile phone radiation causes any health effects. The International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection, the International Committee on Electromagnetic Safety and the World Health Organization are assuring that there is no proven health risk and that the present safety limits protect all mobile phone users. However, based on the available scientific evidence, the situation is not as clear. The majority of the evidence comes from in vitro laboratory studies and is of very limited use for determining health risk. Animal toxicology studies are inadequate because it is not possible to "overdose" microwave radiation, as it is done with chemical agents, due to simultaneous induction of heating side-effects. There is a lack of human volunteer studies that would, in unbiased way, demonstrate whether human body responds at all to mobile phone radiation. Finally, the epidemiological evidence is insufficient due to, among others, selection and misclassification bias and the low sensitivity of this approach in detection of health risk within the population. This indicates that the presently available scientific evidence is insufficient to prove reliability of the current safety standards. Therefore, we recommend to use precaution when dealing with mobile phones and, whenever possible and feasible, to limit body exposure to this radiation. Continuation of the research on mobile phone radiation effects is needed in order to improve the basis and the reliability of the safety standards.

  12. Mobile phone radiation as an inducer of human disease - a hypothesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    French, P.; Penny, R.

    2001-01-01

    There are several reports which indicate that electromagnetic radiation (such as from mobile phones) at non-thermal levels may elicit a biological effect in target cells or tissues. Whether or not these biological effects lead to adverse health effects, including cancer, is unclear. To date there is limited scientific evidence of health issues, and no mechanism by which mobile phone radiation could influence cancer development. In this paper, we develop a theoretical mechanism by which radiofrequency radiation from mobile phones could induce cancer, via the chronic activation of the heat shock response. Upregulation of heat shock proteins (Hsps) is a normal defence response to a cellular stress. However, chronic expression of Hsps is known to induce or promote oncogenesis, metastasis and/ or resistance to anti-cancer drugs. We propose that repeated exposure to mobile phone radiation acts as a repetitive stress leading to continuous expression of Hsps in exposed cells and tissues, which in turn affects their normal regulation, and cancer results. This hypothesis provides the possibility of a direct association between mobile phone use and cancer as well as other diseases of protein unfolding, and thus provides an important focus for future experimentation. Copyright (2001) Australasian Radiation Protection Society Inc

  13. Radiation Effects of Mobile Phones and Tablets on the Skin: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keykhosravi, A; Neamatshahi, M; Mahmoodi, R; Navipour, E

    2018-01-01

    Skin health has become a worldwide concern. Most of the studies investigated the effect of mobile phone radiation on DNA and animals, but a few studies were carried out about skin diseases in mobile phone and tablet users. Few systematic studies have examined the relationship between mobile phone exposure and skin diseases. We evaluated the association between mobile phones and tablets and skin diseases. We checked databases including PubMed, Scopus, Springer, Cochrane, and Google Scholar from 1995 to 2013. The eligibility criteria were descriptive, and observational studies were in English and Persian language, and the subjects were of all ages and reported skin disease. Most of the studies focused on signs and less on skin cancer. In total, 6 studies were included with 392119 participants with age over 25 years. In a nationwide cohort study in Denmark for BCC, the IRR (incidence rate ratios) estimates remained near unity among men and women. In the other studies, they reported an increase in temperature, hypersensitivity of warmth, facial dermatitis, angiosarcoma of the scalp, and burning sensations in the facial skin after mobile phone use on the exposed side and more within the auricle and behind/around the ear. Overall evaluations showed that the level of evidence associated with the effects of radiation from the mobile phone and tablet on the skin is poor. This review shows a necessity for more studies in this area.

  14. Radiation Effects of Mobile Phones and Tablets on the Skin: A Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Keykhosravi

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Skin health has become a worldwide concern. Most of the studies investigated the effect of mobile phone radiation on DNA and animals, but a few studies were carried out about skin diseases in mobile phone and tablet users. Few systematic studies have examined the relationship between mobile phone exposure and skin diseases. Methods. We evaluated the association between mobile phones and tablets and skin diseases. We checked databases including PubMed, Scopus, Springer, Cochrane, and Google Scholar from 1995 to 2013. The eligibility criteria were descriptive, and observational studies were in English and Persian language, and the subjects were of all ages and reported skin disease. Results. Most of the studies focused on signs and less on skin cancer. In total, 6 studies were included with 392119 participants with age over 25 years. In a nationwide cohort study in Denmark for BCC, the IRR (incidence rate ratios estimates remained near unity among men and women. In the other studies, they reported an increase in temperature, hypersensitivity of warmth, facial dermatitis, angiosarcoma of the scalp, and burning sensations in the facial skin after mobile phone use on the exposed side and more within the auricle and behind/around the ear. Conclusions. Overall evaluations showed that the level of evidence associated with the effects of radiation from the mobile phone and tablet on the skin is poor. This review shows a necessity for more studies in this area.

  15. Review: Weak radiofrequency radiation exposure from mobile phone radiation on plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halgamuge, Malka N

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this article was to explore the hypothesis that non-thermal, weak, radiofrequency electromagnetic fields (RF-EMF) have an effect on living plants. In this study, we performed an analysis of the data extracted from the 45 peer-reviewed scientific publications (1996-2016) describing 169 experimental observations to detect the physiological and morphological changes in plants due to the non-thermal RF-EMF effects from mobile phone radiation. Twenty-nine different species of plants were considered in this work. Our analysis demonstrates that the data from a substantial amount of the studies on RF-EMFs from mobile phones show physiological and/or morphological effects (89.9%, p radiofrequency radiation influence on plants. Hence, this study provides new evidence supporting our hypothesis. Nonetheless, this endorses the need for more experiments to observe the effects of RF-EMFs, especially for the longer exposure durations, using the whole organisms. The above observation agrees with our earlier study, in that it supported that it is not a well-grounded method to characterize biological effects without considering the exposure duration. Nevertheless, none of these findings can be directly associated with human; however, on the other hand, this cannot be excluded, as it can impact the human welfare and health, either directly or indirectly, due to their complexity and varied effects (calcium metabolism, stress proteins, etc.). This study should be useful as a reference for researchers conducting epidemiological studies and the long-term experiments, using whole organisms, to observe the effects of RF-EMFs.

  16. A Technical Report on the Effect of Electromagnetic Radiation From a Mobile Phone on Mice Organs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elgenaidi A

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available To The Editor: Exposure to electromagnetic radiation (EMR from mobile phones can cause detrimental effects on cell function, chromosomal aberrations, and tissue injuries [1-6]. The rapid expansion of mobile phones has lead to widespread concern for their safety. We examined the histopathological effects of direct exposure to this EMR from mobile phones in adult male Swiss albino mice. The animals were obtained from the biotechnology center, Tripoli, Libya, weighing from 25-30 grams, aged 10-12 weeks. The experiments were approved by state authorities and fol¬lowed guidelines of Egyptian law for animal protection. Mice were fed standard diets and water ad libitum. Plastic cages (diameter 45 cm by 11 cm height were designed for this work. The roof of the cage was designed to receive the mobile phone from a distance of about 10 cm from the cage floor [7]. EMR was emitted from the Nokia 1112 device with a dimension of 104×44×17 in connection with Libyan network (Misurata, Libya. The distance between phone and mice was about 10 cm. The GSM mobile phones operate with microwave carrier frequencies in the GHz range (850–1900 MHz [8-10].

  17. Mobile phone radiation during pubertal development has no effect on testicular histology in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tumkaya, Levent; Kalkan, Yildiray; Bas, Orhan; Yilmaz, Adnan

    2016-02-01

    Mobile phones are extensively used throughout the world. There is a growing concern about the possible public health hazards posed by electromagnetic radiation emitted from mobile phones. Potential health risk applies particularly to the most intensive mobile phone users-typically, young people. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of mobile phone exposure to the testes, by assessing the histopathological and biochemical changes in the testicular germ cells of rats during pubertal development. A total of 12 male Sprague Dawley rats were used. The study group (n = 6) was exposed to a mobile phone for 1 h a day for 45 days, while the control group (n = 6) remained unexposed. The testes were processed with routine paraffin histology and sectioned. They were stained with hematoxylin-eosin, caspase 3, and Ki-67 and then photographed. No changes were observed between the groups (p > 0.05). The interstitial connective tissue and cells of the exposed group were of normal morphology. No abnormalities in the histological appearance of the seminiferous tubules, including the spermatogenic cycle stage, were observed. Our study demonstrated that mobile phones with a low specific absorption rate have no harmful effects on pubertal rat testicles. © The Author(s) 2013.

  18. Effects of non-thermal mobile phone radiation on breast adenocarcinoma cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zen Fourie

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Mobile phone usage currently exceeds landline communication in Africa. The extent of this usage has raised concerns about the long-term health effects of the ongoing use of mobile phones. To assess the physiological effects of radiation from mobile phones in vitro, MCF-7 breast adenocarcinoma cells were exposed to 2W/kg non-thermal 900-MHz mobile phone radiation. The effects investigated were those on metabolic activity, cell morphology, cell cycle progression, phosphatidylserine (PS externalisation and the generation of reactive oxygen species and nitrogen species. Statistically insignificant increases in mitochondrial dehydrogenase activity were observed in irradiated cells when compared to controls. Fluorescent detection of F-actin demonstrated an increase in F-actin stress fibre formation in irradiated MCF-7 cells. Cell cycle progression revealed no statistically significant variation. A small increase in early and late apoptotic events in irradiated MCF-7 cells was observed. No statistically significant changes were observed in reactive oxygen and reactive nitrogen species generation. In addition, quantitative and qualitative analyses of cell cycle activity and nuclear and cytosolic changes, respectively, revealed no significant changes. In conclusion, exposure to 1 h of 900-MHz irradiation induced an increase in PS externalisation and an increase in the formation of F-actin stress fibres in MCF-7 cells. Data obtained from this study, and their correlation with other studies, provides intriguing links between radio frequency radiation and cellular events and warrant further investigation.

  19. Heat enhances radiation inhibition of wound healing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Twomey, P.; Hill, S.; Joiner, M.; Hobson, B.; Denekamp, J.

    1987-01-01

    To study the effect of hyperthermia on the inhibition of healing by radiation, the authors used 2 models of wound tensile strength in mice. In one, tensile strength of 1 cm strips of wounded skin was measured. In the other, strength was measured on 2 by 1 by .3 cm surgical prosthetic sponges of polyvinyl alcohol which has been cut, resutured, and implanted subcutaneously. Granulation tissue grows into the pores of the sponges which gradually fill with collagen. Tensile strength in both models was measured on day 14 using a constant strain extensiometer. The wounds were given graduated doses of ortho-voltage radiation with or without hyperthermia. Maximum radiation sensitivity occurred during the period of rapid neovascularization in the first 5 days after wounding, when a loss of 80% in wound strength occurred with doses less than 20 gray. For single radiation doses given 48 hours after wounding, the authors found a steep dose-response curve with half maximum reduction in strength occurring in both models at approximately 10 gray. Hyperthermia was produced in two ways. Skin wounds were heated in a circulating water bath. In the sponge model, more uniform heating occurs with an RF generator scaled to the mouse. At a dose of 43 C for 30 minutes, no inhibition of healing by heat alone was found. However the combination of heat and radiation produced definite enhancement of radiation damage, with thermal enhancement ratios of up to 1.9 being observed

  20. Analysis of the contended health risks due to digitally modulated mobile phone radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liesenkoetter, B.

    2002-01-01

    In the public discussion regarding the health risks of mobile phone system radiation, it is emphasized that the pulse slope of digital modulation, as defined in the GSM-Standard, will cause biological effects. In contrast, the high field strength of broadcasting and television radiation is not considered to be relevant. This paper compares quantitatively the slope of the digital GSM pulses with that of the synchronizing pulse of the television signal. The result shows clearly that the pulse spectrum of the television signal contains that of the GSM signal; in addition, the synchronizing impulse of television exhibits a much steeper slope. Considering the countrywide normal radiation intensities of television and mobile phone systems, it can be stated that the worldwide exposure to the common television signals over more than 50 years can disprove the contention of adverse biological health effects of the pulse slope of digitally modulated radiofrequency. (orig.) [de

  1. Electromagnetic radiation of the mobile phones and smartphones

    OpenAIRE

    Dolina, L. F.; Kozachyna, V. A.; Savina, O. P.

    2014-01-01

    Electromagnetic fields have a strong influence on the human body in all its frequency bands. Moreover, the high-frequency radiation occurs thermal effects on the human body, and at the low-frequency arises nonthermal or informational influence. Informational influence how would impose a rhythm oscillatory process of a particular functional system of the human body. If the frequency of information influencing factor synchronized with the normal rhythm of the wave matrix homeostasis personal, h...

  2. Applicability of discovery science approach to determine biological effects of mobile phone radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leszczynski, Dariusz; Nylund, Reetta; Joenväärä, Sakari; Reivinen, Jukka

    2004-02-01

    We argue that the use of high-throughput screening techniques, although expensive and laborious, is justified and necessary in studies that examine biological effects of mobile phone radiation. The "case of hsp27 protein" presented here suggests that even proteins with only modestly altered (by exposure to mobile phone radiation) expression and activity might have an impact on cell physiology. However, this short communication does not attempt to present the full scientific evidence that is far too large to be presented in a single article and that is being prepared for publication in three separate research articles. Examples of the experimental evidence presented here were designed to show the flow of experimental process demonstrating that the use of high-throughput screening techniques might help in rapid identification of the responding proteins. This, in turn, can help in speeding up of the process of determining whether these changes might affect human health.*

  3. Exposure to Mobile Phone Radiation Opens New Horizons in Alzheimer’s Disease Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mortazavi, SAR; Shojaei-Fard, MB; Haghani, M; Shokrpour, N; Mortazavi, SMJ

    2013-01-01

    Alzheimer’s disease, the most common type of dementia and a progressive neurodegenerative disease, occurs when the nerve cells in the brain die. Although there are medications that can help delay the development of Alzheimer’s disease, there is currently no cure for this disease. Exposure to ionizing and non-ionizing radiation may cause adverse health effects such as cancer.  Looking at the other side of the coin, there are reports indicating stimulatory or beneficial effects after exposure to cell phone radiofrequency radiation. Mortazavi et al. have previously reported some beneficial cognitive effects such as decreased reaction time after human short-term exposure to cell phone radiation or occupational exposure to radar microwave radiation. On the other hand, some recent reports have indicated that RF radiation may have a role in protecting against cognitive impairment in Alzheimer’s disease. Although the majority of these data come from animal studies that cannot be easily extrapolated to humans, it can be concluded that this memory enhancing approach may open new horizons in treatment of cognitive impairment in Alzheimer disease. PMID:25505755

  4. Exposure to Mobile Phone Radiation Opens New Horizons in Alzheimer’s Disease Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mortazavi SAR

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Alzheimer’s disease, the most common type of dementia and a progressive neurodegenerative disease, occurs when the nerve cells in the brain die. Although there are medications that can help delay the development of Alzheimer’s disease, there is currently no cure for this disease. Exposure to ionizing and non-ionizing radiation may cause adverse health effects such as cancer. Looking at the other side of the coin, there are reports indicating stimulatory or benefcial effects after exposure to cell phone radiofrequency radiation. Mortazavi et al. have previously reported some benefcial cognitive effects such as decreased reaction time after human short-term exposure to cell phone radiation or occupational exposure to radar microwave radiation. On the other hand, some recent reports have indicated that RF radiation may have a role in protecting against cognitive impairment in Alzheimer’s disease. Although the majority of these data come from animal studies that cannot be easily extrapolated to humans, it can be concluded that this memory enhancing approach may open new horizons in treatment of cognitive impairment in Alzheimer disease.

  5. Exposure to mobile phone radiation opens new horizons in Alzheimer's disease treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mortazavi, Sar; Shojaei-Fard, Mb; Haghani, M; Shokrpour, N; Mortazavi, Smj

    2013-09-01

    Alzheimer's disease, the most common type of dementia and a progressive neurodegenerative disease, occurs when the nerve cells in the brain die. Although there are medications that can help delay the development of Alzheimer's disease, there is currently no cure for this disease. Exposure to ionizing and non-ionizing radiation may cause adverse health effects such as cancer.  Looking at the other side of the coin, there are reports indicating stimulatory or beneficial effects after exposure to cell phone radiofrequency radiation. Mortazavi et al. have previously reported some beneficial cognitive effects such as decreased reaction time after human short-term exposure to cell phone radiation or occupational exposure to radar microwave radiation. On the other hand, some recent reports have indicated that RF radiation may have a role in protecting against cognitive impairment in Alzheimer's disease. Although the majority of these data come from animal studies that cannot be easily extrapolated to humans, it can be concluded that this memory enhancing approach may open new horizons in treatment of cognitive impairment in Alzheimer disease.

  6. Mobile phone radiation alters proliferation of hepatocarcinoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozgur, Elcin; Guler, Goknur; Kismali, Gorkem; Seyhan, Nesrin

    2014-11-01

    This study investigated the effects of intermittent exposure (15 min on, 15 min off for 1, 2, 3, or 4 h, at a specific absorption rate of 2 W/kg) to enhanced data rates for global system for mobile communication evolution-modulated radiofrequency radiation (RFR) at 900- and 1,800-MHz frequencies on the viability of the Hepatocarcinoma cells (Hep G2). Hep G2 cell proliferation was measured by a colorimetric assay based on the cleavage of the tetrazolium salt WST-1 by mitochondrial dehydrogenases in viable cells. Cell injury was evaluated by analyzing the levels of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and glucose released from lysed cells into the culture medium. Morphological observation of the nuclei was carried out by 4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI) staining using fluorescence microscopy. In addition, TUNEL assay was performed to confirm apoptotic cell death. It was observed that cell viability, correlated with the LDH and glucose levels, changed according to the frequency and duration of RFR exposure. Four-hour exposure produced more pronounced effects than the other exposure durations. 1,800-MHz RFR had a larger impact on cell viability and Hep G2 injury than the RFR at 900 MHz. Morphological observations also supported the biochemical results indicating that most of the cells showed irregular nuclei pattern determined by using the DAPI staining, as well as TUNEL assay which shows DNA damage especially in the cells after 4 h of exposure to 1,800-MHz RFR. Our results indicate that the applications of 900- and 1,800-MHz (2 W/kg) RFR cause to decrease in the proliferation of the Hep G2 cells after 4 h of exposure. Further studies will be conducted on other frequency bands of RFR and longer duration of exposure.

  7. Effect of electromagnetic radiations from mobile phone base stations on general health and salivary function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Kushpal; Nagaraj, Anup; Yousuf, Asif; Ganta, Shravani; Pareek, Sonia; Vishnani, Preeti

    2016-01-01

    Cell phones use electromagnetic, nonionizing radiations in the microwave range, which some believe may be harmful to human health. The present study aimed to determine the effect of electromagnetic radiations (EMRs) on unstimulated/stimulated salivary flow rate and other health-related problems between the general populations residing in proximity to and far away from mobile phone base stations. A total of four mobile base stations were randomly selected from four zones of Jaipur, Rajasthan, India. Twenty individuals who were residing in proximity to the selected mobile phone towers were taken as the case group and the other 20 individuals (control group) who were living nearly 1 km away in the periphery were selected for salivary analysis. Questions related to sleep disturbances were measured using Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) and other health problems were included in the questionnaire. Chi-square test was used for statistical analysis. It was unveiled that a majority of the subjects who were residing near the mobile base station complained of sleep disturbances, headache, dizziness, irritability, concentration difficulties, and hypertension. A majority of the study subjects had significantly lesser stimulated salivary secretion (P base stations on the health and well-being of the general population cannot be ruled out. Further studies are warranted to evaluate the effect of electromagnetic fields (EMFs) on general health and more specifically on oral health.

  8. Radiation metagenesis and inhibition of DNA synthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dubinina, L.G.; Sergievskaya, S.P.; Kurashova, Z.I.; Dubinin, N.P.

    1983-01-01

    The study of modification of radiation mutagenesis and inhibition of the DNA synthesis by means of 1-β-D arabinofuranosylcytosine (ara-C) is carried out. It is shown that ara-C-acting on chromosomes in the G 1 phase and G 2 phase does not cause mutations in the C capillaris cells. The modification by means of ara-C radiation effect in the G 1 phase and G 2 phase correlates with duration and time of administering ara-C before and after irradiation. A new form of ara-C DNA synthesis inhibitor interaction with mutation processes has been found out. Protective effect of the DNA synthesis inhibitor (ara-C) from mutageneous radiation effect is stressed. Sensibilization of the radiation mutagenesis during cell treafment by the DNA synthesis inhibitor (ara-C) is shown. It is pointed out that emergence of sensibilization or protective effect, i. e. antimutagenesis phenomenon depends on conditions under which the synthesis inhibitor acted in G 1 and G 2 phases

  9. [Level of microwave radiation from mobile phone base stations built in residential districts].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Ji; Lu, Yiyang; Zhang, Huacheng; Xie, Hebing; Yang, Xinwen

    2009-11-01

    To investigate the condition of microwave radiation pollution from mobile phone base station built in populated area. Random selected 18 residential districts where had base station and 10 residential districts where had no base stations. A TES-92 electromagnetic radiation monitor were used to measure the intensity of microwave radiation in external and internal living environment. The intensities of microwave radiation in the exposure residential districts were more higher than those of the control residential districts (p station, it would gradually weaken with the increase of the distance. The level of microwave radiation in antenna main lobe region is not certainly more higher than the side lobe direction, and the side lobe direction also is not more lower. At the same district, where there were two base stations, the electromagnetic field nestification would take place in someplace. The intensities of microwave radiation outside the exposure windows in the resident room not only changed with distance but also with the height of the floor. The intensities of microwave radiation inside the aluminum alloys security net were more lower than those of outside the aluminum alloys security net (p 0.05). Although all the measure dates on the ground around the base station could be below the primary standard in "environment electromagnetic wave hygienic standard" (GB9175-88), there were still a minorities of windows which exposed to the base station were higher, and the outside or inside of a few window was even higher beyond the primary safe level defined standard. The aluminum alloys security net can partly shield the microwave radiation from the mobile phone base station.

  10. Effects of the Effect of Ultra High Frequency Mobile Phone Radiation on Human Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moradi, Mosa; Naghdi, Nasrollah; Hemmati, Hamidreza; Asadi-Samani, Majid; Bahmani, Mahmoud

    2016-05-01

    Public and occupational exposure to electromagnetic fields due to the growing trend of electronic devices may cause adverse effects on human health. This paper describes the risk of mutation and sexual trauma and infertility in masculine sexual cell by mobile phone radiations. In this study, we measured the emitted dose from a radiofrequency device, such as switching high voltage at different frequencies using a scintillation detector. The switching high voltage power supply (HVPS) was built for the Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography (SPECT) system. For radiation dosimetry, we used an ALNOR scintillator that can measure gamma radiation. The simulation was performed by MATLAB software, and data from the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP) were used to verify the simulation. We investigated the risks that result from the waves, according to a report by International Commission on Non Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP), to every organ of the body is defined by the beam and electromagnetic radiation from this electronic device on people. The results showed that the maximum personal dose over a 15-min period working at the mentioned HVPS did not exceed 0.31 μSV/h (with an aluminum shield). So, according to other sources of radiation, continuous working time of the system should not be more than 10 hours. Finally, a characteristic curve for secure working with modules at different frequencies was reported. The RF input signal to the body for maximum penetration depth (δ) and electromagnetic energy absorption rate (SAR) of biological tissue were obtained for each tissue. The results of this study and International Commission of Non Ionization Radiation Protection (ICNIRP) reports showed the people who spend more than 50 minutes a day using a cell phone could have early dementia or other thermal damage due to the burning of glucose in the brain.

  11. Effect of Ultra High Frequency Mobile Phone Radiation on Human Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moradi, Mosa; Naghdi, Nasrollah; Hemmati, Hamidreza; Asadi-Samani, Majid; Bahmani, Mahmoud

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Public and occupational exposure to electromagnetic fields due to the growing trend of electronic devices may cause adverse effects on human health. This paper describes the risk of mutation and sexual trauma and infertility in masculine sexual cell by mobile phone radiations. Methods In this study, we measured the emitted dose from a radiofrequency device, such as switching high voltage at different frequencies using a scintillation detector. The switching high voltage power supply (HVPS) was built for the Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography (SPECT) system. For radiation dosimetry, we used an ALNOR scintillator that can measure gamma radiation. The simulation was performed by MATLAB software, and data from the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP) were used to verify the simulation. Results We investigated the risks that result from the waves, according to a report by International Commission on Non Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP), to every organ of the body is defined by the beam and electromagnetic radiation from this electronic device on people. The results showed that the maximum personal dose over a 15-min period working at the mentioned HVPS did not exceed 0.31 μSV/h (with an aluminum shield). So, according to other sources of radiation, continuous working time of the system should not be more than 10 hours. Finally, a characteristic curve for secure working with modules at different frequencies was reported. The RF input signal to the body for maximum penetration depth (δ) and electromagnetic energy absorption rate (SAR) of biological tissue were obtained for each tissue. Conclusion The results of this study and International Commission of Non Ionization Radiation Protection (ICNIRP) reports showed the people who spend more than 50 minutes a day using a cell phone could have early dementia or other thermal damage due to the burning of glucose in the brain. PMID:27382458

  12. Exposure limits: the underestimation of absorbed cell phone radiation, especially in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gandhi, Om P; Morgan, L Lloyd; de Salles, Alvaro Augusto; Han, Yueh-Ying; Herberman, Ronald B; Davis, Devra Lee

    2012-03-01

    The existing cell phone certification process uses a plastic model of the head called the Specific Anthropomorphic Mannequin (SAM), representing the top 10% of U.S. military recruits in 1989 and greatly underestimating the Specific Absorption Rate (SAR) for typical mobile phone users, especially children. A superior computer simulation certification process has been approved by the Federal Communications Commission (FCC) but is not employed to certify cell phones. In the United States, the FCC determines maximum allowed exposures. Many countries, especially European Union members, use the "guidelines" of International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP), a non governmental agency. Radiofrequency (RF) exposure to a head smaller than SAM will absorb a relatively higher SAR. Also, SAM uses a fluid having the average electrical properties of the head that cannot indicate differential absorption of specific brain tissue, nor absorption in children or smaller adults. The SAR for a 10-year old is up to 153% higher than the SAR for the SAM model. When electrical properties are considered, a child's head's absorption can be over two times greater, and absorption of the skull's bone marrow can be ten times greater than adults. Therefore, a new certification process is needed that incorporates different modes of use, head sizes, and tissue properties. Anatomically based models should be employed in revising safety standards for these ubiquitous modern devices and standards should be set by accountable, independent groups.

  13. Radiation safety of mobile phones and base stations; Matkapuhelimien ja tukiasemien saeteilyturvallisuus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jokela, K.; Leszczynski, D.; Paile, W.; Salomaa, S.; Puranen, L.; Hyysalo, P.

    1997-06-01

    The recent expansion of personal telecommunications has led to a rapid increase in the exposure of people to the radio-frequency (RF) radiation. Although the mobile phones are low power devices, the antenna is so close to the head that the local exposure may slightly exceed 2 W/kg, the current exposure limit for the local specific absorption rate SAR for the general public. The increase in the temperature is, however, too small to have any physiological significance. On the basis of experiments with cell cultures it is possible that other biological effects caused by some unknown non-thermal mechanism exist, but thus far there is conclusive biological or epidemiological evidence to suggest any diseases adverse physiological changes below the thermal threshold. The use of a mobile phone by a person wearing a pace-maker, the immunity which against the electromagnetic interference from the mobile phone has not be assured, is not recommended. The exposure caused by the base stations is in almost all practical ceases all below the power density limits for general public. (orig.) (115 refs.).

  14. Mobile phone radiation induces reactive oxygen species production and DNA damage in human spermatozoa in vitro.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geoffry N De Iuliis

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In recent times there has been some controversy over the impact of electromagnetic radiation on human health. The significance of mobile phone radiation on male reproduction is a key element of this debate since several studies have suggested a relationship between mobile phone use and semen quality. The potential mechanisms involved have not been established, however, human spermatozoa are known to be particularly vulnerable to oxidative stress by virtue of the abundant availability of substrates for free radical attack and the lack of cytoplasmic space to accommodate antioxidant enzymes. Moreover, the induction of oxidative stress in these cells not only perturbs their capacity for fertilization but also contributes to sperm DNA damage. The latter has, in turn, been linked with poor fertility, an increased incidence of miscarriage and morbidity in the offspring, including childhood cancer. In light of these associations, we have analyzed the influence of RF-EMR on the cell biology of human spermatozoa in vitro. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Purified human spermatozoa were exposed to radio-frequency electromagnetic radiation (RF-EMR tuned to 1.8 GHz and covering a range of specific absorption rates (SAR from 0.4 W/kg to 27.5 W/kg. In step with increasing SAR, motility and vitality were significantly reduced after RF-EMR exposure, while the mitochondrial generation of reactive oxygen species and DNA fragmentation were significantly elevated (P<0.001. Furthermore, we also observed highly significant relationships between SAR, the oxidative DNA damage bio-marker, 8-OH-dG, and DNA fragmentation after RF-EMR exposure. CONCLUSIONS: RF-EMR in both the power density and frequency range of mobile phones enhances mitochondrial reactive oxygen species generation by human spermatozoa, decreasing the motility and vitality of these cells while stimulating DNA base adduct formation and, ultimately DNA fragmentation. These findings have clear implications

  15. Does the Brain Detect 3G Mobile Phone Radiation Peaks? An Explorative In-Depth Analysis of an Experimental Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roggeveen, Suzanne; van Os, Jim; Lousberg, Richel

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate whether third generation mobile phone radiation peaks result in event related potentials. Thirty-one healthy females participated. In this single-blind, cross-over design, a 15 minute mobile phone exposure was compared to two 15 minute sham phone conditions, one preceding and one following the exposure condition. Each participant was measured on two separate days, where mobile phone placement was varied between the ear and heart. EEG activity and radiofrequency radiation were recorded jointly. Epochs of 1200 ms, starting 200 ms before and lasting until 1000 ms after the onset of a radiation peak, were extracted from the exposure condition. Control epochs were randomly selected from the two sham phone conditions. The main a-priori hypothesis to be tested concerned an increase of the area in the 240-500 ms post-stimulus interval, in the exposure session with ear-placement. Using multilevel regression analyses the placement*exposure interaction effect was significant for the frontal and central cortical regions, indicating that only in the mobile phone exposure with ear-placement an enlarged cortical reactivity was found. Post-hoc analyses based on visual inspection of the ERPs showed a second significantly increased area between 500-1000 ms post-stimulus for almost every EEG location measured. It was concluded that, when a dialing mobile phone is placed on the ear, its radiation, although unconsciously, is electrically detected by the brain. The question of whether or not this cortical reactivity results in a negative health outcome has to be answered in future longitudinal experiments.

  16. Study of oxygen inhibition effect on radiation curing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiao Bin; Yang Xuemei; Zhao Pengji; Zeng Shuqing; Jiang Bo; Zhou Yong; Huang Wei; Zhou Youyi

    1995-01-01

    Michacl addition reaction product was used in the research of oxygen inhibition effect of radiation curing. The experimental results was measured by the content of gel and percentage of double bonds. It was proved that 9% of Michacl addition product could speed up 1.2 times of the radiation curing rate at 30 kGy of EB irradiation. This kind of formulation can withstand oxygen inhibition effect obviously, so it was the foundation of application for radiation curing in atmospheric condition

  17. Measurement and analysis of radiofrequency radiations from some mobile phone base stations in Ghana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amoako, J. K.; Fletcher, J. J.; Darko, E. O.

    2009-01-01

    A survey of the radiofrequency electromagnetic radiation at public access points in the vicinity of 50 cellular phone base stations has been carried out. The primary objective was to measure and analyse the electromagnetic field strength levels emitted by antennae installed and operated by the Ghana Telecommunications Company. On all the sites measurements were made using a hand-held spectrum analyser to determine the electric field level with the 900 and 1800 MHz frequency bands. The results indicated that power densities at public access points varied from as low as 0.01 μW m -2 to as high as 10 μW m -2 for the frequency of 900 MHz. At a transmission frequency of 1800 MHz, the variation of power densities is from 0.01 to 100 μW m -2 . The results were found to be in compliant with the International Commission on Non-ionizing Radiological Protection guidance level but were 20 times higher than the results generally obtained for such a practice elsewhere. There is therefore a need to re-assess the situation to ensure reduction in the present level as an increase in mobile phone usage is envisaged within the next few years. (authors)

  18. Measurement and analysis of radiofrequency radiations from some mobile phone base stations in Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amoako, J K; Fletcher, J J; Darko, E O

    2009-08-01

    A survey of the radiofrequency electromagnetic radiation at public access points in the vicinity of 50 cellular phone base stations has been carried out. The primary objective was to measure and analyse the electromagnetic field strength levels emitted by antennae installed and operated by the Ghana Telecommunications Company. On all the sites measurements were made using a hand-held spectrum analyser to determine the electric field level with the 900 and 1800 MHz frequency bands. The results indicated that power densities at public access points varied from as low as 0.01 microW m(-2) to as high as 10 microW m(-2) for the frequency of 900 MHz. At a transmission frequency of 1800 MHz, the variation of power densities is from 0.01 to 100 microW m(-2). The results were found to be in compliant with the International Commission on Non-ionizing Radiological Protection guidance level but were 20 times higher than the results generally obtained for such a practice elsewhere. There is therefore a need to re-assess the situation to ensure reduction in the present level as an increase in mobile phone usage is envisaged within the next few years.

  19. The use of FDTD in establishing in vitro experimentation conditions representative of lifelike cell phone radiation on the spermatozoa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mouradi, Rand; Desai, Nisarg; Erdemir, Ahmet; Agarwal, Ashok

    2012-01-01

    Recent studies have shown that exposing human semen samples to cell phone radiation leads to a significant decline in sperm parameters. In daily living, a cell phone is usually kept in proximity to the groin, such as in a trouser pocket, separated from the testes by multiple layers of tissue. The aim of this study was to calculate the distance between cell phone and semen sample to set up an in vitro experiment that can mimic real life conditions (cell phone in trouser pocket separated by multiple tissue layers). For this reason, a computational model of scrotal tissues was designed by considering these separating layers, the results of which were used in a series of simulations using the Finite Difference Time Domain (FDTD) method. To provide an equivalent effect of multiple tissue layers, these results showed that the distance between a cell phone and semen sample should be 0.8 cm to 1.8 cm greater than the anticipated distance between a cell phone and the testes.

  20. The radioprotective effects of Moringa oleifera against mobile phone electromagnetic radiation-induced infertility in rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bin-Meferij, Mashael Mohammed; El-kott, Attalla Farag

    2015-01-01

    The present study has investigated the effects of mobile phone electromagnetic radiation (EMR) on fertility in rats. The purpose of this study was to explore the capability of polyphenolic-rich Moringa oleifera leaf extract in protecting rat testis against EMR-induced impairments based on evaluation of sperm count, viability, motility, sperm cell morphology, anti-oxidants (SOD & CAT), oxidative stress marker, testis tissue histopathology and PCNA immunohistochemistry. The sample consisted of sixty male Wistar rats which were divided into four equal groups. The first group (the control) received only standard diet while the second group was supplemented daily and for eight weeks with 200 mg/kg aqueous extract of Moringa leaves. The third group was exposed to 900 MHz fields for one hour a day and for (7) days a week. As for the fourth group, it was exposed to mobile phone radiation and received the Moringa extract. The results showed that the EMR treated group exhibited a significantly decrease sperm parameters. Furthermore, concurrent exposure to EMR and treated with MOE significantly enhanced the sperm parameters. However, histological results in EMR group showed irregular seminiferous tubules, few spermatogonia, giant multinucleated cells, degenerated spermatozoa and the number of Leydig cells was significantly reduced. PCNA labeling indices were significant in EMR group versus the control group. Also, EMR affects spermatogenesis and causes to apoptosis due to the heat and other stress-related EMR in testis tissue. This study concludes that chronic exposure to EMR marked testicular injury which can be prevented by Moringa oleifera leaf extract. PMID:26550159

  1. Non-thermal activation of the hsp27/p38MAPK stress pathway by mobile phone radiation in human endothelial cells: molecular mechanism for cancer- and blood-brain barrier-related effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leszczynski, Dariusz; Joenväärä, Sakari; Reivinen, Jukka; Kuokka, Reetta

    2002-05-01

    We have examined whether non-thermal exposures of cultures of the human endothelial cell line EA.hy926 to 900 MHz GSM mobile phone microwave radiation could activate stress response. Results obtained demonstrate that 1-hour non-thermal exposure of EA.hy926 cells changes the phosphorylation status of numerous, yet largely unidentified, proteins. One of the affected proteins was identified as heat shock protein-27 (hsp27). Mobile phone exposure caused a transient increase in phosphorylation of hsp27, an effect which was prevented by SB203580, a specific inhibitor of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38MAPK). Also, mobile phone exposure caused transient changes in the protein expression levels of hsp27 and p38MAPK. All these changes were non-thermal effects because, as determined using temperature probes, irradiation did not alter the temperature of cell cultures, which remained throughout the irradiation period at 37 +/- 0.3 degrees C. Changes in the overall pattern of protein phosphorylation suggest that mobile phone radiation activates a variety of cellular signal transduction pathways, among them the hsp27/p38MAPK stress response pathway. Based on the known functions of hsp27, we put forward the hypothesis that mobile phone radiation-induced activation of hsp27 may (i) facilitate the development of brain cancer by inhibiting the cytochrome c/caspase-3 apoptotic pathway and (ii) cause an increase in blood-brain barrier permeability through stabilization of endothelial cell stress fibers. We postulate that these events, when occurring repeatedly over a long period of time, might become a health hazard because of the possible accumulation of brain tissue damage. Furthermore, our hypothesis suggests that other brain damaging factors may co-participate in mobile phone radiation-induced effects.

  2. Evaluation of the Effect of Radiofrequency Radiation Emitted From Wi-Fi Router and Mobile Phone Simulator on the Antibacterial Susceptibility of Pathogenic Bacteria Listeria monocytogenes and Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taheri, M; Mortazavi, S M J; Moradi, M; Mansouri, S; Hatam, G R; Nouri, F

    2017-01-01

    Mobile phones and Wi-Fi radiofrequency radiation are among the main sources of the exposure of the general population to radiofrequency electromagnetic fields (RF-EMF). Previous studies have shown that exposure of microorganisms to RF-EMFs can be associated with a wide spectrum of changes ranged from the modified bacterial growth to the alterations of the pattern of antibiotic resistance. Our laboratory at the nonionizing department of the Ionizing and Non-ionizing Radiation Protection Research Center has performed experiments on the health effects of exposure to animal models and humans to different sources of electromagnetic fields such as cellular phones, mobile base stations, mobile phone jammers, laptop computers, radars, dentistry cavitrons, magnetic resonance imaging, and Helmholtz coils. On the other hand, we have previously studied different aspects of the challenging issue of the ionizing or nonionizing radiation-induced alterations in the susceptibility of microorganisms to antibiotics. In this study, we assessed if the exposure to 900 MHz GSM mobile phone radiation and 2.4 GHz radiofrequency radiation emitted from common Wi-Fi routers alters the susceptibility of microorganisms to different antibiotics. The pure cultures of Listeria monocytogenes and Escherichia coli were exposed to RF-EMFs generated either by a GSM 900 MHz mobile phone simulator and a common 2.4 GHz Wi-Fi router. It is also shown that exposure to RF-EMFs within a narrow level of irradiation (an exposure window) makes microorganisms resistant to antibiotics. This adaptive phenomenon and its potential threats to human health should be further investigated in future experiments. Altogether, the findings of this study showed that exposure to Wi-Fi and RF simulator radiation can significantly alter the inhibition zone diameters and growth rate for L monocytogenes and E coli. These findings may have implications for the management of serious infectious diseases.

  3. Effects of exposure to electromagnetic field radiation (EMFR generated by activated mobile phones on fasting blood glucose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sultan Ayoub Meo

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Extensive use of mobile phones has been accompanied by a common public debate about possible adverse effects on human health. No study has been published so far to establish any association between the fastest growing innovation of mobile phone and fasting blood glucose. The aim was to determine the effects of exposure to electromagnetic field radiation generated by mobile phones on fasting blood glucose in Wistar Albino rats. Materials and Methods: 40 Male Albino rats (Wistar Strain were divided into 5 equally numerous groups. Group A served as the control one, group B received mobile phone radiation for less than 15 min/day, group C: 15-30 min/day, group D: 31-45 min/day, and group E: 46-60 min/day for a total period of 3 months. Fasting blood glucose was determined by using Spectrophotometer and serum insulin by Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA. The Homeostatic Model (HOMA-B was applied for the assessment of β-cell function and (HOMA-IR for resistance to insulin. Results: Wister Albino rats exposed to mobile phone radiation for longer than 15 min a day for a total period of 3 months had significantly higher fasting blood glucose (p < 0.015 and serum insulin (p < 0.01 compared to the control group. HOMA-IR for insulin resistance was significantly increased (p < 0.003 in the groups that were exposed for 15-30 and 46-60 min/day compared to the control rats. Conclusion: The results of the present study show an association between long-term exposure to activated mobile phones and increase in fasting blood glucose and serum insulin in Albino rats.

  4. Genotoxicity assessment data for exfoliated buccal cells exposed to mobile phone radiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F.M. de Oliveira

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Healthy mobile phone users aged 18–30 y.o. provided exfoliated buccal cells samples from the right and left inner cheeks. A total of 2000 cells per subject were screened for the presence of micronuclei as a sign of genotoxic damage, according to the mobile phone use profile of each user. Keywords: Electromagnetic fields, Mobile phones, Genotoxicity, Micronuclei, Exfoliated buccal cells, Feulgen stain

  5. Effect of Electromagnetic Radiation Emitted from A Mobile Phone Station on Biochemical and Histological Structure of Some Rat Organs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lotfi, S.A.

    2011-01-01

    This study was carried out to investigate the effects of electromagnetic radiations (EMR), especially radio frequency (RF), which arises from mobile phone station on some parameter in serum and histological structure of some organs in male albino rats exposed to short (15 days) and long (30 days) periods. The long time exposure of the electromagnetic radiations can induce significant increase in the levels of testosterone, creatinine, urea and uric acid in the two exposure groups (15 and 30 days), while the serum total protein, albumin and globulin were decreased significantly after the long time of exposure as compared with control. The microscopic examination of liver, kidney and testes tissues revealed destruction and atrophy of cells in rats exposed to RF for 15 and 30 days. In conclusion, long term exposure of mobile phones station (EMR) induced harmful effects on blood parameter and histological structure of liver, kidney and testes tissues of rats.

  6. Association of mobile phone radiation with fatigue, headache, dizziness, tension and sleep disturbance in Saudi population

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Khlaiwi, Thamir; Meo, Sultan A.

    2004-01-01

    The widespread use of mobile phones has been increased over the past decade; they are now an essential part of business, commerce and society. The use of mobile phones can cause health problems. Therefore, the aim of the present study is to investigate the association of using mobile phones with fatigue, headache, dizziness, tension and sleep disturbance in the Saudi population and provide health and social awareness in using these devices. This study was conducted in the Department of Physiology, College of Medicine, King Saudi University, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia during the year 2002 to 2003. In the present study, a total of 437 subjects (55.1% male and 39.9% female) were invited, they have and had been using mobile phones. A questionnaire was distributed regarding detailed history and association of mobile phones with health hazards. The results of the present study showed an association between the use of mobile phones and health hazards. The overall mean percentage for these clinical findings in all groups were headache (21.6%), sleep disturbance (4.%), tension (3.9%), fatigue (3%) and dizziness (2.4%). Based on the results of the present study, we conclude that the use of mobile phones is a risk factor for health hazards and suggest that long term or excessive use of mobile phones should be avoided by health promotion activities such as group discussions, public presentations and through electronic and print media sources. (author)

  7. Is mobile phone radiation genotoxic? An analysis of micronucleus frequency in exfoliated buccal cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira, F M; Carmona, A M; Ladeira, C

    2017-10-01

    Electromagnetic fields (EMF) are classified as "possibly carcinogenic" by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC). Some publications have reported associations between EMF exposure and DNA damage, but many other studies contradict such findings. Cytomorphological changes, such as micronuclei (MN), indicative of genomic damage, are biomarkers of genotoxicity. To test whether mobile phone-associated EMF exposure affects the MN frequency in exfoliated buccal cells, we obtained cells smears from the left and right inner cheeks of healthy mobile phone users, aged 18-30 (n=86), who also completed a characterization survey. MN frequencies were tested for potential confounding factors and for duration of phone use and preferential side of mobile phone use. No relationship was observed between MN frequency and duration of mobile phone use in daily calls. Cells ipsilateral to mobile phone use did not present a statistically significantly higher MN frequency, compared to cells contralateral to exposure. A highly statistically significant (pphone-associated EMF do not to induce MN formation in buccal cells at the observed exposure levels. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Exposure to mobile phone electromagnetic field radiation, ringtone and vibration affects anxiety-like behaviour and oxidative stress biomarkers in albino wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shehu, Abubakar; Mohammed, Aliyu; Magaji, Rabiu Abdussalam; Muhammad, Mustapha Shehu

    2016-04-01

    Research on the effects of Mobile phone radio frequency emissions on biological systems has been focused on noise and vibrations as auditory stressors. This study investigated the potential effects of exposure to mobile phone electromagnetic field radiation, ringtone and vibration on anxiety-like behaviour and oxidative stress biomarkers in albino wistar rats. Twenty five male wistar rats were randomly divided into five groups of 5 animals each: group I: exposed to mobile phone in switched off mode (control), group II: exposed to mobile phone in silent mode, group III: exposed to mobile phone in vibration mode, group IV: exposed to mobile phone in ringtone mode, group V: exposed to mobile phone in vibration and ringtone mode. The animals in group II to V were exposed to 10 min call (30 missed calls for 20 s each) per day for 4 weeks. Neurobehavioural studies for assessing anxiety were carried out 24 h after the last exposure and the animals were sacrificed. Brain samples were collected for biochemical evaluation immediately. Results obtained showed a significant decrease (P < 0.05) in open arm duration in all the experimental groups when compared to the control. A significant decrease (P < 0.05) was also observed in catalase activity in group IV and V when compared to the control. In conclusion, the results of the present study indicates that 4 weeks exposure to electromagnetic radiation, vibration, ringtone or both produced a significant effect on anxiety-like behavior and oxidative stress in young wistar rats.

  9. [Interference of vitamin E on the brain tissue damage by electromagnetic radiation of cell phone in pregnant and fetal rats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Xian; Luo, Rui; Ma, Bin; Wang, Hui; Liu, Tian; Zhang, Jing; Lian, Zhishun; Cui, Xi

    2013-07-01

    To investigate the interlerence ot vitamin E on brain tissue damage by electromagnetic radiation of cell phone in pregnant and fetal rats. 40 pregnant rats were randomly divided into five groups (positive control, negative control, low, middle and high dosage of vitamin E groups). The low, middle and high dosage of vitamin E groups were supplemented with 5, 15 and 30 mg/ml vitamin E respectively since the first day of pregnancy. And the negative control group and the positive control group were given peanut oil without vitamin E. All groups except for the negative control group were exposed to 900MHz intensity of cell phone radiation for one hour each time, three times per day for 21 days. After accouchement, the right hippocampus tissue of fetal rats in each group was taken and observed under electron microscope. The vitality of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), and the content of malondialdehyde (MDA) in pregnant and fetal rats' brain tissue were tested. Compared with the negative control group, the chondriosomes in neuron and neuroglia of brain tissues was swelling, mild edema was found around the capillary, chromatin was concentrated and collected, and bubbles were formed in vascular endothelial cells (VEC) in the positive fetal rat control group, whereas the above phenomenon was un-conspicuous in the middle and high dosage of vitamin E groups. We can see uniform chromatin, abundant mitochondrion, rough endoplasmic reticulum and free ribosomes in the high dosage group. The apoptosis has not fond in all groups'sections. In the antioxidase activity analysis, compared with the negative control group, the vitality of SOD and GSH-Px significantly decreased and the content of MDA significantly increased both in the pregnant and fetal rats positive control group (P electromagnetic radiation of cell phone in pregnant rats and fetal rats.

  10. Effect of 935-MHz phone-simulating electromagnetic radiation on endometrial glandular cells during mouse embryo implantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wenhui; Zheng, Xinmin; Qu, Zaiqing; Zhang, Ming; Zhou, Chun; Ma, Ling; Zhang, Yuanzhen

    2012-10-01

    This study examined the impact of 935MHz phone-simulating electromagnetic radiation on embryo implantation of pregnant mice. Each 7-week-old Kunming (KM) female white mouse was set up with a KM male mouse in a single cage for mating overnight after induction of ovulation. In the first three days of pregnancy, the pregnant mice was exposed to electromagnetic radiation at low-intensity (150 μW/cm(2), ranging from 130 to 200 μW/cm(2), for 2- or 4-h exposure every day), mid-intensity (570 μW/cm(2), ranging from 400 to 700 μW/cm(2), for 2- or 4-h exposure every day) or high-intensity (1400 μW/cm(2), ranging from 1200 to 1500 μW/cm(2), for 2- or 4-h exposure every day), respectively. On the day 4 after gestation (known as the window of murine embryo implantation), the endometrium was collected and the suspension of endometrial glandular cells was made. Laser scanning microscopy was employed to detect the mitochondrial membrane potential and intracellular calcium ion concentration. In high-intensity, 2- and 4-h groups, mitochondrial membrane potential of endometrial glandular cells was significantly lower than that in the normal control group (Pelectromagnetic radiation and longer length of the radiation are required to inflict a remarkable functional and structural damage to mitochondrial membrane. Our data demonstrated that electromagnetic radiation with a 935-MHz phone for 4 h conspicuously decreased mitochondrial membrane potential and lowered the calcium ion concentration of endometrial glandular cells. It is suggested that high-intensity electromagnetic radiation is very likely to induce the death of embryonic cells and decrease the chance of their implantation, thereby posing a high risk to pregnancy.

  11. Cellular transformation by radiation: induction, promotion, and inhibition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borek, C.

    1981-01-01

    Radiation oncogenesis induced in utero in hamsters is expressed at a lower frequency than that induced in vitro. Quantitative studies carried out on hamster embryo cells indicate that neutrons are more effective in their carcinogenic potential than x-rays but also more toxic, that splitting the dose of x-rays at low doses leads to enhanced transformation, but that at high doses protracted radiation has a sparing effect. At all dose ranges survival was increased by protracting the radiation dose, thus suggesting that different repair processes must be involved for survival and transformation. In our qualitative studies, once cells are transformed by radiation, they exhibit a wide range of structural and functional phenotypic changes, some of which are membrane-associated and are expressed within days after induction. Our current studies on nutritional and hormonal influences on radiation transformation indicate the following: Pyrolysate products from broiled protein foods act in synergism with radiation to produce transformation, whereas vitamin A analogs are powerful, preventive agents. Retinoids inhibit both x-ray-induced transformation and its promotion by TPA; these modifications (enhancement by TPA, inhibition by retinoids) are not reflected in sister chromatid exchanges, but are reflected in the level of membrane associated enzymes Na/K ATPase. Whereas retinoids modify late events (expression, promotion), we find that thyroid hormone plays a crucial role in the early phases of radiation and chemically induced transformation. Our recent success in transforming human skin fibroblasts will enable quantitative and qualitative studies of radiation carcinogenesis in a system relevant to man

  12. Effect of Cell-Phone Radiation in Pregnancy on Serum Levels of Sexual Hormones and Dynastic Cells in adult Female Offspring in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ebrahim Hosseini

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Background & objectives: The teratogenic effects of electromagnetic radiation on different processes of growth caused many concerns related to the harmful effects of cell-phone radiation on human health. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the effects of cell-phone radiation on estrogen, progesterone, FSH and LH hormones together with dynastic sexual cells of adult female offspring of pregnant rats affected by these radiations. Methods: In this experimental study, 24 pregnant female rats divided into 3 groups including the control, sham and experimental groups were used. The control group received no radiation and the experimental group was exposed to cell-phone radiation at the beginning of pregnancy (4 hours daily for 14 days. The control group was exposed around turning-on cell-phone without conversation over the same period. After giving birth and after maturity, 10 female offsprings of different groups separated and after phlebotomizing, sexual hormones levels was measured and by separating the ovaries, ovarian follicles species were counted. The results analyzed using ANOVA and T tests. Differences in statistical analysis of data were considered significant at p<0.05. Results: The results showed that the pregnant female exposure to cell-phone radiation caused significant increase in the size and weight of the ovaries and atresic follicles (p<0.05 without significant effect on the number of primary and secondary follicles, antral, graph, primordial, corpus luteum and sexual hormones. Conclusion: Exposure to cell-phone radiations caused increase in the size, weight and atresic follicles of offspring’s ovaries in pregnant females

  13. The influence of electromagnetic radiation generated by a mobile phone on the skeletal system of rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sieroń-Stołtny, Karolina; Teister, Łukasz; Cieślar, Grzegorz; Sieroń, Dominik; Śliwinski, Zbigniew; Kucharzewski, Marek; Sieroń, Aleksander

    2015-01-01

    The study was focused on the influence of electromagnetic field generated by mobile phone on the skeletal system of rats, assessed by measuring the macrometric parameters of bones, mechanical properties of long bones, calcium and phosphorus content in bones, and the concentration of osteogenesis (osteocalcin) and bone resorption (NTX, pyridinoline) markers in blood serum. The study was carried out on male rats divided into two groups: experimental group subjected to 28-day cycle of exposures in electromagnetic field of 900 MHz frequency generated by mobile phone and a control, sham-exposed one. The mobile phone-generated electromagnetic field did not influence the macrometric parameters of long bones and L4 vertebra, it altered mechanical properties of bones (stress and energy at maximum bending force, stress at fracture), it decreased the content of calcium in long bones and L4 vertebra, and it altered the concentration of osteogenesis and bone resorption markers in rats. On the basis of obtained results, it was concluded that electromagnetic field generated by 900 MHz mobile phone does not have a direct impact on macrometric parameters of bones; however, it alters the processes of bone mineralization and the intensity of bone turnover processes and thus influences the mechanical strength of bones.

  14. Evaluation of the mobile phone electromagnetic radiation on serum iron parameters in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çetkin, Murat; Demirel, Can; Kızılkan, Neşe; Aksoy, Nur; Erbağcı, Hülya

    2017-03-01

    Electromagnetic fields (EMF) created by mobile phones during communication have harmful effects on different organs. It was aimed to investigate the effects of an EMF created by a mobile phone on serum iron level, ferritin, unsaturated iron binding capacity and total iron binding capacity within a rat experiment model. A total of 32 male Wistar albino rats were randomly divided into the control, sham, mobile phone speech (2h/day) and stand by (12 h/day) groups. The speech and stand by groups were subjected to the EMF for a total of 10 weeks. No statistically significant difference was observed between the serum iron and ferritin values of the rats in the speech and stand by groups than the control and sham groups (p>0.05). The unsaturated iron binding capacity and total iron capacity values of the rats in the speech and stand by groups were significantly lower in comparison to the control group (p<0.01). It was found that exposure to EMF created by mobile phones affected unsaturated iron binding capacity and total iron binding capacity negatively.

  15. Review of studies validating the protective efficacy of a new technology designed to compensate adverse biological effects caused by vdu and GSM cell phone radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Youbicier-Simo, B.J.; Messagier, R.; Fillion-Robin, M

    2001-01-01

    A total of 13 studies were initiated and coordinated by Technolab Research Center in 6 laboratories from 3 countries (France, UK, Japan). These studies were aimed at: 1) investigating potential adverse biological effects associated with exposure to non ionizing radiation emitted by two types of communication devices, video display units and cell phones; 2) assessing the efficacy of a compensation magnetic oscillating technology designed to protect from non ionizing radiation. Five types of biological systems including chicken embryos, young chickens, healthy mice, mice suffering from cancer and humans were used. A set of 10 biological parameters were assessed, including embryonic mortality, hormones, antibodies, haematological parameters, stress, mood, ocular damage, neurogenesis, micronuclei formation and intracellular calcium. Overall endpoints were affected by irradiation, in terms of increased embryonic mortality, immune depression, depletion of hormones crucial for the regulation of the immune system, changes in haematological parameters, increased stress, mood alteration, induction of ophthalmologic disorders, inhibition of the neurogenesis in brain areas associated with memory processes, induction of symptoms of cell dysfunction, apoptosis or cancer, and disruption of trans-membrane fluxes of calcium. On the other hand, the compensation magnetic oscillation technology tested allowed significant correction of altered physiological parameters, as well as improvement or disappearance of observed pathological symptoms (author)

  16. Modulation of radiation response by histone deacetylase inhibition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chinnaiyan, Prakash; Vallabhaneni, Geetha; Armstrong, Eric M.S.; Huang, Shyh-Min; Harari, Paul M.

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: Histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors, which modulate chromatin structure and gene expression, represent a class of anticancer agents that hold particular potential as radiation sensitizers. In this study, we examine the capacity of the HDAC inhibitor suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid (SAHA) to modulate radiation response in human tumor cell lines and explore potential mechanisms underlying these interactions. Methods and materials: Cell proliferation: Exponentially growing tumor cells were incubated in medium containing 0-10 μM of SAHA for 72 h. Cells were fixed/stained with crystal violet to estimate cell viability. Apoptosis: Caspase activity was analyzed by fluorescence spectroscopy using a fluorescein labeled pan-caspase inhibitor. Cells were harvested after 48 h of exposure to SAHA (1.0 μM), radiation (6 Gy), or the combination. Whole cell lysates were evaluated for poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) cleavage by western blot analysis. Radiation survival: Cells were exposed to varying doses of radiation ± 3 days pretreatment with SAHA (0.75-1.0 μM). After incubation intervals of 14-21 days, colonies were stained with crystal violet and manually counted. Immunocytochemistry: Cells were grown and treated in chamber slides. At specified times after treatment with SAHA, cells were fixed in paraformaldehyde, permeabilized in methanol, and probed with primary and secondary antibody solutions. Slides were analyzed using an epifluorescent microscope. Results: SAHA induced a dose-dependent inhibition of proliferation in human prostate (DU145) and glioma (U373vIII) cancer cell lines. Exposure to SAHA enhanced radiation-induced apoptosis as measured by caspase activity (p < 0.05) and PARP cleavage. The impact of SAHA on radiation response was further characterized using clonogenic survival analysis, which demonstrated that treatment with SAHA reduced tumor survival after radiation exposure. We identified several oncoproteins and DNA damage repair proteins

  17. Preliminary study on electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) signal properties of mobile phone components for dose estimation in radiation accident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Byeong Ryong; Ha, Wi Ho; Park, Sun Hoo; Lee, Jin Kyeong; Lee, Seung Sook [Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-12-15

    We have investigated the EPR signal properties in 12 components of two mobile phones (LCD, OLED) using electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectrometer in this study.EPR measurements were performed at normal atmospheric conditions using Bruker EXEXSYS-II E500 spectrometer with X-band bridge, and samples were irradiated by {sup 137}C{sub s} gamma-ray source. To identify the presence of radiation-induced signal (RIS), the EPR spectra of each sample were measured unirradiated and irradiated at 50 Gy. Then, dose-response curve and signal intensity variating by time after irradiation were measured. As a result, the signal intensity increased after irradiation in all samples except the USIM plastic and IC chip. Among the samples, cover glass(CG), lens, light guide plate(LGP) and diffusion sheet have shown fine linearity (R{sup 2} > 0.99). Especially, the LGP had ideal characteristics for dosimetry because there were no signal in 0 Gy and high rate of increase in RIS. However, this sample showed weakness in fading. Signal intensity of LGP and Diffusion Sheet decreased by 50% within 72 hours after irradiation, while signals of Cover Glass and Lens were stably preserved during the short period of time. In order to apply rapidly EPR dosimetry using mobile phone components in large-scale radiation accidents, further studies on signal differences for same components of the different mobile phone, fading, pretreatment of samples and processing of background signal are needed. However, it will be possible to do dosimetry by dose-additive method or comparative method using unirradiated same product in small-scale accident.

  18. Comparative measurements of external radiation exposure using mobile phones, dental ceramic, household salt and conventional personal dosemeters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ekendahl, Daniela; Bulánek, Boris; Judas, Libor

    2015-01-01

    Because retrospective dosimetry utilises commonly occurring materials and objects, it is particularly useful in cases of large-scale radiation accidents or malevolent acts with radioactive materials where casualties are inflicted on the general public and first emergency responders. The aim of this study was to investigate whether retrospective dosemeters can provide dose estimates with comparable accuracy like conventional personal dosemeters. Using an external source of radiation 137 Cs and an anthropomorphic phantom, we simulated serious irradiation of a human body in anterior-posterior and rotational geometries. Retrospective luminescence dosimetry objects, such as mobile phones, dental ceramic and household salt, and conventional personal dosemeters (thermoluminescent and electronic) were fixed to the anthropomorphic phantom. The doses obtained were compared with specific reference values. In most cases, relative deviations between the measured doses and the reference values did not exceed 20%. As the retrospective and conventional dosemeters show no significant differences in laboratory conditions, the retrospective luminescence dosimetry objects represent a very promising tool if handled properly. - Highlights: • A serious external exposure of human body was simulated. • Doses were measured using both retrospective and conventional dosemeters. • Utilised retrospective dosimetry materials were alumina resistors from mobile phones, household salt and dental ceramic. • Doses obtained were compared with reference values. • Both retrospective and conventional dosemeters gave similar results

  19. Assessment of radiofrequency/microwave radiation emitted by the antennas of rooftop-mounted mobile phone base stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keow, M. A.; Radiman, S.

    2006-01-01

    Radiofrequency (RF) and microwave (MW) radiation exposures from the antennas of rooftop-mounted mobile telephone base stations have become a serious issue in recent years due to the rapidly evolving technologies in wireless telecommunication systems. In Malaysia, thousands of mobile telephone base stations have been erected all over the country, most of which are mounted on the rooftops. In view of public concerns, measurements of the RF/MW levels emitted by the base stations were carried out in this study. The values were compared with the exposure limits set by several organisations and countries. Measurements were performed at 200 sites around 47 mobile phone base stations. It was found that the RF/MW radiation from these base stations were well below the maximum exposure limits set by various agencies. (authors)

  20. Apparatus and method for inhibiting the generation of excessive radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hernandez, F.; Chamberlain, J.

