WorldWideScience

Sample records for phleboviral disease importance

  1. [Imported diseases in Switzerland: development and perspectives].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degrémont, A; Lorenz, N

    1990-10-01

    During the last years, imported diseases have become more frequent in Switzerland. This is easily explained by the enormous increase of tourism to tropical and subtropical countries. Immigration from these countries has equally seen an important augmentation. The principal imported diseases are still malaria and gastrointestinal infections. Viral infections are rarely diagnosed, with the exception of hepatitis and HIV infection. The prevalence of sexually transmitted diseases is most certainly underestimated. The differential diagnosis of imported skin diseases is still difficult. Rare tropical diseases will probably become more frequent in the coming years as travellers leave more and more the traditional tourist paths. Practitioners have to look out for such problems, and continuous training programmes for them will have to take these new problems into account. Referral centres of infectious diseases should be established in all regions of Switzerland. High priority should be given to the prevention of imported diseases.

  2. [Clinical microbiology laboratory and imported parasitic diseases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín-Rabadán, Pablo; Martínez-Ruiz, Rocío; Cuadros, Juan; Cañavate, Carmen

    2010-12-01

    Imported parasitosis represents an increasingly frequent diagnostic challenge for microbiology laboratories. A surge in immigration and international travel has led to a rise in the number of imported cases of parasitosis, and this trend is expected to continue in the future. The present article addresses this challenge by reviewing recommended diagnostic approaches and tests. Currently, microscopy is always recommended when analysing blood samples for parasites. If malaria is suspected, rapid antigen testing (including at least HRP2 antigen) should also be performed. The work-up for suspected leishmaniasis should include serology, culture, and in selected cases detection of antigen in urine. In suspected Chagas disease, two different serological tests should be performed. PCR for blood protozoa is highly sensitive, although it cannot be used to rule out Chagas disease, since this condition may be present without parasitemia. Accurate diagnosis of intestinal amebiasis usually requires PCR or antigen detection tests. In helminthiasis, traditional microscopy may need to be complemented with other tests, such as agar plate culture for strongyloidiasis, Og4C3 antigen detection for bancroftian filariasis, and antibody detection test for filariasis and schistosomiasis. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  3. Importance of viral diseases in irradiated persons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blaha, M.; Jebavy, L.; Merka, V.; Horacek, J.

    1988-01-01

    A preliminary study was performed aimed at establishing the incidence of some viral diseases in radiation syndrome patients and the significance of the diseases for prognosis. In the study, 77 patients with syndromologically identical acute hematological forms of radiation sickness, mainly leukemic patients suffering from severe blood formation suppression and/or hematoblastosis were examined for concurrent herpes simplex virus and cytomegalovirus infections. Active viruses were isolated in almost 30% of the patients; nearly 90% of the patients were serologically positive, shedding antibodies. The findings thus confirmed the view that viral disease, especially in immunocompromised patients, has a critical effect on the survival of radiation sickness sufferers. (L.O.). 12 refs

  4. Animal diseases of public health importance.

    OpenAIRE

    Orriss, G. D.

    1997-01-01

    The Food and Agriculture Organization's (FAO) interest in emerging diseases caused by foodborne pathogens derives from its role as the leading United Nations agency with a mandate for food quality and safety matters. The Food Quality and Standards Service of FAO's Food and Nutrition Division is active in all areas related to food safety and implements the FAO/World Health Organization Food Standards Program. Its activities include providing assistance to FAO's member nations in addressing pro...

  5. Important complications of chronic kidney disease

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A raised parathyroid hormone level (secondary hyperparathyroidism) is also a major risk factor for cardiovascular .... Evaluation of the iron deficit and correct iron supply is important ... growth factor 23 which, in turn, inhibits the hydroxylation of.

  6. [Epidemiology of imported infectious diseases in China, 2013-2016].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Y L; Wang, X; Ren, R Q; Zhou, L; Tu, W W; Ni, D X; Li, Q; Feng, Z J; Zhang, Y P

    2017-11-10

    Objective: To describe the epidemic of imported infectious diseases in China between 2013 and 2016, including the kinds of infectious diseases, affected provinces, source countries and the epidemiological characteristics, and provide scientific information for the prevention and control of imported infectious diseases. Methods: Data of cases of imported infectious diseases in China from 2013 to 2016 were collected from national information reporting system of infectious diseases, Microsoft Excel 2010 and SPSS 18.0 were used to conduct data cleaning and analysis. Results: From 2013 to 2016, a total of 16 206 imported cases of infectious diseases were reported in China. Of all the cases, 83.12% (13 471 cases) were malaria cases, followed by dengue fever (2 628 cases, 16.22%). The majority of the imported cases were males (14 522 cases, 89.61%). Most cases were aged 20-50 years. Except Zika virus disease and yellow fever, which were mainly reported before and after spring festival, other imported infectious diseases mainly occurred in summer and autumn. The epidemic in affected provinces varied with the types of infectious diseases, and Yunnan reported the largest case number of imported infectious diseases, followed by Jiangsu, Guangxi and Guangdong. The imported cases were mainly from Asian countries, such as Burma, and African countries, such as Angola, Equatorial Guinea and Ghana, which also varied with the types of infectious diseases. Conclusions: We should pay more attention to imported infectious diseases and strengthen the prevention and control measures in our country. In order to reduce the incidence of imported infectious diseases, the health education should be enforced for persons who plan to travel abroad and the active surveillance should be strengthened for returned travelers.

  7. Some Important Diseases of Tree Fruits - Diseases of Vegetable Crops - Diseases of Grapes - Diseases of Tree Nuts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, Donald H.; And Others

    This agriculture extension service publication from Pennsylvania State University consists of four sections on plant disease recognition and control. The titles of these four sections are: (1) Some Important Diseases of Tree Fruits; (2) Diseases of Vegetable Crops; (3) Diseases of Crops; and (4) Diseases of Tree Nuts. The first section discusses…

  8. Sleep: important considerations for the prevention of cardiovascular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grandner, Michael A; Alfonso-Miller, Pamela; Fernandez-Mendoza, Julio; Shetty, Safal; Shenoy, Sundeep; Combs, Daniel

    2016-09-01

    Sleep plays many roles in maintenance of cardiovascular health. This review summarizes the literature across several areas of sleep and sleep disorders in relation to cardiometabolic disease risk factors. Insufficient sleep duration is prevalent in the population and is associated with weight gain and obesity, inflammation, cardiovascular disease, diabetes, and mortality. Insomnia is also highly present and represents an important risk factor for cardiovascular disease, especially when accompanied by short sleep duration. Sleep apnea is a well-characterized risk factor for cardiometabolic disease and cardiovascular mortality. Other issues are relevant as well. For example, sleep disorders in pediatric populations may convey cardiovascular risks. Also, sleep may play an important role in cardiovascular health disparities. Sleep and sleep disorders are implicated in cardiometabolic disease risk. This review addresses these and other issues, concluding with recommendations for research and clinical practice.

  9. Shrimp viral diseases, import risk assessment and international trade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karunasagar, Iddya; Ababouch, Lahsen

    2012-09-01

    Shrimp is an important commodity in international trade accounting for 15 % in terms of value of internationally traded seafood products which reached $102.00 billion in 2008. Aquaculture contributes to over 50 % of global shrimp production. One of the major constraints faced by shrimp aquaculture is the loss due to viral diseases like white spot syndrome, yellow head disease, and Taura syndrome. There are several examples of global spread of shrimp diseases due to importation of live shrimp for aquaculture. Though millions of tonnes of frozen or processed shrimp have been traded internationally during the last two decades despite prevalence of viral diseases in shrimp producing areas in Asia and the Americas, there is no evidence of diseases having been transmitted through shrimp imported for human consumption. The guidelines developed by the World Animal Health Organisation for movement of live animals for aquaculture, frozen crustaceans for human consumption, and the regulations implemented by some shrimp importing regions in the world are reviewed.

  10. Inflammatory pathways of importance for management of inflammatory bowel disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Jannie; Coskun, Mehmet; Soendergaard, Christoffer

    2014-01-01

    Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a group of chronic disorders of the gastrointestinal tract comprising Crohn's disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC). Their etiologies are unknown, but they are characterised by an imbalanced production of pro-inflammatory mediators, e.g., tumor necrosis factor......-inflammatory cytokines, antibodies targeting integrins, and small anti-adhesion molecules that block adhesion between leukocytes and the intestinal vascular endothelium, reducing their infiltration into the inflamed mucosa. In this review we have elucidated the major signaling pathways of clinical importance for IBD...

  11. The functional importance of disease-associated mutation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klein Teri E

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background For many years, scientists believed that point mutations in genes are the genetic switches for somatic and inherited diseases such as cystic fibrosis, phenylketonuria and cancer. Some of these mutations likely alter a protein's function in a manner that is deleterious, and they should occur in functionally important regions of the protein products of genes. Here we show that disease-associated mutations occur in regions of genes that are conserved, and can identify likely disease-causing mutations. Results To show this, we have determined conservation patterns for 6185 non-synonymous and heritable disease-associated mutations in 231 genes. We define a parameter, the conservation ratio, as the ratio of average negative entropy of analyzable positions with reported mutations to that of every analyzable position in the gene sequence. We found that 84.0% of the 231 genes have conservation ratios less than one. 139 genes had eleven or more analyzable mutations and 88.0% of those had conservation ratios less than one. Conclusions These results indicate that phylogenetic information is a powerful tool for the study of disease-associated mutations. Our alignments and analysis has been made available as part of the database at http://cancer.stanford.edu/mut-paper/. Within this dataset, each position is annotated with the analysis, so the most likely disease-causing mutations can be identified.

  12. [Ticks and transmission of some important diseases by ticks].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gazyağci, Aycan Nuriye; Aydenızöz, Meral

    2010-01-01

    Ticks which are commonly found all around the world are ectoparasites which are obliged to suck blood from vertebrates such as mammals and birds during all of their periods of develeopment. They may cause toxicities and paralyses in the course of blood sucking through saliva injection and the attachment sites may become ports of entry for secondary agents. Healthy animals that are severely infested by ticks can show a decreased yield and anemia. Young and sick animals can even die. Besides this, ticks are both biological and mechanical vectors for viruses, bacteria, rickettsias, spirochaetas, protozoons and helminths. Ten percent of the ticks identified in the world are associated with 200 diseases. In this review the taxonomy and morphology of ticks, some of the important diseases they carry and the diagnosis and treatment of these diseases are mentioned.

  13. Is exercise important in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Make, Barry; Casaburi, Richard

    2007-09-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease impairs the ability of patients to perform maximal physical exercise, particularly in patients with severe lung disease. However, differing perceptions of the meaning and importance of exercise to patients and caregivers is likely to impair patient-physician communication about current medical status and outcomes of therapeutic interventions. Other outcomes of importance to patients including actual performance of functional activity during daily life and health-related quality of life may also be affected by impaired exercise capacity. However, the relationships between exercise, activity, and quality of life are inconsistent. Thus, measurement of physiologic and patient-centered outcomes may provide the best approach to assessing responses to therapeutic interventions. These concepts were explored in a conference sponsored by Boehringer Ingelheim Pharmaceuticals, Inc. and Pfizer Inc and reviewed in the articles generated from the symposium in this issue of COPD.

  14. REVIEW ON IMPORTANT HELMINTHIC DISEASES IN ANIMAL IN INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.G. P. Suweta

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Helminthic diseases are widely spread throughout the world. In Indonesia, the cases in animals are primarily associated with the condition of the field, although the intensity of the infestations are also affected by various factors inside the body of the host. In general, the tropical and humid conditions in Indonesia, optimally support the development and spreading of the parasites, so that the prevalence of the infestations are usually high except in the very dry areas. In Indonesia, important helminthic diseases found in livestock are mostly caused by nematodes and trematodes, and there is a lack of information regarding cestode infestations, except infestation by immature stages of the worm such as cysticercosis in ruminants and swine. On the other hand, dogs and cats are usually infested by cestodes and nematodes. Here, the negative influence of helminthic infestation on live stock is mostiy shown by failure of growth, decrease of body weight and body resistance, damage of organs infested by the parasites, but it is not rare that the disease cause death of the infested animals such as haemonchiasis in sheep, ascariasis in young swine and calves, etc. The integrated system of farming combined with periodic anthelminthic treatments were favourable in the effort of controlling the disease.

  15. Congenital heart disease screening: which referral factors are most important

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fayyaz, A.; Ahmed, W.

    2013-01-01

    To identify the referral factors for fetal echocardiography which are associated with congenital cardiac defects in the fetus. Study Design: Cross-sectional descriptive study. Place and Duration of Study: Radiology Department, CMH, Rawalpindi, from January 2007 to November 2010. Methodology: All patients referred for fetal echocardiography with one or more risk factors for the development of congenital heart disease, and those patients with incidental discovery of congenital heart disease on antenatal ultrasound were evaluated. Patients with no risk factors who were found to have normal fetal echocardiography were excluded from the study. Univariate logistic regression analysis was carried out for each variable. The variables with statistical significance of less than 0.05 were subjected to multivariate logistic regression. Fetal echocardiographic diagnosis was taken as the dependent variable and all other variables were the independent variables. Results: Two hundred and sixty four patients were evaluated by fetal echocardiography for congenital heart disease. The statistically significant factor was detection of congenital heart disease on routine ultrasound examination. Conclusion: A routine obstetric scan should include evaluation of the heart with four-chamber and base-of-heart views to exclude cardiac anomalies. A cardiac anomaly picked up on routine ultrasound scan is the most important indication for referral for fetal echocardiography. Fetal arrhythmias and echogenic focus in the left ventricle do not have a significant association with structural cardiac malformation. (author)

  16. Appreciate the Appreciation: Imported Inputs and Concern Over Dutch Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wardah Naim

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available If anything is to blame for a higher dollar having negative effects on the Central Canadian manufacturing sector, you are not likely to find it in any “Dutch Disease” supposedly caused by Alberta’s oil sands. Contrary to popular belief, the higher value of the Canadian dollar may even help Central Canadian manufacturers grow stronger, cut costs, and create jobs. The idea that a booming, commodity-driven dollar is hurting Canadian goods exports, afflicting the country with so-called Dutch Disease, may be popular among certain politicians, including federal Opposition leader Thomas Mulcair and former Premier of Ontario Dalton McGuinty, but is not supported by the facts. It turns out that the simple economic theory these politicians have in mind is incomplete. A more thorough, data-driven look at the nation’s manufacturing sector reveals that Canadian businesses rely very heavily on imported materials and equipment as inputs in the manufacturing process. Canadian industry overall has one of the highest import ratios for such intermediate goods in the OECD, roughly twice as high as that of the U.S., the European Union and Japan. Compared to all other sectors, manufacturers are the heaviest users of imported materials and equipment, with more than 40 per cent of their inputs coming from other countries. A higher dollar may make it more expensive for foreign buyers to purchase Canadian manufactured goods, but that effect appears to be more than offset by the savings that Canadian producers enjoy with a higher dollar that makes possible cheaper imported-inputs and lower cost of production, which have a lowering effect on prices. The net result is that Canadian manufacturers actually get more benefit from a higher dollar, and the regions that get the biggest boost from it are the Central Canadian provinces of Ontario and Quebec. Policy-makers looking to aid the Canadian economy as a whole, and the manufacturing sector in particular, should stop

  17. Fascioliasis: a worldwide parasitic disease of importance in travel medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashrafi, Keyhan; Bargues, M Dolores; O'Neill, Sandra; Mas-Coma, Santiago

    2014-01-01

    Fascioliasis is a foodborne zoonotic disease caused by the two parasite species Fasciola hepatica and Fasciola gigantica. This trematodiasis has never been claimed special relevance for travellers and migrants. However, the situation has drastically changed in the last two decades, in a way that fascioliasis should today be included in the list of diseases to be enhanced in Travel Medicine. Different kind of travellers have been involved in human infection reports: business travellers, tourists, migrants, expatriated workers, military personnel, religious missionaries, and refugees. Europe is the continent where more imported cases have been reported in many countries. More cases would have been probably reported in Europe if fascioliasis would be a reportable disease. In the Americas, most of the reports concern cases diagnosed in USA. Relative few patients have been diagnosed in studies on travellers performed in Asia. In Africa, most cases were reported in Maghreb countries. Blood eosinophilia and the ingestion of watercress or any other suggestive freshwater plant in anamnesis are extremely useful in guiding towards a fascioliasis diagnosis in a developed country, although may not be so in human endemic areas of developing countries. Several suggestive clinical presentation aspects may be useful, although the clinical polymorphism may be misleading in many cases. Non-invasive techniques are helpful for the diagnosis, although images may lead to confusion. Laparoscopic visualization should assist and facilitate procurement of an accurately guided biopsy. Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) is the first choice in patients in the chronic phase. ERCP and sphincterotomy are used to extract parasites from the biliary tree. Fluke egg finding continues to be the gold standard and enables for burden quantification and establishing of the drug dose. Many serological and stool antigen detection tests have been developed. Immunological techniques present

  18. Inflammatory pathways of importance for management of inflammatory bowel disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, Jannie; Coskun, Mehmet; Soendergaard, Christoffer; Salem, Mohammad; Nielsen, Ole Haagen

    2014-01-07

    Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a group of chronic disorders of the gastrointestinal tract comprising Crohn's disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC). Their etiologies are unknown, but they are characterised by an imbalanced production of pro-inflammatory mediators, e.g., tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, as well as increased recruitment of leukocytes to the site of inflammation. Advantages in understanding the role of the inflammatory pathways in IBD and an inadequate response to conventional therapy in a large portion of patients, has over the last two decades lead to new therapies which includes the TNF inhibitors (TNFi), designed to target and neutralise the effect of TNF-α. TNFi have shown to be efficient in treating moderate to severe CD and UC. However, convenient alternative therapeutics targeting other immune pathways are needed for patients with IBD refractory to conventional therapy including TNFi. Indeed, several therapeutics are currently under development, and have shown success in clinical trials. These include antibodies targeting and neutralising interleukin-12/23, small pharmacologic Janus kinase inhibitors designed to block intracellular signaling of several pro-inflammatory cytokines, antibodies targeting integrins, and small anti-adhesion molecules that block adhesion between leukocytes and the intestinal vascular endothelium, reducing their infiltration into the inflamed mucosa. In this review we have elucidated the major signaling pathways of clinical importance for IBD therapy and highlighted the new promising therapies available. As stated in this paper several new treatment options are under development for the treatment of CD and UC, however, no drug fits all patients. Hence, optimisations of treatment regimens are warranted for the benefit of the patients either through biomarker establishment or other rationales to maximise the effect of the broad range of mode-of-actions of the present and future drugs in IBD.

  19. The importance of behavioural and pyschological symptoms in Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez Romero, A; González Garrido, S

    2016-04-26

    Behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD), present in the vast majority of patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD), cause extensive impairment in all areas, including functionality. Early diagnosis and management are critical, especially since these symptoms are not included in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-V) as a diagnostic criterion of AD, but only as specific features of some patients. The main purpose of this review is to highlight the importance of these behavioural and psychological symptoms of dementia, particularly in AD. In addition, we discuss why these symptoms have not been included in the latest DSM-V. We conducted a literature search through various databases to gather data about BPSD in AD, and found a total of 12 articles. BPSD are present in almost all patients and result in cognitive and functional impairment. The prevalence of these symptoms varies depending on the study and the symptom in question. In our view, BPSD should be included among the DSM diagnostic criteria for AD. Copyright © 2016 Sociedad Española de Neurología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  20. The importance of copy number variation in congenital heart disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costain, Gregory; Silversides, Candice K; Bassett, Anne S

    2016-01-01

    Congenital heart disease (CHD) is the most common class of major malformations in humans. The historical association with large chromosomal abnormalities foreshadowed the role of submicroscopic rare copy number variations (CNVs) as important genetic causes of CHD. Recent studies have provided robust evidence for these structural variants as genome-wide contributors to all forms of CHD, including CHD that appears isolated without extra-cardiac features. Overall, a CNV-related molecular diagnosis can be made in up to one in eight patients with CHD. These include de novo and inherited variants at established (chromosome 22q11.2), emerging (chromosome 1q21.1), and novel loci across the genome. Variable expression of rare CNVs provides support for the notion of a genetic spectrum of CHD that crosses traditional anatomic classification boundaries. Clinical genetic testing using genome-wide technologies (e.g., chromosomal microarray analysis) is increasingly employed in prenatal, paediatric and adult settings. CNV discoveries in CHD have translated to changes to clinical management, prognostication and genetic counselling. The convergence of findings at individual gene and at pathway levels is shedding light on the mechanisms that govern human cardiac morphogenesis. These clinical and research advances are helping to inform whole-genome sequencing, the next logical step in delineating the genetic architecture of CHD. PMID:28706735

  1. [Alzheimer's disease, the importance of the choice of words].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefanuto, Muriel; Canovas, Stéphane; Khaddar, Marie; Sanchez, Stéphane; Denormandie, Philippe

    The terms 'dementia' and 'demented' are frequently used to refer to people with neurodegenerative diseases, such as Alzheimer's disease. Based on the cross-analysis of some observational data (historical, linguistic, legal and medical), it is possible to highlight the risks and the issues related to the terminological choices for patients and health professionals. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  2. Cacao diseases: important threats to chocolate production worldwide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ploetz, Randy C

    2007-12-01

    ABSTRACT Theobroma cacao, cacao, is an ancient, neotropical domesticate. It is now grown throughout the humid, lowland tropics and is the basis of a multibillion dollar confectionary trade. Diverse diseases impact production of the crop. They reduce yields by ca. 20%, but could cause far greater losses if certain highly damaging diseases were to become more widely distributed. Among the most potentially dangerous of these diseases are frosty pod, caused by Moniliophthora roreri, and witches' broom, caused by M. perniciosa (previously Crinipellis perniciosa). These two diseases occur only in the Western Hemisphere, and severe losses would follow their introduction to West Africa and Asia, where ca. 86% of all cacao production occurs. Elsewhere, Cacao swollen shoot virus and the damaging black pod agent, Phytophthora megakarya, are found in Western Africa; whereas vascular streak dieback, caused by Oncobasidium theobromae, is present only in Asia. Breeding programs are challenged by minimal resistance to some of the diseases. Progress that has been made is threatened by the "emergence" of other serious diseases, such as Ceratocystis wilt (Ceratocystis cacaofunesta). During this symposium, new insights are discussed on the biology, origins, pathology and phylogeny of the pathogens; as well as the biological, chemical and genetic management of the diseases that they cause.

  3. The first case of imported Borrelia miyamotoi disease concurrent with Lyme disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oda, Rentaro; Kutsuna, Satoshi; Sekikawa, Yoshiyuki; Hongo, Igen; Sato, Kozue; Ohnishi, Makoto; Kawabata, Hiroki

    2017-05-01

    Borrelia miyamotoi disease (BMD) is an emerging infectious disease caused by B. miyamotoi. Although BMD has been reported in the United States, Europe, and Japan, no case of imported BMD has been described in the world. Here, we report a 63-year-old American man living in Japan who presented with malaise, headache, myalgia, and arthralgia. We suspected Lyme disease because of his travel history to Minnesota and presence of erythema migrans. Serologic analysis supported our diagnosis, and doxycycline was administered for 14 days. However, we also suspected coinfection with BMD because of his fever, elevated liver function test results and his travel history. The patient was seropositive for the immunoglobulin M antibody to recombinant glycerophosphodiester phosphodiesterase, and was diagnosed with coinfection with BMD. This case suggests that BMD should be considered in febrile travelers returning from the Northeastern and Midwestern regions of the United States, and that BMD and Lyme disease coinfection should be considered to detect cases of imported BMD. Copyright © 2017 Japanese Society of Chemotherapy and The Japanese Association for Infectious Diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Important complications of chronic kidney disease | van der Walt ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Statins are ineffective in stages 4 and 5 CKD, but are indicated for preventing the ... and may result in ischaemic heart disease, myocardial infarction and stroke. A raised parathyroid hormone level (secondary hyperparathyroidism) is also a ...

  5. [Inflammatory spinal diseases: axial spondyloarthritis : Central importance of imaging].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baraliakos, X; Fruth, M; Kiltz, U; Braun, J

    2017-03-01

    The diagnosis of axial spondyloarthritis (axSpA) includes classical ankylosing spondylitis (AS) as well as earlier stages and abortive courses of the disease, in which structural alterations have not yet occurred. These are classified as non-radiographic axSpA (nr-axSpa). Inflammatory changes in the entire axial skeleton are characteristic for axSpA and can be visualized by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), while in most patients structural alterations, such as new bone formation with syndesmophytes and ankylosis develop in the later course of the disease. These bony alterations can best be visualized by conventional radiography and by computed tomography. Certain MRI sequences are nowadays considered as the standard method for depiction of inflammatory changes in axSpA. The introduction of MRI has led to a paradigm shift for this disease because the inflammatory lesions characteristic for the disease can be visualized at an early stage using appropriate MRI sequences.

  6. Emerging fungal diseases: the importance of the host.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Procop, Gary W; Roberts, Glenn D

    2004-09-01

    More yeasts and molds are now recognized to cause more human disease than ever before. This development is not due to a change in the virulence of these fungi, but rather to changes in the human host. These changes include immunosuppression secondary to the pandemic of HIV, the use of life-saving advances in chemotherapy and organ transplantation, and the use of corticosteroids and other immunosuppressive agents to treat a variety of diseases. Fungi that were once considered common saprophytes are now recognized as potential pathogens in these patients. This situation necessitates better communication than ever between the clinician, pathologist, and clinical mycologist to ensure the prompt and accurate determination of the cause of fungal diseases.

  7. Caffey disease in neonatal period: the importance of the family!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prior, Ana Rita; Moldovan, Oana; Azevedo, António; Moniz, Carlos

    2012-10-09

    A male newborn was apparently well until his second day of life, when increased irritability and a swelling in his right leg were noted. He was rooming-in with his mother since birth. On examination, a mass on the anterior surface of the right leg was noticed. The mass was firm, elongated, ill-defined, unmovable and painful at palpation. No overlying skin changes were seen. The newborn had a family history of neonatal bone swelling with resolution before the age of 2. Subsequent images showed hyperostosis in the diaphysis of the right tibia. After exclusion of other conditions such as trauma, osteomyelitis and congenital syphilis, the involvement of the tibial diaphysis, sparing the epiphyses and the benign course of the disease in family history, were indicative of Caffey disease. The genetic study confirmed this diagnosis. Caffey disease, although rare, should not be overlooked in the diagnostic approach to childhood bone swelling.

  8. Dengue: an arthropod-borne disease of global importance.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mairuhu, A.T.; Wagenaar, J.; Brandjes, D.P.; Gorp, E. van

    2004-01-01

    Dengue viruses cause a variable spectrum of disease that ranges from an undifferentiated fever to dengue fever to the potentially fatal dengue shock syndrome. Due to the increased incidence and geographical distribution of dengue in the last 50 years, dengue is becoming increasingly recognised as

  9. Update on chancroid: an important cause of genital ulcer disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langley, C

    1996-08-01

    Chancroid is a major cause of genital ulcer disease worldwide, and occurred at epidemic rates in the United States in the late 1980s. Though the recent epidemic in the U.S. appears to be waning, a number of areas continue to report significant numbers of cases. Chancroid is a particular concern, because, like other diseases that cause genital ulceration, it is associated with an increased risk for transmission or acquisition of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Recent studies have advanced the understanding of chancroid epidemiology, and new diagnostic tests may improve the ability to recognize and appropriately treat chancroid. Increased awareness of chancroid, with appropriate treatment for suspected lesions, along with public health efforts to implement prevention in high-risk populations, will be critical to prevent ongoing transmission of chancroid, and potentially ongoing transmission of HIV.

  10. Important causes of chronic kidney disease in South Africa | Moosa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In hypertensive patients without chronic kidney disease (CKD) the goal is to keep blood pressure (BP) at ≤140/90 mmHg. When CKD is present, especially where there is proteinuria of ≥0.5 g/day, the goal is a BP of ≤130/80 mmHg. Lifestyle measures are mandatory, especially limitation of salt intake, ingestion of ...

  11. Importance of Ayu Pareeksha for the Management of Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agrawal, Monika; Byadgi, P S; Dwibedy, B K

    2017-01-01

    The word Ayurveda comes from the Sanskrit root Ayu which means span of life. The purpose of examination of Ayu is to obtain knowledge regarding longevity, residual span of life in diseased person and rate of the mortality. The purpose of Dashavidha Pariksha is to obtain knowledge regarding Dosha Bala (Vyadhi Bala), Bala (Rogibala) and Ayu of the patient as described in Charak Samhita . Commonly Ayu and Vaya are regarded as synonyms but they are not similar terms. Hence, description of Vaya and Ayu is separately mentioned in Charaka as well as Sushruta Samhita . Description exclusively on Ayu Pareeksha described in Charaka Viman Sthana, Charaka Chikitsasthana, Charaka Indriya Sthana and Charaka Shareer Sthana. In Indriya Sthana, Ayu Pariksha indicates the residual life-span of the diseased person and where as in Jaatisutriya Adhyaya in Shareer Sthana mentioned the characteristic properties of the child who is going to survive for longer period of time. In Sushruta Samhita, Ayu is classified into three broad headings namely Dhirghayu, Madhyamayu and Alpayu and explained the characteristic properties of all the three.

  12. Importance and significance of liver echotomography in Wilson disease childhood

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corda, R; Nurchi, A M; Corrias, A; Corda, A; Giagheddu, M; Campisi, G

    1987-01-01

    We studed the hepatic echography patterns of young patients suffering from Wilson's Disease and compared these with results obtained from laboratory tests and parenchymal biopsy. Eight children, aged between 5 and 12 years (4 males and 4 females), were examined. The symptomatological pattern showed hepatomegaly and liver dysfunction with undetectable or very low serum ceruloplasmine levels and typical aspects of organic copper metabolism. In 50% of cases echography revealed a variable hyperreflection of the whole parenchyma, in connection with the presence of steatosis and aspects of intralobular inflammation. Fine and linear echoes were present, in 50% of the cases, with varying degrees of brightness, which was associated with the presence of fibrotic component or copper granules. Further echographic modifications were less frequent. Echography in close relatives of our patients was observed hepatomegaly and alteration of hepatic reflection associated with fibrotic component. In the evaluation of liver involvement in Wilson's Disease, these findings show that echotomography, when compared to hepatic biopsy, is less efficient in detecting different types of hepatic lesion but on a clinical basis it offers the possibility of evaluating their presence and gravity during the evolutive phase of the illness. This examination, unlike other methods, is completely non invasive; it may easily be repeated and may, in the future, come to be used as more precise diagnostic complement. 30 refs.

  13. Hepcidin: an important iron metabolism regulator in chronic kidney disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Azevedo Antunes

    Full Text Available Abstract Anemia is a common complication and its impact on morbimortality in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD is well known. The discovery of hepcidin and its functions has contributed to a better understanding of iron metabolism disorders in CKD anemia. Hepcidin is a peptide mainly produced by hepatocytes and, through a connection with ferroportin, it regulates iron absorption in the duodenum and its release of stock cells. High hepcidin concentrations described in patients with CKD, especially in more advanced stages are attributed to decreased renal excretion and increased production. The elevation of hepcidin has been associated with infection, inflammation, atherosclerosis, insulin resistance and oxidative stress. Some strategies were tested to reduce the effects of hepcidin in patients with CKD, however more studies are necessary to assess the impact of its modulation in the management of anemia in this population.

  14. [DSM-5: important changes in the field of addictive diseases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinz, A; Friedel, E

    2014-05-01

    There are two major changes in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5) concerning the field of addiction. Firstly, the previous distinction between abuse and dependence has been abolished and both disorders are now subsumed under the category addiction and related disorders. Secondly, pathological gambling has now been included in the section of addiction with slight changes in diagnostic criteria. Both changes have major implications for the definition and conceptualization of what we call a psychiatric "disease" or "disorder", which have also been addressed in the introductory statement of DSM-5. Concerning the category of abuse that is now part of substance use disorders, there is a concern that a well-defined disorder ("dependence") is now mixed with a less well-defined syndrome ("abuse"). The inclusion of non-substance, behavioral addictions poses the danger of pathologizing a wide range of human behavior in future revisions of the classification. Both concerns are further addressed in this article.

  15. [Tuberculosis and mycobacteriosis important opportunistic disease in AIDS patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zalewska-Schönthaler, N; Schönthaler-Humiecka, J; Podlasin, R; Cholewińska, G; Rzeszkowicz, T; Mikuła, T; Horban, A

    2001-01-01

    The aim of the search was investigation of tuberculosis in AIDS patients. Each year 8-9 mln people fall ill of tuberculosis and one third of them die. To the infection of tuberculosis and fast development into active state are especially exposed people with AIDS. 696 people were examined on tuberculosis most of which were AIDS patients hospitalized and cured in Hospital of Infection Diseases and Prison Hospital. 159 patients were women and 537 were men. The average age was between 25 and 45 (70%). The investigated population was characterized according to age, social and living conditions, using drugs and former contact with tuberculosis. All patients suspected of tuberculosis had chest X-rayed, sputum, BAL and pleural liquor were taken to bacteriological examination when extrapulmonary tuberculosis was suspected. The material was taken adequately to the disease process: CSF, urine, lymph nodes, peritoneal fluids, blood, stool, swabs and other. Bacteriological investigations have been carried out by fast cultivating method since 1998 and rapid genetic method since 1999. Apart from modern, fast diagnostic methods, routine bacteriological procedures were applied in tuberculosis diagnosis. More than 30% of the examined population were from bad social-living conditions, 78% had risk factors, 65% were drug users. The analysis of the tuberculosis illness from 1997 to July 2001 shows growing tendency. Nowadays it is 20% cases proved by bacteriological diagnosis. The structure of falling ill with tuberculosis has changed. Considerable increase of extrapulmonary tuberculosis was observed, 20 patients died due to tuberculosis and 8 patients due to mycobacteriosis. Resistance of M.tub.complex occurred within the range of 10% cases.

  16. [Gnathostomosis, an exotic disease increasingly imported into Western countries].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clément-Rigolet, Marina C; Danis, Martin; Caumes, Eric

    2004-12-04

    AN INCIDENTAL HELMITHIASIS IN MAN: Gnathostomiasis is an helminthic disease of animals due to a nematode belonging to the gender Gnathostoma. This gender includes many species, the most frequent being Gnathostoma spinigerum. Man is an incidental host. Human gnathostomiasis is endemic in some countries of South-East Asia, and Latin America. It is due to the consumption of raw or insufficiently cooked meat or fish. Since the beginning of the eighties, there is an increasing number of cases of gnathostomiasis described in Western countries in travellers returning from endemic countries. IN THE SKIN OR THE VISCERA: Gnathostomiasis is a cause of cutaneous and/or visceral larva migrans syndrome. Some visceral involvement, more particularly neurological forms, may lead to significant morbidity and mortality. The diagnosis is occasionally confirmed by the identification of the Gnathostoma larva in the skin or viscera. Most often the diagnosis relies on epidemiological, clinical and biological (hypereosinophilia, positive serologic test) grounds. ALBENDAZOLE AND IVERMECTINE: The first line treatment is albendazole, 400 mg once or twice a day during 21 days. The efficacy of ivermectin needs to be assessed more precisely. Relapses may occur up to 24 months after apparent cure.

  17. Acanthamoeba keratitis: an emerging disease gathering importance worldwide?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenzo-Morales, Jacob; Martín-Navarro, Carmen María; López-Arencibia, Atteneri; Arnalich-Montiel, Francisco; Piñero, José E; Valladares, Basilio

    2013-04-01

    Acanthamoeba keratitis (AK) is increasingly being recognized as a severe sight-threatening ocular infection worldwide. Although contact lens wear is the leading risk factor for AK, Acanthamoeba parasites are also an important cause of keratitis in non-contact lens wearers. Diagnosis of AK is challenging, and the available treatments are lengthy and not fully effective against all strains. The pathogenesis of Acanthamoeba is still under study, and the identification of the key factors involved in this process should be useful for the development of fully effective therapies. This review focuses on recent developments on AK pathogenesis and diagnosis as well as novel strategies for the evaluation of anti-amoebic agents that could be applied in the near future against these pathogens. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Hepcidin: an important iron metabolism regulator in chronic kidney disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antunes, Sandra Azevedo; Canziani, Maria Eugênia Fernandes

    2016-01-01

    Anemia is a common complication and its impact on morbimortality in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) is well known. The discovery of hepcidin and its functions has contributed to a better understanding of iron metabolism disorders in CKD anemia. Hepcidin is a peptide mainly produced by hepatocytes and, through a connection with ferroportin, it regulates iron absorption in the duodenum and its release of stock cells. High hepcidin concentrations described in patients with CKD, especially in more advanced stages are attributed to decreased renal excretion and increased production. The elevation of hepcidin has been associated with infection, inflammation, atherosclerosis, insulin resistance and oxidative stress. Some strategies were tested to reduce the effects of hepcidin in patients with CKD, however more studies are necessary to assess the impact of its modulation in the management of anemia in this population. Resumo Anemia é uma complicação frequente e seu impacto na morbimortalidade é bem conhecido em pacientes com doença renal crônica (DRC). A descoberta da hepcidina e de suas funções contribuíram para melhor compreensão dos distúrbios do metabolismo de ferro na anemia da DRC. Hepcidina é um peptídeo produzido principalmente pelos hepatócitos, e através de sua ligação com a ferroportina, regula a absorção de ferro no duodeno e sua liberação das células de estoque. Altas concentrações de hepcidina descritas em pacientes com DRC, principalmente em estádios mais avançados, são atribuídas à diminuição da excreção renal e ao aumento de sua produção. Elevação de hepcidina tem sido associada à ocorrência de infecção, inflamação, aterosclerose, resistência à insulina e estresse oxidativo. Algumas estratégias foram testadas para diminuir os efeitos da hepcidina em pacientes com DRC, entretanto, serão necessários mais estudos para avaliar o impacto de sua modulação no manejo da anemia nessa população.

  19. The importance of hemovigilance in the transmission of infectious diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Roberto Juliano Martins

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Hemovigilance is an organized system of surveillance throughout the transfusion chain intended to evaluate information in order to prevent the appearance or recurrence of adverse reactions related to the use of blood products. Objective: The aims of this study were to assess the late reporting of incidents related to possible seroconversion in respect to age, marital status and ethnical background, annual variations in late reporting, the number of reports opened and closed, seroconversion of donors and transfusions of blood products within the window period. Methods: This retrospective, descriptive study used data on blood donations in the blood bank in Uberaba during the period from 2004 to 2011. Some socio-epidemiological characteristics of the donors and serology test results of donors and recipients were analyzed in respect to the late reporting of incidents related to possible seroconversion. The Chi-square test, odds ratio and a regression model were used for statistical analysis. Results: From 2004 to 2011, the blood bank in Uberaba collected 117,857 blood bags, 284 (0.24% of which were investigated for late reported incidents. The profile of the donors was less than 29 years old, unmarried and non-Whites. Differences in age (p-value < 0.0001, marital status (p-value = 0.0002 and ethnical background (p-value < 0.0001 were found to be statistically significant. There was no statistical difference between men and women (0.24% and 0.23% respectively; p-value = 0.951. The number of late reported incidents increased until 2008 followed by a downward trend until 2011. There were twelve cases of seroconversion in subsequent donations (seven human immunodeficiency virus, four hepatitis B and one hepatitis C with proven human immunodeficiency virus infection after screening of only one recipient. Conclusion: The twelve cases of seroconversion in donors with subsequent infection proven in one recipient underscores the importance of

  20. Rodent-borne diseases and their public health importance in Iran.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Hasan Rabiee

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Rodents are reservoirs and hosts for several zoonotic diseases such as plague, leptospirosis, and leishmaniasis. Rapid development of industry and agriculture, as well as climate change throughout the globe, has led to change or increase in occurrence of rodent-borne diseases. Considering the distribution of rodents throughout Iran, the aim of this review is to assess the risk of rodent-borne diseases in Iran.We searched Google Scholar, PubMed, Science Direct, Scientific Information Database (SID, and Magiran databases up to September 2016 to obtain articles reporting occurrence of rodent-borne diseases in Iran and extract information from them. Out of 70 known rodent-borne diseases, 34 were reported in Iran: 17 (50% parasitic diseases, 13 (38% bacterial diseases, and 4 (12% viral diseases. Twenty-one out of 34 diseases were reported from both humans and rodents. Among the diseases reported in the rodents of Iran, plague, leishmaniasis, and hymenolepiasis were the most frequent. The most infected rodents were Rattus norvegicus (16 diseases, Mus musculus (14 diseases, Rattus rattus (13 diseases, Meriones persicus (7 diseases, Apodemus spp. (5 diseases, Tatera indica (4 diseases, Meriones libycus (3 diseases, Rhombomys opimus (3 diseases, Cricetulus migratorius (3 diseases, and Nesokia indica (2 diseases.The results of this review indicate the importance of rodent-borne diseases in Iran. Considering notable diversity of rodents and their extensive distribution throughout the country, it is crucial to pay more attention to their role in spreading infectious diseases for better control of the diseases.

  1. Rodent-borne diseases and their public health importance in Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmoudi, Ahmad; Siahsarvie, Roohollah; Kryštufek, Boris; Mostafavi, Ehsan

    2018-01-01

    Background Rodents are reservoirs and hosts for several zoonotic diseases such as plague, leptospirosis, and leishmaniasis. Rapid development of industry and agriculture, as well as climate change throughout the globe, has led to change or increase in occurrence of rodent-borne diseases. Considering the distribution of rodents throughout Iran, the aim of this review is to assess the risk of rodent-borne diseases in Iran. Methodology/Principal finding We searched Google Scholar, PubMed, Science Direct, Scientific Information Database (SID), and Magiran databases up to September 2016 to obtain articles reporting occurrence of rodent-borne diseases in Iran and extract information from them. Out of 70 known rodent-borne diseases, 34 were reported in Iran: 17 (50%) parasitic diseases, 13 (38%) bacterial diseases, and 4 (12%) viral diseases. Twenty-one out of 34 diseases were reported from both humans and rodents. Among the diseases reported in the rodents of Iran, plague, leishmaniasis, and hymenolepiasis were the most frequent. The most infected rodents were Rattus norvegicus (16 diseases), Mus musculus (14 diseases), Rattus rattus (13 diseases), Meriones persicus (7 diseases), Apodemus spp. (5 diseases), Tatera indica (4 diseases), Meriones libycus (3 diseases), Rhombomys opimus (3 diseases), Cricetulus migratorius (3 diseases), and Nesokia indica (2 diseases). Conclusions/Significance The results of this review indicate the importance of rodent-borne diseases in Iran. Considering notable diversity of rodents and their extensive distribution throughout the country, it is crucial to pay more attention to their role in spreading infectious diseases for better control of the diseases. PMID:29672510

  2. 78 FR 11521 - Control of Communicable Disease; Foreign-Requirements for Importers of Nonhuman Primates (NHP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-15

    ... Part 71 Control of Communicable Disease; Foreign--Requirements for Importers of Nonhuman Primates (NHP... Primates (NHP) AGENCY: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), Department of Health and Human... live nonhuman primates (NHPs) by extending existing requirements for the importation of Macaca...

  3. Advances in vaccine research against economically important viral diseases of food animals: Infectious bursal disease virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackwood, Daral J

    2017-07-01

    Numerous reviews have been published on infectious bursal disease (IBD) and infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV). Many high quality vaccines are commercially available for the control of IBD that, when used correctly, provide solid protection against infection and disease caused by IBDV. Viruses are not static however; they continue to evolve and vaccines need to keep pace with them. The evolution of IBDV has resulted in very virulent strains and new antigenic types of the virus. This review will discuss some of the limitations associated with existing vaccines, potential solutions to these problems and advances in new vaccines for the control of IBD. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. A review on important maize diseases and their management in Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subash Subedi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In Nepal, maize ranks second after rice both in area and production. In recent years, maize area and production has shown a steady increase, but productivity has been low (2.46 t/ha. The major maize producing regions in Nepal are mid hill (72.85%, terai (17.36% and high hill (9.79% respectively. A literature review was carried out to explore major maize diseases and their management in Nepal. The omnipresent incidence of diseases at the pre harvest stage has been an important bottleneck in increasing production. Till now, a total of 78 (75 fungal and 3 bacterial species are pathogenic to maize crop in Nepal. The major and economically important maize diseases reported are Gray leaf spot, Northern leaf blight, Southern leaf Blight, Banded leaf and sheath blight, Ear rot, Stalk rot, Head smut, Common rust, Downy mildew and Brown spot. Information on bacterial and virus diseases, nematodes and yield loss assessment is also given. Description of the major maize diseases, their causal organisms, distribution, time and intensity of disease incidence, symptoms, survival, spreads, environmental factors for disease development, yield losses and various disease management strategies corresponded to important maize diseases of Nepal are gathered and compiled thoroughly from the available publications. Concerted efforts of NARC commodity programs, divisions, ARS and RARS involving research on maize pathology and their important outcomes are mentioned. The use of disease management methods focused on host resistance has also been highlighted.

  5. Coronary artery anomalies and clinically important anatomy in patients with congenital heart disease: multislice CT findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goo, Hyun Woo; Seo, Dong-Man; Yun, Tae-Jin; Park, Jeong-Jun; Park, In-Sook; Ko, Jae Kon; Kim, Young Hwee

    2009-01-01

    In patients with congenital heart disease, coronary artery anomalies are common and have different clinical importance from individuals with structurally normal hearts. Visibility of the coronary arteries by CT has markedly improved due to high temporal resolution and ECG-synchronized data acquisition. In this article we describe current multislice CT techniques for coronary artery imaging and illustrate coronary artery anomalies and clinically important coronary artery anatomy from the point of view of congenital heart disease. (orig.)

  6. Coronary artery anomalies and clinically important anatomy in patients with congenital heart disease: multislice CT findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goo, Hyun Woo [University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Department of Radiology and Research Institute of Radiology, Asan Medical Center, Seoul (Korea); Seo, Dong-Man; Yun, Tae-Jin; Park, Jeong-Jun [University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Department of Pediatric Cardiac Surgery, Asan Medical Center, Seoul (Korea); Park, In-Sook; Ko, Jae Kon; Kim, Young Hwee [University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Department of Pediatric Cardiology, Asan Medical Center, Seoul (Korea)

    2009-03-15

    In patients with congenital heart disease, coronary artery anomalies are common and have different clinical importance from individuals with structurally normal hearts. Visibility of the coronary arteries by CT has markedly improved due to high temporal resolution and ECG-synchronized data acquisition. In this article we describe current multislice CT techniques for coronary artery imaging and illustrate coronary artery anomalies and clinically important coronary artery anatomy from the point of view of congenital heart disease. (orig.)

  7. Combined Creutzfeldt-Jakob/ Alzheimer's Disease Cases are Important in Search for Microbes in Alzheimer's Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastian, Frank O

    2017-01-01

    The question whether Alzheimer's disease is infectious as brought up in the recent editorial published in the Journal of Alzheimer's Disease is complicated by the controversy whether the causal agent is a microbe or a misfolded host protein (amyloid). The replicating amyloid (prion) theory, based upon data from studies of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD) and other transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs), has been challenged since the prion can be separated from TSE infectivity, and spiroplasma, a wall-less bacterium, has been shown to be involved in the pathogenesis of CJD. Further support for a microbial cause for AD comes from occurrence of mixed CJD/AD cases involving up to 15% of AD brains submitted to brain banks. The association of CJD with AD suggests a common etiology rather than simply being a medical curiosity. A co-infection with the transmissible agent of CJD, which we propose to be a Spiroplasma sp., would explain the diversity of bacteria shown to be associated with cases of AD.

  8. Potential importance of B cells in aging and aging-associated neurodegenerative diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biragyn, Arya; Aliseychik, Maria; Rogaev, Evgeny

    2017-04-01

    Our understanding of B cells as merely antibody producers is slowly changing. Alone or in concert with antibody, they control outcomes of seemingly different diseases such as cancer, rheumatoid arthritis, diabetes, and multiple sclerosis. While their role in activation of effector immune cells is beneficial in cancer but bad in autoimmune diseases, their immunosuppressive and regulatory subsets (Bregs) inhibit autoimmune and anticancer responses. These pathogenic and suppressive functions are not static and appear to be regulated by the nature and strength of inflammation. Although aging increases inflammation and changes the composition and function of B cells, surprisingly, little is known whether the change affects aging-associated neurodegenerative disease, such as Alzheimer's disease (AD). Here, by analyzing B cells in cancer and autoimmune and neuroinflammatory diseases, we elucidate their potential importance in AD and other aging-associated neuroinflammatory diseases.

  9. Histological variability and the importance of clinicopathological correlation in cutaneous Rosai-Dorfman disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gameiro, Ana; Gouveia, Miguel; Cardoso, José Carlos; Tellechea, Oscar

    2016-01-01

    Rosai-Dorfman disease is a benign histiocytic proliferative disorder of unknown etiology. The disease mainly affects lymph node tissue, although it is rarely confined to the skin. Here, we describe a 53-year-old woman with purely cutaneous Rosai-Dorfman disease. The patient presented with a large pigmented plaque on her left leg, and sparse erythematous papules on her face and arms. A complete clinical response was achieved with thalidomide, followed by recurrence at the initial site one year later. The histological examination displayed the typical features of Rosai-Dorfman disease in the recent lesions but not in the older lesions. In the setting of no lymphadenopathy, the histopathological features of Rosai-Dorfman disease are commonly misinterpreted. Therefore, awareness of the histological aspects present at different stages, not always featuring the hallmark microscopic signs of Rosai-Dorfman disease, is particularly important for a correct diagnosis of this rare disorder.

  10. HRCT patterns of the most important interstitial lung diseases; HRCT-Muster der wichtigsten interstitiellen Lungenerkrankungen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schaefer-Prokop, C. [Meander Medisch Centrum, Abt. Radiologie, Amersfoort (Netherlands); Radboud Universitaet, Abt. Radiologie und Nuklearmedizin, Nijmegen (Netherlands)

    2014-12-15

    Interstitial lung diseases are a mixed group of diffuse parenchymal lung diseases which can have an acute or chronic course. Idiopathic diseases and diseases with an underlying cause (e.g. collagen vascular diseases) share the same patterns. Thin section computed tomography (CT) plays a central role in the diagnostic work-up. The article describes the most important interstitial lung diseases following a four pattern approach with a predominant nodular or reticular pattern or a pattern with increased or decreased lung density. (orig.) [German] Interstitielle Lungenerkrankungen stellen eine gemischte Gruppe diffuser Lungenparenchymerkrankungen dar, die einen akuten oder chronischen Verlauf haben koennen. Idiopathische Erkrankungen und Erkrankungen mit definierter Ursache (z. B. kollagenvaskulaere Erkrankungen) weisen ein gemeinsames Muster auf. Die Duennschichtcomputertomographie spielt eine zentrale Rolle in der diagnostischen Abklaerung. In dem vorliegenden Beitrag werden die wichtigsten interstitiellen Lungenerkrankungen beschrieben. Dabei gibt es 4 Grundmuster: ueberwiegend nodulaere Verdichtungen, vorwiegend retikulaere Verdichtungen, erhoehte oder erniedrigte Lungenparenchymdichte. (orig.)

  11. Contact structure, mobility, environmental impact and behaviour: the importance of social forces to infectious disease dynamics and disease ecology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arthur, Ronan F; Gurley, Emily S; Salje, Henrik; Bloomfield, Laura S P; Jones, James H

    2017-05-05

    Human factors, including contact structure, movement, impact on the environment and patterns of behaviour, can have significant influence on the emergence of novel infectious diseases and the transmission and amplification of established ones. As anthropogenic climate change alters natural systems and global economic forces drive land-use and land-cover change, it becomes increasingly important to understand both the ecological and social factors that impact infectious disease outcomes for human populations. While the field of disease ecology explicitly studies the ecological aspects of infectious disease transmission, the effects of the social context on zoonotic pathogen spillover and subsequent human-to-human transmission are comparatively neglected in the literature. The social sciences encompass a variety of disciplines and frameworks for understanding infectious diseases; however, here we focus on four primary areas of social systems that quantitatively and qualitatively contribute to infectious diseases as social-ecological systems. These areas are social mixing and structure, space and mobility, geography and environmental impact, and behaviour and behaviour change. Incorporation of these social factors requires empirical studies for parametrization, phenomena characterization and integrated theoretical modelling of social-ecological interactions. The social-ecological system that dictates infectious disease dynamics is a complex system rich in interacting variables with dynamically significant heterogeneous properties. Future discussions about infectious disease spillover and transmission in human populations need to address the social context that affects particular disease systems by identifying and measuring qualitatively important drivers.This article is part of the themed issue 'Opening the black box: re-examining the ecology and evolution of parasite transmission'. © 2017 The Author(s).

  12. Important considerations in the management of Graves' disease in pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okosieme, Onyebuchi E; Lazarus, John H

    2015-01-01

    Graves' disease is an autoimmune disorder in which autoantibodies to the thyroid-stimulating hormone receptor cause hyperthyroidism through unregulated stimulation of the thyroid-stimulating hormone receptor. Effective management of Graves' disease in pregnancy must address the competing fetal and maternal priorities of controlling hyperthyroidism in the mother on the one hand, and on the other, minimizing the impact of maternal disease and antithyroid drugs on the well-being of the fetus. Optimal strategies for achieving this intricate balance are currently a source of continued debate among thyroid experts and studies in recent decades are now providing greater clarity into the risk posed to the unborn baby by the combination of biochemical, immunological and pharmacological hazards arising from Graves' disease and its therapy. This review summarizes the current best practice and highlights important considerations and areas of uncertainty in the management of Graves' disease in pregnant women.

  13. Importance of prumycin produced by Bacillus amyloliquefaciens SD-32 in biocontrol against cucumber powdery mildew disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Keijitsu; Fukuda, Mutsumi; Amaki, Yusuke; Sakaguchi, Takatoshi; Inai, Koji; Ishihara, Atsushi; Nakajima, Hiromitsu

    2017-12-01

    Powdery mildew disease of cucurbits is caused mainly by Podosphaera fusca, which is one of the most important limiting factors in cucurbit production worldwide. Previously we reported that Bacillus amyloliquefaciens biocontrol strain SD-32 produces C 17 bacillomycin D and [Ile 2002]surfactin, and that these metabolites play important roles in SD-32's biocontrol over cucumber gray mold disease. Our further investigation demonstrated that the culture broth and its supernatant suppressed cucumber powdery mildew disease in greenhouse experiments. However, the active principle(s) remained unknown. The active compound was isolated from the culture supernatant after anti-powdery mildew disease activity-guided purification and identified as prumycin. Prumycin significantly suppressed the disease, whereas bacillomycin D and [Ile 2002]surfactin did not. Prumycin did not induce the expression of plant defense genes (PR1a and VSP1), suggesting that it does not act via plant defense response. Light microscopic observations of prumycin-treated cucumber cotyledon suggested that prumycin inhibits the conidial germination of P. fusca. This study demonstrates that prumycin is a major factor in SD-32's suppression of cucumber powdery mildew disease. Our findings shed light for the first time on prumycin's role in biocontrol by Bacillus against this disease. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  14. Mast cells are important modifiers of autoimmune disease: With so much evidence, why is there controversy?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa Ann Brown

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available There is abundant evidence that mast cells are active participants in events that mediate tissue damage in autoimmune disease. Disease-associated increases in mast cell numbers accompanied by mast cell degranulation and elaboration of numerous mast cell mediators at sites of inflammation are commonly observed in many human autoimmune diseases including multiple sclerosis, rheumatoid arthritis and bullous pemphigoid. In animal models, treatment with mast cell stabilizing drugs or mast cell ablation can result in diminished disease. A variety of receptors including those engaged by antibody, complement, pathogens and intrinsic danger signals are implicated in mast cell activation in disease. Similar to their role as first responders in infection settings, mast cells likely orchestrate early recruitment of immune cells, including neutrophils, to the sites of autoimmune destruction. This co-localization promotes cellular crosstalk and activation and results in the amplification of the local inflammatory response thereby promoting and sustaining tissue damage. Despite the evidence, there is still a debate regarding the relative role of mast cells in these processes. However, by definition, mast cells can only act as accessory cells to the self-reactive T and/or antibody driven autoimmune responses. Thus, when evaluating mast cell involvement using existing and somewhat imperfect animal models of disease, their importance is sometimes obscured. However, these potent immune cells are undoubtedly major contributors to autoimmunity and should be considered as important targets for therapeutic disease intervention.

  15. Web-based GIS: the vector-borne disease airline importation risk (VBD-AIR) tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Zhuojie; Das, Anirrudha; Qiu, Youliang; Tatem, Andrew J

    2012-08-14

    Over the past century, the size and complexity of the air travel network has increased dramatically. Nowadays, there are 29.6 million scheduled flights per year and around 2.7 billion passengers are transported annually. The rapid expansion of the network increasingly connects regions of endemic vector-borne disease with the rest of the world, resulting in challenges to health systems worldwide in terms of vector-borne pathogen importation and disease vector invasion events. Here we describe the development of a user-friendly Web-based GIS tool: the Vector-Borne Disease Airline Importation Risk Tool (VBD-AIR), to help better define the roles of airports and airlines in the transmission and spread of vector-borne diseases. Spatial datasets on modeled global disease and vector distributions, as well as climatic and air network traffic data were assembled. These were combined to derive relative risk metrics via air travel for imported infections, imported vectors and onward transmission, and incorporated into a three-tier server architecture in a Model-View-Controller framework with distributed GIS components. A user-friendly web-portal was built that enables dynamic querying of the spatial databases to provide relevant information. The VBD-AIR tool constructed enables the user to explore the interrelationships among modeled global distributions of vector-borne infectious diseases (malaria. dengue, yellow fever and chikungunya) and international air service routes to quantify seasonally changing risks of vector and vector-borne disease importation and spread by air travel, forming an evidence base to help plan mitigation strategies. The VBD-AIR tool is available at http://www.vbd-air.com. VBD-AIR supports a data flow that generates analytical results from disparate but complementary datasets into an organized cartographical presentation on a web map for the assessment of vector-borne disease movements on the air travel network. The framework built provides a flexible

  16. Viral Diseases of Public Health Importance in India: Current Priorities with Special Emphasis on Prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mageshbabu Ramamurthy

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available India faces problems with both communicable and non communicable diseases. The major non communicable diseases are cancer, cardiovascular disease and diabetes mellitus. This article focuses on communicable diseases (infectious diseases especially viral infections of public health importance. The infections include bacterial, parasitic and viruses. It could be said that fungal infections by the nature of the spread are not of public health concern. The viral infections are transmitted by the respiratory route, water and food borne route, vectors and blood and blood products, sexual route and are of major concern. Efforts are aimed at early detection, prevention by use of vaccines and sentinel surveillance. For the success of public health programmes sentinel surveillance of diseases is mandatory. India has got several programme initiatives addressing the problem. The programs include IDSP, VBDCP and NACO. The approximate cumulative annual prevalence of infectious disease in India ranges from 100 to 200 million individuals affected in one year. India should aim to improve case detection by strengthening laboratory services with manpower training and nationwide quality control scheme, sentinel surveillance activity and prevention by improving the efficiency and scope of UIP. Also, creation of a single portal of infectious disease data handling hub to collect information from different sources will help avoid overlap and duplication of reporting.

  17. The importance of international collaboration for rare diseases research: a European perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Julkowska, D; Austin, C P; Cutillo, C M; Gancberg, D; Hager, C; Halftermeyer, J; Jonker, A H; Lau, L P L; Norstedt, I; Rath, A; Schuster, R; Simelyte, E; van Weely, S

    2017-09-01

    Over the last two decades, important contributions were made at national, European and international levels to foster collaboration into rare diseases research. The European Union (EU) has put much effort into funding rare diseases research, encouraging national funding organizations to collaborate together in the E-Rare program, setting up European Reference Networks for rare diseases and complex conditions, and initiating the International Rare Diseases Research Consortium (IRDiRC) together with the National Institutes of Health in the USA. Co-ordination of the activities of funding agencies, academic researchers, companies, regulatory bodies, and patient advocacy organizations and partnerships with, for example, the European Research Infrastructures maximizes the collective impact of global investments in rare diseases research. This contributes to accelerating progress, for example, in faster diagnosis through enhanced discovery of causative genes, better understanding of natural history of rare diseases through creation of common registries and databases and boosting of innovative therapeutic approaches. Several examples of funded pre-clinical and clinical gene therapy projects show that integration of multinational and multidisciplinary expertize generates new knowledge and can result in multicentre gene therapy trials. International collaboration in rare diseases research is key to improve the life of people living with a rare disease.

  18. Review article: The clinical importance of growth in children with inflammatory bowel disease: is it important to the gastroenterologist?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Taminiau, J. A.

    2007-01-01

    Growth in children with inflammatory bowel disease is often compromised. To explore the origins of growth retardation in paediatric inflammatory bowel disease and to consider management strategies. Relevant literature was identified and reviewed. A combination of the following factors results in

  19. Active Surveillance of Hansen's Disease (Leprosy): Importance for Case Finding among Extra-domiciliary Contacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moura, Maria L. N.; Dupnik, Kathryn M.; Sampaio, Gabriel A. A.; Nóbrega, Priscilla F. C.; Jeronimo, Ana K.; do Nascimento-Filho, Jose M.; Miranda Dantas, Roberta L.; Queiroz, Jose W.; Barbosa, James D.; Dias, Gutemberg; Jeronimo, Selma M. B.; Souza, Marcia C. F.; Nobre, Maurício L.

    2013-01-01

    Hansen's disease (leprosy) remains an important health problem in Brazil, where 34,894 new cases were diagnosed in 2010, corresponding to 15.3% of the world's new cases detected in that year. The purpose of this study was to use home visits as a tool for surveillance of Hansen's disease in a hyperendemic area in Brazil. A total of 258 residences were visited with 719 individuals examined. Of these, 82 individuals had had a previous history of Hansen's disease, 209 were their household contacts and 428 lived in neighboring residences. Fifteen new Hansen's disease cases were confirmed, yielding a detection rate of 2.0% of people examined. There was no difference in the detection rate between household and neighbor contacts (p = 0.615). The two groups had the same background in relation to education (p = 0.510), household income (p = 0.582), and the number of people living in the residence (p = 0.188). Spatial analysis showed clustering of newly diagnosed cases and association with residential coordinates of previously diagnosed multibacillary cases. Active case finding is an important tool for Hansen's disease control in hyperendemic areas, enabling earlier diagnosis, treatment, decrease in disability from Hansen's disease and potentially less spread of Mycobacterium leprae. PMID:23516645

  20. An Unrecognized Rash Progressing to Lyme Carditis: Important Features and Recommendations Regarding Lyme Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Shawn; Singla, Montish

    2016-01-01

    We present a case report of 46-year-old man with no medical history, who complained of extreme fatigue, near-syncope, and palpitations. He initially presented in complete heart block. A transvenous pacemaker was placed in the emergency department, and he was started empirically on Ceftriaxone for Lyme disease. He was admitted and over the course of the next few days, his rhythm regressed to Mobitz type I first-degree atrioventricular block and then to normal sinus rhythm. This case report highlights some important features regarding Lyme carditis, a rare presentation of early disseminated Lyme disease (seen in a few weeks to months after the initial tick bite). In 25%-30% of patients, the characteristic targetoid rash may not be seen, a likely culprit of the disease not being detected early and progressing to disseminated disease. The most common cardiac complaint of Lyme disease is palpitations, occurring in 6.6% of patients, which may not accurately reflect progression into disseminated Lyme disease because it is a nonspecific finding. Conduction abnormality, occurring in 1.8% of patients, is a more specific finding of Borrelia invading cardiac tissue. Finally, this case report highlights a recommendation that patients with confirmed Lyme disease or those presenting with cardiac abnormalities or symptoms who have an atypical profile for a cardiac event should be screened with a 12-lead electrocardiogram, Lyme serology, and be considered for antibiotic therapy with the possibility of temporary pacing.

  1. Towards first principle medical diagnostics: on the importance of disease-disease and sign-sign interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramezanpour, Abolfazl; Mashaghi, Alireza

    2017-07-01

    A fundamental problem in medicine and biology is to assign states, e.g. healthy or diseased, to cells, organs or individuals. State assignment or making a diagnosis is often a nontrivial and challenging process and, with the advent of omics technologies, the diagnostic challenge is becoming more and more serious. The challenge lies not only in the increasing number of measured properties and dynamics of the system (e.g. cell or human body) but also in the co-evolution of multiple states and overlapping properties, and degeneracy of states. We develop, from first principles, a generic rational framework for state assignment in cell biology and medicine, and demonstrate its applicability with a few simple theoretical case studies from medical diagnostics. We show how disease-related statistical information can be used to build a comprehensive model that includes the relevant dependencies between clinical and laboratory findings (signs) and diseases. In particular, we include disease-disease and sign-sign interactions and study how one can infer the probability of a disease in a patient with given signs. We perform comparative analysis with simple benchmark models to check the performances of our models. We find that including interactions can significantly change the statistical importance of the signs and diseases. This first principles approach, as we show, facilitates the early diagnosis of disease by taking interactions into accounts, and enables the construction of consensus diagnostic flow charts. Additionally, we envision that our approach will find applications in systems biology, and in particular, in characterizing the phenome via the metabolome, the proteome, the transcriptome, and the genome.

