John Dewey was an American philosopher and educator, founder of the philosophical movement known as pragmatism, a pioneer in functional psychology, and a leader of the progressive movement in education in the United States.
Day, Michael; Harbour, Clifford P.
Adult education scholars have not yet examined the connections between the philosopher, John Dewey, and the lecturer on adult education, Everett Dean Martin. These scholars generally portray Dewey as indifferent to their field. However, Dewey's correspondence with a New York newspaper editor in 1928, recommending Martin's The Meaning of…
Clopton, Robert W.
The subject of the annual Presidential address of Phi Kappa Phi, presented on May 8, 1962, was John Dewey. Dewey is identified in the public mind chiefly as an educational philosopher. In this address, the author describes the life and work of John Dewey as an indefatigable student of life whose interests ranged, like those of Aristotle, over the…
Williams, Morgan K.
John Dewey was a pragmatist, progressivist, educator, philosopher, and social reformer (Gutek, 2014). Dewey's various roles greatly impacted education, and he was perhaps one of the most influential educational philosophers known to date (Theobald, 2009). Dewey's influence on education was evident in his theory about social learning; he believed…
Bhattacharya, N. C.
This article takes a brief but critical look at John Dewey's version of pragmatism, his contribution to philosophical scholarship generally as well as his theory and practice of liberalism. (Author/RK)
The paper deals with John Dewey's aversion against liberal education and his concern about a 'dual track' educational system separating liberal education and vocational education. It investigates the reason why Dewey maintains that the philosophical 'dualisms' culminate in the question on vocation....
Zoreda, Margaret Lee
This paper forms part of an investigation about how the philosophy of John Dewey (1859-1952) can illuminate the practice of the teaching of English as a foreign language. The paper seeks to interpret and synthesize John Dewey's philosophical works to construct a "Deweyian lens" with which to analyze and evaluate the field of the teaching…
Gregory, Maughn; Granger, David
John Dewey was not a philosopher of education in the now-traditional sense of a doctor of philosophy who examines educational ends, means, and controversies through the disciplinary lenses of epistemology, ethics, and political theory, or of agenda-driven schools such as existentialism, feminism, and critical theory. Rather, Dewey was both an…
Higgins, Steve, Ed.; Coffield, Frank, Ed.
In 1916 John Dewey published "Democracy and Education: An introduction to the philosophy of education". In this book some of today's foremost historians, philosophers, psychologists, and sociologists of education mark the anniversary of Dewey's work by reviewing and reflecting, from a British perspective, on Dewey's contribution to our…
This essay attempts to explain why philosophers, philosophers of education, and scholars of democracy should keep coming back to John Dewey for insights and inspiration on issues related to democracy and education. Mordechai Gordon argues that there are four major reasons that contribute to scholars' need to keep returning to Dewey for inspiration…
Kennedy, Nadia Stoyanova
The paper discusses Matthew Lipman's approach to inquiry as shaped and fashioned by John Dewey's model of scientific inquiry. Although Lipman's program adopted the major aspects of Dewey's pedagogy, at least two characteristics of that program stand out as radically different--his use of relatively free-form philosophical discussions to teach…
Fallace, Thomas; Fantozzi, Victoria
A century ago, John Dewey and his daughter Evelyn published "Schools of To-morrow" to nearly universal acclaim. However, over the course of the 20th century, critics of Dewey have drawn upon "Schools of To-morrow" to accuse him of being an uncritical disciple of French philosopher, Jean Rousseau, of being opposed to the…
The purpose of this paper is to explain the relationship of Mortimer Adler's Paideia Proposal to John Dewey's "progressive" educational philosophy; to demonstrate Adler's and Dewey's philosophical similarities; and to discuss the impact and implications of their works on public school curriculum design ideology. Two common denominators…
Castle, Alfred L.
Hawai'i has often been the beneficiary of the insights of extraordinary men and women who visited the islands and made important observations. Among these was perhaps America's most famous philosopher, John Dewey (1859-1952). First visiting Honolulu in 1899 as the guest of Mary Tenney Castle and her family, Dewey would help establish Hawai'i's…
We are presently witnessing a renewed interest in the aesthetics of philosopher and educator John Dewey. And it would seem that this interest marks a significant intellectual reorientation and not simply a passing fad. The publications Educational Theory, Studies in Philosophy and Education, The Journal of Aesthetic Education, The Journal of…
Khasawneh, Omar M.; Miqdadi, Ruba M.; Hijazi, Abdulhakeem Y.
The teachings and writings of John Dewey, an American philosopher and educator, offer insightful influences on contemporary education, not only in the United States but also worldwide. His philosophy of education, commonly referred to as Pragmatism, focused on learning by doing as an alternative to rote knowledge and strict teaching. The purpose…
Full Text Available The bases of the political art of John Dewey or his new practice of democratic citizenship are reviewed. Dewey is acknowledged as one of the most prominent of the American philosophers in the first half of the twentieth century. He is also the most influential due to endowing philosophy a public task, namely, political and educational concern. From the instrumentalist method applied to the political area, crucial postulates in the major writings of Dewey are selected to revitalize the meaning and draw up the practical impacts of the central element of his political philosophy: ‘the collective power of democratic community’.
Fallace, Thomas D
In 1902 influential American philosopher John Dewey wrote a short essay on anthropolo-gists'view of the savage mind, arguing that it had had been unfairly dismissed as inchoate and incapable, when in fact the savage had much to teach scholars about the "present mind." The ideas presented in Dewey's essay were not only theoretical; they also served as the basis for his entire curriculum his famous laboratory school at the University of Chicago. Thus, the author argues that Dewey's pedagogical thought informed his anthropological thought, and vice versa.
Stack, Sam F., Jr.
In an attempt to better understand the complexity of American racism and democracy, this paper explores racism through the plight of an African American sharecropper, Odell Waller, and the reaction and involvement of John Dewey, America's most liberal democratic philosopher of the 20th century. This exploration delves into the nature of American…
Williams, Jerry L.
This essay examines the poetry of John Dewey, 101 poems in total. Characteristic of the rhymed and metered poetry of the period, they show a very human side of Dewey. This analysis argues that many of his poems deal with existential themes--love, finitude, and God, for example. On a deeper level these poems are also show connections to Dewey's…
John Dewey visited Hawai'i on three separate occasions. Of all three trips, by far the most important, as far as Dewey's influence on education in Hawai'i is concerned, was in 1899 when he came with his wife, Alice Chipman Dewey, to help launch the University Extension program in Honolulu. The Deweys' second trip was a very brief one--twenty years…
This article sheds light on John Rawls's views on John Dewey's philosophical temperament by investigating unpublished papers and lectures that Rawls wrote and delivered across the late 1940s, the 1950s, the 1960s, and the early 1970s. Moreover, the article shows that Rawls's rejection of Kant's dualisms predates by at least three decades the "Dewey Lectures" (1980) and that Dewey's notion of deliberation as "dramatic rehearsal in imagination" might have had an impact on Rawls's development of the notion of "reflective equilibrium" as a state of affairs that we strive to reach in ethical reflection.
Cohan, Audrey; Howlett, Charles F.
The need to build an awareness of peace and of peace education is often a message that is difficult to share with the larger society. John Dewey, an acclaimed American philosopher and intellectual, used his public platform to espouse his ideas on democracy and peace as a resolution to global discord during the years preceding and during World Wars…
Cette contribution essaie de montrer la position du philosophe pragmatiste John Dewey à propos de la fonction de la vérité et de la raison publique aux États-Unis pendant la Première Guerre mondiale. L'analyse prend comme point de départ certaines des réflexions publiées par Dewey au cours de la guerre. Dans sa réponse à la propagande de guerre pratiquée aux États Unis par le Comité sur l'Information Publique, Dewey anticipe les conséquences négatives de la persuasion propagandiste pour les n...
In this article a comparison is drawn between the way in which the pragmatist philosopher and pedagogue John Dewey addressed religious issues and his view on Religious Education in his poetic narratives and in his scholarly writings, especially in his magnus opus on religion, A Common Faith. Do we
da Cunha, Marcus Vinicius
This article suggests that John Dewey's "Democracy and Education" does not describe education in an existing society, but it conveys a utopia, in the sense coined by Mannheim: utopian thought aims at instigating actions towards the transformation of reality, intending to attain a better world in the future. Today's readers of Dewey (his…
Jean Piaget became a veritable institution unto himself in education and psychology, largely as the result of his developmental-stage theory advanced over the second quarter of the twentieth century. Not until Piaget was 73 did he make mention of John Dewey's work at Dewey's laboratory school, founded in 1894 at the University of Chicago. But here…
Dyehouse, Jeremiah; Manke, Krysten
Can John Dewey's experiments at the University of Chicago's Laboratory School teach contemporary inquirers about "learning by making?" This article warrants an affirmative answer to this query. Unlike intellectual historians who trace the source of Dewey's and his colleagues' 1890s pedagogies to their cultural biases, we contend that…
John Dewey and James Angell are regarded respectively as the founder and systematizer of the Chicago school of functional psychology. The early Chicago school traditionally has been portrayed as a unified theoretical approach based primarily on William James's naturalist theory of mental processes. It is argued in this article that although the psychology systematized by Angell bore a close affinity to James's naturalism, Dewey's own psychology was based primarily on the neo-Hegelian philosophy of Thomas Hill Green. Through a review of a number of Dewey's major writings, Green's neo-Hegelian philosophy is shown to have influenced Dewey's views on psychological concepts such as reaction, emotion, and perception during the formative period of the Chicago school. The interpretation of Dewey's psychology developed in this article leads to the conclusion that early Chicago functionalism should not be regarded as a unified theoretical approach.
Background/Context: Determining John Dewey's exact influence on civic and social education during the early 20th century has been one of the most vexing issues facing curriculum historians. Generally speaking, interpretations of Dewey's work and influence have been plagued by four recurring methodological limitations: First, historians tend to…
A century on from the height of John Dewey's educational writings and the reputation of the Gary Schools Plan as a model of progressive education, the paper reappraises two key matters: the relationship between John Dewey and William Wirt, the first superintendent of the Gary Schools in Gary Indiana, and the coherence between John Dewey's…
Many conservatives, including some conservative scholars, blame the ideas and influence of John Dewey for what has frequently been called a crisis of character, a catastrophic decline in moral behavior in the schools and society of North America. Dewey's critics claim that he is responsible for the undermining of the kinds of instruction that…
Full Text Available In this article the autor selects the J. Dewey's original writings and the most important bibliography about his educational thought. Before his writings and before the general bibliography are a brief biography, and introduction to his philosophical thought, his main philosophical works and some monographic studies about his philosophical conception. His tehoric/philosophical educational thought and his educational writings are the first essence of this deweyian bibliography. In the last section ar classified in seven paragraphs all books and articles about the educational thought of J. Dewey: general studies and repertoires; foundatios of his educational theory; philosophy and education; his influence in the educational world; monographic studides; relations with the philosophical systems; and others.
De senere år har der været forøget fokus på John Deweys slægtskab med antikkens filosofiske tradition. Oplægget stiller i den forbindelse skarpt på spørgsmålet om, hvorvidt og hvordan det giver mening at forstå Deweys pædagogiske filosofi i sammenhæng med Hellenismens og Romerrigets filosofiske...... livskunst. Er det med andre ord muligt at begribe Deweys pædagogik som en særlig form for filosofisk livskunst?...
John Dewey lived and worked in an environment where the manual training movement was ever-present. For Dewey his own unique version of manual training is labeled occupations. Nevertheless, over the years what Dewey meant by occupations has been either misinterpreted or ignored for a plethora of reasons. This manual training climate that Dewey was…
Kaminsky, James S.
It is argued here that understanding John Dewey's thought as that of a prodigal liberal or a fellow traveller does not capture the complexity of his work. It is also important to recognise the portion of his work that is "historie morale." In the very best sense it is epic, encapsulating the hopes and dreams of a history of the American people in…
This article analyses the concept of "aesthetic emotion" in John Dewey's "Art as experience". The analysis shows that Dewey's line of investigation offers valuable insights as to the role of emotion in experience: it shows emotion as an integral part and structuring force, as a cultural and historical category. However, the notion of aesthetic…
T. Saiful Akbar
Full Text Available This study aims to understand the concept of human and Ibn Khaldun's ideas of education; to understand the concept of human and educational thought of John Dewey; to know the similarities and differences between the ideas of Ibn Khaldun and John Dewey on the concept of human and education. Various problems have been addressed through the library research method. The study produced several findings: First, human beings according to Ibn Khaldun as a creation of God with all the potential fitted to the five senses and intellect become intellect. The purpose of education opens the mind and maturity of the individual to the advancement of religious, industrial and social system. Material teaching is as educational planning. The method is to advocate phasing method, repetition, widya-tours and training (practice. Secondly, according to John Dewey man is a subject that has the ability, strength, personality, and existence who are capable of changing realities. The goal of education is only to gain happiness in the world life. The method of education is including problem solving, learning by doing and discipline. Third, the thought of Ibn Khaldun is much more religious because it is influenced by its control logic in religious knowledge, so that emphazises more on human spirituality in building civilization. While John Dewey is more radical and extreme, He proposed progressive education which strives against traditional teaching authority. Both Ibn Khaldūn dan Dewey are arise from inhuman socio-cultural environment and recognize the existence of human existence with nature and humanity impulse.
Dr. Joop Berding
In het gloednieuwe International Handbook of Early Childhood Education schrijft Joop Berding over de visie van Dewey over het kinderspel. Voor Dewey is het spel de vrije ruimte voor het kind waarin het zonder druk kan exploreren en uitvinden. Ook in onze tijd is deze visie van grote betekenis.
Tarrant, Seaton Patrick; Thiele, Leslie Paul
Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to ground contemporary sustainability education in John Dewey's democratic pedagogy. Specifically, the authors argue that Dewey's thought anticipates, and theoretically informs, the sustainability skill set required of contemporary citizens in a complex and changing world. Design/methodology/approach: For…
Maddux, Harry Clark; Donnett, Deborah
This essay examines the relationship of philosophical pragmatism to the practice of reflection in service-learning. Service-learning theory and practice often elides over or ignores entirely the principles of inquiry as developed by Dewey. The exercise of reflective thought requires that educators create a situation of discomfort for learners, and…
In this research, the influence of John Dewey's visit to Turkey in 1924, his report on Turkish education system and its influence on Turkish education system in the early republic era were discussed. John Dewey was invited by Ministry of Education in 1924. He made investigations concerning the education system, participated in interviews, and…
Background/Context: The current biographic understanding of John Dewey's experience adopting and raising an Italian boy named Sabino emphasizes the theme of finding an emotional replacement for Morris and Gordon, two young sons who had tragically died on family trips to Europe. Lacking is substantive attention to the fact that John Dewey's son had…
Seckinger, Donald S.; Nel, Johanna
John Dewey is known as the greatest and the most representative of U.S. philosophers. His philosophy, influenced by and developed during a period of great expansion in U.S. history, and great upheaval in U.S. social life, is characterized by a common sense, extroverted pragmatism. Sigmund Freud, in a ironic twist of fate, has been an important…
Mirzaei, Khalil; Golestani, Sayyed Hashem; Vaezi, Sayyed Hossain
This study was aimed at comparatively analyzing morals and democracy from John Dewey and Khawaja Nasir al-Din Tusi's viewpoint. It also sought the effect of the two philosophers' viewpoint about morals and democracy and behavioral reflections. The purpose of this study was also to become familiar with the effect of morals and democracy on…
The paper traces the development of citizenship in the curriculum in England since the 1960s, emerging particularly from the Crick report. It argues for lessons to be learnt from John Dewey's "Democracy and education", the centenary of which is being celebrated this year.
This article offers a clarification and application of aspects of John Dewey's philosophy of art and music that have often been misunderstood, even by philosophers (such as Susanne Langer) and, in particular, by philosophers of music education who quote Dewey in support of neo-Kantian aesthetic conceptions that Dewey was in fact at pains to…
John Dewey, the well-known figure in progressive education, visited Turkey in 1924. Through his visit, Turkey was introduced to progressive education. Although his visit was short, the reports he prepared influenced the shape of the Turkish education system. After Dewey's visit, many foreign educators were invited to Turkey, particularly through…
Reviews the contributions of Edward Thorndike and John Dewey to U.S. educational theory. Notes that both believed teaching could be transformed into a science, but disagreed in their views of human nature. Discusses the failings of Thorndike's program in U.S. schools and the implications of Dewey's arguments for educational practice. (DSK)
Chambliss, J. J.
Responding to an article by Donald Vandenberg (Educational Theory, Summer 1980) on the meaning of the phrase "educative experience" in John Dewey's "Democracy in Education," Chambliss says that Vandenberg misunderstands Dewey's conception of both education and experience. Social and educational implications of Dewey's thought…
Full Text Available Artikel ini membahas konsep potensi anak didik dalam perspektif John Dewey dan perspektif pendidikan Islam. Penulis mengkaji dua konsep tersebut dengan pendekatan komparatif. Kedua konsep potensi anak didik tersebut menarik untuk dikaji, karena baik Dewey maupun pendidikan Islam mangakui adanya potensi tambahan. Walaupun demikian, keduanya berbeda dalam hal perkembangan dan tujuan akhir dari potensi tersebut. Menurut Dewey manusia dibekali dua potensi dasar berupa akal dan bakat. Kedua potensi ini berkembang menjadi baik dan buruk sesuai dengan pengaruh lingkungan yang melingkupinya. Dalam pandangan Dewey, potensi tidak memiliki tujuan akhir, tatapi berjalan dinamis mengikuti pengaruh sosial yang dialami dalam kehidupan sehari-hari. Berbeda dengan Dewey, pendidikan Islam memandang potensi dasar anak didik terdiri dari tiga komponen yang saling memparuhi. Tiga kompetensi dasar tersebut berupa jasmani, akal dan ruh. Ketiga potensi ini mempunyai kecenderungan untuk menjadi baik, tetapi dalam perkembangannya bisa keluar dari kecenderungan dasarnya karena pengaruh lingkungan. Tujuan akhir dari potensi dasar anak didik ini untuk mengabdi kepada pencipanya, Allah Swt.The article will discuss about student's hidden strength dan passion based on John Dewey dan islamic education view. Both concepts were investigated by applyng comparative approach. I was interested to have this discussion due both have recognized hidden strength and passion. However, there are some aspects that distinguish both John Dewey and Islamic Education view; they ar development and to goal John Dewey explained the every human being have been endowed with intelligence and talent as basic hidden strength and passion. These develop become good and worst influenced by the society they live in. He also stated thad hidden strength and passion have no purpose, but they run smoothly, influenced by daily life social control. in contrast with Dewey, Islamic education view hidden strength
The centennial anniversary of John Dewey's "Democracy and Education" has been celebrated this year in a reconstructive and utility-based spirit. The article considers this spirit and the need to complement it with a critical-deconstructive and "use-less" prism that will reveal shortcomings in Dewey's and our own political…
This paper uses John Dewey's (. "Democracy and Education." New York: The Free Press) to explore the difference between teaching as transmission and teaching as transaction. Proceeding in three sections, the paper clarifies what Dewey understood to be the problems and promises of teaching, as well as the potential of…
Popp, Jerome A.