    1991-01-01

    This patent describes an apparatus for generating electron radiation or X-ray radiation. It comprises accelerator means for generating and accelerating electrons to form an electron beam which has a predetermined low intensity level for the generation of the electron radiation or a predetermined high intensity level for the generation of the X-ray radiation; supporting means for supporting a scattering foil and a target and for selectively moving either the foil into the trajectory of the electron beam having the low intensity level for generating the electron radiation upon impingement of the electrons there or on the target into the trajectory of the electron beam having the high intensity level for generating the X-ray radiation upon impingement of the electrons thereon; detecting means operable by the supporting means for sensing the position of the target relative to the trajectory of the electron beam; and inhibiting means coupled to the accelerator means and to the detecting means for preventing the generation of an electron beam having the high intensity level if the foil and not the target is positioned in the trajectory of the electron beam

  1. Neurodevelopment for the first three years following prenatal mobile phone use, radio frequency radiation and lead exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Kyung-Hwa; Ha, Mina; Ha, Eun-Hee; Park, Hyesook; Kim, Yangho; Hong, Yun-Chul; Lee, Ae-Kyoung; Hwa Kwon, Jong; Choi, Hyung-Do; Kim, Nam; Kim, Suejin; Park, Choonghee

    2017-07-01

    Studies examining prenatal exposure to mobile phone use and its effect on child neurodevelopment show different results, according to child's developmental stages. To examine neurodevelopment in children up to 36 months of age, following prenatal mobile phone use and radiofrequency radiation (RFR) exposure, in relation to prenatal lead exposure. We analyzed 1198 mother-child pairs from a prospective cohort study (the Mothers and Children's Environmental Health Study). Questionnaires were provided to pregnant women at ≤20 weeks of gestation to assess mobile phone call frequency and duration. A personal exposure meter (PEM) was used to measure RFR exposure for 24h in 210 pregnant women. Maternal blood lead level (BLL) was measured during pregnancy. Child neurodevelopment was assessed using the Korean version of the Bayley Scales of Infant Development-Revised at 6, 12, 24, and 36 months of age. Logistic regression analysis applied to groups classified by trajectory analysis showing neurodevelopmental patterns over time. The psychomotor development index (PDI) and the mental development index (MDI) at 6, 12, 24, and 36 months of age were not significantly associated with maternal mobile phone use during pregnancy. However, among children exposed to high maternal BLL in utero, there was a significantly increased risk of having a low PDI up to 36 months of age, in relation to an increasing average calling time (p-trend=0.008). There was also a risk of having decreasing MDI up to 36 months of age, in relation to an increasing average calling time or frequency during pregnancy (p-trend=0.05 and 0.007 for time and frequency, respectively). There was no significant association between child neurodevelopment and prenatal RFR exposure measured by PEM in all subjects or in groups stratified by maternal BLL during pregnancy. We found no association between prenatal exposure to RFR and child neurodevelopment during the first three years of life; however, a potential combined

  2. Mobile phone radiation induces mode-dependent DNA damage in a mouse spermatocyte-derived cell line: a protective role of melatonin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chuan; Gao, Peng; Xu, Shang-Cheng; Wang, Yuan; Chen, Chun-Hai; He, Min-Di; Yu, Zheng-Ping; Zhang, Lei; Zhou, Zhou

    2013-11-01

    To evaluate whether exposure to mobile phone radiation (MPR) can induce DNA damage in male germ cells. A mouse spermatocyte-derived GC-2 cell line was exposed to a commercial mobile phone handset once every 20 min in standby, listen, dialed or dialing modes for 24 h. DNA damage was determined using an alkaline comet assay. The levels of DNA damage were significantly increased following exposure to MPR in the listen, dialed and dialing modes. Moreover, there were significantly higher increases in the dialed and dialing modes than in the listen mode. Interestingly, these results were consistent with the radiation intensities of these modes. However, the DNA damage effects of MPR in the dialing mode were efficiently attenuated by melatonin pretreatment. These results regarding mode-dependent DNA damage have important implications for the safety of inappropriate mobile phone use by males of reproductive age and also suggest a simple preventive measure: Keeping mobile phones as far away from our body as possible, not only during conversations but during 'dialed' and 'dialing' operation modes. Since the 'dialed' mode is actually part of the standby mode, mobile phones should be kept at a safe distance from our body even during standby operation. Furthermore, the protective role of melatonin suggests that it may be a promising pharmacological candidate for preventing mobile phone use-related reproductive impairments.

  3. Effect of cell phone-like electromagnetic radiation on primary human thyroid cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Veronica; Hilly, Ohad; Strenov, Yulia; Tzabari, Cochava; Hauptman, Yirmi; Feinmesser, Raphael

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate the potential carcinogenic effects of radiofrequency energy (RFE) emitted by cell phones on human thyroid primary cells. Primary thyroid cell culture was prepared from normal thyroid tissue obtained from patients who underwent surgery at our department. Subconfluent thyroid cells were irradiated under different conditions inside a cell incubator using a device that simulates cell phone-RFE. Proliferation of control and irradiated cells was assessed by the immunohistochemical staining of antigen Kiel clone-67 (Ki-67) and tumor suppressor p53 (p53) expression. DNA ploidy and the stress biomarkers heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) and reactive oxygen species (ROS) was evaluated by fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS). Our cells highly expressed thyroglobulin (Tg) and sodium-iodide symporter (NIS) confirming the origin of the tissue. None of the irradiation conditions evaluated here had an effect neither on the proliferation marker Ki-67 nor on p53 expression. DNA ploidy was also not affected by RFE, as well as the expression of the biomarkers HSP70 and ROS. Our conditions of RFE exposure seem to have no potential carcinogenic effect on human thyroid cells. Moreover, common biomarkers usually associated to environmental stress also remained unchanged. We failed to find an association between cell phone-RFE and thyroid cancer. Additional studies are recommended.

  4. A Discussion about Ionising and Non-Ionising Radiation and the Critical Issue of Mobile Phones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kontomaris, Stylianos-Vasileios; Malamou, Anna

    2018-01-01

    Electromagnetic radiation is one of the most important issues affecting peoples' lives today. The misunderstanding of students and the general population of the effects of electromagnetic radiation is a problem which must be eliminated. Thus, a discussion about ionising and non-ionising radiation focusing on the crucial issue of radiation emitted…

  5. Does exposure to GSM 900 MHz mobile phone radiation affect short-term memory of elementary school students?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Movvahedi, M M; Tavakkoli-Golpayegani, A; Mortazavi, S A R; Haghani, M; Razi, Z; Shojaie-Fard, M B; Zare, M; Mina, E; Mansourabadi, L; Nazari-Jahromi; Safari, A; Shokrpour, N; Mortazavi, S M J

    2014-05-01

    Now-a-days, children are exposed to mobile phone radiation at a very early age. We have previously shown that a large proportion of children in the city of Shiraz, Iran use mobile phones. Furthermore, we have indicated that the visual reaction time (VRT) of university students was significantly affected by a 10 min real/sham exposure to electromagnetic fields emitted by mobile phone. We found that these exposures decreased the reaction time which might lead to a better response to different hazards. We have also revealed that occupational exposures to radar radiations decreased the reaction time in radar workers. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether short-term exposure of elementary school students to radiofrequency (RF) radiation leads to changes in their reaction time and short-term memory. A total of 60 elementary school children ages ranging from 8 to 10 years studying at a public elementary school in Shiraz, Iran were enrolled in this study. Standardized computer-based tests of VRT and short-term memory (modified for children) were administered. The students were asked to perform some preliminary tests for orientation with the VRT test. After orientation, to reduce the random variation of measurements, each test was repeated ten times in both real and sham exposure phases. The time interval between the two subsequent sham and real exposure phases was 30 min. The mean ± standard deviation reaction times after a 10 min talk period and after a 10 min sham exposure (switched off mobile) period were 249.0 ± 82.3 ms and 252.9 ± 68.2 ms (P = 0.629), respectively. On the other hand, the mean short-term memory scores after the talk and sham exposure periods were 1062.60 ± 305.39, and 1003.84 ± 339.68 (P = 0.030), respectively. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to show that short-term exposure of elementary school students to RF radiation leads to the better performance of their short-term memory.

  6. Reduced growth of soybean seedlings after exposure to weak microwave radiation from GSM 900 mobile phone and base station.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halgamuge, Malka N; Yak, See Kye; Eberhardt, Jacob L

    2015-02-01

    The aim of this work was to study possible effects of environmental radiation pollution on plants. The association between cellular telephone (short duration, higher amplitude) and base station (long duration, very low amplitude) radiation exposure and the growth rate of soybean (Glycine max) seedlings was investigated. Soybean seedlings, pre-grown for 4 days, were exposed in a gigahertz transverse electromagnetic cell for 2 h to global system for mobile communication (GSM) mobile phone pulsed radiation or continuous wave (CW) radiation at 900 MHz with amplitudes of 5.7 and 41 V m(-1) , and outgrowth was studied one week after exposure. The exposure to higher amplitude (41 V m(-1)) GSM radiation resulted in diminished outgrowth of the epicotyl. The exposure to lower amplitude (5.7 V m(-1)) GSM radiation did not influence outgrowth of epicotyl, hypocotyls, or roots. The exposure to higher amplitude CW radiation resulted in reduced outgrowth of the roots whereas lower CW exposure resulted in a reduced outgrowth of the hypocotyl. Soybean seedlings were also exposed for 5 days to an extremely low level of radiation (GSM 900 MHz, 0.56 V m(-1)) and outgrowth was studied 2 days later. Growth of epicotyl and hypocotyl was found to be reduced, whereas the outgrowth of roots was stimulated. Our findings indicate that the observed effects were significantly dependent on field strength as well as amplitude modulation of the applied field. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. A possible effect of electromagnetic radiation from mobile phone base stations on the number of breeding house sparrows (Passer domesticus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Everaert, Joris; Bauwens, Dirk

    2007-01-01

    A possible effect of long-term exposure to low-intensity electromagnetic radiation from mobile phone (GSM) base stations on the number of House Sparrows during the breeding season was studied in six residential districts in Belgium. We sampled 150 point locations within the 6 areas to examine small-scale geographic variation in the number of House Sparrow males and the strength of electromagnetic radiation from base stations. Spatial variation in the number of House Sparrow males was negatively and highly significantly related to the strength of electric fields from both the 900 and 1800 MHz downlink frequency bands and from the sum of these bands (Chi(2)-tests and AIC-criteria, Pnegative relationship was highly similar within each of the six study areas, despite differences among areas in both the number of birds and radiation levels. Thus, our data show that fewer House Sparrow males were seen at locations with relatively high electric field strength values of GSM base stations and therefore support the notion that long-term exposure to higher levels of radiation negatively affects the abundance or behavior of House Sparrows in the wild.

  8. Induction, development, and inhibition of radiation-induced macrobodies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adam, W.J.; Grunewald, R.

    1975-01-01

    Coleus shoots were exposed to 100,000 R of γ radiation and the fine structure of the apical meristems was examined. Meristems were fixed at various postirradiation times. An ultrastructural body was found associated with irradiated tissue, bound by a single membrane, containing dense osmiophilic bodies, and usually associated with radiation-induced vacuoles. The development of these new bodies, and the effects of both dose rate and light during the postirradiation period on their development were examined. Reduction of the dose rate by a factor of two inhibited the formation of these macrobodies through the 24 hour postirradiation period. Meristems kept in the dark during the 24 hour postirradiation period had macrobodies similar in form to the macrobodies from the meristems of the 16 hour postirradiation period which were exposed to light. Superlethal doses were used to achieve these results. Similarities between our results and those achieved with lower lethal doses are discussed

  9. Exposure to Radiofrequency Radiation Emitted from Common Mobile Phone Jammers Alters the Pattern of Muscle Contractions: an Animal Model Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafati A.

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The rapid growth of wireless communication technologies has caused public concerns regarding the biological effects of electromagnetic radiations on human health. Some early reports indicated a wide variety of non-thermal effects of electromagnetic radiation on amphibians such as the alterations of the pattern of muscle extractions. This study is aimed at investigating the effects of exposure to radiofrequency (RF radiation emitted from mobile phone jammers on the pulse height of contractions, the time interval between two subsequent contractions and the latency period of frog’s isolated gastrocnemius muscle after stimulation with single square pulses of 1V (1 Hz. Materials and Methods: Frogs were kept in plastic containers in a room. Animals in the jammer group were exposed to radiofrequency (RF radiation emitted from a common Jammer at a distance of 1m from the jammer’s antenna for 2 hours while the control frogs were only sham exposed. Then animals were sacrificed and isolated gastrocnemius muscles were exposed to on/off jammer radiation for 3 subsequent 10 minute intervals. Isolated gastrocnemius muscles were attached to the force transducer with a string. Using a PowerLab device (26-T, the pattern of muscular contractions was monitored after applying single square pulses of 1V (1 Hz as stimuli. Results: The findings of this study showed that the pulse height of muscle contractions could not be affected by the exposure to electromagnetic fields. However, the latency period was effectively altered in RF-exposed samples. However, none of the experiments could show an alteration in the time interval between two subsequent contractions after exposure to electromagnetic fields. Conclusion: These findings support early reports which indicated a wide variety of non-thermal effects of electromagnetic radiation on amphibians including the effects on the pattern of muscle extractions.

  10. Exposure to Radiofrequency Radiation Emitted from Common Mobile Phone Jammers Alters the Pattern of Muscle Contractions: an Animal Model Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafati, A; Rahimi, S; Talebi, A; Soleimani, A; Haghani, M; Mortazavi, S M J

    2015-09-01

    The rapid growth of wireless communication technologies has caused public concerns regarding the biological effects of electromagnetic radiations on human health. Some early reports indicated a wide variety of non-thermal effects of electromagnetic radiation on amphibians such as the alterations of the pattern of muscle extractions. This study is aimed at investigating the effects of exposure to radiofrequency (RF) radiation emitted from mobile phone jammers on the pulse height of contractions, the time interval between two subsequent contractions and the latency period of frog's isolated gastrocnemius muscle after stimulation with single square pulses of 1V (1 Hz). Frogs were kept in plastic containers in a room. Animals in the jammer group were exposed to radiofrequency (RF) radiation emitted from a common Jammer at a distance of 1m from the jammer's antenna for 2 hours while the control frogs were only sham exposed. Then animals were sacrificed and isolated gastrocnemius muscles were exposed to on/off jammer radiation for 3 subsequent 10 minute intervals. Isolated gastrocnemius muscles were attached to the force transducer with a string. Using a PowerLab device (26-T), the pattern of muscular contractions was monitored after applying single square pulses of 1V (1 Hz) as stimuli. The findings of this study showed that the pulse height of muscle contractions could not be affected by the exposure to electromagnetic fields. However, the latency period was effectively altered in RF-exposed samples. However, none of the experiments could show an alteration in the time interval between two subsequent contractions after exposure to electromagnetic fields. These findings support early reports which indicated a wide variety of non-thermal effects of electromagnetic radiation on amphibians including the effects on the pattern of muscle extractions.

  11. Histological and histochemical study of the protective role of rosemary extract against harmful effect of cell phone electromagnetic radiation on the parotid glands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghoneim, Fatma M; Arafat, Eetmad A

    2016-06-01

    Electromagnetic fields (EMFs) are a class of non-ionizing radiation (NIR) that is emitted from mobile phone. It may have hazardous effects on parotid glands. So, we aimed to investigate the histological and histochemical changes of the parotid glands of rats exposed to mobile phone and study the possible protective role of rosemary against its harmful effect. Forty adult male albino rats were used in this study. They were classified into 4 equal groups. Group I (control), group II (control receiving rosemary), group III (mobile phone exposed group) and group IV (mobile exposed, rosemary treated group). Parotid glands were dissected out for histological and histochemical study. Moreover, measurement of oxidative stress markers; malondialdehyde (MDA) and total antioxidant capacity (TAC) was done. The results of this study revealed that rosemary has protective effect through improving the histological and histochemical picture of the parotid gland in addition of its antioxidant effect. It could be concluded from the current study, that exposure of parotid gland of rat models to electromagnetic radiation of mobile phone resulted in structural changes at the level of light and electron microscopic examination which could be explained by oxidative stress effect of mobile phone. Rosemary could play a protective role against this harmful effect through its antioxidant activity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  12. Inhibition of proteolytic ferments by taurin in radiation sickness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dokshina, G.A.; Klimova, A.D.; Yartsev, E.I.; Yakovlev, V.G.

    1975-01-01

    The application of taurin potassium phosphate (TKPh) as radioprotective remedy resulted in a considerable influence on the activity of the proteolytic ferments in the irradiated organism. White male rats with a weight of 160 to 180 g being kept in cages without any food for 12 hours before this experiment were irradiated with a gamma unit GUM-Co-60 with a dose of 700 rad (LDsub(70/30)). A 4% solution of the preparation was injected in an amount of 40 mg per rat 1, 3, 5, 7 days after irradiation. Under the effect of ionizing radiation there was a progredient increase of proteolytic ferment activity of liver and spleen which was detected already 30 min after irradiation with maximum rate of proteolysis on the 21st day. After injection of the preparation a two-phase reaction developed: on the 7th to 12th day an increased activity of cathepsins in the tissue and in the following time up to the 30th day of observation an inhibition of ferment activity was demonstrated. Simultaneously it was found that the radiation-induced corticosteroid level was prevented by the preparation. A similar effect was also shown by TKPh inhibiting proteolytic ferment activity in experiments with rats with preceding application of hydrocortisone in high doses. The obtained results permit the assumption that the radioprotective activity of taurin comes about by its effect in the direction of structural integrity of the cell membranes leading to a normalization of the hormonal and fermentative events

  13. Inhibition of seagrass photosynthesis by ultraviolet-B radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trocine, R.P.; Rice, J.D.; Wells, G.N.

    1981-01-01

    Effects of ultraviolet-B radiation on the photosynthesis of seagrasses (Halophila engelmanni Aschers, Halodule wrightii Aschers, and Syringodium filiforme (Kuetz) were examined. The intrinsic tolerance of each seagrass to ultraviolet-B, the presence and effectiveness of photorepair mechanisms to ultraviolet-B-induced photosynthetic inhibition, and the role of epiphytic growth as a shield from ultraviolet-B were investigated. Halodule was found to possess the greatest photosynthetic tolerance for ultraviolet-B. Photosynthesis in Syringodium was slightly more sensitive to ultraviolet-B while Halophila showed relatively little photosynthetic tolerance. Evidence for a photorepair mechanism was found only in Halodule. Syringodium appeared to rely primarily on a thick epidermal cell layer to reduce photosynthetic damage. Halophila seemed to have no morphological or photorepair capabilities to deal with ultraviolet-B. This species appeared to rely on epiphytic and detrital shielding and the shade provided by other seagrasses to reduce ultraviolet-B irradiation to tolerable levels. The presence of epiphytes on leaf surfaces was found to reduce the extent of photosynthetic inhibition from ultraviolet-B exposure in all species. Halophila appears to obtain an increased photosynthetic tolerance to ultraviolet-B as an indirect benefit of chloroplast clumping to avoid photo-oxidation by intense levels of photosynthetically active radiation

  14. Mobile phone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    Almost the entire Norwegian population has cell phone. The usefulness of the cell phone is great, but can use a mobile phone to health or discomfort? How can exposure be reduced? NRPA follows research and provides advice on mobile phone use. (AG)

  15. Inhibition of ribosomal RNA synthesis in yeast by ionizing radiations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weber, K; Kiefer, J [Giessen Univ. (Germany, F.R.). Strahlenzentrum

    1984-12-01

    Synthesis of ribosomal RNA(r-RNA) was measured for 1 h after exposure of Saccharomyces cerevisiae to ..gamma..-rays, X-rays or ..cap alpha.. particles. ..gamma..- or X-ray induced transcription inhibition was always found to decrease exponentially with dose. D/sub 0/ values of 2150 or 1950 Gy were determined in wild-type cells, corresponding to a mean energy of about 60 eV per r-RNA gene. The finding of differential sensitivities of the two high molecular-weight r-RNA species which are cotranscribed from r-DNA is compatible with the existence of a transcription terminating mechanism. Cells from a mutant strain (rad-9), radiation sensitive to colony forming ability, showed an approximately equal sensitivity for transcription inhibition compared to the wild-type (D/sub 0/ (2095) = 2400 Gy). Inactivation of r-RNA synthesis in cells exposed to ..cap alpha..-particles at room-temperature showed a decreased sensitivity with higher particle fluences ('resistant tail'). This phenomenon was drastically reduced if the temperature during irradiation was lowered to 4/sup 0/C and completely abolished when dried cells were used. An inactivation cross-section for ..cap alpha..-particle induced transcription inhibition of about 0.02 ..mu..m/sup 2/ can be derived from the experimental data.

  16. Inhibition of seagrass photosynthesis by ultraviolet-B radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trocine, R P; Rice, J D; Wells, G N

    1981-07-01

    Effects of ultraviolet-B radiation on the photosynthesis of seagrasses (Halophila engelmanni Aschers, Halodule wrightii Aschers, and Syringodium filiforme Kütz) were examined. The intrinsic tolerance of each seagrass to ultraviolet-B, the presence and effectiveness of photorepair mechanisms to ultraviolet-B-induced photosynthetic inhibition, and the role of epiphytic growth as a shield from ultraviolet-B were investigated.Halodule was found to possess the greatest photosynthetic tolerance for ultraviolet-B. Photosynthesis in Syringodium was slightly more sensitive to ultraviolet-B while Halophila showed relatively little photosynthetic tolerance. Evidence for a photorepair mechanism was found only in Halodule. This mechanism effectively attenuated photosynthetic inhibition induced by ultraviolet-B dose rates and dosages in excess of natural conditions. Syringodium appeared to rely primarily on a thick epidermal cell layer to reduce photosynthetic damage. Halophila seemed to have no morphological or photorepair capabilities to deal with ultraviolet-B. This species appeared to rely on epiphytic and detrital shielding and the shade provided by other seagrasses to reduce ultraviolet-B irradiation to tolerable levels. The presence of epiphytes on leaf surfaces was found to reduce the extent of photosynthetic inhibition from ultraviolet-B exposure in all species.Observations obtained in this study seem to suggest the possibility of anthocyanin and/or other flavonoid synthesis as an adaptation to long term ultraviolet-B irradiation by these species. In addition, Halophila appears to obtain an increased photosynthetic tolerance to ultraviolet-B as an indirect benefit of chloroplast clumping to avoid photo-oxidation by intense levels of photosynthetically active radiation.

  17. Method of inhibiting the onset of acute radiation syndrome and also inhibiting the onset of septicemia and a composition therefor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ribi, E E

    1986-01-14

    A method is described for inhibiting the onset of acute radiation syndrome caused by the exposure of warm-blooded animals to a whole body dose of at least 100 rads of x-radiation. Also described is a method for inhibiting the onset of septicemia. The methods comprise administering to a warm-blooded animal an effective amount of a pharmaceutical preparation containing refined detoxified endotoxin in combination with a pharmaceutically acceptable carrier.

  18. A Radiation Learning Support System by Tri-sensory Augmented Reality using a Mobile Phone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimoda, Hiroshi; Zhao, Yue; Yan, Weida; Ishii, Hirotake

    2011-01-01

    A radiation learning support system has been developed to support learning basic knowledge of radiation and its influence on the human body by using tri-sensory Augmented Reality (AR) technology with presenting information to visual, auditory and tactile sensation. The system consists of a knowledge learning mode in which learners can learn basic knowledge of radiation and an experience learning mode in which they can virtually experience its influence on the human body under various conditions. As the result of a simple evaluation, it was suggested that the system improves the learners' intuitive understanding, and information presentation to auditory and tactile sensation is more effective than that to visual sensation

  19. Looking at the other side of the coin: the search for possible biopositive cognitive effects of the exposure to 900 MHz GSM mobile phone radiofrequency radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mortazavi, Seyed Ali Reza; Tavakkoli-Golpayegani, Ali; Haghani, Masoud; Mortazavi, Seyed Mohammad Javad

    2014-01-01

    Although exposure to electromagnetic radiation in radiofrequency range has caused a great deal of concern globally, radiofrequency radiation has many critical applications in both telecommunication and non-communication fields. The induction of adaptive response phenomena by exposure to radiofrequency radiation as either increased resistance to a subsequent dose of ionizing radiation or resistance to a bacterial infection has been reported recently. Interestingly, the potential beneficial effects of mobile phone radiofrequency radiation are not only limited to the induction of adaptive phenomena. It has previously been indicated that the visual reaction time of university students significantly decreased after a 10 min exposure to radiofrequency radiation emitted by a mobile phone. Furthermore, it has been revealed that occupational exposures to radar radiations decreased the reaction time in radar workers. Based on these findings, it can be hypothesized that in special circumstances, these exposures might lead to a better response of humans to different hazards. Other investigators have also provided evidence that confirms the induction of RF-induced cognitive benefits. Furthermore, some recent reports have indicated that RF radiation may play a role in protecting against cognitive impairment in Alzheimer's disease. In this light, a challenging issue will arise if there are other RF-induced stimulating effects. It is also challenging to explore the potential applications of these effects. Further research may shed light on dark areas of the health effects of short and long-term human exposure to radiofrequency radiation.

  20. A radiation learning support system by tri-sensory augmented reality using a mobile phone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimoda, Hiroshi; Zhao, Yue; Yan, Weida; Ishii, Hirotake

    2011-01-01

    A radiation learning support system has been developed to support learning basic knowledge of radiation and its strength of human body impact by using tri-sensory Augmented Reality (AR) technology with presenting information to visual, auditory and haptic sensation. The system consists of a knowledge learning mode in which learners can learn basic knowledge of radiation and an experience learning mode in which they can virtually experience its strength of human body impact under various conditions. As the result of a simple evaluation, it was suggested that the system improves the learners' intuitive understanding, and information presentation of the radiation strength to auditory and haptic sensation is more comprehensive than that to visual sensation. (author)

  1. Explanation for Cancer in Rats, Mice and Humans due to Cell Phone Radiofrequency Radiation

    OpenAIRE

    Feldman, Bernard J.

    2016-01-01

    Very recently, the National Toxicology Program reported a correlation between exposure to whole body 900 MHz radiofrequency radiation and cancer in the brains and hearts of Sprague Dawley male rats. This paper proposes the following explanation for these results. The neurons around the rat's brain and heart form closed electrical circuits and, following Faraday's Law, 900 MHz radiofrequency radiation induces 900 MHz electrical currents in these neural circuits. In turn, these 900 MHz currents...

  2. Impact of radiofrequency radiation on DNA damage and antioxidants in peripheral blood lymphocytes of humans residing in the vicinity of mobile phone base stations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zothansiama; Zosangzuali, Mary; Lalramdinpuii, Miriam; Jagetia, Ganesh Chandra

    2017-01-01

    Radiofrequency radiations (RFRs) emitted by mobile phone base stations have raised concerns on its adverse impact on humans residing in the vicinity of mobile phone base stations. Therefore, the present study was envisaged to evaluate the effect of RFR on the DNA damage and antioxidant status in cultured human peripheral blood lymphocytes (HPBLs) of individuals residing in the vicinity of mobile phone base stations and comparing it with healthy controls. The study groups matched for various demographic data including age, gender, dietary pattern, smoking habit, alcohol consumption, duration of mobile phone use and average daily mobile phone use. The RF power density of the exposed individuals was significantly higher (p base stations, showed significantly (p base station/s. The analysis of various antioxidants in the plasma of exposed individuals revealed a significant attrition in glutathione (GSH) concentration (p < 0.01), activities of catalase (CAT) (p < 0.001) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) (p < 0.001) and rise in lipid peroxidation (LOO) when compared to controls. Multiple linear regression analyses revealed a significant association among reduced GSH concentration (p < 0.05), CAT (p < 0.001) and SOD (p < 0.001) activities and elevated MN frequency (p < 0.001) and LOO (p < 0.001) with increasing RF power density.

  3. Possible Explanation for Cancer in Rats due to Cell Phone Radio Frequency Radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldman, Bernard J.

    Very recently, the National Toxicology Program reported a correlation between exposure to whole body 900 MHz radio frequency radiation and cancer in the brains and hearts of Sprague Dawley male rats. Assuming that the National Toxicology Program is statistically significant, I propose the following explanation for these results. The neurons around the brain and heart form closed electrical circuits and, following Faraday's Law, 900 MHz radio frequency radiation induces 900 MHz electrical currents in these neural circuits. In turn, these 900 MHz currents in the neural circuits generate sufficient localized heat in the neural cells to shift the equilibrium concentration of carcinogenic radicals to higher levels and thus, to higher incidences of cancer.

  4. The effect of 2100 MHz radiofrequency radiation of a 3G mobile phone on the parotid gland of rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aydogan, Filiz; Unlu, Ilhan; Aydin, Emine; Yumusak, Nihat; Devrim, Erdinc; Samim, Ethem Erdal; Ozgur, Elcin; Unsal, Velid; Tomruk, Arin; Ozturk, Goknur Guler; Seyhan, Nesrin

    2015-01-01

    We aimed to evaluate the effect of 2100 MHz radiofrequency radiation on the parotid gland of rats in short and relatively long terms. Thirty Wistar albino rats were divided into four groups. Groups A and B served as the control groups (for 10 days and 40 days, respectively), and each group included six rats. Groups C and D were composed of nine rats each, and they were the exposure groups. The rats were exposed to 2100 MHz radiofrequency radiation emitted by a generator, simulating a third generation mobile phone for 6 hours/day, 5 days/week, for 10 or 40 days. Following exposure, the rats were sacrificed and parotid glands were removed. Histopathological and biochemical examinations were performed. Although there were no histopathological changes in the control groups except for two animals in group A and three animals in group B, the exposure groups C (10 days) and D (40 days) showed numerous histopathological changes regarding salivary gland damage including acinar epithelial cells, interstitial space, ductal system, vascular system, nucleus, amount of cytoplasm and variations in cell size. The histopathological changes were more prominent in group D compared to group C. There was statistically significant different parameter regarding variation in cell size between the groups B and D (p=0.036). The parotid gland of rats showed numerous histopathological changes after exposure to 2100 MHz radiofrequency radiation, both in the short and relatively long terms. Increased exposure duration led to an increase in the histopathological changes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. The effect of electromagnetic radiation due to mobile phone use on thyroid function in medical students studying in a medical college in South India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikita Mary Baby

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Enormous increase in mobile phone use throughout the world raises widespread concerns about its possible detrimental effect on human health. Radiofrequency waves are emitted by cell phones. They are non-ionising and the effect on the thyroid gland is part of their non thermal effects. The thyroid gland may be particularly vulnerable to this effect because of its normal anatomical position. Materials and Methods: The study was done to explore the association between radiation exposure and thyroid dysfunction among mobile phone users. It had an exploratory design and unit survey method to collect information from all medical students in a medical college in South India. Inclusion criteria included active use of mobile phone prior to and during the study period. Criteria for exclusion was presence of pre-existsting thyroid disease,thyroid nodule,thyroid goitre/nodule and altered thyroid function. Results: The sample size was 83 undergraduate students. 71% of respondents had no family history of thyroid illness. Among the remainder,20.5% had a first degree relative with thyroid dysfunction,8.4% had a second degree relative affected. Clinical examination revealed that 79.5% of the respondents were normal,13.6% had thyroid swelling,3.6% had symptoms of thyroid dysfunction and 3.6% had both thyroid swelling and symptoms of thyroid dysfunction. 53% of the respondents spent 0.5 hrs on an average talking on the phone daily,28.9% spent 1.5 hrs daily and 10.8% of respondents spent over 3.5 hours. We found there was a significant correlation between total radiation exposure and an increase in TSH among both groups –in those with and without family history of thyroid illness. Conclusion: In our study there was a significant correlation between total radiation exposure and increasing TSH values among both all respondents.

  6. Use of portable exposure meters for comparing mobile phone base station radiation in different types of areas in the cities of Basel and Amsterdam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urbinello, Damiano; Huss, Anke; Beekhuizen, Johan; Vermeulen, Roel; Röösli, Martin

    2014-01-15

    Radiofrequency electromagnetic fields (RF-EMF) are highly variable and differ considerably within as well as between areas. Exposure assessment studies characterizing spatial and temporal variation are limited so far. Our objective was to evaluate sources of data variability and the repeatability of daily measurements using portable exposure meters (PEMs). Data were collected at 12 days between November 2010 and January 2011 with PEMs in four different types of urban areas in the cities of Basel (BSL) and Amsterdam (AMS). Exposure from mobile phone base stations ranged from 0.30 to 0.53 V/m in downtown and business areas and in residential areas from 0.09 to 0.41 V/m. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) demonstrated that measurements from various days were highly reproducible (measurement duration of approximately 30 min) with only 0.6% of the variance of all measurements from mobile phone base station radiation being explained by the measurement day and only 0.2% by the measurement time (morning, noon, afternoon), whereas type of area (30%) and city (50%) explained most of the data variability. We conclude that mobile monitoring of exposure from mobile phone base station radiation with PEMs is useful due to the high repeatability of mobile phone base station exposure levels, despite the high spatial variation. © 2013.

  7. Effect of Exposure to 900 MHz GSM Mobile Phone Radiofrequency Radiation on Estrogen Receptor Methylation Status in Colon Cells of Male Sprague Dawley Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mokarram, P.; Sheikhi, M.; Mortazavi, S.M.J.; Saeb, S.; Shokrpour, N.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Over the past several years, the rapidly increasing use of mobile phones has raised global concerns about the biological effects of exposure to radiofrequency (RF) radiation. Numerous studies have shown that exposure to electromagnetic fields (EMFs) can be associated with effects on the nervous, endocrine, immune, cardiovascular, hematopoietic and ocular systems. In spite of genetic diversity, the onset and progression of cancer can be controlled by epigenetic mechanisms such as gene promoter methylation. There are extensive studies on the epigenetic changes of the tumor suppressor genes as well as the identification of methylation biomarkers in colorectal cancer. Some studies have revealed that genetic changes can be induced by exposure to RF radiation. However, whether or not RF radiation is capable of inducing epigenetic alteration has not been clarified yet. To date, no study has been conducted on the effect of radiation on epigenetic alterations in colorectal cancer (CRC). Several studies have also shown that methylation of estrogen receptor α (ERα), MYOD, MGMT, SFRP2 and P16 play an important role in CRC. It can be hypothesized that RF exposure can be a reason for the high incidence of CRC in Iran. This study aimed to investigate whether epigenetic pattern of ERα is susceptible to RF radiation and if RF radiation can induce radioadaptive response as epigenetic changes after receiving the challenge dose (γ-ray). Material and Method: 40 male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into 4 equal groups (Group I: exposure to RF radiation of a GSM cell phone for 4 hours and sacrificed after 24 hours; Group II: RF exposure for 4 hours, exposure to Co-60 gamma radiation (3 Gy) after 24 hours and sacrificed after 72 hrs; Group III: only 3Gy gamma radiation; Group 4: control group). DNA from colon tissues was extracted to evaluate the methylation status by methylation specific PCR. Results: Our finding showed that exposure to GSM cell phone RF radiation was

  8. Effect of Exposure to 900 MHz GSM Mobile Phone Radiofrequency Radiation on Estrogen Receptor Methylation Status in Colon Cells of Male Sprague Dawley Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mokarram P.

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Over the past several years, the rapidly increasing use of mobile phones has raised global concerns about the biological effects of exposure to radiofrequency (RF radiation. Numerous studies have shown that exposure to electromagnetic fields (EMFs can be associated with effects on the nervous, endocrine, immune, cardiovascular, hematopoietic and ocular systems. In spite of genetic diversity, the onset and progression of cancer can be controlled by epigenetic mechanisms such as gene promoter methylation. There are extensive studies on the epigenetic changes of the tumor suppressor genes as well as the identification of methylation biomarkers in colorectal cancer. Some studies have revealed that genetic changes can be induced by exposure to RF radiation. However, whether or not RF radiation is capable of inducing epigenetic alteration has not been clarified yet. To date, no study has been conducted on the effect of radiation on epigenetic alterations in colorectal cancer (CRC. Several studies have also shown that methylation of estrogen receptor α (ERα, MYOD, MGMT, SFRP2 and P16 play an important role in CRC. It can be hypothesized that RF exposure can be a reason for the high incidence of CRC in Iran. This study aimed to investigate whether epigenetic pattern of ERα is susceptible to RF radiation and if RF radiation can induce radioadaptive response as epigenetic changes after receiving the challenge dose (γ-ray. Material and Method: 40 male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into 4 equal groups (Group I: exposure to RF radiation of a GSM cell phone for 4 hours and sacrificed after 24 hours; Group II: RF exposure for 4 hours, exposure to Co-60 gamma radiation (3 Gy after 24 hours and sacrificed after 72 hrs; Group III: only 3Gy gamma radiation; Group 4: control group. DNA from colon tissues was extracted to evaluate the methylation status by methylation specific PCR. Results: Our finding showed that exposure to GSM cell phone RF

  9. The 2100MHz radiofrequency radiation of a 3G-mobile phone and the DNA oxidative damage in brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahin, Duygu; Ozgur, Elcin; Guler, Goknur; Tomruk, Arın; Unlu, Ilhan; Sepici-Dinçel, Aylin; Seyhan, Nesrin

    2016-09-01

    We aimed to evaluate the effect of 2100MHz radiofrequency radiation emitted by a generator, simulating a 3G-mobile phone on the brain of rats during 10 and 40 days of exposure. The female rats were randomly divided into four groups. Group I; exposed to 3G modulated 2100MHz RFR signal for 6h/day, 5 consecutive days/wk for 2 weeks, group II; control 10 days, were kept in an inactive exposure set-up for 6h/day, 5 consecutive days/wk for 2 weeks, group III; exposed to 3G modulated 2100MHz RFR signal for 6h/day, 5 consecutive days/wk for 8 weeks and group IV; control 40 days, were kept in an inactive exposure set-up for 6h/day, 5 consecutive days/wk for 8 weeks. After the genomic DNA content of brain was extracted, oxidative DNA damage (8-hydroxy-2'deoxyguanosine, pg/mL) and malondialdehyde (MDA, nmoL/g tissue) levels were determined. Our main finding was the increased oxidative DNA damage to brain after 10 days of exposure with the decreased oxidative DNA damage following 40 days of exposure compared to their control groups. Besides decreased lipid peroxidation end product, MDA, was observed after 40 days of exposure. The measured decreased quantities of damage during the 40 days of exposure could be the means of adapted and increased DNA repair mechanisms. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Effects of electromagnetic radiation produced by 3G mobile phones on rat brains: magnetic resonance spectroscopy, biochemical, and histopathological evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dogan, M; Turtay, M G; Oguzturk, H; Samdanci, E; Turkoz, Y; Tasdemir, S; Alkan, A; Bakir, S

    2012-06-01

    The effects of electromagnetic radiation (EMR) produced by a third-generation (3G) mobile phone (MP) on rat brain tissues were investigated in terms of magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS), biochemistry, and histopathological evaluations. The rats were randomly assigned to two groups: Group 1 is composed of 3G-EMR-exposed rats (n = 9) and Group 2 is the control group (n = 9). The first group was subjected to EMR for 20 days. The control group was not exposed to EMR. Choline (Cho), creatinin (Cr), and N-acetylaspartate (NAA) levels were evaluated by MRS. Catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) enzyme activities were measured by spectrophotometric method. Histopathological analyses were carried out to evaluate apoptosis in the brain tissues of both groups. In MRS, NAA/Cr, Cho/Cr, and NAA/Cho ratios were not significantly different between Groups 1 and 2. Neither the oxidative stress parameters, CAT and GSH-Px, nor the number of apoptotic cells were significantly different between Groups 1 and 2. Usage of short-term 3G MP does not seem to have a harmful effect on rat brain tissue.

  11. Effects of electromagnetic radiation from 3G mobile phone on heart rate, blood pressure and ECG parameters in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colak, Cengiz; Parlakpinar, Hakan; Ermis, Necip; Tagluk, Mehmet Emin; Colak, Cemil; Sarihan, Ediz; Dilek, Omer Faruk; Turan, Bahadir; Bakir, Sevtap; Acet, Ahmet

    2012-08-01

    Effects of electromagnetic energy radiated from mobile phones (MPs) on heart is one of the research interests. The current study was designed to investigate the effects of electromagnetic radiation (EMR) from third-generation (3G) MP on the heart rate (HR), blood pressure (BP) and ECG parameters and also to investigate whether exogenous melatonin can exert any protective effect on these parameters. In this study 36 rats were randomized and evenly categorized into 4 groups: group 1 (3G-EMR exposed); group 2 (3G-EMR exposed + melatonin); group 3 (control) and group 4 (control + melatonin). The rats in groups 1 and 2 were exposed to 3G-specific MP's EMR for 20 days (40 min/day; 20 min active (speech position) and 20 min passive (listening position)). Group 2 was also administered with melatonin for 20 days (5 mg/kg daily during the experimental period). ECG signals were recorded from cannulated carotid artery both before and after the experiment, and BP and HR were calculated on 1st, 3rd and 5th min of recordings. ECG signals were processed and statistically evaluated. In our experience, the obtained results did not show significant differences in the BP, HR and ECG parameters among the groups both before and after the experiment. Melatonin, also, did not exhibit any additional effects, neither beneficial nor hazardous, on the heart hemodynamics of rats. Therefore, the strategy (noncontact) of using a 3G MP could be the reason for ineffectiveness; and use of 3G MP, in this perspective, seems to be safer compared to the ones used in close contact with the head. However, further study is needed for standardization of such an assumption.

  12. Exposure to Mobile Phone Radiation Opens New Horizons in Alzheimer’s Disease Treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Mortazavi SAR; Shojaei-Fard MB; Haghani M; Shokrpour N; Mortazavi SMJ

    2013-01-01

    Alzheimer’s disease, the most common type of dementia and a progressive neurodegenerative disease, occurs when the nerve cells in the brain die. Although there are medications that can help delay the development of Alzheimer’s disease, there is currently no cure for this disease. Exposure to ionizing and non-ionizing radiation may cause adverse health effects such as cancer.  Looking at the other side of the coin, there are reports indicating stimulatory or beneficial effects after exposure t...

  13. Behavioral teratologic studies using microwave radiation: is there an increased risk from exposure to cellular phones and microwave ovens?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensh, R P

    1997-01-01

    delayed, and there were changes in the water T-maze and open field performance levels. Several organ/body weight ratios differed from those of the control offspring. These results indicate that exposure to 6000 MHz radiation at this power density level may result in subtle long-term neurophysiologic alterations. However, in the absence of a hyperthermic state, the microwave frequencies tested, which included frequencies used in cellular phones and microwave ovens, do not induce a consistent, significant increase in reproductive risk as assessed by classical morphologic and postnatal psychophysiologic parameters.

  14. Mobile phone base station-emitted radiation does not induce phosphorylation of Hsp27.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirose, H; Sakuma, N; Kaji, N; Nakayama, K; Inoue, K; Sekijima, M; Nojima, T; Miyakoshi, J

    2007-02-01

    An in vitro study focusing on the effects of low-level radiofrequency (RF) fields from mobile radio base stations employing the International Mobile Telecommunication 2000 (IMT-2000) cellular system was conducted to test the hypothesis that modulated RF fields act to induce phosphorylation and overexpression of heat shock protein hsp27. First, we evaluated the responses of human cells to microwave exposure at a specific absorption rate (SAR) of 80 mW/kg, which corresponds to the limit of the average whole-body SAR for general public exposure defined as a basic restriction in the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP) guidelines. Second, we investigated whether continuous wave (CW) and Wideband Code Division Multiple Access (W-CDMA) modulated signal RF fields at 2.1425 GHz induced activation or gene expression of hsp27 and other heat shock proteins (hsps). Human glioblastoma A172 cells were exposed to W-CDMA radiation at SARs of 80 and 800 mW/kg for 2-48 h, and CW radiation at 80 mW/kg for 24 h. Human IMR-90 fibroblasts from fetal lungs were exposed to W-CDMA at 80 and 800 mW/kg for 2 or 28 h, and CW at 80 mW/kg for 28 h. Under the RF field exposure conditions described above, no significant differences in the expression levels of phosphorylated hsp27 at serine 82 (hsp27[pS82]) were observed between the test groups exposed to W-CDMA or CW signal and the sham-exposed negative controls, as evaluated immediately after the exposure periods by bead-based multiplex assays. Moreover, no noticeable differences in the gene expression of hsps were observed between the test groups and the negative controls by DNA Chip analysis. Our results confirm that exposure to low-level RF field up to 800 mW/kg does not induce phosphorylation of hsp27 or expression of hsp gene family.

  15. Mobile phone base station radiation does not affect neoplastic transformation in BALB/3T3 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirose, H; Suhara, T; Kaji, N; Sakuma, N; Sekijima, M; Nojima, T; Miyakoshi, J

    2008-01-01

    A large-scale in vitro study focusing on low-level radiofrequency (RF) fields from mobile radio base stations employing the International Mobile Telecommunication 2000 (IMT-2000) cellular system was conducted to test the hypothesis that modulated RF fields affect malignant transformation or other cellular stress responses. Our group previously reported that DNA strand breaks were not induced in human cells exposed to 2.1425 GHz Wideband Code Division Multiple Access (W-CDMA) radiation up to 800 mW/kg from mobile radio base stations employing the IMT-2000 cellular system. In the current study, BALB/3T3 cells were continuously exposed to 2.1425 GHz W-CDMA RF fields at specific absorption rates (SARs) of 80 and 800 mW/kg for 6 weeks and malignant cell transformation was assessed. In addition, 3-methylcholanthrene (MCA)-treated cells were exposed to RF fields in a similar fashion, to assess for effects on tumor promotion. Finally, the effect of RF fields on tumor co-promotion was assessed in BALB/3T3 cells initiated with MCA and co-exposed to 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA). At the end of the incubation period, transformation dishes were fixed, stained with Giemsa, and scored for morphologically transformed foci. No significant differences in transformation frequency were observed between the test groups exposed to RF signals and the sham-exposed negative controls in the non-, MCA-, or MCA plus TPA-treated cells. Our studies found no evidence to support the hypothesis that RF fields may affect malignant transformation. Our results suggest that exposure to low-level RF radiation of up to 800 mW/kg does not induce cell transformation, which causes tumor formation. (c) 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  16. Exposure of magnetic bacteria to simulated mobile phone-type RF radiation has no impact on mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cranfield, Charles G; Wieser, Heinz Gregor; Dobson, Jon

    2003-09-01

    The interaction of mobile phone RF emissions with biogenic magnetite in the human brain has been proposed as a potential mechanism for mobile phone bioeffects. This is of particular interest in light of the discovery of magnetite in human brain tissue. Previous experiments using magnetite-containing bacteria exposed directly to emissions from a mobile phone have indicated that these emissions might be causing greater levels of cell death in these bacterial populations when compared to sham exposures. A repeat of these experiments examining only the radio frequency (RF) global system for mobile communication (GSM) component of the mobile phone signal in a well-defined waveguide system (REFLEX), shows no significant change in cell mortality compared to sham exposures. A nonmagnetite containing bacterial cell strain (CC-26) with similar genotype and phenotype to the magnetotactic bacteria was used as a control. These also showed no significant change in cell mortality between RF and sham exposed samples. Results indicate that the RF components of mobile phone exposure do not appear to be responsible for previous findings indicating cell mortality as a result of direct mobile phone exposure. A further mobile phone emission component that should be investigated is the 2-Hz magnetic field pulse generated by battery currents during periods of discontinuous transmission.

  17. Effect of Radiofrequency Radiation Emitted from 2G and 3G Cell Phone on Developing Liver of Chick Embryo - A Comparative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Silva, Mary Hydrina; Swer, Rijied Thompson; Anbalagan, J; Rajesh, Bhargavan

    2017-07-01

    The increasing scientific evidence of various health hazards on exposure of Radiofrequency Radiation (RFR) emitted from both the cell phones and base stations have caused significant media attention and public discussion in recent years. The mechanism of interaction of RF fields with developing tissues of children and fetuses may be different from that of adults due to their smaller physical size and variation in tissue electromagnetic properties. The present study may provide an insight into the basic mechanisms by which RF fields interact with developing tissues in an embryo. To evaluate the possible tissue and DNA damage in developing liver of chick embryo following chronic exposure to Ultra-High Frequency/Radiofrequency Radiation (UHF/RFR) emitted from 2G and 3G cell phone. Fertilized chick embryos were incubated in four groups. Group A-experimental group exposed to 2G radiation (60 eggs), Group B- experimental group exposed to 3G radiation (60 eggs), Group C- sham exposed control group (60 eggs) and Group D- control group (48 eggs). On completion of scheduled duration, the embryos were collected and processed for routine histological studies to check structural changes in liver. The nuclear diameter and karyorrhexis changes of hepatocytes were analysed using oculometer and square reticule respectively. The liver procured from one batch of eggs from all the four groups was subjected to alkaline comet assay technique to assess DNA damage. The results were compared using one-way ANOVA test. In our study, the exposure of developing chick embryos to 2G and 3G cell phone radiations caused structural changes in liver in the form of dilated sinusoidal spaces with haemorrhage, increased vacuolations in cytoplasm, increased nuclear diameter and karyorrhexis and significantly increased DNA damage. The chronic exposure of chick embryo liver to RFR emitted from 2G and 3G cell phone resulted in various structural changes and DNA damage. The changes were more pronounced in 3

  18. Effect of Radiofrequency Radiation Emitted from 2G and 3G Cell Phone on Developing Liver of Chick Embryo – A Comparative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swer, Rijied Thompson; Anbalagan, J.; Rajesh, Bhargavan

    2017-01-01

    Introduction The increasing scientific evidence of various health hazards on exposure of Radiofrequency Radiation (RFR) emitted from both the cell phones and base stations have caused significant media attention and public discussion in recent years. The mechanism of interaction of RF fields with developing tissues of children and fetuses may be different from that of adults due to their smaller physical size and variation in tissue electromagnetic properties. The present study may provide an insight into the basic mechanisms by which RF fields interact with developing tissues in an embryo. Aim To evaluate the possible tissue and DNA damage in developing liver of chick embryo following chronic exposure to Ultra-High Frequency/Radiofrequency Radiation (UHF/RFR) emitted from 2G and 3G cell phone. Materials and Methods Fertilized chick embryos were incubated in four groups. Group A-experimental group exposed to 2G radiation (60 eggs), Group B- experimental group exposed to 3G radiation (60 eggs), Group C- sham exposed control group (60 eggs) and Group D– control group (48 eggs). On completion of scheduled duration, the embryos were collected and processed for routine histological studies to check structural changes in liver. The nuclear diameter and karyorrhexis changes of hepatocytes were analysed using oculometer and square reticule respectively. The liver procured from one batch of eggs from all the four groups was subjected to alkaline comet assay technique to assess DNA damage. The results were compared using one-way ANOVA test. Results In our study, the exposure of developing chick embryos to 2G and 3G cell phone radiations caused structural changes in liver in the form of dilated sinusoidal spaces with haemorrhage, increased vacuolations in cytoplasm, increased nuclear diameter and karyorrhexis and significantly increased DNA damage. Conclusion The chronic exposure of chick embryo liver to RFR emitted from 2G and 3G cell phone resulted in various structural

  19. Exposure assessment of mobile phone base station radiation in an outdoor environment using sequential surrogate modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aerts, Sam; Deschrijver, Dirk; Joseph, Wout; Verloock, Leen; Goeminne, Francis; Martens, Luc; Dhaene, Tom

    2013-05-01

    Human exposure to background radiofrequency electromagnetic fields (RF-EMF) has been increasing with the introduction of new technologies. There is a definite need for the quantification of RF-EMF exposure but a robust exposure assessment is not yet possible, mainly due to the lack of a fast and efficient measurement procedure. In this article, a new procedure is proposed for accurately mapping the exposure to base station radiation in an outdoor environment based on surrogate modeling and sequential design, an entirely new approach in the domain of dosimetry for human RF exposure. We tested our procedure in an urban area of about 0.04 km(2) for Global System for Mobile Communications (GSM) technology at 900 MHz (GSM900) using a personal exposimeter. Fifty measurement locations were sufficient to obtain a coarse street exposure map, locating regions of high and low exposure; 70 measurement locations were sufficient to characterize the electric field distribution in the area and build an accurate predictive interpolation model. Hence, accurate GSM900 downlink outdoor exposure maps (for use in, e.g., governmental risk communication and epidemiological studies) are developed by combining the proven efficiency of sequential design with the speed of exposimeter measurements and their ease of handling. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Effects of Simulated Mobile Phone Electromagnetic Radiation on Fertilization and Embryo Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hong; Qu, Zaiqing; Liu, Wenhui

    2017-04-01

    This study investigated the effects of 935-MHz electromagnetic radiation (ER) on fertilization and subsequent embryonic development in mice. Ovulating mice were irradiated at three ER intensities for 4 h/day (d) or 2 h/d for three consecutive days; the ova were then harvested for in vitro fertilization to observe the 6-h fertilization rate (6-FR), 72-h morula rate (72-MR), and 110-h blastula rate (110-BR). Compared with the control group, the 6-FR, 72-MR, and 110-BR were decreased in the low ER intensity group, but the differences were not significant; in the mid- and high-intensity ER groups, 72-MR and 110-BR in the 4 h/d and 2 h/d subgroups were decreased, showing significant differences compared with the control group. Moreover, the comparison between 4 h/d and 2 h/d subgroups showed significant differences. Mid- and high-intensity ER at 935 MHz can reduce the fertilization rate in mice, and reduce the blastulation rate, thus reducing the possibility of embryo implantation.

  1. Survey of the Effects of Exposure to 900 MHz Radiofrequency Radiation Emitted by a GSM Mobile Phone on the Pattern of Muscle Contractions in an Animal Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mortazavi S. M. J.

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: The rapid development of wireless telecommunication technologies over the past decades, has led to significant changes in the exposure of the general public to electromagnetic fields. Nowadays, people are continuously exposed to different sources of electromagnetic fields such as mobile phones, mobile base stations, cordless phones, Wi-Fi routers, and power lines. Therefore, the last decade witnessed a rapidly growing concern about the possible health effects of exposure to electromagnetic fields emitted by these sources. Materials and Methods: In this study that was aimed at investigating the effects of exposure to radiofrequency (RF radiation emitted by a GSM mobile phone on the pattern of contraction in frog’s isolated gastrocnemius muscle after stimulation with single square pulses of 1V (1 Hz, pulse height of contractions, the time interval between two subsequent contractions and the latency period were measured. Results: Our findings showed that the pulse height of contractions muscle could be affected by the exposure to electromagnetic fields. Especially, the latency period was effectively altered in RF-exposed samples. However, none of the experiments could show an alteration in the time interval between two subsequent contractions after exposure to electromagnetic fields. Conclusion: These findings support early reports which indicated a wide variety of non-thermal effects of electromagnetic radiation on amphibians including the effects on the pattern of muscle extractions

  2. Survey of the Effects of Exposure to 900 MHz Radiofrequency Radiation Emitted by a GSM Mobile Phone on the Pattern of Muscle Contractions in an Animal Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mortazavi, S M J; Rahimi, S; Talebi, A; Soleimani, A; Rafati, A

    2015-09-01

    The rapid development of wireless telecommunication technologies over the past decades, has led to significant changes in the exposure of the general public to electromagnetic fields. Nowadays, people are continuously exposed to different sources of electromagnetic fields such as mobile phones, mobile base stations, cordless phones, Wi-Fi routers, and power lines. Therefore, the last decade witnessed a rapidly growing concern about the possible health effects of exposure to electromagnetic fields emitted by these sources. In this study that was aimed at investigating the effects of exposure to radiofrequency (RF) radiation emitted by a GSM mobile phone on the pattern of contraction in frog's isolated gastrocnemius muscle after stimulation with single square pulses of 1V (1 Hz), pulse height of contractions, the time interval between two subsequent contractions and the latency period were measured. Our findings showed that the pulse height of contractions muscle could be affected by the exposure to electromagnetic fields. Especially, the latency period was effectively altered in RF-exposed samples. However, none of the experiments could show an alteration in the time interval between two subsequent contractions after exposure to electromagnetic fields. These findings support early reports which indicated a wide variety of non-thermal effects of electromagnetic radiation on amphibians including the effects on the pattern of muscle extractions.

  3. Mobile-phone radiation-induced perturbation of gene-expression profiling, redox equilibrium and sporadic-apoptosis control in the ovary of Drosophila melanogaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manta, Areti K; Papadopoulou, Deppie; Polyzos, Alexander P; Fragopoulou, Adamantia F; Skouroliakou, Aikaterini S; Thanos, Dimitris; Stravopodis, Dimitrios J; Margaritis, Lukas H

    2017-04-03

    The daily use by people of wireless communication devices has increased exponentially in the last decade, begetting concerns regarding its potential health hazards. Drosophila melanogaster four days-old adult female flies were exposed for 30 min to radiation emitted by a commercial mobile phone at a SAR of 0.15 W/kg and a SAE of 270 J/kg. ROS levels and apoptotic follicles were assayed in parallel with a genome-wide microarrays analysis. ROS cellular contents were found to increase by 1.6-fold (x), immediately after the end of exposure, in follicles of pre-choriogenic stages (germarium - stage 10), while sporadically generated apoptotic follicles (germarium 2b and stages 7-9) presented with an averaged 2x upregulation in their sub-population mass, 4 h after fly's irradiation with mobile device. Microarray analysis revealed 168 genes being differentially expressed, 2 h post-exposure, in response to radiofrequency (RF) electromagnetic field-radiation exposure (≥1.25x, P mobile-phone radiation for 30 min has an immediate impact on ROS production in animal's ovary, which seems to cause a global, systemic and non-targeted transcriptional reprogramming of gene expression, 2 h post-exposure, being finally followed by induction of apoptosis 4 h after the end of exposure. Conclusively, this unique type of pulsed radiation, mainly being derived from daily used mobile phones, seems capable of mobilizing critical cytopathic mechanisms, and altering fundamental genetic programs and networks in D. melanogaster.

  4. Electrosmog, celluar phones, sunbeds etc. - adverse health effects from radiation? Health aspects of non-ionizing radiation; Elektrosmog, Handys, Solarien usw. - Gesundheitsrisiken durch Strahlung? Gesundheitliche Aspekte nichtionisierender Strahlung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernhardt, J.H.

    2005-01-15

    This review supplies a survey of the three physical influences, i.e. UV radiation, high-frequency electromagnetic fields of radio telephone systems and other wireless radio applications as well as low-frequency fields of electric power supply. The exposure to UV radiation must be considered to be by far the highest health risk. The annual rate of about 2000 deaths from skin cancer in Germany, mainly caused by extensive exposure to solar UV radiation, demands protective measures. Teaching reasonable behaviour is the supreme issue. Recommended protective measures in the order to their effectiveness are protection by adaptation of behaviour, by clothes, sun hats and sunglasses as well as by sun creams. Children are the most important target group. With regard to UV tanning appliances it is recommended not to use artificial UV radiation for cosmetic purposes because of the related health risks. For the assessment of health impairments caused by exposure to electromagnetic fields, direct field reactions due to induced electric body currents, reactions on the surface of the body or heating effects should be separated from indirect field reactions (e.g. electric shocks and burns) due to contact currents or interference with electronic body aids and implants. Risk assessment has led to recommendations of threshold values which - in agreement with international research results - exclude all impairments of health caused by direct field reactions scientifically proven to date. Contrary to public concerns, which are mostly related to base transmitters of radio telephone systems, exposure due to handheld radio telephones (cellular phones) should rather be considered from the viewpoint of precautionary health protection, since it is more likely that their use can lead to high exposure of the user. Due to the protective measures provided so far and observance of the threshold values based on scientific results, exposures do not lead to health impairments - not even in children

  5. Mobile Phone

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    籍万杰

    2004-01-01

    Your mobile phone rings.and instead of usual electronic signals,it's playing your favorite music.A friend sends your favorite song to cheer you up.One day,a record company might forward new records and music videos to your phone.

  6. X-ray radiation and development inhibition of Helicoverpa armigera Hübner (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Junheon; Jung, Soon-Oh; Jang, Sin Ae; Kim, Jeongmin; Park, Chung Gyoo

    2015-01-01

    Effect of X-ray radiation on the development inhibition was evaluated for all stages of the life cycle of Helicoverpa armigera to determine a radiation dose for potential quarantine treatment against the insect. ED 99 values for inhibition of hatching, pupation, and adult emergence from irradiated eggs were 413, 210, and 154 Gy, respectively. ED 99 values for inhibition of pupation and adult emergence from irradiated larvae were 221 and 167 Gy, respectively. Pupa was the most tolerant to X-ray radiation. ED 99 value for inhibition of adult emergence from irradiated pupae was as high as 2310 Gy, whereas that for inhibition of F 1 egg hatching was only 66 Gy. ED 99 value for inhibition of hatching of F 1 eggs which were laid by irradiated adults was estimated to 194 Gy. X-ray irradiation against H. armigera is recommended as an alternative method to methyl bromide fumigation for phytosanitary treatments during quarantine. X-ray radiation dose of 200 Gy is proposed as a potential quarantine treatment dose for H. armigera eggs and larvae. - Highlights: • X-ray irradiation induced abnormal development of Helicoverpa armigera. • ED 99 value for inhibition of pupation and adult emergence of irradiated egg was estimated at 210 and 154 Gy, respectively. • ED 99 value for inhibition of pupation and adult emergence of irradiated larva was estimated at 221 and 167 Gy, respectively

  7. Inhibition of phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase causes increased sensitivity to radiation through a PKB-dependent mechanism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gottschalk, Alexander R.; Doan, Albert; Nakamura, Jean L.; Stokoe, David; Haas-Kogan, Daphne A.

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: To identify whether inhibition of phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI3K) causes increased radiosensitivity through inhibition of protein kinase B (PKB), implicating PKB as an important therapeutic target in prostate cancer. Methods and Materials: The prostate cancer cell line LNCaP was treated with the PI3K inhibitor LY294002, radiation, and combinations of the two therapies. Apoptosis and survival were measured by cell cycle analysis, Western blot analysis for cleaved poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase, and clonogenic survival. To test the hypothesis that inhibition of PKB is responsible for LY294002-induced radiosensitivity, LNCaP cells expressing a constitutively active form of PKB were used. Results: The combination of PI3K inhibition and radiation caused an increase in apoptosis and a decrease in clonogenic survival when compared to either modality alone. The expression of constitutively activated PKB blocked apoptosis induced by combination of PI3K inhibition and radiation and prevented radiosensitization by LY294002. Conclusion: These data indicate that PI3K inhibition increases sensitivity of prostate cancer cell lines to ionizing radiation through inactivation of PKB. Therefore, PTEN mutations, which lead to PKB activation, may play an important role in the resistance of prostate cancer to radiation therapy. Targeted therapy against PKB could be beneficial in the management of prostate cancer patients

  8. Inhibition of radiation-induced polyuria by histamine receptor antagonists

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donlon, M.A.; Melia, J.A.; Helgeson, E.A.; Wolfe, W.W.