  2. Disease-associated mutations disrupt functionally important regions of intrinsic protein disorder.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Vacic

    Full Text Available The effects of disease mutations on protein structure and function have been extensively investigated, and many predictors of the functional impact of single amino acid substitutions are publicly available. The majority of these predictors are based on protein structure and evolutionary conservation, following the assumption that disease mutations predominantly affect folded and conserved protein regions. However, the prevalence of the intrinsically disordered proteins (IDPs and regions (IDRs in the human proteome together with their lack of fixed structure and low sequence conservation raise a question about the impact of disease mutations in IDRs. Here, we investigate annotated missense disease mutations and show that 21.7% of them are located within such intrinsically disordered regions. We further demonstrate that 20% of disease mutations in IDRs cause local disorder-to-order transitions, which represents a 1.7-2.7 fold increase compared to annotated polymorphisms and neutral evolutionary substitutions, respectively. Secondary structure predictions show elevated rates of transition from helices and strands into loops and vice versa in the disease mutations dataset. Disease disorder-to-order mutations also influence predicted molecular recognition features (MoRFs more often than the control mutations. The repertoire of disorder-to-order transition mutations is limited, with five most frequent mutations (R→W, R→C, E→K, R→H, R→Q collectively accounting for 44% of all deleterious disorder-to-order transitions. As a proof of concept, we performed accelerated molecular dynamics simulations on a deleterious disorder-to-order transition mutation of tumor protein p63 and, in agreement with our predictions, observed an increased α-helical propensity of the region harboring the mutation. Our findings highlight the importance of mutations in IDRs and refine the traditional structure-centric view of disease mutations. The results of this study

  3. Analysis of an Internet Community about Pneumothorax and the Importance of Accurate Information about the Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Bong Jun; Lee, Sungsoo

    2018-04-01

    The huge improvements in the speed of data transmission and the increasing amount of data available as the Internet has expanded have made it easy to obtain information about any disease. Since pneumothorax frequently occurs in young adolescents, patients often search the Internet for information on pneumothorax. This study analyzed an Internet community for exchanging information on pneumothorax, with an emphasis on the importance of accurate information and doctors' role in providing such information. This study assessed 599,178 visitors to the Internet community from June 2008 to April 2017. There was an average of 190 visitors, 2.2 posts, and 4.5 replies per day. A total of 6,513 posts were made, and 63.3% of them included questions about the disease. The visitors mostly searched for terms such as 'pneumothorax,' 'recurrent pneumothorax,' 'pneumothorax operation,' and 'obtaining a medical certification of having been diagnosed with pneumothorax.' However, 22% of the pneumothorax-related posts by visitors contained inaccurate information. Internet communities can be an important source of information. However, incorrect information about a disease can be harmful for patients. We, as doctors, should try to provide more in-depth information about diseases to patients and to disseminate accurate information about diseases in Internet communities.

  4. Toward First Principle Medical Diagnostics: On the Importance of Disease-Disease and Sign-Sign Interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abolfazl Ramezanpour

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available A fundamental problem in medicine and biology is to assign states, e.g., healthy or diseased, to cells, organs or individuals. State assignment or making a diagnosis is often a nontrivial and challenging process and, with the advent of omics technologies, the diagnostic challenge is becoming more and more serious. The challenge lies not only in the increasing number of measured properties and dynamics of the system (e.g., cell or human body but also in the co-evolution of multiple states and overlapping properties, and degeneracy of states. We develop, from first principles, a generic rational framework for state assignment in cell biology and medicine, and demonstrate its applicability with a few simple theoretical case studies from medical diagnostics. We show how disease–related statistical information can be used to build a comprehensive model that includes the relevant dependencies between clinical and laboratory findings (signs and diseases. In particular, we include disease-disease and sign–sign interactions and study how one can infer the probability of a disease in a patient with given signs. We perform comparative analysis with simple benchmark models to check the performances of our models. We find that including interactions can significantly change the statistical importance of the signs and diseases. This first principles approach, as we show, facilitates the early diagnosis of disease by taking interactions into accounts, and enables the construction of consensus diagnostic flow charts. Additionally, we envision that our approach will find applications in systems biology, and in particular, in characterizing the phenome via the metabolome, the proteome, the transcriptome, and the genome.

  5. The importance of continuity in inhaler device choice for asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjermer, Leif

    2014-01-01

    Inhaled therapies are central to the treatment of asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Physicians consider many factors when selecting the most appropriate inhaler device, including device efficacy and the cost to the health care system. This review aims to discuss the factors that are important when considering inhaler devices and the importance of continuity in the choice of inhaler device. A large number of factors can contribute to therapeutic outcomes with inhalation devices. The inhalation technique is critical to treatment success and differs substantially between inhaler devices. Misuse of an inhaler is common, and thorough training of patients and physicians is important to ensure correct utilization. Patient satisfaction is an important consideration because it is significantly correlated with compliance and better outcomes. Financial pressures contribute to decision making: although selecting the less expensive inhaler device might reduce direct treatment costs, it can have a large impact on disease control and the patient's well-being. Switching may be associated with a poor inhalation technique, reduced disease control and quality of life, increased use of other treatments and health care resources, and a greater chance of unsuccessful treatment. Nonconsensual switches can result in patient discontent, reduced confidence in the medication, and uncertainty regarding the degree of disease control. It is recommended that patients with stable disease remain on their current device. If a switch is considered, the patient should be consulted and the physician should take into account the patient's preference, their ability to correctly use the device, and the availability of the preferred drug in the preferred device.

  6. A review on important maize diseases and their management in Nepal

    OpenAIRE

    Subash Subedi

    2015-01-01

    In Nepal, maize ranks second after rice both in area and production. In recent years, maize area and production has shown a steady increase, but productivity has been low (2.46 t/ha). The major maize producing regions in Nepal are mid hill (72.85%), terai (17.36%) and high hill (9.79%) respectively. A literature review was carried out to explore major maize diseases and their management in Nepal. The omnipresent incidence of diseases at the pre harvest stage has been an important bottleneck ...

  7. Major emerging vector-borne zoonotic diseases of public health importance in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulkarni, Manisha A; Berrang-Ford, Lea; Buck, Peter A; Drebot, Michael A; Lindsay, L Robbin; Ogden, Nicholas H

    2015-06-10

    In Canada, the emergence of vector-borne diseases may occur via international movement and subsequent establishment of vectors and pathogens, or via northward spread from endemic areas in the USA. Re-emergence of endemic vector-borne diseases may occur due to climate-driven changes to their geographic range and ecology. Lyme disease, West Nile virus (WNV), and other vector-borne diseases were identified as priority emerging non-enteric zoonoses in Canada in a prioritization exercise conducted by public health stakeholders in 2013. We review and present the state of knowledge on the public health importance of these high priority emerging vector-borne diseases in Canada. Lyme disease is emerging in Canada due to range expansion of the tick vector, which also signals concern for the emergence of human granulocytic anaplasmosis, babesiosis, and Powassan virus. WNV has been established in Canada since 2001, with epidemics of varying intensity in following years linked to climatic drivers. Eastern equine encephalitis virus, Jamestown Canyon virus, snowshoe hare virus, and Cache Valley virus are other mosquito-borne viruses endemic to Canada with the potential for human health impact. Increased surveillance for emerging pathogens and vectors and coordinated efforts among sectors and jurisdictions will aid in early detection and timely public health response.

  8. Precision medicine and drug development in Alzheimer's disease: The importance of sexual dimorphism and patient stratification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hampel, Harald; Vergallo, Andrea; Giorgi, Filippo Sean; Kim, Seung Hyun; Depypere, Herman; Graziani, Manuela; Saidi, Amira; Nisticò, Robert; Lista, Simone

    2018-06-12

    Neurodegenerative diseases (ND) are among the leading causes of disability and mortality. Considerable sex differences exist in the occurrence of the various manifestations leading to cognitive decline. Alzheimer's disease (AD) exhibits substantial sexual dimorphisms and disproportionately affects women. Women have a higher life expectancy compared to men and, consequently, have more lifespan to develop AD. The emerging precision medicine and pharmacology concepts - taking into account the individual genetic and biological variability relevant for disease risk, prevention, detection, diagnosis, and treatment - are expected to substantially enhance our knowledge and management of AD. Stratifying the affected individuals by sex and gender is an important basic step towards personalization of scientific research, drug development, and care. We hypothesize that sex and gender differences, extending from genetic to psychosocial domains, are highly relevant for the understanding of AD pathophysiology, and for the conceptualization of basic/translational research and for clinical therapy trial design. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. The importance of waterborne disease outbreak surveillance in the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gunther Franz Craun

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Analyses of the causes of disease outbreaks associated with contaminated drinking water in the United States have helped inform prevention efforts at the national, state, and local levels. This article describes the changing nature of disease outbreaks in public water systems during 1971-2008 and discusses the importance of a collaborative waterborne outbreak surveillance system established in 1971. Increasing reports of outbreaks throughout the early 1980s emphasized that microbial contaminants remained a health-risk challenge for suppliers of drinking water. Outbreak investigations identified the responsible etiologic agents and deficiencies in the treatment and distribution of drinking water, especially the high risk associated with unfiltered surface water systems. Surveillance information was important in establishing an effective research program that guided government regulations and industry actions to improve drinking water quality. Recent surveillance statistics suggest that prevention efforts based on these research findings have been effective in reducing outbreak risks especially for surface water systems.

  10. Global epidemiology of phytoplasma diseases of economic importance in Southeast Europe

    OpenAIRE

    Mitrev, Sasa

    2007-01-01

    The network ‘Global epidemiology of phytoplasma diseases of economic importance in Southeast Europe’ will coordinate the efforts of plant pathologists, microbiologists and entomologists of Southeast European countries to better monitor phytoplasma strains propagation through nurseries and insect vectors, at the European scale. This will be investigated both in plants and insects using up to date molecular typing tools and real-time PCR detection technology. In addition, the network will initi...

  11. The Importance of Haematological and Biochemical Findings in Patients with West Nile Virus Neuroinvasive Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Urošević Aleksandar

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: West Nile virus neuroinvasive disease (WNND occurs in less than 1% of infected people. Leukocytosis with lymphocytopenia, mild anaemia, thrombocytopenia, elevated liver and muscle enzymes and hyponatremia are occasionally present in patients with WNND. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF findings resemble other viral neuroinfections. The purpose of this study is to present some of the most important laboratory findings of our patients with WNND and to evaluate their correlation with fatal outcome.

  12. Alkaptonuria: An example of a "fundamental disease"--A rare disease with important lessons for more common disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallagher, James A; Dillon, Jane P; Sireau, Nicolas; Timmis, Oliver; Ranganath, Lakshminarayan R

    2016-04-01

    "Fundamental diseases" is a term introduced by the charity Findacure to describe rare genetic disorders that are gateways to understanding common conditions and human physiology. The concept that rare diseases have important lessons for biomedical science has been recognised by some of the great figures in the history of medical research, including Harvey, Bateson and Garrod. Here we describe some of the recently discovered lessons from the study of the iconic genetic disease alkaptonuria (AKU), which have shed new light on understanding the pathogenesis of osteoarthritis. In AKU, ochronotic pigment is deposited in cartilage when collagen fibrils become susceptible to attack by homogentisic acid (HGA). When HGA binds to collagen, cartilage matrix becomes stiffened, resulting in the aberrant transmission of loading to underlying subchondral bone. Aberrant loading leads to the formation of pathophysiological structures including trabecular excrescences and high density mineralised protrusions (HDMPs). These structures initially identified in AKU have subsequently been found in more common osteoarthritis and appear to play a role in joint destruction in both diseases. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Why Are Omics Technologies Important to Understanding the Role of Nutrition in Inflammatory Bowel Diseases?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lynnette R. Ferguson

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available For many years, there has been confusion about the role that nutrition plays in inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD. It is apparent that good dietary advice for one individual may prove inappropriate for another. As with many diseases, genome-wide association studies across large collaborative groups have been important in revealing the role of genetics in IBD, with more than 200 genes associated with susceptibility to the disease. These associations provide clues to explain the differences in nutrient requirements among individuals. In addition to genes directly involved in the control of inflammation, a number of the associated genes play roles in modulating the gut microbiota. Cell line models enable the generation of hypotheses as to how various bioactive dietary components might be especially beneficial for certain genetic groups. Animal models are necessary to mimic aspects of the complex aetiology of IBD, and provide an important link between tissue culture studies and human trials. Once we are sufficiently confident of our hypotheses, we can then take modified diets to an IBD population that is stratified according to genotype. Studies in IBD patients fed a Mediterranean-style diet have been important in validating our hypotheses and as a proof-of-principle for the application of these sensitive omics technologies to aiding in the control of IBD symptoms.

  14. Late radiation-induced heart disease after radiotherapy. Clinical importance, radiobiological mechanisms and strategies of prevention

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andratschke, Nicolaus; Maurer, Jean; Molls, Michael; Trott, Klaus-Ruediger

    2011-01-01

    The clinical importance of radiation-induced heart disease, in particular in post-operative radiotherapy of breast cancer patients, has been recognised only recently. There is general agreement, that a co-ordinated research effort would be needed to explore all the potential strategies of how to reduce the late risk of radiation-induced heart disease in radiotherapy. This approach would be based, on one hand, on a comprehensive understanding of the radiobiological mechanisms of radiation-induced heart disease after radiotherapy which would require large-scale long-term animal experiments with high precision local heart irradiation. On the other hand - in close co-operation with mechanistic in vivo research studies - clinical studies in patients need to determine the influence of dose distribution in the heart on the risk of radiation-induced heart disease. The aim of these clinical studies would be to identify the critical structures within the organ which need to be spared and their radiation sensitivity as well as a potential volume and dose effect. The results of the mechanistic studies might also provide concepts of how to modify the gradual progression of radiation damage in the heart by drugs or biological molecules. The results of the studies in patients would need to also incorporate detailed dosimetric and imaging studies in order to develop early indicators of impending radiation-induced heart disease which would be a pre-condition to develop sound criteria for treatment plan optimisation.

  15. Control of communicable disease; foreign--requirements for importers of nonhuman primates (NHP). Final rule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-15

    The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), located within the Department of Health and Human Services (HHS), is amending regulations for the importation of live nonhuman primates (NHPs) by extending existing requirements for the importation of Macaca fascicularis (cynomolgus), Chlorocebus aethiops (African green), and Macaca mulatta (rhesus) monkeys to all NHPs with the exception of the filovirus testing requirement. Filovirus testing will only be required for Old World NHPs in quarantine that have illness consistent with filovirus infection or that die for any reason other than trauma during quarantine. HHS/CDC is also finalizing a provision to reduce the frequency at which importers of cynomolgus, African green, and rhesus monkeys are required to renew their special permits (from every 180 days to every 2 years). HHS/CDC is incorporating existing guidelines into the regulations and adding new provisions to address the following: NHPs imported as part of an animal act; NHPs imported or transferred by zoological societies; the transfer of NHPs from approved laboratories; and non-live imported NHP products. Finally, HHS/CDC is also requiring that all NHPs be imported only through ports of entry where a HHS/CDC quarantine station is located.

  16. South Asian people and heart disease: an assessment of the importance of socioeconomic position.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazroo, J Y

    2001-01-01

    Higher rates of mortality from ischemic heart disease among South Asian people are well established and appear to be unrelated to socioeconomic position. However, traditional indicators of socioeconomic position may be inadequate when making comparisons across ethnic groups. This study investigates these issues in a British morbidity survey. The Fourth National Survey was a British cross-sectional study conducted from 1993 to 1994. The study used a national representative community sample, consisting of 2867 white respondents, 2001 Indian respondents, and 1776 Pakistani and Bangladeshi respondents. Data on occupational class and standard of living were used to examine the contribution of socioeconomic factors to differences in rates of reported severe chest pain and diagnosed heart disease. White and Indian respondents had similar rates of reported indicators of heart disease, while Pakistani and Bangladeshi respondents had rates that were considerably higher. There was a clear socioeconomic gradient in reported heart disease for each ethnic group, with those who were poorer having higher rates. Controlling for occupational class made little difference to the greater risk of heart disease found in the Pakistani and Bangladeshi group; however, controlling for a more sensitive indicator of socioeconomic position-standard of living-greatly reduced their disproportionate risk. The findings suggest that South Asian people do not share a uniformly greater risk of heart disease. The more economically advantaged South Asian group, Indians, had rates that are similar to those found among white people, while the poorest groups, Pakistanis and Bangladeshis, had rates that are considerably higher. Socioeconomic position predicted risk in each ethnic group and made a key contribution to the higher risk found for Pakistani and Bangladeshi individuals. Other studies may have failed to identify the important contribution of socioeconomic position because the indicators used were

  17. Estimating cross-validatory predictive p-values with integrated importance sampling for disease mapping models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Longhai; Feng, Cindy X; Qiu, Shi

    2017-06-30

    An important statistical task in disease mapping problems is to identify divergent regions with unusually high or low risk of disease. Leave-one-out cross-validatory (LOOCV) model assessment is the gold standard for estimating predictive p-values that can flag such divergent regions. However, actual LOOCV is time-consuming because one needs to rerun a Markov chain Monte Carlo analysis for each posterior distribution in which an observation is held out as a test case. This paper introduces a new method, called integrated importance sampling (iIS), for estimating LOOCV predictive p-values with only Markov chain samples drawn from the posterior based on a full data set. The key step in iIS is that we integrate away the latent variables associated the test observation with respect to their conditional distribution without reference to the actual observation. By following the general theory for importance sampling, the formula used by iIS can be proved to be equivalent to the LOOCV predictive p-value. We compare iIS and other three existing methods in the literature with two disease mapping datasets. Our empirical results show that the predictive p-values estimated with iIS are almost identical to the predictive p-values estimated with actual LOOCV and outperform those given by the existing three methods, namely, the posterior predictive checking, the ordinary importance sampling, and the ghosting method by Marshall and Spiegelhalter (2003). Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. Tracking cashew economically important diseases in the West African region using metagenomics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteiro, Filipa; Romeiras, Maria M.; Figueiredo, Andreia; Sebastiana, Mónica; Baldé, Aladje; Catarino, Luís; Batista, Dora

    2015-01-01

    During the last decades, agricultural land-uses in West Africa were marked by dramatic shifts in the coverage of individual crops. Nowadays, cashew (Anacardium occidentale L.) is one of the most export-oriented horticulture crops, notably in Guinea-Bissau. Relying heavily on agriculture to increase their income, developing countries have been following a strong trend of moving on from traditional farming systems toward commercial production. Emerging infectious diseases, driven either by adaptation to local conditions or inadvertent importation of plant pathogens, are able to cause tremendous cashew production losses, with economic and social impact of which, in developing countries is often underestimated. Presently, plant genomics with metagenomics as an emergent tool, presents an enormous potential to better characterize diseases by providing extensive knowledge on plant pathogens at a large scale. In this perspective, we address metagenomics as a promising genomic tool to identify cashew fungal associated diseases as well as to discriminate the causal pathogens, aiming at obtaining tools to help design effective strategies for disease control and thus promote the sustainable production of cashew in West African Region. PMID:26175748

  19. Tracking cashew economically important diseases in the West African region using metagenomics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filipa eMonteiro

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available During the last decades, agricultural land-uses in West Africa were marked by dramatic shifts in the coverage of individual crops. Nowadays, cashew (Anacardium occidentale L. is one of the most export-oriented horticulture crops, notably in Guinea-Bissau. Relying heavily on agriculture to increase their income, developing countries have been following a strong trend of moving on from traditional farming systems towards commercial production. Emerging infectious diseases, driven either by adaptation to local conditions or inadvertent importation of plant pathogens, are able to cause tremendous cashew production losses, with economic and social impact of which, in developing countries is often underestimated. Presently, plant genomics with metagenomics as an emergent tool, presents an enormous potential to better characterize diseases by providing extensive knowledge on plant pathogens at a large scale. In this perspective, we address metagenomics as a promising genomic tool to identify cashew fungal associated diseases as well as to discriminate the causal pathogens, aiming at obtaining tools to help design effective strategies for disease control and thus promote the sustainable production of cashew in West African region.

  20. Important parameters in the detection of left main trunk disease using stress myocardial perfusion imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shiba, Chie; Chikamori, Taishiro; Hida, Satoshi

    2009-01-01

    We sought noninvasively to diagnose left main trunk (LMT) disease using myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI). Five hundred and eight patients with suspected coronary artery disease (CAD) underwent both stress MPI and coronary angiography. The extent and severity of perfusion abnormalities were assessed using a 20-segment model. In addition, perfusion defects in both left anterior descending and left circumflex arterial territories were defined as a left main (LM) pattern defect, and those in 3-coronary arterial territories as a 3-vessel pattern defect. In 42 patients with LMT disease, a summed stress score (19.4±10.0 vs. 13.5±10.0; p<0.0001) and a summed rest score (12.1±9.7 vs. 7.0±7.8; p=0.002) were greater than in 466 patients without LMT disease, while a summed difference score was similar (7.3±7.7 vs. 6.5±6.1; p=NS). The prevalence of an LM-pattern defect was low in both groups (12% vs. 8%; p=NS). However, a 3-vessel pattern defect (33% vs. 7%; p<0.0001), lung uptake of radiotracers (38% vs. 11%; p<0.0001), and transient ischemic dilation (31% vs. 13%; p=0.003) were more frequently observed in patients with LMT disease than in those without. Logistic regression analysis showed that a 3-vessel pattern defect (odds ratio (OR)=3.5, 95% confidence interval (CI)=1.4-8.8; p=0.007), lung uptake of radiotracers (OR=2.5, 95% CI=1.1-5.7; p=0.03), and previous myocardial infarction (MI) (OR=2.4, 95% CI=1.0-5.7; p=0.05) were the most important parameters to detect LMT disease. After excluding 163 patients with previous MI, a repeat analysis revealed that lung uptake of radiotracers (OR=8.2, 95% CI=2.3-29.2; p=0.001) and an LM-pattern defect (OR=6.3, 95% CI=1.4-27.2; p<0.02) were independent predictors for LMT disease. In the identification of LMT disease, lung uptake of radiotracers was a single best parameter, which was independent of the presence or absence of previous MI. (author)

  1. submitter Emerging importance of chemokine receptor CXCR3 and its ligands in cardiovascular diseases

    CERN Document Server

    Altara, R; Brandao, R D; Zeidan, A; Booz, G W; Zouein, F A

    2016-01-01

    The CXC chemokines, CXCL4, -9, -10, -11, CXCL4L1, and the CC chemokine CCL21, activate CXC chemokine receptor 3 (CXCR3), a cell-surface G protein-coupled receptor expressed mainly by Th1 cells, cytotoxic T (Tc) cells and NK cells that have a key role in immunity and inflammation. However, CXCR3 is also expressed by vascular smooth muscle and endothelial cells, and appears to be important in controlling physiological vascular function. In the last decade, evidence from pre-clinical and clinical studies has revealed the participation of CXCR3 and its ligands in multiple cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) of different aetiologies including atherosclerosis, hypertension, cardiac hypertrophy and heart failure, as well as in heart transplant rejection and transplant coronary artery disease (CAD). CXCR3 ligands have also proven to be valid biomarkers for the development of heart failure and left ventricular dysfunction, suggesting an underlining pathophysiological relation between levels of these chemokines and the deve...

  2. Differential Diagnoses of Overgrowth Syndromes: The Most Important Clinical and Radiological Disease Manifestations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lacerda, L.S.; Alves, U.D.; Zanier, J.F.C.; Machado, D.C.; Camilo, G.B.; Machado, D.C.; Camilo, G.B.; Lopes, A.J.

    2014-01-01

    Overgrowth syndromes comprise a heterogeneous group of diseases that are characterized by excessive tissue development. Some of these syndromes may be associated with dysfunction in the receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK)/PI3K/AKT pathway, which results in an increased expression of the insulin receptor. In the current review, four overgrowth syndromes were characterized (Proteus syndrome, Klippel-Trenaunay-Weber syndrome, Made lung’s disease, and neurofibromatosis type I) and illustrated using cases from our institution. Because these syndromes have overlapping clinical manifestations and have no established genetic tests for their diagnosis, radiological methods are important contributors to the diagnosis of many of these syndromes. The correlation of genetic discoveries and molecular pathways that may contribute to the phenotypic expression is also of interest, as this may lead to potential therapeutic interventions

  3. Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease and risk of diabetes and cardiovascular disease: What is important for primary care physicians?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed H Ahmed

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD is emerging as the most common chronic liver condition in Western World and across the globe. NAFLD prevalence is estimated to be around one-third of the total population. There are no published data that project the future prevalence of NAFLD, but with an increase in epidemic of diabetes and obesity, it is possible to suggest an increase in a number of individuals with NAFLD. NAFLD is associated with insulin resistance and occurs with an increase in cluster of features of metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes. Therefore, it is important to exclude the possibility of diabetes in those individuals with evidence of fatty liver. The global diabetes epidemic continues to grow, and it is estimated that the number of people with diabetes will double by year 2030. NAFLD is also a risk factor for an increase in cardiovascular incidence independent of age, sex, low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol, smoking, and cluster of metabolic syndromes. It is expected that NAFLD will be an important challenge for health providers in the near future. Taking all these factors into consideration, we believe that increasing awareness of metabolic and cardiovascular impact of NAFLD among general practitioners and health authorities may decrease the serious consequences of late diagnosis of NAFLD. Importantly, the collaboration between medical specialties is vital in decreasing the impact of the epidemic of NAFLD. The focus of this review is in the role of primary care physician in diagnosis, treatment and prevention of NAFLD and patients education.

  4. Growth Status of Iranian Children with Hemodynamically Important Congenital Heart Disease

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    Mohammad Dalili

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between congenital heart disease (CHD and growth retardation is well documented. We investigated the growth condition of Iranian children with several types of congenital heart disease (CHD and compared it with worldwide researches. Growth condition was investigated in 469 patients with important CHD aged from 1 month to 18 years. The patients were divided into two groups; infants (aged 12 months or less, and children (1-18 yrs of age. Children with hemodynamically unimportant small VSDs or small ASDs were not studied. Other exclusion criteria were prematurity, known genetic disorders and neurologic disease affecting growthd. All patients' cardiac diagnoses were made on the basis of clinical and laboratory examinations; including electrocardiography, echocardiography, cardiac catheterization, and angiography. Body weight and height of all patients were measured using conventional methods and compared with standard growth charts. In all patients body weights and heights were significantly lower than normal population. This difference was greater in the weight of female children. Other risk factors for growth failure were large left-to-right intracardiac shunts, pulmonary hypertension and cyanosis. Iranian children with CHD have growth failure somewhat different from other countries. Lower body weights of cyanotic patients and female children indicated that these patients need more nutritional and psychosocial attention.

  5. The economics of managing Verticillium wilt, an imported disease in California lettuce

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    Christine L. Carroll

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Verticillium dahliae is a soilborne fungus that is introduced to the soil via infested spinach seeds and that causes lettuce to be afflicted with Verticillium wilt. This disease has spread rapidly through the Salinas Valley, the prime lettuce production region of California. Verticillium wilt can be prevented or controlled by the grower by fumigating, planting broccoli, or not planting spinach. Because these control options require long-term investment for future gain, renters might not take the steps needed to control Verticillium wilt. Verticillium wilt can also be prevented or controlled by a spinach seed company through testing and cleaning the spinach seeds. However, seed companies are unwilling to test or clean spinach seeds, as they are not affected by this disease. We discuss our research on the externalities that arise with renters, and between seed companies and growers, due to Verticillium wilt. These externalities have important implications for the management of Verticillium wilt in particular, and for the management of diseases in agriculture in general.

  6. Renal function trajectory is more important than chronic kidney disease stage for managing patients with chronic kidney disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosansky, Steven J

    2012-01-01

    Management of patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) emphasizes a current level of function as calculated from the modification of diet in renal disease glomerulofiltration rate equations (eGFR) and proteinuria for staging of CKD. Change in a patient's eGFR over time (renal function trajectory) is an additional and potentially more important consideration in deciding which patients will progress to the point where they will require renal replacement therapy (RRT). Many patients with CKD 3-5 have stable renal function for years. Proteinuria/albuminuria is a primary determinant of renal trajectory which may be slowed by medications that decrease proteinuria and/or aggressively lower blood pressure. A renal trajectory of >3 ml/min/1.73 m(2)/year may relate to a need for closer renal follow-up and increased morbidity and mortality. Additional CKD population-based studies need to examine the relationship of renal trajectory to: baseline renal function; acute kidney injury episodes; age, race, sex and primary etiologies of renal disease; blood pressure control and therapies; dietary protein intake; blood glucose control in diabetics and the competitive risk of death versus the requirement for renal replacement therapy. In the elderly CKD 4 population with significant comorbidities and slow decline in renal function, the likelihood of death prior to the need for RRT should be considered before placing AV access for dialysis. Prediction models of renal progression must account for the competitive risk of death as well as stable or improved renal function to be clinically useful. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  7. Treatment of Anorexia Nervosa: The Importance of Disease Progression in the Prognosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, Rodrigo; Gonçalves-Pinho, Manuel; Roma-Torres, António; Brandão, Isabel

    2017-08-31

    Anorexia nervosa is a severe, usually chronic, life-threatening disease of complex etiology characterized by food restriction, overestimation of the importance of body weight and image, intense fear of weight gain and distortion of body image. Anorexia nervosa is associated with high rates of mortality, suicide and decreased quality of life. Our aim is to present an anorexia nervosa treatment program offered in a major university hospital in Portugal, and to determine the impact of illness duration before admission on the outcome. Our hypothesis is that patients with greater disease longevity may have worse prognosis and poorer outcome. The sample included data from case records of 169 patients seen consecutively and for the first time at Centro Hospitalar São João, between 2010 and 2015. We performed a retrospective observational study which included data collected at admission and from later follow-up years. From the initially selected patients, 14.8% reached total remission, 16% accomplished partial remission and 14.2% ended up with exacerbation/stagnation of the disease. The dropout rate was of 55% throughout our study period. We found significant differences on outcome rates between distinct illness duration groups (p = 0.007). There are several factors frequently associated with poor outcome for anorexia nervosa. The interpretation of outcome findings was limited by the high rate of dropout and lack of consistent definition criteria. Our results support the idea that illness duration has an important role on the outcome and prognostic features of these patients.

  8. Biosafety level-2 laboratory diagnosis of Zaire Ebola virus disease imported from Liberia to Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olumuyiwa B. Salu

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Global travel is an efficient route of transmission for highly infectious pathogens and increases the chances of such pathogens moving from high disease-endemic areas to new regions. We describe the rapid and safe identification of the first imported case of Ebola virus disease in a traveler to Lagos, Nigeria, using conventional reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR in a biosafety level (BSL-2 facility. Case presentation: On 20 July 2014, a traveler arrived from Liberia at Lagos International Airport and was admitted to a private hospital in Lagos, with clinical suspicion of Ebola virus disease. Methodology and Outcome: Blood and urine specimens were collected, transported to the Virology Unit Laboratory at the College of Medicine, University of Lagos, and processed under stringent biosafety conditions for viral RNA extraction. RT-PCR was set-up to query the Ebola, Lassa and Dengue fever viruses. Amplicons for pan-filoviruses were detected as 300 bp bands on a 1.5% agarose gel image; there were no detectable bands for Lassa and Dengue viral RNA. Nucleotide BLAST and phylogenetic analysis of sequence data of the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (L gene confirmed the sequence to be Zaire ebolavirus (EBOV/Hsap/ NGA/2014/LIB-NIG 01072014; Genbank: KM251803.1. Conclusion: Our BSL-2 facility in Lagos, Nigeria, was able to safely detect Ebola virus disease using molecular techniques, supporting the reliability of molecular detection of highly infectious viral pathogens under stringent safety guidelines in BSL-2 laboratories. This is a significant lesson for the many under-facilitated laboratories in resource-limited settings, as is predominantly found in sub-Saharan Africa.

  9. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease among lung cancer-free smokers: The importance of healthy controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karpman, Michelle D; Eldridge, Ronald; Follis, Jack L; Etzel, Carol J; Shete, Sanjay; El-Zein, Randa A

    2018-01-01

    The prevalence of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) in smokers enrolled as "healthy" controls in studies is 10-50%. The COPD status of ideal smoker populations for lung cancer case-control studies should be checked via spirometry; however, this is often not feasible, because no medical indications exist for asymptomatic smokers to undergo spirometry prior to study enrollment. Therefore, there is an unmet need for robust, cost effective assays for identifying undiagnosed lung disease among asymptomatic smokers. Such assays would help excluding unhealthy smokers from lung cancer case-control studies. We used the cytokinesis-blocked micronucleus (CBMN) assay (a measure of genetic instability) to identify undiagnosed lung disease among asymptomatic smokers. We used a convenience population from an on-going lung cancer case-control study including smokers with lung cancer (n = 454), smoker controls (n = 797), and a self-reported COPD (n = 200) contingent within the smoker controls. Significant differences for all CBMN endpoints were observed when comparing lung cancer to All controls (which included COPD) and Healthy controls (with no COPD). The risk ratio (RR) was increased in the COPD group vs. Healthy controls for nuclear buds (RR 1.28, 95% confidence interval 1.01-1.62), and marginally increased for micronuclei (RR 1.06, 0.98-1.89) and nucleoplasmic bridges (RR 1.07, 0.97-1.15). These findings highlight the importance of using truly healthy controls in studies geared toward assessment of lung cancer risk. Using genetic instability biomarkers would facilitate the identification of smokers susceptible to tobacco smoke carcinogens and therefore predisposed to either disease. Copyright © 2017 The Japanese Respiratory Society. All rights reserved.

  10. Interpersonal violence: an important risk factor for disease and injury in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norman, Rosana; Schneider, Michelle; Bradshaw, Debbie; Jewkes, Rachel; Abrahams, Naeemah; Matzopoulos, Richard; Vos, Theo

    2010-12-01

    Burden of disease estimates for South Africa have highlighted the particularly high rates of injuries related to interpersonal violence compared with other regions of the world, but these figures tell only part of the story. In addition to direct physical injury, violence survivors are at an increased risk of a wide range of psychological and behavioral problems. This study aimed to comprehensively quantify the excess disease burden attributable to exposure to interpersonal violence as a risk factor for disease and injury in South Africa. The World Health Organization framework of interpersonal violence was adapted. Physical injury mortality and disability were categorically attributed to interpersonal violence. In addition, exposure to child sexual abuse and intimate partner violence, subcategories of interpersonal violence, were treated as risk factors for disease and injury using counterfactual estimation and comparative risk assessment methods. Adjustments were made to account for the combined exposure state of having experienced both child sexual abuse and intimate partner violence. Of the 17 risk factors included in the South African Comparative Risk Assessment study, interpersonal violence was the second leading cause of healthy years of life lost, after unsafe sex, accounting for 1.7 million disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) or 10.5% of all DALYs (95% uncertainty interval: 8.5%-12.5%) in 2000. In women, intimate partner violence accounted for 50% and child sexual abuse for 32% of the total attributable DALYs. The implications of our findings are that estimates that include only the direct injury burden seriously underrepresent the full health impact of interpersonal violence. Violence is an important direct and indirect cause of health loss and should be recognized as a priority health problem as well as a human rights and social issue. This study highlights the difficulties in measuring the disease burden from interpersonal violence as a risk factor

  11. Interpersonal violence: an important risk factor for disease and injury in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abrahams Naeemah

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Burden of disease estimates for South Africa have highlighted the particularly high rates of injuries related to interpersonal violence compared with other regions of the world, but these figures tell only part of the story. In addition to direct physical injury, violence survivors are at an increased risk of a wide range of psychological and behavioral problems. This study aimed to comprehensively quantify the excess disease burden attributable to exposure to interpersonal violence as a risk factor for disease and injury in South Africa. Methods The World Health Organization framework of interpersonal violence was adapted. Physical injury mortality and disability were categorically attributed to interpersonal violence. In addition, exposure to child sexual abuse and intimate partner violence, subcategories of interpersonal violence, were treated as risk factors for disease and injury using counterfactual estimation and comparative risk assessment methods. Adjustments were made to account for the combined exposure state of having experienced both child sexual abuse and intimate partner violence. Results Of the 17 risk factors included in the South African Comparative Risk Assessment study, interpersonal violence was the second leading cause of healthy years of life lost, after unsafe sex, accounting for 1.7 million disability-adjusted life years (DALYs or 10.5% of all DALYs (95% uncertainty interval: 8.5%-12.5% in 2000. In women, intimate partner violence accounted for 50% and child sexual abuse for 32% of the total attributable DALYs. Conclusions The implications of our findings are that estimates that include only the direct injury burden seriously underrepresent the full health impact of interpersonal violence. Violence is an important direct and indirect cause of health loss and should be recognized as a priority health problem as well as a human rights and social issue. This study highlights the difficulties in measuring

  12. Economic losses due to important diseases of bovines in central India

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    Dhananjay Singh

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To analyze the factors associated with morbidity and mortality rates as well as to evaluate economic losses due to important diseases of bovines, viz. mastitis, HS and surra in Purvanchal Region of Uttar Pradesh. Materials and Methods: A sample of 300 livestock owners were selected from each of five divisions of Purvanchal region of the state of Uttar Pradesh using multistage stratified sampling with simple random sampling without replacement at village level. The morbidity, mortality and case fatality rates due to different diseases were determined using standard statistical indices. Association between cattle morbidity and mortality rates and different factors was calculated by χ2 Test. The total economic loss due to diseases in bovines was worked out as sum of mortality loss, loss in milk yield and cost of treatment of affected animals. Results: The overall morbidity rates of mastitis, HS and surra in cattle and buffaloes were 15.5%, 7.1% and 5.3%, respectively. The mortality and case fatality due to HS was found higher in the young calves as compared to the adults in case of both buffaloes and cattle. Mortality and case fatality due to surra was greater in the adult animals as compared to the younger ones in case of both buffaloes and cattle. Total losses due to mastitis per lactation in ND cow, CB cow and buffalo were INR 868.34, INR 1, 314.10 and INR 1, 272.36, respectively. Total losses due to HS per animal in ND cows, CB cows and buffaloes were INR 2, 355.78, INR 3, 228.52 and INR 4, 262.57, respectively. Total losses due to surra per animal in ND cow, CB cow and buffalo were INR 3, 328.18, INR 6, 193 and INR 9, 872.33, respectively. Conclusion: The study thus revealed significant losses due to diseases in large ruminants on. There is thus ample scope for preventive measures to control the disease bovines.

  13. Family health history communication networks of older adults: importance of social relationships and disease perceptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashida, Sato; Kaphingst, Kimberly A; Goodman, Melody; Schafer, Ellen J

    2013-10-01

    Older individuals play a critical role in disseminating family health history (FHH) information that can facilitate disease prevention among younger family members. This study evaluated the characteristics of older adults and their familial networks associated with two types of communication (have shared and intend to share new FHH information with family members) to inform public health efforts to facilitate FHH dissemination. Information on 970 social network members enumerated by 99 seniors (aged 57 years and older) at 3 senior centers in Memphis, Tennessee, through face-to-face interviews was analyzed. Participants shared FHH information with 27.5% of the network members; 54.7% of children and 24.4% of siblings. Two-level logistic regression models showed that participants had shared FHH with those to whom they provided emotional support (odds ratio [OR] = 1.836) and felt close to (OR = 1.757). Network-members were more likely to have received FHH from participants with a cancer diagnosis (OR = 2.617) and higher familiarity with (OR = 1.380) and importance of sharing FHH with family (OR = 1.474). Participants intended to share new FHH with those who provide tangible support to (OR = 1.804) and were very close to them (OR = 2.112). Members with whom participants intend to share new FHH were more likely to belong to the network of participants with higher perceived severity if family members encountered heart disease (OR = 1.329). Many first-degree relatives were not informed of FHH. Perceptions about FHH and disease risk as well as quality of social relationships may play roles in whether seniors communicate FHH with their families. Future studies may consider influencing these perceptions and relationships.

  14. Quality of life related to health chronic kidney disease: Predictive importance of mood and somatic symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perales Montilla, Carmen M; Duschek, Stefan; Reyes Del Paso, Gustavo A

    2016-01-01

    To compare the predictive capacity of self-reported somatic symptoms and mood (depression and anxiety) on health-related quality of life (HRQOL) in patients with chronic renal disease. Data were obtained from 52 patients undergoing haemodialysis. Measures included a) the SF-36 health survey, b) the somatic symptoms scale revised (ESS-R) and c) the hospital anxiety and depression scale (HADS). Multiple regression was the main method of statistical analysis. Patients exhibited HRQOL levels below normative values, with anxiety and depression prevalence at 36.5% and 27%, respectively. Mood was the strongest predictor of physical (β=-.624) and mental (β=-.709) HRQOL. Somatic symptoms were also associated with physical HRQOL, but their predictive value was weaker (β=-.270). These results indicate that mood is a superior predictor of the physical and mental components of HRQOL in patients compared with the number and severity of physical symptoms. The data underline the importance of assessing negative emotional states (depression and anxiety) in kidney patients as a basis for intervention, which may facilitate reduction of the impact of chronic renal disease on HRQOL. Copyright © 2016 Sociedad Española de Nefrología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  15. Prognostic importance of plasma total magnesium in a cohort of cats with azotemic chronic kidney disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Broek, D Hendrik N; Chang, Yu-Mei; Elliott, Jonathan; Jepson, Rosanne E

    2018-04-27

    Hypomagnesemia is associated with increased mortality and renal function decline in humans with chronic kidney disease (CKD). Magnesium is furthermore inversely associated with fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23), an important prognostic factor in CKD in cats. However, the prognostic significance of plasma magnesium in cats with CKD is unknown. To explore associations of plasma total magnesium concentration (tMg) with plasma FGF23 concentration, all-cause mortality, and disease progression in cats with azotemic CKD. Records of 174 client-owned cats with IRIS stage 2-4 CKD. Cohort study. Cats with azotemic CKD were identified from the records of two London-based first opinion practices (1999-2013). Possible associations of baseline plasma tMg with FGF23 concentration and risks of death and progression were explored using, respectively, linear, Cox, and logistic regression. Plasma tMg (reference interval, 1.73-2.57 mg/dL) was inversely associated with plasma FGF23 when controlling for plasma creatinine and phosphate concentrations (partial correlation coefficient, -0.50; P tMg augments prognostic information in cats with CKD, but whether these observations are associations or causations warrants further investigation. © 2018 The Authors. Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.

  16. Sensitivity of promising cherry hybrids and new cultivars to economically important fungal diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Vasileva

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. As a result of years of developing the breeding programme for creating novel sweet cherry cultivars in the Fruit Growing Institute (FGI, Plovdiv, a reach hybrid fund from first and second hybrid generation is created. Of the selected and propagated hybrids at a more advanced stage of testing are 11 hybrids along with three new cultivars of the FGI Plovdiv ('Kossara', 'Rosalina' and 'Trakiiska hrushtyalka' grafted on three rootstocks were tested for sensitivity to causers of economically important fungal diseases in sweet cherry - cherry leaf spot (Blumeriella jaapii (Rehm Arx, shothole blight (Stigmina carpophila (Lev. Ellis and brown rot (Monilinia fructigena (G. Wint Honey. The degree of infestation under field conditions is reported by determining the index of attack on leaves and fruit, using the formula of McKinney. As the most sensitive elites are outlined elite El.17-31 (to cherry leaf spot and elite El.17-136 (to shothole blight. The cultivars 'Kossara' and 'Trakiiska hrushtyalka' exhibit an average resistance to the three diseases, as the values for the index of infestation are lower or similar to those of standard cultivars 'Van' and 'Bing', while 'Rosalina' demonstrated sensitivity to shothole blight and brown rot. Interesting is the elite El.17- 37 demonstrating the least infestation of Blumeriella jaapii - 7.33% and Monilinia fructigena - 6.67%. The same has a set of valuable qualities as late maturing date and very large fruits with excellent sensory profile, making it a potential candidate cultivar.

  17. Determination of minimal clinically important change in early and advanced Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauser, Robert A; Auinger, Peggy

    2011-04-01

    Two common primary efficacy outcome measures in Parkinson's disease (PD) are change in Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS) scores in early PD and change in "off" time in patients with motor fluctuations. Defining the minimal clinically important change (MCIC) in these outcome measures is important to interpret the clinical relevance of changes observed in clinical trials and other situations. We analyzed data from 2 multicenter, placebo-controlled, randomized clinical trials of rasagiline; TEMPO studied 404 early PD subjects, and PRESTO studied 472 levodopa-treated subjects with motor fluctuations. An anchor-based approach using clinical global impression of improvement (CGI-I) was used to determine MCIC for UPDRS scores and daily "off" time. MCIC was defined as mean change in actively treated subjects rated minimally improved on CGI-I. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves defined optimal cutoffs discriminating between changed and unchanged subjects. MCIC for improvement in total UPDRS score (parts I-III) in early PD was determined to be -3.5 points based on mean scores and -3.0 points based on ROC curves. In addition, we found an MCIC for reduction in "off" time of 1.0 hours as defined by mean reduction in "off" time in active treated subjects self-rated as minimally improved on CGI-I minus mean reduction in "off" time in placebo-treated subjects self-rated as unchanged (1.9-0.9 hours). We hypothesize that many methodological factors can influence determination of the MCIC, and a range of values is likely to emerge from multiple studies. Copyright © 2011 Movement Disorder Society.

  18. [A national survey on current status of the important parasitic diseases in human population].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-10-30

    In order to understand the current status and trends of the important parasitic diseases in human population, to evaluate the effect of control activities in the past decade and provide scientific base for further developing control strategies, a national survey was carried out in the country (Taiwan, Hongkong and Macau not included) from June, 2001 to 2004 under the sponsorship of the Ministry of Health. The sample sizes of the nationwide survey and of the survey in each province (autonomous region and municipality, P/A/M) were determined following a calculating formula based on an estimation of the sample size of random sampling to the rate of population. A procedure of stratified cluster random sampling was conducted in each province based on geographical location and economical condition with three strata: county/city, township/town, and spot, each spot covered a sample of 500 people. Parasitological examinations were conducted for the infections of soil-transmitted nematodes, Taenia spp, and Clonorchis sinensis, including Kato-Katz thick smear method, scotch cellulose adhesive tape technique and test tube-filter paper culture (for larvae). At the same time, another sampled investigation for Clonorchis sinensis infection was carried out in the known endemic areas in 27 provinces. Serological tests combined with questionnaire and/or clinical diagnosis were applied for hydatid disease, cysticercosis, paragonimiasis, trichinosis, and toxoplasmosis. A total sampled population of 356 629 from the 31 P/A/M was examined by parasitological methods and 26 species of helminth were recorded. Among these helminth, human infections of Metorchis orientalis and Echinostoma aegypti were detected in Fujian Province which seemed to be the first report in the world, and Haplorchis taichui infection in Guangxi Region was the first human infection record in the country. The overall prevalence of helminth infections was 21.74%. The prevalence of soil-transmitted nematodes was 19

  19. Ferrets Infected with Bundibugyo Virus or Ebola Virus Recapitulate Important Aspects of Human Filovirus Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozak, Robert; He, Shihua; Kroeker, Andrea; de La Vega, Marc-Antoine; Audet, Jonathan; Wong, Gary; Urfano, Chantel; Antonation, Kym; Embury-Hyatt, Carissa; Kobinger, Gary P; Qiu, Xiangguo

    2016-10-15

    Bundibugyo virus (BDBV) is the etiological agent of a severe hemorrhagic fever in humans with a case-fatality rate ranging from 25 to 36%. Despite having been known to the scientific and medical communities for almost 1 decade, there is a dearth of studies on this pathogen due to the lack of a small animal model. Domestic ferrets are commonly used to study other RNA viruses, including members of the order Mononegavirales To investigate whether ferrets were susceptible to filovirus infections, ferrets were challenged with a clinical isolate of BDBV. Animals became viremic within 4 days and succumbed to infection between 8 and 9 days, and a petechial rash was observed with moribund ferrets. Furthermore, several hallmarks of human filoviral disease were recapitulated in the ferret model, including substantial decreases in lymphocyte and platelet counts and dysregulation of key biochemical markers related to hepatic/renal function, as well as coagulation abnormalities. Virological, histopathological, and immunohistochemical analyses confirmed uncontrolled BDBV replication in the major organs. Ferrets were also infected with Ebola virus (EBOV) to confirm their susceptibility to another filovirus species and to potentially establish a virus transmission model. Similar to what was seen with BDBV, important hallmarks of human filoviral disease were observed in EBOV-infected ferrets. This study demonstrates the potential of this small animal model for studying BDBV and EBOV using wild-type isolates and will accelerate efforts to understand filovirus pathogenesis and transmission as well as the development of specific vaccines and antivirals. The 2013-2016 outbreak of Ebola virus in West Africa has highlighted the threat posed by filoviruses to global public health. Bundibugyo virus (BDBV) is a member of the genus Ebolavirus and has caused outbreaks in the past but is relatively understudied, likely due to the lack of a suitable small animal model. Such a model for BDBV is

  20. An overview of bacterial diseases of the most important agricultural crops in Nepal

    OpenAIRE

    Lamichhane, Jay Ram; Balestra, Giorgio M.; Mazzaglia, Angelo; Kshetri, MB; Varvaro, Leonardo

    2011-01-01

    Several surveys were carried out during three consecutive years (2007-2009) on the major crops cultivated in different districts of Nepal, in order to verify the possible presence of diseases caused by bacteria. The monitoring was carried out twice a year, in spring and autumn. During the survey we observed a wide range of bacterial diseases of plants. Most of the diseases were observed for the first time while others had been reported previously. Among the bacterial diseases observed for the...

  1. The importance of assessing medication exposure to the definition of refractory disease in systemic lupus erythematosus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnaud, Laurent; Zahr, Noël; Costedoat-Chalumeau, Nathalie; Amoura, Zahir

    2011-09-01

    Treatment of patients with Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE) who have active disease refractory to current therapeutic strategies continues to be a real challenge. Here, we propose that the classic definition of refractory SLE patients - failure to achieve adequate response to the standard of care - should be further refined to incorporate the dimension of adequate drug exposure. Inter-individual pharmacokinetic variability may induce insufficient exposure to many drugs used in SLE, leading to both apparent inefficacy of treatments and inappropriate therapeutic escalation. Among others, we have shown that individual assessment of exposure to mycophenolic acid, the active metabolite of mycophenolate mofetil (MMF) could be used to determine whether a given patient received adequate doses of MMF. We have also shown that measuring blood concentrations of hydroxychloroquine could be used as an efficient way to assess observance, which is a critical issue since a significant proportion of refractory SLE patients is likely to have poor observance as the primary source of treatment failure. Finally, we have underlined the importance of assessing drug interactions as SLE patients often require, in addition to immunosuppressants, several other drugs to prevent or treat associated conditions, which may result in decreased exposure to immunosuppressants. Considering these data, we believe that refractory SLE patients should not only be defined as the failure to achieve adequate therapeutic response to the standard of care, but should also incorporate the dimension of inadequate pharmacokinetic exposure and include drug blood level, interaction and observance monitoring. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  2. Adolescents with congenital heart disease: the importance of perceived parenting for psychosocial and health outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luyckx, Koen; Goossens, Eva; Missotten, Lies; Moons, Philip

    2011-11-01

    : Little is known about how parenting relates to psychosocial functioning and health behavior in adolescents with congenital heart disease (CHD). Different parenting styles were identified through relying on adolescent perceptions of multiple dimensions (regulation, responsiveness, and psychological control). The degree to which parents were perceived as consistent in their rearing style was assessed. : Adolescents with CHD were selected from the database of pediatric and congenital cardiology of the University Hospitals Leuven; control individuals were recruited at secondary schools. A total of 429 adolescents (14-18 years) with CHD participated; 403 were matched on gender and age with control individuals. Adolescents completed questionnaires on maternal and paternal regulation, psychological control, and responsiveness. Main outcome measures were depressive symptoms, loneliness, quality of life, health status, alcohol, cigarette, and drug use. : No significant differences emerged between adolescents with CHD and controls in perceived parenting styles. Democratic parenting was accompanied by the most optimal pattern of outcomes in adolescents with CHD, whereas psychologically controlling parenting by the least optimal pattern. Overprotective parenting was related to high patient substance use. Perceiving both parents as democratic turned out most favorably for psychosocial functioning and quality of life, whereas parental consistency was unrelated to substance use in adolescents with CHD. : By building bridges between the fields of adolescent medicine and family studies, the present study generated important information on the role of parents in psychosocial and behavioral functioning of adolescents with CHD. Future longitudinal studies could inform family-based interventions for this population.

  3. [Important vector-borne infectious diseases among humans in Germany. Epidemiological aspects].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, C; Faber, M; Hellenbrand, W; Wilking, H; Stark, K

    2014-05-01

    Vector-borne infections pathogenic to humans play an important role in Germany. The relevant zoonotic pathogens are either endemic throughout Germany (e.g. Borrelia burgdorferi sensu latu) or only in specific regions, e.g. tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) virus and hantavirus. They cause a substantial burden of disease. Prevention and control largely rely on public advice and the application of personal protective measures (e.g. TBE virus vaccination and protection against vectors). High quality surveillance and targeted epidemiological studies are fundamental for the evaluation of temporal and spatial risks of infection and the effectiveness of preventive measures. Aside from endemic pathogens, vector-borne infections acquired abroad, mostly transmitted by mosquitoes, have to be systematically and intensively monitored as well, to assess the risk of infection for German residents traveling abroad and to adequately evaluate the risk of autochthonous transmission. Related issues, such as invasive species of mosquitoes in Germany and climate change, have to be taken into consideration. Such pathogens include West Nile, dengue and chikungunya viruses, as well as malaria parasites (Plasmodium species). The article presents an overview of the epidemiological situation of selected relevant vector-borne infections in Germany.

  4. Sunlight exposure is important for preventing hip fractures in patients with Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, or stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwamoto, J; Takeda, T; Matsumoto, H

    2012-04-01

    Hypovitaminosis D as a result of malnutrition or sunlight deprivation, increased bone resorption, low bone mineral density (BMD), or an increased risk of falls may contribute to an increased risk of hip fractures in patients with neurological diseases, including Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, and stroke. The purpose of this study was to clarify the efficacy of sunlight exposure for reducing the risk of hip fractures in patients with such neurological diseases. The English literature was searched using PubMed, and randomized controlled trials evaluating the efficacy of sunlight exposure for reducing the risk of hip fractures in patients with Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, and stroke were identified. The relative risk and the 95% confidence interval were calculated for individual randomized controlled trials, and a pooled data analysis (meta-analysis) was performed. Three randomized controlled trials were identified. Sunlight exposure improved hypovitaminosis D and increased the BMD. The relative risk (95% confidence interval) of hip fractures was 0.22 (0.05, 1.01) for Alzheimer's disease, 0.27 (0.08, 0.96) for Parkinson's disease, and 0.17 (0.02, 1.36) for stroke. The relative risk (95% confidence interval) calculated for the pooled data analysis was 0.23 (0.10, 0.56) (P = 0.0012), suggesting a significant risk reduction rate of 77%. The present meta-analysis added additional evidence indicating the efficacy of sunlight exposure for reducing the risk of hip fractures in patients with Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, and stroke. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  5. Decreased physical effort, fatigue, and mental distress in patients with coronary artery disease : Importance of personality-related differences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bunevicius, A.; Brozaitiene, J.; Staniute, M.; Gelziniene, V.; Duoneliene, I.; Pop, V.J.M.; Bunevicius, R.; Denollet, J.

    2014-01-01

    Background Identification of cardio-toxic psychological symptoms in coronary artery disease (CAD) patients is important. Purpose We examined the association of negative affectivity (NA), social inhibition (SI), and their combination in the distressed (Type D) personality with functional status,

  6. One-sixth of inpatients in a Danish infectious disease ward have imported diseases: A cross-sectional analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dam Larsen, Fredrikke; Jespersen, Sanne; Wejse, Christian; Petersen, Eskild; Larsen, Carsten Schade

    The aim of the study was to describe travel demographics and disease patterns of patients hospitalized with travel-related diseases, and assess risk factors to improve pre-travel information and post-travel diagnostics and treatment. The study included all patients hospitalized with travel-related diseases in 2015 at a Danish infectious diseases ward. Patient data was extracted from the in-patient hospital registry. was analyzed regarding diagnoses, destination, purpose of travel and pre-travel information. 240 patients were hospitalized with a total of 289 travel-related diseases, accounting for 16.6% (240/1450) of all admissions. Febrile illnesses were the most common (39.5%, 114/289) followed by respiratory (19.7%, 57/289) and gastrointestinal diagnoses (19.0%, 55/289). Most of the diseases were acquired in Sub-Saharan Africa (35.6%, 103/289) followed by South East Asia (27.0%, 78/289), and 60.0% (144/240) of the patients were tourists. One-third (36.3%, 81/223) of the non-migrants had received pre-travel information. The lowest rate was seen in people visiting friends and relatives (18.2%, 6/32). Travel-related diseases are common among patients admitted to this Danish infectious disease ward. Malaria is the most common disease among both travelers and immigrants. In approximately one third of all the patients in our study etiology was unknown. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. [The importance of antenatal immunoprophylaxis for prevention of hemolytic disease of the fetus and newborn].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starcević, Mirta; Mataija, Marina; Sović, Dragica; Dodig, Javorka; Matijević, Ratko; Kukuruzović, Monika

    2011-03-01

    Hemolytic disease of the fetus and newborn (HDFN) is a consequence of maternal alloimmunization against fetal red blood cell antigens. Alloimmunization against D antigen from Rhesus (Rh) blood group system is particularly important because of its strong immunogenicity. During the last few decades, the introduction of RhD prophylaxis by postpartum administration of anti-D immunoglobulin to RhD negative women, now improved with antenatal prophylaxis, has led to a dramatic decrease in perinatal mortality and morbidity from HDFN. However, severe cases have not disappeared, mostly due to prophylaxis failure. In our case, inappropriate prenatal care during the first pregnancy in an RhD negative mother resulted in primary immunization. In the next pregnancy with an RhD positive child, the mother's secondary immune response was extremely strong and led to early development of severe fetal anemia. The fetus survived thanks to the treatment with intrauterine transfusions (IUT), but they caused suppression of erythropoiesis, which lasted for months after birth. The long lasting, late anemia was treated with repeated postnatal red cell transfusions and recombinant human erythropoietin (rHuEPO). Despite the severity of HDFN in our case, the short-term outcome is good. The boy has normal growth until now, but due to the possibility of an adverse long-term neurodevelopmental outcome, this case requires continuous follow up. It also reminds of the fact that RhD alloimmunization remains an actual problem in daily routine. Antenatal prophylaxis is a crucial step in quality care of those who are at a risk of HDFN.

  8. PHYSICAL ACTIVITY AND ITS IMPORTANCE FOR THE PREVENTION OF CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. S. Yakushin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Lack of physical activity (PA is today one of the most important risk factors for atherosclerosis­related deaths. Its level is falling worldwide. A study in the UK, USA, India, Brazil and China (45 % of the world population total PA declined in these countries and will continue to fall over the next 15 years. In Russia, the level of the PA population decreased. PA is responsible for 12.2 % of the global burden of myo­ cardial infarction. These more than 40 observational studies demonstrate the complete proofs of the linear relationship between the level of PA and total mortality in younger and older men and women. The minimum threshold PA, which can reduce the risk of all­cause mortal­ ity is at a level of 2.5–5 hours a week. Further increase of the PA (its duration and/or intensity leads to a further reduction of risks. PA should take most days of the week and have a duration of more than 10 minutes a day. Only then did she summed up. In patients with cardiovascular disease to determine the necessary level of PA is difficult. Therefore, before the training they have to undergo stress testing. The program of training should be determined on the basis of findings and the clinical status. Even brief moderate and/or intense exercise can reduce the risk of death of the patient. If an individual does not reach the target of 150 minutes of moderate PA per week, but has been a regular, his risk of CHD was significantly reduced (14 %, 95 % CI 0.76–0.97. The development of programs to improve the PA of the population can have a significant impact on the overall and cardiovascular mortality. 

  9. Periodontal-disease-associated biofilm: A reservoir for pathogens of medical importance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira Colombo, Ana Paula; Magalhães, Clarissa Bichara; Hartenbach, Fátima Aparecida Rocha Resende; Martins do Souto, Renata; Maciel da Silva-Boghossian, Carina

    2016-05-01

    The ecological diversity of the periodontal microenvironment may provide suitable conditions for the colonization of species not usually considered members of the oral microbiota. In this investigation, we aimed to determine the prevalence and levels of pathogenic species of medical relevance in the microbiota of individuals with distinct periodontal clinical status. Subgingival biofilm was obtained from patients with periodontal health (H, n = 81), gingivitis (G, n = 55), generalized aggressive (AgP, n = 36) or chronic periodontitis (CP, n = 98), and analyzed for 39 microbial taxa using a checkerboard DNA-DNA hybridization technique. Microbial differences among groups, as well as associations between clinical and microbiological parameters were sought by non-parametric and univariate correlation tests. Neisseria spp., Peptostreptococus anaerobius, Candida albicans, enterobacteria, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Eubacterium saphenum, Clostridium difficile and Olsenella uli were detected in high mean prevalence and counts in the subgingival microbiota of the study population. Species that were more related to periodontal inflammation and tissue destruction at the patient and site levels included enterobacteria, C. albicans, Neisseria spp., P. aeruginosa, O. uli, Hafnia alvei, Serratia marcescens and Filifactor alocis (p < 0.05). In contrast, Fusobacterium necrophorum, Lactobacillus acidophilus, Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus pneumoniae were associated with periodontal health (p < 0.05). Pathogenic species of medical importance may be detected in high prevalence and levels in the periodontal microbiota. Regardless of their role in periodontal health or disease, the periodontal biofilm may be a source for dissemination and development of systemic infections by these pathogenic microorganisms. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Oxidative Stress as an Important Factor in the Pathophysiology of alzheimer's Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanise Gemelli,

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Oxidative stress has been associated to play a crucial role in the pathogenesis of many diseases, including neurodegenerative diseases. Alzheimer's disease is an age-related neurodegenerative disorder, which is recognized as the most common form of dementia. In this article, the aim was to review the involvement of oxidative stress on Alzheimer's disease. Alzheimer's disease is histopathologically characterized by the presence of extracellular amyloid plaques, intracellular neurofibrillary tangles, the presence of oligomers of amyloid-? peptide and loss of synapses. Moreover, the brain and the nervous system are more prone to oxidative stress and oxidative damage influences the neurodegenerative diseases. However, increased oxidative damage, mitochondrial dysfunction, accumulation of oxidized aggregated proteins, inflammation, and defects in proteins constitute complex intertwined pathologies that lead to neuronal cell death. Mitochondrial mutations on deoxyribonucleic acid and oxidative stress contribute to aging, affecting different cell signaling systems, as well as the connectivity and neuronal cell death may lead to the largest risk factor for neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's Disease.

  11. The Importance of Computed Tomography Findings in Detecting Tuberculous Addison's Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Ferreira

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Addison’s disease is an endocrine disorder characterized by primary adrenal insufficiency due to various causes. Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection was a major cause in the past but is rare nowadays. We describe a patient admitted to our hospital who was diagnosed with tuberculous Addison’s disease.

  12. The Importance of Computed Tomography Findings in Detecting Tuberculous Addison's Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Sara Ferreira; Margarida Freitas-Silva

    2017-01-01

    Addison’s disease is an endocrine disorder characterized by primary adrenal insufficiency due to various causes. Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection was a major cause in the past but is rare nowadays. We describe a patient admitted to our hospital who was diagnosed with tuberculous Addison’s disease.

  13. Hematologically important mutations: X-linked chronic granulomatous disease (third update)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roos, Dirk; Kuhns, Douglas B.; Maddalena, Anne; Roesler, Joachim; Lopez, Juan Alvaro; Ariga, Tadashi; Avcin, Tadej; de Boer, Martin; Bustamante, Jacinta; Condino-Neto, Antonio; Di Matteo, Gigliola; He, Jianxin; Hill, Harry R.; Holland, Steven M.; Kannengiesser, Caroline; Köker, M. Yavuz; Kondratenko, Irina; van Leeuwen, Karin; Malech, Harry L.; Marodi, László; Nunoi, Hiroyuki; Stasia, Marie-José; Ventura, Anna Maria; Witwer, Carl T.; Wolach, Baruch; Gallin, John I.

    2010-01-01

    Chronic granulomatous disease (CGD) is an immunodeficiency disorder affecting about 1 in 250,000 individuals. The disease is caused by a lack of superoxide production by the leukocyte enzyme NADPH oxidase. Superoxide is used to kill phagocytosed micro-organisms in neutrophils, eosinophils, monocytes

  14. Importance of diastolic velocities in the detection of celiac and mesenteric artery disease by duplex ultrasound

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perko, M J; Just, S; Schroeder, T V

    1997-01-01

    To assess the predictive value of ultrasound duplex scanning in the detection of superior mesenteric artery (SMA) and celiac artery (CA) occlusive disease.......To assess the predictive value of ultrasound duplex scanning in the detection of superior mesenteric artery (SMA) and celiac artery (CA) occlusive disease....

  15. Hematologically important mutations: The autosomal recessive forms of chronic granulomatous disease (second update)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roos, Dirk; Kuhns, Douglas B.; Maddalena, Anne; Bustamante, Jacinta; Kannengiesser, Caroline; de Boer, Martin; van Leeuwen, Karin; Köker, M. Yavuz; Wolach, Baruch; Roesler, Joachim; Malech, Harry L.; Holland, Steven M.; Gallin, John I.; Stasia, Marie-José

    2010-01-01

    Chronic granulomatous Disease (CGD) is an immunodeficiency disorder affecting about 1 in 250,000 individuals. The disease is caused by mutations in the genes encoding the components of the leukocyte NADPH oxidase. This enzyme produces superoxide, which is essential in the process of intracellular

  16. [Challenge and strategy of prevention and control of important parasitic diseases under the Belt and Road Initiative].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chun-Li, Cao; Jia-Gang, Guo

    2018-04-17

    China was once a country with the heaviest burden of parasitic diseases. Under the leadership of the Communist Party and national authority, after more than 60 years' efforts of prevention and control, the remarkable results have been achieved in China. However, affected by the social and economic development and environmental changes, the prevention and control of parasitic diseases, especially imported parasitic diseases, are facing new challenges, and the parasitic diseases, such as malaria, schistosomiasis, leishmaniasis, filariasis and trypanosomiasis, appear increasingly. With the development of the Belt and Road Initiative, the transmission risks of these diseases are more increased. The purpose of this paper is to describe the experience and results of parasitic disease prevention and control in China, understand the present parasitic disease epidemic situation of the Belt and Road Initiative related countries, analyze the transmission risks of important parasitic diseases, and present some relevant suggestions, so as to provide the evidence for the health administrative department formulating the prevention and control strategies of such parasitic diseases timely and effectively.