John Dewey's famous early twentieth-century account of the relationship between education as growth and democratic societies, presented in Democracy and Education, was later rejected by him, because it failed to properly identify the role of societal structures in growth and experience. In the later Ethics, Dewey attempts to correct that…
Sutinen, Ari; Kallioniemi, Arto; Pihlström, Sami
The focus of the article is on how a new approach to religious education (RE) in diversified societies can be constructed on the basis of the theory of pedagogical transaction presented by John Dewey. Reflections of developing RE are very current in Western secularized societies. We believe that Dewey's pragmatist philosophy of education and…
Bonnie, Michael G.
The following describes the philosophies of Confucius (Confucianism) and John Dewey (pragmatism/instrumentalism/experimentalism) and their views toward vocational, technical, general academic instruction, and the development of morals and values as espoused throughout Asia and America during a span of history from 551 BCE to 1949 CE. This is not…
The Laboratory School of the University of Chicago founded by John Dewey in 1896 is considered as one of the most innovative schools of progressive education. Its history, and specifically its sudden end, is still of general interest. In sympathy with Dewey, most historians tend to put the main blame for the tragedy on University President William…
This essay examines how John Dewey's child-centered educational philosophy was adopted and adapted in the early twentieth century in China to create a Chinese children's literature. Chinese intellectuals applied Dewey's educational philosophy, which values children's interests and needs, to formulate a new concept of modern childhood that…
This article compares the educational thought of John Dewey and Confucius on the nature of and relationship between subject matter and the learner. There is a common perception in the existing literature and discourse that Dewey advocates child- or learner-centred education whereas Confucius privileges subject matter via textual transmission.…
ERIKA NATACHA FERNANDES DE ANDRADE
Full Text Available Este artículo analiza el discurso del filósofo y educador norteamericano John Dewey (1859- 1952 sobre el tema “naturaleza humana”, y adopta como referencia el libro Human nature and conduct: an introduction to Social Psychology. En ese libro, publicado en 1922, Dewey discute los conceptos fundamentales de la psicología - el instinto, el hábito, la inteligencia y otros - y propone una nueva ciencia psicológica; sus elaboraciones cubren los campos de la filosofía, la psicología y la educación. La metodología para el análisis del discurso sigue los estudios desarrollados por el Grupo de Investigación “Retórica y argumentación en la Pedagogía” que se basan en las teorías de Chaim Perelman y Stephen Toulmin.
Kucey, Sharen; Parsons, Jim
This collection of extracts is drawn from an article originally published in the "Journal of Teaching and Learning" (2012). It provides an important reminder to understand Assessment for Learning in depth, by relating some of its key features to aspects of John Dewey's educational and political philosophy of democratic participation.
Dill, Jeffrey S.
John Dewey and Emile Durkheim are philosophical giants in the field of moral education. This paper compares and contrasts their respective visions for moral education and contextualizes the comparison in the profound intellectual and social changes modernity was casting throughout the world. They were transitional figures that attempted to make…
Pereira, Eliana Alves
Full Text Available Considerado o maior teórico norte-americano do século XX, John Dewey faleceu em 1952 aos noventa e dois anos, deixando imensas contribuições educacionais distribuídas em diversas publicações científicas. Com a teoria Escola Nova, o autor contrapôs ao sistema tradicional de educação, propondo o modelo de ensino-aprendizagem focado no aluno como sujeito da mesma. A teoria prevê ainda, que a aprendizagem deve partir da problematização dos conhecimentos prévios do aluno. Importante ativista e defensor da democracia, também participou de movimentos em defesa das causas sociais.He is considered the greater North American theoretical of the twentieth century, John Dewey died in 1952, with ninety-two years, and he left immense distributed educational contributions in diverse scientific publications. With his theory of the New School, the author opposed to the traditional system of education, considering the model of teach-learning focused in the pupil as subject of the same one. The theory still foresees that learning must leave from the problematization of the previous knowledge of the pupil. He was an important activist and defender of the democracy, also he participated of movements in defense of the social causes.
From beginning to end, John Dewey's oeuvre is filled with philosophical discussions and political comments on the significance de jure and de facto of a wide range of distinct social spaces. In contrast to subjects he addresses regularly and others that he focuses on occasionally, his work does not systematically address sport. Nonetheless, sport…
Hart, Curtis W
This article outlines the method utilized by physicians and major figures in the founding of Clinical Pastoral Education, Helen Flanders Dunbar, in her work of 1943, Psychosomatic Diagnosis, and relates it to the currently evolving approach in bioethics known as clinical pragmatism. It assesses Dewey's influence on both Dunbar in psychosomatic medicine and clinical pragmatism in bioethics, and illustrates the breadth of influence of the school of philosophical thought known as pragmatism with which Dewey's name and those of William James and Charles Sanders Pierce are most often identified.
Johnson, Margaret Hess
When Albert Barnes established an art education program at the Barnes Foundation in 1924, he asked John Dewey to become the first president and director of education. Barnes and Dewey enjoyed a sustained and fruitful relationship with regard to aesthetic experience and scientific theory as applied to education. Barnes and Dewey shared a serious…
Towns, William C.
Interrogates similarities and misconceptions common to W. Edwards Deming and John Dewey, examining a reconciliation of the two within the context of motivation theory and concluding that Deming and Dewey are very similar in general outlook and the shared belief in the integrity of the individual within the social system. (SM)
In 1924, John Dewey travelled to Turkey to make recommendations on the Turkish educational system. According to many existing accounts, Dewey brought a sorely needed progressive educational perspective to a nation emerging from centuries of despair. On the whole, these accounts dismiss the Ottoman legacy and overlook how Dewey's historical…
Rafaela Silva Rabelo
Full Text Available Resumo: O presente artigo teve como foco as representações de John Dewey acerca da educação matemática. Especificamente, teve como objetivo explorar as representações de Dewey sobre o ensino de aritmética e o conceito de número, com base em textos que escreveu após a publicação do manual The psychology of number (TPN, do qual foi coautor. Subsidiaram a análise duas cartas de Dewey em resposta a críticas feitas ao TPN e uma resenha. Alguns dos conceitos mobilizados foram representação, campo e lugar social/institucional, com base em Roger Chartier, Michel de Certeau e Pierre Bourdieu. Ficaram evidentes as disputas entre campos, principalmente entre psicologia e matemática, na determinação de quem possui legitimidade para arbitrar sobre o ensino de aritmética. Também transparecem representações de Dewey acerca da educação matemática, sendo que ele reiterou algumas posições presentes no TPN, como a natureza psíquica do número e a relação com os conceitos de medida e razão.
Hartman, Laura Pincus; Neame, Alexandra; Gedro, Julie
The purpose of this discussion is to explore how the educational and social philosophy of John Dewey offers insight for those involved in education evolution in emerging economies, with a particular emphasis on nurturing leaders who are capable of recognizing and responding effectively to the challenges of a globalized economy now and for the next…
Cunningham, Peter, Ed.; Heilbronn, Ruth, Ed.
"Dewey in Our Time" brings together leading writers from around the world who are actively engaged in applying Dewey's thought to the challenges facing educational systems and teachers in school. Issues concerning equity, social justice, curriculum and pedagogy, teachers' roles and their professional identity are considered, with…
Pereira, Eliana Alves; Martins, Jackeline Ribeiro; Alves, Vilmar dos Santos; Delgado, Evaldo Inácio
Considerado o maior teórico norte-americano do século XX, John Dewey faleceu em 1952 aos noventa e dois anos, deixando imensas contribuições educacionais distribuídas em diversas publicações científicas. Com a teoria Escola Nova, o autor contrapôs ao sistema tradicional de educação, propondo o modelo de ensino-aprendizagem focado no aluno como sujeito da mesma. A teoria prevê ainda, que a aprendizagem deve partir da problematização dos conhecimentos prévios do aluno. Importante ativista e def...
John Dewey adopted a child-centered point of view to illuminate aspects of education he believed teacher-centered educators were neglecting, but he did so self-consciously and self-critically, because he also believed that "a new order of conceptions leading to new modes of practice" was needed. Dewey introduced his new conceptions in…
Fallace, Thomas D.
This essay constructs a comprehensive view of Dewey's approach to history, the historical method, and history education. Drawing on Dewey's approach to the subject at the University of Chicago Laboratory School (1896-1904), Dewey's chapter on the historical method in "Logic: A Theory of Inquiry" (1938), and a critique of Dewey's…
Paulo Fernando Aleixo da Cruz
Full Text Available Abstract This article follows Chaïm Perelman and Stephen Toulmin’s theoretical and methodological guidelines which foundations are found in the contemporary revision movement of Aristotle’s philosophy. It aims at performing the rhetorical analysis of the essay “Intelligence and Morals” by John Dewey, published in 1908, in which the author advances the thesis that since Renaissance moral has become unrelated of transcendental ends, being hence based on intelligence. The exam of the essay reveals the use of the discursive strategy called “recourse to origin”, which consists of elaborating a genealogical narrative about the history of philosophy in order to sustain the author’s thesis. This article suggests that this form of reasoning is frequently found in Dewey’s work: it can also be observed in the book Democracy and education, in which the philosopher discourses about history of philosophy to show that philosophical reflection on education emerges from social problems. Keywords: John Dewey. Rhetoric. Philosophy and Education.
In this paper, I argue that John Dewey's view of human nature entails that culture is a necessary but not sufficient condition for freedom. A surprising corollary of this argument is that, if left to run its natural course, culture in fact tends not to enable but rather to preclude freedom. Hence, there are specific cultural practices--habits…
This paper articulates John Dewey's socio-political and historical influence upon the foundation and evolution of the world-renowned Reggio Emilia approach to early childhood education. It proposes that the pedagogical depth, influence and endurance of the Italian project are grounded in Dewey's philosophies of education, aesthetics and democracy.…
Papadimos, Thomas J
Reflective thought (critical thinking) is essential to the medical student who hopes to become an effective physician. John Dewey, one of America's foremost educators in the early twentieth century, revolutionized critical thinking and its role in education. In the mid twentieth century Hannah Arendt provided profound insights into the problem of diminishing human agency and political freedom. Taken together, Dewey's insight regarding reflective thought, and Arendt's view of action, speech, and power in the public realm, provide mentors and teachers of medical students guidance in the training of thought and the need for its effective projection at the patient's bedside and in the community.
Dietz, Mark David
Matthew Arnold, 19th century English poet, literary critic and school inspector, felt that each age had to determine that philosophy that was most adequate to its own concerns and contexts. This study looks at the influence that Matthew Arnold had on John Dewey and attempts to fashion a philosophy of education that is adequate for our own…
Smilie, Kipton D.
This article examines Irving Babbitt's probing critiques of John Dewey's ideas at the beginning of the 20th century. Babbitt (1865-1933) was the co-founder of the New Humanists, a collection of scholars and academics who advocated for a return of the Greek and Roman classics in the American curriculum. Babbitt believed that both naturalism and…
In this article, the work of John Dewey is recontextualised and proposed as a basis for contemporary early childhood education for sustainability (ECEfS). Five key themes are explored: experiential learning; curiosity and critical thinking; children's experiences in nature; democracy and participation and classroom as community. In each case,…
Dunlap, Peter T.
In this paper I explore the shared interest of John Dewey and Carl Jung in the developmental continuity between biological, psychological, and cultural phenomena. Like other first generation psychological theorists, Dewey and Jung thought that psychology could be used to deepen our understanding of this continuity and thus gain a degree of control…
Fried, B.; Dash, H. B.
John Dewey High School's participation in NASA's MESDT and DLN projects and other partnerships provide opportunities for our diverse population, focusing particular attention to under-represented and under-served groups in the field of Space Science.
Diana Melisa Paredes Oviedo
Full Text Available La experiencia estética se constituye en un elemento crucial para la obra de John Dewey. En primer lugar, este pensador recupera la idea de experiencia, en sentido amplio, referida a los procesos conscientes realizados por el ser humano. En segundo lugar, esta experiencia aparece como resultado de la interacción de los hombres con su entorno, de tal modo que se amplían las valoraciones que aquellos tienen acerca de éste. En tercer lugar, la experiencia tiene elementos analíticos y sintéticos que posibilitan cualificar los procesos cognitivos y cognoscitivos de los individuos. En cuarto lugar, la experiencia se clasifica de acuerdo a su función en intelectual, práctica y estética, siendo la última la más importante, en tanto que, se muestra como más universal y ampliada frente a las otras, y se comporta como experiencia educativa al ser la que cualifica de manera más profunda los juicios críticos que se hacen frente al mundo.Los anteriores aspectos serán trabajados en este artículo, con miras a explorar la universalidad de la experiencia estética deweyana y sus derivaciones en el campo de una propuesta educativa, en la que resulta de vital importancia la existencia de una experiencia común entre los diferentes grupos humanos para lograr configurar la inteligencia común que es la base para la educación en John Dewey.
Lee, Eun Ah; Brown, Matthew J.
Conducting scientific inquiry is expected to help students make informed decisions; however, how exactly it can help is rarely explained in science education standards. According to classroom studies, inquiry that students conduct in science classes seems to have little effect on their decision-making. Predetermined values play a large role in students' decision-making, but students do not explore these values or evaluate whether they are appropriate to the particular issue they are deciding, and they often ignore relevant scientific information. We explore how to connect inquiry and values, and how this connection can contribute to informed decision-making based on John Dewey's philosophy. Dewey argues that scientific inquiry should include value judgments and that conducting inquiry can improve the ability to make good value judgments. Value judgment is essential to informed, rational decision-making, and Dewey's ideas can explain how conducting inquiry can contribute to make an informed decision through value judgment. According to Dewey, each value judgment during inquiry is a practical judgment guiding action, and students can improve their value judgments by evaluating their actions during scientific inquiry. Thus, we suggest that students need an opportunity to explore values through scientific inquiry and that practicing value judgment will help informed decision-makings.
Lee, Eun Ah; Brown, Matthew J.
Conducting scientific inquiry is expected to help students make informed decisions; however, how exactly it can help is rarely explained in science education standards. According to classroom studies, inquiry that students conduct in science classes seems to have little effect on their decision-making. Predetermined values play a large role in students' decision-making, but students do not explore these values or evaluate whether they are appropriate to the particular issue they are deciding, and they often ignore relevant scientific information. We explore how to connect inquiry and values, and how this connection can contribute to informed decision-making based on John Dewey's philosophy. Dewey argues that scientific inquiry should include value judgments and that conducting inquiry can improve the ability to make good value judgments. Value judgment is essential to informed, rational decision-making, and Dewey's ideas can explain how conducting inquiry can contribute to make an informed decision through value judgment. According to Dewey, each value judgment during inquiry is a practical judgment guiding action, and students can improve their value judgments by evaluating their actions during scientific inquiry. Thus, we suggest that students need an opportunity to explore values through scientific inquiry and that practicing value judgment will help informed decision-makings.
Angela do Céu Ubaiara Brito
Full Text Available John Dewey considerado um dos precursores da Educação Nova ou chamada Educação Progressista, foi um pensador que no bojo de sua obra discutiu uma concepção de educação que valoriza a interação da criança e as relações sociais com bases democráticas. Essa teorização que atravessou o século XX ainda representa inovação na educação, principalmente, aplicada a educação infantil. Os princípios teóricos de John Dewey foram discutidos com um grupo de alunas do curso superior de Pós-graduação de uma universidade pública no repensar de novas práxis na educação. A metodologia utilizada foi à pesquisa qualitativa de Denzin e Lincoln, aplicada ao estudo de caso segundo Yin, que possibilitou a discussão e o entendimento da teorização. Concluiu-se que as alunas necessitavam discutir sobre o aporte teórico de uma educação que concebe a criança ativa e participativa, que aprende por meio de sua própria participação no ato educativo, no fazer cotidiano e no papel da experiência como forma de aprendizagem. Esse aporte teórico constitui-se em processos de inovação para a educação que tem como base as relações democráticas em construção da cidadania das crianças na educação infantil. Palavras-chave: John Dewey; educação infantil; educação democrática.
Darcísio Natal Muraro
Full Text Available The objective of this study is to investigate the conception of philosophy and its relation to human formation in the thinking of John Dewey. The work aimed at analyzing the concepts in the main works of the author and his interpreters. The paper analyzes the reconstruction of philosophy as a philosophy of experience anchored in the genetic, experimental, reflexive, critical and creative method. The philosophy of experience is opposed to the dualisms and the spectator philosophies of knowledge that maintains the social division into classes. The role of the philosophy of experience is to rationalize through inquiry the possibilities of human experience through the critical reconstruction of the meanings. The philosophy of experience is a condition of possibility for democratic life and for an education based on freedom and human emancipation.
Caspary, William R.
Dewey felt that people conducted themselves most ethically when reason and desire were in harmony. This article seeks to clarify some of the ambiguities noted by various interpreters of Dewey's philosophy, considers criticisms of these interpretations, and establishes a basis for fresh theorizing in the field of ethics. (IAH)
Pope, Nakia S.
Dewey's aesthetics, expressed primarily in "Experience and Nature" and "Art as Experience", reorients aesthetics from art objects to aesthetic experience. Aesthetic experience is marked by continuity, especially the continuity between means and ends. In what follows, I will briefly outline Dewey's aesthetics with an eye toward the role of social…
Roberts, T. Grady
"Experience and Education" (John Dewey, 1938) serves as a foundation piece of literature when discussing experiential learning. To facilitate a better understanding, a conceptual model was developed. In John Dewey's experiential learning theory, everything occurs within a social environment. Knowledge is socially constructed and based on…
Na, Jiyeon; Song, Jinwoong
The purposes of this study were, based on John Dewey's ideas on experience, to examine how primary students used their own everyday experience and were affected by own and others' experience in science discourse, and to illuminate the implications of experience in science education. To do these, science discourses by a group of six fourth-graders were observed, where they talked about their ideas related to thermal concepts. The data was collected through interviews and open-ended questions, analyzed based on Dewey's perspective, and depicted as the discourse map which was developed to illustrate students' transaction and changing process of students' ideas. The results of the analysis showed typical examples of Dewey's notions of experience, such as the principles of continuity and of transaction and of different types of experience, examples of `the expanded continuity and transaction', and science discourse as inquiry. It was also found that students' everyday experiences played several roles: as a rebuttal for changing their own ideas or others', backing for assurance of their own ideas in individual students' inner changes after discourse with others, and backing for other's ideas. Based on these observations, this study argues that everyday experience should be considered as a starting point for primary students' science learning because most of their experience comes from everyday, not school science, contexts. In addition, to evoke educative experience in science education, it is important for teachers to pay more attention to Dewey's notions of the principles of continuity and of transaction and to their educational implications.