    1986-03-01

    In previous studies the authors have demonstrated that gamma radiation results in polyuria, which is preceded by polydypsia. This suggests that the increased thirst elicited by radiation causes increased urinary volume (UV). Histamine, which is released following radiation exposure, also elicits drinking by nonirradiated rats when administered exogenously. In this study the authors have investigated both the role of water deprivation and the effect of histamine receptor antagonists (HRA) on radiation-induced polyuria. Sprague-Dawley rats were housed individually in metabolic cages. Water was allowed ad libitum except in deprivation experiments where water was removed for 24 hr immediately following radiation. Cimetidine (CIM), an H2 HRA, and dexbromopheniramine (DXB), an H1 HRA, were administered i.p. (16 and 1 mg/kg, respectively) 30 min prior to irradiation (950 rads from a cobalt source). UV was determined at 24-hr intervals for 3 days preceding irradiation and 24 hr postirradiation. UV in DXB treated rats was significantly reduced 24 hr postirradiation (CON = 427 +/- 54%; DXB = 247 +/- 39% of preirradiated CON) compared to postirradiation control values. CIM did not affect postirradiation UV. These data suggest that radiation-induced polyuria is caused by polydypsia which is, in part, mediated by histamine induced by an H1 receptor.

  9. Inhibition of radiation-induced polyuria by histamine receptor antagonists

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Donlon, M.A.; Melia, J.A.; Helgeson, E.A.; Wolfe, W.W.

    1986-01-01

    In previous studies the authors have demonstrated that gamma radiation results in polyuria, which is preceded by polydypsia. This suggests that the increased thirst elicited by radiation causes increased urinary volume (UV). Histamine, which is released following radiation exposure, also elicits drinking by nonirradiated rats when administered exogenously. In this study the authors have investigated both the role of water deprivation and the effect of histamine receptor antagonists (HRA) on radiation-induced polyuria. Sprague-Dawley rats were housed individually in metabolic cages. Water was allowed ad libitum except in deprivation experiments where water was removed for 24 hr immediately following radiation. Cimetidine (CIM), an H2 HRA, and dexbromopheniramine (DXB), an H1 HRA, were administered i.p. (16 and 1 mg/kg, respectively) 30 min prior to irradiation (950 rads from a cobalt source). UV was determined at 24-hr intervals for 3 days preceding irradiation and 24 hr postirradiation. UV in DXB treated rats was significantly reduced 24 hr postirradiation (CON = 427 +/- 54%; DXB = 247 +/- 39% of preirradiated CON) compared to postirradiation control values. CIM did not affect postirradiation UV. These data suggest that radiation-induced polyuria is caused by polydypsia which is, in part, mediated by histamine induced by an H1 receptor

  10. [Effect of American Ginseng Capsule on the liver oxidative injury and the Nrf2 protein expression in rats exposed by electromagnetic radiation of frequency of cell phone].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Ya-ping; Ma, Hui-Rong; Chen, Jing-Wei; Li, Jing-Jing; Li, Chun-xiang

    2014-05-01

    To observe the effect of American Ginseng Capsule (AGC) on the liver oxidative injury and the Nrf2 protein expression in the liver tissue of rats exposed by 900 MHz cell phone electromagnetic radiation. Totally 40 male SD rats were randomly divided into the normal control group, the model group, the Shuifei Jibin Capsule (SJC) group, and the AGC group,10 in each group. Rats in the normal control group were not irradiated. Rats in the rest three groups were exposed by imitated 900 MHz cellular phone for 4 h in 12 consecutive days. Meanwhile, rats in the SJC group and the AGC group were intragastrically administrated with suspension of SJC and AGC (1 mL/200 g body weight) respectively. Normal saline was administered to rats in the normal control group and the model group. The histolomorphological changes of the liver tissue were observed by HE staining. Contents of malonic dialdehyde (MDA), superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione (GSH), and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-PX)were detected by colorimetry. The Nrf2 protein expression of hepatocytes was detected by immunohistochemical assay and Western blot. Compared with the normal control group, hepatocyte nucleus was atrophied or partially disappeared, the contents of liver MDA and Nrf2 protein obviously increased (P electromagnetic radiation induced by 900 MHz cell phone could affect the expression of Nrf2 protein, induce oxidative injury, and induce abnormal morphology of liver cells. SJC and AGC could promote the morphological recovery of the liver cells. Its mechanism might be related to affecting the expression of Nrf2 protein and attenuating oxidative damage of liver cells.

  11. Shielding Efficiency of a Fabric Based on Amorphous Glass-Covered Magnetic Microwires to Radiation Emitted by a Mobile Phone in 2G and 3G Communication Technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miclăuş Simona

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available A dual band mobile phone model was used to check the shielding properties of an amorphous ferromagnetic textile against the radiation emitted by the handset. Two frequencies belonging to the 2nd and 3rd generation of mobile emission technologies were used, 897 MHz and 1950 MHz. The specific absorption rate (SAR of energy deposition in a human head phantom was measured in standardized conditions. The textile contained micrometric-diameter wires of a ferromagnetic mixture embedded in a thin glass coat and weaved in a specific way. A set of fabric orientations and configurations (layering were provided in the experiment in order to achieve a better shielding to the phone’s radiation. Compared with the non-shielded handset, SAR deposited in the head while using the fabric-covered phone could be decreased up to 30 % of its initial value – in case of 2G technology and up to 24 % – in case of 3G technology. This type of material shows one of the highest shielding efficiencies of the electric-field component in near-field exposure conditions reported until now. A cubic curve of SAR decrease in depth of the head was revealed in both uncovered and covered handset, the effect of shielding being larger at the higher frequency.

  12. Effects of smoke and tea on radiation-induced bone marrow cell mutation and marrow inhibition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao Yong; Zhang Weiguang

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To provide scientific information for the prevention and treatment of the radiation damage by analyzing the effects of smoke and tea on radiation-induced bone marrow cell mutation and marrow inhibition. Methods: 7 group mice were exposed to smoke and/or tea and/or radiation respectively. There were also b blank control group and a cyclophosphamide positive control group. The frequencies of micronucleated polychromatic erythrocytes (MPCE), the ratio of polychromatic erythrocytes (PCE) to mature erythrocytes (RBC) in marrow, and the count of peripheral blood hemoleukocyte were observed. Results: The frequencies of MPCE in the groups irradiated with γ-rays were significantly higher than that in the blank control group (P<0.05 or 0.01). The smoke + radiation group's frequency was significantly higher than single radiation group (P<0.05). The ratios of PCE to RBC in the groups irradiated were significantly lower than that in the blank control group (P<0.01). The counts of peripheral blood hemoleukocyte in the groups irradiated were significantly lower than the blank control group (P<0.01). Conclusion: Radiation were able to cause marrow cell mutation and induce marrow inhibition. Smoke increases the effect of radiation-induced marrow cell mutation. Tea and smoke could not affect radiation-induced bone marrow inhibition

  13. Inhibition of photosystem II by UV-B-radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tevini, M.; Pfister, K.

    1985-01-01

    The effect of UV-B-radiation on PSII activity of spinach chloroplasts was analyzed by measuring the integrity of the herbicide-binding protein (HBP 32), by measurement of fluorescence induction in the presence of Diuron (DCMU), and by mathematical analysis of the fluorescence induction curves. It was shown that UV-B inactivates the PSII α-centers but not PSII β-centers. However, the possibility cannot be excluded that in addition the donor site of PSII near the reaction center is attacked by UV-B-radiation. (orig.)

  14. Use of mobile phones and cancer risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayanda, Olushola S; Baba, Alafara A; Ayanda, Omolola T

    2012-01-01

    Mobile phones work by transmitting and receiving radio frequency microwave radiation. The radio frequency (RF) emitted by mobile phones is stronger than FM radio signal which are known to cause cancer. Though research and evidence available on the risk of cancer by mobile phones does not provide a clear and direct support that mobile phones cause cancers. Evidence does not also support an association between exposure to radio frequency and microwave radiation from mobile phones and direct effects on health. It is however clear that lack of available evidence of cancer as regards the use of mobile phone should not be interpreted as proof of absence of cancer risk, so that excessive use of mobile phones should be taken very seriously and with caution to prevent cancer.

  15. Evaluation of bax, bcl-2, p21 and p53 genes expression variations on cerebellum of BALB/c mice before and after birth under mobile phone radiation exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghatei, Najmeh; Nabavi, Ariane Sadr; Toosi, Mohammad Hossein Bahreyni; Azimian, Hosein; Homayoun, Mansour; Targhi, Reza Ghasemnezhad; Haghir, Hossein

    2017-09-01

    The increasing rate of over using cell phones has been considerable in youths and pregnant women. We examined the effect of mobile phones radiation on genes expression variation on cerebellum of BALB/c mice before and after of the birth. In this study, a mobile phone jammer, which is an instrument to prevent receiving signals between cellular phones and base transceiver stations (two frequencies 900 and 1800 MHz) for exposure was used and twelve pregnant mice (BALB/c) divided into two groups (n=6), first group irradiated in pregnancy period (19th day), the second group did not irradiate in pregnancy period. After childbirth, offspring were classified into four groups (n=4): Group1: control, Group 2: B1 (Irradiated after birth), Group 3: B2 (Irradiated in pregnancy period and after birth), Group 4: B3 (Irradiated in pregnancy period). When maturity was completed (8-10 weeks old), mice were dissected and cerebellum was isolated. The expression level of bax , bcl-2, p21 and p53 genes examined by real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (Real-Time RT- PCR). The data showed that mobile phone radio waves were ineffective on the expression level of bcl-2 and p53 genes) P >0.05(. Also gene expression level of bax decreased and gene expression level of p21 increased comparing to the control group ( P mobile phone radiations did not induce apoptosis in cells of the cerebellum and the injured cells can be repaired by cell cycle arrest.

  16. Gimeracil sensitizes cells to radiation via inhibition of homologous recombination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takagi, Masaru; Sakata, Koh-ichi; Someya, Masanori; Tauchi, Hiroshi; Iijima, Kenta; Matsumoto, Yoshihisa; Torigoe, Toshihiko; Takahashi, Akari; Hareyama, Masato; Fukushima, Masakazu

    2010-01-01

    Background and purpose: 5-Chloro-2,4-dihydroxypyridine (Gimeracil) is a component of an oral fluoropyrimidine derivative S-1. Gimeracil is originally added to S-1 to yield prolonged 5-FU concentrations in tumor tissues by inhibiting dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase, which degrades 5-FU. We found that Gimeracil by itself had the radiosensitizing effect. Methods and materials: We used various cell lines deficient in non-homologous end-joining (NHEJ) or homologous recombination (HR) as well as DLD-1 and HeLa in clonogenic assay. γ-H2AX focus formation and SCneo assay was performed to examine the effects of Gimeracil on DNA double strand break (DSB) repair mechanisms. Results: Results of γ-H2AX focus assay indicated that Gimeracil inhibited DNA DSB repair. It did not sensitize cells deficient in HR but sensitized those deficient in NHEJ. In SCneo assay, Gimeracil reduced the frequency of neo-positive clones. Additionally, it sensitized the cells in S-phase more than in G0/G1. Conclusions: Gimeracil inhibits HR. Because HR plays key roles in the repair of DSBH caused by radiotherapy, Gimeracil may enhance the efficacy of radiotherapy through the suppression of HR-mediated DNA repair pathways.

  17. The Addition of Manganese Porphyrins during Radiation Inhibits Prostate Cancer Growth and Simultaneously Protects Normal Prostate Tissue from Radiation Damage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arpita Chatterjee

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Radiation therapy is commonly used for prostate cancer treatment; however, normal tissues can be damaged from the reactive oxygen species (ROS produced by radiation. In separate reports, we and others have shown that manganese porphyrins (MnPs, ROS scavengers, protect normal cells from radiation-induced damage but inhibit prostate cancer cell growth. However, there have been no studies demonstrating that MnPs protect normal tissues, while inhibiting tumor growth in the same model. LNCaP or PC3 cells were orthotopically implanted into athymic mice and treated with radiation (2 Gy, for 5 consecutive days in the presence or absence of MnPs. With radiation, MnPs enhanced overall life expectancy and significantly decreased the average tumor volume, as compared to the radiated alone group. MnPs enhanced lipid oxidation in tumor cells but reduced oxidative damage to normal prostate tissue adjacent to the prostate tumor in combination with radiation. Mechanistically, MnPs behave as pro-oxidants or antioxidants depending on the level of oxidative stress inside the treated cell. We found that MnPs act as pro-oxidants in prostate cancer cells, while in normal cells and tissues the MnPs act as antioxidants. For the first time, in the same in vivo model, this study reveals that MnPs enhance the tumoricidal effect of radiation and reduce oxidative damage to normal prostate tissue adjacent to the prostate tumor in the presence of radiation. This study suggests that MnPs are effective radio-protectors for radiation-mediated prostate cancer treatment.

  18. A systemic administration of liposomal curcumin inhibits radiation pneumonitis and sensitizes lung carcinoma to radiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shi HS

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Hua-shan Shi1,* Xiang Gao,1,3,* Dan Li,1,* Qiong-wen Zhang,1 Yong-sheng Wang,2 Yu Zheng,1 Lu-Lu Cai,1 Ren-ming Zhong,2 Ao Rui,1 Zhi-yong Li,1 Hao Zheng,1 Xian-cheng Chen,1 Li-juan Chen,11State Key Laboratory of Biotherapy and Cancer Center, West China Hospital, West China Medicine School, Sichuan University, Chengdu, Sichuan, People's Republic of China; 2State Key Laboratory of Biotherapy and Department of Thoracic Oncology, West China Hospital, West China Medical School, Sichuan University, Chengdu, Sichuan, People's Republic of China; 3Deparment of Pathophysiology, College of Preclinical and Forensic Medical Sciences, Sichuan University, Chengdu, People's Republic of China*These authors contributed equally to this workAbstract: Radiation pneumonitis (RP is an important dose-limiting toxicity during thoracic radiotherapy. Previous investigations have shown that curcumin is used for the treatment of inflammatory conditions and cancer, suggesting that curcumin may prevent RP and sensitize cancer cells to irradiation. However, the clinical advancement of curcumin is limited by its poor water solubility and low bioavailability after oral administration. Here, a water-soluble liposomal curcumin system was developed to investigate its prevention and sensitizing effects by an intravenous administration manner in mice models. The results showed that liposomal curcumin inhibited nuclear factor-κB pathway and downregulated inflammatory factors including tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin (IL-6, IL-8, and transforming growth factor-β induced by thoracic irradiation. Furthermore, the combined treatment with liposomal curcumin and radiotherapy increased intratumoral apoptosis and microvessel responses to irradiation in vivo. The significantly enhanced inhibition of tumor growth also was observed in a murine lung carcinoma (LL/2 model. There were no obvious toxicities observed in mice. The current results indicate that liposomal curcumin can effectively

  19. Inhibition of autophagy induced by TSA sensitizes colon cancer cell to radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Gang; Wang, Yan; Pang, Xueli; Zhang, Bo

    2014-02-01

    Radiotherapy is one of the main treatments for clinical cancer therapy. However, its application was limited due to lack of radiosensitivity in some cancers. Trichostatin A (TSA) is a classic histone deacetylases inhibitor (HDACi) that specifically inhibits the biochemical functions of HDAC and is demonstrated to be an active anticancer drug. However, whether it could sensitize colon cancer to radiation is not clear. Our results showed that TSA enhanced the radiosensitivity of colon cancer cells as determined by CCK-8 and clonogenic survival assay. Moreover, apoptotic cell death induced by radiation was enhanced by TSA treatment. Additionally, TSA also induced autophagic response in colon cancer cells, while autophagy inhibition led to cell apoptosis and enhanced the radiosensitivity of colon cancer cells. Our data suggested that inhibition of cytoprotective autophagy sensitizes cancer cell to radiation, which might be further investigated for clinical cancer radiotherapy.

  20. Inhibition of radiation-induced lipid peroxidation by means of gallic polydisulphide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Losev, Yu.P.; Amadyan, M.G.; Oganesyan, N.M.; Fedulov, A.S.; Abramyan, A.K.; Shagoyan, A.G.; Khachkavanktsyan, A.S.

    1999-01-01

    Inhibition of radiation-induced lipid peroxidation by means of gallic polydisulphade has been studied. Rats were exposed to X-rays in doses 4,8 and 5,25 Gy. Lipid peroxidation was analysed in blood plasma, membranes of erythrocytes and homogenates of liver and spleen tissues of rats. Polydisulphide of gallic acid was used as inhibitor of lipid peroxidation because of its effective antioxidant properties as have been reported previously. It has been demonstrated that gallic disulphide exhibited high inhibition efficiency in conditions of radiation-induced lipid peroxidation due to the effect of intra-molecular synergism

  1. Chemical inhibition of cell recovery after irradiation with sparsely and densely ionizing radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evastratova, Ekaterina S.; Petin, Vladislav [A. Tsyb Medical Radiological Research Centre-branch of the National Medical Research Radiological Centre of the Ministry of Health of the Russian Federation, Obninsk (Russian Federation); Kim, Jin Hong; Kim, Jin Kyu [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Advanced Radiation Technology Institute (ARTI), Jeongeup (Korea, Republic of); Lim, Youg Khi [Dept. of Radiological Science, Gachon University, Incheon (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-02-15

    The dependence of cell survival on exposure dose and the duration of the liquid holding recovery (LHR) was obtained for diploid yeast cells irradiated with ionizing radiation of different linear energy transfer (LET) and recovering from radiation damage without and with various concentrations of cisplatin - the most widely used anticancer drug. The ability of yeast cells to recover from radiation damage was less effective after cell exposure to high-LET radiation, when cells were irradiated without drug. The increase in cisplatin concentration resulted in the disappearance of this difference whereas the fraction of irreversible damage was permanently enlarged independently of radiation quality. The probability of cell recovery was shown to be constant for various conditions of irradiation and recovery. A new mechanism of cisplatin action was suggested according with which the inhibition of cell recovery after exposure to ionizing radiations was completely explained by the production of irreversible damage.

  2. Chemical inhibition of cell recovery after irradiation with sparsely and densely ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evastratova, Ekaterina S.; Petin, Vladislav; Kim, Jin Hong; Kim, Jin Kyu; Lim, Youg Khi

    2017-01-01

    The dependence of cell survival on exposure dose and the duration of the liquid holding recovery (LHR) was obtained for diploid yeast cells irradiated with ionizing radiation of different linear energy transfer (LET) and recovering from radiation damage without and with various concentrations of cisplatin - the most widely used anticancer drug. The ability of yeast cells to recover from radiation damage was less effective after cell exposure to high-LET radiation, when cells were irradiated without drug. The increase in cisplatin concentration resulted in the disappearance of this difference whereas the fraction of irreversible damage was permanently enlarged independently of radiation quality. The probability of cell recovery was shown to be constant for various conditions of irradiation and recovery. A new mechanism of cisplatin action was suggested according with which the inhibition of cell recovery after exposure to ionizing radiations was completely explained by the production of irreversible damage

  3. Sensitivity of spiral ganglion neurons to damage caused by mobile phone electromagnetic radiation will increase in lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammation in vitro model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuo, Wen-Qi; Hu, Yu-Juan; Yang, Yang; Zhao, Xue-Yan; Zhang, Yuan-Yuan; Kong, Wen; Kong, Wei-Jia

    2015-05-29

    With the increasing popularity of mobile phones, the potential hazards of radiofrequency electromagnetic radiation (RF-EMR) on the auditory system remain unclear. Apart from RF-EMR, humans are also exposed to various physical and chemical factors. We established a lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced inflammation in vitro model to investigate whether the possible sensitivity of spiral ganglion neurons to damage caused by mobile phone electromagnetic radiation (at specific absorption rates: 2, 4 W/kg) will increase. Spiral ganglion neurons (SGN) were obtained from neonatal (1- to 3-day-old) Sprague Dawley® (SD) rats. After the SGN were treated with different concentrations (0, 20, 40, 50, 100, 200, and 400 μg/ml) of LPS, the Cell Counting Kit-8 (CCK-8) and alkaline comet assay were used to quantify cellular activity and DNA damage, respectively. The SGN were treated with the moderate LPS concentrations before RF-EMR exposure. After 24 h intermittent exposure at an absorption rate of 2 and 4 W/kg, DNA damage was examined by alkaline comet assay, ultrastructure changes were detected by transmission electron microscopy, and expression of the autophagy markers LC3-II and Beclin1 were examined by immunofluorescence and confocal laser scanning microscopy. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) production was quantified by the dichlorofluorescin-diacetate assay. LPS (100 μg/ml) induced DNA damage and suppressed cellular activity (P 0.05); therefore, 40 μg/ml was used to pretreat the concentration before exposure to RF-EMR. RF-EMR could not directly induce DNA damage. However, the 4 W/kg combined with LPS (40 μg/ml) group showed mitochondria vacuoles, karyopyknosis, presence of lysosomes and autophagosome, and increasing expression of LC3-II and Beclin1. The ROS values significantly increased in the 4 W/kg exposure, 4 W/kg combined with LPS (40 μg/ml) exposure, and H2O2 groups (P spiral ganglion neurons, but it could cause the changes of cellular ultrastructure at special SAR 4

  4. Heat radiation approach for harnessing heat of the cook stove to generate electricity for lighting system and charging of mobile phone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz, Rodrigo C., Jr.; Manansala, Chad Deo G.

    2018-01-01

    This study is based on the potential of thermoelectric coupling such as the thermoelectric cooler module. A thermoelectric cooler converts the heat coming from the cook stove into electricity and store in a battery. A dc-dc boost converter will be used to produce enough voltage to light a minimum house dwelling or charge phone battery. This device will be helpful to those that faces a problem on electricity especially in the isolated areas. The study aims (1) to harness heat from the cook stove up to 110 °C (2) To automatically cool-off the system to protect the thermoelectric cooler from damage due to excessive heat using an electronic solenoid; (3) To store energy harnessed in the battery; (4) To amplify the output voltages of the battery using DC to DC boost converter for lighting system and charging of mobile phone battery. From various tests conducted, it can fully charge a mobile phone in 3 hours observing the unit’s battery voltage drop from 4.06V to 3.98V. In the testing it used different orientation of steel rod by conduction to transfer heat and by radiation through tubular steel with its different dimensions. Most recent testing proved that the 2x2x9 tubular steel by radiation had the best result. The temperature reached more than a hundred degree Celsius that met the objective. The test resulted of boosting the voltage of the battery output from 3.7V to 4.96V on the average. The boosted voltage decrease as the system’s cool-off mechanism operated when the temperature reached above 110 degree Celsius decreasing output voltage to 0.8V resulting the boosted voltage to drop to zero. Therefore, the proponents concluded that heat waste can be converted to electrical energy by harnessing heat through radiation, with the help of TEC that generates voltage for lighting and can be boosted to be used for mobile charging. Furthermore, the study proved that the excess heat can damaged the TEC which was prevented by using of cooling-off mechanism, making it more

  5. Partial inhibition of in vitro pollen germination by simulated solar ultraviolet-B radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flint, S.D.; Caldwell, M.M.

    1984-01-01

    Pollen from four temperate-latitude taxa were treated with UV radiation in a portion of the UV-B (280-320 nm) waveband during in vitro germination. Inhibition of germination was noted in this pollen compared to samples treated identically except for the exclusion of the UV-B portion of the spectrum. Levels similar to maximum solar UV-B found in temperate-latitude areas failed to inhibit pollen germination significantly, while levels similar to maximum solar UV-B found in equatorial alpine locations caused partial inhibition of germination in three of the four taxa examined

  6. Effects of ceramide inhibition on radiation-induced apoptosis in human leukemia MOLT-4 cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takahashi, Eriko; Inanami, Osamu; Asanuma, Taketoshi; Kuwabara, Mikinori [Hokkaido Univ., Graduate School of Veterinary Medicine, Sapporo, Hokkaido (Japan)

    2006-03-15

    In the present study, using inhibitors of ceramide synthase (fumonisin B{sub 1}), ketosphinganine synthetase (L-cycloserine), acid sphingomyelinase (D609 and desipramine) and neutral sphingomyelinase (GW4869), the role of ceramide in X-ray-induced apoptosis was investigated in MOLT-4 cells. The diacylglycerol kinase (DGK) assay showed that the intracellular concentration of ceramide increased time-dependently after X irradiation of cells, and this radiation-induced accumulation of ceramide did not occur prior to the appearance of apoptotic cells. Treatment with D609 significantly inhibited radiation-induced apoptosis, but did not inhibit the increase of intracellular ceramide. Treatment with desipramine or GW4869 prevented neither radiation-induced apoptosis nor the induced increase of ceramide. On the other hand, fumonisin B{sub 1} and L-cycloserine had no effect on the radiation-induced induction of apoptosis, in spite of significant inhibition of the radiation-induced ceramide. From these results, it was suggested that the increase of the intracellular concentration of ceramide was not essential for radiation-induced apoptosis in MOLT-4 cells. (author)

  7. Effects of ceramide inhibition on radiation-induced apoptosis in human leukemia MOLT-4 cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, Eriko; Inanami, Osamu; Asanuma, Taketoshi; Kuwabara, Mikinori

    2006-01-01

    In the present study, using inhibitors of ceramide synthase (fumonisin B 1 ), ketosphinganine synthetase (L-cycloserine), acid sphingomyelinase (D609 and desipramine) and neutral sphingomyelinase (GW4869), the role of ceramide in X-ray-induced apoptosis was investigated in MOLT-4 cells. The diacylglycerol kinase (DGK) assay showed that the intracellular concentration of ceramide increased time-dependently after X irradiation of cells, and this radiation-induced accumulation of ceramide did not occur prior to the appearance of apoptotic cells. Treatment with D609 significantly inhibited radiation-induced apoptosis, but did not inhibit the increase of intracellular ceramide. Treatment with desipramine or GW4869 prevented neither radiation-induced apoptosis nor the induced increase of ceramide. On the other hand, fumonisin B 1 and L-cycloserine had no effect on the radiation-induced induction of apoptosis, in spite of significant inhibition of the radiation-induced ceramide. From these results, it was suggested that the increase of the intracellular concentration of ceramide was not essential for radiation-induced apoptosis in MOLT-4 cells. (author)

  8. VU-B radiation inhibits the photosynthetic electron transport chain in chlamydomonas reinhardtii

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cai, W.; Li, X.; Chen, L.

    2016-01-01

    UV radiation of sunlight is one of harmful factors for earth organisms, especially for photoautotrophs because they require light for energy and biomass production. A number of works have already been done regarding the effects of UV-B radiation at biochemical and molecular level, which showed that UV-B radiation could inhibit photosynthesis activity and reduce photosynthetic electron transport. However quite limited information can accurately make out inhibition site of UV-B radiation on photosynthetic electron transport. In this study, this issue was investigated through measuring oxygen evolution activity, chlorophyll a fluorescence and gene expression in a model unicellular green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. Our results indicated that UV-B radiation could evidently decrease photosynthesis activity and inhibit electron transport by blocking electron transfer process from the first plastoquinone electron acceptors QA to second plastoquinone electron acceptors QB, but not impair electron transfer from the water oxidizing complex to QA. The psbA gene expression was also altered by UV-B radiation, where up-regulation occurred at 2, 4 and 6h after exposure and down-regulation happened at 12 and 24 h after exposure. These results suggested that UV-B could affects D1 protein normal turnover, so there was not enough D1 for binding with QB, which may affect photosynthetic electron transport and photosynthesis activity. (author)

  9. Effect of Cell Phone Radiation (940 MHz on the Learning and Memory of Balb/c mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Baharara

    2009-07-01

    After behavioral studies, fetal heads were collected, fixed in 10% paraformaldehyde and paraffine embedded. Results: Microwave-exposed mice were slower than sham-exposed, and cage control in swim speed (WM. Error Analyses rates reveal significant exposure effect in RAM and MWM. However, in this study the exposed group had not significantly lost their hippocampal CA3 neurons comparing to controls or sham exposed group. Conclusion: Increased time to locate a submerged in water maze, reference memory (entries into unbaited arms, working memory (repeated entries into baited arms, show that acute exposure to pulsed microwaves caused a deficit in spatial reference memory in the mouse. Keywords: Mobile phone, learning, memory, hippocampus

  10. Effects of epidermal growth factor receptor kinase inhibition on radiation response in canine osteosarcoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mantovani, Fernanda B; Morrison, Jodi A; Mutsaers, Anthony J

    2016-05-31

    Radiation therapy is a palliative treatment modality for canine osteosarcoma, with transient improvement in analgesia observed in many cases. However there is room for improvement in outcome for these patients. It is possible that the addition of sensitizing agents may increase tumor response to radiation therapy and prolong quality of life. Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) expression has been documented in canine osteosarcoma and higher EGFR levels have been correlated to a worse prognosis. However, effects of EGFR inhibition on radiation responsiveness in canine osteosarcoma have not been previously characterized. This study examined the effects of the small molecule EGFR inhibitor erlotinib on canine osteosarcoma radiation responses, target and downstream protein expression in vitro. Additionally, to assess the potential impact of treatment on tumor angiogenesis, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) levels in conditioned media were measured. Erlotinib as a single agent reduced clonogenic survival in two canine osteosarcoma cell lines and enhanced the impact of radiation in one out of three cell lines investigated. In cell viability assays, erlotinib enhanced radiation effects and demonstrated single agent effects. Erlotinib did not alter total levels of EGFR, nor inhibit downstream protein kinase B (PKB/Akt) activation. On the contrary, erlotinib treatment increased phosphorylated Akt in these osteosarcoma cell lines. VEGF levels in conditioned media increased after erlotinib treatment as a single agent and in combination with radiation in two out of three cell lines investigated. However, VEGF levels decreased with erlotinib treatment in the third cell line. Erlotinib treatment promoted modest enhancement of radiation effects in canine osteosarcoma cells, and possessed activity as a single agent in some cell lines, indicating a potential role for EGFR inhibition in the treatment of a subset of osteosarcoma patients. The relative radioresistance of

  11. Inhibition of Protease-activated Receptor 1 Ameliorates Intestinal Radiation Mucositis in a Preclinical Rat Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Junru; Kulkarni, Ashwini [Division of Radiation Health, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, Little Rock, Arkansas (United States); Chintala, Madhu [Schering-Plough Research Institute, Kenilworth, New Jersey (United States); Fink, Louis M. [Nevada Cancer Institute, Las Vegas, Nevada (United States); Hauer-Jensen, Martin, E-mail: mhjensen@life.uams.edu [Division of Radiation Health, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, Little Rock, Arkansas (United States); Surgery Service, Central Arkansas Veterans Healthcare System, Little Rock, Arkansas (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To determine, using a specific small-molecule inhibitor of protease-activated receptor 1 (PAR1) signaling, whether the beneficial effect of thrombin inhibition on radiation enteropathy development is due to inhibition of blood clotting or to cellular (PAR1-mediated) thrombin effects. Methods and Materials: Rats underwent fractionated X-irradiation (5 Gy Multiplication-Sign 9) of a 4-cm small-bowel segment. Early radiation toxicity was evaluated in rats receiving PAR1 inhibitor (SCH602539, 0, 10, or 15 mg/kg/d) from 1 day before to 2 weeks after the end of irradiation. The effect of PAR1 inhibition on development of chronic intestinal radiation fibrosis was evaluated in animals receiving SCH602539 (0, 15, or 30 mg/kg/d) until 2 weeks after irradiation, or continuously until termination of the experiment 26 weeks after irradiation. Results: Blockade of PAR1 ameliorated early intestinal toxicity, with reduced overall intestinal radiation injury (P=.002), number of myeloperoxidase-positive (P=.03) and proliferating cell nuclear antigen-positive (P=.04) cells, and collagen III accumulation (P=.005). In contrast, there was no difference in delayed radiation enteropathy in either the 2- or 26-week administration groups. Conclusion: Pharmacological blockade of PAR1 seems to reduce early radiation mucositis but does not affect the level of delayed intestinal radiation fibrosis. Early radiation enteropathy is related to activation of cellular thrombin receptors, whereas platelet activation or fibrin formation may play a greater role in the development of delayed toxicity. Because of the favorable side-effect profile, PAR1 blockade should be further explored as a method to ameliorate acute intestinal radiation toxicity in patients undergoing radiotherapy for cancer and to protect first responders and rescue personnel in radiologic/nuclear emergencies.

  12. FDTD chiral brain tissue model for specific absorption rate determination under radiation from mobile phones at 900 and 1800 MHz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zamorano, M; Torres-Silva, H [Departamento de Electronica, Universidad de Tarapaca, 18 de Septiembre 2222, Arica (Chile)

    2006-04-07

    A new electrodynamics model formed by chiral bioplasma, which represents the human head inner structure and makes it possible to analyse its behaviour when it is irradiated by a microwave electromagnetic field from cellular phones, is presented. The finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) numeric technique is used, which allows simulation of the electromagnetic fields, deduced with Maxwell's equations, and allows us to simulate the specific absorption rate (SAR). The results show the SAR behaviour as a function of the input power and the chirality factor. In considering the chiral brain tissue in the proposed human head model, the two more important conclusions of our work are the following: (a) the absorption of the electromagnetic fields from cellular phones is stronger, so the SAR coefficient is higher than that using the classical model, when values of the chiral factor are of order of 1; (b) 'inverse skin effect' shows up at 1800 MHz, with respect to a 900 MHz source.

  13. The effect of exposure of rats during prenatal period to radiation spreading from mobile phones on renal development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedir, Recep; Tumkaya, Levent; Şehitoğlu, İbrahim; Kalkan, Yıldıray; Yilmaz, Adnan; Şahin, Osman Zikrullah

    2015-03-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of exposure to a 900-MHz electromagnetic field (EMF) produced by mobile phones on the renal development of prenatal rats. Histopathological changes and apoptosis in the kidneys, together with levels of urea, creatinine and electrolyte in serum were determined. A total of 14 Sprague-Dawley rats were studied. Pregnant rats were divided into two equal groups: a control group and an EMF-exposed group. The study group was exposed to 900-MHz of EMF during the first 20 days of pregnancy, while the control group was unexposed to EMF. Sections obtained from paraffin blocks were stained for caspase-3 by immunohistochemistry, hematoxylin-eosin and Masson's trichrome. Mild congestion and tubular defects, and dilatation of Bowman's capsule were observed in the kidney tissues of rats in the exposed group. Apoptosis was evaluated using anti-caspase-3; stronger positive staining was observed in the renal tubular cells in the study group than those of the control group. Although there was a significant difference between the study and control groups in terms of K+ level (p0.05). Our study shows that the electromagnetic waves propagated from mobile phones have harmful effects on the renal development of prenatal rats.

  14. Changes in peroxidases associated with radiation-induced sprout inhibition in garlic (Allium sativum L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Croci, C.A.; Curvetto, N.R.; Orioli, G.A.; Arguello, J.A.

    1991-01-01

    The effects of an acute dose of γ-rays (10 Gy) to post-dormant garlic cloves on inner sprout growth and changes in peroxidases and soluble proteins were evaluated up to 100 days of storage in darkness at 19±1 0 C and 42±2% relative humidity. Radiation-induced inhibition of sprout growth became evident after 25 days of treatment and was synchronous with a marked increase in peroxidase activity. Thin-layer isoelectric focusing revealed that radiation induced an increase in the number of anodic peroxidase isoenzymes at 100 days, suggesting modifications in the vascularization process. Neither the soluble protein content nor the protein pattern were affected by irradiation. These results are discussed in terms of a possible mediating effect of peroxidase on radiation-induced sprout inhibition in garlic. (author)

  15. Changes in peroxidases associated with radiation-induced sprout inhibition in garlic (Allium sativum L. )

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Croci, C.A.; Curvetto, N.R.; Orioli, G.A. (Universidad Nacional del Sur, Bahia Blanca (Argentina)); Arguello, J.A. (Universidad Nacional de Cordoba (Argentina). Dept. de Biologia Aplicada)

    1991-02-01

    The effects of an acute dose of {gamma}-rays (10 Gy) to post-dormant garlic cloves on inner sprout growth and changes in peroxidases and soluble proteins were evaluated up to 100 days of storage in darkness at 19+-1{sup 0}C and 42+-2% relative humidity. Radiation-induced inhibition of sprout growth became evident after 25 days of treatment and was synchronous with a marked increase in peroxidase activity. Thin-layer isoelectric focusing revealed that radiation induced an increase in the number of anodic peroxidase isoenzymes at 100 days, suggesting modifications in the vascularization process. Neither the soluble protein content nor the protein pattern were affected by irradiation. These results are discussed in terms of a possible mediating effect of peroxidase on radiation-induced sprout inhibition in garlic. (author).

  16. Enhancement of Radiation Response in Osteosarcoma and Rhabomyosarcoma Cell Lines by Histone Deacetylase Inhibition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blattmann, Claudia; Oertel, Susanne; Ehemann, Volker

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: Histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACIs) can enhance the sensitivity of cells to photon radiation treatment (XRT) by altering numerous molecular pathways. We investigated the effect of pan-HDACIs such as suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid (SAHA) on radiation response in two osteosarcoma (OS) and two rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS) cell lines. Methods and Materials: Clonogenic survival, cell cycle analysis, and apoptosis were examined in OS (KHOS-24OS, SAOS2) and RMS (A-204, RD) cell lines treated with HDACI and HDACI plus XRT, respectively. Protein expression was investigated via immunoblot analysis, and cell cycle analysis and measurement of apoptosis were performed using flow cytometry. Results: SAHA induced an inhibition of cell proliferation and clonogenic survival in OS and RMS cell lines and led to a significant radiosensitization of all tumor cell lines. Other HDACI such as M344 and valproate showed similar effects as investigated in one OS cell line. Furthermore, SAHA significantly increased radiation-induced apoptosis in the OS cell lines, whereas in the RMS cell lines radiation-induced apoptosis was insignificant with and without SAHA. In all investigated sarcoma cell lines, SAHA attenuated radiation-induced DNA repair protein expression (Rad51, Ku80). Conclusion: Our results show that HDACIs enhance radiation action in OS and RMS cell lines. Inhibition of DNA repair, as well as increased apoptosis induction after exposure to HDACIs, can be mechanisms of radiosensitization by HDACIs.

  17. Effects of Garlic (Allium sativum L. Hydroalcoholic Extract on Estrogen, Progesterone and Testosterone Levels in Rats Exposed to Cell Phone Radiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Behnaz Hajiuon

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aim of this study was to investigate the probable effects of radiation and consumption of garlic on estrogen, progesterone and testosterone levels. Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, 5 male and 5 female groups of rat were used: control, sham (under exposed, experimental 1 (receiving garlic extract, and experimental 2 and 3 (receiving both extract and microwaves. After a one month, rats were weighed and serum levels of hormones were measured. Results: In male the mean body weight in the sham showed a significant decrease, whereas, an increase was seen in the experimental 3 compared with sham. Also, mean plasma testosterone levels in experimental 2 and 3 were reduced. Estrogen showed this decrease in all groups. Also in all groups progesterone showed increase. In female the mean body weights in different groups showed no significant changes, whereas a significant increase was seen in serum level of progesterone in experimental 2 and 3. Conclusion: Although, microwaves can cause weight lost, presence of allicin and vitamins A and B in garlic can compensate some of this weight lost. Microwaves and garlic extract have fewer effects on female reproductive system, reflected only in the serum progesterone concentration. Also they reflected in the number of Leydig cells and serum testosterone and estrogen concentration. The differences observed in the responses of male and female to cell phone radiation might be attributed to the position of gonads in the body and sensitivity of testis to heat.

  18. Neurobehavioral effects among inhabitants around mobile phone base stations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Rassoul, G; El-Fateh, O Abou; Salem, M Abou; Michael, A; Farahat, F; El-Batanouny, M; Salem, E

    2007-03-01

    There is a general concern on the possible hazardous health effects of exposure to radiofrequency electromagnetic radiations (RFR) emitted from mobile phone base station antennas on the human nervous system. To identify the possible neurobehavioral deficits among inhabitants living nearby mobile phone base stations. A cross-sectional study was conducted on (85) inhabitants living nearby the first mobile phone station antenna in Menoufiya governorate, Egypt, 37 are living in a building under the station antenna while 48 opposite the station. A control group (80) participants were matched with the exposed for age, sex, occupation and educational level. All participants completed a structured questionnaire containing: personal, educational and medical histories; general and neurological examinations; neurobehavioral test battery (NBTB) [involving tests for visuomotor speed, problem solving, attention and memory]; in addition to Eysenck personality questionnaire (EPQ). The prevalence of neuropsychiatric complaints as headache (23.5%), memory changes (28.2%), dizziness (18.8%), tremors (9.4%), depressive symptoms (21.7%), and sleep disturbance (23.5%) were significantly higher among exposed inhabitants than controls: (10%), (5%), (5%), (0%), (8.8%) and (10%), respectively (Pstation exhibited a lower performance in the problem solving test (block design) than those under the station. All inhabitants exhibited a better performance in the two tests of visuomotor speed (Digit symbol and Trailmaking B) and one test of attention (Trailmaking A) than controls. The last available measures of RFR emitted from the first mobile phone base station antennas in Menoufiya governorate were less than the allowable standard level. Inhabitants living nearby mobile phone base stations are at risk for developing neuropsychiatric problems and some changes in the performance of neurobehavioral functions either by facilitation or inhibition. So, revision of standard guidelines for public

  19. Effect of superoxide dismutase and catalase on radiation-induced inhibition of human lymphocyte blastogenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knox, S.; Misra, H.P.; Rosenblatt, L.S.; Shifrine, M.

    1980-01-01

    Mitogen-induced lymphocyte blastogenesis was measured following x-irradiation (0 to 400 R) in the presence or absence of SOD, under aerobic or anaerobic conditions. No significant differences were observed between radiation survival curves under these different conditions. SOD had no radioprotective effect, and an o.e.r. of 1.11 was obtained, demonstrating the lack of oxygen dependence of radiation-induced inhibition of lymphocyte blastogenesis. Following x-irradiation at 200 R, neither SOD nor catalase, alone or together, added before or after irradiation, was radioprotective

  20. Predicting the biological effects of mobile phone radiation absorbed energy linked to the MRI-obtained structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krstić, Dejan; Zigar, Darko; Petković, Dejan; Sokolović, Dušan; Dinđić, Boris; Cvetković, Nenad; Jovanović, Jovica; Dinđić, Nataša

    2013-01-01

    The nature of an electromagnetic field is not the same outside and inside a biological subject. Numerical bioelectromagnetic simulation methods for penetrating electromagnetic fields facilitate the calculation of field components in biological entities. Calculating energy absorbed from known sources, such as mobile phones when placed near the head, is a prerequisite for studying the biological influence of an electromagnetic field. Such research requires approximate anatomical models which are used to calculate the field components and absorbed energy. In order to explore the biological effects in organs and tissues, it is necessary to establish a relationship between an analogous anatomical model and the real structure. We propose a new approach in exploring biological effects through combining two different techniques: 1) numerical electromagnetic simulation, which is used to calculate the field components in a similar anatomical model and 2) Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI), which is used to accurately locate sites with increased absorption. By overlapping images obtained by both methods, we can precisely locate the spots with maximum absorption effects. This way, we can detect the site where the most pronounced biological effects are to be expected. This novel approach successfully overcomes the standard limitations of working with analogous anatomical models.

  1. Mobile phone and my health

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Surducan, Aneta [Nicolae Balcescu High School, 6 Constanta St., 400158 Cluj-Napoca (Romania); Dabala, Dana [National Railways Medical Clinic,, Occupational Medicine Department, 16-20 Republicii St., 400015 Cluj-Napoca (Romania); Neamtu, Camelia, E-mail: emanoil.surducan@itim-cj.ro; Surducan, Vasile, E-mail: emanoil.surducan@itim-cj.ro; Surducan, Emanoil, E-mail: emanoil.surducan@itim-cj.ro [National Institute for Research and Development of Isotopic and Molecular Technologies, 65-103 Donath St., 400293 Cluj-Napoca (Romania)

    2013-11-13

    The interaction of the microwave radiation emitted by mobile phones with the user's body is analyzed from the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP) recommendations perspective as a correlation between the specific absorption ratio (SAR) of the mobile phone and the call duration. The relative position of the cell phone to the user's body, the dielectric properties of the exposed body parts, the SAR value and the call duration are considered in the local body temperature rise due to the microwave heating effect. The recommended local temperature rise limit in the human body is evaluated according to standards. The aim of this study is to disseminate information to young people, especially high school students, about the microwave thermal effects on the human body, to make them aware of the environmental electromagnetic pollution and to offer them a simple method of biological self protection.

  2. Mobile phone and my health

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Surducan, Aneta; Dabala, Dana; Neamtu, Camelia; Surducan, Vasile; Surducan, Emanoil

    2013-01-01

    The interaction of the microwave radiation emitted by mobile phones with the user's body is analyzed from the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP) recommendations perspective as a correlation between the specific absorption ratio (SAR) of the mobile phone and the call duration. The relative position of the cell phone to the user's body, the dielectric properties of the exposed body parts, the SAR value and the call duration are considered in the local body temperature rise due to the microwave heating effect. The recommended local temperature rise limit in the human body is evaluated according to standards. The aim of this study is to disseminate information to young people, especially high school students, about the microwave thermal effects on the human body, to make them aware of the environmental electromagnetic pollution and to offer them a simple method of biological self protection

  3. Mobile phone and my health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surducan, Aneta; Dabala, Dana; Neamtu, Camelia; Surducan, Vasile; Surducan, Emanoil

    2013-11-01

    The interaction of the microwave radiation emitted by mobile phones with the user's body is analyzed from the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP) recommendations perspective as a correlation between the specific absorption ratio (SAR) of the mobile phone and the call duration. The relative position of the cell phone to the user's body, the dielectric properties of the exposed body parts, the SAR value and the call duration are considered in the local body temperature rise due to the microwave heating effect. The recommended local temperature rise limit in the human body is evaluated according to standards. The aim of this study is to disseminate information to young people, especially high school students, about the microwave thermal effects on the human body, to make them aware of the environmental electromagnetic pollution and to offer them a simple method of biological self protection.

  4. Growth of antarctic cyanobacteria under ultraviolet radiation: UVA counteracts UVB inhibition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quesada, A.; Mouget, J.L.; Vincent, W.F.

    1995-01-01

    A mat-forming cyanobacterium (Phormidium murayi West and West) isolated from an ice-shelf pond in Antarctica was grown under white light combined with a range of UVA and UVB irradiance. The 4-day growth rate decreased under increasing ultraviolet (UV) radiation, with a ninefold greater response to UVB relative to UVA. In vivo absorbance spectra showed that UVA and to a greater extent UVB caused a decrease in phycocyanin/chlorophyll a and an increase in carotenoids/chlorophyll a. The phycocyanin/chlorophyll a ratio was closely and positively correlated to the UVB-inhibited growth rate. Under fixed spectral gradients of UV radiation, the growth inhibition effect was dominated by UVB. However, at specific UVB irradiances the inhibition of growth depended on the ratio of UVB to UVA, and growth rates increased linearly with increasing UVA. These results are consistent with the view that UVB inhibition represents the balance between damage and repair processes that are each controlled by separate wavebands. They also underscore the need to consider UV spectral balance in laboratory and field assays of UVB toxicity. 49 refs., 6 figs

  5. Active cooling of a mobile phone handset

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grimes, Ronan; Walsh, Ed; Walsh, Pat

    2010-01-01

    Power dissipation levels in mobile phones continue to increase due to gaming, higher power applications, and increased functionality associated with the internet. The current cooling methodologies of natural convection and radiation limit the power dissipation within a mobile phone to between 1-2 W depending on size. As power dissipation levels increase, products such as mobile phones will require active cooling to ensure that the devices operate within an acceptable temperature envelop from both user comfort and reliability perspectives. In this paper, we focus on the applied thermal engineering problem of an active cooling solution within a typical mobile phone architecture by implementing a custom centrifugal fan within the mobile phone. Its performance is compared in terms of flow rates and pressure drops, allowable phone heat dissipation and maximum phone surface temperature as this is the user constraint for a variety of simulated PCB architectures in the mobile phone. Perforated plates with varying porosity through different size orifices are used to simulate these architectures. The results show that the power level dissipated by a phone for a constant surface temperature may be increased by ∼50 - 75% depending on pressure drop induced by the internal phone architecture. Hence for successful implementation and efficient utilization of active cooling will require chip layout to be considered at the design stage.

  6. Coniferyl aldehyde attenuates radiation enteropathy by inhibiting cell death and promoting endothelial cell function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Ye-Ji; Jung, Myung Gu; Son, Yeonghoon; Jang, Jun-Ho; Lee, Yoon-Jin; Kim, Sung-Ho; Ko, Young-Gyo; Lee, Yun-Sil; Lee, Hae-June

    2015-01-01

    Radiation enteropathy is a common complication in cancer patients. The aim of this study was to investigate whether radiation-induced intestinal injury could be alleviated by coniferyl aldehyde (CA), an HSF1-inducing agent that increases cellular HSP70 expression. We systemically administered CA to mice with radiation enteropathy following abdominal irradiation (IR) to demonstrate the protective effects of CA against radiation-induced gastrointestinal injury. CA clearly alleviated acute radiation-induced intestinal damage, as reflected by the histopathological data and it also attenuated sub-acute enteritis. CA prevented intestinal crypt cell death and protected the microvasculature in the lamina propria during the acute and sub-acute phases of damage. CA induced HSF1 and HSP70 expression in both intestinal epithelial cells and endothelial cells in vitro. Additionally, CA protected against not only the apoptotic cell death of both endothelial and epithelial cells but also the loss of endothelial cell function following IR, indicating that CA has beneficial effects on the intestine. Our results provide novel insight into the effects of CA and suggest its role as a therapeutic candidate for radiation-induced enteropathy due to its ability to promote rapid re-proliferation of the intestinal epithelium by the synergic effects of the inhibition of cell death and the promotion of endothelial cell function.

  7. Inhibition of gastric secretion in guinea pig by relatively low dose ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Batzri, S.; Catravas, G.

    1988-01-01

    We evaluated the effect of a single dose of ionizing radiation on gastric secretion in awake guinea pigs equipped with a permanent gastric cannula. Changes in gastric secretion were measured using a dye dilution technique. Infusion of histamine increased acid and fluid output and there was a positive correlation (r = 0.93) between the two. Total body irradiation with 400 cGy, like cimetidine, suppressed acid and fluid secretion under basal conditions and during histamine stimulation by 50-90%. Recovery from the radiation damage was only partial after one week. Irradiation inhibited the rise in gastric juice volume during histamine stimulation and also reduced the normal gain in body weight of the guinea pig. These results demonstrate that ionizing radiations have an immediate and long lasting effects on the gastric mucosal function of the guinea pig

  8. Radio frequency electromagnetic radiation (RF-EMR from GSM (0.9/1.8GHz mobile phones induces oxidative stress and reduces sperm motility in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maneesh Mailankot

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Mobile phones have become indispensable in the daily lives of men and women around the globe. As cell phone use has become more widespread, concerns have mounted regarding the potentially harmful effects of RF-EMR from these devices. OBJECTIVE: The present study was designed to evaluate the effects of RF-EMR from mobile phones on free radical metabolism and sperm quality. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Male albino Wistar rats (10-12 weeks old were exposed to RF-EMR from an active GSM (0.9/1.8 GHz mobile phone for 1 hour continuously per day for 28 days. Controls were exposed to a mobile phone without a battery for the same period. The phone was kept in a cage with a wooden bottom in order to address concerns that the effects of exposure to the phone could be due to heat emitted by the phone rather than to RF-EMR alone. Animals were sacrificed 24 hours after the last exposure and tissues of interest were harvested. RESULTS: One hour of exposure to the phone did not significantly change facial temperature in either group of rats. No significant difference was observed in total sperm count between controls and RF-EMR exposed groups. However, rats exposed to RF-EMR exhibited a significantly reduced percentage of motile sperm. Moreover, RF-EMR exposure resulted in a significant increase in lipid peroxidation and low GSH content in the testis and epididymis. CONCLUSION: Given the results of the present study, we speculate that RF-EMR from mobile phones negatively affects semen quality and may impair male fertility.

  9. Mobile phone; Mobiltelefon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2009-07-01

    Almost the entire Norwegian population has cell phone. The usefulness of the cell phone is great, but can use a mobile phone to health or discomfort? How can exposure be reduced? NRPA follows research and provides advice on mobile phone use. (AG)

  10. Radiation-induced inhibition of human lymphocyte blastogenesis: the effect of superoxide dismutase and catalase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knox, S.; Misra, H.P.; Shifrine, M.

    1982-01-01

    Mitogen-induced lymphocyte blastogenesis was measured following X-irradiation (0-4 Gy) in the presence or absence of superoxide dismutase (SOD), under aerobic and anaerobic conditions. There were no significant differences between radiation survival curves under these different conditions, nor did SOD have any radioprotective effect. This demonstrates lack of oxygen dependence of radiation-induced inhibition of lymphocyte blastogenesis. Following X-irradiation at 2 Gy, neither SOD nor catalase, alone or together, added before or after irradiation, were radioprotective. In comparison to controls, both enzymes depressed lymphocyte proliferation when added at levels as low as 25 μg catalase or 100 μg SOD/ml media. When SOD and catalase were added together, the greatest depression of blastogenesis was obtained with increasing levels of SOD relative to increasing levels of catalase, indicating that SOD was largely responsible for this depression. The suppressive effect of administration of SOD (p 2 - and/or H 2 O 2 are not involved in radiation-induced inhibition of lymphocyte blastogenesis. (author)

  11. Catalase inhibits ionizing radiation-induced apoptosis in hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Xia; Luo, Hongmei; Vanek, Kenneth N; LaRue, Amanda C; Schulte, Bradley A; Wang, Gavin Y

    2015-06-01

    Hematologic toxicity is a major cause of mortality in radiation emergency scenarios and a primary side effect concern in patients undergoing chemo-radiotherapy. Therefore, there is a critical need for the development of novel and more effective approaches to manage this side effect. Catalase is a potent antioxidant enzyme that coverts hydrogen peroxide into hydrogen and water. In this study, we evaluated the efficacy of catalase as a protectant against ionizing radiation (IR)-induced toxicity in hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs). The results revealed that catalase treatment markedly inhibits IR-induced apoptosis in murine hematopoietic stem cells and hematopoietic progenitor cells. Subsequent colony-forming cell and cobble-stone area-forming cell assays showed that catalase-treated HSPCs can not only survive irradiation-induced apoptosis but also have higher clonogenic capacity, compared with vehicle-treated cells. Moreover, transplantation of catalase-treated irradiated HSPCs results in high levels of multi-lineage and long-term engraftments, whereas vehicle-treated irradiated HSPCs exhibit very limited hematopoiesis reconstituting capacity. Mechanistically, catalase treatment attenuates IR-induced DNA double-strand breaks and inhibits reactive oxygen species. Unexpectedly, we found that the radioprotective effect of catalase is associated with activation of the signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) signaling pathway and pharmacological inhibition of STAT3 abolishes the protective activity of catalase, suggesting that catalase may protect HSPCs against IR-induced toxicity via promoting STAT3 activation. Collectively, these results demonstrate a previously unrecognized mechanism by which catalase inhibits IR-induced DNA damage and apoptosis in HSPCs.

  12. Experimental and clinical research on the inhibition of scarring formation after glaucoma surgery 90Sr radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei Meien; Wang Guzhu; Li Shuqing

    1994-01-01

    Beta radiation of 90 Sr can inhibit the scarring formation so that the success rate of filtration surgery may be improved. After success in animal experiment, trabeculectomy was performed with small sclera flap on 31 eyes of 23 cases of patients with a high risk of scarring formation. Local 90 Sr radiation with a total dosage of 30.24 Gy were given by several times 3 days postoperatively, combined with local use of steroids. The patients were followed-up at 1 to 24 months, averaging 7 months. The intraocular pressure were successfully controlled in 90.3% of the patients. No lens impairment and other complications were observed. This procedure is an adoptive method in preventing scarring formation after glaucoma filtering surgery

  13. Action spectrum for inhibition by ultraviolet radiation of photosystem 2 activity in spinach thylakoids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bornman, J.F.; Bjoern, L.O.; Aakerlund, H.-E.

    1984-01-01

    The effect of ultraviolet (UV) radiation (half-band width 10 nm) in the wavelength range 248-340 nm on chlorophyll fluorescence from a thin layer of spinach thylakoid suspension was investigated. It was found that the parameter most sensitive to UV radiation was the rise time of variable fluorescence. The increase in rise time was proportional to UV photon fluence and was used for the determination of an action spectrum. The action spectrum falls off from a maximum at ca. 275 nm towards longer wavelengths and rises from a minimum at 260 nm towards shorter wavelengths. The results also suggest that the UV inhibition is mainly on the PS 2 oxidizing side. Possibly damage is also inflicted to the PS 2 reaction center. (orig.)

  14. Kinetics of radiation-induced apoptosis in neonatal urogenital tissues with and without protein synthesis inhibition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gobe, G.C.; Harmon, B.; Schoch, E.; Allan, D.J. [Queensland Univ., St. Lucia, QLD (Australia). Dept. of Chemistry

    1996-12-31

    The difference in incidence of radiation-induced apoptosis between two neonatal urogenital tissues, kidney and testis, was analysed over a 24h period. Concurrent administration of cycloheximide (10mg/kg body weight), a protein synthesis inhibitor, with radiation treatment was used to determine whether new protein synthesis had a role in induction of apoptosis in this in vivo model. Many chemotherapeutic drugs act via protein synthesis inhibition, and we believe that the results of this latter analysis may provide information for the planning of concurrent radio and chemotherapy. Apoptosis was quantified using morphological parameters, and verified by DNA gel electrophoresis for the typical banding pattern, and by electron microscopy. The proliferative index in tissues was studied, using [6-{sup 3}H]-thymidine uptake ( 1h prior to euthanasia and collection of tissues) and autoradiography as indicators of cell proliferation (S-phase). Tissue was collected 2, 4, 6, 8, and 24h after radiation treatment. Expression of one of the apoptosis-associated genes, Bcl-2 (an apoptosis inhibitor/cell survival gene), was studied using immunohistochemistry. Apoptosis peaked at 4h in the testis and 6h in the kidney, emphasising the necessity of knowing tissue differences in radiation response if comparing changes at a particular time. A higher proportion (almost five fold) of the apoptotic cells died in S-phase in the kidney than the testis, over the 24h. Protein synthesis inhibition completely negated induction of apoptosis in both tissues. Necrosis was not identified at any time. Cycloheximide treatment greatly diminished Bcl-2 expression. The differences in response of the two tissues to irradiation relates to their innate cell (genetic) controls, which may be determined by their state of differentiation at time of treatment, or the tissue type. This in vivo study also suggests the model may be useful for analysis of other cancer therapies for example polychemotherapies or chemo

  15. Kinetics of radiation-induced apoptosis in neonatal urogenital tissues with and without protein synthesis inhibition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gobe, G.C.; Harmon, B.; Schoch, E.; Allan, D.J.

    1996-01-01

    The difference in incidence of radiation-induced apoptosis between two neonatal urogenital tissues, kidney and testis, was analysed over a 24h period. Concurrent administration of cycloheximide (10mg/kg body weight), a protein synthesis inhibitor, with radiation treatment was used to determine whether new protein synthesis had a role in induction of apoptosis in this in vivo model. Many chemotherapeutic drugs act via protein synthesis inhibition, and we believe that the results of this latter analysis may provide information for the planning of concurrent radio and chemotherapy. Apoptosis was quantified using morphological parameters, and verified by DNA gel electrophoresis for the typical banding pattern, and by electron microscopy. The proliferative index in tissues was studied, using [6- 3 H]-thymidine uptake ( 1h prior to euthanasia and collection of tissues) and autoradiography as indicators of cell proliferation (S-phase). Tissue was collected 2, 4, 6, 8, and 24h after radiation treatment. Expression of one of the apoptosis-associated genes, Bcl-2 (an apoptosis inhibitor/cell survival gene), was studied using immunohistochemistry. Apoptosis peaked at 4h in the testis and 6h in the kidney, emphasising the necessity of knowing tissue differences in radiation response if comparing changes at a particular time. A higher proportion (almost five fold) of the apoptotic cells died in S-phase in the kidney than the testis, over the 24h. Protein synthesis inhibition completely negated induction of apoptosis in both tissues. Necrosis was not identified at any time. Cycloheximide treatment greatly diminished Bcl-2 expression. The differences in response of the two tissues to irradiation relates to their innate cell (genetic) controls, which may be determined by their state of differentiation at time of treatment, or the tissue type. This in vivo study also suggests the model may be useful for analysis of other cancer therapies for example polychemotherapies or chemo

  16. Inhibition of Hepres virus plaquing capacity in human diploid fibroblasts treated with Gilvocarcin V plus near UV radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bockstahler, L.E.; Hitchins, V.M.; Carney, P.G.; Olvey, K.M.; Lytle, C.D.

    1990-01-01

    The capacity of human fibroblasts to support plaque formation by Herpes simplex virus following treatment of the cells with gilvocarcin V, a polyaromatic C-glycoside, plus near ultraviolet radiation (UVA, 320-400 nm) was examined. Gilvocarcin V, plus UVA radiation, effectively inhibited host cell capacity at concentrations five orders of magnitude lower than that of 8-methyoxypsoralen required for capacity inhibition at similar levels of UVA radiation. This result extends the observation of unusual biological potency of UVA-activated gilvocarcins from bacterial cells to human cells. (author)

  17. Mobile phones and health concerns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vaikuntam, Shreenivas; Pushparaja

    2003-01-01

    As Mobile Cellular phone ownership grows throughout the developed as well as the developing world, concerns about the health risks due to radio frequency emissions from the mobile phone base stations and due to usage of mobile handsets are slowly growing. This article has a look at the concepts used in the mobile phone technology, the power outputs from base stations and mobile handsets, the quantities Specific Energy Absorption Rate (SAR) and power density as a means to assess the effects on biological tissue. The precautionary approach to manage the health risks from mobile phones by specifying exposure guidelines is explored. Having surveyed the relevant epidemiological surveys and finding them inconclusive, NRPB, United Kingdom's national regulatory body has issued exposure guidelines based on the potential of RF radiation to cause illness or injury through heating of body tissues. USA's Federal Communications Commission (FCC) limits are also listed for comparison. ICNIRP has issued two-tier guidelines, differentiating between occupational and public exposure. The public exposure limits are kept at one-fifth of the occupational exposure limits. The evidence till date, suggests that exposure to RF radiation below NRPB and ICNIRP limits do not cause adverse effects to the general population. However, the gaps in our knowledge warrant a precautionary approach. (author)

  18. Inhibition of apoptosis: the Consequence of Low Doses of Ionizing Radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osmak, M.; Abramic, M.; Brozovic, A.; Hadzija, M.