  17. The importance of accurate measurement of aortic stiffness in patients with chronic kidney disease and end-stage renal disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adenwalla, Sherna F; Graham-Brown, Matthew P M; Leone, Francesca M T; Burton, James O; McCann, Gerry P

    2017-08-01

    Cardiovascular (CV) disease is the leading cause of death in chronic kidney disease (CKD) and end-stage renal disease (ESRD). A key driver in this pathology is increased aortic stiffness, which is a strong, independent predictor of CV mortality in this population. Aortic stiffening is a potentially modifiable biomarker of CV dysfunction and in risk stratification for patients with CKD and ESRD. Previous work has suggested that therapeutic modification of aortic stiffness may ameliorate CV mortality. Nevertheless, future clinical implementation relies on the ability to accurately and reliably quantify stiffness in renal disease. Pulse wave velocity (PWV) is an indirect measure of stiffness and is the accepted standard for non-invasive assessment of aortic stiffness. It has typically been measured using techniques such as applanation tonometry, which is easy to use but hindered by issues such as the inability to visualize the aorta. Advances in cardiac magnetic resonance imaging now allow direct measurement of stiffness, using aortic distensibility, in addition to PWV. These techniques allow measurement of aortic stiffness locally and are obtainable as part of a comprehensive, multiparametric CV assessment. The evidence cannot yet provide a definitive answer regarding which technique or parameter can be considered superior. This review discusses the advantages and limitations of non-invasive methods that have been used to assess aortic stiffness, the key studies that have assessed aortic stiffness in patients with renal disease and why these tools should be standardized for use in clinical trial work.

  18. Fabry disease: the importance of the enzyme replacement therapy (TRE, treating quickly and efficiently

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Manuel Politei

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Fabry Disease is a lysosomal disorder due to the absence or deficiency of the Alpha galactosidase A enzyme that causes a pathological accumulation of glycosphingolipids mainly in the endothelial cells, vascular smooth muscle cells and podocytes among others. Enzyme replacement therapy is the only option for a specific treatment at present. Increasing knowledge of the physiopathological mechanisms has changed the management of the disease and above all, when treatment should begin. At present, beginning treatment at an early age seems to be a way of preventing and in some cases reverting some of the signs and symptoms of Fabry disease.

  19. Importance and Impact of Preanalytical Variables on Alzheimer Disease Biomarker Concentrations in Cerebrospinal Fluid

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Le Bastard, Nathalie; De Deyn, Peter Paul; Engelborghs, Sebastiaan

    BACKGROUND: Analyses of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) biomarkers (beta-amyloid protein, total tau protein, and hyperphosphorylated tau protein) are part of the diagnostic criteria of Alzheimer disease. Different preanalytical sample procedures contribute to variability of CSF biomarker concentrations,

  20. Brain alpha-amylase - a novel energy regulator important in Alzheimer disease?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Byman, Elin; Schultz, Nina; Huitinga, I.; Fex, Malin; Wennström, Malin

    2018-01-01

    Reduced glucose metabolism and formation of polyglucosan bodies (PGB) are, beside amyloid beta plaques and neurofibrillary tangles, well-known pathological findings associated with Alzheimer's disease (AD). Since both glucose availability and PGB are regulated by enzymatic degradation of glycogen,

  1. [The importance of the internal picture of the disease for the rehabilitative prognosis in paranoid schizophrenia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pkhidenko, S V

    1993-07-01

    Clinico-catamnestic analysis of internal picture of disease was carried out in 237 patients with paranoid schizophrenia. High ratio of anosognosia (52%) was found. As many as 11% of patients aimed at overcoming morbid symptoms.

  2. Is epigenetics an important link between early life events and adult disease?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epigenetic mechanisms provide one potential explanation for how environmental influences in early life cause long-term changes in chronic disease susceptibility. Whereas epigenetic dysregulation is increasingly implicated in various rare developmental syndromes and cancer, the role of epigenetics in...

  3. Importance of adequate exercise in the detection of coronary heart disease by radionuclide ventriculography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brady, T.J.; Thrall, J.H.; Lo, K.; Pitt, B.

    1980-01-01

    Rest and exercise radionuclide ventriculograms were obtained on 77 symptomatic patients without prior documented coronary artery disease (CAD). Coronary artery disease was present by angiograms in 48. Radionuclide ventriculography (RNV) was abnormal in 41 patients (overall sensitivity 85%). In 29 patients with normal coronary arteries, RNV was normal in 24 (specificity 83%). To determine if the exercise level affects sensitivity, the studies were graded for adequacy of exercise. It was considered adequate if patients developed (a) chest pain, or (b) ST segment depression of at least 1 mm, or (c) if they achieved a pressure rate product greater than 250. Among the 48 patients with coronary artery disease, 35 achieved adequate exercise. Thirty-three had an abnormal RNV (sensitivity 94%). In 13 patients who failed to achieve adequate exercise, RNV was abnormal in eight (sensitivity of only 62%). Some patients with coronary artery disease may have a normal ventricular response at inadequate levels of stress

  4. The Importance of Behavioral Risk Factors for Prevention of Chronic Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmut Kilic

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available In 2005, the cause for almost 60.0% of the deaths in the world is chronic diseases. In the word each year, due to die 5.1 million people from tobacco use, 3.2 million people from physical inactivity, 2.8 million people from overweight or obesity, and 2.7 million people from inadequate intake of fruit and vegetables. The relationships between environmental, socio-economic, cultural and individual characteristics of the risk factors were multi-dimensional and complex. Today, socio-economic burden of disease and risk factors they bring to society are calculated and determined according to this policy. According to World Health Organization (WHO Global Health Risks report, tobacco use, being overweight or obese, insufficient physical activity, alcohol consumption and inadequate fruit and vegetable consumption were responsible one-third of deaths (34.4%, and 19.3% (excluded inadequate e fruits and vegetables consumption of the burden of DALYs in middle-income countries. According to Turkey the National Burden of Disease (NBD and WHO is preparing the Global Burden of Disease 2005, which is fundamental in the prevention of chronic diseases is life style risks that can be prevented, controlled, and changed. According to the NBD 2004 study, 79% of deaths were due to non-communicable diseases in our country. The primary risk factor for DALY is high blood pressure, and following 6 risk factors were related to behavior in our country. Smoking, being overweight or obese, alcohol consumption, insufficient fruits and vegetables consumption, inactive life, and high dietary fat and salt intake which are considered to be significant risk factors for chronic diseases are lifestyle behaviors. When adults visited to health facilities for any reason, their risky behavior can be evaluated. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2011; 10(6.000: 735-740

  5. The importance of studying sex differences in disease: The example of multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golden, Lisa C; Voskuhl, Rhonda

    2017-01-02

    To date, scientific research has often focused on one sex, with assumptions that study of the other sex would yield similar results. However, many diseases affect males and females differently. The sex of a patient can affect the risk for both disease susceptibility and progression. Such differences can be brought to the laboratory bench to be investigated, potentially bringing new treatments back to the clinic. This method of research, known as a "bedside to bench to bedside" approach, has been applied to studying sex differences in multiple sclerosis (MS). Females have greater susceptibly to MS, while males have worse disease progression. These two characteristics of the disease are influenced by the immune system and the nervous system, respectively. Thus, sex differences in each system must be studied. Personalized medicine has been at the forefront of research recently, and studying sex differences in disease fits with this initiative. This review will discuss the known sex differences in MS and highlight how investigating them can lead to new insights and potential treatments for both men and women. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. QUALITY OF LIFE IN PATIENTS WITH INFLAMMATORY BOWEL DISEASE: importance of clinical, demographic and psychosocial factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joana MAGALHÃES

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Context Inflammatory bowel disease causes physical and psychosocial consequences that can affect the health related quality of life. Objectives To analyze the relationship between clinical and sociodemographic factors and quality of life in inflammatory bowel disease patients. Methods Ninety two patients with Crohn’s disease and 58 with ulcerative colitis, filled in the inflammatory bowel disease questionnaire (IBDQ-32 and a questionnaire to collect sociodemographic and clinical data. The association between categorical variables and IBDQ-32 scores was determined using Student t test. Factors statistically significant in the univariate analysis were included in a multivariate regression model. Results IBDQ-32 scores were significantly lower in female patients (P<0.001, patients with an individual perception of a lower co-workers support (P<0.001 and career fulfillment (P<0.001, patients requiring psychological support (P = 0.010 and pharmacological treatment for anxiety or depression (P = 0.002. A multivariate regression analysis identified as predictors of impaired HRQOL the female gender (P<0.001 and the perception of a lower co-workers support (P = 0.025 and career fulfillment (P = 0.001. Conclusions The decrease in HRQQL was significantly related with female gender and personal perception of disease impact in success and social relations. These factors deserve a special attention, so timely measures can be implemented to improve the quality of life of patients.

  7. «La vida alegre». How Important is Condom Used for Sexually Transmitted Diseases Prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilio PINTOR HOLGUÍN

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Action takes place in Spain in the mid?eighties (1987 with the change in Spanish society and the appearance of the first cases of AIDS in our country. From a comical sight, the adventures of a dermatologist particularly interested on sexually transmitted diseases prevention; especially in patients with risk behaviors, such as homosexuals, prostitutes and drug addicts injecting. The entire film revolves around the importance of condom use in preventing all sexually transmitted diseases.

  8. Importance of measuring Bone Mineral Density in Adult Coeliac Disease Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. DI Hobday

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted with an aim to confirm the presence of osteoporosis in patients proven to be suffering from Coeliac Disease and compare present practice in the hospital against the guidelines suggested in the published literature. Information was obtained by retrospective analysis by reviewing notes of 73 patients with coeliac disease, who are registered in the database of a busy Gastroenterology Department of Sunderland Royal Hospital. Of the total of 73 patients, 54 patients underwent a DEXA scan at diagnosis and the Osteoporosis (WHO defined criteria of T score below 2.5 SD the mean adult was detected in 15(27.3% of them. 6 of the 15 patients detected to have osteoporosis were less than 53 years of age. Osteoporosis is common in patients with coeliac disease, and need regular monitoring for osteoporosis, as they are at significant risk of developing it.

  9. The importance of vitamin D in the pathology of bone metabolism in inflammatory bowel diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krela-Kaźmierczak, Iwona; Szymczak, Aleksandra; Łykowska-Szuber, Liliana; Eder, Piotr; Stawczyk-Eder, Kamila; Klimczak, Katarzyna; Linke, Krzysztof; Horst-Sikorska, Wanda

    2015-10-12

    Etiological factors of bone metabolism disorders in inflammatory bowel diseases have been the subject of interest of many researchers. One of the questions often raised is vitamin D deficiency. Calcitriol acts on cells, tissues and organs through a vitamin D receptor. The result of this action is the multi-directional effect of vitamin D. The reasons for vitamin D deficiency are: decreased exposure to sunlight, inadequate diet, inflammatory lesions of the intestinal mucosa and post-gastrointestinal resection states. This leads not only to osteomalacia but also to osteoporosis. Of significance may be the effect of vitamin D on the course of the disease itself, through modulation of the inflammatory mechanisms. It is also necessary to pay attention to the role of vitamin D in skeletal pathology in patients with inflammatory bowel diseases and thus take measures aimed at preventing and treating these disorders through the supplementation of vitamin D.

  10. Dopamine Cell Transplantation for Parkinson’s Disease: The Importance of Controlled Clinical Trials

    OpenAIRE

    Freed, Curt R.; Zhou, Wenbo; Breeze, Robert E.

    2011-01-01

    Transplantation of human fetal dopamine neurons into the brain of Parkinson’s disease patients started in the late 1980s, less than 10 years after experiments in rats showed that embryonic dopamine neurons from a narrow window of development are suitable for transplantation. For human transplantation, the critical stage of development is 6 to 8 weeks after conception. Because putamen is the basal ganglia structure most depleted of dopamine in Parkinson’s disease and because it is the structur...

  11. The importance of balanced pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory mechanisms in diffuse lung disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Strieter Robert

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The lung responds to a variety of insults in a remarkably consistent fashion but with inconsistent outcomes that vary from complete resolution and return to normal to the destruction of normal architecture and progressive fibrosis. Increasing evidence indicates that diffuse lung disease results from an imbalance between the pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory mechanisms, with a persistent imbalance that favors pro-inflammatory mediators dictating the development of chronic diffuse lung disease. This review focuses on the mediators that influence this imbalance.

  12. The importance of genetics in the diagnosis of animal diseases - A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The use of recombinant DNA techniques in conjunction with conventional genetic methods have led to a rapid increase in knowledge of the genetic map. Many animal genes have been mapped to chromosomes. A detailed genetic map has become of great value in the diagnosis of genetic diseases and in the development ...

  13. Prospecting genomic regions associated with Columnaris disease in two commercially important rainbow trout breeding populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flavbacterium Columnare, the causative agent of Columnaris disease (CD), is distributed around the world in fresh water sources, infecting freshwater finfish species. Recently it has been identified as an emerging problem for the rainbow trout aquaculture industry in the US. Two live-attenuated va...

  14. Family Health History Communication Networks of Older Adults: Importance of Social Relationships and Disease Perceptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashida, Sato; Kaphingst, Kimberly A.; Goodman, Melody; Schafer, Ellen J.

    2013-01-01

    Older individuals play a critical role in disseminating family health history (FHH) information that can facilitate disease prevention among younger family members. This study evaluated the characteristics of older adults and their familial networks associated with two types of communication ("have shared" and "intend to share…

  15. Nocturia: A non-specific but important symptom of urological disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schneider, Tim; de la Rosette, Jean Jmch; Michel, Martin C.

    2009-01-01

    Nocturia is a prevalent symptom that can adversely affect quality of sleep and overall quality of life leading to morbidity and even mortality. Nocturia can be due to a range of urological conditions and non-urological diseases. Nocturia can be due to an insufficient bladder capacity and/or

  16. Recent onset neck pain with associated neurological deficit--Pott's disease remains an important differential diagnosis.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Bourke, M G

    2010-11-05

    The incidence of spinal tuberculosis is increasing in developed nations. In Ireland, half of all cases seen in the most recent decade for which figures are available were diagnosed in 2005-2007, the three most recent years for which there is complete data. We discuss a patient who presented with neurological complications due to destructive spinal tuberculous disease affecting the sixth cervical vertebra.

  17. Recognizing the importance of chronic disease in driving healthcare expenditure in Tanzania: analysis of panel data from 1991 to 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Counts, Christopher J; Skordis-Worrall, Jolene

    2016-05-01

     Despite the growing chronic disease burden in low- and middle-income countries, there are significant gaps in our understanding of the financial impact of these illnesses on households. As countries make progress towards universal health coverage, specific information is needed about how chronic disease care drives health expenditure over time, and how this spending differs from spending on acute disease care.  A 19-year panel dataset was constructed using data from the Kagera Health and Development Surveys. Health expenditure was modelled using multilevel regression for three different sub-populations of households: (1) all households that spent on healthcare, (2) households affected by chronic disease and (3) households affected by acute disease. Explanatory variables were identified from a review of the health expenditure literature, and all variables were analysed descriptively.  Households affected by chronic disease spent 22% more on healthcare than unaffected households. Catastrophic expenditure and zero expenditure are both common in chronic disease-affected households. Expenditure predictors were different between households affected by chronic disease and those unaffected. Expenditure over time is highly heterogeneous and household-dependent.  The financial burden of healthcare is greater for households affected by chronic disease than those unaffected. Households appear unable to sustain high levels of expenditure over time, likely resulting in both irregular chronic disease treatment and impoverishment. The Tanzanian government's current efforts to develop a National Health Financing Strategy present an important opportunity to prioritize policies that promote the long-term financial protection of households by preventing the catastrophic consequences of chronic disease care payments. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. Sleep apnea leading to Parkinson’s disease – an important association

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shafqat MN

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Muhammad Nabeel Shafqat,1 Muhammad Aadil,2 Maria Shoaib3 1Department of Medicine, University of Medical Sciences “Serafin Ruiz de Zarate” Villa Clara (UCMVC, Villa Clara, Cuba; 2Department of Psychiatry, Rush University Medical Center, Chicago, IL, USA; 3Department of Medicine, Dow Medical College, Dow University of Health Sciences, Karachi, Pakistan We read with great interest the recently published article “Sleep apnea and the subsequent risk of Parkinson disease: a 3-year nationwide population-based study” by Chou et al.1 The study is a step forward in understanding the underlying pathophysiology of Parkinson’s disease, the authors have deduced sleep apnea as one of the possible risk factors. View the original paper by Chou and colleagues.

  19. Importance and management of micronutrient deficiencies in patients with Alzheimer’s disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cardoso BR

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Bárbara Rita Cardoso,1 Cristiane Cominetti,2 Silvia Maria Franciscato Cozzolino11Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of São Paulo (USP, São Paulo, Brazil; 2Faculty of Nutrition, Federal University of Goiás, Goiás, BrazilAbstract: Alzheimer’s disease (AD is the most common form of dementia, and it generally affects the elderly. It has been suggested that diet is an intensively modifiable lifestyle factor that might reduce the risk of AD. Because epidemiological studies generally report the potential neuronal protective effects of various micronutrients, the aim of this study was to perform a literature review on the major nutrients that are related to AD, including selenium, vitamins C and E, transition metals, vitamin D, B-complex vitamins, and omega-3 fatty acids.Keywords: Alzheimer’s disease, nutritional deficiencies, diet, oxidative stress, lipid, vitamins

  20. Autoimmune-autoinflammatory rheumatoid arthritis overlaps: a rare but potentially important subgroup of diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savic, Sinisa; Mistry, Anoop; Wilson, Anthony G; Barcenas-Morales, Gabriela; Doffinger, Rainer; Emery, Paul; McGonagle, Dennis

    2017-01-01

    At the population level, rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is generally viewed as autoimmune in nature with a small subgroup of cases having a palindromic form or systemic autoinflammatory disorder (SAID) phenotype. Herein, we describe resistant cases of classical autoantibody associated RA that had clinical, genetic and therapeutic responses indicative of coexistent autoinflammatory disease. Five patients with clinically overlapping features between RA and SAID including polysynovitis and autoantibody/shared epitope positivity, and who had abrupt severe self-limiting attacks including fevers and serositis, are described. Mutations or single nucleotide polymorphisms in recognised autoinflammatory pathways were evident. Generally, these cases responded poorly to conventional Disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drugs (DMARD) treatment with some excellent responses to colchicine or interleukin 1 pathway blockade. A subgroup of RA cases have a mixed autoimmune-autoinflammatory phenotype and genotype with therapeutic implications.

  1. Newcastle disease virus surveillance in Hong Kong on local and imported poultry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shortridge, K F; Alexander, D J

    1978-09-01

    Surveillance of apparently healthy ducks, geese and fowl originating in Hong Kong and the People's Republic of China at a poultry dressing plant in Hong Kong yielded 67 isolates of Newcastle disease virus. More than twice as many viruses were isolated from the cloaca than from the trachea. Twelve representative isolates were examined in virulence tests--all six of the fowl isolates and two of five duck isolates behaved as velogenic strains, the other four were lentogenic.

  2. Ranking of psychosocial and traditional risk factors by importance for coronary heart disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schnohr, Peter; Marott, Jacob L; Kristensen, Tage S.

    2015-01-01

    .001] and systolic blood pressure (≥160 mmHg or blood pressure medication vs. never smoker; HR 1.74; 95% CI, 1.43-2.11; P ...-statistics and net reclassification improvement. During the follow-up, 1731 non-fatal and fatal coronary events were registered. In men, the highest ranking risk factors for coronary heart disease were vital exhaustion [high vs. low; hazard ratio (HR) 2.36; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.70-3.26; P

  3. Obesity and risk of vascular disease: importance of endothelium-dependent vasoconstriction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barton, Matthias; Baretella, Oliver; Meyer, Matthias R

    2012-02-01

    Obesity has become a serious global health issue affecting both adults and children. Recent devolopments in world demographics and declining health status of the world's population indicate that the prevalence of obesity will continue to increase in the next decades. As a disease, obesity has deleterious effects on metabolic homeostasis, and affects numerous organ systems including heart, kidney and the vascular system. Thus, obesity is now regarded as an independent risk factor for atherosclerosis-related diseases such as coronary artery disease, myocardial infarction and stroke. In the arterial system, endothelial cells are both the source and target of factors contributing to atherosclerosis. Endothelial vasoactive factors regulate vascular homeostasis under physiological conditions and maintain basal vascular tone. Obesity results in an imbalance between endothelium-derived vasoactive factors favouring vasoconstriction, cell growth and inflammatory activation. Abnormal regulation of these factors due to endothelial cell dysfunction is both a consequence and a cause of vascular disease processes. Finally, because of the similarities of the vascular pathomechanisms activated, obesity can be considered to cause accelerated, 'premature' vascular aging. Here, we will review some of the pathomechanisms involved in obesity-related activation of endothelium-dependent vasoconstriction, the clinical relevance of obesity-associated vascular risk, and therapeutic interventions using 'endothelial therapy' aiming at maintaining or restoring vascular endothelial health. This article is part of a themed section on Fat and Vascular Responsiveness. To view the other articles in this section visit http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bph.2012.165.issue-3. © 2011 The Authors. British Journal of Pharmacology © 2011 The British Pharmacological Society.

  4. The economics of managing Verticillium wilt, an imported disease in California lettuce

    OpenAIRE

    Carroll, Christine L; Carter, Colin A; Goodhue, Rachael E; Lin Lawell, C.-Y. Cynthia; Subbarao, Krishna V

    2017-01-01

    Verticillium dahliae is a soilborne fungus that is introduced to the soil via infested spinach seeds and that causes lettuce to be afflicted with Verticillium wilt. This disease has spread rapidly through the Salinas Valley, the prime lettuce production region of California. Verticillium wilt can be prevented or controlled by the grower by fumigating, planting broccoli, or not planting spinach. Because these control options require long-term investment for future gain, renters might not take ...

  5. Genomics in cardiovascular diseases: analysis of the importance of the toll-like receptor signaling pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bustamante J

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available J Bustamante,1 E Tamayo,2 J Herreros3,41Department of Cardiovascular Surgery, Hospital Universitario La Princesa, Madrid, 2Department of Anesthesiology and Intensive Care, Hospital Clinico Universitario de Valladolid, Valladolid, 3Department of Cardiovascular Surgery, Hospital Universitario Valdecilla, Santander, 4Biomedical Engineering Institute of Santander, Santander, SpainAbstract: The development of techniques for genomics study makes it possible for us to further our knowledge about the physiopathology of various immunological or infectious diseases. These techniques improve our understanding of the development and evolution of such diseases, including those of cardiovascular origin, whilst they help to bring about the design of new therapeutic strategies. We are reviewing the genetic alterations of immunity in said field, and focusing on the signaling pathway of toll-like receptors because not only does this play a decisive role in response to microorganisms, it is also heavily involved in modulating the inflammatory response to tissue damage, a side effect of numerous cardiovascular diseases. These alterations in tissue homeostasis are present under a wide range of circumstances, such as reperfusion ischemia (myocardial infarction phenomena, arteriosclerosis, or valvulopathy.Keywords: genome-wide association study, single-nucleotide polymorphism, innate immune system, ischemic/reperfusion, myocardial infarction

  6. The importance of biochemical and genetic findings in the diagnosis of atypical Norrie disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Muñoz, Ana; García-García, Gema; Menor, Francisco; Millán, José M; Tomás-Vila, Miguel; Jaijo, Teresa

    2018-01-26

    Norrie disease (ND) is a rare X-linked disorder characterized by bilateral congenital blindness. ND is caused by a mutation in the Norrie disease pseudoglioma (NDP) gene, which encodes a 133-amino acid protein called norrin. Intragenic deletions including NDP and adjacent genes have been identified in ND patients with a more severe neurologic phenotype. We report the biochemical, molecular, clinical and radiological features of two unrelated affected males with a deletion including NDP and MAO genes. Biochemical and genetic analyses were performed to understand the atypical phenotype and radiological findings. Biogenic amines in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) were measured by high-performance liquid chromatography. The coding exons of NDP gene were amplified by polymerase chain reaction. Multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification and chromosomal microarray were carried out on both affected males. Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging were performed on the two patients. In one patient, the serotonin and catecholamine metabolite levels in CSF were virtually undetectable. In both patients, genetic studies revealed microdeletions in the Xp11.3 region, involving the NDP, MAOA and MAOB genes. Radiological examination demonstrated brain and cerebellar atrophy. We suggest that alterations caused by MAO deficit may remain during the first years of life. Clinical phenotype, biochemical findings and neuroimaging can guide the genetic study in patients with atypical ND and help us to a better understanding of this disease.

  7. Imported disease of dogs and cats exotic to Ireland: echinococcus multilocularis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goodfellow Mark

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Changes in legislation that facilitate the movement of animals within the European Union may increase the risk that some microbial and parasitic organisms, currently exotic to Ireland, will be introduced by travelled pet animals. It is possible that the fox tapeworm, Echinococcus multilocularis, might be introduced in that manner from any of the several member states in which it is endemic. Red foxes are the principal definitive hosts of E. multilocularis but dogs and cats can also be infected. Infection in the definitive host is of little clinical significance, but aberrant infection of humans results in alveolar echinococcosis, a debilitating disease that has a high mortality rate. Humans acquire the organism by ingestion of Echinococcus multilocularis eggs excreted by definitive hosts; the larval metacestodes develop primarily in the liver, in the initial asymptomatic phase as small, well-encapsulated cysts. Over time, perhaps five to 15 years, progressive local infiltration and secondary cyst development at distant sites occur with resultant clinical signs. Patients with infiltrative liver disease present with cholestatic jaundice, epigastric pain, fatigue, weight loss and hepatomegaly. If left untreated, the disease can be fatal. This paper recounts the life cycle of the parasite, and discusses the control measures on which its exclusion from Ireland depend. Strict adherence to the routine worming of travelled dogs with praziquantel, at appropriate doses, 24 to 48 hours prior to entry into the country will minimise the likelihood of introduction of this zoonosis.

  8. Important hemoprotozoan diseases of livestock: Challenges in current diagnostics and therapeutics: An update

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biswa Ranjan Maharana

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Hemoprotozoan parasites pose a serious threat to the livestock population in terms of mortality, reduced milk yield and lowered draft power. Diagnosis of these diseases often poses a challenging task. Needless to say that impact of disease in health and productivity is huge though a fair economic assessment on the quantum of economic loss associated is yet to be worked out from India. The diagnosis of hemoprotozoan infections largely depends on various laboratory-based diagnostic methods as the clinical manifestations are often inconspicuous and non-specific. Traditional diagnostic methods rely on microscopical demonstration of infective stages in blood or tissue fluids. However, it is laborious, lesser sensitive, and cannot differentiate between morphologically similar organisms. Recent development in the technologies has opened new avenues for improvement in the accurate diagnosis of parasitic infections. Serological tests are simple, fast but lack specificity. With advent of molecular techniques, as DNA hybridization assays, polymerase chain reaction and its modifications ensure the detection of infection in the latent phase of the disease. Nucleic acid-based assays are highly sensitive, free from immunocompetence and can differentiate between morphologically similar parasites. With the advent of newer diagnostics complemented with traditional ones will be of huge help for targeted selective treatment with better chemotherapeutic agents.

  9. Pediatric Invasive Pneumococcal Disease in Guatemala City: Importance of Serotype 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaensbauer, James T; Asturias, Edwin J; Soto, Monica; Holt, Elizabeth; Olson, Daniel; Halsey, Neal A

    2016-05-01

    To inform estimations of the potential impact of recently introduced pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV), we report results of 11 years of pre-PCV surveillance for invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) among children in Guatemala City. Cases of IPD in children younger than 5 years were identified by active surveillance at 3 referral hospitals in Guatemala City from October 1996 through 2007. Clinical and demographic data were obtained, and isolates of Streptococcus pneumoniae from normally sterile sites were serotyped using latex agglutination and confirmed by Quellung reaction. Four hundred fifty-two cases of IPD were identified with a case fatality rate of 21%. Meningitis was the most common cause of death (77% of all deaths) and occurred more often in infancy (median age 5 months) than other clinical syndromes. Of the 137 isolates serotyped, type 1 (26 cases, 17%), type 2 (25 cases, 16%) and type 5 (18 cases, 12%) were the most common. Serotype 2 was associated with a higher case fatality rate (28%), higher rate of meningitis (68%) and occurred in younger infants (median age, 3.5 months) than other common serotypes. Recently introduced PCV13 includes 73% of observed serotypes in the study. Infants with IPD presented at a young age. Serotype 2, rarely reported as a significant cause of IPD and not included in available PCVs, was a common cause of disease in this population. PCV13 introduction in Guatemala, begun in 2013, may not have as great an impact in disease reduction as has been observed in other countries.

  10. Importance of clinical examination in diagnostics of Osgood-Schlatter Disease in boys playing soccer or basketball

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amela Halilbasic

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Osgood–Schlatter disease is an irritation of the patellar tendon at the tibial tubercle. Sports with jumps, running, and repeated contractions of knee extension apparatus are considered to be importantexternal risk-factors which could cause Osgood–Schlatter disease.Objectives of the study are to draw attention to the importance of clinical examination in diagnostics of Osgood–Schlatter disease in boys playing soccer or basketball.Methods: The research included data obtained from 120 boys, average age of 14 years. Examinees were split into two groups, one with young athletes which regularly have soccer or basketball trainings and thesecond one with boys who do not participating in sports. We performed anthropological measurements and clinical examinations of both knees and hips for both groups. For the statistical analysis we used pointbiserialcorrelation coefficient.Results: Based on clinical examination, Osgood–Schlatter disease was diagnosed in 51 examinees (42.5%. In “athletic group” Osgood–Schlatter disease had 31 boys or 52%, comparing with “non-athletic group” wherewe found 20 adolescents with disease (33%. Number of boys with Osgood–Schlatter disease was higher for 19% in “athletic group” comparing with “non-athletic group”. Comparing incidence rate for boys in both groups with diagnosed II and III level of Osgood–Schlatter disease we found that rate is higher in “athletic group” 2.25 times comparing with “non-athletic group”.Conclusions: Clinical examination is critical method in the process of diagnosing Osgood–Schlatter disease especially for identifying II and III level of this disease.

  11. Disifin (sodium tosylchloramide) and Toll-like receptors (TLRs): evolving importance in health and diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ofodile, Okom Nkili F C

    2007-12-01

    Disifin has emerged as a unique and very effective agent used in disinfection of wounds, disinfection of surfaces, materials and water, and other substances contaminated with almost every type of pathogenic microorganism ranging from viruses, bacteria, fungi and yeast, and, very possibly, protozoan parasites, as well. The major active component of Disifin is tosylchloramide sodium (chloramine T). However, the mechanism by which Disifin suppresses the activities of pathogenic microbial agents remains enigmatic. The molecular mechanisms, and the receptors and the signal transducing pathways responsible for the biological effects of Disifin are largely unknown. Despite considerable advances, enormous investigative efforts and large resources invested in the research on infectious diseases, microbial infection still remains a public health problem in many parts of the world. The exact nature of the pathogenic agents responsible for many infectious diseases, and the nature of the receptors mediating the associated inflammatory events are incompletely understood. Recent advances in understanding the molecular basis for mammalian host immune responses to microbial invasion suggest that the first line of defense against microbes is the recognition of pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) by a family of transmembrane pattern-recognizing and signal transducing receptor proteins called Toll-like receptors (TLRs). The TLR family plays an instructive role in innate immune responses against microbial pathogens, as well as the subsequent induction of adaptive immune responses. TLRs mediate recognition and inflammatory responses to a wide range of microbial products and are crucial for effective host defense by eradication of the invading pathogens. Now, recent updates demonstrated the ability of Disifin-derived products, Disifin-Animal and Disifin-Pressant to effectively suppress the progression and activities of Chikungunya fever and that of avian influenza A virus [A

  12. Chronic helminth infections may negatively influence immunity against tuberculosis and other diseases of public health importance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elias, Daniel; Britton, Sven; Kassu, Afework

    2007-01-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) has once again become a major public health threat owing to the combined effects of deteriorating socioeconomic situations and the emergence of the HIV/AIDS pandemic. The only vaccine available against TB, although effective in reducing the burden of childhood TB, shows enormous...... variability in its efficacy against pulmonary TB, which is the most common form of the disease in adults. Most areas of high TB incidence and poor TB vaccine efficacy have a high prevalence of intestinal helminth infections. Such infections have been shown to cause a range of immunomodulation characterized...

  13. Familial history, age and smoking are important risk factors for disc degeneration disease in Arabic pedigrees

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Livshits, Gregory; Cohen, Zvi; Higla, Orabi; Yakovenko, Konstantin

    2001-01-01

    The present study used computed tomography imaging to evaluate the extent and pattern of the intergenerational transmission of spinal disc degeneration disease (DDD) in complex pedigrees. Contribution of a number of the potential covariates was also studied using univariate and multivariate logistic regression analysis, as well as two types of complex segregation analysis models. Among 161 individuals studied, DDD was diagnosed in 60 individuals. The number of protruded discs varied from 1 to 4, mostly in lumbar or lumbosacral regions. The average age at onset of the disease was similar for both women (36.0 years) and men (34.8 years). The proportion of the individuals affected by the DDD status of their parents ranged from 10% in families of two healthy parents to 55.5% of two affected parents (p < 0.01). The results of the logistic regression analyses and complex segregation analysis were qualitatively the same: DDD status of parents, age and smoking were the main risk factors for disc herniation in the Arabic families we examined. All analyses showed a predominating role of the family history as a risk factor for DDD in offsprings. It showed, for example, four times higher risk at age 50 for individuals with two affected parents vs. those who have two non-affected parents. However, the results of models-fitting genetic analysis, did not confirm a monogenic Mendelian pattern of inheritance

  14. Getting a good night sleep? The importance of recognizing and treating nocturnal hypokinesia in Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhidayasiri, Roongroj; Trenkwalder, Claudia

    2018-01-05

    When Parkinson's disease (PD) patients are asked about the quality of their sleep, their answers are dominated by difficulties associated with impaired mobility in bed, medically referred to as nocturnal hypokinesia. Nocturnal hypokinesia is symptomatic from the mid-stage of the disease, affecting up to 70% of PD patients, and contributes to poor sleep quality, and increased carer burden. Here we explore four areas of nocturnal hypokinesia that are relevant to clinical practice, namely: manifestations and definition; clinical assessment and objective monitoring; etiologies and contributing factors; and evidence-based therapeutic approaches. In addition, we provide an operational definition of what constitutes nocturnal hypokinesia and outline different methods of assessment, ranging from clinical interviews and rating scales to objective night-time monitoring with inertial sensors. Optimal management of nocturnal hypokinesia in PD begins with recognizing its manifestation by inquiring about cardinal symptoms and contributing factors from, not only patients, but also carers, followed by formal assessment, and the application of individualized evidence-based treatment. Night-time dopaminergic treatment is the primary therapy; however, careful clinical judgment is required to balance the benefits with the potential adverse events related to nocturnal dopaminergic stimulation. Future studies are needed to explore the practicality of home-based objective assessment of nocturnal hypokinesia, new therapeutic options not limited to dopaminergic medications, and non-pharmacologic approaches, including training on compensatory strategies and bedroom adaptations. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. [Cardiac valvular disease and pregnancy. Haemodynamic aspects and importance of decubitus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo Cicero, G; Cellina, G; Brina, A

    1982-01-01

    During the 3rd trimester of pregnancy, 26 women with aortic or mitral valve disease (II class NYHA) have undergone bedside right heart catheterization. Total pulmonary resistances (RPT) have been studied in supine (DS) and lateral (DL) decubitus. The results are compared with those of 7 normal women. It is known that the change from the supine to the lateral posture increases venous return (and cardiac output) by removing the compression which the pregnant uterus causes to the inferior vena cava. This is achieved without increasing the mean pulmonary pressure (PPM) and total pulmonary resistances (RPT); women with mitral and aortic stenosis have little or no increase of cardiac output but always a marked increase of PPM and RPT; the response in patients with aortic and mitral incompetence is closer to normal; an intermediate response was observed in patients with a mitral stenosis and insufficiency. The valvular heart diseases with stenosis badly tolerate the increased cardiovascular burden of pregnancy and are unable to accommodate the increased venous return induced by postural changes, which induces marked elevation of pulmonary pressure and resistances.

  16. Transforming growth factor beta-1 An important biomarker for developing cardiovascular diseases in chronic renal failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avci, E; Avci, G Alp; Ozcelik, B; Cevher, S Coskun; Suicmez, M

    2017-01-01

    Our study focuses on the determination and evaluation of TGF-β1 levels of patients receiving hemodialysis treatment because of chronic renal failure. Chronic renal failure, characterized by irreversible loss of renal function, is a major public health problem in the world. Transforming growth factor-beta is a multifunctional cytokine involved in the cellular growth, differentiation, migration, apoptosis and immune regulation. Among the three TGF-β isoforms, TGF-β1 plays a key role in the pathogenesis of renal diseases. We studied 24 patients who were on regular hemodialysis, with non-diabetic nephropathy. 20 healthy people who proved to be in a good state of health and free from any signs of chronic diseases or disorders were enrolled as a control group. Serum samples were collected both before and after hemodialysis treatment from each patient. TGF-β1 levels were determined by Enzyme Immunoassay method. TGF-β1 levels were found significantly higher in the hemodialysis patients than those of the control groups. Also, the TGF-β1 was significantly reduced after hemodialysis treatment but it was still higher than in control groups. This result indicates that hemodialysis is an effective treatment method to decrease the serum TGF-B1 levels. Nevertheless, this decrease is not enough to reduce existing risks (Tab. 1, Fig. 2, Ref. 28).

  17. The importance of potassium in resistance to crown rot disease in alfalfa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nitrogen, phosphate, and potassium (potash, K2O) are the three most important nutrients in alfalfa growth and development. Nitrogen fertilization is not required because alfalfa has a high rate of biological nitrogen fixation. Phosphorus and potassium are frequently applied as fertilizer, but potass...

  18. Physician-patient communication in HIV disease: the importance of patient, physician, and visit characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, I B; Kaplan, S

    2000-12-15

    Although previous work that considered a variety of chronic conditions has shown that higher quality physician-patient communication care is related to better health outcomes, the quality of physician-patient communication itself for patients with HIV disease has not been well studied. To determine the relationship of patient, visit, physician, and physician practice characteristics to two measures of physician-patient communication for patients with HIV disease. Cross-sectional survey of physicians and patients. Cohort study enrolling patients from throughout eastern Massachusetts. 264 patients with HIV disease and their their primary HIV physicians (n = 69). Two measures of physician-patient communication were used, a five-item general communication measure (Cronbach's alpha = 0.93), and a four-item HIV-specific communication measure that included items about alcohol, drug use, and sexual behaviors (Cronbach's alpha = 0.92). The mean age of patients was 39. 5 years, 24% patients were women, 31.1% were nonwhite, and 52% indicated same-sex contact as their principal HIV risk factor. The mean age of physicians was 39.1 years, 33.3% were female, 39.7% were specialists, and 25.0% self-identified as gay, lesbian, or bisexual. In multivariable models relating patient and visit characteristics to general communication, longer reported visit length (pbetter communication. The interaction of patient gender and visit length was also significant (p =.02); longer visit length was more strongly associated with better general communication for male than female patients. In similar models relating patient and visit characteristics to HIV-specific communication, longer visit length (p better communication. In multivariable models relating physician and practice characteristics to general communication no variables were significant. However, both female physician gender (p =.002) and gay/lesbian/bisexual sexual preference (p =.003) were significantly associated with better HIV

  19. Importance of radioimmunoassays in studies of physiological circadian rhythms of children in health and disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korolyuk, I.P.; Katricheva, L.V.; Kel'tsev, V.A.

    1982-01-01

    A study was made of the circadian activity of the thyroid gland, adrenal gland and hypophysis in 42 children, of them 23 suffered from rheumatic fever, 11 from the articular and articular-visceral forms of rhematoid arthritis, and 8 children were practically healthy. The concentration of T 3 , T 4 , TTH, AKTH and hydrocortisone was determined in the blood serum using standard kits for in vitro diagnosis. Certain rhytmicality is noted in the functioning of the endocrine glands in healthy children. This rhythm is simultaneous with sleep. The circadian activity of the endocrine glands gets distorted in children with rheumatic diseases: the more severe the process the more marked desynchronosis. The same type of changes in the level of hormones in the blood of children with rheumatic fever and rheumatoid arthritis presupposes some identical mechanism of the compensatory-adaptive reaction of the body to disturbances of the hormonal homeostasis that shoud be considered in the treatment of such patients

  20. The importance of monitoring minimal residual disease in childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolenova, A.; Subova, Z.; Cizmar, A.; Sejnova, D.; Kaiserova, E.; Hikkel, I.; Hikkelova, M.; Bubanska, E.; Oravkinova, I.

    2012-01-01

    Since the strong correlation between minimal residual disease (MRD) levels and risk of relapse in childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia, monitoring of MRD provides unique information regarding treatment response. Because the significance of MRD monitoring has been strongly supported by several studies and because it has been implemented in the latest protocols, there has been a significant effort to develop MRD monitoring in the Slovak Republic. Between 1. 10. 2006 and 31. 12. 2009, 50 children with ALL who were treated at three Slovak centers were included in the RQ PCR MRD pilot project. Based on MRD stratification, we identified 26 patients who were stratified into the HRG (high risk group) 3 patients (11,5 %), IRG (intermediate risk group), 14 p. 54 % and SRG (standard risk group), 9 p. (34,5 %). (author)

  1. Currently important animal disease management issues in sub-Saharan Africa : policy and trade issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.R. Thomson

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The present international approach to management of transboundary animal diseases (TADs is based on the assumption that most can be eradicated ; consequently, that is the usual objective adopted by international organizations concerned with animal health. However, for sub-Saharan Africa and southern Africa more particularly, eradication of most TADs is impossible for the foreseeable future for a variety of technical, financial and logistical reasons. Compounding this, the present basis for access to international markets for products derived from animals requires that the area of origin (country or zone is free from trade-influencing TADs. The ongoing development of transfrontier conservation areas (TFCAs, extending across huge areas of southern Africa, therefore presents a development conundrum because it makes creation of geographic areas free from TADs more difficult and brings development based on wildlife conservation on the one hand and that based on livestock production on the other into sharp conflict. Sub-Saharan Africa is consequently confronted by a complex problem that contributes significantly to retarded rural development which, in turn, impedes poverty alleviation. In southern Africa specifically, foot-and-mouth disease (FMD presents the greatest problem in relation to access to international markets for animal products. However, it is argued that this problem could be overcome by a combination between (1 implementation of a commodity-based approach to trade in products derived from animals and (2 amendment of the international standards for FMD specifically (i.e. the FMD chapter in the Terrestrial Animal Health Code of the World Organisation for Animal Health [OIE] so that occurrence of SAT serotype viruses in free-living African buffalo need not necessarily mean exclusion of areas where buffalo occur from international markets for animal products. This would overcome a presently intractable constraint to market access for

  2. Currently important animal disease management issues in sub-Saharan Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomson, G R

    2009-03-01

    The present international approach to management of transboundary animal diseases (TADs) is based on the assumption that most can be eradicated; consequently, that is the usual objective adopted by international organizations concerned with animal health. However, for sub-Saharan Africa and southern Africa more particularly, eradication of most TADs is impossible for the foreseeable future for a variety of technical, financial and logistical reasons. Compounding this, the present basis for access to international markets for products derived from animals requires that the area of origin (country or zone) is free from trade-influencing TADs. The ongoing development of transfrontier conservation areas (TFCAs), extending across huge areas of southern Africa, therefore presents a development conundrum because it makes creation of geographic areas free from TADs more difficult and brings development based on wildlife conservation on the one hand and that based on livestock production on the other into sharp conflict. Sub-Saharan Africa is consequently confronted by a complex problem that contributes significantly to retarded rural development which, in turn, impedes poverty alleviation. In southern Africa specifically, foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) presents the greatest problem in relation to access to international markets for animal products. However, it is argued that this problem could be overcome by a combination between (1) implementation of a commodity-based approach to trade in products derived from animals and (2) amendment of the international standards for FMD specifically (i.e. the FMD chapter in the Terrestrial Animal Health Code of the World Organisation for Animal Health [OIE]) so that occurrence of SAT serotype viruses in free-living African buffalo need not necessarily mean exclusion of areas where buffalo occur from international markets for animal products. This would overcome a presently intractable constraint to market access for southern African

  3. Tumour burden in early stage Hodgkin's disease: the single most important prognostic factor for outcome after radiotherapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Specht, L; Nordentoft, A M; Cold, Søren

    1987-01-01

    One hundred and forty-two patients with Hodgkin's disease PS I or II were treated with total or subtotal nodal irradiation as part of a prospective randomized trial in the Danish National Hodgkin Study during the period 1971-83. They were followed till death or--at the time of this analysis......--from 15 to 146 months after initiation of therapy. The initial tumour burden of each patient was assessed, combining tumour size of each involved region and number of regions involved. Tumour burden thus assessed proved to be the single most important prognostic factor with regard to disease free survival...

  4. Interaction between Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) and other important health conditions and measurable air pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blagev, D. P.; Mendoza, D. L.; Rea, S.; Sorensen, J.

    2015-12-01

    Adverse health effects have been associated with urban pollutant exposure arising from close proximity to highly-emitting sources and atmospheric mixing. The relative air pollution exposure dose and time effects on various diseases remains unknown. This study compares the increased risk of health complications when patients are exposed to short term high-levels of air pollution vs. longer term exposure to lower levels of air pollution. We used the electronic medical record of an integrated hospital system based in Utah, Intermountain Healthcare, to identify a cohort of patients with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) who were seen between 2009-2014. We determined patient demographics as well as comorbidity data and healthcare utilization. To determine the approximate air pollution dose and time exposure, we used the Hestia highly-resolved emissions inventory for Salt Lake County, Utah in conjunction with emissions based on the National Emissions Inventory (NEI). Hourly emissions of CO2 and criteria air pollutants were gridded at a 0.002o x 0.002o resolution for the study years. The resulting emissions were transported using the CALPUFF and AERMOD dispersion models to estimate air pollutant concentrations at an hourly 0.002o x 0.002oresolution. Additionally, pollutant concentrations were estimated at each patient's home and work address to estimate exposure. Multivariate analysis adjusting for patient demographics, comorbidities and severity of COPD was performed to determine association between air pollution exposure and the risk of hospitalization or emergency department (ED) visit for COPD exacerbation and an equivalency estimate for air pollution exposure was developed. We noted associations with air pollution levels for each pollutant and hospitalizations and ED visits for COPD and other patient comorbidities. We also present an equivalency estimate for dose of air pollution exposure and health outcomes. This analysis compares the increased risk of

  5. Importation and containment of Ebola virus disease - Senegal, August-September 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirkovic, Kelsey; Thwing, Julie; Diack, Papa Amadou

    2014-10-03

    On August 29, 2014, Senegal confirmed its first case of Ebola virus disease (Ebola) in a Guinean man, aged 21 years, who had traveled from Guinea to Dakar, Senegal, in mid-August to visit family. Senegalese medical and public health personnel were alerted about this patient after public health staff in Guinea contacted his family in Senegal on August 27. The patient had been admitted to a referral hospital in Senegal on August 26. He was promptly isolated, and a blood sample was sent for laboratory confirmation; Ebola was confirmed by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction at Institut Pasteur Dakar on August 29. The patient's mother and sister had been admitted to an Ebola treatment unit in Guinea on August 26, where they had named the patient as a contact and reported his recent travel to Senegal. Ebola was likely transmitted to the family from the brother of the patient, who had traveled by land from Sierra Leone to Guinea in early August seeking treatment from a traditional healer. The brother died in Guinea on August 10; family members, including the patient, participated in preparing the body for burial.

  6. Memory for Public Events in Mild Cognitive Impairment and Alzheimer's Disease: The Importance of Rehearsal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langlois, Roxane; Joubert, Sven; Benoit, Sophie; Dostie, Valérie; Rouleau, Isabelle

    2016-01-01

    Ribot's law refers to the better preservation of remote memories compared with recent ones that presumably characterizes retrograde amnesia. Even if Ribot-type temporal gradient has been extensively studied in retrograde amnesia, particularly in Alzheimer's disease (AD), this pattern has not been consistently found. One explanation for these results may be that rehearsal frequency rather than remoteness accounts for the better preservation of these memories. Thus, the aim of present study was to address this question by studying retrograde semantic memory in subjects with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) (n = 20), mild AD (n = 20) and in healthy older controls (HC; n = 19). In order to evaluate the impact of repetition as well as the impact of remoteness, we used a test assessing memory for enduring and transient public events that occurred in the recent and remote past. Results show no clear temporal gradient across time periods (1960-1975; 1976-1990; 1991-2005; 2006-2011), but a better performance was observed in all three groups for enduring compared with transient events. Moreover, although deficits were globally found in both patients groups compared with HC, more specific analyses revealed that aMCI patients were only impaired on transient events while AD patients were impaired on both transient and enduring events. Exploratory analyses also revealed a tendency suggesting preservation of remote transient events in aMCI. These findings are discussed with regards to memory consolidation models.

  7. The importance of continuing surveillance of risk factors for prevention of cardiovascular diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaetano Lanza

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available After peaking in the 1960s’, cardiovascular diseases (CVDs have shown a consistent decline in western countries in recent decades [1].Despite this,CVDs remain the major cause of mortality and morbidity in industrialized populations, with relevant associated socio-economical issues, while their incidence is increasing in developing countries. Several factors have likely contributed to the reduced incidence of CVDs in industrialized societies, including an increase in education and attention to health issues, lifestyle changes and improvement in diagnostic facilities and therapeutic tools. Epidemiologic studies have played an outstanding role in the decline of CVDs. Indeed, they have allowed for the identification of habits and conditions which expose healthy subjects to an increased risk of development of atherosclerosis and its complications They have also led to the implementation of appropriate programs and campaigns aimed at fighting the identified risk factors by means of changes in diet and lifestyle and the use of specific drug treatments. In particular, tight control and prevention of hypertension, smoking and hypercholesterolemia has largely contributed to the reduction of CVDs, accounting for more than 50% of the reduction of mortality from the 1960s’ to the 1990s’ [2].This approach was also crucial in improving the clinical outcomes of secondary prevention for CVDs.

  8. Left ventricular volume during supine exercise: importance of myocardial scar in patients with coronary heart disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mann, D.L.; Scharf, J.; Ahnve, S.; Gilpin, E.

    1987-01-01

    Existing studies suggest that exercise-induced ischemia produces an increase in left ventricular end-diastolic volume; however, all of these studies have included patients with previous myocardial infarction. To test whether the end-diastolic volume response to exercise is related to the extent of myocardial scar, the results of gated radionuclide supine exercise tests performed on 130 subjects were reviewed. The patient group comprised 130 subjects were reviewed. The patient group comprised 130 men aged 35 to 65 years (mean +/- SD 52 +/- 5) with documented coronary heart disease. The extent of myocardial ischemia and scar formation was assessed by stress electrocardiography and thallium-201 scintigraphy. Patients were classified into three groups on the basis of left ventricular end-diastolic volume response at peak exercise: group 1 (n = 72) had an increase of end-diastolic volume greater than 10%, group 2 (n = 41) had a change in end-diastolic volume less than 10% and group 3 (n = 17) had a decrease in end-diastolic volume greater than 10% (n = 17). At rest there was no significant difference among groups in heart rate, systolic blood pressure, end-diastolic (EDVrest) or end-systolic volumes or ejection fraction (p greater than 0.05); however, at peak exercise the end-systolic volume response was significantly greater for group 1 (p less than 0.002)

  9. [Importance for surveillance on chronic obstructive pulmonary disease among Chinese adults].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, L W; Wang, L H

    2018-05-10

    The first national surveillance of COPD in mainland China was carried out in 2014, with the nationally representative data obtained. The national surveillance was significantly important for the monitoring of prevalence, risk factors, and changing trend of COPD among Chinese adults aged ≥ 40. The surveillance was also important in the development of national COPD prevention and control policy, the evaluation of prevention and control progress, the establishment of COPD comprehensive surveillance system, and the building of a professional COPD monitoring and prevention team. In this editorial, we briefly introduced the method and content of COPD surveillance, and reported the rate of spirometry examination and COPD awareness among adults aged ≥40 in China. We also analyzed the rate of main risk factors for COPD, such as tobacco smoking, occupational exposure to dust or chemical and indoor exposure to biomass or coal, and the distribution of high-risk population. This study provided fundamental data for the prevention and control of COPD in China.

  10. Patient-specific induced pluripotent stem cells in neurological disease modeling: the importance of nonhuman primate models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiu Z

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Zhifang Qiu,1,2 Steven L Farnsworth,2 Anuja Mishra,1,2 Peter J Hornsby1,21Geriatric Research Education and Clinical Center, South Texas Veterans Health Care System, San Antonio, TX, USA; 2Barshop Institute for Longevity and Aging Studies, University of Texas Health Science Center, San Antonio, TX, USAAbstract: The development of the technology for derivation of induced pluripotent stem (iPS cells from human patients and animal models has opened up new pathways to the better understanding of many human diseases, and has created new opportunities for therapeutic approaches. Here, we consider one important neurological disease, Parkinson's, the development of relevant neural cell lines for studying this disease, and the animal models that are available for testing the survival and function of the cells, following transplantation into the central nervous system. Rapid progress has been made recently in the application of protocols for neuroectoderm differentiation and neural patterning of pluripotent stem cells. These developments have resulted in the ability to produce large numbers of dopaminergic neurons with midbrain characteristics for further study. These cells have been shown to be functional in both rodent and nonhuman primate (NHP models of Parkinson's disease. Patient-specific iPS cells and derived dopaminergic neurons have been developed, in particular from patients with genetic causes of Parkinson's disease. For complete modeling of the disease, it is proposed that the introduction of genetic changes into NHP iPS cells, followed by studying the phenotype of the genetic change in cells transplanted into the NHP as host animal, will yield new insights into disease processes not possible with rodent models alone.Keywords: Parkinson's disease, pluripotent cell differentiation, neural cell lines, dopaminergic neurons, cell transplantation, animal models

  11. Left ventricular dysfunction in ischemic heart disease: fundamental importance of the fibrous matrix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swan, H J

    1994-05-01

    The contractile function of the myocardium is coordinated by a fibrous matrix of exquisite organization and complexity. In the normal heart, and apparently in physiological hypertrophy, this matrix is submicroscopic. In pathological states changes are frequent, and usually progressive. Thickening of the many elements of the fine structure is due to an increased synthesis of Type I collagen, This change, which affects the myocardium in a global manner, can be observed by light microscopy using special techniques. Perivascular fibrosis, with an increase in vascular smooth muscle, is accompanied by development of fibrous septa, with a decrease in diastolic compliance. These structural changes are believed to be due to increased activation of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system, and to be independent of the processes of myocyte hypertrophy. Reparative or replacement fibrosis is a separate process by means of which small and large areas of necrosis heal, with the development of coarse collagen structures, which lack a specific organizational pattern. Regarding ischemic heart disease, an increase in tissue collagenase is found in experimental myocardial "stunning" and in the very early phase of acute infarction. Absence of elements of the fibrous matrix allow for myocyte slippage, and--if the affected area is large--cardiac dilatation. If, subsequently, the necrosis becomes transmural, there is further disturbance of collagen due to both mechanical strain and continued autolysis, During healing collagen synthesis increases greatly to allow for reparative scarring in the available tissue matrix. In cases of infarction with moderate or severe initial dilatation, pathological hypertrophy of the spared myocardium is progressive, accounting for late heart failure and poor survival.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  12. Interphase lymphoid cell death: its importance in the genesis of radiation disease and molecular mechanisms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poverennyj, A M; Ryabchenko, N I

    1987-09-01

    An analysis of the data on the effect of lymphoid cells on the proliferation and differentiation of hemopoietic stem cells has led to a conclusion that radiation injury of lymphocytes plays an important role in the pathogenesis of the cerebrospinal syndrome. The molecular mechanisms of lymphocyte interphase death were considered. It was shown that due to some peculiarities in the energy supply of these' cells the appearance of breaks in DNA causes the development of biochemical processes resulting in a decrease in NAD, an increase in the activity of nucleases, a decrease in ATP, and the accumulation of active metabolites of glycolysis. There reactions result in an increase in the disintegration of DNA, chromatin and pyknosis of lymphocyte nuclei.

  13. The Importance of Non-neuronal Cell Types in hiPSC-Based Disease Modeling and Drug Screening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David M. Gonzalez

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Current applications of human induced pluripotent stem cell (hiPSC technologies in patient-specific models of neurodegenerative and neuropsychiatric disorders tend to focus on neuronal phenotypes. Here, we review recent efforts toward advancing hiPSCs toward non-neuronal cell types of the central nervous system (CNS and highlight their potential use for the development of more complex in vitro models of neurodevelopment and disease. We present evidence from previous works in both rodents and humans of the importance of these cell types (oligodendrocytes, microglia, astrocytes in neurological disease and highlight new hiPSC-based models that have sought to explore these relationships in vitro. Lastly, we summarize efforts toward conducting high-throughput screening experiments with hiPSCs and propose methods by which new screening platforms could be designed to better capture complex relationships between neural cell populations in health and disease.

  14. Risk activities and pre-travel health seeking practices of notified cases of imported infectious diseases in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paudel, Prakash; Raina, C; Zwar, Nicholas; Seale, Holly; Worth, Heather; Sheikh, Mohamud; Heywood, Anita E

    2017-09-01

    Travellers are at risk of acquiring infectious diseases during travel, with risks differing by destination, travel and traveller characteristics. A pre-travel health consultation may minimize this risk. However, uptake of pre-travel health advice remains low. We investigated pre-travel health preparations and disease-specific risk behaviours among notified cases of selected travel-associated infectious diseases imported into Australia. Prospective enhanced surveillance of notified cases of typhoid, paratyphoid, measles, hepatitis A, hepatitis E, malaria and chikungunya was conducted in two Australian states between February 2013 and January 2014. Details of pre-travel health preparation and disease-specific risk behaviours were collected. Among 180 cases associated with international travel, 28% were travellers and 22% were frequent travellers, having travelled ≥5 times in the past 5 years. 25% had sought pre-travel advice from a healthcare provider, and 16% reported a pre-travel vaccine. Seeking pre-travel health advice did not differ by immigrant status ( P  = 0.22) or by reason for travel ( P  = 0.13) but was more commonly sought by first time travellers ( P  = 0.03). Travellers visiting friends and relatives were more likely to report at-risk activities of brushing teeth with tap water ( P  food ( P  = 0.03) during travel compared to other travellers. Pre-travel health advice seeking practices and vaccine uptake was suboptimal among cases of notified disease. The results of this study highlight the need for a better understanding of barriers to pre-travel health seeking, particularly among high risk travellers, to reduce the importation of infectious diseases into Australia. © International Society of Travel Medicine, 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com

  15. Is lesional stability in vitiligo more important than disease stability for performing surgical interventions? results from a multicentric study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imran Majid

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Ensuring stability of the disease process is essential for undertaking surgical intervention in vitiligo. However, there is no consensus regarding the minimum duration of stability or the relative importance of disease and lesional stability in selecting patients for vitiligo grafting. Aim: This multicentric study aims to assess the relative importance of lesional and disease stability on selecting patients for vitiligo grafting. Materials and Methods: One hundred seventy patients were recruited into the study and divided into two groups: Group A with lesional stability of >1 year but overall disease stability of only 6-11 months and Group B with overall disease stability of >1 year. Patients underwent either tissue or cellular vitiligo grafting on the selected lesions and the repigmentation achieved was scored from 0 (no repigmentation to 6 (100% repigmentation. Repigmentation achieved on different sites of the body was compared between the two groups. Adverse effects at both the donor and the recipient sites were also compared. Results: Of the 170 patients who were enrolled, 82 patients were placed in Group A and 88 patients in Group B. Average repigmentation achieved (on scale of 0 to 6 was 3.8 and 4.04 in Group A and Group B, respectively. In Group A, ≥90% repigmentation was achieved in 36.6% (30/82 patients, while 37.5% (33/88 achieved similar results in Group B. Additionally, 47.6% (39/82 and 53.4% (47/88 of cases achieved partial repigmentation in Group A and Group B, respectively. Perigraft halo was the commonest adverse effect observed in both groups. Statistical analysis revealed no significant differences between the two groups with respect to the repigmentation achieved or adverse effects observed. Repigmentation achieved was the best on the face and neck area, while acral areas responded the least. Conclusions: Lesional stability seems to be as relevant as the overall disease stability in selecting patients for

  16. [The importance of local and general factors in development of inflammatory periodontal diseases in children and adolescents].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shishinashvili, T E; Tsagareli, Z G; Khimshiashvili, N B

    2012-10-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the influence of local and general adverse risk factors and their role in the development of inflammatory periodontal diseases in children and adolescents. The study of the dental status among 618 school children, 9 to 15 years of age has been performed. The obtained results revealed an ambiguous influence of general and local risk factors on the development of inflammatory periodontal diseases. Namely, among the general risk factors the main role is given to hormonal functioning state of juvenile age (26.5%) - (arhythmia formation of hormonal activity). Among the local risk factors inducing inflammatory periodontal diseases at young age, the most significant are tooth-jaw anomalies (32.2%), especially - dental occlusion pathology, lips' bridle attachment anomalies, absence of interdental contacts, small vestibule of the mouth and so on. Poor oral hygiene, however, is also a significant factor in all age groups. Definition of the role and importance of general and local risk factors, taking into consideration patient's age, is of great importance in organization of early prevention, giving the possibility to predict disease possible development, choose most appropriate way to treat the specific situation, reduce the need of complex treatment and improve treatment outcomes.

  17. Importance of imaging diagnostics and interventional therapy for diseases of the lacrimal drainage canals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bink, A.; Berkefeld, J.; Luechtenberg, M.

    2008-01-01

    Epiphora (continuous watering of the eyes) is frequently caused by obstruction of the lacrimal draining system. Radiographic imaging of the tear ducts after contrast injection with the DSA (digital subtraction angiography) dacryocystography technique is still the gold standard in patients with severe epiphora which does not respond to conservative therapy. Recent techniques, such as 3D rotational dacryocystography, MRI and CT are able to show the anatomic surroundings in addition to the ductal structures and are especially useful for planning endoscopic operations. Dacryocystographically assisted interventions, such as balloon dilatation or stenting of tear duct stenoses are technically feasible. Balloon dacryocystoplasty is especially successful in patients with incomplete or short distance obstructions of the nasolacrimal duct. Stenting may improve procedural success and patency rates. Minimally invasive interventional therapy is useful as an initial treatment in selected cases, however, long-term success rates may be limited and operative dacryocystorhinostomy still plays an important role. Comparative studies for evaluation of different therapeutic options are necessary. (orig.) [de

  18. Importance of intersectoral co-ordination in the control of communicable diseases, with special reference to plague in Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilonzo, B S

    1994-07-01

    Human health, agriculture, including livestock, energy, education, wildlife, construction, forestry and trade sectors are inter-related and their co-ordination is an important pre-requisite for successful control of most communicable diseases including plague. Similar linkage between research, policy, training and extension activities in each sector are essential for any successful control strategy. Inadequate agricultural produce, inaccessibility of people to the available food and ignorance on proper preparation and usage of available food materials are responsible for malnutrition, and malnourished people are very vulnerable to disease. Irrigation schemes facilitate breeding of various disease vectors and transmission of some communicable diseases. Forests are ecologically favourable for some disease vectors and reservoirs for tsetse flies and rodents, while deforestation leads to soil erosion, lack of rainfall and consequently reduced productivity in agriculture which may result in poor nutrition of the population. Wildlife and livestock serve as reservoirs and/or carriers of various zoonoses including plague, trypanosomiasis and rabies. Lack of proper co-ordination of these sectors in communicable disease control programmes can result in serious and undesirable consequences. Indiscriminate killing of rodents in order to minimize food damage by these vermin forces their flea ectoparasites to seek alternative hosts, including man, a development which may result in transmission of plague from rodents to man. Similarly, avoidance of proper quarantine during plague epidemics, an undertaking which is usually aimed at maintaining economic and social links with places outside the affected focus, can result in the disease becoming widespread and consequently make any control strategies more difficult and expensive.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  19. RNA Interference: A Promising Tool in the Control of Important Vector Born Diseases Zika, Dengue Fever, and Malaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jalil Nejati

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: RNA interference is a process, in which a molecule of double-stranded RNA prevents the expression of a particular gene and leads to its silencing. Application of this technology in the control of disease-carrying insects is rising in agriculture and medical sciences. Also, its application in control of insect-borne diseases could be considered as a new, important, and effective approach. In this article, it was attempted to study the mechanisms of RNA interference, routs of its delivery to insects, as well as its application in genetic control of disease vector insects. Methods: In this study, 71 indexed articles in databases, such as Pubmed, SID, Scopus, Science direct, and Google scholar, were used. Results: dsRNA could be delivered to insect body through three routes of oral, injection, and Impregnation. The mechanism of dsRNA entrance into the cells has considerable effect on the success and applicability of this technique. Identification of host-parasite relationship in the insect body is one of the important applications of RNAi in medical entomology. Conclusion: Although, there is a considerable number of researches on RNAi in the agricultural pests field, studies on insect vectors of human diseases have been mostly in-vivo. However, application of RNAi is suggested as a new, safe and applicable approach, alone or along with other methods. Certainly, further researches in this field can pave the way for enforcement measures in the control of disease vectors, especially Zika, dengue fever, and malaria in the not so distant future.