Višnovský, Emil; Zolcer, Štefan
In this essay, Emil Višnovský and Štefan Zolcer outline John Dewey's contribution to democratic theory as presented in his 1916 classic "Democracy and Education." The authors begin with a review of the general context of Dewey's conception of democracy, and then focus on particular democratic ideas and concepts as presented in…
In this paper, I make the case that John Dewey's philosophy of education aims to bring about a democratic community of teachers capable of creating a science of teaching. To make this case, I will do a three things. First, I will discuss "Sources of a Science of Education" and argue that this work is deeply connected to a work written at…
Full Text Available Este artigo pretende trabalhar com o pensamento pedagógico de John Dewey. Filósofo americano, Dewey viveu entre 1859 e 1952 e foi um importante líder do movimento que ficou conhecido nos Estados Unidos da América como educação progressiva. Sua obra constitui importante fonte para compreender os temas da democracia, do interesse, do ensino ativo e da liberdade em contextos educacionais. Por tal razão, suas idéias podem ser consideradas como pioneiras do que aqui compreendemos como segunda geração de direitos educacionais
Ghiloni, Aaron J.
This article explores interreligious education from the perspective of John Dewey's educational philosophy. Keenly aware that twentieth-century individuals and societies would have an expanding plurality of experiences, Dewey proposed a democratic educational philosophy able to account for life in a pluralistic world. Three interconnected themes…
Full Text Available Original “Art in Education – Education in Art” incluido en The Later Works of John Dewey, Vol. 2 (1925-1927. Carbondale and Edwardsville: Southern Illinois University Press, 1984: 111-115. El artículo apareció originalmente en New Republic, 46 (1926: 11-13. Agradecemos a la Southern Illinois University Press el permiso concedido para poder traducir la reseña.
This symposium calls attention to the archival papers of the political philosopher John Rawls. As the symposium papers show, the archive illuminates the development of Rawls's philosophical and political visions, showing the varied intellectual traditions on which he drew. The papers portray Rawls as a naturalist who believed that moral and political arguments should be made in light of facts about natural human capacities and propensities. The papers explore Rawls's engagement with Wittgenstein, Dewey, and game theory. And the papers present conflicting accounts of Rawls's democratic society and the role of democratic debate in the justification of a political vision.
John Dewey has played a major role for philosophy of education and for educational theory as such. This paper deals with Dewey’s conception of consciousness, an issue which is rarely dealt with. It is claimed that Dewey’s thoughts on this issue are original and has actuality in the light of recent...
Pouwels, Jan; Biesta, Gert
This paper is about the notion of conflict in the work of John Dewey. Special attention is given to "Democracy and Education" (1916) because of its centennial and its acclaimed status of "magnum opus". After depicting "conflicts as gadflies" that stir thinking--reflection and ingenuity--and relating it to Socrates, in…
I explore Montessori's story in terms of her initial warm reception by America to her educational research, and her later cooling off, once Dewey's student, Kilpatrick, published The Montessori System Examined and declared her work to be based on psychological theory that was fifty years behind the times. I argue that there is a troubling gendered…
Ralston, Shane J.
In this paper, I argue that many recent interpretations of John Dewey's vision of democracy distort that vision by filtering it through the prism of contemporary deliberative democratic theories. An earlier attempt to defend Dewey's theory of moral deliberation is instructive for understanding the nature and function of this filter. In James…
Eastman, Nicholas J.; Boyles, Deron
This essay situates John Dewey in the context of the founding of the American Association of University Professors (AAUP) in 1915. We argue that the 1915 Declaration of Principles, together with World War I, provides contemporary academics important historical justification for rethinking academic freedom and faculty governance in light of…
Laverty, Megan J.
Contemporary educational theorists focus on the significance of Dewey's conception of experience, learning-by-doing and collateral learning. In this essay, I reexamine the chapters of Dewey's "Democracy and Education," that pertain to thinking and highlight their relationship to Dewey's "How We Think: A Restatement of the Relation…
Webster, R. Scott
John Dewey's "religious attitude" has great potential for the educative development of children's spirituality. This is because it enables their spiritual understandings to become more intelligently composed--not just in a cognitive or hyper-rational sense, but as a way of being. This paper provides an outline of Dewey's approach, which is…
Interpretations of John Dewey's political theory grasp his respect for public deliberation, but typically overlook his ethical justification for democracy. Dewey gave two primary reasons why democracy is superior to other forms of government. First, a public educated in the tools of social intelligence can be more effective at managing their…
Rodrigo Augusto de Souza
Full Text Available Este trabalho procura traçar uma trajetória histórica da influência de John Dewey (1859-1952, na educação brasileira. É possível estabelecer dois momentos distintos dessainfluência deweyana no Brasil: o período 1930 a 1950 e, posteriormente, a década 1990. Oprimeiro momento foi marcado pelo embate político de introdução do ideário escolanovistano Brasil, merece destaque Anísio Teixeira (1900-1971, principal interlocutor de Deweyno Brasil. No segundo período da influência, Dewey aparece atrelado à Formação deProfessores, sobretudo a partir da noção de Professor Reflexivo. A retomada, nessasegunda fase, se dá pela adoção de educadores estrangeiros, como: Nóvoa, Schön,McLaren, entre outros. Esse percurso histórico tomamos em análise no presente artigo
Of enduring interest to philosophers of education is the intimate connection Dewey draws between "Democracy and Education" in this now century-old seminal work. At first glance the connection may appear quite simple, with the two terms commonly combined today as "democratic education". But there is significantly more to Dewey's…
Marta Vaamonde Gamo
Full Text Available This article demonstrates how feminism welcomed and was influenced by the pragmatism of John Dewey. While in real terms his impact on European feminism has been minimal, this was not the case in contemporary America. In this article we study both how Dewey’s ideas were received amongst American feminists, as well as certain aspects of his thinking that could be enormously useful in present-day debates between critical and postmodern feminists. We compare the Deweyan and feminist arguments against the traditional dualisms that acted as philosophical support for social inequality, paying particular attention to mind–body dualism, and the consequent undervaluation of physical and emotional wellbeing. We also show that John Dewey’s proposals were, in fact, more radical than those of the feminists of the day. Indeed, democracy has to be understood as a way of life that affects every dimension of experience, and is crucial to the personal and social growth that enables the unjust social inequalities between men and women to be overcome.
Prawat, Richard S.
Discusses the possibility that L. Vygotsky, described as the "Mozart of Psychology," met and exchanged views with John Dewey in 1928 and describes the meeting of the minds evidenced in Dewey's writings after 1925 and Vygotsky's writings toward the end of his life. (SLD)
John Dewey has had significant influence on the education system of the Republic of Turkey, especially during the early periods of the Republic. He provided his recommendations, among others, on the training of teachers in Turkey in his Report and Recommendation upon Turkish Education and contributed to the development of teacher education system in Turkey. Although Turkey has a relatively long history of teacher education, the system has suffered from some fundamental issues for decades. In ...
Many published scholars argue for constructivism as a basis for academic advising theory. However, few have discussed the commensurate ontological assumptions of constructivist thinking. Potential problems with the metaphysical view of the student in contemporary academic advising may be attributable to constructivism. John Dewey's critique of…
This presentation shows how to use the WebDewey tool. Features of WebDewey. Italian WebDewey compared with American WebDewey. Querying Italian WebDewey. Italian WebDewey and MARC21. Italian WebDewey and UNIMARC. Numbers, captions, "equivalente verbale": Dewey decimal classification in Italian catalogues. Italian WebDewey and Nuovo soggettario. Italian WebDewey and LCSH. Italian WebDewey compared with printed version of Italian Dewey Classification (22. edition): advantages and disadvantages o...
Harper Lee's novel "To Kill a Mockingbird" is taught in countless public schools and is beloved by many teachers and future teachers. Embedded within this novel--interestingly--is a strong criticism of an approach to education mockingly referred to as the "Dewey Decimal System." In this essay I explore Lee's criticism of…
In this essay Michael Eldridge maintains that Frank Margonis has in a recent article ill-advisedly speculated about John Dewey's pedagogy, suggesting that his "racialized visions" of students and classroom communities involve a "false universalism" that is problematic for our multicultural society. Based on this understanding, Margonis concludes…
Hibberd, Fiona J
In 1927, the Scottish philosopher John Anderson arrived in Australia to take up the chair of Philosophy at the University of Sydney. By the late 1930s, the "macrostructure" of his realist system was in place. It includes a theory of process and a substantial metaphysics, one that opposes positivism, linguistic philosophy and all forms of idealism. However, beyond Australia it remains largely unknown, despite its bearing on a number of current issues in psychology and the social sciences generally. This article outlines Anderson's transition from Hegelian idealism to realism, describes aspects of his ontology and epistemology, compares some of Anderson's ideas with Dewey's pragmatism and explains their relevance to present-day psychology.
Hildebrand, David L.
In this essay, David Hildebrand connects "Democracy and Education" to Dewey's wider corpus. Hildebrand argues that "Democracy and Education's" central objective is to offer a practical and philosophical answer to the question, What is needed to live a meaningful life, and how can education contribute? He argues, further, that…
van der Ploeg, Piet
In the literature on citizenship education, frequent references are made to Dewey. However, educationalists do not always interpret him correctly. To provide some counterbalance, I explain Dewey's views on education and democracy. I base this, not only on "Democracy and Education", but also on 17 articles that Dewey wrote after…
In this paper, I analyse the Deweyan account of thinking and subject and discuss the educational consequences that follow from such an account. I argue that despite the grouping of thinking and reflective thought that has largely appeared in the interpretation of Deweyan work, Dewey discloses an inescapable uncertainty at the core of human…
José Cláudio Morelli Matos
Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/1677-2954.2010v9n2p199 John Dewey escreve um de seus primeiros trabalhos sobre ética em resposta às idéias de Thomas Huxley. Huxley, em seu artigo “Evolution and Ethics” (1894, defendia uma oposição entre os processos naturais e os processos éticos. A ética, segundo ele, é contrária aos princípios que se observa na natureza. Para Dewey, por outro lado, não há dualismo entre as regularidades naturais e as regularidades sociais. Dewey pretende, em seu artigo homônimo ao de Huxley (1898, reconstruir o sentido de noções fundamentais ao pensamento evolutivo como “adaptado”, “luta pela vida” e “seleção natural”. Dando início a uma versão evolucionista da reflexão ética, Dewey supõe a continuidade entre o mundo natural e o mundo dos valores. Suas conclusões indicam não só uma abordagem evolutiva das questões éticas, mas a proposição de valores e condutas que estejam em conformidade com o crescimento e a mudança constante nos ambientes e nas funções adaptativas, tais como se observa no mundo natural.
Full Text Available Karl Popper hat eine seiner letzten Essaysammlungen überschrieben mit Alles Leben ist Problemlösen (deutsch 1994. Die Geschichte des Problemlösens berührt er dabei nicht. Sein vierstufiges Modell des Problemlösens aber ist deutlich antizipiert in John Deweys How We Think (1910, eine pragmatische Denkpsychologie, die vor dem Hintergrund der zeitgenössischen Didaktik verstanden werden kann. Der Artikel diskutiert zwei dieser Ansätze, nämlich die ökologischen «nature studes» und William Kilpatricks «Projektmethode». Deweys Theorie des Problemlösens wird bis heute vor allem mit der Projektmethode in Verbindung gebracht. Der Artikel zeigt, dass die rein didaktische Inanspruchnahme Deweys Theorie nicht gerecht wird und Popper sie vermutlich deswegen nicht beachtet hat.
This position paper explores the ambiguity of technology, toward refined understanding of Educational Technology. The purpose of education is described by John Dewey as growing, or habitual learning. Two philosophical conceptions of technology are reviewed. Dewey positions inquiry as a technology that creates knowledge. Val Dusek offers a…
Glassman, Michael; Patton, Rikki
This paper explores possible important relationships and sympathies between Amartya Sen's Capabilities Approach framework for understanding the human condition and the educational ideas of John Dewey and Paolo Freire. All three focus on the importance of democratic values in a fair, well-functioning society, while Sen and Freire especially…
Dennis, Lawrence J.; Stickel, George W.
Common themes emerge from the writings of John Dewey and George Herbert Mead on four educational topics discussed here: (1) play; (2) science teaching; (3) history teaching; and (4) industrial education. Both men deplored the fragmentation of education and believed moral insight could be furthered through social understanding, science, and…
Finken, Teresa M.
The general theme of change in philosophy over time is due to traditional customs and beliefs failing to regulate society. This theme drove both John Dewey's Progressive Movement and the creation of the Curriculum and Evaluation Standards for School Mathematics (1989) by the National Council of Teachers of Mathematics (NCTM). The remarkable similarity in thought between Dewey's writings and the Standards is the basis for this paper. The point of view is from the Standards looking back to find...
Hopmann, Stefan Thomas
This is the first of four commentaries discussing John Dewey's short essay, "Education as engineering". The essay provides a fascinating model of how the example of engineering could guide the interaction between educational research and practice. It has much in common with Herbart's ideas on how "pedagogical tact" bridges the gap between theory…
Where do school librarians go to find out the latest on how the Dewey Decimal Classification (DDC) system is being used (and will be used) in the 21st-century virtual-knowledge world? The answer is two great websites containing: (1) the most current information on both Dewey and linked data at dewey.info>; (2) Dewey here-and-now…
Why is John Dewey still such an important philosopher today? Writing from the perspective of the Cologne Program of Interactive Constructivism, Stefan Neubert tries in what follows to give one possible answer to this question. Neubert notes that Cologne constructivism considers Dewey in many respects as one of the most important predecessors of…
Maria Rita de Almeida Toledo
Full Text Available RESUMO: O artigo analisa o regime de tradução de textos de John Dewey efetuada por Anísio Teixeira, na Biblioteca de Educação (BE, dirigida por Lourenço Filho. Para tanto, descreve-se a materialidade dessa coleção autoral, distinguindo sua fórmula editorial, que instaura, pelo menos em parte, o regime de tradução no qual se processam os textos vertidos para o português. Tal operação historiográfica permite analisar as estratégias de seu editor para atingir os leitores destinatários e apresentar saberes a serem difundidos no campo educacional em um período de disputas de sua (reconfiguração. Para tanto, analisam-se os volumes da coleção, as edições estadunidenses desses textos e a correspondência entre os editores.
Marc Pallarès Piquer
Full Text Available Frecuentemente, cuando se reflexiona sobre qué modelo de escuela queremos, el pasado se asocia a lo anacrónico y el futuro aparece como incierto. Este artículo presenta algunas reflexiones sobre el legado de Hannah Arendt y de John Dewey como base de una acción educativa que, partiendo de todo aquello referente a la teoría de la educación que se pueda aprovechar del pasado, involucre en la escuela a todas las acciones que preparen el camino de la construcción de saberes. La experiencia y el análisis del contexto en el que (convive el alumnado se presentan como aquellos elementos clave para la expansión de los contenidos didácticos que marcan los currículums académicos, y deben centrarse en adecuar y totalizar la información y los conocimientos que todo sistema educativo pretenda transmitir.
Dewey's theory of inquiry cannot be reduced to the pattern of inquiry common to both common-sense inquiry and scientific inquiry, which is grounded in the human life process, since such a reduction ignores Dewey's differentiation of the two forms of inquiry. The difference has to do with the focus of inquiry, with common-sense inquiry…
Levin, Robert A.
Discusses the educational philosophies of the two camps of the Progressive Education Movement: the child-centered education camp, exemplified by the work of John Dewey, and mass education camp exemplified by the rising "science" of educational testing (led by Edward L. Thorndike) and the growth and centralized authority of large…
According to American pragmatist John Dewey (1859–1952), art is an experience (not necessarily an object) and as such it might potentially cover all human interactions. To put it otherwise, an aesthetic experience is needed to create a meaningful piece of art. For human beings, the most stimulating environment for having aesthetic experiences is social life. Two main spheres of the aesthetic experience are distinguished: private and public. At first it seems that Dewey followed the modernist ...
Wirth, Arthur G.
Discusses the educational theories of John Dewey in the context of contemporary society. Suggests that although Dewey's approach has merit for an age of turbulent change, it is unlikely that it will receive support. One reason is that society is presently dominated by the values and techniques of Frederick Taylor's scientific efficiency.…
Full Text Available The paper deals with John Dewey’s democratic concept of school and its international significance. The man of the XX century, John Dewey (1859-1952 has made great impact on the development of world pedagogy. The masterwork «Democracy and Education» published in 1916 by American scholar and educational reformer is in the focus of attention too. The main elements of John Dewey’s concept of child-oriented school are given along with the following three conditions: «democracy», «growth» and «experience». The author explains the reasons of Dewey’s influence on educational thought and practice in the XXth century. The experience of old European countries such as Great Britain, France, Turkey, as well as Japan, Russia and Latin America is touched upon in the paper. It is stressed that cultural interpretations of Dewey’s ideas and practices in different countries served as the instrument of modernization of the state and school reform stimulator. John Dewey’s democratic ideas brought him international reputation of an outstanding philosopher and the best educator of the XXth century alongside with the other three: George Kershensteiner, Maria Montessori and Anton Makarenko.
Johnston, James Scott
In this essay, James Scott Johnston claims that a dispute over moral teleology lies at the basis of the debate between John Dewey and Robert M. Hutchins. This debate has very often been cast in terms of perennialism, classicism, or realism versus progressivism, experimentalism, or pragmatism. Unfortunately, casting the debate in these terms…
Fried, B.; Levy, M.; Reyes, C.; Austin, S.