    1998-01-01

    In our previous studies we have shown that human cervical carcinoma HeLa cells exposed to low repeated doses of ionising radiation became resistant to cisplatin. The aim of the present study was to determine the molecular mechanisms involved in this resistance. With this purpose, the profile of cytosolic proteins was examined and the induction of apoptosis followed for control and preirradiated Hela cells. The profile of cytosolic proteins was analysed by SDS-electrophoresis. The kinetic of apoptosis was followed by fluorescent microscope in control HeLa and preirradiated HeLa cells during 72 hours after l hour cell treatment with 50 or 150 μM cisplatin. Analysis of DNA fragmentation was done by agarose gel electrophoresis. SDS-electrophoresis of the cytosolic proteins from parental Hela and preirradiated Hela cells exhibited similar pattern. Contrary to that, significantly lower number of apoptotic cells was determined in preirradiated than in control cells following the treatment with cisplatin. The nucleosome ladder was observed in human cervical carcinoma cells 12 hours after the cisplatin treatment. In conclusion, our in vitro studies indicate that repeated low doses of irradiation can cause drug resistance due to the inhibition of apoptosis. To our knowledge, it is shown for the first time that even low doses of ionising radiation may inhibit apoptosis. (author)

  19. Inhibition of ERK1/2 or AKT Activity Equally Enhances Radiation Sensitization in B16F10 Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalal, Bhuvanesh Sukhlal; Fathima, Faraz; Pai, Vinitha Ramanath; Sanjeev, Ganesh; Krishna, Chilakapati Murali; Upadhya, Dinesh

    2018-01-01

    Background The aim of the study was to evaluate the radiation sensitizing ability of ERK1/2, PI3K-AKT and JNK inhibitors in highly radiation resistant and metastatic B16F10 cells which carry wild-type Ras and Braf. Methods Mouse melanoma cell line B16F10 was exposed to 1.0, 2.0 and 3.0 Gy of electron beam radiation. Phosphorylated ERK1/2, AKT and JNK levels were estimated by ELISA. Cells were exposed to 2.0 and 3.0 Gy of radiation with or without prior pharmacological inhibition of ERK1/2, AKT as well as JNK pathways. Cell death induced by radiation as well as upon inhibition of these pathways was measured by TUNEL assay using flow cytometry. Results Exposure of B16F10 cells to 1.0, 2.0 and 3.0 Gy of electron beam irradiation triggered an increase in all the three phosphorylated proteins compared to sham-treated and control groups. B16F10 cells pre-treated with either ERK1/2 or AKT inhibitors equally enhanced radiation-induced cell death at 2.0 as well as 3.0 Gy (P < 0.001), while inhibition of JNK pathway increased radiation-induced cell death to a lesser extent. Interestingly combined inhibition of ERK1/2 or AKT pathways did not show additional cell death compared to individual ERK1/2 or AKT inhibition. This indicates that ERK1/2 or AKT mediates radiation resistance through common downstream molecules in B16F10 cells. Conclusions Even without activating mutations in Ras or Braf genes, ERK1/2 and AKT play a critical role in B16F10 cell survival upon radiation exposure and possibly act through common downstream effector/s. PMID:29581812

  20. Gamma radiation inhibits the appearance of induced ornithine decarboxylase activity in Chinese hamster cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ben-Hur, E.; Heimer, Y.M.; Riklis, E.

    1981-01-01

    Ornithine decarboxylase activity of Chinese hamster cells (ODC, EC 4.1.1.17) can be induced in plateau phase by change of medium. Exposure of the cells to gamma radiation before induction reduces the amount of ODC activity induced. The dose-response curve is exponential with a D 0 of 106 krad. Exposure of BUdR-substituted cells is more effective in reducing ODC induction at high doses, with a D 0 of 38 krad. Cells can recover from the reduction incurred by 74 krad if enzyme induction is delayed for 2 hours after exposure. Treatment of the cells with psoralen-plus-light completely inhibits RNA synthesis without affecting protein synthesis (Heimer, Ben-Hur and Riklis 1977, 1978). Using this procedure it is shown that the effect of gamma radiation on inducible ODC activity is due not only to DNA damage but also involves a post-transcriptional effect. This conclusion is supported by employing a heat shock to inhibit protein synthesis prior to gamma-irradiation of log-phase cells. In such cells the increased activity of ODC upon transfer to 37 0 C is due primarily to enzyme synthesis using pre-existing RNA species during the first few hours. A low concentration of actinomycin D, which inhibits rRNA synthesis, applied during the recovery period, prevents the recovery of the cells' capacity for maximal ODC induction. This may indicate that, in order to recover, the cells have to repair damage to the ribosomes as well as to DNA. (author)

  1. Hyperthermia and PARP1-inhibition for sensitization of radiation and cisplatin treatment of cervical carcinoma cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franken, Nicolaas; Oei, Arlene; Leeuwen, Caspar van; Stalpers, Lukas; Rodermond, Hans; Bel, Arjan; Kok, Petra; Crezee, Hans

    2014-01-01

    Ionizing radiation causes single and double strand breaks (SSBs and DSBs). DSBs are among the most critical DNA lesions and can be repaired via either non-homologous end joining (NHEJ) in which PARP1, Ku70 and DNA-PKcs are important, or homologous recombination (HR), where BRCA2 and Rad51 are essential. Hyperthermia disturbs HR by temporary inactivation of BRCA2. Cisplatin disrupts NHEJ and PARP1-inhibitor blocks Poly-(ADP-ribose)polymerase- 1, which is important in SSB repair, NHEJ and backup-NHEJ. Our goal was to investigate the additional effectiveness of hyperthermia and PARP1-inhibition on radiation and/or cisplatin treatment. Cervical carcinoma cells (SiHa) were treated at different temperature levels levels (41.0-43.0℃, PARP1-inhibitor (100 μM; NU1025), gamma-irradiation doses (0-8 Gy) or cisplatin (1'R for 1 h). Clonogenic assays were carried out to measure survival and γH2AX staining was used to visualize DSBs. To elucidate mechanisms of action expression levels of DNA repair proteins BRCA2 and DNA-PKcs were investigated after 42.0℃ (1 h) using western blot. Combined hyperthermia and radiation resulted in an increased number of γH2AX foci as compared to radiation alone. Hyperthermia treatment in combination with cisplatin and PARP1 inhibitor and with radiation and PARP1 inhibitor significantly decreased cell survival. Western blot demonstrated a decreased expression of BRCA2 protein at 30 min after hyperthermia treatment. Adding PARP1-inhibitor significantly improves the effectiveness of combined hyperthermia radiotherapy and combined hyperthermia-cisplatin treatment on cervical carcinoma cells. Hyperthermia affects DNA-DSB repair as is indicated by increased γH2AX foci numbers and decreased BRCA2 expression. (author)

  2. Radiosensitization In Vivo by Histone Deacetylase Inhibition with No Increase in Early Normal Tissue Radiation Toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groselj, Blaz; Ruan, Jia-Ling; Scott, Helen; Gorrill, Jessica; Nicholson, Judith; Kelly, Jacqueline; Anbalagan, Selvakumar; Thompson, James; Stratford, Michael R L; Jevons, Sarah J; Hammond, Ester M; Scudamore, Cheryl L; Kerr, Martin; Kiltie, Anne E

    2018-02-01

    As the population ages, more elderly patients require radiotherapy-based treatment for their pelvic malignancies, including muscle-invasive bladder cancer, as they are unfit for major surgery. Therefore, there is an urgent need to find radiosensitizing agents minimally toxic to normal tissues, including bowel and bladder, for such patients. We developed methods to determine normal tissue toxicity severity in intestine and bladder in vivo , using novel radiotherapy techniques on a small animal radiation research platform (SARRP). The effects of panobinostat on in vivo tumor growth delay were evaluated using subcutaneous xenografts in athymic nude mice. Panobinostat concentration levels in xenografts, plasma, and normal tissues were measured in CD1-nude mice. CD1-nude mice were treated with drug/irradiation combinations to assess acute normal tissue effects in small intestine using the intestinal crypt assay, and later effects in small and large intestine at 11 weeks by stool assessment and at 12 weeks by histologic examination. In vitro effects of panobinostat were assessed by qPCR and of panobinostat, TMP195, and mocetinostat by clonogenic assay, and Western blot analysis. Panobinostat resulted in growth delay in RT112 bladder cancer xenografts but did not significantly increase acute (3.75 days) or 12 weeks' normal tissue radiation toxicity. Radiosensitization by panobinostat was effective in hypoxic bladder cancer cells and associated with class I HDAC inhibition, and protein downregulation of HDAC2 and MRE11. Pan-HDAC inhibition is a promising strategy for radiosensitization, but more selective agents may be more useful radiosensitizers clinically, resulting in fewer systemic side effects. Mol Cancer Ther; 17(2); 381-92. ©2017 AACR See all articles in this MCT Focus section, "Developmental Therapeutics in Radiation Oncology." ©2017 American Association for Cancer Research.

  3. PhoneSat

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The PhoneSat series of missions demonstrated the use of a commercial mobile phone as an on-board computer for CubeSats. The project also demonstrated the...

  4. Mobile Phones on Campus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朴春宝

    2007-01-01

    After entering the 21st century, more and more people have mobile phones in China. At the end of 2002, there were 20 million mobile phone users. By the year 2005 the number has reached up to 30 million.

  5. Experimental assessment of the role of the blood flow inhibition in hyperglycemia-enhanced radiation injury to tumor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kozin, S.V.; Sevast'yanov, A.I.; Yarmonenko, S.P.

    1986-01-01

    Experimental assessment of the role of the blood flow inhibition in enhancement of radiation injury to tumors using short-term hyperglycemia was provided. Experiments on mice with Ehrlich solid carcinoma showed the dependence of a rise of the antitumor effect of preceding radiation induced by glucose and glucose combined with mexamin on a degree of the blood flow inhibition under the influence of these modifying agents. It was established that a considerable enhancement of radiation injury occured but in such tumors where short-term hyperglycemia and mexamin decreased the blood flow level not less than 5-10 fold as estimated by 133 Xe clearance. The results of the above experiments showed that the noticeable inhibition of the blood flow in tumors was a necessary tough, probably, not the only condition for a high efficacy of short-term hyperglycemia used an ajuvant to radiotherapy

  6. Acute effects of 3G mobile phone radiations on frontal haemodynamics during a cognitive task in teenagers and possible protective value of Om chanting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhargav, Hemant; N K, Manjunath; Varambally, Shivarama; Mooventhan, A; Bista, Suman; Singh, Deepeshwar; Chhabra, Harleen; Venkatasubramanian, Ganesan; T M, Srinivasan; H R, Nagendra

    2016-06-01

    Mobile phone induced electromagnetic field (MPEMF) as well as chanting of Vedic mantra 'OM' has been shown to affect cognition and brain haemodynamics, but findings are still inconclusive. Twenty right-handed healthy teenagers (eight males and 12 females) in the age range of 18.25 ± 0.44 years were randomly divided into four groups: (1) MPONOM (mobile phone 'ON' followed by 'OM' chanting); (2) MPOFOM (mobile phone 'OFF' followed by 'OM' chanting); (3) MPONSS (mobile phone 'ON' followed by 'SS' chanting); and (4) MPOFSS (mobile phone 'OFF' followed by 'SS' chanting). Brain haemodynamics during Stroop task were recorded using a 64-channel fNIRS device at three points of time: (1) baseline, (2) after 30 min of MPON/OF exposure, and (3) after 5 min of OM/SS chanting. RM-ANOVA was applied to perform within- and between-group comparisons, respectively. Between-group analysis revealed that total scores on incongruent Stroop task were significantly better after OM as compared to SS chanting (MPOFOM vs MPOFSS), pre-frontal activation was significantly lesser after OM as compared to SS chanting in channel 13. There was no significant difference between MPON and MPOF conditions for Stroop performance, as well as brain haemodynamics. These findings need confirmation through a larger trial in future.

  7. Adventures with Cell Phones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolb, Liz

    2011-01-01

    Teachers are finding creative ways to turn the basic cell phone from a digital distraction into a versatile learning tool. In this article, the author explains why cell phones are important in learning and suggests rather than banning them that they be integrated into learning. She presents activities that can be done on a basic cell phone with a…

  8. Cell phones and cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cancer and cell phones; Do cell phones cause cancer? ... Several major studies show no link between cell phones and cancer at this time. However, since the information available is based on short-term studies, the impact of many years of ...

  9. Targeting DNA repair with PNKP inhibition sensitizes radioresistant prostate cancer cells to high LET radiation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pallavi Srivastava

    Full Text Available High linear energy transfer (LET radiation or heavy ion such as carbon ion radiation is used as a method for advanced radiotherapy in the treatment of cancer. It has many advantages over the conventional photon based radiotherapy using Co-60 gamma or high energy X-rays from a Linear Accelerator. However, charged particle therapy is very costly. One way to reduce the cost as well as irradiation effects on normal cells is to reduce the dose of radiation by enhancing the radiation sensitivity through the use of a radiomodulator. PNKP (polynucleotide kinase/phosphatase is an enzyme which plays important role in the non-homologous end joining (NHEJ DNA repair pathway. It is expected that inhibition of PNKP activity may enhance the efficacy of the charged particle irradiation in the radioresistant prostate cancer cell line PC-3. To test this hypothesis, we investigated cellular radiosensitivity by clonogenic cell survival assay in PC-3 cells.12Carbon ion beam of62 MeVenergy (equivalent 5.16 MeV/nucleon and with an entrance LET of 287 kev/μm was used for the present study. Apoptotic parameters such as nuclear fragmentation and caspase-3 activity were measured by DAPI staining, nuclear ladder assay and colorimetric caspase-3method. Cell cycle arrest was determined by FACS analysis. Cell death was enhanced when carbon ion irradiation is combined with PNKPi (PNKP inhibitor to treat cells as compared to that seen for PNKPi untreated cells. A low concentration (10μM of PNKPi effectively radiosensitized the PC-3 cells in terms of reduction of dose in achieving the same survival fraction. PC-3 cells underwent significant apoptosis and cell cycle arrest too was enhanced at G2/M phase when carbon ion irradiation was combined with PNKPi treatment. Our findings suggest that combined treatment of carbon ion irradiation and PNKP inhibition could enhance cellular radiosensitivity in a radioresistant prostate cancer cell line PC-3. The synergistic effect of PNKPi

  10. Effects of Pharmacological Inhibition and Genetic Deficiency of Plasminogen Activator Inhibitor-1 in Radiation-Induced Intestinal Injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abderrahmani, Rym; Francois, Agnes; Buard, Valerie; Benderitter, Marc; Sabourin, Jean-Christophe; Crandall, David L.; Milliat, Fabien

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate effects of plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 (PAI-1) genetic deficiency and pharmacological PAI-1 inhibition with PAI-039 in a mouse model of radiation-induced enteropathy. Methods and Materials: Wild-type (Wt) and PAI-1 -/- knockout mice received a single dose of 19 Gy to an exteriorized localized intestinal segment. Sham and irradiated Wt mice were treated orally with 1 mg/g of PAI-039. Histological modifications were quantified using a radiation injury score. Moreover, intestinal gene expression was monitored by real-time PCR. Results: At 3 days after irradiation, PAI-039 abolished the radiation-induced increase in the plasma active form of PAI-1 and limited the radiation-induced gene expression of transforming growth factor β1 (TGF-β1), CTGF, PAI-1, and COL1A2. Moreover, PAI-039 conferred temporary protection against early lethality. PAI-039 treatment limited the radiation-induced increase of CTGF and PAI-1 at 2 weeks after irradiation but had no effect at 6 weeks. Radiation injuries were less severe in PAI-1 -/- mice than in Wt mice, and despite the beneficial effect, 3 days after irradiation, PAI-039 had no effects on microscopic radiation injuries compared to untreated Wt mice. Conclusions: A genetic deficiency of PAI-1 is associated with amelioration of late radiation enteropathy. Pharmacological inhibition of PAI-1 by PAI-039 positively impacts the early, acute phase increase in plasma PAI-1 and the associated radiation-induced gene expression of inflammatory/extracellular matrix proteins. Since PAI-039 has been shown to inhibit the active form of PAI-1, as opposed to the complete loss of PAI-1 in the knockout animals, these data suggest that a PAI-1 inhibitor could be beneficial in treating radiation-induced tissue injury in acute settings where PAI-1 is elevated.

  11. Overexpression of SKP2 Inhibits the Radiation-Induced Bystander Effects of Esophageal Carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Chun Wang

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: To investigate the effects of S-phase kinase protein 2 (SKP2 expression on the radiation induced bystander effect (RIBE in esophageal cancer (EC cells. Materials and Methods: Western blot was used to detect the levels of SKP2, Rad51, and Ku70 in EC cells. Positive transfection, RNAi, micronucleus (MN, and γ-H2AX focus formation assay were used to investigate the effects of SKP2 on RIBE induced by irradiated cells. Results: We found a significant negative correlation between SKP2 expression and MN frequency (p < 0.05 induced by RIBE. The results were further confirmed by positive transfection, RNAi, and rescue experiments.γ-H2AX focus formation assay results indicated that overexpression of SKP2 in the irradiated cells inhibited the DNA damage of RIBE cells. However, when SKP2 expression decreased in irradiated cells, the DNA damage of RIBE cells increased. Increased or decreased expression levels of SKP2 had effects on Rad51 expression under the conditions of RIBE. Conclusions: These results showed, for the first time, that SKP2 expression can inhibit RIBE of EC cells. The mechanism may function, at least partly, through the regulation of Rad51 in the ability to repair DNA damage.

  12. Aqueous extract of Pinus caribaea inhibits the damage induced by ultraviolet radiations, in plasmid DNA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marioly Vernhes Tamayo

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Context: The incidence of solar ultraviolet radiation (UV on Earth has increased due to diminish of the ozone layer. This enviromental agent is highly genotoxic causing numerous damage in DNA molecule. Nowadays there is a growing interest in the search of compounds capable to minimize these effects. In particular, phytocompounds have been tested as excelent candidates for their antigenotoxic properties. Aims: To evaluate the protective effect of the aqueous extract of Pinus caribaea (EPC against the damage induced by the UVB and UVC radiation. Methods: The cell-free plasmid DNA assay was employed. The forms of plasmid were separated electrophoretically in agarose gel. For genotoxic and photoprotective evaluation of P. caribaea, different concentrations of the extract (0.1 – 2.0 mg/mL and exposure times were evaluated. The CPD lesions were detected enzymatically. Additionally, the transmittance of the aqueous extract against 254 nm and 312 nm was measured. Results: None of the concentrations were genotoxic in 30 min of treatment, for superior times a clastogenic effect was observed. The EPC despite inhibiting the activity of the enzyme T4 endo V, impedes photolesions formation in DNA at concentrations ≥ 0.1 mg/mL. Conclusions: The EPC has photoprotective properties, this effect could be related with its antioxidants and absorptives capacities.

  13. Analysis of Brain Tumors Due to the Usage of Mobile Phones

    OpenAIRE

    SOOBIA SAEED; ASADULLAH SHAIKH; SHABAZ AHMED NOOR

    2017-01-01

    The impact of cellular phone radiation on human health is the subject of current mindfulness and is an outcome of the huge increase in phone usage throughout the world. Phones use electromagnetic radiation in the microwave range. The issue is associated with wireless use for 50 minutes and above. The excessive use of mobile phone may cause brain tumors. Nowadays the most commonly developed brain tumor type is GBM (Glioblastoma) in multiform and Malignant Astrocytoma. In this paper, we focus ...

  14. Far-infrared radiation inhibits proliferation, migration, and angiogenesis of human umbilical vein endothelial cells by suppressing secretory clusterin levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Soojin; Lee, Dong-Hoon; Lee, In-Kyu; Park, Young Mi; Jo, Inho

    2014-04-28

    Far-infrared (FIR) radiation is known to lessen the risk of angiogenesis-related diseases including cancer. Because deficiency of secretory clusterin (sCLU) has been reported to inhibit angiogenesis of endothelial cells (EC), we investigated using human umbilical vein EC (HUVEC) whether sCLU mediates the inhibitory effects of FIR radiation. Although FIR radiation ranging 3-25μm wavelength at room temperature for 60min did not alter EC viability, further incubation in the culture incubator (at 37°C under 5% CO2) after radiation significantly inhibited EC proliferation, in vitro migration, and tube formation in a time-dependent manner. Under these conditions, we found decreased sCLU mRNA and protein expression in HUVEC and decreased sCLU protein secreted in culture medium. Expectedly, the replacement of control culture medium with the FIR-irradiated conditioned medium significantly decreased wound closure and tube formation of HUVEC, and vice versa. Furthermore, neutralization of sCLU with anti-sCLU antibody also mimicked all observed inhibitory effects of FIR radiation. Moreover, treatment with recombinant human sCLU protein completely reversed the inhibitory effects of FIR radiation on EC migration and angiogenesis. Lastly, vascular endothelial growth factor also increased sCLU secretion in the culture medium, and wound closure and tube formation of HUVEC, which were significantly reduced by FIR radiation. Our results demonstrate a novel mechanism by which FIR radiation inhibits the proliferation, migration, and angiogenesis of HUVEC, via decreasing sCLU. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Interference of mobile phones and digitally enhanced cordless telecommunications mobile phones in renal scintigraphy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stegmayr, Armin; Fessl, Benjamin; Hörtnagl, Richard; Marcadella, Michael; Perkhofer, Susanne

    2013-08-01

    The aim of the study was to assess the potential negative impact of cellular phones and digitally enhanced cordless telecommunication (DECT) devices on the quality of static and dynamic scintigraphy to avoid repeated testing in infant and teenage patients to protect them from unnecessary radiation exposure. The assessment was conducted by performing phantom measurements under real conditions. A functional renal-phantom acting as a pair of kidneys in dynamic scans was created. Data were collected using the setup of cellular phones and DECT phones placed in different positions in relation to a camera head to test the potential interference of cellular phones and DECT phones with the cameras. Cellular phones reproducibly interfered with the oldest type of gamma camera, which, because of its single-head specification, is the device most often used for renal examinations. Curves indicating the renal function were considerably disrupted; cellular phones as well as DECT phones showed a disturbance concerning static acquisition. Variable electromagnetic tolerance in different types of γ-cameras could be identified. Moreover, a straightforward, low-cost method of testing the susceptibility of equipment to interference caused by cellular phones and DECT phones was generated. Even though some departments use newer models of γ-cameras, which are less susceptible to electromagnetic interference, we recommend testing examination rooms to avoid any interference caused by cellular phones. The potential electromagnetic interference should be taken into account when the purchase of new sensitive medical equipment is being considered, not least because the technology of mobile communication is developing fast, which also means that different standards of wave bands will be issued in the future.

  16. Inhibition and anti-inhibition effects of positronium formation in cyclohexane and their relation to radiation chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ito, Y.; Miyake, Y.; Tabata, Y.

    1982-01-01

    Positronium formation in cyclohexane has been studied using C 2 H 5 Br or CCl 4 as an inhibitor and C 6 F 6 as an anti-inhibitor. The results are analyzed using an empirical formula which is well established in radiation chemistry for electron scavenging reactions in cyclohexane. The reactivity parameters derived from the radiation chemistry are shown to successfully reproduce the experimental results. Very close correlation between positronium formation and radiation chemistry is evident, and the spur reaction model of positronium formation is corroborated. From a simple model of the positron spur in which only a single ion pair and a positron is assumed, it is estimated that about 75% of the spur electron combines with the positron. (author)

  17. Growth inhibition of human pancreatic cancer cells by lipofection mediated IGF-1R antisense oligodeoxynucletides in combination with ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pan Yaozhen; Sun Chengyi; Wang Yuzhi

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To study the growth inhibition of human pancreatic cancer cells (PC-3) by lipofection-mediated and ionizing radiation improving transfection of IGF-1R antisense oligodeoxynucletides (ASON) in vitro. Methods: Colonigenicity of PC-3 cells in vitro after 60 Co γ-radiation was observed for ascertaining their radiosensitivity and optimal radiation dose was selected according to the radiation sensitivity. PC-3 cells were transfected by two ways: 1) by lipofection-mediated IGF-1R ASON combined with ionizing radiation. 2) by lipo-ASON alone without ionizing radiation. Cell growth was assessed by MTT method. The expression of IGF-1R at mRNA level was examined by RT-PCR. Flow cytometry was used to demonstrate apoptotic changes in lipo-ASON-treated cells. Results: The inhibitory efficiency of lipo-ASON combined with ionizing radiation was higher than that without ionizing radiation (P < 0.05). The apoptotic efficiency and the decreased level of IGF-1R at mRNA were significantly improved (P < 0.05). Conclusion: Lipofection-mediated and ionizing radiation-promoted transfection of IGF-1R antisense oligodeoxynucletides (ASON) significantly decreases IGF-1R at mRNA level and induces apoptosis of human pancreatic cancer cells in vitro

  18. Mobile Phone on Campus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周成

    2005-01-01

    Communication revolution has brought a great convenience to modem society and people. Especially, the occurrence of mobile phone, in away, has changed the world where we live. Maybe the mobile phone was a luxury for only a decade ago. Now, it is no exaggeration4 to say that the difference between the parts and the present is as vast as that between earth and heaven. With no exception6, campus students also fall into the category called “cell-phone school”.

  19. Mobile Phone Use in a Pennsylvania Public High School: Does Policy Inform Practice?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thackara, Susan Tomchak

    2014-01-01

    Though many American educators embrace technology in classrooms, administrators can create policies that inhibit technology such as mobile phone use in classrooms or on district property. These policies range from restrictive with no mobile phone use permitted, to liberal in which unrestricted use of mobile phones is allowed. The purpose of this…

  20. CSF1R inhibition prevents radiation pulmonary fibrosis by depletion of interstitial macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meziani, Lydia; Mondini, Michele; Petit, Benoît; Boissonnas, Alexandre; Thomas de Montpreville, Vincent; Mercier, Olaf; Vozenin, Marie-Catherine; Deutsch, Eric

    2018-03-01

    Radiation-induced lung fibrosis (RIF) is a delayed side-effect of chest radiotherapy, frequently associated with macrophage infiltration.We aimed to characterise the role of pulmonary macrophages in RIF using human lung biopsies from patients receiving radiotherapy for thorax malignancies and a RIF model developed in C57BL/6 mice after 16-Gy thorax irradiation.High numbers of macrophages (both interstitial and alveolar) were detected in clinical and preclinical RIF. In the preclinical model, upregulation of T-helper (Th)2 cytokines was measured, whereas Th1 cytokines were downregulated in RIF tissue lysate. Bronchoalveolar lavage demonstrated upregulation of both types of cytokines. At steady state, tissue-infiltrating macrophages (IMs) expressed 10-fold more arginase (Arg)-1 than alveolar macrophages (AMs), and a 40-fold upregulation of Arg-1 was found in IMs isolated from RIF. IMs, but not AMs, were able to induce myofibroblast activation in vitro In addition, whereas depletion of AMs using Clodrosome didn't affect RIF score, depletion of IMs using a clinically available colony-stimulating factor receptor-1 (CSF1R) neutralising antibody was antifibrotic.These findings suggest differential contributions of alveolar versus interstitial macrophages in RIF, highlighting the fibrogenic role of IMs. The CSF1/CSF1R pathway was identified as a new therapeutic target to inhibit RIF. Copyright ©ERS 2018.

  1. Cell phone explosion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atreya, Alok; Kanchan, Tanuj; Nepal, Samata; Pandey, Bhuwan Raj

    2016-03-01

    Cell phone explosions and resultant burn injuries are rarely reported in the scientific literature. We report a case of cell phone explosion that occurred when a young male was listening to music while the mobile was plugged in for charging. © The Author(s) 2015.

  2. Cell Phones for Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberson, James H.; Hagevik, Rita A.

    2008-01-01

    Cell phones are fast becoming an integral part of students' everyday lives. They are regarded as important companions and tools for personal expression. School-age children are integrating the cell phone as such, and thus placing a high value on them. Educators endeavor to instill in students a high value for education, but often meet with…

  3. iPhone Idol

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Technophiles around the world are snapping up Apple’s new iPhone. How much longer must the Chinese wait?The iPhone, a faster and more versatile version of Apple Inc.’s original touch-based mobile handset, has been a market hit since it went on

  4. Mobile phones: influence on auditory and vestibular systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balbani, Aracy Pereira Silveira; Montovani, Jair Cortez

    2008-01-01

    Telecommunications systems emit radiofrequency, which is an invisible electromagnetic radiation. Mobile phones operate with microwaves (450900 MHz in the analog service, and 1,82,2 GHz in the digital service) very close to the users ear. The skin, inner ear, cochlear nerve and the temporal lobe surface absorb the radiofrequency energy. literature review on the influence of cellular phones on hearing and balance. systematic review. We reviewed papers on the influence of mobile phones on auditory and vestibular systems from Lilacs and Medline databases, published from 2000 to 2005, and also materials available in the Internet. Studies concerning mobile phone radiation and risk of developing an acoustic neuroma have controversial results. Some authors did not see evidences of a higher risk of tumor development in mobile phone users, while others report that usage of analog cellular phones for ten or more years increase the risk of developing the tumor. Acute exposure to mobile phone microwaves do not influence the cochlear outer hair cells function in vivo and in vitro, the cochlear nerve electrical properties nor the vestibular system physiology in humans. Analog hearing aids are more susceptible to the electromagnetic interference caused by digital mobile phones. there is no evidence of cochleo-vestibular lesion caused by cellular phones.

  5. Cellular phones were found to pose no health risks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Puranen, L.

    1997-01-01

    A cellular phone emits radiation very close to a person's head. Any harmful effects that might arise from the use of cellular phones are being studied carefully, but so far no health risks have been determined. However, the phones may interfere with the operation of electrical devices located close-by, such as a cardiac pacemaker. The biological effects of the microwaves emitted by cellular phones might be based on the resultant higher temperatures in the tissues of the head. Since, even in the worst cases, a cellular phone cannot raise the temperature of tissues by more than some tenths of a degree, no health risks based on thermal effects can be attributed to the use of a cellular phone. No reliable theory has been presented for the non-thermal effects of microwaves. Such effects may exist, however. The studies conducted so far have been unable to show that these effects might be harmful to human health. (orig.)

  6. On the phone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paasch, Bettina Sletten

    In most Danish hospitals clinicians are being equipped with a mobile phone in order to improve their availability. Based on an ethnomethodological approach (Garfinkel, 1967) the present paper explores how mobile phones shape clinicians´ practices. Using Nexus Analysis (Scollon & Scollon, 2004....... The analysis shows how the mobile phone becomes part of the way clinicians choreograph body movement in interactions with patients, how they arrange their bodies and how they gesture and position themselves. It is demonstrated how the use of mobile phones can mediate the clinicians´ accomplishment of an action...... space with the patient, the boundaries of attention created by the clinicians and the trajectories of actions. The analysis further shows how the mobile phone allows for the clinicians to negotiate and co-construct their practices across space and physical materiality. It is demonstrated how the use...

  7. Colony stimulating factor 1 receptor inhibition delays recurrence of glioblastoma after radiation by altering myeloid cell recruitment and polarization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stafford, Jason H.; Hirai, Takahisa; Deng, Lei; Chernikova, Sophia B.; Urata, Kimiko; West, Brian L.; Brown, J. Martin

    2016-01-01

    Background Glioblastoma (GBM) may initially respond to treatment with ionizing radiation (IR), but the prognosis remains extremely poor because the tumors invariably recur. Using animal models, we previously showed that inhibiting stromal cell–derived factor 1 signaling can prevent or delay GBM recurrence by blocking IR-induced recruitment of myeloid cells, specifically monocytes that give rise to tumor-associated macrophages. The present study was aimed at determining if inhibiting colony stimulating factor 1 (CSF-1) signaling could be used as an alternative strategy to target pro-tumorigenic myeloid cells recruited to irradiated GBM. Methods To inhibit CSF-1 signaling in myeloid cells, we used PLX3397, a small molecule that potently inhibits the tyrosine kinase activity of the CSF-1 receptor (CSF-1R). Combined IR and PLX3397 therapy was compared with IR alone using 2 different human GBM intracranial xenograft models. Results GBM xenografts treated with IR upregulated CSF-1R ligand expression and increased the number of CD11b+ myeloid-derived cells in the tumors. Treatment with PLX3397 both depleted CD11b+ cells and potentiated the response of the intracranial tumors to IR. Median survival was significantly longer for mice receiving combined therapy versus IR alone. Analysis of myeloid cell differentiation markers indicated that CSF-1R inhibition prevented IR-recruited monocyte cells from differentiating into immunosuppressive, pro-angiogenic tumor-associated macrophages. Conclusion CSF-1R inhibition may be a promising strategy to improve GBM response to radiotherapy. PMID:26538619

  8. Inhibition of MAPK and PKC pathways by 60Co γ-radiation in cultured vascular smooth muscle cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jia Guanghong; Ma Yexin; Xiao Jianming

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the signal transduction pathways inhibited by 60 Co γ-radiation in cultured vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC). Methods: The cultured VSMC were irradiated with 60 Co γ-radiation of 3.5, 7.0 and 14 Gy respectively. VSMC proliferation was measured by 3 H-TdR incorporation, while PKC, MAPK activities were determined by radioactivity assay. Results: Proliferation of VSMC was inhibited by 7.0, 14 Gy 60 Co γ-irradiation and the activities of PKC, MAPK were decreased significantly. Conclusion: Inhibitory effect of 7.0, 14 Gy 60 Co γ-irradiation on proliferation of VSMC might be resulted from decrease of the activity of PKC, MAPK

  9. JNK inhibition sensitizes tumor cells to radiation-induced premature senescence via Bcl-2/ROS/DDR signaling pathway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jae Seon; Lee, Je Jung

    2009-01-01

    Premature senescence is considered as a cellular defense mechanism to prevent tumorigenesis. Although recent evidences demonstrate that c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) is involved in the senescence process, the target and exact mechanism of JNK signaling in the regulation of cell proliferation has yet to be defined. In this study, we investigated the role of JNK in premature senescence and demonstrated JNK inhibition sensitized tumor cells to radiation-induced premature senescence

  10. Inhibition of DNA repair by whole body irradiation induced nitric oxide leads to higher radiation sensitivity in lymphocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, Deepak; Santosh Kumar, S.; Raghu, Rashmi; Maurya, D.K.; Sainis, K.B.

    2007-01-01

    Full text: It is well accepted that the sensitivity of mammalian cells is better following whole body irradiation (WBI) as compared to that following in vitro irradiation. However, the underlying mechanisms are not well understood. Following WBI, the lipid peroxidation and cell death were significantly higher in lymphocytes as compared to that in vitro irradiated lymphocytes. Further, WBI treatment of tumor bearing mice resulted in a significantly higher inhibition of EL-4 cell proliferation as compared to in vitro irradiation of EL-4 cells. The DNA repair was significantly slower in lymphocytes obtained from WBI treated mice as compared to that in the cells exposed to same dose of radiation in vitro. Generation of nitric oxide following irradiation and also its role in inhibition of DNA repair have been reported, hence, its levels were estimated under both WBI and in vitro irradiation conditions. Nitric oxide levels were significantly elevated in the plasma of WBI treated mice but not in the supernatant of in vitro irradiated cells. Addition of sodium nitroprusside (SNP), a nitric oxide donor to in vitro irradiated cells inhibited the repair of DNA damage and sensitized cells to undergo cell death. It also enhanced the radiation-induced functional impairment of lymphocytes as evinced from suppression of mitogen-induced IL-2, IFN-γ and bcl-2 mRNA expression. Administration of N G -nitro-L-arginine-methyl-ester(L-NAME), a nitric oxide synthase inhibitor, to mice significantly protected lymphocytes against WBI-induced DNA damage and inhibited in vivo radiation-induced production of nitric oxide. Our results indicated that nitric oxide plays a role in the higher radiosensitivity of lymphocytes in vivo by inhibiting repair of DNA damage

  11. Hypoxia-activated chemotherapeutic TH-302 enhances the effects of VEGF-A inhibition and radiation on sarcomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, C; Lee, H-J; Park, D J; Lee, Y-J; Tap, W D; Eisinger-Mathason, T S K; Hart, C P; Choy, E; Simon, M C; Yoon, S S

    2015-06-30

    Human sarcomas with a poor response to vascular endothelial growth factor-A (VEGF-A) inhibition and radiation therapy (RT) have upregulation of hypoxia-inducible factor 1α (HIF-1α) and HIF-1α target genes. This study examines the addition of the hypoxia-activated chemotherapy TH-302 to VEGF-A inhibition and RT (a.k.a. trimodality therapy). Trimodality therapy was examined in two xenograft models and in vitro in tumour endothelial cells and sarcoma cell lines. In both mouse models, VEGF-A inhibition and radiation showed greater efficacy than either therapy alone in slowing sarcoma growth. When TH-302 was added, this trimodality therapy completely blocked tumour growth with tumours remaining dormant for over 3 months after cessation of therapy. Trimodality therapy caused 2.6- to 6.2-fold more endothelial cell-specific apoptosis than bimodality therapies, and microvessel density and HIF-1α activity were reduced to 11-13% and 13-20% of control, respectively. When trimodality therapy was examined in vitro, increases in DNA damage and apoptosis were much more pronounced in tumour endothelial cells compared with that in sarcoma cells, especially under hypoxia. The combination of TH-302, VEGF-A inhibition, and RT is highly effective in preclinical models of sarcoma and is associated with increased DNA damage and apoptosis in endothelial cells and decreased HIF-1α activity.

  12. Waves and mobile phones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    This article reports the methodology used to assess the exposure to radio-frequency of the population. The main radio-frequency emitters are transmitting antennas, mobile phones, Wi-Fi systems, cord-less home phones, and micro-wave ovens. We have to know that the level of exposure is very different depending on the device, for instance a 10 minutes long use of a mobile phone with a DAS (specific absorption dose rate) of 0.04 W/kg is equivalent to a 15 day long exposure to a transmitting antenna at a spot where the field is 0.6 V/m. It appears that for transmitting antennas the exposure levels of the population are always very low and far below the protection standards. As for mobile phones, today's results can not exclude a risk for people having used a phone for more than 10 years. Experts recommend for children a restraint use of mobile phones and for adults to keep a safety distance of a few tens of centimeters between the speaker and his phone. The passage to the new UMTS-3G standard will be favourable. (A.C.)

  13. Cell-phone interference with pocket dosimeters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Djajaputra, David; Nehru, Ramasamy; Bruch, Philip M; Ayyangar, Komanduri M; Raman, Natarajan V; Enke, Charles A

    2005-01-01

    Accurate reporting of personal dose is required by regulation for hospital personnel that work with radioactive material. Pocket dosimeters are commonly used for monitoring this personal dose. We show that operating a cell phone in the vicinity of a pocket dosimeter can introduce large and erroneous readings of the dosimeter. This note reports a systematic study of this electromagnetic interference. We found that simple practical measures are enough to mitigate this problem, such as increasing the distance between the cell phone and the dosimeter or shielding the dosimeter, while maintaining its sensitivity to ionizing radiation, by placing it inside a common anti-static bag. (note)

  14. Cell-phone interference with pocket dosimeters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Djajaputra, David; Nehru, Ramasamy; Bruch, Philip M; Ayyangar, Komanduri M; Raman, Natarajan V; Enke, Charles A [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Nebraska Medical Center, 987521 Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha, NE 68198-7521 (United States)

    2005-05-07

    Accurate reporting of personal dose is required by regulation for hospital personnel that work with radioactive material. Pocket dosimeters are commonly used for monitoring this personal dose. We show that operating a cell phone in the vicinity of a pocket dosimeter can introduce large and erroneous readings of the dosimeter. This note reports a systematic study of this electromagnetic interference. We found that simple practical measures are enough to mitigate this problem, such as increasing the distance between the cell phone and the dosimeter or shielding the dosimeter, while maintaining its sensitivity to ionizing radiation, by placing it inside a common anti-static bag. (note)

  15. Corporate Smart Phones

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cavazotte, Flávia; Heloisa Lemos, Ana; Villadsen, Kaspar

    2014-01-01

    This article explores how the adoption of company sponsored smart phones inflicts upon the lives of professionals. Drawing upon qualitative interviews at a law firm in Brazil, the experiences of new smart phone users are reported upon in detail. Increased accessibility, accuracy and speed...... that negatively affected their private spheres, yet many of them paradoxically requested more efficient smart phone connectivity. The article focuses on the justifications, the different narrative strategies, employed by professionals for their conscious engagement in escalating work connectivity. It is suggested...

  16. Bystander effects in UV-induced genomic instability: Antioxidants inhibit delayed mutagenesis induced by ultraviolet A and B radiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dahle Jostein

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Genomic instability is characteristic of many types of human cancer. Recently, we reported that ultraviolet radiation induced elevated mutation rates and chromosomal instability for many cell generations after ultraviolet irradiation. The increased mutation rates of unstable cells may allow them to accumulate aberrations that subsequently lead to cancer. Ultraviolet A radiation, which primarily acts by oxidative stress, and ultraviolet B radiation, which initially acts by absorption in DNA and direct damage to DNA, both produced genomically unstable cell clones. In this study, we have determined the effect of antioxidants on induction of delayed mutations by ultraviolet radiation. Delayed mutations are indicative of genomic instability. Methods Delayed mutations in the hypoxanthine phosphoribosyl transferase (hprt gene were detected by incubating the cells in medium selectively killing hprt mutants for 8 days after irradiation, followed by a 5 day period in normal medium before determining mutation frequencies. Results The UVB-induced delayed hprt mutations were strongly inhibited by the antioxidants catalase, reduced glutathione and superoxide dismutase, while only reduced glutathione had a significant effect on UVA-induced delayed mutations. Treatment with antioxidants had only minor effects on early mutation frequenies, except that reduced glutathione decreased the UVB-induced early mutation frequency by 24 %. Incubation with reduced glutathione was shown to significantly increase the intracellular amount of reduced glutathione. Conclusion The strong effects of these antioxidants indicate that genomic instability, which is induced by the fundamentally different ultraviolet A and ultraviolet B radiation, is mediated by reactive oxygen species, including hydrogen peroxide and downstream products. However, cells take up neither catalase nor SOD, while incubation with glutathione resulted in increased intracellular levels of

  17. Long-term exposure to electromagnetic radiation from mobile phones and Wi-Fi devices decreases plasma prolactin, progesterone, and estrogen levels but increases uterine oxidative stress in pregnant rats and their offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yüksel, Murat; Nazıroğlu, Mustafa; Özkaya, Mehmet Okan

    2016-05-01

    We investigated the effects of mobile phone (900 and 1800 MHz)- and Wi-Fi (2450 MHz)-induced electromagnetic radiation (EMR) exposure on uterine oxidative stress and plasma hormone levels in pregnant rats and their offspring. Thirty-two rats and their forty newborn offspring were divided into the following four groups according to the type of EMR exposure they were subjected to: the control, 900, 1800, and 2450 MHz groups. Each experimental group was exposed to EMR for 60 min/day during the pregnancy and growth periods. The pregnant rats were allowed to stand for four generations (total 52 weeks) before, plasma and uterine samples were obtained. During the 4th, 5th, and 6th weeks of the experiment, plasma and uterine samples were also obtained from the developing rats. Although uterine lipid peroxidation increased in the EMR groups, uterine glutathione peroxidase activity (4th and 5th weeks) and plasma prolactin levels (6th week) in developing rats decreased in these groups. In the maternal rats, the plasma prolactin, estrogen, and progesterone levels decreased in the EMR groups, while the plasma total oxidant status, and body temperatures increased. There were no changes in the levels of reduced glutathione, total antioxidants, or vitamins A, C, and E in the uterine and plasma samples of maternal rats. In conclusion, although EMR exposure decreased the prolactin, estrogen, and progesterone levels in the plasma of maternal rats and their offspring, EMR-induced oxidative stress in the uteri of maternal rats increased during the development of offspring. Mobile phone- and Wi-Fi-induced EMR may be one cause of increased oxidative uterine injury in growing rats and decreased hormone levels in maternal rats. TRPV1 cation channels are the possible molecular pathways responsible for changes in the hormone, oxidative stress, and body temperature levels in the uterus of maternal rats following a year-long exposure to electromagnetic radiation exposure from mobile phones and

  18. Radiosensitive Down syndrome lymphoblastoid lines have normal ionizing-radiation-induced inhibition of DNA synthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ganges, M.B.; Robbins, J.H.; Jiang, H.; Hauser, C.; Tarone, R.E.

    1988-01-01

    The extent of X-ray-induced inhibition of DNA synthesis was determined in radiosensitive lymphoblastoid lines from 3 patients with Down syndrome and 3 patients with ataxia telangiectasia (AT). Compared to 6 normal control lines, the 3 AT lines were abnormally resistant to X-ray-induced inhibition of DNA synthesis, while the 3 Down syndrome lines had normal inhibition. These results demonstrate that radiosensitive human cells can have normal X-ray-induced inhibition of DNA synthesis and provide new evidence for the dissociation of radioresistant DNA synthesis. (author). 27 refs.; 1 fig.; 1 tab

  19. DNA Repair Inhibition by Mercuric Chloride in Earthworms after Exposure to Radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryu, Tae Ho; Kim, Jin Kyu [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Nili, Mohammad [Dawnesh Radiation Research Institute, Barcelona (Spain); An, Kwang Guk [Chungnam National University, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-10-15

    All organisms are being exposed to harmful factors present in the environment. Ionizing radiation can damage DNA through a series of molecular events depending on the radiation energy. The biological effects due to the combined action of ionizing radiation with the other factor are hard to estimate and predict in advance. Recently International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) requires the effect data of ionizing radiation on non-human biota for the radiological protection of the environment. Earthworms have been identified by the ICRP as one of the reference animals and plants to be used in environmental radiation protection. Particularly, the earthworm Eisenia fetida can be used as a bio-indicator of pollution in soil. This study was performed to investigate the acute genotoxic effects of radiation and the synergistic effects between radiation and mercury in earthworm, E. fetida

  20. DNA Repair Inhibition by Mercuric Chloride in Earthworms after Exposure to Radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryu, Tae Ho; Kim, Jin Kyu; Nili, Mohammad; An, Kwang Guk

    2011-01-01

    All organisms are being exposed to harmful factors present in the environment. Ionizing radiation can damage DNA through a series of molecular events depending on the radiation energy. The biological effects due to the combined action of ionizing radiation with the other factor are hard to estimate and predict in advance. Recently International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) requires the effect data of ionizing radiation on non-human biota for the radiological protection of the environment. Earthworms have been identified by the ICRP as one of the reference animals and plants to be used in environmental radiation protection. Particularly, the earthworm Eisenia fetida can be used as a bio-indicator of pollution in soil. This study was performed to investigate the acute genotoxic effects of radiation and the synergistic effects between radiation and mercury in earthworm, E. fetida

  1. Mobile-Phone Microscopes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程杰

    2008-01-01

    Simple accessories could turn mobile phones into useful medical devices Robi Marrmari stares intently at the screen of his mobile phone.The student is not squinting to tap out yet another daft text message,but looking carefully for the faint blue dots that are the tell-tale diagnostic signature of malaria.Mr.Maamari is a member of a research team led by Dan Fletcher,a professor of bioengineering

  2. Inhibition of trihalomethane formation in city water by radiation-ozone treatment and rapid composting of radiation disinfected sewage sludge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takehisa, M.; Arai, H.; Arai, M.

    1985-01-01

    Humic acid and Fulvic acid in natural water are precursors of carcinogenic THM which is formed during chlorine disinfection in city water processing. The radiation-oxidation process in the presence of ozone is effective to remove the precursors. The THM formation was reduced more than the decrease in TOC by the combination treatment. This is mainly due to a change in the chemical structure of the oxidation products. A composting of radiation disinfected sludge cake for agricultural reuse could be achieved within 3 days primary fermentation in a sewage plant. The rapid fermentation with use of radiation is effective to scale down of a fermentor of composting plant and the process reduces a health risk from the workers as well as final users. (author)

  3. Inhibition of trihalomethane formation in city water by radiation-ozone treatment and rapid composting of radiation disinfected sewage sludge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takehisa, M; Arai, H; Arai, M

    1985-01-01

    Humic acid and Fulvic acid in natural water are precursors of carcinogenic THM which is formed during chlorine disinfection in city water processing. The radiation-oxidation process in the presence of ozone is effective to remove the precursors. The THM formation was reduced more than the decrease in TOC by the combination treatment. This is mainly due to a change in the chemical structure of the oxidation products. A composting of radiation disinfected sludge cake for agricultural reuse could be achieved within 3 days primary fermentation in a sewage plant. The rapid fermentation with use of radiation is effective to scale down a fermentor of a composting plant and the process reduces health risk for the workers as well as final users.

  4. The Brothel Phone Number

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korsby, Trine Mygind

    2017-01-01

    Taking a point of departure in negotiations for access to a phone number for a brothel abroad, the article demonstrates how a group of pimps in Eastern Romania attempt to extend their local business into the rest of the EU. The article shows how the phone number works as a micro-infrastructure in......Taking a point of departure in negotiations for access to a phone number for a brothel abroad, the article demonstrates how a group of pimps in Eastern Romania attempt to extend their local business into the rest of the EU. The article shows how the phone number works as a micro...... in turn cultivate and maximize uncertainty about themselves in others. When making the move to go abroad into unknown terrains, accessing the infrastructure generated by the phone number can provide certainty and consolidate one’s position within criminal networks abroad. However, at the same time......, mishandling the phone number can be dangerous and in that sense produce new doubts and uncertainties....

  5. Cellular phones and risk of brain tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frumkin, H; Jacobson, A; Gansler, T; Thun, M J

    2001-01-01

    As cellular telephones are a relatively new technology, we do not yet have long-term follow-up on their possible biological effects. However, the lack of ionizing radiation and the low energy level emitted from cell phones and absorbed by human tissues make it unlikely that these devices cause cancer. Moreover, several well-designed epidemiologic studies find no consistent association between cell phone use and brain cancer. It is impossible to prove that any product or exposure is absolutely safe, especially in the absence of very long-term follow-up. Accordingly, the following summary from the Food and Drug Administration Center for Devices and Radiological Health offers advice to people concerned about their risk: If there is a risk from these products--and at this point we do not know that there is--it is probably very small. But if people are concerned about avoiding even potential risks, there are simple steps they can take to do so. People who must conduct extended conversations in their cars every day could switch to a type of mobile phone that places more distance between their bodies and the source of the RF, since the exposure level drops off dramatically with distance. For example, they could switch to: a mobile phone in which the antenna is located outside the vehicle, a hand-held phone with a built-in antenna connected to a different antenna mounted on the outside of the car or built into a separate package, or a headset with a remote antenna to a mobile phone carried at the waist. Again the scientific data do not demonstrate that mobile phones are harmful. But if people are concerned about the radiofrequency energy from these products, taking the simple precautions outlined above can reduce any possible risk. In addition, people who are concerned might choose digital rather than analog telephones, since the former use lower RF levels.

  6. Activation of adenosine receptors and inhibition of cyclooxygenases: two recent pharmacological approaches to modulation of radiation suppressed hematopoiesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hofer, M.; Pospisil, M.; Vacek, A.; Hola, J.; Weiterova, L.; Streitova, D.; Znojil, V.

    2008-01-01

    Searching for drugs conforming to requirements for protection and/or treatment of radiation-induced damage belongs to the most important tasks of current radiobiology. In the Laboratory of Experimental Hematology, Institute of Biophysics, v.v.i., Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Brno, Czech Republic, two original approaches for stimulation of radiation-suppressed hematopoiesis have been tested in recent years, namely activation of adenosine receptors and inhibition of cyclooxygenases. Non-selective activation of adenosine receptors, induced by combined administration of dipyridamole, a drug preventing adenosine uptake and supporting thus its extracellular receptor-mediated action, and adenosine monophosphate, an adenosine prodrug, has been found to stimulate hematopoiesis when the drugs were given either pre- or post-irradiation. When synthetic adenosine receptor agonists selective for individual adenosine receptor subtypes were tested, stimulatory effects in myelosuppressed mice have been found after administration of IB-MECA, a selective adenosine A3 receptor agonist. Non-selective cyclooxygenase inhibitors, inhibiting both cyclooxygenase-1 (COX-1) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), indomethacin, diclofenac, or flurbiprofen, have been observed to act positively on radiation-perturbed hematopoiesis in sublethally irradiated mice. However, their undesirable gastrointestinal side effects have been found to negatively influence survival of lethally irradiated animals. Recently tested selective COX-2 inhibitor meloxicam, preserving protective action of COX-1-synthesized prostaglandins in the gastrointestinal tissues, has been observed to retain the hematopoiesis-stimulating effects of non-selective cyclooxygenase inhibitors and to improve the survival of animals exposed to lethal radiation doses. These findings bear evidence for the possibility to use selective adenosine A3 receptor agonists and selective COX-2 inhibitors in human practice for treatment of

  7. MiR-124 Inhibits Growth and Enhances Radiation-Induced Apoptosis in Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer by Inhibiting STAT3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mengjie Wang

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: A growing body of evidence indicates that the abnormal expression of microRNAs (miRNAs play an important role in sensitizing the cellular response to ionizing radiation (IR. The aim of this study was to investigate whether the expression of miR-124 correlated with radiosensitivity in the context of non-small-cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC. Methods: Quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR was used to quantify miR-124 expression in NSCLC tissues and cell lines. The role of miR-124 in NSCLC proliferation and radiosensitivity was analyzed using CCK-8 and flow cytometry apoptosis assays. Luciferase activity assays, RT-PCR, and Western blot assays were performed to confirm the target gene of miR-124. Results: In this study, we found that miR-124 was downregulated both in clinical NSCLC samples and in cell lines. miR-124 inhibited the proliferation of NSCLC cells and enhanced the apoptosis of NSCLC cells exposed to ionizing radiation. We identified signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3 as a direct target of miR-124 by using target prediction algorithms and luciferase assays. Overexpression of STAT3 in A549 cell lines restored the enhanced radiosensitivity induced by miR-124. Conclusion: Taking these observations into consideration, we illustrated that miR-124 is a potential target for enhancing the radiosensitivity of NSCLC cells by targeting STAT3.

  8. Lead and radiation induced hepatic lesions in Swiss albino mice and their inhibition by vitamin E

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gajawat, Sunita; Goyal, P.K.

    2002-01-01

    The present study has been carried out to access the protective role of vitamin E against hepato-toxicity induced by lead and radiation. The present study demonstrates that the application of vitamin E prior to lead and gamma radiation exposure is quite potential to provide protection against hepatic lesions induced by such teratogens

  9. Topical W-7 inhibits ultraviolet radiation-induced melanogenesis in Skh:HR2 pigmented hairless mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dowdy, J.C. [Univ. of Memphis, Div. of Molecular Sciences and Microbiology, Memphis, Tennessee (United States); Anthony, F.A.; Costlow, M.E. [Schering-Plough HealthCare Products, Inc., Advanced Product Research, Memphis, Tennessee (United States)

    1995-08-01

    We studied the effect of N-(6-aminohexyl)-5-chloro-1-napthalenesulfonamide (W-7) on ultraviolet radiation (UVR)-induced melanogenesis (tanning) in Skh:HR2 pigmented hairless mice. Topically pretreated mice were exposed to subminimal edematogenic as well as edematogenic UVR doses to establish whether W-7-UVR-induced edema prophylaxis allows increased melanogenesis while preventing edema. Ultraviolet light-irradiated vehicle control animals developed visible trans; however, both W-7-treated groups failed to tan. Topical W-7 before UVR exposure inhibited UVR induction of dopa oxidase activity in melanocytes by 49% (P=0.029) and inhibited UVR-induced deposition of melanin in the epidermis by 88% (P=0.006). Topical W-7 blocked 23% of the UVR but this blockage could not account for the inhibition of dopa oxidase and melanization. We conclude that, in addition to preventing edema, W-7 inhibits UVR-induced melanogenesis, possibly by affecting Ca{sup 2+}-calmodulin and/or protein kinase C-dependent processes. (au) 30 refs.

  10. Homologous recombination in mammalian cells: effect of p53 and Bcl-2 proteins, replication inhibition and ionizing radiations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saintigny, Yannick

    1999-01-01

    The control of cell cycle, associated with the mechanisms of replication, DNA repair/recombination allows the cells to maintain their genetic integrity. The p53 protein ensures the control of G1/S transition. Its inactivation would allow to initial replication on damaged matrix and lead to the block of replication forks followed by DNA strand breaks, good substrates for recombination. This work shows that the expression of mutant p53 protein stimulates both spontaneous and radio-induced homologous recombination, independently of the control of cell cycle. Moreover, the use of a set of replication inhibitors show that inhibition of the replication elongation stimulates recombination more strongly than the initiation inhibition. Replication arrest by these inhibitors also significantly increases the number of DNA strand breaks. These results highlighted a point of action of p53 protein on the ultimate stages of the homologous recombination mechanism. Lastly, the expression of Bcl-2 protein inhibits apoptosis and increases survival, but specifically inhibits conservative recombination, after radiation as well as in absence of apoptotic stress. The extinction of this mechanism of DNA repair is associated with an increase of mutagenesis. Taken together, these results allow ta consider the maintenance of the genetic stability as a cellular network involving different pathways. A multiple stages model for tumoral progression can be deduced. (author) [fr

  11. Topical W-7 inhibits ultraviolet radiation-induced melanogenesis in Skh:HR2 pigmented hairless mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dowdy, J.C.; Anthony, F.A.; Costlow, M.E.

    1995-01-01

    We studied the effect of N-(6-aminohexyl)-5-chloro-1-napthalenesulfonamide (W-7) on ultraviolet radiation (UVR)-induced melanogenesis (tanning) in Skh:HR2 pigmented hairless mice. Topically pretreated mice were exposed to subminimal edematogenic as well as edematogenic UVR doses to establish whether W-7-UVR-induced edema prophylaxis allows increased melanogenesis while preventing edema. Ultraviolet light-irradiated vehicle control animals developed visible trans; however, both W-7-treated groups failed to tan. Topical W-7 before UVR exposure inhibited UVR induction of dopa oxidase activity in melanocytes by 49% (P=0.029) and inhibited UVR-induced deposition of melanin in the epidermis by 88% (P=0.006). Topical W-7 blocked 23% of the UVR but this blockage could not account for the inhibition of dopa oxidase and melanization. We conclude that, in addition to preventing edema, W-7 inhibits UVR-induced melanogenesis, possibly by affecting Ca 2+ -calmodulin and/or protein kinase C-dependent processes. (au) 30 refs

  12. Association of Exposure to Radio-Frequency Electromagnetic Field Radiation (RF-EMFR Generated by Mobile Phone Base Stations with Glycated Hemoglobin (HbA1c and Risk of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sultan Ayoub Meo

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Installation of mobile phone base stations in residential areas has initiated public debate about possible adverse effects on human health. This study aimed to determine the association of exposure to radio frequency electromagnetic field radiation (RF-EMFR generated by mobile phone base stations with glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c and occurrence of type 2 diabetes mellitus. For this study, two different elementary schools (school-1 and school-2 were selected. We recruited 159 students in total; 96 male students from school-1, with age range 12–16 years, and 63 male students with age range 12–17 years from school-2. Mobile phone base stations with towers existed about 200 m away from the school buildings. RF-EMFR was measured inside both schools. In school-1, RF-EMFR was 9.601 nW/cm2 at frequency of 925 MHz, and students had been exposed to RF-EMFR for a duration of 6 h daily, five days in a week. In school-2, RF-EMFR was 1.909 nW/cm2 at frequency of 925 MHz and students had been exposed for 6 h daily, five days in a week. 5–6 mL blood was collected from all the students and HbA1c was measured by using a Dimension Xpand Plus Integrated Chemistry System, Siemens. The mean HbA1c for the students who were exposed to high RF-EMFR was significantly higher (5.44 ± 0.22 than the mean HbA1c for the students who were exposed to low RF-EMFR (5.32 ± 0.34 (p = 0.007. Moreover, students who were exposed to high RF-EMFR generated by MPBS had a significantly higher risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus (p = 0.016 relative to their counterparts who were exposed to low RF-EMFR. It is concluded that exposure to high RF-EMFR generated by MPBS is associated with elevated levels of HbA1c and risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus.

  13. Polo-like kinase 1 (PLK1) inhibition suppresses cell growth and enhances radiation sensitivity in medulloblastoma cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harris, Peter S; Foreman, Nicholas K; Vibhakar, Rajeev; Venkataraman, Sujatha; Alimova, Irina; Birks, Diane K; Donson, Andrew M; Knipstein, Jeffrey; Dubuc, Adrian; Taylor, Michael D; Handler, Michael H

    2012-01-01

    Medulloblastoma is the most common malignant brain tumor in children and remains a therapeutic challenge due to its significant therapy-related morbidity. Polo-like kinase 1 (PLK1) is highly expressed in many cancers and regulates critical steps in mitotic progression. Recent studies suggest that targeting PLK1 with small molecule inhibitors is a promising approach to tumor therapy. We examined the expression of PLK1 mRNA in medulloblastoma tumor samples using microarray analysis. The impact of PLK1 on cell proliferation was evaluated by depleting expression with RNA interference (RNAi) or by inhibiting function with the small molecule inhibitor BI 2536. Colony formation studies were performed to examine the impact of BI 2536 on medulloblastoma cell radiosensitivity. In addition, the impact of depleting PLK1 mRNA on tumor-initiating cells was evaluated using tumor sphere assays. Analysis of gene expression in two independent cohorts revealed that PLK1 mRNA is overexpressed in some, but not all, medulloblastoma patient samples when compared to normal cerebellum. Inhibition of PLK1 by RNAi significantly decreased medulloblastoma cell proliferation and clonogenic potential and increased cell apoptosis. Similarly, a low nanomolar concentration of BI 2536, a small molecule inhibitor of PLK1, potently inhibited cell growth, strongly suppressed the colony-forming ability, and increased cellular apoptosis of medulloblastoma cells. Furthermore, BI 2536 pretreatment sensitized medulloblastoma cells to ionizing radiation. Inhibition of PLK1 impaired tumor sphere formation of medulloblastoma cells and decreased the expression of SRY (sex determining region Y)-box 2 (SOX2) mRNA in tumor spheres indicating a possible role in targeting tumor inititiating cells. Our data suggest that targeting PLK1 with small molecule inhibitors, in combination with radiation therapy, is a novel strategy in the treatment of medulloblastoma that warrants further investigation

  14. Is human saliva an indicator of the adverse health effects of using mobile phones?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamzany, Yaniv; Feinmesser, Raphael; Shpitzer, Thomas; Mizrachi, Aviram; Hilly, Ohad; Hod, Roy; Bahar, Gideon; Otradnov, Irina; Gavish, Moshe; Nagler, Rafael M

    2013-02-20

    Increasing use of mobile phones creates growing concerns regarding harmful effects of radiofrequency nonionizing electromagnetic radiation on human tissues located close to the ear, where phones are commonly held for long periods of time. We studied 20 subjects in the mobile-phone group who had a mean duration of mobile phone use of 12.5 years (range 8-15) and a mean time use of 29.6 h per month (range 8-100). Deaf individuals served as controls. We compared salivary outcomes (secretion, oxidative damage indices, flow rate, and composition) between mobile phone users and nonusers. We report a significant increase in all salivary oxidative stress indices studied in mobile phone users. Salivary flow, total protein, albumin, and amylase activity were decreased in mobile phone users. These observations lead to the hypothesis that the use of mobile phones may cause oxidative stress and modify salivary function.