  20. [A short history of infectious diseases since the fifties of the last century and the importance of vaccination].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marešová, Vilma

    2015-01-01

    Vaccination in the Czech lands has a long history; it begun during the Austro-Hungarian Empire in 1803 by vaccination against smallpox, and in the late 19th century by vaccination against rabies. In the second half of the 20th century, the basic vaccination included also other vaccines. Thanks to paediatricians, vaccination coverage of children was so high that in addition to the immunity of individuals the collective immunity was also significant. The incidence of infectious diseases has dropped significantly. Today the population, both medical and lay, almost does not know the classic childrens infectious diseases or their risk of complications. This creates a feeling in recent years that vaccination is unnecessary and that it is a source of complication and, therefore, better not to vaccinate. However, diseases, except for smallpox, have not disappeared, and for the susceptible unvaccinated individuals they represent a great risk. There are now occurring at atypical age groups where their diagnosis is even not considered. Therefore, it is important to return to the course of disease as well as to the potentially serious complications in unvaccinated people.

  1. Executive summary of imported infectious diseases after returning from foreign travel: Consensus document of the Spanish Society for Infectious Diseases and Clinical Microbiology (SEIMC).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Arellano, José Luis; Górgolas-Hernández-Mora, Miguel; Salvador, Fernando; Carranza-Rodríguez, Cristina; Ramírez-Olivencia, Germán; Martín-Echeverría, Esteban; Rodríguez-Guardado, Azucena; Norman, Francesca; Velasco-Tirado, Virginia; Zubero-Sulibarría, Zuriñe; Rojo-Marcos, Gerardo; Muñoz-Gutierrez, José; Ramos-Rincón, José Manuel; Sánchez-Seco-Fariñas, M Paz; Velasco-Arribas, María; Belhassen-García, Moncef; Lago-Nuñez, Mar; Cañas García-Otero, Elías; López-Vélez, Rogelio

    2018-03-01

    In a global world, knowledge of imported infectious diseases is essential in daily practice, both for the microbiologist-parasitologist and the clinician who diagnoses and treats infectious diseases in returned travelers. Tropical and subtropical countries where there is a greater risk of contracting an infectious disease are among the most frequently visited tourist destinations. The SEIMC considers it appropriate to produce a consensus document that will be useful to primary care physicians as well as specialists in internal medicine, infectious diseases and tropical medicine who help treat travelers returning from tropical and sub-tropical areas with infections. Preventive aspects of infectious diseases and infections imported by immigrants are explicitly excluded here, since they have been dealt with in other SEIMC documents. Various types of professionals (clinicians, microbiologists, and parasitologists) have helped produce this consensus document by evaluating the available evidence-based data in order to propose a series of key facts about individual aspects of the topic. The first section of the document is a summary of some of the general aspects concerning the general assessment of travelers who return home with potential infections. The main second section contains the key facts (causative agents, diagnostic procedures and therapeutic measures) associated with the major infectious syndromes affecting returned travelers [gastrointestinal syndrome (acute or persistent diarrhea); febrile syndrome with no obvious source of infection; localized cutaneous lesions; and respiratory infections]. Finally, the characteristics of special traveler subtypes, such as pregnant women and immunocompromised travelers, are described. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and Sociedad Española de Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica. All rights reserved.

  2. Importance of hypoglycemia on the risk of Alzheimer’s disease in elderly subjects with diabetes mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muratli S

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Sevilay Muratli,1 Fatih Tufan,2 Ozlem Soyluk,2 Gulistan Bahat,1 M Akif Karan11Division of Geriatrics, Department of Internal Medicine, 2Department of Gerontology, Faculty of Medical Sciences, Istanbul University, Istanbul, TurkeyWe read the article on the study of "Link between type 2 diabetes and Alzheimer’s disease: from epidemiology to mechanism and treatment" by Li et al.1 The review is very detailed and rational, considering the link between diabetes and Alzheimer’s disease and giving a new outlook as type 3 diabetes. It provides important information about the effects of the hyperglycemic complications of diabetes and treatment of dementia.View original paper by Li et al

  3. Genetic factors may play a prominent role in the development of coronary heart disease dependent on important environmental factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, C; Chang, Z; Magnusson, P K E; Ingelsson, E; Pedersen, N L

    2014-01-01

    Astract Song C, Chang Z, Magnusson PKE, Ingelsson E, Pedersen NL (Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm; Uppsala University, Uppsala; Sweden). Genetic factors may play a prominent role in the developmentofcoronary heart diseasedependenton important environmental factors. J InternMed2014; 275: 631–639. Objective The aim of the study was to examine whether various lifestyle factors modify genetic influences on coronary heart disease (CHD). Design The effect of lifestyle factors [including smoking, sedentary lifestyle, alcohol intake and body mass index (BMI)] on risk of CHD was evaluated via Cox regression models in a twin study of gene–environment interaction. Using structure equation modelling, we estimated genetic variance of CHD dependent on lifestyle factors. Subjects In total, 51 065 same-sex twins from 25 715 twin pairs born before 1958 and registered in the Swedish Twin Registry were eligible for this study. During the 40-year follow-up, 7264 incident CHD events were recorded. Results Smoking, sedentary lifestyle and above average BMI were significantly associated with increased CHD incidence. The heritability of CHD decreased with increasing age, as well as with increasing levels of BMI, in both men and women. Conclusions The difference in the genetic component of CHD as a function of BMI suggests that genetic factors may play a more prominent role for disease development in the absence of important environmental factors. Increased knowledge of gene–environment interactions will be important for a full understanding of the aetiology of CHD. PMID:24330166

  4. Reduced Risk of Importing Ebola Virus Disease because of Travel Restrictions in 2014: A Retrospective Epidemiological Modeling Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otsuki, Shiori

    2016-01-01

    Background An epidemic of Ebola virus disease (EVD) from 2013–16 posed a serious risk of global spread during its early growth phase. A post-epidemic evaluation of the effectiveness of travel restrictions has yet to be conducted. The present study aimed to estimate the effectiveness of travel restrictions in reducing the risk of importation from mid-August to September, 2014, using a simple hazard-based statistical model. Methodology/Principal Findings The hazard rate was modeled as an inverse function of the effective distance, an excellent predictor of disease spread, which was calculated from the airline transportation network. By analyzing datasets of the date of EVD case importation from the 15th of July to the 15th of September 2014, and assuming that the network structure changed from the 8th of August 2014 because of travel restrictions, parameters that characterized the hazard rate were estimated. The absolute risk reduction and relative risk reductions due to travel restrictions were estimated to be less than 1% and about 20%, respectively, for all models tested. Effectiveness estimates among African countries were greater than those for other countries outside Africa. Conclusions The travel restrictions were not effective enough to expect the prevention of global spread of Ebola virus disease. It is more efficient to control the spread of disease locally during an early phase of an epidemic than to attempt to control the epidemic at international borders. Capacity building for local containment and coordinated and expedited international cooperation are essential to reduce the risk of global transmission. PMID:27657544

  5. Education as an important aspect in the care of a patient with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD)

    OpenAIRE

    Ulenberg Agata; Ulenberg Grzegorz; Felsmann Mirosława; Humańska Marzena; Ponczek Danuta; Dąbrowska Maria

    2017-01-01

    Ulenberg Agata, Ulenberg Grzegorz, Felsmann Mirosława, Humańska Marzena, Ponczek Danuta, Dąbrowska Maria. Education as an important aspect in the care of a patient with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD). Journal of Education, Health and Sport. 2017;7(8):1324-1335. eISSN 2391-8306. DOI http://dx.doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.1045334 http://ojs.ukw.edu.pl/index.php/johs/article/view/5029 https://pbn.nauka.gov.pl/sedno-webapp/works/837028 The journal...

  6. The importance of vitamins D and K for the bone health and immune function in inflammatory bowel disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iijima, Hideki; Shinzaki, Shinichiro; Takehara, Tetsuo

    2012-11-01

    This review summarizes the recent literature about the roles of vitamins D and K in bone metabolism and immunity-mediated inflammatory processes in inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs). The levels of vitamins D and K are lower than normal in patients with IBD, especially in Crohn's disease. Although vitamins D and K are important for the maintenance of bone mineral density in non-IBD patients, an association between vitamins D or K and bone metabolism is not apparent in IBD patients. Recent studies showed that vitamins D and K are suggested to have immune-suppressive effects, both in animal models of colitis and human trials. In particular, vitamin D suppresses dendritic and T-cell functions by inhibiting the production of proinflammatory cytokines. Insufficiency of vitamin D is associated with the activated phenotype of IBD. Vitamins D and K potentially contribute to the maintenance of bone health in IBD, but this effect may be diminished by other factors such as steroid use, reduced exposure to sunlight, and inflammatory cytokines. Vitamin D and possibly vitamin K are suggested to be involved in the suppression of immune-mediated inflammation and modulation of disease activity.

  7. A preface on advances in diagnostics for infectious and parasitic diseases: detecting parasites of medical and veterinary importance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stothard, J Russell; Adams, Emily

    2014-12-01

    There are many reasons why detection of parasites of medical and veterinary importance is vital and where novel diagnostic and surveillance tools are required. From a medical perspective alone, these originate from a desire for better clinical management and rational use of medications. Diagnosis can be at the individual-level, at close to patient settings in testing a clinical suspicion or at the community-level, perhaps in front of a computer screen, in classification of endemic areas and devising appropriate control interventions. Thus diagnostics for parasitic diseases has a broad remit as parasites are not only tied with their definitive hosts but also in some cases with their vectors/intermediate hosts. Application of current diagnostic tools and decision algorithms in sustaining control programmes, or in elimination settings, can be problematic and even ill-fitting. For example in resource-limited settings, are current diagnostic tools sufficiently robust for operational use at scale or are they confounded by on-the-ground realities; are the diagnostic algorithms underlying public health interventions always understood and well-received within communities which are targeted for control? Within this Special Issue (SI) covering a variety of diseases and diagnostic settings some answers are forthcoming. An important theme, however, throughout the SI is to acknowledge that cross-talk and continuous feedback between development and application of diagnostic tests is crucial if they are to be used effectively and appropriately.

  8. Quick Decline Disease Disturbs the Levels of Important Phytochemicals and Minerals in the Stem Bark of Mango (Mangifera indica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Saeed

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Quick decline is one of the deadly diseases of mango (Mangifera indica which causes a serious damage to the tree and its production. In the current study, we examined the levels of important phytochemicals and minerals in the stem bark of healthy and infected mango tree. Infected stem bark showed 12.5% lower levels of total sugars and 51.1% higher levels of proteins as compared to healthy parts, whereas no variation was observed in reducing sugar, free amino acid, and ascorbic acid. Among micronutrients, the levels of Zn, Na, Cr, and Cl were lowered by 25%, 54.3%, 25%, and 75.4%, respectively, whereas the level of Ni was 62.5% higher in the infected stem bark when compared with the healthy stem bark. However, other micronutrients did not show significant differences between healthy and infected parts. Among macronutrients, the quantity of N, P, and Mg showed an increase of 51.2%, 34.7%, and 27.6%, respectively, whereas the quantity of Ca and K was decreased by 25.2% and 7.66% in the infected stem barks as compared to healthy ones. The results of this study provide some basic but important information that may ultimately be helpful in managing the quick decline disease in the mango trees.

  9. Importance of Extracranial Disease Status and Tumor Subtype for Patients Undergoing Radiosurgery for Breast Cancer Brain Metastases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dyer, Michael A.; Kelly, Paul J. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Dana-Farber/Brigham and Women' s Cancer Center, Boston, MA (United States); Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States); Chen, Yu-Hui [Department of Biostatistics and Computational Biology, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Boston, MA (United States); Pinnell, Nancy E. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Dana-Farber/Brigham and Women' s Cancer Center, Boston, MA (United States); Claus, Elizabeth B. [Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States); Department of Neurosurgery, Brigham and Women' s Hospital, Boston, MA (United States); Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT (United States); Lee, Eudocia Q. [Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States); Center for Neuro-Oncology, Dana-Farber/Brigham and Women' s Center, Boston, MA (United States); Weiss, Stephanie E. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Dana-Farber/Brigham and Women' s Cancer Center, Boston, MA (United States); Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States); Arvold, Nils D. [Harvard Radiation Oncology Program, Boston, MA (United States); Lin, Nancy U. [Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States); Department of Medical Oncology, Dana-Farber/Brigham and Women' s Cancer Center, Boston, MA (United States); Alexander, Brian M., E-mail: bmalexander@lroc.harvard.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Dana-Farber/Brigham and Women' s Cancer Center, Boston, MA (United States); Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States)

    2012-07-15

    Purpose: In this retrospective study, we report on outcomes and prognostic factors for patients treated with stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) for breast cancer brain metastases. Methods and Materials: We identified 132 consecutive patients with breast cancer who were treated with SRS for brain metastases from January 2000 through June 2010. We retrospectively reviewed records of the 51 patients with adequate follow-up data who received SRS as part of the initial management of their brain metastases. Overall survival (OS) and time to central nervous system (CNS) progression from the date of SRS were calculated using the Kaplan-Meier method. Prognostic factors were evaluated using the Cox proportional hazards model. Results: Triple negative subtype was associated with CNS progression on univariate analysis (hazard ratio [HR] = 5.0, p = 0.008). On multivariate analysis, triple negative subtype (HR = 8.6, p = 0.001), Luminal B subtype (HR = 4.3, p = 0.03), and omission of whole-brain radiation therapy (HR = 3.7, p = 0.02) were associated with CNS progression. With respect to OS, Karnofsky Performance Status (KPS) {<=} 80% (HR = 2.0, p = 0.04) and progressive extracranial disease (HR = 3.1, p = 0.002) were significant on univariate analysis; KPS {<=} 80% (HR = 4.1, p = 0.0004), progressive extracranial disease (HR = 6.4, p < 0.0001), and triple negative subtype (HR = 2.9, p = 0.04) were significant on multivariate analysis. Although median survival times were consistent with those predicted by the breast cancer-specific Graded Prognostic Assessment (Breast-GPA) score, the addition of extracranial disease status further separated patient outcomes. Conclusions: Tumor subtype is associated with risk of CNS progression after SRS for breast cancer brain metastases. In addition to tumor subtype and KPS, which are incorporated into the Breast-GPA, progressive extracranial disease may be an important prognostic factor for OS.

  10. Relative importance of the determinants of serum levels of 25-hydroxy vitamin D in patients with chronic kidney disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caravaca-Fontán, Fernando; Gonzales-Candia, Boris; Luna, Enrique; Caravaca, Francisco

    The cause of vitamin D deficiency in chronic kidney disease (CKD) is probably multi-factorial; however, the relative importance of each potential determinant is uncertain. To determine factors associated with serum levels of 25-hydroxy vitamin D (25OHD) and their relative importance in a cohort of pre-dialysis CKD patients. Incident patients admitted to a CKD outpatient clinic were included. Those who were receiving vitamin D supplements or anticonvulsants were excluded. In addition to demographic and clinical data, information about outdoor physical activity, season of blood collection, prescription of statins, anti-angiotensin drugs and xanthine-oxidase inhibitors were included as potential determinants. Johnson's relative weights analysis was used to estimate the relative importance of each potential determinant and the results were expressed as percentage contribution to multiple R. The study group consisted of 397 patients, 30 of whom were excluded. The mean serum level of 25OHD was 13.7±7.4ng/ml, and 81% of patients had serum levels lower than 20ng/ml. By multiple linear regression and relative weights analyses, the best determinants of low serum 25OHD levels and their relative importance were: higher proteinuria (28.5%), old age (21.4%), low physical activity (19.4%), female gender (19.3%) and low serum bicarbonate levels (11.4%). Proteinuria and age are the determinants with the highest relative importance for predicting 25OHD levels in CKD patients. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U.

  11. Minimal Clinically Important Difference in Parkinson’s Disease as Assessed in Pivotal Trials of Pramipexole Extended Release

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert A. Hauser

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The minimal clinically important difference (MCID is the smallest change in an outcome measure that is meaningful for patients. Objectives. To calculate the MCID for Unified Parkinson’s Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS scores in early Parkinson’s disease (EPD and for UPDRS scores and “OFF” time in advanced Parkinson’s disease (APD. Methods. We analyzed data from two pivotal, double-blind, parallel-group trials of pramipexole ER that included pramipexole immediate release (IR as an active comparator. We calculated MCID as the mean change in subjects who received active treatment and rated themselves “a little better” on patient global impression of improvement (PGI-I minus the mean change in subjects who received placebo and rated themselves unchanged. Results. MCIDs in EPD (pramipexole ER, pramipexole IR for UPDRS II were −1.8 and −2.0, for UPDRS III −6.2 and −6.1, and for UPDRS II + III −8.0 and −8.1. MCIDs in APD for UPDRS II were −1.8 and −2.3, for UPDRS III −5.2 and −6.5, and for UPDRS II + III −7.1 and −8.8. MCID for “OFF” time (pramipexole ER, pramipexole IR was −1.0 and −1.3 hours. Conclusions. A range of MCIDs is emerging in the PD literature that provides the basis for power calculations and interpretation of clinical trials.

  12. Health-related quality of life and risk factor control: the importance of educational level in prevention of cardiovascular diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ose, Dominik; Rochon, Justine; Campbell, Stephen M; Wensing, Michel; Freund, Tobias; van Lieshout, Jan; Längst, Gerda; Szecsenyi, Joachim; Ludt, Sabine

    2014-08-01

    This study aimed to describe and to analyse the importance of educational level for controlled risk factors and health-related quality of life (HRQoL). This observational study was conducted in nine European countries (5632 patients in 249 practices). We compared patients with a low level of education (up to 9 years) with patients with a high level of education (>9 years), with regard to controlled cardiovascular disease risk factors and HRQoL. A multilevel approach was used for statistical analysis. Patients with a low level of education were older (P education, female gender, living as single, patient group (coronary heart disease patients) and the number of other conditions were negatively associated with HRQoL. A higher sum of controlled risk factors were positively associated with higher HRQoL in the whole sample (r = 0.0086, P educational-level groups (r = 0.0075, P = 0.038 in the low-level group and r = 0.0082, P = 0.001 in the high-level group). Patients with a lower educational level were more often females, singles, had a higher number of other conditions, a higher number of uncontrolled risk factors and a lower HRQoL. However, the higher the control of risk factors was, the higher the HRQoL was overall as well as in both educational-level groups. © The Author 2013. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Public Health Association. All rights reserved.

  13. Vitamin D, vitamin D receptor and the importance of its activation in patients with chronic kidney disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bover, Jordi; Egido, Jesús; Fernández-Giráldez, Elvira; Praga, Manuel; Solozábal-Campos, Carlos; Torregrosa, José V; Martínez-Castelao, Alberto

    2015-01-01

    Vitamin D deficiency has been linked to many different pathologies, especially with morbimortality in patients with chronic kidney disease. The progressive loss of renal function leads to calcitriol deficiency and homeostatic changes in calcium, phosphorus, FGF-23 and PTH, among others. All these changes can also influence vitamin D receptor (VDR) activation and the development of secondary hyperparathyroidism (SHPT). The biologic actions of both vitamin D and its synthetic analogues are mediated by binding to the same VDR, acting on different genes. There is a narrow relationship between low levels of calcitriol and SHPT. The combined approach of VDR activation and phosphate restriction, among others, plays an important role in the early treatment of the chronic kidney disease-mineral and bone disorder (CKD-MBD). The Spanish Society of Nephrology, in order to reduce the uniform and significant association with CKD-associated mortality, calcidiol and high phosphate levels suggests normalization of phosphate as well as calcidiol levels in both CKD and dialysis patients. Moreover, it considers that, in addition to selective/non selective activation of VDR for the prevention and treatment of SHPT, VDR could be activated in dialysis patients by native vitamin D or even low paricalcitol doses, independently of PTH levels, as some cohort studies and a recent metaanalysis have found an association between treatment with active vitamin D and decreased mortality in patients with CKD. In general it is considered reasonable to use all this information to individualise decision making.

  14. The socio-economic impact of important camel diseases as perceived by a pastoralist community in Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mochabo, M O K; Kitala, P M; Gathura, P B; Ogara, W O; Eregae, E M; Kaitho, T D; Catley, A

    2006-12-01

    This paper presents the results of a study conducted in a pastoral community in Kenya using participatory appraisal approaches. The objective of the study was to assess the socio-economic impact of camel trypanosomosis (surra) according to the perceptions of the pastoralists. Four livestock grazing units were conveniently selected and in each of them, three groups of key informants comprising five to eight persons were selected for the participatory exercises. Five camel diseases were listed in order of importance according to their severity and frequency of occurrence including trypanosomosis, mange, non-specific diarrhoea, tick infestations and haemorrhagic septicaemia. The losses listed as incurred due to the five diseases were: losses in milk, meat, blood, fats and hides, dowry payments, and depreciation in sale of animals, losses due to infertility and abortions, and losses due to the cost of treatment. There was good agreement (P impact. There is a need for veterinary and policy decision-makers to focus more attention on the control of surra in this arid and semi-arid area of Kenya.

  15. Importance of pH Homeostasis in Metabolic Health and Diseases: Crucial Role of Membrane Proton Transport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wataru Aoi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Protons dissociated from organic acids in cells are partly buffered. If not, they are transported to the extracellular fluid through the plasma membrane and buffered in circulation or excreted in urine and expiration gas. Several transporters including monocarboxylate transporters and Na+/H+ exchanger play an important role in uptake and output of protons across plasma membranes in cells of metabolic tissues including skeletal muscle and the liver. They also contribute to maintenance of the physiological pH of body fluid. Therefore, impairment of these transporters causes dysfunction of cells, diseases, and a decrease in physical performance associated with abnormal pH. Additionally, it is known that fluid pH in the interstitial space of metabolic tissues is easily changed due to little pH buffering capacitance in interstitial fluids and a reduction in the interstitial fluid pH may mediate the onset of insulin resistance unlike blood containing pH buffers such as Hb (hemoglobin and albumin. In contrast, habitual exercise and dietary intervention regulate expression/activity of transporters and maintain body fluid pH, which could partly explain the positive effect of healthy lifestyle on disease prognosis.

  16. Influence of contact definitions in assessment of the relative importance of social settings in disease transmission risk.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirsty J Bolton

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Realistic models of disease transmission incorporating complex population heterogeneities require input from quantitative population mixing studies. We use contact diaries to assess the relative importance of social settings in respiratory pathogen spread using three measures of person contact hours (PCH as proxies for transmission risk with an aim to inform bipartite network models of respiratory pathogen transmission. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Our survey examines the contact behaviour for a convenience sample of 65 adults, with each encounter classified as occurring in a work, retail, home, social, travel or "other" setting. The diary design allows for extraction of PCH-interaction (cumulative time in face-face conversational or touch interaction with contacts--analogous to the contact measure used in several existing surveys--as well as PCH-setting (product of time spent in setting and number of people present and PCH-reach (product of time spent in setting and number of people in close proximity. Heterogeneities in day-dependent distribution of risk across settings are analysed using partitioning and cluster analyses and compared between days and contact measures. Although home is typically the highest-risk setting when PCH measures isolate two-way interactions, its relative importance compared to social and work settings may reduce when adopting a more inclusive contact measure that considers the number and duration of potential exposure events. CONCLUSIONS: Heterogeneities in location-dependent contact behaviour as measured by contact diary studies depend on the adopted contact definition. We find that contact measures isolating face-face conversational or touch interactions suggest that contact in the home dominates, whereas more inclusive contact measures indicate that home and work settings may be of higher importance. In the absence of definitive knowledge of the contact required to facilitate transmission of various

  17. Is current smoking still an important environmental factor in inflammatory bowel diseases? Results from a population-based incident cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakatos, Peter L; Vegh, Zsuzsanna; Lovasz, Barbara D; David, Gyula; Pandur, Tunde; Erdelyi, Zsuzsanna; Szita, Istvan; Mester, Gabor; Balogh, Mihaly; Szipocs, Istvan; Molnar, Csaba; Komaromi, Erzsebet; Golovics, Petra A; Mandel, Michael; Horvath, Agnes; Szathmari, Miklos; Kiss, Lajos S; Lakatos, Laszlo

    2013-04-01

    Previous studies suggest that smoking is an important environmental factor in inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs), with dichotomous effects in ulcerative colitis (UC) and Crohn's disease (CD). The aim of this study was to analyze the relationship between smoking and IBD risk in a population-based database from Veszprem Province, which included incident cases diagnosed between January 1, 1977, and December 31, 2008. Data from 1420 incident patients were analyzed (UC: 914, age at diagnosis: 38.9 years; CD: 506, age at diagnosis: 31.5 years). Both inpatient and outpatient records were collected and comprehensively reviewed. Overall, smoking frequency in the adult general population was 36.1%. Of patients with CD, 47.2% were current smokers at diagnosis. Smoking was more frequent in male patients (P = 0.002) and was associated with an increased risk of CD (odds ratio, 1.96; 95% confidence interval, 1.63-2.37; P < 0.001). In contrast, current smoking was protective against UC (odds ratio, 0.33; 95% confidence interval, 0.27-0.41). The effect of smoking was linked to gender (in CD, more deleterious in male patients) and age at diagnosis and was most prominent in young adults, with a difference already being seen in 18- to 19-year-olds. In CD, a change in disease behavior (P = 0.02), location from ileal or colonic to ileocolonic (P = 0.003), arthritis/arthropathy (P = 0.002), need for steroids (P = 0.06), or AZA (P = 0.038) was more common in current smokers. Smoking in UC was associated with more extensive disease (P = 0.01) and a tendency for decreased need for colectomy (P = 0.06). Current smoking was associated with the risk of IBD. This effect was linked to gender and age at diagnosis and was most prominent in young adults. No association was observed in pediatric or elderly patients. The deleterious and protective effects of smoking on the course in CD and UC were partially confirmed.

  18. Importance of diarrhoeal disease attributable to unsafe water, sanitation and hygiene in South Africa: An overview of the burden of disease approach

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Steyn, M

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available factor ? 1st = HIV ? 2nd Undernutrition ? 3rd Diarrhoeal disease ? Diseases of poverty ? low birth weight, diarrhoeal diseases, lower respiratory infections, and high protein-energy malnutrition ? 30% of child deaths ? HIV = 40% of child deaths...

  19. Deep brain stimulation may reduce the relative risk of clinically important worsening in early stage Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hacker, Mallory L; Tonascia, James; Turchan, Maxim; Currie, Amanda; Heusinkveld, Lauren; Konrad, Peter E; Davis, Thomas L; Neimat, Joseph S; Phibbs, Fenna T; Hedera, Peter; Wang, Lily; Shi, Yaping; Shade, David M; Sternberg, Alice L; Drye, Lea T; Charles, David

    2015-10-01

    The Vanderbilt pilot trial of deep brain stimulation (DBS) in early Parkinson's disease (PD) enrolled patients on medications six months to four years without motor fluctuations or dyskinesias. We conducted a patient-centered analysis based on clinically important worsening of motor symptoms and complications of medical therapy for all subjects and a subset of subjects with a more focused medication duration. Continuous outcomes were also analyzed for this focused cohort. A post hoc analysis was conducted on all subjects from the pilot and a subset of subjects taking PD medications 1-4 years at enrollment. Clinically important worsening is defined as both a ≥ 3 point increase in UPDRS Part III and a ≥ 1 point increase in Part IV. DBS plus optimal drug therapy (DBS + ODT) subjects experienced a 50-80% reduction in the relative risk of worsening after two years. The DBS + ODT group was improved compared to optimal drug therapy (ODT) at each time point on Total UPDRS and Part III (p = 0.04, p = 0.02, respectively, at 24 months). Total UPDRS, Part IV, and PDQ-39 scores significantly worsened in the ODT group after two years (p < 0.003), with no significant change in the DBS + ODT group. DBS + ODT in early PD may reduce the risk of clinically important worsening. These findings further confirm the need to determine if DBS + ODT is superior to medical therapy for managing symptoms, reducing the complications of medications, and improving quality of life. The FDA has approved the conduct of a large-scale, pivotal clinical trial of DBS in early stage PD. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Relationship between patients' perception of the importance of diabetes and metabolic control and pursuing chronic complications of disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Ebrahim Khamseh

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Type II diabetes is a metabolic disorder. Environmental factors and patient awareness have major roles on chronic complications. The purpose of this study was to determine the association of patients' perception of t the importance of diabetes and metabolic- control and pursuing of chronic complications. Material and Methods: 194 patients with diabetes enrolled from diabetes clinic of Institute Endocrinology & Metabolism in a cross-sectional study, from February to March 2010. Data were collected using a questionnaire to assess the personal demographics, individual approach in pursuit of complications, and glycemic control, as well as patient perception and attitude toward the importance of disease process and follow-up. Level of perceptions was determined as well, moderate and weak. Results: Out of 194 patients, 77(39.7% were male and 117(60.3% female. Mean age was 52.18±10.17years. 69.2% did not know what the glycosylated hemoglobin was. In 71.4%, willing to participate in decisions making on medical treatment was good and they knew that with initiation of insulin therapy, they would have better metabolic control. 68.9% of patients had regular follow-up for eye complications, and 51% for cardiac complications. Follow-up for diabetic foot complication was poor. Patients with good perception had regular follow-up regarding cardiac, eye and renal complications. Conclusion: These results indicate that better perception of diabetic patients might improve their compliance for regular follow- up regarding the pursuit of chronic complications, especially cardiac, eye and renal problems. Although, the metabolic- control of patients had not the association with patient perception about the importance of diabetes

  1. [Experience of integrated traditional Chinese and Western medicine in first case of imported Zika virus disease in China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Yichu; Zeng, Liping; Bao, Wen; Xu, Pinghua; Zhong, Gongrong

    2016-02-01

    Zika virus disease is an acute infectious disease caused by Zika virus transmitted through Aedes mosquitoes. To explore the therapeutic effect of integrated traditional Chinese and Western Medicine for Zika virus disease, the treatment process of the first imported case in China was reviewed. The first imported Zika virus disease in China was admitted to Ganxian People's Hospital in Jiangxi Province on February 6th, 2016, and the patient received isolation treatment for 9 days and cured later. The effect of antiviral treatments including Xiyanping injection was evaluated based on clinical diagnosis and treatment process of the patient. A 34-year old male patient was admitted with chief complaint of fever for 9 days, orbital pain and itching rash for 4 days on February 6th, 2016. (1) Epidemiological characteristics: the patient was bitted by mosquitoes during his business trip in Venezuela since January 1st, where Zika virus disease was spreading. On January 20th he had dizziness without fever, and the symptom disappeared after taking medicines without details. Paroxysmal dizziness, chills and mild fever without myalgia was experienced on January 28th. On February 3rd small red rash appeared in the neck, spreading to anterior part of chest, limbs and trunk, and the fever, fatigue, nausea was continued, and a new symptom of paroxysmal pain in back of ears and orbits appeared, during which he had not go to hospital. The symptoms relieved on February 4th. He returned to Ganxian County on February 5th, he had yellow stool 3 times with normal temperature, without abdominal pain, and red rash still appeared in the neck. He went to Ganxian People's Hospital on February 6th, 2016. (2) Clinical manifestation: the vital signs showed a temperature of 36.8?centigrade, a pulse rate of 80 bpm, a respiratory rate of 20 bpm, and a blood pressure of 110/70 mmHg (1 mmHg = 0.133 kPa). It was showed by physical examination that red rash appeared in the neck, and no superficial enlarged

  2. [Comparison of conventional and non-conventional serological tests for the diagnosis of imported Chagas disease in Spain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores-Chávez, María; Cruz, Israel; Rodríguez, Mercedes; Nieto, Javier; Franco, Elena; Gárate, Teresa; Cañavate, Carmen

    2010-05-01

    Trypanosoma cruzi infection is a major imported parasitic disease in Spain, because of the increase of immigrants from endemic areas. Since the laboratory diagnosis during the chronic phase is based on detection of anti-T. cruzi IgG antibodies, our aims were to compare 10 tests for determining anti-T. cruzi antibodies, to assess their cross-reactivity with related diseases, and to evaluate the rk39-ELISA and IFAT-Leishmania tests as tools for the differential diagnosis of leishmaniasis due to Leishmania infantum. A total of 223 sera were tested: 40 had been previously characterized by Qpanel, and 183 were obtained from the serum library of the Parasitology Department, Centro Nacional de Microbiología (66 chagasic, 97 healthy, 30 visceral leishmaniasis, and 30 malaria). Samples were examined using in-house IFAT and ELISA, 5 commercial ELISAs (Certest/Abbot Laboratories/BiosChile; Ortho Clinical Diagnostics; BLK Diagnostic; bioMérieux; and Biokit), particle gel agglutination (ID-PaGIA), and two immunochromatographic assays (Operon and CTK Biotech). The last 4 tests are based in recombinant antigens (non-conventional tests). The IFAT and ELISAs showed a sensitivity of 97% to 100%. The immunochromatographic tests had somewhat lower sensitivity (92%-96%). All non-conventional tests presented a smaller number of cross-reactions. Leishmania-Rk39-ELISA did not show cross-reactivity with chagasic sera. In general, our results confirm the data obtained by other authors. The sensitivity of ELISA is higher than other tests; therefore, these techniques would be the most appropriate for screening of T. cruzi infection. A suitable approach is the combination of a test using total antigen with another based on either recombinant antigens or synthetic peptides. (c) 2009 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  3. High sodium intake is associated with important risk factors in a large cohort of chronic kidney disease patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nerbass, F B; Pecoits-Filho, R; McIntyre, N J; McIntyre, C W; Taal, M W

    2015-07-01

    An increased risk of mortality and cardiovascular disease (CVD) is observed in people with chronic kidney disease (CKD) even in early stages. Dietary sodium intake has been associated with important CVD and CKD progression risk factors such as hypertension and proteinuria in this population. We aimed to investigate the relationship between sodium intake and CVD or CKD progression risk factors in a large cohort of patients with CKD stage 3 recruited from primary care. A total of 1733 patients with previous estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) of 30-59 ml/min/1.73m(2), with a mean age 72.9±9.0 years, were recruited from 32 general practices in primary care in England. Medical history was obtained and participants underwent clinical assessment, urine and serum biochemistry testing. Sodium intake was estimated from three early-morning urine specimens using an equation validated for this study population. Sixty percent of participants who had estimated sodium intake above recommendation (>100 mmol/day or 6 g salt/day) also had higher diastolic blood pressure, mean arterial pressure (MAP), urinary albumin-to-creatinine ratio, high-sensitive C-reactive protein and uric acid and used a greater number of anti-hypertensive drugs. In multivariable regression analysis, excessive sodium intake was an independent predictor of MAP (B=1.57, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.41-2.72; P=0.008) and albuminuria (B=1.35, 95% CI 1.02-1.79; P=0.03). High sodium intake was associated with CVD and CKD progression risk factors in patients with predominantly early stages of CKD followed up in primary care. This suggests that dietary sodium intake could afffect CVD risk even in early or mild CKD. Intervention studies are warranted to investigate the potential benefit of dietary advice to reduce sodium intake in this population.

  4. Quantifying the importance of disease burden on perceived general health and depressive symptoms in patients within the Mayo Clinic Biobank.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryu, Euijung; Takahashi, Paul Y; Olson, Janet E; Hathcock, Matthew A; Novotny, Paul J; Pathak, Jyotishman; Bielinski, Suzette J; Cerhan, James R; Sloan, Jeff A

    2015-07-03

    Deficits in health-related quality of life (HRQOL) may be associated with worse patient experiences, outcomes and even survival. While there exists evidence to identify risk factors associated with deficits in HRQOL among patients with individual medical conditions such as cancer, it is less well established in more general populations without attention to specific illnesses. This study used patients with a wide range of medical conditions to identify contributors with the greatest influence on HRQOL deficits. Self-perceived general health and depressive symptoms were assessed using data from 21,736 Mayo Clinic Biobank (MCB) participants. Each domain was dichotomized into categories related to poor health: deficit (poor/fair for general health and ≥3 for PHQ-2 depressive symptoms) or non-deficit. Logistic regression models were used to test the association of commonly collected demographic characteristics and disease burden with each HRQOL domain, adjusting for age and gender. Gradient boosting machine (GBM) models were applied to quantify the relative influence of contributors on each HRQOL domain. The prevalence of participants with a deficit was 9.5 % for perception of general health and 4.6 % for depressive symptoms. For both groups, disease burden had the strongest influence for deficit in HRQOL (63 % for general health and 42 % for depressive symptoms). For depressive symptoms, age was equally influential. The prevalence of a deficit in general health increased slightly with age for males, but remained stable across age for females. Deficit in depressive symptoms was inversely associated with age. For both HRQOL domains, risk of a deficit was associated with higher disease burden, lower levels of education, no alcohol consumption, smoking, and obesity. Subjects with deficits were less likely to report that they were currently working for pay than those without a deficit; this association was stronger among males than females. Comorbid health burden has the

  5. Generalised and abdominal adiposity are important risk factors for chronic disease in older people: results from a nationally representative survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirani, V

    2011-06-01

    To look at the trends in prevalence of generalised (body mass index (BMI) ≥ 25 kg/m2) and abdominal obesity (waist circumference (WC) >102 cm, men; > 88 cm, women) among older people from 1993 to 2008, prevalence of chronic disease by overweight/obesity and WC categories in England 2005 and evaluate the association of these measures with chronic diseases. Analyses of nationally representative cross-sectional population surveys, the Health Survey for England (HSE). Non-institutionalised men and women aged ≥ 65 years (in HSE 2005, 1512 men and 1747 women). Height, weight, waist circumference, blood pressure measurements were taken according to standardised HSE protocols. Information collected on socio-demographic, health behaviour and doctor diagnosed health conditions. Generalised obesity and abdominal obesity increased among men and women from 1993 to 2008. In 2005, the HSE 2005 focussed on older people. 72% of men and 68% of women aged over 65 were either overweight or obese. Prevalence of raised WC was higher in women (58%) than in men (46%). The prevalence of diabetes and arthritis was higher in people with generalised obesity in both sexes. Men were more likely to have had a joint replacement and had a higher prevalence of stroke if they were overweight only but women were more likely to have had a joint replacement only if they were obese (13%) and had a higher risk of falls with generalised obesity. The pattern was similar for the prevalence of chronic diseases by raised WC. Multivariate analysis showed that generalised and abdominal obesity was independently associated with risk of hypertension, diabetes and arthritis in both men and women. In women only, there was an association between generalised obesity and having a fall in the last year (OR: 1.5), and between abdominal obesity and having a joint replacement (OR: 1.9, p=0.01). Complications of obesity such as diabetes, hypertension and arthritis, are more common in men and women aged over 65 who are

  6. Importance of Collateralization in Patients With Large Artery Intracranial Occlusive Disease: Long-Term Longitudinal Assessment of Cerebral Hemodynamic Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larissa McKetton

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Patients with large artery intracranial occlusive disease (LAICOD are at risk for both acute ischemia and chronic hypoperfusion. Collateral circulation plays an important role in prognosis, and imaging plays an essential role in diagnosis, treatment planning, and prognosis of patients with LAICOD. In addition to standard structural imaging, assessment of cerebral hemodynamic function is important to determine the adequacy of collateral supply. Among the currently available methods of assessment of cerebral hemodynamic function, measurement of cerebrovascular reactivity (CVR using blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD MRI and precisely controlled CO2 has shown to be a safe, reliable, reproducible, and clinically useful method for long-term assessment of patients. Here, we report a case of long-term follow-up in a 28-year-old Caucasian female presented to the neurology clinic with a history of TIAs and LAICOD of the right middle cerebral artery (MCA. Initial structural MRI showed a right MCA stenosis and a small right coronal radiate lacunar infarct. Her CVR study showed a large area of impaired CVR with a paradoxical decrease in BOLD signal with hypercapnia involving the right MCA territory indicating intracerebral steal. The patient was managed medically with anticoagulant and antiplatelet therapy and was followed-up for over 9 years with both structural and functional imaging. Cortical thickness (CT measures were longitudinally assessed from a region of interest that was applied to subsequent time points in the cortical region exhibiting steal physiology and in the same region of the contralateral healthy hemisphere. In the long-term follow-up, the patient exhibited improvement in her CVR as demonstrated by the development of collaterals with negligible changes to CT. Management of patients with LAICOD remains challenging since no revascularization strategies have shown efficacy except in patients with moyamoya disease. Management is well

  7. Importance of Collateralization in Patients With Large Artery Intracranial Occlusive Disease: Long-Term Longitudinal Assessment of Cerebral Hemodynamic Function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKetton, Larissa; Venkatraghavan, Lakshmikumar; Poublanc, Julien; Sobczyk, Olivia; Crawley, Adrian P; Rosen, Casey; Silver, Frank L; Duffin, James; Fisher, Joseph A; Mikulis, David J

    2018-01-01

    Patients with large artery intracranial occlusive disease (LAICOD) are at risk for both acute ischemia and chronic hypoperfusion. Collateral circulation plays an important role in prognosis, and imaging plays an essential role in diagnosis, treatment planning, and prognosis of patients with LAICOD. In addition to standard structural imaging, assessment of cerebral hemodynamic function is important to determine the adequacy of collateral supply. Among the currently available methods of assessment of cerebral hemodynamic function, measurement of cerebrovascular reactivity (CVR) using blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) MRI and precisely controlled CO 2 has shown to be a safe, reliable, reproducible, and clinically useful method for long-term assessment of patients. Here, we report a case of long-term follow-up in a 28-year-old Caucasian female presented to the neurology clinic with a history of TIAs and LAICOD of the right middle cerebral artery (MCA). Initial structural MRI showed a right MCA stenosis and a small right coronal radiate lacunar infarct. Her CVR study showed a large area of impaired CVR with a paradoxical decrease in BOLD signal with hypercapnia involving the right MCA territory indicating intracerebral steal. The patient was managed medically with anticoagulant and antiplatelet therapy and was followed-up for over 9 years with both structural and functional imaging. Cortical thickness (CT) measures were longitudinally assessed from a region of interest that was applied to subsequent time points in the cortical region exhibiting steal physiology and in the same region of the contralateral healthy hemisphere. In the long-term follow-up, the patient exhibited improvement in her CVR as demonstrated by the development of collaterals with negligible changes to CT. Management of patients with LAICOD remains challenging since no revascularization strategies have shown efficacy except in patients with moyamoya disease. Management is well defined for acute

  8. Ethnopharmacological appraisal of culturally important medicinal plants and polyherbal formulas used against communicable diseases in Rodrigues Island.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samoisy, Anne Kathie; Mahomoodally, Fawzi

    2016-12-24

    The tropical island of Rodrigues is one of three islands that constitute the Mascarene archipelago in the Indian Ocean. Currently considered as a biodiversity hotspot, the island has also a resilient history in the use of traditional medicine. However, there has been no ethnopharmacological study to document quantitatively such traditional practice against communicable diseases (CD), which currently accounts for 6.61% annual death and 30.7% attendances in public hospitals. The aim of the present study was to collect, analyse, and document traditionally used medicinal plants (MP) and polyherbal formulas from key informants and traditional medicine practitioners (TMP) in Rodrigues to treat and/or manage common CD. Data was collected via face-to-face interviews with MP users (n=113) and TMP (n=9) from 17 key sites. Seven quantitative ethnopharmacological indices, namely family use value (FUV), use value (UV), informant agreement ratio (IAR), relative frequency of citation (RFC), fidelity level (FL), relative importance (RI), and ethnobotanicity index (EI) were calculated. Ninety-seven plants belonging to 49 families were recorded to be in common use as monotherapy (80 plants) and/or as part of polyherbal preparation (23 plants) for the treatment and/or management of 16 different CD. Thirteen MPs were found to have a maximum FL of 100% for CD. The highest IAR (0.98) was observed for diseases of the eye and adnexa and skin and subcutaneous tissue. The highest FUV was for Arecaceae. Ayapana triplinervis (Vahl) R.M. king et H.Rob. scored the highest UV (UV=2.72). Seven endemic medicinal plants have been recorded to be employed in cultural rituals for the management of common CDs, whereas 14 polyherbal preparations were used to treat and/or manage 6 different types of CDs. Side effects were also reported following use of some these medicinal plants. Given the dearth of updated information on traditional medicine from Rodrigues, this work has provided an

  9. Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease and sarcopenia in a Western population (NHANES III): The importance of sarcopenia definition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Tao-Chun; Wu, Li-Wei; Chen, Wei-Liang; Liaw, Fang-Yih; Chang, Yaw-Wen; Kao, Tung-Wei

    2017-12-08

    Recent epidemiological studies have shown that sarcopenia is associated with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and advanced fibrosis in an Asian population. We investigated whether NAFLD is associated with a higher risk of sarcopenia using a different definition in elderly patients. A population-based cross-sectional survey of US patients was conducted, involving 2551 participants aged 60-75 years. NAFLD was measured by ultrasound. Sarcopenia was defined by both a low muscle mass and poor muscle function. In addition, the skeletal muscle index (SMI) was calculated as the absolute muscle mass (kilograms) divided by height 2 (meters) or total body mass (kilograms). A multivariable logistic regression was conducted to estimate the relationship between sarcopenia and NAFLD in the elderly. After adjusting for age, sex, and race/ethnicity, severe hepatic steatosis was associated with a decreased risk of sarcopenia as defined by the height-adjusted SMI (odds ratio (OR) 0.63; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.46-0.87). In contrast, severe hepatic steatosis was associated with an increased risk of sarcopenia as defined by the weight-adjusted SMI (OR 1.73; 95% CI 1.31-2.28). These significant associations remained after further adjustments for other potential confounding variables. NAFLD is associated with a lower risk of sarcopenia when using the height-adjusted SMI. In contrast, it showed the opposite result when using the weight-adjusted SMI. The definition of sarcopenia may be an important factor when examining its relationship with NAFLD. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All rights reserved.

  10. The Importance of Vigorous-Intensity Leisure-Time Physical Activity in Reducing Cardiovascular Disease Mortality Risk in the Obese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Donovan, Gary; Stamatakis, Emmanuel; Stensel, David J; Hamer, Mark

    2018-03-02

    To investigate the role of vigorous-intensity leisure-time physical activity in reducing cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality risk in the obese. Trained interviewers assessed physical activity and body mass index (BMI; calculated as the weight in kilograms divided by the height in meters squared) in 59,005 adult participants (mean ± SD age, 57±12 years; 46.5% male) in 2 household-based surveillance studies: Health Survey for England and Scottish Health Survey. Mortality was ascertained from death certificates. Data were collected from January 1, 1994, through March 31, 2011. Cox proportional hazards models were adjusted for age, sex, smoking habit, total physical activity, long-standing illness, prevalent CVD, and occupation. There were 2302 CVD deaths during 532,251 person-years of follow-up (mean ± SD, 9±4 years). A total of 15,002 (25%) participants were categorized as obese (BMI ≥30). Leisure-time physical activity was inversely associated and BMI was positively associated with CVD mortality. Compared with those who reported meeting physical activity guidelines including some vigorous-intensity physical activity and who had a normal BMI (18.5-24.9) (reference group), the CVD mortality hazard ratio was not significantly different in the obese who also reported meeting physical activity guidelines including some vigorous-intensity physical activities (1.25; 95% CI, 0.50-3.12). Compared with the reference group, the CVD mortality hazard ratio was more than 2-fold in the obese who reported meeting physical activity guidelines, including only moderate-intensity physical activities (2.52; 95% CI, 1.15-2.53). This large, statistically powerful study suggests that vigorous-intensity leisure-time physical activity is important in reducing CVD mortality risk in the obese. Copyright © 2018 Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Seasonal Activity of Ticks and their Importance in Tick-Borne Infectious Diseases in West Azerbaijan, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sh Salari Lak

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: West Azerbaijan is considered as a main region for domestic animal breeding. Due to importance of herd as a main host and ticks as a vector of relapsing fever and CCHF, a comprehensive study was undertaken in the region.Methods: Outdoor, indoor collection as well as ticks stick to the animals' body were collected and identified. The study was conducted during the whole seasons in 2004-2005.Results: During four seasons a total of 2728 ticks of two families (Ixodidae and Argasidae were collected compris­ing 7 genera of 5 hard ticks and two genera of soft ticks including Haemaphysalis, Hyalomma, Rhipicepha­lus, Boophilus and Dermacentor. The soft ticks were Ornithodoros and Argas. These 7 genera included 18 species. The main species were Haemaphysalis inermis, H. punctata, H. sulcata, H. numidiana, H. concinna, Hyalomma mar­gi­natum, Hy. anatolicum, Hy. detritum, Hy. dromedarii, Hy. asiaticum, Hy. schulzei, H. aegyptium, Rhipicephalus bursa, R. sangiuneus, Dermacentor marginatus, Boophilus annulatus, Ornithodoros lahorensis, and Argas persicus. Fre­quency of ticks during different seasons was different. A pyrethroid insecticide, cypermethrin, which is widely used for tick control was tested against soft ticks. The test method was based on WHO recommendation. At the LD50 level A. persicus needs more concentration than O. lahorensis.Conclusion: Ornithodoros and Argas are the more prevalent soft ticks in the region. Distribution and prevalence of hard ticks was varied in different seasons. Results of this study will provide a clue for vectors of tick-borne diseases in the region for local authorities for implementation of tick control.

  12. New trends in important diseases affecting the culture of fish and molluscs in the ICES area 2002-2015

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alfjorden, Anders; Areskog, Marlene; Bruno, David

    The ICES Working Group on Pathology and Diseases of Marine Organisms (WGPDMO) provides annual reviews of national reports on the disease status of wild and farmed fish and molluscs in the ICES area. In 2004, the group published a first report collating this information from 1998-2002. This second...

  13. Costs of Alzheimer's disease (in Dutch); A study of the most important cost items of patients with Alzheimer's disease in the Netherlands and in France

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    N. van der Roer; J.J. van Busschbach (Jan); E.S. Goes; L. van Hakkaart-van Roijen (Leona)

    2001-01-01

    textabstractThe most frequently occurring type of dementia is Alzheimer's disease. Alzheimer's disease is a degenerative illness affecting the brain, decreasing the patient's memory and judgement. A cure is not available but it is possible to delay the cognitive decline with medication. New drugs

  14. Generalised and abdominal adiposity are important risk factors for chronic disease in older people: results from a nationally representative survey

    OpenAIRE

    Vasant Hirani

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To look at the trends in prevalence of generalised (body mass index (BMI)≥ 25 kg/m2) and abdominal obesity (waist circumference (WC) >102cm, men; >88cm, women) among older people from 1993 to 2008, prevalence of chronic disease by overweight/obesity and waist circumference categories in England 2005 and evaluate the association of these measures with chronic diseases.

  15. The role and importance of veterinary laboratories in the prevention and control of infectious diseases of animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truszczyński, M J

    1998-08-01

    Veterinary laboratories which deal with infectious diseases form three groups according to the tasks for which they are responsible. The first group includes central or national veterinary laboratories, national or international reference laboratories, high-security laboratories, district regional or state veterinary diagnostic laboratories. The major role of these laboratories is to assist national Veterinary Services in diagnosing infectious animal diseases. The second group comprises laboratories that produce veterinary diagnostic kits and those that produce veterinary vaccines. The third group is composed of veterinary research laboratories, which generally concentrate on basic research and do not contribute directly to the diagnosis and control of infectious animal diseases. The author describes the objectives of each of the three groups of laboratories.

  16. MicroRNA-223 and miR-143 are important systemic biomarkers for disease activity in psoriasis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Løvendorf, Marianne B; Zibert, John R; Gyldenløve, Mette

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Psoriasis is a systemic inflammatory skin disease. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of small non-coding RNA molecules that recently have been found in the blood to be relevant as disease biomarkers. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to explore miRNAs potential as blood biomarkers for psoriasis. METHODS......: Using microarray and quantitative real-time PCR we measured the global miRNA expression in whole blood, plasma and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from patients with psoriasis and healthy controls. RESULTS: We identified several deregulated miRNAs in the blood from patients with psoriasis...... following a significant decrease in psoriasis severity, miR-223 and miR-143 were significantly downregulated in the PBMCs from patients with psoriasis. CONCLUSION: We suggest that changes in the miR-223 and miR-143 expressions in PBMCs from patients with psoriasis may serve as novel biomarkers for disease...

  17. Functional, communicative and critical health literacy of chronic disease patients and their importance for self-management.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heijmans, M.; Waverijn, G.; Rademakers, J.; Vaart, R. van der; Rijken, M.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To provide insight into the level of health literacy among chronic disease patients in the Netherlands, to identify subgroups with low literacy and to examine the associations between health literacy and self-management. Methods: Self-report questionnaires were sent to a nationwide sample

  18. Cytomegalovirus disease in a renal transplant recipient: the importance of pre-transplant screening of the donor and recipient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed H Mitwalli

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A 16-year-old female patient who was born with a single kidney developed chronic kidney disease during her early childhood due to reflux nephropathy and recurrent urinary tract infection. She progressed to end-stage renal disease (ESRD and was commenced on renal replacement therapy in the form of peritoneal dialysis in May 2011. Subsequently, she underwent living unrelated donor kidney transplantation in China. She was hospitalized soon after returning to Saudi Arabia for management of high-grade fever, shortness of breath, and deterioration of renal function, which was found to be due to cytomegalovirus (CMV disease, proved by kidney biopsy and presence of high level of anti-CMV immunoglobulins. Allograft biopsy showed mature viral particles sized between 120 and 149 nm in the nuclei of the glomerular endothelial cells. The patient was treated with valgancyclovir and specific CMV immunoglobulin, as well as by reducing and even stopping the dose of tacrolimus and mycophenolate. Despite all these measures, her condition continued to deteriorate and she finally died. Our study emphasizes that unrelated renal transplantation, especially if unplanned and improperly prepared, is a very risky procedure that might transfer dangerous diseases and increase the morbidity and mortality of the patients. We strongly stress the need for mandatory and proper screening for CMV carrier status among donors as well as recipients prior to transplantation. Also, a recommendation is made to reject CMV-positive donors.

  19. Food Consumption and its Impact on Cardiovascular Disease: Importance of Solutions Focused on the Globalized Food System

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Anand, Sonia S.; Hawkes, Corinna; Souza, De Russell J.; Mente, Andrew; Dehghan, Mahshid; Nugent, Rachel; Zulyniak, Michael A.; Weis, Tony; Bernstein, Adam M.; Krauss, Ronald M.; Kromhout, Daan; Jenkins, David J.A.; Malik, Vasanti; Martinez-Gonzalez, Miguel A.; Mozaffarian, Dariush; Yusuf, Salim; Willett, Walter C.; Popkin, Barry M.

    2015-01-01

    Major scholars in the field, on the basis of a 3-day consensus, created an in-depth review of current knowledge on the role of diet in cardiovascular disease (CVD), the changing global food system and global dietary patterns, and potential policy solutions. Evidence from different countries and

  20. The importance of being urgent: The impact of surveillance target and scale on mosquito-borne disease control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samantha R. Schwab

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available With the emergence or re-emergence of numerous mosquito-borne diseases in recent years, effective methods for emergency vector control responses are necessary to reduce human infections. Current vector control practices often vary significantly between different jurisdictions, and are executed independently and at different spatial scales. Various types of surveillance information (e.g. number of human infections or adult mosquitoes trigger the implementation of control measures, though the target and scale of surveillance vary locally. This patchy implementation of control measures likely alters the efficacy of control.We modeled six different scenarios, with larval mosquito control occurring in response to surveillance data of different types and at different scales (e.g. across the landscape or in each patch. Our results indicate that: earlier application of larvicide after an escalation of disease risk achieves much greater reductions in human infections than later control implementation; uniform control across the landscape provides better outbreak mitigation than patchy control application; and different types of surveillance data require different levels of sensitivity in their collection to effectively inform control measures. Our simulations also demonstrate a potential logical fallacy of reactive, surveillance-driven vector control: measures stop being implemented as soon as they are deemed effective. This false sense of security leads to patchier control efforts that will do little to curb the size of future vector-borne disease outbreaks. More investment should be placed in collecting high quality information that can trigger early and uniform implementation, while researchers work to discover more informative metrics of human risk to trigger more effective control. Keywords: Zika control, Epidemiological surveillance, Disease surveillance, Mosquito control, Vector-borne disease control, Epidemiological modeling

  1. THE REVIEW OF MODERN STUDYS ABOUT THE IMPORTANCE OF COMPLIANCE OF PATIENTS TO TREATMENT OF СARDIOVASCULAR DISEASES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. S. Soboleva

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In article the review of modern foreign and Russian researches about value of adherence of patients to medicinal therapy of сardiovascular diseases is carried out. Relevance of a problem of non-compliance with appointments of the doctor is described. Factors of adherence which are associated with drug (the price, quantity, reception frequency, amount of drugs, with personal qualities and medical characteristics  of the patient (forgetfulness, age, sex, the diagnosis and the accompanying pathologies, existence of complications in the anamnesis, education, quality of life, with insufficient knowledge of a disease and/or of medicines, side effects, fears and doubts of patients are defined. The review of various methods and ways of rise of adherence, their use in medical practice is provided.

  2. Systematic review of the most important medicinal plants and place them in the international treatment of diseases

    OpenAIRE

    azadeh Khonsari; kourosh Gorji; arman Mousavi; foad Abdollahpur

    2010-01-01

    Herbal medicine, a complementary and alternative medical system has been used to treat various diseases over thousands of years in many countries and the use of herbal medicine is growing in all of the world. Exploring the most frequently used herbs and herbal products in alternative and complementary medicine worldwide is a challenging issue because herbal medicine has been increased popularity among physicians and patients. The aim of this study was to systematically review literature repor...

  3. The role and importance of economic evaluation of traditional herbal medicine use for chronic non-communicable diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Hughes GD; Aboyade OM; Hill JD; Rasu RS

    2015-01-01

    Gail D Hughes,1 Oluwaseyi M Aboyade,1 John D Hill,2 Rafia S Rasu3 1South African Herbal Science and Medicine Institute, University of the Western Cape, Western Cape, South Africa; 2Department of Pharmacy, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, OH, 3School of Pharmacy, University of Kansas, Lawrence, KS, USA Background: Non-communicable diseases (NCD) constitute major public health problems globally, with an impact on morbidity and mortality ranking high and second to HIV/AIDS. Existing studies conduct...

  4. How common is clinically inactive disease in a prospective cohort of patients with juvenile idiopathic arthritis? The importance of definition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoop-Worrall, Stephanie J W; Verstappen, Suzanne M M; Baildam, Eileen; Chieng, Alice; Davidson, Joyce; Foster, Helen; Ioannou, Yiannis; McErlane, Flora; Wedderburn, Lucy R; Thomson, Wendy; Hyrich, Kimme L

    2017-08-01

    Many criteria for clinically inactive disease (CID) and minimal disease activity (MDA) have been proposed for juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA). It is not known to what degree each of these criteria overlap within a single patient cohort. This study aimed to compare the frequency of MDA and CID across different criteria in a cohort of children with JIA at 1 year following presentation. The Childhood Arthritis Prospective Study recruits children at initial presentation to paediatric or adolescent rheumatology in seven UK centres. Children recruited between October 2001 and December 2013 were included. The proportions of children with CID and MDA at 1 year were calculated using four investigator-defined and eight published composite criteria. Missing data were accounted for using multiple imputation under different assumptions. In a cohort of 1415 children and adolescents, 67% patients had no active joints at 1 year. Between 48% and 61% achieved MDA and between 25% and 38% achieved CID using published criteria. Overlap between criteria varied. Of 922 patients in MDA by either the original composite criteria, Juvenile Arthritis Disease Activity Score (JADAS) or clinical JADAS cut-offs, 68% were classified as in MDA by all 3 criteria. Similarly, 44% of 633 children with CID defined by either Wallace's preliminary criteria or the JADAS cut-off were in CID according to both criteria. In a large JIA prospective inception cohort, a majority of patients have evidence of persistent disease activity after 1 year. Published criteria to capture MDA and CID do not always identify the same groups of patients. This has significant implications when defining and applying treat-to-target strategies. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  5. The importance of ribosome production, and the 5S RNP-MDM2 pathway, in health and disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelava, Andria; Schneider, Claudia; Watkins, Nicholas J

    2016-08-15

    Ribosomes are abundant, large RNA-protein complexes that are the source of all protein synthesis in the cell. The production of ribosomes is an extremely energetically expensive cellular process that has long been linked to human health and disease. More recently, it has been shown that ribosome biogenesis is intimately linked to multiple cellular signalling pathways and that defects in ribosome production can lead to a wide variety of human diseases. Furthermore, changes in ribosome production in response to nutrient levels in the diet lead to metabolic re-programming of the liver. Reduced or abnormal ribosome production in response to cellular stress or mutations in genes encoding factors critical for ribosome biogenesis causes the activation of the tumour suppressor p53, which leads to re-programming of cellular transcription. The ribosomal assembly intermediate 5S RNP (ribonucleoprotein particle), containing RPL5, RPL11 and the 5S rRNA, accumulates when ribosome biogenesis is blocked. The excess 5S RNP binds to murine double minute 2 (MDM2), the main p53-suppressor in the cell, inhibiting its function and leading to p53 activation. Here, we discuss the involvement of ribosome biogenesis in the homoeostasis of p53 in the cell and in human health and disease. © 2016 The Author(s).

  6. Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease (NAFLD): new challenge for general practitioners and important burden for health authorities?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Mohamed H; Abu, Emmanuel O; Byrne, Christopher D

    2010-10-01

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most common cause of hepatic dysfunction encountered in general practice. A large proportion of individuals with type 2 diabetes and the metabolic syndrome develop NAFLD. NAFLD is associated with severe insulin resistance and increased risk of cardiovascular disease and can progress to non-alcoholic steato-hepatitis, liver cirrhosis and cancer. Currently the only known effective treatments for NAFLD are lifestyle changes including stable weight loss and a diet low in calories. General practitioners will increasingly play a key role in dealing with this evolving but serious epidemic of NAFLD and associated metabolic complications. However, success will depend on the appropriate systems and mechanisms being in place in primary care and the proper motivation, support and education of the patient. This review provides the primary care physician with: (a) a step-by step guide of how to identify NAFLD, (b) information to exclude common other causes of liver fat accumulation and (c) additional insight into relationships between NAFLD and other conditions such as obesity, cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes. Copyright © 2010 Primary Care Diabetes Europe. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Replication and meta-analysis of GWAS identified susceptibility loci in Kawasaki disease confirm the importance of B lymphoid tyrosine kinase (BLK) in disease susceptibility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chang, Chia-Jung; Kuo, Ho-Chang; Chang, Jeng-Sheng; Lee, Jong-Keuk; Tsai, Fuu-Jen; Khor, Chiea Chuen; Chang, Li-Ching; Chen, Shih-Ping; Ko, Tai-Ming; Liu, Yi-Min; Chen, Ying-Ju; Hong, Young Mi; Jang, Gi Young; Hibberd, Martin L.; Kuijpers, Taco; Burgner, David; Levin, Michael; Burns, Jane C.; Davila, Sonia; Chen, Yuan-Tsong; Chen, Chien-Hsiun; Wu, Jer-Yuarn; Lee, Yi-Ching; Liang, Chi-Di; Hwang, Kao-Pin; Chang, Luan-Yin; Huang, Li-Min; Chen, Ming-Ren; Chi, Hsin; Huang, Fu-Yuan; Chiu, Nan-Chang; Lee, Meng-Luen; Huang, Yhu-Chering; Hwang, Betau; Lee, Pi-Chang; Yoo, Jeong-Jin; Park, In-Sook; Hong, Soo-Jong; Kim, Kwi-Joo; Kim, Jae-Jung; Sohn, Saejung; Young Jang, Gi; Ha, Kee-Soo; Nam, Hyo-Kyoung; Byeon, Jung-Hye; Yun, Sin Weon; Han, Myung Ki; Kuipers, Irene M.; Ottenkamp, Jaap J.; Biezeveld, Maarten

    2013-01-01

    The BLK and CD40 loci have been associated with Kawasaki disease (KD) in two genome-wide association studies (GWAS) conducted in a Taiwanese population of Han Chinese ancestry (Taiwanese) and in Japanese cohorts. Here we build on these findings with replication studies of the BLK and CD40 loci in

  8. Verbal memory declines more in female patients with Parkinson's disease: the importance of gender-corrected normative data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fengler, S; Roeske, S; Heber, I; Reetz, K; Schulz, J B; Riedel, O; Wittchen, H U; Storch, A; Linse, K; Baudrexel, S; Hilker, R; Mollenhauer, B; Witt, K; Schmidt, N; Balzer-Geldsetzer, M; Dams, J; Dodel, R; Gräber, S; Pilotto, A; Petrelli, A; Fünkele, S; Kassubek, J; Kalbe, E

    2016-08-01

    Data on gender-specific profiles of cognitive functions in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) are rare and inconsistent, and possible disease-confounding factors have been insufficiently considered. The LANDSCAPE study on cognition in PD enrolled 656 PD patients (267 without cognitive impairment, 66% male; 292 with mild cognitive impairment, 69% male; 97 with PD dementia, 69% male). Raw values and age-, education-, and gender-corrected Z scores of a neuropsychological test battery (CERAD-Plus) were compared between genders. Motor symptoms, disease duration, l-dopa equivalent daily dose, depression - and additionally age and education for the raw value analysis - were taken as covariates. Raw-score analysis replicated results of previous studies in that female PD patients were superior in verbal memory (word list learning, p = 0.02; recall, p = 0.03), while men outperformed women in visuoconstruction (p = 0.002) and figural memory (p = 0.005). In contrast, gender-corrected Z scores showed that men were superior in verbal memory (word list learning, p = 0.02; recall, p = 0.02; recognition, p = 0.04), while no difference was found for visuospatial tests. This picture could be observed both in the overall analysis of PD patients as well as in a differentiated group analysis. Normative data corrected for gender and other sociodemographic variables are relevant, since they may elucidate a markedly different cognitive profile compared to raw scores. Our study also suggests that verbal memory decline is stronger in women than in men with PD. Future studies are needed to replicate these findings, examine the progression of gender-specific cognitive decline in PD and define different underlying mechanisms of this dysfunction.

