WorldWideScience

Sample records for phone base stations

  1. Mobile phones, mobile phone base stations and cancer: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moulder, J E; Foster, K R; Erdreich, L S; McNamee, J P

    2005-03-01

    There have been reports in the media and claims in the courts that radiofrequency (RF) emissions from mobile phones are a cause of cancer, and there have been numerous public objections to the siting of mobile phone base antennas because of a fear of cancer. This review summarizes the current state of evidence concerning whether the RF energy used for wireless communication might be carcinogenic. Relevant studies were identified by searching MedLine with a combination of exposure and endpoint terms. This was supplemented by a review of the over 1700 citations assembled by the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) International Committee on Electromagnetic Safety as part of their updating of the IEEE C95.1 RF energy safety guidelines. Where there were multiple studies, preference was given to recent reports, to positive reports of effects and to attempts to confirm such positive reports. Biophysical considerations indicate that there is little theoretical basis for anticipating that RF energy would have significant biological effects at the power levels used by modern mobile phones and their base station antennas. The epidemiological evidence for a causal association between cancer and RF energy is weak and limited. Animal studies have provided no consistent evidence that exposure to RF energy at non-thermal intensities causes or promotes cancer. Extensive in vitro studies have found no consistent evidence of genotoxic potential, but in vitro studies assessing the epigenetic potential of RF energy are limited. Overall, a weight-of-evidence evaluation shows that the current evidence for a causal association between cancer and exposure to RF energy is weak and unconvincing. However, the existing epidemiology is limited and the possibility of epigenetic effects has not been thoroughly evaluated, so that additional research in those areas will be required for a more thorough assessment of the possibility of a causal connection between cancer and the

  2. Radiation of Base Stations of Mobile Phone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lipnjak, G.

    2003-01-01

    In recent years there has been a rapid expansion of new, technological sources of non-ionizing electromagnetic radiation from mobile phones, microwave ovens, various antennas, transmitters, new ultrasound devices. The category of non-ionizing radiation includes electromagnetic radiation at frequencies below 3 000 000 GHz or at ultrasound frequencies below 500 MHz which in interaction with substances do not generate ions. In view of this trend concerns have been raised about the impact of these new (radiation) sources on human health. An increasing amount of scientific research points to the fact that NIR causes various adverse effects to human health: eyes injuries, irritability, insomnia, temporary changes in the metabolism, hazardous heat stress and even carcinoma. The manufacturers and users of radio wave equipment pay great attention to the influence of the electromagnetic fields on human health. This issue has been taken into serious consideration, which is confirmed by a number of studies carried out either by mobile phone manufacturers or by many independent organizations. The limits of electromagnetic radiation exposure are defined in numerous standards and international rule books, and if these limits are complied with, then, according to present knowledge, there is no risk. Considering the concerns of the employees of Ericsson Nikola Tesla the levels of radiation from various types of base stations on company premises were examined. It was found out that there is no hazard to the health of employees. Still, further research is required and it is initiated both by the users and manufacturers of the mobile telephony equipment. (author)

  3. Neurobehavioral effects among inhabitants around mobile phone base stations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Rassoul, G; El-Fateh, O Abou; Salem, M Abou; Michael, A; Farahat, F; El-Batanouny, M; Salem, E

    2007-03-01

    There is a general concern on the possible hazardous health effects of exposure to radiofrequency electromagnetic radiations (RFR) emitted from mobile phone base station antennas on the human nervous system. To identify the possible neurobehavioral deficits among inhabitants living nearby mobile phone base stations. A cross-sectional study was conducted on (85) inhabitants living nearby the first mobile phone station antenna in Menoufiya governorate, Egypt, 37 are living in a building under the station antenna while 48 opposite the station. A control group (80) participants were matched with the exposed for age, sex, occupation and educational level. All participants completed a structured questionnaire containing: personal, educational and medical histories; general and neurological examinations; neurobehavioral test battery (NBTB) [involving tests for visuomotor speed, problem solving, attention and memory]; in addition to Eysenck personality questionnaire (EPQ). The prevalence of neuropsychiatric complaints as headache (23.5%), memory changes (28.2%), dizziness (18.8%), tremors (9.4%), depressive symptoms (21.7%), and sleep disturbance (23.5%) were significantly higher among exposed inhabitants than controls: (10%), (5%), (5%), (0%), (8.8%) and (10%), respectively (Pstation exhibited a lower performance in the problem solving test (block design) than those under the station. All inhabitants exhibited a better performance in the two tests of visuomotor speed (Digit symbol and Trailmaking B) and one test of attention (Trailmaking A) than controls. The last available measures of RFR emitted from the first mobile phone base station antennas in Menoufiya governorate were less than the allowable standard level. Inhabitants living nearby mobile phone base stations are at risk for developing neuropsychiatric problems and some changes in the performance of neurobehavioral functions either by facilitation or inhibition. So, revision of standard guidelines for public

  4. Perception of mobile phone and base station risks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegrist, Michael; Earle, Timothy C; Gutscher, Heinz; Keller, Carmen

    2005-10-01

    Perceptions of risks associated with mobile phones, base stations, and other sources of electromagnetic fields (EMF) were examined. Data from a telephone survey conducted in the German- and French-speaking parts of Switzerland are presented (N = 1,015). Participants assessed both risks and benefits associated with nine different sources of EMF. Trust in the authorities regulating these hazards was assessed as well. In addition, participants answered a set of questions related to attitudes toward EMF and toward mobile phone base stations. According to respondents' assessments, high-voltage transmission lines are the most risky source of EMF. Mobile phones and mobile phone base stations received lower risk ratings. Results showed that trust in authorities was positively associated with perceived benefits and negatively associated with perceived risks. People who use their mobile phones frequently perceived lower risks and higher benefits than people who use their mobile phones infrequently. People who believed they lived close to a base station did not significantly differ in their level of risks associated with mobile phone base stations from people who did not believe they lived close to a base station. Regarding risk regulation, a majority of participants were in favor of fixing limiting values based on the worst-case scenario. Correlations suggest that belief in paranormal phenomena is related to level of perceived risks associated with EMF. Furthermore, people who believed that most chemical substances cause cancer also worried more about EMF than people who did not believe that chemical substances are that harmful. Practical implications of the results are discussed.

  5. [Electormagnetic field of the mobile phone base station: case study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bieńkowski, Paweł; Zubrzak, Bartłomiej; Surma, Robert

    2011-01-01

    The paper presents changes in the electromagnetic field intensity in a school building and its surrounding after the mobile phone base station installation on the roof of the school. The comparison of EMF intensity measured before the base station was launched (electromagnetic background measurement) and after starting its operation (two independent control measurements) is discussed. Analyses of measurements are presented and the authors also propose the method of the electromagnetic field distribution adjustment in the area of radiation antennas side lobe to reduce the intensity of the EMF level in the base station proximity. The presented method involves the regulation of the inclination. On the basis of the measurements, it was found that the EMF intensity increased in the building and its surroundings, but the values measured with wide margins meet the requirements of the Polish law on environmental protection.

  6. Mobile phone base stations-Effects on wellbeing and health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kundi, Michael; Hutter, Hans-Peter

    2009-08-01

    Studying effects of mobile phone base station signals on health have been discouraged by authoritative bodies like WHO International EMF Project and COST 281. WHO recommended studies around base stations in 2003 but again stated in 2006 that studies on cancer in relation to base station exposure are of low priority. As a result only few investigations of effects of base station exposure on health and wellbeing exist. Cross-sectional investigations of subjective health as a function of distance or measured field strength, despite differences in methods and robustness of study design, found indications for an effect of exposure that is likely independent of concerns and attributions. Experimental studies applying short-term exposure to base station signals gave various results, but there is weak evidence that UMTS and to a lesser degree GSM signals reduce wellbeing in persons that report to be sensitive to such exposures. Two ecological studies of cancer in the vicinity of base stations report both a strong increase of incidence within a radius of 350 and 400m respectively. Due to the limitations inherent in this design no firm conclusions can be drawn, but the results underline the urgent need for a comprehensive investigation of this issue. Animal and in vitro studies are inconclusive to date. An increased incidence of DMBA induced mammary tumors in rats at a SAR of 1.4W/kg in one experiment could not be replicated in a second trial. Indications of oxidative stress after low-level in vivo exposure of rats could not be supported by in vitro studies of human fibroblasts and glioblastoma cells. From available evidence it is impossible to delineate a threshold below which no effect occurs, however, given the fact that studies reporting low exposure were invariably negative it is suggested that power densities around 0.5-1mW/m(2) must be exceeded in order to observe an effect. The meager data base must be extended in the coming years. The difficulties of investigating

  7. Electromagnetic fields from mobile phone base station - variability analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bienkowski, Pawel; Zubrzak, Bartlomiej

    2015-09-01

    The article describes the character of electromagnetic field (EMF) in mobile phone base station (BS) surroundings and its variability in time with an emphasis on the measurement difficulties related to its pulse and multi-frequency nature. Work also presents long-term monitoring measurements performed recently in different locations in Poland - small city with dispersed building development and in major polish city - dense urban area. Authors tried to determine the trends in changing of EMF spectrum analyzing daily changes of measured EMF levels in those locations. Research was performed using selective electromagnetic meters and also EMF meter with spectrum analysis.

  8. Radiation safety of mobile phones and base stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jokela, K.; Leszczynski, D.; Paile, W.; Salomaa, S.; Puranen, L.; Hyysalo, P.

    1997-06-01

    The recent expansion of personal telecommunications has led to a rapid increase in the exposure of people to the radio-frequency (RF) radiation. Although the mobile phones are low power devices, the antenna is so close to the head that the local exposure may slightly exceed 2 W/kg, the current exposure limit for the local specific absorption rate SAR for the general public. The increase in the temperature is, however, too small to have any physiological significance. On the basis of experiments with cell cultures it is possible that other biological effects caused by some unknown non-thermal mechanism exist, but thus far there is conclusive biological or epidemiological evidence to suggest any diseases adverse physiological changes below the thermal threshold. The use of a mobile phone by a person wearing a pace-maker, the immunity which against the electromagnetic interference from the mobile phone has not be assured, is not recommended. The exposure caused by the base stations is in almost all practical ceases all below the power density limits for general public. (orig.) (115 refs.)

  9. Radiofrequency radiation injures trees around mobile phone base stations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldmann-Selsam, Cornelia; Balmori-de la Puente, Alfonso; Breunig, Helmut; Balmori, Alfonso

    2016-12-01

    In the last two decades, the deployment of phone masts around the world has taken place and, for many years, there has been a discussion in the scientific community about the possible environmental impact from mobile phone base stations. Trees have several advantages over animals as experimental subjects and the aim of this study was to verify whether there is a connection between unusual (generally unilateral) tree damage and radiofrequency exposure. To achieve this, a detailed long-term (2006-2015) field monitoring study was performed in the cities of Bamberg and Hallstadt (Germany). During monitoring, observations and photographic recordings of unusual or unexplainable tree damage were taken, alongside the measurement of electromagnetic radiation. In 2015 measurements of RF-EMF (Radiofrequency Electromagnetic Fields) were carried out. A polygon spanning both cities was chosen as the study site, where 144 measurements of the radiofrequency of electromagnetic fields were taken at a height of 1.5m in streets and parks at different locations. By interpolation of the 144 measurement points, we were able to compile an electromagnetic map of the power flux density in Bamberg and Hallstadt. We selected 60 damaged trees, in addition to 30 randomly selected trees and 30 trees in low radiation areas (n=120) in this polygon. The measurements of all trees revealed significant differences between the damaged side facing a phone mast and the opposite side, as well as differences between the exposed side of damaged trees and all other groups of trees in both sides. Thus, we found that side differences in measured values of power flux density corresponded to side differences in damage. The 30 selected trees in low radiation areas (no visual contact to any phone mast and power flux density under 50μW/m 2 ) showed no damage. Statistical analysis demonstrated that electromagnetic radiation from mobile phone masts is harmful for trees. These results are consistent with the fact

  10. Exposure to radio waves near mobile phone base stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mann, S.M.; Cooper, T.G.; Allen, S.G.; Blackwell, R.P.; Lowe, A.J.

    2000-01-01

    Measurements of power density have been made at 17 sites where people were concerned about their exposure to radio waves from mobile phone base stations and where technical data, including the frequencies and radiated powers, have been obtained from the operators. Based on the technical data, the radiated power from antennas used with macrocellular base stations in the UK appears to range from a few watts to a few tens of watts, with typical maximum powers around 80 W. Calculations based on this power indicate that compliance distances would be expected to be no more than 3.1 m for the NRPB guidelines and no more than 8.4 m for the ICNIRP public guidelines. Microcellular base stations appear to use powers no more than a few watts and would not be expected to require compliance distances in excess of a few tens of centimetres. Power density from the base stations of interest was measured at 118 locations at the 17 sites and these data were compared with calculations assuming an inverse square law dependence of power density upon distance from the antennas. It was found that the calculations overestimated the measured power density by up to four orders of magnitude at locations that were either not exposed to the main beam from antennas, or shielded by building fabric. For all locations and for distances up to 250 m from the base stations, power density at the measurement positions did not show any trend to decrease with increasing distance. The signals from other sources were frequently found to be of similar strength to the signals from the base stations of interest. Spectral measurements were obtained over the 30 MHz to 2.9 GHz range at 73 of the locations so that total exposure to radio signals could be assessed. The geometric mean total exposure arising from all radio signals at the locations considered was 2 millionths of the NRPB investigation level, or 18 millionths of the lower ICNIRP public reference level; however, the data varied over several decades. The

  11. Radiation safety of handheld mobile phones and base stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jokela, K.; Leszczynski, D.; Paile, W.; Salomaa, S.; Puranen, L.; Hyysalo, P.

    1999-01-01

    The recent expansion of personal telecommunications has led to a rapid increase in the exposure of people to the radio-frequency (RF) radiation. Although the mobile phones are low power devices, the antenna is so close to the head that the local exposure may slightly exceed 2 W/kg, the current exposure limit for the local specific absorption rate SAR for the general public. The increase in the temperature is, however, too small to have any physiological significance. On the basis of experiments with cell cultures it is possible that other biological effects caused by some unknown non-thermal mechanism exist, but thus far there is no conclusive biological or epidemiological evidence to suggest any diseases or adverse physiological changes below the thermal threshold. The use of a mobile phone by a person wearing a pace-maker, is not recommended, if the immunity of the pace-maker has not been assured. The exposure caused by the base stations is in all practical cases well below the power density limits for general public. (author)

  12. Radiation safety of handheld mobile phones and base stations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jokela, K.; Leszczynski, D.; Paile, W.; Salomaa, S.; Puranen, L.; Hyysalo, P

    1999-01-01

    The recent expansion of personal telecommunications has led to a rapid increase in the exposure of people to the radio-frequency (RF) radiation. Although the mobile phones are low power devices, the antenna is so close to the head that the local exposure may slightly exceed 2 W/kg, the current exposure limit for the local specific absorption rate SAR for the general public. The increase in the temperature is, however, too small to have any physiological significance. On the basis of experiments with cell cultures it is possible that other biological effects caused by some unknown non-thermal mechanism exist, but thus far there is no conclusive biological or epidemiological evidence to suggest any diseases or adverse physiological changes below the thermal threshold. The use of a mobile phone by a person wearing a pace-maker, is not recommended, if the immunity of the pace-maker has not been assured. The exposure caused by the base stations is in all practical cases well below the power density limits for general public. (author) 118 refs.

  13. Radiation level survey of a mobile phone base station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campos, M.C.; Schaffer, S.R.

    2006-01-01

    Electromagnetic field (E.M.F.) evaluations were carried out in the surroundings of a roof-top mobile-phone radio-base station (R.B.S.). Four of its sector-panel antennas are installed on two parallel vertical masts, each supporting two panels in a vertical collinear-array. The geometry is such that the vertical plane containing both masts is about 10 meters distant and parallel to the backside of an educational institution. This proximity provoked great anxiety among the local community members regarding potential health hazards.1. Introduction: To keep up with the expansion of the mobile-phone services, the number of Radio-Base Stations (R.B.S.) installations is increasing tremendously in Brazil. Efficient control and radiation monitoring to assess R.B.S. compliance to existing regulations are still lacking and particularly in big cities, clearly non - compliant R.B.S. can be seen which represent potentially hazardous E.M.F. sources to the nearby population. This first survey of an irregular R.B.S. revealed significant E-field strengths outside, as well as inside a classroom of an educational building where an usually prolonged stay is necessary. These results confirm that this problem deserves further attention, moreover, if one considers that public and occupational exposure limits set by I.C.N.I.R.P. (also adopted in Brazil) are exclusively based on the immediate thermal effects of acute exposure, disregarding any potential health risk from prolonged exposure to lower level radiation. Research activities focusing on quantitative aspects of electromagnetic radiation from R.B.S., as well as on biological and adverse health effects are still at a very incipient level, urging for immediate actions to improve this scenario in our country. 2. Material, methods and results Measurements were carried out with a broadband field strength monitor, E.M.R.-300 (W and G) coupled to an isotropic E-field probe (100 khz to 3 GHz). Preliminary measurements helped locating

  14. Effect of electromagnetic radiations from mobile phone base stations on general health and salivary function

    OpenAIRE

    Singh, Kushpal; Nagaraj, Anup; Yousuf, Asif; Ganta, Shravani; Pareek, Sonia; Vishnani, Preeti

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Cell phones use electromagnetic, nonionizing radiations in the microwave range, which some believe may be harmful to human health. The present study aimed to determine the effect of electromagnetic radiations (EMRs) on unstimulated/stimulated salivary flow rate and other health-related problems between the general populations residing in proximity to and far away from mobile phone base stations. Materials and Methods: A total of four mobile base stations were randomly selected from...

  15. Epidemiological evidence for a health risk from mobile phone base stations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khurana, Vini G; Hardell, Lennart; Everaert, Joris; Bortkiewicz, Alicja; Carlberg, Michael; Ahonen, Mikko

    2010-01-01

    Human populations are increasingly exposed to microwave/radiofrequency (RF) emissions from wireless communication technology, including mobile phones and their base stations. By searching PubMed, we identified a total of 10 epidemiological studies that assessed for putative health effects of mobile phone base stations. Seven of these studies explored the association between base station proximity and neurobehavioral effects and three investigated cancer. We found that eight of the 10 studies reported increased prevalence of adverse neurobehavioral symptoms or cancer in populations living at distances base stations. None of the studies reported exposure above accepted international guidelines, suggesting that current guidelines may be inadequate in protecting the health of human populations. We believe that comprehensive epidemiological studies of long-term mobile phone base station exposure are urgently required to more definitively understand its health impact.

  16. Determination of exposure due to mobile phone base stations in an epidemiological study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neitzke, H. P.; Osterhoff, J.; Peklo, K.; Voigt, H.

    2007-01-01

    To investigate a supposed relationship between exposure by mobile phone base stations and well-being, an epidemiological cross sectional study is carried out within the German Mobile Telecommunication Research Program. In a parallel project, a method for the classification of electromagnetic exposure due to mobile phone base stations has been developed. This is based on the results of measurements of high frequency immissions in the interior of more than 1100 rooms and at outdoor locations, the calculation of the emissions of mobile phone antennas under free space propagation conditions and empirically determined transmission factors for the propagation of electromagnetic waves in different types of residential areas for passage of walls and windows. Standard tests (correlation-test, kappa-test, Bland-Altman-Plot, analysis of sensitivity and specificity) show that the method for computational exposure assessment developed in this project is applicable for a first classification of exposures due to mobile phone base stations in epidemiological studies. (authors)

  17. Risk and Benefit Perceptions of Mobile Phone and Base Station Technology in Bangladesh

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kleef, van E.; Fischer, A.R.H.; Khan, M.; Frewer, L.J.

    2010-01-01

    Research in developed countries showed that many citizens perceive that radio signals transmitted by mobile phones and base stations represent potential health risks. Less research has been conducted in developing countries focused on citizen perceptions of risks and benefits, despite the recent and

  18. Applicability of an exposure model for the determination of emissions from mobile phone base stations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Breckenkamp, J; Neitzke, H P; Bornkessel, C

    2008-01-01

    Applicability of a model to estimate radiofrequency electromagnetic field (RF-EMF) strength in households from mobile phone base stations was evaluated with technical data of mobile phone base stations available from the German Net Agency, and dosimetric measurements, performed in an epidemiologi......Applicability of a model to estimate radiofrequency electromagnetic field (RF-EMF) strength in households from mobile phone base stations was evaluated with technical data of mobile phone base stations available from the German Net Agency, and dosimetric measurements, performed...... in an epidemiological study. Estimated exposure and exposure measured with dosemeters in 1322 participating households were compared. For that purpose, the upper 10th percentiles of both outcomes were defined as the 'higher exposed' groups. To assess the agreement of the defined 'higher' exposed groups, kappa...... coefficient, sensitivity and specificity were calculated. The present results show only a weak agreement of calculations and measurements (kappa values between -0.03 and 0.28, sensitivity between 7.1 and 34.6). Only in some of the sub-analyses, a higher agreement was found, e.g. when measured instead...

  19. Effect of electromagnetic radiations from mobile phone base stations on general health and salivary function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Kushpal; Nagaraj, Anup; Yousuf, Asif; Ganta, Shravani; Pareek, Sonia; Vishnani, Preeti

    2016-01-01

    Cell phones use electromagnetic, nonionizing radiations in the microwave range, which some believe may be harmful to human health. The present study aimed to determine the effect of electromagnetic radiations (EMRs) on unstimulated/stimulated salivary flow rate and other health-related problems between the general populations residing in proximity to and far away from mobile phone base stations. A total of four mobile base stations were randomly selected from four zones of Jaipur, Rajasthan, India. Twenty individuals who were residing in proximity to the selected mobile phone towers were taken as the case group and the other 20 individuals (control group) who were living nearly 1 km away in the periphery were selected for salivary analysis. Questions related to sleep disturbances were measured using Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) and other health problems were included in the questionnaire. Chi-square test was used for statistical analysis. It was unveiled that a majority of the subjects who were residing near the mobile base station complained of sleep disturbances, headache, dizziness, irritability, concentration difficulties, and hypertension. A majority of the study subjects had significantly lesser stimulated salivary secretion (P base stations on the health and well-being of the general population cannot be ruled out. Further studies are warranted to evaluate the effect of electromagnetic fields (EMFs) on general health and more specifically on oral health.

  20. [Level of microwave radiation from mobile phone base stations built in residential districts].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Ji; Lu, Yiyang; Zhang, Huacheng; Xie, Hebing; Yang, Xinwen

    2009-11-01

    To investigate the condition of microwave radiation pollution from mobile phone base station built in populated area. Random selected 18 residential districts where had base station and 10 residential districts where had no base stations. A TES-92 electromagnetic radiation monitor were used to measure the intensity of microwave radiation in external and internal living environment. The intensities of microwave radiation in the exposure residential districts were more higher than those of the control residential districts (p station, it would gradually weaken with the increase of the distance. The level of microwave radiation in antenna main lobe region is not certainly more higher than the side lobe direction, and the side lobe direction also is not more lower. At the same district, where there were two base stations, the electromagnetic field nestification would take place in someplace. The intensities of microwave radiation outside the exposure windows in the resident room not only changed with distance but also with the height of the floor. The intensities of microwave radiation inside the aluminum alloys security net were more lower than those of outside the aluminum alloys security net (p 0.05). Although all the measure dates on the ground around the base station could be below the primary standard in "environment electromagnetic wave hygienic standard" (GB9175-88), there were still a minorities of windows which exposed to the base station were higher, and the outside or inside of a few window was even higher beyond the primary safe level defined standard. The aluminum alloys security net can partly shield the microwave radiation from the mobile phone base station.

  1. The Precautionary Principle in the Context of Mobile Phone and Base Station Radiofrequency Exposures

    OpenAIRE

    Dolan, Mike; Rowley, Jack

    2009-01-01

    Background No health hazard has been established from exposure to radiofrequency fields up to the levels recommended by the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection. However, in response to public concern and the perceived level of scientific uncertainty, there are continuing calls for the application of the precautionary principle to radiofrequency exposures from mobile phones and base stations. Objective We examined the international evolution of calls for precautionary...

  2. [Increased occurrence of nuclear cataract in the calf after erection of a mobile phone base station].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hässig, M; Jud, F; Spiess, B

    2012-02-01

    We examined and monitored a dairy farm in which a large number of calves were born with nuclear cataracts after a mobile phone base station had been erected in the vicinity of the barn. Calves showed a 3.5 times higher risk for heavy cataract if born there compared to Swiss average. All usual causes such as infection or poisoning, common in Switzerland, could be excluded. The real cause of the increased incidence of cataracts remains unknown.

  3. Risk and benefit perceptions of mobile phone and base station technology in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Kleef, Ellen; Fischer, Arnout R H; Khan, Moin; Frewer, Lynn J

    2010-06-01

    Research in developed countries showed that many citizens perceive that radio signals transmitted by mobile phones and base stations represent potential health risks. Less research has been conducted in developing countries focused on citizen perceptions of risks and benefits, despite the recent and rapid introduction of mobile communication technologies. This study aims to identify factors that are influential in determining the tradeoffs that Bangladeshi citizens make between risks and benefits in terms of mobile phone technology acceptance and health concerns associated with the technology. Bangladesh was selected as representative of many developing countries inasmuch as terrestrial telephone infrastructure is insubstantial, and mobile phone use has expanded rapidly over the last decade, even among the poor. Issues of importance were identified in a small-scale qualitative study among Bangladeshi citizens (n = 13), followed by a survey within a sample of Bangladeshi citizens (n = 500). The results demonstrate that, in general, the perceived benefits of mobile phone technology outweigh the risks. The perceived benefits are primarily related to the social and personal advantages of mobile phone use, including the ability to receive emergency news about floods, cyclones, and other natural disasters. Base stations were seen as a symbol of societal advance. The results furthermore suggest that overall risk perceptions are relatively low, in particular health risks, and are primarily driven by perceptions that related to crime and social inconvenience. Perceived health risks are relatively small. These findings show that risk communication and management may be particularly effective when contextual factors of the society where the system is implemented are taken into consideration.

  4. Influence of mobile phone traffic on base station exposure of the general public.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, Wout; Verloock, Leen

    2010-11-01

    The influence of mobile phone traffic on temporal radiofrequency exposure due to base stations during 7 d is compared for five different sites with Erlang data (representing average mobile phone traffic intensity during a period of time). The time periods of high exposure and high traffic during a day are compared and good agreement is obtained. The minimal required measurement periods to obtain accurate estimates for maximal and average long-period exposure (7 d) are determined. It is shown that these periods may be very long, indicating the necessity of new methodologies to estimate maximal and average exposure from short-period measurement data. Therefore, a new method to calculate the fields at a time instant from fields at another time instant using normalized Erlang values is proposed. This enables the estimation of maximal and average exposure during a week from short-period measurements using only Erlang data and avoids the necessity of long measurement times.

  5. Frequency domain analysis of the lightning current distribution to ground at the transmission line tower with cellular phone base station

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grcev, L.; Deursen, van A.P.J.; Waes, van J.B.M.

    2003-01-01

    Cellular phone base stations are often placed in the poles of power transmission lines. We consider the case when such base stations are powered from the low-voltage network. Of special concern is the current that might be led through the cable metallic shields to other customers' premises in case

  6. Are people living next to mobile phone base stations more strained? Relationship of health concerns, self-estimated distance to base station, and psychological parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Augner, Christoph; Hacker, Gerhard W

    2009-12-01

    Coeval with the expansion of mobile phone technology and the associated obvious presence of mobile phone base stations, some people living close to these masts reported symptoms they attributed to electromagnetic fields (EMF). Public and scientific discussions arose with regard to whether these symptoms were due to EMF or were nocebo effects. The aim of this study was to find out if people who believe that they live close to base stations show psychological or psychobiological differences that would indicate more strain or stress. Furthermore, we wanted to detect the relevant connections linking self-estimated distance between home and the next mobile phone base station (DBS), daily use of mobile phone (MPU), EMF-health concerns, electromagnetic hypersensitivity, and psychological strain parameters. Fifty-seven participants completed standardized and non-standardized questionnaires that focused on the relevant parameters. In addition, saliva samples were used as an indication to determine the psychobiological strain by concentration of alpha-amylase, cortisol, immunoglobulin A (IgA), and substance P. Self-declared base station neighbors (DBS base station neighbors are more strained than others. EMF-related health concerns cannot explain these findings. Further research should identify if actual EMF exposure or other factors are responsible for these results.

  7. Radiation safety of mobile phones and base stations; Matkapuhelimien ja tukiasemien saeteilyturvallisuus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jokela, K.; Leszczynski, D.; Paile, W.; Salomaa, S.; Puranen, L.; Hyysalo, P.

    1997-06-01

    The recent expansion of personal telecommunications has led to a rapid increase in the exposure of people to the radio-frequency (RF) radiation. Although the mobile phones are low power devices, the antenna is so close to the head that the local exposure may slightly exceed 2 W/kg, the current exposure limit for the local specific absorption rate SAR for the general public. The increase in the temperature is, however, too small to have any physiological significance. On the basis of experiments with cell cultures it is possible that other biological effects caused by some unknown non-thermal mechanism exist, but thus far there is conclusive biological or epidemiological evidence to suggest any diseases adverse physiological changes below the thermal threshold. The use of a mobile phone by a person wearing a pace-maker, the immunity which against the electromagnetic interference from the mobile phone has not be assured, is not recommended. The exposure caused by the base stations is in almost all practical ceases all below the power density limits for general public. (orig.) (115 refs.).

  8. The precautionary principle in the context of mobile phone and base station radiofrequency exposures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolan, Mike; Rowley, Jack

    2009-09-01

    No health hazard has been established from exposure to radiofrequency fields up to the levels recommended by the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection. However, in response to public concern and the perceived level of scientific uncertainty, there are continuing calls for the application of the precautionary principle to radiofrequency exposures from mobile phones and base stations. We examined the international evolution of calls for precautionary measures in relation to mobile phones and base stations, with particular focus on Australia and the United Kingdom. The precautionary principle is difficult to define, and there is no widespread agreement as to how it should be implemented. However, there is a strong argument that precautionary measures should not be implemented in the absence of reliable scientific data and logical reasoning pointing to a possible health hazard. There is also experimental evidence that precautionary advice may increase public concern. We argue that conservative exposure standards, technical features that minimize unnecessary exposures, ongoing research, regular review of standards, and availability of consumer information make mobile communications inherently precautionary. Commonsense measures can be adopted by individuals, governments, and industry to address public concern while ensuring that mobile networks are developed for the benefit of society.

  9. Mobile phone base stations and early childhood cancers: case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, Paul; Toledano, Mireille B; Bennett, J; Beale, L; de Hoogh, K; Best, N; Briggs, D J

    2010-06-22

    To investigate the risk of early childhood cancers associated with the mother's exposure to radiofrequency from and proximity to macrocell mobile phone base stations (masts) during pregnancy. Case-control study. Cancer registry and national birth register data in Great Britain. 1397 cases of cancer in children aged 0-4 from national cancer registry 1999-2001 and 5588 birth controls from national birth register, individually matched by sex and date of birth (four controls per case). Incidence of cancers of the brain and central nervous system, leukaemia, and non-Hodgkin's lymphomas, and all cancers combined, adjusted for small area measures of education level, socioeconomic deprivation, population density, and population mixing. Mean distance of registered address at birth from a macrocell base station, based on a national database of 76,890 base station antennas in 1996-2001, was similar for cases and controls (1107 (SD 1131) m v 1073 (SD 1130) m, P=0.31), as was total power output of base stations within 700 m of the address (2.89 (SD 5.9) kW v 3.00 (SD 6.0) kW, P=0.54) and modelled power density (-30.3 (SD 21.7) dBm v -29.7 (SD 21.5) dBm, P=0.41). For modelled power density at the address at birth, compared with the lowest exposure category the adjusted odds ratios were 1.01 (95% confidence interval 0.87 to 1.18) in the intermediate and 1.02 (0.88 to 1.20) in the highest exposure category for all cancers (P=0.79 for trend), 0.97 (0.69 to 1.37) and 0.76 (0.51 to 1.12), respectively, for brain and central nervous system cancers (P=0.33 for trend), and 1.16 (0.90 to 1.48) and 1.03 (0.79 to 1.34) for leukaemia and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (P=0.51 for trend). There is no association between risk of early childhood cancers and estimates of the mother's exposure to mobile phone base stations during pregnancy.

  10. Determinants and stability over time of perception of health risks related to mobile phone base stations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kowall, Bernd; Breckenkamp, Jürgen; Blettner, Maria

    2012-01-01

    about other environmental and health risks, is associated with psychological strain, and is stable on the individual level over time. METHODS: Self-administered questionnaires filled in by 3,253 persons aged 15-69 years in 2004 and 2006 in Germany. RESULTS: Risk perception of MPBS was strongly......OBJECTIVE: Perception of possible health risks related to mobile phone base stations (MPBS) is an important factor in citizens' opposition against MPBS and is associated with health complaints. The aim of the present study is to assess whether risk perception of MPBS is associated with concerns...... in 2004 expressed these concerns again 2 years later, the corresponding figure for attribution of health complaints to MPBS was 31.3%. CONCLUSION: Risk perception of MPBS is strongly associated with general concern, anxiety, depression, and stress, and rather instable over time....

  11. Study of variations of radiofrequency power density from mobile phone base stations with distance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ayinmode, B. O.; Farai, I. P.

    2013-01-01

    The variations of radiofrequency (RF) radiation power density with distance around some mobile phone base stations (BTSs), in ten randomly selected locations in Ibadan, western Nigeria, were studied. Measurements were made with a calibrated hand-held spectrum analyser. The maximum Global System of Mobile (GSM) communication 1800 signal power density was 323.91 μW m -2 at 250 m radius of a BTS and that of GSM 900 was 1119.00 μW m -2 at 200 m radius of another BTS. The estimated total maximum power density was 2972.00 μW m -2 at 50 m radius of a different BTS. This study shows that the maximum carrier signal power density and the total maximum power density from a BTS may be observed averagely at 200 and 50 m of its radius, respectively. The result of this study demonstrates that exposure of people to RF radiation from phone BTSs in Ibadan city is far less than the recommended limits by International scientific bodies. (authors)

  12. Measurement and analysis of radiofrequency radiations from some mobile phone base stations in Ghana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amoako, J. K.; Fletcher, J. J.; Darko, E. O.

    2009-01-01

    A survey of the radiofrequency electromagnetic radiation at public access points in the vicinity of 50 cellular phone base stations has been carried out. The primary objective was to measure and analyse the electromagnetic field strength levels emitted by antennae installed and operated by the Ghana Telecommunications Company. On all the sites measurements were made using a hand-held spectrum analyser to determine the electric field level with the 900 and 1800 MHz frequency bands. The results indicated that power densities at public access points varied from as low as 0.01 μW m -2 to as high as 10 μW m -2 for the frequency of 900 MHz. At a transmission frequency of 1800 MHz, the variation of power densities is from 0.01 to 100 μW m -2 . The results were found to be in compliant with the International Commission on Non-ionizing Radiological Protection guidance level but were 20 times higher than the results generally obtained for such a practice elsewhere. There is therefore a need to re-assess the situation to ensure reduction in the present level as an increase in mobile phone usage is envisaged within the next few years. (authors)

  13. Measurement and analysis of radiofrequency radiations from some mobile phone base stations in Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amoako, J K; Fletcher, J J; Darko, E O

    2009-08-01

    A survey of the radiofrequency electromagnetic radiation at public access points in the vicinity of 50 cellular phone base stations has been carried out. The primary objective was to measure and analyse the electromagnetic field strength levels emitted by antennae installed and operated by the Ghana Telecommunications Company. On all the sites measurements were made using a hand-held spectrum analyser to determine the electric field level with the 900 and 1800 MHz frequency bands. The results indicated that power densities at public access points varied from as low as 0.01 microW m(-2) to as high as 10 microW m(-2) for the frequency of 900 MHz. At a transmission frequency of 1800 MHz, the variation of power densities is from 0.01 to 100 microW m(-2). The results were found to be in compliant with the International Commission on Non-ionizing Radiological Protection guidance level but were 20 times higher than the results generally obtained for such a practice elsewhere. There is therefore a need to re-assess the situation to ensure reduction in the present level as an increase in mobile phone usage is envisaged within the next few years.

  14. Modeled and perceived RF-EMF exposure from mobile phone base stations in relation to symptom reporting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martens, A.L.

    2017-01-01

    Technological changes have led to a rapid increase in the use of mobile technology. This is coupled with an increase in the number of mobile phone base stations that emit radiofrequency electromagnetic fields (RF-EMF). There are concerns about the potential health effects of this exposure among

  15. Non-specific physical symptoms in relation to actual and perceived proximity to mobile phone base stations and powerlines.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baliatsas, C.; Kamp, I. van; Kelfkens, G.; Schipper, M.; Bolte, J.; Yzermans, J.; Lebret, E.

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Evidence about a possible causal relationship between non-specific physical symptoms (NSPS) and exposure to electromagnetic fields (EMF) emitted by sources such as mobile phone base stations (BS) and powerlines is insufficient. So far little epidemiological research has been published on

  16. Assessment of radiofrequency/microwave radiation emitted by the antennas of rooftop-mounted mobile phone base stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keow, M. A.; Radiman, S.

    2006-01-01

    Radiofrequency (RF) and microwave (MW) radiation exposures from the antennas of rooftop-mounted mobile telephone base stations have become a serious issue in recent years due to the rapidly evolving technologies in wireless telecommunication systems. In Malaysia, thousands of mobile telephone base stations have been erected all over the country, most of which are mounted on the rooftops. In view of public concerns, measurements of the RF/MW levels emitted by the base stations were carried out in this study. The values were compared with the exposure limits set by several organisations and countries. Measurements were performed at 200 sites around 47 mobile phone base stations. It was found that the RF/MW radiation from these base stations were well below the maximum exposure limits set by various agencies. (authors)

  17. Animal carcinogenicity studies on radiofrequency fields related to mobile phones and base stations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dasenbrock, Clemens

    2005-09-01

    Since a report in 1997 on an increased lymphoma incidence in mice chronically exposed to a mobile phone radiofrequency signal, none of the subsequent long-term studies in rodents have confirmed these results. On the other hand, several of the follow-up co- and carcinogenicity studies are still underway or are presently being initiated. Most of the published long-term studies used 1 exposure level only and suffer from a poor dosimetry which does not consider the animal's growth. Additional points of criticism are a limited, in some cases, questionable histopathology and inadequate group sizes. Overall, if dealing with new chemicals or drugs, these studies would not be acceptable for registration with the responsible authorities. The major critical points are taken into consideration within the European co- and carcinogenicity projects (CEMFEC and PERFORM-A), which are in their final stages and in the US long-term studies in mice and rats which are about to be initiated. Nevertheless, the WHO evaluation for health risk assessment of long-term telephone use and base station exposure will start in late 2005.

  18. Mobile phone base stations and adverse health effects: phase 1 of a population-based, cross-sectional study in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blettner, M; Schlehofer, B; Breckenkamp, J; Kowall, B; Schmiedel, S; Reis, U; Potthoff, P; Schüz, J; Berg-Beckhoff, G

    2009-02-01

    The aim of this first phase of a cross-sectional study from Germany was to investigate whether proximity of residence to mobile phone base stations as well as risk perception is associated with health complaints. The researchers conducted a population-based, multi-phase, cross-sectional study within the context of a large panel survey regularly carried out by a private research institute in Germany. In the initial phase, reported on in this paper, 30,047 persons from a total of 51,444 who took part in the nationwide survey also answered questions on how mobile phone base stations affected their health. A list of 38 health complaints was used. A multiple linear regression model was used to identify predictors of health complaints including proximity of residence to mobile phone base stations and risk perception. Of the 30,047 participants (response rate 58.6%), 18.7% of participants were concerned about adverse health effects of mobile phone base stations, while an additional 10.3% attributed their personal adverse health effects to the exposure from them. Participants who were concerned about or attributed adverse health effects to mobile phone base stations and those living in the vicinity of a mobile phone base station (500 m) reported slightly more health complaints than others. A substantial proportion of the German population is concerned about adverse health effects caused by exposure from mobile phone base stations. The observed slightly higher prevalence of health complaints near base stations can not however be fully explained by attributions or concerns.

  19. Effects of short-term W-CDMA mobile phone base station exposure on women with or without mobile phone related symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furubayashi, Toshiaki; Ushiyama, Akira; Terao, Yasuo; Mizuno, Yoko; Shirasawa, Kei; Pongpaibool, Pornanong; Simba, Ally Y; Wake, Kanako; Nishikawa, Masami; Miyawaki, Kaori; Yasuda, Asako; Uchiyama, Mitsunori; Yamashita, Hitomi Kobayashi; Masuda, Hiroshi; Hirota, Shogo; Takahashi, Miyuki; Okano, Tomoko; Inomata-Terada, Satomi; Sokejima, Shigeru; Maruyama, Eiji; Watanabe, Soichi; Taki, Masao; Ohkubo, Chiyoji; Ugawa, Yoshikazu

    2009-02-01

    To investigate possible health effects of mobile phone use, we conducted a double-blind, cross-over provocation study to confirm whether subjects with mobile phone related symptoms (MPRS) are more susceptible than control subjects to the effect of electromagnetic fields (EMF) emitted from base stations. We sent questionnaires to 5,000 women and obtained 2,472 valid responses from possible candidates; from these, we recruited 11 subjects with MPRS and 43 controls. There were four EMF exposure conditions, each of which lasted 30 min: continuous, intermittent, and sham exposure with and without noise. Subjects were exposed to EMF of 2.14 GHz, 10 V/m (W-CDMA), in a shielded room to simulate whole-body exposure to EMF from base stations, although the exposure strength we used was higher than that commonly received from base stations. We measured several psychological and cognitive parameters pre- and post-exposure, and monitored autonomic functions. Subjects were asked to report on their perception of EMF and level of discomfort during the experiment. The MPRS group did not differ from the controls in their ability to detect exposure to EMF; nevertheless they consistently experienced more discomfort, regardless of whether or not they were actually exposed to EMF, and despite the lack of significant changes in their autonomic functions. Thus, the two groups did not differ in their responses to real or sham EMF exposure according to any psychological, cognitive or autonomic assessment. In conclusion, we found no evidence of any causal link between hypersensitivity symptoms and exposure to EMF from base stations. Copyright 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  20. Mobile phone base stations and adverse health effects: phase 1 of a population-based, cross-sectional study in Germany

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blettner, M; Schlehofer, B; Breckenkamp, J

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of this first phase of a cross-sectional study from Germany was to investigate whether proximity of residence to mobile phone base stations as well as risk perception is associated with health complaints. METHODS: The researchers conducted a population-based, multi-phase, cross......-sectional study within the context of a large panel survey regularly carried out by a private research institute in Germany. In the initial phase, reported on in this paper, 30,047 persons from a total of 51,444 who took part in the nationwide survey also answered questions on how mobile phone base stations...... affected their health. A list of 38 health complaints was used. A multiple linear regression model was used to identify predictors of health complaints including proximity of residence to mobile phone base stations and risk perception. RESULTS: Of the 30,047 participants (response rate 58.6%), 18...

  1. Health effects of living near mobile phone base transceiver station (BTS) antennae: a report from Isfahan, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahbazi-Gahrouei, Daryoush; Karbalae, Mojtaba; Moradi, Habib Allah; Baradaran-Ghahfarokhi, Milad

    2014-09-01

    In recent years, by tremendous use of mobile phone telecommunication, a growing concern about the possible health hazards has increased greatly among public and scientists. The mobile phone exposure has been shown to have many effects upon the immune functions, stimulating hormones, mammalian brain, sperm motility and morphology, and neurological pathologies syndrome. The aim of this study was to find out the psychological and psychobiological reactions of the people who are living near mobile phone base transceiver stations (BTS) antenna, in Isfahan, Iran. A cross-sectional study on 250 randomly selected inhabitants (133 women and 117 men) was performed in October 2012 till November 2012. The inhabitants were requested to complete a standardized questionnaire that focused on the relevant psychological and psychobiological reactions parameters. A computer program (SPSS version16.0, Chicago, IL) was used for statistical analysis using the Chi-square test with Yates correction. All the data were tested using a criterion level of p = 0.05. The results showed that most of the symptoms such as nausea, headache, dizziness, irritability, discomfort, nervousness, depression, sleep disturbance, memory loss and lowering of libido were statistically significant in the inhabitants living near the BTS antenna (300 m). It is suggested that cellular phone BTS antenna should not be sited closer than 300 m to populations to minimize exposure of neighbors.

  2. Impact of radiofrequency radiation on DNA damage and antioxidants in peripheral blood lymphocytes of humans residing in the vicinity of mobile phone base stations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zothansiama; Zosangzuali, Mary; Lalramdinpuii, Miriam; Jagetia, Ganesh Chandra

    2017-01-01

    Radiofrequency radiations (RFRs) emitted by mobile phone base stations have raised concerns on its adverse impact on humans residing in the vicinity of mobile phone base stations. Therefore, the present study was envisaged to evaluate the effect of RFR on the DNA damage and antioxidant status in cultured human peripheral blood lymphocytes (HPBLs) of individuals residing in the vicinity of mobile phone base stations and comparing it with healthy controls. The study groups matched for various demographic data including age, gender, dietary pattern, smoking habit, alcohol consumption, duration of mobile phone use and average daily mobile phone use. The RF power density of the exposed individuals was significantly higher (p base stations, showed significantly (p base station/s. The analysis of various antioxidants in the plasma of exposed individuals revealed a significant attrition in glutathione (GSH) concentration (p < 0.01), activities of catalase (CAT) (p < 0.001) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) (p < 0.001) and rise in lipid peroxidation (LOO) when compared to controls. Multiple linear regression analyses revealed a significant association among reduced GSH concentration (p < 0.05), CAT (p < 0.001) and SOD (p < 0.001) activities and elevated MN frequency (p < 0.001) and LOO (p < 0.001) with increasing RF power density.

  3. Subjective symptoms reported by people living in the vicinity of cellular phone base stations: A review of the studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bortkiewicz, A.; Szyjkowska, A.; Gadzicka, E.; Zmyslony, M.

    2004-01-01

    The problem of health effects of electromagnetic fields (EMF) emitted by cellular phone base stations evokes much interest in view of the fact that people living in their vicinity are fated to continuous exposure to EMF. None of the studies carried out throughout the world have revealed excessive values of standards adopted by the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP). A questionnaire was used as a study tool. The results of the questionnaire survey reveal that people living in the vicinity of base stations report various complaints mostly of the circulatory system, but also of sleep disturbances, irritability, depression, blurred vision, concentration difficulties, nausea, lack of appetite, headache and vertigo. The performed studies showed the relationship between the incidence of individual symptoms, the level of exposure, and the distance between a residential area and a base station. This association was observed in both groups of persons, those who linked their complaints with the presence of the base station and those who did not notice such a relation. Further studies, clinical and those based on questionnaires, are needed to explain the background of reported complaints. (author)

  4. A possible effect of electromagnetic radiation from mobile phone base stations on the number of breeding house sparrows (Passer domesticus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Everaert, Joris; Bauwens, Dirk

    2007-01-01

    A possible effect of long-term exposure to low-intensity electromagnetic radiation from mobile phone (GSM) base stations on the number of House Sparrows during the breeding season was studied in six residential districts in Belgium. We sampled 150 point locations within the 6 areas to examine small-scale geographic variation in the number of House Sparrow males and the strength of electromagnetic radiation from base stations. Spatial variation in the number of House Sparrow males was negatively and highly significantly related to the strength of electric fields from both the 900 and 1800 MHz downlink frequency bands and from the sum of these bands (Chi(2)-tests and AIC-criteria, Pnegative relationship was highly similar within each of the six study areas, despite differences among areas in both the number of birds and radiation levels. Thus, our data show that fewer House Sparrow males were seen at locations with relatively high electric field strength values of GSM base stations and therefore support the notion that long-term exposure to higher levels of radiation negatively affects the abundance or behavior of House Sparrows in the wild.

  5. Non-specific physical symptoms in relation to actual and perceived proximity to mobile phone base stations and powerlines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bolte John

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Evidence about a possible causal relationship between non-specific physical symptoms (NSPS and exposure to electromagnetic fields (EMF emitted by sources such as mobile phone base stations (BS and powerlines is insufficient. So far little epidemiological research has been published on the contribution of psychological components to the occurrence of EMF-related NSPS. The prior objective of the current study is to explore the relative importance of actual and perceived proximity to base stations and psychological components as determinants of NSPS, adjusting for demographic, residency and area characteristics. Methods Analysis was performed on data obtained in a cross-sectional study on environment and health in 2006 in the Netherlands. In the current study, 3611 adult respondents (response rate: 37% in twenty-two Dutch residential areas completed a questionnaire. Self-reported instruments included a symptom checklist and assessment of environmental and psychological characteristics. The computation of the distance between household addresses and location of base stations and powerlines was based on geo-coding. Multilevel regression models were used to test the hypotheses regarding the determinants related to the occurrence of NSPS. Results After adjustment for demographic and residential characteristics, analyses yielded a number of statistically significant associations: Increased report of NSPS was predominantly predicted by higher levels of self-reported environmental sensitivity; perceived proximity to base stations and powerlines, lower perceived control and increased avoidance (coping behavior were also associated with NSPS. A trend towards a moderator effect of perceived environmental sensitivity on the relation between perceived proximity to BS and NSPS was verified (p = 0.055. There was no significant association between symptom occurrence and actual distance to BS or powerlines. Conclusions Perceived proximity to BS

  6. Feasibility of future epidemiological studies on possible health effects of mobile phone base stations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neubauer, Georg; Feychting, Maria; Hamnerius, Yngve; Kheifets, Leeka; Kuster, Niels; Ruiz, Ignacio; Schüz, Joachim; Uberbacher, Richard; Wiart, Joe; Röösli, Martin

    2007-04-01

    The increasing deployment of mobile communication base stations led to an increasing demand for epidemiological studies on possible health effects of radio frequency emissions. The methodological challenges of such studies have been critically evaluated by a panel of scientists in the fields of radiofrequency engineering/dosimetry and epidemiology. Strengths and weaknesses of previous studies have been identified. Dosimetric concepts and crucial aspects in exposure assessment were evaluated in terms of epidemiological studies on different types of outcomes. We conclude that in principle base station epidemiological studies are feasible. However, the exposure contributions from all relevant radio frequency sources have to be taken into account. The applied exposure assessment method should be piloted and validated. Short to medium term effects on physiology or health related quality of life are best investigated by cohort studies. For long term effects, groups with a potential for high exposure need to first be identified; for immediate effect, human laboratory studies are the preferred approach. (c) 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  7. Mobile phone base station radiation does not affect neoplastic transformation in BALB/3T3 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirose, H; Suhara, T; Kaji, N; Sakuma, N; Sekijima, M; Nojima, T; Miyakoshi, J

    2008-01-01

    A large-scale in vitro study focusing on low-level radiofrequency (RF) fields from mobile radio base stations employing the International Mobile Telecommunication 2000 (IMT-2000) cellular system was conducted to test the hypothesis that modulated RF fields affect malignant transformation or other cellular stress responses. Our group previously reported that DNA strand breaks were not induced in human cells exposed to 2.1425 GHz Wideband Code Division Multiple Access (W-CDMA) radiation up to 800 mW/kg from mobile radio base stations employing the IMT-2000 cellular system. In the current study, BALB/3T3 cells were continuously exposed to 2.1425 GHz W-CDMA RF fields at specific absorption rates (SARs) of 80 and 800 mW/kg for 6 weeks and malignant cell transformation was assessed. In addition, 3-methylcholanthrene (MCA)-treated cells were exposed to RF fields in a similar fashion, to assess for effects on tumor promotion. Finally, the effect of RF fields on tumor co-promotion was assessed in BALB/3T3 cells initiated with MCA and co-exposed to 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA). At the end of the incubation period, transformation dishes were fixed, stained with Giemsa, and scored for morphologically transformed foci. No significant differences in transformation frequency were observed between the test groups exposed to RF signals and the sham-exposed negative controls in the non-, MCA-, or MCA plus TPA-treated cells. Our studies found no evidence to support the hypothesis that RF fields may affect malignant transformation. Our results suggest that exposure to low-level RF radiation of up to 800 mW/kg does not induce cell transformation, which causes tumor formation. (c) 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  8. Exposure assessment of mobile phone base station radiation in an outdoor environment using sequential surrogate modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aerts, Sam; Deschrijver, Dirk; Joseph, Wout; Verloock, Leen; Goeminne, Francis; Martens, Luc; Dhaene, Tom

    2013-05-01

    Human exposure to background radiofrequency electromagnetic fields (RF-EMF) has been increasing with the introduction of new technologies. There is a definite need for the quantification of RF-EMF exposure but a robust exposure assessment is not yet possible, mainly due to the lack of a fast and efficient measurement procedure. In this article, a new procedure is proposed for accurately mapping the exposure to base station radiation in an outdoor environment based on surrogate modeling and sequential design, an entirely new approach in the domain of dosimetry for human RF exposure. We tested our procedure in an urban area of about 0.04 km(2) for Global System for Mobile Communications (GSM) technology at 900 MHz (GSM900) using a personal exposimeter. Fifty measurement locations were sufficient to obtain a coarse street exposure map, locating regions of high and low exposure; 70 measurement locations were sufficient to characterize the electric field distribution in the area and build an accurate predictive interpolation model. Hence, accurate GSM900 downlink outdoor exposure maps (for use in, e.g., governmental risk communication and epidemiological studies) are developed by combining the proven efficiency of sequential design with the speed of exposimeter measurements and their ease of handling. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Optimization of measurement methods for a multi-frequency electromagnetic field from mobile phone base station using broadband EMF meter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paweł Bieńkowski

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: This paper presents the characteristics of the mobile phone base station (BS as an electromagnetic field (EMF source. The most common system configurations with their construction are described. The parameters of radiated EMF in the context of the access to methods and other parameters of the radio transmission are discussed. Attention was also paid to antennas that are used in this technology. Material and Methods: The influence of individual components of a multi-frequency EMF, most commonly found in the BS surroundings, on the resultant EMF strength value indicated by popular broadband EMF meters was analyzed. The examples of metrological characteristics of the most common EMF probes and 2 measurement scenarios of the multisystem base station, with and without microwave relays, are shown. Results: The presented method for measuring the multi-frequency EMF using 2 broadband probes allows for the significant minimization of measurement uncertainty. Equations and formulas that can be used to calculate the actual EMF intensity from multi-frequency sources are shown. They have been verified in the laboratory conditions on a specific standard setup as well as in real conditions in a survey of the existing base station with microwave relays. Conclusions: Presented measurement methodology of multi-frequency EMF from BS with microwave relays, validated both in laboratory and real conditions. It has been proven that the described measurement methodology is the optimal approach to the evaluation of EMF exposure in BS surrounding. Alternative approaches with much greater uncertainty (precaution method or more complex measuring procedure (sources exclusion method are also presented. Med Pr 2015;66(5:701–712

  10. [Optimization of measurement methods for a multi-frequency electromagnetic field from mobile phone base station using broadband EMF meter].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bieńkowski, Paweł; Cała, Paweł; Zubrzak, Bartłomiej

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents the characteristics of the mobile phone base station (BS) as an electromagnetic field (EMF) source. The most common system configurations with their construction are described. The parameters of radiated EMF in the context of the access to methods and other parameters of the radio transmission are discussed. Attention was also paid to antennas that are used in this technology. The influence of individual components of a multi-frequency EMF, most commonly found in the BS surroundings, on the resultant EMF strength value indicated by popular broadband EMF meters was analyzed. The examples of metrological characteristics of the most common EMF probes and 2 measurement scenarios of the multisystem base station, with and without microwave relays, are shown. The presented method for measuring the multi-frequency EMF using 2 broadband probes allows for the significant minimization of measurement uncertainty. Equations and formulas that can be used to calculate the actual EMF intensity from multi-frequency sources are shown. They have been verified in the laboratory conditions on a specific standard setup as well as in real conditions in a survey of the existing base station with microwave relays. Presented measurement methodology of multi-frequency EMF from BS with microwave relays, validated both in laboratory and real conditions. It has been proven that the described measurement methodology is the optimal approach to the evaluation of EMF exposure in BS surrounding. Alternative approaches with much greater uncertainty (precaution method) or more complex measuring procedure (sources exclusion method) are also presented). This work is available in Open Access model and licensed under a CC BY-NC 3.0 PL license.

  11. Use of portable exposure meters for comparing mobile phone base station radiation in different types of areas in the cities of Basel and Amsterdam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urbinello, Damiano; Huss, Anke; Beekhuizen, Johan; Vermeulen, Roel; Röösli, Martin

    2014-01-15

    Radiofrequency electromagnetic fields (RF-EMF) are highly variable and differ considerably within as well as between areas. Exposure assessment studies characterizing spatial and temporal variation are limited so far. Our objective was to evaluate sources of data variability and the repeatability of daily measurements using portable exposure meters (PEMs). Data were collected at 12 days between November 2010 and January 2011 with PEMs in four different types of urban areas in the cities of Basel (BSL) and Amsterdam (AMS). Exposure from mobile phone base stations ranged from 0.30 to 0.53 V/m in downtown and business areas and in residential areas from 0.09 to 0.41 V/m. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) demonstrated that measurements from various days were highly reproducible (measurement duration of approximately 30 min) with only 0.6% of the variance of all measurements from mobile phone base station radiation being explained by the measurement day and only 0.2% by the measurement time (morning, noon, afternoon), whereas type of area (30%) and city (50%) explained most of the data variability. We conclude that mobile monitoring of exposure from mobile phone base station radiation with PEMs is useful due to the high repeatability of mobile phone base station exposure levels, despite the high spatial variation. © 2013.

  12. Mobile phone base stations and adverse health effects: phase 2 of a cross-sectional study with measured radio frequency electromagnetic fields

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berg-Beckhoff, Gabriele; Blettner, M; Kowall, B

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of the cross-sectional study was to test the hypothesis that exposure to continuous low-level radio frequency electromagnetic fields (RF-EMFs) emitted from mobile phone base stations was related to various health disturbances. METHODS: For the investigation people living mainly...

  13. effect of electromagnetic fields from cellular phone base stations on some physiological and biophysical properties of rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahmoud, A.H.

    2006-01-01

    the hazards of exposure to EMFs are observed on different tissues, the mechanistic by which EMFs can produce such effect still need to be delineated. the present study aims to monitor the possibility of modulation in the different physiological and biophysical properties of the organs after exposure to microwave produced from mobile phone base station at frequency of 900 MHz. one hundred and ten pregnant rats were exposed for periods of 5 and 12 week's at distances of 8,15 and 25 meter from the station antenna (0.01,0.05 and 0.036 MW/cm 2 ) the groups exposed for 5 weeks classified into two halves, one half was used for direct effect studies and the other was used for delayed effects studies (45 days post irradiation). haematological investigations demonstrated non significant changes in (RBC's), (Hb),(PCV) and (MCV)of exposed and delayed rats for 5,12 weeks. the young's of exposed rats show non considerable increase in RBC's, Hb and PCV. significant increases were observed in serum total protein , albumin and globulin levels in 5 and 12 weeks exposed rats and more significant increase in delayed rats

  14. A cross-sectional case control study on genetic damage in individuals residing in the vicinity of a mobile phone base station.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gandhi, Gursatej; Kaur, Gurpreet; Nisar, Uzma

    2015-01-01

    Mobile phone base stations facilitate good communication, but the continuously emitting radiations from these stations have raised health concerns. Hence in this study, genetic damage using the single cell gel electrophoresis (comet) assay was assessed in peripheral blood leukocytes of individuals residing in the vicinity of a mobile phone base station and comparing it to that in healthy controls. The power density in the area within 300 m from the base station exceeded the permissive limits and was significantly (p = 0.000) higher compared to the area from where control samples were collected. The study participants comprised 63 persons with residences near a mobile phone tower, and 28 healthy controls matched for gender, age, alcohol drinking and occupational sub-groups. Genetic damage parameters of DNA migration length, damage frequency (DF) and damage index were significantly (p = 0.000) elevated in the sample group compared to respective values in healthy controls. The female residents (n = 25) of the sample group had significantly (p = 0.004) elevated DF than the male residents (n = 38). The linear regression analysis further revealed daily mobile phone usage, location of residence and power density as significant predictors of genetic damage. The genetic damage evident in the participants of this study needs to be addressed against future disease-risk, which in addition to neurodegenerative disorders, may lead to cancer.

  15. Mobile phone base station-emitted radiation does not induce phosphorylation of Hsp27.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirose, H; Sakuma, N; Kaji, N; Nakayama, K; Inoue, K; Sekijima, M; Nojima, T; Miyakoshi, J

    2007-02-01

    An in vitro study focusing on the effects of low-level radiofrequency (RF) fields from mobile radio base stations employing the International Mobile Telecommunication 2000 (IMT-2000) cellular system was conducted to test the hypothesis that modulated RF fields act to induce phosphorylation and overexpression of heat shock protein hsp27. First, we evaluated the responses of human cells to microwave exposure at a specific absorption rate (SAR) of 80 mW/kg, which corresponds to the limit of the average whole-body SAR for general public exposure defined as a basic restriction in the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP) guidelines. Second, we investigated whether continuous wave (CW) and Wideband Code Division Multiple Access (W-CDMA) modulated signal RF fields at 2.1425 GHz induced activation or gene expression of hsp27 and other heat shock proteins (hsps). Human glioblastoma A172 cells were exposed to W-CDMA radiation at SARs of 80 and 800 mW/kg for 2-48 h, and CW radiation at 80 mW/kg for 24 h. Human IMR-90 fibroblasts from fetal lungs were exposed to W-CDMA at 80 and 800 mW/kg for 2 or 28 h, and CW at 80 mW/kg for 28 h. Under the RF field exposure conditions described above, no significant differences in the expression levels of phosphorylated hsp27 at serine 82 (hsp27[pS82]) were observed between the test groups exposed to W-CDMA or CW signal and the sham-exposed negative controls, as evaluated immediately after the exposure periods by bead-based multiplex assays. Moreover, no noticeable differences in the gene expression of hsps were observed between the test groups and the negative controls by DNA Chip analysis. Our results confirm that exposure to low-level RF field up to 800 mW/kg does not induce phosphorylation of hsp27 or expression of hsp gene family.

  16. Do mobile phone base stations affect sleep of residents? Results from an experimental double-blind sham-controlled field study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danker-Hopfe, Heidi; Dorn, Hans; Bornkessel, Christian; Sauter, Cornelia

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the present double-blind, sham-controlled, balanced randomized cross-over study was to disentangle effects of electromagnetic fields (EMF) and non-EMF effects of mobile phone base stations on objective and subjective sleep quality. In total 397 residents aged 18-81 years (50.9% female) from 10 German sites, where no mobile phone service was available, were exposed to sham and GSM (Global System for Mobile Communications, 900 MHz and 1,800 MHz) base station signals by an experimental base station while their sleep was monitored at their homes during 12 nights. Participants were randomly exposed to real (GSM) or sham exposure for five nights each. Individual measurement of EMF exposure, questionnaires on sleep disorders, overall sleep quality, attitude towards mobile communication, and on subjective sleep quality (morning and evening protocols) as well as objective sleep data (frontal EEG and EOG recordings) were gathered. Analysis of the subjective and objective sleep data did not reveal any significant differences between the real and sham condition. During sham exposure nights, objective and subjective sleep efficiency, wake after sleep onset, and subjective sleep latency were significantly worse in participants with concerns about possible health risks resulting from base stations than in participants who were not concerned. The study did not provide any evidence for short-term physiological effects of EMF emitted by mobile phone base stations on objective and subjective sleep quality. However, the results indicate that mobile phone base stations as such (not the electromagnetic fields) may have a significant negative impact on sleep quality. (c) 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  17. Radiofrequency electromagnetic fields emitted from base stations of DECT cordless phones and the risk of glioma and meningioma (Interphone Study Group, Germany)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schüz, Joachim; Böhler, Eva; Schlehofer, Brigitte

    2006-01-01

    The objective of this study was to test the hypothesis that exposure to continuous low-level radiofrequency electromagnetic fields (RF EMFs) increases the risk of glioma and meningioma. Participants in a population-based case-control study in Germany on the risk of brain tumors in relation...... to cellular phone use were 747 incident brain tumor cases between the ages of 30 and 69 years and 1494 matched controls. The exposure measure of this analysis was the location of a base station of a DECT (Digital Enhanced Cordless Telecommunications) cordless phone close to the bed, which was used as a proxy...