  15. Inhibition of intestinal epithelial apoptosis improves survival in a murine model of radiation combined injury.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enjae Jung

    Full Text Available World conditions place large populations at risk from ionizing radiation (IR from detonation of dirty bombs or nuclear devices. In a subgroup of patients, ionizing radiation exposure would be followed by a secondary infection. The effects of radiation combined injury are potentially more lethal than either insult in isolation. The purpose of this study was to determine mechanisms of mortality and possible therapeutic targets in radiation combined injury. Mice were exposed to IR with 2.5 Gray (Gy followed four days later by intratracheal methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA. While either IR or MRSA alone yielded 100% survival, animals with radiation combined injury had 53% survival (p = 0.01. Compared to IR or MRSA alone, mice with radiation combined injury had increased gut apoptosis, local and systemic bacterial burden, decreased splenic CD4 T cells, CD8 T cells, B cells, NK cells, and dendritic cells, and increased BAL and systemic IL-6 and G-CSF. In contrast, radiation combined injury did not alter lymphocyte apoptosis, pulmonary injury, or intestinal proliferation compared to IR or MRSA alone. In light of the synergistic increase in gut apoptosis following radiation combined injury, transgenic mice that overexpress Bcl-2 in their intestine and wild type mice were subjected to IR followed by MRSA. Bcl-2 mice had decreased gut apoptosis and improved survival compared to WT mice (92% vs. 42%; p<0.01. These data demonstrate that radiation combined injury results in significantly higher mortality than could be predicted based upon either IR or MRSA infection alone, and that preventing gut apoptosis may be a potential therapeutic target.

  16. Inhibition of intestinal epithelial apoptosis improves survival in a murine model of radiation combined injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Enjae; Perrone, Erin E; Brahmamdan, Pavan; McDonough, Jacquelyn S; Leathersich, Ann M; Dominguez, Jessica A; Clark, Andrew T; Fox, Amy C; Dunne, W Michael; Hotchkiss, Richard S; Coopersmith, Craig M

    2013-01-01

    World conditions place large populations at risk from ionizing radiation (IR) from detonation of dirty bombs or nuclear devices. In a subgroup of patients, ionizing radiation exposure would be followed by a secondary infection. The effects of radiation combined injury are potentially more lethal than either insult in isolation. The purpose of this study was to determine mechanisms of mortality and possible therapeutic targets in radiation combined injury. Mice were exposed to IR with 2.5 Gray (Gy) followed four days later by intratracheal methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). While either IR or MRSA alone yielded 100% survival, animals with radiation combined injury had 53% survival (p = 0.01). Compared to IR or MRSA alone, mice with radiation combined injury had increased gut apoptosis, local and systemic bacterial burden, decreased splenic CD4 T cells, CD8 T cells, B cells, NK cells, and dendritic cells, and increased BAL and systemic IL-6 and G-CSF. In contrast, radiation combined injury did not alter lymphocyte apoptosis, pulmonary injury, or intestinal proliferation compared to IR or MRSA alone. In light of the synergistic increase in gut apoptosis following radiation combined injury, transgenic mice that overexpress Bcl-2 in their intestine and wild type mice were subjected to IR followed by MRSA. Bcl-2 mice had decreased gut apoptosis and improved survival compared to WT mice (92% vs. 42%; p<0.01). These data demonstrate that radiation combined injury results in significantly higher mortality than could be predicted based upon either IR or MRSA infection alone, and that preventing gut apoptosis may be a potential therapeutic target.

  17. Are mobile phones harmful?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blettner, M; Berg, G

    2000-01-01

    There is increasing public interest in health risks of mobile phone use. Although there is a vast body of material on the biological effects of radiofrequency fields, current risk assessment is still limited. The article describes several hypotheses and results of biological effects such as thermal effect, genetic and carcinogenic effects and cancer related investigations. Mobile phones transmit and receive waves of frequencies mainly at 800-1800 MHz. Findings on the thermal effect of acute exposure to radiofrequency fields were consistent, resulting in an increase of cellular, tissue or body temperature by 1 degree C or more. Guidelines for risk limits are based on this thermal effect. Experimental investigation suggests that radiofrequency fields are not tumor initiators and that if they are related to carcinogenicity, this would be by tumor promotion or by increasing the uptake of carcinogens in cells. Implications of these experimental results on public health concerns are yet unclear. Few epidemiological studies are available on the use of mobile phones or on the radiofrequency exposure and the development of cancer. Most of these studies have no or little quantitative exposure data and they are limited by the small number of observations. Large epidemiological studies are necessary in order to investigate the use of mobile phones on the development of cancer. It should be emphasized that even a small elevated risk may have a large implication for public health, as the use of mobile phones and the exposure is rapidly increasing.

  18. Effects of Mobile Phones on Children's and Adolescents' Health: A Commentary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardell, Lennart

    2018-01-01

    The use of digital technology has grown rapidly during the last couple of decades. During use, mobile phones and cordless phones emit radiofrequency (RF) radiation. No previous generation has been exposed during childhood and adolescence to this kind of radiation. The brain is the main target organ for RF emissions from the handheld wireless…

  19. Inhibition of radiation-induced EGFR nuclear import by C225 (Cetuximab) suppresses DNA-PK activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dittmann, Klaus; Mayer, Claus; Rodemann, Hans-Peter

    2005-01-01

    Background and purpose: Inhibition of EGFR-function can induce radiosensitization in tumor cells. Purpose of our investigation was to identify the possible molecular mechanism of radiosensitization following treatment with anti-EGFR-antibody C225 (Cetuximab). Materials and methods: The effect of C225 on radiation response was determined in human cell lines of bronchial carcinoma (A549) and breast adenoma cells (MDA MB 231). The molecular effects of C225 on EGFR-function after irradiation were analyzed applying western blotting, immune-precipitation and kinase assays. Effects on DNA-repair were detected by quantification of γ-H2AX positive foci 24 h after irradiation. Results: The EGFR specific antibody C225 induced radiosensitization in A549 and also in MDA MB 231 cells. Radiosensitization in A549 was associated with blockage of radiation-induced EGFR transport into the nucleus, and immobilized the complex of EGFR with DNA-dependent protein kinase (DNA-PK) in the cytoplasm. As a consequence radiation-induced DNA-PK activation was abolished, a process that is essential for DNA-repair after radiation exposure. Likewise C225 treatment increased the residual amount of γ-H2AX-positive foci 24 h after irradiation in A549 and in MDA MB 231 cells. Conclusions: Our results suggest that irradiation induced DNA-PK activation-essential for DNA repair-may be hampered specifically by use of the anti-EGFR-antibody C225. This process is associated with radiosensitization

  20. Are mobile phones harmful?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blettner, M; Berg, Gabriele

    2000-01-01

    There is increasing public interest in health risks of mobile phone use. Although there is a vast body of material on the biological effects of radiofrequency fields, current risk assessment is still limited. The article describes several hypotheses and results of biological effects such as thermal...... effect, genetic and carcinogenic effects and cancer related investigations. Mobile phones transmit and receive waves of frequencies mainly at 800-1800 MHz. Findings on the thermal effect of acute exposure to radiofrequency fields were consistent, resulting in an increase of cellular, tissue or body...... in cells. Implications of these experimental results on public health concerns are yet unclear. Few epidemiological studies are available on the use of mobile phones or on the radiofrequency exposure and the development of cancer. Most of these studies have no or little quantitative exposure data...

  1. Inhibition of EGFR or IGF-1R signaling enhances radiation response in head and neck cancer models but concurrent inhibition has no added benefit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raju, Uma; Molkentine, David P; Valdecanas, David R; Deorukhkar, Amit; Mason, Kathryn A; Buchholz, Thomas A; Meyn, Raymond E; Ang, Kie-Kian; Skinner, Heath

    2015-01-01

    Interaction between the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and the insulin-like growth factor receptor (IGF-1R) has been well established in many cancer types. We investigated the effects of cetuximab (EGFR antibody) and IMC-A12 (IGF-1R antibody) on the response of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) to radiation therapy (RT). The effects of cetuximab and IMC-A12 on cell viability and radiosensitivity were determined by clonogenic cell survival assay. Formation of nuclear γ-H2AX and 53BP1 foci was monitored by immunofluorescence. Alterations in target signaling were analyzed by Western blots. In vivo tumor growth delay assay was performed to determine the efficacy of triple therapy with IMC-A12, cetuximab, and RT. In vitro data showed that cetuximab differentially affected the survival and the radiosensitivity of HNSCC cells. Cetuximab suppressed DNA repair that was evident by the prolonged presence of nuclear γ-H2AX and 53BP1 foci. IMC-A12 did not have any effect on the cell survival. However, it increased the radiosensitivity of one of the cell lines. EGFR inhibition increased IGF-1R expression levels and also the association between EGFR and IGF-1R. Addition of IMC-A12 to cetuximab did not increase the radiosensitivity of these cells. Tumor xenografts exhibited enhanced response to RT in the presence of either cetuximab or IMC-A12. Concurrent treatment regimen failed to further enhance the tumor response to cetuximab and/or RT. Taken together our data suggest that concomitant inhibition of both EGFR and IGF-1R pathways did not yield additional therapeutic benefit in overcoming resistance to RT

  2. A Fashion for Phones

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MINHHOANG

    2004-01-01

    In a bold move intended to reinvigorate growth in the global mobile phone market, Siemens Mobile last year created Xelibri. This new handset range of radically different shapes and wearable designs has been positioned in the market as a fashion accessory rather than as a communications tool. Both the phones and the accompanying advertising campaign are treating Xelibri as a fashion brand, with handsets being sold in department stores and fashion outlets as well as specialist handset retailers. Two months after the launch in Europe, Xelibri made their Asian debut in Hong Kong,Singapore and China in June 2003.

  3. Retrospective reconstruction of personal doses using mobile phones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ekendahl, Daniela

    2011-01-01

    Mobile phones are among objects usable for retrospective reconstruction of doses received by persons irradiated from serious radiation accidents or terrorist acts involving radioactivity. In this respect, it is an advantage of mobile phones that they are often worn close to the body and are used by the majority of population. Like other portable electronic devices, mobile phones contain electronic components which can include ceramic materials exhibiting radiation induced luminescence. Aluminium oxide (Al2O3) is an example; its layers are often used in chip resistors. This work summarizes the results of a pilot study investigating the dosimetric potential of Al2O3 measured via thermoluminescence (TL) and optically stimulated luminescence (OSL). A trial dose reconstruction performed with two mobile phones is described. It is shown that the material exhibits favourable dosimetric properties and the method is sufficiently accurate and operative for personal accident dosimetry purposes. (orig.)

  4. Selenoprotein P Inhibits Radiation-Induced Late Reactive Oxygen Species Accumulation and Normal Cell Injury

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eckers, Jaimee C.; Kalen, Amanda L.; Xiao, Wusheng; Sarsour, Ehab H.; Goswami, Prabhat C., E-mail: prabhat-goswami@uiowa.edu

    2013-11-01

    Purpose: Radiation is a common mode of cancer therapy whose outcome is often limited because of normal tissue toxicity. We have shown previously that the accumulation of radiation-induced late reactive oxygen species (ROS) precedes cell death, suggesting that metabolic oxidative stress could regulate cellular radiation response. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether selenoprotein P (SEPP1), a major supplier of selenium to tissues and an antioxidant, regulates late ROS accumulation and toxicity in irradiated normal human fibroblasts (NHFs). Methods and Materials: Flow cytometry analysis of cell viability, cell cycle phase distribution, and dihydroethidium oxidation, along with clonogenic assays, were used to measure oxidative stress and toxicity. Human antioxidant mechanisms array and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction assays were used to measure gene expression during late ROS accumulation in irradiated NHFs. Sodium selenite addition and SEPP1 overexpression were used to determine the causality of SEPP1 regulating late ROS accumulation and toxicity in irradiated NHFs. Results: Irradiated NHFs showed late ROS accumulation (4.5-fold increase from control; P<.05) that occurs after activation of the cell cycle checkpoint pathways and precedes cell death. The mRNA levels of CuZn- and Mn-superoxide dismutase, catalase, peroxiredoxin 3, and thioredoxin reductase 1 increased approximately 2- to 3-fold, whereas mRNA levels of cold shock domain containing E1 and SEPP1 increased more than 6-fold (P<.05). The addition of sodium selenite before the radiation treatment suppressed toxicity (45%; P<.05). SEPP1 overexpression suppressed radiation-induced late ROS accumulation (35%; P<.05) and protected NHFs from radiation-induced toxicity (58%; P<.05). Conclusion: SEPP1 mitigates radiation-induced late ROS accumulation and normal cell injury.

  5. Temperature-specific inhibition of human red cell Na+/K+ ATPase by 2450-MHz microwave radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allis, J.W.; Sinha-Robinson, B.L.

    1987-01-01

    The ATPase activity in human red blood cell membranes was investigated in vitro as a function of temperature and exposure to 2450-MHz continuous wave microwave radiation to confirm and extend a report of Na+ transport inhibition under certain conditions of temperature and exposure. Assays were conducted spectrophotometrically during microwave exposure with a custom-made spectrophotometer-waveguide apparatus. Temperature profiles of total ATPase and Ca+2 ATPase (ouabain-inhibited) activity between 17 and 31 degrees C were graphed as an Arrhenius plot. Each data set was fitted to two straight lines which intersect between 23 and 24 degrees C. The difference between the total and Ca+2 ATPase activities, which represented the Na+/K+ ATPase activity, was also plotted and treated similarly to yield an intersection near 25 degrees C. Exposure of membrane suspensions to electromagnetic radiation, at a dose rate of 6 W/kg and at five temperatures between 23 and 27 degrees C, resulted in an activity change only for the Na+/K+ ATPase at 25 degrees C. The activity decreased by approximately 35% compared to sham-irradiated samples. A possible explanation for the unusual temperature/microwave interaction is proposed.

  6. Cell Phones and Cancer Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... bias , which can occur when data about prior habits and exposures are collected from study participants using ... operates at a different frequency and a lower power level than analog phones. Digital cell phones have ...

  7. Teen driver cell phone blocker.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-01

    This study was a randomized control intervention to measure the effectiveness of a cellular phone control device : that communicates with the vehicles of teen drivers to deny them access to their phone while driving for the : purpose of reducing dist...

  8. [Cell phone communication: hygienic characteristics, biological action, standardization (a review)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gudina, M V; Volkotrub, L P

    2010-01-01

    The paper considers the topical issues concerning the functioning of the cellular communication system. It provides the hygienic characteristics of its individual elements. The factors influencing the size of an electromagnetic field generated by mobile phones are stated. Research data on the impact of electromagnetic radiation from a mobile phone on users' health are reviewed. The pivots of present-day Russian hygienic rating regarding the permissible exposures to nonionizing electromagnetic energy generated by the elements of the cellular communication system are identified.

  9. Mobile Phone Chips Reduce Increases in EEG Brain Activity Induced by Mobile Phone-Emitted Electromagnetic Fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henz, Diana; Schöllhorn, Wolfgang I; Poeggeler, Burkhard

    2018-01-01

    Recent neurophysiological studies indicate that exposure to electromagnetic fields (EMFs) generated by mobile phone radiation can exert effects on brain activity. One technical solution to reduce effects of EMFs in mobile phone use is provided in mobile phone chips that are applied to mobile phones or attached to their surfaces. To date, there are no systematical studies on the effects of mobile phone chip application on brain activity and the underlying neural mechanisms. The present study investigated whether mobile phone chips that are applied to mobile phones reduce effects of EMFs emitted by mobile phone radiation on electroencephalographic (EEG) brain activity in a laboratory study. Thirty participants volunteered in the present study. Experimental conditions (mobile phone chip, placebo chip, no chip) were set up in a randomized within-subjects design. Spontaneous EEG was recorded before and after mobile phone exposure for two 2-min sequences at resting conditions. During mobile phone exposure, spontaneous EEG was recorded for 30 min during resting conditions, and 5 min during performance of an attention test (d2-R). Results showed increased activity in the theta, alpha, beta and gamma bands during EMF exposure in the placebo and no chip conditions. Application of the mobile phone chip reduced effects of EMFs on EEG brain activity and attentional performance significantly. Attentional performance level was maintained regarding number of edited characters. Further, a dipole analysis revealed different underlying activation patterns in the chip condition compared to the placebo chip and no chip conditions. Finally, a correlational analysis for the EEG frequency bands and electromagnetic high-frequency (HF) emission showed significant correlations in the placebo chip and no chip condition for the theta, alpha, beta, and gamma bands. In the chip condition, a significant correlation of HF with the theta and alpha bands, but not with the beta and gamma bands was

  10. Mobile Phone Chips Reduce Increases in EEG Brain Activity Induced by Mobile Phone-Emitted Electromagnetic Fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henz, Diana; Schöllhorn, Wolfgang I.; Poeggeler, Burkhard

    2018-01-01

    Recent neurophysiological studies indicate that exposure to electromagnetic fields (EMFs) generated by mobile phone radiation can exert effects on brain activity. One technical solution to reduce effects of EMFs in mobile phone use is provided in mobile phone chips that are applied to mobile phones or attached to their surfaces. To date, there are no systematical studies on the effects of mobile phone chip application on brain activity and the underlying neural mechanisms. The present study investigated whether mobile phone chips that are applied to mobile phones reduce effects of EMFs emitted by mobile phone radiation on electroencephalographic (EEG) brain activity in a laboratory study. Thirty participants volunteered in the present study. Experimental conditions (mobile phone chip, placebo chip, no chip) were set up in a randomized within-subjects design. Spontaneous EEG was recorded before and after mobile phone exposure for two 2-min sequences at resting conditions. During mobile phone exposure, spontaneous EEG was recorded for 30 min during resting conditions, and 5 min during performance of an attention test (d2-R). Results showed increased activity in the theta, alpha, beta and gamma bands during EMF exposure in the placebo and no chip conditions. Application of the mobile phone chip reduced effects of EMFs on EEG brain activity and attentional performance significantly. Attentional performance level was maintained regarding number of edited characters. Further, a dipole analysis revealed different underlying activation patterns in the chip condition compared to the placebo chip and no chip conditions. Finally, a correlational analysis for the EEG frequency bands and electromagnetic high-frequency (HF) emission showed significant correlations in the placebo chip and no chip condition for the theta, alpha, beta, and gamma bands. In the chip condition, a significant correlation of HF with the theta and alpha bands, but not with the beta and gamma bands was

  11. 1950MHz Radio Frequency Electromagnetic Radiation Inhibits Testosterone Secretion of Mouse Leydig Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yan-Yun; Wu, Tao; Liu, Jun-Ye; Gao, Peng; Li, Kang-Chu; Guo, Qi-Yan; Yuan, Meng; Lang, Hai-Yang; Zeng, Li-Hua; Guo, Guo-Zhen

    2017-12-23

    More studies that are focused on the bioeffects of radio-frequency (RF) electromagnetic radiation that is generated from the communication devices, but there were few reports with confirmed results about the bioeffects of RF radiation on reproductive cells. To explore the effects of 1950 MHz RF electromagnetic radiation (EMR) on mouse Leydig (TM3) cells. TM3 cells were irradiated or sham-irradiated continuously for 24 h by the specific absorption rate (SAR) 3 W/kg radiation. At 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5 days after irradiation, cell proliferation was detected by cell counting kit-8 (CCK-8) method, cell cycle distribution, percentage of apoptosis, and cellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) were examined by flow cytometry, Testosterone level was measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) assay, messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA) expression level of steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR) and P450scc in TM3 cells was detected by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). After being irradiated for 24 h, cell proliferation obviously decreased and cell cycle distribution, secretion capacity of Testosterone, and P450scc mRNA level were reduced. While cell apoptosis, ROS, and StAR mRNA level did not change significantly. The current results indicated that 24 h of exposure at 1950 MHz 3 W/kg radiation could cause some adverse effects on TM3 cells proliferation and Testosterone secretion, further studies about the biological effects in the reproductive system that are induced by RF radiation are also needed.

  12. Plants as green phones

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Soler, R.; Harvey, J.A.; Bezemer, T.M.; Stuefer, J.F.

    2008-01-01

    Plants can act as vertical communication channels or `green phones¿ linking soil-dwelling insects and insects in the aboveground ecosystem. When root-feeding insects attack a plant, the direct defense system of the shoot is activated, leading to an accumulation of phytotoxins in the leaves. The

  13. Measuring Mobile Phone Use

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boase, Jeff; Ling, Richard

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we examine how well two types of self-report measures adequately operationalize frequency of mobile phone use by comparing them to server log data. Our self-report measures of voice and SMS text messaging activity are drawn from a nationally representative survey of adults living...

  14. Inseparable Phone Books Demonstration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balta, Nuri; Çetin, Ali

    2017-01-01

    This study is aimed at first introducing a well-known discrepant event; inseparable phone books and second, turning it into an experiment for high school or middle school students. This discrepant event could be used especially to indicate how friction force can be effective in producing an unexpected result. Demonstration, discussion, explanation…

  15. Cell Phones for Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucking, Robert A.; Christmann, Edwin P.; Wighting, Mervyn J.

    2010-01-01

    Although in some schools cell phones have to be turned off or perhaps kept in lockers to avoid misuse, the authors hope to demonstrate in this article how they can be used under supervision to assist learning. This ubiquitous device can be a powerful classroom tool. (Contains 2 figures.)

  16. The cell phone dilemma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mertens, J.; Wiedemann, P.

    2008-01-01

    It is explored if and how the Media generate social technophobias and in particular provoke antagonism against Cell Phones. The role of science and politics in this context is discussed. The authors caution against a progressive creation of hysteria in risk debates. (orig.)

  17. DNA damage and photosynthetic inhibition induced by solar ultraviolet radiation in tropical phytoplankton (Lake Titicaca, Bolivia)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Helbling, EW; Villafane, VE; Buma, AGJ; Andrade, M; Zaratti, F

    Experiments were conducted during October 1998 in Lake Titicaca, Bolivia (16 degrees S, 68 degrees W, 3810 m a.s.l), to determine the effects of solar ultraviolet radiation (UVR) on phytoplankton photosynthetic rates and DNA damage. Water samples were taken daily and incubated ir? situ or in

  18. Inhibition of oxygen-dependent radiation-induced damage by the nitroxide superoxide dismutase mimic, tempol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitchell, J.B.; DeGraff, W.; Kaufman, D.; Krishna, M.C.; Samuni, A.; Finkelstein, E.; Ahn, M.S.; Hahn, S.M.; Gamson, J.; Russo, A.

    1991-01-01

    Stable nitroxide radicals have been previously shown to function as superoxide dismutase (SOD)2 mimics and to protect mammalian cells against superoxide and hydrogen peroxide-mediated oxidative stress. These unique characteristics suggested that nitroxides, such as 4-hydroxy-2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine-1-oxyl (Tempol), might protect mammalian cells against ionizing radiation. Treating Chinese hamster cells under aerobic conditions with 5, 10, 50, and 100 mM Tempol 10 min prior to X-rays resulted in radiation protection factors of 1.25, 1.30, 2.1, and 2.5, respectively. However, the reduced form of Tempol afforded no protection. Tempol treatment under hypoxic conditions did not provide radioprotection. Aerobic X-ray protection by Tempol could not be attributed to the induction of intracellular hypoxia, increase in intracellular glutathione, or induction of intracellular SOD mRNA. Tempol thus represents a new class of non-thiol-containing radiation protectors, which may be useful in elucidating the mechanism(s) of radiation-induced cellular damage and may have broad applications in protecting against oxidative stress

  19. Inhibition of Chk1 by CEP-3891 accelerates mitotic nuclear fragmentation in response to ionizing Radiation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Syljuåsen, Randi G; Sørensen, Claus Storgaard; Nylandsted, Jesper

    2004-01-01

    The human checkpoint kinase Chk1 has been suggested as a target for cancer treatment. Here, we show that a new inhibitor of Chk1 kinase, CEP-3891, efficiently abrogates both the ionizing radiation (IR)-induced S and G(2) checkpoints. When the checkpoints were abrogated by CEP-3891, the majority (64...

  20. SN-38 Acts as a Radiosensitizer for Colorectal Cancer by Inhibiting the Radiation-induced Up-regulation of HIF-1α.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okuno, Takayuki; Kawai, Kazushige; Hata, Keisuke; Murono, Koji; Emoto, Shigenobu; Kaneko, Manabu; Sasaki, Kazuhito; Nishikawa, Takeshi; Tanaka, Toshiaki; Nozawa, Hiroaki

    2018-06-01

    Hypoxia offers resistance to therapy in human solid tumors. The aim of the study was to investigate whether SN-38, the active metabolite of irinotecan, acts as a radiosensitizer through inhibition of hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-1α in the human colorectal cancer (CRC) cells. HT29 and SW480 cells were cultured with SN-38 (0-4 μM) immediately after irradiation (0-8 Gy). HIF-1α expression was assessed using flow-cytometry and western blot analysis. Cell proliferation was evaluated by the calcein assay. Apoptosis and cell cycle were determined by flow-cytometry. Radiation up-regulated HIF-1α, and SN-38 inhibited the radiation-induced HIF-1α. The combination of radiation and SN-38 inhibited cell proliferation more than radiation alone; treatment with SN-38 after radiation exposure did not increase the number of apoptotic cells, whereas, it enhanced the S and G 2 /M cell-cycle arrest and decreased the population of cells in G 1 Conclusion: SN-38 inhibits the radiation-induced up-regulation of HIF-1α and acts as a radiosensitizer by inducing cell-cycle arrest in CRC cells. Copyright© 2018, International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. George J. Delinasios), All rights reserved.

  1. Comments on Meo et al. Association of Exposure to Radio-Frequency Electromagnetic Field Radiation (RF-EMFR Generated by Mobile Phone Base Stations with Glycated Hemoglobin (HbA1c and Risk of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health, 2015, 12, 14519–14528

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Alireza Mortazavi

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available With great interest and enthusiasm, we have read the article by Meo et al. entitled “Association of Exposure to Radio-Frequency Electromagnetic Field Radiation (RF-EMFR Generated by Mobile Phone Base Stations with Glycated Hemoglobin (HbA1c and Risk of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus” that is published in the latest issue of the International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health [1].[...

  2. 2-deoxy-d-glucose (2-DG) inhibits radiation induced carcinogenesis (skin tumors) in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Saurabh; Bhuria, Vikas; Pandey, Sanjay; Saluja, Daman; Dwarakanath, B.S.

    2014-01-01

    One of the late effects of radiation exposure i.e. carcinogenesis is exemplified by atomic bomb survivors, radiotherapy patients and occupational workers. Enhanced glucose metabolism (Warburg's effect) is a fundamental metabolic change in transformed cells which drives tumorigenesis. It is suggested that Dietary Energy Restriction (DER) that targets glucose metabolism may afford protection against radiation-induced carcinogenesis. However, DER is practically difficult to sustain in humans. Therefore, we have hypothesized that the glycolytic inhibitor, 2-deoxy-D-glucose (2-DG), a potential energy restriction mimetic agent (ERMA) may impair the process of tumorigenesis as an alternative to DER. In the present studies we investigated the effects of dietary 2-DG on radiation induced papillomas in mice. Swiss albino mice (male) were irradiated with a fractionated dose schedule (1.5 Gy ionizing radiation/week for four weeks) focally on the shaved back followed by the application of tumor promoting agent (TPA) once weekly till the termination of the study. Mice were administered 2-DG (0.2% and 0.4% w/v) containing water starting a week after last irradiation. A significant reduction in the tumor incidence, tumor burden, besides increase in the latency period was observed in the 2-DG fed mice. The average tumor incidence (papillomas formation) was reduced to 25% and 37% in 0.2% and 0.4% 2-DG group respectively from 47% in the control group with a significant delay in the onset. Under these conditions, 2-DG considerably enhanced the level of reduced glutathione (GSH) with a concomitant decrease in the lipid peroxidation. 2-DG fed tumor bearing mice showed decrease in splenic CD4 + to CD8 + T-cell ratio and prevented the tumor induced augmentation of T-regulatory cells (CD4 + CD25 + ) which correlated with an increase in CD8 + (CTLs) cells. Dietary 2-DG also reduced the tumor associated and radiation induced angiogenesis. These observations suggest that dietary 2-DG

  3. Mobile Phone Antenna Performance 2016

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Gert F.

    This study investigates the antenna performance of a number of mobile phones widely used in the Nordic Countries. The study is supported by the Nordic Council of Ministers. The antenna performance of the phones is vital for the phones ability to ensure radio coverage in low signal situations....... The study is based on the mobile systems in the Nordic mobile networks and on both speech and data services. The selected phone models are among the most popular new phones at the time of this study....

  4. Inhibition of radiation-induced transformation in vitro by bacterial endotoxins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carew, J.A.; Collins, M.F.; Kennedy, A.R.

    1988-01-01

    Bacterial endotoxins (lipopolysaccharides) were found to suppress X-ray-induced malignant transformation of C3H/10T1/2 cells. Endotoxins were effective if present either throughout the 6-week transformation assay period, or for the final 4-week phase, but not when present only for the initial 2-week phase. Neither growth nor survival of C3H/10T1/2 cells, or a radiation-transformed cell line derived from them, were affected by endotoxins. Also, the endotoxins did not affect the formation of foci by the radiation transformed cells when these cells were co-cultured with untransformed cells. These results suggest that endotoxins exert their effect directly upon the transformation process itself, perhaps at a 'late' step in the conversion of an untransformed to a transformed cell. (author)

  5. Radiation-induced inhibition of human endothelial cells replicating in culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DeGowin, R.L.; Lewis, L.J.; Mason, R.E.; Borke, M.K.; Hoak, J.C.

    1976-01-01

    The radiosensitivity of some tumors may depend upon the sensitivity of their microvasculature to radiation. Heretofore, the dose-response of human endothelial cells replicating in tissue culture has not been published. In studies reported here, we exposed flasks containing 4 to 7 x 10 4 genetically identical human endothelial cells to doses of x irradiation from 125 to 1000 rad. During the phase of logarithmic growth, cell counts were compared to those of an unirradiated control to construct a dose--response curve. Similar studies were performed with normal fibroblasts. We found that 160 rad suppressed endothelial cell replication by 37 percent. Although recovery was evident with doses of 500 rad, no net increase in cell number occurred in 3 weeks in flasks of endothelial cells that received 750 or 1000 rad. Fibroblasts were slightly less sensitive under these conditions. To our knowledge, this is the first report of a radiation dose--response curve for human endothelial cells replicating in culture

  6. Homozygous mutations in the Fhit gene results in resistance to ionizing radiation and inhibition of apoptosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turner, B.C.; Potoczek, M.B.; Ottey, M.; Croce, C.M.; Huebner, K.

    2001-01-01

    Purpose: The Fhit gene was identified because it represents the most active constitutive chromosome fragile site and has functions often associated with a tumor suppressor gene. Mutations in the Fhit locus have been identified in many cancer-derived cell lines, primary human tumors including lung, head and neck, colon, breast, and esophagus, and are associated with tobacco-induced lung cancers. In this study, we examined the cellular response of mouse epithelial cells with complete loss of Fhit to therapeutic doses of ionizing radiation and the prognostic importance of Fhit protein in early stage breast cancer patients treated with breast conserving therapy. Materials and Methods: Mouse epithelial cell lines containing either homozygous mutant Fhit -/- or wild-type Fhit +/+ were derived from mice (C57BL/6J X 129/SvJ) with either wild-type or inactivated Fhit gene. Clonogenic cell survival assays were carried out on subconfluent cells in logarithmic growth using a 137 Cs irradiator and survival curves were plotted as the log of the surviving cells versus dose and corrected for cloning efficiency. Apoptosis following ionizing radiation was determined by flow cytometry using the Annexin-V FITC kit and DAPI staining. Paraffin-embedded breast tumor blocks were obtained from 42 women with local breast tumor recurrence and 42 matched breast cancer patients without local cancer relapse treated with breast conserving therapy and stained with a 1:4000 dilution of polyclonal antibody to the Fhit protein and scored based on both intensity and distribution of Fhit staining within the invasive breast cancer component. Results: Treatment of Fhit -/- mouse epithelial cells with single fraction doses of ionizing radiation including 2, 4, 6, and 10 Gy result in 4-6 fold increase in cellular survival compared with isogenic parental cells from Fhit +/+ mice. Fhit -/- epithelial cells displayed 3-5 fold lower levels of apoptosis in response to both low and high doses of ionizing

  7. Inhibition of radiation-induced transformation in vitro by bacterial endotoxins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carew, J A; Collins, M F; Kennedy, A R

    1988-05-01

    Bacterial endotoxins (lipopolysaccharides) were found to suppress X-ray-induced malignant transformation of C3H/10T1/2 cells. Endotoxins were effective if present either throughout the 6-week transformation assay period, or for the final 4-week phase, but not when present only for the initial 2-week phase. Neither growth nor survival of C3H/10T1/2 cells, or a radiation-transformed cell line derived from them, were affected by endotoxins. Also, the endotoxins did not affect the formation of foci by the radiation transformed cells when these cells were co-cultured with untransformed cells. These results suggest that endotoxins exert their effect directly upon the transformation process itself, perhaps at a 'late' step in the conversion of an untransformed to a transformed cell.

  8. SiRNA-mediated IGF-1R inhibition sensitizes human colon cancer SW480 cells to radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yavari, Kamal; Taghikhani, Mohammad; Mesbah-Namin, Seyed A.; Maragheh, Mohammad Ghannadi; Babaei, Mohammad Hosein; Arfaee, Ali Jabbary; Madani, Hossein; Mirzaei, Hamid Reza

    2010-01-01

    Purpose. Insulin like growth factor receptor 1 (IGF-1R) is well-documented to play a key role in radiation response and tumor radiosensitivity, thus offering an attractive clinic drug target to enhance tumor sensitivity to anti-cancer radiotherapy. Material and methods. Human colon carcinoma SW480 cells were transfected with the specific small interference RNA (siRNA) expression vector (pkD-shRNA-IGF-1R-V2) designed to target IGF-1R mRNA. The expression of IGF-1R mRNA and its protein among the transfected and untransfected cells were detected by semi-quantitative RT-PCR and ELISA assay. The changes in cell radiosensitivity were examined by MTT assay. Results. Transfection of mammalian expression vector pkD containing IGF-1R siRNA was shown to reduce IGF-1R mRNA levels by up to 95%. ELISA assay detected a similar inhibition of IGF-1R protein levels in cells transfected with IGF-1R siRNA. SW480 cells transfected with the expression vector for siRNA significantly rendered cells more sensitive to radiation and the highest radiation enhancement ratio was 2.02 ± 0.08. Conclusion. These data provide the first evidence that specific siRNA fragment (pkD-shRNA-IGF-1R-V2) targeting human IGF-1R mRNA is able to enhance colon cancer radiosensitivity. Also results indicated that, combining IGF-1R siRNA and radiation significantly enhances antitumor efficacy compared with either modality alone

  9. Targeting DNA double strand break repair with hyperthermia and DNA-PKcs inhibition to enhance the effect of radiation treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Oorschot, Bregje; Granata, Giovanna; Di Franco, Simone; Ten Cate, Rosemarie; Rodermond, Hans M; Todaro, Matilde; Medema, Jan Paul; Franken, Nicolaas A P

    2016-10-04

    Radiotherapy is based on the induction of lethal DNA damage, primarily DNA double-strand breaks (DSB). Efficient DSB repair via Non-Homologous End Joining or Homologous Recombination can therefore undermine the efficacy of radiotherapy. By suppressing DNA-DSB repair with hyperthermia (HT) and DNA-PKcs inhibitor NU7441 (DNA-PKcsi), we aim to enhance the effect of radiation.The sensitizing effect of HT for 1 hour at 42°C and DNA-PKcsi [1 μM] to radiation treatment was investigated in cervical and breast cancer cells, primary breast cancer sphere cells (BCSCs) enriched for cancer stem cells, and in an in vivo human tumor model. A significant radio-enhancement effect was observed for all cell types when DNA-PKcsi and HT were applied separately, and when both were combined, HT and DNA-PKcsi enhanced radio-sensitivity to an even greater extent. Strikingly, combined treatment resulted in significantly lower survival rates, 2 to 2.5 fold increase in apoptosis, more residual DNA-DSB 6 h post treatment and a G2-phase arrest. In addition, tumor growth analysis in vivo showed significant reduction in tumor growth and elevated caspase-3 activity when radiation was combined with HT and DNA-PKcsi compared to radiation alone. Importantly, no toxic side effects of HT or DNA-PKcsi were found.In conclusion, inhibiting DNA-DSB repair using HT and DNA-PKcsi before radiotherapy leads to enhanced cytotoxicity in cancer cells. This effect was even noticed in the more radio-resistant BCSCs, which are clearly sensitized by combined treatment. Therefore, the addition of HT and DNA-PKcsi to conventional radiotherapy is promising and might contribute to more efficient tumor control and patient outcome.

  10. The Lemna minor growth inhibition test as basis to evaluate radiation or radionuclide-induced effects on freshwater plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horemans, N.; Van Hees, M.; Van Hoeck, A.; Vandenhove, H. [Belgian Nuclear Research Centre, SCK.CEN, Boeretang 200, 2400 Mol (Belgium)

    2014-07-01

    The setting of radiation protection criteria for wildlife is based on tiered Environmental Risk Assessments (ERA) methods. At various points in such a tiered ERA robust and transparent benchmark values are needed to indicate the levels of exposure that are considered safe to the environment. Although not ideal these benchmark values are today mainly based on laboratory-based experiments in which the toxic effects of radiation or radionuclides to one selected species exposed under standardised growth conditions is studied. As such an eco-toxicity test has been developed for the floating macrophyte Lemna minor that can be used to test the effect of different chemicals in freshwater. Here the use of this test to estimate effects of radiation or radionuclides and its relevance to the environment will be discussed. First single dose response curves are shown that were set up according to the guidelines for gamma, uranium and as a reference also cadmium. According to the guidelines growth inhibition can be calculated on different endpoints like frond number and frond area. The choice of this endpoint seems to be of major importance as dependent on the stressor significant shifts in the EC50 values, the concentration giving 50% effect, were observed. For gamma radiation a recovery experiment was set up in irradiated plants were allowed to grow again for 7 days in control conditions. It was shown that plant growth rate did not catch up with that of the non-irradiated group. On the contrary, plant cultures that showed a growth inhibition above 40% immediately after irradiation completely collapsed during the recovery period indicating no recovery from the gamma induced damage and resulting in a 3-fold lower EC50 value after 7 days recovery. The relevance of these data to the environment will be further discussed. Finally the influence of different cations on the uranium speciation and toxicity are studied. These experiments are the first steps to set up a biotic ligand

  11. Isolation and characterization of mold fungi and insects infecting sawmill wood, and their inhibition by gamma radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalawate, Aparna; Mehetre, Sayaji

    2015-12-01

    This article describes the isolation, identification, and characterization of wood-rotting fungi and insects, and their inhibition was studied using gamma radiation. Products manufactured from plantation timber species are deteriorated by wood-rotting fungi such as Hypocrea lixii, Fusarium proliferatum, and Aspergillus flavus, and insects such as powderpost beetles. Proper preservation methods are necessary for ensuring a long service life of wood products. In this study, wood samples were treated with 2.5% copper ethanolamine boron (CEB) (10% w/v) and subsequently irradiated with gamma rays (10 kGy). It was observed that CEB-treated and gamma-irradiated samples controlled fungi and powderpost beetles significantly. As wood is a dead organic material, penetration of chemicals into it is very difficult. Gamma rays easily pass through wooden objects with hidden eggs and dormant spores of insects and fungi, respectively. Gamma irradiation was proved very effective in reducing damage caused by both fungi and insects.

  12. Inhibition of radiation induced migration of human head and neck squamous cell carcinoma cells by blocking of EGF receptor pathways

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pickhard, Anja C; Schlegel, Jürgen; Arnold, Wolfgang; Reiter, Rudolf; Margraf, Johanna; Knopf, Andreas; Stark, Thomas; Piontek, Guido; Beck, Carolin; Boulesteix, Anne-Laure; Scherer, Elias Q; Pigorsch, Steffi

    2011-01-01

    Recently it has been shown that radiation induces migration of glioma cells and facilitates a further spread of tumor cells locally and systemically. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether radiotherapy induces migration in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC). A further aim was to investigate the effects of blocking the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and its downstream pathways (Raf/MEK/ERK, PI3K/Akt) on tumor cell migration in vitro. Migration of tumor cells was assessed via a wound healing assay and proliferation by a MTT colorimeritric assay using 3 HNSCC cell lines (BHY, CAL-27, HN). The cells were treated with increasing doses of irradiation (2 Gy, 5 Gy, 8 Gy) in the presence or absence of EGF, EGFR-antagonist (AG1478) or inhibitors of the downstream pathways PI3K (LY294002), mTOR (rapamycin) and MEK1 (PD98059). Biochemical activation of EGFR and the downstream markers Akt and ERK were examined by Western blot analysis. In absence of stimulation or inhibition, increasing doses of irradiation induced a dose-dependent enhancement of migrating cells (p < 0.05 for the 3 HNSCC cell lines) and a decrease of cell proliferation (p < 0.05 for the 3 HNSCC cell lines). The inhibition of EGFR or the downstream pathways reduced cell migration significantly (almost all p < 0.05 for the 3 HNSCC cell lines). Stimulation of HNSCC cells with EGF caused a significant increase in migration (p < 0.05 for the 3 HNSCC cell lines). After irradiation alone a pronounced activation of EGFR was observed by Western blot analysis. Our results demonstrate that the EGFR is involved in radiation induced migration of HNSCC cells. Therefore EGFR or the downstream pathways might be a target for the treatment of HNSCC to improve the efficacy of radiotherapy

  13. Analysis of Brain Tumors Due to the Usage of Mobile Phones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SOOBIA SAEED

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The impact of cellular phone radiation on human health is the subject of current mindfulness and is an outcome of the huge increase in phone usage throughout the world. Phones use electromagnetic radiation in the microwave range. The issue is associated with wireless use for 50 minutes and above. The excessive use of mobile phone may cause brain tumors. Nowadays the most commonly developed brain tumor type is GBM (Glioblastoma in multiform and Malignant Astrocytoma. In this paper, we focus on the causes of brain tumor (cancer due to the cell phone as this increase in glucose metabolism. The aim of the study is to address the aforementioned problems associated with the cell phone. MATLAB programming to detect a brain tumor has been used. We have conducted MRI (Magnetic Resonance Imaging study to get the best images and results.

  14. Analysis of brain tumors due to the usage of mobile phones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saeed, S.; Noor, S.A.; Shaikh, A.

    2017-01-01

    The impact of cellular phone radiation on human health is the subject of current mindfulness and is an outcome of the huge increase in phone usage throughout the world. Phones use electromagnetic radiation in the microwave range. The issue is associated with wireless use for 50 minutes and above. The excessive use of mobile phone may cause brain tumors. Nowadays the most commonly developed brain tumor type is GBM (Glioblastoma) in multiform and Malignant Astrocytoma. In this paper, we focus on the causes of brain tumor (cancer) due to the cell phone as this increase in glucose metabolism. The aim of the study is to address the aforementioned problems associated with the cell phone. MATLAB programming to detect a brain tumor has been used. We have conducted MRI (Magnetic Resonance Imaging) study to get the best images and results. (author)

  15. Cell Phone Detection Techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pratt, Richard M.; Bunch, Kyle J.; Puzycki, David J.; Slaugh, Ryan W.; Good, Morris S.; McMakin, Douglas L.

    2007-10-01

    A team composed of Rick Pratt, Dave Puczyki, Kyle Bunch, Ryan Slaugh, Morris Good, and Doug McMakin teamed together to attempt to exploit cellular telephone features and detect if a person was carrying a cellular telephone into a Limited Area. The cell phone’s electromagnetic properties were measured, analyzed, and tested in over 10 different ways to determine if an exploitable signature exists. The method that appears to have the most potential for success without adding an external tag is to measure the RF spectrum, not in the cell phone band, but between 240 and 400MHz. Figures 1- 7 show the detected signal levels from cell phones from three different manufacturers.

  16. Mobile Phone Faraday Cage

    OpenAIRE

    French, M M J

    2011-01-01

    A Faraday cage is an interesting physics phenomena where an electromagnetic wave can be excluded from a volume of space by enclosure with an electrically conducting material. The practical application of this in the classroom is to block the signal to a mobile phone by enclosing it in a metal can! The background of the physics behind this is described in some detail followed by a explanation of some demonstrations and experiments which I have used.

  17. Psoralen plus ultraviolet radiation-induced inhibition of DNA synthesis and viability in human lymphoid cells in vitro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kraemer, K H; Waters, H L [National Cancer Inst., Bethesda, MD (USA); Ellingson, O L; Tarone, R E

    1979-08-01

    The present study investigated whether conditions of 8-methoxypsoralen (8-MOP) concentration and of exposure to high intensity long wavelength ultraviolet radiation (UV-A) during psoriasis and mycosis fungoides therapy might be sufficient to result directly in decreased lymphoid cell DNA synthesis and viability in vitro. Tritiated thymidine (/sup 3/HtdR) incorporation and cell growth following UV-A exposure alone or with 8-MOP was examined in peripheral blood lymphocytes and in Ebstein-Barr virus transformed human lymphoblastoid cell lines. UV-A exposure alone induced a dose-dependent inhibition of /sup 3/HTdR incorporation in both types of lymphoid cells. Pre-incubation with 0.1 ..mu..g/ml 8-MOP before UV-A exposure induced a significantly greater inhibition of /sup 3/HTdr incorporation. Further inhibition of /sup 3/HTdR incorporation was observed by preincubation of the lymphoblastoid cells with 1.0 ..mu..g/ml 8-MOP but not in the lymphocytes. The concentration of viable lymphoblastoid cells did not decrease below the original concentration after the highest dose of UV-A alone (29,00 J/m/sup 2/) but preincubation with 0.1 ..mu..g/ml 8-MOP resulted in 40% and 0.6% survival respectively after 3000 J/m/sup 2/. This study suggested that the low doses of 8-MOP and UV-A received by patients' lymphocytes may be sufficient to explain the decreased DNA synthesis found in their circulating leucocytes. (author).

  18. Cameras in mobile phones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nummela, Ville; Viinikanoja, Jarkko; Alakarhu, Juha

    2006-04-01

    One of the fastest growing markets in consumer markets today are camera phones. During past few years total volume has been growing fast and today millions of mobile phones with camera will be sold. At the same time resolution and functionality of the cameras has been growing from CIF towards DSC level. From camera point of view the mobile world is an extremely challenging field. Cameras should have good image quality but in small size. They also need to be reliable and their construction should be suitable for mass manufacturing. All components of the imaging chain should be well optimized in this environment. Image quality and usability are the most important parameters to user. The current trend of adding more megapixels to cameras and at the same time using smaller pixels is affecting both. On the other hand reliability and miniaturization are key drivers for product development as well as the cost. In optimized solution all parameters are in balance but the process of finding the right trade-offs is not an easy task. In this paper trade-offs related to optics and their effects to image quality and usability of cameras are discussed. Key development areas from mobile phone camera point of view are also listed.

  19. A novel Nrf2 activator from microbial transformation inhibits radiation-induced dermatitis in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakagami, Yasuhiro; Masuda, Kayoko

    2016-01-01

    Nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) is a transcriptional factor that regulates many antioxidants, and we have recently succeeded in obtaining a novel Nrf2 activator, RS9, from microbial transformation. RS9 is categorized as a triterpenoid, and well-known triterpenoids such as RTA 402 (bardoxolone methyl) and RTA 408 have been tested in clinical trials. RTA 408 lotion is currently being tested in patients at risk for radiation dermatitis. This prompted us to study the profiles of RS9 in the skin. All the above triterpenoids increased the level of an Nrf2-targeted gene, NADPH:quinone oxidoreductase-1, in normal human epidermal keratinocytes. Among them, the activity of RS9 was prominent; furthermore, the cellular toxicity was less compared with RTA compounds. BALB/c mice were irradiated with 30 Gy/day on Day 0, and compounds were topically applied on the back once daily from Day 1 to Day 30. Dermatitis scores peaked on Day 18, with a score of 2.6 in vehicle-treated mice, and topical applications of 0.1% RTA 402, RTA 408 and RS9 reduced the scores to 1.8, 2.0 and 1.4, respectively. Moreover, the percentage of animals with scores ≥2 was analyzed, and 0.1% RS9 suppressed the percentage from 100% to 47%. These results imply that RS9 has potential efficacy for treating radiation dermatitis.

  20. Progression of renal cell carcinoma is inhibited by genistein and radiation in an orthotopic model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hillman, Gilda G; Wang, Yu; Che, Mingxin; Raffoul, Julian J; Yudelev, Mark; Kucuk, Omer; Sarkar, Fazlul H

    2007-01-01

    We have previously reported the potentiation of radiotherapy by the soy isoflavone genistein for prostate cancer using prostate tumor cells in vitro and orthotopic prostate tumor models in vivo. However, when genistein was used as single therapy in animal models, it promoted metastasis to regional para-aortic lymph nodes. To clarify whether these intriguing adverse effects of genistein are intrinsic to the orthotopic prostate tumor model, or these results could also be recapitulated in another model, we used the orthotopic metastatic KCI-18 renal cell carcinoma (RCC) model established in our laboratory. The KCI-18 RCC cell line was generated from a patient with papillary renal cell carcinoma. Following orthotopic renal implantation of KCI-18 RCC cells and serial in vivo kidney passages in nude mice, we have established a reliable and predictable metastatic RCC tumor model. Mice bearing established kidney tumors were treated with genistein combined with kidney tumor irradiation. The effect of the therapy was assessed on the primary tumor and metastases to various organs. In this experimental model, the karyotype and histological characteristics of the human primary tumor are preserved. Tumor cells metastasize from the primary renal tumor to the lungs, liver and mesentery mimicking the progression of RCC in humans. Treatment of established kidney tumors with genistein demonstrated a tendency to stimulate the growth of the primary kidney tumor and increase the incidence of metastasis to the mesentery lining the bowel. In contrast, when given in conjunction with kidney tumor irradiation, genistein significantly inhibited the growth and progression of established kidney tumors. These findings confirm the potentiation of radiotherapy by genistein in the orthotopic RCC model as previously shown in orthotopic models of prostate cancer. Our studies in both RCC and prostate tumor models demonstrate that the combination of genistein with primary tumor irradiation is a more

  1. GSK-3β Inhibition Attenuates LPS-Induced Death but Aggravates Radiation-Induced Death via Down-Regulation of IL-6

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bailong Li

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Exposure of high dose ionizing radiation is lethal. Signal pathways involved in radiation biology reaction still remain illdefined. Lipopolysaccharides (LPS, the ligands of Toll-like receptor 4(TLR4, could elicit strong immune responses. Glycogen synthase kinase-3β(GSK-3β promotes the production of inflammatory molecules and cell migration. Inhibition of GSK-3β provides protection against inflammation in animal models. The aim of the study was to investigate role of GSK-3β in LPS shock and ionizing radiation. Methods: WT or IL-6-/-mice or cells were pretreated with SB216763, a GSK-3β inhibitor, and survival of the mice was determined. Cell viability was assayed by Cell Counting Kit. Apoptosis was assayed by Annexin V-PI double staining. Serum concentrations of IL-6 and TNF-α were determined by ELISA. Results: SB216763 attenuated LPS induced mice or cell death but aggravated radiation induced mice or cell death. SB216763 reduced IL-6, but not TNF-α levels in vivo. IL-6-/- mice were more resistant to LPS-induced death but less resistant to radiation-induced death than wild type mice. Conclusions: Inhibition of GSK-3β conferred resistance to LPS shock but fostered death induced by ionizing radiation. Inhibition of GSK-3β was effective by reducing IL-6.

  2. Inhibition of lipid peroxidation induced by γ- radiation and AAPH in rat liver and brain mitochondria by mushrooms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lakshmi, B.; Janardhanan, K.K.; Tilak, J.C.; Devasagayam, T.P.A.; Adhikari, S.

    2005-01-01

    Exposure to radiation or 2.2' Azobis(2-amidopropane) dihydrochloride (AAPH) induces generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) especially hydroxyl radical ( . OH) and peroxyl radical (ROO . ), which are capable of inducing lipid peroxidation. Our earlier studies have demonstrated that extracts of the medicinal and edible mushrooms Ganoderma lucidum, Pleurotus florida, Pleurotus sajor-caju and Phellinus rimosus possessed significant antioxidant activity, measured as radical scavenging. In the present study, we examined the protective effect of these mushroom extracts against radiation- and AAPH-induced lipid peroxidation using rat liver and brain mitochondria as model systems. The results obtained showed that the investigated mushroom extracts significantly inhibited the formation of lipid hydroperoxide and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, indicating membrane protective effects. The finding suggests the profound protective effect of the extracts of the fruiting bodies of G. lucidum, P. florida, P. sajor-caju and P. rimosus against lipid peroxidation by two major forms of ROS capable of inducing this type of damage in a major organelle, the mitochondria from both rat liver and brain. This observation can possibly explain the health benefits of these mushrooms. (author)

  3. Temperature-specific inhibition of human red cell (Na/sup +//K/sup +/) ATPase by 2450-MHz microwave radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allis, J.W.; Sinha-Robinson, B.L.

    1987-01-01

    The ATPase activity in human red blood cell membranes was investigated in vitro as a function of temperature and exposure to 2450-MHz (CW) microwave radiation. Assays were conducted spectrophotometrically during microwave exposure with a custom-made spectrophotometer-waveguide apparatus. Temperature profiles of total ATPase and Ca+2 ATPase (ouabain-inhibited) activity between 17 and 31 C were graphed as an Arrhenius plot. Each data set was fitted to two straight lines which intersected between 23 and 24 C. The difference between the total and Ca+2 ATPase activities, which represented the Na+/K+ ATPase activity, was also plotted and treated similarly to yield an intersection near 25 C. Exposure of membrane suspensions to a 6 W/kg dose rate at 1 C intervals between 23 and 27 C, resulted in an activity change only for the Na+/K+ ATPase at 25 C. The activity decreased by approximately 35% compared to sham-irradiated samples. An hypothesis based on the interaction of microwave radiation with enzyme structure during a conformational rearrangement is proposed as an explanation for the effect.

  4. Smartphone usage and increased risk of mobile phone addiction: A concurrent study

    OpenAIRE

    Parasuraman, Subramani; Sam, Aaseer Thamby; Yee, Stephanie Wong Kah; Chuon, Bobby Lau Chik; Ren, Lee Yu

    2017-01-01

    Objective: This study aimed to study the mobile phone addiction behavior and awareness on electromagnetic radiation (EMR) among a sample of Malaysian population. Methods: This online study was conducted between December 2015 and 2016. The study instrument comprised eight segments, namely, informed consent form, demographic details, habituation, mobile phone fact and EMR details, mobile phone awareness education, psychomotor (anxious behavior) analysis, and health issues. Frequency of the data...

  5. Over-The-Air Evaluation and Ranking of Mobile Phone Performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karstensen, Anders; Pedersen, Gert F.

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents an investigation of the radio performance of 26 mobile phones common in the Nordic countries. Antenna performance in terms of total isotropic sensitivity (TIS) and total radiated power (TRP) of different phone models was measured. The investigation includes results for talk mode...... using left and right hand phantoms next to head, as well as data mode using only the hand phantom. Large variations in the performance between the various phone models were found, especially in talk mode....

  6. Determinants of exposure to electromagnetic fields from mobile phones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ardoino, L.; Barbieri, E.; Vecchia, P.

    2004-01-01

    In actual conditions of use, the power radiated from cellular phones changes during conversation depending on several factors. Upon request from the radio base station (RBS), the phone in fact, reduces, its power to a level that is deemed optimum for the quality of conversation. In this study, special phones, which had been modified to allow the continuous logging of power emitted during the calls have been used. Off-line processing of recorded data allowed the analysis of the behaviour of mobile phones under real-use conditions. Further data recorded by operators at selected base stations were used for the purposes of comparison and checking of the effectiveness of the experimental method. The results indicate a high proportion of use of the highest power levels, under any circumstance. Such behaviour is mainly due to frequent hand-overs requested by the control software to optimise the communication traffic. (authors)

  7. Mobile phones and health, stakeholder perspectives: occupational health and safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benke, G.

    2001-01-01

    The use of mobile phones for business and social purposes has attracted concerns regarding possible health impacts. Their use in the workplace has potential for significant exposure. In this paper I outline the role of the occupational health and safety (OHS) professional and the way hazard, risk and dose are defined in the workplace. Also discussed are the other important aspects that need to be considered with exposure to radio-frequency radiation (RFR) from mobile phone exposure in the workplace and current concerns about the possible health effects from workplace exposure. Copyright (2001) Australasian Radiation Protection Society Inc

  8. Mobile phone use and the risk of skin cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Aslak Harbo; Friis, Søren; Johansen, Christoffer

    2013-01-01

    The International Agency for Research on Cancer has classified radiofrequency radiation as possibly carcinogenic. Previous studies have focused on intracranial tumors, although the skin receives much radiation. In a nationwide cohort study, 355,701 private mobile phone subscribers in Denmark from......% confidence interval: 0.54, 2.00). A similar risk pattern was seen among women, though it was based on smaller numbers. In this large, population-based cohort study, little evidence of an increased skin cancer risk was observed among mobile phone users....

  9. Pharmacological inhibition of radiation induced in vitro tumor cell/endothelium cell interactions and in vivo metastasis processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herzog, Melanie

    2013-01-01

    Exposure of endothelial cells with ionizing radiation (IR) or treatment with inflammatory cytokines (e. g. TNFα) induces a Rho-GTPase and NF-κB dependent activation of the expression of various cell adhesion molecules, including E-selectin. E-selectin mediates the adhesion of tumor cells (TC) to endothelial cells and is probably involved in the extravasation step of circulating tumor cells. HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors (e. g. lovastatin) inhibit the function of Rho-GTPases and thus are anticipated to attenuate Rho-regulated cell-cell-adhesion as well. This study focuses on the influence of IR and TNFα on the expression of endothelial- and/or tumor cell-specific pro-adhesive factors and whether these effects are influenced by lovastatin. To this end, the effect of IR and TNFα on cell-cell-interactions between human colon carcinoma cells (HT29) and human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) was investigated using an ELISA-based cell adhesion-assay. Moreover, the influence of pre-treatment with lovastatin and other types of inhibitors on HUVEC-HT29 adhesion was monitored. Additionally, we investigated the effect of lovastatin on mRNA expression level of different cell adhesion molecules, metastatic factors and DNA-repair genes upon radiation exposure by qRT-PCR. To scrutinize the in vivo relevance of the data obtained, we investigated the effect of total body irradiation (TBI) on the mRNA expression of pro-adhesive factors in BALB/c mice. To analyze tumor cell extravasation, tumor cells were injected into the lateral tail vein of immundeficient mice, followed by total body irradiation (TBI, 4 Gy). After four weeks a large increase of lung metastases was monitored, which could be blocked by preatreatment of the mice with lovastatin, the Rac1-specific small-molecule inhibitor NSC23766 as well as the sLe x -mimetic glycyrrhizin. Summarizing, we provide evidence, that irradiation promotes upregulation of different cell adhesion molecules in vitro and stimulates

  10. Effect of cell phone radiofrequency radiation on body temperature in rodents: Pilot studies of the National Toxicology Program's reverberation chamber exposure system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyde, Michael E; Horn, Thomas L; Capstick, Myles H; Ladbury, John M; Koepke, Galen; Wilson, Perry F; Kissling, Grace E; Stout, Matthew D; Kuster, Niels; Melnick, Ronald L; Gauger, James; Bucher, John R; McCormick, David L

    2018-04-01

    Radiofrequency radiation (RFR) causes heating, which can lead to detrimental biological effects. To characterize the effects of RFR exposure on body temperature in relation to animal size and pregnancy, a series of short-term toxicity studies was conducted in a unique RFR exposure system. Young and old B6C3F1 mice and young, old, and pregnant Harlan Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to Global System for Mobile Communication (GSM) or Code Division Multiple Access (CDMA) RFR (rats = 900 MHz, mice = 1,900 MHz) at specific absorption rates (SARs) up to 12 W/kg for approximately 9 h a day for 5 days. In general, fewer and less severe increases in body temperature were observed in young than in older rats. SAR-dependent increases in subcutaneous body temperatures were observed at exposures ≥6 W/kg in both modulations. Exposures of  ≥10 W/kg GSM or CDMA RFR induced excessive increases in body temperature, leading to mortality. There was also a significant increase in the number of resorptions in pregnant rats at 12 W/kg GSM RFR. In mice, only sporadic increases in body temperature were observed regardless of sex or age when exposed to GSM or CDMA RFR up to 12 W/kg. These results identified SARs at which measurable RFR-mediated thermal effects occur, and were used in the selection of exposures for subsequent toxicology and carcinogenicity studies. Bioelectromagnetics. 39:190-199, 2018. © 2018 The Authors. Bioelectromagnetics Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2018 The Authors. Bioelectromagnetics Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Investigation of OSL signal of resistors from mobile phones for accidental dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mrozik, A.; Marczewska, B.; Bilski, P.; Gieszczyk, W.

    2014-01-01

    Resistors from mobile phones, usually located near the human body, are considered as individual dosimeters of ionizing radiation in emergency situations. The resistors contain Al 2 O 3 , which is optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) material sensitive to ionizing radiation. This work is focused on determination of dose homogeneity within mobile phones which was carried out by OSL measurements of resistors placed in different parts inside the mobile phone. Separate, commercially available resistors, similar in the shape and size to the resistors from circuit board of the studied mobile phone, were situated in different locations inside it. The irradiations were performed in uniform 60 Co and 137 Cs radiation fields, with the mobile phones connected and not connected to the cellular network. The dose decrease of 9% was measured for original resistors situated between circuit board and battery, in comparison to the dose at the front of the phone. The resistors showed the lower signal when the mobile phone was connected to the cellular network, due to higher temperature inside the housing. The profile of fading was investigated within 3 month period for resistors irradiated with 1 Gy of gamma rays to estimate of the fading coefficient. - Highlights: • Impact of a mobile phone mode (switched on/off) on absorbed dose by resistors was showed. • The influence of the temperature during irradiation on absorbed dose was measured. • Dose distribution inside of a mobile phone was performed. • Fading factor of resistors was calculated

  12. Radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    The chapter one presents the composition of matter and atomic theory; matter structure; transitions; origin of radiation; radioactivity; nuclear radiation; interactions in decay processes; radiation produced by the interaction of radiation with matter

  13. Developing iPhone application

    OpenAIRE

    Nebo, Charles

    2015-01-01

    IPhone application popularity and demand are continuously on the increase since 2008 when Apple launched iPhone. Consequently, many applications are built targeting different user needs. But developing iPhone applications do have challenges. This research study explores current development study for developing iPhone application where the development environment and technologies are problematic. This paper intends to review some software development methodologies, methods, and techniques for ...