  9. Long term outcomes following achievement of clinically inactive disease in juvenile idiopathic arthritis: the importance of definition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoop-Worrall, Stephanie Jw; Verstappen, Suzanne Mm; McDonagh, Janet E; Baildam, Eileen; Chieng, Alice; Davidson, Joyce; Foster, Helen; Ioannou, Yiannis; McErlane, Flora; Wedderburn, Lucy R; Thomson, W; Hyrich, Kimme L

    2018-04-12

    Potential targets for treat-to-target strategies in JIA are minimal disease activity (MDA) and clinically inactive disease (CID). Short and long-term outcomes following achievement of MDA and CID on the cJADAS10 and CID on Wallace's preliminary criteria were compared. Children recruited to the Childhood Arthritis Prospective Study, a UK multicentre inception cohort, were selected if recruited prior to January 2011 and diagnosed with oligoarthritis or rheumatoid factor negative or positive polyarthritis. At one year following diagnosis, children were assessed for MDA on the cJADAS10 and CID on both Wallace's preliminary criteria and the cJADAS10. Associations were tested between these disease states and i) functional ability, ii) absence of limited joints, iii) psychosocial health and v) pain at one year and annually to five years. Of 832 children, 70% were female and the majority had oligoarthritis (68%). At one year, 21% had achieved CID according to both definitions, 7% on Wallace's preliminary criteria only, 16% on cJADAS10 only and 56% on neither. Only 10% of children in the entire cohort achieved MDA without also having CID. Achieving either early CID state was associated with greater absence of limited joints. However, only CID on cJADAS10 was associated with improved functional ability and psychosocial health. Achieving CID was superior to MDA in terms of short and long-term pain and the absence of limited joints. CID on the cJADAS10 may be a preferable treatment target to CID on Wallace's preliminary criteria in terms of both feasibility of application and long-term outcomes. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  10. Systematic review of the most important medicinal plants and place them in the international treatment of diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    azadeh Khonsari

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Herbal medicine, a complementary and alternative medical system has been used to treat various diseases over thousands of years in many countries and the use of herbal medicine is growing in all of the world. Exploring the most frequently used herbs and herbal products in alternative and complementary medicine worldwide is a challenging issue because herbal medicine has been increased popularity among physicians and patients. The aim of this study was to systematically review literature reporting on the use of the herbal medicine to determine the genus of the most frequently used herbs in alternative medicine and the diseases under treatment. Material and Methods: Systematic searches were carried out in the databases Medline, Pubmed, Sciencedirect and Springer. Each databases was searched from Jan 2000 until Jan 2008 with the keywords of herbal medicine, herb medicine, phytotherapy and extract medicine. Systematic reviews and meta – analysis were included and no language restrictions were imposed, to find the genus of commonly used herbs and studied diseases. The findings were evaluated according to frequency of usage. Results: In this paper we have reported 8 plants which are the most common ones and have been in vogue from ancient time in the world. These most frequently used plants are Ginseng, Salvia, Ginkgo biloba, Hypericum, Garlic, Ginger, Aloe vera and Marijuana. According to findings neurologic, inflammatory – immunogenic, digestive and urinary – kidney diseases are the most interested fields in herbal medicine. Although most of the reviewed articles (89.2% showed a positive effect but side effects of herbal medicine are reported in the others and also need to furthermore works was mentioned as a necessity in 49.7% of them. Discussion: According to the present findings, herbal medicine has historically been efficacious in the treatment and management of many health problems. The ultimate purpose of the herbal medicine is to

  11. A genome-wide scan reveals important roles of DNA methylation in human longevity by regulating age-related disease genes.

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    Fu-Hui Xiao

    Full Text Available It is recognized that genetic factors contribute to human longevity. Besides the hypothesis of existence of longevity genes, another suggests that a lower frequency of risk alleles decreases the incidence of age-related diseases in the long-lived people. However, the latter finds no support from recent genetic studies. Considering the crucial role of epigenetic modification in gene regulation, we then hypothesize that suppressing disease-related genes in longevity individuals is likely achieved by epigenetic modification, e.g. DNA methylation. To test this hypothesis, we investigated the genome-wide methylation profile in 4 Chinese female centenarians and 4 middle-aged controls using methyl-DNA immunoprecipitation sequencing. 626 differentially methylated regions (DMRs were observed between both groups. Interestingly, genes with these DMRs were enriched in age-related diseases, including type-2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease, stroke and Alzheimer's disease. This pattern remains rather stable after including methylomes of two white individuals. Further analyses suggest that the observed DMRs likely have functional roles in regulating disease-associated gene expressions, with some genes [e.g. caspase 3 (CASP3] being down-regulated whereas the others [i.e. interleukin 1 receptor, type 2 (IL1R2] up-regulated. Therefore, our study suggests that suppressing the disease-related genes via epigenetic modification is an important contributor to human longevity.

  12. Identification and Prioritization of Important Attributes of Disease-Modifying Drugs in Decision Making among Patients with Multiple Sclerosis: A Nominal Group Technique and Best-Worst Scaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kremer, Ingrid E H; Evers, Silvia M A A; Jongen, Peter J; van der Weijden, Trudy; van de Kolk, Ilona; Hiligsmann, Mickaël

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the preferences of patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) for disease-modifying drugs and involving these patients in clinical decision making can improve the concordance between medical decisions and patient values and may, subsequently, improve adherence to disease-modifying drugs. This study aims first to identify which characteristics-or attributes-of disease-modifying drugs influence patients´ decisions about these treatments and second to quantify the attributes' relative importance among patients. First, three focus groups of relapsing-remitting MS patients were formed to compile a preliminary list of attributes using a nominal group technique. Based on this qualitative research, a survey with several choice tasks (best-worst scaling) was developed to prioritize attributes, asking a larger patient group to choose the most and least important attributes. The attributes' mean relative importance scores (RIS) were calculated. Nineteen patients reported 34 attributes during the focus groups and 185 patients evaluated the importance of the attributes in the survey. The effect on disease progression received the highest RIS (RIS = 9.64, 95% confidence interval: [9.48-9.81]), followed by quality of life (RIS = 9.21 [9.00-9.42]), relapse rate (RIS = 7.76 [7.39-8.13]), severity of side effects (RIS = 7.63 [7.33-7.94]) and relapse severity (RIS = 7.39 [7.06-7.73]). Subgroup analyses showed heterogeneity in preference of patients. For example, side effect-related attributes were statistically more important for patients who had no experience in using disease-modifying drugs compared to experienced patients (p decision making would be needed and requires eliciting individual preferences.

  13. Prognostic importance of silent myocardial ischemia detected by intravenous dipyridamole thallium myocardial imaging in asymptomatic patients with coronary artery disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Younis, L.T.; Byers, S.; Shaw, L.; Barth, G.; Goodgold, H.; Chaitman, B.R.

    1989-01-01

    One hundred seven asymptomatic patients who underwent intravenous dipyridamole thallium imaging were evaluated to determine prognostic indicators of subsequent cardiac events over an average follow-up period of 14 +/- 10 months. Univariate analysis of 18 clinical, scintigraphic and angiographic variables revealed that a reversible thallium defect, a combined fixed and reversible thallium defect, number of segmental thallium defects and extent of coronary artery disease were significant predictors of subsequent cardiac events. Of the 13 patients who died or had a nonfatal infarction, 12 had a reversible thallium defect. Stepwise logistic regression analysis selected a reversible thallium defect as the only significant predictor of cardiac events. When death or myocardial infarction was the outcome variable, a combined fixed and reversible thallium defect was the only predictor of outcome. In patients without previous myocardial infarction, the cardiac event rate was significantly greater in those with an abnormal versus normal thallium scan (55% versus 12%, p less than 0.001). Thus, intravenous dipyridamole thallium scintigraphy is a useful noninvasive test to risk stratify asymptomatic patients with coronary artery disease. A reversible thallium defect most likely indicates silent myocardial ischemia in a sizable fraction of patients in this clinical subset and is associated with an unfavorable prognosis

  14. Missed opportunities in primary care: the importance of identifying depression through screening, family history, and chronic disease management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maradiegue, Ann H; Khan, Fakiha

    2013-02-01

    This study explored the adequacy of depression screening in a community health center. The medical charts of individuals (N = 90) enrolled at a community health center were randomly selected, reviewed, and compared to current standard-of-care guidelines for four elements: family history, screening for depression, control of chronic illnesses, and missed opportunities for preventive care. Family history documentation collected by the providers was limited and 44.4% had no family history. There was no routine depression screening process, although 48.9% of the clients had red flags (warning signals) for depression. Laboratory values used for screening control of chronic disease in the medical records were: fasting glucose levels ⩽100 mg/dL (46%), total cholesterol levels ⩽200 mg/dL (38%), and blood pressure ⩽120/80 mmHg (23%). The results highlight the need to focus on depression screening as part of preventive care and the management of chronic disease in the primary care setting. Copyright 2013, SLACK Incorporated.

  15. The changing epidemiology of oral diseases in the elderly, their growing importance for care and how they can be managed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batchelor, Paul

    2015-11-01

    This article provides an overview of the changing epidemiology of oral diseases and the impacts for the population. Considerable improvements have occurred in oral health, and many more people are retaining teeth for longer. However, the conditions of teeth and mouth are varied, and all older people are at risk of future oral disease. With the increased prevalence of other more general health conditions, the risks of poor oral health are increasing. Poor oral health gives rise to considerable problems that impact both on an individual's well-being and qualities of life as well as increasing the risks of general health issues. To ensure that the risks of such adverse impacts are minimised, a more collaborative approach involving all care workers is required, addressing the determinants of health and ensuring that better care management arrangements for older people are developed. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Geriatrics Society. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. Equol, a Clinically Important Metabolite, Inhibits the Development and Pathogenicity of Magnaporthe oryzae, the Causal Agent of Rice Blast Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiaoyu Wang

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Equol, a metabolite of soybean isoflavone daidzein, has been proven to have various bioactivities related to human health, but little is known on its antifungal activity to plant fungal pathogens. Magnaporthe oryzae is a phytopathogenic fungus that causes rice blast, a devastating disease on rice. Here, we demonstrated that equol influences the development and pathogenicity of M. oryzae. Equol showed a significant inhibition to the mycelial growth, conidial generation and germination, and appressorial formation of M. oryzae. As a result, equol greatly reduced the virulence of M. oryzae on rice and barley leaves. The antifungal activity of equol was also found in several other plant fungal pathogens. These findings expand our knowledge on the bioactivities of equol.

  17. Improving non-communicable disease remediation outcomes in Tonga: the importance of domestic fruit production systems: an analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven J. R. Underhill

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Non-communicable diseases (NCD are the leading cause of mortality in the Pacific Island nation of Tonga. Current remedial strategies have focused on promoting healthy food choices based on increased intake of fruits and vegetables. While researchers seek to overcome complex social, gender and cultural practices that impede dietary transition, discontinuous domestic fruit supply chains undermine this effort. With the view to supporting a more holistic approach to NCD remediation in Tonga, this paper provides a preliminary assessment of domestic horticultural supply chains constraints, in support of diversification and expansion of local fruit production. Current impediments and constraints to enhanced local fruit production are presented and possible strategies to increased domestic fruit supply discussed. We present a case for a more consumer-centric approach to industry development, with an emphasis on production systems that are compatible with existing social structures, customary land ownership constraints, and local nutritional needs.

  18. The importance of early referral for the treatment of chronic kidney disease: a Danish nationwide cohort study

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    Hommel Kristine

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many patients with advanced chronic kidney disease are referred late to renal units. This is associated with negative aspects. The purpose of the present study was to characterize late versus early referrals for renal replacement therapy including their renal disease, health care contacts and medical treatment before renal replacement therapy (RRT and the consequences for RRT modality and mortality. Methods Nationwide cohort study including 4495 RRT patients identified in the Danish Nephrology Registry 1999–2006. The cohort was followed to end 2007 by linkage to other national registries. Late referral: follow-up ≤16 weeks in renal unit before RRT start. Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimate the relative risk of mortality or waiting list status within 365 days in late referrals versus early referrals. Results A total of 1727 (38% incident RRT patients were referred late. Among these, 72% were treated in non-nephrology hospital departments and 91% in general practice 2 years to 16 weeks before RRT start. Fewer late referrals received recommended pre-RRT treatment as judged by renin-angiotensin-system blockade: 32% versus 57% or the D-vitamin analogue alfacalcidol: 5% versus 30% (P  Conclusions Late nephrology referrals were well-known to the healthcare system before referral for RRT start and more often had near normal plasma creatinine levels within 2 years before RRT start. They infrequently received available treatment or optimal first RRT modality. An increased effort to identify these patients in the healthcare system in time for proper pre-dialysis care including preparation for RRT is needed.

  19. Using participatory epidemiology to investigate management options and relative importance of tick-borne diseases amongst transhumant zebu cattle in Karamoja Region, Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byaruhanga, C; Oosthuizen, M C; Collins, N E; Knobel, D

    2015-12-01

    A participatory epidemiological (PE) study was conducted with livestock keepers in Moroto and Kotido districts, Karamoja Region, Uganda, between October and December 2013 to determine the management options and relative importance of tick-borne diseases (TBDs) amongst transhumant zebu cattle. Data collection involved 24 focus group discussions (each comprising 8-12 people) in 24 settlement areas (manyattas), key informant interviews (30), direct observation, a review of surveillance data, clinical examination, and laboratory confirmation of cases of TBDs. Methods used in group discussions included semi-structured interviews, simple ranking, pairwise ranking, matrix scoring, proportional piling and participatory mapping. The results of pairwise comparison showed the Ngakarimojong-named diseases, lokit (East Coast fever, ECF), lopid (anaplasmosis), loukoi (contagious bovine pleuropneumonia, CBPP), lokou (heartwater) and lokulam (babesiosis), were considered the most important cattle diseases in Moroto in that order, while ECF, anaplasmosis, trypanosomosis (ediit), CBPP and nonspecific diarrhoea (loleo) were most important in Kotido. Strong agreement between informant groups (Kendall's coefficient of concordance W=0.568 and 0.682; panimals that suffered from ECF, anaplasmosis, heartwater and babesiosis died, as the respective median scores for case fatality rates (CFR) were 89.5% (42, 100), 82.8% (63, 100), 66.7% (20, 100) and 85.7% (0, 100). In Kotido, diseases with high incidence scores were ECF (21% [6,32]), anaplasmosis (17% [10,33]) and trypanosomosis (8% [2,18]). The CFRs for ECF and anaplasmosis were 81.7% (44, 100) and 70.7% (48, 100), respectively. Matrix scoring revealed that disease indicators showed strong agreement (W=0.382-0.659, pimportant diseases in this pastoral region. Results from this study may assist in the design of feasible control strategies. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Speaking in Alzheimer’s disease, is that an early sign? Importance of changes in language abilities in Alzheimer’s Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Greta eSzatloczki

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available It is known that Alzheimer’s disease (AD influences the temporal characteristics of spontaneous speech. These phonetical changes are present even in mild AD. Based on this, the question arises whether an examination based on language analysis could help the early diagnosis of AD and if so, which language and speech characteristics can identify AD in its early stage. The purpose of this article is to summarize the relation between prodromal and manifest AD and language functions and language domains. Based on our research we are inclined to claim that AD can be more sensitively detected with the help of a linguistic analysis than with other cognitive examinations. The temporal characteristics of spontaneous speech such as speech tempo, number of pauses in speech and their length are sensitive detectors of the early stage of the disease, which enables an early simple linguistic screening for AD. However, knowledge about the unique features of the language problems associated with different dementia variants still has to be improved and refined.

  1. Clinician-patient risk discussion for atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease prevention: importance to implementation of the 2013 ACC/AHA Guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Seth S; Sperling, Laurence S; Blaha, Michael J; Wilson, Peter W F; Gluckman, Ty J; Blumenthal, Roger S; Stone, Neil J

    2015-04-07

    Successful implementation of the 2013 American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association cholesterol guidelines hinges on a clear understanding of the clinician-patient risk discussion (CPRD). This is a dialogue between the clinician and patient about potential for atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease risk reduction benefits, adverse effects, drug-drug interactions, and patient preferences. Designed especially for primary prevention patients, this process of shared decision making establishes the appropriateness of a statin for a specific patient. CPRD respects the autonomy of an individual striving to make an informed choice aligned with personal values and preferences. Dedicating sufficient time to high-quality CPRD offers an opportunity to strengthen clinician-patient relationships, patient engagement, and medication adherence. We review the guideline-recommended CPRD, the general concept of shared decision making and decision aids, the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Risk Estimator application as an implementation tool, and address potential barriers to implementation. Copyright © 2015 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. THE IMPORTANCE OF HERPESVIRUSES IN THE ETIOLOGY OF A NUMBER OF INFECTIOUS AND SOMATIC DISEASES OF CHILDREN

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    T. N. Rybalkina

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to study the etiological role of herpes viruses in infectious and somatic pathology of children (n = 770 using the complex of methods of laboratory diagnostics. Determined the leading etiological role of HSV in children with neuroinfections (12,7% during primary infection and in children with intrauterine infection (29,0% during its reactivation. It is shown that in 50,9% of cases, the diagnosis of «infectious mononucleosis» confirmed by the detection of markers of acute EBV-infection, and 20,0%, it was replaced by mononucleotides syndrome was discovered markers of acute CMV-infection, and 18,1% — markers of acute HHV-6-infection. The role of HHV-6 as the primary etiologic agent of the disease is established at 36,3% of children admitted with convulsive syndrome on the background of febrile, at 29,1% — a sudden exanthema and 25,5% — with fever of unknown origin.  

  3. Sandfly fever in Afghanistan-a sometimes overlooked disease of military importance: a case series and review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downs, John W; Flood, Daniel T; Orr, Nicholas H; Constantineau, Jason A; Caviness, James W

    2017-01-01

    Sandfly fever, sometimes known as pappataci fever or Phlebotomus fever, is a vector transmitted viral illness with a history of affecting naïve military formations that travel through or fight in areas in which the infection is endemic. We present a series of 4 hospitalized cases of sandfly fever (2 presumptive, 2 laboratory confirmed) that were admitted to a Role 3 hospital in Afghanistan for evaluation and treatment following medical evacuation from a forward area for marked fevers and malaise. Laboratory evaluation of these cases was significant for leukopenia and thrombocytopenia, consistent with historical descriptions of sandfly fever. In the correct geographic and clinical setting, the finding of mild leukopenia among a cluster of febrile patients should prompt the clinician to at least consider a diagnosis of sandfly fever. A cluster investigation conducted by preventive medicine personnel identified numerous other presumed cases of sandfly fever in this forward special operations camp. Response efforts emphasized enforcement of standard vector-borne disease control measures by operational leadership in order to limit effect on tactical operations. We review historical instances of sandfly fever affecting military operations, and present a review of clinical presentation, transmission, management, and prevention.

  4. Nuclear factor kB (NF-KB): signalosoma and its importance in cancer and inflammatories diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Echeverri, Nancy P; Mockus, Ismena S

    2008-01-01

    The nuclear factor B (NF- B) is a dimer conformed by Rel family. NF- B is found in cytoplasm bound to inhibitor proteins (I B). I B are phosphorylated by different kinases who are part of signalosome as IeB kinases (IKK , IKK and NF- B essential modulator or NEMO), the mitogenic activated protein kinase (MAPK or p38) and NF-eB inducer kinase (NIK). These kinases are activated by different cytokines and ultraviolet light, I B phosphorylated induce their ubiquitination and proteosome degradation subsequently NF- B release and nucleus translocation. Nowadays, the NF- B activation by oxidative stress, genotoxic stress and DNA damage pathways. In contrast with the classical pathway, in this pathway there are a SUMOilation and nuclear translocation of NEMO. In nucleus NEMO interact with ataxia telangiectasia muted which is activated by chromatin changes and DNA damage. The complex ATM/NEMO is later translocated to cytoplasm where IKK is phosphorylated by ATM bringing to ubiquitination and thus NF- B releasing which is translocated to nucleus. NF- B induces survival rising antioxidants enzymes as superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione. These enzymes act in the control of oxidative species levels in the cell. NF- B over expression is related with inflammation and cancer. Nowadays, is development a pharmacological search which can act inhibiting NF- B signalosome molecules, not only to inflammatory disease whereas to radiotherapy and chemotherapy cancer resistance.

  5. Trastuzumab re-treatment following adjuvant trastuzumab and the importance of distant disease-free interval: the HERA trial experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metzger-Filho, Otto; de Azambuja, Evandro; Procter, Marion; Krieguer, Magalie; Smith, Ian; Baselga, Jose; Cameron, David; Untch, Michael; Jackisch, Christian; Bell, Richard; Gianni, Luca; Goldhirsch, Aron; Piccart, Martine; Gelber, Richard D

    2016-01-01

    This retrospective analysis conducted using data from patients enrolled onto the Herceptin Adjuvant has two objectives: The first is to evaluate the impact of the time interval between the end of adjuvant trastuzumab and distant recurrence (TDRI) upon overall survival (OS). The second is to describe the duration of trastuzumab-based regimens in the metastatic setting for patients previously treated with adjuvant trastuzumab. The first objective included 187 patients treated with adjuvant trastuzumab and diagnosed with distant recurrence at 4-year median follow-up. The second objective included data from questionnaires sent to investigators retreating patients with trastuzumab upon distant recurrence: 144 of 156 questionnaires were returned (93 %), and 90 patients were selected based on available clinical information and consent for subsequent studies. There was no statistically significant relationship between TDRI following 1 year of adjuvant trastuzumab and OS from distant recurrence: hazard ratio 0.991, p = 0.46. The median OS from distant recurrence was numerically longer among patients with a TDRI of ≥12 months (n = 103) than information beyond disease progression should be included in future clinical studies.

  6. [The importance of laboratory diagnosis in allo-immunization through pregnancy and hemolytic disease of the newborn].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Florea, Dana Paula

    2010-01-01

    BHNN is an affection in which life duration of fetus red cells is decreased by means of maternal antibodies opposing certain antigens inherited from the father.The present study will prove the importance of laboratory tests in the diagnosis of alloimmunization through pregnancy and BHNN. Laboratory determinations were performed between March 2008 and February 2009 on samples from 187 Rh negative pregnant female with incompatible pregnancy and Rh D positive newborns; there was used a certain algorithm for and identifying. After applying the proposed algorithm, 4.2% of the cases were discovered to be immunized, whereas 2.6% of the cases were BHNN. As the specificity of irregular antibodies involved, 62.5% were anti D, 25% anti Kell and 12.5% anti E. The results show the fact that the incidence of these pathological entities is far more extended than in other countries. Owing to the fact that alloimmunization by pregnancy and BHNN is still a frequent phenomenon, an attentive supervision is very important both for preparing the patient and the medical team aiming to prevent perinatal morbidity.

  7. Entomopathogenic Fungus as a Biological Control for an Important Vector of Livestock Disease: The Culicoides Biting Midge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansari, Minshad Ali; Pope, Edward C.; Carpenter, Simon; Scholte, Ernst-Jan; Butt, Tariq M.

    2011-01-01

    thus reducing the incidence of disease. PMID:21264343

  8. Evaluating Google Flu Trends in Latin America: Important Lessons for the Next Phase of Digital Disease Detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollett, Simon; Boscardin, W John; Azziz-Baumgartner, Eduardo; Tinoco, Yeny O; Soto, Giselle; Romero, Candice; Kok, Jen; Biggerstaff, Matthew; Viboud, Cecile; Rutherford, George W

    2017-01-01

     Latin America has a substantial burden of influenza and rising Internet access and could benefit from real-time influenza epidemic prediction web tools such as Google Flu Trends (GFT) to assist in risk communication and resource allocation during epidemics. However, there has never been a published assessment of GFT's accuracy in most Latin American countries or in any low- to middle-income country. Our aim was to evaluate GFT in Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Mexico, Paraguay, Peru, and Uruguay.  Weekly influenza-test positive proportions for the eight countries were obtained from FluNet for the period January 2011-December 2014. Concurrent weekly Google-predicted influenza activity in the same countries was abstracted from GFT. Pearson correlation coefficients between observed and Google-predicted influenza activity trends were determined for each country. Permutation tests were used to examine background seasonal correlation between FluNet and GFT by country.  There were frequent GFT prediction errors, with correlation ranging from r = -0.53 to 0.91. GFT-predicted influenza activity best correlated with FluNet data in Mexico follow by Uruguay, Argentina, Chile, Brazil, Peru, Bolivia and Paraguay. Correlation was generally highest in the more temperate countries with more regular influenza seasonality and lowest in tropical regions. A substantial amount of autocorrelation was noted, suggestive that GFT is not fully specific for influenza virus activity.  We note substantial inaccuracies with GFT-predicted influenza activity compared with FluNet throughout Latin America, particularly among tropical countries with irregular influenza seasonality. Our findings offer valuable lessons for future Internet-based biosurveillance tools. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, e-mail journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. Drug persistence and need for dose intensification to adalimumab therapy; the importance of therapeutic drug monitoring in inflammatory bowel diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonczi, Lorant; Kurti, Zsuzsanna; Rutka, Mariann; Vegh, Zsuzsanna; Farkas, Klaudia; Lovasz, Barbara D; Golovics, Petra A; Gecse, Krisztina B; Szalay, Balazs; Molnar, Tamas; Lakatos, Peter L

    2017-08-08

    Therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) aid therapeutic decision making in patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) who lose response to anti-TNF therapy. Our aim was to evaluate the frequency and predictive factors of loss of response (LOR) to adalimumab using TDM in IBD patients. One hundred twelve IBD patients (with 214 TDM measurements, CD/UC 84/28, male/female 50/62, mean age CD/UC: 36/35 years) were enrolled in this consecutive cohort from two referral centres in Hungary. Demographic data were comprehensively collected and harmonized monitoring strategy was applied. Previous and current therapy, laboratory data and clinical activity were recorded at the time of TDM. Patients were evaluated either at the time of suspected LOR or during follow-up. TDM measurements were determined by commercial ELISA (LISA TRACKER, Theradiag, France). Among 112 IBD patients, LOR/drug persistence was 25.9%/74.1%. The cumulative ADA positivity (>10 ng/mL) and low TL (<5.0 μg/mL) was 12.1% and 17.8% after 1 year and 17.3% and 29.5% after 2 years of adalimumab therapy. Dose intensification was needed in 29.5% of the patients. Female gender and ADA positivity were associated with LOR (female gender: p < 0.001, OR:7.8 CI 95%: 2.5-24.3, ADA positivity: p = 0.007 OR:3.6 CI 95%: 1.4-9.5). ADA development, low TL and need for dose intensification were frequent during adalimumab therapy and support the selective use of TDM in IBD patients treated with adalimumab. ADA positivity and gender were predictors of LOR.

  10. The role and importance of economic evaluation of traditional herbal medicine use for chronic non-communicable diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hughes GD

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Gail D Hughes,1 Oluwaseyi M Aboyade,1 John D Hill,2 Rafia S Rasu3 1South African Herbal Science and Medicine Institute, University of the Western Cape, Western Cape, South Africa; 2Department of Pharmacy, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, OH, 3School of Pharmacy, University of Kansas, Lawrence, KS, USA Background: Non-communicable diseases (NCD constitute major public health problems globally, with an impact on morbidity and mortality ranking high and second to HIV/AIDS. Existing studies conducted in South Africa have demonstrated that people living with NCD rely on traditional herbal medicine (THM primarily or in combination with conventional drugs. The primary research focus has been on the clinical and experimental aspects of THM use for NCD, with limited data on the economic impact of health care delivery. Therefore, the purpose of this study will be to determine the cost and utilization of resources on THM in South Africa for NCD. Materials and methods: Study describes the methods toward incorporating cost estimations and economic evaluation illustrated with the Prospective Urban and rural Epidemiological (PURE study in South Africa. The South African PURE cohort is investigating the geographic and socioeconomic influence of THM spending and utilization, variations in spending based on perceived health status, marital status, and whether spending patterns have any impact on hospitalizations and disability. Data collection and evaluation plan: Since the individual costs of THM are not regulated nor do they have a standardized price value, information obtained through this study can be utilized to assess differences and determine underlying factors contributing to spending. This insight into THM spending patterns can aid in the development and implementation of guidelines or standardized legislation governing THM use and distribution. An economic evaluation and cost estimation model has been proposed, while the data collection is still ongoing

  11. [Serum uric acid is associated with disease severity and an important predictor for clinical outcome in patients with pulmonary hypertension].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, D L; Zhang, C J; Huang, Y G; Huang, T; Li, H Z

    2017-06-24

    Objective: The growing body of literature showed a link between uric acid and pulmonary hypertension (PH), but the impact of hyperuremia on outcome of patients with PH has not been well defined. Therefore, the present study was performed to analyze the impact of uric acid on outcome of PH patients. Methods: One hundred seventy-three PH patients (112 females, mean age 38 years old), who were hospitalized in our department between January 2010 and December 2015, were included in our study, the PH diagnosis was made based on right heart catheterization examination result (mean pulmonary artery pressure≥25 mmHg(1 mmHg=0.133 kPa)). PH patients were divided into mild to moderate PH group (Rp/Rs≤0.6, n =97) and severe PH group (Rp/Rs>0.6, n =76). Fifty-one patients (33 females, mean age 45 years old) without PH based on right heart catheterization were included as control subjects. All participants were followed up for a median of 24 months(6-71 months). Clinical endpoints were defined as cardiogenic death or heart-and-lung transplantation. Results: Uric acid was positively correlated with pulmonary vascular resistance( r =0.398, P uric acid level was significantly higher in patients with severe PH than in patients with mild-to-moderate PH and the control subjects (both P uric acid level to predict the outcome of PH patients (sensitivity 50%, specificity 72%). During follow-up, patients with higher level of uric acid (>425.5 μmol/L) were linked with poorer clinical outcome compared to patients with uric acid uric acid is associated with the severity of PH and higher uric acid level serves as an important predictor for poor clinical outcome of PH patients.

  12. Molecular characterization of NRXN1 deletions from 19,263 clinical microarray cases identifies exons important for neurodevelopmental disease expression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowther, Chelsea; Speevak, Marsha; Armour, Christine M.; Goh, Elaine S.; Graham, Gail E.; Li, Chumei; Zeesman, Susan; Nowaczyk, Malgorzata J.M.; Schultz, Lee-Anne; Morra, Antonella; Nicolson, Rob; Bikangaga, Peter; Samdup, Dawa; Zaazou, Mostafa; Boyd, Kerry; Jung, Jack H.; Siu, Victoria; Rajguru, Manjulata; Goobie, Sharan; Tarnopolsky, Mark A.; Prasad, Chitra; Dick, Paul T.; Hussain, Asmaa S.; Walinga, Margreet; Reijenga, Renske G.; Gazzellone, Matthew; Lionel, Anath C.; Marshall, Christian R.; Scherer, Stephen W.; Stavropoulos, Dimitri J.; McCready, Elizabeth; Bassett, Anne S.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of the current study was to assess the penetrance of NRXN1 deletions. Methods We compared the prevalence and genomic extent of NRXN1 deletions identified among 19,263 clinically referred cases to that of 15,264 controls. The burden of additional clinically relevant CNVs was used as a proxy to estimate the relative penetrance of NRXN1 deletions. Results We identified 41 (0.21%) previously unreported exonic NRXN1 deletions ascertained for developmental delay/intellectual disability, significantly greater than in controls [OR=8.14 (95% CI 2.91–22.72), p< 0.0001)]. Ten (22.7%) of these had a second clinically relevant CNV. Subjects with a deletion near the 3′ end of NRXN1 were significantly more likely to have a second rare CNV than subjects with a 5′ NRXN1 deletion [OR=7.47 (95% CI 2.36–23.61), p=0.0006]. The prevalence of intronic NRXN1 deletions was not statistically different between cases and controls (p=0.618). The majority (63.2%) of intronic NRXN1 deletion cases had a second rare CNV, a two-fold greater prevalence than for exonic NRXN1 deletion cases (p=0.0035). Conclusions The results support the importance of exons near the 5′ end of NRXN1 in the expression of neurodevelopmental disorders. Intronic NRXN1 deletions do not appear to substantially increase the risk for clinical phenotypes. PMID:27195815

  13. Replication and meta-analysis of GWAS identified susceptibility loci in Kawasaki disease confirm the importance of B lymphoid tyrosine kinase (BLK in disease susceptibility.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chia-Jung Chang

    Full Text Available The BLK and CD40 loci have been associated with Kawasaki disease (KD in two genome-wide association studies (GWAS conducted in a Taiwanese population of Han Chinese ancestry (Taiwanese and in Japanese cohorts. Here we build on these findings with replication studies of the BLK and CD40 loci in populations of Korean and European descent. The BLK region was significantly associated with KD susceptibility in both populations. Within the BLK gene the rs2736340-located linkage disequilibrium (LD comprising the promoter and first intron was strongly associated with KD, with the combined results of Asian studies including Taiwanese, Japanese, and Korean populations (2,539 KD patients and 7,021 controls providing very compelling evidence of association (rs2736340, OR = 1.498, 1.354-1.657; P = 4.74×10(-31. We determined the percentage of B cells present in the peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC population and the expression of BLK in the peripheral blood leukocytes (leukocytes of KD patients during the acute and convalescent stages. The percentage of B cells in the PBMC population and the expression of BLK in leukocytes were induced in patients in the acute stage of KD. In B cell lines derived from KD patients, and in purified B cells from KD patients obtained during the acute stage, those with the risk allele of rs2736340 expressed significantly lower levels of BLK. These results suggest that peripheral B cells play a pathogenic role during the acute stage of KD. Decreased BLK expression in peripheral blood B cells may alter B cell function and predispose individuals to KD. These associative data suggest a role for B cells during acute KD. Understanding the functional implications may facilitate the development of B cell-mediated therapy for KD.

  14. Using real-time PCR and Bayesian analysis to distinguish susceptible tubificid taxa important in the transmission of Myxobolus cerebralis, the cause of salmonid whirling disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fytilis, Nikolaos; Rizzo, Donna M; Lamb, Ryan D; Kerans, Billie L; Stevens, Lori

    2013-05-01

    Aquatic oligochaetes have long been appreciated for their value in assessing habitat quality because they are ubiquitous sediment-dwelling filter feeders. Many oligochaete taxa are also important in the transmission of fish diseases. Distinguishing resistant and susceptible taxa is important for managing fish disease, yet challenging in practice. Tubifex tubifex (Oligochaeta: Tubificidae) is the definitive host for the complex life-cycle parasite, Myxobolus cerebralis, the causative agent of salmonid whirling disease. We developed two hydrolysis probe-based qualitative real-time PCR (qPCR) multiplex assays that distinguish among tubificid taxa collected from the Madison River, Montana, USA. The first assay distinguishes T. tubifex from Rhyacodrilus spp.; while the second classifies T. tubifex identified by the first assay into two genetic lineages (I and III). Specificity and sensitivity were optimized for each assay; the two assays showed specificity of 94.3% and 98.6% for the target oligochaetes, respectively. DNA sequencing verified the results. The development of these assays allowed us to more fully describe tubificid community composition (the taxa and their abundance at a site) and estimate the relative abundances of host taxa. To relate tubificid relative abundance to fish disease risk, we determined M. cerebralis infection prevalence in samples identified as T. tubifex using similar molecular techniques. Given prior information (i.e., morphological identification of sexually mature worms), Bayesian analysis inferred that the first qPCR assay improved taxonomic identification. Bayesian inference of the relative abundance of T. tubifex, combined with infection assay results, identified sites with a high prevalence of infected T. tubifex. To our knowledge, this study represents both the first assessment of oligochaete community composition using a qPCR assay based on fluorescent probes and the first use of Bayesian analysis to fully characterize the dominant

  15. Importance of characteristics and modalities of physical activity and exercise in the management of cardiovascular health in individuals with cardiovascular disease (Part III).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanhees, L; Rauch, B; Piepoli, M; van Buuren, F; Takken, T; Börjesson, M; Bjarnason-Wehrens, B; Doherty, P; Dugmore, D; Halle, M

    2012-12-01

    The beneficial effect of exercise training and exercise-based cardiac rehabilitation on symptom-free exercise capacity,cardiovascular and skeletal muscle function, quality of life, general healthy lifestyle, and reduction of depressive symptoms and psychosocial stress is nowadays well recognized. However, it remains largely obscure, which characteristics of physical activity (PA) and exercise training--frequency, intensity, time (duration), type (mode), and volume (dose: intensity x duration) of exercise--are the most effective. The present paper, therefore, will deal with these exercise characteristics in the management of individuals with cardiovascular disease, i.e. coronary artery disease and chronic heart failure patients, but also in patients with congenital or valvular heart disease. Based on the current literature, and if sufficient evidence is available, recommendations from the European Association on Cardiovascular Prevention and Rehabilitation are formulated regarding frequency, intensity, time and type of PA, and safety aspects during exercise inpatients with cardiovascular disease. This paper is the third in a series of three papers, all devoted to the same theme: the importance of the exercise characteristics in the management of cardiovascular health. Part I is directed to the general population and Part II to individuals with cardiovascular risk factors. In general, PA recommendations and exercise training programmes for patients with coronary artery disease or chronic heart failure need to be tailored to the individual's exercise capacity and risk profile, with the aim to reach and maintain the individually highest fitness level possible and to perform endurance exercise training 30–60 min daily (3–5 days per week) in combination with resistance training 2–3 times a week. Because of the frequently reported dose–response relationship between training effect and exercise intensity, one should seek sufficiently high training intensities

  16. Importância da avaliação da hemoglobina fetal na clínica da anemia falciforme The importance of the evaluation of fetal hemoglobin in the clinical assessment of sickle cell disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita de Cassia Mousinho-Ribeiro

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available A anemia falciforme está entre as doenças genéticas mais comuns e mais estudadas em todo o mundo. Ela é causada por mutação no gene β, produzindo alteração estrutural na molécula da hemoglobina. As moléculas de HbS, decorrentes da mutação, sofrem processo de polimerização fisiologicamente provocado pela baixa tensão de oxigênio, acidose e desidratação. Com isso, os eritrócitos passam a apresentar a forma de foice, causando vaso-oclusão e outras conseqüências. O objetivo desse estudo foi revisar a importância da hemoglobina fetal na clínica de pacientes portadores de anemia falciforme. O significado clínico da associação da elevação da hemoglobina fetal na anemia falciforme mostra-se favorável em termos hematológicos, pois, nessa interação, as células-F têm baixas concentrações de HbS e, com isso, inibem a polimerização da HbS e a alteração da morfologia dos eritrócitos. O tratamento com hidroxiuréia, em função do aumento na expressão da hemoglobina fetal que este fármaco proporciona, traz aos pacientes falcêmicos uma melhora significativa em sua clínica. Portanto, a hemoglobina fetal consiste no maior inibidor da polimerização da desoxi-HbS e, com isso, evita a falcização do eritrócito, a anemia hemolítica crônica, as crises dolorosas vaso-oclusivas, o infarto e a necrose em diversos órgãos, melhorando a clínica e a expectativa de vida dos pacientes.Sickle cell disease is one of the commonest and most studied genetic diseases in the world. Caused by a mutation of the β gene, it changes the molecular structure of hemoglobin. Abnormal Hb S molecules suffer polymerization physiologically provoked by a low oxygen tension, acidosis and dehydration. As a result, red blood cells take on a sickle cell form, which causes microvascular occlusion with varying consequences. The objective of this study was to review the importance of fetal hemoglobin in the clinical assessment of sickle cell

  17. Calcium-independent phospholipase A2 regulates retinal pigment epithelium proliferation and may be important in the pathogenesis of retinal diseases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kolko, M; Kiilgaard, J F; Wang, J

    2009-01-01

    Calcium-independent phospholipase A2, group VIA (iPLA2-VIA) is involved in cell proliferation. This study aimed to evaluate the role of iPLA2-VIA in retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) cell proliferation and in retinal diseases involving RPE proliferation. A human RPE cell line (ARPE-19) was used...... the expression of iPLA2-VIA in proliferative vitreoretinopathy (PVR). PVR membranes revealed nuclear expression of iPLA2-VIA in the RPE cells which had migrated and participated in the formation of the membranes. Overall, the present results point to an important role of iPLA2-VIA in the regulation of RPE...

  18. Thymic Nurse Cells Participate in Heterotypic Internalization and Repertoire Selection of Immature Thymocytes; Their Removal from the Thymus of Autoimmune Animals May be Important to Disease Etiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guyden, J C; Martinez, M; Chilukuri, R V E; Reid, V; Kelly, F; Samms, M-O D

    2015-01-01

    Thymic nurse cells (TNCs) are specialized epithelial cells that reside in the thymic cortex. The initial report of their discovery in 1980 showed TNCs to contain up to 200 thymocytes within specialized vacuoles in their cytoplasm. Much has been reported since that time to determine the function of this heterotypic internalization event that exists between TNCs and developing thymocytes. In this review, we discuss the literature reported that describes the internalization event and the role TNCs play during T cell development in the thymus as well as why these multicellular complexes may be important in inhibiting the development of autoimmune diseases.

  19. Importance of characteristics and modalities of physical activity and exercise in the management of cardiovascular health in individuals with cardiovascular disease (Part III)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vanhees, L; Rauch, B; Piepoli, M

    2012-01-01

    . However, it remains largely obscure, which characteristics of physical activity (PA) and exercise training--frequency, intensity, time (duration), type (mode), and volume (dose: intensity x duration) of exercise--are the most effective. The present paper, therefore, will deal with these exercise...... Association on Cardiovascular Prevention and Rehabilitation are formulated regarding frequency, intensity, time and type of PA, and safety aspects during exercise inpatients with cardiovascular disease. This paper is the third in a series of three papers, all devoted to the same theme: the importance...

  20. Importance measures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomez Cobo, A.

    1997-01-01

    The presentation discusses the following: general concepts of importance measures; example fault tree, used to illustrate importance measures; Birnbaum's structural importance; criticality importance; Fussel-Vesely importance; upgrading function; risk achievement worth; risk reduction worth

  1. Differences in virulence markers between Helicobacter pylori strains from Iraq and those from Iran: potential importance of regional differences in H. pylori-associated disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussein, Nawfal R; Mohammadi, Marjan; Talebkhan, Yeganeh; Doraghi, Masoumeh; Letley, Darren P; Muhammad, Merdan K; Argent, Richard H; Atherton, John C

    2008-05-01

    Helicobacter pylori causes peptic ulceration and gastric adenocarcinoma; the latter is common in Iran but not in Iraq. We hypothesized that more virulent H. pylori strains may be found in Iran than in Iraq and so compared established and newly described virulence factors in strains from these countries. We studied 59 unselected dyspeptic patients from Iran and 49 from Iraq. cagA was found in similar proportions of strains from both countries (76% in Iran versus 71% in Iraq) and was significantly associated with peptic ulcer disease in Iraq (P dupA was found in similar proportions of Iranian and Iraqi strains (38% and 32%, respectively) and was associated with peptic ulceration in Iraqi patients (P disease in Iraq but not Iran suggests that other host and environmental factors may be more important in the disease-prone Iranian population.

  2. Estimating population density for disease risk assessment: The importance of understanding the area of influence of traps using wild pigs as an example.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Amy J; Leland, Bruce; Bodenchuk, Michael; VerCauteren, Kurt C; Pepin, Kim M

    2017-06-01

    Population density is a key driver of disease dynamics in wildlife populations. Accurate disease risk assessment and determination of management impacts on wildlife populations requires an ability to estimate population density alongside management actions. A common management technique for controlling wildlife populations to monitor and mitigate disease transmission risk is trapping (e.g., box traps, corral traps, drop nets). Although abundance can be estimated from trapping actions using a variety of analytical approaches, inference is limited by the spatial extent to which a trap attracts animals on the landscape. If the "area of influence" were known, abundance estimates could be converted to densities. In addition to being an important predictor of contact rate and thus disease spread, density is more informative because it is comparable across sites of different sizes. The goal of our study is to demonstrate the importance of determining the area sampled by traps (area of influence) so that density can be estimated from management-based trapping designs which do not employ a trapping grid. To provide one example of how area of influence could be calculated alongside management, we conducted a small pilot study on wild pigs (Sus scrofa) using two removal methods 1) trapping followed by 2) aerial gunning, at three sites in northeast Texas in 2015. We estimated abundance from trapping data with a removal model. We calculated empirical densities as aerial counts divided by the area searched by air (based on aerial flight tracks). We inferred the area of influence of traps by assuming consistent densities across the larger spatial scale and then solving for area impacted by the traps. Based on our pilot study we estimated the area of influence for corral traps in late summer in Texas to be ∼8.6km 2 . Future work showing the effects of behavioral and environmental factors on area of influence will help mangers obtain estimates of density from management data, and

  3. Establishing Key Performance Indicators [KPIs] and Their Importance for the Surgical Management of Inflammatory Bowel Disease-Results From a Pan-European, Delphi Consensus Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morar, Pritesh S; Hollingshead, James; Bemelman, Willem; Sevdalis, Nick; Pinkney, Thomas; Wilson, Graeme; Dunlop, Malcolm; Davies, R Justin; Guy, Richard; Fearnhead, Nicola; Brown, Steven; Warusavitarne, Janindra; Edwards, Cathryn; Faiz, Omar

    2017-10-27

    Key performance indicators [KPIs] exist across a range of areas in medicine. They help to monitor outcomes, reduce variation, and drive up standards across services. KPIs exist for inflammatory bowel disease [IBD] care, but none specifically cover inflammatory bowel disease [IBD] surgical service provision. This was a consensus-based study using a panel of expert IBD clinicians from across Europe. Items were developed and fed through a Delphi process to achieve consensus. Items were ranked on a Likert scale from 1 [not important] to 5 [very important]. Consensus was defined when the inter quartile range was ≤ 1, and items with a median score > 3 were considered for inclusion. A panel of 21 experts [14 surgeons and 7 gastroenterologists] was recruited. Consensus was achieved on procedure-specific KPIs for ileocaecal and perianal surgery for Crohn's disease, [N = 10] with themes relating to morbidity [N = 7], multidisciplinary input [N = 2], and quality of life [N = 1]; and for subtotal colectomy, proctocolectomy and ileoanal pouch surgery for ulcerative colitis [N = 11], with themes relating to mortality [N = 2], morbidity [N = 8], and service provision [N = 1]. Consensus was also achieved for measures of the quality of IBD surgical service provision and quality assurance in IBD surgery. This study has provided measurable KPIs for the provision of surgical services in IBD. These indicators cover IBD surgery in general, the governance and structures of the surgical services, and separate indicators for specific subareas of surgery. Monitoring of IBD services with these KPIs may reduce variation across services and improve quality. Copyright © 2017 European Crohn’s and Colitis Organisation (ECCO). Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com

  4. Testing the impact of virus importation rates and future climate change on dengue activity in Malaysia using a mechanistic entomology and disease model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, C R; Gill, B S; Mincham, G; Mohd Zaki, A H; Abdullah, N; Mahiyuddin, W R W; Ahmad, R; Shahar, M K; Harley, D; Viennet, E; Azil, A; Kamaluddin, A

    2015-10-01

    We aimed to reparameterize and validate an existing dengue model, comprising an entomological component (CIMSiM) and a disease component (DENSiM) for application in Malaysia. With the model we aimed to measure the effect of importation rate on dengue incidence, and to determine the potential impact of moderate climate change (a 1 °C temperature increase) on dengue activity. Dengue models (comprising CIMSiM and DENSiM) were reparameterized for a simulated Malaysian village of 10 000 people, and validated against monthly dengue case data from the district of Petaling Jaya in the state of Selangor. Simulations were also performed for 2008-2012 for variable virus importation rates (ranging from 1 to 25 per week) and dengue incidence determined. Dengue incidence in the period 2010-2012 was modelled, twice, with observed daily weather and with a 1 °C increase, the latter to simulate moderate climate change. Strong concordance between simulated and observed monthly dengue cases was observed (up to r = 0·72). There was a linear relationship between importation and incidence. However, a doubling of dengue importation did not equate to a doubling of dengue activity. The largest individual dengue outbreak was observed with the lowest dengue importation rate. Moderate climate change resulted in an overall decrease in dengue activity over a 3-year period, linked to high human seroprevalence early on in the simulation. Our results suggest that moderate reductions in importation with control programmes may not reduce the frequency of large outbreaks. Moderate increases in temperature do not necessarily lead to greater dengue incidence.

  5. Importin α5 negatively regulates importin β1-mediated nuclear import of Newcastle disease virus matrix protein and viral replication and pathogenicity in chicken fibroblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Zhiqiang; Xu, Haixu; Ji, Xinqin; Zhao, Jiafu; Xu, Houqiang; Hu, Yan; Deng, Shanshan; Hu, Shunlin; Liu, Xiufan

    2018-12-31

    The matrix (M) protein of Newcastle disease virus (NDV) is demonstrated to localize in the nucleus via intrinsic nuclear localization signal (NLS), but cellular proteins involved in the nuclear import of NDV M protein and the role of M's nuclear localization in the replication and pathogenicity of NDV remain unclear. In this study, importin β1 was screened to interact with NDV M protein by yeast two-hybrid screening. This interaction was subsequently confirmed by co-immunoprecipitation and pull-down assays. In vitro binding studies indicated that the NLS region of M protein and the amino acids 336-433 of importin β1 that belonged to the RanGTP binding region were important for binding. Importantly, a recombinant virus with M/NLS mutation resulted in a pathotype change of NDV and attenuated viral replication and pathogenicity in chicken fibroblasts and SPF chickens. In agreement with the binding data, nuclear import of NDV M protein in digitonin-permeabilized HeLa cells required both importin β1 and RanGTP. Interestingly, importin α5 was verified to interact with M protein through binding importin β1. However, importin β1 or importin α5 depletion by siRNA resulted in different results, which showed the obviously cytoplasmic or nuclear accumulation of M protein and the remarkably decreased or increased replication ability and pathogenicity of NDV in chicken fibroblasts, respectively. Our findings therefore demonstrate for the first time the nuclear import mechanism of NDV M protein and the negative regulation role of importin α5 in importin β1-mediated nuclear import of M protein and the replication and pathogenicity of a paramyxovirus.

  6. Ankle foot orthoses for people with Charcot Marie Tooth disease--views of users and orthotists on important aspects of use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Margaret; Radford, Kathryn; Wills, Adrian

    2011-01-01

    To explore important aspects of the benefits, important characteristics, barriers to use and disadvantages of using ankle foot orthoses (AFOs) as seen by people with Charcot Marie Tooth disease (CMT) and the orthotists who will fit and supply them. This qualitative study used the nominal group technique and individual semi-structured interviews, according to participant preference and ability to travel. Propositions were put to 15 participants (eight females) with CMT regarding benefits, disadvantages, barriers to use and important characteristics of ankle foot orthoses AFOs and regarding benefits and disadvantages to seven orthotists. Priorities in these areas were ranked and a thematic analysis of the free text was made separately by two observers and a joint decision made of final themes. Fifteen people (eight females) with CMT and seven orthotists participated. Users' themes concerned functional mobility walking, pain/discomfort, choice of AFOs and associated footwear, custom made design, use in practical situations and support for foot and ankle. They noted that AFOs improved walking, but practical aspects of use and provision, as well as consideration of cosmetic aspects, were frequently problematic. Orthotists had similar themes, but with a difference in emphasis, that included prevention of future complications, education regarding device limitations and craftsmanship as a further theme. Users understood the potential benefits of AFOs and could identify disadvantages which might be remedied, but were frustrated by the difficulties in translating this into practice. Further refinement of current orthoses and delivery of orthotic services may assist in addressing these issues. © 2011 Informa UK, Ltd.

  7. KAP STUDY: KNOWLEDGE, ATTITUDES AND PRACTICE OF THE ADULT INHABITANTS AS IMPORTANT REASONS FOR THE OCCURRENCE OF THE LEADING INFECTIOUS DISEASES IN THE REPUBLIC OF SERBIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Branislav Petrovic

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Acute infectious diseases are the main problem in undeveloped countries, but still an important sociomedical problem in the developed world, due to high morbidity and mortality rates, economical losses and the suffering they cause. The aim of this study was to determine specific risk factors connected with knowledge, attitudes and practice (KAP study of adult inhabitants of the Republic of Serbia, which contribute to the appearance of infectious diseases according to territory (Belgrade, Vojvodina and Central Serbia, gender and age. The research on health conditions, health needs and utilization of health care of the population of Serbia were realized by the Public Health Institute of Serbia ‘Dr Milan Jovanovic Batut’, all IPHs in Serbia, WHO and UNICEF. A cross-sectional study was conducted in 9921 persons (52% women and 48% men. Hygienic habits were on the higher level in the population of Belgrade and Vojvodina compared to the Central Serbia: washing hands before meal (88,5:90,6:87,5%, p < 0,00046, on entering home (83,1:68,6:67,5%, p < 0,50, before using the toilet (50,8:46,9:40,1%, p < 00000, after using the toilet (92,3:93,7:91,4%, p < 0,0031. Before meal, 11, 5% of adults wash hands almost never or sometimes; on coming home every third person does not wash hands, before using the toilet more than 50%, and after using the toilet almost 8%. In this way, some intestinal infectious diseases and sexually transmitted diseases such as gonorrhoea, syphilis, HPV can be disseminated. Women have better hygienic habits than men, and younger persons have better hygienic habits than older persons. Every fifth man and every fourth woman does not accept personal responsibility for health. Habits and behavior that decrease individual immunity presented in high percent of the population of Serbia are: inappropriate eating habits, tobacco smoking, alcohol consumption, stress (63,5% women and 53,3% men; only 7,9% women and 15,2% men use condom regularly

  8. Conformation-Specific IR and UV Spectroscopy of the Amino Acid Glutamine: Amide-Stacking and Hydrogen Bonding in AN Important Residue in Neurodegenerative Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Patrick S.; Dean, Jacob C.; Zwier, Timothy S.

    2014-06-01

    Glutamine plays an important role in several neurodegenerative diseases including Huntington's disease (HD) and Alzheimer's disease (AD). An intriguing aspect of the structure of glutamine is its incorporation of an amide group in its side chain, thereby opening up the possibility of forming amide-amide H-bonds between the peptide backbone and side chain. In this study the conformational preferences of two capped gluatamines Z(carboxybenzyl)-Glutamine-X (X=OH, NHMe) are studied under jet-cooled conditions in the gas phase in order to unlock the intrinsic structural motifs that are favored by this flexible sidechain. Conformational assignments are made by comparing the hydride stretch ( 3100-3700 cm-1) and amide I and II ( 1400-1800 cm-1) resonant ion-dip infrared spectra with predictions from harmonic frequency calculations. Assigned structures will be compared to previously published results on both natural and unnatural residues. Particular emphasis will be placed on the comparison between glutamine and unconstrained γ-peptides due to the similar three-carbon spacing between backbone and side chain in glutamine to the backbone spacing in γ-peptides. The ability of the glutamine side-chain to form amide stacked conformations will be a main focus, along with the prevalence of extended backbone type structures. W. H. James, III, C W. Müller, E. G. Buchanan, M. G. D. Nix, L. Guo, L. Roskop, M. S. Gordon, L. V. Slipchenko, S. H. Gellman, and T. S. Zwier, J. Am. Chem. Soc., 2009, 131(40), 14243-14245.

  9. Vitamin D deficiency plays an important role in cardiac disease and affects patient outcome: Still a myth or a fact that needs exploration?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaher Fanari

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available There is increasing evidence that a low vitamin D status may be an important and hitherto neglected factor of cardiovascular disease. This review is an overview of the current body of literature, and presents evidence of the mechanisms through which vitamin D deficiency affects the cardiovascular system in general and the heart in particular. Available data indicate that the majority of congestive heart failure patients have 25-hydroxyvitamin D deficiency. Furthermore, the low serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D level has a higher impact on hypertension, coronary artery disease an on the occurrence of relevant cardiac events. A serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D level below 75 nmol/l (30 ng/l is generally regarded as vitamin D insufficiency in both adults and children, while a level below 50 nmol/l (20 ng/l is considered deficiency. Levels below 50 nmol/l (20 ng/l are linked independently to cardiovascular morbidity and mortality.

  10. Uptake of 18F-DCFPyL in Paget's Disease of Bone, an Important Potential Pitfall in Clinical Interpretation of PSMA PET Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowe, Steven P; Deville, Curtiland; Paller, Channing; Cho, Steve Y; Fishman, Elliot K; Pomper, Martin G; Ross, Ashley E; Gorin, Michael A

    2015-12-01

    Prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA)-targeted PET imaging is an emerging technique for evaluating patients with prostate cancer (PCa) in a variety of clinical contexts. As with any new imaging modality, there are interpretive pitfalls that are beginning to be recognized. In this image report, we describe the findings in a 63-year-old male with biochemically recurrent PCa after radical prostatectomy who was imaged with 18 F-DCFPyL, a small molecule inhibitor of PSMA. Diffuse radiotracer uptake was noted throughout the sacrum, corresponding to imaging findings on contrast-enhanced CT, bone scan, and pelvic MRI consistent with Paget's disease of bone. The uptake of 18 F-DCFPyL in Paget's disease is most likely due to hyperemia and increased radiotracer delivery. In light of the overlap in patients affected by PCa and Paget's, it is important for nuclear medicine physicians and radiologists interpreting PSMA PET/CT scans to be aware of the potential for this diagnostic pitfall. Correlation to findings on conventional imaging such as diagnostic CT and bone scan can help confirm the diagnosis.

  11. Informal value chain actors' knowledge and perceptions about zoonotic diseases and biosecurity in Kenya and the importance for food safety and public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyokabi, Simon; Birner, Regina; Bett, Bernard; Isuyi, Linda; Grace, Delia; Güttler, Denise; Lindahl, Johanna

    2018-03-01

    Zoonotic diseases, transmitted from animals to humans, are a public health challenge in developing countries. Livestock value chain actors have an important role to play as the first line of defence in safeguarding public health. However, although the livelihood and economic impacts of zoonoses are widely known, adoption of biosecurity measures aimed at preventing zoonoses is low, particularly among actors in informal livestock value chains in low and middle-income countries. The main objective of this study was to investigate knowledge of zoonoses and adoption of biosecurity measures by livestock and milk value chain actors in Bura, Tana River County, in Kenya, where cattle, camels, sheep and goats are the main livestock kept. The study utilised a mixed methods approach, with a questionnaire survey administered to 154 value chain actors. Additional information was elicited through key informant interviews and participatory methods with relevant stakeholders outside the value chain. Our results found low levels of knowledge of zoonoses and low levels of adherence to food safety standards, with only 37% of milk traders knowing about brucellosis, in spite of a sero-prevalence of 9% in the small ruminants tested in this study, and no slaughterhouse worker knew about Q fever. Actors had little formal education (between 0 and 10%) and lacked training in food safety and biosecurity measures. Adoption of biosecurity measures by value chain actors was very low or non-existent, with only 11% of butchers wearing gloves. There was a gendered dimension, evidenced by markedly different participation in value chains and lower adoption rates and knowledge levels among female actors. Finally, cultural and religious practices were shown to play an important role in exposure and transmission of diseases, influencing perceptions and attitudes to risks and adoption of biosecurity measures.

  12. The epidemiologic importance of Triatoma brasiliensis as a Chagas disease vector in Brazil: a revision of domiciliary captures during 1993-1999

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Costa Jane

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available To clarify the epidemiologic importance of Triatoma brasiliensis, the most important Chagas disease vector in the Northeastern of Brazil, capture data related to this species, its distribution, capture index, and percentages of natural infection by Trypanosoma cruzi were examined in 12 different Brazilian states. The Brazilian National Health Foundation collected these data from 1993 to 1999, a period during which a total of 1,591,280 triatomines (21 species were captured in domiciles within the geographic range of T. brasiliensis. Of this total, 422,965 (26.6% were T. brasiliensis, 99.8% of which were collected in six states, and 54% in only one state (Ceará. The percentage of bugs infected with T. cruzi varied significantly among states, ranging from 0% (Goiás, Maranhão, Sergipe, and Tocantins to more than 3% (Alagoas, Minas Gerais, and Rio Grande do Norte with an average of 1.3%. This latter value represents a dramatic reduction in the natural infection percentages since 1983 (6.7% suggesting that, despite the impossibility of eradicating this native species, the control measures have significantly reduced the risk of transmission. However, the wide geographic distribution of T. brasiliensis, its high incidence observed in some states, and its variable percentages of natural infection by T. cruzi indicate the need for sustained entomological surveillance and continuous control measures against this vector.

  13. The importance of group-wise registration in tract based spatial statistics study of neurodegeneration: a simulation study in Alzheimer's disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiva Keihaninejad

    Full Text Available Tract-based spatial statistics (TBSS is a popular method for the analysis of diffusion tensor imaging data. TBSS focuses on differences in white matter voxels with high fractional anisotropy (FA, representing the major fibre tracts, through registering all subjects to a common reference and the creation of a FA skeleton. This work considers the effect of choice of reference in the TBSS pipeline, which can be a standard template, an individual subject from the study, a study-specific template or a group-wise average. While TBSS attempts to overcome registration error by searching the neighbourhood perpendicular to the FA skeleton for the voxel with maximum FA, this projection step may not compensate for large registration errors that might occur in the presence of pathology such as atrophy in neurodegenerative diseases. This makes registration performance and choice of reference an important issue. Substantial work in the field of computational anatomy has shown the use of group-wise averages to reduce biases while avoiding the arbitrary selection of a single individual. Here, we demonstrate the impact of the choice of reference on: (a specificity (b sensitivity in a simulation study and (c a real-world comparison of Alzheimer's disease patients to controls. In (a and (b, simulated deformations and decreases in FA were applied to control subjects to simulate changes of shape and WM integrity similar to what would be seen in AD patients, in order to provide a "ground truth" for evaluating the various methods of TBSS reference. Using a group-wise average atlas as the reference outperformed other references in the TBSS pipeline in all evaluations.

  14. The importance of group-wise registration in tract based spatial statistics study of neurodegeneration: a simulation study in Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keihaninejad, Shiva; Ryan, Natalie S; Malone, Ian B; Modat, Marc; Cash, David; Ridgway, Gerard R; Zhang, Hui; Fox, Nick C; Ourselin, Sebastien

    2012-01-01

    Tract-based spatial statistics (TBSS) is a popular method for the analysis of diffusion tensor imaging data. TBSS focuses on differences in white matter voxels with high fractional anisotropy (FA), representing the major fibre tracts, through registering all subjects to a common reference and the creation of a FA skeleton. This work considers the effect of choice of reference in the TBSS pipeline, which can be a standard template, an individual subject from the study, a study-specific template or a group-wise average. While TBSS attempts to overcome registration error by searching the neighbourhood perpendicular to the FA skeleton for the voxel with maximum FA, this projection step may not compensate for large registration errors that might occur in the presence of pathology such as atrophy in neurodegenerative diseases. This makes registration performance and choice of reference an important issue. Substantial work in the field of computational anatomy has shown the use of group-wise averages to reduce biases while avoiding the arbitrary selection of a single individual. Here, we demonstrate the impact of the choice of reference on: (a) specificity (b) sensitivity in a simulation study and (c) a real-world comparison of Alzheimer's disease patients to controls. In (a) and (b), simulated deformations and decreases in FA were applied to control subjects to simulate changes of shape and WM integrity similar to what would be seen in AD patients, in order to provide a "ground truth" for evaluating the various methods of TBSS reference. Using a group-wise average atlas as the reference outperformed other references in the TBSS pipeline in all evaluations.

  15. Importance of No. 21 chromosome in translocation t(8:21) in acute myelocytic leukemia (AML) to the genesis of the disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishihara, T; Minamihisamatsu, M

    1986-05-01

    The results are reported of the chromosome analysis of 17 cases of acute myelocytic leukemia (AML), mostly belonging to M2 of the FAB classification, especially on the translocation t(8:21) and its variant translocations. The presence of two cases with simple variant translocation not involving No. 8 chromosome seems to suggest that No. 21 chromosome is more important to the genesis of AML than the No. 8 chromosome. This assumption appears to be supported by findings on cases with complex translocation: In two cases with complex translocation, the portion translocated from No. 21 chromosome onto No. 8 was firmly maintained in the specific site (q21) on No. 8 whereas the portion translocated from No. 8 chromosome onto No. 21 was involved in further translocation with another chromosome, onto which it was re-translocated. The results of the present cytogenetic study indicate that the analysis of variant translocations in various specific chromosome translocations in leukemia and other malignant disorders is very useful to elucidate the problem as to whether the genesis of such disorders lies in either one or both of the pair of chromosomes involved in the specific translocations of the respective diseases.