  18. Systematic review on the health effects of exposure to radiofrequency electromagnetic fields from mobile phone base stations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Röösli, Martin; Frei, Patrizia; Mohler, Evelyn; Hug, Kerstin

    2010-12-01

    to review and evaluate the recent literature on the health effects of exposure to mobile phone base station (MPBS) radiation. we performed a systematic review of randomized human trials conducted in laboratory settings and of epidemiological studies that investigated the health effects of MPBS radiation in the everyday environment. we included in the analysis 17 articles that met our basic quality criteria: 5 randomized human laboratory trials and 12 epidemiological studies. The majority of the papers (14) examined self-reported non-specific symptoms of ill-health. Most of the randomized trials did not detect any association between MPBS radiation and the development of acute symptoms during or shortly after exposure. The sporadically observed associations did not show a consistent pattern with regard to symptoms or types of exposure. We also found that the more sophisticated the exposure assessment, the less likely it was that an effect would be reported. Studies on health effects other than non-specific symptoms and studies on MPBS exposure in children were scarce. the evidence for a missing relationship between MPBS exposure up to 10 volts per metre and acute symptom development can be considered strong because it is based on randomized, blinded human laboratory trials. At present, there is insufficient data to draw firm conclusions about health effects from long-term low-level exposure typically occurring in the everyday environment.

  19. Use of 3G mobile phone links for teleconsultation between a moving ambulance and a hospital base station.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banitsas, Konstantinos A; Perakis, Konstantinos; Tachakra, Sapal; Koutsouris, Dimitrios

    2006-01-01

    We developed a mobile teleconsultation system based on third-generation mobile phone links. The system comprised a laptop computer and a digital camcorder. It was installed inside an ambulance to allow video-conferencing between the moving vehicle and a doctor at a base station. In addition to video and voice, high-quality still images could also be transmitted. A series of 17 trial runs with real ambulance patients was conducted in the city of Athens. In general, the videoconferencing sessions produced relatively clear video. The bandwidth was high enough for a satisfactory video of 10-15 frames/s. During a total testing period of 23 h and in an area of about 180 km2, there were nine instances of signal loss, amounting to a total of 17 min. The general opinion formed by the doctors was that the system produced good results. All initial diagnoses made using the system agreed with the final diagnoses of the patients. The study showed that the mobile system could reduce the time before an ambulance patient is seen by a doctor.

  20. Adolescents' risk perceptions on mobile phones and their base stations, their trust to authorities and incivility in using mobile phones: a cross-sectional survey on 2240 high school students in Izmir, Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassoy, Hur; Durusoy, Raika; Karababa, Ali Osman

    2013-01-25

    Use of mobile phones has rapidly risen among adolescents despite a lack of scientific certainty on their health risks. Risk perception is an important determinant of behavior, and studies on adolescents' risk perceptions of mobile phones or base stations are very scarce. This study aims to evaluate high school students' risk perceptions on mobile phones and base stations, their trust to authorities, their opinions regarding incivility while using mobile phones and to assess associated factors. For this cross-sectional study, 2530 students were chosen with stratified cluster sampling among 20,493 high school students studying in Bornova district of Izmir, Turkey, among whom 2240 (88.5%) participated. Risk perceptions and opinions were questioned with a 5-point Likert scale for 24 statements grouped under four dimensions. The mean responses to the four dimensions were categorized as mobile phone, base station, trust to authority and incivility dimensions were 3.69 ± 0.89, 4.34 ± 0.78, 3.77 ± 0.93, 3.16 ± 0.93 and the prevalence of high risk perception was 65.1%, 86.7%, 66.2%, 39.7%, respectively. In the mobile phone dimension; students attending industrial technical high school had lower risk perceptions while female students, lower mothers' education groups and students not using mobile phones (OR = 2.82, 95% CI = 1.80-4.40) had higher risk perceptions. In the base station dimension girls had higher risk perceptions (OR = 1.68, 95% CI = 1.20-2.37). Girls and students attending industrial technical high school had significantly lower risk perception however 11-12th grade group perceived the risk higher (OR = 1.45 95% CI = 1.15-1.84) in the trust to authority dimension. For the incivility dimension, female students (OR = 1.44, 95% CI = 1.14-1.82), illiterate/only literate mothers (OR = 1.79, 95% CI = 1.04-2.75) and students not using mobile phones (OR = 2.50, 95% CI = 1.62-3.87) perceived higher risk. Understanding the effects of these determinants might aid in

  1. Clinically defined non-specific symptoms in the vicinity of mobile phone base stations: A retrospective before-after study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baliatsas, Christos, E-mail: c.baliatsas@nivel.nl [Netherlands Institute for Health Services Research (NIVEL), Utrecht (Netherlands); Kamp, Irene van, E-mail: irene.van.kamp@rivm.nl [National Institute for Public Health and the Environment (RIVM), Bilthoven (Netherlands); Bolte, John, E-mail: john.bolte@rivm.nl [National Institute for Public Health and the Environment (RIVM), Bilthoven (Netherlands); Kelfkens, Gert, E-mail: gert.kelfkens@rivm.nl [National Institute for Public Health and the Environment (RIVM), Bilthoven (Netherlands); Dijk, Christel van, E-mail: Christel.Van.Dijk@amsterdam.nl [Department of Research, Information and Statistics (OIS), Municipality of Amsterdam, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Spreeuwenberg, Peter, E-mail: p.spreeuwenberg@nivel.nl [Netherlands Institute for Health Services Research (NIVEL), Utrecht (Netherlands); Hooiveld, Mariette, E-mail: m.hooiveld@nivel.nl [Netherlands Institute for Health Services Research (NIVEL), Utrecht (Netherlands); Lebret, Erik, E-mail: erik.lebret@rivm.nl [National Institute for Public Health and the Environment (RIVM), Bilthoven (Netherlands); Institute for Risk Assessment Sciences (IRAS), Utrecht University, Utrecht (Netherlands); Yzermans, Joris, E-mail: J.Yzermans@nivel.nl [Netherlands Institute for Health Services Research (NIVEL), Utrecht (Netherlands)

    2016-09-15

    The number of mobile phone base station(s) (MPBS) has been increasing to meet the rapid technological changes and growing needs for mobile communication. The primary objective of the present study was to test possible changes in prevalence and number of NSS in relation to MPBS exposure before and after increase of installed MPBS antennas. A retrospective cohort study was conducted, comparing two time periods with high contrast in terms of number of installed MPBS. Symptom data were based on electronic health records from 1069 adult participants, registered in 9 general practices in different regions in the Netherlands. All participants were living within 500 m from the nearest bases station. Among them, 55 participants reported to be sensitive to MPBS at T1. A propagation model combined with a questionnaire was used to assess indoor exposure to RF-EMF from MPBS at T1. Estimation of exposure at T0 was based on number of antennas at T0 relative to T1. At T1, there was a > 30% increase in the total number of MPBS antennas. A higher prevalence for most NSS was observed in the MPBS-sensitive group at T1 compared to baseline. Exposure estimates were not associated with GP-registered NSS in the total sample. Some significant interactions were observed between MPBS-sensitivity and exposure estimates on risk of symptoms. Using clinically defined outcomes and a time difference of > 6 years it was demonstrated that RF-EMF exposure to MPBS was not associated with the development of NSS. Nonetheless, there was some indication for a higher risk of NSS for the MPBS-sensitive group, mainly in relation to exposure to UMTS, but this should be interpreted with caution. Results have to be verified by future longitudinal studies with a particular focus on potentially susceptible population subgroups of large sample size and integrated exposure assessment. - Highlights: • There was an important increase in the total number of MPBS at T1 compared to T0. • Prevalence of NSS was

  2. Clinically defined non-specific symptoms in the vicinity of mobile phone base stations: A retrospective before-after study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baliatsas, Christos; Kamp, Irene van; Bolte, John; Kelfkens, Gert; Dijk, Christel van; Spreeuwenberg, Peter; Hooiveld, Mariette; Lebret, Erik; Yzermans, Joris

    2016-01-01

    The number of mobile phone base station(s) (MPBS) has been increasing to meet the rapid technological changes and growing needs for mobile communication. The primary objective of the present study was to test possible changes in prevalence and number of NSS in relation to MPBS exposure before and after increase of installed MPBS antennas. A retrospective cohort study was conducted, comparing two time periods with high contrast in terms of number of installed MPBS. Symptom data were based on electronic health records from 1069 adult participants, registered in 9 general practices in different regions in the Netherlands. All participants were living within 500 m from the nearest bases station. Among them, 55 participants reported to be sensitive to MPBS at T1. A propagation model combined with a questionnaire was used to assess indoor exposure to RF-EMF from MPBS at T1. Estimation of exposure at T0 was based on number of antennas at T0 relative to T1. At T1, there was a > 30% increase in the total number of MPBS antennas. A higher prevalence for most NSS was observed in the MPBS-sensitive group at T1 compared to baseline. Exposure estimates were not associated with GP-registered NSS in the total sample. Some significant interactions were observed between MPBS-sensitivity and exposure estimates on risk of symptoms. Using clinically defined outcomes and a time difference of > 6 years it was demonstrated that RF-EMF exposure to MPBS was not associated with the development of NSS. Nonetheless, there was some indication for a higher risk of NSS for the MPBS-sensitive group, mainly in relation to exposure to UMTS, but this should be interpreted with caution. Results have to be verified by future longitudinal studies with a particular focus on potentially susceptible population subgroups of large sample size and integrated exposure assessment. - Highlights: • There was an important increase in the total number of MPBS at T1 compared to T0. • Prevalence of NSS was

  3. Validity of at home model predictions as a proxy for personal exposure to radiofrequency electromagnetic fields from mobile phone base stations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martens, Astrid L; Bolte, John F B; Beekhuizen, Johan; Kromhout, Hans; Smid, Tjabe; Vermeulen, Roel C H

    2015-10-01

    Epidemiological studies on the potential health effects of RF-EMF from mobile phone base stations require efficient and accurate exposure assessment methods. Previous studies have demonstrated that the 3D geospatial model NISMap is able to rank locations by indoor and outdoor RF-EMF exposure levels. This study extends on previous work by evaluating the suitability of using NISMap to estimate indoor RF-EMF exposure levels at home as a proxy for personal exposure to RF-EMF from mobile phone base stations. For 93 individuals in the Netherlands we measured personal exposure to RF-EMF from mobile phone base stations during a 24h period using an EME-SPY 121 exposimeter. Each individual kept a diary from which we extracted the time spent at home and in the bedroom. We used NISMap to model exposure at the home address of the participant (at bedroom height). We then compared model predictions with measurements for the 24h period, when at home, and in the bedroom by the Spearman correlation coefficient (rsp) and by calculating specificity and sensitivity using the 90th percentile of the exposure distribution as a cutpoint for high exposure. We found a low to moderate rsp of 0.36 for the 24h period, 0.51 for measurements at home, and 0.41 for measurements in the bedroom. The specificity was high (0.9) but with a low sensitivity (0.3). These results indicate that a meaningful ranking of personal RF-EMF can be achieved, even though the correlation between model predictions and 24h personal RF-EMF measurements is lower than with at home measurements. However, the use of at home RF-EMF field predictions from mobile phone base stations in epidemiological studies leads to significant exposure misclassification that will result in a loss of statistical power to detect health effects. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Reduced growth of soybean seedlings after exposure to weak microwave radiation from GSM 900 mobile phone and base station.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halgamuge, Malka N; Yak, See Kye; Eberhardt, Jacob L

    2015-02-01

    The aim of this work was to study possible effects of environmental radiation pollution on plants. The association between cellular telephone (short duration, higher amplitude) and base station (long duration, very low amplitude) radiation exposure and the growth rate of soybean (Glycine max) seedlings was investigated. Soybean seedlings, pre-grown for 4 days, were exposed in a gigahertz transverse electromagnetic cell for 2 h to global system for mobile communication (GSM) mobile phone pulsed radiation or continuous wave (CW) radiation at 900 MHz with amplitudes of 5.7 and 41 V m(-1) , and outgrowth was studied one week after exposure. The exposure to higher amplitude (41 V m(-1)) GSM radiation resulted in diminished outgrowth of the epicotyl. The exposure to lower amplitude (5.7 V m(-1)) GSM radiation did not influence outgrowth of epicotyl, hypocotyls, or roots. The exposure to higher amplitude CW radiation resulted in reduced outgrowth of the roots whereas lower CW exposure resulted in a reduced outgrowth of the hypocotyl. Soybean seedlings were also exposed for 5 days to an extremely low level of radiation (GSM 900 MHz, 0.56 V m(-1)) and outgrowth was studied 2 days later. Growth of epicotyl and hypocotyl was found to be reduced, whereas the outgrowth of roots was stimulated. Our findings indicate that the observed effects were significantly dependent on field strength as well as amplitude modulation of the applied field. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Effects of exposure to GSM mobile phone base station signals on salivary cortisol, alpha-amylase, and immunoglobulin A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Augner, Christoph; Hacker, Gerhard W; Oberfeld, Gerd; Florian, Matthias; Hitzl, Wolfgang; Hutter, Jörg; Pauser, Gernot

    2010-06-01

    The present study aimed to test whether exposure to radiofrequency electromagnetic fields (RF-EMF) emitted by mobile phone base stations may have effects on salivary alpha-amylase, immunoglobulin A (IgA), and cortisol levels. Fifty seven participants were randomly allocated to one of three different experimental scenarios (22 participants to scenario 1, 26 to scenario 2, and 9 to scenario 3). Each participant went through five 50-minute exposure sessions. The main RF-EMF source was a GSM-900-MHz antenna located at the outer wall of the building. In scenarios 1 and 2, the first, third, and fifth sessions were "low" (median power flux density 5.2 microW/m(2)) exposure. The second session was "high" (2126.8 microW/m(2)), and the fourth session was "medium" (153.6 microW/m(2)) in scenario 1, and vice versa in scenario 2. Scenario 3 had four "low" exposure conditions, followed by a "high" exposure condition. Biomedical parameters were collected by saliva samples three times a session. Exposure levels were created by shielding curtains. In scenario 3 from session 4 to session 5 (from "low" to "high" exposure), an increase of cortisol was detected, while in scenarios 1 and 2, a higher concentration of alpha-amylase related to the baseline was identified as compared to that in scenario 3. IgA concentration was not significantly related to the exposure. RF-EMF in considerably lower field densities than ICNIRP-guidelines may influence certain psychobiological stress markers. Copyright © 2010 The Editorial Board of Biomedical and Environmental Sciences. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Assessment of electromagnetic fields intensity emitted by cellular phone base stations in surrounding flats - a preliminary study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zmyslony, M.; Politanski, P.; Mamrot, P.; Bortkiewicz, A.

    2006-01-01

    A rapid development of mobile telecommunications (MT) has resulted in an increased concern about possible detrimental health effects of electromagnetic fields (EMFs) emitted by MT systems, and by MT base stations in particular. Research into EMFs effects on the health of inhabitants living in their vicinity requires first of all a solid assessment of the exposure level. Up to now, the reports in this field have been rather scant. This article presents the results of preliminary measurements of EMFs fields in selected flats around selected base stations in the city of Lodz. Measurements of electric field strength, E, to assess EMF exposure were based on the standard procedures currently in force in Poland. As the study is regarded as a preliminary one, the measurements were conducted in buildings with the expected largest radiation. The measurements show that in the flats located up to 500 m from the base station, EMFs are within the limits specified by relevant Polish regulations on the general public and environmental protection. It was also observed that in a few (less than 10%) flats the field with E exceeded 0.8 V/m. The results show that there are no correlations between electric field strength and distance between the flat and the base station. Therefore, the distance from the base station cannot be used to represent the exposure rate; to determine the latter, EMF measurements are necessary. (author)

  7. Analysis of the effect of mobile phone base station antenna loading on localized SAR and its consequences for measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansson, Björn; Thors, Björn; Törnevik, Christer

    2011-12-01

    In this work, the effect of antenna element loading on the localized specific absorption rate (SAR) has been analyzed for base station antennas. The analysis was conducted in order to determine whether localized SAR measurements of large multi-element base station antennas can be conducted using standardized procedures and commercially available equipment. More specifically, it was investigated if the antenna shifting measurement procedure, specified in the European base station exposure assessment standard EN 50383, will produce accurate localized SAR results for base station antennas larger than the specified measurement phantom. The obtained results show that SAR accuracy is affected by the presence of lossy material within distances of one wavelength from the tested antennas as a consequence of coupling and redistribution of transmitted power among the antenna elements. It was also found that the existing standardized phantom is not optimal for SAR measurements of large base station antennas. A new methodology is instead proposed based on a larger, box-shaped, whole-body phantom. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. A comparative study of radiofrequency emission from roof top mobile phone base station antennas and tower mobile phone base antennas located at some selected cell sites in Accra, Ghana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atakpa, K. G.

    2014-07-01

    RF radiation exposure from antennas mounted on rooftop mobile phone base stations have become a serious issue in recent years due to the rapidly developing technologies in wireless telecommunication. The heightening numbers of base station and their closeness to the general public has led to possible health concerns as a result of exposure to RF radiations. The primary objective of this study was to assess the level of RF radiation emitted from roof top mobile phone base station antennas and compare the measured results with the guidelines set by International Commission on Non-ionization Radiation. The maximum and minimum average power density measured from the rooftop sites inside buildings were 2.46xI0 -2 and 1.68x10 -3 W/m 2 respectively whereas that for outside buildings at the same rooftop site was also 7.44x 10 -5 and 3.35x 10 -3 W/m 2 respectively. Public exposure quotient also ranged between 3.74x10 -10 to 1.31x10 -07 inside buildings whilst that for outside varied between 7.44x 10 -10 to 1.65x 10 -06 . Occupational exposure quotient inside buildings varied between 1.66x 10 -11 to 2.11 x 10 -09 whereas that for outside ranged from 3.31x10 -09 to 3.30x10 -07 all at the rooftop site. The results obtained for a typical tower base station also indicated that the maximum and minimum average power density was 4.57x10 -1 W/m 2 and 7.13x10 -3 W/m 2 respectively. The public exposure quotient varied between 1.58x10 -09 to 1.01x10 -07 whilst that for occupational exposure quotient ranged between 3.17x10 -10 to 2.03x10 -08 . The values of power densities levels inside buildings at rooftop sites are low compared to that of tower sites. This could be due to high attenuation caused by thick concrete walls and ceilings. The results obtained were found to be in compliance with ICNIRP and FCC guidance levels of 4.5 W/m 2 and 6 W/m 2 respectively. (au)

  9. Results of a cross-sectional study on the association of electromagnetic fields emitted from mobile phone base stations and health complaints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Breckenkamp, Juergen; Berg-Beckhoff, Gabriele; Reis, Ursula; Potthoff, Peter

    2010-01-01

    Background: Despite the fact that adverse health effects are not confirmed for exposure to radiofrequency electromagnetic field (RFEMF) levels below the limit values, as defined in the guidelines of the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection, many persons are worried about possible adverse health effects caused by the RF-EMF emitted from mobile phone base stations, or they attribute their unspecific health complaints like headache or sleep disturbances to these fields. Method: In the framework of a cross-sectional study a questionnaire was sent to 4150 persons living in predominantly urban areas. Participants were asked whether base stations affected their health. Health complaints were measured with standardized health questionnaires for sleep disturbances, headache, health complaints and mental and physical health. 3,526 persons responded (85%) to the questionnaire and 1,808 (51%) agreed to dosimetric measurements in their flats. Exposure was measured in 1,500 flats. Results: The measurements accomplished in the bedrooms in most cases showed very low exposure values, most often below sensitivity limit of the dosimeter. An association of exposure with the occurrence of health complaints was not found, but an association between the attribution of adverse health effects to base stations and the occurrence of health complaints. Conclusions: However, concerns about health and the attribution of adverse health effects to these mobile phone base stations should be taken serious and require a risk communication with concerned persons. Future research should focus on the processes of perception and appraisal of RF-EMF risks, and ascertain the determinants of concerns and attributions in the context of RF-EMF. (orig.)

  10. Short-term exposure to mobile phone base station signals does not affect cognitive functioning or physiological measures in individuals who report sensitivity to electromagnetic fields and controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eltiti, Stacy; Wallace, Denise; Ridgewell, Anna; Zougkou, Konstantina; Russo, Riccardo; Sepulveda, Francisco; Fox, Elaine

    2009-10-01

    Individuals who report sensitivity to electromagnetic fields often report cognitive impairments that they believe are due to exposure to mobile phone technology. Previous research in this area has revealed mixed results, however, with the majority of research only testing control individuals. Two studies using control and self-reported sensitive participants found inconsistent effects of mobile phone base stations on cognitive functioning. The aim of the present study was to clarify whether short-term (50 min) exposure at 10 mW/m(2) to typical Global System for Mobile Communication (GSM) and Universal Mobile Telecommunications System (UMTS) base station signals affects attention, memory, and physiological endpoints in sensitive and control participants. Data from 44 sensitive and 44 matched-control participants who performed the digit symbol substitution task (DSST), digit span task (DS), and a mental arithmetic task (MA), while being exposed to GSM, UMTS, and sham signals under double-blind conditions were analyzed. Overall, cognitive functioning was not affected by short-term exposure to either GSM or UMTS signals in the current study. Nor did exposure affect the physiological measurements of blood volume pulse (BVP), heart rate (HR), and skin conductance (SC) that were taken while participants performed the cognitive tasks.

  11. Effect of mobile phone station on micronucleus frequency and chromosomal aberrations in human blood cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yildirim, M S; Yildirim, A; Zamani, A G; Okudan, N

    2010-01-01

    The use of mobile telephones has rapidly increased worldwide as well as the number of mobile phone base stations that lead to rise low level radiofrequency emissions which may in turn have possible harm for human health. The national radiation protection board has published the known effects of radio waves exposure on humans living close to mobile phone base stations. However, several studies have claimed that the base station has detrimental effects on different tissues. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the effects of mobile phone base stations on the micronucleus (MN) frequency and chromosomal aberrations on blood in people who were living around mobile phone base stations and healthy controls. Frequency of MN and chromosomal aberrations in study and control groups was 8.96 +/- 3.51 and 6.97 +/- 1.52 (p: 0.16); 0.36 +/- 0.31 and 0.75 +/- 0.61 (p: 0.07), respectively. Our results show that there was not a significant difference of MN frequency and chromosomal aberrations between the two study groups. The results claim that cellular phones and their base stations do not produce important carcinogenic changes.

  12. Does short-term exposure to mobile phone base station signals increase symptoms in individuals who report sensitivity to electromagnetic fields? A double-blind randomized provocation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eltiti, Stacy; Wallace, Denise; Ridgewell, Anna; Zougkou, Konstantina; Russo, Riccardo; Sepulveda, Francisco; Mirshekar-Syahkal, Dariush; Rasor, Paul; Deeble, Roger; Fox, Elaine

    2007-11-01

    Individuals with idiopathic environmental illness with attribution to electromagnetic fields (IEI-EMF) believe they suffer negative health effects when exposed to electromagnetic fields from everyday objects such as mobile phone base stations. This study used both open provocation and double-blind tests to determine if sensitive and control individuals experience more negative health effects when exposed to base station-like signals compared with sham. Fifty-six self-reported sensitive and 120 control participants were tested in an open provocation test. Of these, 12 sensitive and 6 controls withdrew after the first session. The remainder completed a series of double-blind tests. Subjective measures of well-being and symptoms as well as physiological measures of blood volume pulse, heart rate, and skin conductance were obtained. During the open provocation, sensitive individuals reported lower levels of well-being in both the global system for mobile communication (GSM) and universal mobile telecommunications system (UMTS) compared with sham exposure, whereas controls reported more symptoms during the UMTS exposure. During double-blind tests the GSM signal did not have any effect on either group. Sensitive participants did report elevated levels of arousal during the UMTS condition, whereas the number or severity of symptoms experienced did not increase. Physiological measures did not differ across the three exposure conditions for either group. Short-term exposure to a typical GSM base station-like signal did not affect well-being or physiological functions in sensitive or control individuals. Sensitive individuals reported elevated levels of arousal when exposed to a UMTS signal. Further analysis, however, indicated that this difference was likely to be due to the effect of order of exposure rather than the exposure itself.

  13. Specific absorption rate and electric field measurements in the near field of six mobile phone base station antennas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toivonen, Tommi; Toivo, Tim; Puranen, Lauri; Jokela, Kari

    2009-05-01

    In this article, the exposure to radio frequency electromagnetic fields was studied in close proximity (distances of 10, 100, 300, and 600 mm) to six base station antennas. The specific absorption rate (SAR) in 800 mm x 500 mm x 200 mm box phantom as well as unperturbed electric field (E) in air was measured. The results were used to determine whether the measurement of local maximum of unperturbed electric field can be used as a compliance check for local exposure. Also, the conservativeness of this assessment method compared to the ICNIRP basic restriction was studied. Moreover, the assessment of whole-body exposure was discussed and the distance ranges presented in which the ICNIRP limit for local exposure could be exceeded before the limit for whole-body SAR. These results show that the electric field measurement alone can be used for easy compliance check for the local exposure at all distances and for all antenna types studied. However, in some cases when the local peak value of E was compared directly to the ICNIRP reference level for unperturbed E, the exposure was overestimated only very slightly (by factor 1.1) compared to the basic restriction for localized SAR in a human, and hence these results can not be generalized to all antenna types. Moreover, it was shown that the limit for localized exposure could be exceeded before the limit for the whole-body average SAR, if the distance to the antenna was less than 240 mm. Copyright 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  14. Effect of Short-Term Mobile Phone Base Station Exposure on Cognitive Performance, Body Temperature, Heart Rate and Blood Pressure of Malaysians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malek, F; Rani, K A; Rahim, H A; Omar, M H

    2015-08-19

    Individuals who report their sensitivity to electromagnetic fields often undergo cognitive impairments that they believe are due to the exposure of mobile phone technology. The aim of this study is to clarify whether short-term exposure at 1 V/m to the typical Global System for Mobile Communication and Universal Mobile Telecommunications System (UMTS) affects cognitive performance and physiological parameters (body temperature, blood pressure and heart rate). This study applies counterbalanced randomizing single blind tests to determine if sensitive individuals experience more negative health effects when they are exposed to base station signals compared with sham (control) individuals. The sample size is 200 subjects with 50.0% Idiopathic Environmental Intolerance attributed to electromagnetic fields (IEI-EMF) also known as sensitive and 50.0% (non-IEI-EMF). The computer-administered Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery (CANTAB eclipse(TM)) is used to examine cognitive performance. Four tests are chosen to evaluate Cognitive performance in CANTAB: Reaction Time (RTI), Rapid Visual Processing (RVP), Paired Associates Learning (PAL) and Spatial Span (SSP). Paired sample t-test on the other hand, is used to examine the physiological parameters. Generally, in both groups, there is no statistical significant difference between the exposure and sham exposure towards cognitive performance and physiological effects (P's > 0.05).

  15. Measuring personal exposure from 900MHz mobile phone base stations in Australia and Belgium using a novel personal distributed exposimeter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatt, Chhavi Raj; Thielens, Arno; Redmayne, Mary; Abramson, Michael J; Billah, Baki; Sim, Malcolm R; Vermeulen, Roel; Martens, Luc; Joseph, Wout; Benke, Geza

    2016-01-01

    The aims of this study were to: i) measure personal exposure in the Global System for Mobile communications (GSM) 900MHz downlink (DL) frequency band with two systems of exposimeters, a personal distributed exposimeter (PDE) and a pair of ExpoM-RFs, ii) compare the GSM 900MHz DL exposures across various microenvironments in Australia and Belgium, and iii) evaluate the correlation between the PDE and ExpoM-RFs measurements. Personal exposure data were collected using the PDE and two ExpoM-RFs simultaneously across 34 microenvironments (17 each in Australia and Belgium) located in urban, suburban and rural areas. Summary statistics of the electric field strengths (V/m) were computed and compared across similar microenvironments in Australia and Belgium. The personal exposures across urban microenvironments were higher than those in the rural or suburban microenvironments. Likewise, the exposure levels across the outdoor were higher than those for indoor microenvironments. The five highest median exposure levels were: city centre (0.248V/m), bus (0.124V/m), railway station (0.105V/m), mountain/forest (rural) (0.057V/m), and train (0.055V/m) [Australia]; and bicycle (urban) (0.238V/m), tram station (0.238V/m), city centre (0.156V/m), residential outdoor (urban) (0.139V/m) and park (0.124V/m) [Belgium]. Exposures in the GSM900 MHz frequency band across most of the microenvironments in Australia were significantly lower than the exposures across the microenvironments in Belgium. Overall correlations between the PDE and the ExpoM-RFs measurements were high. The measured exposure levels were far below the general public reference levels recommended in the guidelines of the ICNIRP and the ARPANSA. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Residential exposure to radiofrequency fields from mobile phone base stations, and broadcast transmitters: a population-based survey with personal meter

    OpenAIRE

    VIEL, JF; CLERC, S; BARRERA, C; RYMZHANOVA, R; MOISSONNIER, M; HOURS, M; CARDIS, E

    2009-01-01

    Objectives: Both the public perceptions, and most published epidemiologic studies, rely on the assumption that the distance of a particular residence from a base station or a broadcast transmitter is an appropriate surrogate for exposure to radiofrequency fields, although complex propagation characteristics affect the beams from antennas. The main goal of this study was to characterise the distribution of residential exposure from antennas using personal exposure meters.Results: Much of the t...

  17. Residential exposure to radiofrequency fields from mobile phone base stations, and broadcast transmitters: a population-based survey with personal meter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viel, J F; Clerc, S; Barrera, C; Rymzhanova, R; Moissonnier, M; Hours, M; Cardis, E

    2009-08-01

    Both the public perceptions, and most published epidemiologic studies, rely on the assumption that the distance of a particular residence from a base station or a broadcast transmitter is an appropriate surrogate for exposure to radiofrequency fields, although complex propagation characteristics affect the beams from antennas. The main goal of this study was to characterise the distribution of residential exposure from antennas using personal exposure meters. A total of 200 randomly selected people were enrolled. Each participant was supplied with a personal exposure meter for 24 h measurements, and kept a time-location-activity diary. Two exposure metrics for each radiofrequency were then calculated: the proportion of measurements above the detection limit (0.05 V/m), and the maximum electric field strength. Residential address was geocoded, and distance from each antenna was calculated. Much of the time, the recorded field strength was below the detection level (0.05 V/m), the FM band standing apart with a proportion above the detection threshold of 12.3%. The maximum electric field strength was always lower than 1.5 V/m. Exposure to GSM and DCS waves peaked around 280 m and 1000 m from the antennas. A downward trend was found within a 10 km range for FM. Conversely, UMTS, TV 3, and TV 4&5 signals did not vary with distance. Despite numerous limiting factors entailing a high variability in radiofrequency exposure assessment, but owing to a sound statistical technique, we found that exposures from GSM and DCS base stations increase with distance in the near source zone, to a maximum where the main beam intersects the ground. We believe these results will contribute to the ongoing public debate over the location of base stations and their associated emissions.

  18. OD Matrix Acquisition Based on Mobile Phone Positioning Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoqing ZUO

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Dynamic OD matrix is basic data of traffic travel guidance, traffic control, traffic management and traffic planning, and reflects the basic needs of travelers on the traffic network. With the rising popularity of positioning technology and the communication technology and the generation of huge mobile phone users, the mining and use of mobile phone positioning data, can get more traffic intersections and import and export data. These data will be integrated into obtaining the regional OD matrix, which is bound to bring convenience. In this article, mobile phone positioning data used in the data acquisition of intelligent transportation system, research a kind of regional dynamic OD matrix acquisition method based on the mobile phone positioning data. The method based on purpose of transportation, using time series similarity classification algorithm based on piecewise linear representation of the corner point (CP-PLR, mapping each base station cell to traffic zone of different traffic characteristics, and through a series of mapping optimization of base station cell to traffic zone to realize city traffic zone division based on mobile phone traffic data, on the basis, adjacency matrix chosen as the physical data structure of OD matrix storage, the principle of obtaining regional dynamic OD matrix based on the mobile phone positioning data are expounded, and the algorithm of obtaining regional dynamic OD matrix based on mobile phone positioning data are designed and verified.

  19. Mobile phone based ELISA (MELISA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhdanov, Arsenii; Keefe, Jordan; Franco-Waite, Luis; Konnaiyan, Karthik Raj; Pyayt, Anna

    2018-04-30

    Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) is one of the most important technologies for biochemical analysis critical for diagnosis and monitoring of many diseases. Traditional systems for ELISA incubation and reading are expensive and bulky, thus cannot be used at point-of-care or in the field. Here, we propose and demonstrate a new miniature mobile phone based system for ELISA (MELISA). This system can be used to complete all steps of the assay, including incubation and reading. It weighs just 1 pound, can be fabricated at low cost, portable, and can transfer test results via mobile phone. We successfully demonstrated how MELISA can be calibrated for accurate measurements of progesterone and demonstrated successful measurements with the calibrated system. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Association of Exposure to Radio-Frequency Electromagnetic Field Radiation (RF-EMFR Generated by Mobile Phone Base Stations with Glycated Hemoglobin (HbA1c and Risk of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sultan Ayoub Meo

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Installation of mobile phone base stations in residential areas has initiated public debate about possible adverse effects on human health. This study aimed to determine the association of exposure to radio frequency electromagnetic field radiation (RF-EMFR generated by mobile phone base stations with glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c and occurrence of type 2 diabetes mellitus. For this study, two different elementary schools (school-1 and school-2 were selected. We recruited 159 students in total; 96 male students from school-1, with age range 12–16 years, and 63 male students with age range 12–17 years from school-2. Mobile phone base stations with towers existed about 200 m away from the school buildings. RF-EMFR was measured inside both schools. In school-1, RF-EMFR was 9.601 nW/cm2 at frequency of 925 MHz, and students had been exposed to RF-EMFR for a duration of 6 h daily, five days in a week. In school-2, RF-EMFR was 1.909 nW/cm2 at frequency of 925 MHz and students had been exposed for 6 h daily, five days in a week. 5–6 mL blood was collected from all the students and HbA1c was measured by using a Dimension Xpand Plus Integrated Chemistry System, Siemens. The mean HbA1c for the students who were exposed to high RF-EMFR was significantly higher (5.44 ± 0.22 than the mean HbA1c for the students who were exposed to low RF-EMFR (5.32 ± 0.34 (p = 0.007. Moreover, students who were exposed to high RF-EMFR generated by MPBS had a significantly higher risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus (p = 0.016 relative to their counterparts who were exposed to low RF-EMFR. It is concluded that exposure to high RF-EMFR generated by MPBS is associated with elevated levels of HbA1c and risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus.

  1. Base Station Performance Model

    OpenAIRE

    Walsh, Barbara; Farrell, Ronan

    2005-01-01

    At present the testing of power amplifiers within base station transmitters is limited to testing at component level as opposed to testing at the system level. While the detection of catastrophic failure is possible, that of performance degradation is not. This paper proposes a base station model with respect to transmitter output power with the aim of introducing system level monitoring of the power amplifier behaviour within the base station. Our model reflects the expe...

  2. Cell phone based balance trainer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee Beom-Chan

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In their current laboratory-based form, existing vibrotactile sensory augmentation technologies that provide cues of body motion are impractical for home-based rehabilitation use due to their size, weight, complexity, calibration procedures, cost, and fragility. Methods We have designed and developed a cell phone based vibrotactile feedback system for potential use in balance rehabilitation training in clinical and home environments. It comprises an iPhone with an embedded tri-axial linear accelerometer, custom software to estimate body tilt, a "tactor bud" accessory that plugs into the headphone jack to provide vibrotactile cues of body tilt, and a battery. Five young healthy subjects (24 ± 2.8 yrs, 3 females and 2 males and four subjects with vestibular deficits (42.25 ± 13.5 yrs, 2 females and 2 males participated in a proof-of-concept study to evaluate the effectiveness of the system. Healthy subjects used the system with eyes closed during Romberg, semi-tandem Romberg, and tandem Romberg stances. Subjects with vestibular deficits used the system with both eyes-open and eyes-closed conditions during semi-tandem Romberg stance. Vibrotactile feedback was provided when the subject exceeded either an anterior-posterior (A/P or a medial-lateral (M/L body tilt threshold. Subjects were instructed to move away from the vibration. Results The system was capable of providing real-time vibrotactile cues that informed corrective postural responses. When feedback was available, both healthy subjects and those with vestibular deficits significantly reduced their A/P or M/L RMS sway (depending on the direction of feedback, had significantly smaller elliptical area fits to their sway trajectory, spent a significantly greater mean percentage time within the no feedback zone, and showed a significantly greater A/P or M/L mean power frequency. Conclusion The results suggest that the real-time feedback provided by this system can be used

  3. Cell phone based balance trainer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background In their current laboratory-based form, existing vibrotactile sensory augmentation technologies that provide cues of body motion are impractical for home-based rehabilitation use due to their size, weight, complexity, calibration procedures, cost, and fragility. Methods We have designed and developed a cell phone based vibrotactile feedback system for potential use in balance rehabilitation training in clinical and home environments. It comprises an iPhone with an embedded tri-axial linear accelerometer, custom software to estimate body tilt, a "tactor bud" accessory that plugs into the headphone jack to provide vibrotactile cues of body tilt, and a battery. Five young healthy subjects (24 ± 2.8 yrs, 3 females and 2 males) and four subjects with vestibular deficits (42.25 ± 13.5 yrs, 2 females and 2 males) participated in a proof-of-concept study to evaluate the effectiveness of the system. Healthy subjects used the system with eyes closed during Romberg, semi-tandem Romberg, and tandem Romberg stances. Subjects with vestibular deficits used the system with both eyes-open and eyes-closed conditions during semi-tandem Romberg stance. Vibrotactile feedback was provided when the subject exceeded either an anterior-posterior (A/P) or a medial-lateral (M/L) body tilt threshold. Subjects were instructed to move away from the vibration. Results The system was capable of providing real-time vibrotactile cues that informed corrective postural responses. When feedback was available, both healthy subjects and those with vestibular deficits significantly reduced their A/P or M/L RMS sway (depending on the direction of feedback), had significantly smaller elliptical area fits to their sway trajectory, spent a significantly greater mean percentage time within the no feedback zone, and showed a significantly greater A/P or M/L mean power frequency. Conclusion The results suggest that the real-time feedback provided by this system can be used to reduce body sway. Its

  4. Report of final results regarding brain and heart tumors in Sprague-Dawley rats exposed from prenatal life until natural death to mobile phone radiofrequency field representative of a 1.8 GHz GSM base station environmental emission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falcioni, L; Bua, L; Tibaldi, E; Lauriola, M; De Angelis, L; Gnudi, F; Mandrioli, D; Manservigi, M; Manservisi, F; Manzoli, I; Menghetti, I; Montella, R; Panzacchi, S; Sgargi, D; Strollo, V; Vornoli, A; Belpoggi, F

    2018-08-01

    In 2011, IARC classified radiofrequency radiation (RFR) as possible human carcinogen (Group 2B). According to IARC, animals studies, as well as epidemiological ones, showed limited evidence of carcinogenicity. In 2016, the NTP published the first results of its long-term bioassays on near field RFR, reporting increased incidence of malignant glial tumors of the brain and heart Schwannoma in rats exposed to GSM - and CDMA - modulated cell phone RFR. The tumors observed in the NTP study are of the type similar to the ones observed in some epidemiological studies of cell phone users. The Ramazzini Institute (RI) performed a life-span carcinogenic study on Sprague-Dawley rats to evaluate the carcinogenic effects of RFR in the situation of far field, reproducing the environmental exposure to RFR generated by 1.8 GHz GSM antenna of the radio base stations of mobile phone. This is the largest long-term study ever performed in rats on the health effects of RFR, including 2448 animals. In this article, we reported the final results regarding brain and heart tumors. Male and female Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed from prenatal life until natural death to a 1.8 GHz GSM far field of 0, 5, 25, 50 V/m with a whole-body exposure for 19 h/day. A statistically significant increase in the incidence of heart Schwannomas was observed in treated male rats at the highest dose (50 V/m). Furthermore, an increase in the incidence of heart Schwann cells hyperplasia was observed in treated male and female rats at the highest dose (50 V/m), although this was not statistically significant. An increase in the incidence of malignant glial tumors was observed in treated female rats at the highest dose (50 V/m), although not statistically significant. The RI findings on far field exposure to RFR are consistent with and reinforce the results of the NTP study on near field exposure, as both reported an increase in the incidence of tumors of the brain and heart in RFR-exposed Sprague

  5. Secure base stations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosch, Peter; Brusilovsky, Alec; McLellan, Rae; Mullender, Sape J.; Polakos, Paul

    2009-01-01

    With the introduction of the third generation (3G) Universal Mobile Telecommunications System (UMTS) base station router (BSR) and fourth generation (4G) base stations, such as the 3rd Generation Partnership Project (3GPP) Long Term Evolution (LTE) Evolved Node B (eNB), it has become important to

  6. Mojave Base Station Implementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koscielski, C. G.

    1984-01-01

    A 12.2 meter diameter X-Y mount antenna was reconditioned for use by the crustal dynamic project as a fixed base station. System capabilities and characteristics and key performance parameters for subsystems are presented. The implementation is completed.

  7. Comments on Meo et al. Association of Exposure to Radio-Frequency Electromagnetic Field Radiation (RF-EMFR Generated by Mobile Phone Base Stations with Glycated Hemoglobin (HbA1c and Risk of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health, 2015, 12, 14519–14528

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Alireza Mortazavi

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available With great interest and enthusiasm, we have read the article by Meo et al. entitled “Association of Exposure to Radio-Frequency Electromagnetic Field Radiation (RF-EMFR Generated by Mobile Phone Base Stations with Glycated Hemoglobin (HbA1c and Risk of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus” that is published in the latest issue of the International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health [1].[...

  8. Phone Application Based Wireless Application Protocol (Wap)

    OpenAIRE

    Berrie Nugraha Adiwinata; Sunarto Usna

    2001-01-01

    WAP mobile phone sales in Indonesia is quite high, evidenced by a recent survey saidnearly about 5% of mobile phone users in Indonesia is a mobile phone using WAPtechnology. For those who always need accurate information and quick. WAPtechnology a ride on a GSM network still has weaknesses such as an expensiveaccess costs. But do not close the possibility that one day we will get a perfect WAPphones.

  9. PhoneSat: Ground Testing of a Phone-Based Prototype Bus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felix, Carmen; Howard, Benjamin; Reyes, Matthew; Snarskiy, Fedor; Hickman, Ryan; Boshuizen, Christopher; Marshall, William

    2010-01-01

    Most of the key capabilities that are requisite of a satellite bus are housed in today's smart phones. PhoneSat refers to an initiative to build a ground-based prototype vehicle that could all the basic functionality of a satellite, including attitude control, using a smart Phone as its central hardware. All components used were also low cost Commercial off the Shelf (COTS). In summer 2009, an initial prototype was created using the LEGO Mindstorm toolkit demonstrating simple attitude control. Here we report on a follow up initiative to design, build and test a vehicle based on the Google s smart phone Nexus One. The report includes results from initial thermal-vacuum chamber tests and low altitude sub-orbital rocket flights which show that, at least for short durations, the Nexus One phone is able to withstand key aspects of the space environment without failure. We compare the sensor data from the Phone's accelerometers and magnetometers with that of an external microelectronic inertial measurement unit.

  10. Smart phone-based Chemistry Instrumentation: Digitization of Colorimetric Measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Byoung Yong

    2012-01-01

    This report presents a mobile instrumentation platform based on a smart phone using its built-in functions for colorimetric diagnosis. The color change as a result of detection is taken as a picture through a CCD camera built in the smart phone, and is evaluated in the form of the hue value to give the well-defined relationship between the color and the concentration. To prove the concept in the present work, proton concentration measurements were conducted on pH paper coupled with a smart phone for demonstration. This report is believed to show the possibility of adapting a smart phone to a mobile analytical transducer, and more applications for bioanalysis are expected to be developed using other built-in functions of the smart phone

  11. Quantum key distribution using card, base station and trusted authority

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nordholt, Jane E.; Hughes, Richard John; Newell, Raymond Thorson; Peterson, Charles Glen; Rosenberg, Danna; McCabe, Kevin Peter; Tyagi, Kush T.; Dallmann, Nicholas

    2017-06-14

    Techniques and tools for quantum key distribution ("QKD") between a quantum communication ("QC") card, base station and trusted authority are described herein. In example implementations, a QC card contains a miniaturized QC transmitter and couples with a base station. The base station provides a network connection with the trusted authority and can also provide electric power to the QC card. When coupled to the base station, after authentication by the trusted authority, the QC card acquires keys through QKD with a trust authority. The keys can be used to set up secure communication, for authentication, for access control, or for other purposes. The QC card can be implemented as part of a smart phone or other mobile computing device, or the QC card can be used as a fillgun for distribution of the keys.

  12. Quantum key distribution using card, base station and trusted authority

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordholt, Jane Elizabeth; Hughes, Richard John; Newell, Raymond Thorson; Peterson, Charles Glen; Rosenberg, Danna; McCabe, Kevin Peter; Tyagi, Kush T; Dallman, Nicholas

    2015-04-07

    Techniques and tools for quantum key distribution ("QKD") between a quantum communication ("QC") card, base station and trusted authority are described herein. In example implementations, a QC card contains a miniaturized QC transmitter and couples with a base station. The base station provides a network connection with the trusted authority and can also provide electric power to the QC card. When coupled to the base station, after authentication by the trusted authority, the QC card acquires keys through QKD with a trusted authority. The keys can be used to set up secure communication, for authentication, for access control, or for other purposes. The QC card can be implemented as part of a smart phone or other mobile computing device, or the QC card can be used as a fillgun for distribution of the keys.

  13. Evaluation of a cell phone-based physical activity diary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sternfeld, Barbara; Jiang, Sheng-Fang; Picchi, Teresa; Chasan-Taber, Lisa; Ainsworth, Barbara; Quesenberry, Charles P

    2012-03-01

    Physical activity (PA) diaries reduce the recall error inherent in self-reported PA but are burdensome. The purpose of this study was to compare a cell phone-based diary with a paper diary and examine the reliability and validity of the cell phone diary. In a pilot study, 25 women and 23 men, age 45-65 yr, completed cell phone and paper PA diaries 4 d·wk(-1) for three consecutive weeks and a user satisfaction survey. In the subsequent validation study, 623 middle-age participants (52.5% women) were asked to complete the cell phone diary and wear an accelerometer for two 7-d periods, approximately 6 months apart. They also completed two PA questionnaires. Fitness, body mass index, and percent body fat were obtained as indirect validation criteria. Estimates of PA from the cell phone and paper diaries were similar (mean within person difference = -43.8 MET·min·d(-1) of total PA, SD = 360, P = 0.49, 7.4 min·d(-1) of moderate-vigorous PA, SD = 66, P = 0.53). Users preferred the cell phone diary over the paper diary (59.6% vs 35.4%). In the subsequent study, intraclass correlations for the cell phone diary ranged from 0.55 for light PA to 0.63 for vigorous PA. Although PA estimates from the cell phone diary were generally significantly higher than those from the accelerometer and the questionnaires, correlations for moderate and vigorous PA were moderate (ρ = 0.25-0.59 with the questionnaires and 0.27-0.35 with the accelerometer). The correlations between the cell phone diary and the indirect validation criteria were generally in the expected direction and of moderate magnitude. A cell phone-based PA diary is equivalent to a paper diary, acceptable to users, and a relatively reliable and valid approach to self-reported PA.

  14. Surface Plasmon Resonance Biosensor Based on Smart Phone Platforms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yun; Liu, Qiang; Chen, Shimeng; Cheng, Fang; Wang, Hanqi; Peng, Wei

    2015-08-10

    We demonstrate a fiber optic surface plasmon resonance (SPR) biosensor based on smart phone platforms. The light-weight optical components and sensing element are connected by optical fibers on a phone case. This SPR adaptor can be conveniently installed or removed from smart phones. The measurement, control and reference channels are illuminated by the light entering the lead-in fibers from the phone's LED flash, while the light from the end faces of the lead-out fibers is detected by the phone's camera. The SPR-sensing element is fabricated by a light-guiding silica capillary that is stripped off its cladding and coated with 50-nm gold film. Utilizing a smart application to extract the light intensity information from the camera images, the light intensities of each channel are recorded every 0.5 s with refractive index (RI) changes. The performance of the smart phone-based SPR platform for accurate and repeatable measurements was evaluated by detecting different concentrations of antibody binding to a functionalized sensing element, and the experiment results were validated through contrast experiments with a commercial SPR instrument. This cost-effective and portable SPR biosensor based on smart phones has many applications, such as medicine, health and environmental monitoring.

  15. Incorporating Mobile Phone Technologies to Expand Evidence-Based Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Deborah J; Anton, Margaret; Gonzalez, Michelle; Honeycutt, Amanda; Khavjou, Olga; Forehand, Rex; Parent, Justin

    2015-08-01

    Ownership of mobile phones is on the rise, a trend in uptake that transcends age, region, race, and ethnicity, as well as income. It is precisely the emerging ubiquity of mobile phones that has sparked enthusiasm regarding their capacity to increase the reach and impact of health care, including mental health care. Community-based clinicians charged with transporting evidence-based interventions beyond research and training clinics are in turn, ideally and uniquely situated to capitalize on mobile phone uptake and functionality to bridge the efficacy to effectiveness gap. As such, this article delineates key considerations to guide these frontline clinicians in mobile phone-enhanced clinical practice, including an overview of industry data on the uptake of and evolution in the functionality of mobile phone platforms, conceptual considerations relevant to the integration of mobile phones into practice, representative empirical illustrations of mobile-phone enhanced assessment and treatment, and practical considerations relevant to ensuring the feasibility and sustainability of such an approach.

  16. Incorporating Mobile Phone Technologies to Expand Evidence-Based Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Deborah J.; Anton, Margaret; Gonzalez, Michelle; Honeycutt, Amanda; Khavjou, Olga; Forehand, Rex; Parent, Justin

    2014-01-01

    Ownership of mobile phones is on the rise, a trend in uptake that transcends age, region, race, and ethnicity, as well as income. It is precisely the emerging ubiquity of mobile phones that has sparked enthusiasm regarding their capacity to increase the reach and impact of health care, including mental health care. Community-based clinicians charged with transporting evidence-based interventions beyond research and training clinics are in turn, ideally and uniquely situated to capitalize on mobile phone uptake and functionality to bridge the efficacy to effectiveness gap. As such, this article delineates key considerations to guide these frontline clinicians in mobile phone-enhanced clinical practice, including an overview of industry data on the uptake of and evolution in the functionality of mobile phone platforms, conceptual considerations relevant to the integration of mobile phones into practice, representative empirical illustrations of mobile-phone enhanced assessment and treatment, and practical considerations relevant to ensuring the feasibility and sustainability of such an approach. PMID:26213458

  17. Smart phone based bacterial detection using bio functionalized fluorescent nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rajendran, Vinoth Kumar; Bakthavathsalam, Padmavathy; Ali, Baquir Mohammed Jaffar

    2014-01-01

    We are describing immunochromatographic test strips with smart phone-based fluorescence readout. They are intended for use in the detection of the foodborne bacterial pathogens Salmonella spp. and Escherichia coli O157. Silica nanoparticles (SiNPs) were doped with FITC and Ru(bpy), conjugated to the respective antibodies, and then used in a conventional lateral flow immunoassay (LFIA). Fluorescence was recorded by inserting the nitrocellulose strip into a smart phone-based fluorimeter consisting of a light weight (40 g) optical module containing an LED light source, a fluorescence filter set and a lens attached to the integrated camera of the cell phone in order to acquire high-resolution fluorescence images. The images were analysed by exploiting the quick image processing application of the cell phone and enable the detection of pathogens within few minutes. This LFIA is capable of detecting pathogens in concentrations as low as 10 5 cfu mL −1 directly from test samples without pre-enrichment. The detection is one order of magnitude better compared to gold nanoparticle-based LFIAs under similar condition. The successful combination of fluorescent nanoparticle-based pathogen detection by LFIAs with a smart phone-based detection platform has resulted in a portable device with improved diagnosis features and having potential application in diagnostics and environmental monitoring. (author)

  18. Effect of Electromagnetic Radiation Emitted from A Mobile Phone Station on Biochemical and Histological Structure of Some Rat Organs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lotfi, S.A.

    2011-01-01

    This study was carried out to investigate the effects of electromagnetic radiations (EMR), especially radio frequency (RF), which arises from mobile phone station on some parameter in serum and histological structure of some organs in male albino rats exposed to short (15 days) and long (30 days) periods. The long time exposure of the electromagnetic radiations can induce significant increase in the levels of testosterone, creatinine, urea and uric acid in the two exposure groups (15 and 30 days), while the serum total protein, albumin and globulin were decreased significantly after the long time of exposure as compared with control. The microscopic examination of liver, kidney and testes tissues revealed destruction and atrophy of cells in rats exposed to RF for 15 and 30 days. In conclusion, long term exposure of mobile phones station (EMR) induced harmful effects on blood parameter and histological structure of liver, kidney and testes tissues of rats.

  19. Understanding Urban Spatial Structure of Shanghai Central City Based on Mobile Phone Data

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Niu; Xinyi; Ding; Liang; Song; Xiaodong; Zhang; Qingfei

    2015-01-01

    Taking Shanghai Central City as its case study, this paper presents an approach to exploring the urban spatial structure through mobile phone positioning data. Firstly, based on base station location data and mobile phone signaling data, the paper analyses the number of users connecting to each base station, and further generates the maps of mobile phone user density through kernel density analysis. We move on to calculate the multi-day average user density based on a time frame of 10:00 and 23:00 at workdays and 15:00 and 23:00 at weekends for Shanghai Central City. Then, through spatial aggregation and density classifi cation on the density maps of 10:00 at workdays and 15:00 at weekends, we identify the ranks and functions of public centers within Shanghai Central City. Lastly, we identify residential areas, business off ice areas, and leisure areas in Shanghai Central City and measure the degree of functional mix by comparing the ratio of day and night user density as well as the user density at nighttime of workdays and weekends.

  20. Mobile phone-based interventions for smoking cessation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whittaker, Robyn; McRobbie, Hayden; Bullen, Chris; Rodgers, Anthony; Gu, Yulong

    2016-04-10

    Access to mobile phones continues to increase exponentially globally, outstripping access to fixed telephone lines, fixed computers and the Internet. Mobile phones are an appropriate and effective option for the delivery of smoking cessation support in some contexts. This review updates the evidence on the effectiveness of mobile phone-based smoking cessation interventions. To determine whether mobile phone-based smoking cessation interventions increase smoking cessation in people who smoke and want to quit. For the most recent update, we searched the Cochrane Tobacco Addiction Group Specialised Register in April 2015. We also searched the UK Clinical Research Network Portfolio for current projects in the UK, and the ClinicalTrials.gov register for ongoing or recently completed studies. We searched through the reference lists of identified studies and attempted to contact the authors of ongoing studies. We applied no restrictions on language or publication date. We included randomised or quasi-randomised trials. Participants were smokers of any age who wanted to quit. Studies were those examining any type of mobile phone-based intervention for smoking cessation. This included any intervention aimed at mobile phone users, based around delivery via mobile phone, and using any functions or applications that can be used or sent via a mobile phone. Review authors extracted information on risk of bias and methodological details using a standardised form. We considered participants who dropped out of the trials or were lost to follow-up to be smoking. We calculated risk ratios (RR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for each included study. Meta-analysis of the included studies used the Mantel-Haenszel fixed-effect method. Where meta-analysis was not possible, we presented a narrative summary and descriptive statistics. This updated search identified 12 studies with six-month smoking cessation outcomes, including seven studies completed since the previous review. The

  1. Investigation of the exposure level of electromagnetic fields produced by mobile telephone base stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abukassem, I.; Kharita, M. H.

    2010-12-01

    The aim of this work is to investigate the real values of microwave level distribution and propagation in the locality around samples of mobile phone base station, and to compare the results with the exposure restriction limits recommenced by the International Commission on Non Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP). Measurements were performed using special meters for microwaves; the first (Narda SRM-3000) is used for electromagnetic waves frequency spectrum scanning and the second (NARDA) emr 300) determine the level of electric and magnetic fields and the power density of these waves nearby any sort of transmitters. Samples of different kinds of mobile phone base station were chosen to cover important zones of Damascus, and the region around each base station was also scanned in the emission direction and according to accessibility into the studies positions. Results showed that the signal level in all measured points is lower than the ICNIRP restriction level, but for few points the detected microwave level has relatively important values. The signal level inside building situated partially in the emission direction of the base station transmitters decreases stepwise and walls reduce considerably the signal intensity. To realize these kind of field studies in the best way and obtain the maximum profits for all people, the properties and operating system of transmitters used in mobile phone base station must be known, and therefore, it is very important to achieve a transparent collaboration between research laboratory and mobile phone company. (author)

  2. Fast Demand Forecast of Electric Vehicle Charging Stations for Cell Phone Application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Majidpour, Mostafa; Qiu, Charlie; Chung, Ching-Yen; Chu, Peter; Gadh, Rajit; Pota, Hemanshu R.

    2014-07-31

    This paper describes the core cellphone application algorithm which has been implemented for the prediction of energy consumption at Electric Vehicle (EV) Charging Stations at UCLA. For this interactive user application, the total time of accessing database, processing the data and making the prediction, needs to be within a few seconds. We analyze four relatively fast Machine Learning based time series prediction algorithms for our prediction engine: Historical Average, kNearest Neighbor, Weighted k-Nearest Neighbor, and Lazy Learning. The Nearest Neighbor algorithm (k Nearest Neighbor with k=1) shows better performance and is selected to be the prediction algorithm implemented for the cellphone application. Two applications have been designed on top of the prediction algorithm: one predicts the expected available energy at the station and the other one predicts the expected charging finishing time. The total time, including accessing the database, data processing, and prediction is about one second for both applications.

  3. Radiation Measurement from Mobile Base Stations at a University Campus in Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Md. R. Islam; Othman O. Khalifa; Liakot Ali; Amir Azli; Mohd Zulkarnain

    2006-01-01

    The tremendous growth of telecommunication industry results the number of hand phone users increases everyday. In order to support the growing number of users, the mobile base stations can be seen in almost everywhere. This scenario has created uncomfortable feelings to the people that they may be affected by the radiations from antennas. A measurement was done at student hostels and office premises near to base stations in International Islamic University Malaysia, Gombak campus. Measured va...

  4. GSM base station electromagnetic radiation and oxidative stress in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yurekli, Ali Ihsan; Ozkan, Mehmed; Kalkan, Tunaya; Saybasili, Hale; Tuncel, Handan; Atukeren, Pinar; Gumustas, Koray; Seker, Selim

    2006-01-01

    The ever increasing use of cellular phones and the increasing number of associated base stations are becoming a widespread source of nonionizing electromagnetic radiation. Some biological effects are likely to occur even at low-level EM fields. In this study, a gigahertz transverse electromagnetic (GTEM) cell was used as an exposure environment for plane wave conditions of far-field free space EM field propagation at the GSM base transceiver station (BTS) frequency of 945 MHz, and effects on oxidative stress in rats were investigated. When EM fields at a power density of 3.67 W/m2 (specific absorption rate = 11.3 mW/kg), which is well below current exposure limits, were applied, MDA (malondialdehyde) level was found to increase and GSH (reduced glutathione) concentration was found to decrease significantly (p < 0.0001). Additionally, there was a less significant (p = 0.0190) increase in SOD (superoxide dismutase) activity under EM exposure.

  5. Enhancing base station connectivity with directional information of movement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugene Kim

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available High-performance smartphones with various sensor capabilities, including the inertial measurement unit, allow us to have higher freedom to localize our movements and utilize them for other applications. In this paper, we present a simple method to estimate the heading of a user using only a digital compass, accelerometer, and gyroscope. Several experiments were conducted using an Apple iPhone. In addition, we also present an algorithm to reduce the number of handover attempts in a dense base station environment. A series of simulations were conducted on OPNET in various emulated environments to present the effectiveness of the proposed method. The simulation results show that our proposed algorithm effectively reduces the ping-pong effect in a dense base station environment.

  6. Monitoring of Electromagnetic Radiation from Cellular Base Stations in Kuwait

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Otaibi, A.H.; Al-Ajmi, D.; Williams, T.; McGee, D.; Dennis, J.A.; Beg, M.U.

    1998-01-01

    A survey of the radio frequency electromagnetic environment in Kuwait was carried out. The primary purpose of this survey was to monitor electromagnetic radiation (EMR) field strength levels emitted by cellular base stations installed and operated by the Kuwait Mobile Telecommunications Company (MTC). Measurements were made at 26 cellular-phone base stations, chosen as a representative sample to include 14 school sites, 2 residential sites, 2 hospital sites, 3 ministerial building sites, 3 commercial sites and 1 typical stand-alone site. On all the selected sites measurements were made with a spectrum analyser to determine the emission level in the frequency bands used by the base station transmitters (917-960 MHz). The results indicated that total field strength, specifically due to the MTC base stations, found in public access areas, varied generally between 0.05 and 1.13 V.m -1 . These values are in the order of between 40 and 800 times lower than the new pan-European CENELEC pre-standard ENV 50166-2 'Human Exposure to Electromagnetic Fields'. In terms of power density the highest observed value (0.34 μW.m -2 ) was more than a thousand times below the prescribed standards. (author)

  7. Mobile phone based imaging system for selected tele-healthcare applications

    OpenAIRE

    Condominas Guàrdia, Jordi

    2013-01-01

    A mobile phone based telemedicine study is developed to see how feasible phone usage is in selected health care applications. The research is divided into three different objectives. The first objective is to compile the technical characteristics of selected mobile phones from telemedicine perspective. The second objective is to develop techniques to acquire quality images of skin with mobile phones. Finally a smartphone based telemedicine application will be developed to asses...

  8. Mobile phone-based syndromic surveillance system, Papua New Guinea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosewell, Alexander; Ropa, Berry; Randall, Heather; Dagina, Rosheila; Hurim, Samuel; Bieb, Sibauk; Datta, Siddhartha; Ramamurthy, Sundar; Mola, Glen; Zwi, Anthony B; Ray, Pradeep; MacIntyre, C Raina

    2013-11-01

    The health care system in Papua New Guinea is fragile, and surveillance systems infrequently meet international standards. To strengthen outbreak identification, health authorities piloted a mobile phone-based syndromic surveillance system and used established frameworks to evaluate whether the system was meeting objectives. Stakeholder experience was investigated by using standardized questionnaires and focus groups. Nine sites reported data that included 7 outbreaks and 92 cases of acute watery diarrhea. The new system was more timely (2.4 vs. 84 days), complete (70% vs. 40%), and sensitive (95% vs. 26%) than existing systems. The system was simple, stable, useful, and acceptable; however, feedback and subnational involvement were weak. A simple syndromic surveillance system implemented in a fragile state enabled more timely, complete, and sensitive data reporting for disease risk assessment. Feedback and provincial involvement require improvement. Use of mobile phone technology might improve the timeliness and efficiency of public health surveillance.