  14. Pilot plant experiments for the sprout inhibition of onions by ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalman, B.; Kiss, I.; Farkas, J.

    1978-01-01

    Experiments have been carried out with varieties grown from seed and sown onions, the former playing a decisive role in the onion production in Hungary. The results of pilot plant experiments proved the favourable and at the same time loss-decreasing effect of irradiation. During drying of onions treated and stored on large scale the yield-increasing effect of irradiation has been proved. In case of varieties grown from sown onions the saving of raw materials was almost 24 and 7%, respectively. In case of varieties grown from seed onions the yield-increase due to irradiation could not be observed each year. The decisive advantage of radiation treatment is direct yield-increase. However, the investigations of dried onions proved that the characteristics of the still not visible sprouts were affected favourably by irradiation, too. The consumer response to the irradiated onions has been favourable for several years. Though the consumers had a free choice, they distinctly insisted on buying irradiated onions on the basis of their favourable experience in using such onions. In order to utilize the results, an equipment has been designed for the economic operation of the onion-irradiating plants. (P.J.)

  15. Inhibition of the CXCL12/CXCR4-axis as preventive therapy for radiation-induced pulmonary fibrosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui-Kuo G Shu

    Full Text Available A devastating late injury caused by radiation is pulmonary fibrosis. This risk may limit the volume of irradiation and compromise potentially curative therapy. Therefore, development of a therapy to prevent this toxicity can be of great benefit for this patient population. Activation of the chemokine receptor CXCR4 by its ligand stromal cell-derived factor 1 (SDF-1/CXCL12 may be important in the development of radiation-induced pulmonary fibrosis. Here, we tested whether MSX-122, a novel small molecule and partial CXCR4 antagonist, can block development of this fibrotic process.The radiation-induced lung fibrosis model used was C57BL/6 mice irradiated to the entire thorax or right hemithorax to 20 Gy. Our parabiotic model involved joining a transgenic C57BL/6 mouse expressing GFP with a wild-type mouse that was subsequently irradiated to assess for migration of GFP+ bone marrow-derived progenitor cells to the irradiated lung. CXCL12 levels in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF and serum after irradiation were determined by ELISA. CXCR4 and CXCL12 mRNA in the irradiated lung was determined by RNase protection assay. Irradiated mice were treated daily with AMD3100, an established CXCR4 antagonist; MSX-122; and their corresponding vehicles to determine impact of drug treatment on fibrosis development. Fibrosis was assessed by serial CTs and histology. After irradiation, CXCL12 levels increased in BALF and serum with a corresponding rise in CXCR4 mRNA within irradiated lungs consistent with recruitment of a CXCR4+ cell population. Using our parabiotic model, we demonstrated recruitment of CXCR4+ bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells, identified based on marker expression, to irradiated lungs. Finally, irradiated mice that received MSX-122 had significant reductions in development of pulmonary fibrosis while AMD3100 did not significantly suppress this fibrotic process.CXCR4 inhibition by drugs such as MSX-122 may alleviate potential

  16. Inhibition of the CXCL12/CXCR4-axis as preventive therapy for radiation-induced pulmonary fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shu, Hui-Kuo G; Yoon, Younghyoun; Hong, Samuel; Xu, Kaiming; Gao, Huiying; Hao, Chunhai; Torres-Gonzalez, Edilson; Nayra, Cardenes; Rojas, Mauricio; Shim, Hyunsuk

    2013-01-01

    A devastating late injury caused by radiation is pulmonary fibrosis. This risk may limit the volume of irradiation and compromise potentially curative therapy. Therefore, development of a therapy to prevent this toxicity can be of great benefit for this patient population. Activation of the chemokine receptor CXCR4 by its ligand stromal cell-derived factor 1 (SDF-1/CXCL12) may be important in the development of radiation-induced pulmonary fibrosis. Here, we tested whether MSX-122, a novel small molecule and partial CXCR4 antagonist, can block development of this fibrotic process. The radiation-induced lung fibrosis model used was C57BL/6 mice irradiated to the entire thorax or right hemithorax to 20 Gy. Our parabiotic model involved joining a transgenic C57BL/6 mouse expressing GFP with a wild-type mouse that was subsequently irradiated to assess for migration of GFP+ bone marrow-derived progenitor cells to the irradiated lung. CXCL12 levels in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) and serum after irradiation were determined by ELISA. CXCR4 and CXCL12 mRNA in the irradiated lung was determined by RNase protection assay. Irradiated mice were treated daily with AMD3100, an established CXCR4 antagonist; MSX-122; and their corresponding vehicles to determine impact of drug treatment on fibrosis development. Fibrosis was assessed by serial CTs and histology. After irradiation, CXCL12 levels increased in BALF and serum with a corresponding rise in CXCR4 mRNA within irradiated lungs consistent with recruitment of a CXCR4+ cell population. Using our parabiotic model, we demonstrated recruitment of CXCR4+ bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells, identified based on marker expression, to irradiated lungs. Finally, irradiated mice that received MSX-122 had significant reductions in development of pulmonary fibrosis while AMD3100 did not significantly suppress this fibrotic process. CXCR4 inhibition by drugs such as MSX-122 may alleviate potential radiation-induced lung

  17. Reading with Mobile Phone & Large Display

    OpenAIRE

    Gostner, Roswitha; Gellersen, Hans; Kray, Christian; Sas, Corina

    2008-01-01

    In this paper we compare performance and usability between three different device combinations: a) mobile phone b) touch screen c) mobile phone & screen. We show that mobile phone & screen has a better perform-ance than phone only. We also discuss some interaction issues when using a mobile phone with a large screen.

  18. GlowPhones

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Merritt, Timothy Robert; Nielsen, Christine Linding; Jakobsen, Frederik Lund

    2017-01-01

    Location-based mobile games often utilize built-in sensors for supporting game experiences tied to the physical world, yet the visual user interface remains constrained to the small high-resolution screen. GlowPhones is a location-based mobile social game using low-resolution displays to augment...... the physical space and move the attention away from the mobile screen. Players explore the physical world and collaborate to overcome challenges relying on the screen glow intensity emitted from the phone’s screen and light flash frequency of the camera flash for navigation. Three game stages explore proxemics...

  19. Ccdc94 protects cells from ionizing radiation by inhibiting the expression of p53.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shelly Sorrells

    Full Text Available DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs represent one of the most deleterious forms of DNA damage to a cell. In cancer therapy, induction of cell death by DNA DSBs by ionizing radiation (IR and certain chemotherapies is thought to mediate the successful elimination of cancer cells. However, cancer cells often evolve to evade the cytotoxicity induced by DNA DSBs, thereby forming the basis for treatment resistance. As such, a better understanding of the DSB DNA damage response (DSB-DDR pathway will facilitate the design of more effective strategies to overcome chemo- and radioresistance. To identify novel mechanisms that protect cells from the cytotoxic effects of DNA DSBs, we performed a forward genetic screen in zebrafish for recessive mutations that enhance the IR-induced apoptotic response. Here, we describe radiosensitizing mutation 7 (rs7, which causes a severe sensitivity of zebrafish embryonic neurons to IR-induced apoptosis and is required for the proper development of the central nervous system. The rs7 mutation disrupts the coding sequence of ccdc94, a highly conserved gene that has no previous links to the DSB-DDR pathway. We demonstrate that Ccdc94 is a functional member of the Prp19 complex and that genetic knockdown of core members of this complex causes increased sensitivity to IR-induced apoptosis. We further show that Ccdc94 and the Prp19 complex protect cells from IR-induced apoptosis by repressing the expression of p53 mRNA. In summary, we have identified a new gene regulating a dosage-sensitive response to DNA DSBs during embryonic development. Future studies in human cancer cells will determine whether pharmacological inactivation of CCDC94 reduces the threshold of the cancer cell apoptotic response.

  20. Mobile phone social harms (mobile phone, communicative device or ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    One of the human inventions created in order to facilitate life but it became scourge for him is mobile phone. Ignorance on quality of using mobile phone and conscious use of it in inappropriate way will have consequences that it seems that it gradually becomes as social problem and harm. Author of this paper aims to warns ...

  1. Mobile phone use and risk of brain tumours

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lahkola, A.

    2010-05-01

    Mobile phone use has increased rapidly worldwide since the 1990's. As mobile telephones are used close to the head, the exposure to the radiofrequency radiation emitted by mobile phones has been suggested as a possible risk factor for brain tumours. The effect of mobile phone use on risk of brain tumours, particularly gliomas and meningiomas as well as acoustic neuromas, was evaluated using both a case-control approach and a meta-analysis. In addition, one of the most important sources of error in a case-control study, selection bias due to differential participation, was assessed in a subset of the case-control data. The risk of glioma and meningioma in relation to mobile phone use was investigated in population-based case-control studies conducted in five North European countries. All these countries used a common protocol and were included in a multinational study on mobile phone use and brain tumours, the INTERPHONE study, coordinated by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC). Cases (1,521 gliomas and 1,209 meningiomas) were identified mostly from hospitals and controls (3,299) from national population registers or general practitioners' patient lists. Detailed history of mobile phone use was obtained in personal interviews. Mobile phone use was assessed using several exposure indicators, such as regular use (phone use at least once a week for at least six months), duration of use as well as cumulative number of hours and calls. To comprehensively evaluate the effect of mobile phone use on risk of brain tumours, the existing evidence from the epidemiological studies published on the issue was combined using meta-analysis. In the analysis, a pooled estimate was calculated for all brain tumours combined, and also separately for the three most common tumour types, glioma, meningioma and acoustic neuroma using inverse variance-weighted method. Pooled estimate was also obtained for different telephone types (NMT and GSM) and by the location of the

  2. Mammalian Target of Rapamycin Inhibition With Rapamycin Mitigates Radiation-Induced Pulmonary Fibrosis in a Murine Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, Eun Joo [Radiation Oncology Branch, Center for Cancer Research, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland (United States); Sowers, Anastasia; Thetford, Angela [Radiation Biology Branch, Center for Cancer Research, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland (United States); McKay-Corkum, Grace; Chung, Su I. [Radiation Oncology Branch, Center for Cancer Research, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland (United States); Mitchell, James B. [Radiation Biology Branch, Center for Cancer Research, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland (United States); Citrin, Deborah E., E-mail: citrind@mail.nih.gov [Radiation Oncology Branch, Center for Cancer Research, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland (United States)

    2016-11-15

    Purpose: Radiation-induced pulmonary fibrosis (RIPF) is a late toxicity of therapeutic radiation. Signaling of the mammalian target of rapamycin drives several processes implicated in RIPF, including inflammatory cytokine production, fibroblast proliferation, and epithelial senescence. We sought to determine if mammalian target of rapamycin inhibition with rapamycin would mitigate RIPF. Methods and Materials: C57BL/6NCr mice received a diet formulated with rapamycin (14 mg/kg food) or a control diet 2 days before and continuing for 16 weeks after exposure to 5 daily fractions of 6 Gy of thoracic irradiation. Fibrosis was assessed with Masson trichrome staining and hydroxyproline assay. Cytokine expression was evaluated by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. Senescence was assessed by staining for β-galactosidase activity. Results: Administration of rapamycin extended the median survival of irradiated mice compared with the control diet from 116 days to 156 days (P=.006, log-rank test). Treatment with rapamycin reduced hydroxyproline content compared with the control diet (irradiation plus vehicle, 45.9 ± 11.8 μg per lung; irradiation plus rapamycin, 21.4 ± 6.0 μg per lung; P=.001) and reduced visible fibrotic foci. Rapamycin treatment attenuated interleukin 1β and transforming growth factor β induction in irradiated lungs compared with the control diet. Type II pneumocyte senescence after irradiation was reduced with rapamycin treatment at 16 weeks (3-fold reduction at 16 weeks, P<.001). Conclusions: Rapamycin protected against RIPF in a murine model. Rapamycin treatment reduced inflammatory cytokine expression, extracellular matrix production, and senescence in type II pneumocytes.

  3. Inhibition of radiation-induced DNA strand breaks by hoechst 33258: OH-radical scavenging and DNA radical quenching

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adhikary, A.; Bothe, E.; Von Sonntag, C.; Adhikary, A.

    1997-01-01

    The minor-groove-binding dye Hoechst 33258 has been found to protect pBR322 DNA in aqueous solution against radiation-induced single-strand breaks (ssb). This protective effect has been assumed to be largely due to the scavenging of the strand-break-generating OH radicals by Hoechst. From D 37 values for ssb at different Hoechst concentrations the value of the OH radical scavenging constant of DNA-bound Hoechst has been estimated at k Ho/DNA = 2.7 * 10 11 dm 3 mol -1 . This unexpectedly high value has led us to study the reactions of OH radicals with Hoechst in the absence and in the presence of double-stranded calf thymus DNA (ds DNA) by pulse radiolysis, and the formation of radiation-induced ssb by low angle laser light scattering. The D 37 /D 37 0 values at different Hoechst concentrations agree with the values obtained by Martin and al. and demonstrate the protection. However, this protection cannot be explained on the basis of OH radical scavenging alone using the above rate constants. There must, in addition, be some quenching of DNA radicals. Hoechst radicals are formed in the later ms time range, i.e a long time after the disappearance of the OH radicals. This delayed Hoechst radical formation has been assigned to a a reaction of DNA radicals with Hoechst, thereby inhibiting strand breakage. In confirmation, pulse radiolysis of aqueous solution of nucleotides in the presence of Hoechst yields a similar delayed Hoechst radical formation. The data indicate that in DNA the cross-section of this quenching has a diameter of 3 to 4 base pairs per Hoechst molecule. (N.C.)

  4. The cell phones and transmission antennas. Are a risk for the health?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Touzet, Rodolfo

    2001-01-01

    The continued worldwide growth of the wireless phone industry has created a big challenge for authorities responsible for human health. Questions about cell phone safety have been raised in both scientific circles and the popular media. Radio frequency radiation from wireless phone antennas is insufficient to cause DNA breakage; but appears to cause genetic damage through the impairment of the ability of the human cells to repair broken DNA as measured through the formation of micronuclei frequency. The following represents the current state of art and the scientific understanding on the public health impact of wireless phones providing usefulness recommendations for the public. (author)

  5. CELL PHONE ADDICTION: A REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JOSE DE SOLA

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available We present a review of the studies that have been published about addiction to cell phones. We analyse the concept of cell phone addiction as well as its prevalence, study methodologies, psychological features and associated psychiatric comorbidities. Research in this field has generally evolved from a global view of the cell phone as a device to its analysis via applications and contents. The diversity of criteria and methodological approaches that have been used is notable, as is a certain lack of conceptual delimitation that has resulted in a broad spread of prevalent data. There is a consensus about the existence of cell phone addiction, but the delimitation and criteria used by various researchers vary. Cell phone addiction shows a distinct user profile that differentiates it from Internet addiction. Without evidence pointing to the influence of cultural level and socioeconomic status, the pattern of abuse is greatest among young people, primarily females. Intercultural and geographical differences have not been sufficiently studied. The problematic use of cell phones has been associated with personality variables such as extraversion, neuroticism, self-esteem, impulsivity, self-identity and self-image. Similarly, sleep disturbance, anxiety, stress, and, to a lesser extent, depression, which are also associated with Internet abuse, have been associated with problematic cell phone use. In addition, the present review reveals the coexistence relationship between problematic cell phone use and substance use such as tobacco and alcohol.

  6. PhoneGap for enterprise

    CERN Document Server

    Shotts, Kerri

    2014-01-01

    This book is intended for developers who wish to use PhoneGap to develop useful, rich, secure mobile applications for their enterprise environment. The book assumes you have working knowledge of PhoneGap, HTML5, CSS3, and JavaScript, and a reasonable understanding of networking and n-tier architectures.

  7. Differences in inhibition by beta-arabinofuranosyladenine (araA) of radiation induced DNA damage repair in exponentially growing and plateau-phase CHO-cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iliakis, G.; Seaner, R.

    1988-01-01

    The effect of beta-arabinofuranosyladenine (araA) on the repair of radiation induced DNA damage, as measured by the DNA unwinding technique, was studied in exponentially growing and plateau-phase CHO-cells after exposure to X-rays. Induction of DNA damage by radiation was found to be similar in exponentially growing and plateau-phase cells. In the absence of araA, repair of radiation induced DNA damage proceeded with similar kinetics in exponentially growing and plateau-phase cells. AraA at concentrations between 0-1500 μM inhibited DNA repair both in exponentially growing and in plateau-phase cells. However, the degree of inhibition was significantly higher (by a factor of 3) in plateau-phase cells. A similar degree of repair inhibition by araA was observed in plateau-phase cells treated in their conditioned medium, as well as in plateau-phase cells that were transferred in fresh growth medium just before treatment initiation. These results indicate the importance of biochemical parameters associated with alterations in the growth state of the cells for the inhibitory effect of araA and may help in the elucidation of the molecular mechanism(s) underlying repair inhibition by inhibitors of DNA replication. (orig.)

  8. Inhibiting TGFβ1 has a protective effect on mouse bone marrow suppression following ionizing radiation exposure in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Heng; Yan Hao; Wang Xinzhuo; Niu Jingxiu; Wang Hui; Wang Yingai; Meng Aimin; Li Jin

    2013-01-01

    Ionizing radiation (IR) causes not only acute tissue damage but also residual bone marrow (BM) suppression. The induction of residual BM injury is primarily attributable to the induction of reactive oxygen species (ROS) pressure in hematopoietic cells. In this study, we examined if SB431542, a transforming growth factor β1 (TGFβ1) inhibitor, can mitigate IR-induced BM suppression in vitro. Our results showed that treatment with SB431542 protected mice bone marrow mononuclear cells (BMMNCs), hematopoietic progenitor cells (HPCs) and hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) from IR-induced suppression using cell viability assays, clonogenic assays and competitive repopulation assays. Moreover, expression of gene-related ROS production in hematopoietic cells was analyzed. The expression of NADPH oxidative 1 (NOX1), NOX2 and NOX4 was increased in irradiated BMMNCs, and that of NOX2 and NOX4 was reduced by SB431542 treatment. Therefore, the results from this study suggest that SB431542, a TGFβ1 inhibitor, alleviates IR-induced BM suppression at least in part via inhibiting IR-induced NOX2 and NOX4 expression. (author)

  9. Biometric Security for Cell Phones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Cell phones are already prime targets for theft. The increasing functionality of cell phones is making them even more attractive. With the increase of cell phone functionality including personal digital assistance, banking, e-commerce, remote work, internet access and entertainment, more and more confidential data is stored on these devices. What is protecting this confidential data stored on cell phones? Studies have shown that even though most of the cell phone users are aware of the PIN security feature more than 50% of them are not using it either because of the lack of confidence in it or because of the inconvenience. A large majority of those users believes that an alternative approach to security would be a good idea.

  10. Epidemic of cell phone virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Pu; González, Marta; Barabási, Albert-László.

    2008-03-01

    Standard operating systems and Bluetooth technology will be a trend for future cell phone features. These will enable cell phone viruses to spread either through SMS or by sending Bluetooth requests when cell phones are physically close enough. The difference in spreading methods gives these two types of viruses' different epidemiological characteristics. SMS viruses' spread is mainly based on people's social connections, whereas the spreading of Bluetooth viruses is affected by people's mobility patterns and population distribution. Using cell phone data recording calls, SMS and locations of more than 6 million users, we study the spread of SMS and Bluetooth viruses and characterize how the social network and the mobility of mobile phone users affect such spreading processes.

  11. Effect of gamma radiation in peanuts for inhibition of Aspergillus flavus and nutritional composition; Irradiacao gama em amendoim para controle de Aspergillus flavus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costa, L.F.; Silva, E.B. da, E-mail: lauryfrancis@gmail.com [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Departamento de Energia Nuclear; Oliveira, I.S. [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (CAV/UFPE), Vitoria de Santo Antao, PE (Brazil). Centro Academico de Vitoria

    2013-08-15

    Care in food storage, controlling humidity and temperature, prevents fungal diseases in peanuts and the development of filamentous fungi in food and feed, which can result in the production of toxins known as mycotoxins. Ionizing radiation is a preventive method of food security, promoting inhibition of buds, delayed maturation, reduction of microbial load, elimination of pathogenic microorganisms, sterilization and disinfection in grains, cereals, fruits and spices. This work aimed to evaluate the effects of gamma radiation on the growth inhibition of aflatoxigenic fungi and on nutritional composition in peanut. Samples were collected directly from the producer (Petrolandia) and Supply Central of Pernambuco (CEASA-PE), and then grains inside / outside pods were packed and subjected to irradiation at doses of 6, 9, 12 and 15 kGy. Fungal growth and nutritional composition of the samples before and after irradiation were analyzed and statistical analysis using the Mann-Whitney-Wilcoxon. The results showed that the samples originated from CEASA-PE had the highest rates of contamination. The radiation was effective in the inhibition of aflatoxigenic fungi, achieving to eliminate the action of fungi, regardless of dose. Only one non-irradiated sample, originated from CEASA-PE, showed positive production of aflatoxins in the middle LCA. No significant difference in the values of the nutritional composition, with increasing radiation dose. The irradiation was shown to be an effective process for preserving peanuts, because it prevents the growth of fungi, particularly aflatoxin producer, making it safer for consumption, without changing its nutritional composition. (author)

  12. Radiation-induced enteropathy: Molecular basis of pentoxifylline–vitamin E anti-fibrotic effect involved TGF-β1 cascade inhibition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamama, Saad; Gilbert-Sirieix, Marie; Vozenin, Marie-Catherine; Delanian, Sylvie

    2012-01-01

    Background: Radiation-induced fibrosis is a serious late complication of radiotherapy. Pentoxifylline–vitamin E has proven effective and safe in clinical trials in the treatment of fibrosis, while the molecular mechanism of its activity is yet unexplored. Methods: Ten patients suffering from radiation-induced enteropathy were treated with pentoxifylline–vitamin E combination with SOMA score as the primary endpoint. In parallel, primary smooth muscle cells isolated from intestinal samples isolated from humans with radiation enteropathy were incubated with pentoxifylline, trolox (vit. E hydrophilic analogous) or their combination. Activation of the TGF-β1/Smad and Rho/ROCK pathways was subsequently investigated using Q-RT-PCR, gene reporter, Western-blot, ELISA and immunohistochemistry. Results: Pentoxifylline–vitamin E combination induces regression of symptoms (SOMA) by −41% and −80% at 6 and 18 months. In vitro, pentoxifylline and trolox synergize to inhibit TGF-β1 protein and mRNA expression. This inhibitory action is mediated at the transcriptional level and leads to subsequent inhibition of TGF-β1/Smad targets (Col Iα1, FN1, PAI-1, CTGF), while it has no effect on the Rho/ROCK pathway. Conclusions: The anti-fibrotic effect of combined pentoxifylline–vitamin E is at least in part mediated by inhibition of the TGF-β1 cascade. It strengthens previous clinical data showing pentoxifylline–vitamin E synergy and supports its use as a first-line treatment of radiation-induced fibrosis.

  13. Anti-inflammatory and Anti-apoptotic Effect of Valproic Acid and Doxycycline Independent from MMP Inhibition in Early Radiation Damage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferda Hoşgörler

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Matrix metalloproteinase (MMP inhibitors decrease inflammation in normal tissues and suppress cancer progress in normal tissues. Valproic acid (VA and doxycycline (DX are MMP inhibitors that have radio-protective effects. Their ability to inhibit MMPs in irradiated tissue is unknown and the role of MMPs in radio-protective effects has not been tested to date. Aims: The purpose of this study was to examine whether administration of VA and DX to rats before irradiation affects tissue inflammation and apoptosis in the early phase of radiation, and whether the effect of these drugs is mediated by MMP inhibition. Study Design: Animal experimentation. Methods: Twenty-six Wistar rats were randomized into four groups: control (CTRL, radiation (RT, VA plus radiation (VA+RT, and DX plus radiation (DX+RT.Three study groups were exposed to a single dose of abdominal 10 Gy gamma radiation; the CTRL group received no radiation. Single doses of VA 300 mg/kg and DX 100 mg/kg were administered to each rat before radiation and all rats were sacrificed 8 hours after irradiation, at which point small intestine tissue samples were taken for analyses. Levels of inflammatory cytokines (TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6 and matrix metalloproteinases (MMP-2 and MMP 9 were measured by ELISA, MMP activities were measured by gelatin and casein zymography and apoptosis was assessed by terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling assay. Results: VA decreased the levels of TNF-α and IL-1β proteins insignificantly and decreased apoptosis significantly in the irradiated tissue, but did not inhibit MMPs. In contrast, VA protected the basal MMP activities, which decreased in response to irradiation. No effect of DX was observed on the levels of inflammatory cytokines or activities of MMPs in the early phases of radiation apoptosis. Conclusion: Our findings indicated that VA protects against inflammation and apoptosis, and DX exhibits anti-apoptotic effects in

  14. Combination treatment with ionising radiation and gefitinib ('Iressa', ZD1839), an epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) inhibitor, significantly inhibits bladder cancer cell growth in vitro and in vivo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colquhoun, AJ; Mchugh, LA; Tulchinsky, E.; Kriajevska, M.; Mellon, JK

    2007-01-01

    External beam radiotherapy (EBRT) is the principal bladder-preserving monotherapy for muscle-invasive bladder cancer. Seventy percent of muscle-invasive bladder cancers express epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), which is associated with poor prognosis. Ionising radiation (IR) stimulates EGFR causing activation of cytoprotective signalling cascades and thus may be an underlying cause of radioresistance in bladder tumours. We assessed the ability of IR to activate EGFR in bladder cancer cells and the effect of the anti-EGFR therapy, gefitinib on potential radiation-induced activation. Subsequently we assessed the effect of IR on signalling pathways downstream of EGFR. Finally we assessed the activity of gefitinib as a monotherapy, and in combination with IR, using clonogenic assay in vitro, and a murine model in vivo. IR activated EGFR and gefitinib partially inhibited this activation. Radiation-induced activation of EGFR activated the MAPK and Akt pathways. Gefitinib partially inhibited activation of the MAPK pathway but not the Akt pathway. Treatment with combined gefitinib and IR significantly inhibited bladder cancer cell colony formation more than treatment with gefitinib alone (p=0.001-0.03). J82 xenograft tumours treated with combined gefitinib and IR showed significantly greater growth inhibition than tumours treated with IR alone (p=0.04). Combining gefitinib and IR results in significantly greater inhibition of invasive bladder cancer cell colony formation in vitro and significantly greater tumour growth inhibition in vivo. Given the high frequency of EGFR expression by bladder tumours and the low toxicity of gefitinib there is justification to translate this work into a clinical trial. (author)

  15. Inhibition of gamma-radiation induced DNA damage in plasmid pBR322 by TMG, a water-soluble derivative of vitamin E.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajagopalan, Rema; Wani, Khalida; Huilgol, Nagaraj G; Kagiya, Tsutomu V; Nair, Cherupally K Krishnan

    2002-06-01

    Alpha-tocopherol monoglucoside (TMG), a water-soluble derivative of alpha-tocopherol, has been examined for its ability to protect DNA against radiation-induced strand breaks. Gamma radiation, up to a dose of 6 Gy (dose rate, 0.7 Gy/minute), induced a dose-dependent increase in single strand breaks (SSBs) in plasmid pBR322 DNA. TMG inhibited the formation of gamma-radiation induced DNA single strand breaks (SSBs) in a concentration-dependent manner; 500 microM of TMG protected the single strand breaks completely. It also protected thymine glycol formation induced by gamma-radiation in a dose-dependent manner, based on an estimation of thymine glycol by HPLC.

  16. Inhibition of {gamma}-radiation induced DNA damage in plasmid pBR322 by TMG, a water-soluble derivative of vitamin E

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rajagopalan, R.; Nair, C.K.K. [Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai (India); Wani, K.; Huilgol, N.G. [Nanavati Hospital and MRC, Vile Parle (India); Kagiya, Tsutomu V. [Kinki Research Foundation, Kyoto (Japan)

    2002-06-01

    Alpha-tocopherol monoglucoside (TMG), a water-soluble derivative of {alpha}-tocopherol, has been examined for its ability to protect DNA against radiation-induced strand breaks. Gamma radiation, up to a dose of 6 Gy (dose rate, 0.7 Gy/minute), induced a dose-dependent increase in single strand breaks (SSBs) in plasmid pBR322 DNA. TMG inhibited the formation of {gamma}-radiation induced DNA single strand breaks (SSBs) in a concentration-dependent manner; 500 {mu}M of TMG protected the single strand breaks completely. It also protected thymine glycol formation induced by {gamma}-radiation in a dose-dependent manner, based on an estimation of thymine glycol by HPLC. (author)

  17. Inhibition of γ-radiation induced DNA damage in plasmid pBR322 by TMG, a water-soluble derivative of vitamin E

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rajagopalan, R.; Nair, C.K.K.; Wani, K.; Huilgol, N.G.; Kagiya, Tsutomu V.

    2002-01-01

    Alpha-tocopherol monoglucoside (TMG), a water-soluble derivative of α-tocopherol, has been examined for its ability to protect DNA against radiation-induced strand breaks. Gamma radiation, up to a dose of 6 Gy (dose rate, 0.7 Gy/minute), induced a dose-dependent increase in single strand breaks (SSBs) in plasmid pBR322 DNA. TMG inhibited the formation of γ-radiation induced DNA single strand breaks (SSBs) in a concentration-dependent manner; 500 μM of TMG protected the single strand breaks completely. It also protected thymine glycol formation induced by γ-radiation in a dose-dependent manner, based on an estimation of thymine glycol by HPLC. (author)

  18. The Myth of Cell Phone Radiation

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    IAS Admin

    ous) amount of energy, the light wave could only carry energy which was an integer .... transmission tower, the power levels will be higher than if you just used a cell .... denying residents the joy of wireless connectivity. They should campaign ...

  19. Electromagnetic Energy Radiated from Mobile Phone Alters ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    could be some risk of carcinogenicity. ... The position of mobile at the ... who attended the consultant clinic in the teaching hospital ... with the impulse conduction velocity like antimalarials, ... Each patient was allowed to lie on the supine position and ... The following ECG variables (which are calculated ..... Boston, MA:.

  20. Modelling and assessment of the electric field strength caused by mobile phone to the human head

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Buckus Raimondas

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Electromagnetic field exposure is the one of the most important physical agents that actively affects live organisms and environment. Active use of mobile phones influences the increase of electromagnetic field radiation. The aim of the study was to measure and assess the electric field strength caused by mobile phones to the human head. Methods. In this paper the software “COMSOL Multiphysics” was used to establish the electric field strength created by mobile phones around the head. Results. The second generation (2G Global System for Mobile (GSM phones that operate in the frequency band of 900 MHz and reach the power of 2 W have a stronger electric field than (2G GSM mobile phones that operate in the higher frequency band of 1,800 MHz and reach the power up to 1 W during conversation. The third generation of (3G UMTS smart phones that effectively use high (2,100 MHz radio frequency band emit the smallest electric field strength values during conversation. The highest electric field strength created by mobile phones is around the ear, i.e. the mobile phone location. The strength of mobile phone electric field on the phantom head decreases exponentially while moving sidewards from the center of the effect zone (the ear, and constitutes 1-12% of the artificial head’s surface. Conclusion. The highest electric field strength values of mobile phones are associated with their higher power, bigger specific energy absorption rate (SAR and lower frequency of mobile phone. The stronger electric field emitted by the more powerful mobile phones takes a higher percentage of the head surface. The highest electric field strength created by mobile phones is distributed over the user ear.

  1. Modelling and assessment of the electric field strength caused by mobile phone to the human head.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckus, Raimondas; Strukcinskiene, Birute; Raistenskis, Juozas; Stukas, Rimantas

    2016-06-01

    Electromagnetic field exposure is the one of the most important physical agents that actively affects live organisms and environment. Active use of mobile phones influences the increase of electromagnetic field radiation. The aim of the study was to measure and assess the electric field strength caused by mobile phones to the human head. In this paper the software "COMSOL Multiphysics" was used to establish the electric field strength created by mobile phones around the head. The second generation (2G) Global System for Mobile (GSM) phones that operate in the frequency band of 900 MHz and reach the power of 2 W have a stronger electric field than (2G) GSM mobile phones that operate in the higher frequency band of 1,800 MHz and reach the power up to 1 W during conversation. The third generation of (3G) UMTS smart phones that effectively use high (2,100 MHz) radio frequency band emit the smallest electric field strength values during conversation. The highest electric field strength created by mobile phones is around the ear, i.e. the mobile phone location. The strength of mobile phone electric field on the phantom head decreases exponentially while moving sidewards from the center of the effect zone (the ear), and constitutes 1-12% of the artificial head's surface. The highest electric field strength values of mobile phones are associated with their higher power, bigger specific energy absorption rate (SAR) and lower frequency of mobile phone. The stronger electric field emitted by the more powerful mobile phones takes a higher percentage of the head surface. The highest electric field strength created by mobile phones is distributed over the user's ear.

  2. Inhibition of potentially lethal radiation damage repair in normal and neoplastic human cells by 3-aminobenzamide: an inhibitor of poly(ADP-ribosylation)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thraves, P.J.; Mossman, K.L.; Frazier, D.T.; Dritschilo, A.

    1986-01-01

    The effect of 3-aminobenzamide (3AB), an inhibitor of poly(ADP-ribose) synthetase, on potentially lethal damage repair (PLDR) was investigated in normal human fibroblasts and four human tumor cell lines from tumors with varying degrees of radiocurability. The tumor lines selected were: Ewing's sarcoma, a bone tumor considered radiocurable and, human lung adenocarcinoma, osteosarcoma, and melanoma, three tumors considered nonradiocurable. PLDR was measured by comparing cell survival when cells were irradiated in a density-inhibited state and replated at appropriate cell numbers at specified times following irradiation to cell survival when cells were replated immediately following irradiation. 3AB was added to cultures 2 hr prior to irradiation and removed at the time of replating. Different test radiation doses were used for the various cell lines to obtain equivalent levels of cell survival. In the absence of inhibitor, PLDR was similar in all cell lines tested. In the presence of 8 mM 3AB, differential inhibition of PLDR was observed. PLDR was almost completely inhibited in Ewing's sarcoma cells and partially inhibited in normal fibroblast cells and osteosarcoma cells. No inhibition of PLDR was observed in the lung adenocarcinoma or melanoma cells. Except for the osteosarcoma cells, inhibition of PLDR by 3AB correlated well with radiocurability

  3. Reciprocity of mobile phone calls

    OpenAIRE

    Kovanen, Lauri; Saramaki, Jari; Kaski, Kimmo

    2010-01-01

    We present a study of the reciprocity of human behaviour based on mobile phone usage records. The underlying question is whether human relationships are mutual, in the sense that both are equally active in keeping up the relationship, or is it on the contrary typical that relationships are lopsided, with one party being significantly more active than the other. We study this question with the help of a mobile phone data set consisting of all mobile phone calls between 5.3 million customers of...

  4. Windows Phone 7 Made Simple

    CERN Document Server

    Trautschold, Martin

    2011-01-01

    With Windows Phone 7, Microsoft has created a completely new smartphone operating system that focuses on allowing users to be productive with their smartphone in new ways, while offering seamless integration and use of Microsoft Office Mobile as well as other productivity apps available in the Microsoft App Store. Windows Phone 7 Made Simple offers a clear, visual, step-by-step approach to using your Windows Phone 7 smartphone, no matter what the manufacturer. Author Jon Westfall is an expert in mobile devices, recognized by Microsoft as a "Most Valuable Professional" with experience

  5. Celecoxib Induced Tumor Cell Radiosensitization by Inhibiting Radiation Induced Nuclear EGFR Transport and DNA-Repair: A COX-2 Independent Mechanism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dittmann, Klaus H.; Mayer, Claus; Ohneseit, Petra A.; Raju, Uma; Andratschke, Nickolaus H.; Milas, Luka; Rodemann, H. Peter

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of the study was to elucidate the molecular mechanisms mediating radiosensitization of human tumor cells by the selective cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 inhibitor celecoxib. Methods and Materials: Experiments were performed using bronchial carcinoma cells A549, transformed fibroblasts HH4dd, the FaDu head-and-neck tumor cells, the colon carcinoma cells HCT116, and normal fibroblasts HSF7. Effects of celecoxib treatment were assessed by clonogenic cell survival, Western analysis, and quantification of residual DNA damage by γH 2 AX foci assay. Results: Celecoxib treatment resulted in a pronounced radiosensitization of A549, HCT116, and HSF7 cells, whereas FaDu and HH4dd cells were not radiosensitized. The observed radiosensitization could neither be correlated with basal COX-2 expression pattern nor with basal production of prostaglandin E2, but was depended on the ability of celecoxib to inhibit basal and radiation-induced nuclear transport of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR). The nuclear EGFR transport was strongly inhibited in A549-, HSF7-, and COX-2-deficient HCT116 cells, which were radiosensitized, but not in FaDu and HH4dd cells, which resisted celecoxib-induced radiosensitization. Celecoxib inhibited radiation-induced DNA-PK activation in A549, HSF7, and HCT116 cells, but not in FaDu and HH4dd cells. Consequentially, celecoxib increased residual γH2AX foci after irradiation, demonstrating that inhibition of DNA repair has occurred in responsive A549, HCT116, and HSF7 cells only. Conclusions: Celecoxib enhanced radiosensitivity by inhibition of EGFR-mediated mechanisms of radioresistance, a signaling that was independent of COX-2 activity. This novel observation may have therapeutic implications such that COX-2 inhibitors may improve therapeutic efficacy of radiation even in patients whose tumor radioresistance is not dependent on COX-2

  6. Validating the pivotal role of the immune system in low-dose radiation-induced tumor inhibition in Lewis lung cancer-bearing mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Lei; Zhang, Xiaoying; Li, Hui; Niu, Chao; Yu, Dehai; Yang, Guozi; Liang, Xinyue; Wen, Xue; Li, Min; Cui, Jiuwei

    2018-04-01

    Although low-dose radiation (LDR) possesses the two distinct functions of inducing hormesis and adaptive responses, which result in immune enhancement and tumor inhibition, its clinical applications have not yet been elucidated. The major obstacle that hinders the application of LDR in the clinical setting is that the mechanisms underlying induction of tumor inhibition are unclear, and the risks associated with LDR are still unknown. Thus, to overcome this obstacle and elucidate the mechanisms mediating the antitumor effects of LDR, in this study, we established an in vivo lung cancer model to investigate the participation of the immune system in LDR-induced tumor inhibition and validated the pivotal role of the immune system by impairing immunity with high-dose radiation (HDR) of 1 Gy. Additionally, the LDR-induced adaptive response of the immune system was also observed by sequential HDR treatment in this mouse model. We found that LDR-activated T cells and natural killer cells and increased the cytotoxicity of splenocytes and the infiltration of T cells in the tumor tissues. In contrast, when immune function was impaired by HDR pretreatment, LDR could not induce tumor inhibition. However, when LDR was administered before HDR, the immunity could be protected from impairment, and tumor growth could be inhibited to some extent, indicating the induction of the immune adaptive response by LDR. Therefore, we demonstrated that immune enhancement played a key role in LDR-induced tumor inhibition. These findings emphasized the importance of the immune response in tumor radiotherapy and may help promote the application of LDR as a novel approach in clinical practice. © 2018 The Authors. Cancer Medicine published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Cell Phones: Current Research Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... NAS Report - Identification of Research Needs Relating to Potential Biological or Adverse Health Effects of Wireless Communication Devices World Health Organization: Electromagnetic Fields and Public Health: Mobile Phones International Agency for Research on Cancer Press ...

  8. iPhone For Dummies

    CERN Document Server

    Baig, Edward C

    2010-01-01

    The full-color guide to getting the most out of your iPhone. Completely updated and revised throughout, this full-color guide covers Apple's new iPhone and iOS 4. Bestselling veteran authors Baig and LeVitus introduce you to the capabilities of the iPhone whether you're making phone calls, browsing the Internet, sending and receiving e-mails, working with the calendar, watching videos, taking great photos, or much more. You'll discover how to set up iTunes, buy music and videos from the iTunes store, protect your information, troubleshoot, multitask, and download the hundreds of thousands of a

  9. Inhibition of Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A and Hypoxia-Inducible Factor 1α Maximizes the Effects of Radiation in Sarcoma Mouse Models Through Destruction of Tumor Vasculature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Hae-June; Yoon, Changhwan; Park, Do Joong; Kim, Yeo-Jung; Schmidt, Benjamin; Lee, Yoon-Jin; Tap, William D.; Eisinger-Mathason, T.S. Karin; Choy, Edwin; Kirsch, David G.; Simon, M. Celeste

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To examine the addition of genetic or pharmacologic inhibition of hypoxia-inducible factor 1α (HIF-1α) to radiation therapy (RT) and vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGF-A) inhibition (ie trimodality therapy) for soft-tissue sarcoma. Methods and Materials: Hypoxia-inducible factor 1α was inhibited using short hairpin RNA or low metronomic doses of doxorubicin, which blocks HIF-1α binding to DNA. Trimodality therapy was examined in a mouse xenograft model and a genetically engineered mouse model of sarcoma, as well as in vitro in tumor endothelial cells (ECs) and 4 sarcoma cell lines. Results: In both mouse models, any monotherapy or bimodality therapy resulted in tumor growth beyond 250 mm 3 within the 12-day treatment period, but trimodality therapy with RT, VEGF-A inhibition, and HIF-1α inhibition kept tumors at <250 mm 3 for up to 30 days. Trimodality therapy on tumors reduced HIF-1α activity as measured by expression of nuclear HIF-1α by 87% to 95% compared with RT alone, and cytoplasmic carbonic anhydrase 9 by 79% to 82%. Trimodality therapy also increased EC-specific apoptosis 2- to 4-fold more than RT alone and reduced microvessel density by 75% to 82%. When tumor ECs were treated in vitro with trimodality therapy under hypoxia, there were significant decreases in proliferation and colony formation and increases in DNA damage (as measured by Comet assay and γH2AX expression) and apoptosis (as measured by cleaved caspase 3 expression). Trimodality therapy had much less pronounced effects when 4 sarcoma cell lines were examined in these same assays. Conclusions: Inhibition of HIF-1α is highly effective when combined with RT and VEGF-A inhibition in blocking sarcoma growth by maximizing DNA damage and apoptosis in tumor ECs, leading to loss of tumor vasculature

  10. Inhibition of Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A and Hypoxia-Inducible Factor 1α Maximizes the Effects of Radiation in Sarcoma Mouse Models Through Destruction of Tumor Vasculature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Hae-June [Department of Surgery, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Division of Radiation Effects, Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Yoon, Changhwan [Department of Surgery, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States); Park, Do Joong [Department of Surgery, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States); Department of Surgery, Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Sungnam (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Yeo-Jung [Abramson Family Cancer Research Institute, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Schmidt, Benjamin [Department of Surgery, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Lee, Yoon-Jin [Department of Surgery, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Division of Radiation Effects, Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Tap, William D. [Department of Medicine, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States); Eisinger-Mathason, T.S. Karin [Abramson Family Cancer Research Institute, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Choy, Edwin [Department of Medicine, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Kirsch, David G. [Department of Pharmacology and Cancer Biology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina (United States); Simon, M. Celeste [Abramson Family Cancer Research Institute, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Howard Hughes Medical Institute (United States); and others

    2015-03-01

    Purpose: To examine the addition of genetic or pharmacologic inhibition of hypoxia-inducible factor 1α (HIF-1α) to radiation therapy (RT) and vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGF-A) inhibition (ie trimodality therapy) for soft-tissue sarcoma. Methods and Materials: Hypoxia-inducible factor 1α was inhibited using short hairpin RNA or low metronomic doses of doxorubicin, which blocks HIF-1α binding to DNA. Trimodality therapy was examined in a mouse xenograft model and a genetically engineered mouse model of sarcoma, as well as in vitro in tumor endothelial cells (ECs) and 4 sarcoma cell lines. Results: In both mouse models, any monotherapy or bimodality therapy resulted in tumor growth beyond 250 mm{sup 3} within the 12-day treatment period, but trimodality therapy with RT, VEGF-A inhibition, and HIF-1α inhibition kept tumors at <250 mm{sup 3} for up to 30 days. Trimodality therapy on tumors reduced HIF-1α activity as measured by expression of nuclear HIF-1α by 87% to 95% compared with RT alone, and cytoplasmic carbonic anhydrase 9 by 79% to 82%. Trimodality therapy also increased EC-specific apoptosis 2- to 4-fold more than RT alone and reduced microvessel density by 75% to 82%. When tumor ECs were treated in vitro with trimodality therapy under hypoxia, there were significant decreases in proliferation and colony formation and increases in DNA damage (as measured by Comet assay and γH2AX expression) and apoptosis (as measured by cleaved caspase 3 expression). Trimodality therapy had much less pronounced effects when 4 sarcoma cell lines were examined in these same assays. Conclusions: Inhibition of HIF-1α is highly effective when combined with RT and VEGF-A inhibition in blocking sarcoma growth by maximizing DNA damage and apoptosis in tumor ECs, leading to loss of tumor vasculature.

  11. Evaluation of the role of damage to photosystem II in the inhibition of CO2 assimilation in pea leaves on exposure to UV-B radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nogues, S.; Baker, N.R.

    1995-01-01

    Mature pea (Pisum sativum L., cv. Meteor) leaves were exposed to two levels of UV-B radiation, with and without supplementary UV-C radiation, during 15 h photoperiods. Simultaneous measurements of CO 2 assimilation and modulated chlorophyll fluorescence parameters demonstrated that irradiation with UV-B resulted in decreases in CO 2 assimilation that are not accompanied by decreases in the maximum quantum efficiency of photosystem II (PSII) primary photochemistry. Increased exposure to UV-B resulted in a further loss of CO 2 assimilation and decreases in the maximum quantum efficiency of PSII primary photochemistry, which were accompanied by a loss of the capacity of thylakoids isolated from the leaves to bind atrazine, thus demonstrating that photodamage to PSII reaction centres had occurred. Addition of UV-C to the UV-B treatments increased markedly the rate of inhibition of photosynthesis, but the relationships between CO 2 assimilation and PSII characteristics remained the same, indicating that UV-B and UV-C inhibit leaf photosynthesis by a similar mechanism. It is concluded that PSII is not the primary target site involved in the onset of the inhibition of photosynthesis in pea leaves induced by irradiation with UV-B. (author)

  12. Kaempferol protects against gamma radiation-induced mortality and damage via inhibiting oxidative stress and modulating apoptotic molecules in vivo and vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jing; Li, Tiejun; Feng, Jingjing; Li, Li; Wang, Rong; Cheng, Hao; Yuan, Yongfang

    2018-04-20

    To investigate the potential protective effect of kaempferol, a representative flavonoid, against radiation induced mortality and injury in vivo and vitro.C57BL/6 male mice and human umbilical venous endothelial cells (HUVECs) were pretreated with kaempferol before radiation. We found that kaempferol can effectively increase 30-day survival rate after 8.5 Gy lethal total body irradiation (TBI). Mice were sacrificed at 7th day after 7 Gy TBI, we found kaempferol against radiation-induced tissues damage, by inhibiting the oxidative stress, and attenuating morphological changes and cell apoptosis. In vitro, kaempferol increased HUVECs cell viability and decrease apoptosis. It also mitigated oxidative stress and restored the abnormal expression of prx-5, Cyt-c, Caspase9 and Caspase3 in mRNA and protein level in HUVECs after radiation. Taken together, it suggests kaempferol can protect against gamma-radiation induced tissue damage and mortality. The present study is the first report of the radioprotective role of kaempferol in vivo and vitro. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Lifesavers and Samaritans: emergency use of cellular (mobile) phones in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, S; Schofield, W N

    1998-11-01

    There has been highly publicised concern about possible radiation health effects from mobile phones and towers, but scant attention has been paid to the use of mobile phones in reducing notification times in emergencies. National random telephone survey of Australian mobile phone users (n = 720) and extrapolation to national user population (n = 5.1 million). Using a cellular phone, 1 in 8 users have reported a traffic accident; 1 in 4 a dangerous situation; 1 in 16 a non-road medical emergency; 1 in 20 a crime; and 1 in 45 being lost in the bush or being in difficulty at sea. Any debate about the net health impact of mobile phone proliferation must balance possible negative effects (cancer, driving incidents) with the benefits from what appears to be their widespread use in rapidly reporting emergencies and in numerous acts of often health-relevant 'cellular Samaritanism'.

  14. Addictive personality and problematic mobile phone use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takao, Motoharu; Takahashi, Susumu; Kitamura, Masayoshi

    2009-10-01

    Mobile phone use is banned or regulated in some circumstances. Despite recognized safety concerns and legal regulations, some people do not refrain from using mobile phones. Such problematic mobile phone use can be considered to be an addiction-like behavior. To find the potential predictors, we examined the correlation between problematic mobile phone use and personality traits reported in addiction literature, which indicated that problematic mobile phone use was a function of gender, self-monitoring, and approval motivation but not of loneliness. These findings suggest that the measurements of these addictive personality traits would be helpful in the screening and intervention of potential problematic users of mobile phones.

  15. UVR-induced photosynthetic inhibition dominates over DNA damage in marine dinoflagellates exposed to fluctuating solar radiation regimes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Helbling, E. Walter; Buma, Anita G. J.; van de Poll, Willem; Fernandez Zenoff, M. Veronica; Villafane, Virginia E.

    2008-01-01

    The combined effect of solar radiation (UV-B (280-315 nm), UWA (315-400 nm) and PAR (400-700 nm)) and vertical mixing (i.e., fluctuating radiation regimes) on the marine dinoflagellates Gymnodinium chlorophorum, Heterocapsa triquetra and Prorocentrum micans was investigated during the austral spring

  16. Smart Phones and their Substitutes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bødker, Mads; Gimpel, Gregory; Hedman, Jonas

    2009-01-01

    Drawing on data from a longitudinal field study, this paper investigates the influence of existing, better and stand-alone technology substitutes on the use of smart phones. By applying prospect theory, media richness theory, and business model literature, the purpose of this paper is to improve...... our understanding of the role of substitutes, device content fit issues, and implications for business models by asking the question: What is an effective business model to address the relationship between user preference and the fit of the smart phone and everyday task? The field study data suggest...... the need for business models to recognize that adoption decisions are reference-dependent and strongly influenced by the fit between task and smart phone....

  17. Dose reconstruction using mobile phones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beerten, K.; Reekmans, F.; Schroeyers, W.; Lievens, L.; Vanhavere, F.

    2011-01-01

    Electronic components inside mobile phones are regarded as useful tools for accident and retrospective dosimetry using optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) and thermoluminescence. Components inside the devices with suitable properties for luminescence dosimetry include, amongst others, ceramic substrates in resistors, capacitors, transistors and antenna switches. Checking the performance of such devices in dosimetric experiments is a crucial step towards developing a reliable dosimetry system for emergency situations using personal belongings. Here, the results of dose assessment experiments using irradiated mobile phones are reported. It will be shown that simple regenerative dose estimates, derived from various types of components removed from different mobile phone models, are consistent with the given dose, after applying an average fading correction factor. (authors)

  18. Youth Culture and Cell Phone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    mohammad saeed zokaei

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Iranian youth’s leisure culture has been immediately affected by the digital media culture. As a communicative media, cell phone has crossed borders of youth norms and identity; and in addition to facilitating their communication, has changed its patterns. Applying Bourdieu’s concepts of habitus and field, and relied on the qualitative and quantitative data gathered from the mobile youth users, the present study argues that mobile has produced a new field in which youth’s opportunities for leisure, entertainment, communication, and independence have extended. In addition, cell phone has facilitated and compensated for some defects in public sphere, and therefore empowered youth agency, individuality, and power. Despite this strengthening, cell phone does not cross borders of gender and class differences, or the levels of social capital.

  19. Peliohjelmointi Windows Phone 8:lle

    OpenAIRE

    Bäckström, Toni

    2014-01-01

    Tässä insinöörityössä tutustutaan Windows Phone 8 -mobiilikäyttöjärjestelmään peliohjelmoijan näkökulmasta. Työn tavoitteena oli erityisesti esitellä Microsoftin itse kehittämiä XNA- ja DirectX-peliohjelmointikirjastoja teoriassa ja käytännössä. Työn aluksi käydään läpi hieman Windows Phonen historiaa ja yleisesti kehittämistä Windows Phone 8:lle. Tämän jälkeen luodaan katsaus Windows Phone 8:aan pelialustana. Työn suurin osuus on XNA:n ja DirectX:n esittely teoriassa; kummastakin men...

  20. Questionnaire survey to assess the pattern and characteristics of cell-phone usage among Indian oncologists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munshi, Anusheel; Dutta, Debanarayan; Tike, Pramod; Agarwal, Jai Prakash

    2016-01-01

    Obtain baseline data of cell-phone usage in the medical (MO), surgical (SO) and radiation (RO) oncology community practicing in India. Indigenously prepared cell-phone usage related questionnaire was used in the present study after approval by the Institutional Ethics/Scientific Committees. The questionnaire had 41 items and was made to assess the cell-phone usage parameters, utility in clinical practice, awareness, and to compare parameters between oncology specialties. Between November 2009 and January 2010, the questionnaire was sent as an E-mail attachment to 200 oncologists in India. In all, 123 responses were received (61% responders); 84 (68.3%) were RO. The median age of responders was 35 years. Overall, 80% felt handicapped without cell-phone. The Mean cell-phone score, an index to assess overall usefulness over a score of 1-10, was 6.46 (median 7, standard deviation 1.709). There was no significant difference between RO, MO and SO in duration of usage (P = 0.235), number of cell-phones (P = 0.496), call duration per day (P = 0.490) and dependence on cell-phone (P = 0.574). Age of starting cell-phone usage was earlier in RO (P = 0.086). Professional usage was significantly more by MO and SO compared to RO (P cell-phone hazards compared to RO (P cell-phones a useful tool in patient care. More RO are aware of potential cell-phone hazards compared to non-RO's.

  1. Effects of mobile phone use on specific intensive care unit devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hans, Nidhi; Kapadia, Farhad N

    2008-10-01

    To observe the effects of mobile phone use in the vicinity of medical devices used in a critical care setting. Electromagnetic interference (EMI) was tested by using two types of mobile phones - GSM and CDMA. Mobile phones were placed at a distance of one foot from three medical devices - syringe pump, mechanical ventilator, and the bedside monitor - in switch off, standby, and talking modes of the phone. Medical devices were observed for any interference caused by the electromagnetic radiations (EMR) from the mobile phones. Out of the three medical devices that were tested, EMI occurred while using the mobile phone in the vicinity of the syringe pump, in the 'talk mode.' The mean variation observed in the calculated and delivered volume of the syringe pump was 2.66 ml. Mechanical ventilator did not show any specific adverse effects with mobile phone use in the one-foot vicinity. No other adverse effects or unexplained malfunctions or shutdown of the syringe pump, mechanical ventilator, or the bedside monitor was noted during the study period of 36 hours. EMI from mobile phones have an adverse effect on the medical devices used in critical care setup. They should be used at least one foot away from the diameter of the syringe pump.

  2. Functional inhibition of Ubiquitin conjugating Enzyme (UBE2C) reduces proliferation and sensitizes cervical and breast cancer cells to radiation, doxorubicin, tamoxifen and letrozole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bose, Mayil Vahanan; Rawat, Akhilesh; Gopisetty, Gopal; Thangarajan, Rajkumar; Ganesharaja, Selvaluxmy

    2014-01-01

    Cervical cancer is the second most common cancer in women, worldwide. About 80% of cervical cancer cases occur in developing countries. Breast cancer has overtaken cervical cancer in most of the urban centers in India. In recent years, interest in the role of Ubiquitin conjugating Enzyme E2C (UBE2C) in cancer has shown a dramatic increase. Several studies have reported UBE2C as a potential oncogene and therapeutic target. The objective of the study was to elucidate radiation and chemo-sensitivity in response to functional inhibition of UBE2C in cervical and breast cancer cell lines. Taqman Real time PCR was performed to measure UBE2C levels in cervical and breast cancer cell lines. A dominant negative form of UBE2C (DN-UBE2C) was used to functionally inhibit wild type UBE2C. Cell proliferation and anchorage independent growth were measured by colorimetric assay and soft agar assay respectively. Radiation and chemo response of cell lines were assessed by colorimetric assay and clonogenic assay. Difference in sensitivity to radiation was observed among the cervical cancer cell lines studied. The growth rate of SiHa and HeLa transfected with DN- UBE2C was significantly reduced compared to vector control. Further, DN-UBE2C mediated radio-sensitivity was correlated with a significant decrease in resistance to radiation by SiHa and HeLa cells after transfection when compared to control cultures. Similarly, both the growth rate and the anchorage independent growth of MCF7 and MDAMB231 cells transfected with DN-UBE2C were significantly reduced compared to cells transfected with vector alone. MCF7 and MDAMB231 cells expressing DN-UBE2C were significantly more sensitive to different doses of radiation and doxorubicin compared to controls. In addition, DN-UBE2C transfected MCF7 cells were more sensitive to inhibition by tamoxifen and letrozole compared to vector controls. These results suggest that UBE2C can be used as a potential therapeutic target for cervical and breast

  3. A preliminary study on thermoluminescence of AMOLED glass from mobile phones for retrospective dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Hyoungtaek; Lee, Jungil; Chang, Insu; Lee, Seung Kyu; Kim, Min Chae; Park, Sang Won; Kim, Jang-Lyul; Kim, Bong-Hwan; Yu, Hyungjoon; Kim, Ah-reum

    2017-01-01

    Since mobile phones are always carried by individuals, the retrospective dosimetry using thermoluminescence (TL) and optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) characteristics of elements in mobile phone is intensively developing nowadays due to its advantages over conventional biological dosimetry techniques. Using a TL and OSL method on resistors and inductors in a mobile phone, a low background dose (zero dose) about tens of mGy is acquired in previous study. Radiation workers have to wear a dosimeter to assess individual exposure during their works. This monitoring system facilitate a fast medical treatment for highly exposed workers in case of a radiation accident. In the event of large-scale radiation accidents, where most of the subjects are ordinary people, it is difficult to evaluate the individual dose due to the absence of dosimeters. A technique for dose evaluation using a radiation dependency of various materials in the absence of a dosimeter is called retrospective dosimetry.

  4. Inhibition of COX-2 expression by topical diclofenac enhanced radiation sensitivity via enhancement of TRAIL in human prostate adenocarcinoma xenograft model

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background COX-2 inhibitors have an antitumor potential and have been verified by many researchers. Treatment of cancer cells with external stressors such as irradiation can stimulate the over-expression of COX-2 and possibly confer radiation resistance. In this study, we tested if topical diclofenac, which inhibits both COX-1 and COX-2, administration rendered prostate tumor cells sensitize to the effects of radiation. Methods LNCaP-COX-2 and LNCaP-Neo cells were treated with 0 to 1000 μM diclofenac. Next, a clonogenic assay was performed in which cells were subjected to irradiation (0 to 4 Gy) with or without diclofenac. COX-2 expression and other relevant molecules were measured by real-time PCR and immunohistochemistry after irradiation and diclofenac treatment. In addition, we assessed the tumor volumes of xenograft LNCaP-COX-2 cells treated with topical diclofenac with or without radiation therapy (RT). Results LNCaP-COX-2 and LNCaP-Neo cell lines experienced cytotoxic effects of diclofenac in a dose related manner. Clonogenic assays demonstrated that LNCaP-COX-2 cells were significantly more resistant to RT than LNCaP-Neo cells. Furthermore, the addition of diclofenac sensitized LNCaP-COX-2 not but LNCaP-Neo cells to the cytocidal effects of radiation. In LNCaP-COX-2 cells, diclofenac enhanced radiation-induced apoptosis compared with RT alone. This phenomenon might be attributed to enhancement of RT-induced TRAIL expression as demonstrated by real-time PCR analysis. Lastly, tumor volumes of LNCaP-COX-2 cells xenograft treated with diclofenac or RT alone was >4-fold higher than in mice treated with combined diclofenac and radiation (pdiclofenac enhances the effect of RT on prostate cancer cells that express COX-2. Thus, diclofenac may have potential as radiosensitizer for treatment of prostate cancer. PMID:23289871

  5. Deep learning enhanced mobile-phone microscopy

    KAUST Repository

    Rivenson, Yair; Koydemir, Hatice Ceylan; Wang, Hongda; Wei, Zhensong; Ren, Zhengshuang; Gunaydin, Harun; Zhang, Yibo; Gorocs, Zoltan; Liang, Kyle; Tseng, Derek; Ozcan, Aydogan

    2017-01-01

    Mobile-phones have facilitated the creation of field-portable, cost-effective imaging and sensing technologies that approach laboratory-grade instrument performance. However, the optical imaging interfaces of mobile-phones are not designed

  6. Harmful effects of mobile phone waves on blood tissues of the human body

    OpenAIRE

    Kumar, Vijay; Ahmad, Mushtaq; Sharma, A. K.

    2013-01-01

      Abstract. Penetration of electromagnetic waves emitted by mobile phones into human skin and blood was studied. The transmitted waves from these mobile phones were exposed to the human body and were penetrated into the body where field was reduced exponentially with depth. As the reduction in field was due to absorption of power, specific absorption rate was calculated and compared with permissible limit given by International Commission on Non-ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP) and Worl...

  7. SecurePhone: a mobile phone with biometric authentication and e-signature support for dealing secure transactions on the fly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricci, R.; Chollet, G.; Crispino, M. V.; Jassim, S.; Koreman, J.; Olivar-Dimas, M.; Garcia-Salicetti, S.; Soria-Rodriguez, P.

    2006-05-01

    This article presents an overview of the SecurePhone project, with an account of the first results obtained. SecurePhone's primary aim is to realise a mobile phone prototype - the 'SecurePhone' - in which biometrical authentication enables users to deal secure, dependable transactions over a mobile network. The SecurePhone is based on a commercial PDA-phone, supplemented with specific software modules and a customised SIM card. It integrates in a single environment a number of advanced features: access to cryptographic keys through strong multimodal biometric authentication; appending and verification of digital signatures; real-time exchange and interactive modification of (esigned) documents and voice recordings. SecurePhone's 'biometric recogniser' is based on original research. A fused combination of three different biometric methods - speaker, face and handwritten signature verification - is exploited, with no need for dedicated hardware components. The adoption of non-intrusive, psychologically neutral biometric techniques is expected to mitigate rejection problems that often inhibit the social use of biometrics, and speed up the spread of e-signature technology. Successful biometric authentication grants access to SecurePhone's built-in esignature services through a user-friendly interface. Special emphasis is accorded to the definition of a trustworthy security chain model covering all aspects of system operation. The SecurePhone is expected to boost m-commerce and open new scenarios for m-business and m-work, by changing the way people interact and by improving trust and confidence in information technologies, often considered intimidating and difficult to use. Exploitation plans will also explore other application domains (physical and logical access control, securised mobile communications).