  16. Dyssynergic defecation may play an important role in postoperative Hirschsprung's disease patients with severe persistent constipation: analysis of a case series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meinds, Rob J; Eggink, Maura C; Heineman, Erik; Broens, Paul M A

    2014-10-01

    After surgery for Hirschsprung's disease (HD) the majority of patients have satisfactory clinical outcomes. Nevertheless, a substantial number of patients remain who suffer from severe persistent constipation. Current consensus attributes these complaints to the hallmarks of HD. In non-HD patients a cause for severe constipation is dyssynergic defecation. Retrospectively, we reviewed the medical records of ten postoperative HD patients with severe persistent constipation who had undergone extensive anorectal function tests to diagnose the reason for the constipation. We analyzed the results of these tests. During the last three years, ten postoperative HD patients with severe persistent constipation were given extensive anorectal function tests. All ten patients were diagnosed with dyssynergic defecation. The ages at the time of diagnosis ranged from 7 to 19years with a median age of 12years. Signs of an enlarged rectum were seen in all ten patients, with a maximum measured value of 845mL. Patients with HD may also suffer from dyssynergic defecation. It is important to consider this possibility when dealing with severe persistent constipation in postoperative HD patients. Viable options for treating dyssynergic defecation are available that could prevent irreversible long-term complications. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Activation of the Nrf2 Cell Defense Pathway by Ancient Foods: Disease Prevention by Important Molecules and Microbes Lost from the Modern Western Diet.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donald R Senger

    Full Text Available The Nrf2 (NFE2L2 cell defense pathway protects against oxidative stress and disorders including cancer and neurodegeneration. Although activated modestly by oxidative stress alone, robust activation of the Nrf2 defense mechanism requires the additional presence of co-factors that facilitate electron exchange. Various molecules exhibit this co-factor function, including sulforaphane from cruciferous vegetables. However, natural co-factors that are potent and widely available from dietary sources have not been identified previously. The objectives of this study were to investigate support of the Nrf2 cell defense pathway by the alkyl catechols: 4-methylcatechol, 4-vinylcatechol, and 4-ethylcatechol. These small electrochemicals are naturally available from numerous sources but have not received attention. Findings reported here illustrate that these compounds are indeed potent co-factors for activation of the Nrf2 pathway both in vitro and in vivo. Each strongly supports expression of Nrf2 target genes in a variety of human cell types; and, in addition, 4-ethylcatechol is orally active in mice. Furthermore, findings reported here identify important and previously unrecognized sources of these compounds, arising from biotransformation of common plant compounds by lactobacilli that express phenolic acid decarboxylase. Thus, for example, Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus brevis, and Lactobacillus collinoides, which are consumed from a diet rich in traditionally fermented foods and beverages, convert common phenolic acids found in fruits and vegetables to 4-vinylcatechol and/or 4-ethylcatechol. In addition, all of the alkyl catechols are found in wood smoke that was used widely for food preservation. Thus, the potentially numerous sources of alkyl catechols in traditional foods suggest that these co-factors were common in ancient diets. However, with radical changes in food preservation, alkyl catechols have been lost from modern foods. The

  18. Znaczenie witaminy D w występowaniu wybranych schorzeń = The importance of vitamin D in the presence of selected diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malwina Respondek

    2016-09-01

      Znaczenie witaminy D w występowaniu wybranych schorzeń The importance of vitamin D in the presence of selected diseases   Malwina Respondek1, Hanna Pudło1   1Katedra Dietetyki, Wydział Zdrowia Publicznego w Bytomiu, Śląski Uniwersytet Medyczny w Katowicach 1Department of Dietetics, School of Public Health, Medical University of Silesia in Katowice   Słowa kluczowe MESH: Vitamin D, metabolism, supplementation   Słowa kluczowe: witamina D, metabolizm, suplementacja   Streszczenie W ostatnich latach istotnie zmieniło się postrzeganie roli witaminy D w organizmie, której  przypisywano głównie udział w regulacji gospodarki wapniowo-fosforanowej oraz zapobieganie krzywicy u dzieci i osteoporozie u dorosłych. Obecnie witaminę D postrzega się bardziej jako hormon steroidowy niż substancję o działaniu witaminowym. Odkrycie receptora VDR (Vitamin D Receptor w większości komórek pozaszkieletowych oraz kolejne badania epidemiologiczne potwierdzają oddziaływanie witaminy D na funkcjonowanie wielu układów w organizmie tj. utrzymaniu prawidłowego funkcjonowania układu sercowo-naczyniowego, układu immunologicznego, w profilaktyce przeciwnowotworowej i cukrzycy.       Summary   In recent years significantly changed perception of the role of vitamin D in the body, which was attributed mainly involved in the regulation of calcium –phosphate and the prevention of rickets in children and osteoporosis in adults. Currently, vitamin D is seen more as a steroid hormone than a substance with vitamin . The discovery of VDR (Vitamin D Receptor receptor in most cells and further epidemiological studies confirmed the impact of vitamin D on the functioning of many body systems it means role of vitamin D in cardiovascular health, immune system, diabetes and cancer prevention.

  19. Relative importance of redox buffers GSH and NAD(P)H in age-related neurodegeneration and Alzheimer disease-like mouse neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Debolina; Levault, Kelsey R; Brewer, Gregory J

    2014-08-01

    Aging, a major risk factor in Alzheimer's disease (AD), is associated with an oxidative redox shift, decreased redox buffer protection, and increased free radical reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, probably linked to mitochondrial dysfunction. While NADH is the ultimate electron donor for many redox reactions, including oxidative phosphorylation, glutathione (GSH) is the major ROS detoxifying redox buffer in the cell. Here, we explored the relative importance of NADH and GSH to neurodegeneration in aging and AD neurons from nontransgenic and 3xTg-AD mice by inhibiting their synthesis to determine whether NADH can compensate for the GSH loss to maintain redox balance. Neurons stressed by either depleting NAD(P)H or GSH indicated that NADH redox control is upstream of GSH levels. Further, although depletion of NAD(P)H or GSH correlated linearly with neuron death, compared with GSH depletion, higher neurodegeneration was observed when NAD(P)H was extrapolated to zero, especially in old age, and in the 3xTg-AD neurons. We also observed an age-dependent loss of gene expression of key redox-dependent biosynthetic enzymes, NAMPT (nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase), and NNT (nicotinamide nucleotide transhydrogenase). Moreover, age-related correlations between brain NNT or NAMPT gene expression and NADPH levels suggest that these genes contribute to the age-related declines in NAD(P)H. Our data indicate that in aging and more so in AD-like neurons, NAD(P)H redox control is upstream of GSH and an oxidative redox shift that promotes neurodegeneration. Thus, NAD(P)H generation may be a more efficacious therapeutic target upstream of GSH and ROS. © 2014 The Authors. Aging Cell published by the Anatomical Society and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. IMPORTANT NOTIFICATION

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2009-01-01

    Green plates, removals and importation of personal effects Please note that, as from 1 April 2009, formalities relating to K and CD special series French vehicle plates (green plates), removals and importation of personal effects into France and Switzerland will be dealt with by GS Department (Building 73/3-014, tel. 73683/74407). Importation and purchase of tax-free vehicles in Switzerland, as well as diplomatic privileges, will continue to be dealt with by the Installation Service of HR Department (Building 33/1-011, tel. 73962). HR and GS Departments

  1. DISEASES

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pletscher-Frankild, Sune; Pallejà, Albert; Tsafou, Kalliopi

    2015-01-01

    Text mining is a flexible technology that can be applied to numerous different tasks in biology and medicine. We present a system for extracting disease-gene associations from biomedical abstracts. The system consists of a highly efficient dictionary-based tagger for named entity recognition...... of human genes and diseases, which we combine with a scoring scheme that takes into account co-occurrences both within and between sentences. We show that this approach is able to extract half of all manually curated associations with a false positive rate of only 0.16%. Nonetheless, text mining should...... not stand alone, but be combined with other types of evidence. For this reason, we have developed the DISEASES resource, which integrates the results from text mining with manually curated disease-gene associations, cancer mutation data, and genome-wide association studies from existing databases...

  2. A importância da integração de dados do diagnóstico das hemopatias The importance of integrating results of several techniques in the diagnosis of hematological diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irene Lorand- Metze

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available A análise diagnóstica da medula óssea compreende classicamente a citologia. Mais recentemente, tornou- se rotina o estudo histológico. Desde o início, tentou- se integrar estes dados, pois, enquanto a citologia fornece uma análise mais detalhada das características das células e permite quantificá- las, a biópsia, por analisar o tecido como um todo, permite o estudo da estrutura do tecido hemopoético, seu estroma e a ocorrência de estruturas estranhas à medula, como granulomas, fibrose e metástases de neoplasias. Com o desenvolvimento de novas tecnologias e o melhor conhecimento das diversas entidades, principalmente em onco- hematologia, além do desenvolvimento de terapias alvo- específicas, tornou- se importante o estudo citogenético/molecular em algumas patologias. Nas leucemias agudas e síndromes linfoproliferativas, a imunofenotipagem tem contribuído de modo decisivo para a classificação correta das diversas neoplasias pelos critérios da OMS. Assim, o diagnóstico hematológico se tornou uma atividade multidisciplinar que integra profissionais de diversas especialidades. Assim se consegue tratar os pacientes de modo mais adequado, além de poder rastrear a doença residual após o tratamento. Isto levou a novas definições de remissão: hematológica, fenotípica, citogenética e molecular. O estudo da medula óssea é importante em algumas hemopatias benignas, como anemias carenciais, que podem se manifestar como pancitopenias. Este estudo deve ser complementado com exames sorológicos e bioquímicos. A mielocultura tem permitido o diagnóstico de infecções, especialmente nos indivíduos imunossuprimidos.The diagnosis of hematologic diseases has traditionally been based on features of peripheral blood and bone marrow (BM cytology. Histologic examination of the BM has been used for the staging of neoplasias when aspiration is not possible due to fibrosis. Cytology permits a better evaluation of cell morphology and a

  3. The importance of dyspnoea in the diagnosis of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease – a descriptive analysis of a stable cohort in Portugal (SAFE Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Bárbara

    Full Text Available Introduction: The aim of this study was to determine patient-perceived characteristics of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD in patients participating in a large trial evaluating tiotropium bromide. Patients and methods: Baseline symptoms were assessed by means of a standardized questionnaire. Patients reported symptoms that led to diagnosis as well as their current most troublesome symptom. Results: Data were obtained from 298 patients, mostly male (95 %, with mean (standard deviation baseline forced expiratory volume in 1 second of 1.1 (0.4 L (40.6 [13.3] % of predicted, mean disease duration of 14.4 (10.1 years and smoking history of 55.1 (25.3 pack-years. Dyspnoea was the most frequently reported symptom leading to COPD diagnosis (55.0 % of patients, followed by cough (33.2 %. Dyspnoea was also the current most troublesome symptom (82.6 %, followed by cough (8.4 %. The presence of dyspnoea or cough was independent of COPD severity. The most commonly reported co-morbidities were cardiovascular disorders (49 % of patients, gastrointestinal disorders (20 % and metabolic disorders (16 %, mainly diabetes mellitus. Conclusions: This analysis confirms the importance of dyspnoea as the most common symptom leading to initial COPD diagnosis and the symptom most troublesome to patients. Co-morbidities are common among COPD patients, and hence spirometric testing is appropriate in a patient who presents with dyspnoea associated with such a condition. Resumo: Introdução: Este estudo teve como objectivo determinar os principais sintomas percepcionados pelos doentes com doença pulmonar obstrutiva crónica (DPOC numa coorte de doentes que participaram num grande ensaio clínico, que avaliou o tiotrópio e que decorreu em Portugal. População e métodos: A caracterização dos sintomas, no momento de avaliação basal dos doentes foi efectuada através do recurso a um questionário padronizado. Os doentes foram

  4. Species composition and fauna distribution of mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae and its importance for vector-borne diseases in a rural area of Central Western - Mato Grosso, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábio Alexandre Leal-Santos

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. This study describes ecological data obtained in a rural area in the State of Mato Grosso, including the insects belonging to the family Culicidae, especially those framed as potential vectors of tropical diseases. In 2015, we collected adult mosquitoes in fragments of forest in a rural area located in Mato Grosso Central West of Brazil. We captured 18,256 mosquitoes of the sub-families Culicinae and Anophelinae and have identified 34 species belonging to 12 genera: Aedes (1 species, Anopheles (8 species, Coquillettidia (1 species, Haemagogus (1 species, Culex (5 species, Psorophora  (5 species, Ochlerotatus (4 species, Deinocerites (1 species,  Mansonia (4 species, Sabethes (2 species, Limatus (1 species, Wyeomyia (1 species. The family Culicidae presented high richness and abundance, established by diversity indexes (Margalef α =3.26; Shannon H' = 2.09; Simpson D = 0.19 with dominance of the species Anopheles (Nyssorhyncus darlingi Root (89.8%. This species has considerable epidemiological value, considered the main vector of malaria in Mato Grosso. Many species of mosquitoes are vectors of pathogens that cause disease in humans and domestic animals, transmitting pathogens including viruses (arboviruses, filaria worms (helminths and protozoa. Composição de espécies e distribuição da fauna de mosquitos (Diptera: Culicidae e sua importância para doenças transmitidas por vetores em uma área rural do centro-ocidental - Mato Grosso, Brasil Resumo. Este estudo descreve dados ecológicos de uma área rural do Estado de Mato Grosso e dos insetos da família Culicidae especialmente aqueles enquadrados como vetores potenciais de doenças tropicais. Em 2015, coletamos mosquitos adultos em fragmentos de floresta em localidades de áreas rurais no Mato Grosso região Centro Oeste do Brasil. Foram capturados 18.256 exemplares alados de mosquitos das subfamílias Culicinae e Anophelinae e identificadas 34 espécies pertencentes a 12 g

  5. Dyssynergic defecation may play an important role in postoperative Hirschsprung's disease patients with severe persistent constipation Analysis of a case series

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meinds, Rob J.; Eggink, Maura C.; Heineman, Erik; Broens, Paul M. A.

    2014-01-01

    Background: After surgery for Hirschsprung's disease (HD) the majority of patients have satisfactory clinical outcomes. Nevertheless, a substantial number of patients remain who suffer from severe persistent constipation. Current consensus attributes these complaints to the hallmarks of HD. In

  6. Importância do exame oftalmológico na doença de von Hippel-Lindau The importance of the ophthalmological examination in von Hippel-Lindau disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Evangelista Marrocos de Aragão

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Von Hippel-Lindau (VHL é uma síndrome tumoral autossômica dominante. Esses tumores incluem hemangioblastoma da retina e sistema nervoso central (CSN, carcinoma de células renais, feocromocitoma, tumores de pâncreas, cistoadenoma de rins, pâncreas e epidídimo. Os sintomas mais comuns são perda da visão, aumento da pressão intracraniana, déficits neurológicos, aumento da pressão arterial sistêmica paradoxal e dor local. Relatamos o caso de um paciente com perda de visão e história de hemangiomas cerebelares cujo diagnóstico de VHL foi feito após exame oftalmológico.Von Hippel-Lindau (VHL disease is an autossomical, dominant inherited tumour syndrom. These tumours may include haemangioblastoma in the retina and central nervous system (CNS, renal cell carcinoma, phaeochromocytoma, islet cell tumours of the pancreas, cystadenoma in the kidney, pancreas, and epididymis. The most common symptoms include: loss of vision, raised intracranial pressure, neurological deficits, paroxysmal raised blood pressure and local pain. We report herein a 29-year-old man with visual loss and cerebellar haemangioblastoma that despite neurological manifestations the diagnosis of VHL was established after the ophthalmological examanination.

  7. The changing course of aortic valve disease in Scotland: temporal trends in hospitalizations and mortality and prognostic importance of aortic stenosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, Colin; Lloyd, Suzanne M; Wang, Yanzhong; Macdonald, Alyson; Ford, Ian

    2013-06-01

    To investigate the contemporary clinical course of aortic valve disease types. We performed a retrospective population-level epidemiological study of hospitalized care in Scotland from 1 January 1997 to 31 December 2005 using electronic case identification of hospital admissions and deaths. Time-to-event analyses were performed using Cox Proportional-Hazards models. A total of 19 733 adults with an index hospitalization and a final diagnosis of non-congenital aortic valve disease were identified. Aortic stenosis, aortic insufficiency, mixed aortic valve disease, or unspecified aortic valve disease occurred in 13 220 (67.0%), 2807 (14.2%), 699 (3.5%), and 3007 (15.2%), individuals, respectively. The majority of hospitalizations occurred in elderly persons aged 80 and older. In total, 9981 (50.6%) patients had died by 31 December 2006. When compared with aortic stenosis, the risk of death was less with aortic insufficiency [hazard ratio (95% confidence interval) 0.79 (0.74, 0.84)] and mixed aortic valve disease [0.83 (0.74, 0.93)]. Female gender, admission year, and hypertension were associated with lower mortality in patients with aortic stenosis. Patients with aortic stenosis had increased risk of death or heart failure (adjusted P valve replacement of whom 73.2% had aortic stenosis, 11.9% aortic valve disease (unspecified),10.0% aortic insufficiency, and 4.9% aortic stenosis with insufficiency. Patients with aortic stenosis with insufficiency had increased likelihood of aortic valve replacement [1.19 (1.02, 1.38)]. Age, female gender, and co-morbidity reduced the likelihood of aortic valve replacement. The incidence of aortic valve stenosis has substantially increased in Scotland in recent years. Aortic stenosis predicts morbidity and mortality when compared with other types of aortic valve disease.

  8. Importance classification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mizumachi, Wataru; Kobayashi, Masahide

    2008-01-01

    Conventionally, the design of a nuclear reactor has been performed from a viewpoint of a safety function and the importance on earthquake-proof on the basis of not giving off the mainly included radioactivity outside. In this Niigataken-Chuetsuoki earthquake, there is almost no damage to the system, components and structure on safe also in the earthquake beyond assumption, and the validity of the design was checked. But, the situation peculiar to a big earthquake was also generated. The emergency plan room which should serve as a connection center with the exterior was not able to open a door and use at the beginning. Fire-extinguishing system piping fractured and self-defense fire fighting was not made. And so on. Discussion from the following three viewpoints was performed. 1st: The importance from a viewpoint which should maintain a function also with the disaster in case of an earthquake like an emergency plan room etc. 2nd: In the earthquake, since the safe system and un-safe system was influenced, the importance from a viewpoint which may have influence safely inquired when the un-safe system broke down. 3rd: Although it was not directly related safely, discussion from a viewpoint which influences fear of insecurity, such as taking out smoke, for example, was performed (author)

  9. Importance of cutaneous silent period in fibromyalgia and its relationship with disease characteristics, psychological disorders and quality of life of patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umay, Ebru; Ulas, Umit; Unlu, Ece; Akgun, Hakan; Cakci, Aytul; Odabasi, Zeki

    2013-01-01

    Cutaneous silent period (CSP) is an inhibitory spinal protective reflex and its afferents consist of A-delta nerve fibers. We aimed to evaluate patients with fibromyalgia (FM) and healthy controls to determine any differences between the groups in terms of CSP duration and latency, and if present, to determine whether there is any relationship with disease characteristics, psychological disorders and quality of life. Thirty-two patients with FM and 32 healthy volunteers were included in the study. The patient and control groups were compared in terms of CSP latency and duration in both upper and lower extremities. Disease characteristics, psychological disorders and quality of life of patients were assessed using the Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire (FIQ) and Short Form-36 (SF-36). Patients with CSP measurements equal to or lower than those of the control group were compared with those with higher values than controls in terms of disease characteristics, psychological status and quality of life. Significantly prolonged CSP latencies in both upper and lower extremities were determined in patients compared to controls. We found that prolongation of CSP latency in the lower extremity is associated with disease severity and functional disability. CSP latencies in both upper and lower extremities in patients with FM are longer than in healthy volunteers. Moreover, prolongation of CSP latency in the lower extremity is associated with disease severity and physical functional disability.

  10. The importance of accurately modelling human interactions. Comment on "Coupled disease-behavior dynamics on complex networks: A review" by Z. Wang et al.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosati, Dora P.; Molina, Chai; Earn, David J. D.

    2015-12-01

    Human behaviour and disease dynamics can greatly influence each other. In particular, people often engage in self-protective behaviours that affect epidemic patterns (e.g., vaccination, use of barrier precautions, isolation, etc.). Self-protective measures usually have a mitigating effect on an epidemic [16], but can in principle have negative impacts at the population level [12,15,18]. The structure of underlying social and biological contact networks can significantly influence the specific ways in which population-level effects are manifested. Using a different contact network in a disease dynamics model-keeping all else equal-can yield very different epidemic patterns. For example, it has been shown that when individuals imitate their neighbours' vaccination decisions with some probability, this can lead to herd immunity in some networks [9], yet for other networks it can preserve clusters of susceptible individuals that can drive further outbreaks of infectious disease [12].

  11. Large and medium-sized pulmonary artery obstruction does not play a role of primary importance in the etiology of sickle-cell disease-associated pulmonary hypertension

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Beers, Eduard J.; van Eck-Smit, Berthe L. F.; Mac Gillavry, Melvin R.; van Tuijn, Charlotte F. J.; van Esser, Joost W. J.; Brandjes, Dees P. M.; Kappers-Klunne, Mies C.; Duits, Ashley J.; Biemond, Bart J.; Schnog, John-John B.

    2008-01-01

    Background: Pulmonary hypertension (PHT) occurs in approximately 30% of adult patients with sickle-cell disease (SCD) and is a risk factor for early death. The potential role of pulmonary artery obstruction, whether due to emboli or in situ thrombosis, in the etiology of SCD-related PHT is unknown.

  12. Vaccination of mice with plasmids expressing processed capsid protein of foot-and-mouth disease virus - Importance of dominant and subdominant epitopes for antigenicity and protection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frimann, Tine; Barfoed, Annette Malene; Aasted, Bent

    2007-01-01

    The capsid of foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) displays several independent B cell epitopes, which stimulate the production of neutralising antibodies. Some of these epitopes are highly variable between virus strains, but dominate the immune response. The site A on VP1 is the most prominent...

  13. Unconventional imports

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamaguchi, N.D.

    2001-01-01

    This article focuses on bitumens and bitumen products from Canadian oil sands and explores how they will affect the Canadian oil industry and the US refining industry. The falling production of crude, the growing demand for it, and the stagnating refining capacity in the US are reported, and Canadian and Mexican exports to the US, the definition of bitumens and bitumen quality, and the position of Canada as world leader in bitumen resources are considered. Bitumen production techniques, sales of bitumens and synthetic crude, the production outlook, and the quality and refining of bitumen and synthetic crude are examined. Plots illustrating North American crude refining capacity, production and demand for 1980-2000; US crude imports from Canada and Mexico (1981-2000), world proven oil reserves (2001), world bitumen resources, and Canadian oil production (1998-2000) are provided. Details of the composition of crudes and bitumens, and recent synthetic crude production are tabulated

  14. The importance of age dependent mortality and the extrinsic incubation period in models of mosquito-borne disease transmission and control.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steve E Bellan

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Nearly all mathematical models of vector-borne diseases have assumed that vectors die at constant rates. However, recent empirical research suggests that mosquito mortality rates are frequently age dependent. This work develops a simple mathematical model to assess how relaxing the classical assumption of constant mortality affects the predicted effectiveness of anti-vectorial interventions. The effectiveness of mosquito control when mosquitoes die at age dependent rates was also compared across different extrinsic incubation periods. Compared to a more realistic age dependent model, constant mortality models overestimated the sensitivity of disease transmission to interventions that reduce mosquito survival. Interventions that reduce mosquito survival were also found to be slightly less effective when implemented in systems with shorter EIPs. Future transmission models that examine anti-vectorial interventions should incorporate realistic age dependent mortality rates.

  15. The changing course of aortic valve disease in Scotland:temporal trends in hospitalizations and mortality and prognostic importance of aortic stenosis

    OpenAIRE

    Berry, Colin; Lloyd, Suzanne M; Wang, Yanzhong; Macdonald, Alyson; Ford, Ian

    2013-01-01

    Aims: To investigate the contemporary clinical course of aortic valve disease types.Methods and results: We performed a retrospective population-level epidemiological study of hospitalized care in Scotland from 1 January 1997 to 31 December 2005 using electronic case identification of hospital admissions and deaths. Time-to-event analyses were performed using Cox Proportional-Hazards models. A total of 19 733 adults with an index hospitalization and a final diagnosis of non-congenital aortic ...

  16. Applying data mining techniques to determine important parameters in chronic kidney disease and the relations of these parameters to each other.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tahmasebian, Shahram; Ghazisaeedi, Marjan; Langarizadeh, Mostafa; Mokhtaran, Mehrshad; Mahdavi-Mazdeh, Mitra; Javadian, Parisa

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Chronic kidney disease (CKD) includes a wide range of pathophysiological processes which will be observed along with abnormal function of kidneys and progressive decrease in glomerular filtration rate (GFR). According to the definition decreasing GFR must have been present for at least three months. CKD will eventually result in end-stage kidney disease. In this process different factors play role and finding the relations between effective parameters in this regard can help to prevent or slow progression of this disease. There are always a lot of data being collected from the patients' medical records. This huge array of data can be considered a valuable source for analyzing, exploring and discovering information. Objectives: Using the data mining techniques, the present study tries to specify the effective parameters and also aims to determine their relations with each other in Iranian patients with CKD. Material and Methods: The study population includes 31996 patients with CKD. First, all of the data is registered in the database. Then data mining tools were used to find the hidden rules and relationships between parameters in collected data. Results: After data cleaning based on CRISP-DM (Cross Industry Standard Process for Data Mining) methodology and running mining algorithms on the data in the database the relationships between the effective parameters was specified. Conclusion: This study was done using the data mining method pertaining to the effective factors on patients with CKD.

  17. Integrated Disease Investigations and Surveillance planning: a systems approach to strengthening national surveillance and detection of events of public health importance in support of the International Health Regulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kennedy Sarah

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The international community continues to define common strategic themes of actions to improve global partnership and international collaborations in order to protect our populations. The International Health Regulations (IHR[2005] offer one of these strategic themes whereby World Health Organization (WHO Member States and global partners engaged in biosecurity, biosurveillance and public health can define commonalities and leverage their respective missions and resources to optimize interventions. The U.S. Defense Threat Reduction Agency’s Cooperative Biologica Engagement Program (CBEP works with partner countries across clinical, veterinary, epidemiological, and laboratory communities to enhance national disease surveillance, detection, diagnostic, and reporting capabilities. CBEP, like many other capacity building programs, has wrestled with ways to improve partner country buy-in and ownership and to develop sustainable solutions that impact integrated disease surveillance outcomes. Designing successful implementation strategies represents a complex and challenging exercise and requires robust and transparent collaboration at the country level. To address this challenge, the Laboratory Systems Development Branch of the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC and CBEP have partnered to create a set of tools that brings together key leadership of the surveillance system into a deliberate system design process. This process takes into account strengths and limitations of the existing system, how the components inter-connect and relate to one another, and how they can be systematically refined within the local context. The planning tools encourage cross-disciplinary thinking, critical evaluation and analysis of existing capabilities, and discussions across organizational and departmental lines toward a shared course of action and purpose. The underlying concepts and methodology of these tools are presented here.

  18. Importance of endoscopic retrograde pancreatocholangiography (ERPCG) in diagnosis of concomitant diseases of the biliary tracts in chronic hepatitis and liver cirrhosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Granov, A.M.; Morozova, O.M.; Pruchanskij, V.S.

    1988-01-01

    In order to specify the diagnostic potentialities of ERPCG in patients with chronic hepatitis and liver cirrhosis 120 patients with various diseases of the biliopancreatoduodenal zone were examined including 30 patients aged 24 to 72 with chronic liver diseases. An indication for investigation in most patients was prolonged or recurrent cholestasis without typical clinical manifestations of cholelithiasis. ERPCG was also performed in 9 patients with portal liver cirrhosis without cholestasis. Satsisfactory contrast of the biliary tracts was obtained only in 8 to 16 patients with chronic hepatitis, whereas of 14 patients with liver cirhosis the bile ducts were filled in 12. Concrements in the common bile duct were detected in 3 of 4 patients with primary biliary liver cirrhosis. In the group of patients with portal liver cirrhosis in spite of the absence of clinical manifestations concrement in the common bile duct was detected in one case, concrement in the gall bladder - in one case, intrahepatic concrements - in one case. ERPCG is a highly informative method for the detection of changes of biliary tracts and determination of causes of cholelithiasis in this group of patients

  19. Practical importance and modern methods of the evaluation of skin microcirculation during chronic lower limb ischemia in patients with peripheral arterial occlusive disease and/or diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kluz, J; Małecki, R; Adamiec, R

    2013-02-01

    Skin ischemia is one of the crucial phenomena during chronic lower limb ischemia in patients with peripheral arterial occlusive disease and/or diabetes. However, risk stratification for development of ischemic ulceration and/or skin necrosis in those patients is not easy, mostly due to the complex structure of the dermal vascular bed and limited possibilities for studying the skin capillaries in everyday practice. All definitions of critical limb ischemia thus far have considered mostly the clinical symptoms and the degree of macrocirculatory impairment. Despite the fact that the reduction of absolute dermal perfusion and improper distribution of perfusion in ischemic feet, primarily diminished perfusion or even a complete loss of blood flow in nutritional capillaries, rather than arterial occlusion per se, is the eventual reason for critical limb ischemia symptoms, the vessels of the microcirculation are not routinely assessed in clinical practice. Monitoring of microcirculatory parameters, as a part of integrated diagnostic approach, may have a considerable value in the evaluation of risk, progression of the disease and the effectiveness of therapeutic intervention in individual patients. Relative simplicity and availability of different non-invasive methods, including video capillaroscopy and laser Doppler fluxmetry, should constitute a premise to their wider application in clinical management of chronic limb ischemia.

  20. [Prevalence and medical and social importance of disorders and diseases of the musculoskeletal systems in children and adolescents (review of literature)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirskaia, N B; Kolomenskaia, A N; Siniakina, A D

    2015-01-01

    The urgency of the problem of the excess incidence of disorders and diseases of the musculoskeletal system (MSS) in contemporary children and adolescents is determined by its high medical and social significance. However, the poor quality of diagnosis of MSS disorders in children at the polyclinics level, especially at the initial stages, when timely commenced recreational and corrective-measures are most effective, do not allow to carry out remedial work timely, and this in turn is the cause of the high prevalence of violations of the MSS later With the aim of the improvement of the quality of diagnosis of early forms of musculoskeletal pathology in children and adolescents, as well as for the performance of the prevention during learning them in school there is developed an information system for health care workers "Identification, correction and prevention of disorders of the locomotor apparatus in students of educational institutions". The core of the system is formed by developed by authors a classification of functional disorders and initial forms of diseases of the MSS in students, as well as the organization of this work.

  1. Absolute quantitation of gallium-67 citrate accumulation in the lungs and its importance for the evaluation of disease activity in pulmonary sarcoidosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Myslivecek, M.; Husak, V.; Budikova, M.; Koranda, P.; Kolek, V.

    1992-01-01

    Our modification of a method for the absolute quantification of gallium-67 uptake in lungs with a scintillation camera and computer is described. The uptake of 67 Ga in lungs, expressed in percentage of administered radioactivity, was determined by the transmission-emission method. We proved theoretically and experimentally that a 67 Ga planar source could be replaced with a 57 Co planar source. The performance of lung perfusion scans allows a more accurate delineation of the regions of interest on gallium scans. The method was applied to control subjects (n=27) and to patients (n=114) suffering from biopsy-proven pulmonary sarcoidosis (28 with inactive and 86 with active disease). The obtained results were compared with chest X-ray findings, the percentage of lymphocytes in the bronchoalveolar fluid (BAF-ly%), and serum angiotensin-converting enzyme (SACE) values. The method seems suitable for the assessment of disease activity in sarcoidosis. It is more accurate in detecting parenchymal involvement in lung sarcoidosis than the commonly used X-ray criteria. No correlation was found between 67 Ga uptake and the BFA-ly% and SACE values. (orig.)

  2. Importance of Android/Gynoid Fat Ratio in Predicting Metabolic and Cardiovascular Disease Risk in Normal Weight as well as Overweight and Obese Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regier, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Numerous studies have shown that android or truncal obesity is associated with a risk for metabolic and cardiovascular disease, yet there is evidence that gynoid fat distribution may be protective. However, these studies have focused on adults and obese children. The purpose of our study was to determine if the android/gynoid fat ratio is positively correlated with insulin resistance, HOMA2-IR, and dislipidemia in a child sample of varying body sizes. In 7–13-year-old children with BMI percentiles ranging from 0.1 to 99.6, the android/gynoid ratio was closely associated with insulin resistance and combined LDL + VLDL-cholesterol. When separated by sex, it became clear that these relationships were stronger in boys than in girls. Subjects were stratified into BMI percentile based tertiles. For boys, the android/gynoid ratio was significantly related to insulin resistance regardless of BMI tertile with and LDL + VLDL in tertiles 1 and 3. For girls, only LDL + VLDL showed any significance with android/gynoid ratio and only in tertile 2. We conclude that the android/gynoid fat ratio is closely associated with insulin resistance and LDL + VLDL-, “bad,” cholesterol in normal weight boys and may provide a measurement of metabolic and cardiovascular disease risk in that population. PMID:25302115

  3. Importance of android/gynoid fat ratio in predicting metabolic and cardiovascular disease risk in normal weight as well as overweight and obese children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samsell, Lennie; Regier, Michael; Walton, Cheryl; Cottrell, Lesley

    2014-01-01

    Numerous studies have shown that android or truncal obesity is associated with a risk for metabolic and cardiovascular disease, yet there is evidence that gynoid fat distribution may be protective. However, these studies have focused on adults and obese children. The purpose of our study was to determine if the android/gynoid fat ratio is positively correlated with insulin resistance, HOMA2-IR, and dislipidemia in a child sample of varying body sizes. In 7-13-year-old children with BMI percentiles ranging from 0.1 to 99.6, the android/gynoid ratio was closely associated with insulin resistance and combined LDL + VLDL-cholesterol. When separated by sex, it became clear that these relationships were stronger in boys than in girls. Subjects were stratified into BMI percentile based tertiles. For boys, the android/gynoid ratio was significantly related to insulin resistance regardless of BMI tertile with and LDL + VLDL in tertiles 1 and 3. For girls, only LDL + VLDL showed any significance with android/gynoid ratio and only in tertile 2. We conclude that the android/gynoid fat ratio is closely associated with insulin resistance and LDL + VLDL-, "bad," cholesterol in normal weight boys and may provide a measurement of metabolic and cardiovascular disease risk in that population.

  4. [The Terminal Phase of an Intractable Neurological Disease from the Viewpoint of Nursing Care: The Importance of the Promotion of a Barrier-Free Mind for ALS Care].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muraoka, Koko

    2015-08-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a particularly serious intractable neurological disease. Patients with ALS have high mortality rates if they are not put on an artificial respirator. Even with an artificial respirator, individuals with ALS are forced to witness their own physical deterioration. Because 24 hour care is usually required, an intense relationship ofter develops between patients with ALS and family caregivers. This relationship forms an invisible barrier and can impede a smooth introduction of external services. As a result, there can be a degradation in the quality of care. The purpose of this paper is to describe the voluntary efforts of patients and family caregivers in order to break down this barrier and to discuss what types of care support are available to promote barrier-free minds.

  5. Secondhand Smoke Is an Important Modifiable Risk Factor in Sickle Cell Disease: A Review of the Current Literature and Areas for Future Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Christy Sadreameli

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Sickle cell disease (SCD is an autosomal recessive hemoglobinopathy that causes significant morbidity and mortality related to chronic hemolytic anemia, vaso-occlusion, and resultant end-organ damage. Tobacco smoke exposure (TSE through secondhand smoke exposure in people with SCD of all ages and through primary smoking in adolescents and adults is associated with significantly increased morbidity, with increased rates of emergency department visits and hospitalizations for painful vaso-occlusive crises and acute chest syndrome (ACS. Secondhand smoke is also associated with pulmonary function abnormalities in children with SCD who are already at risk for pulmonary function abnormalities on the basis of SCD. TSE is emerging as one of the few modifiable risk factors of SCD. This review discusses the current state of the evidence with respect to TSE and SCD morbidity, discusses potential mechanisms, and highlights current gaps in the evidence and future research directions.

  6. Preoperative motor strength and time to surgery are the most important predictors of improvement in foot drop due to degenerative lumbar disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macki, Mohamed; Syeda, Sbaa; Kerezoudis, Panagiotis; Gokaslan, Ziya L; Bydon, Ali; Bydon, Mohamad

    2016-02-15

    Palsy of dorsiflexion, or foot drop, may be due to degenerative lumbar disease and amenable to posterior spinal decompression. The objective of this study is to measure prognostic factors of and time to foot drop improvement after posterior lumbar decompression. We retrospectively reviewed 71 patients undergoing first-time, posterior lumbar decompression for foot drop due to degenerative spinal disease. Patient sex, age, comorbidities (Charlson Comorbidity Index), preoperative anterior tibialis strength (manual muscle testing, MMT), and duration of foot drop were ascertained from clinical notes. Prognostic factors affecting foot drop improvement were calculated with a discrete time proportional hazards model, in which follow-up times and outcome measures were binned into six time intervals: 1 week, 6 weeks, 3 months, 6 months, 1 year, and ≥ 1 year. Of the 71 patients, the mean age was 54.6 ± 16.0 years, and 66.2% (n=47) were males. The mean Charlson Comorbidity Index was 2.42. During a mean follow-up of 30.4 months, dorsiflexion function improved postoperatively in 73.2% (n=52) of patients. The median time to surgery from onset of foot drop was within 6 weeks, and the median preoperative MMT strength of patients with foot drop improvement was 3. Following a discrete-time proportional hazards model, duration of anterior tibialis palsy (HR=0.67, P=0.004) and preoperative muscle strength (HR=1.10, P=0.010) were significant predictors of foot drop improvement. Following an adjusted Kaplan-Meier analysis, the median time to foot drop improvement was within 6 weeks of surgical intervention. Preoperative muscle strength and palsy duration were statistically significant predictors of foot drop improvement. Furthermore, the median time to improvement was 6 weeks. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Importance of glomerular filtration rate change as surrogate endpoint for the future incidence of end-stage renal disease in general Japanese population: community-based cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanda, Eiichiro; Usui, Tomoko; Kashihara, Naoki; Iseki, Chiho; Iseki, Kunitoshi; Nangaku, Masaomi

    2018-04-01

    Because of the necessity for extended period and large costs until the event occurs, surrogate endpoints are indispensable for implementation of clinical studies to improve chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients' prognosis. Subjects with serum creatinine level for a baseline period over 1-3 years were enrolled (n = 69,238) in this community-based prospective cohort study in Okinawa, Japan, and followed up for 15 years. The endpoint was end-stage renal disease (ESRD). The percent of estimated glomerular filtration rate (%eGFR) change was calculated on the basis of the baseline period. Subjects had a mean ± SD age, 55.59 ± 14.69 years; eGFR, 80.15 ± 21.15 ml/min/1.73 m 2 . Among the subjects recruited, 15.81% had a low eGFR (<60 ml/min/1.73 m 2 ) and 36.1/100,000 person years developed ESRD. Cox proportional hazards models adjusted for baseline characteristics showed that the risk of ESRD tended to be high with high rates of decrease in %eGFR changes over 2 or 3 years in the high- and low-eGFR groups. The specificities and positive predictive values for ESRD based on a cutoff value of %eGFR change of less than -30% over 2 or 3 years were high in the high- and low-eGFR groups. %eGFR change tends to be associated with the risk of ESRD. %eGFR change of less than -30% over 2 or 3 years can be a candidate surrogate endpoint for ESRD in the general Japanese population.

  8. Is the 'blue' colour convention for inhaled reliever medications important? A UK-based survey of healthcare professionals and patients with airways disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fletcher, Monica; Scullion, Jane; White, John; Thompson, Bronwen; Capstick, Toby

    2016-11-03

    In many countries, short-acting β 2 -agonist inhalers have traditionally been coloured blue. This inhaled therapy has also conventionally been known as a 'reliever' by patients and healthcare professionals (HCPs), in comparison with 'preventer' medications (inhaled steroids). With the rapidly changing market in inhaled therapy for COPD and asthma and growing numbers of devices, there has been some concern that the erosion of traditional colour conventions is leading to patients (and HCPs) becoming confused about the role of different therapies. In order to assess whether there was concern over the perceived changing colour conventions, the UK Inhaler Group carried out a large online survey of patients and HCPs. The aim was to determine how patients and HCPS identify and describe inhaled drugs, and how this might impact on use of medicines and safety. The results of the survey highlighted the importance of the term 'blue inhaler' for patients with only 11.3% never referring to the colour when referring to their inhaler. For HCPs, 95% felt colour conventions were important when referring to reliever medication. In addition, HCPs appear to refer to inhalers mainly by colour when talking to patients. Our conclusions were that the concept of a 'blue inhaler' remains important to patients and healthcare professionals. These results add to the debate about the need to formalise the colour coding of inhaled therapies, in particular using the colour blue for inhalers for rapid relief of symptoms, as this convention may be an important measure and contributor to patient safety. Our survey should provide impetus for all interested parties to discuss and agree a formal industry-wide approach to colour coding of inhaled therapies for the benefit of patients and carers and HCPs.

  9. Identification of 58 novel mutations in Niemann-Pick disease type C: correlation with biochemical phenotype and importance of PTC1-like domains in NPC1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Walter D; O'Brien, John F; Lundquist, Patrick A; Kraft, Daniel L; Vockley, Cate Walsh; Karnes, Pamela S; Patterson, Marc C; Snow, Karen

    2003-10-01

    The two known complementation groups of Niemann-Pick Type C disease, NPC1 and NPC2, result from non-allelic protein defects. Both the NPC1 and NPC2 (HE1) gene products are intimately involved in cholesterol and glycolipid trafficking and/or transport. We describe mutation analysis on samples from 143 unrelated affected NPC patients using conformation sensitive gel electrophoresis and DNA sequencing as the primary mutation screening methods for NPC1 and NPC2, respectively. These methods are robust, sensitive, and do not require any specialized laboratory equipment. Analyses identified two NPC1 mutations for 115 (80.4%) patients, one NPC1 mutation for 10 (7.0%) patients, two NPC2 mutations for five (3.5%) patients, one NPC2 mutation for one (0.7%) patient, and no mutations for 12 (8.4%) patients. Thus, mutations were identified on 251 of 286 (88%) disease alleles, including 121 different mutations (114 in NPC1 and seven in NPC2), 58 of which are previously unreported. The most common NPC1 mutation, I1061T, was detected on 18% of NPC alleles. Other NPC1 mutations were mostly private, missense mutations located throughout the gene with clustering in the cysteine-rich luminal domain. Correlation with biochemical data suggests classification of several mutations as severe and others as moderate or variable. The region between amino acids 1038 and 1253, which shares 35% identity with Patched 1, appears to be a hot spot for mutations. Additionally, a high percentage of mutations were located at amino acids identical to the NPC1 homolog, NPC1L1. Biochemical complementation analysis of cases negative for mutations revealed a high percentage of equivocal results where the complementation group appeared to be non-NPC1 and non-NPC2. This raises the possibilities of an additional NPC complementation group(s) or non-specificity of the biochemical testing for NPC. These caveats must be considered when offering mutation testing as a clinical service. Copyright 2003 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  10. A disintegrin and metalloprotease-17 and galectin-9 are important regulators of local 4-1BB activity and disease outcome in rheumatoid arthritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Morten Aagaard; Andersen, Thomas; Etzerodt, Anders

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Co-stimulatory T cell cytokines are important in the progression of RA. This study investigates the interplay between 4-1BB, a disintegrin and metalloprotease-17 (ADAM17) and galectin-9 (Gal-9) in RA. METHODS: Stimulated mononuclear cells from patients with chronic RA (n = 12) were co...... treatment outcome serially over a 2-year period. RESULTS: RA CD4(+) and CD8(+) synovial T cells express high levels of 4-1BB. The addition of TNF-α to cultured synovial mononuclear cells increased shedding of 4-1BB. 4-1BB ligand only increased TNF-α shedding in combination with Gal-9. RNA interference...

  11. Importance of the 31-p-nmr-spectroscopy for prediction and early detection of coronary heart disease in patients with diabetes mellitus type I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steinboeck, P.

    2001-06-01

    Microvascular abnormalities and dysfunction via thickening of the basement membrane are known to occur in diabetic patients. Myocardial high energy phosphates have been shown to be reduced by ischemia and alterations of the cardiac metabolism are the primary consequence of myocardial ischemia. The present study involved 30 male patients with diabetes mellitus type I and 36 healthy male volunteers as age-matched controls. Phosphorus-31-P-nuclear-magnetic-resonance-spectroscopic-imaging of the heart was performed in all subjects using a 1.5 Tesla whole-body-magnetic-resonance-scanner. The ratios of phosphocreatinine (PCr) to adenosine-triphosphate (ATP) were calculated. Moreover, echocardiographic evaluation and stress tests were performed in all individuals. The myocardium of patients with diabetes mellitus type I showed significantly decreased ratios of PCr/ATP compared with healthy controls. This study demonstrates for the first time a decreased ratio of PCr/ATP in the myocardium of patients with diabetes mellitus type I without a known history of coronary heart disease. (author)

  12. Importance of background rates of disease in assessment of vaccine safety during mass immunisation with pandemic H1N1 influenza vaccines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Steven; Eskola, Juhani; Siegrist, Claire-Anne; Halsey, Neal; MacDonald, Noni; Law, Barbara; Miller, Elizabeth; Andrews, Nick; Stowe, Julia; Salmon, Daniel; Vannice, Kirsten; Izurieta, Hector S; Akhtar, Aysha; Gold, Mike; Oselka, Gabriel; Zuber, Patrick; Pfeifer, Dina; Vellozzi, Claudia

    2010-01-01

    Because of the advent of a new influenza A H1N1 strain, many countries have begun mass immunisation programmes. Awareness of the background rates of possible adverse events will be a crucial part of assessment of possible vaccine safety concerns and will help to separate legitimate safety concerns from events that are temporally associated with but not caused by vaccination. We identified background rates of selected medical events for several countries. Rates of disease events varied by age, sex, method of ascertainment, and geography. Highly visible health conditions, such as Guillain-Barré syndrome, spontaneous abortion, or even death, will occur in coincident temporal association with novel influenza vaccination. On the basis of the reviewed data, if a cohort of 10 million individuals was vaccinated in the UK, 21·5 cases of Guillain-Barré syndrome and 5·75 cases of sudden death would be expected to occur within 6 weeks of vaccination as coincident background cases. In female vaccinees in the USA, 86·3 cases of optic neuritis per 10 million population would be expected within 6 weeks of vaccination. 397 per 1 million vaccinated pregnant women would be predicted to have a spontaneous abortion within 1 day of vaccination. PMID:19880172

  13. Food Consumption and its Impact on Cardiovascular Disease: Importance of Solutions Focused on the Globalized Food System: A Report From the Workshop Convened by the World Heart Federation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anand, Sonia S; Hawkes, Corinna; de Souza, Russell J; Mente, Andrew; Dehghan, Mahshid; Nugent, Rachel; Zulyniak, Michael A; Weis, Tony; Bernstein, Adam M; Krauss, Ronald M; Kromhout, Daan; Jenkins, David J A; Malik, Vasanti; Martinez-Gonzalez, Miguel A; Mozaffarian, Dariush; Yusuf, Salim; Willett, Walter C; Popkin, Barry M

    2015-10-06

    Major scholars in the field, on the basis of a 3-day consensus, created an in-depth review of current knowledge on the role of diet in cardiovascular disease (CVD), the changing global food system and global dietary patterns, and potential policy solutions. Evidence from different countries and age/race/ethnicity/socioeconomic groups suggesting the health effects studies of foods, macronutrients, and dietary patterns on CVD appear to be far more consistent though regional knowledge gaps is highlighted. Large gaps in knowledge about the association of macronutrients to CVD in low- and middle-income countries particularly linked with dietary patterns are reviewed. Our understanding of foods and macronutrients in relationship to CVD is broadly clear; however, major gaps exist both in dietary pattern research and ways to change diets and food systems. On the basis of the current evidence, the traditional Mediterranean-type diet, including plant foods and emphasis on plant protein sources provides a well-tested healthy dietary pattern to reduce CVD. Copyright © 2015 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Using the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) to understand the most important factors to design and evaluate a telehealth system for Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cancela, Jorge; Fico, Giuseppe; Arredondo Waldmeyer, Maria T

    2015-01-01

    The assessment of a new health technology is a multidisciplinary and multidimensional process, which requires a complex analysis and the convergence of different stakeholders into a common decision. This task is even more delicate when the assessment is carried out in early stage of development processes, when the maturity of the technology prevents conducting a large scale trials to evaluate the cost effectiveness through classic health economics methods. This lack of information may limit the future development and deployment in the clinical practice. This work aims to 1) identify the most relevant user needs of a new medical technology for managing and monitoring Parkinson's Disease (PD) patients and to 2) use these user needs for a preliminary assessment of a specific system called PERFORM, as a case study. Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) was used to design a hierarchy of 17 needs, grouped into 5 categories. A total of 16 experts, 6 of them with a clinical background and the remaining 10 with a technical background, were asked to rank these needs and categories. On/Off fluctuations detection, Increase wearability acceptance, and Increase self-management support have been identified as the most relevant user needs. No significant differences were found between the clinician and technical groups. These results have been used to evaluate the PERFORM system and to identify future areas of improvement. First of all, the AHP contributed to the elaboration of a unified hierarchy, integrating the needs of a variety of stakeholders, promoting the discussion and the agreement into a common framework of evaluation. Moreover, the AHP effectively supported the user need elicitation as well as the assignment of different weights and priorities to each need and, consequently, it helped to define a framework for the assessment of telehealth systems for PD management and monitoring. This framework can be used to support the decision-making process for the adoption of new

  15. Procalcitonin as a biomarker for severe Plasmodium falciparum disease: a critical appraisal of a semi-quantitative point-of-care test in a cohort of travellers with imported malaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hesselink, Dennis A; Burgerhart, Jan-Steven; Bosmans-Timmerarends, Hanna; Petit, Pieter; van Genderen, Perry J J

    2009-09-01

    Imported malaria occurs as a relatively rare event in developed countries. As a consequence, most clinicians have little experience in making clinical assessments of disease severity and decisions regarding the need for parenteral therapy or high-level monitoring. In this study, the diagnostic accuracy of procalcitonin (PCT) for severe Plasmodium falciparum disease was assessed in a cohort of 100 consecutive travellers with various species of imported malaria. In all patients, PCT was measured on admission with a semi-quantitative 'point-of-care' test. Patients with severe P. falciparum malaria had significantly higher median PCT levels on admission as compared with patients with uncomplicated P. falciparum disease. In addition, PCT levels in patients with non-falciparum malaria were also higher compared with patients with non-severe falciparum malaria but lower compared with severe P. falciparum malaria. At a cut-off point of 10 ng/mL, PCT had a sensitivity of 0,67 and a specificity of 0,94 for severe falciparum disease. However, at lower cut-off points the specificity and positive predictive value were rather poor although the sensitivity and negative predictive value remained high. Potential drawbacks in the interpretation of elevated PCT levels on admission may be caused by infections with non-falciparum species and by concomitant bacterial infections. Semi-quantitative determination of PCT on admission is of limited use in the initial clinical assessment of disease severity in travellers with imported malaria, especially in settings with limited experience with the treatment of malaria.

  16. Procalcitonin as a biomarker for severe Plasmodium falciparum disease: a critical appraisal of a semi-quantitative point-of-care test in a cohort of travellers with imported malaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petit Pieter

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Imported malaria occurs as a relatively rare event in developed countries. As a consequence, most clinicians have little experience in making clinical assessments of disease severity and decisions regarding the need for parenteral therapy or high-level monitoring. In this study, the diagnostic accuracy of procalcitonin (PCT for severe Plasmodium falciparum disease was assessed in a cohort of 100 consecutive travellers with various species of imported malaria. Methods and results In all patients, PCT was measured on admission with a semi-quantitative 'point-of-care' test. Patients with severe P. falciparum malaria had significantly higher median PCT levels on admission as compared with patients with uncomplicated P. falciparum disease. In addition, PCT levels in patients with non-falciparum malaria were also higher compared with patients with non-severe falciparum malaria but lower compared with severe P. falciparum malaria. At a cut-off point of 10 ng/mL, PCT had a sensitivity of 0,67 and a specificity of 0,94 for severe falciparum disease. However, at lower cut-off points the specificity and positive predictive value were rather poor although the sensitivity and negative predictive value remained high. Discussion Potential drawbacks in the interpretation of elevated PCT levels on admission may be caused by infections with non-falciparum species and by concomitant bacterial infections. Conclusion Semi-quantitative determination of PCT on admission is of limited use in the initial clinical assessment of disease severity in travellers with imported malaria, especially in settings with limited experience with the treatment of malaria.

  17. The Development of Public Policies to Address Non-communicable Diseases in the Caribbean Country of Barbados: The Importance of Problem Framing and Policy Entrepreneurs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nigel Unwin

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Background Government policy measures have a key role to play in the prevention and control of noncommunicable diseases (NCDs. The Caribbean, a middle-income region, has the highest per capita burden of NCDs in the Americas. Our aim was to examine policy development and implementation between the years 2000 and 2013 on NCD prevention and control in Barbados, and to investigate factors promoting, and hindering, success. Methods A qualitative case study design was used involving a structured policy document review and semistructured interviews with key informants, identified through stakeholder analysis and ‘cascading.’ Documents were abstracted into a standard form. Interviews were recorded, transcribed verbatim and underwent framework analysis, guided by the multiple streams framework (MSF. There were 25 key informants, from the Ministry of Health (MoH, other government Ministries, civil society organisations, and the private sector. Results A significant policy window opened between 2005 and 2007 in which new posts to address NCDs were created in the MoH, and a government supported multi-sectoral national NCD commission was established. Factors contributing to this government commitment and funding included a high level of awareness, throughout society, of the NCD burden, including media coverage of local research findings; the availability of policy recommendations by international bodies that could be adopted locally, notably the framework convention on tobacco control (FCTC; and the activities of local highly respected policy entrepreneurs with access to senior politicians, who were able to bring together political concern for the problem with potential policy solutions. However, factors were also identified that hindered multi-sectoral policy development in several areas, including around nutrition, physical activity, and alcohol. These included a lack of consensus (valence on the nature of the problem, often framed as being

  18. The Development of Public Policies to Address Non-communicable Diseases in the Caribbean Country of Barbados: The Importance of Problem Framing and Policy Entrepreneurs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unwin, Nigel; Samuels, T Alafia; Hassell, Trevor; Brownson, Ross C; Guell, Cornelia

    2016-06-15

    Government policy measures have a key role to play in the prevention and control of non-communicable diseases (NCDs). The Caribbean, a middle-income region, has the highest per capita burden of NCDs in the Americas. Our aim was to examine policy development and implementation between the years 2000 and 2013 on NCD prevention and control in Barbados, and to investigate factors promoting, and hindering, success. A qualitative case study design was used involving a structured policy document review and semi-structured interviews with key informants, identified through stakeholder analysis and 'cascading.' Documents were abstracted into a standard form. Interviews were recorded, transcribed verbatim and underwent framework analysis, guided by the multiple streams framework (MSF). There were 25 key informants, from the Ministry of Health (MoH), other government Ministries, civil society organisations, and the private sector. A significant policy window opened between 2005 and 2007 in which new posts to address NCDs were created in the MoH, and a government supported multi-sectoral national NCD commission was established. Factors contributing to this government commitment and funding included a high level of awareness, throughout society, of the NCD burden, including media coverage of local research findings; the availability of policy recommendations by international bodies that could be adopted locally, notably the framework convention on tobacco control (FCTC); and the activities of local highly respected policy entrepreneurs with access to senior politicians, who were able to bring together political concern for the problem with potential policy solutions. However, factors were also identified that hindered multi-sectoral policy development in several areas, including around nutrition, physical activity, and alcohol. These included a lack of consensus (valence) on the nature of the problem, often framed as being predominantly one of individuals needing to take

  19. The Development of Public Policies to Address Non-communicable Diseases in the Caribbean Country of Barbados: The Importance of Problem Framing and Policy Entrepreneurs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unwin, Nigel; Samuels, T. Alafia; Hassell, Trevor; Brownson, Ross C.; Guell, Cornelia

    2017-01-01

    Background: Government policy measures have a key role to play in the prevention and control of non-communicable diseases (NCDs). The Caribbean, a middle-income region, has the highest per capita burden of NCDs in the Americas. Our aim was to examine policy development and implementation between the years 2000 and 2013 on NCD prevention and control in Barbados, and to investigate factors promoting, and hindering, success. Methods: A qualitative case study design was used involving a structured policy document review and semi-structured interviews with key informants, identified through stakeholder analysis and ‘cascading.’ Documents were abstracted into a standard form. Interviews were recorded, transcribed verbatim and underwent framework analysis, guided by the multiple streams framework (MSF). There were 25 key informants, from the Ministry of Health (MoH), other government Ministries, civil society organisations, and the private sector. Results: A significant policy window opened between 2005 and 2007 in which new posts to address NCDs were created in the MoH, and a government supported multi-sectoral national NCD commission was established. Factors contributing to this government commitment and funding included a high level of awareness, throughout society, of the NCD burden, including media coverage of local research findings; the availability of policy recommendations by international bodies that could be adopted locally, notably the framework convention on tobacco control (FCTC); and the activities of local highly respected policy entrepreneurs with access to senior politicians, who were able to bring together political concern for the problem with potential policy solutions. However, factors were also identified that hindered multi-sectoral policy development in several areas, including around nutrition, physical activity, and alcohol. These included a lack of consensus (valence) on the nature of the problem, often framed as being predominantly one of

  20. 中国大陆24例输入性寨卡病毒病病例的流行病学分析%Epidemiological analysis of 24 imported Zika virus disease cases in mainland China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李勃; 吴海磊; 贺晨; 韩辉; 张倩玉

    2017-01-01

    目的 了解中国大陆输入性寨卡病毒病病例的流行病学特点和发现特点,为寨卡病毒病的防控提供参考依据.方法 收集2016年2-9月发现的输入性寨卡病毒病病例的公开信息,分析其三间分布和发现方式.结果 共发现24例输入性寨卡病毒病病例,男性15例,女性9例;病例中来自委内瑞拉16例、玻利维亚1例、苏里南2例、萨摩亚3例、危地马拉2例;50.0%为口岸卫生检疫发现,16.7%为疾控部门健康随访发现,33.3%为医疗机构诊察发现.结论 口岸卫生检疫、地方疾控部门健康随访、医疗机构诊察构成我国输入性寨卡病毒病防控的“三道防线”,加强联防联控是输入性寨卡病毒病防控的核心策略之一.%Objective To investigate the epidemiological characteristics and identification of imported Zika virus disease cases in mainland China,and to provide reference for the prevention and control of Zika virus disease.Methods The public information of the imported Zika virus disease cases from February to September in 2016 was collected.The population,time and spatial distribution,methods of identification were analyzed.Results There were 24 imported Zika virus disease cases were found,among them 15 were male and 9 were female.The cases were from Venezuela (16 cases),Bolivia(1 case),Surinam(2 cases),Samoa(3 cases) and Guatemala (2 cases).50.0% cases were identified by health quarantine departments,16.7% were found by local Center for Diseases Prevention and Control (CDC),33.3% were found by clinicians.Conclusion Health quarantine,CDC health follow-up,hospital diagnosis constituted the three lines of preventing the imported Zika virus disease in mainland China.To strengthen the joint prevention measures was one of the key strategies to prevent the imported Zika virus disease.

  1. A fatal case of Brazilian spotted fever in a non-endemic area in Brazil: the importance of having health professionals who understand the disease and its areas of transmission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Vilges de Oliveira

    Full Text Available Abstract Brazilian spotted fever (BSF is caused by the bacterium Rickettsia rickettsii. Because of its high case-fatality rate and apparent increase in areas of transmission, it is considered to be the rickettsial illness of primary public health interest. Cases of this disease have historically occurred in Southeastern Brazil. This article reports the first fatal case of BSF in Southern Brazil. This case high lights the importance of BSF to be considered as a differential diagnosis for acute hemorrhagic fever in areas where cases of BSF may not be expected.

  2. Clinical analysis of the first case with imported Zika virus disease in China%中国大陆首例输入性寨卡病毒病的临床分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钟渊斌; 李小鹏; 张伦理; 曾莉萍; 邓宜楚

    2016-01-01

    目的 了解寨卡病毒病的流行病学特点及临床特征,提高对寨卡病毒病的防治能力.方法 回顾性报道及分析中国大陆首例输入性寨卡病毒病的临床资料,并就近年人感染寨卡病毒的流行特点作一阐述.结果 本例患者为中国大陆首例输入性寨卡病毒病,具有典型临床特点,流行病学史较明确,所有接触者均寨卡病毒核酸检测阴性.检索文献,寨卡病毒在非洲、亚洲、美洲等40多个国家有传播的证据,患者一般临床症状较轻,主要预防措施包括防蚊、控蚊和提高个人防护意识.结论 人感染寨卡病毒多隐性感染,少部分发病,经对症、支持等治疗后一般预后良好.%Objective To understand the epidemiological characteristics and clinical features of Zika virus disease,and to improve its prophylaxis and treatment.Methods The first case with imported Zika virus disease in China was retrospectively reported and analyzed.The literature of Zika virus infection in human was reviewed.Results This patient was the first case with imported Zika virus disease in China who presented with typical clinical characteristics and had clear epidemiological history.All the contacts were test negative for Zika virus nucleic acid.Literature retrieval showed evidence of Zika virus propagation in more than 40 countries in Africa,Asia,and Americas.The majority of patients presented with mild symptoms and the main prevention measures included mosquito control and improved awareness of personal protection.Conclusions Human infected with Zika virus often shows recessive infection.Only a small part develop disease and have generally good prognosis with supportive treatment.

  3. Risk assessment on importation and autochthonous transmission of Zika virus disease in the mainland of China,2016%2016年我国内地寨卡病毒的输入和传播风险评估

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    涂文校; 马涛; 李昱; 刘起勇; 殷文武; 洪志恒; 李群; 倪大新

    2016-01-01

    寨卡病毒病在全球多地流行,可致小头畸形、格林-巴利综合征等神经系统疾病.2016年1~2月我国内地发现输入性病例10例,未发生本地传播.为明确2016年3~12月该病输入我国内地和传播的风险,根据我国内地登革热输入和传播规律、人员往来、伊蚊活动、人群密度等资料,通过定性和定量的风险评估,本文认为,我国内地将会继续发现输入性病例,如果2016年东南亚不流行,则预测2016年3~12月我国内地可能发现输入病例为8~68例;如果东南亚也出现类似往年登革热一样的流行规模,则预测2016年3~12月我国内地可能发现输入性病例为106~876例.6~10月是发生本地传播最有可能的时间;广东、云南、海南、福建、广西和浙江等省区是最可能发生本地传播的地区,其余有白纹伊蚊的省市可能出现本地传播,内蒙古、吉林、黑龙江、青海、宁夏、新疆等省区和辽宁、陕西、甘肃、西藏无伊蚊分布地区,全年均不会发生本地传播.建议各地继续做好输入性病例的监测,有本地传播风险的地区需加强蚊媒监测和控制,做好我国内地赴疫区旅行人员的健康提示,并根据国际疫情和研究进展动态开展风险评估.%Word Health Organizaiton has declared the clusters of microcephaly cases and other neurological disorders constituted a Public Health Emergency of International Concern on 1 Feberuary 2016,and there is increasing evidence that they are causal related with Zika virus.Zika virus disease has been identified in 41 countires and areas since 2015,and it is spreading to the other parts of the world.There were 10 imported cases of Zika virus disease detected in the mainland of China from January to February 2016,without autochthonous transmission.In order to identify the risk of importation and autochthonous transmission of Zika virus disease in the mainland of China from March to December,2016,we conducted

  4. Most important human aluminoses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Avtsyn, A P

    1986-01-01

    Aluminoses are widespread forms of trace element deficiency of various severity. The organism is protected against a possible pathogenic influence of aluminum by a number of physiological mechanisms the most important among which is a regular urine excretion. A complex of pathological symptoms develops if serious homeostasis disturbances take place e. g. when renal deficiency or direct penetration of the trace element occur. The following forms of aluminosis should be distinguished: 1) simple accumulation in central nervous system which occurs in persons over 65 years; 2) aluminum accumulation in Alzheimer disease, in severe form of presenile and senile dementia; 3) dialysis aluminum encephalopathy; 4) non-dialysis infantile encephalopathy; 5) aluminum encephalopathy in total parenteral nutrition; 6) iatrogenic dialysis aluminum osteodystrophy; 7) jatrogenic peritoneal aluminosis; 8) aluminum pneumoconiosis of an occupational origin; 9) bronchospastic syndrome in aluminum smelter workers.

  5. Autoinflammatory Diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Penaranda P, Edgar; Spinel B, Nestor; Restrepo, Jose F; Rondon H, Federico; Millan S, Alberto; Iglesias G Antonio

    2010-01-01

    We present a review article on the autoinflammatory diseases, narrating its historical origin and describing the protein and molecular structure of the Inflammasome, the current classification of the autoinflammatory diseases and a description of the immuno genetics and clinical characteristics more important of every disease.