  9. 47 CFR 95.139 - Adding a small base station or a small control station.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Adding a small base station or a small control... base station or a small control station. (a) Except for a GMRS system licensed to a non-individual, one or more small base stations or a small control station may be added to a GMRS system at any point...

  10. Mobile phone induced sensorineural hearing loss

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Dousary, Surayie H.

    2007-01-01

    The increased use of mobile phones worldwide has focused interest on the biological effects and possible health outcomes of exposure to radiofrequency fields from mobile phones, and their base stations. Various reports suggest that mobile phone use can cause health problems like fatigue, headache, dizziness, tension and sleep disturbances, however, only limited research data is available in medical literature regarding interaction between electromagnetic fields emitted by mobile phones and auditory function and the possible impact on hearing. We report a case of sensorineural hearing loss due to Global System for Mobile Communication mobile phone use in a 42-year-old male. (author)

  11. Mobile phone-based interventions for improving contraception use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Chris; Gold, Judy; Ngo, Thoai D; Sumpter, Colin; Free, Caroline

    2015-06-26

    Contraception provides significant benefits for women's and children's health, yet an estimated 225 million women had an unmet need for modern contraceptive methods in 2014. Interventions delivered by mobile phone have been demonstrated to be effective in other health areas, but their effects on use of contraception have not been established. To assess the effects of mobile phone-based interventions for improving contraception use. We searched for randomised controlled trials (RCTs) of client-provider interventions delivered by mobile phone to improve contraception use compared with standard care or another intervention. We searched the electronic databases Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), MEDLINE, EMBASE, Global Health, PsycINFO, POPLINE, Africa-Wide Information and Latin American Caribbean Health Sciences Literature (LILACS) from January 1993 to October 2014, as well as clinical trials registries, online mHealth resources and abstracts from key conferences. Randomised controlled trials of mobile phone-based interventions to improve any form of contraception use amongst users or potential users of contraception. Outcome measures included uptake of contraception, measures of adherence, pregnancy and abortion. Two review authors independently screened titles and abstracts of studies retrieved using the search strategy and extracted data from the included studies. We calculated the Mantel-Haenszel risk ratio (RR) for dichotomous outcomes and the mean difference (MD) for continuous outcomes, together with 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Differences in interventions and outcome measures did not permit us to undertake meta-analysis. Five RCTs met our inclusion criteria. Three trials aimed to improve adherence to a specific method of contraception amongst existing or new contraception users by comparing automated text message interventions versus standard care. Two trials aimed to improve both uptake and adherence, not limited to one method, in

  12. EME assessments using telstra's mobile base station field intensity plotter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wood, M.; Hurren, S.; Vinnal, E.; Armstrong, M.

    2001-01-01

    Public interest in the potential health issues arising from mobile phone base stations has highlighted the importance of having accessible and easy to understand information on electromagnetic energy (EME) emission levels. A range of groups including residents, community groups, businesses, schools, site owners and local governments are often interested in knowing what EME levels a particular base station is capable of producing and how these compare to safety standards regulated by the Australian Communications Authority (ACA). Performing the complex mathematical calculations to predict these levels requires significant expertise, is time consuming and relatively costly. A new software tool, born out of Telstra's EME Research and Development Program, is set to revolutionise EME assessments by facilitating the provision of this information in a more timely, standardised and cost effective manner. Telstra has taken the decision to commercialise the software, which is a world first, because of expressions of interest from other carriers, EME assessment specialists, government agencies and regulatory organisations both in Australia and overseas. Significantly, the software should improve the flow of easy to understand and accurate information on emission levels from base stations. Copyright (2001) Australasian Radiation Protection Society Inc

  13. DMA Reference Base Station Network Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The data (15,904 records documenting 9,090 worldwide gravity base stations) were gathered by various governmental organizations (and academia) using a variety of...

  14. Cell phone-based health education messaging improves health literacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuang, Runsen; Xiang, Yueying; Han, Tieguang; Yang, Guo-An; Zhang, Yuan

    2016-03-01

    The ubiquity of cell phones, which allow for short message service (SMS), provides new and innovative opportunities for disease prevention and health education. To explore the use of cell phone-based health education SMS to improve the health literacy of community residents in China. A multi-stage random sampling method was used to select representative study communities and participants ≥ 18 years old. Intervention participants were sent health education SMSs once a week for 1 year and controls were sent conventional, basic health education measures. Health literacy levels of the residents before and after the intervention were evaluated between intervention and control groups. Public health literacy scores increased 1.5 points, from 61.8 to 63.3, after SMS intervention for 1 year (P<0.01); the increase was greater for males than females (2.01 vs. 1.03; P<0.01) and for Shenzhen local residents than non-permanent residents (2.56 vs. 1.14; P<0.01). The frequency of high health literacy scores was greater for the intervention than control group (22.03% to 30.93% vs. 22.07% to 20.82%). With health literacy as a cost-effective index, the cost-effectiveness per intervention was 0.54. SMS may be a useful tool for improving health literacy.

  15. Key Technologies of Phone Storage Forensics Based on ARM Architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jianghan; Che, Shengbing

    2018-03-01

    Smart phones are mainly running Android, IOS and Windows Phone three mobile platform operating systems. The android smart phone has the best market shares and its processor chips are almost ARM software architecture. The chips memory address mapping mechanism of ARM software architecture is different with x86 software architecture. To forensics to android mart phone, we need to understand three key technologies: memory data acquisition, the conversion mechanism from virtual address to the physical address, and find the system’s key data. This article presents a viable solution which does not rely on the operating system API for a complete solution to these three issues.

  16. Assessment of Radio-Frequency Radiation Exposure Level from Selected Mobile Base Stations (MBS) in Lokoja, Kogi State, Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Nwankwo, U. J. Victor; Jibiri, N. N.; Dada, S. S.; Onugba, A. A.; Ushie, P.

    2012-01-01

    The acquisition and use of mobile phone is tremendously increasing especially in developing countries, but not without a concern. The greater concern among the public is principally over the proximity of mobile base stations (MBS) to residential areas rather than the use of handsets. In this paper, we present an assessment of Radio-Frequency (RF) radiation exposure level measurements and analysis of radiation power density (in W/sq m) from mobile base stations relative to radial distance (in ...

  17. Infrared thermography based studies on mobile phone induced heating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahiri, B. B.; Bagavathiappan, S.; Soumya, C.; Jayakumar, T.; Philip, John

    2015-07-01

    Here, we report the skin temperature rise due to the absorption of radio frequency (RF) energy from three handheld mobile phones using infrared thermography technique. Experiments are performed under two different conditions, viz. when the mobile phones are placed in soft touch with the skin surface and away from the skin surface. Additionally, the temperature rise of mobile phones during charging, operation and simultaneous charging and talking are monitored under different exposure conditions. It is observed that the temperature of the cheek and ear regions monotonically increased with time during the usage of mobile phones and the magnitude of the temperature rise is higher for the mobile phone with higher specific absorption rate. The increase in skin temperature is higher when the mobile phones are in contact with the skin surface due to the combined effect of absorption of RF electromagnetic power and conductive heat transfer. The increase in the skin temperature in non-contact mode is found to be within the safety limit of 1 °C. The measured temperature rise is in good agreement with theoretical predictions. The empirical equation obtained from the temperature rise on the cheek region of the subjects correlates well with the specific absorption rate of the mobile phones. Our study suggests that the use of mobile phones in non-contact mode can significantly lower the skin temperature rise during its use and hence, is safer compared to the contact mode.

  18. Communication Base Station Log Analysis Based on Hierarchical Clustering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Shao-Hua

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Communication base stations generate massive data every day, these base station logs play an important value in mining of the business circles. This paper use data mining technology and hierarchical clustering algorithm to group the scope of business circle for the base station by recording the data of these base stations.Through analyzing the data of different business circle based on feature extraction and comparing different business circle category characteristics, which can choose a suitable area for operators of commercial marketing.

  19. Investigation of the exposure level of electromagnetic fields produced by mobile telephone base stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abukassem, I.; Kharita, M.H.

    2011-01-01

    The electromagnetic field levels in the surrounding of different samples of mobile phone base station were investigated in order to cover residential zones of Damascus and her environs. Measurements were achieved according to the emission direction and to the studied positions environment. Results showed that the signal level in all measured points is lower than the International Commission on Non Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP) restriction level, but for few measurement points the detected microwave level has relatively important values. The signal level inside building situated partially in the emission direction of the base station transmitters decreases stepwise and walls reduce considerably the signal intensity. This study showed the importance of achieving a transparent collaboration between research laboratory and mobile phone companies in order to improve the protection level.(author)

  20. Environmental reduction of mobile telephone base station produced radiation exposures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vermiglio, G.; Tripepi, M.G.; Testagrossa, B.; Sansotta, C.

    2006-01-01

    In this work the authors discuss about their own proposal about a model to modify how the Wireless Telephone Base Stations (W.T.B.S.) works. The proposal, which was made having in mind the GSM technology, can be applied to all other kind of similar technologies and was pointed out as a different way of working of the W.T.B.S. without any modifications on their distribution over the territory. After a short review of the state of the art about the technology and the basis of wireless telephone base stations, the baselines and the principles of the proposed model are discussed, facing out the most significant parameters obtained from the way W.T.B.S. are working at present towards the proposed one. Then the authors illustrate the possible advantages o f the proposed model in terms of environmental, socials and energy savings aspects. It is the authors opinion that such model can be a simple and no -cost solution to apply to the existing infrastructures; more over it can be of interest either for mobile phone companies or for environmental and/or customers associations. (authors)

  1. Lane Detection on the iPhone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Feixiang; Huang, Jinsheng; Terauchi, Mutsuhiro; Jiang, Ruyi; Klette, Reinhard

    A robust and efficient lane detection system is an essential component of Lane Departure Warning Systems, which are commonly used in many vision-based Driver Assistance Systems (DAS) in intelligent transportation. Various computation platforms have been proposed in the past few years for the implementation of driver assistance systems (e.g., PC, laptop, integrated chips, PlayStation, and so on). In this paper, we propose a new platform for the implementation of lane detection, which is based on a mobile phone (the iPhone). Due to physical limitations of the iPhone w.r.t. memory and computing power, a simple and efficient lane detection algorithm using a Hough transform is developed and implemented on the iPhone, as existing algorithms developed based on the PC platform are not suitable for mobile phone devices (currently). Experiments of the lane detection algorithm are made both on PC and on iPhone.

  2. Adaptive downtilt for cellular base stations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mestrom, R.M.C.; Coenen, T.J.; Smolders, A.B.

    2012-01-01

    Efficiency, reconfigurability, and power consumption are paramount for future communication systems in applications such as cellular handsets, base stations and home networking systems. We present our work in the European PANAMA project which addresses the associated challenges. Our work focuses on

  3. Mobile phone use patterns and preferences in safety net office-based buprenorphine patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tofighi, Babak; Grossman, Ellie; Buirkle, Emily; McNeely, Jennifer; Gourevitch, Marc; Lee, Joshua D

    2015-01-01

    Integrating mobile phone technologies in addiction treatment is of increasing importance and may optimize patient engagement with their care and enhance the delivery of existing treatment strategies. Few studies have evaluated mobile phone and text message (TM) use patterns in persons enrolled in addiction treatment, and none have assessed the use in safety net, office-based buprenorphine practices. A 28-item, quantitative and qualitative semistructured survey was administered to opiate-dependent adults in an urban, publicly funded, office-based buprenorphine program. Survey domains included demographic characteristics, mobile phone and TM use patterns, and preferences pertaining to their recovery. Surveyors approached 73 of the 155 eligible subjects (47%); 71 respondents completed the survey. Nearly all participants reported mobile phone ownership (93%) and TM use (93%), and most reported "very much" or "somewhat" comfort sending TM (79%). Text message contact with 12-step group sponsors, friends, family members, and counselors was also described (32%). Nearly all preferred having their providers' mobile phone number (94%), and alerting the clinic via TM in the event of a potential relapse to receive both supportive TM and a phone call from their buprenorphine provider was also well received (62%). Mobile phone and TM use patterns and preferences among this sample of office-based buprenorphine participants highlight the potential of adopting patient-centered mobile phone-based interventions in this treatment setting.

  4. Minimizing the Power Consumption of Location-Based Services on Mobile Phones

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjærgaard, Mikkel Baun

    2012-01-01

    Location-based services have to pay careful attention to their power consumption in order not to drain the batteries of mobile phones. It is not a simple task to build low power location-based services that can run for hours because such services make heavy use of many power consuming features...... of mobile phones. In this article we discuss the power consumption of location-based services and mobile phone features, survey methods for how to minimize power consumption and summarize a number of design considerations for location-based service developers....

  5. Mobile Phone-Based Mood Ratings Prospectively Predict Psychotherapy Attendance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruehlman-Senecal, Emma; Aguilera, Adrian; Schueller, Stephen M

    2017-09-01

    Psychotherapy nonattendance is a costly and pervasive problem. While prior research has identified stable patient-level predictors of attendance, far less is known about dynamic (i.e., time-varying) factors. Identifying dynamic predictors can clarify how clinical states relate to psychotherapy attendance and inform effective "just-in-time" interventions to promote attendance. The present study examines whether daily mood, as measured by responses to automated mobile phone-based text messages, prospectively predicts attendance in group cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) for depression. Fifty-six Spanish-speaking Latino patients with elevated depressive symptoms (46 women, mean age=50.92years, SD=10.90years), enrolled in a manualized program of group CBT, received daily automated mood-monitoring text messages. Patients' daily mood ratings, message response rate, and delay in responding were recorded. Patients' self-reported mood the day prior to a scheduled psychotherapy session significantly predicted attendance, even after controlling for patients' prior attendance history and age (OR=1.33, 95% CI [1.04, 1.70], p=.02). Positive mood corresponded to a greater likelihood of attendance. Our results demonstrate the clinical utility of automated mood-monitoring text messages in predicting attendance. These results underscore the value of text messaging, and other mobile technologies, as adjuncts to psychotherapy. Future work should explore the use of such monitoring to guide interventions to increase attendance, and ultimately the efficacy of psychotherapy. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  6. Mobile phone based clinical microscopy for global health applications.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David N Breslauer

    Full Text Available Light microscopy provides a simple, cost-effective, and vital method for the diagnosis and screening of hematologic and infectious diseases. In many regions of the world, however, the required equipment is either unavailable or insufficiently portable, and operators may not possess adequate training to make full use of the images obtained. Counterintuitively, these same regions are often well served by mobile phone networks, suggesting the possibility of leveraging portable, camera-enabled mobile phones for diagnostic imaging and telemedicine. Toward this end we have built a mobile phone-mounted light microscope and demonstrated its potential for clinical use by imaging P. falciparum-infected and sickle red blood cells in brightfield and M. tuberculosis-infected sputum samples in fluorescence with LED excitation. In all cases resolution exceeded that necessary to detect blood cell and microorganism morphology, and with the tuberculosis samples we took further advantage of the digitized images to demonstrate automated bacillus counting via image analysis software. We expect such a telemedicine system for global healthcare via mobile phone -- offering inexpensive brightfield and fluorescence microscopy integrated with automated image analysis -- to provide an important tool for disease diagnosis and screening, particularly in the developing world and rural areas where laboratory facilities are scarce but mobile phone infrastructure is extensive.

  7. Lunar base thermoelectric power station study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Determan, William; Frye, Patrick; Mondt, Jack; Fleurial, Jean-Pierre; Johnson, Ken; Stapfer, G.; Brooks, Michael D.; Heshmatpour, Ben

    2006-01-01

    Under NASA's Project Prometheus, the Nuclear Systems Program, the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pratt & Whitney Rocketdyne, and Teledyne Energy Systems have teamed with a number of universities, under the Segmented Thermoelectric Multicouple Converter (STMC) program, to develop the next generation of advanced thermoelectric converters for space reactor power systems. Work on the STMC converter assembly has progressed to the point where the lower temperature stage of the segmented multicouple converter assembly is ready for laboratory testing and the upper stage materials have been identified and their properties are being characterized. One aspect of the program involves mission application studies to help define the potential benefits from the use of these STMC technologies for designated NASA missions such as the lunar base power station where kilowatts of power are required to maintain a permanent manned presence on the surface of the moon. A modular 50 kWe thermoelectric power station concept was developed to address a specific set of requirements developed for this mission. Previous lunar lander concepts had proposed the use of lunar regolith as in-situ radiation shielding material for a reactor power station with a one kilometer exclusion zone radius to minimize astronaut radiation dose rate levels. In the present concept, we will examine the benefits and requirements for a hermetically-sealed reactor thermoelectric power station module suspended within a man-made lunar surface cavity. The concept appears to maximize the shielding capabilities of the lunar regolith while minimizing its handling requirements. Both thermal and nuclear radiation levels from operation of the station, at its 100-m exclusion zone radius, were evaluated and found to be acceptable. Site preparation activities are reviewed and well as transport issues for this concept. The goal of the study was to review the entire life cycle of the unit to assess its technical problems and technology

  8. Antenna unit and radio base station therewith

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuwahara, Mikio; Doi, Nobukazu; Suzuki, Toshiro; Ishida, Yuji; Inoue, Takashi; Niida, Sumaru

    2007-04-10

    Phase and amplitude deviations, which are generated, for example, by cables connecting an array antenna of a CDMA base station and the base station, are calibrated in the baseband. The base station comprises: an antenna apparatus 1; couplers 2; an RF unit 3 that converts a receive signal to a baseband signal, converts a transmit signal to a radio frequency, and performs power control; an A/D converter 4 for converting a receive signal to a digital signal; a receive beam form unit 6 that multiplies the receive signal by semi-fixed weight; a despreader 7 for this signal input; a time-space demodulator 8 for demodulating user data; a despreader 9 for probe signal; a space modulator 14 for user data; a spreader 13 for user signal; a channel combiner 12; a Tx calibrater 11 for controlling calibration of a signal; a D/A converter 10; a unit 16 for calculation of correlation matrix for generating a probe signal used for controlling an Rx calibration system and a TX calibration system; a spreader 17 for probe signal; a power control unit 18; a D/A converter 19; an RF unit 20 for probe signal; an A/D converter 21 for signal from the couplers 2; and a despreader 22.

  9. Monitoring and optimization of energy consumption of base transceiver stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spagnuolo, Antonio; Petraglia, Antonio; Vetromile, Carmela; Formosi, Roberto; Lubritto, Carmine

    2015-01-01

    The growth and development of the mobile phone network has led to an increased demand for energy by the telecommunications sector, with a noticeable impact on the environment. Monitoring of energy consumption is a great tool for understanding how to better manage this consumption and find the best strategy to adopt in order to maximize reduction of unnecessary usage of electricity. This paper reports on a monitoring campaign performed on six BSs (Base Transceiver Stations) located central Italy, with different technology, typology and technical characteristics. The study focuses on monitoring energy consumption and environmental parameters (temperature, noise, and global radiation), linking energy consumption with the load of telephone traffic and with the air conditioning functions used to cool the transmission equipment. Moreover, using experimental data collected, it is shown, with a Monte Carlo simulation based on power saving features, how the BS monitored could save energy. - Highlights: • Energy consumption and environmental parameters of a base transceiver system have been monitored. • Energy consumption is related to the air conditioning functions and to the load of telephone traffic. • Energy saving can be obtained by careful choice of cooling parameters and by turn off BS transceivers. • Energy saving parameters can be estimated by a simulation Monte Carlo method

  10. Internet and Cell Phone Based Smoking Cessation Programs among Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, Purvi; Sharma, Manoj

    2010-01-01

    Smoking cessation among adolescents is a salient public health issue, as it can prevent the adoption of risky health behaviors and reduce negative impacts on health. Self-efficacy, household and social support systems, and perceived benefits are some important cessation determinants. With the popular use of the Internet and cell phone usage among…

  11. A Textual Case-Based Mobile Phone Diagnosis Support System ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this paper, a Mobile Phone Diagnosis Support System is presented as an extension to jCOLIBRI which accepts a problem and reasons with cases to provide a solution related to a new given problem. Experimental evaluation using some set of problems shows that the developed system predicts the solution that is ...

  12. Workgroup report: base stations and wireless networks-radiofrequency (RF) exposures and health consequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valberg, Peter A; van Deventer, T Emilie; Repacholi, Michael H

    2007-03-01

    Radiofrequency (RF) waves have long been used for different types of information exchange via the air waves--wireless Morse code, radio, television, and wireless telephone (i.e., construction and operation of telephones or telephone systems). Increasingly larger numbers of people rely on mobile telephone technology, and health concerns about the associated RF exposure have been raised, particularly because the mobile phone handset operates in close proximity to the human body, and also because large numbers of base station antennas are required to provide widespread availability of service to large populations. The World Health Organization convened an expert workshop to discuss the current state of cellular-telephone health issues, and this article brings together several of the key points that were addressed. The possibility of RF health effects has been investigated in epidemiology studies of cellular telephone users and workers in RF occupations, in experiments with animals exposed to cell-phone RF, and via biophysical consideration of cell-phone RF electric-field intensity and the effect of RF modulation schemes. As summarized here, these separate avenues of scientific investigation provide little support for adverse health effects arising from RF exposure at levels below current international standards. Moreover, radio and television broadcast waves have exposed populations to RF for > 50 years with little evidence of deleterious health consequences. Despite unavoidable uncertainty, current scientific data are consistent with the conclusion that public exposures to permissible RF levels from mobile telephone and base stations are not likely to adversely affect human health.

  13. Workgroup Report: Base Stations and Wireless Networks—Radiofrequency (RF) Exposures and Health Consequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valberg, Peter A.; van Deventer, T. Emilie; Repacholi, Michael H.

    2007-01-01

    Radiofrequency (RF) waves have long been used for different types of information exchange via the airwaves—wireless Morse code, radio, television, and wireless telephony (i.e., construction and operation of telephones or telephonic systems). Increasingly larger numbers of people rely on mobile telephone technology, and health concerns about the associated RF exposure have been raised, particularly because the mobile phone handset operates in close proximity to the human body, and also because large numbers of base station antennas are required to provide widespread availability of service to large populations. The World Health Organization convened an expert workshop to discuss the current state of cellular-telephone health issues, and this article brings together several of the key points that were addressed. The possibility of RF health effects has been investigated in epidemiology studies of cellular telephone users and workers in RF occupations, in experiments with animals exposed to cell-phone RF, and via biophysical consideration of cell-phone RF electric-field intensity and the effect of RF modulation schemes. As summarized here, these separate avenues of scientific investigation provide little support for adverse health effects arising from RF exposure at levels below current international standards. Moreover, radio and television broadcast waves have exposed populations to RF for > 50 years with little evidence of deleterious health consequences. Despite unavoidable uncertainty, current scientific data are consistent with the conclusion that public exposures to permissible RF levels from mobile telephony and base stations are not likely to adversely affect human health. PMID:17431492

  14. Automation for a base station stability testing

    OpenAIRE

    Punnek, Elvis

    2016-01-01

    This Batchelor’s thesis was commissioned by Oy LM Ericsson Ab Oulu. The aim of it was to help to investigate and create a test automation solution for the stability testing of the LTE base station. The main objective was to create a test automation for a predefined test set. This test automation solution had to be created for specific environments and equipment. This work included creating the automation for the test cases and putting them to daily test automation jobs. The key factor...

  15. Health Impacts Of Radiofrequency Exposure From Mobile Phone ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: The widespread use of mobile phones and indiscriminate siting of transmitter base stations near residential buildings in our environment may have serious health impacts. Objective: To investigate the possible health risks associated with radiofrequency (RF) exposure from mobile phones and other transmitter ...

  16. Mobile-phone-based home exercise training program decreases systemic inflammation in COPD: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chun-Hua; Chou, Pai-Chien; Joa, Wen-Ching; Chen, Li-Fei; Sheng, Te-Fang; Ho, Shu-Chuan; Lin, Horng-Chyuan; Huang, Chien-Da; Chung, Fu-Tsai; Chung, Kian Fan; Kuo, Han-Pin

    2014-08-30

    Moderate-intensity exercise training improves skeletal muscle aerobic capacity and increased oxidative enzyme activity, as well as exercise tolerance in COPD patients. To investigate whether the home-based exercise training program can reduce inflammatory biomarkers in patients with COPD, twelve patients using mobile phone assistance and 14 with free walk were assessed by incremental shuttle walk test (ISWT), spirometry, strength of limb muscles, and serum C-reactive protein (CRP) and inflammatory cytokines. Patients in the mobile phone group improved their ISWT walking distance, with decrease in serum CRP after 2 months, and sustained at 6 months. Patients in the control group had no improvement. Serum IL-8 in the mobile phone group was significantly reduced at 2, 3 and 6 months after doing home exercise training compared to baseline. IL-6 and TNF-α were significantly elevated at 3 and 6 months in control group, while there were no changes in mobile phone group. The strength of limb muscles was significantly greater compared to baseline at 3 and 6 months in the mobile phone group. A mobile-phone-based system can provide an efficient home endurance exercise training program with improved exercise capacity, strength of limb muscles and a decrease in serum CRP and IL-8 in COPD patients. Decreased systemic inflammation may contribute to these clinical benefits. (Clinical trial registration No.: NCT01631019).

  17. Mobile phone based mini-spectrometer for rapid screening of skin cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Anshuman; Swedish, Tristan; Wahi, Akshat; Moufarrej, Mira; Noland, Marie; Gurry, Thomas; Aranda-Michel, Edgar; Aksel, Deniz; Wagh, Sneha; Sadashivaiah, Vijay; Zhang, Xu; Raskar, Ramesh

    2015-06-01

    We demonstrate a highly sensitive mobile phone based spectrometer that has potential to detect cancerous skin lesions in a rapid, non-invasive manner. Earlier reports of low cost spectrometers utilize the camera of the mobile phone to image the field after moving through a diffraction grating. These approaches are inherently limited by the closed nature of mobile phone image sensors and built in optical elements. The system presented uses a novel integrated grating and sensor that is compact, accurate and calibrated. Resolutions of about 10 nm can be achieved. Additionally, UV and visible LED excitation sources are built into the device. Data collection and analysis is simplified using the wireless interfaces and logical control on the smart phone. Furthermore, by utilizing an external sensor, the mobile phone camera can be used in conjunction with spectral measurements. We are exploring ways to use this device to measure endogenous fluorescence of skin in order to distinguish cancerous from non-cancerous lesions with a mobile phone based dermatoscope.

  18. CONTEXT BASED ANDROID APPLICATIONADMINISTRATIVE ACCESS CONTROL (CBAA–AAC FOR SMART PHONES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Sharavanan

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Android applications in smart phones are generally towards provide greater flexibility and convince for users. Considering the fact that the Android applications are having privilege to access data and resources in mobile after it gets installed (one time permission provided by end user on the time installation, these application may also lead to issues in security for the user data as well as issues relate smart phone with peripheral environment. A practical example for an issue which relates smart phone with peripheral environment can be even an Android smart phone application of a college student use camera resource to capture photos of R&D cell and transfer without user or organization permission. The security of the organization and user should be prevented by providing an adoptable solution. The proposed concept of CBAA-AAC (Context Based Android Application Administrative Access Control is used to control the privileges of any Android application over a corresponding longitude and latitude by the organization administrator. In this way, administrator is able to block malicious application of every individual smart phone which can have activity towards utilizing services and resources that may affect the security of the organization, such an move is must for assuring security of any organization and educational institutions while they allow users to “bring their own smart phones/mobile devices” into the campus.

  19. Colour based sorting station with Matlab simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Constantin Victor

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the design process and manufacturing elements of a colour-based sorting station. The system is comprised of a gravitational storage, which also contains the colour sensor. Parts are extracted using a linear pneumatic motor and are fed onto an electrically driven conveyor belt. Extraction of the parts is done at 4 points, using two pneumatic motors and a geared DC motor, while the 4th position is at the end of the belt. The mechanical parts of the system are manufactured using 3D printer technology, allowing for easy modification and adaption to the geometry of different parts. The paper shows all of the stages needed to design, optimize, test and implement the proposed solution. System optimization was performed using a graphical Matlab interface which also allows for sorting algorithm optimization.

  20. Internet and cell phone based smoking cessation programs among adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Purvi Mehta,

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Smoking cessation among adolescents is a salient public health issue, as it can preventthe adoption of risky health behaviors and reduce negative impacts on health. Self-efficacy,household and social support systems, and perceived benefits are some important cessationdeterminants. With the popular use of the Internet and cell phone usage among adolescents,smoking cessation programs are beginning to adopt these new delivery methods. The purpose ofthe study is to review interventions between 2005 and 2009 that used the Internet or cell phonesfor smoking cessation among 11 to 19 year olds. A systematic search of the CINAHL, ERIC,Google Scholar, and Medline databases was done. A total of 10 articles met the inclusion criteria.Interventions mainly used the Internet as a form of assistance to enhance the effectiveness of theprogram. One intervention used text messaging through cell phones. Self-efficacy, household andsocial support systems and perceived benefits were found to be significant predictors. Programswith multiple approaches, using the Internet as an adjunct were more effective than programs thatsolely relied on the Internet. Future research is needed to verify its success in cessation practices.Recommendations for future research are provided.

  1. Analyzing the Influence of Mobile Phone Use of Drivers on Traffic Flow Based on an Improved Cellular Automaton Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yao Xiao

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper aimed to analyze the influence of drivers’ behavior of phone use while driving on traffic flow, including both traffic efficiency and traffic safety. An improved cellular automaton model was proposed to simulate traffic flow with distracted drivers based on the Nagel-Schreckenberg model. The driving characters of drivers using a phone were first discussed and a value representing the probability to use a phone while driving was put into the CA model. Simulation results showed that traffic flow rate was significantly reduced if some drivers used a phone compared to no phone use. The flow rate and velocity decreased as the proportion of drivers using a phone increased. While, under low density, the risk of traffic decreased first and then increased as the distracted drivers increased, the distracted behavior of drivers, like using a phone, could reduce the flow rate by 5 percent according to the simulation.

  2. Assessment and comparison of total RF-EMF exposure in femtocell and macrocell base station scenarios

    OpenAIRE

    Aerts, Sam; Plets, David; Verloock, Leen; Martens, Luc; Joseph, Wout

    2014-01-01

    The indoor coverage of a mobile service can be drastically improved by deployment of an indoor femtocell base station (FBS). However, the impact of its proximity on the total exposure of the human body to radio-frequency (RF) electromagnetic fields (EMFs) is unknown. Using a framework designed for the combination of near-field and far-field exposure, the authors assessed and compared the RF-EMF exposure of a mobile-phone (MP) user that is either connected to an FBS or a conventional macrocell...

  3. NASA space station automation: AI-based technology review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firschein, O.; Georgeff, M. P.; Park, W.; Neumann, P.; Kautz, W. H.; Levitt, K. N.; Rom, R. J.; Poggio, A. A.

    1985-01-01

    Research and Development projects in automation for the Space Station are discussed. Artificial Intelligence (AI) based automation technologies are planned to enhance crew safety through reduced need for EVA, increase crew productivity through the reduction of routine operations, increase space station autonomy, and augment space station capability through the use of teleoperation and robotics. AI technology will also be developed for the servicing of satellites at the Space Station, system monitoring and diagnosis, space manufacturing, and the assembly of large space structures.

  4. Patient attitudes toward mobile phone-based health monitoring: questionnaire study among kidney transplant recipients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGillicuddy, John William; Weiland, Ana Katherine; Frenzel, Ronja Maximiliane; Mueller, Martina; Brunner-Jackson, Brenda Marie; Taber, David James; Baliga, Prabhakar Kalyanpur; Treiber, Frank Anton

    2013-01-08

    Mobile phone based remote monitoring of medication adherence and physiological parameters has the potential of improving long-term graft outcomes in the recipients of kidney transplants. This technology is promising as it is relatively inexpensive, can include intuitive software and may offer the ability to conduct close patient monitoring in a non-intrusive manner. This includes the optimal management of comorbidities such as hypertension and diabetes. There is, however, a lack of data assessing the attitudes of renal transplant recipients toward this technology, especially among ethnic minorities. To assess the attitudes of renal transplant recipients toward mobile phone based remote monitoring and management of their medical regimen; and to identify demographic or clinical characteristics that impact on this attitude. After a 10 minute demonstration of a prototype mobile phone based monitoring system, a 10 item questionnaire regarding attitude toward remote monitoring and the technology was administered to the participants, along with the 10 item Perceived Stress Scale and the 7 item Morisky Medication Adherence Scale. Between February and April 2012, a total of 99 renal transplant recipients were identified and agreed to participate in the survey. The results of the survey indicate that while 90% (87/97) of respondents own a mobile phone, only 7% (7/98) had any prior knowledge of mobile phone based remote monitoring. Despite this, the majority of respondents, 79% (78/99), reported a positive attitude toward the use of a prototype system if it came at no cost to themselves. Blacks were more likely than whites to own smartphones (43.1%, 28/65 vs 20.6%, 7/34; P=.03) and held a more positive attitude toward free use of the prototype system than whites (4.25±0.88 vs 3.76±1.07; P=.02). The data demonstrates that kidney transplant recipients have a positive overall attitude toward mobile phone based health technology (mHealth). Additionally, the data demonstrates

  5. Using web-sources for location based systems on mobile phones

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pannevis, M.; Marx, M.

    2008-01-01

    The paper describes the implementation of a context aware location and time based system on a normal mobile phone, with a minimum of requirements (Bluetooth, Internet access, Java ME, and a simple webbrowser). We can answer the following queries based on data crawled from the web and enriched with

  6. User Context Aware Base Station Power Flow Model

    OpenAIRE

    Walsh, Barbara; Farrell, Ronan

    2005-01-01

    At present the testing of power amplifiers within base station transmitters is limited to testing at component level as opposed to testing at the system level. While the detection of catastrophic failure is possible, that of performance degradation is not. This paper proposes a base station model with respect to transmitter output power with the aim of introducing system level monitoring of the power amplifier behaviour within the base station. Our model reflects the expe...

  7. An Evidence-Based Forensic Taxonomy of Windows Phone Communication Apps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cahyani, Niken Dwi Wahyu; Martini, Ben; Choo, Kim-Kwang Raymond; Ab Rahman, Nurul Hidayah; Ashman, Helen

    2018-05-01

    Communication apps can be an important source of evidence in a forensic investigation (e.g., in the investigation of a drug trafficking or terrorism case where the communications apps were used by the accused persons during the transactions or planning activities). This study presents the first evidence-based forensic taxonomy of Windows Phone communication apps, using an existing two-dimensional Android forensic taxonomy as a baseline. Specifically, 30 Windows Phone communication apps, including Instant Messaging (IM) and Voice over IP (VoIP) apps, are examined. Artifacts extracted using physical acquisition are analyzed, and seven digital evidence objects of forensic interest are identified, namely: Call Log, Chats, Contacts, Locations, Installed Applications, SMSs and User Accounts. Findings from this study would help to facilitate timely and effective forensic investigations involving Windows Phone communication apps. © 2017 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  8. Use of a mobile phone for potentiostatic control with low cost paper-based microfluidic sensors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delaney, Jacqui L.; Doeven, Egan H.; Harsant, Anthony J.; Hogan, Conor F.

    2013-01-01

    Graphical abstract: -- Highlights: •The ability to generate ECL emission using the audio output of a mobile phone is demonstrated. •Electrochemical control can be achieved by controlling the amplitude and waveform of the sound. •A mobile phone “app” synchronises the electrochemical stimulation with detection via the camera. •In combination with paper-based microfluidic sensors, extremely low cost analysis is possible. •Detection of proline at levels suitable for diagnosis of hyperprolinemia is demonstrated. -- Abstract: By exploiting its ability to play sounds, a mobile phone with suitable software installed can serve the basic functions of a potentiostat in controlling an applied potential to oxidise ECL-active molecules, while the resultant photonic signal is monitored using the camera in video mode. In combination with paper microfluidic sensors this opens significant new possibilities for low-cost, instrument-free sensing

  9. Use of a mobile phone for potentiostatic control with low cost paper-based microfluidic sensors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delaney, Jacqui L.; Doeven, Egan H.; Harsant, Anthony J.; Hogan, Conor F., E-mail: c.hogan@latrobe.edu.au

    2013-08-06

    Graphical abstract: -- Highlights: •The ability to generate ECL emission using the audio output of a mobile phone is demonstrated. •Electrochemical control can be achieved by controlling the amplitude and waveform of the sound. •A mobile phone “app” synchronises the electrochemical stimulation with detection via the camera. •In combination with paper-based microfluidic sensors, extremely low cost analysis is possible. •Detection of proline at levels suitable for diagnosis of hyperprolinemia is demonstrated. -- Abstract: By exploiting its ability to play sounds, a mobile phone with suitable software installed can serve the basic functions of a potentiostat in controlling an applied potential to oxidise ECL-active molecules, while the resultant photonic signal is monitored using the camera in video mode. In combination with paper microfluidic sensors this opens significant new possibilities for low-cost, instrument-free sensing.

  10. Mobile phones and health concerns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vaikuntam, Shreenivas; Pushparaja

    2003-01-01

    As Mobile Cellular phone ownership grows throughout the developed as well as the developing world, concerns about the health risks due to radio frequency emissions from the mobile phone base stations and due to usage of mobile handsets are slowly growing. This article has a look at the concepts used in the mobile phone technology, the power outputs from base stations and mobile handsets, the quantities Specific Energy Absorption Rate (SAR) and power density as a means to assess the effects on biological tissue. The precautionary approach to manage the health risks from mobile phones by specifying exposure guidelines is explored. Having surveyed the relevant epidemiological surveys and finding them inconclusive, NRPB, United Kingdom's national regulatory body has issued exposure guidelines based on the potential of RF radiation to cause illness or injury through heating of body tissues. USA's Federal Communications Commission (FCC) limits are also listed for comparison. ICNIRP has issued two-tier guidelines, differentiating between occupational and public exposure. The public exposure limits are kept at one-fifth of the occupational exposure limits. The evidence till date, suggests that exposure to RF radiation below NRPB and ICNIRP limits do not cause adverse effects to the general population. However, the gaps in our knowledge warrant a precautionary approach. (author)

  11. Phone-based metric as a predictor for basic personality traits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mønsted, Bjarke; Mollgaard, Anders; Mathiesen, Joachim

    2018-01-01

    Basic personality traits are believed to be expressed in, and predictable from, smart phone data. We investigate the extent of this predictability using data (n = 636) from the Copenhagen Network Study, which to our knowledge is the most extensive study concerning smartphone usage and personality...... traits. Based on phone usage patterns, earlier studies have reported surprisingly high predictability of all Big Five personality traits. We predict personality trait tertiles (low, medum, high) from a set of behavioral variables extracted from the data, and find that only extraversion can be predicted...

  12. Phone-based metric as a predictor for basic personality traits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mønsted, Bjarke; Mollgaard, Anders; Mathiesen, Joachim

    2018-01-01

    traits. Based on phone usage patterns, earlier studies have reported surprisingly high predictability of all Big Five personality traits. We predict personality trait tertiles (low, medum, high) from a set of behavioral variables extracted from the data, and find that only extraversion can be predicted......Basic personality traits are believed to be expressed in, and predictable from, smart phone data. We investigate the extent of this predictability using data (n = 636) from the Copenhagen Network Study, which to our knowledge is the most extensive study concerning smartphone usage and personality...

  13. High school students’ usage behavior and views about mobile phones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmet Ergin

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this study was to determine high school students’ usage behavior and views about mobile phones. Methods:Totally 253 (85.5% students educated at Honaz High School within the academic year 2010-2011, participated to this cross-sectional study and a questionnaire consisting of 42 questions which aimed to determine usage behavior and views about mobile phones was administered to the students. Results:The mean age of the students was 16.1 ± 1.1 years, and 56.9% of them were girl. 79.8% of students have mobile phone and 53.9% of them make daily average of over 30 minutes mobile phone calls. 76.1% of participants stated that they did not use headphones, 78.1% did not turn off their mobile phones when they are sleeping and 67.3% put it right next to them or under the pillow. 83.1% of students think mobile phones are harmful for human health, 56.7% think the base stations are harmful to human health and the environment, 91.3% think mobile phones are harmful for children, pregnant women and elderly people. Conclusion: It is found that students’ mobile phone ownership is widespread, the age of starting to use mobile phone and headphones usage is low, knowledge about the base stations is not adequate.

  14. Phone-based motivational interviewing to increase self-efficacy in individuals with phenylketonuria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krista S. Viau

    2016-03-01

    Conclusion: These results demonstrate the feasibility of implementing phone-based dietary counseling for PKU using MI. This study also supports further investigation of MI as an intervention approach to improving self-efficacy and self-management behaviors in adolescents and adults with PKU.

  15. Cost Effective Paper-Based Colorimetric Microfluidic Devices and Mobile Phone Camera Readers for the Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koesdjojo, Myra T.; Pengpumkiat, Sumate; Wu, Yuanyuan; Boonloed, Anukul; Huynh, Daniel; Remcho, Thomas P.; Remcho, Vincent T.

    2015-01-01

    We have developed a simple and direct method to fabricate paper-based microfluidic devices that can be used for a wide range of colorimetric assay applications. With these devices, assays can be performed within minutes to allow for quantitative colorimetric analysis by use of a widely accessible iPhone camera and an RGB color reader application…

  16. Extended architecture for home base stations with multimedia services

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voicu, A.; Jarnikov, D.S.

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes the use of mobile access points (home node base stations, femtocells) for providing TV streaming to mobile devices inside the home. The research is focused on finding commonalities between architectures of the home node base station for different technologies. The result is a

  17. Level of Radiofrequency (RF) Radiations from GSM Base Stations ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Levels of radiofrequency radiations around two global systems for mobile communication (GSM) base stations located in the vicinity of a residential quarter and workplace complex were measured. The effects of the radiofrequency radiations on albino mice placed in exposure cages and located around the base stations ...

  18. Multidimensional control using a mobile-phone based brain-muscle-computer interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vernon, Scott; Joshi, Sanjay S

    2011-01-01

    Many well-known brain-computer interfaces measure signals at the brain, and then rely on the brain's ability to learn via operant conditioning in order to control objects in the environment. In our lab, we have been developing brain-muscle-computer interfaces, which measure signals at a single muscle and then rely on the brain's ability to learn neuromuscular skills via operant conditioning. Here, we report a new mobile-phone based brain-muscle-computer interface prototype for severely paralyzed persons, based on previous results from our group showing that humans may actively create specified power levels in two separate frequency bands of a single sEMG signal. Electromyographic activity on the surface of a single face muscle (Auricularis superior) is recorded with a standard electrode. This analog electrical signal is imported into an Android-based mobile phone. User-modulated power in two separate frequency band serves as two separate and simultaneous control channels for machine control. After signal processing, the Android phone sends commands to external devices via Bluetooth. Users are trained to use the device via biofeedback, with simple cursor-to-target activities on the phone screen.

  19. iHand: an interactive bare-hand-based augmented reality interface on commercial mobile phones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Junyeong; Park, Jungsik; Park, Hanhoon; Park, Jong-Il

    2013-02-01

    The performance of mobile phones has rapidly improved, and they are emerging as a powerful platform. In many vision-based applications, human hands play a key role in natural interaction. However, relatively little attention has been paid to the interaction between human hands and the mobile phone. Thus, we propose a vision- and hand gesture-based interface in which the user holds a mobile phone in one hand but sees the other hand's palm through a built-in camera. The virtual contents are faithfully rendered on the user's palm through palm pose estimation, and reaction with hand and finger movements is achieved that is recognized by hand shape recognition. Since the proposed interface is based on hand gestures familiar to humans and does not require any additional sensors or markers, the user can freely interact with virtual contents anytime and anywhere without any training. We demonstrate that the proposed interface works at over 15 fps on a commercial mobile phone with a 1.2-GHz dual core processor and 1 GB RAM.

  20. Novel versatile smart phone based Microplate readers for on-site diagnoses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Qiangqiang; Wu, Ze; Li, Xiuqing; Yao, Cuize; Yu, Shiting; Xiao, Wei; Tang, Yong

    2016-07-15

    Microplate readers are important diagnostic instruments, used intensively for various readout test kits (biochemical analysis kits and ELISA kits). However, due to their expensive and non-portability, commercial microplate readers are unavailable for home testing, community and rural hospitals, especially in developing countries. In this study, to provide a field-portable, cost-effective and versatile diagnostic tool, we reported a novel smart phone based microplate reader. The basic principle of this devise relies on a smart phone's optical sensor that measures transmitted light intensities of liquid samples. To prove the validity of these devises, developed smart phone based microplate readers were applied to readout results of various analytical targets. These targets included analanine aminotransferase (ALT; limit of detection (LOD) was 17.54 U/L), alkaline phosphatase (AKP; LOD was 15.56 U/L), creatinine (LOD was 1.35μM), bovine serum albumin (BSA; LOD was 0.0041mg/mL), prostate specific antigen (PSA; LOD was 0.76pg/mL), and ractopamine (Rac; LOD was 0.31ng/mL). The developed smart phone based microplate readers are versatile, portable, and inexpensive; they are unique because of their ability to perform under circumstances where resources and expertize are limited. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Attitudes of heart failure patients and health care providers towards mobile phone-based remote monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seto, Emily; Leonard, Kevin J; Masino, Caterina; Cafazzo, Joseph A; Barnsley, Jan; Ross, Heather J

    2010-11-29

    Mobile phone-based remote patient monitoring systems have been proposed for heart failure management because they are relatively inexpensive and enable patients to be monitored anywhere. However, little is known about whether patients and their health care providers are willing and able to use this technology. The objective of our study was to assess the attitudes of heart failure patients and their health care providers from a heart function clinic in a large urban teaching hospital toward the use of mobile phone-based remote monitoring. A questionnaire regarding attitudes toward home monitoring and technology was administered to 100 heart failure patients (94/100 returned a completed questionnaire). Semi-structured interviews were also conducted with 20 heart failure patients and 16 clinicians to determine the perceived benefits and barriers to using mobile phone-based remote monitoring, as well as their willingness and ability to use the technology. The survey results indicated that the patients were very comfortable using mobile phones (mean rating 4.5, SD 0.6, on a five-point Likert scale), even more so than with using computers (mean 4.1, SD 1.1). The difference in comfort level between mobile phones and computers was statistically significant (Pmobile phones to view health information (mean 4.4, SD 0.9). Patients and clinicians were willing to use the system as long as several conditions were met, including providing a system that was easy to use with clear tangible benefits, maintaining good patient-provider communication, and not increasing clinical workload. Clinicians cited several barriers to implementation of such a system, including lack of remuneration for telephone interactions with patients and medicolegal implications. Patients and clinicians want to use mobile phone-based remote monitoring and believe that they would be able to use the technology. However, they have several reservations, such as potential increased clinical workload, medicolegal

  2. What determines product ramp-up performance? : a review of characteristics based on a case study at Nokia Mobile Phones

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pufall, A.A.; Fransoo, J.C.; Kok, de A.G.

    2007-01-01

    We present a conceptual model to explore the essential characteristics that affect product ramp-up performance in the consumer electronics industry, specifically in the mobile phones sector. Our findings are based on data analysis within Nokia’s mobile phones business group. Fast product ramp-ups

  3. ICAT: Development of an Internet-Based Data Collection Method for Ecological Momentary Assessment Using Personal Cell Phones

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuntsche, E.N.; Labhart, F.

    2013-01-01

    Rapid advances in mobile data-transfer technologies offer new possibilities in the use of cell phones to conduct assessments of a person’s natural environment in real time. This paper describes features of a new Internet-based, cell phone-optimized assessment technique (ICAT), which consists of a

  4. Cell Phone-Based System (Chaak) for Surveillance of Immatures of Dengue Virus Mosquito Vectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    LOZANO–FUENTES, SAUL; WEDYAN, FADI; HERNANDEZ–GARCIA, EDGAR; SADHU, DEVADATTA; GHOSH, SUDIPTO; BIEMAN, JAMES M.; TEP-CHEL, DIANA; GARCÍA–REJÓN, JULIÁN E.; EISEN, LARS

    2014-01-01

    Capture of surveillance data on mobile devices and rapid transfer of such data from these devices into an electronic database or data management and decision support systems promote timely data analyses and public health response during disease outbreaks. Mobile data capture is used increasingly for malaria surveillance and holds great promise for surveillance of other neglected tropical diseases. We focused on mosquito-borne dengue, with the primary aims of: 1) developing and field-testing a cell phone-based system (called Chaak) for capture of data relating to the surveillance of the mosquito immature stages, and 2) assessing, in the dengue endemic setting of Mérida, México, the cost-effectiveness of this new technology versus paper-based data collection. Chaak includes a desktop component, where a manager selects premises to be surveyed for mosquito immatures, and a cell phone component, where the surveyor receives the assigned tasks and captures the data. Data collected on the cell phone can be transferred to a central database through different modes of transmission, including near-real time where data are transferred immediately (e.g., over the Internet) or by first storing data on the cell phone for future transmission. Spatial data are handled in a novel, semantically driven, geographic information system. Compared with a pen-and-paper-based method, use of Chaak improved the accuracy and increased the speed of data transcription into an electronic database. The cost-effectiveness of using the Chaak system will depend largely on the up-front cost of purchasing cell phones and the recurring cost of data transfer over a cellular network. PMID:23926788

  5. UMTS base station-like exposure, well-being, and cognitive performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regel, Sabine J; Negovetic, Sonja; Röösli, Martin; Berdiñas, Veronica; Schuderer, Jürgen; Huss, Anke; Lott, Urs; Kuster, Niels; Achermann, Peter

    2006-08-01

    Radio-frequency electromagnetic fields (RF EMF) of mobile communication systems are widespread in the living environment, yet their effects on humans are uncertain despite a growing body of literature. We investigated the influence of a Universal Mobile Telecommunications System (UMTS) base station-like signal on well-being and cognitive performance in subjects with and without self-reported sensitivity to RF EMF. We performed a controlled exposure experiment (45 min at an electric field strength of 0, 1, or 10 V/m, incident with a polarization of 45 degrees from the left back side of the subject, weekly intervals) in a randomized, double-blind crossover design. A total of 117 healthy subjects (33 self-reported sensitive, 84 nonsensitive subjects) participated in the study. We assessed well-being, perceived field strength, and cognitive performance with questionnaires and cognitive tasks and conducted statistical analyses using linear mixed models. Organ-specific and brain tissue-specific dosimetry including uncertainty and variation analysis was performed. In both groups, well-being and perceived field strength were not associated with actual exposure levels. We observed no consistent condition-induced changes in cognitive performance except for two marginal effects. At 10 V/m we observed a slight effect on speed in one of six tasks in the sensitive subjects and an effect on accuracy in another task in nonsensitive subjects. Both effects disappeared after multiple end point adjustment. In contrast to a recent Dutch study, we could not confirm a short-term effect of UMTS base station-like exposure on well-being. The reported effects on brain functioning were marginal and may have occurred by chance. Peak spatial absorption in brain tissue was considerably smaller than during use of a mobile phone. No conclusions can be drawn regarding short-term effects of cell phone exposure or the effects of long-term base station-like exposure on human health.

  6. Cell phones and cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cancer and cell phones; Do cell phones cause cancer? ... Several major studies show no link between cell phones and cancer at this time. However, since the information available is based on short-term studies, the impact of many years of ...

  7. An iPhone-based digital image colorimeter for detecting tetracycline in milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masawat, Prinya; Harfield, Antony; Namwong, Anan

    2015-10-01

    An iPhone-based digital image colorimeter (DIC) was fabricated as a portable tool for monitoring tetracycline (TC) in bovine milk. An application named ColorConc was developed for the iPhone that utilizes an image matching algorithm to determine the TC concentration in a solution. The color values; red (R), green (G), blue (B), hue (H), saturation (S), brightness (V), and gray (Gr) were measured from each pictures of the TC standard solutions. TC solution extracted from milk samples using solid phase extraction (SPE) was captured and the concentration was predicted by comparing color values with those collected in a database. The amount of TC could be determined in the concentration range of 0.5-10 μg mL(-1). The proposed DIC-iPhone is able to provide a limit of detection (LOD) of 0.5 μg mL(-1) and limit of quantitation (LOQ) of 1.5 μg mL(-1). The enrichment factor was 70 and color of the extracted milk sample was a strong yellow solution after SPE. Therefore, the SPE-DIC-iPhone could be used for the assay of TC residues in milk at the concentration lower than LOD and LOQ of the proposed technique. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Review and Evaluation of Mindfulness-Based iPhone Apps

    OpenAIRE

    Mani, Madhavan; Kavanagh, David J; Hides, Leanne; Stoyanov, Stoyan R

    2015-01-01

    Background There is growing evidence for the positive impact of mindfulness on wellbeing. Mindfulness-based mobile apps may have potential as an alternative delivery medium for training. While there are hundreds of such apps, there is little information on their quality. Objective This study aimed to conduct a systematic review of mindfulness-based iPhone mobile apps and to evaluate their quality using a recently-developed expert rating scale, the Mobile Application Rating Scale (MARS). It al...

  9. Developing a Behavioral Model for Mobile Phone-Based Diabetes Interventions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nundy, Shantanu; Dick, Jonathan J.; Solomon, Marla C.; Peek, Monica E.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives Behavioral models for mobile phone-based diabetes interventions are lacking. This study explores the potential mechanisms by which a text message-based diabetes program affected self-management among African-Americans. Methods We conducted in-depth, individual interviews among 18 African-American patients with type 2 diabetes who completed a 4-week text message-based diabetes program. Each interview was audio- taped, transcribed verbatim, and imported into Atlas.ti software. Coding was done iteratively. Emergent themes were mapped onto existing behavioral constructs and then used to develop a novel behavioral model for mobile phone-based diabetes self-management programs. Results The effects of the text message-based program went beyond automated reminders. The constant, daily communications reduced denial of diabetes and reinforced the importance of self-management (Rosenstock Health Belief Model). Responding positively to questions about self-management increased mastery experience (Bandura Self-Efficacy). Most surprisingly, participants perceived the automated program as a “friend” and “support group” that monitored and supported their self-management behaviors (Barrera Social Support). Conclusions A mobile phone-based diabetes program affected self-management through multiple behavioral constructs including health beliefs, self-efficacy, and social support. Practice implications: Disease management programs that utilize mobile technologies should be designed to leverage existing models of behavior change and can address barriers to self-management associated with health disparities. PMID:23063349

  10. Space station accommodations for lunar base elements: A study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weidman, Deene J.; Cirillo, William; Llewellyn, Charles; Kaszubowski, Martin; Kienlen, E. Michael, Jr.

    1987-01-01

    The results of a study conducted at NASA-LaRC to assess the impact on the space station of accommodating a Manned Lunar Base are documented. Included in the study are assembly activities for all infrastructure components, resupply and operations support for lunar base elements, crew activity requirements, the effect of lunar activities on Cape Kennedy operations, and the effect on space station science missions. Technology needs to prepare for such missions are also defined. Results of the study indicate that the space station can support the manned lunar base missions with the addition of a Fuel Depot Facility and a heavy lift launch vehicle to support the large launch requirements.

  11. Assessment and comparison of total RF-EMF exposure in femtocell and macrocell base station scenarios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aerts, Sam; Plets, David; Verloock, Leen; Martens, Luc; Joseph, Wout

    2014-12-01

    The indoor coverage of a mobile service can be drastically improved by deployment of an indoor femtocell base station (FBS). However, the impact of its proximity on the total exposure of the human body to radio-frequency (RF) electromagnetic fields (EMFs) is unknown. Using a framework designed for the combination of near-field and far-field exposure, the authors assessed and compared the RF-EMF exposure of a mobile-phone (MP) user that is either connected to an FBS or a conventional macrocell base station while in an office environment. It is found that, in average macrocell coverage and MP use-time conditions and for Universal Mobile Telecommunications System technology, the total exposure can be reduced by a factor of 20-40 by using an FBS, mostly due to the significant decrease in the output power of the MP. In general, the framework presented in this study can be used for any exposure scenario, featuring any number of technologies, base stations and/or access points, users and duration. © The Author 2013. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. Utilization of services in a randomized trial testing phone- and web-based interventions for smoking cessation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zbikowski, Susan M; Jack, Lisa M; McClure, Jennifer B; Deprey, Mona; Javitz, Harold S; McAfee, Timothy A; Catz, Sheryl L; Richards, Julie; Bush, Terry; Swan, Gary E

    2011-05-01

    Phone counseling has become standard for behavioral smoking cessation treatment. Newer options include Web and integrated phone-Web treatment. No prior research, to our knowledge, has systematically compared the effectiveness of these three treatment modalities in a randomized trial. Understanding how utilization varies by mode, the impact of utilization on outcomes, and predictors of utilization across each mode could lead to improved treatments. One thousand two hundred and two participants were randomized to phone, Web, or combined phone-Web cessation treatment. Services varied by modality and were tracked using automated systems. All participants received 12 weeks of varenicline, printed guides, an orientation call, and access to a phone supportline. Self-report data were collected at baseline and 6-month follow-up. Overall, participants utilized phone services more often than the Web-based services. Among treatment groups with Web access, a significant proportion logged in only once (37% phone-Web, 41% Web), and those in the phone-Web group logged in less often than those in the Web group (mean = 2.4 vs. 3.7, p = .0001). Use of the phone also was correlated with increased use of the Web. In multivariate analyses, greater use of the phone- or Web-based services was associated with higher cessation rates. Finally, older age and the belief that certain treatments could improve success were consistent predictors of greater utilization across groups. Other predictors varied by treatment group. Opportunities for enhancing treatment utilization exist, particularly for Web-based programs. Increasing utilization more broadly could result in better overall treatment effectiveness for all intervention modalities.

  13. A mobile phone-based care model for outpatient cardiac rehabilitation: the care assessment platform (CAP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francis Rebecca

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cardiac rehabilitation programs offer effective means to prevent recurrence of a cardiac event, but poor uptake of current programs have been reported globally. Home based models are considered as a feasible alternative to avoid various barriers related to care centre based programs. This paper sets out the study design for a clinical trial seeking to test the hypothesis that these programs can be better and more efficiently supported with novel Information and Communication Technologies (ICT. Methods/Design We have integrated mobile phones and web services into a comprehensive home- based care model for outpatient cardiac rehabilitation. Mobile phones with a built-in accelerometer sensor are used to measure physical exercise and WellnessDiary software is used to collect information on patients' physiological risk factors and other health information. Video and teleconferencing are used for mentoring sessions aiming at behavioural modifications through goal setting. The mentors use web-portal to facilitate personal goal setting and to assess the progress of each patient in the program. Educational multimedia content are stored or transferred via messaging systems to the patients phone to be viewed on demand. We have designed a randomised controlled trial to compare the health outcomes and cost efficiency of the proposed model with a traditional community based rehabilitation program. The main outcome measure is adherence to physical exercise guidelines. Discussion The study will provide evidence on using mobile phones and web services for mentoring and self management in a home-based care model targeting sustainable behavioural modifications in cardiac rehabilitation patients. Trial registration The trial has been registered in the Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry (ANZCTR with number ACTRN12609000251224.

  14. Place-based attributes predict community membership in a mobile phone communication network.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T Trevor Caughlin

    Full Text Available Social networks can be organized into communities of closely connected nodes, a property known as modularity. Because diseases, information, and behaviors spread faster within communities than between communities, understanding modularity has broad implications for public policy, epidemiology and the social sciences. Explanations for community formation in social networks often incorporate the attributes of individual people, such as gender, ethnicity or shared activities. High modularity is also a property of large-scale social networks, where each node represents a population of individuals at a location, such as call flow between mobile phone towers. However, whether or not place-based attributes, including land cover and economic activity, can predict community membership for network nodes in large-scale networks remains unknown. We describe the pattern of modularity in a mobile phone communication network in the Dominican Republic, and use a linear discriminant analysis (LDA to determine whether geographic context can explain community membership. Our results demonstrate that place-based attributes, including sugar cane production, urbanization, distance to the nearest airport, and wealth, correctly predicted community membership for over 70% of mobile phone towers. We observed a strongly positive correlation (r = 0.97 between the modularity score and the predictive ability of the LDA, suggesting that place-based attributes can accurately represent the processes driving modularity. In the absence of social network data, the methods we present can be used to predict community membership over large scales using solely place-based attributes.

  15. A cell-phone-based brain-computer interface for communication in daily life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yu-Te; Wang, Yijun; Jung, Tzyy-Ping

    2011-04-01

    Moving a brain-computer interface (BCI) system from a laboratory demonstration to real-life applications still poses severe challenges to the BCI community. This study aims to integrate a mobile and wireless electroencephalogram (EEG) system and a signal-processing platform based on a cell phone into a truly wearable and wireless online BCI. Its practicality and implications in a routine BCI are demonstrated through the realization and testing of a steady-state visual evoked potential (SSVEP)-based BCI. This study implemented and tested online signal processing methods in both time and frequency domains for detecting SSVEPs. The results of this study showed that the performance of the proposed cell-phone-based platform was comparable, in terms of the information transfer rate, with other BCI systems using bulky commercial EEG systems and personal computers. To the best of our knowledge, this study is the first to demonstrate a truly portable, cost-effective and miniature cell-phone-based platform for online BCIs.

  16. Place-based attributes predict community membership in a mobile phone communication network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caughlin, T Trevor; Ruktanonchai, Nick; Acevedo, Miguel A; Lopiano, Kenneth K; Prosper, Olivia; Eagle, Nathan; Tatem, Andrew J

    2013-01-01

    Social networks can be organized into communities of closely connected nodes, a property known as modularity. Because diseases, information, and behaviors spread faster within communities than between communities, understanding modularity has broad implications for public policy, epidemiology and the social sciences. Explanations for community formation in social networks often incorporate the attributes of individual people, such as gender, ethnicity or shared activities. High modularity is also a property of large-scale social networks, where each node represents a population of individuals at a location, such as call flow between mobile phone towers. However, whether or not place-based attributes, including land cover and economic activity, can predict community membership for network nodes in large-scale networks remains unknown. We describe the pattern of modularity in a mobile phone communication network in the Dominican Republic, and use a linear discriminant analysis (LDA) to determine whether geographic context can explain community membership. Our results demonstrate that place-based attributes, including sugar cane production, urbanization, distance to the nearest airport, and wealth, correctly predicted community membership for over 70% of mobile phone towers. We observed a strongly positive correlation (r = 0.97) between the modularity score and the predictive ability of the LDA, suggesting that place-based attributes can accurately represent the processes driving modularity. In the absence of social network data, the methods we present can be used to predict community membership over large scales using solely place-based attributes.

  17. Energy Sharing Framework for Microgrid-Powered Cellular Base Stations

    KAUST Repository

    Farooq, Muhammad Junaid; Ghazzai, Hakim; Kadri, Abdullah; Elsawy, Hesham; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim

    2017-01-01

    Cellular base stations (BSs) are increasingly becoming equipped with renewable energy generators to reduce operational expenditures and carbon footprint of wireless communications. Moreover, advancements in the traditional electricity grid allow two

  18. Electromagnetic Radiation Exposure from Cellular Base Station: A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Electromagnetic Radiation Exposure from Cellular Base Station: A Concern for Public ... as well as safety guidelines relating to exposure of non-ionizing radiation. Global System for Mobile Communication (GSM) operators claimed that their ...