A unique and innovative partnership has recently developed between NASA and John Dewey High School, infusing Space Science into the curriculum. This partnership builds on an existing relationship with MUSPIN/NASA and their regional center at the City University of New York based at Medgar Evers College. As an outgrowth of the success and popularity of our Remote Sensing Research Program, sponsored by the New York State Committee for the Advancement of Technology Education (NYSCATE), and the National Science Foundation and stimulated by MUSPIN-based faculty development workshops, our science department has branched out in a new direction - the establishment of a Space Science Academy. John Dewey High School, located in Brooklyn, New York, is an innovative inner city public school with students of a diverse multi-ethnic population and a variety of economic backgrounds. Students were recruited from this broad spectrum, which covers the range of learning styles and academic achievement. This collaboration includes students of high, average, and below average academic levels, emphasizing participation of students with learning disabilities. In this classroom without walls, students apply the strategies and methodologies of problem-based learning in solving complicated tasks. The cooperative learning approach simulates the NASA method of problem solving, as students work in teams, share research and results. Students learn to recognize the complexity of certain tasks as they apply Earth Science, Mathematics, Physics, Technology and Engineering to design solutions. Their path very much follows the NASA model as they design and build various devices. Our Space Science curriculum presently consists of a one-year sequence of elective classes taken in conjunction with Regents-level science classes. This sequence consists of Remote Sensing, Planetology, Mission to Mars (NASA sponsored research program), and Microbiology, where future projects will be astronomy related. This
Kulago, Hollie A.
In this article, I will describe how the Utopians whom John Dewey once referenced are possibly the ancestors of Indigenous peoples, in this case, ancestors of the Diné. I will describe a Diné philosophy of education through the Kinaaldá ceremony which was the first ceremony created by the Holy People of the Diné to ensure the survival of the…
Null, J. Wesley
Outlines the philosophies and theories of Joseph Schwab (deliberation toward decision), William Bagley (disciplined classroom progress), and John Dewey (pragmatism and education through occupations). Suggests elements to guide contemporary curriculum: respect for theory and practice; theory as guide, not determinant; and theoretical principles…
Levin, James A.
In the early 1990s, Chip Bruce created a taxonomy of education technology uses, which the author of the article helped to expand and evaluate. This taxonomy is based on John Dewey's "four impulses of the child": inquiry, construction, communication, and expression. This taxonomy has helped people interested in the uses of…
John Dewey (1859-1952) was a major figure of the American cultural and intellectual landscape in the first half of the twentieth century. While not the originator of American pragmatism, he was instrumental to its articulation as a philosophy and the spread of its influence beyond philosophy to other disciplines. His prolific writings encompass…
Pyong, Gap Min
Dewey's emphasis on the individual as the determiner for moral judgments and his consideration of the general welfare as the standard is the focus for argument against the interpretation that his ethical theory supports the possibility of the manipulation of the masses by liberal reformers. (JN)
Grove, Richard W.
Presents a rationale for effective group leadership grounded in John Withall's articulation of selected beliefs of John Dewey, Kurt Lewin, and Carl Rogers. Teachers and administrators need more and better preparation in collaborative inquiry. Knowledge and skills in collaborative inquiry should undergird the successful functioning of groups of…
John Dewey (1859-1952) is an American philosopher and psychologist who perceives life as integrally interacting with the environment. In Dewey's theory of interaction, human beings engaged in interaction with the environment demonstrate active power; human beings are not at the mercy of the surrounding environment and they develop their power because of interaction with their environment. This presents a question : why and how does Dewey think human beings grow powerful in the process of inte...
Thomassen, Anja Overgaard
teoretiske ramme er helt overvejende baseret på John Deweys (1859-1952) pragmatisme og herudfra er der udviklet modeller, som anvendes i analysen af de empiriske data. Det fremlægges i paperet, hvorledes disse modeller er blevet udviklet og anvendt i ph.d.-afhandlingen, og hvorledes de centrale fem begreber...
Eliezer Pedroso da Rocha
Este trabalho tem como objetivo aprofundar as discussões sobre a Progressão Continuada a partir dos conceitos de crescimento e experiência educativa em John Dewey. Para tanto, buscamos analisar a bibliografia existente, principalmente sobre a legislação que implantou tal regime no sistema público de ensino do Estado de São Paulo, estabelecendo relação com a leitura aprofundada de algumas das principais obras de Dewey, o principal referencial teórico deste estudo. A partir de Dewey, foi possív...
Monsen, Maria Kristine
The main focus for my thesis will be on John Banville’s Frames trilogy (2001) and the author's rendering of the limitations and possibilities of the aesthetic individual. In order to show how the tension between the aesthetic and the moral existence is illustrated by Banville’s protagonists, I have also included in my analysis certain literary and philosophical influences that I have found relevant. In chapter one I am going through central points in Søren Kierkegaard's and Friedric...
Richardson, Michael J.; Slife, Brent D.
We explore the possibility that a priori philosophical commitments continue to result in a narrowing of inquiry in moral psychology and education where theistic worldviews are concerned. Drawing from the theories of Edward L. Thorndike and John Dewey, we examine naturalistic philosophical commitments that influenced the study of moral psychology…
My article is a rejoinder to Gert Biesta's, '"This is My Truth, Tell Me Yours". Deconstructive pragmatism as a philosophy of education.' Biesta attempts to place Jacques Derrida's deconstruction in 'the very heart' of John Dewey's pragmatism (710). My article strives to impress Deweyan pragmatism in the heart of Derridian deconstruction.…
Jaime Caiceo Escudero
El año 2016 se celebró con diversas actividades el centenario de la publicación de una de las obras más significativas del educador norteamericano John Dewey, Democracia y Educación (1916); el año pasado (2017) se conmemoró el centenario de la obra más significativa del educador chileno Darío Salas, El Problema Nacional. Bases para la Reconstrucción de Nuestro Sistema Escolar Primario (1917). En el contexto de ambos centenarios se analiza la influencia de la obra del pedagogo norteamericano e...
Reich, Kersten; Garrison, Jim; Neubert, Stefan
Against the background of the Deweyan tradition of "Democracy and Education," we discuss problems of complexity and reductionism in education and educational philosophy. First, we investigate some of Dewey's own criticisms of reductionist tendencies in the educational traditions, theories, and practices of his time. Secondly, we explore…
John Dewey is frequently mentioned as an important forerunner of everyday aesthetics. In this article, I attempt to provide an updated view of Dewey’s place within everyday aesthetics by drawing attention to aspects in Dewey’s own work and in contemporary interpretations of his philosophy that have not been thoroughly discussed in the context of everyday aesthetics. In the first part, I offer a reading of Dewey’s notion of aesthetic experience that unties its content through noting the impo...
Wilson, Terri S.
School choice positions parents as consumers who select schools that maximize their preferences. This account has been shaped by rational choice theory. In this essay, Terri Wilson contrasts a rational choice framework of "preferences" with John Dewey's understanding of "interest." To illustrate this contrast, she draws on an…
Jaime Caiceo Escudero
Full Text Available El año 2016 se celebró con diversas actividades el centenario de la publicación de una de las obras más significativas del educador norteamericano John Dewey, Democracia y Educación (1916; el año pasado (2017 se conmemoró el centenario de la obra más significativa del educador chileno Darío Salas, El Problema Nacional. Bases para la Reconstrucción de Nuestro Sistema Escolar Primario (1917. En el contexto de ambos centenarios se analiza la influencia de la obra del pedagogo norteamericano en el texto del educador chileno.
Tillmann, Alexander; Albrecht, Volker; Wunderlich, Jürgen
The epistemological and educational philosophy of John Dewey is used as a theoretical basis to analyze processes of knowledge construction during geographical field studies. The experience of landscape drawing as a method of inquiry and a starting point for research-based learning is empirically evaluated. The basic drawing skills are acquired…
Boyles, Deron R.
In an effort to navigate the treacherous path between professionalism and social relevancy, this essay takes up an area of professional philosophy--epistemology--with the intention of reclaiming the integrative role John Dewey held for philosophy and classroom practice. Deron Boyles asserts that epistemology can and should represent an area of…
Waddington, David I.
Critics like Leonard Waks argue that video games are, at best, a dubious substitute for the rich classroom experiences that John Dewey wished to create and that, at worst, they are profoundly miseducative. Using the example of "Fate of the World," a climate change simulation game, David Waddington addresses these concerns through a…
Mooney, Carol Garhart
This best-selling resource provides clear, straightforward introductions to the foundational theories of John Dewey, Maria Montessori, Erik Erikson, Jean Piaget, and Lev Vygotsky. Each chapter highlights a theorist's work and includes insight on how the theory impacts teaching young children today. Discussion questions and suggested readings are…
Discusses educational philosophies of John Dewey, Edgar Dale, and Jerome Bruner dealing with experience and learning and describes experiential learning activities within the curriculum of the School of Library and Information Studies at the University of Hawaii. Results of a study examining student attitudes toward experiential learning are…
Maki, Wilma J.
This article explores the pedagogical implications of John Dewey's claim that his definition of experience is shared by Daoists. It compares characteristics of experience with those in Daoism, and then considers the similarities and differences between key cultivation practices each proposes, focusing on the roles of the teacher and sage. My main…
This essay aims to demonstrate the theoretical purchase offered by linking Dewey's educational theory with a rigorous account of dialectical development. Drawing on recent literature which emphasizes the continuing influence of Hegel on Dewey's thought throughout the latter's career, this essay reconstructs Dewey's argument regarding the…
Full Text Available The transition of Sacred Scripture from a supernatural text to a mere secular text can be related to the Reformation, but we cannot say that it was the work of the protestant Reformation. Moreover it was the result of the enlightened biblical criticism practiced by some philosophers, as is the case of John Locke. Locke’s work contributes to the construction of the «Academic Bible» as opposed to the «Biblical Scripture». In his writings we can detect a kind of dialectic between the supernatural character of the Sacred Scriptures and the consideration of reason as natural revelation that leads to some paradoxes. Because of that the literature has considered Locke’s position, as been alternatively Calvinist, Arminian, Socinian, Latitudinarian or Unitarian. This article deals with these paradoxes and evaluates the original Lockean thesis on Biblical interpretation, which is inseparable of his faith, his epistemology and his theory of language.
Moyano-Grimaldo, Wilmer Arturo
Objective. The philosophical foundations that support the use and development of the Dewey Decimal Classification (DDC) were explored. Design/Methodology/Approach. Different primary and secondary sources were reviewed to analyze the theories and ideas that founded the DDC. Results/Discussion. The DDC is a system that bases its scheme on the ideas put forward by Bacon and Hegel. However, its operation is due to what has been called “Decimal theory”. Conclusions. The DDC is a system of library ...
Full Text Available The “Neuronal man”, as Changeux has called him, is now credited with an aesthetic mind. This mind is not the “Geist” of the philosophical tradition. The cognitive sciences have took over from philosophy and now they deal with art and aesthetics as they do with whatever aspect of human thought, experience and activity. Philosophers like Kant were interested in the empirical sources of beauty, but for him empirical features of its development did not change anything at all to its very essence. The naturalism implemented in the philosophy of mind and sciences of cognition has changed the terms of the question, so that the main point in discussion is whether aesthetic experience can be explained in terms of brain and/or computational process or whether it should be considered as irreductible to empirical or physical facts. These debates can be seen as new and interesting, but they drive directly to an aporia reminding in a certain way the old debate between the "Sons of the ground" and the "Friends of ideas".
In "Reconstruction in Philosophy," John Dewey issued an eloquent call for contemporary philosophy to become more relevant to the pressing problems facing society. Historically, the philosophy of a period had been appropriate to social conditions (indeed, this is why it had developed as a discipline), but despite the vast changes in the…
Fishman, Stephen M.; McCarthy, Lucille
Given the serious social problems confronting Americans and others worldwide, the authors propose that Dewey's 1932 challenge to teachers is worthy of reconsideration by educators at all levels. In times similar to our own, Dewey challenged teachers to cultivate students' capacities to identify their happiness with what they can do to improve the…
Maria Luísa Branco
Full Text Available A compreensão da atualidade da proposta pedagógica de John Dewey requer uma análise cuidadosa do conceito de experiência educativa desenvolvido por esse autor. Efetivamente, a sua filosofia educativa está alicerçada numa teoria da experiência na medida em que se assenta numa conexão entre a experiência pessoal e a aprendizagem, tendo em vista o alargamento progressivo da primeira. Neste artigo, e com recurso a algumas das principais obras pedagógicas do autor, procedemos à caracterização do conceito de experiência educativa, começando por distingui-lo do conceito de experiência pura e simples. As dimensões fundamentais de qualquer experiência são a continuidade e a interação, distinguindo-se a experiência educativa pela qualidade dessas dimensões no sentido de proporcionar o desenvolvimento do sujeito, isto é, o crescimento e ampliação da sua experiência anterior. A partir da elucidação desse conceito, procuraremos de seguida compreender o impacto que essa concepção possui na organização de um ensino indireto, baseado numa busca cooperativa, e nas concepções de currículo e do papel do professor e do aluno. É ainda tendo em conta a centralidade do conceito de experiência educativa que elucidaremos o nexo profundo existente entre educação progressiva e educação democrática, cuja chave é a realidade social da inteligência potenciada em ambientes democráticos, além do nexo entre educação e democracia.Understanding the modernity of Dewey's pedagogical proposal requires a careful appraisal of his concept of educative experience. Actually, his educational philosophy is grounded on a theory of experience, insofar as it rests upon a connection between personal experience and learning whose aim is the progressive enlargement of that experience. In the present article we make use of some of his main pedagogical works to characterize the concept of educative experience, starting with the distinction between
In this review, Mary Vorsino writes that she is interested in keeping the potential influences of women pragmatists of Dewey's day in mind while presenting modern feminist re readings of Dewey. She wishes to construct a narrowly-focused and succinct literature review of thinkers who have donned a feminist lens to analyze Dewey's approaches to…
Dewey famously believed that we learn through experience, through which we build up habits. Education should be about developing good habits. Experience for Dewey, is not an individual possession but grows out of social interaction, which always takes place in a given culture. Dewey's views on culture are significant in relation to a current issue…
As even its defenders admit, reflection in education suffers from a lack of conceptual clarity. In this essay, Henk Procee provides a philosophical analysis of the central concepts in this domain. In the current literature, these concepts are usually taken from the pragmatic school of John Dewey and
Against the backdrop of two remarks by Martha Nussbaum on Dewey and Socratic education (which can be connected with a statement by Matthew Lipman about his going beyond Dewey in a Deweyan way), the paper explores what seems to be a sort of ambivalence in Dewey's educational device. On the one hand, by recognizing children as inquirers and the…
Rudolph, John L.
Over a hundred years ago, John Dewey delivered his now-well-known address "Science as Subject-Matter and as Method" to those assembled at the Boston meeting of the American Association for the Advancement of Science in which he lamented the nearly exclusive focus on content knowledge in early-20th-century school science classrooms. This…
In this article I will interpret John Deweys perspective on reflective thinking as if he were a philosopher of innovation management. From his pragmatist point of departure, the problems involved in knowledge-processes relevant to innovation are analysed and reconceptualised. On the basis...... of the analysis I attempt to identify some categories of general applicability when understanding, designing, and managing radical innovation processes. These categories are useful to conceptualise and talk about innovation, when knowledge is taken seriously, and when managing innovation is also understood...... as managing the production of new knowledge, that is of making the unjustified justified, and the unknown known. Keywords: Reflexivity, reflective thought, radical innovation, innovation management, potential innovation, Plato, John Dewey, epistemology, knowledge....
This paper is threefold. It is grounded in the philosophical work of two educational theorists: John Dewey and our contemporary Nel Noddings. It also brings into the conversation the ancient system of Tarot, arguing that its pictorial symbolism embodies intellectual, moral, and spiritual "lessons" derived from collective human experiences across…
Jacobs, Benjamin M.
This historical study focuses on how John Dewey's theory of education as socialization and Mordecai Kaplan's theory of Judaism as a civilization together served as an ideological base and pedagogical framework for the creation of "progressive," "reconstructed" American Jewish school programs in the early 20th century…
This paper proposes a turnover to the theories which have fostered the 20th Century discourse upon the public sphere. By depicting the way in which the structural transformations suffered by the public sphere within the framework of modernity have been theorized by the pre-Habermasian discourse upon the public sphere, the present work aims at revealing the similarities as well as the differences between John Dewey's approach of the public sphere and Hannah Arendt's theory of the political rea...
Granger, David A.
This paper begins by examining the architectonics of the body and the mind-body relationship in the work of John Dewey, Michel Foucault, and Ludwig Wittgenstein. In doing so, it utilizes philosopher Richard Shusterman's analytic somaesthetics to expose the way racist ideology is covertly materialized and preserved through encoding in somatic norms…
Biesta, Gert J. J.
This paper recounts the influence of two of the great educational philosophers of this century, John Dewey and George Herbert Mead. Both men came to the University of Chicago from teaching at the University of Michigan. The men were life-long personal friends and professional colleagues. Although Mead published little during his life, his…
As even its defenders admit, reflection in education suffers from a lack of conceptual clarity. In this essay, Henk Procee provides a philosophical analysis of the central concepts in this domain. In the current literature, these concepts are usually taken from the pragmatic school of John Dewey and from critical social theory associated with…
Douglas, Cynthia M.
This article focuses on the application of the philosophical principles of John Dewey and Culturally Responsive Education in the creation of lesson plans for Vietnamese students in the American Diaspora. Through a Fulbright-Hayes Program a group of teachers from the New York City Public School System and Long Island spent six weeks in Vietnam…
Practicing finding the spaces available within the educational situation—an essay review of John Dewey and education outdoors: making sense of the `educational situation' through more than a century of progressive reform
Ware, Molly Noelle
In this piece, I begin by reviewing and summarizing the book John Dewey and Education Outdoors by John Quay and Jayson Seaman. After an overview of the authors' work, I use nuanced presumptions within the authors' work to explore how principles of ecology (complexity theory), principles of embodied movement practices such as yoga and five Rhythms Dance, and a poststructural both/and perspective might create opportunities for re-imagining and transforming the cultural institution of education. Questions explored in this review include: What sort of relationship might allow us to remain open and engaged within a dynamic environment where change is the norm? What sort of relationship to difference allows us to remain open to the creative potential found in what is oppositional? Through exploring these questions, I hope to clarify a vision of transformation and change as a creative practice that grows out of learning to both work with, accept, and honor ourselves and strengthen connection with others, communities, the planet and the environment.
Educational Perspectives, 2015
In the summer of 1899, [John] Dewey gave two series of talks at Honolulu High School on Tuesday and Friday evenings from 8:00 to 10:00. The first set of five lectures was entitled "The Life of the Child;" the second set, "Movements in Nineteenth Century Thought." The first talk of the lecture series was delivered on the evening…
Friedman, Randy L.
Critics of Dewey's metaphysics point to his dismissal of any philosophy which locates ideals in a realm beyond experience. However, Dewey's sustained critique of dualistic philosophies is but a first step in his reconstruction and recovery of the function of the metaphysical. Detaching the discussion of values from inquiry, whether scientific,…
Pendergrass, Devona J.