  6. [The Aut-idem Rule and the Importance of Patient-Individual Selection of Inhalers for the Therapy of Airway Diseases in Practices of Pneumologists and General Practitioners - Assessment and Implementation by Pneumologists and General Practitioners].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hering, T; Andres, J; Mohrlang, C; Redeker, M; Schwarz, E

    2018-03-01

    Drug therapy of obstructive airway diseases mainly relies on inhaled medication. The success of this therapy depends primarily on the selection of the appropriate inhaler considering patient's choice and the correct application. The aut-idem-rule, an active exclusion of the optional substitution by the pharmacist, allows prescribing physicians to ensure the delivery of a particular inhaler, which was selected for that patient, who was trained to use specifically that inhaler. This survey shows that pneumologists and, to a greater extent general practitioners, do not consistently make use of this option, although they unanimously agree on the importance of targeted inhaler selection. As a result, patients may receive different inhalers in the pharmacy, where the inhaler is chosen under consideration of market-driven aspects such as rebate contracts or stock. This causes that patients get confused by the exchange of their inhaler. Thus the exchange of the inhaler by the pharmacist leads to uncertainty and application problems in patients. Hence, the success of the comparatively complex inhaled therapy is endangered. This could be prevented, if prescribing physicians were informed and supported consistently regarding the use of aut-idem exclusion to ensure an optimal therapy for each individual patient. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  7. Changing paradigm from one target one ligand towards multi target directed ligand design for key drug targets of Alzheimer disease: An important role of Insilco methods in multi target directed ligands design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Akhil; Tiwari, Ashish; Sharma, Ashok

    2018-03-15

    Alzheimer disease (AD) is now considered as a multifactorial neurodegenerative disorder and rapidly increasing to an alarming situation and causing higher death rate. One target one ligand hypothesis is not able to provide complete solution of AD due to multifactorial nature of disease and one target one drug seems to fail to provide better treatment against AD. Moreover, current available treatments are limited and most of the upcoming treatments under clinical trials are based on modulating single target. So the current AD drug discovery research shifting towards new approach for better solution that simultaneously modulate more than one targets in the neurodegenerative cascade. This can be achieved by network pharmacology, multi-modal therapies, multifaceted, and/or the more recently proposed term "multi-targeted designed drugs. Drug discovery project is tedious, costly and long term project. Moreover, multi target AD drug discovery added extra challenges such as good binding affinity of ligands for multiple targets, optimal ADME/T properties, no/less off target side effect and crossing of the blood brain barrier. These hurdles may be addressed by insilico methods for efficient solution in less time and cost as computational methods successfully applied to single target drug discovery project. Here we are summarizing some of the most prominent and computationally explored single target against AD and further we discussed successful example of dual or multiple inhibitors for same targets. Moreover we focused on ligand and structure based computational approach to design MTDL against AD. However is not an easy task to balance dual activity in a single molecule but computational approach such as virtual screening docking, QSAR, simulation and free energy are useful in future MTDLs drug discovery alone or in combination with fragment based method. However, rational and logical implementations of computational drug designing methods are capable of assisting AD drug

  8. Permutation importance: a corrected feature importance measure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altmann, André; Toloşi, Laura; Sander, Oliver; Lengauer, Thomas

    2010-05-15

    In life sciences, interpretability of machine learning models is as important as their prediction accuracy. Linear models are probably the most frequently used methods for assessing feature relevance, despite their relative inflexibility. However, in the past years effective estimators of feature relevance have been derived for highly complex or non-parametric models such as support vector machines and RandomForest (RF) models. Recently, it has been observed that RF models are biased in such a way that categorical variables with a large number of categories are preferred. In this work, we introduce a heuristic for normalizing feature importance measures that can correct the feature importance bias. The method is based on repeated permutations of the outcome vector for estimating the distribution of measured importance for each variable in a non-informative setting. The P-value of the observed importance provides a corrected measure of feature importance. We apply our method to simulated data and demonstrate that (i) non-informative predictors do not receive significant P-values, (ii) informative variables can successfully be recovered among non-informative variables and (iii) P-values computed with permutation importance (PIMP) are very helpful for deciding the significance of variables, and therefore improve model interpretability. Furthermore, PIMP was used to correct RF-based importance measures for two real-world case studies. We propose an improved RF model that uses the significant variables with respect to the PIMP measure and show that its prediction accuracy is superior to that of other existing models. R code for the method presented in this article is available at http://www.mpi-inf.mpg.de/ approximately altmann/download/PIMP.R CONTACT: altmann@mpi-inf.mpg.de, laura.tolosi@mpi-inf.mpg.de Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online.

  9. Effect of exposure to solid wastes in relation to employment duration on some important markers of health and disease in waste management workers of Ogun State in southwest Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odewabi, Adesina O; Ogundahunsi, Omobola A; Ekor, Martins

    2013-12-01

    Waste management workers (WMWs) around the world are at risk of work-related health disorders. The influence of employment duration on individuals occupationally exposed to solid waste was investigated in this study. The study comprised (n = 280) 180 WMWs and 100 controls. Employment duration was obtained from questionnaire survey and categorized into three groups: group I (0.5-2 years), group II (>2-4 years) and group III (>4-6 years). Blood sample (10 ml) was collected from the antecubital vein of subjects for analysis. WMWs exhibited significantly (p < 0.001) elevated inflammatory markers (erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), C-reactive protein (CRP) and ceruloplasmin (Cp)) relative to control. While Cp increased, ESR and CRP decreased with increasing WMWs' employment duration. Alteration in oxidant/antioxidant markers was characterized by significant (p < 0.001) decrease in ferric-reducing ability of plasma (FRAP) and catalase activity together with marked (p < 0.01) elevation of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and uric acid (UA). TBARS, UA and FRAP increased while catalase decreased with WMWs' employment duration. In addition, WMWs exhibited significantly (p < 0.01) elevated immunoglobulin A (IgA) and IgG, which also increased and decreased, respectively, with job duration. The significantly (p < 0.01) decreased haemoglobin and haematocrit levels as well as the significantly (p < 0.001) elevated total leukocytes in WMWs increased with employment duration. Alanine aminotransferase increased and albumin decreased significantly (p < 0.05) in WMWs, and these changes also increased and decreased, respectively, with job duration. Data suggest that levels of alteration of important systemic markers of health/disease are related to WMWs' employment or exposure duration.

  10. Cardiac taurine and principal amino acids in right and left ventricles of patients with either aortic valve stenosis or coronary artery disease:the importance of diabetes and gender

    OpenAIRE

    Lewis, Martin J; Littlejohns, Ben R; Lin, Hua; Angelini, Gianni D; Suleiman, M-Saadeh

    2014-01-01

    Free intracellular taurine and principal α-amino acids (glutamate, glutamine, aspartate, asparagine and alanine) are abundant in human heart. They are cellular regulators and their concentration can change in response to disease and cardiac insults and have been shown to differ between hypertrophic left ventricle (LV) and the relatively "normal" right ventricle (RV) in patients with aortic valve stenosis (AVS). This difference has not been shown for coronary artery disease (CAD) and there are...

  11. 76 FR 52544 - Importation of Peppers From Panama

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-23

    ... 319 Coffee, Cotton, Fruits, Imports, Logs, Nursery stock, Plant diseases and pests, Quarantine... disease outbreak from imported commodities should be invited to participate in site visits prior to the...

  12. Five important advances in hematopathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Min; Xiao, Ruobing; Woda, Bruce A; Yu, Hongbo

    2014-03-01

    Hematopathology is a dynamic field that has always been on the frontier of clinical research within the scope of pathology. Several recent developments in hematopathology will likely affect its practice clinically. To review 5 important recent advances in hematopathology: (1) detection and prognostic implication of MYC in diffuse large B-cell lymphomas, (2) determining origin and prognosis through immunoglobulin gene usage in mature B-cell neoplasms, (3)detecting minimal residual disease in multiple myeloma, (4) using genome-wide analysis in myelodysplastic syndromes, and (5) employing whole-genome sequencing in acute myeloid leukemias. Literature review and the authors' experiences in an academic center. These advances will bring hematopathology into a new molecular era and help us to better understand the molecular, pathologic mechanisms of lymphomas, leukemias, myelomas, and myelodysplastic syndromes. They will help us to identify diagnostic and prognostic markers and eventually provide new therapeutic targets and treatments for these diseases.

  13. Why Is Oral Health Important for Women?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 2018 About | Contact InfoBites Quick Reference Learn more Oral Health and Overal Health Gum Disease and Cardiovascular Health ... delivered directly to your desktop! more... Why Is Oral Health Important for Women? Article Chapters Why Is Oral ...

  14. The importance of coughs

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2012-03-14

    Mar 14, 2012 ... how important it can be. It is at best ... e. rise of intrathoracic pressure up to 200mm Hg., f. glottic opening and ... The differential diagnosis may be reviewed from knowledge .... cigarette smoking is an important example. 3.

  15. Children and Parasitic Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... because they disproportionately affect impoverished people. More on: Neglected Tropical Diseases Prevention One of the most important ways to help prevent these parasitic diseases is to teach children the importance of washing hands correctly with soap ...

  16. Exercise: A vitally important prescription.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hechanova, Rachel L; Wegler, Jennifer L; Forest, Christopher P

    2017-04-01

    Sedentary lifestyles and low physical activity have led to rising health concerns and increasing mortality risks. With the growing concern of the inactivity of adult Americans, it is important that physical activity be promoted to prevent disease and reduce health risks. This article reviews the benefits of physical activity and the steps that primary care providers should take to evaluate physical activity as the fifth vital sign in every patient encounter. The 5A's (assess, advise, agree, assist, and arrange) should be applied in order to implement an exercise prescription into the practice of medicine.

  17. PFGE: importance in food quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vernile, Anna; Giammanco, Giovanni; Massa, Salvatore

    2009-11-01

    In late 19 century, great interest has arisen for food quality. This is referred as absence of pathogens in food (safety for consumers) and as nutritional quality of food (organoleptic characteristics). Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) is, among the molecular techniques developed in the last years, one of the most reliable, discriminative and reproducible technique. It can be used in clinical field for the identification of pathogens and the origin of outbreaks, and in food microbiology for the identification of pathogens (food borne disease surveillance) or of microorganisms responsible for the organoleptic characteristics of food. The present article shows some useful patents related to PFGE and importance in food quality.

  18. Optimising import phytosanitary inspection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Surkov, I.

    2007-01-01

    Keywords: quarantine pest, plant health policy, optimization, import phytosanitary inspection, ‘reduced checks’, optimal allocation of resources, multinomial logistic regression, the Netherlands World trade is a major vector of spread of quarantine plant pests. Border phytosanitary inspection

  19. Back/joint pain, illness perceptions and coping are important predictors of quality of life and work productivity in patients with inflammatory bowel disease: a 12-month longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Have, Mike; Brakenhoff, Lianne K P M; van Erp, Sanne J H; Kaptein, Ad A; Leenders, Max; Scharloo, Margreet; Veenendaal, Roeland A; van der Heijde, Désirée M F M; van der Meulen-de Jong, Andrea E; Hommes, Daan W; Fidder, Herma H

    2015-03-01

    Back and joint pain are the most common extraintestinal symptoms reported by patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). We assessed the impact of back/joint pain, illness perceptions, and coping on quality of life (QOL) and work productivity in patients with IBD. Our cohort included 155 IBD patients with and 100 without arthropathy. Arthropathy was defined as daily back pain for ≥3 months and/or peripheral joint pain and/or joint swelling over the last year. At baseline and at 12 months, patients completed questionnaires on the extent of back/joint pain, IBD disease activity, illness perceptions, coping, QOL, and work productivity. The impact of back/joint pain, illness perceptions and coping on QOL and work productivity was determined, using linear mixed models. In total, 204 IBD patients (72% Crohn's disease, 40% male, mean age 44 ± 14 years) completed questionnaires at both time points. At both time points, IBD patients with back/joint pain reported a significantly lower QOL and work productivity compared with IBD patients without back/joint pain. Predictors of low QOL were back/joint pain (β = -1.04, 95% confidence interval [CI] -1.40, -0.68), stronger beliefs about the illness consequences (β = -0.39, 95% CI -0.59, -0.18) and emotional impact of IBD (β = -0.47, 95% CI -0.66, -0.28), and the coping strategy 'decreasing activity' (β = -0.26, 95% CI -0.48, -0.03). Predictors of work productivity were back/joint pain (β = 0.22, 95% CI 0.07, 0.37) and illness consequences (β = 0.14, 95% CI 0.06, 0.22). Back/joint pain, illness perceptions, and coping are significant predictors of QOL and work productivity, after controlling for disease activity. Copyright © 2015 European Crohn’s and Colitis Organisation (ECCO). Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. Aujeszky’s Disease and Hepatitis E Viruses Transmission between Domestic Pigs and Wild Boars in Corsica: Evaluating the Importance of Wild/Domestic Interactions and the Efficacy of Management Measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charrier, François; Rossi, Sophie; Jori, Ferran; Maestrini, Oscar; Richomme, Céline; Casabianca, François; Ducrot, Christian; Jouve, Johan; Pavio, Nicole; Le Potier, Marie-Frédérique

    2018-01-01

    Wildlife species as reservoirs of infectious pathogens represent a serious constraint in the implementation of disease management strategies. In the Mediterranean island of Corsica, the dynamics of hepatitis E virus (HEV) and Aujeszky’s disease virus (ADV) are suspected to be influenced by interactions between wild and domestic pigs. To improve our understanding of these influences, we first compared the seroprevalences of both viruses in domestic pig populations from different locations with contrasted levels of wild–domestic interactions, ADV vaccination, biosafety, and farm husbandry. Second, we performed an analysis at a more restricted geographical scale, to assess the matching of ADV or HEV prevalence between sympatric wild boar and outdoor pig farms most exposed to interactions with wildlife. Logistic models were adjusted to the observed data. A high seroprevalence of HEV (>80%) and ADV (40%) in pigs, with no significant difference according to the region, confirms that both pathogens are enzootic in Corsica. Vaccination against ADV had a strong protective effect, even when performed voluntarily by farmers. Farm biosafety had an additional effect on pigs’ exposure, suggesting that contact between wild boars and pigs were involved in disease transmission. A strong correlation in HEV seroprevalence was observed between pigs and wild boars that were in close contact, and significantly lower seroprevalence was observed in pigs when they had little contact with wild boars due to spatial segregation. These results suggest a regular HEV circulation between sympatric wild boar and domestic pigs. The high HEV seroprevalence observed in domestic pigs (>80%) suggests a spillover of the virus from domestic to wild populations through environmental contamination, but this hypothesis has to be confirmed. Conversely, even though avoiding sows’ release on pasture during estrus showed some protecting effect in the free ranging pig farms regarding ADV, ADV

  1. Aujeszky's Disease and Hepatitis E Viruses Transmission between Domestic Pigs and Wild Boars in Corsica: Evaluating the Importance of Wild/Domestic Interactions and the Efficacy of Management Measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charrier, François; Rossi, Sophie; Jori, Ferran; Maestrini, Oscar; Richomme, Céline; Casabianca, François; Ducrot, Christian; Jouve, Johan; Pavio, Nicole; Le Potier, Marie-Frédérique

    2018-01-01

    Wildlife species as reservoirs of infectious pathogens represent a serious constraint in the implementation of disease management strategies. In the Mediterranean island of Corsica, the dynamics of hepatitis E virus (HEV) and Aujeszky's disease virus (ADV) are suspected to be influenced by interactions between wild and domestic pigs. To improve our understanding of these influences, we first compared the seroprevalences of both viruses in domestic pig populations from different locations with contrasted levels of wild-domestic interactions, ADV vaccination, biosafety, and farm husbandry. Second, we performed an analysis at a more restricted geographical scale, to assess the matching of ADV or HEV prevalence between sympatric wild boar and outdoor pig farms most exposed to interactions with wildlife. Logistic models were adjusted to the observed data. A high seroprevalence of HEV (>80%) and ADV (40%) in pigs, with no significant difference according to the region, confirms that both pathogens are enzootic in Corsica. Vaccination against ADV had a strong protective effect, even when performed voluntarily by farmers. Farm biosafety had an additional effect on pigs' exposure, suggesting that contact between wild boars and pigs were involved in disease transmission. A strong correlation in HEV seroprevalence was observed between pigs and wild boars that were in close contact, and significantly lower seroprevalence was observed in pigs when they had little contact with wild boars due to spatial segregation. These results suggest a regular HEV circulation between sympatric wild boar and domestic pigs. The high HEV seroprevalence observed in domestic pigs (>80%) suggests a spillover of the virus from domestic to wild populations through environmental contamination, but this hypothesis has to be confirmed. Conversely, even though avoiding sows' release on pasture during estrus showed some protecting effect in the free ranging pig farms regarding ADV, ADV seroprevalence was

  2. Aujeszky’s Disease and Hepatitis E Viruses Transmission between Domestic Pigs and Wild Boars in Corsica: Evaluating the Importance of Wild/Domestic Interactions and the Efficacy of Management Measures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    François Charrier

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Wildlife species as reservoirs of infectious pathogens represent a serious constraint in the implementation of disease management strategies. In the Mediterranean island of Corsica, the dynamics of hepatitis E virus (HEV and Aujeszky’s disease virus (ADV are suspected to be influenced by interactions between wild and domestic pigs. To improve our understanding of these influences, we first compared the seroprevalences of both viruses in domestic pig populations from different locations with contrasted levels of wild–domestic interactions, ADV vaccination, biosafety, and farm husbandry. Second, we performed an analysis at a more restricted geographical scale, to assess the matching of ADV or HEV prevalence between sympatric wild boar and outdoor pig farms most exposed to interactions with wildlife. Logistic models were adjusted to the observed data. A high seroprevalence of HEV (>80% and ADV (40% in pigs, with no significant difference according to the region, confirms that both pathogens are enzootic in Corsica. Vaccination against ADV had a strong protective effect, even when performed voluntarily by farmers. Farm biosafety had an additional effect on pigs’ exposure, suggesting that contact between wild boars and pigs were involved in disease transmission. A strong correlation in HEV seroprevalence was observed between pigs and wild boars that were in close contact, and significantly lower seroprevalence was observed in pigs when they had little contact with wild boars due to spatial segregation. These results suggest a regular HEV circulation between sympatric wild boar and domestic pigs. The high HEV seroprevalence observed in domestic pigs (>80% suggests a spillover of the virus from domestic to wild populations through environmental contamination, but this hypothesis has to be confirmed. Conversely, even though avoiding sows’ release on pasture during estrus showed some protecting effect in the free ranging pig farms regarding ADV

  3. Toxoplasmosis: An Important Protozoan Zoonosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonar S. S. and Brahmbhatt M.N.

    Full Text Available Toxoplasmosis is an important infection caused by single celled parasite Toxoplasma gondii which is one of the world's most common parasites. Toxoplasmosis is considered to be the third leading cause of death attributed to food-borne illness in the United States. Most people affected never develop signs and symptoms. But for infants born to infected mothers and for people with compromised immune systems, toxoplasmosis can cause extremely serious complications. Toxoplasmosis was first described in 1908 from a small rodent. The parasite infects almost all worm blooded animals and serological evidence indicates that it is one of the most common of humans’ infections throughout the world. The disease is transmitted mainly by ingestion of infective stage of the parasite, organ transplant as well as blood transfusion in addition to the transplacental transmission which is very common. Toxoplasmosis can be presented in various forms of clinical manifestations depending on the immune status of the patient causing life threatening disease in AIDS patient. Pregnant women, cat owners, veterinarians, abattoir workers, children, cooks, butchers are considered as high risk group. Timely treatment of man and animals with proper antibiotic, hygienic measures, proper disinfection, mass education and vaccination are the measures to curtail the disease. [Veterinary World 2010; 3(9.000: 436-439

  4. Heart Disease, Stroke, or Other Cardiovascular Disease and Adult Vaccination

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Adult Diseases Resources Heart Disease, Stroke, or Other Cardiovascular Disease and Adult Vaccination Language: English (US) Español (Spanish) ... important step in staying healthy. If you have cardiovascular disease, talk with your doctor about getting your vaccinations ...

  5. Optimal coal import strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, C.Y.; Shih, L.H.

    1992-01-01

    Recently, the main power company in Taiwan has shifted the primary energy resource from oil to coal and tried to diversify the coal supply from various sources. The company wants to have the imported coal meet the environmental standards and operation requirements as well as to have high heating value. In order to achieve these objectives, establishment of a coal blending system for Taiwan is necessary. A mathematical model using mixed integer programming technique is used to model the import strategy and the blending system. 6 refs., 1 tab

  6. Celiac disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Holtmeier Wolfgang

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Celiac disease is a chronic intestinal disease caused by intolerance to gluten. It is characterized by immune-mediated enteropathy, associated with maldigestion and malabsorption of most nutrients and vitamins. In predisposed individuals, the ingestion of gluten-containing food such as wheat and rye induces a flat jejunal mucosa with infiltration of lymphocytes. The main symptoms are: stomach pain, gas, and bloating, diarrhea, weight loss, anemia, edema, bone or joint pain. Prevalence for clinically overt celiac disease varies from 1:270 in Finland to 1:5000 in North America. Since celiac disease can be asymptomatic, most subjects are not diagnosed or they can present with atypical symptoms. Furthermore, severe inflammation of the small bowel can be present without any gastrointestinal symptoms. The diagnosis should be made early since celiac disease causes growth retardation in untreated children and atypical symptoms like infertility or neurological symptoms. Diagnosis requires endoscopy with jejunal biopsy. In addition, tissue-transglutaminase antibodies are important to confirm the diagnosis since there are other diseases which can mimic celiac disease. The exact cause of celiac disease is unknown but is thought to be primarily immune mediated (tissue-transglutaminase autoantigen; often the disease is inherited. Management consists in life long withdrawal of dietary gluten, which leads to significant clinical and histological improvement. However, complete normalization of histology can take years.

  7. [Diagnosing imported helminthiasis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pardo, Javier; Pérez-Arellano, José Luis; Galindo, Inmaculada; Belhassen, Moncef; Cordero, Miguel; Muro, Antonio

    2007-05-01

    In recent years, there has been an increase in cases of imported helminthiasis in Spain because of two complementary causes: immigration and international travel. Although the prevalence of helminthiasis is high in the immigrant population, the risk of transmission to the Spanish population is low. In this review, we provide clues to aid in the diagnosis of the helminthiasis, highlighting the geographic characteristics, clinical findings and analytical results of the most frequent types. The low sensitivity of the classic parasitological diagnostic test, mainly in tissue helminthiasis, is described. In addition, the advantages and limitations of the common serological methods for detecting related circulating antigens and antibodies are presented. Certain molecular methods used in the diagnosis of imported helminthiasis and the best strategies for screening of this condition are discussed.

  8. Comportamiento del asma bronquial en Cuba e importancia de la prevención de las enfermedades alérgicas en infantes Behavior of bronchial asthma in Cuba and importance of the prevention from allergic diseases in infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anselmo Abdo Rodríguez

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available El asma es una enfermedad frecuente que continúa siendo difícil de diagnosticar, sobre todo en la primera infancia; y además, es de difícil tratamiento, a pesar de los avances medicamentosos de los últimos años. Por tales razones, las organizaciones de salud pública y los organismos que se ocupan de ella a nivel mundial, cada día enfocan su atención, fundamentalmente, al capítulo de la prevención, particularmente, en el niño propenso a ser asmático. Se analizan las estadísticas relacionadas con el asma bronquial de los años 2001-2004 en Cuba, específicamente en lo referente a: prevalencia en pacientes dispensarizados por asma según grupos de edad y sexo; número de pacientes dispensarizados por asma según grupos de edad; tasa de prevalencia de pacientes dispensarizados por asma según provincias; así como las principales causas de egresos hospitalarios con diagnóstico de asma según estado al egreso. Se presentan recomendaciones prácticas para la prevención de enfermedades alérgicas en infantes con riesgo.Asthma is a frequent disease that is still difficult to diagnose, mainly in early childhood. It is also difficult to treat, in spite of the medical advances attained in the last years. For these reasons, the health public organizations and the bodies having to do with it at the world level focus their attention mainly on prevention, particularly in the child that is prone to be asthmatic. The statistics related to bronchial asthma from 2001 to 2004 in Cuba, specially what refers to the prevalence in patients suffering from asthma categorized by age and sex, the number of asthmatic patients categorized by age groups, the rate of prevalence of asthmatic patients categorized by province, as well as the main causes of hospital discharges with asthma diagnosis according to their state at discharge, are analyzed. Practical recommendations are given for the prevention of allergic diseases in infants at risk.

  9. Evaluation of the respiratory function in myasthenia gravis: an important tool for clinical feature and diagnosis of the disease Avaliação da função respiratória na miastenia gravis: importância na caracterização clínica e no diagnóstico da doença

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo A. P. Saraiva

    1996-12-01

    Full Text Available Myasthenic gravis may affect both inspiratory and expiratory muscles. Respiratory involvement occurred in almost all patients with myasthenia gravis in all clinical forms of the disease: 332 lung function tests done in 324 myasthenic patients without respiratory symptoms (age 34.6 ± 18.3 years were examined. Lung volumes analysis showed that all the patients of both sexes with generalized or ocular myasthenia gravis showed "myasthenic pattern". Male patients with "ocular" form only presented the "myasthenic pattern" with lung impairment and had, from the lung function point of view, a more benign behaviour. Female patients with the "ocular" form exhibited a behaviour of respiratory variables similar to that of the generalized form. It was not observed modification of the variables that suggested obstruction of the higher airways. The "myasthenic pattern" was rarely observed in other neuromuscular diseases, except in patients with laryngeal stenosis.O comprometimento respiratório é fator limitante na evolução clinica da miastenia gravis (MG e as formas clínicas mais graves apresentavam acometimento bulbar e respiratório. Para avaliar a reserva respiratória foram examinados em 324 pacientes com MG (forma ocular 62, generalizada 246 e timomatosa 16 as seguintes variáveis da prova de função pulmonar (PFP: capacidade vital forçada (FVC; volume onde o fluxo expiratório é igual a 1 litro por segundo (VF=1; volume expiratório forçado no primeiro segundo (FEV1; fluxo expiratório forçado medido entre 0,2 e 1,2 litros (FEF; fluxo médio expiratório forçado, medido entre 25 e 75% da FVC (FMF; intervalo de tempo entre 25 e 75% da FVC (FMFT; tempo médio de trânsito na expiração forçada (MTT; capacidade pulmonar total (TLC; volume residual (RV; curva fluxo-volume para pesquisa do "padrão miastênico". A análise estatística realizada foi: "t pareado" entre paciente e seu padrão e "t não pareado" entre grupos. Conclusões: Todos os

  10. A importância da contra-imunoeletroforese na detecção de antígenos nucleares extraíveis para o diagnóstico de doenças reumáticas sistêmicas The importance of counterimmunoelectrophoresis in the detection of extractable nuclear antigens for the diagnosis of systemic rheumatic diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita de Cassia Siqueira Bruder

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available Os antígenos nucleares extraíveis (ENAs são encontrados no soro da maioria dos pacientes com doença reumática sistêmica. Os principais ENAs estudados são SS-A/Ro, SS-B/La, RNP, Sm, Scl-70 e Jo-1. Objeti-vou-se neste trabalho: a padronizar a técnica de contra-imunoeletroforese (CIE para a detecção de ENAs; b padronizar o substrato antigênico (ENAs para a CIE a partir de baço de cão; c comparar os resultados da CIE com as técnicas de imunofluorescência indireta (IFI e Elisa para esses antígenos. Para tal foram estudados 40 soros de pacientes com doença reumática sistêmica confirmada por exames clínico e laboratorial (sorológico e biópsia. Como controle negativo foram utilizados dez soros de doadores de sangue normais, e, como controles positivos, seis soros-padrão anti-Ro, anti-La, anti-RNP, anti-Sm, anti-Scl-70, anti-Jo-1, para caracterizar os antígenos presentes no extrato de baço. Neste último foram detectados vários ENAs, exceto RNP e Scl-70. A técnica de CIE apresentou boas sensibilidade (70% e especificidade (100% em relação às outras técnicas (IFI e Elisa. A titulação dos soros pela CIE revelou positividade até diluições de 1:16 em 32,5% dos casos. Concluímos que a CIE e os antígenos extraídos de baço de cão podem ser utilizados na rotina laboratorial para triagem destes ENAs, com a vantagem, em relação à IFI, de poderem ser titulados.Extractable nuclear antigens (ENAs are detected in the sera of the majority of patients with rheumatic systemic disease. The main ENAs studied are SS-A/Ro, SS-B/La, RNP, Sm, Scl-70 and Jo-1. The aim of this work was: a to standardize the counterimmunoelectrophoresis technique (CIE to detect ENAs; b to standardize the extration of ENAs from dog spleen as a substract for CIE test; c to compare the results obtained by CIE with those of indirect immunofluorescence (IFI and Elisa for these antigens. Forty sera from individuals with rheumatic systemic disease confirmed by

  11. Importancia de algunos medios auxiliares de diagnóstico en la enfermedad inflamatoria pélvica aguda Importance of some diagnostic aids in the acute pelvic inflammatory disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pastor Villavicencio Crespo

    2008-03-01

    en comparación con la laparoscopia es el ultrasonido (77 %, al cual siguió el tacto vaginal (70 %INTRODUCTION. At present, the acute pelvic inflammatory disease is considered a syndrome clinically attributed to the ascending passage of microorganisms from the vagina to the cervix, the endometrium and the Fallopian's tubes. It is also capable of disseminating to the neighbouring structures. The objective of this paper was to know the behaviour of the disease, the efficiency of some diagnostic aids and procedures, the performance of the haematological tests, and to identify the most common germs to define the further conduct. METHODS. The study group consisted of 108 females seen at "Julio Trigo López" Hospital due to an acute inflammatory pelvic disease. The sample was selected at random and variables such as general and health data and data from the gynecoobstetric history were registered. Vaginal manipulation, with anaesthesia or without it, puncture of Douglas' pouch, ultrasound, laparoscopy, red-blood cell count, white-blood cell count, and erythrosedimentation were used to make the diagnosis. Laparoscopy was used in all cases as a confirmatory test. RESULTS. Most of the patients were aged 20-25. Abdominal pain (98.1 % and leucorrhoea (30.6 % predominated as clinical symptomatology. A high incidence of this disease was observed in females at reproductive age, with 2 or more pregnancies and abortions and history of implanted intrauterine device. Moreover, there was a diagnostic concordance between the results of the vaginal manipulation and ultrasound, on comparing them with laparoscopy. The least specific test was vaginal manipulation (20.5 % and the predictive values of the lowest positive test were obtained with the same procedure (64.6 %, as well as with erythrosedimentation (70 %. Therefore, ultrasound proved to be the most effective diagnostic aid (87,5 % after laparoscopy. CONCLUSIONS. It was concluded that ultrasound (77 % is the most effective test

  12. Importância da HDL-c para a ocorrência de doença cardiovascular no idoso La importancia del HDL-c para la ocurrencia de la enfermedad cardiovascular en el adulto mayor Importance of HDL-c for the occurrence of cardiovascular disease in the elderly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabete Viana de Freitas

    2009-09-01

    68,51 ± 6,32 (el 38,2% del sexo masculino. Los individuos fueron divididos en 3 grupos de acuerdo con el nivel de HDL-c: HDL-c normal en las dos evaluaciones (GN (n=31; HDL-c bajo en las dos evaluaciones (GB (n=21; y HDL-c variable de A1 para A2 (GV (n=29. Se registraron los eventos CV mayores: enfermedad coronaria (angina, infarto miocardio, revascularización miocárdica percutánea/quirúrgica, accidente vascular encefálico, accidente isquémico transitorio, enfermedad carotídea, demencia e insuficiencia cardiaca. RESULTADOS: Los grupos no difirieron en cuanto su edad y el sexo en A1 y A2. Los promedios de los triglicéridos fueron menores en el GN en A1 (p=0,027 y A2 (p=0,016 que en el GB. Sin embargo la distribución de eventos CV fue de 13 en el GN (41,9%, 16 (76,2% en el GB y de 12 (41,4% en el GV (χ2=7,149, p=0,024. En el análisis de regresión logística se pudo observar que cuanto mayor la edad (OR=1,187, p=0,0230 y cuanto menor el HDL-c (OR=0,9372, p=0,0102, mayor la ocurrencia de eventos CV. CONCLUSIÓN: El HDL-c permanentemente bajo a lo largo de ocho años de seguimiento fue el factor de riesgo para desarrollo de eventos CV en adultos mayores.BACKGROUND: Studies on the impact of HDL-c and the occurrence of cardiovascular disease (CV in the elderly are scarce. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the clinical and laboratory variables and the occurrence of CV events in elderly patients stratified according to the behavior of HDL-c during an eight-year follow up. METHODS: We evaluated 81 elderly patients, mean age of 68.51 ± 6.32 years (38.2% male, in two stages (A1 and A2, with a minimum interval of five years. The subjects were divided into 3 groups according to HDL-c levels: normal HDL-c in both assessments (NG (n = 31, low HDL-c in both assessments (LG (n = 21 and variable HDL-c in A1 and A2 (VG (n = 29. Main CV events were recorded: coronary heart disease (angina, myocardial infarction, percutaneous / surgical myocardial revascularization, stroke, transient

  13. Change in the diagnosis from classical Hodgkin's lymphoma to anaplastic large cell lymphoma by 18F flourodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography: Importance of recognising disease pattern on imaging and immunohistochemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Senthil, Raja; Mohapatra, Ranjan Kumar; Sampath, Mouleeswaran Koramadai; Sundaraiya, Sumati

    2016-01-01

    Anaplastic large cell lymphoma (ALCL) is a rare type of nonHodgkin's lymphoma (NHL), but one of the most common subtypes of T-cell lymphoma. It is an aggressive T-cell lymphoma, and some ALCL may mimic less aggressive classical HL histopathlogically. It may be misdiagnosed unless careful immunohistochemical examination is performed. As the prognosis and management of these two lymphomas vary significantly, it is important to make a correct diagnosis. We describe a case who was diagnosed as classical HL by histopathological examination of cervical lymph node, in whom 18 F-flouro deoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography appearances were unusual for HL and warranted review of histopathology that revealed anaplastic lymphoma kinase-1 negative anaplastic large T-cell lymphoma, Hodgkin-like variant, thereby changing the management

  14. Risk communication importance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cunha, Raquel Dalledone Siqueira da; Andrade, Delvonei Alves de, E-mail: raqueldalledonesiqueira@gmail.com, E-mail: delvonei@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    Risk Communication has shown its importance in the elaboration of emergency plans in the Chemical industry. In the 90's, the UNEP developed the APELL (Awareness and Preparedness for Emergency at Local Level) plan, a risk management methodology used by dangerous chemical facilities. The methodology comprises the commitment of both Government and the community located in the risk area in the development of the emergency plan. In the nuclear sector, there is no similar methodology developed so far. However, establishing a communication channel between the nuclear segment and the community is essential. In Brazil, the construction of Angra 3 and the RMB (Multi Purpose Reactor) project stand as nuclear initiatives that improve the importance of a good communication to the public. Security issues of these projects are natural sources of concernment to the public, which is aggravated by events such as the Fukushima disaster. Without an effective communication about what means the presence of nuclear plants and reactors in a specific area, the interested public will only have an alarmist vision of the subject, given by those against these facilities. (author)

  15. Risk communication importance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cunha, Raquel Dalledone Siqueira da; Andrade, Delvonei Alves de

    2013-01-01

    Risk Communication has shown its importance in the elaboration of emergency plans in the Chemical industry. In the 90's, the UNEP developed the APELL (Awareness and Preparedness for Emergency at Local Level) plan, a risk management methodology used by dangerous chemical facilities. The methodology comprises the commitment of both Government and the community located in the risk area in the development of the emergency plan. In the nuclear sector, there is no similar methodology developed so far. However, establishing a communication channel between the nuclear segment and the community is essential. In Brazil, the construction of Angra 3 and the RMB (Multi Purpose Reactor) project stand as nuclear initiatives that improve the importance of a good communication to the public. Security issues of these projects are natural sources of concernment to the public, which is aggravated by events such as the Fukushima disaster. Without an effective communication about what means the presence of nuclear plants and reactors in a specific area, the interested public will only have an alarmist vision of the subject, given by those against these facilities. (author)

  16. Mexico: Imports or exports?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Estrada, J.

    2002-01-01

    This presentation provides an overview of Mexico's energy sector. Proven oil reserves place Mexico in ninth position in the world and fourth largest in natural gas reserves. Energy is one of the most important economic activities of the country, representing 3 per cent of Gross Domestic Product (GDP). Oil exports represent 8.4 per cent of total exports. Approximately 40 per cent of total public investment is earmarked for energy projects. The author discusses energy resources and energy sector limitations. The energy sector plan for the period 2001-2006 is discussed. Its goals are to ensure energy supply, to develop the energy sector, to stimulate participation of Mexican enterprises, to promote renewable energy sources, and to strengthen international energy cooperation. The regulatory framework is being adapted to increase private investment. Some graphs are presented, displaying the primary energy production and primary energy consumption. Energy sector reforms are reviewed, as are electricity and natural gas reforms. The energy sector demand for 2000-2010 and investment requirements are reviewed, as well as fuel consumption for power generation. The author discusses the National Pipeline System (SNG) and the bottlenecks caused by pressure efficiency in the northeast, flow restriction on several pipeline segments, variability of the Petroleos Mexicanos (PEMEX) own use, and pressure drop on central regions. The entire prospect for natural gas in the country is reviewed, along with the Strategic Gas Program (PEG) consisting of 20 projects, including 4 non-associated natural gas, 9 exploration and 7 optimization. A section dealing with multiple service contracts is included in the presentation. The authors conclude by stating that the priority is a national energy policy to address Mexico's energy security requirements, to increase natural gas production while promoting the diversification of imports, and a regulatory framework to be updated in light of current

  17. Detection of bacterial and viral pathogens in hospitalized children with acute respiratory illness and determination of different socio demographic factors as important cause of the disease in Odisha, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhagyalaxmi Biswal

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper an attempt has been made to analysis the status of acute respiratory tract infection among children in India. In the present study we aimed to present first time the detection of viruses, bacteria and mix infection of viruses and bacteria in hospitalized children with ARI and also to analyze the influence of socioeconomic status of parent in two divergent geographical settings of Odisha. Hospitalized children with ARI aged <5 were recruited from July 2014 to June 2015. Nasopharyngeal/Oropharyngial swabs were collected for detection of common respiratory viruses by reverse transcriptase chain reaction (RT-PCR. Bacteria were isolated by routine culture methods. Bivitiate analysis including chi square was used as test of significance. The analysis revealed 150 (56% were detected with ≥1 bacteria, 40 (15% with ≥ 1virus, 22 (8.2% with ≥ 2 bacteria and 20 (7-4% with both bacteria and virus. Most frequently detected pathogens were Klebsiella pneumonae (18.3%, Sptrptococcus pneumonae (12.7%, Parainfluenza A (36.6% and Influenza- A18 (30%. Incidences of pathogens were detected more among children <1 year, Gender discrimination in the form of dietary neglect of the female children has also been noted mostly in case of tribal patients. The present study had identified low socioeconomic status, poor housing conditions, illiterate mothers, birth weight, tobacco smoking families and nutritional status as important determinants for ARI. Interventions to improve these modifiable risk factors can significantly reduce the ARI burden among children especially in tribal population.

  18. Imported coenurosis in sheep

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schweizer, G.; Grünenfelder, F.; Sydler, T.; Rademacher, N.; Braun, U.; Deplazes, P.

    2006-01-01

    Thirteen sheep from a milk producing farm in the Canton of Grisons that presented chronic coenurosis were examined and subjected to treatment trials at the veterinary hospital in Zurich. Symptoms were first observed around two months after the import of two dogs from Italy (Abruzza) of which one was infected with Taenia multiceps and Echinococcus granulosus. The most frequently observed clinical symptoms of the sheep were reduced general condition, circling, reduced menace reflex, apathy, unsteady gait and head tilt. Analyses of cerebrospinal fluid revealed an increased leucocyte count in 3 sheep and eosinophilia in 4 sheep. In 4 animals that underwent computertomography, one or more hypodense, definable lesions were found in the brain. In 2 sheep surgical treatment and in 10 animals medical treatment with either Praziquantel (n=8) or Oxfendazol (n=2) was attempted. Only one animal treated with Praziquantel needed not to be euthanized. At necropsy, one or two coenurus cysts could be found either in a side ventricle (n=2), in the cerebellum (n=3) or in the cerebrum (n=7). The locations corresponded with the clinical findings. Despite Praziquantel or Oxfendazol treatment, living protoscoleces could be found in the parasite cysts [de

  19. Parkinson's Disease Videos

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Nonmotor Symptoms of Parkinson's Disease Expert Briefings: Gait, Balance and Falls in Parkinson's Disease Expert Briefings: Coping ... Conference: Lessons Learned How Does the DBS Device Work? Why Is It Important to Continue Self-Care ...

  20. Parkinson's Disease Videos

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Progression of the Disease? OHSU - Parkinson's Disease: Pharmacological Management of Depression, Anxiety & Psychosis What Are Some Strategies ... to Know? Why Is Comprehensive Care or Team Approach Important? 2013 PSA Featuring Katie Couric What Are ...

  1. Importance of bovine mastitis in Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motaung, Thabiso E; Petrovski, Kiro R; Petzer, Inge-Marie; Thekisoe, Oriel; Tsilo, Toi J

    2017-06-01

    Bovine mastitis is an important animal production disease that affects the dairy industry globally. Studies have estimated the prevalence of this disease in approximately 30% of African countries, with the highest prevalence found in Ethiopia. This is despite the wide cattle distribution in Africa, and the largest number of dairy farms and herds in countries such as South Africa, Kenya and Uganda. Furthermore, the estimated financial losses due to direct and indirect impacts of bovine mastitis are lacking in this continent. Therefore, intensive research efforts will help determine the continent-wide economic impacts and advance careful monitoring of disease prevalence and epidemiology. Here, published cases supporting the occurrence and importance of bovine mastitis in certain regions of Africa are outlined.

  2. Listeriosis in Mexico: Clinical and epidemiological importance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gloria Castañeda-Ruelas

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Listeriosis is caused by Listeria monocytogenes, an important food-borne disease due to its clinical forms, high mortality rate, and the economic impact in both clinical and food production industries. In Mexico, the lack of epidemiological surveillance systems leads to the need of accurate data on the incidence of listeriosis and its association with food-borne disease. In this paper, we present data about the presence of this bacterium in food, reports related to clinical cases of listeriosis, and information of diseases in which L. monocytogenes may be involved. However, in most of these cases the etiology was not established. Given this, there´s a need to inform and warn the appropriate entities, to define strategies for the mandatory search of L. monocytogenes through the whole food production chain and clinical suspects, for the epidemiological importance and control of listeriosis in Mexico.

  3. Marine cargo imports and forest pest introductions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank H. Koch

    2009-01-01

    A major pathway for the introduction of nonindigenous forest pests is accidental transport on cargo imported from overseas. Diseases may be brought into the United States via commercial trade of nursery stock or other live plant material, as has been suggested for Phytophthora ramorum, the pathogen that causes sudden oak death (Ivors and others 2006). Insects may...

  4. Parkinson's disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Astradsson, Arnar; Aziz, Tipu Z

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: The mean age of onset of Parkinson's disease is about 65 years, with a median time of 9 years between diagnosis and death. METHODS AND OUTCOMES: We conducted a systematic review and aimed to answer the following clinical question: What are the effects of fetal cell or stem cell......-derived therapy in people with Parkinson's disease? We searched: Medline, Embase, The Cochrane Library and other important databases up to September 2014 (Clinical Evidence reviews are updated periodically; please check our website for the most up-to-date version of this review). We included harms alerts from...

  5. BIOSYNTHESIS OF MORPHINE: IT IMPORTANCE IN PARKINSON´S DISEASE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Perea Sasiaín

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta una panorámica tabulada y gráfica de los conocimientos actuales sobre la biosíntesis de la morfina tanto en Papaver somniferum como en los animales. Hacemos un análisis general de dos funciones principales de la morfina en el ser humano y de la importancia de aclarar su biosíntesis para establecer las etapas defectuosas en los enfermos parkinsonianos. Se admite que el daño de las neuronas melánicas de la sustancia negra se produce por neurotoxinas endógenas, metabolitos anormales por cantidad o calidad, resultantes del metabolismo secundario de la dopamina lo cual desencadena la enfermedad de Parkinson idiopática. Deben diseñarse pruebas funcionales que permitan identificar dichos metabolitos en las poblaciones de alto riesgo genético y correlacionarlos con los alelos presentes en ellas. Se concluye que para un diagnóstico preclínico de la enfermedad de Parkinson idiopático es necesario comparar los niveles de morfina proveniente del sistema nervioso central en la sangre de personas normales y en parkinsonianos antes de cualquier tratamiento. Se recomienda un manejo fisiológico y dietético de estas personas (pre-parkinsonianos antes de la aparición de los signos de la enfermedad.

  6. DHRS7 enzyme - important player in human health and diseases?

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Zemanová, L.; Štambergová, H.; Lundová, T.; Andrýs, R.; Vondrášek, Jiří; Wsól, V.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 24, Suppl 1 (2015), s. 111-112 ISSN 0961-8368. [Annual Symposium of the Protein Society /29./. 22.07.2015-25.07.2015, Barcelona] Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : metabolic syndrome * DHRS7 Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry

  7. Is disease an important mortality factor for Pacific herring?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hershberger, Paul

    2005-01-01

    Marine pelagic forage fishes, including sardines, anchovies, and herring, undergo large oscillations in population abundance. Although over-fishing can have a dramatic impact in reducing population size, this anthropogenic perturbation cannot fully account for all population declines because natural oscillations in marine pelagic fish biomasses occurred prior to the onset of commercial fishing. Among the herring metapopulation in Puget Sound / Straight of Georgia, the mean estimated annual mortality, exclusive of commercial fishing, increased from 20% in the late 1970’s and early 1980’s to 64-87% during 1996-1999. This natural mortality affects primarily the older age cohorts and resulted in recent decreased median ages of adult herring from age 4-6 cohorts to age 2-3 cohorts that die prior to iteroparous spawning. Surveys of wild herring from the region indicate that the protozoan parasite Ichthyophonus sp., is currently ubiquitous among Pacific herring populations in Washington and British Columbia, and prevalence of infection increase directly with herring age, from 12% among juveniles to 58% among the underrepresented age 6+ cohorts. Ichthyophonus can be highly pathogenic to immunologically naïve Pacific herring, causing 80% mortality 2 mo. after exposure in the laboratory. Current laboratory-based studies are underway to determine whether natural Ichthyophonus infections are terminal for the host, and whether these infections account for the decreasing median age of wild Pacific herring populations in recent years.

  8. Parkinson's Disease Videos

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Help with Freezing Episodes? OHSU - Parkinson's Disease: Pharmacological Management of ... or Team Approach Important? OHSU - Therapeutic Approaches for PD: Depression, Anxiety & ...

  9. Parkinson's Disease Videos

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... CareMAP: Dealing with Dementia OHSU - Parkinson's Disease: Pharmacological Management of Depression, ... Care or Team Approach Important? What Is the Relationship Between Depression and ...

  10. Farber's Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... management, and therapy of rare diseases, including the lipid storage diseases. Research on lipid storage diseases within the Network includes ... management, and therapy of rare diseases, including the lipid storage diseases. Research on lipid storage diseases within the Network includes ...

  11. AND/OR Importance Sampling

    OpenAIRE

    Gogate, Vibhav; Dechter, Rina

    2012-01-01

    The paper introduces AND/OR importance sampling for probabilistic graphical models. In contrast to importance sampling, AND/OR importance sampling caches samples in the AND/OR space and then extracts a new sample mean from the stored samples. We prove that AND/OR importance sampling may have lower variance than importance sampling; thereby providing a theoretical justification for preferring it over importance sampling. Our empirical evaluation demonstrates that AND/OR importance sampling is ...

  12. Cushing disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torres Esteche, V.; Menafra Prieto, M.; Ormaechea Gorricho, R.; Vignolo Scalone, G.; Larre Borges, A.

    1998-01-01

    A review of the Cushings disease in its various aspects. It highlights the importance of early diagnosis to avoid repercussions hypercortisolism secondary to parenchymal. We describe the findings in the Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR), noting that the pituitary adenoma is often of small size and sometimes not visible on MRI. The treatment of choice remains surgical treatment other contingencies exist for particular cases (Author) [es

  13. How important is importance for prospective memory? A review

    OpenAIRE

    Walter, Stefan; Meier, Beat

    2014-01-01

    Forgetting to carry out an intention as planned can have serious consequences in everyday life. People sometimes even forget intentions that they consider as very important. Here, we review the literature on the impact of importance on prospective memory performance. We highlight different methods used to manipulate the importance of a prospective memory task such as providing rewards, importance relative to other ongoing activities, absolute importance, and providing social motives. Moreover...

  14. diseases free body

    OpenAIRE

    thararose

    2018-01-01

    Diseases are very common now a days . It is our food habits itself that causes this diseases. Diseases can cause many health problems. goiter causes and symptoms It is very important to follow healthy food habits and to maintain good health. A healthy body is always a treasure to every person.

  15. Dutch elm disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    James W. Walters

    1992-01-01

    Since its discovery in the United States in 1930, Dutch elm disease has killed thousands of native elms. The three native elms, American, slippery, and rock, have little or no resistance to Dutch elm disease, but individual trees within each species vary in susceptibility to the disease. The most important of these, American elm, is scattered in upland stands but is...

  16. [Import and local transmission of Haemophilus ducreyi].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knudsen, Troels Bygum; Sand, Carsten; Jensen, Jørgen Skov

    2010-07-26

    Chancroid is a sexually transmitted disease characterized by painful ulcers with a soft margin, necrotic base and purulent exudate. Previously, only sporadic, imported cases have been reported in Denmark. The bacterium is difficult to culture and novel polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based methods for direct demonstration of bacterial DNA have facilitated rapid verification of the clinical diagnosis. We report two cases which demonstrate import and subsequent local transmission in Denmark. In both cases, the clinical diagnosis was rapidly verified by a combined PCR testing for multiple causes of venereal ulcers.

  17. Endocrine Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Syndrome (PCOS) Pregnancy and Thyroid Disease Primary Hyperparathyroidism Prolactinoma Thyroid Tests Turner Syndrome Contact Us The National ... Management Liver Disease Urologic Diseases Endocrine Diseases Diet & Nutrition Blood Diseases Diagnostic Tests La información de la ...

  18. How important is importance for prospective memory? A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan eWalter

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Forgetting to carry out an intention as planned can have serious consequences in everyday life. People sometimes even forget intentions that they consider as very important. Here, we review the literature on the impact of importance on prospective memory performance. We highlight different methods used to manipulate the importance of a prospective memory task such as providing rewards, importance relative to other ongoing activities, absolute importance, and providing social motives. Moreover, we address the relationship between importance and other factors known to affect prospective memory and ongoing task performance such as type of prospective memory task (time-, event- or activity-based, cognitive loads, and cue focality. Finally, we provide a connection to motivation, we summarize the effects of task importance and we identify important venues for future research.

  19. How important is importance for prospective memory? A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walter, Stefan; Meier, Beat

    2014-01-01

    Forgetting to carry out an intention as planned can have serious consequences in everyday life. People sometimes even forget intentions that they consider as very important. Here, we review the literature on the impact of importance on prospective memory performance. We highlight different methods used to manipulate the importance of a prospective memory task such as providing rewards, importance relative to other ongoing activities, absolute importance, and providing social motives. Moreover, we address the relationship between importance and other factors known to affect prospective memory and ongoing task performance such as type of prospective memory task (time-, event-, or activity-based), cognitive loads, and processing overlaps. Finally, we provide a connection to motivation, we summarize the effects of task importance and we identify important venues for future research. PMID:25018743

  20. Crohn's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Roon, Alexander C; Reese, George E; Orchard, Timothy R; Tekkis, Paris P

    2007-11-07

    Crohn's disease is a long-term chronic condition of the gastrointestinal tract. It is characterised by transmural, granulomatous inflammation that occurs in a discontinuous pattern, with a tendency to form fistulae. The cause is unknown but may depend on interactions between genetic predisposition, environmental triggers, and mucosal immunity. We conducted a systematic review and aimed to answer the following clinical questions: What are the effects of medical treatments in adults to induce remission in Crohn's disease? What are the effects of lifestyle interventions in adults with Crohn's disease to maintain remission? What are the effects of surgical interventions in adults with small-bowel Crohn's disease to induce remission? What are the effects of surgical interventions in adults with colonic Crohn's disease to induce remission? What are the effects of medical interventions to maintain remission in adults with Crohn's disease; and to maintain remission following surgery? We searched: Medline, Embase, The Cochrane Library and other important databases up to March 2006 (Clinical Evidence reviews are updated periodically, please check our website for the most up-to-date version of this review). We included harms alerts from relevant organisations such as the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the UK Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA). We found 60 systematic reviews, RCTs, or observational studies that met our inclusion criteria. In this systematic review we present information relating to the effectiveness and safety of the following interventions: aminosalicylates, antibiotics, azathioprine/mercaptopurine, ciclosporin, corticosteroids (oral), enteral nutrition, fish oil, infliximab, methotrexate, probiotics, resection, segmental colectomy, smoking cessation, and strictureplasty.

  1. Wilson’s Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Figen Hanağası

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Wilson’s disease is a autosomal recessive disorder of copper metabolism. Clinical phenotypes include hepatic, haemolytic, neurologic and psychiatric diseases. Wilson’s disease is caused by mutations in the ATP7B gene. ATP7B encodes a hepatic copper-transporting protein, which is important for copper excretion into bile. Neurological symptoms in Wilson’s disease include variable combinations of dysathria, ataxia, parkinsonism, dystonia and tremor. Wilson’s disease is lethal if untreated. This review discusses the epidemiology, genetics, clinical features, etiopathophysiology, diagnostic tests, and treatment of Wilson’s disease

  2. Myonecrosis of Behcet's disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stubbs, Alana Y.; Taljanovic, Mihra S.; Massey, Brandon Z.; Graham, Anna R.; Friend, Christopher J.; Walsh, Joshua A.

    2008-01-01

    Behcet's disease is an inflammatory disease of unknown cause characterized by intermittent episodes of acute inflammation manifested by oral aphthous ulcers, genital ulcers, uveitis, and skin lesions. We report a rare case of myonecrosis associated with Behcet's disease. Myonecrosis of Behcet's disease can mimic soft tissue abscess and therefore awareness of this entity in the appropriate clinical setting is important for initiation of appropriate and timely treatment. (orig.)

  3. [Tick-borne diseases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tissot Dupont, H; Raoult, D

    1993-05-01

    Due to their worldwide distribution, from hottest to coldest climates, and due to their behaviour, ticks are capable of transmitting numerous human and animal bacterial viral or parasitous diseases. Depending on the disease, they play the role of biological vector or intermediate host. In France, six tick borne diseases are of epidemiologic importance. Q fever (not often tick-borne), Mediterranean Spotted Fever, Lyme disease, Turalemia (human and animal), Babesiosis and Tick-borne Viral Encephalitis.

  4. [Mycoviruses and importance in mycology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keçeli, Sema Aşkın

    2017-10-01

    extracellular way, and then the binding of mycovirus to target fungus by genetic modifications is aimed. The second scenario is about the use of mycovirus as a vector for genetic transformation. In fact, this method is applied by using toxins in fungal diseases of plants. In addition, the production of lethal antibodies or peptides derived from antibodies obtained from toxin-coding cytoplasmic dsRNA mycovirus toxins may be a new therapeutic approach. It has been claimed that these derivatives may be used as parentheral therapeutic agents against human pathogenic fungi including Candida albicans. In this review article, the importance of mycoviruses in mycology has been discussed.

  5. Importance measures and resource allocation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guey, C.N.; Morgan, T.; Hughes, E.A.

    1987-01-01

    This paper discusses various importance measures and their practical relevance to allocating resources. The characteristics of importance measures are illustrated through simple examples. Important factors associated with effectively allocating resources to improve plant system performance or to prevent system degradation are discussed. It is concluded that importance measures are only indicative of and not equal to the risk significance of a component, system, or event. A decision framework is suggested to provide a comprehensive basis for resource allocation

  6. Import-Export Business Plan

    OpenAIRE

    Asad, Muhammad

    2014-01-01

    Import export businesses, also known as international trading, are one of the hottest commercial trends of this decade. Since the owner of an import export enterprise, can work as a distributor by focusing on exporting and importing goods and services that cannot be obtained on national soil. With a rapidly growing population of about 150 million, Pakistan is a major country, recognized by the international community, and is one of the most important actors in the Islamic world. Based on its ...

  7. Website Policies / Important Links | DOepatents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Links Website Policies / Important Links Javascript Not Enabled OSTI Security Website Policies and first) Publication Date (oldest first) Close Clear All Find DOepatents Website Policies / Important Important Links Some links on this page may take you to non-federal websites. Their policies may differ from

  8. Importance of exercise immunology in health promotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neto, J C Rosa; Lira, F S; de Mello, M T; Santos, Ronaldo Vagner T

    2011-11-01

    Chronic physical exercise with adequate intensity and volume associated with sufficient recovery promotes adaptations in several physiological systems. While intense and exhaustive exercise is considered an important immunosuppressor agent and increases the incidence of upper respiratory tract infections (URTI), moderate regular exercise has been associated with significant disease protection and is a complementary treatment of many chronic diseases. The effects of chronic exercise occur because physical training can induce several physiological, biochemical and psychological adaptations. More recently, the effect of acute exercise and training on the immunological system has been discussed, and many studies suggest the importance of the immune system in prevention and partial recovery in pathophysiological situations. Currently, there are two important hypotheses that may explain the effects of exercise and training on the immune system. These hypotheses including (1) the effect of exercise upon hormones and cytokines (2) because exercise can modulate glutamine concentration. In this review, we discuss the hypothesis that exercise may modulate immune functions and the importance of exercise immunology in respect to chronic illnesses, chronic heart failure, malnutrition and inflammation.

  9. [Addison's disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinkler, M

    2012-09-01

    The clinical signs and symptoms of primary adrenal insufficiency are unspecific often causing a delayed diagnosis or even misdiagnosis. In the diagnostic work-up the short synacthen test is regarded as the gold standard. Hydrocortisone and fludrocortisone are the preferred therapy for Addison's disease. The management and surveillance of therapy requires experience and several aspects need to be followed to prevent side effects which might occur due to overtreatment or undertreatment. Very important aspects in therapy are the repeated teaching of the patient and relatives, the issuing of an emergency steroid card and the prescription of a glucocorticoid emergency set. Acute adrenal failure (adrenal crisis), which might be the first manifestation of adrenal insufficiency, is a life-threatening situation requiring immediate glucocorticoid administration and fluid substitution. The most common causes for an adrenal crisis are gastrointestinal infections and fever and discontinuation of glucocorticoid therapy. This article gives an up-to-date overview of diagnostic and therapeutic aspects of Addison's disease.

  10. Joint diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weissman, S.D.

    1989-01-01

    The authors discuss how x-ray examination is essential in the diagnosis and evaluation of the arthritides. Most arthritides are first suspected by the clinician, and x-ray evaluation of these entities along with laboratory testing is important for confirmation of the clinical diagnosis and in staging of the disease process. Several arthritides are often diagnosed first by the podiatrist on x-ray evaluation, including pseudogout, ankylosing spondylitis, early rheumatoid arthritis, degenerative joint disease, and tuberculosis of bone. The joint responds to insult in only a limited number of ways that become apparent on x-ray. The soft tissues surrounding the joint, the articulating bones, and alignment of the joint space may all be involved by the arthritic process. On roentgenographic examination, the soft tissues must be examined for edema, masses, calcifications, and atrophy. The articulating bones must be examined for demineralization, erosions, osteophytes, periosteal reaction, cysts and sclerosis

  11. Adaptive Importance Sampling with a Rapidly Varying Importance Function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Booth, Thomas E.

    2000-01-01

    It is known well that zero-variance Monte Carlo solutions are possible if an exact importance function is available to bias the random walks. Monte Carlo can be used to estimate the importance function. This estimated importance function then can be used to bias a subsequent Monte Carlo calculation that estimates an even better importance function; this iterative process is called adaptive importance sampling.To obtain the importance function, one can expand the importance function in a basis such as the Legendre polynomials and make Monte Carlo estimates of the expansion coefficients. For simple problems, Legendre expansions of order 10 to 15 are able to represent the importance function well enough to reduce the error geometrically by ten orders of magnitude or more. The more complicated problems are addressed in which the importance function cannot be represented well by Legendre expansions of order 10 to 15. In particular, a problem with a cross-section notch and a problem with a discontinuous cross section are considered

  12. Animal models: an important tool in mycology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capilla, Javier; Clemons, Karl V; Stevens, David A

    2007-12-01

    Animal models of fungal infections are, and will remain, a key tool in the advancement of the medical mycology. Many different types of animal models of fungal infection have been developed, with murine models the most frequently used, for studies of pathogenesis, virulence, immunology, diagnosis, and therapy. The ability to control numerous variables in performing the model allows us to mimic human disease states and quantitatively monitor the course of the disease. However, no single model can answer all questions and different animal species or different routes of infection can show somewhat different results. Thus, the choice of which animal model to use must be made carefully, addressing issues of the type of human disease to mimic, the parameters to follow and collection of the appropriate data to answer those questions being asked. This review addresses a variety of uses for animal models in medical mycology. It focuses on the most clinically important diseases affecting humans and cites various examples of the different types of studies that have been performed. Overall, animal models of fungal infection will continue to be valuable tools in addressing questions concerning fungal infections and contribute to our deeper understanding of how these infections occur, progress and can be controlled and eliminated.

  13. Importance analysis for reconfigurable systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Si, Shubin; Levitin, Gregory; Dui, Hongyan; Sun, Shudong

    2014-01-01

    Importance measures are used in reliability engineering to rank the system components according to their contributions to proper functioning of the entire system and to find the most effective ways of reliability enhancement. Traditionally, the importance measures do not consider the possible change of system structure with the improvement of specific component reliability. However, if a component's reliability changes, the optimal system structure/configuration may also change and the importance of the corresponding component will depend on the chosen structure. When the most promising component reliability improvement is determined, the component importance should be taken into account with respect to the possible structure changes. This paper studies the component reliability importance indices with respect to the changes of the optimal component sequencing. This importance measure indicates the critical components in providing the system reliability enhancement by both enhancing the component's reliability and reconfiguring the system. Examples of linear consecutive-k-out-of-n: F and G systems are considered to demonstrate the change of the component Birnbaum importance with the optimal system reconfiguration. The results show that the change of the importance index corresponds to the change of the system optimal configuration and the importance index can change not monotonically with the variation of the component reliability

  14. Giant U waves: an important clinical clue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verma N

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Nitin Verma, Vincent M Figueredo, Allan M Greenspan, Gregg S PressmanAlbert Einstein Medical Center, Philadelphia, PA, USAAbstract: Electrocardiographic U waves are a common clinical finding, and yet are poorly understood by many physicians. They can be seen in many clinical conditions, most importantly hypokalemia and ischemic heart disease. Over the years, many theories have been put forth to explain their origin. While still not completely understood, it now appears that mechanoelectrical interactions are responsible for normal U waves. Pathologic U waves may be seen in ischemic heart disease where they sometimes point to acute ischemic events. The large U waves of hypokalemia are most likely not true U waves but rather the terminal deflection in a bifid T wave.Keywords: U waves, hypokalemia, myocardial ischemia, electrocardiogram

  15. 7 CFR 319.73-2 - Products prohibited importation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... the fungus Hemileia vastatrix (Berkely and Broome), which causes an injurious rust disease, the..., seeds of all kinds when in pulp, including coffee berries or fruits, are prohibited importation into all...

  16. Clinical and diagnostic importance of proteinuria: A review | Oni ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Clinical and diagnostic importance of proteinuria: A review. ... shown that diabetis mellitus, cardiovascular disease and hypertension could provoke secondary ... Proteinuria is also significant in some non-pathological cases such as pregnancy

  17. Revisiting the importance of childhood activity | van Rensburg ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    intensity exercise every day of the week. This article highlights the importance of formalised paediatric exercise programmes in disease prevention and health promotion. A healthy and happy adolescent population ultimately contributes to an ...

  18. Ribbing disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mukkada, Philson J; Franklin, Teenu; Rajeswaran, Rangasami; Joseph, Santhosh

    2010-01-01

    Ribbing disease is a rare sclerosing dysplasia that involves long tubular bones, especially the tibia and femur. It occurs after puberty and is reported to be more common in women. In this article we describe how Ribbing disease can be differentiated from diseases like Engelmann-Camurati disease, van Buchem disease, Erdheim-Chester disease, osteoid osteoma, chronic osteomyelitis, stress fracture, etc

  19. Imported lymphocutaneous sporotrichosis in Greece

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Xirotagaros, G; Drogari-Apiranthitou, M; Tsamakis, C; Theotokoglou, S; Tofas, P; van Diepeningen, A D; de Hoog, G S; Petrikkos, G; Rigopoulos, D

    2014-01-01

    Sporotrichosis is a subcutaneous mycosis caused by dimorphic fungi in the genus Sporothrix. The lymphocutaneous form is the classic type of the disease(1) . Agents in Sporothrix are present in plant debris and in soil throughout the world, particularly in the Americas, East Asia, and South Africa,

  20. Imported pedal chancroid: case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marckmann, P; Højbjerg, T; von Eyben, F E; Christensen, I

    1989-01-01

    A man aged 22 who had returned from the Fiji Islands to Denmark had chancroid on the left foot, but no history or sign of primary genital infection. The pedal location only is an unusual presentation of the disease, which was diagnosed only microbiologically. Chronic tropical ulcers therefore demand special microbiological attention. Images PMID:2753511

  1. Imported yaws in Johor, Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed, K N

    1988-12-01

    Yaws was detected in a six-member family in the southern Malaysia state of Johor. This stresses the need to be vigilant against a long-forgotten disease of childhood which was of great public health concern in the past.