  8. Impact of one's own mobile phone in stand-by mode on personal radiofrequency electromagnetic field exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urbinello, Damiano; Röösli, Martin

    2013-01-01

    When moving around, mobile phones in stand-by mode periodically send data about their positions. The aim of this paper is to evaluate how personal radiofrequency electromagnetic field (RF-EMF) measurements are affected by such location updates. Exposure from a mobile phone handset (uplink) was measured during commuting by using a randomized cross-over study with three different scenarios: disabled mobile phone (reference), an activated dual-band phone and a quad-band phone. In the reference scenario, uplink exposure was highest during train rides (1.19 mW/m(2)) and lowest during car rides in rural areas (0.001 mW/m(2)). In public transports, the impact of one's own mobile phone on personal RF-EMF measurements was not observable because of high background uplink radiation from other people's mobile phone. In a car, uplink exposure with an activated phone was orders of magnitude higher compared with the reference scenario. This study demonstrates that personal RF-EMF exposure is affected by one's own mobile phone in stand-by mode because of its regular location update. Further dosimetric studies should quantify the contribution of location updates to the total RF-EMF exposure in order to clarify whether the duration of mobile phone use, the most common exposure surrogate in the epidemiological RF-EMF research, is actually an adequate exposure proxy.

  9. Mobile phones and seizures: drug-resistant epilepsy is less common in mobile-phone-using patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagarjunakonda, Sundarachary; Amalakanti, Sridhar; Uppala, Veeramma; Gajula, Rama Krishna; Tata, Ramya Sree; Bolla, Hima Bindu; Rajanala, Lalitha; Athina, Srinivasulu; Daggumati, Rajeswari; Lavu, Harish; Devanaboina, Anil Kumar

    2017-01-01

    Epilepsy is a condition where patients have seizures due to abnormal nerve impulses in the brain. The effect of mobile phone radiation on patients with seizures is not known. To compare the seizure profile of patients not using mobile phones with that of their peers using mobile phones. In a retrospective cohort study performed at the neurology outpatient department of Guntur Medical College Hospital, Guntur, India from September 2014 to September 2015, we included 178 consecutive epileptic patients aged 16-65 years, who had had seizure disorder for 1 year or more. On the basis of their possession and usage of mobile phones, patients were divided into three groups: no mobile group (NMG), home mobile group (HMG) and personal mobile group (PMG). We obtained data on seizure frequency and recorded details of mobile phone usage and their antiepileptic drug (AED) treatment. 107 NMG, 3 HMG and 68 PMG patients were finalised for the analysis. There was no significant difference in the number of seizures in the past year between the three groups. The PMG (3.7%) contained a clinically significant lower proportion of patients with drug-resistant epilepsy than the NMG (28.2%). Patients with drug-responsive epilepsy were 7.4 (95% CI 1.4 to 39.9) (p=0.01) times more likely to be found in the PMG than in the NMG after adjustment for differences in sex and occupation. Although the experimental data remain inconclusive, our clinical study suggests that patients who use mobile phones are less likely to have drug-resistant epilepsy. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  10. Thermal skin damage and mobile phone use

    OpenAIRE

    Elabbassi , Elmountacer-Billah; De Seze , René

    2005-01-01

    International audience; Mobile phone "cell phone" use has dramatically increased over th last decade, but doubts remain over its safety. Epidemiological investigation of mobile phone (MP) users reported symptoms of discomfort feeling, warmth behind/around or on the ear and heat sensation of the cheek. These symptoms may be due to thermal insulation, conduction of the heat produced in the phone by the battery currents and running of the radiofrequency (RF) electronic circuits, and electromagne...

  11. The effect of ultraviolet radiation on early stages of activation of human lymphocytes: inhibition is independent of effects on DNA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Castellanos, G; Owens, T; Rudd, C

    1982-01-01

    whether activation was measured by the incorporation of labelled leucine, uridine, or thymidine. If UV was applied at 44 h after culture in presence of Con A, the incorporation of [3H]thymidine measured 4 h later was seen to be inhibited but transcription and translation were scarcely affected. UV...... lymphocytes, when this was measured by means of 86Rb uptake after 2-4 h culture. The mitogen-stimulated activation of cation pump function has previously been shown to be unaffected by concentrations of cycloheximide and actinomycin D which produce virtually complete inhibition of protein and RNA synthesis...

  12. Mobile Learning Using Mobile Phones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vicente, Paula

    2013-01-01

    The participation in mobile learning programs is conditioned by having/using mobile communication technology. Those who do not have or use such technology cannot participate in mobile learning programs. This study evaluates who are the most likely participants of mobile learning programs by examining the demographic profile and mobile phone usage…

  13. A Mobile Phone Faraday Cage

    Science.gov (United States)

    French, M. M. J.

    2011-01-01

    A Faraday cage is an interesting physical phenomenon where an electromagnetic wave can be excluded from a volume of space by enclosure with an electrically conducting material. The practical application of this in the classroom is to block the signal to a mobile phone by enclosing it in a metal can. The background of the physics behind this is…

  14. Cell Phones in the Classroom? Yes!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaer, Susan

    2011-01-01

    The author has been using mobile phones actively in her adult education classes for the last two years. She has found that, with a bit of cell phone etiquette, students are responsible and will use phones as learning tools instead of just as toys. In this article, the author describes how she uses them and suggests effective techniques for…

  15. Radiations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pujol Mora, J.

    1999-01-01

    The exposition to ionizing radiations is a constant fact in the life of the human being and its utilization as diagnostic and therapeutic method is generalized. However, it is notorious how as years go on, the fear to the ionizing radiation seems to persist too, and this fact is not limited to the common individual, but to the technical personnel and professional personnel that labors with them same. (S. Grainger) [es

  16. Radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davidson, J.H.

    1986-01-01

    The basic facts about radiation are explained, along with some simple and natural ways of combating its ill-effects, based on ancient healing wisdom as well as the latest biochemical and technological research. Details are also given of the diet that saved thousands of lives in Nagasaki after the Atomic bomb attack. Special comment is made on the use of radiation for food processing. (U.K.)

  17. iPhone Hacks Tips and Tools for Pushing the Smartest Phone to Its Limits

    CERN Document Server

    Jurick, David; Stolarz, Damien

    2009-01-01

    With iPhone Hacks, you can make your iPhone do all you'd expect of a smartphone -- and more. Learn tips and techniques to unleash little-known features, find and create innovative applications for both the iPhone and iPod touch, and unshackle these devices to run everything from network utilities to video game emulators. iPhone Hacks is exactly what you need to make the most of your iPhone.

  18. Sprout inhibition in garlic (Allium sativum) and onion (Allium cepa L.) by gamma irradiation. Part of a coordinated programme on pre-commercial scale radiation treatment of food

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Curzio, O.A.

    1982-04-01

    With the aim of verifying the possibilities and circumstances of sprout inhibition and storage life extension of onion and garlic by gamma irradiation, onion bulbs of variety Valenciana Sintetica 14 and garlic bulbs of a coloured locally grown variety were subjected to irradiation with 3 Krad of 60 Co gamma rays. The dose rate was 2440 rad/min; the irradiation conditions warranted a Dsub(max)/Dsub(min) ratio of 1.25. The irradiated bulbs and control samples of non-irradiated bulbs were investigated for a period of 270 to 330 days. Weight loss, external and internal sprouting, signs of decay, and the percentage of commercial bulbs were observed with the following results. Weight loss was found to be less in irradiated bulbs than in controls - 22% against 40% for onion and 33% against 65% for garlic. The dose of gamma radiation employed was proved to be sufficient for sprout inhibition in both species and for partial inhibition of decay and softening. The aroma of garlic was not impaired by irradiation. For both products, gamma irradiation was found to prolong the period of commercial utilizability

  19. Dose- and time-dependent radiation inhibition of RNA and glycosaminoglycan synthesis in embryonic cartilage: an in vitro study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cornelissen, M.; Thierens, H.; De Ridder, L. (Ghent Rijksuniversiteit (Belgium))

    1990-05-01

    Radiation effects on the RNA and glycosaminoglycan (GAG) synthesis of embryonic cartilaginous tibiae were studied in vitro during a 4- or 7-day culture period. Before culture, tibiae received single radiation doses of 20, 50 or 100 Gy. A limited, dose-dependent immediate effect on RNA and GAG synthesis was found. This effect was unchanged for 2 days. After this period a time-dependent delayed effect was observed. For each radiation dose, and for each precursor, the same time-related pattern was found. At the end of the culture period acid phosphatase activity, an early indicator of apoptosis, was higher in irradiated tibiae than in controls. No other morphological ultrastructural differences were observed at this time. The authors conclude that metabolic alterations are probably due to stimulation of initial stages of the apoptotic process in the irradiated cartilage cells. (author).

  20. Radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winther, J.F.; Ulbak, K.; Dreyer, L.; Pukkala, E.; Oesterlind, A.

    1997-01-01

    Exposure to solar and ionizing radiation increases the risk for cancer in humans. Some 5% of solar radiation is within the ultraviolet spectrum and may cause both malignant melanoma and non-melanocytic skin cancer; the latter is regarded as a benign disease and is accordingly not included in our estimation of avoidable cancers. Under the assumption that the rate of occurrence of malignant melanoma of the buttocks of both men and women and of the scalp of women would apply to all parts of the body in people completely unexposed to solar radiation, it was estimated that approximately 95% of all malignant melanomas arising in the Nordic populations around the year 2000 will be due to exposure to natural ultraviolet radiation, equivalent to an annual number of about 4700 cases, with 2100 in men and 2600 in women, or some 4% of all cancers notified. Exposure to ionizing radiation in the Nordic countries occurs at an average effective dose per capita per year of about 3 mSv (Iceland, 1.1 mSv) from natural sources, and about 1 mSv from man-made sources. While the natural sources are primarily radon in indoor air, natural radionuclides in food, cosmic radiation and gamma radiation from soil and building materials, the man-made sources are dominated by the diagnostic and therapeutic use of ionizing radiation. On the basis of measured levels of radon in Nordic dwellings and associated risk estimates for lung cancer derived from well-conducted epidemiological studies, we estimated that about 180 cases of lung cancer (1% of all lung cancer cases) per year could be avoided in the Nordic countries around the year 2000 if indoor exposure to radon were eliminated, and that an additional 720 cases (6%) could be avoided annually if either radon or tobacco smoking were eliminated. Similarly, it was estimated that the exposure of the Nordic populations to natural sources of ionizing radiation other than radon and to medical sources will each give rise to an annual total of 2120

  1. Effects of 17β-estradiol on radiation transformation in vitro; inhibition of effects by protease inhibitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kennedy, A.R.; Weichselbaum, R.R.

    1981-01-01

    The effects of 17β-estradiol, given either alone or with X-radiation, on the induction of malignant transformation were investigated in vitro. Treatment with 10 -6 M 17β-estradiol for 6 weeks, or 10 -5 M 17β-estradiol for only 5 days, induced malignant transformation in C3H 10T1/2 cells. Estradiol also acted as a cocarcinogen for X-ray induced transformation; the results indicated an additive effect when the cells were exposed to both agents together. The protease inhibitors antipain and leupeptin suppressed estradiol induced transformation as well as the additive effect observed for estradiol-radiation transformation. (author)

  2. Curcumin sensitizes prostate cancer cells to radiation partly via epigenetic activation of miR-143 and miR-143 mediated autophagy inhibition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jianbo; Li, Min; Wang, Yuewei; Luo, Jianchao

    2017-08-01

    Curcumin has been reported as a radiosensitizer in prostate cancer. But the underlying mechanism is not well understood. In this study, we firstly assessed how curcumin affects the expression of miR-143/miR-145 cluster. Then, we investigated whether miR-143 is involved in regulation of radiosensitivity and its association with autophagy in prostate cancer cells. Our data showed that PC3, DU145 and LNCaP cells treated with curcumin had significantly restored miR-143 and miR-145 expression. Curcumin showed similar effect as 5-AZA-dC on reducing methylation of CpG dinucleotides in miR-143 promoter. In addition, curcumin treatment reduced the expression of DNMT1 and DNMT3B, which contribute to promoter hypermethylation of the miR-143/miR-145 cluster. Therefore, we infer that curcumin can restore miR-143 and miR-145 expression via hypomethylation. MiR-143 overexpression and curcumin pretreatment enhanced radiation induced cancer cell growth inhibition and apoptosis. MiR-143 and curcumin remarkably reduced radiation-induced autophagy in PC3 and DU145 cells. MiR-143 overexpression alone also reduced the basal level of autophagy in DU145 cells. Mechanistically, miR-143 can suppress autophagy in prostate cancer cells at least via downregulating ATG2B. Based on these findings, we infer that curcumin sensitizes prostate cancer cells to radiation partly via epigenetic activation of miR-143 and miR-143 mediated autophagy inhibition.

  3. Mobile phone induced sensorineural hearing loss

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Dousary, Surayie H.

    2007-01-01

    The increased use of mobile phones worldwide has focused interest on the biological effects and possible health outcomes of exposure to radiofrequency fields from mobile phones, and their base stations. Various reports suggest that mobile phone use can cause health problems like fatigue, headache, dizziness, tension and sleep disturbances, however, only limited research data is available in medical literature regarding interaction between electromagnetic fields emitted by mobile phones and auditory function and the possible impact on hearing. We report a case of sensorineural hearing loss due to Global System for Mobile Communication mobile phone use in a 42-year-old male. (author)

  4. Head first iPhone development

    CERN Document Server

    Pilone, Dan

    2010-01-01

    Let's say you have an idea for a killer iPhone app. Where do you begin? Head First iPhone Development will help you get your first application up and running in no time. You'll quickly learn to use iPhone SDK tools, including Interface Builder and Xcode, and master Objective-C programming principles that will make your app stand out. It's a complete learning experience for creating eye-catching, top-selling iPhone applications. Put Objective-C core concepts to work, including message passing, protocols, properties, and memory managementTake advantage of iPhone patterns such as datasources

  5. Building iPhone OS Accessories

    CERN Document Server

    Maskrey, Ken

    2010-01-01

    This book provides a serious, in-depth look at Apple's External Accessory Framework and the iPhone Accessories API. You'll learn how to create new, integrated solutions that combine iPhone apps with dedicated hardware. The iPhone OS Accessories API expands the opportunities for innovative iPhone developers, allowing you to control and monitor external devices, whether you've built them yourself or obtained them from a third party. What you'll learn * Develop accessories and apps for the iPhone and iPod touch. * Use Apple's External Accessory Framework to create hardware/software interaction. *

  6. Use of mobile phones and cordless phones is associated with increased risk for glioma and acoustic neuroma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardell, Lennart; Carlberg, Michael; Hansson Mild, Kjell

    2013-04-01

    The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) at WHO evaluation of the carcinogenic effect of RF-EMF on humans took place during a 24-31 May 2011 meeting at Lyon in France. The Working Group consisted of 30 scientists and categorised the radiofrequency electromagnetic fields from mobile phones, and from other devices that emit similar non-ionising electromagnetic fields (RF-EMF), as Group 2B, i.e., a 'possible', human carcinogen. The decision on mobile phones was based mainly on the Hardell group of studies from Sweden and the IARC Interphone study. We give an overview of current epidemiological evidence for an increased risk for brain tumours including a meta-analysis of the Hardell group and Interphone results for mobile phone use. Results for cordless phones are lacking in Interphone. The meta-analysis gave for glioma in the most exposed part of the brain, the temporal lobe, odds ratio (OR)=1.71, 95% confidence interval (CI)=1.04-2.81 in the ≥10 years (>10 years in the Hardell group) latency group. Ipsilateral mobile phone use ≥1640h in total gave OR=2.29, 95% CI=1.56-3.37. The results for meningioma were OR=1.25, 95% CI=0.31-4.98 and OR=1.35, 95% CI=0.81-2.23, respectively. Regarding acoustic neuroma ipsilateral mobile phone use in the latency group ≥10 years gave OR=1.81, 95% CI=0.73-4.45. For ipsilateral cumulative use ≥1640h OR=2.55, 95% CI=1.50-4.40 was obtained. Also use of cordless phones increased the risk for glioma and acoustic neuroma in the Hardell group studies. Survival of patients with glioma was analysed in the Hardell group studies yielding in the >10 years latency period hazard ratio (HR)=1.2, 95% CI=1.002-1.5 for use of wireless phones. This increased HR was based on results for astrocytoma WHO grade IV (glioblastoma multiforme). Decreased HR was found for low-grade astrocytoma, WHO grades I-II, which might be caused by RF-EMF exposure leading to tumour-associated symptoms and earlier detection and surgery with better

  7. Gamma radiation induced oxidative stress and apoptosis inhibiting properties of bacterial secondary metabolite RK-IP-006.G in J774A.1 murine cell line

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malhotra, Poonam; Gupta, Ashutosh K.; Singh, Praveen K.; Chhachhia, Neha; Singh, Shravan K.; Raj Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Redox imbalance due to radiation induced oxidation of vital bio-macromolecules activates inflammatory response cascade leading to cell death. In present study, bacterial secondary metabolite, RK-IP-006.G, was evaluated for its oxidative stress and apoptosis inhibiting activities in irradiated J774A.1 murine macrophage cell line. Radiation induced intracellular ROS generation and its inhibition upon RK-IP-006.G pretreatment was estimated using 2',7'dichlorodihydroflurescein diacetate (DCFDA). Modulation in mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) in irradiated cells and its protection by RK-IP-006.G pretreatment was evaluated using Rhodamine-123. Modulation in protein expression in irradiated and RK-IP-006.G treated J774A.1 cells was assessed by SDS-PAGE. Compensatory effect of RK-IP-006.G treatment on TNF-α expression in irradiated cells was estimated using ELISA assay. APO-BrDU assay was performed to evaluate radiation-induced apoptosis in irradiated cells. Radiation-induced cell damage and protective ability of RK-IP-006.G was also evaluated using Differential Interference Contrast Microscopy. Results of the study indicated significant (p< 0.05) decrease in DCFDA fluorescence in irradiated cells that were pretreated (∼2h) with RK-IP-006.G (0.25 μg/ml) as compared to irradiated cells. Similarly, significant (p<0.05) decrease in MMP was observed in irradiated cells pretreated with RK-IP-006.G (0.25 μg/ml) as compared to only irradiated cells at 1 h time point. SDS-PAGE analysis clearly demonstrated up-regulation of some prominent proteins in irradiated cells pretreated with RK-IP-006.G at 2-4h after treatment as compared to irradiated control. Significant (p<0.05) down regulation in TNF-α expression was observed in irradiated cells that pretreated with RK-IP-006.G compared to irradiated controls. APO-BrDU assay revealed significant reduction in apoptosis in irradiated cells pretreated with RK-IP-006.G when compared to irradiated control. The findings

  8. Cellular phone use while driving at night.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vivoda, Jonathon M; Eby, David W; St Louis, Renée M; Kostyniuk, Lidia P

    2008-03-01

    Use of a cellular phone has been shown to negatively affect one's attention to the driving task, leading to an increase in crash risk. At any given daylight hour, about 6% of US drivers are actively talking on a hand-held cell phone. However, previous surveys have focused only on cell phone use during the day. Driving at night has been shown to be a riskier activity than driving during the day. The purpose of the current study was to assess the rate of hand-held cellular phone use while driving at night, using specialized night vision equipment. In 2006, two statewide direct observation survey waves of nighttime cellular phone use were conducted in Indiana utilizing specialized night vision equipment. Combined results of driver hand-held cellular phone use from both waves are presented in this manuscript. The rates of nighttime cell phone use were similar to results found in previous daytime studies. The overall rate of nighttime hand-held cellular phone use was 5.8 +/- 0.6%. Cellular phone use was highest for females and for younger drivers. In fact, the highest rate observed during the study (of 11.9%) was for 16-to 29-year-old females. The high level of cellular phone use found within the young age group, coupled with the increased crash risk associated with cellular phone use, nighttime driving, and for young drivers in general, suggests that this issue may become an important transportation-related concern.

  9. iPhone Application Development For Dummies

    CERN Document Server

    Goldstein, Neal

    2009-01-01

    Here's the fun and easy way to learn how to create your own iPhone applications. Whether you're a professional developer or an iPhone user with a knack for technology, this plain English guide shows you how easy it can be to create your own cool iPhone and iPod touch apps. The open iPhone SDK offers a world of opportunities, and with the information in iPhone Application Development For Dummies , you can get in on the fun and profit. You don't need high-level programming skills to create iPhone apps. iPhone Application Development For Dummies walks you through the fundamentals for building a v

  10. PARP inhibition versus PARP-1 silencing: different outcomes in terms of single-strand break repair and radiation susceptibility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Godon, C.; Cordelieres, F.P.; Giocanti, N.; Megnin-Chanet, F.; Hall, J.; Favaudon, V.; Godon, C.; Giocanti, N.; Megnin-Chanet, F.; Hall, J.; Favaudon, V.; Cordelieres, F.P.; Cordelieres, F.P.; Biard, D.

    2008-01-01

    The consequences of PARP-1 disruption or inhibition on DNA single-strand break repair (SSBR) and radio-induced lethality were determined in synchronized, iso-genic HeLa cells stably silenced or not for poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP-1) (PARP-1(KD)) or XRCC1 (XRCC1(KD)). PARP-1 inhibition prevented XRCC1-YFP recruitment at sites of 405 nm laser micro irradiation, slowed SSBR 10-fold and triggered the accumulation of large persistent foci of GFP-PARP-1 and GFP-PCNA at photo damaged sites. These aggregates are presumed to hinder the recruitment of other effectors of the base excision repair (BER) pathway.PARP-1 silencing also prevented XRCC1-YFP recruitment but did not lengthen the lifetime of GFP-PCNA foci. Moreover, PARP-1(KD) and XRCC1(KD) cells in S phase completed SSBR as rapidly as controls, while SSBR was delayed in G1. Taken together, the data demonstrate that a PARP-1- and XRCC1-independent SSBR pathway operates when the short patch repair branch of the BER is deficient. Long patch repair is the likely mechanism, as GFP-PCNA recruitment at photo-damaged sites was normal in PARP-1(KD) cells. PARP-1 silencing elicited hyper-radiosensitivity, while radiosensitization by a PARP inhibitor reportedly occurs only in those cells treated in S phase. PARP-1 inhibition and deletion thus have different outcomes in terms of SSBR and radiosensitivity. (authors)

  11. iPhones and Smartphones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin YE

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Long utilized in European and Asian countries, fast ―next generation‖ cell phonenetworks and mobile data streams have only recently begun to make deep inroads inthe United States, and companies are scrambling to write content, tools, and newapplets (―apps‖ for these users. The iPhone has become a juggernaut in the UnitedStates, with 13 million units sold in 2008 (a 245% increase over 2007 and a further 45million units expected in 2009 (Elmer-DeWitt, 2009. While iPhone still lags Nokia andRIM internationally, the overall trend toward mobile computing becomes firmer by theday, and it behooves educators to become familiar with the cell phone tools that arerelevant for teaching in tomorrow‘s--and increasingly ―today‘s‖--classroom.Smartphones have for years offered SMS instant messaging, but the first uses of thattechnology have inevitably been social rather than educational in nature (Reid, 2004.The recent rise in popularity of the iPhone has, however, sparked interest in new usesfor SMS with the advent of new and expanded audiences. One promising online tooloffers instant polling via SMS: polleverywhere.com‘s free account allows up to 30responses per 1-question poll, with unlimited polls per account.This opens up the possibility of classroom response systems that require no studentpurchases of the clicker hardware. While accountability back to the student and gradesare not feasible with polleverywhere.com‘s solution, instructors can harvest quick,anonymous feedback and encourage otherwise reluctant students to engage andparticipate.Apart from texting, modern cell phones come equipped with cameras, which cancombine with email capabilities to offer a potent alternative to writing on whiteboards.Working at their seats, singly or in groups, students can photograph their work andemail it to the instructor, who then can choose from the submissions which to highlighton the lecture hall‘s projection of his computer station, and

  12. Best iPhone Apps

    CERN Document Server

    Biersdorfer, J

    2010-01-01

    With over 250,000 apps to choose from in Apple's App Store, you can make your iPhone or iPod Touch do just about anything you can imagine -- and almost certainly a few things you would never think of. While it's not hard to find apps, it is frustratingly difficult to find the the best ones. That's where this new edition of Best iPhone Apps comes in. New York Times technology columnist J.D. Biersdorfer has stress-tested hundreds of the App Store's mini-programs and hand-picked more than 200 standouts to help you get work done, play games, stay connected with friends, explore a new city, get i

  13. Mobile phone based ELISA (MELISA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhdanov, Arsenii; Keefe, Jordan; Franco-Waite, Luis; Konnaiyan, Karthik Raj; Pyayt, Anna

    2018-04-30

    Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) is one of the most important technologies for biochemical analysis critical for diagnosis and monitoring of many diseases. Traditional systems for ELISA incubation and reading are expensive and bulky, thus cannot be used at point-of-care or in the field. Here, we propose and demonstrate a new miniature mobile phone based system for ELISA (MELISA). This system can be used to complete all steps of the assay, including incubation and reading. It weighs just 1 pound, can be fabricated at low cost, portable, and can transfer test results via mobile phone. We successfully demonstrated how MELISA can be calibrated for accurate measurements of progesterone and demonstrated successful measurements with the calibrated system. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Mobile Phone Using Among Youngsters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐灏瀛

    2017-01-01

    There is an apparent social phenomenon among youngsters. It seems that they can not live without their mobile phones which has triggers heated discussion in the society. This passage will analyze several causes about this issue and put forward a few suggestions in regard to improving youngsters' mental world. The author hopes that students and young people may have more meaningful extracurricular activities after school or work. This objective is also made by many sociologists and psychologists.

  15. Muon Trigger for Mobile Phones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borisyak, M.; Usvyatsov, M.; Mulhearn, M.; Shimmin, C.; Ustyuzhanin, A.

    2017-10-01

    The CRAYFIS experiment proposes to use privately owned mobile phones as a ground detector array for Ultra High Energy Cosmic Rays. Upon interacting with Earth’s atmosphere, these events produce extensive particle showers which can be detected by cameras on mobile phones. A typical shower contains minimally-ionizing particles such as muons. As these particles interact with CMOS image sensors, they may leave tracks of faintly-activated pixels that are sometimes hard to distinguish from random detector noise. Triggers that rely on the presence of very bright pixels within an image frame are not efficient in this case. We present a trigger algorithm based on Convolutional Neural Networks which selects images containing such tracks and are evaluated in a lazy manner: the response of each successive layer is computed only if activation of the current layer satisfies a continuation criterion. Usage of neural networks increases the sensitivity considerably comparable with image thresholding, while the lazy evaluation allows for execution of the trigger under the limited computational power of mobile phones.

  16. Predictability of Mobile Phone Associations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Bjørn Sand; Larsen, Jan; Hansen, Lars Kai

    2010-01-01

    Prediction and understanding of human behavior is of high importance in many modern applications and research areas ranging from context-aware services, wireless resource allocation to social sciences. In this study we collect a novel dataset using standard mobile phones and analyze how the predi...... representation, and general behavior. This is of vital interest in the development of context-aware services which rely on forecasting based on mobile phone sensors.......Prediction and understanding of human behavior is of high importance in many modern applications and research areas ranging from context-aware services, wireless resource allocation to social sciences. In this study we collect a novel dataset using standard mobile phones and analyze how...... the predictability of mobile sensors, acting as proxies for humans, change with time scale and sensor type such as GSM and WLAN. Applying recent information theoretic methods, it is demonstrated that an upper bound on predictability is relatively high for all sensors given the complete history (typically above 90...

  17. Mesenchymal stem cell-conditioned medium prevents radiation-induced liver injury by inhibiting inflammation and protecting sinusoidal endothelial cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Yixing; Zeng Zhaochong; Sun Jing; Huang Yan; Zhang Zhenyu; Zeng Haiying

    2015-01-01

    Current management of radiation-induced liver injury is limited. Sinusoidal endothelial cell (SEC) apoptosis and inflammation are considered to be initiating events in hepatic damage. We hypothesized that mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) possess anti-apoptotic and anti-inflammatory actions during hepatic irradiation, acting via paracrine mechanisms. This study aims to examine whether MSC-derived bioactive components are protective against radiation-induced liver injury in rats. MSC-conditioned medium (MSC-CM) was generated from rat bone marrow–derived MSCs. The effect of MSC-CM on the viability of irradiated SECs was examined by flow cytometric analysis. Activation of the Akt and ERK pathways was analyzed by western blot. MSC-CM was also delivered to Sprague–Dawley rats immediately before receiving liver irradiation, followed by testing for pathological features, changes in serum hyaluronic acid, ALT, and inflammatory cytokine levels, and liver cell apoptosis. MSC-CM enhanced the viability of irradiated SECs in vitro and induced Akt and ERK phosphorylation in these cells. Infusion of MSC-CM immediately before liver irradiation provided a significant anti-apoptotic effect on SECs and improved the histopathological features of injury in the irradiated liver. MSC-CM also reduced the secretion and expression of inflammatory cytokines and increased the expression of anti-inflammatory cytokines. MSC-derived bioactive components could be a novel therapeutic approach for treating radiation-induced liver injury. (author)

  18. Mobile phones and sleep - A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Supe, Sanjay S.

    2010-01-01

    The increasing use of mobile phones has raised concerns regarding the potential health effects of exposure to the radiofrequency electromagnetic fields. An increasing amount research related to mobile phone use has focussed on the possible effects of mobile phone exposure on human brain activity and function. In particular, the use of sleep research has become a more widely used technique for assessing the possible effects of mobile phones on human health and wellbeing especially in the investigation of potential changes in sleep architecture resulting from mobile phone use. Acute exposure to a mobile phone prior to sleep significantly enhances electroencephalogram spectral power in the sleep spindle frequency range. This mobile phone-induced enhancement in spectral power is largely transitory and does not linger throughout the night. Furthermore, a reduction in rapid eye movement sleep latency following mobile phone exposure was also found, although interestingly, neither this change in rapid eye movement sleep latency or the enhancement in spectral power following mobile phone exposure, led to changes in the overall quality of sleep. In conclusion, a short exposure to the radiofrequency electromagnetic fields emitted by a mobile phone handset immediately prior to sleep is sufficient to induce changes in brain activity in the initial part of sleep. The consequences or functional significance of this effect are currently unknown and it would be premature to draw conclusions about possible health consequences.

  19. The Influence of Mobile Phone's Forms in the User Perception

    OpenAIRE

    The Jaya Suteja; Stephany Tedjohartoko

    2011-01-01

    Not all types of mobile phone are successful in entering the market because some types of the mobile phone have a negative perception of user. Therefore, it is important to understand the influence of mobile phone's characteristics in the local user perception. This research investigates the influence of QWERTY mobile phone's forms in the perception of Indonesian user. First, some alternatives of mobile phone-s form are developed based on a certain number of mobile phone's models. At the seco...

  20. UV Radiation Activates Toll-Like Receptor 9 Expression in Primary Human Keratinocytes, an Event Inhibited by Human Papillomavirus 38 E6 and E7 Oncoproteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacini, Laura; Ceraolo, Maria Grazia; Venuti, Assunta; Melita, Giusi; Hasan, Uzma A; Accardi, Rosita; Tommasino, Massimo

    2017-10-01

    and c-Jun, play key roles in UV-activated TLR9 expression. The E6 and E7 oncoproteins from beta HPV38 strongly inhibit UV-activated TLR9 expression by preventing the recruitment of p53 and c-Jun to the TLR9 promoter. Our findings provide additional support for the role that beta HPV types play in skin carcinogenesis by preventing activation of specific pathways upon exposure of PHKs to UV radiation. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  1. SMART PHONE USER ASSISTANCE APPLICATION FOR ANDROID

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. PRABHAVATHY

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays people seem to be more dependent on smart phones rather than any other electronic devices. Smart phones act like mini laptops with the mobilecommunication facility. Moreover, people possess more than one SIM card/Smart phone for many purposes. So non-ambiguity between various roles performed by them is crucial. For an example, person can have smart phone for his personal use at the residence and another phone for his official use. Consider a scenario: person at the residence urgently needs the official contact information available on the phone at his office (remote place. This application plays major dual role by acting as Server (official Smart phone and Client (personal Smart phone. Irrespective of geographic area, the server smart phone (SSP provides various services based on the request received from the client smart phone (CSP. The CSP send various requests through the SMS communication. Various requests can be fetching information from SSP such as log for unread messages and missed calls, unread message content, contact numbers, SIM and IMEI numbers. When the SSP is on silent mode and got misplaced, the CSP can be used to change the sound profile of SSP from silent to ringing mode by sending a request through SMS. If the SSP is in audible distance, then a phone call to it will help us to find the misplaced phone. Besides, the CSP can delete secret data available in the SSP’s memory. This application is different from other applications because it provides User Interface having options to send request through SMS and web database login through internet connectivity for phone’s data backup to provide unlimited memory. Upload any information such as contacts and messages from the smart phone into web database and save phone’s memory space. This application will upload the information in encoded format over the internet, which can be decoded using the application’s login password for security purpose.

  2. Quantitative imaging with a mobile phone microscope.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arunan Skandarajah

    Full Text Available Use of optical imaging for medical and scientific applications requires accurate quantification of features such as object size, color, and brightness. High pixel density cameras available on modern mobile phones have made photography simple and convenient for consumer applications; however, the camera hardware and software that enables this simplicity can present a barrier to accurate quantification of image data. This issue is exacerbated by automated settings, proprietary image processing algorithms, rapid phone evolution, and the diversity of manufacturers. If mobile phone cameras are to live up to their potential to increase access to healthcare in low-resource settings, limitations of mobile phone-based imaging must be fully understood and addressed with procedures that minimize their effects on image quantification. Here we focus on microscopic optical imaging using a custom mobile phone microscope that is compatible with phones from multiple manufacturers. We demonstrate that quantitative microscopy with micron-scale spatial resolution can be carried out with multiple phones and that image linearity, distortion, and color can be corrected as needed. Using all versions of the iPhone and a selection of Android phones released between 2007 and 2012, we show that phones with greater than 5 MP are capable of nearly diffraction-limited resolution over a broad range of magnifications, including those relevant for single cell imaging. We find that automatic focus, exposure, and color gain standard on mobile phones can degrade image resolution and reduce accuracy of color capture if uncorrected, and we devise procedures to avoid these barriers to quantitative imaging. By accommodating the differences between mobile phone cameras and the scientific cameras, mobile phone microscopes can be reliably used to increase access to quantitative imaging for a variety of medical and scientific applications.

  3. Child and Adolescent Use of Mobile Phones: An Unparalleled Complex Developmental Phenomenon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Zheng

    2018-01-01

    This article addresses why children's use of mobile phones is an unparalleled complex developmental phenomenon in hopes of providing a broad context for this special section. It first outlines mobile phones as a sophisticated personalized and multifunction technology. Then it presents mobile phone use by children as an unparalleled complex developmental phenomenon on the basis of its four behavioral elements, two mobile cultures, and two developmental processes. It further illustrates the existing knowledge about children's mobile phones use that has been accumulated over the past 23 years and highlights 12 most studied topics, especially distracted driving and radiation exposure. It concludes with three types of scientific contributions made by the 12 articles in the special section. © 2017 The Author. Child Development © 2017 Society for Research in Child Development, Inc.

  4. Do mobile phones cause brain cancer? and what should be done about it?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maclean, I.; Jones, S.

    2000-01-01

    Full text: The explosive growth in the use of mobile phones has led concerns that there might be as-yet-undiscovered effects on human health arising from the use of mobile phones. Many concerns have centred around the possibility that use of mobile phones may cause brain cancer. The Australian Communications Authority (ACA) regulates telecommunications and radiocommunications in Australia, has significant consumer protection responsibilities. The ACA exercises its functions through a range of legislative methods including standards, one of which relates to human exposure to electromagnetic radiation from mobile phones. The rationale for the standard will be discussed, including a brief account of the medical and physical basis for the limits set in the standard. There will also be an account of how physics can inform community debate on this issue, including the approaches adopted by the ACA

  5. Investigation of thermoluminescence properties of mobile phone screen displays as dosimeters for accidental dosimetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mrozik, Anna; Marczewska, B.; Bilski, P.; Kłosowski, M.

    2014-11-01

    The rapid assessment of the radiation dose after unexpected exposure is a task of accidental dosimetry. In case of a radiological accident glasses originating from mobile phone screens, placed usually near the human body, could be used as emergency thermoluminescent (TL) personal dosimeters. The time between irradiation and TL readout is crucial and therefore preparation of the mobile phone screens and their readout conditions should be optimized. The influence of the samples etching, bleaching and selection of the optical filters based on measurement of the emission spectrum of irradiated glass samples during heating for different types of mobile phones were the subjects of our investigation. Obtained results showed that glasses extracted from different brands of mobile phones have different dosimetric properties but all of them give a luminescent signal which can be used to calculate the dose.

  6. Habits of cell phone usage and sperm quality - does it warrant attention?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zilberlicht, Ariel; Wiener-Megnazi, Zofnat; Sheinfeld, Yulia; Grach, Bronislava; Lahav-Baratz, Shirly; Dirnfeld, Martha

    2015-09-01

    Male infertility constitutes 30-40% of all infertility cases. Some studies have shown a continuous decline in semen quality since the beginning of the 20th century. One postulated contributing factor is radio frequency electromagnetic radiation emitted from cell phones. This study investigates an association between characteristics of cell phone usage and semen quality. Questionnaires accessing demographic data and characteristics of cell phone usage were completed by 106 men referred for semen analysis. Results were analysed according to WHO 2010 criteria. Talking for ≥1 h/day and during device charging were associated with higher rates of abnormal semen concentration (60.9% versus 35.7%, P cell phone usage may bear adverse effects on sperm concentration. Investigation using large-scale studies is thus needed. Copyright © 2015 Reproductive Healthcare Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Development of practical field minimised personal hands free headset for mobile phones with high performance robustness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gosnell, M.E.; Huber, G.

    2001-01-01

    This paper presents the development of a practical means of minimising exposure of the user's head to radiated emissions from mobile phones. The invention allows the production of a commercially viable product similar to the existing and widely accepted hands free headsets. The description of the design evolution concentrates on various techniques for attenuating the power emissions at the earpiece and the corresponding results will be disclosed including measurements taken with the mobile held in several typical positions. The design focuses on maximising immunity to phone and wire position with maximum attenuation in the commercial mobile bands. Copyright (2001) Australasian Radiation Protection Society Inc

  8. Mobile phones, mobile phone base stations and cancer: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moulder, J E; Foster, K R; Erdreich, L S; McNamee, J P

    2005-03-01

    There have been reports in the media and claims in the courts that radiofrequency (RF) emissions from mobile phones are a cause of cancer, and there have been numerous public objections to the siting of mobile phone base antennas because of a fear of cancer. This review summarizes the current state of evidence concerning whether the RF energy used for wireless communication might be carcinogenic. Relevant studies were identified by searching MedLine with a combination of exposure and endpoint terms. This was supplemented by a review of the over 1700 citations assembled by the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) International Committee on Electromagnetic Safety as part of their updating of the IEEE C95.1 RF energy safety guidelines. Where there were multiple studies, preference was given to recent reports, to positive reports of effects and to attempts to confirm such positive reports. Biophysical considerations indicate that there is little theoretical basis for anticipating that RF energy would have significant biological effects at the power levels used by modern mobile phones and their base station antennas. The epidemiological evidence for a causal association between cancer and RF energy is weak and limited. Animal studies have provided no consistent evidence that exposure to RF energy at non-thermal intensities causes or promotes cancer. Extensive in vitro studies have found no consistent evidence of genotoxic potential, but in vitro studies assessing the epigenetic potential of RF energy are limited. Overall, a weight-of-evidence evaluation shows that the current evidence for a causal association between cancer and exposure to RF energy is weak and unconvincing. However, the existing epidemiology is limited and the possibility of epigenetic effects has not been thoroughly evaluated, so that additional research in those areas will be required for a more thorough assessment of the possibility of a causal connection between cancer and the

  9. Melanoma cells show a heterogeneous range of sensitivity to ionizing radiation and are radiosensitized by inhibition of B-RAF with PLX-4032

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sambade, Maria J.; Peters, Eldon C.; Thomas, Nancy E.; Kaufmann, William K.; Kimple, Randall J.; Shields, Janiel M.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To assess the relative radiosensitivities of a large collection of melanoma cell lines and to determine whether pharmacologic inhibition of mutant B-RAF with PLX-4032 can radiosensitize B-Raf+ melanoma cells. Materials and methods: A large collection of melanoma cell lines (n = 37) were treated with 0-8 Gy IR and clonogenic survival assays used to generate survival curves to rank relative radiosensitivities among the cell lines. The ability of a B-RAF inhibitor, PLX-4032, to radiosensitize highly radioresistant B-Raf+ cells was also assessed by clonogenic cell survival and spheroid invasion assays and the effects of treatment on the cell cycle assessed by FACS. Results: Melanoma cell lines displayed a very large, heterogeneous range of SF2 values (1.002-0.053) with a mean of 0.51. Cell lines with surviving fractions of 0.29 or less at SF2 and SF4 were observed at a high frequency of 18.9% and 70.2%, respectively. Treatment of B-Raf+ cells with the B-RAF inhibitor PLX-4032 in combination with radiation provided enhanced inhibition of both colony formation and invasion, and radiosensitized cells through an increase in G 1 arrest. Conclusions: Our data suggest that melanomas are not uniformly radioresistant with a significant subset displaying inherent radiosensitivity. Pharmacologic inhibition of B-RAF with PLX-4032 effectively radiosensitized B-Raf+ melanoma cells suggesting that this combination approach could provide improved radiotherapeutic response in B-Raf+ melanoma patients.

  10. Psychological predictors of problem mobile phone use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianchi, Adriana; Phillips, James G

    2005-02-01

    Mobile phone use is banned or illegal under certain circumstances and in some jurisdictions. Nevertheless, some people still use their mobile phones despite recognized safety concerns, legislation, and informal bans. Drawing potential predictors from the addiction literature, this study sought to predict usage and, specifically, problematic mobile phone use from extraversion, self-esteem, neuroticism, gender, and age. To measure problem use, the Mobile Phone Problem Use Scale was devised and validated as a reliable self-report instrument, against the Addiction Potential Scale and overall mobile phone usage levels. Problem use was a function of age, extraversion, and low self-esteem, but not neuroticism. As extraverts are more likely to take risks, and young drivers feature prominently in automobile accidents, this study supports community concerns about mobile phone use, and identifies groups that should be targeted in any intervention campaigns.

  11. Lane Detection on the iPhone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Feixiang; Huang, Jinsheng; Terauchi, Mutsuhiro; Jiang, Ruyi; Klette, Reinhard

    A robust and efficient lane detection system is an essential component of Lane Departure Warning Systems, which are commonly used in many vision-based Driver Assistance Systems (DAS) in intelligent transportation. Various computation platforms have been proposed in the past few years for the implementation of driver assistance systems (e.g., PC, laptop, integrated chips, PlayStation, and so on). In this paper, we propose a new platform for the implementation of lane detection, which is based on a mobile phone (the iPhone). Due to physical limitations of the iPhone w.r.t. memory and computing power, a simple and efficient lane detection algorithm using a Hough transform is developed and implemented on the iPhone, as existing algorithms developed based on the PC platform are not suitable for mobile phone devices (currently). Experiments of the lane detection algorithm are made both on PC and on iPhone.

  12. Radiosensitization by inhibiting survivin in human hepatoma HepG2 cells to high-LET radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jin Xiaodong; Li Qiang; Wu Qingfeng; Li Ping; Gong Li; Hao Jifang; Dai Zhongying; Matsumoto, Yoshitaka; Furusawa, Yoshiya

    2011-01-01

    In this study, whether survivin plays a direct role in mediating high-linear energy transfer (LET) radiation resistance in human hepatoma cells was investigated. Small interfering RNA (siRNA) targeting survivin mRNA was designed and transfected into human hepatoma HepG2 cells. Real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and western blotting analyses revealed that survivin expression in HepG2 cells decreased at both transcriptional and post-transcriptional levels after treatment with survivin-specific siRNA. Caspase-3 activity was determined with a microplate reader assay as well. Following exposure to high-LET carbon ions, a reduced clonogenic survival effect, increased apoptotic rates and caspase-3 activity were observed in the cells treated with the siRNA compared to those untreated with the siRNA. The cells with transfection of the survivin-specific siRNA also increased the level of G 2 /M arrest. These results suggest that survivin definitely plays a role in mediating the resistance of HepG2 cells to high-LET radiation and depressing survivin expression might be useful to improve the therapeutic efficacy of heavy ions for radioresistant solid tumors. (author)

  13. Radiation and health. Benefit and risks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiefer, Juergen

    2012-01-01

    The book on radiation and health covers the following topics: The world of radiation and waves; a sight into biology; if radiation hits the body; a sight into the internal radiation diagnostics; radiation hazards; the not always beloved sun; mobile phones, microwave ovens and power poles; healing with and due to radiation; radiation and food; radiation in the environment; generation and interactions of radiation in more detail; radiation effects in the cell - closer insight; radiation doses and measurement; epidemiology and its pitfalls; the system of radiation protection radiation accidents.

  14. MCNP simulations of a glass display used in a mobile phone as an accident dosimeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Discher, Michael; Hiller, Mauritius; Woda, Clemens

    2015-01-01

    It has been demonstrated that glass display of mobile phones can be used as a device for accident dosimetry. Published studies concentrated on the experimental investigation of parts of the glass display. In the work presented here, the experimental results are compared with results of radiation transport calculations using the Monte Carlo code MCNP5. An experimental setup of an irradiation of an extracted glass display is simulated. The simulation is then extended to a simulation of a modern day mobile phone consisting of all major parts. Simulations are performed for various irradiation conditions and different geometric and material properties. The results of the simulation show a good agreement with the experiments for an extracted glass sample as well as for an actual modern mobile phone. The glass display is exposed to radiation in various angular and energy distributions. Simulated results were compared to experimentally determined results. The effects of the irradiation condition on the photon energy dependence were investigated and variations in the material constants of the display glass composition were discussed. This work affirms the usability of a mobile phone as a versatile and flexible accident radiation detector. - Highlights: • Simulations of a modern day mobile phone using MCNP are carried out. • Results of the simulation show a good agreement with the experiments. • Photon energy dependence and angular response for display glass are verified

  15. Cell-Phone Addiction: A Review

    OpenAIRE

    De-Sola Guti?rrez, Jos?; Rodr?guez de Fonseca, Fernando; Rubio, Gabriel

    2016-01-01

    We present a review of the studies that have been published about addiction to cell phones. We analyze the concept of cell-phone addiction as well as its prevalence, study methodologies, psychological features, and associated psychiatric comorbidities. Research in this field has generally evolved from a global view of the cell phone as a device to its analysis via applications and contents. The diversity of criteria and methodological approaches that have been used is notable, as is a certain...

  16. Quantitative Imaging with a Mobile Phone Microscope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skandarajah, Arunan; Reber, Clay D.; Switz, Neil A.; Fletcher, Daniel A.

    2014-01-01

    Use of optical imaging for medical and scientific applications requires accurate quantification of features such as object size, color, and brightness. High pixel density cameras available on modern mobile phones have made photography simple and convenient for consumer applications; however, the camera hardware and software that enables this simplicity can present a barrier to accurate quantification of image data. This issue is exacerbated by automated settings, proprietary image processing algorithms, rapid phone evolution, and the diversity of manufacturers. If mobile phone cameras are to live up to their potential to increase access to healthcare in low-resource settings, limitations of mobile phone–based imaging must be fully understood and addressed with procedures that minimize their effects on image quantification. Here we focus on microscopic optical imaging using a custom mobile phone microscope that is compatible with phones from multiple manufacturers. We demonstrate that quantitative microscopy with micron-scale spatial resolution can be carried out with multiple phones and that image linearity, distortion, and color can be corrected as needed. Using all versions of the iPhone and a selection of Android phones released between 2007 and 2012, we show that phones with greater than 5 MP are capable of nearly diffraction-limited resolution over a broad range of magnifications, including those relevant for single cell imaging. We find that automatic focus, exposure, and color gain standard on mobile phones can degrade image resolution and reduce accuracy of color capture if uncorrected, and we devise procedures to avoid these barriers to quantitative imaging. By accommodating the differences between mobile phone cameras and the scientific cameras, mobile phone microscopes can be reliably used to increase access to quantitative imaging for a variety of medical and scientific applications. PMID:24824072

  17. Mobile Phone User Interfaces in Multiplayer Games

    OpenAIRE

    NURMINEN, MINNA

    2007-01-01

    This study focuses on the user interface elements of mobile phones and their qualities in multiplayer games. Mobile phone is not intended as a gaming device. Therefore its technology has many shortcomings when it comes to playing mobile games on the device. One of those is the non-standardized user interface design. However, it has also some strengths, such as the portability and networked nature. In addition, many mobile phone models today have a camera, a feature only few gaming devices hav...

  18. Discursive mobile phone practices and informal rules

    OpenAIRE

    Lloyd, Clare

    2010-01-01

    This paper uses Discourse Analysis (DA) to investigate the socially constructed discursive practices of mobile phone use; specifically it examines the informal rules of mobile phone use. It qualitatively investigates mobile phone use within an Australian cultural context. „Discourse theory begins with the assumption that all objects and actions are meaningful, and that their meaning is a product of historically specific systems of rules‟ (Howarth 2000, p. 8). Evidence of soc...

  19. Investigating Text Input Methods for Mobile Phones

    OpenAIRE

    Barry ORiordan; Kevin Curran; Derek Woods

    2005-01-01

    Human Computer Interaction is a primary factor in the success or failure of any device but if an objective view is taken of the current mobile phone market you would be forgiven for thinking usability was secondary to aesthetics. Many phone manufacturers modify the design of phones to be different than the competition and to target fashion trends, usually at the expense of usability and performance. There is a lack of awareness among many buyers of the usability of the dev...

  20. Phone Application Based Wireless Application Protocol (Wap)

    OpenAIRE

    Berrie Nugraha Adiwinata; Sunarto Usna

    2001-01-01

    WAP mobile phone sales in Indonesia is quite high, evidenced by a recent survey saidnearly about 5% of mobile phone users in Indonesia is a mobile phone using WAPtechnology. For those who always need accurate information and quick. WAPtechnology a ride on a GSM network still has weaknesses such as an expensiveaccess costs. But do not close the possibility that one day we will get a perfect WAPphones.

  1. Cell phone use is associated with an inflammatory cytokine profile of parotid gland saliva.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siqueira, Elisa Carvalho; de Souza, Fabrício Tinôco Alvim; Ferreira, Efigênia; Souza, Renan Pedra; Macedo, Samuel Costa; Friedman, Eitan; Gomez, Marcus Vinícius; Gomes, Carolina Cavaliéri; Gomez, Ricardo Santiago

    2016-10-01

    There is controversy on the effects of the non-ionizing radiation emitted by cell phones on cellular processes and the impact of such radiation exposure on health. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether cell phone use alters cytokine expression in the saliva produced by the parotid glands. Cytokine expression profile was determined by enzyme linked immuno sorbent assay (ELISA) in the saliva produced by the parotid glands in healthy volunteers, and correlated with self-reported cell phone use and laterality. The following parameters were determined, in 83 Brazilian individuals in saliva produced by the parotid glands comparing the saliva from the gland exposed to cell phone radiation (ipsilateral) to that from the contralateral parotid: salivary flow, total protein concentration, interleukin 1 β (IL-1 β), interleukin 6 (IL-6), interleukin 10 (IL-10), interferon γ (IFN-γ), and tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α) salivary levels by ELISA. After multiple testing correction, decreased IL-10 and increased IL-1β salivary levels in the ipsilateral side compared with the contralateral side (P cell phones for more than 10 years presented higher differences between IL-10 levels in ipsilateral versus contralateral parotids (P = 0.0012). No difference was observed in any of the tested parameters in correlation with cell phone monthly usage in minutes. The exposure of parotid glands to cell phones can alter salivary IL-10 and IL-1β levels, consistent with a pro-inflammatory microenvironment that may be related to heat production. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. More iPhone Cool Projects

    CERN Document Server

    Smith, B; Palm, Leon; Smith, David; Smith, Charles; Hoefele, Claus; Pflug, Florian; Colgan, Tony; Mora, Saul; de Vries, Arne

    2010-01-01

    Everyone is developing iPhone applications, and it's clear why. The iPhone is the coolest mobile device available, and the App Store makes it simple to get an application out into the unstoppable iPhone app market. With hundreds of thousands of app developers entering the game, it's crucial to learn from those who have actually succeeded. This book shows you how some of the most innovative and creative iPhone application developers have developed cool, best-selling apps. Not only does every successful application have a story, but behind every great app is excellent code. In this book, you'll

  3. Effects of 17 beta-estradiol on radiation transformation in vitro; inhibition of effects by protease inhibitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kennedy, A.R.; Weichselbaum, R.R.

    1981-01-01

    We have investigated the effects of 17 beta-estradiol, given both alone and with X-irradiation, on the induction of malignant transformation in vitro. Treatment with 10(-6)M 17 beta-estradiol for 6 weeks, or 10(-5)M 17 beta-estradiol for only 5 days, induced malignant transformation in C3H 10T1/2 cells. Estradiol also acted as a cocarcinogen for X-ray induced transformation; the results indicate an additive effect when the cells were exposed to both agents together. The protease inhibitors antipain and leupeptin suppressed estradiol induced transformation as well as the additive effect observed for estradiol-radiation transformation

  4. Effects of 17 beta-estradiol on radiation transformation in vitro; inhibition of effects by protease inhibitors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kennedy, A.R.; Weichselbaum, R.R.

    1981-01-01

    We have investigated the effects of 17 beta-estradiol, given both alone and with X-irradiation, on the induction of malignant transformation in vitro. Treatment with 10(-6)M 17 beta-estradiol for 6 weeks, or 10(-5)M 17 beta-estradiol for only 5 days, induced malignant transformation in C3H 10T1/2 cells. Estradiol also acted as a cocarcinogen for X-ray induced transformation; the results indicate an additive effect when the cells were exposed to both agents together. The protease inhibitors antipain and leupeptin suppressed estradiol induced transformation as well as the additive effect observed for estradiol-radiation transformation.

  5. Phantom phone signals: An investigation into the prevalence and predictors of imagined cell phone signals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tanis, M.A.; Beukeboom, C.J.; Hartmann, T.; Vermeulen, I.E.

    2015-01-01

    This paper aims to elucidate the peculiar phenomenon of imagined cell phone signals, or Phantom Phone Signals (PPS), which is defined as an individual's perception of a phone signal, indicating an incoming call, message, or social media notification, when in fact no such signal was transmitted. A

  6. Hold the Phone! High School Students' Perceptions of Mobile Phone Integration in the Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Kevin; Muñoz, Marco A.

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the survey responses of 628 high school students in a large urban school district to determine their perceptions of mobile phone use in the classroom. Findings indicated that the majority of students (90.7%) were using a variety of mobile phone features for school-related work. Student support for instructional uses of phones,…

  7. Melanoma screening with cellular phones.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cesare Massone

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Mobile teledermatology has recently been shown to be suitable for teledermatology despite limitations in image definition in preliminary studies. The unique aspect of mobile teledermatology is that this system represents a filtering or triage system, allowing a sensitive approach for the management of patients with emergent skin diseases. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In this study we investigated the feasibility of teleconsultation using a new generation of cellular phones in pigmented skin lesions. 18 patients were selected consecutively in the Pigmented Skin Lesions Clinic of the Department of Dermatology, Medical University of Graz, Graz (Austria. Clinical and dermoscopic images were acquired using a Sony Ericsson with a built-in two-megapixel camera. Two teleconsultants reviewed the images on a specific web application (http://www.dermahandy.net/default.asp where images had been uploaded in JPEG format. Compared to the face-to-face diagnoses, the two teleconsultants obtained a score of correct telediagnoses of 89% and of 91.5% reporting the clinical and dermoscopic images, respectively. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The present work is the first study performing mobile teledermoscopy using cellular phones. Mobile teledermatology has the potential to become an easy applicable tool for everyone and a new approach for enhanced self-monitoring for skin cancer screening in the spirit of the eHealth program of the European Commission Information for Society and Media.

  8. Optics for mobile phone imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vigier-Blanc, Emmanuelle E.

    2004-02-01

    Micro cameras for mobile phones require specific opto electronic designs using high-resolution micro technologies for compromising optical, electronical and mechanical requirements. The purpose of this conference is to present the optical critical parameters for imaging optics embedded into mobile phones. We will overview the optics critical parameters involved into micro optical cameras, as seen from user point of view, and their interdependence and relative influence onto optical performances of the product, as: -Focal length, field of view and array size. -Lens speed and depth of field: what is hidden behind lens speed, how to compromise small aperture, production tolerances, sensitivity, good resolution in corners and great depth of field -Relative illumination, this smooth fall off of intensity toward edge of array -Resolution; how to measure it, the interaction of pixel size, small dimensions -Sensitivity, insuring same sensitivity as human being under both twilight and midday sunny conditions. -Mischievous effects, as flare, glare, ghost effects and how to avoid them -How to match sensor spectrum and photopic eye curve: IR filter, and color balancing. We will compromise above parameters and see how to match with market needs and productivity insurance.

  9. Cell phones as imaging sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatti, Nina; Baker, Harlyn; Marguier, Joanna; Berclaz, Jérôme; Süsstrunk, Sabine

    2010-04-01

    Camera phones are ubiquitous, and consumers have been adopting them faster than any other technology in modern history. When connected to a network, though, they are capable of more than just picture taking: Suddenly, they gain access to the power of the cloud. We exploit this capability by providing a series of image-based personal advisory services. These are designed to work with any handset over any cellular carrier using commonly available Multimedia Messaging Service (MMS) and Short Message Service (SMS) features. Targeted at the unsophisticated consumer, these applications must be quick and easy to use, not requiring download capabilities or preplanning. Thus, all application processing occurs in the back-end system (i.e., as a cloud service) and not on the handset itself. Presenting an image to an advisory service in the cloud, a user receives information that can be acted upon immediately. Two of our examples involve color assessment - selecting cosmetics and home décor paint palettes; the third provides the ability to extract text from a scene. In the case of the color imaging applications, we have shown that our service rivals the advice quality of experts. The result of this capability is a new paradigm for mobile interactions - image-based information services exploiting the ubiquity of camera phones.

  10. Electromagnetic interference of GSM mobile phones with the implantable deep brain stimulator, ITREL-III

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alesch François

    2003-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The purpose was to investigate mobile phone interference with implantable deep brain stimulators by means of 10 different 900 Mega Hertz (MHz and 10 different 1800 MHz GSM (Global System for Mobile Communications mobile phones. Methods All tests were performed in vitro using a phantom especially developed for testing with deep brain stimulators. The phantom was filled with liquid phantom materials simulating brain and muscle tissue. All examinations were carried out inside an anechoic chamber on two implants of the same type of deep brain stimulator: ITREL-III from Medtronic Inc., USA. Results Despite a maximum transmitted peak power of mobile phones of 1 Watt (W at 1800 MHz and 2 W at 900 MHz respectively, no influence on the ITREL-III was found. Neither the shape of the pulse form changed nor did single pulses fail. Tests with increased transmitted power using CW signals and broadband dipoles have shown that inhibition of the ITREL-III occurs at frequency dependent power levels which are below the emissions of GSM mobile phones. The ITREL-III is essentially more sensitive at 1800 MHz than at 900 MHz. Particularly the frequency range around 1500 MHz shows a very low interference threshold. Conclusion These investigations do not indicate a direct risk for ITREL-III patients using the tested GSM phones. Based on the interference levels found with CW signals, which are below the mobile phone emissions, we recommend similar precautions as for patients with cardiac pacemakers: 1. The phone should be used at the ear at the opposite side of the implant and 2. The patient should avoid carrying the phone close to the implant.

  11. Health Issues: Do Cell Phones Pose a Health Hazard?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Procedures Home, Business, and Entertainment Products Cell Phones Health Issues Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing ... it Email Print Do cell phones pose a health hazard? Many people are concerned that cell phone ...

  12. Effect of Mobile Phone Radiofrequency Electromagnetic Fields on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    olayemitoyin

    Summary: Since cell phones emit radiofrequency electromagnetic fields (EMFs), this study tested the hypothesis that cell phones placed ... mobile phones on autonomic modulation of the heart. ..... Electrocardiogram and Its Technology. J. Am.

  13. Work productivity in rhinitis using cell phones

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bousquet, J.; Bewick, Bridgette M; Arnavielhe, S

    2017-01-01

    Allergic rhinitis often impairs social life and performance. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to use cell phone data to assess the impact on work productivity of uncontrolled rhinitis assessed by visual analogue scale (VAS). A mobile phone app (Allergy Diary, Google Play Store and Apple ...

  14. Cell Phone Roulette and "Consumer Interactive" Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro, Peter

    2005-01-01

    Under current policies, cell phone consumers face a lower probability of finding the best carrier for their usage patterns than winning at roulette. Corroborating survey data consistently show significant dissatisfaction among cell phone users, network performance is a major issue, and customer "churn" is high. This problem may be traced to a new…

  15. Cell-Phone Addiction: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De-Sola Gutiérrez, José; Rodríguez de Fonseca, Fernando; Rubio, Gabriel

    2016-01-01

    We present a review of the studies that have been published about addiction to cell phones. We analyze the concept of cell-phone addiction as well as its prevalence, study methodologies, psychological features, and associated psychiatric comorbidities. Research in this field has generally evolved from a global view of the cell phone as a device to its analysis via applications and contents. The diversity of criteria and methodological approaches that have been used is notable, as is a certain lack of conceptual delimitation that has resulted in a broad spread of prevalent data. There is a consensus about the existence of cell-phone addiction, but the delimitation and criteria used by various researchers vary. Cell-phone addiction shows a distinct user profile that differentiates it from Internet addiction. Without evidence pointing to the influence of cultural level and socioeconomic status, the pattern of abuse is greatest among young people, primarily females. Intercultural and geographical differences have not been sufficiently studied. The problematic use of cell phones has been associated with personality variables, such as extraversion, neuroticism, self-esteem, impulsivity, self-identity, and self-image. Similarly, sleep disturbance, anxiety, stress, and, to a lesser extent, depression, which are also associated with Internet abuse, have been associated with problematic cell-phone use. In addition, the present review reveals the coexistence relationship between problematic cell-phone use and substance use such as tobacco and alcohol.