"Dewey or don't we?" is the question that hundreds, if not thousands, of school librarians across the country are currently asking themselves. Do they throw out what is old but trusted for new organizational systems, or do they continue using the Dewey Decimal Classification (DDC) system and make changes and adjustments to the…
Fávero, Altair Alberto; Universidade de Passo Fundo; Tonieto, Carina; Universidade de Passo Fundo
O texto tem por objetivo reconstruir e analisar as razões que levaram o educador americano John Dewey a eleger a democracia como credo pedagógico de sua filosofia da educação. Para tanto, inicialmente se fará uma breve reconstrução das origens da democracia na paideia grega para em seguida analisarem-se os motivos que levaram Dewey a eleger a democracia como principal referência do seu credo pedagógico. Nos dois últimos tópicos analisa-se a concepção democrática de educação na obra Democracia...
This article discusses how the paradigm of Cartesian mind-body dualism has shaped the cultural and institutional life of modern science and medicine. John Dewey (1859-1952) made this case in a speech to the New York Academy of Medicine in 1927, "Preoccupation with the Disconnected," an expanded version of which was published as "Body and Mind" in the Bulletin of the New York Academy of Medicine in January 1928. From the perspective of Dewey's broader philosophy, the most urgent aspect of mind-body dualism is of a practical, not theoretical, nature. Medicine at present has an opportunity in both education and practice to reconcile internally disparate trends that result from mind-body dualism and to renew its mission.
Fallace, Thomas; Fantozzi, Victoria
Background/Context: Over the last century, perhaps no school in American history has been studied more than John Dewey's Laboratory School at the University of Chicago (1896-1904). Scholars have published dozens of articles, books, essays, and assessments of a school that existed for only seven and a half years. Purpose/Objective/Research…
Dewey is an important representative of the libertarian education movement, which has its roots based on the values of the enlightenment. This study aimed to analyze the relationship between "Turkish modernization" and education from Dewey's perspective. In the paper, the place and effect of Dewey in the Turkish pedagogical vision was…
Curtis, William F.; Flint, Russell F.; George, Frederick H.; Santos, John F.
Fourteen drainage basins above Fishtrap and Dewey Lakes in the Levisa Fork and Johns Creek drainage basins of eastern Kentucky and southwestern Virginia were studied to determine sedimentation rates and origin of sediment entering the two lakes. The basins ranged in size from 1.68 to 297 square miles. Sediment yields ranged from 2,890 to 21,000 tons per square mile where surface-mining techniques predominated, and from 732 to 3 ,470 tons per square mile where underground mining methods predominated. Yields, in terms of tons per acre-foot of runoff, ranged from 2.2 to 15 for surface-mined areas, and from 0.5 to 2.7 for underground-mined areas. Water and sediment discharges from direct runoff during storms were compared for selected surface-mined and underground-mined areas. Data points of two extensively surface-mined areas, one from the current project and one from a previous project in Beaver Creek basin, McCreary County, Kentucky, grouped similarly in magnitude and by season. Disturbed areas from mining activities determined from aerial photographs reached 17 percent in one study area where extensive surface mining was being practiced. For most areas where underground mining was practiced, percentage disturbed area was almost negligible. Trap efficiency of Fishtrap Lake was 89 percent, and was 62 percent for Dewey Lake. Average annual deposition rates were 464 and 146 acre-feet for Fishtrap and Dewey Lakes, respectively. The chemical quality of water in the Levisa Fork basin has been altered by man 's activities. (Woodard-USGS)
Full Text Available John Dewey is one of the most significant figures in pragmatist philosophy, an approach which he systematically applied to the study of economic, social and cultural structure. In our work, we will focus on the main aspects of Dewey’s approach to the study of aspects that make up “human nature” and how do they interact with the characteristics of the cultural context. We will illustrate how the concepts elaborated by Dewey can contribute to the heterodox analysis of a host of economic and social issues. Dewey highlights the crucial role of public policies for facilitating the development of volunteer associations in all areas of the social structure. In the analysis of these aspects, Dewey’s key contribution lies in removing the concepts of democracy and participation from the limbo of abstraction in which they tended to be confined by previous approaches and connecting them to the evolution of economic and social forms.
Tiago Barcelos Pereira Salgado
Full Text Available We look at our article on a relational communicationapproach. In this sense, we seek to understandthe communication process from a praxeologicalmodel as elaborated by Louis Quéré (1991,rather than an epistemological model, seized in earlierformulations about the communicative practice.With pragmatism as a guideline of our argument,we are interested in understand and approach thenotions of self and experience as discussed by JohnDewey (1896, 1980, 2010 and George Herbert Mead(1934. Both concepts seem appropriate to thinkabout communication. Our purpose is then to seeto what extent we can reasonably argue that the selfis in constant experience and the implications thatpermeate this conceptual relationship.
Taina Hutten de Camargo
Full Text Available In 2015, was launched the movie Concussion which tells the true story of Bennet Omalu - a medical examiner who worked in the city of Pittsburgh. When performing the autopsy of an idol of football, Omalu identified a never before diagnosed disease that can be caused by football practice and started a battle against the most powerful football league in the world, the National Football League. The story is reviewed in this study based on the John Rawls’ Theory of Justice, with reflections on why, even in a developed society, there are cases of absolute disconnection of his philosophical ideal.
Gredler, Margaret E.; Shields, Carol
Identifies problems with the portrayals by R. Prawat of the reform effort in post-Revolutionary Russia, the career of Lev Vygotsky, the hypothesized exchange of ideas between Vygotsky and John Dewey, and the theoretical views of Vygotsky. (SLD)
This paper will investigate Dewey's "Democracy and Education" in relation to the curriculum. There are two overarching themes to the paper: the concept of the democratic curriculum and the academic/vocational divide. Dewey is seen as a pivotal thinker in relation to collaborative learning and the child as a vital voice in any learning…
School Library Media Activities Monthly, 1996
Giving students a chance to associate numbers with subjects can be useful in speeding their location of desired print or nonprint materials and helping students feel independent when browsing. A matching game for helping students learn the Dewey numbers is presented. Instructions for the library media specialist or teacher, instructions for…
Jacyna, L Stephen
Some scepticism has been voiced over whether the work of John Hughlings Jackson possesses any significant philosophical orientation. This article argues that Hughlings Jackson was acquainted with the work of a wide range of philosophers. In particular, certain aspects of the writings of John Stuart Mill are reflected in Hughlings Jackson's own work. From early in his career, Hughlings Jackson adopted a critical stance in his neurological papers, seeking to expose shortcomings in the conventional practices of his peers and urging greater methodological rigour and sophistication in order to advance their science. This critical and 'procedurist' bias endows Hughlings Jackson's writings with a characteristically modern character.
Waks, Leonard J.
In his books "Public Opinion" and "The Phantom Public," Walter Lippmann argued that policy leaders should deny the public a significant role in policymaking. Public opinion, he argued, would inevitably be ill-informed, self-interested and readily manipulated. In "The Public and its Problems," Dewey countered Lippmann…
Määttä, Sylvia; Lützén, Kim; Öresland, Stina
Over the last 20 years, a paternalistic view in health care has been losing ground. The question about less asymmetrical positions in the healthcare professional-patient relationship is, for example, being addressed by the increased emphasis on person-centred care, promoted in disciplines such as medicine and nursing. Partnership is considered as a key component in person-centred care. Although the previous studies have addressed the attributes inherent in partnership, there is still potential for further discussion on how the various interpretations of partnership influence their use in healthcare literature. A vague understanding might also affect education and evaluation. As we see it, the philosophical underpinnings of the idea of partnership have not been sufficiently explored and discussed. The study reveals that partnership originates in the term "partener" defined as a relationship between individuals or groups characterized by cooperation and responsibility. Etymologically speaking, partnership is hence bound by a contract, which in this study is discussed in the frame of Rawls' contract theory, which in turn intersects with Benhabib and her distinction between "the abstract" and "the concrete Other." Further, the expression "equal partnership," which often appears in the context of person-centredness, is explored in relation to the philosophies of Rawls and Benhabib. The opportunity for partnership, as well as the risk of partnership becoming a tempting magnet with a vague and imprecise meaning, is discussed. Without exploration, reflection and discussion of the philosophical underpinnings, partnership carries a substantial risk of becoming an indistinct idea used in health care. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Shane J. Ralston
Full Text Available In the past few years, a small but intense debate has transpired on the margins of mainstream scholarship in the discipline of Philosophy, particularly within the subfield of American pragmatism. While most philosophical pragmatists dedicate their attention to questions concerning how ideas improve experience (or the theory–practice continuum, those participating in this exchange have shown greater concern for an issue that is, at its core, a theoretical matter: Does the theory of experience espoused by the classic American philosopher John Dewey succumb to what contemporary analytic philosophers—for instance, Wilfred Sellars, Donald Davidson, and John McDowell—call the Myth of the Given? One commentator, Scott Aikin, claims that Dewey relied on noninferential and nonconceptual content or givens as perceptual inputs for cognitive experience. The upshot of Aikin’s objection is that these experiential givens constitute a proxy epistemological foundation for the beliefs that flow from inquiry—a position clearly in conflict with Dewey’s commitment to antifoundationalism. The objection assumes a slightly different form in the hands of another scholar of American pragmatism, Colin Koopman. Gregory Pappas and David Hildebrand respond to Koopman’s version of the objection. The goals of this article are to clarify the objection, highlight the stakes in the debate, identify misunderstandings of Dewey’s experiential metaphysics on both sides, and determine why the experiential givenism objection merits serious philosophical scrutiny in the future.
Blank, Kermit J.
Peruses Adler's Paideia Proposal and its use of excerpts from Dewey's writings on democracy, focusing on the meaning of democracy. Analyzes Adler's and Dewey's views from a traditional philosophic standpoint (neo-Thomistic versus experimentalist), contrasts them from an educational philosophic vantage (perennialism versus progressivisim), and…
In this historical study, the author traces the evolution of Dewey's vision for a democratic curriculum. Prior to 1916, Dewey was a linear historicist, meaning that he conceptualized culture as moving linearly through three distinct stages--savagery, barbarianism, civilization--that corresponded with stages of child development. Dewey's suggested…
Mitchell, Joan S.; Panzer, Michael
This paper explores the history, uses cases, and future plans associated with availability of the Dewey Decimal Classification (DDC) system as linked data. Parts of DDC system have been available as linked data since 2009. Initial efforts included the DDC Summaries in eleven languages exposed as linked data in dewey.info. In 2010, the content of dewey.info was further extended by the addition of assignable numbers and captions from the Abridged Edition 14 data files in English, Italian, and ...
to fathom assertion, but at lest two qualifications should be made. First, we must not confuse the idea with egoism . Even though the parties are...14Aristotle Nicomachean Ethics 5. 3. 1131a25. 15Rawls, Theory of Justice, p. 156. 16Actually, we might argue for a three part division in Rawls: noumenal...nature/nurture portion of the self. pij BIBLIOGRAPHY OF WORKS CITED Aristotle. Nicomachean Ethics . Dewey, John. Human Nature and Conduct: An
Miller, Franklin G
Philosophy is a core discipline that has contributed importantly to bioethics. In this essay, the author traces his trajectory from philosophy to bioethics, oriented around the theme of challenging the conventional wisdom. Three topics are discussed to illustrate this theme: the ethics of randomized trials, determination of death and organ transplantation, and pragmatism as a method of bioethics. In addition, the author offers some general reflections on the relationship between philosophy and bioethics. Philosophy recovers itself when it ceases to be a device for dealing with the problems of philosophers and becomes a method, cultivated by philosophers, for dealing with the problems of men.-John Dewey (1917).
Full Text Available The article aims at showing that the philosophical personalism of Pope John Paul II (Karol Wojtyla stems from the common sense approach to reality. First, it presents Karol Wojtyla as a framer of the Lublin Philosophical School, to which he was affiliated for 24 years before being elected Pope John Paul II; it shows Wojtyla’s role in establishing this original philosophical School by his contribution to its endorsement of Thomism, its way of doing philosophy, and its classically understood personalism. Secondly, it identifies a purpose of Wojtyla’s use of the phenomenological method in his personalism and reconstructs Wojtyla’s possible answer to the question whether there is a link between moral sense and common sense in human experience.
Full Text Available Dépasser le dualisme entre les valeurs religieuses et la culture moderne issue de la science a été central dans l'agenda de bon nombre d'intellectuels et de libéraux religieux du XIXème. Dewey, né en 1859, l'année même de la publication par Darwin de L'origine des espèces, a toute sa vie essayé de comprendre les significations concrètes de ce dépassement dans les domaines de la psychologie, de la pédagogie, de l'épistémologie, de la métaphysique, de l'esthétique, de la morale et de la religio...
This essay reviews Atkinson's article "Dewey and Democracy" and argues that while Dewey and the social foundations classroom may indeed be important for teacher preparation, it is not in the way Atkinson suggests. Namely, I argue that Atkinson's essay has three distinct (yet interrelated) issues: his problematic oversimplifications, what…
Full Text Available This work examines the influence of John Dewey’s ideas on the Mexican pedagogical theories and rural schools in the first decades of the twentieth century, and Dewey’s own experience in Mexico. We look at how Deweyan thought was expressed mainly through educational ideas that shaped the design of policies aimed at improving schooling in rural areas, promoting practices based on community-based «active learning». One of John Dewey’s peculiarities is that the American pedagogue had the opportunity to see how some of his main ideas were appropriated and implemented in the real world, generally in situations fuelled by the desire for social change. In the Mexican context in particular, such change was impelled by the social ideology of the Mexican Revolution, and the life stories of the protagonists of the ensuing pedagogical transformation, the conditions furthering the possibility of new education policies, and above all, the communities who participated in the material and symbolic construction of a new form of schooling are discussed.
The influence of John Herschel on the philosophical thoughts of Charles Darwin, both through the former's book, Natural Philosophy, and through their meeting in 1836 at the Cape of Good Hope, is discussed. With Herschel having himself speculated on evolution just a few months before he met Darwin, it is probable that he stimulated at least the beginnings of the latter's lifelong work on the subject.
... Proposed Dewey- Burdock In-Situ Uranium Recovery Project in Custer and Fall River Counties, SD AGENCY... draft Supplemental Environmental Impact Statement (Draft SEIS) for the Dewey-Burdock In-Situ Uranium... NRC for a new source materials license for the Dewey-Burdock ISR Project. Powertech is proposing to...
... DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Drug Enforcement Administration [Docket No. 09-28] Dewey C. Mackay, M.D.; Revocation of Registration On February 26, 2009, I, the Deputy Administrator of the Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA), issued an Order to Show Cause and Immediate Suspension of Registration to Dewey C. MacKay...
Joan S. Mitchell
Full Text Available This paper explores the history, uses cases, and future plans associated with availability of the Dewey Decimal Classification (DDC system as linked data. Parts of DDC system have been available as linked data since 2009. Initial efforts included the DDC Summaries in eleven languages exposed as linked data in dewey.info. In 2010, the content of dewey.info was further extended by the addition of assignable numbers and captions from the Abridged Edition 14 data files in English, Italian, and Vietnamese. During 2012, we will add assignable numbers and captions from the latest full edition database, DDC 23. In addition to the “old friends” of different Dewey language versions, institutions such as the British Library and Deutsche Nationalbibliothek have made use of Dewey linked data in bibliographic records and authority files, and AGROVOC has linked to our data at a general level. We expect to extend our linked data network shortly to “new acquaintances” such as GeoNames, ISO 639-3 language codes, and Mathematics Subject Classification. In particular, the paper examines the linking process to GeoNames as an example of cross-domain vocabulary alignment. In addition to linking plans, the paper reports on use cases that facilitate machine-assisted categorization and support discovery in the semantic web environment.
... NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION [Docket No. 40-9075; NRC-2009-0575] Powertech (USA) Inc.; Dewey... review process related to the Dewey- Burdock Uranium Project application, please contact the NRC... documents associated with the Dewey-Burdock Uranium Project, including the license application, are...
Full Text Available EXPERIENCE AS EDUCATION, ART AS EXPERIENCE. ON JOHN DEWEY’S PEDAGOGY ANDAESTHETICS. This article deals with the relationship between aesthetics andpedagogy, art and education, in John Dewey’s thinking. First, I try to showthat traces of the young Dewey’s interest in Hegel and German idealismcould be found even in his later writings, on both aesthetics and pedagogy.He worked, in both these areas, with the same main perspectives and con-cepts, such as nature, process, growing and experience. Although in recentyears some authors have tried to emphasize the importance of Dewey’saesthetics, suggesting that it can help us to understand contemporary art, Iargue that his pedagogical theory has greater relevance today than his aes-thetics, but also that educational practitioners as well as scholars nonethe-less have much to learn from his aesthetic theories, i.e. that these theories arenow more fruitful within pedagogy than within aesthetics itself.
Gamaluddin, Ahmad Fouad
A survey of 660 Pennsylvania school librarians indicates that, though there is limited professional interest in the Library of Congress Classification system, Dewey Decimal Classification (DDC) appears to be firmly entrenched. This article also discusses the relative merits of DDC, the need for a uniform system, librarianship preparation, and…
... Hearing, License Application Request of Powertech (USA) Inc. Dewey-Burdock In Situ Uranium Recovery... Regulatory Commission (NRC) for the Dewey-Burdock In Situ Recovery Facility in Fall River and Custer Counties, South Dakota. The Dewey-Burdock facility would involve the recovery of uranium by in situ recovery (ISR...
Full Text Available Studiul abordează evoluţia ediţiilor C.Z.D. din perspective actualizării terminologiei, realocărilor şi extinderii structurii principale şi auxiliare a limbajului de indexare Dewey. Analiza comparativă a ediţiilor C.Z.D. reflectă amplificarea şi eficientizarea schemei Dewey din punct de vedere al îmbunătăţirii ofertei informaţionale, prin indici de bază revizuiţi şi dezvoltaţi, precum şi a valorizării notaţiilor auxiliare.