  19. Mobile Phone Based RIMS for Traffic Control a Case Study of Tanzania

    OpenAIRE

    Angela-Aida Karugila Runyoro; Jesuk Ko

    2015-01-01

    Vehicles saturation in transportation infrastructure causes traffic congestion, accidents, transportation delays and environment pollution. This problem can be resolved with proper management of traffic flow. Existing traffic management systems are challenged on capturing and processing real-time road data from wide area road networks. The main purpose of this study is to address the gap by implementing a mobile phone based Road Information Management System. The proposed...

  20. Sound Surfing Network (SSN): Mobile Phone-based Sound Spatialization with Audience Collaboration

    OpenAIRE

    Park, Saebyul; Ban, Seonghoon; Hong, Dae Ryong; Yeo, Woon Seung

    2013-01-01

    SSN (Sound Surfing Network) is a performance system that provides a new musicalexperience by incorporating mobile phone-based spatial sound control tocollaborative music performance. SSN enables both the performer and theaudience to manipulate the spatial distribution of sound using the smartphonesof the audience as distributed speaker system. Proposing a new perspective tothe social aspect music appreciation, SSN will provide a new possibility tomobile music performances in the context of in...

  1. Location based chat application for iPhone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rana, Pradeep

    With the increasing use of mobile devices everywhere in the world, there is a lack of social interaction between people. The objective of this thesis project is to create a location based chat application, which will help users to interact with other people around them. It will provide an opportunity to meet people when someone visits a new place. The app will use GPS coordinates of the user and will show him a list of other users based on his location. The user can then choose any of the other users from the list and start chatting with them. This app will consist of a frontend and backend. The frontend will be an iOS application and the backend will be a PHP/MYSQL server.

  2. Cell Phone-Based Expert Systems for Smoking Cessation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-01

    intervention program. C.1 Demographics The sample (n=446) was composed of individuals from all but three U.S. states and Puerto Rico . There were...as comprehensive interventions, i.e., with minimal or no clinician contact, for panic disorder18, depression19–23, weight loss24, and diabetes self...Feil EG, Boles SM, Barrera MJ. Internet-based diabetes self- manage- ment and support: Initial outcomes from the diabetes network project

  3. Opto-fluidics based microscopy and flow cytometry on a cell phone for blood analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Hongying; Ozcan, Aydogan

    2015-01-01

    Blood analysis is one of the most important clinical tests for medical diagnosis. Flow cytometry and optical microscopy are widely used techniques to perform blood analysis and therefore cost-effective translation of these technologies to resource limited settings is critical for various global health as well as telemedicine applications. In this chapter, we review our recent progress on the integration of imaging flow cytometry and fluorescent microscopy on a cell phone using compact, light-weight and cost-effective opto-fluidic attachments integrated onto the camera module of a smartphone. In our cell-phone based opto-fluidic imaging cytometry design, fluorescently labeled cells are delivered into the imaging area using a disposable micro-fluidic chip that is positioned above the existing camera unit of the cell phone. Battery powered light-emitting diodes (LEDs) are butt-coupled to the sides of this micro-fluidic chip without any lenses, which effectively acts as a multimode slab waveguide, where the excitation light is guided to excite the fluorescent targets within the micro-fluidic chip. Since the excitation light propagates perpendicular to the detection path, an inexpensive plastic absorption filter is able to reject most of the scattered light and create a decent dark-field background for fluorescent imaging. With this excitation geometry, the cell-phone camera can record fluorescent movies of the particles/cells as they are flowing through the microchannel. The digital frames of these fluorescent movies are then rapidly processed to quantify the count and the density of the labeled particles/cells within the solution under test. With a similar opto-fluidic design, we have recently demonstrated imaging and automated counting of stationary blood cells (e.g., labeled white blood cells or unlabeled red blood cells) loaded within a disposable cell counting chamber. We tested the performance of this cell-phone based imaging cytometry and blood analysis platform

  4. Psychotherapeutic Applications of Mobile Phone-based Technologies: A Systematic Review of Current Research and Trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menon, Vikas; Rajan, Tess Maria; Sarkar, Siddharth

    2017-01-01

    There is a growing interest in using mobile phone technology to offer real-time psychological interventions and support. However, questions remain on the clinical effectiveness and feasibility of such approaches in psychiatric populations. Our aim was to systematically review the published literature on mobile phone apps and other mobile phone-based technology for psychotherapy in mental health disorders. To achieve this, electronic searches of PubMed, ScienceDirect, and Google Scholar were carried out in January 2016. Generated abstracts were systematically screened for eligibility to be included in the review. Studies employing psychotherapy in any form, being delivered through mobile-based technology and reporting core mental health outcomes in mental illness were included in the study. We also included trials in progress with published protocols reporting at least some outcome measures of such interventions. From a total of 1563 search results, 24 eligible articles were identified and reviewed. These included trials in anxiety disorders (8), substance use disorders (5), depression (4), bipolar disorders (3), schizophrenia and psychotic disorders (3), and attempted suicide (1). Of these, eight studies involved the use of smartphone apps and others involved personalized text messages, automated programs, or delivered empirically supported treatments. Trial lengths varied from 6 weeks to 1 year. Good overall retention rates indicated that the treatments were feasible and largely acceptable. Benefits were reported on core outcomes in mental health illness indicating efficacy of such approaches though sample sizes were small. To conclude, mobile phone-based psychotherapies are a feasible and acceptable treatment option for patients with mental disorders. However, there remains a paucity of data on their effectiveness in real-world settings, especially from low- and middle-income countries.

  5. Determinants of exposure to electromagnetic fields from mobile phones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ardoino, L.; Barbieri, E.; Vecchia, P.

    2004-01-01

    In actual conditions of use, the power radiated from cellular phones changes during conversation depending on several factors. Upon request from the radio base station (RBS), the phone in fact, reduces, its power to a level that is deemed optimum for the quality of conversation. In this study, special phones, which had been modified to allow the continuous logging of power emitted during the calls have been used. Off-line processing of recorded data allowed the analysis of the behaviour of mobile phones under real-use conditions. Further data recorded by operators at selected base stations were used for the purposes of comparison and checking of the effectiveness of the experimental method. The results indicate a high proportion of use of the highest power levels, under any circumstance. Such behaviour is mainly due to frequent hand-overs requested by the control software to optimise the communication traffic. (authors)

  6. Mobile phone-based biosensing: An emerging "diagnostic and communication" technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quesada-González, Daniel; Merkoçi, Arben

    2017-06-15

    In this review we discuss recent developments on the use of mobile phones and similar devices for biosensing applications in which diagnostics and communications are coupled. Owing to the capabilities of mobile phones (their cameras, connectivity, portability, etc.) and to advances in biosensing, the coupling of these two technologies is enabling portable and user-friendly analytical devices. Any user can now perform quick, robust and easy (bio)assays anywhere and at any time. Among the most widely reported of such devices are paper-based platforms. Herein we provide an overview of a broad range of biosensing possibilities, from optical to electrochemical measurements; explore the various reported designs for adapters; and consider future opportunities for this technology in fields such as health diagnostics, safety & security, and environment monitoring. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. A phone-assistive device based on Bluetooth technology for cochlear implant users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Haifeng; Loizou, Philipos C; Dorman, Michael F

    2003-09-01

    Hearing-impaired people, and particularly hearing-aid and cochlear-implant users, often have difficulty communicating over the telephone. The intelligibility of telephone speech is considerably lower than the intelligibility of face-to-face speech. This is partly because of lack of visual cues, limited telephone bandwidth, and background noise. In addition, cellphones may cause interference with the hearing aid or cochlear implant. To address these problems that hearing-impaired people experience with telephones, this paper proposes a wireless phone adapter that can be used to route the audio signal directly to the hearing aid or cochlear implant processor. This adapter is based on Bluetooth technology. The favorable features of this new wireless technology make the adapter superior to traditional assistive listening devices. A hardware prototype was built and software programs were written to implement the headset profile in the Bluetooth specification. Three cochlear implant users were tested with the proposed phone-adapter and reported good speech quality.

  8. A theory-based video messaging mobile phone intervention for smoking cessation: randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whittaker, Robyn; Dorey, Enid; Bramley, Dale; Bullen, Chris; Denny, Simon; Elley, C Raina; Maddison, Ralph; McRobbie, Hayden; Parag, Varsha; Rodgers, Anthony; Salmon, Penny

    2011-01-21

    Advances in technology allowed the development of a novel smoking cessation program delivered by video messages sent to mobile phones. This social cognitive theory-based intervention (called "STUB IT") used observational learning via short video diary messages from role models going through the quitting process to teach behavioral change techniques. The objective of our study was to assess the effectiveness of a multimedia mobile phone intervention for smoking cessation. A randomized controlled trial was conducted with 6-month follow-up. Participants had to be 16 years of age or over, be current daily smokers, be ready to quit, and have a video message-capable phone. Recruitment targeted younger adults predominantly through radio and online advertising. Registration and data collection were completed online, prompted by text messages. The intervention group received an automated package of video and text messages over 6 months that was tailored to self-selected quit date, role model, and timing of messages. Extra messages were available on demand to beat cravings and address lapses. The control group also set a quit date and received a general health video message sent to their phone every 2 weeks. The target sample size was not achieved due to difficulty recruiting young adult quitters. Of the 226 randomized participants, 47% (107/226) were female and 24% (54/226) were Maori (indigenous population of New Zealand). Their mean age was 27 years (SD 8.7), and there was a high level of nicotine addiction. Continuous abstinence at 6 months was 26.4% (29/110) in the intervention group and 27.6% (32/116) in the control group (P = .8). Feedback from participants indicated that the support provided by the video role models was important and appreciated. This study was not able to demonstrate a statistically significant effect of the complex video messaging mobile phone intervention compared with simple general health video messages via mobile phone. However, there was

  9. Is Dysfunctional Use of the Mobile Phone a Behavioural Addiction? Confronting Symptom-Based Versus Process-Based Approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Billieux, Joël; Philippot, Pierre; Schmid, Cécile; Maurage, Pierre; De Mol, Jan; Van der Linden, Martial

    2015-01-01

    Dysfunctional use of the mobile phone has often been conceptualized as a 'behavioural addiction' that shares most features with drug addictions. In the current article, we challenge the clinical utility of the addiction model as applied to mobile phone overuse. We describe the case of a woman who overuses her mobile phone from two distinct approaches: (1) a symptom-based categorical approach inspired from the addiction model of dysfunctional mobile phone use and (2) a process-based approach resulting from an idiosyncratic clinical case conceptualization. In the case depicted here, the addiction model was shown to lead to standardized and non-relevant treatment, whereas the clinical case conceptualization allowed identification of specific psychological processes that can be targeted with specific, empirically based psychological interventions. This finding highlights that conceptualizing excessive behaviours (e.g., gambling and sex) within the addiction model can be a simplification of an individual's psychological functioning, offering only limited clinical relevance. The addiction model, applied to excessive behaviours (e.g., gambling, sex and Internet-related activities) may lead to non-relevant standardized treatments. Clinical case conceptualization allowed identification of specific psychological processes that can be targeted with specific empirically based psychological interventions. The biomedical model might lead to the simplification of an individual's psychological functioning with limited clinical relevance. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. Mobile phone-based clinical guidance for rural health providers in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gautham, Meenakshi; Iyengar, M Sriram; Johnson, Craig W

    2015-12-01

    There are few tried and tested mobile technology applications to enhance and standardize the quality of health care by frontline rural health providers in low-resource settings. We developed a media-rich, mobile phone-based clinical guidance system for management of fevers, diarrhoeas and respiratory problems by rural health providers. Using a randomized control design, we field tested this application with 16 rural health providers and 128 patients at two rural/tribal sites in Tamil Nadu, Southern India. Protocol compliance for both groups, phone usability, acceptability and patient feedback for the experimental group were evaluated. Linear mixed-model analyses showed statistically significant improvements in protocol compliance in the experimental group. Usability and acceptability among patients and rural health providers were very high. Our results indicate that mobile phone-based, media-rich procedural guidance applications have significant potential for achieving consistently standardized quality of care by diverse frontline rural health providers, with patient acceptance. © The Author(s) 2014.

  11. Semantic Labeling of User Location Context Based on Phone Usage Features

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helena Leppäkoski

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In mobile phones, the awareness of the user’s context allows services better tailored to the user’s needs. We propose a machine learning based method for semantic labeling that utilizes phone usage features to detect the user’s home, work, and other visited places. For place detection, we compare seven different classification methods. We organize the phone usage data based on periods of uninterrupted time that the user has been in a certain place. We consider three approaches to represent this data: visits, places, and cumulative samples. Our main contribution is semantic place labeling using a small set of privacy-preserving features and novel data representations suitable for resource constrained mobile devices. The contributions include (1 introduction of novel data representations including accumulation and averaging of the usage, (2 analysis of the effect of the data accumulation time on the accuracy of the place classification, (3 analysis of the confidence on the classification outcome, and (4 identification of the most relevant features obtained through feature selection methods. With a small set of privacy-preserving features and our data representations, we detect the user’s home and work with probability of 90% or better, and in 3-class problem the overall classification accuracy was 89% or better.

  12. Location Dependency and Antenna/Body/Sensor-Lead Interaction Effects in a Cell-Phone Based GSM 1800 Telemedicine Link

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Troulis, S

    2001-01-01

    The error-free requirement of today's cell-phone based telemedicine systems demands investigations into the potential causes of service degradation, Measuring the Received Signal Strength Indication (RSSI...

  13. 33-Foot-Diameter Space Station Leading to Space Base

    Science.gov (United States)

    1969-01-01

    This picture illustrates a concept of a 33-Foot-Diameter Space Station Leading to a Space Base. In-house work of the Marshall Space Flight Center, as well as a Phase B contract with the McDornel Douglas Astronautics Company, resulted in a preliminary design for a space station in 1969 and l970. The Marshall-McDonnel Douglas approach envisioned the use of two common modules as the core configuration of a 12-man space station. Each common module was 33 feet in diameter and 40 feet in length and provided the building blocks, not only for the space station, but also for a 50-man space base. Coupled together, the two modules would form a four-deck facility: two decks for laboratories and two decks for operations and living quarters. Zero-gravity would be the normal mode of operation, although the station would have an artificial gravity capability. This general-purpose orbital facility was to provide wide-ranging research capabilities. The design of the facility was driven by the need to accommodate a broad spectrum of activities in support of astronomy, astrophysics, aerospace medicine, biology, materials processing, space physics, and space manufacturing. To serve the needs of Earth observations, the station was to be placed in a 242-nautical-mile orbit at a 55-degree inclination. An Intermediate-21 vehicle (comprised of Saturn S-IC and S-II stages) would have launched the station in 1977.

  14. REDISTRIBUTION OF BASE STATIONS LOAD IN MOBILE COMMUNICATION NETWORKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor Ruban

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The subject matter of the article is the processes of load distribution in mobile communication networks. The object of research is the handover. The goal is to develop a method for redistributing the load between neighboring areas for mobile nodes. The considered base stations are supposed to have the signal-to-noise ratios that are equal or close. The methods that are used: methods of system analysis, methods of digital signal processing. The following results are obtained. The method that allows mobile nodes, whose signal-to-noise ratios are equal or close, to switch to a less loaded base station. This method allows the base station to launch the handover process enabling more even distribution of the load from mobile nodes among neighboring base stations in wireless and mobile networks. In the suggested modification of the method, the function assessing the bandwidth of the uplink channel is added to the base stations, as well a threshold value for using its bandwidth. Thus, when the current value of bandwidth reaches the threshold, the base station starts sending out a message to all mobile nodes and verifies free neighboring areas for switching over mobile nodes. If there are adjacent areas with a lower load, the base station notifies all potential candidates about the necessity of their switching over. The handover process is launched when the available bandwidth of the base station decreases below a certain threshold. Therefore, it is possible to optimize the operation of the WiMAX network with respect to the criterion of the total bandwidth capacity of the base stations. Besides, the results of the comparative analysis of the handover process in networks based on the WiMAX technology that are obtained using the OpNet simulation environment are presented. Conclusions.The suggested approach can be used to improve the basic software of mobile communication networks. When moving a node from one area to another one in access servers, the

  15. Rural patients' access to mobile phones and willingness to receive mobile phone-based pharmacy and other health technology services: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sankaranarayanan, Jayashri; Sallach, Rory E

    2014-02-01

    This pilot study explores the patient-centered demand for mobile phone-based health (mobile health [m-health]) services in the rural United States by documenting rural patients' access to mobile phones and patients' willingness to receive m-health services. An anonymous institutional review board-approved survey was completed by patients visiting two rural pharmacies in Nebraska from August to October 2011. Patients who volunteered to complete the survey provided their demographic data, disease state information, health status, mobile phone access, and willingness to receive (in terms of using and giving time to) m-health services. The majority of the 24 survey respondents were 19-40 years old (52%), female (88%), married (63%), with excellent to very good health status (63%), with no comorbidities (83%), with ≤$100 monthly medication expenses (80%), with private insurance (78%), living within 5 miles of their pharmacy (71%), and reporting that m-health services are important to them (75%; 12/16). Approximately 95%, 81%, 73%, and 55% of respondents reported access to a mobile phone, voice mails, text messaging, and mobile phone applications, respectively. Of the respondents, 65%, 57%, 52%, and 48% were willing to receive prerecorded messages for appointment reminders from the doctor, disease information, medication use/self-care information, and symptom monitoring information, respectively. In total, 70%, 63%, 61%, 54%, and 50% were willing to receive prerecorded messages from the pharmacist containing contact requests, new/refill prescription reminders, information on medication problems, reviewing/monitoring of medication use, and medication self-management/preventive screenings/immunizations, respectively. Of 44% (7/16) respondents willing to give time for m-health services, 83% were willing to give 15 min, and 17% were willing to give 30 min every month. By demonstrating rural patients' demand for m-health (including pharmacy) services, this is one of the

  16. 78 FR 6344 - Certain Wireless Communications Base Stations and Components Thereof Notice of Receipt of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-30

    ... INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION Certain Wireless Communications Base Stations and Components.... International Trade Commission has received a complaint entitled Certain Wireless Communications Base Stations... communications base stations and components thereof. The complaint names as respondents Telefonaktiebolaget LM...

  17. Mobile phone imaging and cloud-based analysis for standardized malaria detection and reporting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scherr, Thomas F.; Gupta, Sparsh; Wright, David W.; Haselton, Frederick R.

    2016-06-01

    Rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) have been widely deployed in low-resource settings. These tests are typically read by visual inspection, and accurate record keeping and data aggregation remains a substantial challenge. A successful malaria elimination campaign will require new strategies that maximize the sensitivity of RDTs, reduce user error, and integrate results reporting tools. In this report, an unmodified mobile phone was used to photograph RDTs, which were subsequently uploaded into a globally accessible database, REDCap, and then analyzed three ways: with an automated image processing program, visual inspection, and a commercial lateral flow reader. The mobile phone image processing detected 20.6 malaria parasites/microliter of blood, compared to the commercial lateral flow reader which detected 64.4 parasites/microliter. Experienced observers visually identified positive malaria cases at 12.5 parasites/microliter, but encountered reporting errors and false negatives. Visual interpretation by inexperienced users resulted in only an 80.2% true negative rate, with substantial disagreement in the lower parasitemia range. We have demonstrated that combining a globally accessible database, such as REDCap, with mobile phone based imaging of RDTs provides objective, secure, automated, data collection and result reporting. This simple combination of existing technologies would appear to be an attractive tool for malaria elimination campaigns.

  18. Colorimetric analyzer based on mobile phone camera for determination of available phosphorus in soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moonrungsee, Nuntaporn; Pencharee, Somkid; Jakmunee, Jaroon

    2015-05-01

    A field deployable colorimetric analyzer based on an "Android mobile phone" was developed for the determination of available phosphorus content in soil. An inexpensive mobile phone embedded with digital camera was used for taking photograph of the chemical solution under test. The method involved a reaction of the phosphorus (orthophosphate form), ammonium molybdate and potassium antimonyl tartrate to form phosphomolybdic acid which was reduced by ascorbic acid to produce the intense colored molybdenum blue. The software program was developed to use with the phone for recording and analyzing RGB color of the picture. A light tight box with LED light to control illumination was fabricated to improve precision and accuracy of the measurement. Under the optimum conditions, the calibration graph was created by measuring blue color intensity of a series of standard phosphorus solution (0.0-1.0mgPL(-1)), then, the calibration equation obtained was retained by the program for the analysis of sample solution. The results obtained from the proposed method agreed well with the spectrophotometric method, with a detection limit of 0.01mgPL(-1) and a sample throughput about 40h(-1) was achieved. The developed system provided good accuracy (REphosphorus nutrient. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Mobile phone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    Almost the entire Norwegian population has cell phone. The usefulness of the cell phone is great, but can use a mobile phone to health or discomfort? How can exposure be reduced? NRPA follows research and provides advice on mobile phone use. (AG)

  20. Securing Localization With Hidden and Mobile Base Stations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Capkun, Srdjan; Srivastava, Mani; Cagalj, Mario

    2006-01-01

    localization based on hidden and mobile base stations. Our approach enables secure localization with a broad spectrum of localization techniques: ultrasonic or radio, based on received signal strength or signal time of flight. Through several examples we show how this approach can be used to secure nodecentric...

  1. Adolescents’ perceptions of a mobile cell phone text messaging-enhanced intervention and development of a mobile cell phone-based HIV prevention intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornelius, Judith B.; St. Lawrence, Janet S.; Howard, Jacquelyn C.; Shah, Deval; Poka, Avinash; McDonald, Delilah; White, Ann C.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose This study examined African American adolescents’ perceptions of a mobile cell phone (MCP)-enhanced intervention and development of an MCP-based HIV prevention intervention. Design and Methods One focus group was conducted with 11 adolescents who participated in the Becoming a Responsible Teen Text Messaging project. Results Adolescents said they benefited from the MCP-enhanced approach and were receptive to the idea of developing an MCP-based intervention. Practice Implications Nurses can use the findings of this report as a starting point in examining the development of MCP-based sexuality education with parents and adolescents. PMID:22188273

  2. Call-related factors influencing output power from mobile phones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hillert, Lena; Ahlbom, Anders; Neasham, David; Feychting, Maria; Järup, Lars; Navin, Roshan; Elliott, Paul

    2006-11-01

    Mobile phone use is increasing but there is also concern for adverse health effects. Well-designed prospective studies to assess several health outcomes are required. In designing a study of mobile phone use, it is important to assess which factors need to be considered in classifying the exposure to radiofrequency fields (RF). A pilot study was performed in Sweden and in the UK 2002 to 2003 to test the feasibility of recruiting a cohort of mobile phone users from a random population sample and from mobile phone subscription lists for a prospective study. As one part of this pilot study, different factors were evaluated regarding possible influence on the output power of the phones. By local switch logging, information on calls made from predefined subscriptions or dedicated handsets were obtained and the output power of phones during calls made indoors and outdoors, in moving and stationary mode, and in rural as well in urban areas were compared. In this experiment, calls were either 1, 1.5 or 5 min long. The results showed that high mobile phone output power is more frequent in rural areas whereas the other factors (length of call, moving/stationary, indoor/outdoor) were of less importance. Urban and rural area should be considered in an exposure index for classification of the exposure to RF from mobile phones and may be assessed by first base station during mobile phone calls or, if this information is not available, possibly by using home address as a proxy.

  3. Using web-sources for location based systems on mobile phones

    OpenAIRE

    Pannevis, M.; Marx, M.

    2008-01-01

    The paper describes the implementation of a context aware location and time based system on a normal mobile phone, with a minimum of requirements (Bluetooth, Internet access, Java ME, and a simple webbrowser). We can answer the following queries based on data crawled from the web and enriched with location coordinates: • Where are my friends? • What movies are playing, right here, right now? • I need to park my car. Where is the closest parking lot with free space? • What is a good place to h...

  4. Mobile Phone-Based Unobtrusive Ecological Momentary Assessment of Day-to-Day Mood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asselbergs, Joost; Ruwaard, Jeroen; Ejdys, Michal

    2016-01-01

    Background: Ecological momentary assessment (EMA) is a useful method to tap the dynamics of psychological and behavioral phenomena in real-world contexts. However, the response burden of (self-report) EMA limits its clinical utility. Objective: The aim was to explore mobile phone-based unobtrusive...... is a technically feasible and potentially powerful EMA variant. The method is young and positive findings may not replicate. At present, we do not recommend the application of FSR-based mood prediction in real-world clinical settings. Further psychometric studies and more advanced data mining techniques are needed...

  5. Improving Inpatient Surveys: Web-Based Computer Adaptive Testing Accessed via Mobile Phone QR Codes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chien, Tsair-Wei; Lin, Weir-Sen

    2016-03-02

    The National Health Service (NHS) 70-item inpatient questionnaire surveys inpatients on their perceptions of their hospitalization experience. However, it imposes more burden on the patient than other similar surveys. The literature shows that computerized adaptive testing (CAT) based on item response theory can help shorten the item length of a questionnaire without compromising its precision. Our aim was to investigate whether CAT can be (1) efficient with item reduction and (2) used with quick response (QR) codes scanned by mobile phones. After downloading the 2008 inpatient survey data from the Picker Institute Europe website and analyzing the difficulties of this 70-item questionnaire, we used an author-made Excel program using the Rasch partial credit model to simulate 1000 patients' true scores followed by a standard normal distribution. The CAT was compared to two other scenarios of answering all items (AAI) and the randomized selection method (RSM), as we investigated item length (efficiency) and measurement accuracy. The author-made Web-based CAT program for gathering patient feedback was effectively accessed from mobile phones by scanning the QR code. We found that the CAT can be more efficient for patients answering questions (ie, fewer items to respond to) than either AAI or RSM without compromising its measurement accuracy. A Web-based CAT inpatient survey accessed by scanning a QR code on a mobile phone was viable for gathering inpatient satisfaction responses. With advances in technology, patients can now be offered alternatives for providing feedback about hospitalization satisfaction. This Web-based CAT is a possible option in health care settings for reducing the number of survey items, as well as offering an innovative QR code access.

  6. Adaptive Home Automation System by Using ‎Smart Phone Based Artificial Intelligent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osama Qasim Jumah

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The system of Home Automation consider nowadays as a promise technology for living a comfortable life and minimizing the cost of the user homeowner. The system might be accomplished by controlling the heating, ventilation, air conditioning, shading, and lightening. The energy consumed efficiency is get better also the protection system is exists. In this work, a Home Automation System is proposed, so that it performs automatically controlling to some of the appliances in the home. In addition, the proposed system will discover any undesirable movement or fire when the person is out of his home by taking a suitable decision instead of homeowner. The control unit uses a Smart Phone (Android Mobile. In this work, to gather readings of movements, heating, and lightening, a number of nodes are used (three nodes. Also a Microcontroller uses especial sensors to collect this information, after that sends them wirelessly through WIFI to the Smart Phone for manipulation and taking a convenience decision. Delta Neural Network Learning Rule is use for the first time as the intelligent algorithm to give the decisions for all the readings of sensors, so that it learned after 113259 which take 2280 seconds. In addition, it turns out the automated system to be further smart such that if there is fire or movement into the house, the application will distinguish if this movement for example dangerous or not. The mobile (through the application then gives a command to send a message (GSM to the homeowner (Police, or fire station telling the new situation. Furthermore, the controlling of all convenient appliances at the home automatically for each state. JAVA Program is use for manipulation process, and then by employing Eclipse Juno IDE program it turn into to an android application that installed into the Mobile. The Microcontroller is Arduino with WIFI shield and Xbee.

  7. Development of Base Transceiver Station Selection Algorithm for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    TEMS) equipment was carried out on the existing BTSs, and a linear algorithm optimization program based on the spectral link efficiency of each BTS was developed, the output of this site optimization gives the selected number of base station sites ...

  8. Base Station Antenna Pattern Distortion in Practical Urban Deployment Scenarios

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rodriguez Larrad, Ignacio; Nguyen, Huan Cong; Sørensen, Troels Bundgaard

    2014-01-01

    In real urban deployments, base station antennas are typically not placed in free space conditions. Therefore, the radiation pattern can be affected by mounting structures and nearby obstacles located in the proximity of the antenna (near-field), which are often not taken into consideration. Also...... presents a combination of near-field and far-field simulations aimed to provide an overview of the distortion experienced by the base station antenna pattern in two different urban deployment scenarios: rooftop and telecommunications tower. The study illustrates how, in comparison with the near...

  9. [Research on WiFi-based wireless microscopy on a mobile phone and its application].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hailan, Jin; Jing, Liu

    2012-11-01

    We proposed and realized a new device that acquires microscopic image wirelessly based on mobile phone and WiFi system. The mobile terminals could record, display and store the image from the far end via the wireless LAN. Using this system, a series of conceptual experiments on monitoring the microscopic images of common objects and liver cancer cells were successfully demonstrated. This system is expected to have important value in the experimental investigations on wirelessly monitoring the cell culture, and small insect etc.

  10. Prospect and problems of gas based power stations of NTPC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suryanarayana, A.

    1993-01-01

    The policy of the Government of India concerning utilisation of natural gas resources of the country has undergone changes over the last few years. The government decided in 1985 to allocate natural gas for power generation and in the year 1986 approved the setting up of the first series of three gas based combined cycle power projects of National Thermal Power Corporation (NTPC). The problems of gas power stations of NTPC are discussed. These are high cost of generation, completion of transmission line works to match with the commissioning of gas power stations, high price of natural gas, and fixation of tariff for sale of power from gas based power stations. (N.B.)

  11. Pilot study of a cell phone-based exercise persistence intervention post-rehabilitation for COPD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huong Q Nguyen

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Huong Q Nguyen1, Dawn P Gill1, Seth Wolpin1, Bonnie G Steele2, Joshua O Benditt11University of Washington, seattle, WA, USA; 2VA Puget Sound Health Care System, Seattle, WA, USAObjective: To determine the feasibility and efficacy of a six-month, cell phone-based exercise persistence intervention for patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD following pulmonary rehabilitation.Methods: Participants who completed a two-week run-in were randomly assigned to either MOBILE-Coached (n = 9 or MOBILE-Self-Monitored (n = 8. All participants met with a nurse to develop an individualized exercise plan, were issued a pedometer and exercise booklet, and instructed to continue to log their daily exercise and symptoms. MOBILE-Coached also received weekly reinforcement text messages on their cell phones; reports of worsening symptoms were automatically flagged for follow-up. Usability and satisfaction were assessed. Participants completed incremental cycle and six minute walk (6MW tests, wore an activity monitor for 14 days, and reported their health-related quality of life (HRQL at baseline, three, and six months.Results: The sample had a mean age of 68 ± 11 and forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1 of 40 ± 18% predicted. Participants reported that logging their exercise and symptoms was easy and that keeping track of their exercise helped them remain active. There were no differences between groups over time in maximal workload, 6MW distance, or HRQL (p > 0.05; however, MOBILE-Self-Monitored increased total steps/day whereas MOBILE-Coached logged fewer steps over six months (p = 0.04.Conclusions: We showed that it is feasible to deliver a cell phone-based exercise persistence intervention to patients with COPD post-rehabilitation and that the addition of coaching appeared to be no better than self-monitoring. The latter finding needs to be interpreted with caution since this was a purely exploratory study.Trial registration: Clinical

  12. The effect of Base Transceiver Station waves on some immunological and hematological factors in exposed persons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taheri, Mohammad; Roshanaei, Ghodratollah; Ghaffari, Jamileh; Rahimnejad, Samira; Khosroshahi, Behzad Nazel; Aliabadi, Mohsen; Eftekharian, Mohammad Mahdi

    2017-01-01

    Since the number of mobile subscribers has significantly increased in recent years, the installation and deployment of Base Transceiver Station (BTS) antennas sending and receiving signals has become common and inevitable in different regions. In this study, we have tried to evaluate the effect of the waves on some immunological and hematological parameters in exposed individuals. In this study, the exposed and non-exposed individuals were used as the test and control groups, respectively. The test group was healthy people who resided in the vicinity of the Base Transceiver Station (BTS) antenna and received the maximum of radiation. The control group was selected from the healthy individuals that were matched with the exposed group by age. They resided in a distance of Base Transceiver Station (BTS) antenna and received the minimum of radiation. After stating complete explanations and obtaining the consent, the venous blood samples were taken from them. Then, CBC and the level of cytokines including IL-4, IL-10 and interferon γ were performed on the samples and the results were analyzed by SPSS software. In the test group, the whole number of white blood cells, the level of hematocrit, percent of monocytes, eosinophils and basophils were significantly lower than the control group. The number of red blood cells, their average volume and the mean concentration of hemoglobin were notably higher than the controls. There was not observed a significant difference between the two groups in hemoglobin, its mean concentration, platelet count, percent of lymphocytes and neutrophils as well as serum levels of cytokines IL-4, IL-10 and interferon γ . It seems that radiation of mobile phone antennas influenced the blood and immune systems, but further study should be done to exactly determine the targets.

  13. Cell Phones

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Radiation-Emitting Products and Procedures Home, Business, and Entertainment Products Cell Phones Cell Phones Share Tweet Linkedin ... Follow FDA on Facebook View FDA videos on YouTube View FDA photos on Flickr FDA Archive Combination ...

  14. Robustness of a TETRA base station receiver against intentional EMI

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Beek, G.S.; Leferink, Frank Bernardus Johannes

    2015-01-01

    Terrestrial trunked radio (TETRA) is a digital radio standard that was developed to meet the needs of professional mobile radio systems. TETRA is vulnerable to intentional electromagnetic interference (EMI) because of the wireless link. The EMI can easily be front door coupled to the base station

  15. Exposure level from selected base station tower around Kuala Nerus

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Health risk due to RF radiation exposure from base station tower (BST) has been debated for years leading to public concerns. Thus, this preliminary study aims to measure, evaluate and analyze the exposure level on three selected BST around Kuala Nerus. The measurement of exposure level in terms of voltage ...

  16. A Randomized Pilot Study of a Phone-Based Mindfulness and Weight Loss Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpenter, Kelly M; Vickerman, Katrina A; Salmon, Erica E; Javitz, Harold S; Epel, Elissa S; Lovejoy, Jennifer C

    2017-10-06

    This study evaluated the feasibility and efficacy of integrating mindfulness training into a phone-based weight loss program to improve outcomes in those with high levels of emotional eating. Participants were 75 enrollees into an employer-sponsored weight loss program who reported high levels of overeating in response to thoughts and feelings. Seventy-five overweight and obese participants (92% female, 65% Caucasian, aged 26 to 68 years) were randomized to the new mindfulness weight loss program (n = 50) or the standard behavioral weight loss program (n = 25). Both programs consisted of 11 coaching calls with health coaches and registered dietitians with supplemental online materials. Satisfaction, engagement, and percent weight lost did not significantly differ for intervention vs. control at six months. Intervention participants had significantly better scores at six-month follow-up on mindful eating, binge eating, experiential avoidance, and one mindfulness subscale. Exploratory analyses showed that improvements on several measures predicted more weight loss in the intervention group. This pilot study found that integrating mindfulness into a brief phone-based behavioral weight loss program was feasible and acceptable to participants, but did not produce greater weight loss on average, despite hypothesized changes in mindful eating. Only one third of intervention participants reported participating in mindfulness exercises regularly. Mechanisms of change observed within the intervention group suggest that for adults with high levels of emotional eating those who embrace mindful eating and meditation may lose more weight with a mindfulness intervention.

  17. Design of external sensors board based on Bluetooth interface of smart phones for structural health monitoring system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yan; Zhou, Yaping; Zhao, Xuefeng; Li, Dongsheng; Ou, Jinping

    2016-04-01

    As an important part of new information technology, the Internet of Things(IoT) is based on intelligent perception, recognition technology, ubiquitous computing, ubiquitous network integration, and it is known as the third wave of the development of information industry in the world after the computer and the Internet. And Smart Phones are the general term for a class of mobile phones with a separate operating system and operational memory, in which the third-party service programs including software, games, navigation, et.al, can be installed. Smart Phones, with not only sensors but also actuators, are widely used in the IoT world. As the current hot issues in the engineering area, Structural health monitoring (SHM) is also facing new problems about design ideas in the IoT environment. The development of IoT, wireless sensor network and mobile communication technology, provides a good technical platform for SHM. Based on these facts, this paper introduces a kind of new idea for Structural Health Monitoring using Smart Phones Technique. The system is described in detail, and the external sensor board based on Bluetooth interface is designed, the test based on Smart Phones is finished to validate the implementation and feasibility. The research is preliminary and more tests need to be carried out before it can be of practical use.

  18. Biological responses of mobile phone frequency exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behari, Jitendra

    2010-10-01

    Existence of low level electromagnetic fields in the environment has been known since antiquity and their biological implications are noted for several decades. As such dosimetry of such field parameters and their emissions from various sources of mass utilization has been a subject of constant concern. Recent advancement in mobile communications has also drawn attention to their biological effects. Hand held children and adults alike generally use mobile sources as cordless phones in various positions with respect to the body. Further, an increasing number of mobile communication base stations have led to wide ranging concern about possible health effects of radiofrequency emissions. There are two distinct possibilities by which health could be affected as a result of radio frequency field exposure. These are thermal effects caused by holding mobile phones close to the body and extended conversations over a long period of time. Secondly, there could be possibly non thermal effects from both phones and base stations whereby the affects could also be cumulative. Some people may be adversely affected by the environmental impact of mobile phone base stations situated near their homes, schools or any other place. In addition to mobile phones, appliances like microwave oven etc are also in increasing use. Apart from the controversy over the possible health effects due to the non-thermal effect of electromagnetic fields the electromagnetic interaction of portable radio waves with human head needs to be quantitatively evaluated. Relating to this is the criteria of safe exposure to the population at large. While a lot of efforts have gone into resolving the issue, a clear picture has yet to emerge. Recent advances and the problems relating to the safety criteria are discussed.

  19. An u-Service Model Based on a Smart Phone for Urban Computing Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Yongyun; Yoe, Hyun

    In urban computing environments, all of services should be based on the interaction between humans and environments around them, which frequently and ordinarily in home and office. This paper propose an u-service model based on a smart phone for urban computing environments. The suggested service model includes a context-aware and personalized service scenario development environment that can instantly describe user's u-service demand or situation information with smart devices. To do this, the architecture of the suggested service model consists of a graphical service editing environment for smart devices, an u-service platform, and an infrastructure with sensors and WSN/USN. The graphic editor expresses contexts as execution conditions of a new service through a context model based on ontology. The service platform deals with the service scenario according to contexts. With the suggested service model, an user in urban computing environments can quickly and easily make u-service or new service using smart devices.

  20. Radiation safety assessment of mobile telephone base stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohd Yusof Mohd Ali; Mohd Anuar Majid; Mohd Amirul Nizam

    2002-01-01

    Mobile telephone is fast getting popular among users and in fact it has become one of the fastest selling electronic products in the world. More base stations are expected to be built to meet such high demands and this has caused great concerned among members of the public, especially those living close to the stations, about the potential harmful health effects of radiofrequency (RF) radiation produced by such facilities. A project was initiated by MINT in early 2000 with aims to assess the radiation levels present in the areas around the base stations and to establish baseline data on the pattern and trend of the radiation emission from each different set up of the facilities. This paper highlights some basics facts about mobile telephones and preliminary findings of the project. The assessment has been carried out at 16 base station sites and the results indicate that the radiation levels present around these sites are very low. Their broadband readings vary between below the detection limit of 0.3μWatts/cm 2 to 11 μWatts/cm 2 and they are comparable to normal background radiation present in places away from any base stations. The highest level observed was 1.5% of the exposure limit recommended for members of the public. However, locations at close distance in front of the the antenna can be very serious in term of radiation exposure since the radiation level here can easily exceed the permissible exposure limit for public. Safety precaution needs to be taken when entering these areas and they should be out of bound for members of the public. (Author)

  1. Mobile Phone-Based Field Monitoring for Satsuma Mandarin and Its Application to Watering Advice System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamiya, Toshiyuki; Numano, Nagisa; Yagyu, Hiroyuki; Shimazu, Hideo

    This paper describes a mobile phone-based data logging system for monitoring the growing status of Satsuma mandarin, a type of citrus fruit, in the field. The system can provide various feedback to the farm producers with collected data, such as visualization of related data as a timeline chart or advice on the necessity of watering crops. It is important to collect information on environment conditions, plant status and product quality, to analyze it and to provide it as feedback to the farm producers to aid their operations. This paper proposes a novel framework of field monitoring and feedback for open-field farming. For field monitoring, it combines a low-cost plant status monitoring method using a simple apparatus and a Field Server for environment condition monitoring. Each field worker has a simple apparatus to measure fruit firmness and records data with a mobile phone. The logged data are stored in the database of the system on the server. The system analyzes stored data for each field and is able to show the necessity of watering to the user in five levels. The system is also able to show various stored data in timeline chart form. The user and coach can compare or analyze these data via a web interface. A test site was built at a Satsuma mandarin field at Kumano in Mie Prefecture, Japan using the framework, and farm workers monitor in the area used and evaluated the system.

  2. 47 CFR 90.1331 - Restrictions on the operation of base and fixed stations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...-3700 MHz Band § 90.1331 Restrictions on the operation of base and fixed stations. (a)(1) Except as provided in paragraph (a)(2) of this section, base and fixed stations may not be located within 150 km of... these stations are available at http://www.fcc.gov/ib/sd/3650/. (2) Base and fixed stations may be...

  3. Exposure Metrics for RF Epidemiology: Cellular Phone Handsets (invited paper)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balzano, Q.

    1999-01-01

    The parameters are described that characterise the exposure of the users of cellular phones. The parameters are distinguished in two classes: the human and the cell phone parameters. Among the human parameters the following are discussed: size and shape of head and neck, manner of holding the phone (left vs. right, finger tips vs. palm contact) and phone position on the face of the user. The cell phone parameters causing the largest exposure variations are: antenna geometry (size, shape, extended or retracted) and matching conditions; operating RF power level; proximity of tissue to RF currents on metal parts, channel access method (analogue, pulsed, CDMA). The large variability of the RF exposure is further expanded by the variety (ever increasing) of phone models available to users who may change service frequently or sporadically. After a brief discussion of possible dose definitions and the uncertainty of the 'user' of a cell phone for a specific call, the paper analyses the critical exposure parameters that should be investigated to characterise statistically the RF exposure of the subjects of an epidemiological study. The improved exposure assessment of the users of cellular phones requires the cooperation of network operators and equipment manufacturers. The statistics of the most critical parameters, those with variability greater than 10:1, can be collected by modifying the software and hardware of the cell phone equipment. The paper suggests base station software modifications and the introduction of cell phone 'dosemeter' devices that record some of the critical exposure parameters. A certain number of these 'dosemeters' should be distributed among subscribers to determine the statistical variations of the RF exposure from cell phones. The paper concludes by recommending a pilot dosimetric study independent from any epidemiological study. (author)

  4. iPhone Idol

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Technophiles around the world are snapping up Apple’s new iPhone. How much longer must the Chinese wait?The iPhone, a faster and more versatile version of Apple Inc.’s original touch-based mobile handset, has been a market hit since it went on

  5. Data communications method for mobile network in fourth generation communications system, involves delivering decoded data to mobile station from relay station, where mobile station receives data from both relay and base stations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2008-01-01

    The method involves utilizing a base station (BS) (100) to transmit data to a relay station (RS) (110) and a mobile station (MS) (120), where the data includes two messages. The BS is utilized to transmit the two messages by utilizing a linear combination method, and the data is received in the RS...

  6. Evidence-based adaptation and scale-up of a mobile phone health information service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    L'Engle, Kelly; Plourde, Kate F; Zan, Trinity

    2017-01-01

    The research base recommending the use of mobile phone interventions for health improvement is growing at a rapid pace. The use of mobile phones to deliver health behavior change and maintenance interventions in particular is gaining a robust evidence base across geographies, populations, and health topics. However, research on best practices for successfully scaling mHealth interventions is not keeping pace, despite the availability of frameworks for adapting and scaling health programs. m4RH-Mobile for Reproductive Health-is an SMS, or text message-based, health information service that began in two countries and over a period of 7 years has been adapted and scaled to new population groups and new countries. Success can be attributed to following key principles for scaling up health programs, including continuous stakeholder engagement; ongoing monitoring, evaluation, and research including extensive content and usability testing with the target audience; strategic dissemination of results; and use of marketing and sustainability principles for social initiatives. This article investigates how these factors contributed to vertical, horizontal, and global scale-up of the m4RH program. Vertical scale of m4RH is demonstrated in Tanzania, where the early engagement of stakeholders including the Ministry of Health catalyzed expansion of m4RH content and national-level program reach. Ongoing data collection has provided real-time data for decision-making, information about the user base, and peer-reviewed publications, yielding government endorsement and partner hand-off for sustainability of the m4RH platform. Horizontal scale-up and adaptation of m4RH has occurred through expansion to new populations in Rwanda, Uganda, and Tanzania, where best practices for design and implementation of mHealth programs were followed to ensure the platform meets the needs of target populations. m4RH also has been modified and packaged for global scale-up through licensing and toolkit

  7. Engineering graphics data entry for space station data base

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacovara, R. C.

    1986-01-01

    The entry of graphical engineering data into the Space Station Data Base was examined. Discussed were: representation of graphics objects; representation of connectivity data; graphics capture hardware; graphics display hardware; site-wide distribution of graphics, and consolidation of tools and hardware. A fundamental assumption was that existing equipment such as IBM based graphics capture software and VAX networked facilities would be exploited. Defensible conclusions reached after study and simulations of use of these systems at the engineering level are: (1) existing IBM based graphics capture software is an adequate and economical means of entry of schematic and block diagram data for present and anticipated electronic systems for Space Station; (2) connectivity data from the aforementioned system may be incorporated into the envisioned Space Station Data Base with modest effort; (3) graphics and connectivity data captured on the IBM based system may be exported to the VAX network in a simple and direct fashion; (4) graphics data may be displayed site-wide on VT-125 terminals and lookalikes; (5) graphics hard-copy may be produced site-wide on various dot-matrix printers; and (6) the system may provide integrated engineering services at both the engineering and engineering management level.

  8. Design and evaluation of a telemonitoring concept based on NFC-enabled mobile phones and sensor devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morak, Jürgen; Kumpusch, Hannes; Hayn, Dieter; Modre-Osprian, Robert; Schreier, Günter

    2012-01-01

    Utilization of information and communication technologies such as mobile phones and wireless sensor networks becomes more and more common in the field of telemonitoring for chronic diseases. Providing elderly people with a mobile-phone-based patient terminal requires a barrier-free design of the overall user interface including the setup of wireless communication links to sensor devices. To easily manage the connection between a mobile phone and wireless sensor devices, a concept based on the combination of Bluetooth and near-field communication technology has been developed. It allows us initiating communication between two devices just by bringing them close together for a few seconds without manually configuring the communication link. This concept has been piloted with a sensor device and evaluated in terms of usability and feasibility. Results indicate that this solution has the potential to simplify the handling of wireless sensor networks for people with limited technical skills.

  9. Questionnaire-based evaluation of mobile phone interference with medical-electrical equipment in Swedish hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiinberg, Stig; Samuelsson, Göran; Larsson, Stefan; Nilsson, Barbro; Jönsson, Patrik X; Ivarsson, Bodil; Olofsson, Per-Åke

    2017-08-09

    National recommendations in Sweden recommend a safety distance of 3 meter (m) between mobile phones and medical-electrical (ME) equipment in hospitals. A questionnaire was used to investigate how often mobile phones were reported to interfere with ME products in clinical practice across Sweden. The results confirmed that ME equipment can be affected by mobile phone use but, the risk of the patient's outcome being affected were minimal; no cases were identified which led to injury or death. In conclusion, the results support recommendations for a general safety distance of 0.5 m between mobile phones and ME equipment in care environments.

  10. Antenna modeling considerations for accurate SAR calculations in human phantoms in close proximity to GSM cellular base station antennas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Wyk, Marnus J; Bingle, Marianne; Meyer, Frans J C

    2005-09-01

    International bodies such as International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP) and the Institute for Electrical and Electronic Engineering (IEEE) make provision for human exposure assessment based on SAR calculations (or measurements) and basic restrictions. In the case of base station exposure this is mostly applicable to occupational exposure scenarios in the very near field of these antennas where the conservative reference level criteria could be unnecessarily restrictive. This study presents a variety of critical aspects that need to be considered when calculating SAR in a human body close to a mobile phone base station antenna. A hybrid FEM/MoM technique is proposed as a suitable numerical method to obtain accurate results. The verification of the FEM/MoM implementation has been presented in a previous publication; the focus of this study is an investigation into the detail that must be included in a numerical model of the antenna, to accurately represent the real-world scenario. This is accomplished by comparing numerical results to measurements for a generic GSM base station antenna and appropriate, representative canonical and human phantoms. The results show that it is critical to take the disturbance effect of the human phantom (a large conductive body) on the base station antenna into account when the antenna-phantom spacing is less than 300 mm. For these small spacings, the antenna structure must be modeled in detail. The conclusion is that it is feasible to calculate, using the proposed techniques and methodology, accurate occupational compliance zones around base station antennas based on a SAR profile and basic restriction guidelines. (c) 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  11. Greening radio access networks using distributed base station architectures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kardaras, Georgios; Soler, José; Dittmann, Lars

    2010-01-01

    Several actions for developing environmentally friendly technologies have been taken in most industrial fields. Significant resources have also been devoted in mobile communications industry. Moving towards eco-friendly alternatives is primarily a social responsibility for network operators....... However besides this, increasing energy efficiency represents a key factor for reducing operating expenses and deploying cost effective mobile networks. This paper presents how distributed base station architectures can contribute in greening radio access networks. More specifically, the advantages...... energy saving. Different subsystems have to be coordinated real-time and intelligent network nodes supporting complicated functionalities are necessary. Distributed base station architectures are ideal for this purpose mainly because of their high degree of configurability and self...

  12. Programmable Ultra-Lightweight System Adaptable Radio Satellite Base Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varnavas, Kosta; Sims, Herb

    2015-01-01

    With the explosion of the CubeSat, small sat, and nanosat markets, the need for a robust, highly capable, yet affordable satellite base station, capable of telemetry capture and relay, is significant. The Programmable Ultra-Lightweight System Adaptable Radio (PULSAR) is NASA Marshall Space Flight Center's (MSFC's) software-defined digital radio, developed with previous Technology Investment Programs and Technology Transfer Office resources. The current PULSAR will have achieved a Technology Readiness Level-6 by the end of FY 2014. The extensibility of the PULSAR will allow it to be adapted to perform the tasks of a mobile base station capable of commanding, receiving, and processing satellite, rover, or planetary probe data streams with an appropriate antenna.

  13. Impact of Base Station Cooperation on Cell Planning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian Dexter Garcia

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Base station cooperation (BSC has been identified as a key radio access technology for next-generation cellular networks such as LTE-Advanced. BSC impacts cell planning, which is the methodical selection of base station (BS sites, and BS equipment configuration for cost-effective cellular networks. In this paper, the impact of BSC on cell plan parameters (coverage, traffic, handover, and cost, as well as additional cell planning steps required for BSC are discussed. Results show that BSC maximizes its gains over noncooperation (NC in a network wherein interference from cooperating BSs is the main limitation. Locations exist where NC may produce higher throughputs, therefore dynamic or semistatic switching between BSC and NC, called fractional BSC, is recommended. Because of interference from noncooperating BSs, the gains of BSC over NC are upper bounded, and diminishes at greater intersite distances because of noise. This encourages smaller cell sizes, higher transmit powers, and dynamic clustering of cooperative BSs.

  14. Personal exposure to mobile phone frequencies and well-being in adults: a cross-sectional study based on dosimetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Silke; Kühnlein, Anja; Heinrich, Sabine; Praml, Georg; Nowak, Dennis; von Kries, Rüdiger; Radon, Katja

    2008-09-01

    The use of mobile phone telecommunication has increased in recent years. In parallel, there is growing concern about possible adverse health effects of cellular phone networks. We used personal dosimetry to investigate the association between exposure to mobile phone frequencies and well-being in adults. A random population-based sample of 329 adults living in four different Bavarian towns was assembled for the study. Using a dosimeter (ESM-140 Maschek Electronics), we obtained an exposure profile over 24 h for three mobile phone frequency ranges (measurement interval 1 s, limit of determination 0.05 V/m). Exposure levels over waking hours were totalled and expressed as mean percentage of the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP) reference level. Each participant reported acute symptoms in a day-long diary. Data on five groups of chronic symptoms and potential confounders were assessed during an interview. The overall exposure to high-frequency electromagnetic fields was markedly below the ICNIRP reference level. We did not find any statistically significant association between the exposure and chronic symptoms or between the exposure and acute symptoms. Larger studies using mobile phone dosimetry are warranted to confirm these findings. Copyright 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  15. Pemanfaatan Google Maps Api Untuk Visualisasi Data Base Transceiver Station

    OpenAIRE

    Rani, Septia

    2016-01-01

    This paper discusses the use of the Google Maps API to perform data visualization for Base Transceiver Station (BTS) data. BTS are typically used by telecommunications companies to facilitate wireless communication between communication devices with the network operator. Each BTS has important information such as it’s location, it’s transaction traffic, as well as information about revenue. With the implementation of BTS data visualization using the Google Maps API, key information owned by e...

  16. Pemanfaatan Google Maps Api Untuk Visualisasi Data Base Transceiver Station

    OpenAIRE

    Rani, Septia

    2016-01-01

    This paper discusses the use of the Google Maps API to perform data visualization for Base Transceiver Station (BTS) data. BTS are typically used by telecommunications companies to facilitate wireless communication between communication devices with the network operator. Each BTS has important information such as it's location, it's transaction traffic, as well as information about revenue. With the implementation of BTS data visualization using the Google Maps API, key information owned by e...

  17. PEMANFAATAN GOOGLE MAPS API UNTUK VISUALISASI DATA BASE TRANSCEIVER STATION

    OpenAIRE

    Rani, Septia

    2016-01-01

    This paper discusses the use of the Google Maps API to perform data visualization for Base Transceiver Station (BTS) data. BTS are typically used by telecommunications companies to facilitate wireless communication between communication devices with the network operator. Each BTS has important information such as it’s location, it’s transaction traffic, as well as information about revenue. With the implementation of BTS data visualization using the Google Maps API, key information owned by e...

  18. An Evidence-based Forensic Taxonomy of Windows Phone Dating Apps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cahyani, Niken Dwi Wahyu; Choo, Kim-Kwang Raymond; Ab Rahman, Nurul Hidayah; Ashman, Helen

    2018-05-21

    Advances in technologies including development of smartphone features have contributed to the growth of mobile applications, including dating apps. However, online dating services can be misused. To support law enforcement investigations, a forensic taxonomy that provides a systematic classification of forensic artifacts from Windows Phone 8 (WP8) dating apps is presented in this study. The taxonomy has three categories, namely: Apps Categories, Artifacts Categories, and Data Partition Categories. This taxonomy is built based on the findings from a case study of 28 mobile dating apps, using mobile forensic tools. The dating app taxonomy can be used to inform future studies of dating and related apps, such as those from Android and iOS platforms. © 2018 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  19. Mobile Phone Based Falling Detection Sensor and Computer-Aided Algorithm for Elderly People

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee Jong-Ha

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Falls are dangerous for the elderly population; therefore many fall detection systems have been developed. However, previous methods are bulky for elderly people or only use a single sensor to isolate falls from daily living activities, which makes a fall difficult to distinguish. In this paper, we present a cost-effective and easy-to-use portable fall-detection sensor and algorithm. Specifically, to detect human falls, we used a three-axis accelerator and a three-axis gyroscope in a mobile phone. We used the Fourier descriptor-based frequency analysis method to classify both normal and falling status. From the experimental results, the proposed method detects falling status with 96.14% accuracy.

  20. How We Do It: A DIY Smart Phone based ENT Endoscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shyam Duvvi

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available We present a simple method of preparing a smart phone based ENT endoscopy for OPD clinic and for on call ENT to provide emergency ENT care in Accident and Emergency department when required. In our experience, this method is efficient, economical and ensures mobility and flexibility of remote visual inspection and documentation. This aids in better care for patients especially where there is no easy access to traditional ENT treatment room facility. This provides a fast and cost-effective solution to simultaneously view capture and save photos and videos with a smartphone and, if required, send these pictures to oncall Consultant. This enables quicker identification, documentation and support regardless of location.

  1. Cluster-Based Adaptation Using Density Forest for HMM Phone Recognition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abou-Zleikha, Mohamed; Tan, Zheng-Hua; Christensen, Mads Græsbøll

    2014-01-01

    The dissimilarity between the training and test data in speech recognition systems is known to have a considerable effect on the recognition accuracy. To solve this problem, we use density forest to cluster the data and use maximum a posteriori (MAP) method to build a cluster-based adapted Gaussian...... mixture models (GMMs) in HMM speech recognition. Specifically, a set of bagged versions of the training data for each state in the HMM is generated, and each of these versions is used to generate one GMM and one tree in the density forest. Thereafter, an acoustic model forest is built by replacing...... the data of each leaf (cluster) in each tree with the corresponding GMM adapted by the leaf data using the MAP method. The results show that the proposed approach achieves 3:8% (absolute) lower phone error rate compared with the standard HMM/GMM and 0:8% (absolute) lower PER compared with bagged HMM/GMM....

  2. Measurements of Electromagnetic Fields Emitted from Cellular Base Stations in

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. J. Ali

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available With increasing the usage of mobile communication devices and internet network information, the entry of private telecommunications companies in Iraq has been started since 2003. These companies began to build up cellular towers to accomplish the telecommunication works but they ignore the safety conditions imposed for the health and environment that are considered in random way. These negative health effects which may cause a health risk for life beings and environment pollution. The aim of this work is to determine the safe and unsafe ranges and discuss damage caused by radiation emitted from Asia cell base stations in Shirqat city and discuses the best ways in which can be minimize its exposure level to avoid its negative health effects. Practical measurements of power density around base stations has been accomplished by using a radiation survey meter type (Radio frequency EMF Strength Meter 480846 in two ways. The first way of measurements has been accomplished at a height of 2 meters above ground for different distances from (0-300 meters .The second way is at a distance of 150 meters for different levels from (2-15 meters above ground level. The maximum measured power density is about (3 mW/m2. Results indicate that the levels of power density are far below the RF radiation exposure of USSR safety standards levels. And that means these cellular base station don't cause negative the health effect for life being if the exposure is within the acceptable international standard levels.

  3. Reprint of: Use of a mobile phone for potentiostatic control with low cost paper-based microfluidic sensors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delaney, Jacqui L.; Doeven, Egan H.; Harsant, Anthony J.; Hogan, Conor F., E-mail: c.hogan@latrobe.edu.au

    2013-11-25

    Graphical abstract: -- Highlights: •The ability to generate ECL emission using the audio output of a mobile phone is demonstrated. •Electrochemical control can be achieved by controlling the amplitude and waveform of the sound. •A mobile phone “app” synchronises the electrochemical stimulation with detection via the camera. •In combination with paper-based microfluidic sensors, extremely low cost analysis is possible. •Detection of proline at levels suitable for diagnosis of hyperprolinemia is demonstrated. -- Abstract: By exploiting its ability to play sounds, a mobile phone with suitable software installed can serve the basic functions of a potentiostat in controlling an applied potential to oxidise ECL-active molecules, while the resultant photonic signal is monitored using the camera in video mode. In combination with paper microfluidic sensors this opens significant new possibilities for low-cost, instrument-free sensing.

  4. Reprint of: Use of a mobile phone for potentiostatic control with low cost paper-based microfluidic sensors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delaney, Jacqui L.; Doeven, Egan H.; Harsant, Anthony J.; Hogan, Conor F.

    2013-01-01

    Graphical abstract: -- Highlights: •The ability to generate ECL emission using the audio output of a mobile phone is demonstrated. •Electrochemical control can be achieved by controlling the amplitude and waveform of the sound. •A mobile phone “app” synchronises the electrochemical stimulation with detection via the camera. •In combination with paper-based microfluidic sensors, extremely low cost analysis is possible. •Detection of proline at levels suitable for diagnosis of hyperprolinemia is demonstrated. -- Abstract: By exploiting its ability to play sounds, a mobile phone with suitable software installed can serve the basic functions of a potentiostat in controlling an applied potential to oxidise ECL-active molecules, while the resultant photonic signal is monitored using the camera in video mode. In combination with paper microfluidic sensors this opens significant new possibilities for low-cost, instrument-free sensing

  5. The feasibility of cell phone based electronic diaries for STI/HIV research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hensel Devon J

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Self-reports of sensitive, socially stigmatized or illegal behavior are common in STI/HIV research, but can raise challenges in terms of data reliability and validity. The use of electronic data collection tools, including ecological momentary assessment (EMA, can increase the accuracy of this information by allowing a participant to self-administer a survey or diary entry, in their own environment, as close to the occurrence of the behavior as possible. In this paper, we evaluate the feasibility of using cell phone-based EMA as a tool for understanding sexual risk and STI among adult men and women. Methods As part of a larger prospective clinical study on sexual risk behavior and incident STI in clinically recruited adult men and women, using study-provided cell phones, participants (N = 243 completed thrice–daily EMA diaries monitoring individual and partner-specific emotional attributes, non-sexual activities, non-coital or coital sexual behaviors, and contraceptive behaviors. Using these data, we assess feasibility in terms of participant compliance, behavior reactivity, general method acceptability and method efficacy for capturing behaviors. Results Participants were highly compliant with diary entry protocol and schedule: over the entire 12 study weeks, participants submitted 89.7% (54,914/61,236 of the expected diary entries, with an average of 18.86 of the 21 expected diaries (85.7% each week. Submission did not differ substantially across gender, race/ethnicity and baseline sexually transmitted infection status. A sufficient volume and range of sexual behaviors were captured, with reporting trends in different legal and illegal behaviors showing small variation over time. Participants found the methodology to be acceptable, enjoyed and felt comfortable participating in the study. Conclusion Achieving the correct medium of data collection can drastically improve, or degrade, the timeliness and quality of an

  6. The feasibility of cell phone based electronic diaries for STI/HIV research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hensel, Devon J; Fortenberry, James D; Harezlak, Jaroslaw; Craig, Dorothy

    2012-06-12

    Self-reports of sensitive, socially stigmatized or illegal behavior are common in STI/HIV research, but can raise challenges in terms of data reliability and validity. The use of electronic data collection tools, including ecological momentary assessment (EMA), can increase the accuracy of this information by allowing a participant to self-administer a survey or diary entry, in their own environment, as close to the occurrence of the behavior as possible. In this paper, we evaluate the feasibility of using cell phone-based EMA as a tool for understanding sexual risk and STI among adult men and women. As part of a larger prospective clinical study on sexual risk behavior and incident STI in clinically recruited adult men and women, using study-provided cell phones, participants (N = 243) completed thrice-daily EMA diaries monitoring individual and partner-specific emotional attributes, non-sexual activities, non-coital or coital sexual behaviors, and contraceptive behaviors. Using these data, we assess feasibility in terms of participant compliance, behavior reactivity, general method acceptability and method efficacy for capturing behaviors. Participants were highly compliant with diary entry protocol and schedule: over the entire 12 study weeks, participants submitted 89.7% (54,914/61,236) of the expected diary entries, with an average of 18.86 of the 21 expected diaries (85.7%) each week. Submission did not differ substantially across gender, race/ethnicity and baseline sexually transmitted infection status. A sufficient volume and range of sexual behaviors were captured, with reporting trends in different legal and illegal behaviors showing small variation over time. Participants found the methodology to be acceptable, enjoyed and felt comfortable participating in the study. Achieving the correct medium of data collection can drastically improve, or degrade, the timeliness and quality of an individual's self-reported sexual risk behavior, which in turn, is a key

  7. 78 FR 13895 - Certain Wireless Communications Base Stations and Components Thereof; Institution of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-01

    ... the sale within the United States after importation of certain wireless communications base stations... United States after importation of certain wireless communications base stations and components thereof... INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION [Investigation No. 337-TA-871] Certain Wireless Communications Base...