  2. PARALLEL IMPORT: REALITY FOR RUSSIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Т. А. Сухопарова

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem of parallel import is urgent question at now. Parallel import legalization in Russia is expedient. Such statement based on opposite experts opinion analysis. At the same time it’s necessary to negative consequences consider of this decision and to apply remedies to its minimization.Purchase on Elibrary.ru > Buy now

  3. What's important to a game?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Debus, Michael S.; Grabarczyk, Pawel

    2017-01-01

    , as well as visual representation, of the model suggests an equal importance of these three dimensions. We claim that such symmetry is unattainable. Through the exploration of the three dimensions relationships to one another, we will show that the mechanical system has a higher importance to games than...

  4. Ticks imported to Europe with exotic reptiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mihalca, Andrei Daniel

    2015-09-30

    It is known that traded exotic animals carry with them an immense number of associated symbionts, including parasites. Reptiles are no exception. Most of the imported reptiles originate from tropical countries and their possibility to carry potentially dangerous pathogens is high. According to CITES, Europe is currently the main reptile importer in the world. Despite this, there is no review or analysis available for the risk related to the importation of tick-borne diseases with traded reptile to the EU. The main aim of the manuscript is to provide a review on the available literature on ticks introduced to and exchanged between European countries via the live reptile trade. So far, the published reports of ticks imported on reptiles are limited to few European countries: Italy, Poland, Spain, Netherlands, Belgium, Slovenia and UK. The following species have been reported: Hyalomma aegyptium, Amblyomma dissimile, Amblyomma exornatum, Amblyomma flavomaculatum, Amblyomma fuscolineatum, Amblyomma latum, Amblyomma quadricavum, Amblyomma marmoreum, Amblyomma nuttalli, Amblyomma sparsum, Amblyomma sphenodonti, Amblyomma transversale and Amblyomma varanense. The majority of species are of African origin, followed by American and Asian species. All groups of reptiles (chelonians, snakes, lizards, crocodiles, tuataras) were involved. However, it seems that certain groups (i.e. tortoises of genus Testudo, monitor lizards of genus Varanus, snakes of genus Python) are more important as host for imported ticks, but this may be related to higher levels of international trade. Even fewer are the reports of tick-borne pathogens associated with imported reptile ticks. Despite the diversity of tick species reported on imported reptiles, the situations of truly invasive species are atypical and are limited in natural environments to maximum two cases where H. aegyptium was involved. Otherwise, the risk associated with reptile trade for introduction of invasive tick to Europe is low

  5. Enhancing importance-performance analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eskildsen, Jacob Kjær; Kristensen, Kai

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: The interpretation of the importance/performance map is based on an assumption of independence between importance and performance but many studies question the validity of this assumption. The aim of this research is to develop a new typology for job satisfaction attributes as well...... as a new importance/performance map that can be an aid for organizations when they prioritize their improvement actions based on a job satisfaction study. Design/methodology/approach: A typology for possible relationships between importance and performance in job satisfaction studies is developed based...... on theoretical considerations. This typology is then applied and validated on approximately 10,000 responses from the European Employee Index 2002. Ultimately a new importance/performance map for priority setting in job satisfaction studies is developed based on the new typology for possible relationships...

  6. Increasing Importance of Balamuthia mandrillaris

    OpenAIRE

    Matin, Abdul; Siddiqui, Ruqaiyyah; Jayasekera, Samantha; Khan, Naveed Ahmed

    2008-01-01

    Balamuthia mandrillaris is an emerging protozoan parasite, an agent of granulomatous amoebic encephalitis involving the central nervous system, with a case fatality rate of >98%. This review presents our current understanding of Balamuthia infections, their pathogenesis and pathophysiology, and molecular mechanisms associated with the disease, as well as virulence traits of Balamuthia that may be potential targets for therapeutic interventions and/or for the development of preventative measures.

  7. Hereditary familial vestibular degenerative diseases.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sun, J.; Alphen, A.M. van; Wagenaar, M.; Huygen, P.L.M.; Hoogenraad, C.C.; Hasson, T.; Koekkoek, S.K.; Bohne, B.A.; Zeeuw, C.I. de

    2001-01-01

    Identification of genes involved in hereditary vestibular disease is growing at a remarkable pace. Mutant mouse technology can be an important tool for understanding the biological mechanism of human vestibular diseases.

  8. Parkinson's Disease Videos

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Nutrition and Parkinson's Disease 2010 Expert Briefings: Legal Issues: Planning Ahead When You are Living with Parkinson's ... Care or Team Approach Important? Expert Briefings: Cognitive Issues: Advice for Parkinson's Care Partners Jose Maria Lobo: ...

  9. Pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease

    OpenAIRE

    Riederer, Peter; Lange, Klaus W.

    1992-01-01

    The importance of genetic aspects, ageing, environmental factors, head trauma, defective mitochondrial respiration, altered iron metabolism, oxidative stress and glutamatergic overactivity of the basal ganglia in the pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease (PD) are considered in this review.

  10. Parkinson's Disease Videos

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Walk at Moving Day OHSU - Parkinson's Disease: Pharmacological Management of Depression, Anxiety ... Summit 2016: Maintaining Dignity & Identity Why Is It Important to Continue Self-Care ...

  11. Parkinson's Disease Videos

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... When Should Medications Be Adjusted? How Do I Manage Non-Motor Problems Such as Hypersexuality? Are There ... Motor Symptoms Ask the Helpline: Why Is Exercise Important for People with Parkinson's? How Does Parkinson's Disease ...

  12. Parkinson's Disease Videos

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Non-Motor Symptoms Ask the Helpline: Why Is Exercise Important for People with Parkinson's? How Does Parkinson's Disease Affect Memory? CareMAP: La Alimentación y la Deglución, Parte ...

  13. Triplex DNA: Importance and its medical application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noori Dalooei M

    1998-07-01

    Full Text Available Back in 1957, when investigators produced a triple-stranded form of DNA while studying synthetic nucleic acids, few researchers paid much attention to the discovery. However, triplex DNA was never entirely forgotton and especially since 1987 its structural and functional importance in biological systems as well as its medical applications and therapeutic potentional have been extensively studied. It was suggested that in triplex DNA, the third strand was hydrogen bonded and positioned in the major groove of the Watson-Crick duplex. Protein binding assays show that triplex formation by HR21ap inhibits Sp1 binding to the Ha-ras promoter. These results suggest that the triplex formation by the Ha-ras promoter targed oligonucleotide may provide a means to specifically inhibit transcription of this oncogene in vivo. Triplex DNA can disrupt gene transcriptions and can be used as of this oncogene in vivo. Triplex DNA can disrupt gene transcriptions and can be used as a new strategy for treating viral diseases, such as AIDS, by blocking virus reproduction. As discussed in this article, for a number of reasons, interest in oligonucleotide designed for triplex helices on dsDNA is being steadily increased (including their potential artificial repressors of gene expression, mediator of site specific DNA cleavage and therapeutic use for genetic diseases, cancer and diseases caused by viruses.

  14. Malignent diseases in childhood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Havers, W.

    1980-01-01

    As malignant diseases in childhood are rare, and only a small group of radiotherapists have been able to gain experience in this field, this chapter treats the particularities of childhood from this aspect. The side effects of radiotherapy are particularly important here for the growing and developing organism of the child. The most frequently occuring malignant diseases are treated individually. (MG) [de

  15. Uses of risk importance measures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mankamo, T.; Poern, K.; Holmberg, J.

    1991-05-01

    Risk importance measures provide an understandable and practical way of presenting probabilistic safety analysis results which too often tend to remain abstract numbers without real insight into the content. The report clarifies the definitions, relationships and interpretations of the three most basic measures: Risk increase factor, risk decrease factor, and fractional contribution. The above three measures already cover the main types of risk importance measures. Many other importance measures presented in literature are close variants to some of these three measures. They are related in many cases so that, for a technical system considered, the two other measures can be derived from the one calculated first. However, the practical interpretations are different, and hence each three measures have their own uses and rights to existence. The fundamental aspect of importance measures is, that they express some specific influence of a basic event on the total risk. The basic failure or error events are the elements from which the reliability and risk models are constituted. The importance measures are relative, which is an advantage compared to absolute risk numbers, due to insensitivity with respect to quantification uncertainties. Therefore they are particularly adapted to give first hand guidance where to focus main interest from the system's risk and reliability point of view and wherefrom to continue the analysis with more sophisticated methods requiring more effort

  16. Dynamically consistent oil import tariffs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karp, L.; Newbery, D.M.

    1992-01-01

    The standard theory of optimal tariffs considers tariffs on perishable goods produced abroad under static conditions, in which tariffs affect prices only in that period. Oil and other exhaustable resources do not fit this model, for current tariffs affect the amount of oil imported, which will affect the remaining stock and hence its future price. The problem of choosing a dynamically consistent oil import tariff when suppliers are competitive but importers have market power is considered. The open-loop Nash tariff is solved for the standard competitive case in which the oil price is arbitraged, and it was found that the resulting tariff rises at the rate of interest. This tariff was found to have an equilibrium that in general is dynamically inconsistent. Nevertheless, it is shown that necessary and sufficient conditions exist under which the tariff satisfies the weaker condition of time consistency. A dynamically consistent tariff is obtained by assuming that all agents condition their current decisions on the remaining stock of the resource, in contrast to open-loop strategies. For the natural case in which all agents choose their actions simultaneously in each period, the dynamically consistent tariff was characterized, and found to differ markedly from the time-inconsistent open-loop tariff. It was shown that if importers do not have overwhelming market power, then the time path of the world price is insensitive to the ability to commit, as is the level of wealth achieved by the importer. 26 refs., 4 figs

  17. Prostate Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home › Aging & Health A to Z › Prostate Diseases Font size A A A Print Share Glossary Basic ... body. Approximately 3 million American men have some type of prostate disease. The most common prostate diseases ...

  18. Infectious Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... But some of them can make you sick. Infectious diseases are diseases that are caused by germs. There ... many different ways that you can get an infectious disease: Through direct contact with a person who is ...

  19. Pick disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semantic dementia; Dementia - semantic; Frontotemporal dementia; FTD; Arnold Pick disease; 3R tauopathy ... doctors tell Pick disease apart from Alzheimer disease. (Memory loss is often the main, and earliest, symptom ...

  20. Prion Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... with facebook share with twitter share with linkedin Prion Diseases Prion diseases are a related group of ... deer and elk. Why Is the Study of Prion Diseases a Priority for NIAID? Much about TSE ...

  1. Periodontal Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... diseases. The primary research focus was on oral bacteria. Periodontal diseases were thought to begin when chalky white ... tools to target their treatment specifically to the bacteria that trigger periodontal disease. At the same time, because biofilms form ...

  2. The Signal Importance of Noise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macy, Michael; Tsvetkova, Milena

    2015-01-01

    Noise is widely regarded as a residual category--the unexplained variance in a linear model or the random disturbance of a predictable pattern. Accordingly, formal models often impose the simplifying assumption that the world is noise-free and social dynamics are deterministic. Where noise is assigned causal importance, it is often assumed to be a…

  3. Observing Two Important Teaching Variables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gustafson, John A.

    1986-01-01

    Two behaviors essential to good teaching, teacher expectation and teacher flexibility, have been incorporated into the observation system used in the student teacher program at the University of New Mexico. The importance of these behaviors in teaching and in evaluating student teachers is discussed. (MT)

  4. The importance of board independence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zijl, N.J.M.

    2012-01-01

    Although the attributed importance of board independence is high, a clear definition of independence does not exist. Furthermore, the aim and consequences of independence are the subject of discussion and empirical evidence about the impact of independence is weak and disputable. Despite this lack

  5. Hydrogen peroxide: importance and determination

    OpenAIRE

    Mattos, Ivanildo Luiz de; Shiraishi, Karina Antonelli; Braz, Alexandre Delphini; Fernandes, João Roberto

    2003-01-01

    A brief discussion about the hydrogen peroxide importance and its determination is presented. It was emphasized some consideration of the H2O2 as reagent (separated or combined), uses and methods of analysis (techniques, detection limits, linear response intervals, sensor specifications). Moreover, it was presented several applications, such as in environmental, pharmaceutical, medicine and food samples.

  6. The Importance of Prior Knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cleary, Linda Miller

    1989-01-01

    Recounts a college English teacher's experience of reading and rereading Noam Chomsky, building up a greater store of prior knowledge. Argues that Frank Smith provides a theory for the importance of prior knowledge and Chomsky's work provided a personal example with which to interpret and integrate that theory. (RS)

  7. Important projects of the Division

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    In this chapter important projects of the Division for Radiation Safety, NPP Decommissioning and Radwaste Management of the VUJE, a. s. are presented. Division for Radiation Safety, NPP Decommissioning and Radwaste Management has successfully carried out variety of significant projects. The most significant projects that were realised, are implemented and possible future projects are introduced in the following part of presentation.

  8. Import market penetration in services

    OpenAIRE

    Langhammer, Rolf J.

    1991-01-01

    The EC-1992 programme foresees the complete liberalization of trade in services among member countries. To what extent has import market penetration in the Community already begun in selected service industries? Which EC member countries have been the forerunners to date? The following paper uses a new data base released recently by EUROSTAT in an attempt to answer these and other related questions.

  9. The Strategic Importance of Balochistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-01

    projects require augmentation from skilled Punjabi labor. Militarily, it is important from a logistical standpoint as it provides a...Balochistan to a newly independent Greater Balochistan, but also their Pashtun regions need to join Afghanistan, leaving the Punjabi and Sindhi regions to

  10. Eye Disease and Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Thomas Barnebeck; Dalgaard, Carl-Johan Lars; Selaya, Pablo

    This research advances the hypothesis that cross-country variation in the historical incidence of eye disease has influenced the current global distribution of per capita income. The theory is that pervasive eye disease diminished the incentive to accumulate skills, thereby delaying the fertility...... transition and the take-off to sustained economic growth. In order to estimate the influence from eye disease incidence empirically, we draw on an important fact from the field of epidemiology: Exposure to solar ultraviolet B radiation (UVB-R) is an underlying determinant of several forms of eye disease...

  11. A new uncertainty importance measure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borgonovo, E.

    2007-01-01

    Uncertainty in parameters is present in many risk assessment problems and leads to uncertainty in model predictions. In this work, we introduce a global sensitivity indicator which looks at the influence of input uncertainty on the entire output distribution without reference to a specific moment of the output (moment independence) and which can be defined also in the presence of correlations among the parameters. We discuss its mathematical properties and highlight the differences between the present indicator, variance-based uncertainty importance measures and a moment independent sensitivity indicator previously introduced in the literature. Numerical results are discussed with application to the probabilistic risk assessment model on which Iman [A matrix-based approach to uncertainty and sensitivity analysis for fault trees. Risk Anal 1987;7(1):22-33] first introduced uncertainty importance measures

  12. Are All Pixels Equally Important?

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2015-01-01

    When we look at our environment, we primarily pay attention to visually distinctive objects. We refer to these objects as visually important or salient. For efficient visual processing, the human visual system identifies salients objects and dedicates most of its processing resources to them. An analogous resource allocation can be performed by salient-object detection algorithms, which identify objects of interest in an image. Consequently, thanks to salient-object detection, complex visual computing operations can focus on the important parts of the visual data and can save time and resources. About the speaker Dr. Gokhan Yildirim is a research assistant in the School of Computer and Communication Sciences (IC) at the École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne (EPFL). His research interests include image understanding, multimedia, pattern recognition, machine learning, salient-object detection on images & videos and its applications on image proces...

  13. Importing HOL Light into Coq

    OpenAIRE

    Keller , Chantal; Werner , Benjamin

    2010-01-01

    International audience; We present a new scheme to translate mathematical developments from HOL Light to Coq, where they can be re-used and re-checked. By relying on a carefully chosen embedding of Higher-Order Logic into Type Theory, we try to avoid some pitfalls of inter-operation between proof systems. In particular, our translation keeps the mathematical statements intelligible. This translation has been implemented and allows the importation of the HOL Light basic library into Coq.

  14. ECOPHARMACOVIGILANCE: ITS IMPORTANCE AND CHALLENGES

    OpenAIRE

    Dr. Bhavana Srivastava

    2014-01-01

    Active pharmaceutical ingredients represent a group of emerging environmental contamination. Even in trace amounts, they are of great concern due to then continuous introduction into the environment, their impact an ecosystem and human and vetenery health is of great importance. This has given birth to the science of Ecopharmacovigilance (EPV). It aims to ensure that significant environmental issues associated with pharmaceuticals in the environment are identified and managed appropriately. ...

  15. Importance Profiles for Water Vapor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mapes, Brian; Chandra, Arunchandra S.; Kuang, Zhiming; Zuidema, Paquita

    2017-11-01

    Motivated by the scientific desire to align observations with quantities of physical interest, we survey how scalar importance functions depend on vertically resolved water vapor. Definitions of importance begin from familiar examples of water mass I m and TOA clear-sky outgoing longwave flux I OLR, in order to establish notation and illustrate graphically how the sensitivity profile or "kernel" depends on whether specific humidity S, relative humidity R, or ln( R) are used as measures of vapor. Then, new results on the sensitivity of convective activity I con to vapor (with implied knock-on effects such as weather prediction skill) are presented. In radiative-convective equilibrium, organized (line-like) convection is much more sensitive to moisture than scattered isotropic convection, but it exists in a drier mean state. The lesson for natural convection may be that organized convection is less susceptible to dryness and can survive and propagate into regions unfavorable for disorganized convection. This counterintuitive interpretive conclusion, with respect to the narrow numerical result behind it, highlights the importance of clarity about what is held constant at what values in sensitivity or susceptibility kernels. Finally, the sensitivities of observable radiance signals I sig for passive remote sensing are considered. While the accuracy of R in the lower free troposphere is crucial for the physical importance scalars, this layer is unfortunately the most difficult to isolate with passive remote sensing: In high emissivity channels, water vapor signals come from too high in the atmosphere (for satellites) or too low (for surface radiometers), while low emissivity channels have poor altitude discrimination and (in the case of satellites) are contaminated by surface emissions. For these reasons, active ranging (LiDAR) is the preferred observing strategy.

  16. Membrane microparticles and diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Z-H; Ji, C-L; Li, H; Qiu, G-X; Gao, C-J; Weng, X-S

    2013-09-01

    Membrane microparticles (MPs) are plasma membrane-derived vesicles shed by various types of activated or apoptotic cells including platelets, monocytes, endothelial cells, red blood cells, and granulocytes. MPs are being increasingly recognized as important regulators of cell-to-cell interactions. Recent evidences suggest they may play important functions not only in homeostasis but also in the pathogenesis of a number of diseases such as vascular diseases, cancer, infectious diseases and diabetes mellitus. Accordingly, inhibiting the production of MPs may serve as a novel therapeutic strategy for these diseases. Here we review recent advances on the mechanism underlying the generation of MPs and the role of MPs in vascular diseases, cancer, diabetes, inflammation, and pathogen infection.

  17. Obesity and kidney disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geraldo Bezerra da Silva Junior

    Full Text Available Abstract Obesity has been pointed out as an important cause of kidney diseases. Due to its close association with diabetes and hypertension, excess weight and obesity are important risk factors for chronic kidney disease (CKD. Obesity influences CKD development, among other factors, because it predisposes to diabetic nephropathy, hypertensive nephrosclerosis and focal and segmental glomerulosclerosis. Excess weight and obesity are associated with hemodynamic, structural and histological renal changes, in addition to metabolic and biochemical alterations that lead to kidney disease. Adipose tissue is dynamic and it is involved in the production of "adipokines", such as leptin, adiponectin, tumor necrosis factor-α, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, transforming growth factor-β and angiotensin-II. A series of events is triggered by obesity, including insulin resistance, glucose intolerance, dyslipidemia, atherosclerosis and hypertension. There is evidence that obesity itself can lead to kidney disease development. Further studies are required to better understand the association between obesity and kidney disease.

  18. Headache in autoimmune diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    John, Seby; Hajj-Ali, Rula A

    2014-03-01

    Autoimmune diseases are a group of heterogeneous inflammatory disorders characterized by systemic or localized inflammation, leading to ischemia and tissue destruction. These include disorders like systemic lupus erythematosus and related diseases, systemic vasculitides, and central nervous system (CNS) vasculitis (primary or secondary). Headache is a very common manifestation of CNS involvement of these diseases. Although headache characteristics can be unspecific and often non-diagnostic, it is important to recognize because headache can be the first manifestation of CNS involvement. Prompt recognition and treatment is necessary not only to treat the headache, but also to help prevent serious neurological sequelae that frequently accompany autoimmune diseases. In this review, we discuss headache associated with autoimmune diseases along with important mimics. © 2014 American Headache Society.

  19. Importance of Engineering History Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arakawa, Fumio

    It is needless to cite the importance of education for succeed of engineering. IEEJ called for the establishment of ICEE in 1994, where the education is thought highly of, though its discussion has not been well working. Generally speaking, education has been one of the most important national strategies particularly at a time of its political and economical development. The science and technology education is, of course, not the exemption. But in these days around 2000 it seems that the public pays little attention on the science and technology, as they are quite day to day matters. As the results, for instance, such engineering as power systems and electric heavy machines are referred to as “endangered”. So fur, many engineers have tried not to be involved in social issues. But currently they can not help facing with risks of social issues like patent rights, troubles and accidents due to application of high technology, information security in the use of computers and engineering ethics. One of the most appropriate ways for the risk management is to learn lessons in the past, that is, history, so that the idea suggested in it could be made full use for the risk management. The author cited the global importance of education, particularly of engineering history education for engineering ethics, in the ICEE 2010 held in Bussan, Korea, as the 16th anniversary.

  20. Important plasma problems in astrophysics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kulsrud, R.M.

    1995-01-01

    In astrophysics, plasmas occur under very extreme conditions. For example, there are ultrastrong magnetic fields in neutron stars, relativistic plasmas around black holes and in jets, extremely energetic particles such as cosmic rays in the interstellar medium, extremely dense plasmas in accretion disks, and extremely large magnetic Reynolds numbers in the interstellar medium. These extreme limits for astrophysical plasmas make plasma phenomena much simpler to analyze in astrophysics than in the laboratory. An understanding of such phenomena often results in an interesting way, by simply taking the extreme limiting case of a known plasma theory. The author will describe one of the more exciting examples and will attempt to convey the excitement he felt when he was first exposed to it. However, not all plasma astrophysical phenomena are so simple. There are certain important plasma phenomena in astrophysics that have not been so easily resolved. In fact, a resolution of them is blocking significant progress in astrophysical research. They have not yet yielded to attacks by theoretical astrophysicists nor to extensive numerical simulation. The author will attempt to describe one of the more important of these plasma--astrophysical problems, and discuss why its resolution is so important to astrophysics. This significant example is fast, magnetic reconnection. Another significant example is the large-magnetic-Reynolds number magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) dynamos

  1. Imported brucellosis: A case series and literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norman, Francesca F; Monge-Maillo, Begoña; Chamorro-Tojeiro, Sandra; Pérez-Molina, Jose-Antonio; López-Vélez, Rogelio

    2016-01-01

    Brucellosis is one of the main neglected zoonotic diseases. Several factors may contribute to the epidemiology of brucellosis. Imported cases, mainly in travellers but also in recently arrived immigrants, and cases associated with imported products, appear to be infrequently reported. Cases of brucellosis diagnosed at a referral unit for imported diseases in Europe were described and a review of the literature on imported cases and cases associated with contaminated imported products was performed. Most imported cases were associated with traditional risk factors such as travel/consumption of unpasteurized dairy products in endemic countries. Cases associated with importation of food products or infected animals also occurred. Although a lower disease incidence of brucellosis has been reported in developed countries, a higher incidence may still occur in specific populations, as illustrated by cases in Hispanic patients in the USA and in Turkish immigrants in Germany. Imported brucellosis appears to present with similar protean manifestations and both classical and infrequent modes of acquisition are described, leading on occasions to mis-diagnoses and diagnostic delays. Importation of Brucella spp. especially into non-endemic areas, or areas which have achieved recent control of both animal and human brucellosis, may have public health repercussions and timely recognition is essential. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Addison's Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of potassium and low levels of sodium. What causes Addison’s disease? Addison’s disease is caused by injury to your ... example, a problem with your pituitary gland can cause secondary Addison’s disease. Or, you may develop Addison’s disease if you ...

  3. Graves' Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 2011 survey of clinical practice patterns in the management of Graves' disease. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism. 2012 Dec;97( ... 30 a.m. to 5 p.m. eastern time, M-F Follow Us NIH… Turning Discovery Into ... Disease Urologic Diseases Endocrine Diseases Diet & Nutrition ...

  4. Heart Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... you're like most people, you think that heart disease is a problem for others. But heart disease is the number one killer in the ... of disability. There are many different forms of heart disease. The most common cause of heart disease ...

  5. Air quality and disease

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Overview Graphics. Climate change is an important determinant of air quality. Climate change is an important determinant of air quality. Poor air quality associated with higher levels of respiratory and cardiovascular disease. Exposure to high levels of ground-level ozone associated with ...

  6. Osler's disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahlhelm, F.; Mueller, U.; Lieb, J.; Schneider, G.; Ulmer, S.

    2013-01-01

    Osler's disease, also known as hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia (HHT) and Osler-Weber-Rendu syndrome, is an autosomal dominant disorder leading to abnormal blood vessel formation in the skin, mucous membranes and often in organs, such as the lungs, liver and brain (arteriovenous malformations AVM). Various types are known. Patients may present with epistaxis. Teleangiectasia can be identified by visual inspection during physical examination of the skin or oral cavity or by endoscopy. Diagnosis is made after clinical examination and genetic testing based on the Curacao criteria. Modern imaging modalities, such as computed tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) have become more important as they can depict the AVMs. Pulmonary AVMs can be depicted in CT imaging even without the use of a contrast agent while other locations including the central nervous system (CNS) usually require administration of contrast agents. Knowledge of possible clinical manifestations in various organs, possible complications and typical radiological presentation is mandatory to enable adequate therapy of these patients. Interventional procedures are becoming increasingly more important in the treatment of HHT patients. (orig.) [de

  7. Importance of Grid Center Arrangement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasaogullari, O.; Usul, N.

    2012-12-01

    In Digital Elevation Modeling, grid size is accepted to be the most important parameter. Despite the point density and/or scale of the source data, it is freely decided by the user. Most of the time, arrangement of the grid centers are ignored, even most GIS packages omit the choice of grid center coordinate selection. In our study; importance of the arrangement of grid centers is investigated. Using the analogy between "Raster Grid DEM" and "Bitmap Image", importance of placement of grid centers in DEMs are measured. The study has been conducted on four different grid DEMs obtained from a half ellipsoid. These grid DEMs are obtained in such a way that they are half grid size apart from each other. Resulting grid DEMs are investigated through similarity measures. Image processing scientists use different measures to investigate the dis/similarity between the images and the amount of different information they carry. Grid DEMs are projected to a finer grid in order to co-center. Similarity measures are then applied to each grid DEM pairs. These similarity measures are adapted to DEM with band reduction and real number operation. One of the measures gives function graph and the others give measure matrices. Application of similarity measures to six grid DEM pairs shows interesting results. These four different grid DEMs are created with the same method for the same area, surprisingly; thirteen out of 14 measures state that, the half grid size apart grid DEMs are different from each other. The results indicated that although grid DEMs carry mutual information, they have also additional individual information. In other words, half grid size apart constructed grid DEMs have non-redundant information.; Joint Probability Distributions Function Graphs

  8. The Importance of Pilot Studies

    OpenAIRE

    Van Teijlingen, Edwin; Hundley, Vanora

    2001-01-01

    The term 'pilot studies' refers to mini versions of a full-scale study (also called 'feasibility' studies), as well as the specific pre-testing of a particular research instrument such as a questionnaire or interview schedule. \\ud Pilot studies are a crucial element of a good study design. Conducting a pilot study does not guarantee success in the main study, but it does increase the likelihood. \\ud Pilot studies fulfil a range of important functions and can provide valuable insights for othe...

  9. The refeeding syndrome. Importance of phosphorus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araujo Castro, Marta; Vázquez Martínez, Clotilde

    2018-06-22

    Refeeding syndrome (RS) is a complex disease that occurs when nutritional support is initiated after a period of starvation. The hallmark feature is the hypophosphataemia, however other biochemical abnormalities like hypokalaemia, hypomagnesaemia, thiamine deficiency and disorder of sodium and fluid balance are common. The incidence of RS is unknown as no universally accepted definition exists, but it is frequently underdiagnosed. RS is a potentially fatal, but preventable, disorder. The identification of patients at risk is crucial to improve their management. If RS is diagnosed, there is one guideline (NICE 2006) in place to help its treatment (but it is based on low quality of evidence). The aims of this review are: highlight the importance of this problem in malnourished patients, discuss the pathophysiology and clinical characteristics, with a final series of recommendations to reduce the risk of the syndrome and facilitate the treatment. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  10. Filter's importance in nuclear cardiology imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jesus, Maria C. de; Lima, Ana L.S.; Santos, Joyra A. dos; Megueriam, Berdj A.

    2008-01-01

    Full text: Nuclear Medicine is a medical speciality which employs tomography procedures for the diagnosis, treatment and prevention of diseases. One of the most commonly used apparatus is the Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography (SPECT). To perform exams, a very small amount of a radiopharmaceutical must be given to the patient. Then, a gamma camera is placed in convenient positions to perform the photon counting, which is used to reconstruct a full 3 dimensional distribution of the radionuclide inside the body or organ. This reconstruction provides a 3-dimensional image in spatial coordinates, of the body or organ under study, allowing the physician to give the diagnostic. Image reconstruction is usually worked in the frequency domain, due to a great simplification introduced by the Fourier decomposition of image spectra. After the reconstruction, an inverse Fourier transform must be applied to trace back the image into spatial coordinates. To optimize this reconstruction procedure, digital filters are used to remove undesirable components of frequency, which can 'shadow' relevant physical signatures of diseases. Unfortunately, the efficiency of the applied filter is strongly dependent on its own mathematical parameters. In this work we demonstrate how filters interfere on image quality in cardiology examinations with SPECT, concerning perfusion and myocardial viability and the importance of the medical physicist in the choice of the right filters avoiding some serious problems that could occur in the inadequate processing of an image damaging the medical diagnosis. (author)

  11. Radioactive contamination in imported foods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kan, Kimiko; Maki, Toshio; Nagayama, Toshihiro; Hashimoto, Hideki; Kawai, Yuka; Kobayashi, Maki; Shioda, Hiroko; Nishima, Taichiro

    1990-01-01

    On April 26, 1986, explosion occurred in Chernobyl nuclear power station in USSR, and radioactivity contamination was brought about in almost all countries in the world. In European countries, crops were contaminated directly with radioactive fallout to high concentration. Also in Japan, after one week the radioactivity higher than usual was detected in environment, and also in vegetables, milk, tea leaves and others. Thereafter, in order to cope with the import of contaminated foods, inspection and watch system was strengthened by deciding the interim limit of radioactive concentration. However the cases of exceeding the interim limit were often reported. In order to remove the harmful foods due to radioactive contamination and to meet the fear of consumers, the authors measured the radioactive concentration in foods distributed in Tokyo and investigated the actual state of contamination. The samples were 920 imported foods. The experimental method, the preparation of samples, the method of analysis and the results are reported. The samples in which the radioactive concentration exceeding 50 Bq/kg was detected were 25 cases. The food having the high frequency of detection was flavors. (K.I.)

  12. When is protein binding important?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heuberger, Jules; Schmidt, Stephan; Derendorf, Hartmut

    2013-09-01

    The present paper is an ode to a classic citation by Benet and Hoener (2002. Clin Pharm Ther 71(3):115-121). The now classic paper had a huge impact on drug development and the way the issue of protein binding is perceived and interpreted. Although the authors very clearly pointed out the limitations and underlying assumptions for their delineations, these are too often overlooked and the classic paper's message is misinterpreted by broadening to cases that were not intended. Some members of the scientific community concluded from the paper that protein binding is not important. This was clearly not intended by the authors, as they finished their paper with a paragraph entitled: "When is protein binding important?" Misinterpretation of the underlying assumptions in the classic work can result in major pitfalls in drug development. Therefore, we revisit the topic of protein binding with the intention of clarifying when clinically relevant changes should be considered during drug development. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. [Hypertension and renal disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kamper, A.L.; Pedersen, E.B.; Strandgaard, S.

    2009-01-01

    Renal mechanisms, in particular the renin-angiotensin system and renal salt handling, are of major importance in blood pressure regulation. Co-existence of hypertension and decreased renal function may be due to nephrosclerosis secondary to hypertension, or primary renal disease with secondary...... hypertension. Mild degrees of chronic kidney disease (CKD) can be detected in around 10% of the population, and detection is important as CKD is an important risk factor for atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. Conversely, heart failure may cause an impairment of renal function. In chronic progressive...... nephropathy, effective blood pressure lowering is of paramount importance, and angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors and angiotensin receptor blockers are agents of choice Udgivelsesdato: 2009/6/15...

  14. Is the diet important for psoriasis?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Owczarczyk-Saczonek

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Psoriasis is a systemic disease, associated with the occurrence of metabolic disorders (obesity, diabetes, hyperuricemia, lipid disorders and rapid development of atherosclerosis; therefore diet can be an important adjuvant therapy. A low-calorie diet is an important complement treatment of patients with psoriasis, particularly those with concomitant obesity. There are a lot of studies indicating that obesity is a risk factor for psoriasis and vice versa. Visceral adipose tissue produces numerous proinflammatory cytokines (TNF-α, IL-6, Il-8, Il-17, Il-18, the same ones that participate in development of psoriatic lesions. Important factors in the diet are the essential polyunsaturated omega-3 fatty acids. They have an anti-inflammatory effect because they inhibit the production of proinflammatory cytokines (I-1b, IL-6, IL-8, TNF-α and adhesion molecules (ICAM-1, VCAM-1. In addition, supplementation of omega-3 and natural antioxidants in the diet may help to reduce "oxidative stress" and systemic inflammation. The use of a gluten-free diet is controversial, but in patients with positive anti gliadin antibodies it seems justified. An essential element of the procedure is to avoid alcohol and all its forms and stimulants that have pro-inflammatory effects. We should advise our patients to avoid grapefruit juice during treatment with cyclosporine and limit the supply of simple sugars, animal fats and alcohol during treatment with retinoids. Dietary recommendations for patients with psoriasis are an important part of a holistic approach to patients who expect comprehensive care, not just the prescription.

  15. Foot-and-Mouth Disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Belsham, Graham; Charleston, Bryan; Jackson, Terry

    2015-01-01

    Foot‐and‐mouth disease (FMD) is an economically important, highly contagious disease of cloven‐hoofed animals characterised by the appearance of vesicles (blisters) on the feet and in, and around, the mouth. The causative agent, foot‐and‐mouth disease virus (FMDV), was the first mammalian virus...

  16. Foot-and-mouth disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Belsham, Graham; Charleston, Bryan; Jackson, Terry

    2009-01-01

    Foot-and-mouth disease is an economically important, highly contagious, disease of cloven-hoofed animals characterized by the appearance of vesicles (blisters) on the feet and in and around the mouth. The causative agent, foot-and-mouth disease virus, was the first mammalian virus to be discovered...

  17. Buying Local or Imported Goods?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ayob, Abu H.; Hussain, Wan Mohd Hirwani Wan

    2016-01-01

    ’ purchasing decisions. Data was collected on 296 university students in Malaysia and analyzed through probit regression analysis. The findings reveal that foreign products from advanced countries are preferred by male students because of the superior quality and brand image. On the other hand, family members......This study attempts to profile non-income consumers by examining their decisions to buy local or imported products. Hypotheses were drawn from discussions on the comparative advantages of advanced and developing countries, as well as the effects of a product’s country-of-origin on customers...... encourage students to buy local products because they are perceived as being less expensive. Also, students who receive scholarships are more likely to buy local products than self-sponsored students. This research offers insights into ex-ante purchasing behavior in developing countries particularly among...

  18. The Most Important Maglev Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Yaghoubi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The name maglev is derived from magnetic levitation. Magnetic levitation is a highly advanced technology. It has various uses. The common point in all applications is the lack of contact and thus no wear and friction. This increases efficiency, reduces maintenance costs, and increases the useful life of the system. The magnetic levitation technology can be used as an efficient technology in the various industries. There are already many countries that are attracted to maglev systems. Many systems have been proposed in different parts of the worlds. This paper tries to study the most important uses of magnetic levitation technology. The results clearly reflect that the maglev can be conveniently considered as a solution for the future engineering needs of the world.

  19. The importance of contact quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Bakel, Marian; Gerritsen, Marinel; van Oudenhoven, Jan Pieter

    Establishing contact between expatriates and a local host has been found to reap benefits with regard to Interaction Adjustment, Host National Social Support, Open-mindedness, and Social Initiative. This longitudinal study examines the role of the quality of contact for these four aspects....... Expatriates in the Netherlands were randomly divided into an experimental group (n = 33) of which 21 developed high-quality contact with their host, and a control group (n = 32) without host. The results show that contact quality plays an important role and suggest that the higher the quality of the contact......, the more benefit the expatriate experienced. Moreover, expatriates with low-quality contact did not experience a detrimental effect....

  20. Terminology, the importance of defining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Mil, J W Foppe; Henman, Martin

    2016-06-01

    Multiple terms and definitions exist to describe specific aspects of pharmacy practice and service provision. This commentary explores the reasons for different interpretations of words and concepts in pharmaceutical care and pharmacy practice research. Reasons for this variation can be found in language, culture, profession and may also depend on developments over time. A list of words is provided where the authors think that currently multiple interpretations are possible. To make sure that the reader understands the essence, it seems imperative that authors include a definition of the topics that they actually study in their papers, and that they clearly cite existing definitions or refer to collections of definitions such as existing glossaries. It is important that presenters, authors and reviewers of pharmacy practice papers pay more attention to this aspect of describing studies.

  1. Conflict management: importance and implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKibben, Laurie

    2017-01-26

    Conflict is a consistent and unavoidable issue within healthcare teams. Despite training of nurse leaders and managers around areas of conflict resolution, the problem of staff relations, stress, sickness and retention remain. Conflict arises from issues with interpersonal relationships, change and poor leadership. New members of staff entering an already established healthcare team should be supported and integrated, to encourage mutual role respect between all team members and establish positive working relationships, in order to maximise patient care. This paper explores the concept of conflict, the importance of addressing causes of conflict, effective management, and the relevance of positive approaches to conflict resolution. Good leadership, nurturing positive team dynamics and communication, encourages shared problem solving and acceptance of change. Furthermore mutual respect fosters a more positive working environment for those in healthcare teams. As conflict has direct implications for patients, positive resolution is essential, to promote safe and effective delivery of care, whilst encouraging therapeutic relationships between colleagues and managers.

  2. Clinical importance of electromagnetic fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruppe, I.

    1993-01-01

    The clinical importance of most of the electromagnetic fields is not highly. Mostly they only have thermal effects, produced by energy-absorption. About 1 C increase of whole-body-temperature is valid for tolerable limit. For measuring is used the SAR-Value (Specific Absorption Rate) in W/kg body mass. SAR = 0,8W/kg for the whole body is valid to be safety. For the evaluation of possible other effects of electromagnetic fields the scientific knowledges are till now not sufficient to allow a final statement. That could be impacts of electromagnetic fields to conduction or switch processes in the nerves or brains, in the framwork of cellular regulations, in the genetic reactions are occurig is little, but if is necessary to find it out in scinentific investigations. (orig.) [de

  3. [Infectious diseases research].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carratalà, Jordi; Alcamí, José; Cordero, Elisa; Miró, José M; Ramos, José Manuel

    2008-12-01

    There has been a significant increase in research activity into infectious diseases in Spain in the last few years. The Spanish Society of Infectious Diseases and Clinical Microbiology (SEIMC) currently has ten study groups, with the cooperation of infectious diseases specialists and microbiologists from different centres, with significant research activity. The program of Redes Temáticas de Investigación Cooperativa en Salud (Special Topics Cooperative Health Research Networks) is an appropriate framework for the strategic coordination of research groups from the Spanish autonomous communities. The Spanish Network for Research in Infectious Diseases (REIPI) and the Network for Research in AIDS (RIS) integrate investigators in Infectious Diseases from multiple groups, which continuously perform important research projects. Research using different experimental models in infectious diseases, in numerous institutions, is an important activity in our country. The analysis of the recent scientific production in Infectious Diseases shows that Spain has a good position in the context of the European Union. The research activity in Infectious Diseases carried out in our country is a great opportunity for the training of specialists in this area of knowledge.

  4. The importance of being informed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Draganova, Tamara

    2013-04-01

    "Science needs a lot of inspiration and that is why it is very important to draw the students` inspiration because it is the inspiration that is the future of science." For 10 years on students, teachers, parents and citizens harmonize knowledge and skills, competencies and energy, renewable ideas and shared experience on the topic "Climate change" at our High School of Humanitarian "St. st. Cyril and Methodius". During the last 3 years we have been doing our utmost to encourage the students from our school to participate actively in different eco projects such as: 8 workshops and 2 conferences, 63 multimedia lessons in ecology, geography, world and personality; 15 interactive art lessons through the Forum-theatre, 7 photo exhibitions and 29 exhibitions on the topic "The Archives of the Planet Speak", 5 roundtable workshops, 19 eco-races, 7 scenarios of decision taking, 12 open lessons, 26 discussions, 5 scientific lectures given by professors from V. Tarnovo University, Department Geography, 9 questionnaires, 17 practical lessons and experiments held in the classroom, 13 training and 11 ecological campaigns named - "It depends on You", "Striped Rug - Colourful Beans", "Let`s Plant Life", "Saving Energy between Nations", "Save Today to Have Tomorrow", "Grey Is Not Fashionable" etc. Numerous meetings were held with representatives of NGOs, the Regional Inspectorate of Education, the Regional Inspectorate of Environment and Water Safety, V. Tarnovo University, Department Geography, V. Tarnovo Municipality and other communities. Students and university students were organized around the core activity of renewable energy sources, presenting scientific and creative activities such as models, presentations, poems, essays, drawing posters and more. Students under the guidance of a teacher in geography studied history, current treatment processes and phenomena, the signs of expression, the similarities and differences between different parts of the country and other parts

  5. Importance of viruses in acute otitis media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nokso-Koivisto, Johanna; Marom, Tal; Chonmaitree, Tasnee

    2015-02-01

    Acute otitis media occurs as a complication of viral upper respiratory tract infection. Bacterial otopathogens and respiratory viruses interact and play important roles in acute otitis media development. A better understanding of viral and bacterial interactions may lead to innovative ways to lessen the burden of this common childhood disease. There has been increasing evidence that acute otitis media occurs during upper respiratory infection, even in the absence of nasopharyngeal bacterial colonization. Among the types of viruses associated with acute otitis media, respiratory syncytial virus continues to be the most commonly detected. It is still unclear whether viral load plays an important role in acute otitis media development, but symptomatic upper respiratory tract infection (as opposed to asymptomatic viral infection) is crucial. Widespread use of bacterial and viral vaccines in young children, including pneumococcal conjugate and influenza vaccines, has led to the reduction in otitis media-related healthcare use between 2001 and 2011. There has been no new vaccine against respiratory viruses other than influenza. Progress has been made toward the reduction of the burden of acute otitis media in the last decade. Success in reducing acute otitis media incidence will rely mainly on prevention of nasopharyngeal otopathogen colonization, as well as reduction in the incidence of viral upper respiratory tract infection.

  6. Prognostic importance of congenital cataract morphology: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Çağrı İlhan

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Congenital cataract (CC has an important place in pediatric ocular diseases. CCs are different from senile nuclear cataracts in terms of their etiologic, clinic and morphological characteristics. CCs occur many different forms such as non-hereditary isolated cases or autosomal dominant bilateral cases. In addition, many of ocular and systemic diseases can be associated with CC and ophthalmologist should be aware of these potential risks. In this article, we questioned whether the different morphological features of CC have prognostic importance or effect decision of surgery by considering a case of CC.

  7. Reinsurance: Substance, range and importance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petrović-Tomić Nataša

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Reinsurance - at least in Serbian law - represents one of the institutes of Insurance Law of whom a little is known. It should not be surprising as the contract of reinsurance traditionally is not regulated in civil codes or laws on contract of insurance. Questionable are all features of the contract of reinsurance: from the definition through the essentialia negotii to the principle of utmost good faith. That is why the paper is structured so that firstly gives definition of contract of reinsurance and explains position of reinsurance in the system of insurance. It is high­lighted that the contract of reinsurance builds on the contract of insurance; which enables the further transfer of risk. It is business-to-business contract (B-2-B, concluded between insurance law experts; frequently of international character; mostly contract of adhesion, aleatory and synallagmatic contract, contract with subsequent execution, etc. The importance of reinsurance in the system of insurance is divided on three components: increase of capacity of insurance market, guarantee of acomplishment of obligations of insurer and regulatory effect on insurance. The author concludes that the contract of reinsurance is a specific business insurance contract, concluded by the insurance law experts and that represents community of interests of reinsurer and reinsured. The mentioned contract may perform its function only if the contracting parties act in a responsible manner, lege artis and respecting the principle of utmost good faith.

  8. Gaucher Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaucher disease is a rare, inherited disorder. It is a type of lipid metabolism disorder. If you ... affected. It usually starts in childhood or adolescence. Gaucher disease has no cure. Treatment options for types ...

  9. Lyme Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... spread to the nervous system, causing facial paralysis ( Bell's palsy ), or meningitis. The last stage of Lyme disease ... My Lyme Disease Risk? Bug Bites and Stings Bell's Palsy Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever Meningitis View more About ...

  10. Stargardt Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Stargardt disease, lipofuscin accumulates abnormally. The Foundation Fighting Blindness supports research studying lipofuscin build up and ways to prevent it. A decrease in color perception also occurs in Stargardt disease. This is ...

  11. Refsum Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... night blindness due to degeneration of the retina (retinitis pigmentosa). If the disease progresses, other symptoms may include ... night blindness due to degeneration of the retina (retinitis pigmentosa). If the disease progresses, other symptoms may include ...

  12. Addison Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... your blood pressure and water and salt balance. Addison disease happens if the adrenal glands don't make ... A problem with your immune system usually causes Addison disease. The immune system mistakenly attacks your own tissues, ...

  13. Alzheimer disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... likely need to plan for their loved one's future care. The final phase of the disease may ... disease and other dementias. In: Goldman L, Schafer AI, eds. Goldman-Cecil Medicine . 25th ed. Philadelphia, PA: ...

  14. Menkes Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... SEARCH Definition Treatment Prognosis Clinical Trials Organizations Publications Definition Menkes disease is caused by a defective gene named ATPTA ... arteries. Weakened bones (osteoporosis) may result in fractures. × Definition Menkes disease is caused by a defective gene named ATPTA ...

  15. Fabry Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... SEARCH Definition Treatment Prognosis Clinical Trials Organizations Publications Definition Fabry disease is caused by the lack of or faulty ... severe symptoms similar to males with the disorder. × Definition Fabry disease is caused by the lack of or faulty ...

  16. Liver Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Your liver is the largest organ inside your body. It helps your body digest food, store energy, and remove poisons. There are many kinds of liver diseases: Diseases caused by viruses, such as hepatitis ...

  17. Liver disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000205.htm Liver disease To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. The term "liver disease" applies to many conditions that stop the ...

  18. Digestive Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Lactose Intolerance Liver Disease Ménétrier’s Disease Microscopic Colitis Ostomy Surgery of the Bowel Pancreatitis Peptic Ulcers (Stomach ... and outreach materials. Clinical Trials Clinical trials offer hope for many people and opportunities to help researchers ...

  19. Kidney Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Kidney Disease KidsHealth / For Teens / Kidney Disease What's in ... Coping With Kidney Conditions Print What Do the Kidneys Do? You might never think much about some ...

  20. Sandhoff Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... which had been particularly high in people of Eastern European and Ashkenazi Jewish descent, but Sandhoff disease ... which had been particularly high in people of Eastern European and Ashkenazi Jewish descent, but Sandhoff disease ...

  1. Fifth disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parvovirus B19; Erythema infectiosum; Slapped cheek rash ... Fifth disease is caused by human parvovirus B19. It often affects preschoolers or school-age children during the spring. The disease spreads through the fluids in the nose and mouth ...

  2. An Adolescent with Kawasaki Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Kirti; Rohit, Manojkumar; Sharma, Avinash; Nada, Ritambhra; Jain, Sanjay; Varma, Subhash

    2016-01-01

    Kawasaki disease is an acute vasculitis of unknown etiology that predominantly affects children <5 years of age. The incidence and the severity of myocarditis in this disease is variable and depends upon the stage of the disease, acute or chronic. Acute-stage Kawasaki disease shows relatively high incidence of myocarditis, but almost all cases are clinically mild. We describe teenage boy presenting with atypical/incomplete manifestations of Kawasaki disease and developing fulminant myocarditis within a week of illness resulting in death. The case underscores the importance of suspecting Kawasaki disease in a young child presenting with features of myocardial ischemia.

  3. Epidemiology of Lyme Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dennis J White

    1991-01-01

    Full Text Available Investigation of the epidemiology of Lyme disease depends upon information generated from several sources. Human disease surveillance can be conducted by both passive and active means involving physicians, public health agencies and laboratories. Passive and active tick surveillance programs can document the extent of tick-borne activity, identify the geographic range of potential vector species, and determine the relative risk of exposure to Lyme disease in specific areas. Standardized laboratory services can play an important role in providing data. Epidemiologists can gain a better understanding of Lyme disease through the collection of data from such programs. The interpretation of data and provision of information to the medical and general communities are important functions of public health agencies.

  4. IMPORTANT PROTOZOAN PARASITES IN INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srisasi Gandahusada

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The most important protozoan parasites in Indonesia are the malaria parasites, Toxoplasma gondii and Entamoeba histolytica. After the second world war the residual insecticides and effective antimalarial drugs were used in the control of malaria. After development of resistance among mosquitoes to insecticides, the Malaria Control Programme was switched over to the Malaria Eradication Programme. Malaria incidence dropped heavily. However, due to the quick development of vector resistance and financial limitations, malaria came back and so did the Malaria Control Programme. P. falciparum and P.vivax are the most common species in Indonesia. Important vectors are An. sundaicus, An. aconitus, An. maculatus, An. hyrcanus group, An. balabacensis, An. farauti etc. An. sundaicus and An. aconitus have developed resistance to DDT and Dieldrin in Java. In 1959 the Malaria Eradication Programme was started in Java, Bali and Lampung. In 1965 the API dropped to 0,15 per thousand. From 1966 onwards malaria transmission was on the increase, because spraying activities were slowed down, but dropped again from 1974 onwards by occasional residual house spraying with DDT or Fenitrothion, malaria surveillance and treatment of malaria cases, resulting in an API of 0.18 per thousand in 1987. At present malaria is not transmitted in Jakarta and in capitals of the provinces and kabupatens, except in Irian Jaya, Nusa Tenggara Timur and one or two other provinces, but it still exists in rural areas. The distribution of chloroquine resistant P.falciparum is patchy. Resistance is at the RI, RII and RUT levels. The main problems of malaria control are : the increasing development of resistance of the vector to insecticides, the change of An.aconitus from zoophili to anthropophili and from indoor to outdoor biting, the increasing resistance of P.falciparum to chloroquine, the shortage of skilled manpower and limitation of budget. In Indonesia many newborns with congenital

  5. Zirconium - an imported mineral commodity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-10-01

    This report examines Canada's position in regard to the principal zirconium materials: zircon; fusion-cast zirconium-bearing refractory products; zirconium-bearing chemicals; and zirconium metal, master alloys, and alloys. None of these is produced in Canada except fused alumina-zirconia and certain magnesium-zirconium alloys and zirconium-bearing steels. Most of the 3 000-4 000 tonnes of the various forms of zircon believed to be consumed in Canada each year is for foundry applications. Other minerals, notably chromite, olivine and silica sand are also used for these purposes and, if necessary, could be substituted for zircon. Zirconium's key role in Canada is in CANDU nuclear power reactors, where zirconium alloys are essential in the cladding for fuel bundles and in capital equipment such as pressure tubes, calandria tubes and reactivity control mechanisms. If zirconium alloys were to become unavailable, the Canadian nuclear power industry would collapse. As a contingency measure, Ontario Hydro maintains at least nine months' stocks of nuclear fuel bundles. Canada's vulnerability to short-term disruptions to supplies of nuclear fuel is diminished further by the availability of more expensive electricity from non-nuclear sources and, given time, from mothballed thermal plants. Zirconium minerals are present in many countries, notably Australia, the Republic of South Africa and the United States. Australia is Canada's principal source of zircon imports; South Africa is its sole source of baddeleyite. At this time, there are no shortages of either material. Canada has untapped zirconium resources in the Athabasca Oil Sands (zircon) and at Strange Lake along the ill-defined border between Quebec and Newfoundland (gittinsite). Adequate metal and alloy production facilities exist in France, Japan and the United States. No action by the federal government in regard to zirconium supplies is called for at this time

  6. Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease - A multisystem disease?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikolasevic, Ivana; Milic, Sandra; Turk Wensveen, Tamara; Grgic, Ivana; Jakopcic, Ivan; Stimac, Davor; Wensveen, Felix; Orlic, Lidija

    2016-01-01

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is one of the most common comorbidities associated with overweight and metabolic syndrome (MetS). Importantly, NAFLD is one of its most dangerous complications because it can lead to severe liver pathologies, including fibrosis, cirrhosis and hepatic cellular carcinoma. Given the increasing worldwide prevalence of obesity, NAFLD has become the most common cause of chronic liver disease and therefore is a major global health problem. Currently, NAFLD is predominantly regarded as a hepatic manifestation of MetS. However, accumulating evidence indicates that the effects of NAFLD extend beyond the liver and are negatively associated with a range of chronic diseases, most notably cardiovascular disease (CVD), diabetes mellitus type 2 (T2DM) and chronic kidney disease (CKD). It is becoming increasingly clear that these diseases are the result of the same underlying pathophysiological processes associated with MetS, such as insulin resistance, chronic systemic inflammation and dyslipidemia. As a result, they have been shown to be independent reciprocal risk factors. In addition, recent data have shown that NAFLD actively contributes to aggravation of the pathophysiology of CVD, T2DM, and CKD, as well as several other pathologies. Thus, NAFLD is a direct cause of many chronic diseases associated with MetS, and better detection and treatment of fatty liver disease is therefore urgently needed. As non-invasive screening methods for liver disease become increasingly available, detection and treatment of NAFLD in patients with MetS should therefore be considered by both (sub-) specialists and primary care physicians. PMID:27920470

  7. Cardiovascular diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kodama, Kazunori

    1992-01-01

    This paper is aimed to discuss the involvement of delayed radiation effects of A-bomb exposure in cardiovascular diseases. First, the relationship between radiation and cardiovascular diseases is reviewed in the literature. Animal experiments have confirmed the relationship between ionizing radiation and vascular lesions. There are many reports which describe ischemic heart disease, cervical and cerebrovascular diseases, and peripheral disease occurring after radiation therapy. The previous A-bomb survivor cohort studies, i.e., the RERF Life Span Study and Adult Health Study, have dealt with the mortality rate from cardiovascular diseases, the prevalence or incidence of cardiovascular diseases, pathological findings, clinical observation of arteriosclerosis, ECG abnormality, blood pressure abnormality, and cardiac function. The following findings have been suggested: (1) A-bomb exposure is likely to be involved in the mortality rate and incidence of ischemic heart disease and cerebrovascular diseases; (2) similarly, the involvement of A-bomb exposure is considered in the prevalence of the arch of aorta; (3) ECG abnormality corresponding to ischemic heart disease may reflect the involvement of A-bomb exposure. To confirm the above findings, further studies are required on the basis of more accurate information and the appropriate number of cohort samples. Little evidence has been presented for the correlation between A-bomb exposure and both rheumatic heart disease and congenital heart disease. (N.K.) 88 refs

  8. Lyme Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, George C.

    1991-01-01

    This overview of the public health significance of Lyme disease includes the microbiological specifics of the infectious spirochete, the entomology and ecology of the ticks which are the primary disease carrier, the clinical aspects and treatment stages, the known epidemiological patterns, and strategies for disease control and for expanded public…

  9. Gaucher disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... please enable JavaScript. Gaucher disease is a rare genetic disorder in which a person lacks an enzyme called glucocerebrosidase (GBA). Causes Gaucher disease is rare in the general population. People of Eastern and Central European (Ashkenazi) Jewish heritage are more likely to have this disease. It ...

  10. Neuroimaging of Alzheimer's disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuda, Hiroshi

    2005-01-01

    Main purposes of neuroimaging in Alzheimer's disease have been moved from diagnosis of advanced Alzheimer's disease to diagnosis of very early Alzheimer's disease at a prodromal stage of mild cognitive impairment, prediction of conversion from mild cognitive impairment to Alzheimer's disease, and differential diagnosis from other diseases causing dementia. Structural MRI studies and functional studies using fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG)-PET and brain perfusion SPECT are widely used in diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease. Outstanding progress in diagnostic accuracy of these neuroimaging modalities has been obtained using statistical analysis on a voxel-by-voxel basis after spatial normalization of individual scans to a standardized brain-volume template instead of visual inspection or a conventional region of interest technique. In a very early stage of Alzheimer's disease, this statistical approach revealed gray matter loss in the entorhinal and hippocampal areas and hypometabolism or hypoperfusion in the posterior cingulate cortex. These two findings might be related in view of anatomical knowledge that the regions are linked through the circuit of Papez. This statistical approach also offers accurate evaluation of therapeutical effects on brain metabolism or perfusion. The latest development in functional imaging relates to the final pathological hallmark of Alzheimer's disease-amyloid plaques. Amyloid imaging might be an important surrogate marker for trials of disease-modifying agents. (author)

  11. Fasting and rheumatic diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammad Hassan Jokar

    2015-01-01

    Fasting is one of the important religious practices of Muslims, in which the individuals abstain from eating and drinking from dawn to sunset. Fasting is not obligatory or even not allowed, in case it causes health problems to the fasting individual. Rheumatic diseases are a major group of chronic diseases which can bring about numerous problems while fasting. The aim of this article is to review the impact of Islamic fasting on rheumatic patients, based on the scientific evidences.

  12. Soybean diseases in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Marcinkowska

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Field observations on the occurrence of soybean diseases were undertaken in the southern and central regions of Poland in the period 1976-1980. Most prevalent were foliage diseases caused by Peronospora manshurica, Pseudomonas syrinqae pv. glycinea and soybean mosaic virus (SMV. Sclerotinia sclerotiorum and Ascochyta sojaecola were reported as pathogens of local importance. The following pathogenic fungi: Botrytis cinerea, Fusarium culmorum, F. oxysporum and Rhizoctonia solani were also isolated from soybean.

  13. Ischaemic heart disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruttley, M.

    1985-01-01

    Radiology has an important role in the diagnosis and management of ischaemic heart disease, notably in the investigation of angina pectoris, the monitoring of acute myocardial infarction and the assessment of its non-fatal complications; recent application of catheter techniques to the treatment of ischaemic heart disease has been a progression from Dotter's original work on peripheral arterial dilation made possible by Gruntzig's development of a suitable dilating catheter for coronary stenosis

  14. [Breastfeeding: the importance of intervening].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguiar, Hélder; Silva, Ana Isabel

    2011-12-01

    Breast milk is considered by the WHO the ideal food for the first months of life. Although health professionals are aware of recommendations, high rates of drop-outs have been identified in Portugal. A false notion of hypogalactia is the major factor for early termination, which is allied to the technical difficulties of the feeding. Health professionals, often lacking training in the area, may have difficulty in reassuring mothers in these situations. In Portugal, at the 3rd month, most mothers stop breastfeeding by indication of their medical assistant. Gather evidence about the advantages of breast-feeding compared to artificial milk, and establish useful strategies in clinical practice to avoid early withdrawal. A survey was conducted for articles from the last six years in the major sites of evidence-based medicine and reference sites (Pubmed, Cochrane, National Guideline Clearinghouse, Tripdatabase, WHO). Breast-feeding is clearly associated with benefits to the infant, including significant protective effects for gastrointestinal infections (64%), middle ear (23- 50%), severe respiratory infections (73%) and for acute lymphocytic leukemia (19%) and sudden death syndrome in infants (36%). We also found long-term benefits, such as for obesity (7-24%) and other cardiovascular risk factors in adulthood. The mother also benefits from its protective effect for cancers of the breast and ovary, and diabetes mellitus type 2 as also, proportionate to the duration of breastfeeding. Health professionals have an important role in the initiation and continuation of breastfeeding. The notion of its advantages, the communication prior to delivery, accessibility support and training in technical aspects of correct picks are the proven strategies for evidence explored in the article. Breast milk contains several unique and exclusive elements, orchestrators of its health benefits. Postnatal period is critical to the development of neuro--hypothalamic circuits involved in

  15. Frequency and importance of radiologically visible coronary scleroses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoyer, B.

    1981-01-01

    The importance of radiologically visible coronary sceleroses for an early diagnosing of coronary heart disease was investigated. In 3 mixed collectives of patients with and without coronary heart diseases who had had a coronary angiography were examined retrospectively for coronary sclerosis (group I: standard films, group II: old X-ray findings, group III: fluoroscopy before beginning coronary angiography). In the retrospective evaluation, the sensitivity to the recognition of coronary heart disease was low. With prospective examination by means of fluoroscopy, coronary calcification could be proven in 37.66% of the patients with coronary diseases (sensitivity); the specificity (no coronary calcification in persons without coronary disease) was 99%. The duration and extent of a calcification do not show a definite influence on the severity of the disease. Several coronary scleroses in one or several vessels mostly indicate a vascular disease. Coronary scleroses are not necessarily located in the same point as coronary stenoses: in 85.5% of the patients with coronary sclerosis of the left truncus, haemodynamically important stenoses were found only in following vascular regions. Considering the high specificity of coronary scleroses in the fluoroscopic picture and the high sensitivity under favourable conditions, this method seems to be suitable as a screening method for early recognition of coronary heart diseases in the asymptomatic stage. A proven coronary sclerosis should in any case be the cause for continuing the search for a coronary heart disease. The radiation exposure during fluoroscopy of coronary sclerosis is low if the adjustment is correct, it takes little time, the patient is not put to discomfort. (orig./MG) [de

  16. Important Aspects of Nutrition in Children with Cancer1

    OpenAIRE

    Bauer, Jacqueline; Jürgens, Heribert; Frühwald, Michael C.

    2011-01-01

    Adequate nutrition during cancer plays a decisive role in several clinical outcome measures, such as treatment response, quality of life, and cost of care. However, the importance of nutrition in children and young adults with malignancies is still an underestimated topic within pediatric oncology. The importance of our work is to reinforce and indicate that malnutrition in children with cancer should not be accepted at any stage of the disease or tolerated as an inevitable process. Unique to...

  17. Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LIU Jian-rong

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD is a degenerative central nervous system (CNS disease caused by infection of prion protein (PrP, with clinical features including short course, rapid development and 100% mortality. This article aims to discuss the pathogenesis, histopathological features, clinical manifestations, electroencephalogram (EEG findings, imaging data and treatment progress of this disease based on literature review. Cerebrospinal fluid 14-3-3 protein detection, EEG and MRI are three important methods to make an early diagnosis on patients with suspected CJD, such as elderly patients with rapidly progressive dementia (RPD and young patients with mental symptoms involving multiple systems (MS.

  18. Celiac disease in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malekzadeh R

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Until a few decades ago, celiac disease was considered to be essentially a disease of European people and to be very rare in Middle Eastern countries. During the last two decades, having met the criteria for the WHO general screening, the advent and application of novel serological assays used to screen for celiac disease and the use of endoscopic small bowel biopsy have led to increasing numbers of diagnoses of celiac disease in western countries. With this new data, our knowledge on both the clinical pattern and epidemiology of celiac disease has increased, and is now known to be a relatively common autoimmune disorder. Studies performed in different parts of the developing world have shown that the prevalence of celiac disease in this area is similar to or even higher than that in western countries. In fact, celiac disease is known to be the most common form of chronic diarrhea in Iran. However, contrary to common belief, celiac disease is more than a pure digestive alteration. It is a protean systemic disease, and, with a 95 percent genetic predisposition, has a myriad of symptoms including gastrointestinal, dermatological, dental, neurological and behavioral that can occur at a variety of ages. Monosymptomatic, oligosymptomatic, atypical (without gastrointestinal symptoms, silent and latent forms of celiac disease have been identified. In this study we review the epidemiology of celiac disease based on the studies performed in Iran and discuss its pathogenesis, the role of antibodies in the diagnosis of celiac disease and the importance of its diagnosis and treatment in Iran.

  19. Postradiation sarcomas: importance of surgery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lagrange, J.L.; Ramaioli, A.; Chateau, M.C.; Pignol, J.P.; Marchal, C.; Resbeut, M.; Richaud, P.; Rambert, P.; Tortechaux, J.; Seng, S.H.; La Fontan, B. de; Reme-Saumon, M.; Roullet, B.; Bof, J.; Coindre, J.M.

    1997-01-01

    ) and 31 mo for Surgery+chemotherapy. The differences of survival for the 3 groups are highly significant (p=0,0001, Mantel-Cox). There was no difference between Surgery or Surgery + Chemotherapy (p=0.56). The quality of surgery is known for 57 patients (complete 44p, partial 13 p). The survival was 43 mo VS 16 mo (p=0.08, Mantle-Cox, p=0.036, Breslow) Conclusion. This series confirmed the poor prognosis of post radiation sarcomas even though some have long survived for long periods but Surgery play a very important role in the survival of the patients

  20. Advanced and controlled drug delivery systems in clinical disease management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brouwers, JRBJ

    1996-01-01

    Advanced and controlled drug delivery systems are important for clinical disease management. In this review the most important new systems which have reached clinical application are highlighted. Microbiologically controlled drug delivery is important for gastrointestinal diseases like ulcerative