This study tests the hypothesis that a philosophical talent exists in thinking patterns, uttered through oral expressions during philosophical discussions. A systematic study on the philosophical quality of thinking patterns was undertaken among youngsters of 10 - 20 years old. 'Philosophical
EUROPE 4 .) Evrepeen Research Offire, U.S. Army, London, England -U 1 MAROW~78 C- DDC Prepared for . Ap U.S. ARMY RESEARCH iNSTITUTE for the BEHAVIORAL...hired. Selling price is a continuous variable, I’ll accept *uy fractions, but it seems pointless to me to incorporate decimal parts, that ts up to the...formulate the tasks in which the skills operate. It seems to me that John Dewey , the American philosopher, was right when he said that we must be aware
Huang Zongxi was an influential seventeenth century Chinese political and social theorist who is considered by many to be the inspiration and founding father of democracy and human rights in China. This article examines the many similarities in thought and social influence between Huang and his contemporary, the English philosopher John Locke.…
Hermano Roberto Thiry-Cherques
Full Text Available Neste texto, descrevo como o filósofo norte-americano John Rawls reformulou o pensamento moral contemporâneo, ao propor a subordinação da ética à justiça. Resumo a defesa que apresentou para uma moral fundada em um pacto que compensasse, sem tentar anulá-las, as assimetrias econômico-sociais do mundo em que vivemos. Concluo com uma discussão sobre as dificuldades teóricas que encontrou para absorver o pluralismo cultural, filosófico, político e religioso do Ocidente.In this article I describe how the North-American philosopher John Rawls has reformulated contemporary moral thinking in proposing subordination of ethics to justice. I synthesize his defense of a morality based on an agreement that compensates, without attempting to nullify, current socio-economic asymmetries. I conclude with a discussion of the theoretical difficulties he encountered in absorbing cultural, philosophical, political and religious Western pluralism in his theory.
Problem statement: This research was needed because some philosophers were subject to a form of blindness concerning prostitution. This blindness was caused mainly by a lack of philosophical insights. The context of the work was that valid arguments without such insights must be blind. In the case of prostitution, I termed such blindness a philosophical prostitution: First of all, this was to indicate that such an opinion on prostitution was a philosophical artifact or fiction, entirely unawa...
Meadows, Elizabeth; Blatchford, Katherine
Excellent, democratic education that furthers each person's potential, success and happiness for her own and others' well-being is not yet widespread in the U.S. today. Dewey's The Public and Its Problems has much to say about the possibilities and challenges of achieving this goal. This paper examines Dewey's ideas about how a public for…
There is a surge of attempts to draw out the epistemological consequences of views according to which cognition is deeply embedded, embodied and/or extended (e-cog). The principal machinery used for doing so is that of analytic epistemology. Here I argue that Dewey's pragmatic epistemology may be
Filipe Alves de Freitas
Full Text Available As a participant in the widespread and controversial debate about the artistic legitimization of the video game, this paper proposes the hypothesis that the analysis of the aesthetic potential of digital games requires a perspective that conceives the aesthetic experience as a relational issue, and tests the application of the theoretical framework proposed by the pragmatist philosopher John Dewey to a couple of casual games in order to demonstrate the possibility of perceiving dimensions other than the narrative as the locus of expression on these works.
Marco Aurélio Gomes de Oliveira
Full Text Available Este artigo tem como objetivo discutir a concepção de infância em John Dewey e a relação do seu projeto de renovação pedagógica e como os conceitos (democracia, liberdade e experiência estão associados para a formação de um novo homem, adaptado ao sistema capitalista. Nesse sentido, este artigo aborda a temática da infância e da educação numa perspectiva histórica, isto é, levamos em consideração que a produção das ideias e pensamentos estão condicionados pelos meios de produção de seu tempo histórico. Portanto, a infância, na perspectiva deweyana, é pensada a partir da relação da experiência com o meio social e de sua potencialidade de mudança que vislumbra a concretização de uma sociedade democrática, algo que contribuiu para o fortalecimento do pensamento liberal na educação.
Waelbers, Katinka; Dorstewitz, Philipp
In contemporary Science, Technology and Society (STS) studies, Bruno Latour's Actor Network Theory (ANT) is often used to study how social change arises from interaction between people and technologies. Though Latour's approach is rich in the sense of enabling scholars to appreciate the complexity of many relevant technological, environmental, and social factors in their studies, the approach is poor from an ethical point of view: the doings of things and people are couched in one and the same behaviorist (third person) vocabulary without giving due recognition to the ethical relevance of human intelligence, sympathy and reflection in making responsible choices. This article argues that two other naturalist projects, the non-teleological virtue ethics of Charles Darwin and the pragmatist instrumentalism of John Dewey can enrich ANT-based STS studies, both, in a descriptive and in a normative sense.
Veraart, W.J.; Van Beers, Britta; Van Domselaar, Iris
In this contribution I critically address the practical and theoretical attitude of the philosopher John Locke towards the trans-Atlantic slave trade and the colonial system of chattel slavery of people of African descent, in connection with the question how we should deal with the colonial context
In this article, the author talks about the texts of Jacques Derrida and Dewey. The texts of Jacques Derrida seem inextricably connected to the word deconstruction, yet, Derrida insists, "The word "deconstruction," like all other words, acquires its value only from its inscription in a chain of possible substitutions." The author argues that…
Waddington, David I.; Feinstein, Noah Weeth
In this essay, David Waddington and Noah Weeth Feinstein explore how Dewey's conception of science can help us rethink the way science is done in schools. The authors begin by contrasting a view of science that is implicitly accepted by many scientists and science educators--science as a search for truth--with Dewey's instrumentalist,…
This paper reports on quantitative and qualitative aspects of the presence of Dewey numbers in the Austrian Union Catalogue. Although the active use of the DDC in Austria is limited to a few libraries the use of records from external resource databases has brought a considerable number of DDC notations into the catalogue, formerly mostly from the British National Bibliography and in the last two years also from the German National Library. As the latter supplies the Dewey numbers in a differe...
E. V. Kuchinov
Full Text Available The article describes philosophical and pedagogical aspects of an idea of the ‘virtual philosopher’ project developed at creative sessions at Minin University and technically concretized during interaction with the Laboratory of Mobile Services. ‘Virtual philosopher’ is thought to deliver creative automation of routine operations; producing contingent matter for philosophical processing as well as elements of the philosophical artificial intelligence and forms of ‘artificial life’. Project implementation may lead to the creation of an unparalleled educational technology that functions on the principles of flexibility, nonlinearity, affective inclusion and gamification of the educational process. Based on specific character of problems raised, rhizomatic analysis of the philosophical communities’ requests, assessment of their technical feasibility and technical development, provisions are made on the feasibility, prospects and productivity of this project.
Satija, M P
The Dewey Decimal Classification system (DDC) is the world's most popular library classification system. The 23rd edition of the DDC was published in 2011. This second edition of The Theory and Practice of the Dewey Decimal Classification System examines the history, management and technical aspects of the DDC up to its latest edition. The book places emphasis on explaining the structure and number building techniques in the DDC and reviews all aspects of subject analysis and number building by the most recent version of the DDC. A history of, and introduction to, the DDC is followed by subjec
DeVidi, David; Clark, Peter
This book collects papers presented in honor of John L. Bell's 60th birthday. Includes contributions to current philosophical debate, new mathematical results, important historical surveys, and a translation by Wilfrid Hodges of a key work of arabic logic.
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Pragmatist philosopher John Dewey famously stated that man is a creature of habit, and not of reason or instinct. In this paper, I will assess Dewey's explication of the habituated self and the potential it holds for radical transformative processes. In particular, I will examine the process of coming to feminist consciousness and will show that a feminist-pragmatist reading of change can accommodate a view of the self as responsible agent. Following the elucidation of the changing self, I will appraise key pragmatist concepts of inquiry, such as doubt and self-reflexivity, with regard to their treatment of deep-seated internalizations of oppressive norms and the initiation of change. Ultimately, I will argue that a feminist-pragmatist understanding of transformation is conducive not only to the project of personal transformation, but also to social and political change more generally.
Full Text Available Este artículo analiza la obra del bibliotecólogo y educador estadounidense Melvil Dewey (1851-1931. Por una parte, se examina el origen y estructura de su sistema decimal de clasificación (CDD y su contribución para la organización de bibliotecas y para la categorización del conocimiento humano. Por otra parte, se destaca la participación de Dewey en otras reformas que tuvieron impacto en las convenciones para medir, almacenar y catalogar libros en las bibliotecas, principalmente su interés en el uso del sistema métrico de pesas y medidas. Finalmente, se explica cómo los proyectos impulsados por Dewey eran producto de su interés por mejorar la educación pública a través de métodos y procedimientos claros y eficientes.
Dewey is a famous American educator,and his Democracy and Education is a complete and systematic theoretical sys-tem of education,so it is know as the classics education, progressive education theory of the general program.There are many de-fects and deficiencies in the education of junior middle school in our country,the pragmatism education thought in the book has a great influence on the education of junior middle school in our country,so analysis of the educational thoughts of Dewey's De-mocracy and Education,such as"child centered theory","school is society", education is"life","learn from doing"and so on,this is to improve the history education of junior high school in our country and further promote the education reform of our country has a great positive significance.
At the center of every well-constructed theory of education is a philosophical anthropology-reasoned speculation as to the origins on man's conditions in the history of culture, especially the particular phenomenon of consciousness that underlies historical periods. Using the lens of one of the most significant theories of culture produced, we…
Kristin Helene Oftedal
Full Text Available Based on the experiences from ”Den kulturelle skolesekken” (The cultural rucksack – a national effort which ensures that every pupil in Norway gets the opportunity to experience professional art and culture of various kinds – this article takes a closer look at art as aesthetic experience. Based on texts by the philosophers Jacques Rancière and John Dewey, the article examines the educational potential of aesthetic experience as reception. From a political and, respectively, an evolutionary perspective, both Rancière and Dewey emphasize the aesthetic experience as an inner activity which is both creative and critical. The art experience is characterized not only as harmonious moments, but also as a process involving a certain tension due to the reconstruction and interpretation of what is sensed and experienced. In this way the role of the audience at school performances is understood as active formation more than passive presence.
Este artículo analiza la obra del bibliotecólogo y educador estadounidense Melvil Dewey (1851-1931). Por una parte, se examina el origen y estructura de su sistema decimal de clasificación (CDD) y su contribución para la organización de bibliotecas y para la categorización del conocimiento humano. Por otra parte, se destaca la participación de Dewey en otras reformas que tuvieron impacto en las convenciones para medir, almacenar y catalogar libros en las bibliotecas, principalmente su interés...
van der Ploeg, Piet
In the literature on citizenship education, frequent references are made to Dewey. However, educationalists do not always interpret him correctly. To provide some counterbalance, I explain Dewey’s views on education and democracy. I base this, not only on ‘Democracy and Education’, but also on 17
As knowledge brokers, librarians are living in interesting times for themselves and libraries. It causes them to wonder sometimes if the traditional tools like the Dewey Decimal Classification (DDC) system can cope with the onslaught of information. The categories provided do not always seem adequate for the knowledge-discovery habits of…
Ulrike Reiner, Verbundzentrale des Gemeinsamen Bibliotheksverbundes (VZG) Göttingen, stellte ihr Projekt der automatischen Analyse von Notationen der Dewey-Dezimalklassifikation (DDC) vor. DDC-Notationen zeichnen sich dadurch aus, dass sie in aller Regel lang und komplex sind und in ihrer Herstellung zahlreiche Regeln zu durchlaufen haben. Ihr Computerprogramm analysiert DDC-Notationen und gibt alle in einer DDC-Notation enthaltenen DDC-Notationen samt DDC-Klassenbenennungen aus. Die gewonnen...
34choices freely made and the rational principle employed." 25 There are three "fathers" of Utilitarianism , Jeremy Bentham, James Mill , and his son John ... Stuart Mill who refined and expanded upon his father’s work. This ethical position states that the...Islam, Hinduism, Buddhism, and the indigenous religions of Africa; Western and Eastern philosophers, Aristotle, Mill , Confucius, Storer, and Rand to
En introduktion til egen oversættelse af den amerikanske filosof John Deweys politiske hovedværk Offentligheden og dens problemer (The Public and its Problems), som både udlægger Deweys tanker og demokrati og diskuterer deres nutidige relevans.......En introduktion til egen oversættelse af den amerikanske filosof John Deweys politiske hovedværk Offentligheden og dens problemer (The Public and its Problems), som både udlægger Deweys tanker og demokrati og diskuterer deres nutidige relevans....
Roxanne K. Vandermause PhD, RN
Full Text Available This article describes, exemplifies and discusses the use of the philosophical hermeneutic interview and its distinguishing characteristics. Excerpts of interviews from a philosophical hermeneutic study are used to show how this particular phenomenological tradition is applied to research inquiry. The purpose of the article is to lay out the foundational background for philosophical hermeneutics in a way that clarifies its unique approach to interviewing and its usefulness for advancing health care knowledge. Implications for health care research and practice are addressed.
Strangely, the concept of philosophical education is not much in use, at least not as a "philosophical" concept. In this essay, Steinar Boyum attempts to outline such a philosophical concept of philosophical education. Boyum uses Plato's Allegory of the Cave, Rene Descartes's life of doubt, and Immanuel Kant's criticism of metaphysics as paradigms…
Mark Garrett Longaker
Full Text Available John Locke, long associated with the “standard” approach to fallacies and the “logical” approach to valid inference, had both logical and dialectical reasons for favoring certain proofs and denigrating others. While the logical approach to argumentation stands forth in Locke’s philosophical writings (such as the Essay Concerning Human Understanding, a dialectical approach can be found in his contributions to public controversies regarding religion and toleration. Understanding Locke’s dialectical approach to argumentation not only makes his work more relevant to the contemporary discipline of informal logic, but this understanding also prompts a reconsideration of Locke’s rhetorical purpose. He approached argumentation dialectically (and logically because he wanted to appeal to a universal audience of free rational subjects, people not unlike the real historical audience whom Locke addressed: radical Whigs, latitudinarian Anglicans, early-Enlightenment philosophes.
Elena Achkovska Leshkovska
Full Text Available Since 1983, when Howard Gardner published his theory of multiple intelligences, educators have begun to incorporate this new model into school programs. However, the idea of multimodal teaching is hardly a new concept. Many pioneers of modern education, such as: J. J. Rousseau, J.H. Pestalozzi, M. Montessory, J. Dewey, suggested educational models that oppose uniformity and predominantly verbal teaching. The aim of the research presented in this paper is to identify and compare compatible elements of educational ideas of John Dewey and Howard Gardner. The research is based on historical-comparative method and content analysis technique and is focused on exploring three key elements of intersection: curriculum, methods of teaching and learning, and teachers’ role. Regarding the curriculum, both authors prefer integrated and thematic curriculum based on real-life context. They also agree on student-centred teaching where implementation of variety of active methods of learning will give opportunity to students to express their specific identity. Teacher’s role in both concepts is to link students’ personal experiences and characteristics to the material being studied and to the school life in general. The findings imply that educational implications of Gardner’s theory can be considered as a continuation of Dewey’s progressive vision of classroom teaching and school organization.
Full Text Available Different philosophers pondered on Proust’s novel, including those who formulated a subtle hypothesis that philosophical thought that emerged from the novel went beyond the passages of philosophical character that could be found in Proust’s work. It is difficult to determine precisely Proust’s approach towards the novel which he, alternately, favors or disdains. A hypothesis has been formulated that In Search of Lost Time shapes the fiction in the style of Shelling’s and Schopenhauer’s philosophy; it is pointed out that the novelist developed a kind of rivalry between him and his second cousin Bergson. Proust received a thorough education in philosophy yet philosophy is only present in his novel in an anecdotal form. The debate that he starts between idealism and philosophical realism in his prose takes the form of a discussion between symbolism and naturalism. The reconstruction of Proust’s philosophical culture leads to the observation that it is, without a doubt, significantly influenced in different ways by two philosophers: Leibniz and Kant. Still, the writer does not admit to being impacted by any particular thinker; therefore, his narrator’s line of thought is constantly changing in such a way that any school of philosophical thought that appears in the novel is present only for a short while.
Lorentzen, Rasmus Fink
Men hvordan hænger det sammen med ideen om det 21. århundredes kompetencer? Jeg vil i det følgende pege på flere sammenhænge mellem synet på læring, pædagogik og fag hos Dewey og udvalgte elementer i 21CS. Begrundelsen for dette er, at 21CS kun er et meget overordnet begreb, der ikke rummer...... at udvikle konkrete og praksisnære didaktiske design. At pege på Deweys tilgang som et fundament er et bud på ét svar i denne sammenhæng....
We shall consider the philosophical roots of cosmology in the earlier Greek philosophy. Our goal is to answer the question: Are earlier Greek theories of pure philosophical-mythological character, as often philosophers cited it, or they have scientific character. On the bases of methodological criteria, we shall contend that the latter is the case. In order to answer the question about contemporary situation of the relation philosophy-cosmology, we shall consider the next question: Is contemporary cosmology completely independent of philosophical conjectures? The answer demands consideration of methodological character about scientific status of contemporary cosmology. We also consider some aspects of the relation contemporary philosophy-cosmology.
In my contribution, I will show the ways by which philosophers have treated the topic of space-travel before and after its implementation. I will discuss the following points: a) Introduction: the human condition. b) Philosophers before spaceflight: the Astolfo Protocol. c) Philosophers after spaceflight: the Promethean suspect. In this paper I will emphasize the elements of two different and alternative visions of spaceflight that can be found in the Western tradition of philosophical thought.
Guilherme Perez Cabral
Full Text Available RESUMO: O artigo tem por objetivo a reflexão sobre a educação para a democracia, no âmbito do Estado Democrático de Direito, no Brasil, fundamentando-a na filosofia social do pragmatista norte-americano John Dewey e do representante da "segunda geração" da Escola de Frankfurt, Jürgen Habermas. À luz do conceito de discurso e de seu potencial de aprendizagem racional, cognitiva e moral, propõe hermenêutica enriquecida do projeto constitucional de 1988, em que, superando o passado autoritário brasileiro, educação e democracia constituam experiências comunicativas indissociáveis na realização do projeto moderno de emancipação.
En diskussion af nationalstat og demokrati i lyset af John Dewey vendingen 'a wider social aim' fra bogen Democracy and Education......En diskussion af nationalstat og demokrati i lyset af John Dewey vendingen 'a wider social aim' fra bogen Democracy and Education...
Full Text Available In my contribution, I will show the ways by which philosophers have treated the topic of space-travel before and after its implementation. I will discuss the following points: a Introduction: the human condition. b Philosophers before spaceflight: the Astolfo Protocol. c Philosophers after spaceflight: the Promethean suspect. In this paper I will emphasize the elements of two different and alternative visions of spaceflight that can be found in the Western tradition of philosophical thought.