  8. On the phone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paasch, Bettina Sletten

    In most Danish hospitals clinicians are being equipped with a mobile phone in order to improve their availability. Based on an ethnomethodological approach (Garfinkel, 1967) the present paper explores how mobile phones shape clinicians´ practices. Using Nexus Analysis (Scollon & Scollon, 2004....... The analysis shows how the mobile phone becomes part of the way clinicians choreograph body movement in interactions with patients, how they arrange their bodies and how they gesture and position themselves. It is demonstrated how the use of mobile phones can mediate the clinicians´ accomplishment of an action...... space with the patient, the boundaries of attention created by the clinicians and the trajectories of actions. The analysis further shows how the mobile phone allows for the clinicians to negotiate and co-construct their practices across space and physical materiality. It is demonstrated how the use...

  9. Electromagnetic fields from base stations for cellular mobile telephones. Measurements around base stations in the Oslo area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hannevik, Merete

    2000-01-01

    Measurements of radio frequent radiation from base station antennas for cellular mobile telephony have been performed. Measurements were performed inside the buildings in the area just behind or below antennas mounted on the wall or rooftop on buildings and on the ground below tower-mounted antennas. Except from the area 2-3 meters just in front of the antennas the electrical field levels were well below the international guidelines. (Author)

  10. Improved Academic Performance and Student Perceptions of Learning through Use of a Cell Phone-Based Personal Response System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Sihui; Steger, Daniel G.; Doolittle, Peter E.; Stewart, Amanda C.

    2018-01-01

    Personal response systems, such as clickers, have been widely used to improve the effectiveness of teaching in various classroom settings. Although hand-held clicker response systems have been the subject of multiple prior studies, few studies have focused on the use of cell phone-based personal response system (CPPRS) specifically. This study…

  11. GSM base stations: short-term effects on well-being.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Augner, Christoph; Florian, Matthias; Pauser, Gernot; Oberfeld, Gerd; Hacker, Gerhard W

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of short-term GSM (Global System for Mobile Communications) cellular phone base station RF-EMF (radiofrequency electromagnetic fields) exposure on psychological symptoms (good mood, alertness, calmness) as measured by a standardized well-being questionnaire. Fifty-seven participants were selected and randomly assigned to one of three different exposure scenarios. Each of those scenarios subjected participants to five 50-min exposure sessions, with only the first four relevant for the study of psychological symptoms. Three exposure levels were created by shielding devices in a field laboratory, which could be installed or removed during the breaks between sessions such that double-blinded conditions prevailed. The overall median power flux densities were 5.2 microW/m(2) during "low," 153.6 microW/m(2) during "medium," and 2126.8 microW/m(2) during "high" exposure sessions. For scenario HM and MH, the first and third sessions were "low" exposure. The second session was "high" and the fourth was "medium" in scenario HM; and vice versa for scenario MH. Scenario LL had four successive "low" exposure sessions constituting the reference condition. Participants in scenarios HM and MH (high and medium exposure) were significantly calmer during those sessions than participants in scenario LL (low exposure throughout) (P = 0.042). However, no significant differences between exposure scenarios in the "good mood" or "alertness" factors were obtained. We conclude that short-term exposure to GSM base station signals may have an impact on well-being by reducing psychological arousal. (c) 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  12. Impact of mobile phone-based technology to improve health, population and nutrition services in Rural Bangladesh: a study protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uddin, Jasim; Biswas, Tuhin; Adhikary, Gourab; Ali, Wazed; Alam, Nurul; Palit, Rajesh; Uddin, Nizam; Uddin, Aftab; Khatun, Fatema; Bhuiya, Abbas

    2017-07-06

    Mobile phone-based technology has been used in improving the delivery of healthcare services in many countries. However, data on the effects of this technology on improving primary healthcare services in resource-poor settings are limited. The aim of this study is to develop and test a mobile phone-based system to improve health, population and nutrition services in rural Bangladesh and evaluate its impact on service delivery. The study will use a quasi-experimental pre-post design, with intervention and comparison areas. Outcome indicators will include: antenatal care (ANC), delivery care, postnatal care (PNC), neonatal care, expanded programme on immunization (EPI) coverage, and contraceptive prevalence rate (CPR). The study will be conducted over a period of 30 months, using the existing health systems of Bangladesh. The intervention will be implemented through the existing service-delivery personnel at various primary-care levels, such as community clinic, union health and family welfare centre, and upazila health complex. These healthcare providers will be given mobile phones equipped with Apps for sending text and voice messages, along with the use of Internet and device for data-capturing. Training on handling of the Smartphones, data-capturing and monitoring will be given to selected service providers. They will also be trained on inputs, editing, verifying, and monitoring the outcome variables. Mobile phone-based technology has the potential to improve primary healthcare services in low-income countries, like Bangladesh. It is expected that our study will contribute to testing and developing a mobile phone-based intervention to improve the coverage and quality of services. The learning can be used in other similar settings in the low-and middle-income countries.

  13. Mobile Phone

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    籍万杰

    2004-01-01

    Your mobile phone rings.and instead of usual electronic signals,it's playing your favorite music.A friend sends your favorite song to cheer you up.One day,a record company might forward new records and music videos to your phone.

  14. Analysis of Synchronization Impairments for Cooperative Base Stations Using OFDM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konstantinos Manolakis

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Base station cooperation is envisioned as a key technology for future cellular networks, as it has the potential to eliminate intercell interference and to enhance spectral efficiency. To date, there is still lack of understanding of how imperfect carrier and sampling frequency synchronization between transmitters and receivers limit the potential gains and what the actual system requirements are. In this paper, OFDM signal model is established for multiuser multicellular networks, describing the joint effect of multiple carrier and sampling frequency offsets. It is shown that the impact of sampling offsets is much smaller than the impact of carrier frequency offsets. The model is extended to the downlink of base-coordinated networks and closed-form expressions are derived for the mean power of users’ self-signal, interuser, and intercarrier interference, whereas it is shown that interuser interference is the main source of degradation. The SIR is inverse to the base stations’ carrier frequency variance and to the square of time since the last precoder update, whereas it grows with the number of base stations and drops with the number of users. Through user selection, the derived SIR upper bound can be approached. Finally, system design recommendations for meeting synchronization requirements are provided.

  15. The setting for ground based augmentation system station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Yude; Liu, Ruihua

    2007-11-01

    Based on the minimum field strength requirement within the whole GBAS service volume, this paper performs nominal link power budget for GBAS VHF data broadcast (VDB) system, and the required power transmitted from VDB system is derived. The paper elaborates the requirement of Desired-to-Undesired (D/U) signal ratio for a specific VHF airborne receiver to ensure the normal operation by the test, and presents the experimental method and results for acquiring the D/U signal ratios. The minimum geographical separations among GBAS, VOR and ILS stations are calculated according to the specifications of these three kinds of navigation systems.

  16. Lifestyle intervention using an internet-based curriculum with cell phone reminders for obese Chinese teens: a randomized controlled study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anisha A Abraham

    Full Text Available Obesity is an increasing public health problem affecting young people. The causes of obesity are multi-factorial among Chinese youth including lack of physical activity and poor eating habits. The use of an internet curriculum and cell phone reminders and texting may be an innovative means of increasing follow up and compliance with obese teens. The objectives of this study were to determine the feasibility of using an adapted internet curriculum and existing nutritional program along with cell phone follow up for obese Chinese teens.This was a randomized controlled study involving obese teens receiving care at a paediatric obesity clinic of a tertiary care hospital in Hong Kong. Forty-eight subjects aged 12 to 18 years were randomized into three groups. The control group received usual care visits with a physician in the obesity clinic every three months. The first intervention (IT group received usual care visits every three months plus a 12-week internet-based curriculum with cell phone calls/texts reminders. The second intervention group received usual care visits every three months plus four nutritional counselling sessions.The use of the internet-based curriculum was shown to be feasible as evidenced by the high recruitment rate, internet log-in rate, compliance with completing the curriculum and responses to phone reminders. No significant differences in weight were found between IT, sLMP and control groups.An internet-based curriculum with cell phone reminders as a supplement to usual care of obesity is feasible. Further study is required to determine whether an internet plus text intervention can be both an effective and a cost-effective adjunct to changing weight in obese youth.Chinese Clinical Trial Registry ChiCTR-TRC-12002624.

  17. Mobile Phone Antenna Performance 2016

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Gert F.

    This study investigates the antenna performance of a number of mobile phones widely used in the Nordic Countries. The study is supported by the Nordic Council of Ministers. The antenna performance of the phones is vital for the phones ability to ensure radio coverage in low signal situations....... The study is based on the mobile systems in the Nordic mobile networks and on both speech and data services. The selected phone models are among the most popular new phones at the time of this study....

  18. Cell Phone-based Lateral Flow Assay for Blood Biomarker Detection, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The ability to integrate a sensor platform with a cell phone for health monitoring and disease diagnosis for astronauts in space has the potential to be cost...

  19. Cell Phone-based Lateral Flow Assay for Blood Biomarker Detection, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The ability to integrate a sensor platform with a cell phone for health monitoring and disease diagnosis for astronauts in space exploration has the potential to be...

  20. Challenges amp Solutions Of Adoption In Regards To Phone-Based Remote E-Voting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hermann Ken Jamnadas

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Remote Voting Systems has not been universally adopted by most countries for their elections such as in the case of Fiji. Although mobile phones are quite prevalent around the world and the amount of smart phones sold is increasing at a rapid rate there have not been many elections which have capitalized on the use of Mobile Phones as a remote voting tool. This paper is a limited review of previous papers on remote voting systems. The aim was to study challenges of adoption of remote e-voting systems such as through a mobile phone and suggest innovative solutions to those challenges. As such we propose a combination of new policy solutions and technical solutions such as the use of QR code and checksum for vote verification the use of real time facial recognition systems and the leveraging of existing mobile hardware to ensure a secure anonymous and trustworthy remote voting system like it has never been before.

  1. Mobile Phone-Based Questionnaire for Assessing 3 Months Modified Rankin Score After Acute Stroke: A Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooray, Charith; Matusevicius, Marius; Wahlgren, Nils; Ahmed, Niaz

    2015-10-01

    In many countries, a majority of stroke patients are not assessed for long-term functional outcome owing to limited resources and time. We investigated whether automatic assessment of the modified Rankin Scale (mRS) based on a mobile phone questionnaire may serve as an alternative to mRS assessments at clinical visits after stroke. We enrolled 62 acute stroke patients admitted to our stroke unit during March to May 2014. Forty-eight patients completed the study. During the stay, patients and/or caregivers were equipped with a mobile phone application in their personal mobile phones. The mobile phone application contained a set of 20 questions, based on the Rankin Focused Assessment, which we previously tested in a pilot study. Three months after inclusion, the mobile phone application automatically prompted the study participants to answer the mRS questionnaire in the mobile phones. Each question or a group of questions in the questionnaire corresponded to a certain mRS score. Using a predefined protocol, the highest mRS score question where the study participant had answered yes was deemed the final mobile mRS score. A few days later, a study personnel performed a clinical visit mRS assessment. The 2 assessments were compared using quadratic weighing κ-statistics. Mean age was 67 years (38% females), and median baseline National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) score was 5 (interquartile range 2-10.5, range 0-23). Median and mean clinical visit mRS at 3 months was 2 and 2.3, respectively. We found a 62.5% agreement between clinical visit and mobile mRS assessment, weighted kappa 0.89 (95% confidence interval 0.82-0.96), and unweighted kappa 0.53 (95% confidence interval 0.36-0.70). Dichotomized mRS outcome separating functionally independent (mRS score 0-2) from dependent (mRS score 3-5) showed 83% agreement and unweighted kappa of 0.66 (95% confidence interval 0.45-0.87). Mobile phone-based automatic assessments of mRS performed well in comparison with

  2. CONTEXT BASED ANDROID APPLICATIONADMINISTRATIVE ACCESS CONTROL (CBAA–AAC) FOR SMART PHONES

    OpenAIRE

    S. Sharavanan; R.M. Balajee

    2016-01-01

    Android applications in smart phones are generally towards provide greater flexibility and convince for users. Considering the fact that the Android applications are having privilege to access data and resources in mobile after it gets installed (one time permission provided by end user on the time installation), these application may also lead to issues in security for the user data as well as issues relate smart phone with peripheral environment. A practical example for an issue which relat...

  3. 47 CFR 90.656 - Responsibilities of base station licensees of Specialized Mobile Radio systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Responsibilities of base station licensees of... Bands § 90.656 Responsibilities of base station licensees of Specialized Mobile Radio systems. (a) The licensees of base stations that provide Specialized Mobile Radio service on a commercial basis of the use of...

  4. A rear-end collision risk assessment model based on drivers' collision avoidance process under influences of cell phone use and gender-A driving simulator based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaomeng; Yan, Xuedong; Wu, Jiawei; Radwan, Essam; Zhang, Yuting

    2016-12-01

    Driver's collision avoidance performance has a direct link to the collision risk and crash severity. Previous studies demonstrated that the distracted driving, such as using a cell phone while driving, disrupted the driver's performance on road. This study aimed to investigate the manner and extent to which cell phone use and driver's gender affected driving performance and collision risk in a rear-end collision avoidance process. Forty-two licensed drivers completed the driving simulation experiment in three phone use conditions: no phone use, hands-free, and hand-held, in which the drivers drove in a car-following situation with potential rear-end collision risks caused by the leading vehicle's sudden deceleration. Based on the experiment data, a rear-end collision risk assessment model was developed to assess the influence of cell phone use and driver's gender. The cell phone use and driver's gender were found to be significant factors that affected the braking performances in the rear-end collision avoidance process, including the brake reaction time, the deceleration adjusting time and the maximum deceleration rate. The minimum headway distance between the leading vehicle and the simulator during the rear-end collision avoidance process was the final output variable, which could be used to measure the rear-end collision risk and judge whether a collision occurred. The results showed that although cell phone use drivers took some compensatory behaviors in the collision avoidance process to reduce the mental workload, the collision risk in cell phone use conditions was still higher than that without the phone use. More importantly, the results proved that the hands-free condition did not eliminate the safety problem associated with distracted driving because it impaired the driving performance in the same way as much as the use of hand-held phones. In addition, the gender effect indicated that although female drivers had longer reaction time than male drivers in

  5. QoE-Driven Energy-Aware Multipath Content Delivery Approach for MPTCP-Based Mobile Phones

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yuanlong Cao; Shengyang Chen; Qinghua Liu; Yi Zuo; Hao Wang; Minghe Huang

    2017-01-01

    Mobile phones equipped with multiple wireless interfaces can increase their goodput performance by making use of concurrent transmissions over multiple paths,enabled by the Multipath TCP (MPTCP).However,utilizing MPTCP for data delivery may generally result in higher energy consumption,while the battery power of a mobile phone is limited.Thus,how to optimize the energy usage becomes very crucial and urgent.In this paper,we propose MPTCP-QE,a novel quality of experience (QoE)-driven energy-aware multipath content delivery approach for MPTCP-based mobile phones.The main idea of MPTCP-QE is described as follows:it first provides an application rate-aware energy-efficient subflow management strategy to tradeoff throughput performance and energy consumption for mobile phones;then uses an available bandwidth-aware congestion window fast recovery strategy to make a sender avoid unnecessary slow-start and utilize wireless resource quickly;and further introduces a novel receiver-driven energy-efficient SACK strategy to help a receiver possible to detect SACK loss timely and trigger loss recovery in a more energy-efficient way.The simulation results show that with the MPTCP-QE,the energy usage is enhanced while the performance level is maintained compared to existing MPTCP solutions.

  6. Using mobile phones and social media to facilitate education and support for rural-based midwives in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chipps, Jennifer; Pimmer, Christoph; Brysiewicz, Petra; Walters, Fiona; Linxen, Sebastian; Ndebele, Thandi; Gröhbiel, Urs

    2015-12-14

    Empirical studies show the value of mobile phones as effective educational tools to support learning in the nursing profession, predominantly in high income countries. The rapidly increasing prevalence of mobile phone technology in Africa nourishes hopes that these tools could be equally effective in lowly resourced contexts, specifically in efforts to achieve the health-related Millennium Development goals. The purpose of this study was to investigate the perception and use of mobile phones as educational and professional tools by nurses in lowly resourced settings. A quantitative survey using self-administered questionnaires was conducted of rural advanced midwives. Fifty-six nurses (49.6%) from the 113 rural-based midwives attending an advanced midwifery training programme at the University of KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa, filled in a questionnaire. The results showed that, whilst nurses regarded their technology competences as low and although they received very little official support from their educational and professional institutions, the majority frequently used mobile functions and applications to support their work and learning processes. They perceived mobile devices with their voice, text, and email functions as important tools for the educational and professional activities of searching for information and engaging with facilitators and peers from work and study contexts. To a lesser extent, the use of social networks, such as WhatsApp and Facebook, were also reported. It is concluded that educational institutions should support the appropriate use of mobile phones more systematically; particularly in relation to the development of mobile network literacy skills.

  7. Phone camera detection of glucose blood level based on magnetic particles entrapped inside bubble wrap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinkova, Pavla; Pohanka, Miroslav

    2016-12-18

    Glucose is an important diagnostic biochemical marker of diabetes but also for organophosphates, carbamates, acetaminophens or salicylates poisoning. Hence, innovation of accurate and fast detection assay is still one of priorities in biomedical research. Glucose sensor based on magnetic particles (MPs) with immobilized enzymes glucose oxidase (GOx) and horseradish peroxidase (HRP) was developed and the GOx catalyzed reaction was visualized by a smart-phone-integrated camera. Exponential decay concentration curve with correlation coefficient 0.997 and with limit of detection 0.4 mmol/l was achieved. Interfering and matrix substances were measured due to possibility of assay influencing and no effect of the tested substances was observed. Spiked plasma samples were also measured and no influence of plasma matrix on the assay was proved. The presented assay showed complying results with reference method (standard spectrophotometry based on enzymes glucose oxidase and peroxidase inside plastic cuvettes) with linear dependence and correlation coefficient 0.999 in concentration range between 0 and 4 mmol/l. On the grounds of measured results, method was considered as highly specific, accurate and fast assay for detection of glucose.

  8. Design, fabrication and actuation of a MEMS-based image stabilizer for photographic cell phone applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiou, Jin-Chern; Hung, Chen-Chun; Lin, Chun-Ying

    2010-01-01

    This work presents a MEMS-based image stabilizer applied for anti-shaking function in photographic cell phones. The proposed stabilizer is designed as a two-axis decoupling XY stage 1.4 × 1.4 × 0.1 mm 3 in size, and adequately strong to suspend an image sensor for anti-shaking photographic function. This stabilizer is fabricated by complex fabrication processes, including inductively coupled plasma (ICP) processes and flip-chip bonding technique. Based on the special designs of a hollow handle layer and a corresponding wire-bonding assisted holder, electrical signals of the suspended image sensor can be successfully sent out with 32 signal springs without incurring damage during wire-bonding packaging. The longest calculated traveling distance of the stabilizer is 25 µm which is sufficient to resolve the anti-shaking problem in a three-megapixel image sensor. Accordingly, the applied voltage for the 25 µm moving distance is 38 V. Moreover, the resonant frequency of the actuating device with the image sensor is 1.123 kHz.

  9. Cognitive and physiological responses in humans exposed to a TETRA base station signal in relation to perceived electromagnetic hypersensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Denise; Eltiti, Stacy; Ridgewell, Anna; Garner, Kelly; Russo, Riccardo; Sepulveda, Francisco; Walker, Stuart; Quinlan, Terence; Dudley, Sandra; Maung, Sithu; Deeble, Roger; Fox, Elaine

    2012-01-01

    Terrestrial Trunked Radio (TETRA) technology ("Airwave") has led to public concern because of its potential interference with electrical activity in the brain. The present study is the first to examine whether acute exposure to a TETRA base station signal has an impact on cognitive functioning and physiological responses. Participants were exposed to a 420 MHz TETRA signal at a power flux density of 10 mW/m(2) as well as sham (no signal) under double-blind conditions. Fifty-one people who reported a perceived sensitivity to electromagnetic fields as well as 132 controls participated in a double-blind provocation study. Forty-eight sensitive and 132 control participants completed all three sessions. Measures of short-term memory, working memory, and attention were administered while physiological responses (blood volume pulse, heart rate, skin conductance) were monitored. After applying exclusion criteria based on task performance for each aforementioned cognitive measure, data were analyzed for 36, 43, and 48 sensitive participants for these respective tasks and, likewise, 107,125, and 129 controls. We observed no differences in cognitive performance between sham and TETRA exposure in either group; physiological response also did not differ between the exposure conditions. These findings are similar to previous double-blind studies with other mobile phone signals (900-2100 MHz), which could not establish any clear evidence that mobile phone signals affect health or cognitive function. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. [Study on atmospheric VOCs in Gongga Mountain base station].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jun-Ke; Wang, Yue-Si; Wu, Fang-Kun; Sun, Jie

    2012-12-01

    Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) play important roles in the atmosphere as precursors of secondary air pollutants. The regional background concentrations and variation characteristics of VOCs in the atmosphere of southwestern China were studied. Meanwhile, a receptor model based on principal component analysis (PCA) was used to identify the major sources of VOCs. Weekly samples were collected in 2007 in the Gongga Mountain base station and analyzed with a three-stage preconcentration method coupled with GC-MS. The annual mean concentration of TVOCs and NMHCs were 9.40 x 10(-9) +/- 4.55 x 10(-9) and 7.73 x 10(-9) +/- 4.43 x 10(-9), respectively. Aromatic hydrocarbons provided the largest contribution to TVOCs (37.3%), follow by alkanes (30.0%) and halogenated hydrocarbons (19.8%), the smallest contribution was from alkenes (12.9%). Three major sources were resolved by the receptor model, traffic sources, biogenic sources and combustion sources. The seasonal variation of TVOCs in this area was obviously, and the order was autumn > winter > spring > summer. TVOCs concentration in autumn was very significantly higher than that in summer (P station emission characteristic.

  11. Mobile phone middleware architecture for energy and context awareness in location-based services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galeana-Zapién, Hiram; Torres-Huitzil, César; Rubio-Loyola, Javier

    2014-12-10

    The disruptive innovation of smartphone technology has enabled the development of mobile sensing applications leveraged on specialized sensors embedded in the device. These novel mobile phone applications rely on advanced sensor information processes, which mainly involve raw data acquisition, feature extraction, data interpretation and transmission. However, the continuous accessing of sensing resources to acquire sensor data in smartphones is still very expensive in terms of energy, particularly due to the periodic use of power-intensive sensors, such as the Global Positioning System (GPS) receiver. The key underlying idea to design energy-efficient schemes is to control the duty cycle of the GPS receiver. However, adapting the sensing rate based on dynamic context changes through a flexible middleware has received little attention in the literature. In this paper, we propose a novel modular middleware architecture and runtime environment to directly interface with application programming interfaces (APIs) and embedded sensors in order to manage the duty cycle process based on energy and context aspects. The proposed solution has been implemented in the Android software stack. It allows continuous location tracking in a timely manner and in a transparent way to the user. It also enables the deployment of sensing policies to appropriately control the sampling rate based on both energy and perceived context. We validate the proposed solution taking into account a reference location-based service (LBS) architecture. A cloud-based storage service along with online mobility analysis tools have been used to store and access sensed data. Experimental measurements demonstrate the feasibility and efficiency of our middleware, in terms of energy and location resolution.

  12. Mobile Phone Middleware Architecture for Energy and Context Awareness in Location-Based Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galeana-Zapién, Hiram; Torres-Huitzil, César; Rubio-Loyola, Javier

    2014-01-01

    The disruptive innovation of smartphone technology has enabled the development of mobile sensing applications leveraged on specialized sensors embedded in the device. These novel mobile phone applications rely on advanced sensor information processes, which mainly involve raw data acquisition, feature extraction, data interpretation and transmission. However, the continuous accessing of sensing resources to acquire sensor data in smartphones is still very expensive in terms of energy, particularly due to the periodic use of power-intensive sensors, such as the Global Positioning System (GPS) receiver. The key underlying idea to design energy-efficient schemes is to control the duty cycle of the GPS receiver. However, adapting the sensing rate based on dynamic context changes through a flexible middleware has received little attention in the literature. In this paper, we propose a novel modular middleware architecture and runtime environment to directly interface with application programming interfaces (APIs) and embedded sensors in order to manage the duty cycle process based on energy and context aspects. The proposed solution has been implemented in the Android software stack. It allows continuous location tracking in a timely manner and in a transparent way to the user. It also enables the deployment of sensing policies to appropriately control the sampling rate based on both energy and perceived context. We validate the proposed solution taking into account a reference location-based service (LBS) architecture. A cloud-based storage service along with online mobility analysis tools have been used to store and access sensed data. Experimental measurements demonstrate the feasibility and efficiency of our middleware, in terms of energy and location resolution. PMID:25513821

  13. Mobile Phone Middleware Architecture for Energy and Context Awareness in Location-Based Services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiram Galeana-Zapién

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The disruptive innovation of smartphone technology has enabled the development of mobile sensing applications leveraged on specialized sensors embedded in the device. These novel mobile phone applications rely on advanced sensor information processes, which mainly involve raw data acquisition, feature extraction, data interpretation and transmission. However, the continuous accessing of sensing resources to acquire sensor data in smartphones is still very expensive in terms of energy, particularly due to the periodic use of power-intensive sensors, such as the Global Positioning System (GPS receiver. The key underlying idea to design energy-efficient schemes is to control the duty cycle of the GPS receiver. However, adapting the sensing rate based on dynamic context changes through a flexible middleware has received little attention in the literature. In this paper, we propose a novel modular middleware architecture and runtime environment to directly interface with application programming interfaces (APIs and embedded sensors in order to manage the duty cycle process based on energy and context aspects. The proposed solution has been implemented in the Android software stack. It allows continuous location tracking in a timely manner and in a transparent way to the user. It also enables the deployment of sensing policies to appropriately control the sampling rate based on both energy and perceived context. We validate the proposed solution taking into account a reference location-based service (LBS architecture. A cloud-based storage service along with online mobility analysis tools have been used to store and access sensed data. Experimental measurements demonstrate the feasibility and efficiency of our middleware, in terms of energy and location resolution.

  14. Charging stations location model based on spatiotemporal electromobility use patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagany, Raphaela; Marquardt, Anna; Zink, Roland

    2016-04-01

    One of the major challenges for mainstream adoption of electric vehicles is the provision of infrastructure for charging the batteries of the vehicles. The charging stations must not only be located dense enough to allow users to complete their journeys, but the electric energy must also be provided from renewable sources in order to truly offer a transportation with less CO2 emissions. The examination of potential locations for the charging of electric vehicles can facilitate the adaption of electromobility and the integration of electronic vehicles in everyday life. A geographic information system (GIS) based model for optimal location of charging stations in a small and regional scale is presented. This considers parameters such as the forecast of electric vehicle use penetration, the relevant weight of diverse point of interests and the distance between parking area and destination for different vehicle users. In addition to the spatial scale the temporal modelling of the energy demand at the different charging locations has to be considerate. Depending on different user profiles (commuters, short haul drivers etc.) the frequency of charging vary during the day, the week and the year. In consequence, the spatiotemporal variability is a challenge for a reliable energy supply inside a decentralized renewable energy system. The presented model delivers on the one side the most adequate identified locations for charging stations and on the other side the interaction between energy supply and demand for electromobility under the consideration of temporal aspects. Using ESRI ArcGIS Desktop, first results for the case study region of Lower Bavaria are generated. The aim of the concept is to keep the model transferable to other regions and also open to integrate further and more detailed user profiles, derived from social studies about i.e. the daily behavior and the perception of electromobility in a next step.

  15. Physiotherapists and General Practitioners attitudes towards 'Physio Direct' phone based musculoskeletal Physiotherapy services: a national survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harland, Nicholas; Blacklidge, Brian

    2017-06-01

    Physiotherapy phone based, "Physio Direct" (PD) musculoskeletal triage and treat services are a relatively new phenomena. This study explored Physiotherapist and GP attitudes towards PD services. Online national survey via cascade e-mail initiated by study leads. 488 Physiotherapists and 68 GPs completed the survey. The survey asked three negatively worded and three positively worded Likert scale questions regarding PD services. It also collected demographic data and more global attitudes including a version of the friends and family test. Overall both Physiotherapists and GP's have positive attitudes towards PD services. There was global agreement that PD triage was a good idea but in both groups the majority of respondents who expressed a definite opinion thought that patients would still eventually need to be seen face to face. The vast majority of all respondents also thought patients should be given a choice about first accessing PD services. Physiotherapists with experience of PD services had more positive and less negative attitudes than those without experience. More detailed results are discussed. Relevant clinical stakeholders have generally positive attitudes towards PD services, but more so when they have experience of them. Counter to research findings significant proportions of respondents believe patients accessing PD services will still need to be seen face to face. The significant majority of respondents believe patients should be given a choice whether they access PD services in the first instance or not. Copyright © 2016 Chartered Society of Physiotherapy. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. MEMS-based micro-fuel processor for application in a cell phone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kundu, Arunabha; Jang, Jae Hyuk; Lee, Hong Ryul; Kim, Sung-Han; Gil, Jae Hyoung; Jung, Chang Ryul; Oh, Yong Soo [Micro-Fuel Cell Team, Electro-Material and Device (eMD) Laboratory, Corporate R and D Center, Samsung Electro-Mechanics, 314 Maetan-Dong, Yeongtong-Gu, Suwon, Gyunngi-Do 443-743 (Korea, Republic of)

    2006-11-08

    The operation of a micro-electro-mechanical system (MEMS)-based micro-reformer was investigated for application in a cell phone. Different aspects like the time required to attain the desired temperature of the system, the time required to get the required hydrogen flow, catalyst durability, flow uniformity of the mixture of methanol and water and volume of the total system were considered. A loading procedure for the catalyst in the micro-reformer was developed. Catalyst deactivation was observed after operating continuously for 8h, but it regained its original activity after the reformer was shut down for at least 2h. The deactivation of the catalyst was analyzed by catalyst characterization. The comparison of the performance between a parallel channeled and serpentine channeled micro-reformer was carried out. The performance with the serpentine channeled micro-reformer was always higher than with parallel channeled micro-reformer. The shorter residence time in the parallel-channeled micro-reformer may be one of the reasons behind its low activity. (author)

  17. A mobile phone based telemonitoring concept for the simultaneous acquisition of biosignals physiological parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumpusch, Hannes; Hayn, Dieter; Kreiner, Karl; Falgenhauer, Markus; Mor, Jürgen; Schreier, Günter

    2010-01-01

    Congestive Heart Failure (CHF) is a common chronic heart disease with high socioeconomic impact. Conventional treatment of CHF is often ineffective and inefficient, since self-management is complex and patients are insufficiently involved in therapy management. With telemedical concepts, continuous monitoring of the health status can be ensured, and consequently therapy management can be adapted to the individual requirements of every individual patient. Therefore, a mobile phone based patient terminal for the concurrent acquisition of biosignals (e.g. ECG) and bioparameters (e.g. blood pressure) for patients with CHF has been developed and prototypically implemented. Usability and interoperability aspects were especially considered by using Bluetooth and Near Field Communication (NFC) technology for data acquisition and standardized data formats for transmission of the data to a central monitoring centre. Results indicated that even complicated measurements like the acquisition of ECG signals could be accomplished autonomously by the patients in an intuitive and easy-to-use way. Through the usage of IHE conform HL7 messages, self-measured data could easily be integrated into a higher-ranking eHealth infrastructure.

  18. Modelling a reliable wind/PV/storage power system for remote radio base station sites without utility power

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bitterlin, Ian F [Emerson Network Power Ltd., Globe Park, Marlow, SL7 1YG (United Kingdom)

    2006-11-22

    The development of photovoltaic (PV) cells has made steady progress from the early days, when only the USA space program could afford to deploy them, to now, seeing them applied to roadside applications even in our Northern European climes. The manufacturing cost per watt has fallen and the daylight-to-power conversion efficiency increased. At the same time, the perception that the sun has to be directly shining on it for a PV array to work has faded. On some of those roadside applications, particularly for remote emergency telephones or for temporary roadwork signage where a utility electrical power connection is not practical, the keen observer will spot, usually in addition to a PV array, a small wind-turbine and an electrical cabinet quite obviously (by virtue of its volume) containing a storage battery. In the UK, we have the lions share (>40%) of Europe's entire wind power resource although, despite press coverage of the 'anti-wind' lobby to the contrary, we have hardly started to harvest this clean and free energy source. Taking this (established and proven) roadside solution one step further, we will consider higher power applications. A cellular phone system is one where a multitude of remote radio base stations (RBS) are required to provide geographical coverage. With networks developing into the so called '3G' technologies the need for base stations has tripled, as each 3G cell covers only 1/3 the geographical area of its '2G' counterpart. To cover >90% of the UK's topology (>97% population coverage) with 3G cellular technology will requires in excess of 12,000 radio base stations per operator network. In 2001, there were around 25,000 established sites and, with an anticipated degree of collocation by necessity, that figure is forecast to rise to >47,000. Of course, the vast majority of these sites have a convenient grid connection. However, it is easy to see that the combination of wind and PV power generation and an energy storage system may be an

  19. A super base station based centralized network architecture for 5G mobile communication systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manli Qian

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available To meet the ever increasing mobile data traffic demand, the mobile operators are deploying a heterogeneous network with multiple access technologies and more and more base stations to increase the network coverage and capacity. However, the base stations are isolated from each other, so different types of radio resources and hardware resources cannot be shared and allocated within the overall network in a cooperative way. The mobile operators are thus facing increasing network operational expenses and a high system power consumption. In this paper, a centralized radio access network architecture, referred to as the super base station (super BS, is proposed, as a possible solution for an energy-efficient fifth-generation (5G mobile system. The super base station decouples the logical functions and physical entities of traditional base stations, so different types of system resources can be horizontally shared and statistically multiplexed among all the virtual base stations throughout the entire system. The system framework and main functionalities of the super BS are described. Some key technologies for system implementation, i.e., the resource pooling, real-time virtualization, adaptive hardware resource allocation are also highlighted.

  20. Effectiveness of Context-Aware Character Input Method for Mobile Phone Based on Artificial Neural Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masafumi Matsuhara

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Opportunities and needs are increasing to input Japanese sentences on mobile phones since performance of mobile phones is improving. Applications like E-mail, Web search, and so on are widely used on mobile phones now. We need to input Japanese sentences using only 12 keys on mobile phones. We have proposed a method to input Japanese sentences on mobile phones quickly and easily. We call this method number-Kanji translation method. The number string inputted by a user is translated into Kanji-Kana mixed sentence in our proposed method. Number string to Kana string is a one-to-many mapping. Therefore, it is difficult to translate a number string into the correct sentence intended by the user. The proposed context-aware mapping method is able to disambiguate a number string by artificial neural network (ANN. The system is able to translate number segments into the intended words because the system becomes aware of the correspondence of number segments with Japanese words through learning by ANN. The system does not need a dictionary. We also show the effectiveness of our proposed method for practical use by the result of the evaluation experiment in Twitter data.

  1. Automatic Matching of Large Scale Images and Terrestrial LIDAR Based on App Synergy of Mobile Phone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, G.; Hu, C.

    2018-04-01

    The digitalization of Cultural Heritage based on ground laser scanning technology has been widely applied. High-precision scanning and high-resolution photography of cultural relics are the main methods of data acquisition. The reconstruction with the complete point cloud and high-resolution image requires the matching of image and point cloud, the acquisition of the homonym feature points, the data registration, etc. However, the one-to-one correspondence between image and corresponding point cloud depends on inefficient manual search. The effective classify and management of a large number of image and the matching of large image and corresponding point cloud will be the focus of the research. In this paper, we propose automatic matching of large scale images and terrestrial LiDAR based on APP synergy of mobile phone. Firstly, we develop an APP based on Android, take pictures and record related information of classification. Secondly, all the images are automatically grouped with the recorded information. Thirdly, the matching algorithm is used to match the global and local image. According to the one-to-one correspondence between the global image and the point cloud reflection intensity image, the automatic matching of the image and its corresponding laser radar point cloud is realized. Finally, the mapping relationship between global image, local image and intensity image is established according to homonym feature point. So we can establish the data structure of the global image, the local image in the global image, the local image corresponding point cloud, and carry on the visualization management and query of image.

  2. Feasibility and usability of a home monitoring concept based on mobile phones and near field communication (NFC) technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morak, Jürgen; Kollmann, Alexander; Schreier, Günter

    2007-01-01

    Utilization of mobile information and communication technologies in home monitoring applications is becoming more and more common. The mobile phone, acting as a patient terminal for patients suffering from chronic diseases, provides an active link to the caregiver to transmit health status information and receive feedback. In such a concept the usability is still limited by the necessity of entering the values via the mobile phone's small keypad. The near field communication technology (NFC), a touch-based wireless interface that became available recently, may improve the usability level of such applications significantly. The focus of this paper is to describe the development of a prototype application based on this technology embedded in a home monitoring system. The feasibility and usability of this approach are evaluated and compared with concepts used in previous approaches. The high quantifier with respect to overall usability indicates that NFC may be the technology of choice for some tasks in home monitoring applications.

  3. Mobile phone-based mHealth approaches for public health surveillance in sub-Saharan Africa: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brinkel, Johanna; Krämer, Alexander; Krumkamp, Ralf; May, Jürgen; Fobil, Julius

    2014-11-12

    Whereas mobile phone-based surveillance has the potential to provide real-time validated data for disease clustering and prompt respond and investigation, little evidence is available on current practice in sub-Sahara Africa. The objective of this review was to examine mobile phone-based mHealth interventions for Public Health surveillance in the region. We conducted electronic search in MEDLINE, EMBASE, IEE Xplore, African Index Medicus (AIM), BioMed Central, PubMed Central (PMC), the Public Library of Science (PLoS) and IRIS for publications used in the review. In all, a total of nine studies were included which focused on infectious disease surveillance of malaria (n = 3), tuberculosis (n = 1) and influenza-like illnesses (n = 1) as well as on non-infectious disease surveillance of child malnutrition (n = 2), maternal health (n = 1) and routine surveillance of various diseases and symptoms (n = 1). Our review revealed that mobile phone-based surveillance projects in the sub-Saharan African countries are on small scale, fragmented and not well documented. We conclude by advocating for a strong drive for more research in the applied field as well as a better reporting of lessons learned in order to create an epistemic community to help build a more evidence-based field of practice in mHealth surveillance in the region.

  4. Mobile Phone-Based mHealth Approaches for Public Health Surveillance in Sub-Saharan Africa: A Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johanna Brinkel

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Whereas mobile phone-based surveillance has the potential to provide real-time validated data for disease clustering and prompt respond and investigation, little evidence is available on current practice in sub-Sahara Africa. The objective of this review was to examine mobile phone-based mHealth interventions for Public Health surveillance in the region. We conducted electronic search in MEDLINE, EMBASE, IEE Xplore, African Index Medicus (AIM, BioMed Central, PubMed Central (PMC, the Public Library of Science (PLoS and IRIS for publications used in the review. In all, a total of nine studies were included which focused on infectious disease surveillance of malaria (n = 3, tuberculosis (n = 1 and influenza-like illnesses (n = 1 as well as on non-infectious disease surveillance of child malnutrition (n = 2, maternal health (n = 1 and routine surveillance of various diseases and symptoms (n = 1. Our review revealed that mobile phone-based surveillance projects in the sub-Saharan African countries are on small scale, fragmented and not well documented. We conclude by advocating for a strong drive for more research in the applied field as well as a better reporting of lessons learned in order to create an epistemic community to help build a more evidence-based field of practice in mHealth surveillance in the region.

  5. Mobile Phone-Based Unobtrusive Ecological Momentary Assessment of Day-to-Day Mood: An Explorative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asselbergs, Joost; Ruwaard, Jeroen; Ejdys, Michal; Schrader, Niels; Sijbrandij, Marit; Riper, Heleen

    2016-03-29

    Ecological momentary assessment (EMA) is a useful method to tap the dynamics of psychological and behavioral phenomena in real-world contexts. However, the response burden of (self-report) EMA limits its clinical utility. The aim was to explore mobile phone-based unobtrusive EMA, in which mobile phone usage logs are considered as proxy measures of clinically relevant user states and contexts. This was an uncontrolled explorative pilot study. Our study consisted of 6 weeks of EMA/unobtrusive EMA data collection in a Dutch student population (N=33), followed by a regression modeling analysis. Participants self-monitored their mood on their mobile phone (EMA) with a one-dimensional mood measure (1 to 10) and a two-dimensional circumplex measure (arousal/valence, -2 to 2). Meanwhile, with participants' consent, a mobile phone app unobtrusively collected (meta) data from six smartphone sensor logs (unobtrusive EMA: calls/short message service (SMS) text messages, screen time, application usage, accelerometer, and phone camera events). Through forward stepwise regression (FSR), we built personalized regression models from the unobtrusive EMA variables to predict day-to-day variation in EMA mood ratings. The predictive performance of these models (ie, cross-validated mean squared error and percentage of correct predictions) was compared to naive benchmark regression models (the mean model and a lag-2 history model). A total of 27 participants (81%) provided a mean 35.5 days (SD 3.8) of valid EMA/unobtrusive EMA data. The FSR models accurately predicted 55% to 76% of EMA mood scores. However, the predictive performance of these models was significantly inferior to that of naive benchmark models. Mobile phone-based unobtrusive EMA is a technically feasible and potentially powerful EMA variant. The method is young and positive findings may not replicate. At present, we do not recommend the application of FSR-based mood prediction in real-world clinical settings. Further

  6. The Harvard Automated Phone Task: new performance-based activities of daily living tests for early Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Gad A; Dekhtyar, Maria; Bruno, Jonathan M; Jethwani, Kamal; Amariglio, Rebecca E; Johnson, Keith A; Sperling, Reisa A; Rentz, Dorene M

    2015-12-01

    Impairment in activities of daily living is a major burden for Alzheimer's disease dementia patients and caregivers. Multiple subjective scales and a few performance-based instruments have been validated and proven to be reliable in measuring instrumental activities of daily living in Alzheimer's disease dementia but less so in amnestic mild cognitive impairment and preclinical Alzheimer's disease. To validate the Harvard Automated Phone Task, a new performance-based activities of daily living test for early Alzheimer's disease, which assesses high level tasks that challenge seniors in daily life. In a cross-sectional study, the Harvard Automated Phone Task was associated with demographics and cognitive measures through univariate and multivariate analyses; ability to discriminate across diagnostic groups was assessed; test-retest reliability with the same and alternate versions was assessed in a subset of participants; and the relationship with regional cortical thickness was assessed in a subset of participants. Academic clinical research center. One hundred and eighty two participants were recruited from the community (127 clinically normal elderly and 45 young normal participants) and memory disorders clinics at Brigham and Women's Hospital and Massachusetts General Hospital (10 participants with mild cognitive impairment). As part of the Harvard Automated Phone Task, participants navigated an interactive voice response system to refill a prescription (APT-Script), select a new primary care physician (APT-PCP), and make a bank account transfer and payment (APT-Bank). The 3 tasks were scored based on time, errors, and repetitions from which composite z-scores were derived, as well as a separate report of correct completion of the task. We found that the Harvard Automated Phone Task discriminated well between diagnostic groups (APT-Script: p=0.002; APT-PCP: pHarvard Automated Phone Task and executive function (APT-PCP: pHarvard Automated Phone Task, which

  7. The Harvard Automated Phone Task: new performance-based activities of daily living tests for early Alzheimer’s disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Gad A.; Dekhtyar, Maria; Bruno, Jonathan M.; Jethwani, Kamal; Amariglio, Rebecca E.; Johnson, Keith A.; Sperling, Reisa A.; Rentz, Dorene M.

    2015-01-01

    Background Impairment in activities of daily living is a major burden for Alzheimer’s disease dementia patients and caregivers. Multiple subjective scales and a few performance-based instruments have been validated and proven to be reliable in measuring instrumental activities of daily living in Alzheimer’s disease dementia but less so in amnestic mild cognitive impairment and preclinical Alzheimer’s disease. Objective To validate the Harvard Automated Phone Task, a new performance-based activities of daily living test for early Alzheimer’s disease, which assesses high level tasks that challenge seniors in daily life. Design In a cross-sectional study, the Harvard Automated Phone Task was associated with demographics and cognitive measures through univariate and multivariate analyses; ability to discriminate across diagnostic groups was assessed; test-retest reliability with the same and alternate versions was assessed in a subset of participants; and the relationship with regional cortical thickness was assessed in a subset of participants. Setting Academic clinical research center. Participants One hundred and eighty two participants were recruited from the community (127 clinically normal elderly and 45 young normal participants) and memory disorders clinics at Brigham and Women’s Hospital and Massachusetts General Hospital (10 participants with mild cognitive impairment). Measurements As part of the Harvard Automated Phone Task, participants navigated an interactive voice response system to refill a prescription (APT-Script), select a new primary care physician (APT-PCP), and make a bank account transfer and payment (APT-Bank). The 3 tasks were scored based on time, errors, and repetitions from which composite z-scores were derived, as well as a separate report of correct completion of the task. Results We found that the Harvard Automated Phone Task discriminated well between diagnostic groups (APT-Script: p=0.002; APT-PCP: pHarvard Automated Phone

  8. The Influence of Mobile Phone's Forms in the User Perception

    OpenAIRE

    The Jaya Suteja; Stephany Tedjohartoko

    2011-01-01

    Not all types of mobile phone are successful in entering the market because some types of the mobile phone have a negative perception of user. Therefore, it is important to understand the influence of mobile phone's characteristics in the local user perception. This research investigates the influence of QWERTY mobile phone's forms in the perception of Indonesian user. First, some alternatives of mobile phone-s form are developed based on a certain number of mobile phone's models. At the seco...

  9. Wireless Phone Threat Assessment for Aircraft Communication and Navigation Radios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyens, T. X.; Koppen, S. V.; Smith, L. J.; Williams, R. A.; Salud, M. T.

    2005-01-01

    Emissions in aircraft communication and navigation bands are measured for the latest generation of wireless phones. The two wireless technologies considered, GSM/GPRS and CDMA2000, are the latest available to general consumers in the U.S. A base-station simulator is used to control the phones. The measurements are conducted using reverberation chambers, and the results are compared against FCC and aircraft installed equipment emission limits. The results are also compared against baseline emissions from laptop computers and personal digital assistant devices that are currently allowed to operate on aircraft.

  10. Cellular Phone-Based Image Acquisition and Quantitative Ratiometric Method for Detecting Cocaine and Benzoylecgonine for Biological and Forensic Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Cadle, Brian A.; Rasmus, Kristin C.; Varela, Juan A.; Leverich, Leah S.; O’Neill, Casey E.; Bachtell, Ryan K.; Cooper, Donald C.

    2010-01-01

    Here we describe the first report of using low-cost cellular or web-based digital cameras to image and quantify standardized rapid immunoassay strips as a new point-of-care diagnostic and forensics tool with health applications. Quantitative ratiometric pixel density analysis (QRPDA) is an automated method requiring end-users to utilize inexpensive (~ $1 USD/each) immunotest strips, a commonly available web or mobile phone camera or scanner, and internet or cellular service. A model is descri...

  11. Mobile Phone-Based Lifestyle Intervention for Reducing Overall Cardiovascular Disease Risk in Guangzhou, China: A Pilot Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiting Liu

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available With the rapid and widespread adoption of mobile devices, mobile phones offer an opportunity to deliver cardiovascular disease (CVD interventions. This study evaluated the efficacy of a mobile phone-based lifestyle intervention aimed at reducing the overall CVD risk at a health management center in Guangzhou, China. We recruited 589 workers from eight work units. Based on a group-randomized design, work units were randomly assigned either to receive the mobile phone-based lifestyle interventions or usual care. The reduction in 10-year CVD risk at 1-year follow-up for the intervention group was not statistically significant (–1.05%, p = 0.096. However, the mean risk increased significantly by 1.77% (p = 0.047 for the control group. The difference of the changes between treatment arms in CVD risk was –2.83% (p = 0.001. In addition, there were statistically significant changes for the intervention group relative to the controls, from baseline to year 1, in systolic blood pressure (–5.55 vs. 6.89 mmHg; p < 0.001, diastolic blood pressure (–6.61 vs. 5.62 mmHg; p < 0.001, total cholesterol (–0.36 vs. –0.10 mmol/L; p = 0.005, fasting plasma glucose (–0.31 vs. 0.02 mmol/L; p < 0.001, BMI (–0.57 vs. 0.29 kg/m2; p < 0.001, and waist hip ratio (–0.02 vs. 0.01; p < 0.001. Mobile phone-based intervention may therefore be a potential solution for reducing CVD risk in China.

  12. Life cycle assessment of cell phones in Brazil based on two reverse logistics scenarios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela da Gama e Silva Volpe Moreira de Moraes

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This article is a result of a cell phone collection obtained at the Center for Information Technology Renato Archer (CTI under the AMBIENTRONIC Program, an initiative that supports the Brazilian electronic sector in the development of technologies for sustainability. The objective of this article is to assess two reverse logistic scenarios of cell phones using the technique of life-cycle assessment (LCA. The first scenario reflects the current scenario in Brazil, where batteries are recycled in Brazil and the other parts of the phones are outsourced to Europe. The second scenario is a proposal of full treatment in Brazil. The results indicate that the second scenario has a lower potential impact with important reduction of acidification, photochemical oxidation, eutrophication and the use of non-renewable energy. Furthermore, fully implementing reverse logistics in Brazil will enable socioeconomic benefits from the sale of materials and the generation of employment and income.

  13. Exposure to electromagnetic radiation from GSM and UMTS base station antennas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, C.; Carpinteiro, G.; Correia, L.M.

    2003-01-01

    This paper discusses processes for measurement of GSM and UMTS signal strength on different scenarios, regarding base stations compliance evaluation with radiation exposure limits. Recommendations to minimize exposure from base station antennas' radiation are also established. Propagation models application and their importance to base stations security evaluation are analysed. An application example of the use of these models in a software tool development is given. A measurement campaign to collect real data from base stations in Lisbon is described, and propagation models applicability is discussed. Radiation reference levels were never exceeded on the analysed base stations. The worst-case detected was about five time (in terms of electric field strength) below security limits adopted by the European Union Council. Nevertheless, in general, the measured stations were at least thirteen times below limits. Scenarios where differences between measurements and limits are lower and exposure on buildings' rooftops with base stations and indoors. (author)

  14. Analysis of Movement, Orientation and Rotation-Based Sensing for Phone Placement Recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ozlem Durmaz Incel

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Phone placement, i.e., where the phone is carried/stored, is an important source of information for context-aware applications. Extracting information from the integrated smart phone sensors, such as motion, light and proximity, is a common technique for phone placement detection. In this paper, the efficiency of an accelerometer-only solution is explored, and it is investigated whether the phone position can be detected with high accuracy by analyzing the movement, orientation and rotation changes. The impact of these changes on the performance is analyzed individually and both in combination to explore which features are more efficient, whether they should be fused and, if yes, how they should be fused. Using three different datasets, collected from 35 people from eight different positions, the performance of different classification algorithms is explored. It is shown that while utilizing only motion information can achieve accuracies around 70%, this ratio increases up to 85% by utilizing information also from orientation and rotation changes. The performance of an accelerometer-only solution is compared to solutions where linear acceleration, gyroscope and magnetic field sensors are used, and it is shown that the accelerometer-only solution performs as well as utilizing other sensing information. Hence, it is not necessary to use extra sensing information where battery power consumption may increase. Additionally, I explore the impact of the performed activities on position recognition and show that the accelerometer-only solution can achieve 80% recognition accuracy with stationary activities where movement data are very limited. Finally, other phone placement problems, such as in-pocket and on-body detections, are also investigated, and higher accuracies, ranging from 88% to 93%, are reported, with an accelerometer-only solution.

  15. The Bus Station Spacing Optimization Based on Game Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Changjiang Zheng

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available With the development of city, the problem of traffic is becoming more and more serious. Developing public transportation has become the key to solving this problem in all countries. Based on the existing public transit network, how to improve the bus operation efficiency, and reduce the residents transit trip cost has become a simple and effective way to develop the public transportation. Bus stop spacing is an important factor affecting passengers’ travel time. How to set up bus stop spacing has become the key to reducing passengers’ travel time. According to comprehensive traffic survey, theoretical analysis, and summary of urban public transport characteristics, this paper analyzes the impact of bus stop spacing on passenger in-bus time cost and out-bus time cost and establishes in-bus time and out-bus time model. Finally, the paper gets the balance best station spacing by introducing the game theory.

  16. Energy Sharing Framework for Microgrid-Powered Cellular Base Stations

    KAUST Repository

    Farooq, Muhammad Junaid

    2017-02-07

    Cellular base stations (BSs) are increasingly becoming equipped with renewable energy generators to reduce operational expenditures and carbon footprint of wireless communications. Moreover, advancements in the traditional electricity grid allow two-way power flow and metering that enable the integration of distributed renewable energy generators at BS sites into a microgrid. In this paper, we develop an optimized energy management framework for microgrid-connected cellular BSs that are equipped with renewable energy generators and finite battery storage to minimize energy cost. The BSs share excess renewable energy with others to reduce the dependency on the conventional electricity grid. Three cases are investigated where the renewable energy generation is unknown, perfectly known, and partially known ahead of time. For the partially known case where only the statistics of renewable energy generation are available, stochastic programming is used to achieve a conservative solution. Results show the time varying energy management behaviour of the BSs and the effect of energy sharing between them.

  17. Gsm 1900Umts Printed Monopole Antenna For Mobile Base Station

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nyi Nyi Lwin

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper printed rectangular monopole antenna which is basically printed microstrip patch antenna with partial ground plane is designed for mobile base station. The substrate FR4 with a relative permittivity of 4.4 and thickness 1.8 is used in design. In addition the printed monopole antenna is of low profile in appearance and suitable for most application. The proposed antenna can cover GSM1900 1850-1990 MHz and UMTS 1920-2170 MHz bands. Design and simulation processes are carried out with the aid of FEKO software which is used for the analysis of electromagnetic problems. Simulation results of the return loss gain and radiation patterns are presented.

  18. Review and Evaluation of Mindfulness-Based iPhone Apps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mani, Madhavan; Kavanagh, David J; Hides, Leanne; Stoyanov, Stoyan R

    2015-08-19

    There is growing evidence for the positive impact of mindfulness on wellbeing. Mindfulness-based mobile apps may have potential as an alternative delivery medium for training. While there are hundreds of such apps, there is little information on their quality. This study aimed to conduct a systematic review of mindfulness-based iPhone mobile apps and to evaluate their quality using a recently-developed expert rating scale, the Mobile Application Rating Scale (MARS). It also aimed to describe features of selected high-quality mindfulness apps. A search for "mindfulness" was conducted in iTunes and Google Apps Marketplace. Apps that provided mindfulness training and education were included. Those containing only reminders, timers or guided meditation tracks were excluded. An expert rater reviewed and rated app quality using the MARS engagement, functionality, visual aesthetics, information quality and subjective quality subscales. A second rater provided MARS ratings on 30% of the apps for inter-rater reliability purposes. The "mindfulness" search identified 700 apps. However, 94 were duplicates, 6 were not accessible and 40 were not in English. Of the remaining 560, 23 apps met inclusion criteria and were reviewed. The median MARS score was 3.2 (out of 5.0), which exceeded the minimum acceptable score (3.0). The Headspace app had the highest average score (4.0), followed by Smiling Mind (3.7), iMindfulness (3.5) and Mindfulness Daily (3.5). There was a high level of inter-rater reliability between the two MARS raters. Though many apps claim to be mindfulness-related, most were guided meditation apps, timers, or reminders. Very few had high ratings on the MARS subscales of visual aesthetics, engagement, functionality or information quality. Little evidence is available on the efficacy of the apps in developing mindfulness.

  19. Cell Phone-Based and Adherence Device Technologies for HIV Care and Treatment in Resource-Limited Settings: Recent Advances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Jeffrey I; Haberer, Jessica E

    2015-12-01

    Numerous cell phone-based and adherence monitoring technologies have been developed to address barriers to effective HIV prevention, testing, and treatment. Because most people living with HIV and AIDS reside in resource-limited settings (RLS), it is important to understand the development and use of these technologies in RLS. Recent research on cell phone-based technologies has focused on HIV education, linkage to and retention in care, disease tracking, and antiretroviral therapy adherence reminders. Advances in adherence devices have focused on real-time adherence monitors, which have been used for both antiretroviral therapy and pre-exposure prophylaxis. Real-time monitoring has recently been combined with cell phone-based technologies to create real-time adherence interventions using short message service (SMS). New developments in adherence technologies are exploring ingestion monitoring and metabolite detection to confirm adherence. This article provides an overview of recent advances in these two families of technologies and includes research on their acceptability and cost-effectiveness when available. It additionally outlines key challenges and needed research as use of these technologies continues to expand and evolve.

  20. Headset Bluetooth and cell phone based continuous central body temperature measurement system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanches, J Miguel; Pereira, Bruno; Paiva, Teresa

    2010-01-01

    The accurate measure of the central temperature is a very important physiologic indicator in several clinical applications, namely, in the characterization and diagnosis of sleep disorders. In this paper a simple system is described to continuously measure the body temperature at the ear. An electronic temperature sensor is coupled to the microphone of a common commercial auricular Bluetooth device that sends the temperature measurements to a mobile phone to which is paired. The measurements are stored at the mobile phone and periodically sent to a medical facility by email or SMS (short messaging service).

  1. Women's views and experiences of a mobile phone-based intervention to support post-abortion contraception in Cambodia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Chris; Ly, Sokhey; Uk, Vannak; Warnock, Ruby; Free, Caroline

    2017-06-12

    The MObile Technology for Improved Family Planning (MOTIF) trial assessed a mobile phone-based intervention comprising voice messages and counsellor support to increase post-abortion contraception at four Marie Stopes International clinics in Cambodia. The aim of this process evaluation was to assess women's views and experiences of receiving the MOTIF intervention, gain insights into the mechanism of action of the intervention and seek recommendations for improvements. We conducted a qualitative study comprising15 semi-structured interviews with women who had received the intervention and undertook a simple thematic analysis. We identified themes relating to communication via mobile phone, supporting contraception use, broader post-abortion care, interaction with family and friends and suggestions for improvement. The majority of women were positive about the mobile phone-based intervention to support contraception use and reported it to be a convenient way to ask questions or get advice without going to a health centre, although a few women found the voice messages intrusive. The intervention supported contraception use by provision of information, encouragement, reminders to return to clinic, reassurance and advice for problems and had a positive effect on contraceptive uptake and continuation. Women reported a sense of being cared for and received support for additional physical and emotional issues. Most women thought that the duration of the intervention and frequency of messages were acceptable. The majority of women were positive about the mobile phone-based intervention which provided support for contraception use as well as additional physical and emotional issues. The study provides some insights into how the intervention might have worked and considers how the intervention could be improved.

  2. Effect of a mobile phone-based intervention on post-abortion contraception: a randomized controlled trial in Cambodia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngo, Thoai D; Gold, Judy; Edwards, Phil; Vannak, Uk; Sokhey, Ly; Machiyama, Kazuyo; Slaymaker, Emma; Warnock, Ruby; McCarthy, Ona; Free, Caroline

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Objective To assess the effect of a mobile phone-based intervention (mHealth) on post-abortion contraception use by women in Cambodia. Methods The Mobile Technology for Improved Family Planning (MOTIF) study involved women who sought safe abortion services at four Marie Stopes International clinics in Cambodia. We randomly allocated 249 women to a mobile phone-based intervention, which comprised six automated, interactive voice messages with counsellor phone support, as required, whereas 251 women were allocated to a control group receiving standard care. The primary outcome was the self-reported use of an effective contraceptive method, 4 and 12 months after an abortion. Findings Data on effective contraceptive use were available for 431 (86%) participants at 4 months and 328 (66%) at 12 months. Significantly more women in the intervention than the control group reported effective contraception use at 4 months (64% versus 46%, respectively; relative risk, RR: 1.39; 95% confidence interval, CI: 1.17–1.66) but not at 12 months (50% versus 43%, respectively; RR: 1.16; 95% CI: 0.92–1.47). However, significantly more women in the intervention group reported using a long-acting contraceptive method at both follow-up times. There was no significant difference between the groups in repeat pregnancies or abortions at 4 or 12 months. Conclusion Adding a mobile phone-based intervention to abortion care services in Cambodia had a short-term effect on the overall use of any effective contraception, while the use of long-acting contraceptive methods lasted throughout the study period. PMID:26668436

  3. Mobile phone short message service messaging for behaviour modification in a community-based weight control programme in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joo, Nam-Seok; Kim, Bom-Taeck

    2007-01-01

    We conducted a community-based anti-obesity programme using mobile phone short message service (SMS) messaging. A total of 927 participants were recruited and visited a public health centre for initial assessment. Mobile phones were used to deliver short messages about diet, exercise and behaviour modification once a week. After a 12-week anti-obesity programme they visited the public health centre again. Four hundred and thirty-three subjects (47%) successfully completed their weight control programme. There were mean reductions of weight, waist circumference and body mass index of 1.6 kg (P behaviour modification in weight control and anti-obesity health education programmes when promoted by community health centres.

  4. A multimedia mobile phone-based youth smoking cessation intervention: findings from content development and piloting studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whittaker, Robyn; Maddison, Ralph; McRobbie, Hayden; Bullen, Chris; Denny, Simon; Dorey, Enid; Ellis-Pegler, Mary; van Rooyen, Jaco; Rodgers, Anthony

    2008-11-25

    While most young people who smoke want to quit, few access cessation support services. Mobile phone-based cessation programs are ideal for young people: mobile phones are the most common means of peer communication, and messages can be delivered in an anonymous manner, anywhere, anytime. Following the success of our text messaging smoking cessation program, we developed an innovative multimedia mobile phone smoking cessation intervention. The aim of the study was to develop and pilot test a youth-oriented multimedia smoking cessation intervention delivered solely by mobile phone. Development included creating content and building the technology platform. Content development was overseen by an expert group who advised on youth development principles, observational learning (from social cognitive theory), effective smoking cessation interventions, and social marketing. Young people participated in three content development phases (consultation via focus groups and an online survey, content pre-testing, and selection of role models). Video and text messages were then developed, incorporating the findings from this research. Information technology systems were established to support the delivery of the multimedia messages by mobile phone. A pilot study using an abbreviated 4-week program of video and text content tested the reliability of the systems and the acceptability of the intervention. Approximately 180 young people participated in the consultation phase. There was a high priority placed on music for relaxation (75%) and an interest in interacting with others in the program (40% would read messages, 36% would read a blog). Findings from the pre-testing phase (n = 41) included the importance of selecting "real" and "honest" role models with believable stories, and an interest in animations (37%). Of the 15 participants who took part in the pilot study, 13 (87%) were available for follow-up interviews at 4 weeks: 12 participants liked the program or liked it most

  5. NASA space station automation: AI-based technology review. Executive summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firschein, O.; Georgeff, M. P.; Park, W.; Cheeseman, P. C.; Goldberg, J.; Neumann, P.; Kautz, W. H.; Levitt, K. N.; Rom, R. J.; Poggio, A. A.

    1985-01-01

    Research and Development projects in automation technology for the Space Station are described. Artificial Intelligence (AI) based technologies are planned to enhance crew safety through reduced need for EVA, increase crew productivity through the reduction of routine operations, increase space station autonomy, and augment space station capability through the use of teleoperation and robotics.