  16. PhoneGap 3 beginner's guide

    CERN Document Server

    Natili, Giorgio

    2013-01-01

    Written in a friendly, example-driven Beginner's Guide format, there are plenty of step-by-step instructions to help you get started with PhoneGap.If you are a web developer or mobile application developer interested in an examples-based approach to learning mobile application development basics with PhoneGap, then this book is for you.

  17. Cell Phones Transform a Science Methods Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madden, Lauren

    2012-01-01

    A science methods instructor intentionally encouraged cell phone use for class work to discover how cell phones can be used as research tools to enhance the content and engage the students. The anecdotal evidence suggested that students who used their smartphones as research tools experienced the science content and pedagogical information…

  18. Mobile phone technology in chronic disease management

    OpenAIRE

    Blake, Holly

    2008-01-01

    Mobile phones are being used to improve nurse-patient communication and monitor health outcomes in chronic disease. Innovative applications of mobile technology are expected to increase over time in community management of cancer, heart disease, asthma and diabetes. This article focuses on mobile phone technology and its contribution to health care.

  19. Reading and Grammar Learning through Mobile Phones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shudong; Smith, Simon

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes an ongoing language-learning project, three years into its development. We examine both the feasibility and the limitations of developing English reading and grammar skills through the interface of mobile phones. Throughout the project, reading and grammar materials were regularly sent to students' mobile phones. Students read…

  20. Implementation of Mobile Phones in Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gábor, Korösi; Péter, Esztelecki

    2015-01-01

    It is well-known that mobile phone usage during lessons is, according to social standards, unwanted not only in several countries worldwide but also in Serbia. The Ministry of Education cannot handle effectively mobile phones, tablets, and other potential alternative educational methods or supplements. Thus, the easiest solution has become…

  1. Adolescents' Dialogic Composing with Mobile Phones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warner, Julie

    2016-01-01

    This 14-month study examined the phone-based composing practice of three adolescents. Given the centrality of mobile phones to youth culture, the researcher sought to create a description of the participants' composing practices with these devices. Focal participants were users of Twitter and Instagram, two social media platforms that are usually…

  2. Mobile phones. Up-to-date knowledge and actual questions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asmuss, Monika; Dehos, Anne; Geschwentner, Dirk; Kreuzer, Michaela; Matthes, Ruediger; Poelzl, Christiane; Pophof, Blanka

    2010-01-01

    Starting point of the German Mobile Phone Research Project (DMF) were reported health effects from low level exposure. In mostly interdisciplinary projects, these effects were followed up. In addition the actual everyday exposure was evaluated and the risk perception within the society and possibilities for risk communication were investigated. Although there are still scientific questions unsolved, the DMF contributed significantly to an improvement of the risk assessment and the public communication. Overall, the results from DMF and other research projects do not give reason to doubt the effectiveness of the radiation protection limits. (orig.)

  3. Predicting iPhone Sales from iPhone Tweets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lassen, Niels Buus; Madsen, Rene; Vatrapu, Ravi

    2014-01-01

    Recent research in the field of computational social science have shown how data resulting from the widespread adoption and use of social media channels such as twitter can be used to predict outcomes such as movie revenues, election winners, localized moods, and epidemic outbreaks. Underlying as...... sentiments of tweets. We discuss the findings and conclude with implications for predictive analytics with big social data.......Recent research in the field of computational social science have shown how data resulting from the widespread adoption and use of social media channels such as twitter can be used to predict outcomes such as movie revenues, election winners, localized moods, and epidemic outbreaks. Underlying......, we demonstrate how social media data from twitter can be used to predict the sales of iPhones. Based on a conceptual model of social data consisting of social graph (actors, actions, activities, and artefacts) and social text (topics, keywords, pronouns, and sentiments), we develop and evaluate...

  4. Electromagnetic noise inhibits radiofrequency radiation-induced DNA damage and reactive oxygen species increase in human lens epithelial cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Wei; Wang, KaiJun; Ni, Shuang; Ye, PanPan; Yu, YiBo; Ye, Juan; Sun, LiXia

    2008-01-01

    Purpose The goal of this study was to investigate whether superposing of electromagnetic noise could block or attenuate DNA damage and intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) increase of cultured human lens epithelial cells (HLECs) induced by acute exposure to 1.8 GHz radiofrequency field (RF) of the Global System for Mobile Communications (GSM). Methods An sXc-1800 RF exposure system was used to produce a GSM signal at 1.8 GHz (217 Hz amplitude-modulated) with the specific absorption rate (SAR) of 1, 2, 3, and 4 W/kg. After 2 h of intermittent exposure, the ROS level was assessed by the fluorescent probe, 2',7'-dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate (DCFH-DA). DNA damage to HLECs was examined by alkaline comet assay and the phosphorylated form of histone variant H2AX (γH2AX) foci formation assay. Results After exposure to 1.8 GHz RF for 2 h, HLECs exhibited significant intracellular ROS increase in the 2, 3, and 4 W/kg groups. RF radiation at the SAR of 3 W/kg and 4 W/kg could induce significant DNA damage, examined by alkaline comet assay, which was used to detect mainly single strand breaks (SSBs), while no statistical difference in double strand breaks (DSBs), evaluated by γH2AX foci, was found between RF exposure (SAR: 3 and 4 W/kg) and sham exposure groups. When RF was superposed with 2 μT electromagnetic noise could block RF-induced ROS increase and DNA damage. Conclusions DNA damage induced by 1.8 GHz radiofrequency field for 2 h, which was mainly SSBs, may be associated with the increased ROS production. Electromagnetic noise could block RF-induced ROS formation and DNA damage. PMID:18509546

  5. The Impact of Driver Cell Phone Use on Accidents

    OpenAIRE

    James E. Prieger; Robert W. Hahn

    2005-01-01

    Cell phone use is increasing worldwide, leading to a concern that cell phone use while driving increases accidents. We develop a new approach for estimating the relationship between cell phone use while driving and accidents, based on new survey data. We test for selection effects, such as whether drivers who use cell phones are inherently less safe drivers, even when not on the phone. The paper has two key findings. First, the impact of cell phone use on accidents varies across the populatio...

  6. Factors influencing dependence on mobile phone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad-Hossein Biglu

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The purpose of current study was to investigate the relationship between the problematic use of mobile phone and Big Five personality traits among students of Tabriz University of Medical Sciences in Tabriz, Iran. Methods: A total number of 120 students (80 females and 40 males were selected by applying proportional randomized classification sampling method from Tabriz University of Medical Sciences. The Mobile Phone Problematic Use Scale (MPPUS and demographic questionnaire were used to gather data. Data were analyzed using SPSS software. Results: Analysis of gathered data showed that gender, neuroticism, extraversion, and openness to experience had positive correlation with the problematic use of mobile phone, whereas conscientiousness and agreeableness were not correlated with the problematic use of mobile phone. Conclusion: The evaluation of Big Five personality traits would be a reliable factor for predicting the problematic use of mobile phone among students.

  7. Beginning iPhone Games Development

    CERN Document Server

    Cabera, P; Marsh, Ian; Smith, Ben; Wing, Eric

    2010-01-01

    iPhone games are hot! Just look at the numbers. Games make up over 25 percent of total apps and over 70 percent of the most popular apps. Surprised? Of course not! Most of us have filled our iPhone or iPod touch with games, and many of us hope to develop the next best-selling, most talked-about game. You've probably already read and mastered Beginning iPhone 3 Development; Exploring the iPhone SDK, the best-selling, the second edition of Apress's highly acclaimed introduction to the iPhone and iPod touch by developers Dave Mark and Jeff LaMarche. This book is the game-specific equivalent, prov

  8. Transient impairment of hippocampus-dependent learning and memory in relatively low-dose of acute radiation syndrome is associated with inhibition of hippocampal neurogenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Joong-Sun; Lee, Hae-June; Kim, Jong-Choon

    2008-01-01

    Neurogenesis in the adult hippocampus, which occurs constitutively, is vulnerable to ionizing radiation. In the relatively low-dose exposure of acute radiation syndrome (ARS), the change in the adult hippocampal function is poorly understood. This study analyzed the changes in apoptotic cell death and neurogenesis in the DGs of hippocampi from adult ICR mice with single whole-body gamma-irradiation using the TdT-mediated dUTP-biotin nick end-labeling (TUNEL) method and immunohistochemical markers of neurogenesis, Ki-67 and doublecortin (DCX). In addition, the hippocampus-dependent learning and memory tasks after single whole-body gamma-irradiation were examined in order to evaluate the hippocampus-related behavioral dysfunction in the relatively low-dose exposure of ARS. The number of TUNEL-positive apoptotic nuclei in the dentate gyrus (DG) was increased 6-12 h after acute gamma-irradiation (a single dose of 0.5 to 4 Gy). In contrast, the number of Ki-67- and DCX-positive cells began to decrease significantly 6 h postirradiation, reaching its lowest level 24 h after irradiation. The level of Ki-67 and DCX immunoreactivity decreased in a dose-dependent manner within the range of irradiation applied (0-4 Gy). In passive avoidance and object recognition memory test, the mice trained 1 day after acute irradiation (2 Gy) showed significant memory deficits, compared with the sham controls. In conclusion, the pattern of the hippocampus-dependent memory dysfunction is consistent with the change in neurogenesis after acute irradiation. It is suggested that a relatively low dose of ARS in adult ICR mice is sufficiently detrimental to interrupt the functioning of the hippocampus, including learning and memory, possibly through the inhibition of neurogenesis. (author)

  9. Cancer risks related to low-level RF/MW exposures, including cell phones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szmigielski, Stanislaw

    2013-09-01

    For years, radiofrequency (RF) and microwave (MW) radiations have been applied in the modern world. The rapidly increasing use of cellular phones called recent attention to the possible health risks of RF/MW exposures. In 2011, a group of international experts organized by IARC (International Agency for Research on Cancer in Lyon) concluded that RF/MW radiations should be listed as a possible carcinogen (group 2B) for humans. Three meta-analyses of case-control studies have concluded that using cell phones for more than ten years was associated with an increase in the overall risk of developing a brain tumor. The Interphone Study, the largest health-related case-control international study of use of cell phones and head and neck tumors, showed no statistically significant increases in brain cancers related to higher amounts of cell phone use, but excess risk in a small subgroup of more heavily exposed users associated with latency and laterality was reported. So far, the published studies do not show that mobile phones could for sure increase the risk of cancer. This conclusion is based on the lack of a solid biological mechanism, and the fact that brain cancer rates are not going up significantly. However, all of the studies so far have weaknesses, which make it impossible to entirely rule out a risk. Mobile phones are still a new technology and there is little evidence about effects of long-term use. For this reason, bioelectromagnetic experts advise application of a precautionary resources. It suggests that if people want to use a cell phone, they can choose to minimize their exposure by keeping calls short and preferably using hand-held sets. It also advises discouraging children from making non essential calls as well as also keeping their calls short.

  10. Smartphone usage and increased risk of mobile phone addiction: A concurrent study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parasuraman, Subramani; Sam, Aaseer Thamby; Yee, Stephanie Wong Kah; Chuon, Bobby Lau Chik; Ren, Lee Yu

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed to study the mobile phone addiction behavior and awareness on electromagnetic radiation (EMR) among a sample of Malaysian population. This online study was conducted between December 2015 and 2016. The study instrument comprised eight segments, namely, informed consent form, demographic details, habituation, mobile phone fact and EMR details, mobile phone awareness education, psychomotor (anxious behavior) analysis, and health issues. Frequency of the data was calculated and summarized in the results. Totally, 409 respondents participated in the study. The mean age of the study participants was 22.88 (standard error = 0.24) years. Most of the study participants developed dependency with smartphone usage and had awareness (level 6) on EMR. No significant changes were found on mobile phone addiction behavior between the participants having accommodation on home and hostel. The study participants were aware about mobile phone/radiation hazards and many of them were extremely dependent on smartphones. One-fourth of the study population were found having feeling of wrist and hand pain because of smartphone use which may lead to further physiological and physiological complication.

  11. Mobile phones and mobile communication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ling, Richard; Donner, Jonathan

    With staggering swiftness, the mobile phone has become a fixture of daily life in almost every society on earth. In 2007, the world had over 3 billion mobile subscriptions. Prosperous nations boast of having more subscriptions than people. In the developing world, hundreds of millions of people who...... could never afford a landline telephone now have a mobile number of their own. With a mobile in our hand many of us feel safer, more productive, and more connected to loved ones, but perhaps also more distracted and less involved with things happening immediately around us. Written by two leading...... researchers in the field, this volume presents an overview of the mobile telephone as a social and cultural phenomenon. Research is summarized and made accessible though detailed descriptions of ten mobile users from around the world. These illustrate popular debates, as well as deeper social forces at work...

  12. Hemispheric dominance and cell phone use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seidman, Michael D; Siegel, Bianca; Shah, Priyanka; Bowyer, Susan M

    2013-05-01

    A thorough understanding of why we hold a cell phone to a particular ear may be of importance when studying the impact of cell phone safety. To determine if there is an obvious association between sidedness of cell phone use and auditory hemispheric dominance (AHD) or language hemispheric dominance (LHD). It is known that 70% to 95% of the population are right-handed, and of these, 96% have left-brain LHD. We have observed that most people use their cell phones in their right ear. An Internet survey was e-mailed to individuals through surveymonkey.com. The survey used a modified Edinburgh Handedness Inventory protocol. Sample questions surveyed which hand was used to write with, whether the right or left ear was used for phone conversations, as well as whether a brain tumor was present. General community. An Internet survey was randomly e-mailed to 5000 individuals selected from an otology online group, patients undergoing Wada testing and functional magnetic resonance imaging, as well as persons on the university listserv, of which 717 surveys were completed. Determination of hemispheric dominance based on preferred ear for cell phone use. A total of 717 surveys were returned. Ninety percent of the respondents were right handed, and 9% were left handed. Sixty-eight percent of the right-handed people used the cell phone in their right ear, 25% in the left ear, and 7% had no preference. Seventy-two of the left-handed respondents used their left ear, 23% used their right ear, and 5% had no preference. Cell phone use averaged 540 minutes per month over the past 9 years. An association exists between hand dominance laterality of cell phone use (73%) and our ability to predict hemispheric dominance. Most right-handed people have left-brain LHD and use their cell phone in their right ear. Similarly, most left-handed people use their cell phone in their left ear. Our study suggests that AHD may differ from LHD owing to the difference in handedness and cell phone ear use

  13. An Introduction to iPhone Hardware, Operating System, Applications and Development of iPhone Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Abdul Qadir, Yasir

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this thesis work is to discuss the newly popular mobile phone device named iPhone made by Apple Inc, iPhone operating system and iPhone Applications. Apple iPhone has recently become extremely popular and just within two years of its launch it has captured millions of customers around the world. Thousands of developers have been developing all kinds of mobile phone applications for iPhone and a new era of mobile phone applications development has started. Augmented reality applicat...

  14. Effect of gamma radiation as a method of storing brown flaxseed after 6 months of storage, inhibiting contamination by aflatoxigenic fungi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costa, Laury Francis; Silva, Edvane Borges da Silva, E-mail: lauryfrancis@gmail.com, E-mail: edvborges@yahoo.com [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Dept. de Energia Nuclear; Oliveira, Idjane Santana, E-mail: idjaneoliveira@gmail.com [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (CAV/UFPE), Vitoria de Santo Antao, PE (Brazil). Centro Academico de Vitoria

    2013-07-01

    Flaxseed is an oilseed rich in proteins, lipids and dietary fiber. The brown flaxseed is grown in warm climates and humid, like Brazil, and has shelled tougher than the golden linseed. As the tropical climate is ideal environment for the growth of toxigenic fungi, flaxseed may be exposed to contamination. Four different samples of brown flaxseed were collected in sealed packages obtained from health food stores. Aliquots of grains were separated, packed with PVC film, identified according to the company (E1, E2, E3, E4) and subjected to the process of gamma irradiation doses: 2.5, 5.0, 7.5 and 10 kGy, beyond the control sample that was not exposed. This material was stored in a cool dry place in the laboratory for six months. After that time, the grains were sown in DRBC, to check the growth of total fungi, and in AFPA, to check the growth of aflatoxigenic fungi. After sowing grains, the Petri dishes were randomly distributed on the bench, at room temperature. There was no growth of aflatoxigenic fungi in irradiated samples after incubation, demonstrating that radiation could inhibit fungal contamination during the storage time. Germinated grains were observed in both culture media, in all doses and in the control samples. The germination of flaxseed was inversely proportional to the dose applied to the grains, to both culture media. Irradiation showed to be an effective method for brown flaxseed conservation and maintaining the germination. (author)

  15. Combined treatment with D-allose, docetaxel and radiation inhibits the tumor growth in an in vivo model of head and neck cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoshikawa, Hiroshi; Kamitori, Kazuyo; Indo, Kanako; Mori, Terushige; Kamata, Mizuna; Takahashi, Tomoko; Tokuda, Masaaki

    2018-01-01

    The present study was designed to evaluate the effect of one rare sugar, D-allose, on normal human cells and cutaneous tissue, and to investigate the radiosensitizing and chemosensitizing potential of D-allose in an in vivo model of head and neck cancer. Results indicated that D-allose did not inhibit the growth of normal human fibroblasts TIG-1 cells, and no apoptotic changes were observed after D-allose and D-glucose treatment. The mRNA expression levels of thioredoxin interacting protein (TXNIP) in TIG-1 cells after D-allose treatment increased by 2-fold (50.4 to 106.5). Conversely, the mRNA expression levels of TXNIP in HSC3 cancer cells increased by 74-fold (1.5 to 110.6), and the thioredoxin (TRX)/TXNIP ratio was markedly reduced from 61.7 to 1.4 following D-allose treatment. Combined multiple treatments with docetaxel, radiation and D-allose resulted in the greatest antitumor response in the in vivo model. Hyperkeratosis, epidermal thickening and tumor necrosis factor-α immunostaining were observed following irradiation treatment, but these pathophysiological reactions were reduced following D-allose administration. Thus, the present findings suggest that D-allose may enhance the antitumor effects of chemoradiotherapy whilst sparing normal tissues. PMID:29456721

  16. Effect of gamma radiation as a method of storing brown flaxseed after 6 months of storage, inhibiting contamination by aflatoxigenic fungi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costa, Laury Francis; Silva, Edvane Borges da Silva; Oliveira, Idjane Santana

    2013-01-01

    Flaxseed is an oilseed rich in proteins, lipids and dietary fiber. The brown flaxseed is grown in warm climates and humid, like Brazil, and has shelled tougher than the golden linseed. As the tropical climate is ideal environment for the growth of toxigenic fungi, flaxseed may be exposed to contamination. Four different samples of brown flaxseed were collected in sealed packages obtained from health food stores. Aliquots of grains were separated, packed with PVC film, identified according to the company (E1, E2, E3, E4) and subjected to the process of gamma irradiation doses: 2.5, 5.0, 7.5 and 10 kGy, beyond the control sample that was not exposed. This material was stored in a cool dry place in the laboratory for six months. After that time, the grains were sown in DRBC, to check the growth of total fungi, and in AFPA, to check the growth of aflatoxigenic fungi. After sowing grains, the Petri dishes were randomly distributed on the bench, at room temperature. There was no growth of aflatoxigenic fungi in irradiated samples after incubation, demonstrating that radiation could inhibit fungal contamination during the storage time. Germinated grains were observed in both culture media, in all doses and in the control samples. The germination of flaxseed was inversely proportional to the dose applied to the grains, to both culture media. Irradiation showed to be an effective method for brown flaxseed conservation and maintaining the germination. (author)

  17. Effects of Chk1 inhibition on the temporal duration of radiation-induced G2 arrest in HeLa cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nahar, Kamrun; Goto, Tatsuaki; Kaida, Atsushi; Deguchi, Shifumi; Miura, Masahiko

    2014-01-01

    Chk1 inhibitor acts as a potent radiosensitizer in p53-deficient tumor cells by abrogating the G2/M check-point. However, the effects of Chk1 inhibitor on the duration of G2 arrest have not been precisely analyzed. To address this issue, we utilized a cell-cycle visualization system, fluorescent ubiquitination-based cell-cycle indicator (Fucci), to analyze the change in the first green phase duration (FGPD) after irradiation. In the Fucci system, G1 and S/G2/M cells emit red and green fluorescence, respectively; therefore, G2 arrest is reflected by an elongated FGPD. The system also allowed us to differentially analyze cells that received irradiation in the red or green phase. Cells irradiated in the green phase exhibited a significantly elongated FGPD relative to cells irradiated in the red phase. In cells irradiated in either phase, Chk1 inhibitor reduced FGPD almost to control levels. The results of this study provide the first clear information regarding the effects of Chk1 inhibition on radiation-induced G2 arrest, with special focus on the time dimension. (author)

  18. Evaluation of Mobile Phone and Cordless Phone Use and Glioma Risk Using the Bradford Hill Viewpoints from 1965 on Association or Causation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Carlberg

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Bradford Hill’s viewpoints from 1965 on association or causation were used on glioma risk and use of mobile or cordless phones. Methods. All nine viewpoints were evaluated based on epidemiology and laboratory studies. Results. Strength: meta-analysis of case-control studies gave odds ratio (OR = 1.90, 95% confidence interval (CI = 1.31–2.76 with highest cumulative exposure. Consistency: the risk increased with latency, meta-analysis gave in the 10+ years’ latency group OR = 1.62, 95% CI = 1.20–2.19. Specificity: increased risk for glioma was in the temporal lobe. Using meningioma cases as comparison group still increased the risk. Temporality: highest risk was in the 20+ years’ latency group, OR = 2.01, 95% CI =1.41–2.88, for wireless phones. Biological gradient: cumulative use of wireless phones increased the risk. Plausibility: animal studies showed an increased incidence of glioma and malignant schwannoma in rats exposed to radiofrequency (RF radiation. There is increased production of reactive oxygen species (ROS from RF radiation. Coherence: there is a change in the natural history of glioma and increasing incidence. Experiment: antioxidants reduced ROS production from RF radiation. Analogy: there is an increased risk in subjects exposed to extremely low-frequency electromagnetic fields. Conclusion. RF radiation should be regarded as a human carcinogen causing glioma.

  19. PhoneSat - The Smartphone Nanosatellite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cockrell, James J.; Yost, Bruce; Petro, Andrew

    2013-01-01

    NASA's PhoneSat project tests whether spacecraft can be built using smartphones to launch the lowest-cost satellites ever flown in space. Each PhoneSat nanosatellite is one cubesat unit - a satellite in a 10 cm (approx. 4 inches) cube or about the size of a tissue box - and weighs approximately 1 kg (2.2 pounds). Engineers believe PhoneSat technology will enable NASA to launch multiple new satellites capable of conducting science and exploration missions at a small fraction of the cost of conventional satellites.

  20. 鹿死Windows Phone 7?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Windows Phone 7终于千呼万唤始出来。10月11日,微软发布了9款Windows Phone 7手机,它们将于11月在美国上市销售,运营商分别是AT&T,T-mobile。本期MI除了为米饭们带来几款新机,还将在看天下栏目解析Windwos Phone 7手机的胜负前路。

  1. Maintenance work on CERN mobile phone services

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    Maintenance work on the CERN GSM services will be carried out by our mobile operator, Sunrise, from 8.00 p.m. on 25 June to 1 a.m. on 26 June. External calls from CERN mobile phones using the 333 prefix may be disrupted for 30 minutes during this time. Other type of calls, e.g. mobile to mobile or mobile to CERN fixed phones, will not be affected. Should you have any questions regarding this maintenance operation, please contact the switchboard by phone (76111) or e-mail (standard.telephone@cern.ch) Telecom Section IT/CS

  2. Tapworthy Designing Great iPhone Apps

    CERN Document Server

    Clark, Josh

    2010-01-01

    So you've got an idea for an iPhone app -- along with everyone else on the planet. Set your app apart with elegant design, efficient usability, and a healthy dose of personality. This accessible, well-written guide shows you how to design exceptional user experiences for the iPhone and iPod Touch through practical principles and a rich collection of visual examples. Whether you're a designer, programmer, manager, or marketer, Tapworthy teaches you to "think iPhone" and helps you ask the right questions -- and get the right answers -- throughout the design process. You'll explore how consider

  3. EPR dosimetry of glass substrate of mobile phone LCDs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trompier, F.; Della Monaca, S.; Fattibene, P.; Clairand, I.

    2011-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that mineral glass from watches, windows and displays of personal electronic devices could be a suitable restrospective dosimeter in case of radiation accident. In this paper glass substrates of the window display of 100 mobile phones of different trademarks were analized by X-band cw-EPR before and after irradiation at 100 Gy. The objective of this study was to highlight some issues of EPR measurements of glass related to inter-sample variability of: i) signal line shape in irradiated and unirradiated glass; ii) signal intensity loss and line shape change with post-irradiation time; iii) signal changes induced by sample preparation and iv) signal changes induced by thermal annealing. Scope of the paper is to provide a phenomenological picture of the observed effects in order to give a warning about possible problems and to provide suggestions for future work. Explanation of the mechanisms and the causes leading to the observed effects was beyond the scope of this work. These preliminary results confirm that glass substrate of mobile phone displays should be considered as a fortuitous dosimeter in radiation accidents. However, albeit very promising, mineral glass presents a number of issues that should be thoroughly investigated and addressed in future work.

  4. Thermoluminescence of glass display from mobile phones for retrospective and accident dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Discher, M.; Woda, C.

    2013-01-01

    This paper deals with the thermoluminescence (TL) study of glass displays from mobile phones with the aim to use them as emergency dosimeters after an accident involving ionizing radiation. Dosimetric properties are analysed in order to examine and to critically evaluate the usability. Tests are carried out regarding the characterization of the radiation induced TL signal and the zero dose signal (intrinsic background) on a variety of display samples. Investigations on the thermal and optical stability of TL signals are carried out. The detection limit is mainly determined by the variability of the zero dose signal and lies in the range of 300–400 mGy. A linear relationship between the measured TL signal and the applied dose is observed for doses between 10 mGy and 20 Gy. A measurement protocol for the detection of absorbed radiation dose is developed, considering the experimental dosimetric properties. A reconstruction of the absorbed dose is possible using glass samples from mobile phones, if the signal loss due to storage and optical bleaching of the TL signal is adequately corrected for. This was confirmed by realistic tests. - Highlights: • Glass displays of mobile phones have potential for retrospective dosimetry. • Signal fading can be corrected with an universally fading curve. • Irradiation trials on intact mobile phones demonstrated a reasonable agreement between given and measured dose

  5. Students using mobile phones in the classroom: Can the phones increase content learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rinehart, David Lee

    A study was conducted at a high-performing school in Southern California to explore the effects on learning content from students using their own smart phones in and out of the classroom. The study used a Switching Replications design format which allowed two independent analyses of posttest scores between a group using e-flash cards on smart phones and a group using paper flash cards. Quantitative data was collected via two tailed, t-tests and qualitative data was collected through observations and interviews. Results suggest that knowledge level learning may be increased with mobile phone use, but no effect on comprehension level learning was found. Students found the phones to be convenient in accessing flash cards anytime and anywhere. Enthusiasm for using the phones in class while initially high waned over the 1 month study duration. Students perceived the phones to not be a significant source of distraction outside of class.

  6. Cell phone based balance trainer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee Beom-Chan

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In their current laboratory-based form, existing vibrotactile sensory augmentation technologies that provide cues of body motion are impractical for home-based rehabilitation use due to their size, weight, complexity, calibration procedures, cost, and fragility. Methods We have designed and developed a cell phone based vibrotactile feedback system for potential use in balance rehabilitation training in clinical and home environments. It comprises an iPhone with an embedded tri-axial linear accelerometer, custom software to estimate body tilt, a "tactor bud" accessory that plugs into the headphone jack to provide vibrotactile cues of body tilt, and a battery. Five young healthy subjects (24 ± 2.8 yrs, 3 females and 2 males and four subjects with vestibular deficits (42.25 ± 13.5 yrs, 2 females and 2 males participated in a proof-of-concept study to evaluate the effectiveness of the system. Healthy subjects used the system with eyes closed during Romberg, semi-tandem Romberg, and tandem Romberg stances. Subjects with vestibular deficits used the system with both eyes-open and eyes-closed conditions during semi-tandem Romberg stance. Vibrotactile feedback was provided when the subject exceeded either an anterior-posterior (A/P or a medial-lateral (M/L body tilt threshold. Subjects were instructed to move away from the vibration. Results The system was capable of providing real-time vibrotactile cues that informed corrective postural responses. When feedback was available, both healthy subjects and those with vestibular deficits significantly reduced their A/P or M/L RMS sway (depending on the direction of feedback, had significantly smaller elliptical area fits to their sway trajectory, spent a significantly greater mean percentage time within the no feedback zone, and showed a significantly greater A/P or M/L mean power frequency. Conclusion The results suggest that the real-time feedback provided by this system can be used

  7. Cell phone based balance trainer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background In their current laboratory-based form, existing vibrotactile sensory augmentation technologies that provide cues of body motion are impractical for home-based rehabilitation use due to their size, weight, complexity, calibration procedures, cost, and fragility. Methods We have designed and developed a cell phone based vibrotactile feedback system for potential use in balance rehabilitation training in clinical and home environments. It comprises an iPhone with an embedded tri-axial linear accelerometer, custom software to estimate body tilt, a "tactor bud" accessory that plugs into the headphone jack to provide vibrotactile cues of body tilt, and a battery. Five young healthy subjects (24 ± 2.8 yrs, 3 females and 2 males) and four subjects with vestibular deficits (42.25 ± 13.5 yrs, 2 females and 2 males) participated in a proof-of-concept study to evaluate the effectiveness of the system. Healthy subjects used the system with eyes closed during Romberg, semi-tandem Romberg, and tandem Romberg stances. Subjects with vestibular deficits used the system with both eyes-open and eyes-closed conditions during semi-tandem Romberg stance. Vibrotactile feedback was provided when the subject exceeded either an anterior-posterior (A/P) or a medial-lateral (M/L) body tilt threshold. Subjects were instructed to move away from the vibration. Results The system was capable of providing real-time vibrotactile cues that informed corrective postural responses. When feedback was available, both healthy subjects and those with vestibular deficits significantly reduced their A/P or M/L RMS sway (depending on the direction of feedback), had significantly smaller elliptical area fits to their sway trajectory, spent a significantly greater mean percentage time within the no feedback zone, and showed a significantly greater A/P or M/L mean power frequency. Conclusion The results suggest that the real-time feedback provided by this system can be used to reduce body sway. Its

  8. Intensity-Modulated Radiation Therapy (IMRT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... type your comment or suggestion into the following text box: Comment: E-mail: Area code: Phone no: Thank ... Accelerator Prostate Cancer Treatment Head and Neck Cancer Treatment Introduction to Cancer Therapy (Radiation Oncology) ...

  9. Cell Phone Use by Adults with Intellectual Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryen, Diane Nelson; Carey, Allison; Friedman, Mark

    2007-01-01

    Although cell phone use has grown dramatically, there is a gap in cell phone access between people with disabilities and the general public. The importance of cell phone use among people with intellectual disabilities and studies about use of cell phones by adults with intellectual disabilities was described. Our goal was to determine the extent…

  10. Microsoft Support Phone Number +1-877-353-1149(toll-free) Microsoft Helpline Phone Number

    OpenAIRE

    Allina willson

    2018-01-01

    Microsoft Helpline Phone Number Call Now: +1-877-353-1149 for Microsoft support and services. This is Trusted Microsoft Support number provide instant support.if you get any problem while using Microsoft office just relaxed because Microsoft support phone number +1-877-353-1149 is here to provide instant help of microsoft issues. Just dial our Microsoft support phone number +1-877-353-1149 and get instant online support.

  11. Cell phone ringtone, but not landline phone ringtone, affects complex reaction time

    OpenAIRE

    Radosław Zajdel; Justyna Zajdel; Janusz Śmigielski; Dariusz Nowak

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Legislation systems of most countries prohibited using the handheld mobile phone while driving due to the fact that it disturbs concentration and causes hand involvement. Every phone owner is accustomed to the ringtone of his phone and almost involuntarily endeavors to pick it up or check who calls. This engages one’s psychomotor skills, which in our opinion contributes to the attenuation of reaction time needed for performing other crucial functions. Objectives: The aim of the ...

  12. Secondary Behavior of Drivers on Cell Phones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farmer, Charles M; Klauer, Sheila G; McClafferty, Julie A; Guo, Feng

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine whether cell phone use by drivers leads to changes in the frequency of other types of potentially distracting behavior. There were 2 main questions of interest: (1) As each driver changes cell phone use, does he or she change the amount of driving time spent on other distracting behavior? (2) As each driver changes cell phone use, does he or she change the amount of driving time spent looking away from the driving task? Day-to-day driving behavior of 105 volunteer subjects was monitored over a period of 1 year. The amount of driving time during each trip spent on tasks secondary to driving (or looking away from the driving task) was correlated to the amount of time on a cell phone, taking into account the relationships among trips taken by the same driver. Drivers spent 42% of the time engaging in at least one secondary activity. Drivers were talking on a cell phone 7% of the time, interacting in some other way with a cell phone 5% of the time, and engaging in some other secondary activity (sometimes in conjunction with cell phone use) 33% of the time. Other than cell phone use, the most common secondary activities were interacting with a passenger (12% of driving time), holding but not otherwise interacting with an object (6%), and talking/singing/dancing to oneself (5%). Drivers were looking straight forward 81% of the time, forward left or right 5% of time, in a mirror 4% of the time, and elsewhere (eyes off driving task) 10% of time. On average, for each 1 percentage point increase in cell phone talking, the other secondary behavior rate decreased by 0.28 percentage points (P cell phone interaction per trip, the other secondary behavior rate decreased by 0.08 percentage points (P =.0558), but the rate of eyes off driving task increased by 0.06 percentage points (P cell phone can be distracting from the driving task, other secondary activities can be equally or more distracting, at least as measured by eye glances

  13. Enhancing Environmental Friendliness through Mobile Phone ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Enhancing Environmental Friendliness through Mobile Phone Learning. ... Journal Home > Vol 18, No 1 (2014) > ... Environmental friendly or eco-friendly refers to products or processes that are not harmful to the environment and people who ...

  14. Mobile phones used for public health surveillance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kebede Deribe

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available In Darfur, the Ministry of Health, WHO and partners have developed a mobile phone-based infectious disease surveillance system for use where resources and facilities may be limited.

  15. PhoneSat - The Smartphone Nanosatellite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westley, Deborah; Yost, Bruce; Petro, Andrew

    2013-01-01

    PhoneSat 2.4, carried into space on November 19, 2013 aboard a Minotaur I rocket from the Mid-Atlantic Regional Spaceport at NASAs Wallops Flight Facility in Virginia, is the first of the PhoneSat family to use a two-way S-band radio to allow engineers to command the satellite from Earth. This mission also serves as a technology demonstration for a novel attitude determination and control system (ADCS) that establishes and stabilizes the satellites attitude relative to Earth. Unlike the earlier PhoneSats that used a Nexus One, PhoneSat 2.4 uses the Nexus S smartphone, which runs Googles Android operating system, and is made by Samsung Electronics Co., Suwon, So. Korea. The smartphone provides many of the functions needed by the satellite such as a central computer, data memory, ready-made interfaces for communications, navigation and power all pre-assembled in a rugged electronics package.

  16. Cell Phone Accessibility (for the Visually Impaired)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... it? Use your smartphone to log onto Netflix, Amazon Instant Video, or another online video streaming service ... wireless data connection, which nearly all mobile phone companies insist upon in order to use any smartphone ...

  17. Key determinants of students’ mobile phone choice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Dzigbordi Dzandu

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available As there is still only limited research on students brand choice of mobile phones, the focus of this study was to ascertain drivers of tertiary students’ mobile phone brand choice in Ghana. Using a structured questionnaire, data was collected from a random sample of 840 students from three tertiary institutions in Ghana. The study revealed that the most significant determinant of the students brand choice of mobile phones was perceived quality (p0.05. The study concludes that in spite of their economic handicaps, students brand choice was driven most by perceived quality and not price. Recommendations on how information technology manufacturers’ particularly mobile phone companies and marketers can exploit these drivers to sustain and improve their brand equity among students have been made.

  18. Mobile Phone Dermatitis in Children and Adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Richardson, Clare; Hamann, Carsten R; Hamann, Dathan

    2014-01-01

    Background: Mobile phones have been reported to cause allergic contact dermatitis (ACD). Methods: A comprehensive online literature review was conducted through the National Library of Medicine (Pubmed MEDLINE) using appropriate medical subject headings and keywords. Results: Thirty-seven cases...

  19. iPhone 4S For Dummies

    CERN Document Server

    Baig, Edward C

    2011-01-01

    The full-color guide to getting the most out of your iPhone Completely updated and revised to include iOS 5, iCloud, and other new Apple features, this full-color book is your guide to all things iPhone. Bestselling veteran authors Edward Baig and Bob "Dr. Mac" LeVitus introduce you to the capabilities of the iPhone for making phone calls, browsing the Internet, sending and receiving e-mails, working with the calendar, watching videos, taking great photos, and much more. You'll discover how to set up iTunes, buy music and videos, protect your information, troubleshoot, multitask, and download

  20. Consistency of color representation in smart phones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dain, Stephen J; Kwan, Benjamin; Wong, Leslie

    2016-03-01

    One of the barriers to the construction of consistent computer-based color vision tests has been the variety of monitors and computers. Consistency of color on a variety of screens has necessitated calibration of each setup individually. Color vision examination with a carefully controlled display has, as a consequence, been a laboratory rather than a clinical activity. Inevitably, smart phones have become a vehicle for color vision tests. They have the advantage that the processor and screen are associated and there are fewer models of smart phones than permutations of computers and monitors. Colorimetric consistency of display within a model may be a given. It may extend across models from the same manufacturer but is unlikely to extend between manufacturers especially where technologies vary. In this study, we measured the same set of colors in a JPEG file displayed on 11 samples of each of four models of smart phone (iPhone 4s, iPhone5, Samsung Galaxy S3, and Samsung Galaxy S4) using a Photo Research PR-730. The iPhones are white LED backlit LCD and the Samsung are OLEDs. The color gamut varies between models and comparison with sRGB space shows 61%, 85%, 117%, and 110%, respectively. The iPhones differ markedly from the Samsungs and from one another. This indicates that model-specific color lookup tables will be needed. Within each model, the primaries were quite consistent (despite the age of phone varying within each sample). The worst case in each model was the blue primary; the 95th percentile limits in the v' coordinate were ±0.008 for the iPhone 4 and ±0.004 for the other three models. The u'v' variation in white points was ±0.004 for the iPhone4 and ±0.002 for the others, although the spread of white points between models was u'v'±0.007. The differences are essentially the same for primaries at low luminance. The variation of colors intermediate between the primaries (e.g., red-purple, orange) mirror the variation in the primaries. The variation in

  1. Association between number of cell phone contracts and brain tumor incidence in nineteen U.S. States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehrer, Steven; Green, Sheryl; Stock, Richard G

    2011-02-01

    Some concern has arisen about adverse health effects of cell phones, especially the possibility that the low power microwave-frequency signal transmitted by the antennas on handsets might cause brain tumors or accelerate the growth of subclinical tumors. We analyzed data from the Statistical Report: Primary Brain Tumors in the United States, 2000-2004 and 2007 cell phone subscription data from the Governing State and Local Sourcebook. There was a significant correlation between number of cell phone subscriptions and brain tumors in nineteen US states (r = 0.950, P cell phone subscriptions and brain tumors could be due solely to the fact that some states, such as New York, have much larger populations than other states, such as North Dakota, multiple linear regression was performed with number of brain tumors as the dependent variable, cell phone subscriptions, population, mean family income and mean age as independent variables. The effect of cell phone subscriptions was significant (P = 0.017), and independent of the effect of mean family income (P = 0.894), population (P = 0.003) and age (0.499). The very linear relationship between cell phone usage and brain tumor incidence is disturbing and certainly needs further epidemiological evaluation. In the meantime, it would be prudent to limit exposure to all sources of electro-magnetic radiation.

  2. Cell phones change the way we walk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamberg, Eric M; Muratori, Lisa M

    2012-04-01

    Cell phone use among pedestrians leads to increased cognitive distraction, reduced situation awareness and increases in unsafe behavior. Performing a dual-task, such as talking or texting with a cell phone while walking, may interfere with working memory and result in walking errors. At baseline, thirty-three participants visually located a target 8m ahead; then vision was occluded and they were instructed to walk to the remembered target. One week later participants were assigned to either walk, walk while talking on a cell phone, or walk while texting on a cell phone toward the target with vision occluded. Duration and final location of the heel were noted. Linear distance traveled, lateral angular deviation from the start line, and gait velocity were derived. Changes from baseline to testing were analyzed with paired t-tests. Participants engaged in cell phone use presented with significant reductions in gait velocity (texting: 33% reduction, p=0.01; talking: 16% reduction, p=0.02). Moreover, participants who were texting while walking demonstrated a 61% increase in lateral deviation (p=0.04) and 13% increase in linear distance traveled (p=0.03). These results suggest that the dual-task of walking while using a cell phone impacts executive function and working memory and influences gait to such a degree that it may compromise safety. Importantly, comparison of the two cell phone conditions demonstrates texting creates a significantly greater interference effect on walking than talking on a cell phone. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Cellular Phone Users- Willingness to Shop Online

    OpenAIRE

    Norazah Mohd Suki; Norbayah Mohd Suki

    2009-01-01

    This study aims to identify cellular phone users- shopping motivating factors towards online shopping. 100 university students located in Klang Valley, Malaysia were involved as the respondents. They were required to complete a set of questionnaire and had to own a cellular phone in order to be selected as sample in this study. Three from five proposed hypotheses were supported: purchasing information, shopping utilities and service quality. As a result, marketers and retailers should concent...

  4. Sensing expressive lips with a mobile phone

    OpenAIRE

    ur Réhman, Shafiq; Liu, Li

    2008-01-01

    Considering potential benefits of vibrations in mobile phones,we propose an intuitive method to render human emotions for the vi-sually impaired. A mobile phone is "synchronized" with emotional in-formation extracted from human lips dynamics. By holding the mobilephone, the user will be able to get on-line emotion information of others.Experimental results based on usability evaluation of the system are encouraging. The user studies show a perfect pattern recognition accuracy on the designed ...

  5. Safety of iPhone retinal photography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Sheng Chiong; Wynn-Williams, Giles; Wilson, Graham

    2017-04-01

    With the advancement in mobile technology, smartphone retinal photography is becoming a popular practice. However, there is limited information about the safety of the latest smartphones used for retinal photography. This study aims to determine the photobiological risk of iPhone 6 and iPhone 6 plus when used in conjunction with a 20Diopter condensing lens for retinal photography. iPhone 6 and iPhone 6 plus (Apple, Cupertino, CA) were used in this study. The geometrical setup of the study was similar to the indirect ophthalmoscopy technique. The phone was set up at one end of the bench with its flash turned on at maximal brightness; a 20 Dioptre lens was placed 15 cm away from the phone. The light that passes through the lens was measured with a spectroradiometer and an illuminance probe at the other end to determine the spectral profile, spatial irradiance, radiant power emitted by the phone's flash. Trigonometric and lens formula were applied to determine the field of view and retinal surface in order to determine the weighted retinal irradiance and weighted retinal radiant exposure. Taking ocular transmission and the distribution of the beam's spatial irradiance into account, the weighted retinal irradiance is 1.40 mW/cm 2 and the weighted retinal radiant exposure is 56.25 mJ/cm 2 . The peak weighted foveal irradiance is 1.61 mW/cm 2 . Our study concluded that the photobiological risk posed by iPhone 6 indirect ophthalmoscopy was at least 1 order of magnitude below the safety limits set by the ISO15004-2.2.

  6. Attitudes towards Smart Phones and Tablets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Akbar Ansarin

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the perceptions of advantages of smart phones and tablets on basic and general English students' language learning, self-sufficiency, and interest using smart phones and tablets at an Iranian university college during one university term. Through a survey administered to 333 basic and general English students and through selective observations and interviews, the following questions were examined: 1 Students' perceived impact of smart phones and tablets on increasing their confidence throughout the course,2  Students’ perceived comfort/enjoyment with smart phones and tablets for the students at the beginning and end of the semester,3 Students' perceived impact of devices through a comparison between pre and post survey measures on improvement of reading comprehension, reading speed, vocabulary and spelling, motivation, and preparing them for class tests and quizzes. Tablets were evaluated more positively than smart phones by the students as a means to increase confidence. Both tablets and smart phones were evaluated positively, both as a means of improving students’ motivation to learn, and as a means to develop reading comprehension, spelling, and vocabulary. However, students’ expectations regarding the impact of such devices on their reading speed, preparation for tests and quizzes, as well as comfort and enjoyment were not met.

  7. The cell phone : a dangerous driving distraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kutlay, J. [Alberta Motor Association, Calgary, AB (Canada); Ure, D. [Shell Canada Ltd., Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2005-07-01

    Shell Canada demands that workers do not operate telecommunication systems while operating a motor vehicle for company business, with the exception of short acknowledgment conversations. This power point presentation advised of the dangers of using cell phones while driving. Cell phone use while driving is considered to be mentally demanding as well as contributing to slower reaction times to hazards and reducing driving field of view. Research has indicated that drivers visualize an image of the person being spoken to, in addition to thinking about issues being discussed. Statistics from the United Kingdom reveal that drivers engaged in cell phone conversations are 4 times more likely to crash than other drivers, and take risks comparable to alcohol impaired driving, as well as showing significantly poorer driving performance. Various types of driver distractions were presented. A comparison between radio and cell phones was presented. It was suggested that drivers should not take a phone call while driving alone, and in an emergency, should pull off the road to receive or send phone calls. It was also suggested that callers should ask if a person is driving, and end a conversation if they suspect the person is driving. tabs, figs.

  8. EMF radiations (1800 MHz)-inhibited early seedling growth of maize (Zea mays) involves alterations in starch and sucrose metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Arvind; Singh, Harminder Pal; Batish, Daizy R; Kaur, Shalinder; Kohli, Ravinder Kumar

    2016-07-01

    The present study investigated the impact of 1800-MHz electromagnetic field radiations (EMF-r), widely used in mobile communication, on the growth and activity of starch-, sucrose-, and phosphate-hydrolyzing enzymes in Zea mays seedlings. We exposed Z. mays to modulated continuous wave homogenous EMF-r at specific absorption rate (SAR) of 1.69±0.0 × 10(-1) W kg(-1) for ½, 1, 2, and 4 h. The analysis of seedlings after 7 days revealed that short-term exposure did not induce any significant change, while longer exposure of 4 h caused significant growth and biochemical alterations. There was a reduction in the root and coleoptile length with more pronounced effect on coleoptile growth (23 % reduction on 4-h exposure). The contents of photosynthetic pigments and total carbohydrates declined by 13 and 18 %, respectively, in 4-h exposure treatments compared to unexposed control. The activity of starch-hydrolyzing enzymes-α- and β-amylases-increased by ∼92 and 94 %, respectively, at an exposure duration of 4 h, over that in the control. In response to 4-h exposure treatment, the activity of sucrolytic enzymes-acid invertases and alkaline invertases-was increased by 88 and 266 %, whereas the specific activities of phosphohydrolytic enzymes (acid phosphatases and alkaline phosphatases) showed initial increase up to ≤2 h duration and then declined at >2 h exposure duration. The study concludes that EMF-r-inhibited seedling growth of Z. mays involves interference with starch and sucrose metabolism.

  9. Evaluating temperature changes of brain tissue due to induced heating of cell phone waves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farhad Forouharmajd

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Worries have recently been increased in the absorption of radiofrequency waves and their destructing effects on human health by increasing use of cell phones (mobile phones. This study performed to determine the thermal changes due to mobile phone radio frequency waves in gray and white brain tissue. Methods: This study is an empirical study, where the thermal changes of electromagnetic waves resulted from cell phones (900 MHZ, specific absorption rate for head 1.18 w/kg on the 15 brain tissue of a cow were analyzed in a compartment with three different thickness of 2 mm, 12 mm, and 22 mm, for 15 min. The Lutron thermometer (model: MT-917 with 0.01°C precision was used for measuring the tissue temperature. For each thickness was measured three times. Data analysis is done by Lutron and MATLAB software packages. Results: In confronting of the tissue with the cell phone, the temperature was increased by 0.53°C in the 2 mm thickness that is the gray matter of the brain, increased by 0.99°C in the 12 mm thickness, and also increased by 0.92°C in the 22 mm thickness. Brain temperature showed higher rates than the base temperature after 15 min of confrontation with cell phone waves in all the three thicknesses. Conclusions: Cell phone radiated radio frequency waves were effective on increasing brain tissue temperature, and this temperature increase has cumulative effect on the tissue, being higher, for some time after the confrontation than the time with no confrontation.

  10. Effect of mobile phone station on micronucleus frequency and chromosomal aberrations in human blood cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yildirim, M S; Yildirim, A; Zamani, A G; Okudan, N

    2010-01-01

    The use of mobile telephones has rapidly increased worldwide as well as the number of mobile phone base stations that lead to rise low level radiofrequency emissions which may in turn have possible harm for human health. The national radiation protection board has published the known effects of radio waves exposure on humans living close to mobile phone base stations. However, several studies have claimed that the base station has detrimental effects on different tissues. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the effects of mobile phone base stations on the micronucleus (MN) frequency and chromosomal aberrations on blood in people who were living around mobile phone base stations and healthy controls. Frequency of MN and chromosomal aberrations in study and control groups was 8.96 +/- 3.51 and 6.97 +/- 1.52 (p: 0.16); 0.36 +/- 0.31 and 0.75 +/- 0.61 (p: 0.07), respectively. Our results show that there was not a significant difference of MN frequency and chromosomal aberrations between the two study groups. The results claim that cellular phones and their base stations do not produce important carcinogenic changes.

  11. Investigation of thermoluminescence properties of mobile phone screen displays as dosimeters for accidental dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mrozik, Anna; Marczewska, B.; Bilski, P.; Kłosowski, M.

    2014-01-01

    The rapid assessment of the radiation dose after unexpected exposure is a task of accidental dosimetry. In case of a radiological accident glasses originating from mobile phone screens, placed usually near the human body, could be used as emergency thermoluminescent (TL) personal dosimeters. The time between irradiation and TL readout is crucial and therefore preparation of the mobile phone screens and their readout conditions should be optimized. The influence of the samples etching, bleaching and selection of the optical filters based on measurement of the emission spectrum of irradiated glass samples during heating for different types of mobile phones were the subjects of our investigation. Obtained results showed that glasses extracted from different brands of mobile phones have different dosimetric properties but all of them give a luminescent signal which can be used to calculate the dose. - Highlights: • Application of acids mixture for more effective glass samples etching. • Bleaching can be performed not only by blue but also by UV light. • The readout with BG39 optical filter improves the TL signal intensity. • The glass samples from touch mobile phones are worse emergency TL dosimeters

  12. Human brain wave activity during exposure to radiofrequency field emissions from mobile phones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D'Costa, H.; Cosic, I.

    2003-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether there is an effect of mobile phone electromagnetic field emissions on the human electroencephalograph (EEG). EEG recordings from ten awake subjects were taken during exposure to radiofrequency (RF) emissions from a mobile phone positioned behind the head. Two experimental trials were conducted. In the first trial, RF exposures were generated by a GSM mobile phone with the speaker disabled and configured to transmit at full-radiated power. During the second trial, exposures were generated by a non-modified GSM mobile phone in active standby mode. For each trial, subjects were exposed in five minute intervals to a randomized, interrupted sequence of five active and five sham exposures. The experiment was conducted under single-blind conditions. The average EEG band power in active exposure recordings was compared to corresponding sham recordings. Statistical tests indicated significant difference in the full-power mode trial within the EEG alpha (8-13 Hz) and beta (13-32 Hz) bands. A subsequent statistical analysis of median spectral power in discrete EEG rhythms revealed significant differences in 7 of the 32 distinct frequencies overall. In conclusion, the results of this study lend support to EEG effects from mobile phones activated in talk-mode. Copyright (2003) Australasian College of Physical Scientists and Engineers in Medicine

  13. Cell phone use and parotid salivary gland alterations: no molecular evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza, Fabrício T A; Correia-Silva, Jeane F; Ferreira, Efigênia F; Siqueira, Elisa C; Duarte, Alessandra P; Gomez, Marcus Vinícius; Gomez, Ricardo S; Gomes, Carolina C

    2014-07-01

    The association between cell phone use and the development of parotid tumors is controversial. Because there is unequivocal evidence that the microenvironment is important for tumor formation, we investigated in the parotid glands whether cell phone use alters the expression of gene products related to cellular stress. We used the saliva produced by the parotid glands of 62 individuals to assess molecular alterations compatible with cellular stress, comparing the saliva from the gland exposed to cell phone radiation (ipsilateral) to the saliva from the opposite, unexposed parotid gland (contralateral) of each individual. We compared salivary flow, total protein concentration, p53, p21, reactive oxygen species (ROS), and salivary levels of glutathione (GSH), heat shock proteins 27 and 70, and IgA between the ipsilateral and contralateral parotids. No difference was found for any of these parameters, even when grouping individuals by period of cell phone use in years or by monthly average calls in minutes. We provide molecular evidence that the exposure of parotid glands to cell phone use does not alter parotid salivary flow, protein concentration, or levels of proteins of genes that are directly or indirectly affected by heat-induced cellular stress. ©2014 American Association for Cancer Research.

  14. Influence of Mobile Phones on the Quality of ECG Signal Acquired by Medical Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buczkowski, T.; Janusek, D.; Zavala-Fernandez, H.; Skrok, M.; Kania, M.; Liebert, A.

    2013-10-01

    Health aspects of the use of radiating devices, like mobile phones, are still a public concern. Stand-alone electrocardiographic systems and those built-in, more sophisticated, medical devices have become a standard tool used in everyday medical practice. GSM mobile phones might be a potential source of electromagnetic interference (EMI) which may affect reliability of medical appliances. Risk of such event is particularly high in places remote from GSM base stations in which the signal received by GSM mobile phone is weak. In such locations an increase in power of transmitted radio signal is necessary to enhance quality of the communication. In consequence, the risk of interference of electronic devices increases because of the high level of EMI. In the present paper the spatial, temporal, and spectral characteristics of the interference have been examined. The influence of GSM mobile phone on multilead ECG recordings was studied. It was observed that the electrocardiographic system was vulnerable to the interference generated by the GSM mobile phone working with maximum transmit power and in DTX mode when the device was placed in a distance shorter than 7.5 cm from the ECG electrode located on the surface of the chest. Negligible EMI was encountered at any longer distance.

  15. Potential protection of green tea polyphenols against 1800 MHz electromagnetic radiation-induced injury on rat cortical neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Mei-Li; Wen, Jian-Qiang; Fan, Yu-Bo

    2011-10-01

    Radiofrequency electromagnetic fields (EMF) are harmful to public health, but the certain anti-irradiation mechanism is not clear yet. The present study was performed to investigate the possible protective effects of green tea polyphenols against electromagnetic radiation-induced injury in the cultured rat cortical neurons. In this study, green tea polyphenols were used in the cultured cortical neurons exposed to 1800 MHz EMFs by the mobile phone. We found that the mobile phone irradiation for 24 h induced marked neuronal cell death in the MTT (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazole-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl-tetrazolium bromide) and TUNEL (TdT mediated biotin-dUTP nicked-end labeling) assay, and protective effects of green tea polyphenols on the injured cortical neurons were demonstrated by testing the content of Bcl-2 Assaciated X protein (Bax) in the immunoprecipitation assay and Western blot assay. In our study results, the mobile phone irradiation-induced increases in the content of active Bax were inhibited significantly by green tea polyphenols, while the contents of total Bax had no marked changes after the treatment of green tea polyphenols. Our results suggested a neuroprotective effect of green tea polyphenols against the mobile phone irradiation-induced injury on the cultured rat cortical neurons.

  16. 8-prenylnaringenin and tamoxifen inhibit the shedding of irradiated epithelial cells and increase the latency period of radiation-induced oral mucositis. Cell culture and murine model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryck, Tine de; Impe, Annouchka van; Bracke, Marc E. [Ghent University, Laboratory of Experimental Cancer Research, Department Radiation Oncology and Experimental Cancer Research, Ghent (Belgium); Vanhoecke, Barbara W. [Ghent University, Laboratory of Experimental Cancer Research, Department Radiation Oncology and Experimental Cancer Research, Ghent (Belgium); Ghent University, Laboratory of Microbial Ecology and Technology (LabMET), Ghent (Belgium); Heyerick, Arne [Ghent University, Laboratory of Pharmacognosy and Phytochemistry, Ghent (Belgium); Vakaet, Luc; Neve, Wilfried de [Ghent University Hospital, Department of Radiation Oncology, Ghent (Belgium); Mueller, Doreen [Medical Faculty and University Hospital Carl Gustav Carus, Technische Universitaet Dresden, Department of Radiotherapy and Radiation Oncology, OncoRay-National Center for Radiation Research in Oncology, Dresden (Germany); Schmidt, Margret [Medical Faculty and University Hospital Carl Gustav Carus, Technische Universitaet Dresden, Department of Radiotherapy and Radiation Oncology, OncoRay-National Center for Radiation Research in Oncology, Dresden (Germany); German Cancer Consortium (DKTK) partner site Dresden and German Cancer Center (DKFZ), Heidelberg (Germany); Doerr, Wolfgang [Medical Faculty and University Hospital Carl Gustav Carus, Technische Universitaet Dresden, Department of Radiotherapy and Radiation Oncology, OncoRay-National Center for Radiation Research in Oncology, Dresden (Germany); Medical University, Department of Radiation Oncology, CCC, and CD-Laboratory RadOnc, Vienna (Austria)

    2015-05-01

    The major component in the pathogenesis of oral radiation-induced mucositis is progressive epithelial hypoplasia and eventual ulceration. Irradiation inhibits cell proliferation, while cell loss at the surface continues. We conceived to slow down this desquamation by increasing intercellular adhesion, regulated by the E-cadherin/catenin complex. We investigated if 8-prenylnaringenin (8-PN) or tamoxifen (TAM) decrease the shedding of irradiated human buccal epithelial cells in vitro and thus delay the ulcerative phase of radiation-induced mucositis in vivo. In vitro, aggregates of buccal epithelial cells were irradiated and cultured in suspension for 11 days. 8-PN or TAM were investigated regarding their effect on cell shedding. In vivo, the lower tongue surface of mice was irradiated with graded single doses of 25 kV X-rays. The incidence, latency, and duration of the resulting mucosal ulcerations were analyzed after topical treatment with 8-PN, TAM or solvent. 8-PN or TAM prevented the volume reduction of the irradiated cell aggregates during the incubation period. This was the result of a higher residual cell number in the treated versus the untreated irradiated aggregates. In vivo, topical treatment with 8-PN or TAM significantly increased the latency of mucositis from 10.9 to 12.1 and 12.4 days respectively, while the ulcer incidence was unchanged. 8-PN and TAM prevent volume reduction of irradiated cell aggregates in suspension culture. In the tongues of mice, these compounds increase the latency period. This suggests a role for these compounds for the amelioration of radiation-induced mucositis in the treatment of head and neck tumors. (orig.) [German] Die wesentliche Komponente in der Pathogenese der radiogenen Mukositis ist eine progressive epitheliale Hypoplasie und letztendlich Ulzeration. Die Bestrahlung hemmt die Zellproliferation, waehrend der Zellverlust an der Oberflaeche fortbesteht. Wir versuchten, diese Desquamation durch eine Stimulation der

  17. Self-control and problematic mobile phone use in Chinese college students: the mediating role of mobile phone use patterns

    OpenAIRE

    Jiang, Zhaocai; Zhao, Xiuxin

    2016-01-01

    Background With the popularity of mobile phones, problematic mobile phone use is getting increasing attention in recent years. Although self-control was found to be a critical predictor of problematic mobile phone use, no study has ever explored the association between self-control and mobile phone use patterns as well as the possible pathway how self-control affects problematic mobile phone use. Methods Four hundred sixty-eight college students were randomly selected in this study. Data were...

  18. Costly Cell Phones: The Impact of Cell Phone Rings on Academic Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    End, Christian M.; Worthman, Shaye; Mathews, Mary Bridget; Wetterau, Katharina

    2010-01-01

    College students participated in a study on the "psychology of note taking" during which they took notes on video content and later completed a multiple-choice test on the material. Researchers assigned 71 participants to either the ringing condition (the video was disrupted by a ringing cell phone) or the control condition (no cell phone rings…

  19. Emerging aspects of mobile phone use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samkange-Zeeb, F; Blettner, M

    2009-01-01

    The mobile phone is a modern-day invention, which has managed to reach many parts of the world enabling telecommunications across areas where it was not possible before. Although these devices have proved to be life saving in certain circumstances (e.g., after accidents) and helped improve the quality of life in some sectors, concerns continue to be raised about potential adverse health impacts associated with their use. These range from cancer and cognitive deficiencies to subjective effects, such as a feeling of warmth around the ear used, headache and fatigue. We provide an overview of the concerns raised and summarise what is known about them. We conducted a literature search in Pubmed/Medline to identify published papers on health effects of mobile phones, and an intensive search on the Internet to collect data on the global use of mobile phones. In the year 2000, there were an estimated 500 million mobile phone users worldwide. Today, there are about 3.3 billion users. The use of mobile phones among young children and adolescents is also increasing. Health-risk research has mainly focused on adults and on a single outcome, brain tumours. No significant relationship has been established between mobile phone use and the incidence or growth of brain tumours. Other research indicates emerging concerns, including hearing problems and self-reported health symptoms, such as tiredness, stress, headache, anxiety, concentration difficulties and sleep disturbances, but results remain inconclusive. Currently, there is little epidemiological evidence indicating that the use of mobile phones causes adverse health effects.

  20. Effects of Mobile Phones on Children's and Adolescents' Health: A Commentary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardell, Lennart

    2018-01-01

    The use of digital technology has grown rapidly during the last couple of decades. During use, mobile phones and cordless phones emit radiofrequency (RF) radiation. No previous generation has been exposed during childhood and adolescence to this kind of radiation. The brain is the main target organ for RF emissions from the handheld wireless phone. An evaluation of the scientific evidence on the brain tumor risk was made in May 2011 by the International Agency for Research on Cancer at World Health Organization. The scientific panel reached the conclusion that RF radiation from devices that emit nonionizing RF radiation in the frequency range 30 kHz-300 GHz is a Group 2B, that is, a "possible" human carcinogen. With respect to health implications of digital (wireless) technologies, it is of importance that neurological diseases, physiological addiction, cognition, sleep, and behavioral problems are considered in addition to cancer. Well-being needs to be carefully evaluated as an effect of changed behavior in children and adolescents through their interactions with modern digital technologies. © 2017 The Author. Child Development © 2017 Society for Research in Child Development, Inc.