In this article, the author examines Dewey's moral deliberation. Liu argues that Dewey's work will enrich both character education and Kohlberg's moral education. Liu focuses on character education and on Kohlberg's moral education because these are the two dominant approaches. Character education seeks to cultivate good…
Bargioni, Stefano; Caputo, Michele; Gambardella, Alberto; Gentile, Luigi
The increasing availability of online catalogs and bibliographical databases allows not only for copy cataloging, but also for the retrieval of atomic information useful within the catalog. To this end, Dewey decimal numbers were imported from national and international sources by means of the unique identifier ISBN.Technical specifications have been developed to locate the records to be retrieved, to query external databases, to extract the Dewey decimal classification numbers and add them t...
This paper examines the use of the Dewey Decimal Classification (DDC) system at the U. S. Conn Library at Wayne State College (WSC) in Nebraska. Several developments in the last 20 years which have eliminated the trend toward reclassification of academic library collections from DDC to the Library of Congress (LC) classification scheme are…
Items 1 - 26 of 26 ... Archives: Philosophical Papers. Journal Home > Archives: Philosophical Papers. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register · Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives. 1 - 26 of 26 Items. 2008. Vol 37 ...
Different philosophers pondered on Proust’s novel, including those who formulated a subtle hypothesis that philosophical thought that emerged from the novel went beyond the passages of philosophical character that could be found in Proust’s work. It is difficult to determine precisely Proust’s approach towards the novel which he, alternately, favors or disdains. A hypothesis has been formulated that In Search of Lost Time shapes the fiction in the style of Shelling’s and Schopenhauer’s philos...
Full Text Available This paper is about the notion of conflict in the work of John Dewey. Special attention is given to Democracy and Education (1916 because of its centennial and its acclaimed status of “magnum opus”. After depicting “conflicts as gadflies” that stir thinking—reflection and ingenuity—and relating it to Socrates, in particular, we present a definition of conflict that guides our research. From then on a detailed analysis is carried out on the different notions of conflict in Democracy and Education. It is concluded that Dewey spends considerable attention to the place of conflict in education in Democracy and Education. We identified 14 distinct references to conflict. The notions range from conflicts between traditional and modern education, retrospective and prospective aims of education, the conflict between closing off and opening up of education, social and national aims of education, conflicts between certain knowledge and thinking, between ready-made and problem-posing education, between holding to customs and tradition or aiming at social change, between easy to chew education or allowing to make mistakes, between researching contrary beliefs or following proclaimed truth, conflicts between individual aims or the aim of society, and vocational versus intellectual education. Conflicts are conditional for “reflection and ingenuity” is Dewey’s most iconic conception of conflicts. Conflicts challenge thought by questioning and doubting certain knowledge. The act involves a risk. We ask two questions at the end of this paper. The first is about the nature of contradictions and the second is about the use of conflicts in education. We propose that Dewey was too engaged in resolving contradictions and dualism to understand the positive, constructive, and conditional nature of conflicts for education. We need our opponents to grow and we suggest that we probably do not use them enough in education. Concerning the practical use of
Carpenter, Audrey T
John Theophilus Desaguliers made his mark on the eighteenth century in several diverse ways. He was an assistant to Sir Isaac Newton and later elucidated the difficult concepts of Newtonian physics in private lectures. He was a member of the Royal Society, and was presented with the Society's highest honour, the Copley Medal, no less than three times. He was a pioneering engineer: the water supply of Edinburgh, the ventilation of the Houses of Parliament and the first Westminster Bridge all owed him a debt. In a different sphere, Desaguliers became the third Grand Master of the Grand Lodge of
What is Educational Technology? An Inquiry into the Meaning, Use, and Reciprocity of Technology / Qu’est-ce que la technologie pédagogique ? Un examen de la signification, de l’utilisation et de la réciprocité de la technologie
Full Text Available This position paper explores the ambiguity of technology, toward refined understanding of Educational Technology. The purpose of education is described by John Dewey as growing, or habitual learning. Two philosophical conceptions of technology are reviewed. Dewey positions inquiry as a technology that creates knowledge. Val Dusek offers a “consensus definition,” a systems approach to technology that merges into social construction theory and actor-network theory, both of which emphasize complex relations between humans and technology. Using Dewey and Dusek as reference, literature related to Educational Technology is reviewed. A history of its definitions and conceptions of hard (material technology and of soft (process technology are examined. Three brief case studies reveal a bias toward hard technology in contemporary discourse. A misconception that soft technology begins with pre-authenticated knowledge is identified and shown to obscure the reciprocity between technology and the intellect. Cet exposé de position se penche sur l’ambiguïté de la technologie en vue de raffiner la compréhension de la technologie pédagogique. L’objectif de l’éducation est décrit par John Dewey comme étant un apprentissage croissant ou habituel. Deux conceptions philosophiques de la technologie sont examinées. Dewey considère l’enquête comme une technologie qui crée le savoir. Val Dusek offre une « définition consensuelle », une approche systémique de la technologie qui rejoint la théorie de la construction sociale et la théorie de l’acteur-réseau, qui mettent toutes deux l’accent sur les relations complexes entre les humains et la technologie. Utilisant Dewey et Dusek comme référence, la documentation portant sur la technologie pédagogique est examinée. L’historique des définitions et conceptions de la technologie « dure » (matérielle et de la technologie « douce » (processus est examiné. Trois courtes études de
Seaman, Jayson; Nelsen, Peter J.
This article examines Dewey's concept of "experience" in light of his analysis of industrial capitalism, his anthropological thinking, and his critique of early 20th century educational ideologies, giving the concept a more expansive meaning than what is typically represented in the educational literature. We also outline the specific curricular…
This paper addresses Dewey's complex notion of vocation--particularly his idea of multiple vocational activities--and relates it to educating for vocation in colleges and universities. The author argues that higher educators can best respect a student's autonomy as a chooser--with multiple potential vocations--by giving him or her multiple…
In Chapter VIII of "Democracy and Education", Dewey objects to all three of the following propositions: (1) education serves predefined aims; (2) Education serves aims that are external to the process of education; and (3) Education serves aims that are imposed by authority. From the vantage point of policy-makers and authors of…
L. van Bunge (Wiep)
textabstractThe occurrence of an entry on early modern philosophical systems in an encyclopaedia of Neo-Latin studies is fraught with complications, if only on account of the gradual disappearance during the early modern period of Latin as the main vehicle of philosophical communication. What
Contemporary understanding of technology education owes much to Enlightenment-based beliefs in education for citizenship, especially in the work of Condorcet and Dewey. However, another legacy of their work is an uncritical belief in technological advancement as a benchmark for the progress of civilization. (SK)
Mitchell, Joan S
Can the Dewey Decimal System meet the needs of the rapidly changing information environment?Moving Beyond the Presentation Layer explores the Dewey Decimal System from a variety of perspectives, each of which peels away a bit of the ?presentation layer??the familiar linear notational sequence-to reveal the content and context offered by the DDS. Library professionals from around the word examine how the content and context offered by the DDS can evolve to meet the needs of the changing information environment, with a special focus on the impact of the Internet on current and future
Full Text Available John Rawls, American contemporary philosopher, has chosen the title of constructivism for his views on philosophy of ethics and politics. The base of his veiws is the same as the theory of social contract which has been discussed before by John Locke and Imanuel Kant. Rawls completes this view by the condition of impartiality and fairness , which is distinguished by ignorance about the position of self (the veil of ignorance in primary situation. Rawls criticises intutionism and utilitarianism and holds an antirealistic approach towards ethics . The theory that has been delivered by Allame Tabatabee (the constructional perception caused agreements and disagreements, but his idea seems to be new and effective in Islamic philosophy. Based on this idea many conceptions are constructive including goodness , badness and justice. The aim of this paper is to analyse and give a comparison between these ideas and studies similarities and differences with regard to topics such as antirealism, objectivity, criteria of justification and separation of science and ethics.
Full Text Available This paper concerns the relation between philosophy and philosophical practice in the husserlian paradigm of phenomenology. The role and the method that Husserl conceives for the philosopher are related unavoidably to his theoretical system. During his long and hard work, he deals with the question of the genesis of logic in the platonic-aristotelic dichotomy, with the connection between philosophy and objective sciences and with the problem of phenomenology as descriptive practice. Thanks to this reflections, in The crisis of european sciences he conceives the role of the philosopher with a precise historical and ethical function. This new model represents one of the last philosophical systems as a universal theory.
The paper discusses the manner and extent to which Epicurean ethics can serve as a general philosophy of life, capable of supporting philosophical practice in the form of philosophical counseling. Unlike the modern age academic philosophy, the philosophical practice movement portrays the philosopher as a personal or corporate advisor, one who helps people make sense of their experiences and find optimum solutions within the context of their values and general preferences. Philosophical counse...
This article applies criteria for validity in interpretation to Eric Donald Hirsch, Jr.'s interpretations of John Dewey. Specifically, three criteria that Hirsch, himself, established in his earlier work are used to evaluate Hirsch's interpretation of John Dewey as a member of a class (romantics) who embraced a naive naturalism (trait) more often…
(Abstract What is a voice in the context of the arts and philosophy? In the space of the philosopher's voice, in the complex grammar of his language is played his philosophical timbre, his own space, his particular voice, composed of concepts, articulated by the laws of coherence of the common philosophical language, with hypnotic specificities. These specificities are precisely the fruit of processes formerly called rhetoric, which I call non-hypnotics (of generalized hypnotic space, one of whose functions is just to speak in a double space: the common reference space of the reader or listener, and the conceptual virtual space peculiar to the philosopher. To the extent that the reader must pay increased and permanent attention to this double space, the philosophical trance effect, equivalent to the Ericksonian hypnotic trance, is facilitated. The difficulty of this double reading is the incessant passage from one code to another, which is also a hypnotic fascination. Heidegger prolongs and renews its structures and draws some effects from them, which provoke in the mind of the reader as an over-flow, a saturation effect, which itself favors the philosophical trance. Thus, each voice seeks to captivate the mind by confusing it with concepts, which seem at first sight familiar, but which reveal themselves with the use which is made, like formidable concepts to the power of unaccustomed fascination. One of the pleasures of reading Lareuelle's philosophy is due to this type of fascination with the philosophical voice and its language.
Educators frequently fret over how to bridge the gap between theory and practice. In an important sense, it is a false problem. Theory is simply the thoughtful, reflective phase of good practice. We will approach Dewey's philosophy as one of continuous creation and re-creation or even more precisely, social co-creation, that requires making…
Full Text Available Is it possible to do philosophy by writing lyric poems—or reading them? How can a poem be genuinely philosophical, and can a philosophical poem do something that straightforward philosophical writing cannot do? Some have suggested that poems and philosophical writings have different aims and are subject to different and conflicting demands, which would render it difficult if not impossible to write a successful philosophical poem. I suggest that while this is true with respect to the aims of the standard academic philosophical journal essay, there is a different way of doing philosophical work—one that pays close attention to actual thought processes and that dramatizes the interplay of ideas—that lyric poetry is quite well suited to take on. Such work may be significant not only in helping us better understand human consciousness, but in letting us grasp insights and aspects of our experience of the world which the philosophical demand for simple, unified theories might otherwise tempt us to minimize or ignore altogether.
Dewey's philosophy of experience has aesthetic experience at its core as he melds artificial dualities between thinking and experiencing [Dewey, J. 1934. "Art as Experience." In "John Dewey the Later Works," 1925-1953, Vol. 10. 1988, edited by J. Boydston, 1-352. Carbondale: Southern Illinois University Press]. This deeply…
John Dewey came to Japan on February 9, 1919 and stayed for about two months. Then he sailed for China on a visit which was to lengthen to two years. The purpose of this paper is to study JohnDewey’s thought on the liberalism in Japan and the international relations in the Far East. Dewey discussed the conditions of liberalism and democracy in Japan after the First World War. Dewey realized how systematic is the emperor-cult and how completely it becomes a part of the subconscious mental appa...
In "A Common Faith", Dewey rejects organized religion and belief in the supernatural, instead arguing for an authentically "religious" attitude which this interpretive essay analyzes in terms of four propositions: (1) Knowledge is unified. (2) Knowledge is democratic. (3) The pursuit of moral ideals requires moral faith. (4) The authority for…
Armando Pego Puigbó
Full Text Available In this essay a philosophical approach to the dramatic universe of William Shakespeare is proposed beyond the historic, social or aesthetic interpretations which are usual in some current critical theories. Its aim is not primarily to highlight only the philosophical intuitions which are contained in the Shakespere’s work, but to try to show the close philosophical condition of its literary imagination. Though avoiding the excess of the Bardolatry, it is necessary to reexamine the paradoxical relationship which the tragic model of Shakespeare maintains with some categories —and not the rules— of the Aristotelean Poetics. In putting them in check, it may be observed how the theatrical energy of Shakespeare has unveiled some ambiguous territories that the contemporary philosophy is groping as places of the modern invention of «human». Hamlet will be used as example of this capacity to raise a moral and aesthetic debate in interpretations of authors as C. Schmitt, S. Cavell, F. Ricordi o R. Girard.
The article focuses on the different conceptual and philosophical approaches towards the sciences of life operating in the backstage of Early Cybernetics. After a short reconstruction of the main steps characterizing the origins of Cybernetics, from 1940 until 1948, the paper examines the complementary conceptual views between Norbert Wiener and John von Neumann, as a "fuzzy thinking" versus a "logical thinking", and the marked difference between the "methodological individualism" shared by both of them versus the "methodological collectivism" of most of the numerous scientists of life and society attending the Macy Conferences on Cybernetics. The main thesis sustained here is that these different approaches, quite invisible to the participants, were different, maybe even opposite, but they could provoke clashes, as well as cooperate in a synergic way.
Bion guides us to eschew memory, desire, and understanding in order to become one with O-the ultimate reality of the analytic moment. However, his directions are valid only to the extent that such a meta-reality actually exists. Otherwise there is nothing to unite with and no reason to shun memory or desire. The present work inquires whether we may provide Bion's technique with a less speculative philosophy, specifically Dewey's pragmatist theory of aesthetics. It begins with reviewing the similarities between the two writers' methods, highlighting their shared emphasis on openness to the unknown. Yet listening to their intonations reveals that they actually convey opposite ideas as to what this "unknown" may be. Whereas Dewey sanguinely portrays the possibilities of the "yet-unknown," Bion emphasizes the dread of our inescapable encounter with the unknowable. This dread is embodied in his concept of O. Thus, rather than being merely a metaphysical speculation, O communicates Bion's conviction that fear forms the core of our existence. Banishing O from the counseling room may indeed aid his method in becoming accessible to a wider audience; at the same time, however, doing so might also deprive it of the very context that gives it meaning. © 2015 by the American Psychoanalytic Association.
Joaquín Ordóñez Sedeño
Full Text Available El objetivo general es analizar la educación jurídica democrática en la univer- sidad pública para determinar su grado de aplicación; lo anterior se justifica considerando la importancia que tiene la universidad pública como elemento indispensable en la formación de ciudadanos que se deben insertar en una dinámica social que incluye involucrarse en la política estatal. La universi- dad ha sido, y debe seguir siendo, la formadora por excelencia y por tradición de hombres aptos política y socialmente, de individuos que sean capaces de involucrarse en su Estado. El beneficio que se espera obtener del análisis pre- tendido es hacia la universidad pública y su democracia –cuya connotación no debe ser solamente en relación con la forma de gobierno– y finalmente hacia la propia sociedad que recibe el producto terminal de la máxima casa de estudios. Por ello, se revisa si son aplicables los postulados de Dewey respecto a la educación jurídica democrática en la universidad pública y se considera que sí son aplicables, ya que proponen procesos de educación destinados a la formación de ciudadanos con habilidades y capacidades ex profeso, y la universidad pública tiene como objetivo la formación humanística de los in- dividuos y de los ciudadanos insertos en un ámbito estatal.
This article introduces the idea of philosophical sociology as an enquiry into the relationships between implicit notions of human nature and explicit conceptualizations of social life within sociology. Philosophical sociology is also an invitation to reflect on the role of the normative in social life by looking at it sociologically and philosophically at the same: normative self-reflection is a fundamental aspect of sociology's scientific tasks because key sociological questions are, in the last instance, also philosophical ones. For the normative to emerge, we need to move away from the reductionism of hedonistic, essentialist or cynical conceptions of human nature and be able to grasp the conceptions of the good life, justice, democracy or freedom whose normative contents depend on more or less articulated conceptions of our shared humanity. The idea of philosophical sociology is then sustained on three main pillars and I use them to structure this article: (1) a revalorization of the relationships between sociology and philosophy; (2) a universalistic principle of humanity that works as a major regulative idea of sociological research, and; (3) an argument on the social (immanent) and pre-social (transcendental) sources of the normative in social life. As invitations to embrace posthuman cyborgs, non-human actants and material cultures proliferate, philosophical sociology offers the reminder that we still have to understand more fully who are the human beings that populate the social world. © London School of Economics and Political Science 2014.
Whether all educationists were philosophers or not, one thing is clear--that all philosophers were educationists--directly or indirectly. May it be Plato, Aristotle, Rousseau or Dewey, they all came up with the notion that to bring about any change at a greater level in a society, change in its educational system is fundamental. Dr. Mohammad…
Tishchenko, P D
Ten years of development in Russian bioethics presents significant progress. At the beginning of the 90s bioethics was practically unknown for Russian medical doctors, philosophers and the public. Since the year 2000 bioethics has become an obligatory course for all medical students. The Russian Orthodox Church published the same year "The Social Doctrine" that included a special part "The Church and Problems of Bioethics." Different bioethical problems are often discussed in the mass media. The development of Russian bioethics proves the basic understanding of ethics presented by John Dewey--ethics is a function of the moral life of the community. Norms are good or bad mostly as instruments that could be used in everyday life to solve real problems people meet.
Ruiz, Maria R; Roche, Bryan
As scientists and practitioners, behavior analysts must make frequent decisions that affect many lives. Scientific principles have been our guide as we work to promote effective action across a broad spectrum of cultural practices. Yet scientific principles alone may not be sufficient to guide our decision making in cases with potentially conflicting outcomes. In such cases, values function as guides to work through ethical conflicts. We will examine two ethical systems, radical behaviorism and functional contextualism, from which to consider the role of values in behavior analysis, and discuss potential concerns. Finally, we propose philosophical pragmatism, focusing on John Dewey's notions of community and dialogue, as a tradition that can help behavior analysts to integrate talk about values and scientific practices in ethical decision making. PMID:22478484
Full Text Available John Rawls, American contemporary philosopher, has chosen the title of constructivism for his views on philosophy of ethics and politics. The base of his veiws is the same as the theory of social contract which has been discussed before by John Locke and Imanuel Kant. Rawls completes this view by the condition of impartiality and fairness , which is distinguished by ignorance about the position of self (the veil of ignorance in primary situation. Rawls criticises intutionism and utilitarianism and holds an antirealistic approach towards ethics . The theory that has been delivered by Allame Tabatabee (the constructional perception caused agreements and disagreements, but his idea seems to be new and effective in Islamic philosophy. Based on this idea many conceptions are constructive including goodness , badness and justice. The aim of this paper is to analyse and give a comparison between these ideas and studies similarities and differences with regard to topics such as antirealism, objectivity, criteria of justification and separation of science and ethics.