  6. Pathological Internet use, cyberbullying and mobile phone use in adolescence: a school-based study in Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsimtsiou, Zoi; Haidich, Anna-Bettina; Drontsos, Anastasios; Dantsi, Fotini; Sekeri, Zafiria; Drosos, Evangelos; Trikilis, Nikolaos; Dardavesis, Theodoros; Nanos, Panagiotis; Arvanitidou, Malamatenia

    2017-04-22

    Purpose This study investigated the prevalence of Internet addiction (IA) and cyberbullying and examined profiles of adolescents with increased risk to develop pathological behaviors. Methods In this cross-sectional, school-based study, 8053 students of 30 middle and 21 high schools (12-18 years old) were invited to participate, based on a multistage stratified random sampling technique. The Internet aiddiction test (IAT) was used along with information on socio-demographics, Internet activities and cyberbullying experience. Results Five thousand five hundred and ninety students participated (response rate 69.4%). Pathological Internet use (IAT ≥50) was found in 526 (10.1%), while 403 (7.3%) experienced cyberbullying as victims and 367 (6.6%) as perpetrators during the last year. In multivariable models, the odds of IA increased with online hours on mobile phones and Internet use during weekends, Internet café visits, chatrooms usage and engagement in cyberbullying. Cyberbullying victims were more likely to be older, female, Facebook and chatrooms users, while perpetrators were more likely to be male, older Internet users and fans of pornographic sites. A perpetrator was significantly more likely to have also been a victim [odds ratio (OR) = 5.51, confidence interval (CI): 3.92-7.74]. Hours of daily Internet use on a mobile phone was independently associated with IA and cyberbullying (OR) 1.41, 95% CI 1.30, 1.53 and OR 1.11, 95% CI 1.01, 1.21, respectively. Conclusions Cyberbullying is associated with IA and the hours spent online on a mobile phone affected both conditions. The increasing Internet access through mobile phones or other devices should be accompanied by the appropriate education of both parents and adolescents on safe Internet use.

  7. The PHE fortuitous dosimetry capability based on optically stimulated luminescence of mobile phones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eakins, J.S.; Hager, L.G.; Smith, R.W.; Tanner, R.J.; Kouroukla, E.

    2016-01-01

    The Public Health England fortuitous dosimetry capability is reviewed, with particular attention focussed on the derivation of its energy and fading corrections, the Monte Carlo techniques used to generate the calibration factors between phone and body doses, and the procedures set in place to facilitate a reliable and effective service. (authors)

  8. A NEW UBIQUITOUS-BASED INDOOR POSITIONING SYSTEM WITH MINIMUM EXTRA HARDWARE USING SMART PHONES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Hassany Pazoky

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Knowing the position has been an ambition in many areas such as science, military, business, etc. GPS was the realization of this wish in 1970s. Technological advances such as ubiquitous computing, as a conquering perspective, requires any service to work for any user, any place, anytime, and via any network. As GPS cannot provide services in indoor environments, many scientists began to develop indoor positioning systems (IPS. Smart phones penetrating our everyday lives were a great platform to host IPS applications. Sensors in smart phones were another big motive to develop IPS applications. Many researchers have been working on the topic developing various applications. However, the applications introduced lack simplicity. In other words, they need to install a step counter or smart phone on the ankle, which makes it awkward and inapplicable in many situations. In the current study, a new IPS methodology is introduced using only the usual embedded sensors in the smart phones. The robustness of this methodology cannot compete with those of the aforementioned approaches. The price paid for simplicity was decreasing robustness and complicating the methods and formulations. However, methods or tricks to harness the errors to an acceptable range are introduced as the future works.

  9. A Mobile Phone-Based Sensor Grid for Distributed Team Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-01

    A. IPHONE ACCELEROMETER ACCESS To understand the capabilities of the IPhone, it is necessary to review how the IPhone uses Objective C and COCOA ...battery technology, as well as on reducing the power consumption of the phones. These would help make applications such as ours more practical on

  10. Effects of mobile phone-based app learning compared to computer-based web learning on nursing students: pilot randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Myung Kyung

    2015-04-01

    This study aimed to determine the effect of mobile-based discussion versus computer-based discussion on self-directed learning readiness, academic motivation, learner-interface interaction, and flow state. This randomized controlled trial was conducted at one university. Eighty-six nursing students who were able to use a computer, had home Internet access, and used a mobile phone were recruited. Participants were randomly assigned to either the mobile phone app-based discussion group (n = 45) or a computer web-based discussion group (n = 41). The effect was measured at before and after an online discussion via self-reported surveys that addressed academic motivation, self-directed learning readiness, time distortion, learner-learner interaction, learner-interface interaction, and flow state. The change in extrinsic motivation on identified regulation in the academic motivation (p = 0.011) as well as independence and ability to use basic study (p = 0.047) and positive orientation to the future in self-directed learning readiness (p = 0.021) from pre-intervention to post-intervention was significantly more positive in the mobile phone app-based group compared to the computer web-based discussion group. Interaction between learner and interface (p = 0.002), having clear goals (p = 0.012), and giving and receiving unambiguous feedback (p = 0.049) in flow state was significantly higher in the mobile phone app-based discussion group than it was in the computer web-based discussion group at post-test. The mobile phone might offer more valuable learning opportunities for discussion teaching and learning methods in terms of self-directed learning readiness, academic motivation, learner-interface interaction, and the flow state of the learning process compared to the computer.

  11. Mobile Phones-An asset or a liability: A study based on characterization and assessment of metals in waste mobile phone components using leaching tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hira, Meenakshi; Yadav, Sudesh; Morthekai, P; Linda, Anurag; Kumar, Sushil; Sharma, Anupam

    2018-01-15

    The prolonged use of old fashioned gadgets, especially mobile phones, is declining readily with the advancement in technology which ultimately lead to generation of e-waste. The present study investigates the concentrations of nine metals (Ba, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Ni, Pb, Sn, and Zn) in various components of the mobile phones using Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP), Waste Extraction Test (WET) and Synthetic Precipitation Leaching Procedure (SPLP). The results were compared with the threshold limits for hazardous waste defined by the California Department of Toxic Substances Control (CDTSC) and United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA). The average concentrations of metals were found high in PWBs. WET was found relatively aggressive as compared to TCLP and SPLP. Redundancy analysis (RDA) suggests that part of mobile, extraction test, manufacturer, mobile model and year of manufacturing explain 34.66% of the variance. According to the present study, waste mobile phones must be considered as hazardous due to the potential adverse impact of toxic metals on human health and environment. However, mobile phones can be an asset as systematic extraction and recycling could reduce the demand of primary metals mining and conserve the natural resources. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. When do drivers use their mobile phone? : an analyses of the context of mobile phone use based on naturalistic driving data.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Christoph, M.W.T. & Nes, N. van

    2015-01-01

    Mobile phone use, in particular smartphone use, has become increasingly popular over the last decade. The smartphone adoption rate has surpassed that of any other consumer technology in history. Some argue that the ‘smartphone revolution’ might be related or even responsible for the stabilising or

  13. Evaluation of a Mobile Phone-Based Microscope for Screening of Schistosoma haematobium Infection in Rural Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogoch, Isaac I; Koydemir, Hatice C; Tseng, Derek; Ephraim, Richard K D; Duah, Evans; Tee, Joseph; Andrews, Jason R; Ozcan, Aydogan

    2017-06-01

    AbstractSchistosomiasis affects over 170 million people in Africa. Here we compare a novel, low-cost mobile phone microscope to a conventional light microscope for the label-free diagnosis of Schistosoma haematobium infections in a rural Ghanaian school setting. We tested the performance of our handheld microscope using 60 slides that were randomly chosen from an ongoing epidemiologic study in school-aged children. The mobile phone microscope had a sensitivity of 72.1% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 56.1-84.2), specificity of 100% (95% CI: 75.9-100), positive predictive value of 100% (95% CI: 86.3-100), and a negative predictive value of 57.1% (95% CI: 37.4-75.0). With its modest sensitivity and high specificity, this handheld and cost-effective mobile phone-based microscope is a stepping-stone toward developing a powerful tool in clinical and public health settings where there is limited access to conventional laboratory diagnostic support.

  14. Deep Space Habitat Configurations Based on International Space Station Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smitherman, David; Russell, Tiffany; Baysinger, Mike; Capizzo, Pete; Fabisinski, Leo; Griffin, Brand; Hornsby, Linda; Maples, Dauphne; Miernik, Janie

    2012-01-01

    A Deep Space Habitat (DSH) is the crew habitation module designed for long duration missions. Although humans have lived in space for many years, there has never been a habitat beyond low-Earth-orbit. As part of the Advanced Exploration Systems (AES) Habitation Project, a study was conducted to develop weightless habitat configurations using systems based on International Space Station (ISS) designs. Two mission sizes are described for a 4-crew 60-day mission, and a 4-crew 500-day mission using standard Node, Lab, and Multi-Purpose Logistics Module (MPLM) sized elements, and ISS derived habitation systems. These durations were selected to explore the lower and upper bound for the exploration missions under consideration including a range of excursions within the Earth-Moon vicinity, near earth asteroids, and Mars orbit. Current methods for sizing the mass and volume for habitats are based on mathematical models that assume the construction of a new single volume habitat. In contrast to that approach, this study explored the use of ISS designs based on existing hardware where available and construction of new hardware based on ISS designs where appropriate. Findings included a very robust design that could be reused if the DSH were assembled and based at the ISS and a transportation system were provided for its return after each mission. Mass estimates were found to be higher than mathematical models due primarily to the use of multiple ISS modules instead of one new large module, but the maturity of the designs using flight qualified systems have potential for improved cost, schedule, and risk benefits.

  15. Using mobile phones and social media to facilitate education and support for rural-based midwives in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Chipps

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Empirical studies show the value of mobile phones as effective educational tools to support learning in the nursing profession, predominantly in high income countries. Problem statement: The rapidly increasing prevalence of mobile phone technology in Africa nourishes hopes that these tools could be equally effective in lowly resourced contexts, specifically in efforts to achieve the health-related Millennium Development goals. The purpose of this study was to investigate the perception and use of mobile phones as educational and professional tools by nurses in lowly resourced settings. Methodology: A quantitative survey using self-administered questionnaires was conducted of rural advanced midwives. Results: Fifty-six nurses (49.6% from the 113 rural-based midwives attending an advanced midwifery training programme at the University of KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa, filled in a questionnaire. The results showed that, whilst nurses regarded their technology competences as low and although they received very little official support from their educational and professional institutions, the majority frequently used mobile functions and applications to support their work and learning processes. They perceived mobile devices with their voice, text, and email functions as important tools for the educational and professional activities of searching for information and engaging with facilitators and peers from work and study contexts. To a lesser extent, the use of social networks, such as WhatsApp and Facebook, were also reported. Conclusion and recommendation: It is concluded that educational institutions should support the appropriate use of mobile phones more systematically; particularly in relation to the development of mobile network literacy skills.

  16. Design of an MSAT-X mobile transceiver and related base and gateway stations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Russell J. F.; Bhaskar, Udaya; Hemmati, Farhad; Mackenthun, Kenneth M.; Shenoy, Ajit

    This paper summarizes the results of a design study of the mobile transceiver, base station, and gateway station for NASA's proposed Mobile Satellite Experiment (MSAT-X). Major ground segment system design issues such as frequency stability control, modulation method, linear predictive coding vocoder algorithm, and error control technique are addressed. The modular and flexible transceiver design is described in detail, including the core, RF/IF, modem, vocoder, forward error correction codec, amplitude-companded single sideband, and input/output modules, as well as the flexible interface. Designs for a three-carrier base station and a 10-carrier gateway station are also discussed, including the interface with the controllers and with the public-switched telephone networks at the gateway station. Functional specifications are given for the transceiver, the base station, and the gateway station.

  17. Design of an MSAT-X mobile transceiver and related base and gateway stations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Russell J. F.; Bhaskar, Udaya; Hemmati, Farhad; Mackenthun, Kenneth M.; Shenoy, Ajit

    1987-01-01

    This paper summarizes the results of a design study of the mobile transceiver, base station, and gateway station for NASA's proposed Mobile Satellite Experiment (MSAT-X). Major ground segment system design issues such as frequency stability control, modulation method, linear predictive coding vocoder algorithm, and error control technique are addressed. The modular and flexible transceiver design is described in detail, including the core, RF/IF, modem, vocoder, forward error correction codec, amplitude-companded single sideband, and input/output modules, as well as the flexible interface. Designs for a three-carrier base station and a 10-carrier gateway station are also discussed, including the interface with the controllers and with the public-switched telephone networks at the gateway station. Functional specifications are given for the transceiver, the base station, and the gateway station.

  18. Over 600 mobile base station measurements in Buenos Aires City, how far are general public limits?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aguirre, Anibal; Dalmas Di Giovanni, Norberto; Garcia Diaz, Javier; Douthat, Analia; Munoz, Claudio; Saint Nom, Roxana

    2008-01-01

    Full text: The general public worries about non ionizing radiation (NIR), produced by mobile base station aren't new, mainly in big cities like Buenos Aires where the amount of antennas of wide communication services (mobile, data links, FM Broadcasting, TV and others), are so considerable. Buenos Aires City has 3 million inhabitants in a surface of 203 km 2 and has about 700 mobile base stations between macro and micro cells. When public demand arrived to local government authorities, the first logical step was to promote a big measurement campaign to do a radiation map of the city. This measurement campaign has been done for two measurement teams, one with CITEFA NIR specialists and the other with ITBA NIR specialists, during 6 months. Local NRI measurement guidelines established that has to be taken between 12 and 16 points around NRI source in a 50 m or 100 m radius, depending on the neighbourhood buildings features (buildings located in the centre of the city aren't the same as a quiet house district). The obtained measured values had to be compared with Argentinean exposure limits, which are the same that ICNIRP limits. With over 7500 measured points in the entire city with wide band instruments (200 kHz-40 GHz), we have started our analysis. This information has been used by local authorities to upgrade a radiation map that can be consulted on the local government internet site. We have compared the obtained values with some international general public exposure limits. From this comparison we found that over 90% of measured points were under general public ICNIRP cell phone frequency limits, but the surprise was that, about 80% of them were below Russian limits (6 V/m) that are the strictest of the world. According to the obtained results and to provide a conclusion we could say that, if in a big city with a very high NIR sources density, we find a majority of lower limits values, this situation will be better in a little town with few NIR sources. However

  19. Measurements and modelling of base station power consumption under real traffic loads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorincz, Josip; Garma, Tonko; Petrovic, Goran

    2012-01-01

    Base stations represent the main contributor to the energy consumption of a mobile cellular network. Since traffic load in mobile networks significantly varies during a working or weekend day, it is important to quantify the influence of these variations on the base station power consumption. Therefore, this paper investigates changes in the instantaneous power consumption of GSM (Global System for Mobile Communications) and UMTS (Universal Mobile Telecommunications System) base stations according to their respective traffic load. The real data in terms of the power consumption and traffic load have been obtained from continuous measurements performed on a fully operated base station site. Measurements show the existence of a direct relationship between base station traffic load and power consumption. According to this relationship, we develop a linear power consumption model for base stations of both technologies. This paper also gives an overview of the most important concepts which are being proposed to make cellular networks more energy-efficient.

  20. Measurements and Modelling of Base Station Power Consumption under Real Traffic Loads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goran Petrovic

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Base stations represent the main contributor to the energy consumption of a mobile cellular network. Since traffic load in mobile networks significantly varies during a working or weekend day, it is important to quantify the influence of these variations on the base station power consumption. Therefore, this paper investigates changes in the instantaneous power consumption of GSM (Global System for Mobile Communications and UMTS (Universal Mobile Telecommunications System base stations according to their respective traffic load. The real data in terms of the power consumption and traffic load have been obtained from continuous measurements performed on a fully operated base station site. Measurements show the existence of a direct relationship between base station traffic load and power consumption. According to this relationship, we develop a linear power consumption model for base stations of both technologies. This paper also gives an overview of the most important concepts which are being proposed to make cellular networks more energy-efficient.

  1. Outdoor and indoor sources of residential radiofrequency electromagnetic fields, personal cell phone and cordless phone use, and cognitive function in 5-6 years old children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guxens, Mònica; Vermeulen, Roel; van Eijsden, Manon; Beekhuizen, Johan; Vrijkotte, Tanja G. M.; van Strien, Rob T.; Kromhout, Hans; Huss, Anke

    2016-01-01

    Little is known about the exposure of young children to radiofrequency electromagnetic fields (RF-EMF) and potentially associated health effects. We assessed the relationship between residential RF-EMF exposure from mobile phone base stations, residential presence of indoor sources, personal cell

  2. Outdoor and indoor sources of residential radiofrequency electromagnetic fields, personal cell phone and cordless phone use, and cognitive function in 5-6 years old children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guxens, Mònica; Vermeulen, Roel; van Eijsden, Manon; Beekhuizen, Johan; Vrijkotte, Tanja G M; van Strien, Rob T; Kromhout, Hans; Huss, Anke

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Little is known about the exposure of young children to radiofrequency electromagnetic fields (RF-EMF) and potentially associated health effects. We assessed the relationship between residential RF-EMF exposure from mobile phone base stations, residential presence of indoor sources,

  3. Value-Chain Engineering of a Tower-Top Cellular Base Station System

    OpenAIRE

    Cooper, Tim; Farrell, Ronan

    2007-01-01

    In this paper we present a value chain analysis of mobile `phone basestations, with a focus on possible antenna based tower-top electronics. Through this analysis we are able to present a number of possible architectural solutions and provide guidance on performance and reliability criterion

  4. Multi-Layer Real-Time Support for JVM-based Smart Phone Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SEO, E.

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Employing the Java virtual machine (JVM architecture provides smart phone systems stability and security by sandboxing third-party applications and controlling their behavior. However, the JVM layer hinders applications from notifying the operating system scheduler about their timeliness requirements; therefore, applications sometimes fail to respond on time. In order to improve the responsiveness of smart phone applications, this paper proposes two schemes. First, for existing applications that cannot be rebuilt, we modify the kernel scheduler to value task priorities over fairness. Second, we propose cross-layer real-time support APIs to deliver applications' priorities to the kernel scheduler, which will help developers to add real-time scheduling support to their applications. Our prototype demonstrates that the suggested schemes dramatically improve response times and throughputs of prioritized applications.

  5. Mobile phone based laser speckle contrast imager for assessment of skin blood flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakovels, Dainis; Saknite, Inga; Krievina, Gita; Zaharans, Janis; Spigulis, Janis

    2014-10-01

    Assessment of skin blood flow is of interest for evaluation of skin viability as well as for reflection of the overall condition of the circulatory system. Laser Doppler perfusion imaging (LDPI) and laser speckle contrast imaging (LASCI) are optical techniques used for assessment of skin perfusion. However, these systems are still too expensive and bulky to be widely available. Implementation of such techniques as connection kits for mobile phones have a potential for primary diagnostics. In this work we demonstrate simple and low cost LASCI connection kit for mobile phone and its comparison to laser Doppler perfusion imager. Post-occlusive hyperemia and local thermal hyperemia tests are used to compare both techniques and to demonstrate the potential of LASCI device.

  6. [Investigation on Mobile Phone Based Thermal Imaging System and Its Preliminary Application].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Fufeng; Chen, Feng; Liu, Jing

    2015-03-01

    The technical structure of a low-cost thermal imaging system (TIM) lunched on a mobile phone was investigated, which consists of a thermal infrared module and mobile phone and application software. The designing strategies and technical factors toward realizing various TIM array performances are interpreted, including sensor cost and Noise Equivalent Temperature Difference (NETD). In the software algorithm, a mechanism for scene-change detection was implemented to optimize the efficiency of non-uniformity correction (NUC). The performance experiments and analysis indicate that the NETD of the system can be smaller than 150 mK when the integration time is larger than 16 frames. Furthermore, a practical application for human temperature monitoring during physical exercise is proposed and interpreted. The measurement results support the feasibility and facility of the system in the medical application.

  7. Radiofrequency radiation from nearby base stations gives high levels in an apartment in Stockholm, Sweden: A case report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardell, Lennart; Carlberg, Michael; Hedendahl, Lena K.

    2018-01-01

    Exposure to radiofrequency (RF) radiation was classified in 2011 as a possible human carcinogen, Group 2B, by the International Agency for Research on Cancer of the World Health Organisation. Evidence of the risk of cancer risk has since strengthened. Exposure is changing due to the rapid development of technology resulting in increased ambient radiation. RF radiation of sufficient intensity heats tissues, but the energy is insufficient to cause ionization, hence it is called non-ionizing radiation. These non-thermal exposure levels have resulted in biological effects in humans, animals and cells, including an increased cancer risk. In the present study, the levels of RF radiation were measured in an apartment close to two groups of mobile phone base stations on the roof. A total of 74,531 measurements were made corresponding to ~83 h of recording. The total mean RF radiation level was 3,811 µW/m2 (range 15.2–112,318 µW/m2) for the measurement of the whole apartment, including balconies. Particularly high levels were measured on three balconies and 3 of 4 bedrooms. The total mean RF radiation level decreased by 98% when the measured down-links from the base stations for 2, 3 and 4 G were disregarded. The results are discussed in relation to the detrimental health effects of non-thermal RF radiation. Due to the current high RF radiation, the apartment is not suitable for long-term living, particularly for children who may be more sensitive than adults. For a definitive conclusion regarding the effect of RF radiation from nearby base stations, one option would be to turn them off and repeat the measurements. However, the simplest and safest solution would be to turn them off and dismantle them. PMID:29725476

  8. Radiofrequency radiation from nearby base stations gives high levels in an apartment in Stockholm, Sweden: A case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardell, Lennart; Carlberg, Michael; Hedendahl, Lena K

    2018-05-01

    Exposure to radiofrequency (RF) radiation was classified in 2011 as a possible human carcinogen, Group 2B, by the International Agency for Research on Cancer of the World Health Organisation. Evidence of the risk of cancer risk has since strengthened. Exposure is changing due to the rapid development of technology resulting in increased ambient radiation. RF radiation of sufficient intensity heats tissues, but the energy is insufficient to cause ionization, hence it is called non-ionizing radiation. These non-thermal exposure levels have resulted in biological effects in humans, animals and cells, including an increased cancer risk. In the present study, the levels of RF radiation were measured in an apartment close to two groups of mobile phone base stations on the roof. A total of 74,531 measurements were made corresponding to ~83 h of recording. The total mean RF radiation level was 3,811 µW/m 2 (range 15.2-112,318 µW/m 2 ) for the measurement of the whole apartment, including balconies. Particularly high levels were measured on three balconies and 3 of 4 bedrooms. The total mean RF radiation level decreased by 98% when the measured down-links from the base stations for 2, 3 and 4 G were disregarded. The results are discussed in relation to the detrimental health effects of non-thermal RF radiation. Due to the current high RF radiation, the apartment is not suitable for long-term living, particularly for children who may be more sensitive than adults. For a definitive conclusion regarding the effect of RF radiation from nearby base stations, one option would be to turn them off and repeat the measurements. However, the simplest and safest solution would be to turn them off and dismantle them.

  9. On the effectiveness of single and multiple base station sleep modes in cellular networks

    OpenAIRE

    Marsan, Marco Ajmone; Chiaraviglio, Luca; Ciullo, Delia; Meo, Michela

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we study base station sleep modes that, by reducing power consumption in periods of low traffic, improve the energy efficiency of cellular access networks. We assume that when some base stations enter sleep mode, radio coverage and service provisioning are provided by the base stations that remain active, so as to guarantee that service is available over the whole area at all times. This may be an optimistic assumption in the case of the sparse base station layouts typical of ru...

  10. Coexistence of 3G repeaters with LTE base stations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeo, Woon-Young; Lee, Sang-Min; Hwang, Gyung-Ho; Kim, Jae-Hoon

    2013-01-01

    Repeaters have been an attractive solution for mobile operators to upgrade their wireless networks at low cost and to extend network coverage effectively. Since the first LTE commercial deployment in 2009, many mobile operators have launched LTE networks by upgrading their 3G and legacy networks. Because all 3G frequency bands are shared with the frequency bands for LTE deployment and 3G mobile operators have an enormous number of repeaters, reusing 3G repeaters in LTE networks is definitely a practical and cost-efficient solution. However, 3G repeaters usually do not support spatial multiplexing with multiple antennas, and thus it is difficult to reuse them directly in LTE networks. In order to support spatial multiplexing of LTE, the role of 3G repeaters should be replaced with small LTE base stations or MIMO-capable repeaters. In this paper, a repeater network is proposed to reuse 3G repeaters in LTE deployment while still supporting multilayer transmission of LTE. Interestingly, the proposed network has a higher cluster throughput than an LTE network with MIMO-capable repeaters.

  11. Sustainable Power Supply Solutions for Off-Grid Base Stations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asma Mohamad Aris

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The telecommunication sector plays a significant role in shaping the global economy and the way people share information and knowledge. At present, the telecommunication sector is liable for its energy consumption and the amount of emissions it emits in the environment. In the context of off-grid telecommunication applications, off-grid base stations (BSs are commonly used due to their ability to provide radio coverage over a wide geographic area. However, in the past, the off-grid BSs usually relied on emission-intensive power supply solutions such as diesel generators. In this review paper, various types of solutions (including, in particular, the sustainable solutions for powering BSs are discussed. The key aspects in designing an ideal power supply solution are reviewed, and these mainly include the pre-feasibility study and the thermal management of BSs, which comprise heating and cooling of the BS shelter/cabinets and BS electronic equipment and power supply components. The sizing and optimization approaches used to design the BSs’ power supply systems as well as the operational and control strategies adopted to manage the power supply systems are also reviewed in this paper.

  12. Component Data Base for Space Station Resistojet Auxiliary Propulsion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bader, Clayton H.

    1988-01-01

    The resistojet was baselined for Space Station auxiliary propulsion because of its operational versatility, efficiency, and durability. This report was conceived as a guide to designers and planners of the Space Station auxiliary propulsion system. It is directed to the low thrust resistojet concept, though it should have application to other station concepts or systems such as the Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS), Manufacturing and Technology Laboratory (MTL), and the Waste Fluid Management System (WFMS). The information will likely be quite useful in the same capacity for other non-Space Station systems including satellite, freeflyers, explorers, and maneuvering vehicles. The report is a catalog of the most useful information for the most significant feed system components and is organized for the greatest convenience of the user.

  13. A smart phone/tablet based mobile health care system for developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaidya, Avinash S; Srinivas, M B; Himabindu, P; Jumaxanova, Daria

    2013-01-01

    Increasing cost of health care in developing countries is placing heavy financial burden on its populations. With the advent of mobile and tablet technologies however, it is possible to reduce this burden to some extent through tele-healthcare. In this paper, authors describe their effort to design portable diagnostic devices that can communicate to smart phones and tablets there by making tele-healthcare possible. A possible architecture of their model is presented and components thereof discussed.

  14. A smart phone, tablet, based on mobile health care system for developing countries

    OpenAIRE

    Mridha, Mannan; Vaidya, Avinash S

    2013-01-01

    Increasing cost of health care in developing countries is placing heavy financial burden on its populations. With the advent of mobile and tablet technologies however, it is possible to reduce this burden to some extent through telehealthcare. In this paper, authors describe their effort to design portable diagnostic devices that can communicate to smart phones and tablets there by making tele-healthcare possible. A possible architecture of their model is presented and components thereof disc...

  15. Managing travel demand: Location recommendation for system efficiency based on mobile phone data

    OpenAIRE

    Leng, Yan; Rudolph, Larry; Pentland, Alex 'Sandy'; Zhao, Jinhua; Koutsopolous, Haris N.

    2016-01-01

    Growth in leisure travel has become increasingly significant economically, socially, and environmentally. However, flexible but uncoordinated travel behaviors exacerbate traffic congestion. Mobile phone records not only reveal human mobility patterns, but also enable us to manage travel demand for system efficiency. In this paper, we propose a location recommendation system that infers personal preferences while accounting for constraints imposed by road capacity in order to manage travel dem...

  16. The impact of cell phone radiation on health

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salakhov, A.Z.

    2013-01-01

    Constant exposure to radio frequency signals from mobile phones and their base stations could adversely affect on human health. As a consequence, as a result of this impact it is appeared frequent headaches, loss of memory and concentration, tension in the eardrum and sudden bouts of fatigue, childhood leukemia, brain tumors, eye cataracts, cardiovascular diseases, disorders of the nervous system. Some people suffer from hyperelectrosensitivity. It should be noted that the analog phones much more harmful to human health than digital ones. Radio frequency of electromagnetic fields which is used by a modern cellular communications is in the range from 450 MHz to 1.9 GHz. Such fields unlike to ionizing radiation can not cause secondary radioactivity in the body. The cell phone is a device having a potential danger to health, so it is advisable wherever possible to protect yourselves from its use, or at least to minimize its use

  17. Evaluating Machine Learning-Based Automated Personalized Daily Step Goals Delivered Through a Mobile Phone App: Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Mo; Fukuoka, Yoshimi; Mintz, Yonatan; Goldberg, Ken; Kaminsky, Philip; Flowers, Elena; Aswani, Anil

    2018-01-25

    Growing evidence shows that fixed, nonpersonalized daily step goals can discourage individuals, resulting in unchanged or even reduced physical activity. The aim of this randomized controlled trial (RCT) was to evaluate the efficacy of an automated mobile phone-based personalized and adaptive goal-setting intervention using machine learning as compared with an active control with steady daily step goals of 10,000. In this 10-week RCT, 64 participants were recruited via email announcements and were required to attend an initial in-person session. The participants were randomized into either the intervention or active control group with a one-to-one ratio after a run-in period for data collection. A study-developed mobile phone app (which delivers daily step goals using push notifications and allows real-time physical activity monitoring) was installed on each participant's mobile phone, and participants were asked to keep their phone in a pocket throughout the entire day. Through the app, the intervention group received fully automated adaptively personalized daily step goals, and the control group received constant step goals of 10,000 steps per day. Daily step count was objectively measured by the study-developed mobile phone app. The mean (SD) age of participants was 41.1 (11.3) years, and 83% (53/64) of participants were female. The baseline demographics between the 2 groups were similar (P>.05). Participants in the intervention group (n=34) had a decrease in mean (SD) daily step count of 390 (490) steps between run-in and 10 weeks, compared with a decrease of 1350 (420) steps among control participants (n=30; P=.03). The net difference in daily steps between the groups was 960 steps (95% CI 90-1830 steps). Both groups had a decrease in daily step count between run-in and 10 weeks because interventions were also provided during run-in and no natural baseline was collected. The results showed the short-term efficacy of this intervention, which should be formally

  18. Mobile communication using a mobile phone with a glucometer for glucose control in Type 2 patients with diabetes: as effective as an Internet-based glucose monitoring system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Jae-Hyoung; Lee, Hye-Chung; Lim, Dong-Jun; Kwon, Hyuk-Sang; Yoon, Kun-Ho

    2009-01-01

    A mobile phone with a glucometer integrated into the battery pack (the 'Diabetes Phone') was launched in Korea in 2003. We compared its effect on management of type 2 diabetes to the Internet-based glucose monitoring system (IBGMS), which had been studied previously. We conducted a randomized trial involving 69 patients for three months. Participants were assigned to an Internet group or a phone group. The phone group communicated with medical staff through the mobile phone only. Their glucose-monitoring data were automatically transferred to individual, web-based charts and they received medical recommendations by short message service. The Internet group used the IBGMS. There were no significant differences between the groups at baseline. After three months' intervention, HbA(1c) levels of both groups had decreased significantly, from 7.6% to 6.9% for the Internet group and from 8.3% to 7.1% for the phone group (P glucose control as the previously-studied Internet-based monitoring system and it was good for patient satisfaction and adherence.

  19. Optimalisasi Kinerja (Internet Protocol) Ip Clock Pada Jaringan Base Transceiver Station (Bts)

    OpenAIRE

    Budiyanto, Setiyo; Saputra, Apipi

    2016-01-01

    Pada sistem komunikasi GSM (Global System for Mobile), BTS (Base Transceiver Station) merupakan jantung dari sebuah cell site layanan telekomunikasi. BTS merupakan perangkat pemancar dan penerima yang menangani akses radio dan berinteraksi langsung dengan Mobile Station (MS) melalui air interface. Sebuah optimasi kinerja ip clock pada base transceiver station (BTS) metode untuk sinkronisasi jaringan untuk jam global yang berasal dari jam GPS diakuisisi oleh sejumlah BTS. IP clock didistribusi...

  20. Effect of an Educational Program Based on the Health Belief Model to Reduce Cell Phone Usage During Driving in Taxi drivers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babak Moeini

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Cell phone usage during driving has become a threat to traffic safety. This study aimed to determine the effectiveness of an educational program based on the health belief model to reduce cell phone usage during driving in taxi drivers of Tuyserkan. Materials and Methods: In this quasi-experimental study, 110 taxi drivers younger than 35 years were randomly divided into two experimental and control groups in Tuyserkan, Iran. Data was collected using a questionnaire including the health belief model constructs, knowledge, behaviors of using cell phone and demographic variables. The questionnaires were self-reported. Intervention was three sessions applied in the experimental group. Both groups were followed for two months after the intervention. Finally, data analysis was performed using SPSS- 19 by Chi-square, Independent T-test, Paired T-test and McNemar. Results: The mean scores for the constructs of health belief model (perceived susceptibility, severity, barriers, perceived benefits, self-efficacy and cues to action, knowledge and desired behaviors about the use of cell phone during driving showed no significant differences between the two groups before the intervention. After the educational intervention, significant differences were observed in experimental group compared to control group. After educational intervention, cell phone usage reduced by 35.14% in the experimental group. Conclusion: An educational intervention based on the health belief model could reduce cell phone usage during driving in taxi drivers.

  1. Design and development of a Personality Prediction System based on Mobile-Phone based Metrics

    OpenAIRE

    Alonso Aguilar, Carlos

    2017-01-01

    The need of communication between people is something that is associated in our nature as human beings, but the way people do it has completely changed since the smartphone and Internet appeared. Otherwise, knowing human personality of someone is something really difficult that we gain after working communication skills with others. Based on this two principal points in my TFG election, whose aim is predict human personality by recollecting information of smartphones, using Big Data and Machi...

  2. iPhones and Smartphones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin YE

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Long utilized in European and Asian countries, fast ―next generation‖ cell phonenetworks and mobile data streams have only recently begun to make deep inroads inthe United States, and companies are scrambling to write content, tools, and newapplets (―apps‖ for these users. The iPhone has become a juggernaut in the UnitedStates, with 13 million units sold in 2008 (a 245% increase over 2007 and a further 45million units expected in 2009 (Elmer-DeWitt, 2009. While iPhone still lags Nokia andRIM internationally, the overall trend toward mobile computing becomes firmer by theday, and it behooves educators to become familiar with the cell phone tools that arerelevant for teaching in tomorrow‘s--and increasingly ―today‘s‖--classroom.Smartphones have for years offered SMS instant messaging, but the first uses of thattechnology have inevitably been social rather than educational in nature (Reid, 2004.The recent rise in popularity of the iPhone has, however, sparked interest in new usesfor SMS with the advent of new and expanded audiences. One promising online tooloffers instant polling via SMS: polleverywhere.com‘s free account allows up to 30responses per 1-question poll, with unlimited polls per account.This opens up the possibility of classroom response systems that require no studentpurchases of the clicker hardware. While accountability back to the student and gradesare not feasible with polleverywhere.com‘s solution, instructors can harvest quick,anonymous feedback and encourage otherwise reluctant students to engage andparticipate.Apart from texting, modern cell phones come equipped with cameras, which cancombine with email capabilities to offer a potent alternative to writing on whiteboards.Working at their seats, singly or in groups, students can photograph their work andemail it to the instructor, who then can choose from the submissions which to highlighton the lecture hall‘s projection of his computer station, and

  3. Are mobile phones harmful?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blettner, M; Berg, G

    2000-01-01

    There is increasing public interest in health risks of mobile phone use. Although there is a vast body of material on the biological effects of radiofrequency fields, current risk assessment is still limited. The article describes several hypotheses and results of biological effects such as thermal effect, genetic and carcinogenic effects and cancer related investigations. Mobile phones transmit and receive waves of frequencies mainly at 800-1800 MHz. Findings on the thermal effect of acute exposure to radiofrequency fields were consistent, resulting in an increase of cellular, tissue or body temperature by 1 degree C or more. Guidelines for risk limits are based on this thermal effect. Experimental investigation suggests that radiofrequency fields are not tumor initiators and that if they are related to carcinogenicity, this would be by tumor promotion or by increasing the uptake of carcinogens in cells. Implications of these experimental results on public health concerns are yet unclear. Few epidemiological studies are available on the use of mobile phones or on the radiofrequency exposure and the development of cancer. Most of these studies have no or little quantitative exposure data and they are limited by the small number of observations. Large epidemiological studies are necessary in order to investigate the use of mobile phones on the development of cancer. It should be emphasized that even a small elevated risk may have a large implication for public health, as the use of mobile phones and the exposure is rapidly increasing.

  4. A Portable Smart-Phone Readout Device for the Detection of Mercury Contamination Based on an Aptamer-Assay Nanosensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Xiao

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The detection of environmental mercury (Hg contamination requires complex and expensive instruments and professional technicians. We present a simple, sensitive, and portable Hg2+ detection system based on a smartphone and colorimetric aptamer nanosensor. A smartphone equipped with a light meter app was used to detect, record, and process signals from a smartphone-based microwell reader (MR S-phone, which is composed of a simple light source and a miniaturized assay platform. The colorimetric readout of the aptamer nanosensor is based on a specific interaction between the selected aptamer and Hg2+, which leads to a color change in the reaction solution due to an aggregation of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs. The MR S-phone-based AuNPs-aptamer colorimetric sensor system could reliably detect Hg2+ in both tap water and Pearl River water samples and produced a linear colorimetric readout of Hg2+ concentration in the range of 1 ng/mL–32 ng/mL with a correlation of 0.991, and a limit of detection (LOD of 0.28 ng/mL for Hg2+. The detection could be quickly completed in only 20 min. Our novel mercury detection assay is simple, rapid, and sensitive, and it provides new strategies for the on-site detection of mercury contamination in any environment.

  5. A Portable Smart-Phone Readout Device for the Detection of Mercury Contamination Based on an Aptamer-Assay Nanosensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Wei; Xiao, Meng; Fu, Qiangqiang; Yu, Shiting; Shen, Haicong; Bian, Hongfen; Tang, Yong

    2016-11-08

    The detection of environmental mercury (Hg) contamination requires complex and expensive instruments and professional technicians. We present a simple, sensitive, and portable Hg 2+ detection system based on a smartphone and colorimetric aptamer nanosensor. A smartphone equipped with a light meter app was used to detect, record, and process signals from a smartphone-based microwell reader (MR S-phone), which is composed of a simple light source and a miniaturized assay platform. The colorimetric readout of the aptamer nanosensor is based on a specific interaction between the selected aptamer and Hg 2+ , which leads to a color change in the reaction solution due to an aggregation of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs). The MR S-phone-based AuNPs-aptamer colorimetric sensor system could reliably detect Hg 2+ in both tap water and Pearl River water samples and produced a linear colorimetric readout of Hg 2+ concentration in the range of 1 ng/mL-32 ng/mL with a correlation of 0.991, and a limit of detection (LOD) of 0.28 ng/mL for Hg 2+ . The detection could be quickly completed in only 20 min. Our novel mercury detection assay is simple, rapid, and sensitive, and it provides new strategies for the on-site detection of mercury contamination in any environment.

  6. Reaching the end of the line: Operational issues with implementing phone-based unannounced pill counts in resource-limited settings.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yael Hirsch-Moverman

    Full Text Available Accurate measurement of adherence is necessary to ensure that therapeutic outcomes can be attributed to the recommended treatment. Phone-based unannounced pill counts were shown to be feasible and reliable measures of adherence in developed settings; and have been further used as part of medication adherence interventions. However, it is not clear whether this method can be implemented successfully in resource-limited settings, where cellular network and mobile phone coverage may be low. Our objective is to describe operational issues surrounding the use of phone-based unannounced pill counts in Lesotho and Ethiopia.Phone-based monthly unannounced pill counts, using an adaptation of a standardized protocol from previous US-based studies, were utilized to measure anti-TB and antiretroviral medication adherence in two implementation science studies in resource-limited settings, START (Lesotho and ENRICH (Ethiopia.In START, 19.6% of calls were completed, with 71.9% of participants reached at least once; majority of failed call attempts were due to phones not being available (54.8% or because participants were away from the pills (32.7%. In ENRICH, 33.5% of calls were completed, with 86.7% of participants reached at least once; the main reasons for failed call attempts were phones being switched off (31.5%, participants not answering (27.3%, participants' discomfort speaking on the phone (15.4%, and network problems (13.2%. Structural, facility-level, participant-level, and data collection challenges were encountered in these settings.Phone-based unannounced pill counts were found to be challenging, and response rates suboptimal. While some of these challenges were specific to local contexts, most of them are generalizable to resource-limited settings. In a research study context, a possible solution to ease operational challenges may be to focus phone-based unannounced pill count efforts on a randomly selected sample from participants who are

  7. The Medical Gopher — A Microcomputer Based Physician Work Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Clement J.

    1984-01-01

    We've developed a microcomputer medical work station intended to reduce the physician's “gopher” work of fetching, reviewing, organizing and writing that consumes his day. The system requires extensive physician interaction; so we have developed a fast and consistent menu-oriented user interface. It provides facilities for entering prescriptions, orders, problems and other medical record information and for generating flowsheets, executing reminder rules, providing ad hoc retrievals and reporting facts about drugs, tests and differential diagnoses. Each work station is connected to a central server (currently a VAX 117/80) in a network configuration, but carries all of its own programs, tables and medical records for a few hundred patients, locally. This system is tested but not yet tried. Questions remain about physician's acceptance and the true usefullness of such a work station.

  8. Route Choice Estimation Using Cell Phone Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taghipour Homa

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays development of cell phone network provides huge and ubiquitous data, with wide application in transportation science. One of the most important advantages of these kinds of data is enabling the process of collecting information without any active users’ interference. A big data set consisting of 300,000 cell phone users’ information in Shiraz are studied. This data set includes spatiotemporal information of travelers for every 5 minutes in a time span of 40 hours in two consecutive days. The spatial part of each user’s information contains the position of the BTS (Base Transceiver Station to which his cell phone is currently connected. Due to the existence of outliers, it is necessary to smooth the data initially. One of the main reasons of errors in the data set is ping pong handover, which leads to false transitions and must be eliminated. After the data preparation, stay locations are determined for each user and a trajectory for each pair of origin and destination is estimated. At this step based on network information of the city, a method to match trajectories with the network map is applied. Finally the obtained results indicate whether travelers choose the shortest path or other possible alternatives.

  9. Measurements of MIMO Indoor Channels at 1800 MHz with Multiple Indoor and Outdoor Base Stations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaldén Niklas

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes several configurations for multiple base stations in indoor MIMO systems and compares their performance. The results are based on channel measurements realized with a MIMO testbed. The receiver was moved along several routes and floors on an office building. Both outdoor and indoor locations are considered for the transmitters or base stations, which allow the analysis of not only indoor but also outdoor-to-indoor environment. The use of 2 base stations with different system level combinations of the two is analyzed. We show that the configuration with base station selection provides almost as good performance as a full water-filling scheme when the 2 base stations are placed at different locations. Also the spatial correlation properties for the different configurations are analyzed and the importance of considering path loss when evaluating capacity is highlighted.

  10. Optimal base station placement for wireless sensor networks with successive interference cancellation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Lei; Zhang, Jianjun; Shi, Yi; Ding, Xu; Wei, Zhenchun

    2015-01-14

    We consider the base station placement problem for wireless sensor networks with successive interference cancellation (SIC) to improve throughput. We build a mathematical model for SIC. Although this model cannot be solved directly, it enables us to identify a necessary condition for SIC on distances from sensor nodes to the base station. Based on this relationship, we propose to divide the feasible region of the base station into small pieces and choose a point within each piece for base station placement. The point with the largest throughput is identified as the solution. The complexity of this algorithm is polynomial. Simulation results show that this algorithm can achieve about 25% improvement compared with the case that the base station is placed at the center of the network coverage area when using SIC.

  11. Computer based training simulator for Hunterston Nuclear Power Station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bowden, R.S.M.; Hacking, D.

    1978-01-01

    For reasons which are stated, the Hunterston-B nuclear power station automatic control system includes a manual over-ride facility. It is therefore essential for the station engineers to be trained to recognise and control all feasible modes of plant and logic malfunction. A training simulator has been built which consists of a replica of the shutdown monitoring panel in the Central Control Room and is controlled by a mini-computer. This paper highlights the computer aspects of the simulator and relevant derived experience, under the following headings: engineering background; shutdown sequence equipment; simulator equipment; features; software; testing; maintenance. (U.K.)

  12. A web- and mobile phone-based intervention to prevent obesity in 4-year-olds (MINISTOP): a population-based randomized controlled trial

    OpenAIRE

    Delisle, Christine; Sandin, Sven; Forsum, Elisabet; Henriksson, Hanna; Trolle-Lagerros, Ylva; Larsson, Christel; Maddison, Ralph; Ortega, Francisco B.; Ruiz, Jonatan R.; Silfvernagel, Kristin; Timpka, Toomas; Löf, Marie

    2015-01-01

    Background: Childhood obesity is an increasing health problem globally. Overweight and obesity may be established as early as 2-5 years of age, highlighting the need for evidence-based effective prevention and treatment programs early in life. In adults, mobile phone based interventions for weight management (mHealth) have demonstrated positive effects on body mass, however, their use in child populations has yet to be examined. The aim of this paper is to report the study design and methodol...

  13. The Impact of Driver Cell Phone Use on Accidents

    OpenAIRE

    James E. Prieger; Robert W. Hahn

    2005-01-01

    Cell phone use is increasing worldwide, leading to a concern that cell phone use while driving increases accidents. We develop a new approach for estimating the relationship between cell phone use while driving and accidents, based on new survey data. We test for selection effects, such as whether drivers who use cell phones are inherently less safe drivers, even when not on the phone. The paper has two key findings. First, the impact of cell phone use on accidents varies across the populatio...

  14. System of wireless base stations employing shadow prices for power load balancing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2011-01-01

    In one aspect, a system is provided. In one embodiment, the system includes a plurality of wireless base stations that are located in a contiguous spatial coverage region of a cellular communication system. Each wireless base station that is configured to generate a coverage pilot beam to enable

  15. Method of sharing mobile unit state information between base station routers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosch, H.G.P.; Mullender, Sape J.; Polakos, Paul Anthony; Rajkumar, Ajay; Sundaram, Ganapathy S.

    2007-01-01

    The present invention provides a method of operating a first base station router. The method may include transmitting state information associated with at least one inactive mobile unit to at least one second base station router. The state information is usable to initiate an active session with the

  16. Method of sharing mobile unit state information between base station routers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosch, H.G.P.; Mullender, Sape J.; Polakos, Paul Anthony; Rajkumar, Ajay; Sundaram, Ganapathy S.

    2010-01-01

    The present invention provides a method of operating a first base station router. The method may include transmitting state information associated with at least one inactive mobile unit to at least one second base station router. The state information is usable to initiate an active session with the

  17. Perceptions and experiences of heart failure patients and clinicians on the use of mobile phone-based telemonitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seto, Emily; Leonard, Kevin J; Cafazzo, Joseph A; Barnsley, Jan; Masino, Caterina; Ross, Heather J

    2012-02-10

    Previous trials of heart failure telemonitoring systems have produced inconsistent findings, largely due to diverse interventions and study designs. The objectives of this study are (1) to provide in-depth insight into the effects of telemonitoring on self-care and clinical management, and (2) to determine the features that enable successful heart failure telemonitoring. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 22 heart failure patients attending a heart function clinic who had used a mobile phone-based telemonitoring system for 6 months. The telemonitoring system required the patients to take daily weight and blood pressure readings, weekly single-lead ECGs, and to answer daily symptom questions on a mobile phone. Instructions were sent to the patient's mobile phone based on their physiological values. Alerts were also sent to a cardiologist's mobile phone, as required. All clinicians involved in the study were also interviewed post-trial (N = 5). The interviews were recorded, transcribed, and then analyzed using a conventional content analysis approach. The telemonitoring system improved patient self-care by instructing the patients in real-time how to appropriately modify their lifestyle behaviors. Patients felt more aware of their heart failure condition, less anxiety, and more empowered. Many were willing to partially fund the use of the system. The clinicians were able to manage their patients' heart failure conditions more effectively, because they had physiological data reported to them frequently to help in their decision-making (eg, for medication titration) and were alerted at the earliest sign of decompensation. Essential characteristics of the telemonitoring system that contributed to improved heart failure management included immediate self-care and clinical feedback (ie, teachable moments), how the system was easy and quick to use, and how the patients and clinicians perceived tangible benefits from telemonitoring. Some clinical concerns

  18. Monitoring Method and Apparatus Using Asynchronous, One-Way Transmission from Sensor to Base Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Scott L. (Inventor); Drouant, George J. (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    A monitoring system is disclosed, which includes a base station and at least one sensor unit that is separate from the base station. The at least one sensor unit resides in a dormant state until it is awakened by the triggering of a vibration-sensitive switch. Once awakened, the sensor may take a measurement, and then transmit to the base station the measurement. Once data is transmitted from the sensor to the base station, the sensor may return to its dormant state. There may be various sensors for each base station and the various sensors may optionally measure different quantities, such as current, voltage, single-axis and/or three-axis magnetic fields.

  19. A cost-effective assay for antioxidant using simple cotton thread combining paper based device with mobile phone detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sateanchok, Suphasinee; Wangkarn, Sunanta; Saenjum, Chalermpong; Grudpan, Kate

    2018-01-15

    A cost-effective assay for antioxidant using simple cotton thread combining paper based device with mobile phone detection has been investigated. Standard and sample solutions flow along a bunch of cotton thread treated with sodium hydroxide via microfluidic behaviors without external pumping. The analyte solution reacts with the reagents that have been immobilized on the paper strip fixed at the end of the cotton bunch. The developed platforms were used for the assays of total phenolic content and antioxidant capacity by employing Folin-Ciocalteu and 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picryhydrazyl (DPPH) respectively. Simple detection can be made by employing a mobile phone camera (iPhone 4S) with Image J or Photoshop for image processing and evaluation. Gallic acid was used as a reference standard in this work, as its polyphenol structures can be found in many plants. The total phenolic content is expressed as gallic acid equivalents (GAE) (mg/g material). Inhibition capacity is calculated by the equation: % I = [(I o - I s )/ I o ] × 100, where I s is the relative magenta intensity (CMYK mode) of sample, and I o the relative magenta intensity of DPPH•. IC 50 inhibition can be estimated from the graph and can be used for the antioxidant capacity consideration. Applications to the assay green tea samples were demonstrated. The total phenolic contents in the green tea samples were found to be 48-105mg/g, with %RSD of less than 10 for that of higher 50 GAE mg/g and IC 50 values of the samples studied were 25-50mg/L. The results obtained by the developed methods agree with that of the standard methods. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. A portable smart phone-based plasmonic nanosensor readout platform that measures transmitted light intensities of nanosubstrates using an ambient light sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Qiangqiang; Wu, Ze; Xu, Fangxiang; Li, Xiuqing; Yao, Cuize; Xu, Meng; Sheng, Liangrong; Yu, Shiting; Tang, Yong

    2016-05-21

    Plasmonic nanosensors may be used as tools for diagnostic testing in the field of medicine. However, quantification of plasmonic nanosensors often requires complex and bulky readout instruments. Here, we report the development of a portable smart phone-based plasmonic nanosensor readout platform (PNRP) for accurate quantification of plasmonic nanosensors. This device operates by transmitting excitation light from a LED through a nanosubstrate and measuring the intensity of the transmitted light using the ambient light sensor of a smart phone. The device is a cylinder with a diameter of 14 mm, a length of 38 mm, and a gross weight of 3.5 g. We demonstrated the utility of this smart phone-based PNRP by measuring two well-established plasmonic nanosensors with this system. In the first experiment, the device measured the morphology changes of triangular silver nanoprisms (AgNPRs) in an immunoassay for the detection of carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA). In the second experiment, the device measured the aggregation of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) in an aptamer-based assay for the detection of adenosine triphosphate (ATP). The results from the smart phone-based PNRP were consistent with those from commercial spectrophotometers, demonstrating that the smart phone-based PNRP enables accurate quantification of plasmonic nanosensors.

  1. Design and application of the emergency response mobile phone-based information system for infectious disease reporting in the Wenchuan earthquake zone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Jiaqi; Zhou, Maigeng; Li, Yanfei; Guo, Yan; Su, Xuemei; Qi, Xiaopeng; Ge, Hui

    2009-05-01

    To describe the design and application of an emergency response mobile phone-based information system for infectious disease reporting. Software engineering and business modeling were used to design and develop the emergency response mobile phone-based information system for infectious disease reporting. Seven days after the initiation of the reporting system, the reporting rate in the earthquake zone reached the level of the same period in 2007, using the mobile phone-based information system. Surveillance of the weekly report on morbidity in the earthquake zone after the initiation of the mobile phone reporting system showed the same trend as the previous three years. The emergency response mobile phone-based information system for infectious disease reporting was an effective solution to transmit urgently needed reports and manage communicable disease surveillance information. This assured the consistency of disease surveillance and facilitated sensitive, accurate, and timely disease surveillance. It is an important backup for the internet-based direct reporting system for communicable disease. © 2009 Blackwell Publishing Asia Pty Ltd and Chinese Cochrane Center, West China Hospital of Sichuan University.

  2. TELEsarPHONE: Mutual Telexistence Master-Slave Communication System Based on Retroreflective Projection Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tachi, Susumu; Kawakami, Naoki; Nii, Hideaki; Watanabe, Kouichi; Minamizawa, Kouta

    TELEsarPHONE is a conceptual prototype of a mutual telexistence system, designed for face-to-face telecommunication via robots. Because of the development of telexistence technology, we can acquire a feeling that we are present in several actual remote places using remote robots as our surrogates and can work and act freely there. However, people in the place where someone telexists using a robot see only the robot, and they cannot feel the existence of the telexisting person. Mutual telexistence aims to solve this problem so that the existence of a telexisting person (visitor) is apparent to the people in the remote environment by providing mutual sensations of presence. On the basis of the concept of mutual telexistence, we have designed and developed a prototype of a telexistence master-slave system for remote communication by applying retroreflective projection technology. In the TELEsarPHONE system, the face and chest of the slave robot TELESAR II are covered by retroreflective material. To provide the feeling of existence, the real-time image of the visitor is projected onto the robot so that people can see the visitor in real time.

  3. Cell-phone-based platform for biomedical device development and education applications.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zachary J Smith

    Full Text Available In this paper we report the development of two attachments to a commercial cell phone that transform the phone's integrated lens and image sensor into a 350x microscope and visible-light spectrometer. The microscope is capable of transmission and polarized microscopy modes and is shown to have 1.5 micron resolution and a usable field-of-view of 150 x 50 with no image processing, and approximately 350 x 350 when post-processing is applied. The spectrometer has a 300 nm bandwidth with a limiting spectral resolution of close to 5 nm. We show applications of the devices to medically relevant problems. In the case of the microscope, we image both stained and unstained blood-smears showing the ability to acquire images of similar quality to commercial microscope platforms, thus allowing diagnosis of clinical pathologies. With the spectrometer we demonstrate acquisition of a white-light transmission spectrum through diffuse tissue as well as the acquisition of a fluorescence spectrum. We also envision the devices to have immediate relevance in the educational field.

  4. Cell-phone-based platform for biomedical device development and education applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Zachary J; Chu, Kaiqin; Espenson, Alyssa R; Rahimzadeh, Mehdi; Gryshuk, Amy; Molinaro, Marco; Dwyre, Denis M; Lane, Stephen; Matthews, Dennis; Wachsmann-Hogiu, Sebastian

    2011-03-02

    In this paper we report the development of two attachments to a commercial cell phone that transform the phone's integrated lens and image sensor into a 350x microscope and visible-light spectrometer. The microscope is capable of transmission and polarized microscopy modes and is shown to have 1.5 micron resolution and a usable field-of-view of 150 x 50 with no image processing, and approximately 350 x 350 when post-processing is applied. The spectrometer has a 300 nm bandwidth with a limiting spectral resolution of close to 5 nm. We show applications of the devices to medically relevant problems. In the case of the microscope, we image both stained and unstained blood-smears showing the ability to acquire images of similar quality to commercial microscope platforms, thus allowing diagnosis of clinical pathologies. With the spectrometer we demonstrate acquisition of a white-light transmission spectrum through diffuse tissue as well as the acquisition of a fluorescence spectrum. We also envision the devices to have immediate relevance in the educational field.

  5. A wearable, mobile phone-based respiration monitoring system for sleep apnea syndrome detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishida, Ryoichi; Yonezawa, Yoshiharu; Maki, Hiromichi; Ogawa, Hidekuni; Ninomiya, Ishio; Sada, Kouji; Hamada, Shingo; Hahn, Allen W; Caldwell, W Morton

    2005-01-01

    A new wearable respiration monitoring system has been developed for non-invasive detection of sleep apnea syndrome. The system, which is attached to a shirt, consists of a piezoelectric sensor, a low-power 8-bit single chip microcontroller, EEPROM and a 2.4 GHz low-power transmitting mobile phone (PHS). The piezoelectric sensor, whose electrical polarization voltage is produced by body movements, is installed inside the shirt and closely contacts the patient's chest. The low frequency components of body movements recorded by the sensor are mainly generated by respiration. The microcontroller sequentially stores the movement signal to the EEPROM for 5 minutes and detects, by time-frequency analysis, whether the patient has breathed during that time. When the patient is apneic for 10 sseconds, the microcontroller sends the recorded respiration waveform during and one minute before and after the apnea directly to the hospital server computer via the mobile phone. The server computer then creates apnea "filings" automatically for every patient. The system can be used at home and be self-applied by patients. Moreover, the system does not require any extra equipment such as a personal computer, PDA, or Internet connection.

  6. 3DS-colorimeter based on a mobile phone camera for industrial applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miettinen, Jari; Martinkauppi, J. Birgitta; Suopajärvi, Pekka

    2013-02-01

    Colour gives an essential finishing touch to many products. Consumers find it as an important factor, for example, when selecting doors, furniture, parquet and coated metal products. Currently, colour evaluation is often carried out by looking at the product. Since people's memory for an exact colour is poor, this method often produces unsatisfactory results in industrial quality control. In this paper, we discuss how to solve this problem by the use of a colour measurement technology for mobile phones equipped with a suitable accessory. Mobile phones provide a suitable monitor platform even for laymen as people are increasingly using their mobile devices for purposes of entertainment, communication and business, thus making them a familiar device to use. Our 3DS-colorimeter is a new, handheld, low-cost consumer/industrial-level prototype combining both a colorimeter feature and 3D surface measurement feature. In this paper, we describe its colorimeter features shortly and demonstrate its performance in measurement repeatability and colorimetric accuracy. As an application example, we show its usefulness for monitoring the colour appearance of painted doors. This study indicates that the 3DS-colorimeter is applicable to industrial quality control.

  7. Use of a smart phone based thermo camera for skin prick allergy testing: a feasibility study (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barla, Lindi; Verdaasdonk, Rudolf M.; Rustemeyer, Thomas; Klaessens, John; van der Veen, Albert

    2016-02-01

    Allergy testing is usually performed by exposing the skin to small quantities of potential allergens on the inner forearm and scratching the protective epidermis to increase exposure. After 15 minutes the dermatologist performs a visual check for swelling and erythema which is subjective and difficult for e.g. dark skin types. A small smart phone based thermo camera (FLIR One) was used to obtain quantitative images in a feasibility study of 17 patients Directly after allergen exposure on the forearm, thermal images were captured at 30 seconds interval and processed to a time lapse movie over 15 minutes. Considering the 'subjective' reading of the dermatologist as golden standard, in 11/17 pts (65%) the evaluation of dermatologist was confirmed by the thermo camera including 5 of 6 patients without allergic response. In 7 patients thermo showed additional spots. Of the 342 sites tested, the dermatologist detected 47 allergies of which 28 (60%) were confirmed by thermo imaging while thermo imaging showed 12 additional spots. The method can be improved with user dedicated acquisition software and better registration between normal and thermal images. The lymphatic reaction seems to shift from the original puncture site. The interpretation of the thermal images is still subjective since collecting quantitative data is difficult due to motion patient during 15 minutes. Although not yet conclusive, thermal imaging shows to be promising to improve the sensitivity and selectivity of allergy testing using a smart phone based camera.

  8. Chromosomal aberrations in mobile phone users in Tamilnadu, southern India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balachandar, V.; Lakshman Kumar, B.; Suresh, K.; Sangeetha, R.; Manikantan, P.; Sasikala, K.

    2007-01-01

    Complete text of publication follows. Radiofrequency (RF) waves have long been used for different types of information exchange via the airwaves-wireless Morse code, radio, television, and wireless telephony. Increasingly larger numbers of people rely on mobile telephone technology, and health concerns about the associated RF exposure have been raised, particularly because the mobile phone handset operates in close proximity to the human body, and also because large numbers of base station antennas are required to provide widespread availability of service to large populations. In the present study chromosomal damage investigations were carried out on the peripheral blood lymphocytes of individuals using mobile phones, being exposed to MW frequency ranging from 800 to 2000 MHz. The aim of this study is to establish whether mobile phone use (n = 27) increases the frequency of chromosome aberrations (CA) in peripheral blood lymphocytes compared with controls (n = 27) in Tamilnadu, India. After signing a consent form, volunteers provided blood samples (5 ml) to establish cell cultures at 52 hrs. For CA analysis, 100 complete metaphase cells from each subject were evaluated. In the present study, in mobile phone users highly significant results were obtained when compared to control groups. These results highlight a correlation between mobile phone use (exposure to RFR) and genetic damage and require interim public health actions in the wake of widespread use of mobile telephony.

  9. Engagement Within a Mobile Phone-Based Smoking Cessation Intervention for Adolescents and its Association With Participant Characteristics and Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paz Castro, Raquel; Haug, Severin; Filler, Andreas; Kowatsch, Tobias; Schaub, Michael P

    2017-11-01

    over all three models, with greater reductions in daily tobacco use than nonengagement. The majority of tobacco-smoking adolescents engaged extensively with a mobile phone-based smoking cessation program. However, not only stable engagement but also decreasing engagement with a program might be an indicator of behavioral change. Measures to avoid nonengagement among adolescents appear especially necessary for older smokers with an immigrant background who do not drink excessively. In addition, future studies should not only examine the use of specific program components but also users' engagement trajectories to better understand the mechanisms behind behavioral change. ©Raquel Paz Castro, Severin Haug, Andreas Filler, Tobias Kowatsch, Michael P Schaub. Originally published in the Journal of Medical Internet Research (http://www.jmir.org), 01.11.2017.

  10. Epidemic of cell phone virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Pu; González, Marta; Barabási, Albert-László.

    2008-03-01

    Standard operating systems and Bluetooth technology will be a trend for future cell phone features. These will enable cell phone viruses to spread either through SMS or by sending Bluetooth requests when cell phones are physically close enough. The difference in spreading methods gives these two types of viruses' different epidemiological characteristics. SMS viruses' spread is mainly based on people's social connections, whereas the spreading of Bluetooth viruses is affected by people's mobility patterns and population distribution. Using cell phone data recording calls, SMS and locations of more than 6 million users, we study the spread of SMS and Bluetooth viruses and characterize how the social network and the mobility of mobile phone users affect such spreading processes.

  11. Fire Stations

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — Fire Stations in the United States Any location where fire fighters are stationed or based out of, or where equipment that such personnel use in carrying out their...

  12. Site selection model for new metro stations based on land use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Nan; Chen, Xuewu

    2015-12-01

    Since the construction of metro system generally lags behind the development of urban land use, sites of metro stations should adapt to their surrounding situations, which was rarely discussed by previous research on station layout. This paper proposes a new site selection model to find the best location for a metro station, establishing the indicator system based on land use and combining AHP with entropy weight method to obtain the schemes' ranking. The feasibility and efficiency of this model has been validated by evaluating Nanjing Shengtai Road station and other potential sites.

  13. Comparative studies of the ITU-T prediction model for radiofrequency radiation emission and real time measurements at some selected mobile base transceiver stations in Accra, Ghana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Obeng, S. O

    2014-07-01

    Recent developments in the electronics industry have led to the widespread use of radiofrequency (RF) devices in various areas including telecommunications. The increasing numbers of mobile base station (BTS) as well as their proximity to residential areas have been accompanied by public health concerns due to the radiation exposure. The main objective of this research was to compare and modify the ITU- T predictive model for radiofrequency radiation emission for BTS with measured data at some selected cell sites in Accra, Ghana. Theoretical and experimental assessment of radiofrequency exposures due to mobile base station antennas have been analysed. The maximum and minimum average power density measured from individual base station in the town was 1. 86µW/m2 and 0.00961µW/m2 respectively. The ITU-T Predictive model power density ranged between 6.40mW/m 2 and 0.344W/m 2 . Results obtained showed a variation between measured power density levels and the ITU-T predictive model. The ITU-T model power density levels decrease with increase in radial distance while real time measurements do not due to fluctuations during measurement. The ITU-T model overestimated the power density levels by a factor l0 5 as compared to real time measurements. The ITU-T model was modified to reduce the level of overestimation. The result showed that radiation intensity varies from one base station to another even at the same distance. Occupational exposure quotient ranged between 5.43E-10 and 1.89E-08 whilst general public exposure quotient ranged between 2.72E-09 and 9.44E-08. From the results, it shows that the RF exposure levels in Accra from these mobile phone base station antennas are below the permitted RF exposure limit to the general public recommended by the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection. (au)

  14. MEMS-based thermally-actuated image stabilizer for cellular phone camera

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, Chun-Ying; Chiou, Jin-Chern

    2012-01-01

    This work develops an image stabilizer (IS) that is fabricated using micro-electro-mechanical system (MEMS) technology and is designed to counteract the vibrations when human using cellular phone cameras. The proposed IS has dimensions of 8.8 × 8.8 × 0.3 mm 3 and is strong enough to suspend an image sensor. The processes that is utilized to fabricate the IS includes inductive coupled plasma (ICP) processes, reactive ion etching (RIE) processes and the flip-chip bonding method. The IS is designed to enable the electrical signals from the suspended image sensor to be successfully emitted out using signal output beams, and the maximum actuating distance of the stage exceeds 24.835 µm when the driving current is 155 mA. Depending on integration of MEMS device and designed controller, the proposed IS can decrease the hand tremor by 72.5%. (paper)

  15. Research on dynamic performance design of mobile phone application based on context awareness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bo, Zhang

    2018-05-01

    It aims to explore the dynamic performance of different mobile phone applications and the user's cognitive differences, reduce the cognitive burden, and enhance the sense of experience. By analyzing the dynamic design performance in four different interactive contexts, and constructing the framework of information service process in the interactive context perception and the two perception principles of the cognitive consensus between designer and user, and the two kinds of knowledge in accordance with the perception principles. The analysis of the context will help users sense the dynamic performance more intuitively, so that the details of interaction will be performed more vividly and smoothly, thus enhance user's experience in the interactive process. The common perception experience enables designers and users to produce emotional resonance in different interactive contexts, and help them achieve rapid understanding of interactive content and perceive the logic and hierarchy of the content and the structure, therefore the effectiveness of mobile applications will be improved.

  16. Telemedicine and Alzheimer's Disease from Studio-Based Videoconferencing to Mobile Handheld Cell Phones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pk (Poh-Kooi Loh

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of Telemedicine in the assessment of cognitive impairment and Alzheimer's Disease is evolving with advances in Information and Communication Technology. This article outlines the course of evolution in Western Australia, a large state with a sparse population outside of the capital city. The starting point of the evolution, video-conferencing in Telehealth studios, is reviewed as well as the next stage, use of desktop technology, which enables the physician to consult from the office or clinic. A pilot study currently being undertaken to assess the validity of the latest stage in evolution of Telehealth—the use of handheld mobile cell phone video calling that allows the physician and patient to interact at locations convenient to both parties. The pitfalls and implications of the use of this stage, should it prove to be a valid approach, are discussed.

  17. Smart-phone based electrocardiogram wavelet decomposition and neural network classification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jannah, N; Hadjiloucas, S; Hwang, F; Galvão, R K H

    2013-01-01

    This paper discusses ECG classification after parametrizing the ECG waveforms in the wavelet domain. The aim of the work is to develop an accurate classification algorithm that can be used to diagnose cardiac beat abnormalities detected using a mobile platform such as smart-phones. Continuous time recurrent neural network classifiers are considered for this task. Records from the European ST-T Database are decomposed in the wavelet domain using discrete wavelet transform (DWT) filter banks and the resulting DWT coefficients are filtered and used as inputs for training the neural network classifier. Advantages of the proposed methodology are the reduced memory requirement for the signals which is of relevance to mobile applications as well as an improvement in the ability of the neural network in its generalization ability due to the more parsimonious representation of the signal to its inputs.

  18. Public exposure to radio waves near GSM microcell and picocell base stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cooper, T G; Mann, S M; Khalid, M; Blackwell, R P

    2006-01-01

    Exposures of the general public to radio waves at locations near 20 randomly selected GSM microcell and picocell base stations in the UK have been assessed in the context of the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP) guidelines. Compliance distances were calculated for the antennas of the base stations from their reported radiated powers. Under pessimistic assumptions that would maximise exposures, the minimum height at which the general public reference level could potentially be exceeded near any of the base station antennas was calculated to be 2.4 m above ground level. The power densities of the broadcast carriers transmitted by the base stations have been measured and scaled to include all other possible carriers. Exposures were generally in the range 0.002-2% of the ICNIRP general public reference level, and the greatest exposure quotient near any of the base stations was 8.6%. Exposures close to microcell base stations were found to be generally greater than those close to macrocell base stations

  19. The efficacy of mobile phone-based text message interventions (‘Happy Quit’ for smoking cessation in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanhui Liao

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Considering the extreme shortage of smoking cessation services in China, and the acceptability, feasibility and efficacy of mobile phone-based text message interventions for quitting smoking in other countries, here we propose a study of “the efficacy of mobile phone-based text message interventions (‘Happy Quit’ for smoking cessation in China”. The primary objective of this proposed project is to assess whether a program of widely accessed mobile phone-based text message interventions (‘Happy Quit’ will be effective at helping people in China who smoke, to quit. Based on the efficacy of previous studies in smoking cessation, we hypothesize that ‘Happy Quit’ will be an effective, feasible and affordable smoking cessation program in China. Methods/Design In this single-blind, randomized trial, undertaken in China, about 2000 smokers willing to make a quit attempt will be randomly allocated, using an independent telephone randomization system that includes a minimization algorithm balancing for sex (male, female, age (19–34 or >34 years, educational level (≤ or >12 years, and Fagerstrom score for nicotine addiction (≤5, >5, to ‘Happy Quit’, comprising motivational messages and behavioral-change support, or to a control group that receives text messages unrelated to quitting. Messages will be developed to be suitable for Chinese. A pilot study will be conducted before the intervention to modify the library of messages and interventions. The primary outcome will be self-reported continuous smoking abstinence. A secondary outcome will be point prevalence of abstinence. Abstinence will be assessed at six time points (4, 8, 12, 16, 20 and 24 weeks post-intervention. A third outcome will be reductions in number of cigarettes smoked per day. Discussion/Implications The results will provide valuable insights into bridging the gap between need and services received for smoking cessation interventions and

  20. The efficacy of mobile phone-based text message interventions ('Happy Quit') for smoking cessation in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Yanhui; Wu, Qiuxia; Tang, Jinsong; Zhang, Fengyu; Wang, Xuyi; Qi, Chang; He, Haoyu; Long, Jiang; Kelly, Brian C; Cohen, Joanna

    2016-08-19

    Considering the extreme shortage of smoking cessation services in China, and the acceptability, feasibility and efficacy of mobile phone-based text message interventions for quitting smoking in other countries, here we propose a study of "the efficacy of mobile phone-based text message interventions ('Happy Quit') for smoking cessation in China". The primary objective of this proposed project is to assess whether a program of widely accessed mobile phone-based text message interventions ('Happy Quit') will be effective at helping people in China who smoke, to quit. Based on the efficacy of previous studies in smoking cessation, we hypothesize that 'Happy Quit' will be an effective, feasible and affordable smoking cessation program in China. In this single-blind, randomized trial, undertaken in China, about 2000 smokers willing to make a quit attempt will be randomly allocated, using an independent telephone randomization system that includes a minimization algorithm balancing for sex (male, female), age (19-34 or >34 years), educational level (≤ or >12 years), and Fagerstrom score for nicotine addiction (≤5, >5), to 'Happy Quit', comprising motivational messages and behavioral-change support, or to a control group that receives text messages unrelated to quitting. Messages will be developed to be suitable for Chinese. A pilot study will be conducted before the intervention to modify the library of messages and interventions. The primary outcome will be self-reported continuous smoking abstinence. A secondary outcome will be point prevalence of abstinence. Abstinence will be assessed at six time points (4, 8, 12, 16, 20 and 24 weeks post-intervention). A third outcome will be reductions in number of cigarettes smoked per day. The results will provide valuable insights into bridging the gap between need and services received for smoking cessation interventions and tobacco use prevention in China. It will also serve as mHealth model for extending the public

  1. Research on Single Base-Station Distance Estimation Algorithm in Quasi-GPS Ultrasonic Location System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng, X C; Su, S J; Wang, Y K; Du, J B

    2006-01-01

    In order to identify each base-station in quasi-GPS ultrasonic location system, a unique pseudo-random code is assigned to each base-station. This article primarily studies the distance estimation problem between Autonomous Guide Vehicle (AGV) and single base-station, and then the ultrasonic spread-spectrum distance measurement Time Delay Estimation (TDE) model is established. Based on the above model, the envelope correlation fast TDE algorithm based on FFT is presented and analyzed. It shows by experiments that when the m sequence used in the received signal is as same as the reference signal, there will be a sharp correlation value in their envelope correlation function after they are processed by the above algorithm; otherwise, the will be no prominent correlation value. So, the AGV can identify each base-station easily

  2. Research on Single Base-Station Distance Estimation Algorithm in Quasi-GPS Ultrasonic Location System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheng, X C; Su, S J; Wang, Y K; Du, J B [Instrument Department, College of Mechatronics Engineering and Automation, National University of Defense Technology, ChangSha, Hunan, 410073 (China)

    2006-10-15

    In order to identify each base-station in quasi-GPS ultrasonic location system, a unique pseudo-random code is assigned to each base-station. This article primarily studies the distance estimation problem between Autonomous Guide Vehicle (AGV) and single base-station, and then the ultrasonic spread-spectrum distance measurement Time Delay Estimation (TDE) model is established. Based on the above model, the envelope correlation fast TDE algorithm based on FFT is presented and analyzed. It shows by experiments that when the m sequence used in the received signal is as same as the reference signal, there will be a sharp correlation value in their envelope correlation function after they are processed by the above algorithm; otherwise, the will be no prominent correlation value. So, the AGV can identify each base-station easily.

  3. Assessment of Radiofrequency Radiation Distribution around Mobile Base Stations in Makurdi, Benue State

    OpenAIRE

    J.T. Iortile; E.H. Agba

    2014-01-01

    The radiofrequency field levels of selected MTN and ZAIN base stations in Makurdi were measured using electromagnetic field tester (EMF 827, Lutron). Measurements were done at distances of approximately 5.00, 10.00, 15.00 and 20.00 metres for each base station at the North, South, West, and East directions. Results shows that the average magnetic field levels of MTN and ZAIN base station ranged between 0.09 μT to 0.15 μT. The mean electric field values for eye, brain and muscles ranged betwee...

  4. 47 CFR 0.434 - Data bases and lists of authorized broadcast stations and pending broadcast applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... stations and pending broadcast applications. 0.434 Section 0.434 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS... Commission § 0.434 Data bases and lists of authorized broadcast stations and pending broadcast applications... broadcast stations, pending applications for such stations, and rulemaking proceedings involving amendments...

  5. Space Station - The base for tomorrow's electronic industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naumann, Robert J.

    1985-01-01

    The potential value of space material processing on the Space Station for the electronics industry is examined. The primary advantages of the space environment for producing high-purity semiconductors and electrooptical materials are identified as the virtual absence of gravity (suppressing buoyancy-driven convection in melts and density segregation of alloys) and the availabilty of high vacuum (with high pumping speed and heat rejection). The recent history of material development and processing technology in the electronics industry is reviewed, and the principal features of early space experiments are outlined.

  6. Smart-phone based computational microscopy using multi-frame contact imaging on a fiber-optic array.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navruz, Isa; Coskun, Ahmet F; Wong, Justin; Mohammad, Saqib; Tseng, Derek; Nagi, Richie; Phillips, Stephen; Ozcan, Aydogan

    2013-10-21

    We demonstrate a cellphone based contact microscopy platform, termed Contact Scope, which can image highly dense or connected samples in transmission mode. Weighing approximately 76 grams, this portable and compact microscope is installed on the existing camera unit of a cellphone using an opto-mechanical add-on, where planar samples of interest are placed in contact with the top facet of a tapered fiber-optic array. This glass-based tapered fiber array has ~9 fold higher density of fiber optic cables on its top facet compared to the bottom one and is illuminated by an incoherent light source, e.g., a simple light-emitting-diode (LED). The transmitted light pattern through the object is then sampled by this array of fiber optic cables, delivering a transmission image of the sample onto the other side of the taper, with ~3× magnification in each direction. This magnified image of the object, located at the bottom facet of the fiber array, is then projected onto the CMOS image sensor of the cellphone using two lenses. While keeping the sample and the cellphone camera at a fixed position, the fiber-optic array is then manually rotated with discrete angular increments of e.g., 1-2 degrees. At each angular position of the fiber-optic array, contact images are captured using the cellphone camera, creating a sequence of transmission images for the same sample. These multi-frame images are digitally fused together based on a shift-and-add algorithm through a custom-developed Android application running on the smart-phone, providing the final microscopic image of the sample, visualized through the screen of the phone. This final computation step improves the resolution and also removes spatial artefacts that arise due to non-uniform sampling of the transmission intensity at the fiber optic array surface. We validated the performance of this cellphone based Contact Scope by imaging resolution test charts and blood smears.

  7. Integrating mobile-phone based assessment for psychosis into people's everyday lives and clinical care: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmier-Claus, Jasper E; Rogers, Anne; Ainsworth, John; Machin, Matt; Barrowclough, Christine; Laverty, Louise; Barkus, Emma; Kapur, Shitij; Wykes, Til; Lewis, Shôn W

    2013-01-23

    Over the past decade policy makers have emphasised the importance of healthcare technology in the management of long-term conditions. Mobile-phone based assessment may be one method of facilitating clinically- and cost-effective intervention, and increasing the autonomy and independence of service users. Recently, text-message and smartphone interfaces have been developed for the real-time assessment of symptoms in individuals with schizophrenia. Little is currently understood about patients' perceptions of these systems, and how they might be implemented into their everyday routine and clinical care. 24 community based individuals with non-affective psychosis completed a randomised repeated-measure cross-over design study, where they filled in self-report questions about their symptoms via text-messages on their own phone, or via a purpose designed software application for Android smartphones, for six days. Qualitative interviews were conducted in order to explore participants' perceptions and experiences of the devices, and thematic analysis was used to analyse the data. Three themes emerged from the data: i) the appeal of usability and familiarity, ii) acceptability, validity and integration into domestic routines, and iii) perceived impact on clinical care. Although participants generally found the technology non-stigmatising and well integrated into their everyday activities, the repetitiveness of the questions was identified as a likely barrier to long-term adoption. Potential benefits to the quality of care received were seen in terms of assisting clinicians, faster and more efficient data exchange, and aiding patient-clinician communication. However, patients often failed to see the relevance of the systems to their personal situations, and emphasised the threat to the person centred element of their care. The feedback presented in this paper suggests that patients are conscious of the benefits that mobile-phone based assessment could bring to clinical care

  8. Integrating mobile-phone based assessment for psychosis into people’s everyday lives and clinical care: a qualitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Palmier-Claus Jasper E

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Over the past decade policy makers have emphasised the importance of healthcare technology in the management of long-term conditions. Mobile-phone based assessment may be one method of facilitating clinically- and cost-effective intervention, and increasing the autonomy and independence of service users. Recently, text-message and smartphone interfaces have been developed for the real-time assessment of symptoms in individuals with schizophrenia. Little is currently understood about patients’ perceptions of these systems, and how they might be implemented into their everyday routine and clinical care. Method 24 community based individuals with non-affective psychosis completed a randomised repeated-measure cross-over design study, where they filled in self-report questions about their symptoms via text-messages on their own phone, or via a purpose designed software application for Android smartphones, for six days. Qualitative interviews were conducted in order to explore participants’ perceptions and experiences of the devices, and thematic analysis was used to analyse the data. Results Three themes emerged from the data: i the appeal of usability and familiarity, ii acceptability, validity and integration into domestic routines, and iii perceived impact on clinical care. Although participants generally found the technology non-stigmatising and well integrated into their everyday activities, the repetitiveness of the questions was identified as a likely barrier to long-term adoption. Potential benefits to the quality of care received were seen in terms of assisting clinicians, faster and more efficient data exchange, and aiding patient-clinician communication. However, patients often failed to see the relevance of the systems to their personal situations, and emphasised the threat to the person centred element of their care. Conclusions The feedback presented in this paper suggests that patients are conscious of the

  9. Automatic Classification of Station Quality by Image Based Pattern Recognition of Ppsd Plots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, B.; Herrnkind, S.

    2017-12-01

    The number of seismic stations is growing and it became common practice to share station waveform data in real-time with the main data centers as IRIS, GEOFON, ORFEUS and RESIF. This made analyzing station performance of increasing importance for automatic real-time processing and station selection. The value of a station depends on different factors as quality and quantity of the data, location of the site and general station density in the surrounding area and finally the type of application it can be used for. The approach described by McNamara and Boaz (2006) became standard in the last decade. It incorporates a probability density function (PDF) to display the distribution of seismic power spectral density (PSD). The low noise model (LNM) and high noise model (HNM) introduced by Peterson (1993) are also displayed in the PPSD plots introduced by McNamara and Boaz allowing an estimation of the station quality. Here we describe how we established an automatic station quality classification module using image based pattern recognition on PPSD plots. The plots were split into 4 bands: short-period characteristics (0.1-0.8 s), body wave characteristics (0.8-5 s), microseismic characteristics (5-12 s) and long-period characteristics (12-100 s). The module sqeval connects to a SeedLink server, checks available stations, requests PPSD plots through the Mustang service from IRIS or PQLX/SQLX or from GIS (gempa Image Server), a module to generate different kind of images as trace plots, map plots, helicorder plots or PPSD plots. It compares the image based quality patterns for the different period bands with the retrieved PPSD plot. The quality of a station is divided into 5 classes for each of the 4 bands. Classes A, B, C, D define regular quality between LNM and HNM while the fifth class represents out of order stations with gain problems, missing data etc. Over all period bands about 100 different patterns are required to classify most of the stations available on the

  10. Survey of RF exposure levels from mobile telephone base stations in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, S I; Bangay, M J

    2006-01-01

    This paper reports the results of an exposure level survey of radiofrequency electromagnetic energy originating from mobile telephone base station antennas. Measurements of CDMA800, GSM900, GSM1800, and 3G(UMTS) signals were performed at distances ranging over 50 to 500 m from 60 base stations in five Australian cities. The exposure levels from these mobile telecommunications base stations were found to be well below the general public exposure limits of the ICNIRP guidelines and the Australian radiofrequency standard (ARPANSA RPS3). The highest recorded level from a single base station was 7.8 x 10(-3) W/m(2), which translates to 0.2% of the general public exposure limit.

  11. Initial Remedial Action Plan for Expanded Bioventing System BX Service Station, Patrick Air Force Base, Florida

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1995-01-01

    This initial remedial action plan presents the scope for an expanded bioventing system for in situ treatment of fuel-contaminated soils at the BX Service Station at Patrick Air Force Base (AFB), Florida...

  12. Real time analysis for atmospheric dispersions for Fukushima nuclear accident: Mobile phone based cloud computing assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woo, Tae Ho

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Possible nuclear accident is simulated for the atmospheric contaminations. • The simulations results give the relative importance of the fallouts. • The cloud computing of IT is performed successfully. • One can prepare for the possible damages of such a NPP accident. • Some other variables can be considered in the modeling. - Abstract: The radioactive material dispersion is investigated by the system dynamics (SD) method. The non-linear complex algorithm could give the information about the hazardous material behavior in the case of nuclear accident. The prevailing westerlies region is modeled for the dynamical consequences of the Fukushima nuclear accident. The event sequence shows the scenario from earthquake to dispersion of the radionuclides. Then, the dispersion reaches two cities in Korea. The importance of the radioactive dispersion is related to the fast and reliable data processing, which could be accomplished by cloud computing concept. The values of multiplications for the wind, plume concentrations, and cloud computing factor are obtained. The highest value is 94.13 in the 206th day for Seoul. In Pusan, the highest value is 15.48 in the 219th day. The source is obtained as dispersion of radionuclide multiplied by 100. The real time safety assessment is accomplished by mobile phone

  13. The assessment of spasticity: Pendulum test based smart phone movie of passive markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksić Antonina

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The pendulum test is the method for quantification of the level of spasticity in persons with spinal cord and brain injuries/diseases. The data for the assessment comes from the analysis of lower leg rotation in the sagittal plane while sitting caused by gravity. We built a simple instrument that uses the smart phone and passive markers for studying the pendulum movement of the leg. We compared the results of the new device with the results acquired with the conventional apparatus which uses a knee joint angle encoder and inertial sensors mounted on the upper and lower leg. The differences of parameters estimated from the test between the two systems are in the range of 5%, which is in the same range as the precision of the positioning of the pendulum apparatus on the leg. The new system is simple for the application (donning, doffing, setup time, accuracy, repeatability and allows a straightforward interpretation to a clinician. [Project of the Serbian Ministry of Education, Science and Technological Development, Grant no. TR 35003 and Grant no. III 44008

  14. Reciprocity of mobile phone calls

    OpenAIRE

    Kovanen, Lauri; Saramaki, Jari; Kaski, Kimmo

    2010-01-01

    We present a study of the reciprocity of human behaviour based on mobile phone usage records. The underlying question is whether human relationships are mutual, in the sense that both are equally active in keeping up the relationship, or is it on the contrary typical that relationships are lopsided, with one party being significantly more active than the other. We study this question with the help of a mobile phone data set consisting of all mobile phone calls between 5.3 million customers of...

  15. Improved social force model based on exit selection for microscopic pedestrian simulation in subway station

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑勋; 李海鹰; 孟令云; 许心越; 陈旭

    2015-01-01

    An improved social force model based on exit selection is proposed to simulate pedestrians’ microscopic behaviors in subway station. The modification lies in considering three factors of spatial distance, occupant density and exit width. In addition, the problem of pedestrians selecting exit frequently is solved as follows: not changing to other exits in the affected area of one exit, using the probability of remaining preceding exit and invoking function of exit selection after several simulation steps. Pedestrians in subway station have some special characteristics, such as explicit destinations, different familiarities with subway station. Finally, Beijing Zoo Subway Station is taken as an example and the feasibility of the model results is verified through the comparison of the actual data and simulation data. The simulation results show that the improved model can depict the microscopic behaviors of pedestrians in subway station.

  16. Lunar base mission technology issues and orbital demonstration requirements on space station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llewellyn, Charles P.; Weidman, Deene J.

    1992-01-01

    The International Space Station has been the object of considerable design, redesign, and alteration since it was originally proposed in early 1984. In the intervening years the station has slowly evolved to a specific design that was thoroughly reviewed by a large agency-wide Critical Evaluation Task Force (CETF). As space station designs continue to evolve, studies must be conducted to determine the suitability of the current design for some of the primary purposes for which the station will be used. This paper concentrates on the technology requirements and issues, the on-orbit demonstration and verification program, and the space station focused support required prior to the establishment of a permanently manned lunar base as identified in the National Commission on Space report. Technology issues associated with the on-orbit assembly and processing of the lunar vehicle flight elements are also discussed.

  17. A Technical Approach to the Evaluation of Radiofrequency Radiation Emissions from Mobile Telephony Base Stations

    OpenAIRE

    Buckus, Raimondas; Struk?inskien?, Birute; Raistenskis, Juozas; Stukas, Rimantas; ?idlauskien?, Aurelija; ?erkauskien?, Rimant?; Isopescu, Dorina Nicolina; Stabryla, Jan; Cretescu, Igor

    2017-01-01

    During the last two decades, the number of macrocell mobile telephony base station antennas emitting radiofrequency (RF) electromagnetic radiation (EMR) in residential areas has increased significantly, and therefore much more attention is being paid to RF EMR and its effects on human health. Scientific field measurements of public exposure to RF EMR (specifically to radio frequency radiation) from macrocell mobile telephony base station antennas and RF electromagnetic field (EMF) intensity p...

  18. Assesment of Carbon Credits for Power Generation Systems at GSM Base Station Site

    OpenAIRE

    Ani, Vincent Anayochukwu; Ani, Emmanuel Onyeka

    2016-01-01

    Electricity production is often a source of CO2 emissions, for instance when fossil fuel is combusted in power plants. Therefore the root cause of pollution coming from telecommunication industry is the source of energy (diesel genset) the network operators used in running their Base station sites. Energy consumption of using diesel to power base station by telecom networks is a contributor to global greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. This paper presents the comparative carbon credits of hybrid ...

  19. Efficacy of a randomized cell phone-based counseling intervention in postponing subsequent pregnancy among teen mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, Kathy S; Rodan, Margaret; Milligan, Renee; Tan, Sylvia; Courtney, Lauren; Gantz, Marie; Blake, Susan M; McClain, Lenora; Davis, Maurice; Kiely, Michele; Subramanian, Siva

    2011-12-01

    Adolescent mothers in Washington, DC have a high rate of subsequent teen pregnancies, often within 24 months. Children of teen mothers are at risk for adverse psychosocial outcomes. When adolescents are strongly attached to parents, schools, and positive peers, they may be less likely to repeat a pregnancy. This study tested the efficacy of a counseling intervention delivered by cell phone and focused on postponing subsequent teen pregnancies by strengthening healthy relationships, reproductive practices, and positive youth assets. The objective of this study was to compare time to a repeat pregnancy between the intervention and usual care groups, and, secondarily, to determine whether treatment intensity influenced time to subsequent conception. Primiparous pregnant teens ages 15-19, were recruited in Washington, DC. Of 849 teens screened, 29.3% (n = 249) met inclusion criteria, consented to participate, and completed baseline measures. They were then randomized to the intervention (N = 124) or to usual care (N = 125). Intervention group teens received cell phones for 18 months of counseling sessions, and quarterly group sessions. Follow-up measures assessed subsequent pregnancy through 24 months post-delivery. A survival analysis compared time to subsequent conception in the two treatment groups. Additional models examined the effect of treatment intensity. By 24 months, 31% of the intervention and 36% of usual care group teens had a subsequent pregnancy. Group differences were not statistically significant in intent-to-treat analysis. Because there was variability in the degree of exposure of teens to the curriculum, a survival analysis accounting for treatment intensity was performed and a significant interaction with age was detected. Participants who were aged 15-17 years at delivery showed a significant reduction in subsequent pregnancy with increased levels of intervention exposure (P teen pregnancy. Cell phone-based approaches to counseling may not be the

  20. Research on Application of Automatic Weather Station Based on Internet of Things

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jianyun, Chen; Yunfan, Sun; Chunyan, Lin

    2017-12-01

    In this paper, the Internet of Things is briefly introduced, and then its application in the weather station is studied. A method of data acquisition and transmission based on NB-iot communication mode is proposed, Introduction of Internet of things technology, Sensor digital and independent power supply as the technical basis, In the construction of Automatic To realize the intelligent interconnection of the automatic weather station, and then to form an automatic weather station based on the Internet of things. A network structure of automatic weather station based on Internet of things technology is constructed to realize the independent operation of intelligent sensors and wireless data transmission. Research on networking data collection and dissemination of meteorological data, through the data platform for data analysis, the preliminary work of meteorological information publishing standards, networking of meteorological information receiving terminal provides the data interface, to the wisdom of the city, the wisdom of the purpose of the meteorological service.

  1. [Danger of cellular telephones and their relay stations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santini, R; Seigne, M; Bonhomme-Faivre, L

    2000-07-01

    Cellular phones and their base stations emit pulsed microwaves in the environment. Cellular phone users are exposed in the near field and, under this condition, a large part of the electromagnetic energy is absorbed by the head, leading to an increased brain temperature. The general population is exposed under far field conditions to an electromagnetic intensity depending on the distance from the base station, passive re-emitters, the number of communications maintained by the base station and their position in relation to antennae (in front of the antenna or behind). Biological effects have been reported, such as radiofrequency sickness, electroencephalographic and blood pressure changes and also cancer risks in humans and animals exposed to microwave irradiation. Some European countries (Italy, France, Belgium, etc.) have taken measures to protect their populations.

  2. Mobile phone-based education and counseling to reduce stress among patients with diabetes mellitus attending a tertiary care hospital of India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lipilekha Patnaik

    2015-01-01

    Conclusions: Intervention in the form of intensive lifestyle education and phone calls and SMS significantly decrease their stress score. Mobile-based education has great potential to improve their mental status and increase patient-provider communication, and to decrease stress.

  3. Quality of Mobile Phone and Tablet Mobile Apps for Speech Sound Disorders: Protocol for an Evidence-Based Appraisal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furlong, Lisa M; Morris, Meg E; Erickson, Shane; Serry, Tanya A

    2016-11-29

    Although mobile apps are readily available for speech sound disorders (SSD), their validity has not been systematically evaluated. This evidence-based appraisal will critically review and synthesize current evidence on available therapy apps for use by children with SSD. The main aims are to (1) identify the types of apps currently available for Android and iOS mobile phones and tablets, and (2) to critique their design features and content using a structured quality appraisal tool. This protocol paper presents and justifies the methods used for a systematic review of mobile apps that provide intervention for use by children with SSD. The primary outcomes of interest are (1) engagement, (2) functionality, (3) aesthetics, (4) information quality, (5) subjective quality, and (6) perceived impact. Quality will be assessed by 2 certified practicing speech-language pathologists using a structured quality appraisal tool. Two app stores will be searched from the 2 largest operating platforms, Android and iOS. Systematic methods of knowledge synthesis shall include searching the app stores using a defined procedure, data extraction, and quality analysis. This search strategy shall enable us to determine how many SSD apps are available for Android and for iOS compatible mobile phones and tablets. It shall also identify the regions of the world responsible for the apps' development, the content and the quality of offerings. Recommendations will be made for speech-language pathologists seeking to use mobile apps in their clinical practice. This protocol provides a structured process for locating apps and appraising the quality, as the basis for evaluating their use in speech pathology for children in English-speaking nations. ©Lisa M Furlong, Meg E Morris, Shane Erickson, Tanya A Serry. Originally published in JMIR Research Protocols (http://www.researchprotocols.org), 29.11.2016.

  4. A Pseudorange Measurement Scheme Based on Snapshot for Base Station Positioning Receivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mo, Jun; Deng, Zhongliang; Jia, Buyun; Bian, Xinmei

    2017-12-01

    Digital multimedia broadcasting signal is promised to be a wireless positioning signal. This paper mainly studies a multimedia broadcasting technology, named China mobile multimedia broadcasting (CMMB), in the context of positioning. Theoretical and practical analysis on the CMMB signal suggests that the existing CMMB signal does not have the meter positioning capability. So, the CMMB system has been modified to achieve meter positioning capability by multiplexing the CMMB signal and pseudo codes in the same frequency band. The time difference of arrival (TDOA) estimation method is used in base station positioning receivers. Due to the influence of a complex fading channel and the limited bandwidth of receivers, the regular tracking method based on pseudo code ranging is difficult to provide continuous and accurate TDOA estimations. A pseudorange measurement scheme based on snapshot is proposed to solve the problem. This algorithm extracts the TDOA estimation from the stored signal fragments, and utilizes the Taylor expansion of the autocorrelation function to improve the TDOA estimation accuracy. Monte Carlo simulations and real data tests show that the proposed algorithm can significantly reduce the TDOA estimation error for base station positioning receivers, and then the modified CMMB system achieves meter positioning accuracy.

  5. Adaptive Source Localization Based Station Keeping of Autonomous Vehicles

    KAUST Repository

    Guler, Samet; Fidan, Baris; Dasgupta, Soura; Anderson, Brian D.O.; Shames, Iman

    2016-01-01

    We study the problem of driving a mobile sensory agent to a target whose location is specied only in terms of the distances to a set of sensor stations or beacons. The beacon positions are unknown, but the agent can continuously measure its distances to them as well as its own position. This problem has two particular applications: (1) capturing a target signal source whose distances to the beacons are measured by these beacons and broadcasted to a surveillance agent, (2) merging a single agent to an autonomous multi-agent system so that the new agent is positioned at desired distances from the existing agents. The problem is solved using an adaptive control framework integrating a parameter estimator producing beacon location estimates, and an adaptive motion control law fed by these estimates to steer the agent toward the target. For location estimation, a least-squares adaptive law is used. The motion control law aims to minimize a convex cost function with unique minimizer at the target location, and is further augmented for persistence of excitation. Stability and convergence analysis is provided, as well as simulation results demonstrating performance and transient behavior.

  6. Adaptive Source Localization Based Station Keeping of Autonomous Vehicles

    KAUST Repository

    Guler, Samet

    2016-10-26

    We study the problem of driving a mobile sensory agent to a target whose location is specied only in terms of the distances to a set of sensor stations or beacons. The beacon positions are unknown, but the agent can continuously measure its distances to them as well as its own position. This problem has two particular applications: (1) capturing a target signal source whose distances to the beacons are measured by these beacons and broadcasted to a surveillance agent, (2) merging a single agent to an autonomous multi-agent system so that the new agent is positioned at desired distances from the existing agents. The problem is solved using an adaptive control framework integrating a parameter estimator producing beacon location estimates, and an adaptive motion control law fed by these estimates to steer the agent toward the target. For location estimation, a least-squares adaptive law is used. The motion control law aims to minimize a convex cost function with unique minimizer at the target location, and is further augmented for persistence of excitation. Stability and convergence analysis is provided, as well as simulation results demonstrating performance and transient behavior.

  7. Experimental research of variable rotation speed ICE-based electric power station

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dar’enkov Andrey

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Developing variable rotation speed ICE-based stand-alone electric power stations which can supply distant regions and autonomous objects with electricity are of scientific interest due to the insufficient study. The relevance of developing such electric power stations is determined by their usage is to provide a significant fuel saving as well as increase ICE motor service life. The article describes the electric station of autonomous objects with improved fuel economy. The article describes multivariate characteristic. Multivariate characteristic shows the optimal frequency of rotation of the internal combustion engine. At this rotational speed there is the greatest fuel economy.

  8. Mobile phone; Mobiltelefon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2009-07-01

    Almost the entire Norwegian population has cell phone. The usefulness of the cell phone is great, but can use a mobile phone to health or discomfort? How can exposure be reduced? NRPA follows research and provides advice on mobile phone use. (AG)

  9. Predictors of suicide and suicide attempt in subway stations: a population-based ecological study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niederkrotenthaler, Thomas; Sonneck, Gernot; Dervic, Kanita; Nader, Ingo W; Voracek, Martin; Kapusta, Nestor D; Etzersdorfer, Elmar; Mittendorfer-Rutz, Ellenor; Dorner, Thomas

    2012-04-01

    Suicidal behavior on the subway often involves young people and has a considerable impact on public life, but little is known about factors associated with suicides and suicide attempts in specific subway stations. Between 1979 and 2009, 185 suicides and 107 suicide attempts occurred on the subway in Vienna, Austria. Station-specific suicide and suicide attempt rates (defined as the frequency of suicidal incidents per time period) were modeled as the outcome variables in bivariate and multivariate Poisson regression models. Structural station characteristics (presence of a surveillance unit, train types used, and construction on street level versus other construction), contextual station characteristics (neighborhood to historical sites, size of the catchment area, and in operation during time period of extensive media reporting on subway suicides), and passenger-based characteristics (number of passengers getting on the trains per day, use as meeting point by drug users, and socioeconomic status of the population in the catchment area) were used as the explanatory variables. In the multivariate analyses, subway suicides increased when stations were served by the faster train type. Subway suicide attempts increased with the daily number of passengers getting on the trains and with the stations' use as meeting points by drug users. The findings indicate that there are some differences between subway suicides and suicide attempts. Completed suicides seem to vary most with train type used. Suicide attempts seem to depend mostly on passenger-based characteristics, specifically on the station's crowdedness and on its use as meeting point by drug users. Suicide-preventive interventions should concentrate on crowded stations and on stations frequented by risk groups.

  10. Feasibility and Perceptions of Cell Phone-Based, Health-Related Communication With Adolescents in an Economically Depressed Area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawni, Anju; Cederna-Meko, Crystal; LaChance, Jenny L; Buttigieg, Angie; Le, Quoc; Nunuk, Irene; Ang, Joyce; Burrell, Katherine M

    2017-02-01

    We examined the feasibility and perception of cell-based (texting, voicemail [VM], and email/social media), health-related communication with adolescents in Genesee County, MI, where 22% reside below the poverty level. Results of an anonymous survey found that 86% of respondents owned a cell phone, 87% had data, 96% texted, 90.5% emailed/used social media, and 68% had VM. Most adolescents were interested in cell-based communication via texting (52%), VM (37%), and email/social media (31%). Interest in types of health communication included appointment reminders (99% texting; 94% VM; 95% email/social media), shot reminders (84.5% texting; 74.5% VM; 81% email/social media), call for test results (71.5% texting; 75% VM; 65% email/social media), medication reminders (63% texting; 54% VM; 58% e-mail/social media), and health tips (36% texting; 18.5% VM; 73% email/social media). Cell-based health-related communication with adolescents is feasible even within low socioeconomic status populations, primarily via texting. Health providers should embrace cell-based patient communication.

  11. Design of radio frequency power amplifiers for cellular phones and base stations in modern mobile communication systems

    OpenAIRE

    Wu, Lei

    2009-01-01

    The mobile radio communication has begun with Guglielmo Marconi's and Alexander Popov's experiments with ship-to-shore communication in the 1890's. Land mobile radio telephone systems have been used since the Detroit City Police Department installed the first wireless communication system in 1921. Since that time, radio systems have become more and more important for both voice and data communication. The modern mobile communication systems are mainly designed in high frequency ranges due...

  12. Determining the validity of exposure models for environmental epidemiology : predicting electromagnetic fields from mobile phone base stations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beekhuizen, Johan|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/34472641X

    2014-01-01

    One of the key challenges in environmental epidemiology is the exposure assessment of large populations. Spatial exposure models have been developed that predict exposure to the pollutant of interest for large study sizes. However, the validity of these exposure models is often unknown. In this

  13. Measuring personal exposure from 900MHz mobile phone base stations in Australia and Belgium using a novel personal distributed exposimeter

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bhatt, Chhavi Raj; Thielens, Arno; Redmayne, Mary; Abramson, Michael J; Billah, Baki; Sim, Malcolm R; Vermeulen, Roel; Martens, Luc; Joseph, Wout; Benke, Geza

    2016-01-01

    The aims of this study were to: i) measure personal exposure in the Global System for Mobile communications (GSM) 900MHz downlink (DL) frequency band with two systems of exposimeters, a personal distributed exposimeter (PDE) and a pair of ExpoM-RFs, ii) compare the GSM 900MHz DL exposures across

  14. Cell phone-based ecological momentary assessment of substance use context for Latino youth in outpatient treatment: Who, what, when and where.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comulada, W Scott; Swendeman, Dallas; Wu, Nancy

    2016-10-01

    Relationships between alcohol, marijuana and other drug (AOD) use and contextual factors have mostly been established through retrospective self-report. Given the embeddedness of cell phones in adolescents' daily activities, cell phone-based ecological momentary assessment (CEMA) provides an opportunity to better understand AOD use in youth and how cell phones can be used to self-monitor and deliver interventions. We use CEMA to examine AOD use in Latino youth who have been especially understudied. Twenty-eight mostly Latino youth (ages 13-18) in outpatient substance abuse treatment recorded AOD use, contextual factors, cravings, and affect through once-daily CEMA over one month periods. Random-effects logistic regression was used to compare contextual factors between periods of AOD use and non-use. The most frequent contextual factors reported during AOD use were being with close friends and "hanging out" as the primary activity. During AOD use compared to non-use, youth were more likely to be with close friends (OR=4.76; pcell phone-based interventions triggered by contextual data. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Design of a Base Station for MEMS CCR Localization in an Optical Sensor Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chan Gook Park

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper introduces a design and implementation of a base station, capable of positioning sensor nodes using an optical scheme. The base station consists of a pulse laser module, optical detectors and beam splitter, which are mounted on a rotation-stage, and a Time to Digital Converter (TDC. The optical pulse signal transmitted to the sensor node with a Corner Cube Retro-reflector (CCR is reflected to the base station, and the Time of Flight (ToF data can be obtained from the two detectors. With the angle and flight time data, the position of the sensor node can be calculated. The performance of the system is evaluated by using a commercial CCR. The sensor nodes are placed at different angles from the base station and scanned using the laser. We analyze the node position error caused by the rotation and propose error compensation methods, namely the outlier sample exception and decreasing the confidence factor steadily using the recursive least square (RLS methods. Based on the commercial CCR results, the MEMS CCR is also tested to demonstrate the compatibility between the base station and the proposed methods. The result shows that the localization performance of the system can be enhanced with the proposed compensation method using the MEMS CCR.

  16. Design of a base station for MEMS CCR localization in an optical sensor network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Chan Gook; Jeon, Hyun Cheol; Kim, Hyoun Jin; Kim, Jae Yoon

    2014-05-08

    This paper introduces a design and implementation of a base station, capable of positioning sensor nodes using an optical scheme. The base station consists of a pulse laser module, optical detectors and beam splitter, which are mounted on a rotation-stage, and a Time to Digital Converter (TDC). The optical pulse signal transmitted to the sensor node with a Corner Cube Retro-reflector (CCR) is reflected to the base station, and the Time of Flight (ToF) data can be obtained from the two detectors. With the angle and flight time data, the position of the sensor node can be calculated. The performance of the system is evaluated by using a commercial CCR. The sensor nodes are placed at different angles from the base station and scanned using the laser. We analyze the node position error caused by the rotation and propose error compensation methods, namely the outlier sample exception and decreasing the confidence factor steadily using the recursive least square (RLS) methods. Based on the commercial CCR results, the MEMS CCR is also tested to demonstrate the compatibility between the base station and the proposed methods. The result shows that the localization performance of the system can be enhanced with the proposed compensation method using the MEMS CCR.

  17. Mobile phone-based asthma self-management aid for adolescents (mASMAA: a feasibility study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rhee H

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Hyekyun Rhee,1 James Allen,2 Jennifer Mammen,1 Mary Swift21School of Nursing, 2Department of Computer Science, University of Rochester, Rochester, NY, USAPurpose: Adolescents report high asthma-related morbidity that can be prevented by adequate self-management of the disease. Therefore, there is a need for a developmentally appropriate strategy to promote effective asthma self-management. Mobile phone-based technology is portable, commonly accessible, and well received by adolescents. The purpose of this study was to develop and evaluate the feasibility and acceptability of a comprehensive mobile phone-based asthma self-management aid for adolescents (mASMAA that was designed to facilitate symptom monitoring, treatment adherence, and adolescent–parent partnership. The system used state-of-the-art natural language-understanding technology that allowed teens to use unconstrained English in their texts, and to self-initiate interactions with the system.Materials and methods: mASMAA was developed based on an existing natural dialogue system that supports broad coverage of everyday natural conversation in English. Fifteen adolescent–parent dyads participated in a 2-week trial that involved adolescents' daily scheduled and unscheduled interactions with mASMAA and parents responding to daily reports on adolescents' asthma condition automatically generated by mASMAA. Subsequently, four focus groups were conducted to systematically obtain user feedback on the system. Frequency data on the daily usage of mASMAA over the 2-week period were tabulated, and content analysis was conducted for focus group interview data.Results: Response rates for daily text messages were 81%–97% in adolescents. The average number of self-initiated messages to mASMAA was 19 per adolescent. Symptoms were the most common topic of teen-initiated messages. Participants concurred that use of mASMAA improved awareness of symptoms and triggers, promoted treatment adherence and

  18. Utilization of a Web-Based vs Integrated Phone/Web Cessation Program Among 140,000 Tobacco Users: An Evaluation Across 10 Free State Quitlines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vickerman, Katrina A; Kellogg, Elizabeth S; Zbikowski, Susan M

    2015-01-01

    Background Phone-based tobacco cessation program effectiveness has been established and randomized controlled trials have provided some support for Web-based services. Relatively little is known about who selects different treatment modalities and how they engage with treatments in a real-world setting. Objective This paper describes the characteristics, Web utilization patterns, and return rates of tobacco users who self-selected into a Web-based (Web-Only) versus integrated phone/Web (Phone/Web) cessation program. Methods We examined the demographics, baseline tobacco use, Web utilization patterns, and return rates of 141,429 adult tobacco users who self-selected into a Web-Only or integrated Phone/Web cessation program through 1 of 10 state quitlines from August 2012 through July 2013. For each state, registrants were only included from the timeframe in which both programs were offered to all enrollees. Utilization data were limited to site interactions occurring within 6 months after registration. Results Most participants selected the Phone/Web program (113,019/141,429, 79.91%). After enrollment in Web services, Web-Only were more likely to log in compared to Phone/Web (21,832/28,410, 76.85% vs 23,920/56,892, 42.04%; PPhone/Web were also more likely to return if they had completed a coaching call, identified as white non-Hispanic or “other” race, or were commercially insured (all Pphone. The interactive Tobacco Tracker, Cost Savings Calculator, and Quitting Plan were the most widely used features overall. Web-Only were more likely than Phone/Web to use most key features (all PPhone/Web and Web-Only, Web-Only were less likely to have received quitline NRT. Conclusions This paper adds to our understanding of who selects different cessation treatment modalities and how they engage with the program in a real-world setting. Web-Only were younger, healthier smokers of higher socioeconomic status who interacted more intensely with services in a single session

  19. Energy-Saving Optimization of Water Supply Pumping Station Life Cycle Based on BIM Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qun, Miao; Wang, Jiayuan; Liu, Chao

    2017-12-01

    In the urban water supply system, pump station is the main unit of energy consumption. In the background of pushing forward the informatization in China, using BIM technology in design, construction and operations of water supply pumping station, can break through the limitations of the traditional model and effectively achieve the goal of energy conservation and emissions reduction. This work researches the way to solve energy-saving optimization problems in the process of whole life cycle of water supply pumping station based on BIM technology, and put forward the feasible strategies of BIM application in order to realize the healthy and sustainable development goals by establishing the BIM model of water supply pumping station of Qingdao Guzhenkou water supply project.

  20. A modular Space Station/Base electrical power system - Requirements and design study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eliason, J. T.; Adkisson, W. B.

    1972-01-01

    The requirements and procedures necessary for definition and specification of an electrical power system (EPS) for the future space station are discussed herein. The considered space station EPS consists of a replaceable main power module with self-contained auxiliary power, guidance, control, and communication subsystems. This independent power source may 'plug into' a space station module which has its own electrical distribution, control, power conditioning, and auxiliary power subsystems. Integration problems are discussed, and a transmission system selected with local floor-by-floor power conditioning and distribution in the station module. This technique eliminates the need for an immediate long range decision on the ultimate space base power sources by providing capability for almost any currently considered option.

  1. Disparities in mobile phone access and maternal health service utilization in Nigeria: a population-based survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennings, Larissa; Omoni, Adetayo; Akerele, Akunle; Ibrahim, Yisa; Ekanem, Ekpenyong

    2015-05-01

    Mobile communication technologies may reduce maternal health disparities related to cost, distance, and infrastructure. However, the ability of mHealth initiatives to accelerate maternal health goals requires in part that women with the greatest health needs have access to mobile phones. This study examined if women with limited mobile phone access have differential odds of maternal knowledge and health service utilization as compared to female mobile phone users who are currently eligible to participate in maternal mHealth programs. Using household survey data from Nigeria, multivariable logistic regressions were used to examine the odds of maternal knowledge and service utilization by mobile phone strata. Findings showed that in settings with unequal access to mobile phones, mHealth interventions may not reach women who have the poorest maternal knowledge and care-seeking as these women often lacked mobile connectivity. As compared to mobile users, women without mobile phone access had significantly lower odds of antenatal care utilization (OR=0.48, 95%CI: 0.36-0.64), skilled delivery (OR=0.56, 95%CI: 0.45-0.70), and modern contraceptive use (OR=0.50, 95%CI: 0.33-0.76) after adjusting for demographic characteristics. They also had significantly lower knowledge of maternal danger signs (OR=0.69, 95%CI: 0.53-0.90) and knowledge of antenatal (OR=0.46, 95%CI: 0.36-0.59) and skilled delivery care benefits (OR=0.62, 95%CI: 0.47-0.82). No differences were observed by mobile phone strata in uptake of emergency obstetric care, postnatal services, or breastfeeding. As maternal mHealth strategies are increasingly utilized, more efforts are needed to improve women's access to mobile phones and minimize potential health inequities brought on by health systems and technological barriers in access to care. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Association between mobile phone traffic volume and road crash fatalities: A population-based case-crossover study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gariazzo, Claudio; Stafoggia, Massimo; Bruzzone, Silvia; Pelliccioni, Armando; Forastiere, Francesco

    2018-06-01

    Use of mobile phones while driving is known to cause crashes with possible fatalities. Different habits of mobile phone use might be distracting forces and display differential impacts on accident risk; the assessment of the relative importance is relevant to implement prevention, mitigation, and control measures. This study aimed to assess the relationship between the use of mobile phones at population level and road crash fatalities in large urban areas. Data on road crashes with fatalities were collected from seven Italian metropolitan areas and matched in time and space with high resolution mobile phone traffic volume data about calls, texts, Internet connections and upload/download data. A case-crossover study design was applied to estimate the relative risks of road accident for increases in each type of mobile phone traffic volumes in underlying population present in the small areas where accidents occurred. Effect modification was evaluated by weekday/weekend, hour of the day, meteorological conditions, and street densities. Positive associations between road crashes rates and the number of calls, texts, and Internet connections were found, with incremental risks of 17.2% (95% Confidence Interval [CI] 7.7, 27.6), 8.4% (CI 0.7, 16.8), and 54.6% (CI 34.0, 78.5) per increases (at 15 min intervals) of 5 calls/100 people, 3 text/100 people, and 40 connections/100 people, respectively. Small differences across cities were detected. Working days, nighttime and morning hours were associated with greater phone use and more road accidents. The relationship between mobile phone use and road fatalities at population level is strong. Strict controls on cellular phone in the vehicle may results in a large health benefit. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. [The electromagnetic fields of the base stations of mobile radio communication and ecology. The estimation of danger of the base station EMF for population and for bioecosystems].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grigor'ev, Iu G; Grigor'ev, K A

    2005-01-01

    The estimation of the danger for the population and for the bioecosistems of the electromagnetic conditions around of the base stations was given. The insufficiency of the scientific knowledge does not allow to guarantee the safety of the population and of the bioecosystems in the conditions of a round-the-clock long-term influence of EMF RF. WHO recommends to use "Precautionary principle".

  4. Output power distributions of mobile radio base stations based on network measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colombi, D; Thors, B; Persson, T; Törnevik, C; Wirén, N; Larsson, L-E

    2013-01-01

    In this work output power distributions of mobile radio base stations have been analyzed for 2G and 3G telecommunication systems. The approach is based on measurements in selected networks using performance surveillance tools part of the network Operational Support System (OSS). For the 3G network considered, direct measurements of output power levels were possible, while for the 2G networks, output power levels were estimated from measurements of traffic volumes. Both voice and data services were included in the investigation. Measurements were conducted for large geographical areas, to ensure good overall statistics, as well as for smaller areas to investigate the impact of different environments. For high traffic hours, the 90th percentile of the averaged output power was found to be below 65% and 45% of the available output power for the 2G and 3G systems, respectively.

  5. Output power distributions of mobile radio base stations based on network measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colombi, D.; Thors, B.; Persson, T.; Wirén, N.; Larsson, L.-E.; Törnevik, C.

    2013-04-01

    In this work output power distributions of mobile radio base stations have been analyzed for 2G and 3G telecommunication systems. The approach is based on measurements in selected networks using performance surveillance tools part of the network Operational Support System (OSS). For the 3G network considered, direct measurements of output power levels were possible, while for the 2G networks, output power levels were estimated from measurements of traffic volumes. Both voice and data services were included in the investigation. Measurements were conducted for large geographical areas, to ensure good overall statistics, as well as for smaller areas to investigate the impact of different environments. For high traffic hours, the 90th percentile of the averaged output power was found to be below 65% and 45% of the available output power for the 2G and 3G systems, respectively.

  6. Supporting the self-management of hypertension: Patients' experiences of using a mobile phone-based system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallberg, I; Ranerup, A; Kjellgren, K

    2016-02-01

    Globally, hypertension is poorly controlled and its treatment consists mainly of preventive behavior, adherence to treatment and risk-factor management. The aim of this study was to explore patients' experiences of an interactive mobile phone-based system designed to support the self-management of hypertension. Forty-nine patients were interviewed about their experiences of using the self-management system for 8 weeks regarding: (i) daily answers on self-report questions concerning lifestyle, well-being, symptoms, medication intake and side effects; (ii) results of home blood-pressure measurements; (iii) reminders and motivational messages; and (iv) access to a web-based platform for visualization of the self-reports. The audio-recorded interviews were analyzed using qualitative thematic analysis. The patients considered the self-management system relevant for the follow-up of hypertension and found it easy to use, but some provided insight into issues for improvement. They felt that using the system offered benefits, for example, increasing their participation during follow-up consultations; they further perceived that it helped them gain understanding of the interplay between blood pressure and daily life, which resulted in increased motivation to follow treatment. Increased awareness of the importance of adhering to prescribed treatment may be a way to minimize the cardiovascular risks of hypertension.

  7. The feasibility of using mobile-phone based SMS reminders and conditional cash transfers to improve timely immunization in rural Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakadha, Hotenzia; Chandir, Subhash; Were, Elijah Victor; Rubin, Alan; Obor, David; Levine, Orin S; Gibson, Dustin G; Odhiambo, Frank; Laserson, Kayla F; Feikin, Daniel R

    2013-01-30

    Demand-side strategies could contribute to achieving high and timely vaccine coverage in rural Africa, but require platforms to deliver either messages or conditional cash transfers (CCTs). We studied the feasibility of using short message services (SMS) reminders and mobile phone-based conditional cash transfers (CCTs) to reach parents in rural Western Kenya. In a Health and Demographic Surveillance System (HDSS), mothers with children aged 0-3 weeks old were approached to determine who had access to a mobile phone. SMS reminders were sent three days prior to and on the scheduled day of immunization for 1st (age 6 weeks) and 2nd doses (age 10 weeks) of DTP-HepB-Hib (Pentavalent) vaccine, using open-source Rapid SMS software. Approximately $2.00 USD was sent as cash using mPESA, a mobile money transfer platform (2/3 of mothers), or airtime (1/3 of mothers) via phone if the child was vaccinated within 4 weeks of the scheduled date. Follow-up surveys were done when children reached 14 weeks of age. We approached 77 mothers; 72 were enrolled into the study (26% owned a phone and 74% used someone else's). Of the 63 children with known vaccination status at 14 weeks of age, 57 (90%) received pentavalent1 and 54 (86%) received pentavalent2 within 4 weeks of their scheduled date. Of the 61 mothers with follow-up surveys administered at 14 weeks of age, 55 (90%) reported having received SMS reminders. Of the 54 women who reported having received SMS reminders and answered the CCT questions on the survey, 45 (83%) reported receiving their CCT. Most (89%) of mothers in the mPESA group obtained their cash within 3 days of being sent their credit via mobile phone. All mothers stated they preferred CCTs as cash via mobile phone rather than airtime. Of the 9 participants who did not vaccinate their children at the designated clinic 2(22%) cited refusals by husbands to participate in the study. The data show that in rural Western Kenya mobile phone-based strategies are a

  8. [Evaluation of process of an educational web-based and mobile phone-based program for encouraging healthy behaviours among Spanish and Mexican students].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lana Pérez, Alberto; García Fernández, María José; López González, María Luisa

    2013-01-01

    Current communication technologies can be used in health education. The aim was to assess the process of an online program designed to prevent cancer risk behaviours using an educational website and mobile phones. High school students from Spain and Mexico were recruited during 3 academic years (2009-12) to participate in a web-based program supplemented with mobile phone messages (SMS) which aim was to prevent cancer risk behaviours. The program was designed as a randomized trial, with control and experimental group (EG). Recruitment and adherence were analyzed using data of the Web management platform and Google Analytics. 3,855 students started the logging on the program of which 2,001 (51.9%) completed the questionnaire.77.5% were Mexicans, 13 years old (40.6%), with good academic level (68.7%) and with parents (49.6%) and mothers (53.9%) having university degree. 56.4% recorded a phone number to receive SMS. The EG consisted of 1,014 students and the averages of their visits to the website were 31.6 in the first year, 21.8 in the second and 21.9 in the third. Each adolescent of the EG was able to incorporate 1.16 adults (total 1,172) and other 1,076 were recorded spontaneously. Retention rate at the end of follow-up was 41.5% and was higher among those who were best students (OR: 12,5), Mexicans (OR: 4.4), 12 years old (OR: 3.1) and have been incorporated in the first three months of the implementation (OR: 2.8). Students' recruitment and retention was scarce, mainly in Spain. However students involved visited the program website with sufficient amount of time to achieve good results.

  9. A large-scale measurement, analysis and modelling of electromagnetic radiation levels in the vicinity of GSM/UMTS base stations in an urban area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karadağ, Teoman; Yüceer, Mehmet; Abbasov, Teymuraz

    2016-01-01

    The present study analyses the electric field radiating from the GSM/UMTS base stations located in central Malatya, a densely populated urban area in Turkey. The authors have conducted both instant and continuous measurements of high-frequency electromagnetic fields throughout their research by using non-ionising radiation-monitoring networks. Over 15,000 instant and 13,000,000 continuous measurements were taken throughout the process. The authors have found that the normal electric field radiation can increase ∼25% during daytime, depending on mobile communication traffic. The authors' research work has also demonstrated the fact that the electric field intensity values can be modelled for each hour, day or week with the results obtained from continuous measurements. The authors have developed an estimation model based on these values, including mobile communication traffic (Erlang) values obtained from mobile phone base stations and the temperature and humidity values in the environment. The authors believe that their proposed artificial neural network model and multivariable least-squares regression analysis will help predict the electric field intensity in an environment in advance. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. A large-scale measurement, analysis and modelling of electromagnetic radiation levels in the vicinity of GSM/UMTS base stations in an urban area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karadag, Teoman; Abbasov, Teymuraz; Yuceer, Mehmet

    2016-01-01

    The present study analyses the electric field radiating from the GSM/UMTS base stations located in central Malatya, a densely populated urban area in Turkey. The authors have conducted both instant and continuous measurements of high-frequency electromagnetic fields throughout their research by using non-ionising radiation-monitoring networks. Over 15 000 instant and 13 000 000 continuous measurements were taken throughout the process. The authors have found that the normal electric field radiation can increase ∼25 % during daytime, depending on mobile communication traffic. The authors' research work has also demonstrated the fact that the electric field intensity values can be modelled for each hour, day or week with the results obtained from continuous measurements. The authors have developed an estimation model based on these values, including mobile communication traffic (Erlang) values obtained from mobile phone base stations and the temperature and humidity values in the environment. The authors believe that their proposed artificial neural network model and multivariable least-squares regression analysis will help predict the electric field intensity in an environment in advance. (authors)

  11. PC-based control of the internal target station at the Nuclotron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kilman, J [and others

    1996-12-31

    A PC-based control system of the internal target at the Nuclotron is described. The system is based on CAMAC-control of the step motor of the station and screen representation of information about needed beam parameters and space-time position of targets relative to a beam. 6 refs.; 4 figs.

  12. Utilizing a Rapid Prototyping Approach in the Building of a Hypermedia-Based Reference Station.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sell, Dan

    This paper discusses the building of a hypermedia-based reference station at the Wright Laboratory Technical Library, Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio. Following this, the paper focuses on an electronic user survey from which data is collected and analysis is made. The survey data is used in a rapid prototyping approach, which is defined as…

  13. A Technical Approach to the Evaluation of Radiofrequency Radiation Emissions from Mobile Telephony Base Stations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raimondas Buckus

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available During the last two decades, the number of macrocell mobile telephony base station antennas emitting radiofrequency (RF electromagnetic radiation (EMR in residential areas has increased significantly, and therefore much more attention is being paid to RF EMR and its effects on human health. Scientific field measurements of public exposure to RF EMR (specifically to radio frequency radiation from macrocell mobile telephony base station antennas and RF electromagnetic field (EMF intensity parameters in the environment are discussed in this article. The research methodology is applied according to the requirements of safety norms and Lithuanian Standards in English (LST EN. The article presents and analyses RF EMFs generated by mobile telephony base station antennas in areas accessible to the general public. Measurements of the RF electric field strength and RF EMF power density were conducted in the near- and far-fields of the mobile telephony base station antenna. Broadband and frequency-selective measurements were performed outside (on the roof and on the ground and in a residential area. The tests performed on the roof in front of the mobile telephony base station antennas in the near-field revealed the presence of a dynamic energy interaction within the antenna electric field, which changes rapidly with distance. The RF EMF power density values on the ground at distances of 50, 100, 200, 300, 400, and 500 m from the base station are very low and are scattered within intervals of 0.002 to 0.05 μW/cm2. The results were compared with international exposure guidelines (ICNIRP.

  14. A Technical Approach to the Evaluation of Radiofrequency Radiation Emissions from Mobile Telephony Base Stations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckus, Raimondas; Strukčinskienė, Birute; Raistenskis, Juozas; Stukas, Rimantas; Šidlauskienė, Aurelija; Čerkauskienė, Rimantė; Isopescu, Dorina Nicolina; Stabryla, Jan; Cretescu, Igor

    2017-03-01

    During the last two decades, the number of macrocell mobile telephony base station antennas emitting radiofrequency (RF) electromagnetic radiation (EMR) in residential areas has increased significantly, and therefore much more attention is being paid to RF EMR and its effects on human health. Scientific field measurements of public exposure to RF EMR (specifically to radio frequency radiation) from macrocell mobile telephony base station antennas and RF electromagnetic field (EMF) intensity parameters in the environment are discussed in this article. The research methodology is applied according to the requirements of safety norms and Lithuanian Standards in English (LST EN). The article presents and analyses RF EMFs generated by mobile telephony base station antennas in areas accessible to the general public. Measurements of the RF electric field strength and RF EMF power density were conducted in the near- and far-fields of the mobile telephony base station antenna. Broadband and frequency-selective measurements were performed outside (on the roof and on the ground) and in a residential area. The tests performed on the roof in front of the mobile telephony base station antennas in the near-field revealed the presence of a dynamic energy interaction within the antenna electric field, which changes rapidly with distance. The RF EMF power density values on the ground at distances of 50, 100, 200, 300, 400, and 500 m from the base station are very low and are scattered within intervals of 0.002 to 0.05 μW/cm². The results were compared with international exposure guidelines (ICNIRP).

  15. GlowPhones

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Merritt, Timothy Robert; Nielsen, Christine Linding; Jakobsen, Frederik Lund

    2017-01-01

    Location-based mobile games often utilize built-in sensors for supporting game experiences tied to the physical world, yet the visual user interface remains constrained to the small high-resolution screen. GlowPhones is a location-based mobile social game using low-resolution displays to augment...... the physical space and move the attention away from the mobile screen. Players explore the physical world and collaborate to overcome challenges relying on the screen glow intensity emitted from the phone’s screen and light flash frequency of the camera flash for navigation. Three game stages explore proxemics...

  16. Computer-based systems for nuclear power stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Humble, P.J.; Welbourne, D.; Belcher, G.

    1995-01-01

    The published intentions of vendors are for extensive touch-screen control and computer-based protection. The software features needed for acceptance in the UK are indicated. The defence in depth needed is analyzed. Current practice in aircraft flight control systems and the software methods available are discussed. Software partitioning and mathematically formal methods are appropriate for the structures and simple logic needed for nuclear power applications. The potential for claims of diversity and independence between two computer-based subsystems of a protection system is discussed. Features needed to meet a single failure criterion applied to software are discussed. Conclusions are given on the main factors which a design should allow for. The work reported was done for the Health and Safety Executive of the UK (HSE), and acknowledgement is given to them, to NNC Ltd and to GEC-Marconi Avionics Ltd for permission to publish. The opinions and recommendations expressed are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect those of HSE. (Author)

  17. SMART PHONE USER ASSISTANCE APPLICATION FOR ANDROID

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. PRABHAVATHY

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays people seem to be more dependent on smart phones rather than any other electronic devices. Smart phones act like mini laptops with the mobilecommunication facility. Moreover, people possess more than one SIM card/Smart phone for many purposes. So non-ambiguity between various roles performed by them is crucial. For an example, person can have smart phone for his personal use at the residence and another phone for his official use. Consider a scenario: person at the residence urgently needs the official contact information available on the phone at his office (remote place. This application plays major dual role by acting as Server (official Smart phone and Client (personal Smart phone. Irrespective of geographic area, the server smart phone (SSP provides various services based on the request received from the client smart phone (CSP. The CSP send various requests through the SMS communication. Various requests can be fetching information from SSP such as log for unread messages and missed calls, unread message content, contact numbers, SIM and IMEI numbers. When the SSP is on silent mode and got misplaced, the CSP can be used to change the sound profile of SSP from silent to ringing mode by sending a request through SMS. If the SSP is in audible distance, then a phone call to it will help us to find the misplaced phone. Besides, the CSP can delete secret data available in the SSP’s memory. This application is different from other applications because it provides User Interface having options to send request through SMS and web database login through internet connectivity for phone’s data backup to provide unlimited memory. Upload any information such as contacts and messages from the smart phone into web database and save phone’s memory space. This application will upload the information in encoded format over the internet, which can be decoded using the application’s login password for security purpose.

  18. Quantitative imaging with a mobile phone microscope.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arunan Skandarajah

    Full Text Available Use of optical imaging for medical and scientific applications requires accurate quantification of features such as object size, color, and brightness. High pixel density cameras available on modern mobile phones have made photography simple and convenient for consumer applications; however, the camera hardware and software that enables this simplicity can present a barrier to accurate quantification of image data. This issue is exacerbated by automated settings, proprietary image processing algorithms, rapid phone evolution, and the diversity of manufacturers. If mobile phone cameras are to live up to their potential to increase access to healthcare in low-resource settings, limitations of mobile phone-based imaging must be fully understood and addressed with procedures that minimize their effects on image quantification. Here we focus on microscopic optical imaging using a custom mobile phone microscope that is compatible with phones from multiple manufacturers. We demonstrate that quantitative microscopy with micron-scale spatial resolution can be carried out with multiple phones and that image linearity, distortion, and color can be corrected as needed. Using all versions of the iPhone and a selection of Android phones released between 2007 and 2012, we show that phones with greater than 5 MP are capable of nearly diffraction-limited resolution over a broad range of magnifications, including those relevant for single cell imaging. We find that automatic focus, exposure, and color gain standard on mobile phones can degrade image resolution and reduce accuracy of color capture if uncorrected, and we devise procedures to avoid these barriers to quantitative imaging. By accommodating the differences between mobile phone cameras and the scientific cameras, mobile phone microscopes can be reliably used to increase access to quantitative imaging for a variety of medical and scientific applications.

  19. The impact of loss sensitivity on a mobile phone supply chain system stability based on the chaos theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Junhai; Xie, Lei

    2018-02-01

    This paper, based on the China's communications and the current situation of the mobile phone industry, focuses on the stability of a supply chain system that consists of one supplier and one bounded rational retailer. We explore the influence of the decision makers' loss sensitivity and decision adjustment speed on the stability of the supply chain. It is found that when the retailer is not sensitive to the loss or adjusts decisions cautiously, the system can be stable. The single-retailer model is extended to a multi-retailer one to study the influence of competition on the system stability. The results show that the market share of each retailer does not affect the system stability when it is fixed. The decision of each retailer does not affect that of any other retailer and the system stability. We present two decision adjustment rules (;bounded rationality expectation (BRE); and "adaptive exponential smoothing (AES)") and compare their performances on the system stability, and find that the AES rule does not affect the system stability, while the BRE rule will make the system stability be sensitive to the retailers' loss sensitivity and the decision adjustment speed. We also reveal the unstable system's negative impact on the retailers' decisions and profits, to emphasize the importance to maintain the system stability.

  20. Integrating visual dietary documentation in mobile-phone-based self-management application for adolescents with type 1 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frøisland, Dag Helge; Årsand, Eirik

    2015-05-01

    The goal of modern diabetes treatment is to a large extent focused on self-management to achieve and maintain a healthy, low HbA1c. Despite all new technical diabetes tools and support, including advanced blood glucose meters and insulin delivery systems, diabetes patients still struggle to achieve international treatment goals, that is, HbA1c mobile-phone-based tool to capture and visualize adolescents' food intake. Our aim was to affect understanding of carbohydrate counting and also to facilitate doctor-adolescent communication with regard to daily treatment. Furthermore, we wanted to evaluate the effect of the designed tool with regard to empowerment, self-efficacy, and self-treatment. The study concludes that implementing a visualization tool is an important contribution for young people to understand the basics of diabetes and to empower young people to define their treatment challenges. By capturing a picture of their own food, the person's own feeling of being in charge can be affected and better self-treatment achieved. © 2015 Diabetes Technology Society.

  1. Evidence-based policy? The use of mobile phones in hospital

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ettelt, Stefanie; Nolte, Ellen; McKee, Martin; Haugen, Odd Arild; Karlberg, Ingvar; Klazinga, Niek; Ricciardi, Walter; Teperi, Juha

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Evidence-based policies have become increasingly accepted in clinical practice. However, policies on many of the non-clinical activities that take place in health care facilities may be less frequently evidence based. METHODS: We carried out a review of literature on safety of mobile

  2. Novel Base Station MIMO Antennas with Enhanced Spectral Efficiencies Using Angular Reuse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Mora-Andreu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The true polarization diversity (TPD technique is combined with the spatial diversity technique in novel MIMO antenna array geometries with a large number of elements. The use of a large number of elements requires some angular reuse within the array for polarization diversity. With designs compatible with existing base station antenna array configurations, the novel geometries with combining diversity schemes are shown to be able to achieve near the maximum spectral efficiencies. True polarization diversity (TPD schemes are found to be an excellent complement to more conventional spatial diversity schemes for obtaining optimum MIMO array performance in base station antennas.

  3. SAROTA: application of specific absorption rate (SAR) and over-the-air (OTA) data for the characterization of the real-life exposure due to mobile phones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monebhurrun, Vikass

    2013-01-01

    The RF exposure level of a mobile phone is quantified by the measurement of the specific absorption rate (SAR) under laboratory conditions. The SAR which is measured while the mobile phone is operated at maximum power level does not reflect the real-life exposure scenario since the mobile phone typically re-adjusts its power level and frequency depending on the quality of the communication link with the nearest base station. The choice of a low RF exposure device based on the comparison of the relative SAR values of mobile phones can be misleading. The real-life RF exposure also depends on the over-the-air (OTA) performance of the mobile phone. Taken independently, the two sets of data do not allow a straightforward comparison of the global RF performance amongst mobile phones. A unique and simple parameter denoted as the SAROTA index is proposed for the characterization of mobile phones with regard to both RF exposure and OTA performance. The SAROTA index provides the real-life exposure index of the mobile phone.

  4. Reach and uptake of Internet- and phone-based smoking cessation interventions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skov-Ettrup, L S; Dalum, P; Ekholm, O

    2014-01-01

    To study whether demographic and smoking-related characteristics are associated with participation (reach) in a smoking cessation trial and subsequent use (uptake) of two specific smoking interventions (Internet-based program and proactive telephone counseling).......To study whether demographic and smoking-related characteristics are associated with participation (reach) in a smoking cessation trial and subsequent use (uptake) of two specific smoking interventions (Internet-based program and proactive telephone counseling)....

  5. Research on the Construction Strategy of the Mobile Phone Archives Based on the 3G Technology%基于3G技术的手机档案馆构建策略研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖春红

    2011-01-01

    文章在探讨3G手机和手机档案馆概念的基础上,分析了建设手机档案馆的必要性。从档案资源、服务方式与技术条件保障三个方面提出了构建手机档案馆的策略,并对手机档案馆的未来进行了展望。%This article analyzed the necessity of building a Mobile Phone Archives based on investigating the concepts of 3G phone and Mobile Phone Archives. And then put forward the strategy of building Mobile Phone Archives fi-om the archival resources, services and technical condition support. At last, it also prospected the future of mobile phone archives.

  6. Efficiency Enhancement of Pico-cell Base Station Power Amplifier MMIC in Gallium Nitride HFET Technology Using the Doherty technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seneviratne, Sashieka

    With the growth of smart phones, the demand for more broadband, data centric technologies are being driven higher. As mobile operators worldwide plan and deploy 4th generation (4G) networks such as LTE to support the relentless growth in mobile data demand, the need for strategically positioned pico-sized cellular base stations known as 'pico-cells' are gaining traction. In addition to having to design a transceiver in a much compact footprint, pico-cells must still face the technical challenges presented by the new 4G systems, such as reduced power consumptions and linear amplification of the signals. The RF power amplifier (PA) that amplifies the output signals of 4G pico-cell systems face challenges to minimize size, achieve high average efficiencies and broader bandwidths while maintaining linearity and operating at higher frequencies. 4G standards as LTE use non-constant envelope modulation techniques with high peak to average ratios. Power amplifiers implemented in such applications are forced to operate at a backed off region from saturation. Therefore, in order to reduce power consumption, a design of a high efficiency PA that can maintain the efficiency for a wider range of radio frequency signals is required. The primary focus of this thesis is to enhance the efficiency of a compact RF amplifier suitable for a 4G pico-cell base station. For this aim, an integrated two way Doherty amplifier design in a compact 10mm x 11.5mm2 monolithic microwave integrated circuit using GaN device technology is presented. Using non-linear GaN HFETs models, the design achieves high effi-ciencies of over 50% at both back-off and peak power regions without compromising on the stringent linearity requirements of 4G LTE standards. This demonstrates a 17% increase in power added efficiency at 6 dB back off from peak power compared to conventional Class AB amplifier performance. Performance optimization techniques to select between high efficiency and high linearity operation are

  7. PhoneSat

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The PhoneSat series of missions demonstrated the use of a commercial mobile phone as an on-board computer for CubeSats. The project also demonstrated the...

  8. Mobile Phones on Campus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朴春宝

    2007-01-01

    After entering the 21st century, more and more people have mobile phones in China. At the end of 2002, there were 20 million mobile phone users. By the year 2005 the number has reached up to 30 million.

  9. A qualitative evaluation of a group phone-based weight loss intervention for rural breast cancer survivors: Themes and mechanisms of success.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fazzino, Tera L; Sporn, Nora J; Befort, Christie A

    2016-07-01

    Obesity is prevalent in breast cancer survivors and is a significant risk factor for recurrence and mortality. Weight management interventions for survivors have been diverse in design (in-person vs. phone-based, group vs. individual) and yielded varying weight loss results. Given these issues, participants themselves may provide insight into treatment-based factors that contributed to their weight loss outcomes. Here, we report qualitative results from interviews with survivors in a group phone-based weight loss intervention, with the objective of identifying mechanisms that facilitated or hindered adherence and weight loss. We explored interest in paying for continued treatment as an indicator of dissemination potential. Individual interviews were conducted with 186 rural, obese breast cancer survivors upon completion of a 6-month weight loss intervention that produced clinically meaningful weight loss (>5 %) in 91 % of participants. A thematic analysis of the interview data was performed. Five themes were identified as impacting adherence and success: (1) accountability; (2) importance of the group, with varying levels of connectedness; (3) dietary convenience; (4) difficulty maintaining intervention components that required more effort; and (5) importance of internal motivation to attributions of physical activity success or failure. Most were interested in paying to continue the program if it were extended beyond the study. Key intervention components that participants attributed to their success included supportive group processes and convenience. Results highlight the group phone-based approach as a potential venue for disseminating an effective weight loss program for breast cancer survivors. NCT01441011.

  10. Statistical analysis of electromagnetic radiation measurements in the vicinity of indoor microcell GSM/UMTS base stations in Serbia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koprivica, Mladen; Petrić, Majda; Nešković, Nataša; Nešković, Aleksandar

    2016-01-01

    To determine the level of radiofrequency radiation generated by base stations of Global System for Mobile Communications and Universal Mobile Telecommunication System, extensive electromagnetic field strength measurements were carried out in the vicinity of 664 base station locations. These were classified into three categories: indoor, masts, and locations with installations on buildings. Although microcell base stations with antennas installed indoors typically emit less power than outdoor macrocell base stations, the fact that people can be found close to antennas requires exposure originating from these base stations to be carefully considered. Measurement results showed that maximum recorded value of electric field strength exceeded International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection reference levels at 7% of indoor base station locations. At the same time, this percentage was much lower in the case of masts and installations on buildings (0% and 2.5%, respectively). © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. A General Provincial Situation Visualization System Based on iPhone Operating System of Shandong Province

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Z.; Xiang, H.

    2014-04-01

    The paper discusses the basic principles and the problem solutions during the design and implementation of the mobile GIS system, and base on the research result, we developed the General Provincial Situation Visualization System Based on iOS of Shandong Province. The system is developed in the Objective-C programming language, and use the ArcGIS Runtime SDK for IOS as the development tool to call the "World-map Shandong" services to implement the development of the General Provincial Situation Visualization System Based on iOS devices. The system is currently available for download in the Appstore and is chosen as the typical application case of ESRI China ArcGIS API for iOS.

  12. Protocol and Recruitment Results from a Randomized Controlled Trial Comparing Group Phone-Based versus Newsletter Interventions for Weight Loss Maintenance among Rural Breast Cancer Survivors

    OpenAIRE

    Befort, Christie A.; Klemp, Jennifer R.; Fabian, Carol; Perri, Michael G.; Sullivan, Debra K.; Schmitz, Kathryn H.; Diaz, Francisco J.; Shireman, Theresa

    2014-01-01

    Obesity is a risk factor for breast cancer recurrence and death. Women who reside in rural areas have higher obesity prevalence and suffer from breast cancer treatment-related disparities compared to urban women. The objective of this 5-year randomized controlled trial is to compare methods for delivering extended care for weight loss maintenance among rural breast cancer survivors. Group phone-based counseling via conference calls addresses access barriers, is more cost-effective than indivi...

  13. Factors associated with communication-based sedentary behaviors among youth: are talking on the phone, texting, and instant messaging new sedentary behaviors to be concerned about?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leatherdale, Scott T

    2010-09-01

    Sedentary behavior research typically only examines screen time activities and not communication time activities, such as talking on the phone, texting, or instant messaging. Data from 2,449 grade 5 to 8 students were used to examine factors associated with the time youth spent in communication-based sedentary behaviors. Screen time, physical activity, grade, and gender were associated with moderate and high communication time. Future research on sedentary behavior should include measures of communication time.

  14. Investigating the Role of Word of Mouth on Consumer Based Brand Equity Creation in Iran’s Cell-Phone Market

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammad Mehdi SAMADZADEH; Seyed Hamid Khodadad HOSEINI; Mehran REZVANI

    2012-01-01

    This paper investigates the impact of Word of Mouth (WOM) on Consumer Based Brand Equity (CBBE) creation. WOM characteristics such as, volume, valence, and source quality are studied to find how intensely they each affect brand awareness, perceived quality, and brand association. This investigation has been conducted in Tehran-Iran, on the cell-phone market. The methodology selected for this study was structural equation and all the calculations were done using Lisrel 8.54. The results sugges...

  15. Radio frequency electromagnetic field compliance assessment of multi-band and MIMO equipped radio base stations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thors, Björn; Thielens, Arno; Fridén, Jonas; Colombi, Davide; Törnevik, Christer; Vermeeren, Günter; Martens, Luc; Joseph, Wout

    2014-05-01

    In this paper, different methods for practical numerical radio frequency exposure compliance assessments of radio base station products were investigated. Both multi-band base station antennas and antennas designed for multiple input multiple output (MIMO) transmission schemes were considered. For the multi-band case, various standardized assessment methods were evaluated in terms of resulting compliance distance with respect to the reference levels and basic restrictions of the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection. Both single frequency and multiple frequency (cumulative) compliance distances were determined using numerical simulations for a mobile communication base station antenna transmitting in four frequency bands between 800 and 2600 MHz. The assessments were conducted in terms of root-mean-squared electromagnetic fields, whole-body averaged specific absorption rate (SAR) and peak 10 g averaged SAR. In general, assessments based on peak field strengths were found to be less computationally intensive, but lead to larger compliance distances than spatial averaging of electromagnetic fields used in combination with localized SAR assessments. For adult exposure, the results indicated that even shorter compliance distances were obtained by using assessments based on localized and whole-body SAR. Numerical simulations, using base station products employing MIMO transmission schemes, were performed as well and were in agreement with reference measurements. The applicability of various field combination methods for correlated exposure was investigated, and best estimate methods were proposed. Our results showed that field combining methods generally considered as conservative could be used to efficiently assess compliance boundary dimensions of single- and dual-polarized multicolumn base station antennas with only minor increases in compliance distances. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Adventures with Cell Phones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolb, Liz

    2011-01-01

    Teachers are finding creative ways to turn the basic cell phone from a digital distraction into a versatile learning tool. In this article, the author explains why cell phones are important in learning and suggests rather than banning them that they be integrated into learning. She presents activities that can be done on a basic cell phone with a…

  17. Mobile phone-based evaluation of latent tuberculosis infection: Proof of concept for an integrated image capture and analysis system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naraghi, Safa; Mutsvangwa, Tinashe; Goliath, René; Rangaka, Molebogeng X; Douglas, Tania S

    2018-05-08

    The tuberculin skin test is the most widely used method for detecting latent tuberculosis infection in adults and active tuberculosis in children. We present the development of a mobile-phone based screening tool for measuring the tuberculin skin test induration. The tool makes use of a mobile application developed on the Android platform to capture images of an induration, and photogrammetric reconstruction using Agisoft PhotoScan to reconstruct the induration in 3D, followed by 3D measurement of the induration with the aid of functions from the Python programming language. The system enables capture of images by the person being screened for latent tuberculosis infection. Measurement precision was tested using a 3D printed induration. Real-world use of the tool was simulated by application to a set of mock skin indurations, created by a make-up artist, and the performance of the tool was evaluated. The usability of the application was assessed with the aid of a questionnaire completed by participants. The tool was found to measure the 3D printed induration with greater precision than the current ruler and pen method, as indicated by the lower standard deviation produced (0.3 mm versus 1.1 mm in the literature). There was high correlation between manual and algorithm measurement of mock skin indurations. The height of the skin induration and the definition of its margins were found to influence the accuracy of 3D reconstruction and therefore the measurement error, under simulated real-world conditions. Based on assessment of the user experience in capturing images, a simplified user interface would benefit wide-spread implementation. The mobile application shows good agreement with direct measurement. It provides an alternative method for measuring tuberculin skin test indurations and may remove the need for an in-person follow-up visit after test administration, thus improving latent tuberculosis infection screening throughput. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd

  18. Technology Use and Preferences for Mobile Phone-Based HIV Prevention and Treatment Among Black Young Men Who Have Sex With Men: Exploratory Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holloway, Ian W; Winder, Terrell Ja; Lea, Charles Herbert; Tan, Diane; Boyd, Donte; Novak, David

    2017-04-13

    Black young men who have sex with men (BYMSM) experience higher human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) incidence than their white and Latino counterparts. The aim of our study was to understand BYMSM's preferences for mobile phone-based HIV prevention and treatment in order to inform culturally tailored interventions to reduce the spread of HIV and improve HIV treatment outcomes in this population. Qualitative focus groups (N=6) with BYMSM aged 18-29 years (N=41; 46%, 19/41 HIV-positive) were conducted to elucidate their preferences for the design and delivery of mobile phone-based HIV prevention and treatment interventions. A modified grounded theory approach to data analysis was undertaken using ATLAS.ti textual analysis software. Participants preferred holistic health interventions that did not focus exclusively on HIV prevention and treatment. Issues of privacy and confidentiality were paramount. Participants preferred functionality that enables discreet connections to culturally competent health educators and treatment providers who can address the range of health and psychosocial concerns faced by BYMSM. Mobile phone-based HIV prevention has the potential to increase engagement with HIV prevention and treatment resources among BYMSM. For these approaches to be successful, researchers must include BYMSM in the design and creation of these interventions. ©Ian W Holloway, Terrell JA Winder, Charles Herbert Lea III, Diane Tan, Donte Boyd, David Novak. Originally published in JMIR Mhealth and Uhealth (http://mhealth.jmir.org), 13.04.2017.

  19. Design and Methods for a Pilot Study of a Phone-Delivered, Mindfulness-Based Intervention in Patients with Implantable Cardioverter Defibrillators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Salmoirago-Blotcher

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Meditation practices are associated with a reduction in adrenergic activity that may benefit patients with severe cardiac arrhythmias. This paper describes the design and methods of a pilot study testing the feasibility of a phone-delivered mindfulness-based intervention (MBI for treatment of anxiety in patients with implantable cardioverter defibrillators (ICDs. Design and Methods. Consecutive, clinically stable outpatients (n=52 will be screened for study eligibility within a month of an ICD-related procedure or ICD shock and will be randomly assigned to MBI or to usual care. MBI patients will receive eight weekly individual phone sessions based on two mindfulness practices (awareness of breath and body scan plus home practice with a CD for 20 minutes daily. Patients assigned to usual care will be offered the standard care planned by the hospital. Assessments will occur at baseline and at the completion of the intervention (between 9 and 12 weeks after randomization. The primary study outcome is feasibility; secondary outcomes include anxiety, mindfulness, and number of administered shocks during the intervention period. Conclusions. If proven feasible and effective, phone-delivered mindfulness-based interventions could improve psychological distress in ICD outpatients with serious cardiovascular conditions.

  20. Data base for man-rem management at Madras Atomic Power Station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Viswambharan, K.R.; Nair, B.S.K.; Ramamirtham, B.; Varadhan, R.S.; Chudalayandi, K.

    1988-01-01

    In view of the observed steady increase in the collective dose to the radiation workers at MAPP, a sound data base is essential to ensure an effective exposure control programme. A new system of data collection and analysis of the exposure to the station workers is discussed in the paper. (author). 3 tabs

  1. Solar PV powered mobile cellular base station: Models and use cases in South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Aderemi, BA

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The huge costs of operating a mobile cellular base station, and the negative impact of greenhouse gasses on the environment have made the solar PV renewable energy source a sought after. In addition to cost and environmental factor, abundant supply...

  2. On a User-Centric Base Station Cooperation Scheme for Reliable Communications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kim, Dong Min; Thomsen, Henning; Popovski, Petar

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we describe CoMP2flex, a user-centric base station (BS) cooperation scheme that provides improvements in reliability of both uplink (UL) and downlink (DL) communications of wireless cellular networks. CoMP2flex supports not only cooperation of two BSs with same direction of traffic...

  3. POLLUTION PREVENTION OPPORTUNITY ASSESSMENT - UNITED STATES NAVAL BASE NORFOLK NAVAL AIR STATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    This report summarizes work conducted at the U.S. Navy's Naval Base Norfolk, Naval Air Station (NAS) located at Sewells Point in Norfolk, Virginia, under the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) Waste Reduction Evaluations at Federal Sites (WREAFS) Program. This project w...

  4. Performance Testing of Massive MIMO Base Station with Multi-Probe Anechoic Chamber Setups

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Fengchun; Fan, Wei; Ji, Yilin

    2018-01-01

    The utilization of massive multiple-input multipleoutput (MIMO) antenna arrays at the base station (BS) side has been identified as an enabling technique for 5G communication systems. To evaluate the true end-to-end performance of BS's, an over-the-air (OTA) radiated method is required...

  5. Lightning current distribution to ground at a power line tower carrying a radio base station

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grcev, L.; Deursen, van A.P.J.; Waes, van J.B.M.

    2005-01-01

    Radio base stations are often mounted on towers of power transmission lines. They are usually powered from the low-voltage network through an isolating transformer, to separate the high- and low-voltage networks. The isolating transformer ensures security at customers' premises in the case of nearby

  6. An Improved Method of Pose Estimation for Lighthouse Base Station Extension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yi; Weng, Dongdong; Li, Dong; Xun, Hang

    2017-10-22

    In 2015, HTC and Valve launched a virtual reality headset empowered with Lighthouse, the cutting-edge space positioning technology. Although Lighthouse is superior in terms of accuracy, latency and refresh rate, its algorithms do not support base station expansion, and is flawed concerning occlusion in moving targets, that is, it is unable to calculate their poses with a small set of sensors, resulting in the loss of optical tracking data. In view of these problems, this paper proposes an improved pose estimation algorithm for cases where occlusion is involved. Our algorithm calculates the pose of a given object with a unified dataset comprising of inputs from sensors recognized by all base stations, as long as three or more sensors detect a signal in total, no matter from which base station. To verify our algorithm, HTC official base stations and autonomous developed receivers are used for prototyping. The experiment result shows that our pose calculation algorithm can achieve precise positioning when a few sensors detect the signal.

  7. On Dimensions of OTA Setups for Massive MIMO Base Stations Radiated Testing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kyösti, Pekka; Fan, Wei; Pedersen, Gert F.

    2016-01-01

    The development of base stations (BS) with large aperture antenna arrays, enabled partially by the utilization of cmWave and mmWave frequency bands, will require radiated testing in fading conditions. In this paper, the objective is to investigate the suitable measurement distances and physical...

  8. Comparative study of the base activity levels of the Spanish continental nuclear power stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gregorides de los Santos y Perez-Minguez, A.M.

    1980-01-01

    In this work the pre-operational activity levels of the sites of some Spanish nuclear power stations are discussed. These power stations are located near the Tagus and Ebro river basins. A report of the communities investigated is made. The total alpha and beta activity as well as the long half life activity has been researched there. The importance of this question is obvious for it gives a regional average of the base activity in the basins of these two big Spanish rivers [fr

  9. Use of Mobile Phones to Support Coursework: Evidence from Wa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Department of Information and Communication Technology. Wa Polytechnic .... A smartphone is a mobile phone with more advanced computing capability and ..... Use of mobile phones for project based learning by undergraduate students of ...

  10. mCOPD: Mobile Phone Based Lung Function Diagnosis and Exercise System for COPD

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Xiao

    2013-01-01

    COPD (Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease) is a serious lung disease which makes people hard to breathe. The number of people who have COPD is on the rise. COPD patients require lung function examinations and perform breathing exercises on a regular basis in order to be more aware of their lung functions, get diagnosed early, and control the shortness of their breaths. In order to help people with COPD, we developed mCOPD which is a smartphone based Android application made especially for C...

  11. Protocol and recruitment results from a randomized controlled trial comparing group phone-based versus newsletter interventions for weight loss maintenance among rural breast cancer survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Befort, Christie A; Klemp, Jennifer R; Fabian, Carol; Perri, Michael G; Sullivan, Debra K; Schmitz, Kathryn H; Diaz, Francisco J; Shireman, Theresa

    2014-03-01

    Obesity is a risk factor for breast cancer recurrence and death. Women who reside in rural areas have higher obesity prevalence and suffer from breast cancer treatment-related disparities compared to urban women. The objective of this 5-year randomized controlled trial is to compare methods for delivering extended care for weight loss maintenance among rural breast cancer survivors. Group phone-based counseling via conference calls addresses access barriers, is more cost-effective than individual phone counseling, and provides group support which may be ideal for rural breast cancer survivors who are more likely to have unmet support needs. Women (n=210) diagnosed with Stage 0 to III breast cancer in the past 10 years who are ≥ 3 months out from initial cancer treatments, have a BMI 27-45 kg/m(2), and have physician clearance were enrolled from multiple cancer centers. During Phase I (months 0 to 6), all women receive a behavioral weight loss intervention delivered through group phone sessions. Women who successfully lose 5% of weight enter Phase II (months 6 to 18) and are randomized to one of two extended care arms: continued group phone-based treatment or a mail-based newsletter. During Phase III, no contact is made (months 18 to 24). The primary outcome is weight loss maintenance from 6 to 18 months. Secondary outcomes include quality of life, serum biomarkers, and cost-effectiveness. This study will provide essential information on how to reach rural survivors in future efforts to establish weight loss support for breast cancer survivors as a standard of care. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Polycapillary based μXRF station for 3D colour tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hampai, D.; Cherepennikov, Yu. M.; Liedl, A.; Cappuccio, G.; Capitolo, E.; Iannarelli, M.; Azzutti, C.; Gladkikh, Yu. P.; Marcelli, A.; Dabagov, S. B.

    2018-04-01

    The "Rainbow X-Ray" (RXR) experimental station at XLab Frascati of the Frascati's National Laboratories (LNF) INFN is a dedicated station for X-ray fluorescence studies based on the use of polycapillary lenses in a confocal geometry. The flexible RXR layout allows investigating specimens of the dimensions ranging from several millimeters up to half meter and weighting up to several tens of kilograms. Compared to similar existing XRF stations, apart of the possibility for investigating large samples, the main advantage of this equipment is the detection system with two spectrometers optimized to work separately at high and at low X-ray energies. The confocal geometry combined with a 3-axes fine motion system makes possible 3D μXRF elemental tomographic acquisitions (colour tomography). At present this station in operation at high XRF energies is used for cultural heritage and geological applications. We present and discuss here the analytical performances of this experimental station pointing out the advantages in different application areas.

  13. StressPhone: smartphone based platform for measurement of cortisol for stress detection (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Aadhar; Rey, Elizabeth; Lee, Seoho; O'Dell, Dakota; Erickson, David

    2016-03-01

    Anxiety disorders are estimated to be the most common mental illness in US affecting around 40 million people and related job stress is estimated to cost US industry up to $300 billion due to lower productivity and absenteeism. A personal diagnostic device which could help identify stressed individuals would therefore be a huge boost for workforce productivity. We are therefore developing a point of care diagnostic device that can be integrated with smartphones or tablets for the measurement of cortisol - a stress related salivary biomarker, which is known to be strongly involved in body's fight-or-flight response to a stressor (physical or mental). The device is based around a competitive lateral flow assay whose results can then be read and quantified through an accessory compatible with the smartphone. In this presentation, we report the development and results of such an assay and the integrated device. We then present the results of a study relating the diurnal patterns of cortisol levels and the alertness of an individual based on the circadian rhythm and sleep patterns of the individual. We hope to use the insight provided by combining the information provided by levels of stress related to chemical biomarkers of the individual with the physical biomarkers to lead to a better informed and optimized activity schedule for maximized work output.

  14. Transient Simulations in Hydropower Stations Based on a Novel Turbine Boundary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanna Liu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Most accidents in hydropower stations happened during transient processes; thus, simulation of these processes is important for station design and safety operation. This study establishes a mathematical model of the transient process in hydropower stations and presents a new method to calculate the hydraulic turbine boundary based on an error function of the rotational speed. The mathematical derivation shows that the error function along the equal-opening characteristic curve is monotonic and has opposite signs at the two sides, which means that a unique solution exists to make the error function null. Thus, iteration of the transient simulation is unique and monotonous, which avoids iterative convergence or false solution and improves the solution efficiency compared with traditional methods. Simulation of an engineering case illustrates that the results obtained by the error function are reasonable. Then, the accuracy and feasibility of the mathematical model using the proposed solution are verified by comparison with model and field tests.

  15. A case-based reasoning approach for estimating the costs of pump station projects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed M. Marzouk

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The effective estimation of costs is crucial to the success of construction projects. Cost estimates are used to evaluate, approve and/or fund projects. Organizations use some form of classification system to identify the various types of estimates that may be prepared during the lifecycle of a project. This research presents a parametric-cost model for pump station projects. Fourteen factors have been identified as important to the influence of the cost of pump station projects. A data set that consists of forty-four pump station projects (fifteen water and twenty-nine waste water are collected to build a Case-Based Reasoning (CBR library and to test its performance. The results obtained from the CBR tool are processed and adopted to improve the accuracy of the results. A numerical example is presented to demonstrate the development of the effectiveness of the tool.

  16. A Fuzzy Logic-Based Approach for Estimation of Dwelling Times of Panama Metro Stations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aranzazu Berbey Alvarez

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Passenger flow modeling and station dwelling time estimation are significant elements for railway mass transit planning, but system operators usually have limited information to model the passenger flow. In this paper, an artificial-intelligence technique known as fuzzy logic is applied for the estimation of the elements of the origin-destination matrix and the dwelling time of stations in a railway transport system. The fuzzy inference engine used in the algorithm is based in the principle of maximum entropy. The approach considers passengers’ preferences to assign a level of congestion in each car of the train in function of the properties of the station platforms. This approach is implemented to estimate the passenger flow and dwelling times of the recently opened Line 1 of the Panama Metro. The dwelling times obtained from the simulation are compared to real measurements to validate the approach.

  17. Throughput of Cellular Systems with Conferencing Mobiles and Cooperative Base Stations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Somekh O

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper considers an enhancement to multicell processing for the uplink of a cellular system, whereby the mobile stations are allowed to exchange messages on orthogonal channels of fixed capacity (conferencing. Both conferencing among mobile stations in different cells and in the same cell (inter- and intracell conferencing, resp. are studied. For both cases, it is shown that a rate-splitting transmission strategy, where part of the message is exchanged on the conferencing channels and then transmitted cooperatively to the base stations, is capacity achieving for sufficiently large conferencing capacity. In case of intercell conferencing, this strategy performs convolutional pre-equalization of the signal encoding the common messages in the spatial domain, where the number of taps of the finite-impulse response equalizer depends on the number of conferencing rounds. Analysis in the low signal-to-noise ratio regime and numerical results validate the advantages of conferencing as a complementary technology to multicell processing.

  18. Quantitative Imaging with a Mobile Phone Microscope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skandarajah, Arunan; Reber, Clay D.; Switz, Neil A.; Fletcher, Daniel A.

    2014-01-01

    Use of optical imaging for medical and scientific applications requires accurate quantification of features such as object size, color, and brightness. High pixel density cameras available on modern mobile phones have made photography simple and convenient for consumer applications; however, the camera hardware and software that enables this simplicity can present a barrier to accurate quantification of image data. This issue is exacerbated by automated settings, proprietary image processing algorithms, rapid phone evolution, and the diversity of manufacturers. If mobile phone cameras are to live up to their potential to increase access to healthcare in low-resource settings, limitations of mobile phone–based imaging must be fully understood and addressed with procedures that minimize their effects on image quantification. Here we focus on microscopic optical imaging using a custom mobile phone microscope that is compatible with phones from multiple manufacturers. We demonstrate that quantitative microscopy with micron-scale spatial resolution can be carried out with multiple phones and that image linearity, distortion, and color can be corrected as needed. Using all versions of the iPhone and a selection of Android phones released between 2007 and 2012, we show that phones with greater than 5 MP are capable of nearly diffraction-limited resolution over a broad range of magnifications, including those relevant for single cell imaging. We find that automatic focus, exposure, and color gain standard on mobile phones can degrade image resolution and reduce accuracy of color capture if uncorrected, and we devise procedures to avoid these barriers to quantitative imaging. By accommodating the differences between mobile phone cameras and the scientific cameras, mobile phone microscopes can be reliably used to increase access to quantitative imaging for a variety of medical and scientific applications. PMID:24824072

  19. Public safety assessment of electromagnetic radiation exposure from mobile base stations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alhekail, Z O; Hadi, M A; Alkanhal, M A

    2012-09-01

    Exposure of the general public to electromagnetic radiation originating from randomly selected GSM/WCDMA base stations in Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia has been assessed in the context of the International Commission on Non-Ionising Radiation Protection (ICNIRP) guidelines. The purpose of the measurement was to record the maximum power density of signals to estimate possible worst case exposure at each measurement location. These power density measurements were carried out at 60 mobile base stations located in different regions of the city. For each of these sites, three sectors were operational, yielding a total of 180 sectors. Two positions were identified per site with the greatest power density values. Exposures from these base stations were generally found to be in the range of 0.313 to 0.00000149% of the ICNIRP general public reference level, and the greatest exposure near any of the base stations was 21.96 mW m(-2) for a wideband measurement in the 75-3000 MHz frequency range. Analysis of the measured data reveals several trends for different mobile bands with respect to maximum exposure in those locations. Additionally, a simplified calculation method for the electromagnetic fields was used to compare calculated and the measured data. It was determined, on the basis of both results of the measurements and calculations carried out for these selected base stations, that members of the public would not be exposed to in excess of a small fraction of the ICNIRP guidelines at any of those sites. These are first such measurements to be made in the Middle East and provide assurance that exposures in this region of the world do not seem to be any greater than elsewhere.

  20. Cellular phone-based image acquisition and quantitative ratiometric method for detecting cocaine and benzoylecgonine for biological and forensic applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cadle, Brian A; Rasmus, Kristin C; Varela, Juan A; Leverich, Leah S; O'Neill, Casey E; Bachtell, Ryan K; Cooper, Donald C

    2010-01-01

    Here we describe the first report of using low-cost cellular or web-based digital cameras to image and quantify standardized rapid immunoassay strips as a new point-of-care diagnostic and forensics tool with health applications. Quantitative ratiometric pixel density analysis (QRPDA) is an automated method requiring end-users to utilize inexpensive (∼ $1 USD/each) immunotest strips, a commonly available web or mobile phone camera or scanner, and internet or cellular service. A model is described whereby a central computer server and freely available IMAGEJ image analysis software records and analyzes the incoming image data with time-stamp and geo-tag information and performs the QRPDA using custom JAVA based macros (http://www.neurocloud.org). To demonstrate QRPDA we developed a standardized method using rapid immunotest strips directed against cocaine and its major metabolite, benzoylecgonine. Images from standardized samples were acquired using several devices, including a mobile phone camera, web cam, and scanner. We performed image analysis of three brands of commercially available dye-conjugated anti-cocaine/benzoylecgonine (COC/BE) antibody test strips in response to three different series of cocaine concentrations ranging from 0.1 to 300 ng/ml and BE concentrations ranging from 0.003 to 0.1 ng/ml. This data was then used to create standard curves to allow quantification of COC/BE in biological samples. Across all devices, QRPDA quantification of COC and BE proved to be a sensitive, economical, and faster alternative to more costly methods, such as gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, tandem mass spectrometry, or high pressure liquid chromatography. The limit of detection was determined to be between 0.1 and 5 ng/ml. To simulate conditions in the field, QRPDA was found to be robust under a variety of image acquisition and testing conditions that varied temperature, lighting, resolution, magnification and concentrations of biological fluid in a sample. To

  1. Cellular Phone-Based Image Acquisition and Quantitative Ratiometric Method for Detecting Cocaine and Benzoylecgonine for Biological and Forensic Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian A. Cadle

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Here we describe the first report of using low-cost cellular or web-based digital cameras to image and quantify standardized rapid immunoassay strips as a new point-of-care diagnostic and forensics tool with health applications. Quantitative ratiometric pixel density analysis (QRPDA is an automated method requiring end-users to utilize inexpensive (~ $1 USD/each immunotest strips, a commonly available web or mobile phone camera or scanner, and internet or cellular service. A model is described whereby a central computer server and freely available IMAGEJ image analysis software records and analyzes the incoming image data with time-stamp and geo-tag information and performs the QRPDA using custom JAVA based macros ( http://www.neurocloud.org . To demonstrate QRPDA we developed a standardized method using rapid immunotest strips directed against cocaine and its major metabolite, benzoylecgonine. Images from standardized samples were acquired using several devices, including a mobile phone camera, web cam, and scanner. We performed image analysis of three brands of commercially available dye-conjugated anti-cocaine/benzoylecgonine (COC/BE antibody test strips in response to three different series of cocaine concentrations ranging from 0.1 to 300 ng/ml and BE concentrations ranging from 0.003 to 0.1 ng/ml. This data was then used to create standard curves to allow quantification of COC/BE in biological samples. Across all devices, QRPDA quantification of COC and BE proved to be a sensitive, economical, and faster alternative to more costly methods, such as gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, tandem mass spectrometry, or high pressure liquid chromatography. The limit of detection was determined to be between 0.1 and 5 ng/ml. To simulate conditions in the field, QRPDA was found to be robust under a variety of image acquisition and testing conditions that varied temperature, lighting, resolution, magnification and concentrations of biological fluid

  2. Effectiveness of a theory-based mobile phone text message intervention for improving protective behaviors of pregnant women against air pollution: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jasemzadeh, Mehrnoosh; Khafaie, Morteza Abdullatif; Jaafarzadeh, Nematallah; Araban, Marzieh

    2018-03-01

    Health impact of exposure to air pollution is a public health concern. The aim of this study was to investigate an extended parallel process model (EPPM)-based mobile phone text message intervention for improving protective behaviors against air pollution among pregnant women. In this randomized controlled trial (IRCT2016102810804N8), 130 pregnant women were randomly assigned into either experimental or control groups. A valid and reliable questionnaire was used to collect data. Experimental group received mobile phone intervention on a daily basis for 2 months. Control group received usual care, only. Data were analyzed using SPSS 15 applying t test, chi-square, and Wilcoxon and Mann-Whitney U test. Although before intervention, there were no significant differences between different structures of EPPM (P > 0.05), after intervention, there were statistically significant differences between perceived severity, response efficacy, self-efficacy, and protective behaviors between two groups (P mobile phone intervention could promote protective behaviors against air pollution among pregnant women. The present study might be used as a framework for evidence-based health promotion regarding air pollution risk communication and self-care behaviors. IRCT2016102810804N8.

  3. An Efficient Power Saving Technique Based Location Alarm For Smart Phones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saranya, G.; Lavanya, S.; Sivasankari, S.

    2018-04-01

    In today’s world it is not possible for everything to work at the scheduled time. Therefore it is necessary that our daily applications remind us on a particular location instead of a particular time. When the reminder is set, it continuously checks the distance from the destination. If it matches with the maximum distance entered it reminds the user that he/she is about to reach their destination. When the user enters the proximity radius that was set in the application, the user is notified. The application is set to work with availability of GPS as well as mobile network data in the users’ device which runs on android platform. The application also limits the impact of battery life of its device by bringing down the rate of updates and background services when the device battery is low and hence optimizing the battery usage for further important tasks. The location can be either a place or the GPS location of other user. The notification can be enabled on both the users and both the user can be notified based on the proximity radius set by them.

  4. Motorcycles as public transport service based on smart phone android applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dwijoko Ansusanto

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Growth of traffic in the city of Yogyakarta is dominated by private vehicle, while the urban public transport service is not satisfactory for consumer. In November 2015 the transport service based application called Go-Jek began operation in Yogyakarta. This service offers a transportation service that is safe, convenient, fast, cheap and more attractive the interest of consumers to use. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the operating system Go-Jek services, the public interest to this service, the feasibility of Go-Jek services as a mode of transportation in Yogyakarta. This research was conducted in the city of Yogyakarta and Sleman. The research method is done by using a questionnaire to the respondents: the driver and the consumer of Go-Jek. The analysis was conducted to assess the level of satisfaction and expectations of respondents using Importance-Performance analysis methods. Operating system Go-Jek is currently quite good, but needs to be further improved. Ranges of Income from 843.300 3.243.300 Indonesian Rupiah per month be perceived by the driver is good enough, while minimum income of workers on average in 2017 amounted 1.337.645 Indonesian rupiah per month in Yogyakarta Special District. Recommendations to the Go-Jek company in order to implement transparency in setting policies and systems to avoids the problems to the driver Go-Jek

  5. Mobile Phone-Based Joint Angle Measurement for Functional Assessment and Rehabilitation of Proprioception

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quentin Mourcou

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Assessment of joint functional and proprioceptive abilities is essential for balance, posture, and motor control rehabilitation. Joint functional ability refers to the capacity of movement of the joint. It may be evaluated thereby measuring the joint range of motion (ROM. Proprioception can be defined as the perception of the position and of the movement of various body parts in space. Its role is essential in sensorimotor control for movement acuity, joint stability, coordination, and balance. Its clinical evaluation is commonly based on the assessment of the joint position sense (JPS. Both ROM and JPS measurements require estimating angles through goniometer, scoliometer, laser-pointer, and bubble or digital inclinometer. With the arrival of Smartphones, these costly clinical tools tend to be replaced. Beyond evaluation, maintaining and/or improving joint functional and proprioceptive abilities by training with physical therapy is important for long-term management. This review aims to report Smartphone applications used for measuring and improving functional and proprioceptive abilities. It identifies that Smartphone applications are reliable for clinical measurements and are mainly used to assess ROM and JPS. However, there is lack of studies on Smartphone applications which can be used in an autonomous way to provide physical therapy exercises at home.

  6. Educational and motivational support service: a pilot study for mobile-phone-based interventions in patients with psoriasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balato, N; Megna, M; Di Costanzo, L; Balato, A; Ayala, F

    2013-01-01

     Psoriasis is a chronic disease which requires long-term therapy. Therefore, adherence to therapy and patient motivation are key points in controlling the disease. Mobile-phone-based interventions, and in particular text messages (TM), have already been used effectively to motivate patients and improve treatment adherence in many different chronic diseases such as diabetes, cardiovascular disease and asthma. To evaluate the use of TM in improving treatment adherence and several patient outcomes such as quality of life, disease severity, patient-perceived disease severity and the patient-physician relationship. Daily TM, providing reminders and educational tools, were sent for 12 weeks to a group of 20 patients with psoriasis. At the beginning and end of the study the following assessments were performed: Psoriasis Area Severity Index (PASI), Self-Administered Psoriasis Area Severity Index (SAPASI), body surface area (BSA), Physician Global Assessment (PGA), Dermatology Life Quality Index (DLQI), evaluation of patient-physician relationship and adherence to therapy. A matched control group of 20 patients with psoriasis was used for comparison of the same outcomes. Both patient groups had similar scores for PASI, SAPASI, BSA, PGA and DLQI at baseline. However, after 12 weeks the intervention group reported a significantly better improvement of disease severity as well as quality of life, showing lower values of PASI, SAPASI, BSA, PGA and DLQI with respect to the control group (Ptool for the long-term management of patients with psoriasis, leading to an increased compliance to therapy, positive changes in self-care behaviours and better patient-physician relationship allowing improved clinical outcomes and better control of the disease. © 2012 The Authors. BJD © 2012 British Association of Dermatologists.

  7. PhoneGap 3 beginner's guide

    CERN Document Server

    Natili, Giorgio

    2013-01-01

    Written in a friendly, example-driven Beginner's Guide format, there are plenty of step-by-step instructions to help you get started with PhoneGap.If you are a web developer or mobile application developer interested in an examples-based approach to learning mobile application development basics with PhoneGap, then this book is for you.

  8. Adolescents' Dialogic Composing with Mobile Phones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warner, Julie

    2016-01-01

    This 14-month study examined the phone-based composing practice of three adolescents. Given the centrality of mobile phones to youth culture, the researcher sought to create a description of the participants' composing practices with these devices. Focal participants were users of Twitter and Instagram, two social media platforms that are usually…

  9. The uninsured and Medicaid Oregon tobacco user experience in a real world, phone based cessation programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Bastawissi, Ay; McAfee, T; Zbikowski, S M; Hollis, J; Stark, M; Wassum, K; Clark, N; Barwinski, R; Broughton, E

    2003-03-01

    To describe the experience of uninsured and Medicaid Oregon tobacco users who registered in Free & Clear (F&C), a telephone based cessation programme including five scheduled outbound calls. Using a retrospective cohort design, 1334 (423 uninsured, 806 Medicaid, and 105 commercially insured) Oregon tobacco users who registered in F&C between 18 November 1998 and 28 February 2000 were identified and followed for 12 months post-registration; 648 (48.6%) were successfully contacted at 12 months. Information was collected from the F&C database. Unconditional logistic regression, adjusted for race and education, was used. The seven day quit rate at 12 months, assuming non-respondents were smokers, was 14.8% (95% confidence interval (CI) 13.0 to 16.9). This rate was significantly higher among commercially insured participants (v Medicaid but not uninsured) and among participants who completed > or = 5 calls (v or = 5 calls were 60% more likely to quit tobacco (odds ratio (OR) 1.6, 95% CI 0.9 to 3.1), and uninsured respondents who completed > or = 5 calls were 70% more likely to quit tobacco (OR 1.7, 95% CI 0.9 to 3.5), relative to those who completed < 5 calls, but the difference was not significant. The quit rates are similar to those reported in efficacy trials. The observed variation in quitting tobacco for respondents by number of calls completed and by insurance merits further investigation concentrating on increasing compliance with the call schedule, particularly for the uninsured.

  10. Cell Phone and Face-to-Face Interview Responses in Population-Based Surveys: How Do They Compare?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahfoud, Ziyad; Ghandour, Lilian; Ghandour, Blanche; Mokdad, Ali H.; Sibai, Abla M.

    2015-01-01

    Findings on the reliability and cost-effectiveness of the use of cellular phones vis-à-vis face-to-face interviews in investigating health behaviors and conditions are presented for a national epidemiological sample from Lebanon. Using self-reported responses on identical questions, percentage agreement, ? statistics, and McNemar's test were used…

  11. Mobile-Phone-Based Classroom Response Systems: Students' Perceptions of Engagement and Learning in a Large Undergraduate Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, Peter K.; Richardson, Alice; Oprescu, Florin; McDonald, Christine

    2013-01-01

    Using a Classroom Response System (CRS) has been associated with positive educational outcomes, by fostering student engagement and by allowing immediate feedback to both students and instructors. This study examined a low-cost CRS (VotApedia) in a large first-year class, where students responded to questions using their mobile phones. This study…

  12. Objective structured clinical examination "Death Certificate" station - Computer-based versus conventional exam format.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biolik, A; Heide, S; Lessig, R; Hachmann, V; Stoevesandt, D; Kellner, J; Jäschke, C; Watzke, S

    2018-04-01

    One option for improving the quality of medical post mortem examinations is through intensified training of medical students, especially in countries where such a requirement exists regardless of the area of specialisation. For this reason, new teaching and learning methods on this topic have recently been introduced. These new approaches include e-learning modules or SkillsLab stations; one way to objectify the resultant learning outcomes is by means of the OSCE process. However, despite offering several advantages, this examination format also requires considerable resources, in particular in regards to medical examiners. For this reason, many clinical disciplines have already implemented computer-based OSCE examination formats. This study investigates whether the conventional exam format for the OSCE forensic "Death Certificate" station could be replaced with a computer-based approach in future. For this study, 123 students completed the OSCE "Death Certificate" station, using both a computer-based and conventional format, half starting with the Computer the other starting with the conventional approach in their OSCE rotation. Assignment of examination cases was random. The examination results for the two stations were compared and both overall results and the individual items of the exam checklist were analysed by means of inferential statistics. Following statistical analysis of examination cases of varying difficulty levels and correction of the repeated measures effect, the results of both examination formats appear to be comparable. Thus, in the descriptive item analysis, while there were some significant differences between the computer-based and conventional OSCE stations, these differences were not reflected in the overall results after a correction factor was applied (e.g. point deductions for assistance from the medical examiner was possible only at the conventional station). Thus, we demonstrate that the computer-based OSCE "Death Certificate" station

  13. Optimal Base Station Density of Dense Network: From the Viewpoint of Interference and Load.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Jianyuan; Feng, Zhiyong

    2017-09-11

    Network densification is attracting increasing attention recently due to its ability to improve network capacity by spatial reuse and relieve congestion by offloading. However, excessive densification and aggressive offloading can also cause the degradation of network performance due to problems of interference and load. In this paper, with consideration of load issues, we study the optimal base station density that maximizes the throughput of the network. The expected link rate and the utilization ratio of the contention-based channel are derived as the functions of base station density using the Poisson Point Process (PPP) and Markov Chain. They reveal the rules of deployment. Based on these results, we obtain the throughput of the network and indicate the optimal deployment density under different network conditions. Extensive simulations are conducted to validate our analysis and show the substantial performance gain obtained by the proposed deployment scheme. These results can provide guidance for the network densification.

  14. Siting of Carsharing Stations Based on Spatial Multi-Criteria Evaluation: A Case Study of Shanghai EVCARD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenxiang Li

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Carsharing is one of the effective ways to relieve the problems of traffic jams, parking difficulties, and air pollution. In recent years, the numbers of carsharing services and their members have remarkably increased around the world. The project of electric carsharing in Shanghai, called EVCARD, has also developed rapidly with very large demand and supply. Aiming to determine the optimal locations of future stations of the EVCARD, this research employs a novel method combining the analytic hierarchy process (AHP and geographical information system (GIS with big data. Potential users, potential travel demand, potential travel purposes, and distance from existing stations are selected as the decision criteria. A siting decision system is established, consisting of 15 evaluation indicators which are calculated from multi-source data on mobile phones, taxi trajectory, point of interests (POI, and the EVCARD operation. The method of the AHP is used to determine the indicator weights, and the “Spatial Analyst” tool of ArcGIS is adopted to generate the indicator values for every 1 km × 1 km decision unit. Finally, synthetic scores are calculated to evaluate the candidate sites of EVCARD stations. The results of the case study verify the effectiveness of the proposed method, which can provide a more scientific and feasible method for carsharing operators to site stations, avoiding aimless and random decisions.

  15. Telemonitoring and Mobile Phone-Based Health Coaching Among Finnish Diabetic and Heart Disease Patients: Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karhula, Tuula; Vuorinen, Anna-Leena; Rääpysjärvi, Katja; Pakanen, Mira; Itkonen, Pentti; Tepponen, Merja; Junno, Ulla-Maija; Jokinen, Tapio; van Gils, Mark; Lähteenmäki, Jaakko; Kohtamäki, Kari; Saranummi, Niilo

    2015-06-17

    There is a strong will and need to find alternative models of health care delivery driven by the ever-increasing burden of chronic diseases. The purpose of this 1-year trial was to study whether a structured mobile phone-based health coaching program, which was supported by a remote monitoring system, could be used to improve the health-related quality of life (HRQL) and/or the clinical measures of type 2 diabetes and heart disease patients. A randomized controlled trial was conducted among type 2 diabetes patients and heart disease patients of the South Karelia Social and Health Care District. Patients were recruited by sending invitations to randomly selected patients using the electronic health records system. Health coaches called patients every 4 to 6 weeks and patients were encouraged to self-monitor their weight, blood pressure, blood glucose (diabetics), and steps (heart disease patients) once per week. The primary outcome was HRQL measured by the Short Form (36) Health Survey (SF-36) and glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) among diabetic patients. The clinical measures assessed were blood pressure, weight, waist circumference, and lipid levels. A total of 267 heart patients and 250 diabetes patients started in the trial, of which 246 and 225 patients concluded the end-point assessments, respectively. Withdrawal from the study was associated with the patients' unfamiliarity with mobile phones—of the 41 dropouts, 85% (11/13) of the heart disease patients and 88% (14/16) of the diabetes patients were familiar with mobile phones, whereas the corresponding percentages were 97.1% (231/238) and 98.6% (208/211), respectively, among the rest of the patients (P=.02 and P=.004). Withdrawal was also associated with heart disease patients' comorbidities—40% (8/20) of the dropouts had at least one comorbidity, whereas the corresponding percentage was 18.9% (47/249) among the rest of the patients (P=.02). The intervention showed no statistically significant benefits over

  16. Mobile Phone-Based Measures of Activity, Step Count, and Gait Speed: Results From a Study of Older Ambulatory Adults in a Naturalistic Setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rye Hanton, Cassia; Kwon, Yong-Jun; Aung, Thawda; Whittington, Jackie; High, Robin R; Goulding, Evan H; Schenk, A Katrin; Bonasera, Stephen J

    2017-10-03

    Cellular mobile telephone technology shows much promise for delivering and evaluating healthcare interventions in cost-effective manners with minimal barriers to access. There is little data demonstrating that these devices can accurately measure clinically important aspects of individual functional status in naturalistic environments outside of the laboratory. The objective of this study was to demonstrate that data derived from ubiquitous mobile phone technology, using algorithms developed and previously validated by our lab in a controlled setting, can be employed to continuously and noninvasively measure aspects of participant (subject) health status including step counts, gait speed, and activity level, in a naturalistic community setting. A second objective was to compare our mobile phone-based data against current standard survey-based gait instruments and clinical physical performance measures in order to determine whether they measured similar or independent constructs. A total of 43 ambulatory, independently dwelling older adults were recruited from Nebraska Medicine, including 25 (58%, 25/43) healthy control individuals from our Engage Wellness Center and 18 (42%, 18/43) functionally impaired, cognitively intact individuals (who met at least 3 of 5 criteria for frailty) from our ambulatory Geriatrics Clinic. The following previously-validated surveys were obtained on study day 1: (1) Late Life Function and Disability Instrument (LLFDI); (2) Survey of Activities and Fear of Falling in the Elderly (SAFFE); (3) Patient Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System (PROMIS), short form version 1.0 Physical Function 10a (PROMIS-PF); and (4) PROMIS Global Health, short form version 1.1 (PROMIS-GH). In addition, clinical physical performance measurements of frailty (10 foot Get up and Go, 4 Meter walk, and Figure-of-8 Walk [F8W]) were also obtained. These metrics were compared to our mobile phone-based metrics collected from the participants in the community

  17. A mobile phone-based, community health worker program for referral, follow-up, and service outreach in rural Zambia: outcomes and overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuttner, Linnaea; Sindano, Ntazana; Theis, Mathew; Zue, Cory; Joseph, Jessica; Chilengi, Roma; Chi, Benjamin H; Stringer, Jeffrey S A; Chintu, Namwinga

    2014-08-01

    Mobile health (m-health) utilizes widespread access to mobile phone technologies to expand health services. Community health workers (CHWs) provide first-level contact with health facilities; combining CHW efforts with m-health may be an avenue for improving primary care services. As part of a primary care improvement project, a pilot CHW program was developed using a mobile phone-based application for outreach, referral, and follow-up between the clinic and community in rural Zambia. The program was implemented at six primary care sites. Computers were installed at clinics for data entry, and data were transmitted to central servers. In the field, using a mobile phone to send data and receive follow-up requests, CHWs conducted household health surveillance visits, referred individuals to clinic, and followed up clinic patients. From January to April 2011, 24 CHWs surveyed 6,197 households with 33,304 inhabitants. Of 15,539 clinic visits, 1,173 (8%) had a follow-up visit indicated and transmitted via a mobile phone to designated CHWs. CHWs performed one or more follow-ups on 74% (n=871) of active requests and obtained outcomes on 63% (n=741). From all community visits combined, CHWs referred 840 individuals to a clinic. CHWs completed all planned aspects of surveillance and outreach, demonstrating feasibility. Components of this pilot project may aid clinical care in rural settings and have potential for epidemiologic and health system applications. Thus, m-health has the potential to improve service outreach, guide activities, and facilitate data collection in Zambia.

  18. Measurement and analysis of electromagnetic pollution generated by GSM-900 mobile phone networks in Erciyes University, Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorgucu, Ugur; Develi, Ibrahim

    2012-12-01

    Mobile phones are becoming increasingly important in our everyday lives. The rising number of mobile phones reflects a similar increase in the number of base stations. Because of this rapid evolution, the establishment and planning of new base stations has become mandatory. However, the rise in the number of base stations, in terms of human health, is potentially very harmful. It is important to analyze the radiation levels of base stations until we can confirm that they are definitely not harmful in the long term. Mapping of electromagnetic field (EMF) is also important from a medical point of view because it provides useful information, for example, on the detection of diseases caused by EMF. With the help of this information the distribution of diseases over different regions can be obtained. In this article, the electromagnetic radiation levels of base stations were measured at 80 different points in Erciyes University (ERU), Turkey and detailed information about the measurement tools and measurement method were given. It was observed that no area in ERU exceeded the national and international limits. It is also observed that the effects of base stations vary according to duration and degree of exposure. Therefore, if people are exposed to a very low-intensity electromagnetic field for a very long time, serious health problems can occur.

  19. Automated guidance algorithms for a space station-based crew escape vehicle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flanary, R; Hammen, D G; Ito, D; Rabalais, B W; Rishikof, B H; Siebold, K H

    2003-04-01

    An escape vehicle was designed to provide an emergency evacuation for crew members living on a space station. For maximum escape capability, the escape vehicle needs to have the ability to safely evacuate a station in a contingency scenario such as an uncontrolled (e.g., tumbling) station. This emergency escape sequence will typically be divided into three events: The first separation event (SEP1), the navigation reconstruction event, and the second separation event (SEP2). SEP1 is responsible for taking the spacecraft from its docking port to a distance greater than the maximum radius of the rotating station. The navigation reconstruction event takes place prior to the SEP2 event and establishes the orbital state to within the tolerance limits necessary for SEP2. The SEP2 event calculates and performs an avoidance burn to prevent station recontact during the next several orbits. This paper presents the tools and results for the whole separation sequence with an emphasis on the two separation events. The first challenge includes collision avoidance during the escape sequence while the station is in an uncontrolled rotational state, with rotation rates of up to 2 degrees per second. The task of avoiding a collision may require the use of the Vehicle's de-orbit propulsion system for maximum thrust and minimum dwell time within the vicinity of the station vicinity. The thrust of the propulsion system is in a single direction, and can be controlled only by the attitude of the spacecraft. Escape algorithms based on a look-up table or analytical guidance can be implemented since the rotation rate and the angular momentum vector can be sensed onboard and a-priori knowledge of the position and relative orientation are available. In addition, crew intervention has been provided for in the event of unforeseen obstacles in the escape path. The purpose of the SEP2 burn is to avoid re-contact with the station over an extended period of time. Performing this maneuver requires

  20. Integrated base stations and a method of transmitting data units in a communications system for mobile devices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosch, H.G.P.; Mullender, Sape J.; Narlikar, G.J.; Samuel, L.G.; Yagati, L.N.

    2006-01-01

    Integrated base stations and a method of transmitting data units in a communications system for mobile devices. In one embodiment, an integrated base station includes a communications processor having a protocol stack configured with a media access control layer and a physical layer.