Waddington, David I.
This paper is dedicated to the investigation of an important, but not particularly well known, connection between the work of Hegel and Dewey's early educational ideas. A brief exposition of Hegel's position in the "Philosophy of Right" is offered, with a particular focus on Hegel's idea of absolute freedom. This exposition is followed by an…
Mason, Lance E.
This paper explores the significance of Dewey's "Democracy and Education" for "21st-century education," a term used by proponents of curricular standardization and digital ubiquity in classrooms. Though these domains have distinct advocacy groups, they often share similar assumptions about the primary purposes of schooling as…
Seaman, Jayson; Quay, John
In this response to Molly Ware's review of our 2013 book, "John Dewey and Education Outdoors," we extend her suggestion that complexity be regarded as an important, generative force in education reform. Drawing on Dewey's 1933 "Utopian Schools" speech, we discuss the "level deeper" that Dewey sought as he…
This article considers the specificity of the genre of philosophical biography and brings to light its conceptual grounds. “Philosophical biography” is defined as an understanding of human life, which has received not only a literary but also a philosophical form of expression. It shows that philosophical biography has a variety of features, which limit the applications of chronology, rubrication and other principles of organizing in a linear manner the material of a biography. In this contex...
Published also under the short title 'Stars' this essay was written for Gunaratnam, Y. and A. Chandan (editors) A Jar of Wild Flowers: Essays in Honour of John Berger (2016) London: Zed. It concerns the concept of intensity in Berger's writing, not as a simple theatricality, nor a search for something truer to life, but is a philosophical stance that concerns political equality. It discusses this in relation to a moment in my own research in the cemetery in Santiago, Chile.
Full Text Available This article aims to examine the act of sound sensation in John Tavener Work (1944-2013 following the idea of logic of sensation created by Gilles Deleuze (1925-1995 and phenomenology of the body Xavie Zubiri (1898-1983. Through the concepts of from both philosophers it might be possible to draw the sound experience of vibration that proposes the sacred art of minimalism in the Anglo- Saxon composer.Lo que busca este artículo es investigar el bello y difícil acto de la sensación sonora de la obra de John Tavener (1944-2013 a la luz de una lógica de la sensación de Gilles Deleuze (1925-1995 y de la fenomenología del cuerpo de Xavie Zubiri (1898-1983. Creemos que con los conceptos acuñados por ambos filósofos pueden dar cuenta de un modo más acabado de ese estilo único de la experiencia sonora en la vibración que propone el arte sacro de la música minimal del compositor anglosajón.
Given that there is much disagreement as to what constitutes 'philosophy', even among philosophers, it is a challenge to provide a philosophical perspective. There are, however, at least two areas that most philosophers would regard as coming within the terrain of philosophical thinking: (1) the clarification of issues and (2) providing some sort of a foundation on which further thinking can take place. Thus, by way of contributing a philosophical perspective to the discussion, this paper will clarify some of the more fundamental issues regarding ethical debates in the hope of establishing some kind of theoretical foundation on which to base the discussion of the more specific issues and of widening the scope of the discussion. (authors)
Simpson, Douglas J.; Sacken, D. Mike
In this study we analyze Dewey's writings and related literature in order to explain and utilize his ethical principle of regard for one's self, others and social groups. His reflections about consequences, the common good, accountability and responsibility undergo scrutiny too. Moreover, we probe his understanding of affections, interest and…
Abowitz, Kathleen Knight
Accepts the premise of Rene Arcilla's article, "Why Aren't Philosophers and Educators Speaking to One Another?" asking how philosophers of education of a Deweyan character can occupy the intermediary position between philosophy and education with their different languages, contexts, and concerns. The essay uses examples from the work of…
Museum and gallery educators have become increasingly adept at creating environments that foster constructivist thinking, invite interaction and encourage activity. Leading museum educator, Hein, for example, directly attributes Dewey's influence, describing his ideas about experiences, as a 'crucial lesson for museum educators: engagement with…
and concepts: “language is autonomous”, “concept”, “seeing as”, “language-games”, etc. In this paper these philosophical thoughts and concepts combine so that they over time form recursive processes which spiral. These processes are taken as the philosophical foundation for researching the language and actions...... of the social actors in marketing systems. The unit of analysis for marketing systems and macromarketing issues is the idea in the recursive process and spiral. The introduction gives a brief overview of what is understood by macromarketing. Followed by a thorough explanation of many of Wittgenstein......This paper proposes a new philosophical foundation for analyzing macromarketing issues, and for further development of macromarketing theory, building on the language philosophy developed by the German/British philosopher Ludwig Wittgenstein. The building blocks are a number philosophical thoughts...
Luís Fernando S. C. de Araújo
Full Text Available Almost 50 years ago appeared the seminal article by Austin Bradford Hill where he presented parameters for inferring causes from statistical associations, which became known as Hill’s causal criteria. This was a milestone for the renewal of the idea of cause in medicine. Our article revisits his contribution in light of the ideas from the Australian philosopher John L. Mackie, whose important works on causality reached an audience distinct from Hill’s. We suggest that both the British epidemiologist and the Australian philosopher share the purpose of articulating probabilistic determinism and multi-causality, the first with a predominantly probabilistic model and the second with an analytical approach. This article explores the possible consequences of addressing these authors jointly in regard to causal inferences in medicine, especially in respect to mental disorders.
T. A. Kozlova
Full Text Available Introduction: The goals and values of human life, the search for the meaning of human existence contain the potential for a meaningful, progressive development of philosophical and anthropological ideas at any time in history. One of the tasks of philosophical anthropology is the formation of the image of man, the choice of ways to achieve the ideal, the methods of comprehension and resolution of universal problems. The increasing processes of differentiation in science led to the formation of different views on the nature of man, to the distinction between classical and non-classical philosophical anthropology. А comparative analysis of these trends is given in this article.Materials and methods: The dialectical method is preferred in the question of research methodology, the hermeneutic and phenomenological approaches are used.Results: The development of philosophical anthropology correlates with the challenges of modernity. By tracking the trends of human change, philosophical anthropology changes the approach to the consideration of its main subject of research. The whole array of disciplines that study man comes to new discoveries, new theories, and philosophical anthropology changes its view of the vision, challenging the principles of classical philosophical anthropology.Classical philosophical anthropology elevates the biological nature of man to a pedestal, non-classical philosophical anthropology actualizes questions of language, culture, thinking, understanding, actualizes the hermeneutic and phenomenological approaches. The desire to understand a person in classical philosophical anthropology is based on the desire to fully reveal the biological mechanisms in a person. The perspective of treating a person in nonclassical philosophical anthropology is polyformen: man as a text, as a dreaming self, as an eternal transition. Non-classical philosophical anthropology, goes from the idea of identity to the idea of variability, from
The Twentieth Century has seen a dramatic rise in the use of probability and statistics in almost all fields of research. This has stimulated many new philosophical ideas on probability. Philosophical Theories of Probability is the first book to present a clear, comprehensive and systematic account of these various theories and to explain how they relate to one another. Gillies also offers a distinctive version of the propensity theory of probability, and the intersubjective interpretation, which develops the subjective theory.
Kaplan, Allison G.
To some, discussing the demise of the Dewey Decimal Classification (DDC) system is tantamount to blasphemy, while to others it is a discussion long overdue (no pun intended). The author was asked, as an educator of librarians, to present her thoughts on the issue. Her conclusions are based not on thorough scientifically sound research, but rather…
Araújo, Luís Fernando S. C. de; Dalgalarrondo, Paulo; Banzato, Cláudio E. M.
Almost 50 years ago appeared the seminal article by Austin Bradford Hill where he presented parameters for inferring causes from statistical associations, which became known as Hill’s causal criteria. This was a milestone for the renewal of the idea of cause in medicine. Our article revisits his contribution in light of the ideas from the Australian philosopher John L. Mackie, whose important works on causality reached an audience distinct from Hill’s. We suggest that both the Bri...
Saitya Brata Das
Full Text Available Philosophical thinking, as it is thinking of existence, is essentially finite thinking. This is to say that as thinking of existence, philosophical thinking is essentially also thinking of finitude. This ‘also' is not the accidental relationship between existence and finitude. Rather, to think existence in its finitude, insofar as existence is finite, is to think existence in its existentiality. Philosophy that gives itself the task of thinking the relationship between existence and finitude, must in the same gesture, be concerned with its own finitude: to philosophize is not only to think the finitude of existence, but the very finitude of thinking that thinks finite existence. To philosophize is not only to philosophize the finitude of existence as such, but also in so far as philosophising itself is a task which is essentially in itself finite. To assume as the task of thinking the finitude of existence is to think the very finitude of philosophical thinking: this is the profound relationship that exists between existence and philosophy, which is that philosophizing existence and an existential philosophy are essentially finite. This is perhaps what Socrates says of philosophizing: ‘to philosophize is to learn how to die.' "To philosophize is to learn how to die": this is to say, to philosophize is to learn that philosophy and existence are essentially finite. Philosophy and existence belong to finitude and gifts of finitude; therefore to philosophize is to learn how existence is this gift. To be able to learn how existence is this gift of finitude, to be able to assume this gift that makes existence essentially finite, which is to be able to assume existence at all, is to be able to die.' Learning to die' then comes to signify the ability of dying, which is in the same gesture, the ability of existing: existence, and dying at the end must be this ability, of existing and dying. Philosophizing must provide, then, the learning of this
philosophical counseling by exploring its points of convergence to and deviation from its complimentary parts – philosophy and counseling. The practical and applied orientation of philosophical counseling seems worlds apart from what many consider to exemplify philosophy – theoretical, intellectual and abstract concern ...
In the early 1970s, Thomas Colwell argued for an "ecological basis [for] human community." He suggested that "naturalistic transactionalism" was being put forward by some ecologists and some philosophers of education, but independently of each other. He suspected that ecologists were working on their own versions of naturalistic transactionalism…
Philosophical Papers is a generalist journal of philosophy edited in the Department of Philosophy at Rhodes University. The journal appears three times a year; the November issue of every year is topic-based and guest-edited. The journal is published by Routledge (Taylor & Francis). Information regarding submissions ...
N. N. BOBICÃ
Full Text Available In this article, there are analyzed the historical circumstances in which is expressed the idea of state law and the contribution of English philosopher, John Locke, in stating that the principles that will be the basis for modern state law, namely: the supremacy of law in relation to all state institutions, the equality before the law, the sovereignty of the people, the state as the servant of the community and the executor of people’s will, the principle of separation of powers in the state. In this analysis it is highlighted the theoretical support of the ideas formulated by Locke - the theory of social contract - and how it is used to support such ideas. We appreciate that the fundamental idea that lays at the basis of the John Locke’s concept on state law is that the state is the only one defending the property of citizens, their freedom and their equality before the law.
How do major scientific discoveries reshape their originators’, and our own, sense of reality and concept of the physical world? The Scientist as Philosopher explores the interaction between physics and philosophy. Clearly written and well illustrated, the book first places the scientist-philosophers in the limelight as we learn how their great scientific discoveries forced them to reconsider the time-honored notions with which science had described the natural world. Then, the book explains that what we understand by nature and science have undergone fundamental conceptual changes as a result of the discoveries of electromagnetism, thermodynamics and atomic structure. Even more dramatically, the quantum theory and special theory of relativity questioned traditional assumptions about causation and the passage of time. The author concludes that the dance between science and philosophy is an evolutionary process, which will keep them forever entwined.
Attempts to describe the essential features of the Western philosophical tradition can often be characterized as "boundary work", that is, the attempt to create, promote, attack, or reinforce specific notions of the 'philosophical' in order to demarcate it as a field of intellectual inquiry. During the last century, the dominant tendency…
Mieczysław A. Krąpiec
Full Text Available The article is focused on the Lublin Philosophical School; it explains its name, presents its founders, reveals the causes of its rise, and introduce the specific character of the School’s philosophy.It starts with stating the fact that in the proper sense, the term “Lublin Philosophical School” describes a way of cultivating realistic (classical philosophy developed in the 1950s by a group of philosophers at the Catholic University of Lublin, Poland. The Lublin Philosophical School is characterized by cognitive realism (the object of cognition is really existing being, maximalism (taking up all existentially important questions, methodological autonomy (in relation to the natural-mathematical sciences and theology, transcendentalism in its assertions (its assertions refer to all reality, methodological-epistemological unity (the same method applied in objectively cultivated philosophical disciplines, coherence (which guarantees the objective unity of the object, and objectivity (achieved by the verifiability of assertions on their own terms, which is achieved by relating them in each instance to objective evidence. The term is the name of the Polish school of realistic (classical philosophy that arose as a response to the Marxism that was imposed administratively on Polish institutions of learning, and also as a response to other philosophical currents dominant at the time such as phenomenology, existentialism, and logical positivism.
Full Text Available The hypothesis from which we start our approach is the one according to which the philosophicaldiscourse is a specific way of communicating the reality. The base of the philosophical communication issurprise, doubt, uncertainty, anxiety, all generated by the fundamental interrogations of Kantian origin: Howmuch am I able to know? What do I have to do? What am I allowed to hope? The answers to all thesequestions were set up in philosophical concepts and visions, all of them leading to communication, trying toexpress themselves and make themselves understood. Communicability is the very essence of thephilosophical approach. Actually, communication is a fundamental philosophical attitude as I, in my capacityof human being, live only with the other, in full interaction. On my own I am nothing. Throughout this paperwe find arguments for the idea according to which the philosophical discourse subordinates an art ofgenuinely living and communicating about balance and avoidance of excess, about the ability to assume andovercome, about lucidity and wisdom, about credibility, certainty and truth, about freedom and limitation,about the meaning and value of the human condition.
Dimitrov, C T
The origins of psycho-analysis, like those of every other medico-psychological study, have their own particular scientific and specific social, historical and philosophical-theoretical presuppositions. Freud's philosophical genealogy is closely linked to classical german philosophy and subsequent philosophical movements. I. Kant, J.-F. Herbart, A. Schopenhauer, F. Nietzsche, E. v. Hartmann, G. T. Fechner, E. Mach, W. Ostwald, L. Feuerbach and others did not only emphasise the significance of drives and the unconscious in human behaviour, they also described many psychological mechanisms from depth psychology, (for example repression, condensation, substitution, sublimation). Some false theoretical trends in psycho-analysis (biologism, psychologism and simplifying psycho-energetics to simplify) can be explained to some extent by the influences mentioned above.
The other minds skeptic supposes there may be no minds other than his. The external world skeptic thinks there could be no world external to him. Some philosophers think a person can refute the skeptic and prove that his world is not the solitary scenario the skeptic supposes his could be. In this paper I examine one ...
At the outset of the French Revolution John Adams penned a series of Discourses of Davila, philosophical ruminations on the sixteenth-century French Wars of Religion. Recent historians have read these Discourses in terms of Adams's Machiavellianism-his conviction that men's passions lead to violence, if unrestrained. But this reading overlooks the extent to which Adams intended his Discourses as a particular investigation into the French nation's character, and into whether the revolutionaries could lay claim to a native, French tradition of mixed constitutional government. Situating the Discourses vis-à-vis Adams's contemporaneous reading of Montesquieu, this article argues for an underappreciated historicist dimension to his thought.
Full Text Available The study was to: (1 identify the interpretation toward the philosophical foundation of 2013 Curriculum; and (2 evaluate the philosophical foundation of 2013 Curriculum. In order to achieve these objectives, the researchers implemented the method of philosophy interpretation, namely a method that might discover an individual’s paradigm through the texts or the articles that he or she composed. Furthermore, in order to evaluate the philosophical foundation of 2013 Curriculum the researchers implemented certain criteria and this effort was supported by the expert interview. The data were analyzed by means of hermeneutic method, namely the presence of a relationship among the three elements namely text, interpreter and reader. The conclusions of the study then were as follows: (1 the interpretation toward the philosophical foundation of 2013 Curriculum contained six points namely: (a establishing and developing the nation’s attitude and civilization or the nation’s character, (b developing the curriculum based on the nation’s culture, (c referring to the fact that education had been a process of developing the learning participants’ potentials, (d referring to the fact that education had been based on the nation’s culture and experience in the past, (e referring to the fact that education had been basis of the nation’s life continuity and (f Referring to the fact that education had been adjusted to the life of the learning participants as an individual, a society member and a citizen; (2 the six philosophical reasons namely: (a perennialism, (b essentialism, (c progressivism, (d pragmatism, (e existentialism and (f reconstructionism; (3 the following evaluation results: (a the philosophical foundation of 2013 Curriculum based on the interpretation results had provided clear educational objectives and functions, (b the philosophical foundation of 2013 Curriculum had been in accordance to facts, (c the philosophical foundation of 2013
, this book reopens and rewrites the chapter in the history of early scientific psychology pertaining to the nature of E. B. Titchener’s psychological system. Arguing against the view that Titchener’s system was undone by an overreliance on introspection, the author explains how this idea was first introduced......This volume offers a new understanding of Titchener’s influential system of psychology popularly known as introspectionism, structuralism and as classical introspective psychology. Adopting a new perspective on introspectionism and seeking to assess the reasons behind its famous implosion...... in defiance of introspection, not because of introspection. The book is divided into three parts. In Part I, British associationism is examined thoroughly. The author here discusses the psychology of influential empiricist philosophers such as Thomas Hobbes, John Locke, David Hume, David Hartley, James Mill...
Scholars have noted PBL is consistent with John Dewey's educational theories and with constructivist philosophies. This paper explores the similarities between the assumptions within Howard Barrows' principles for the PBL tutor's actions with Dewey's theories that address teacher behaviors and with Carl Rogers's conceptual frameworks that support…
Roč. 35, č. 2 (2013), s. 173-196 ISSN 1210-0250 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP401/11/2338 Institutional support: RVO:67985955 Keywords : philosophical toys * scientific instruments * modern visual culture Subject RIV: AA - Philosophy ; Religion
A. B. Klimenko
Full Text Available The article is devoted to the research methodology of Hesychasm one of the most important schools of the Byzantine philosophy, which played a significant role in the development of modern civilization. However, to date it remains a kind of «terra incognita» for the world historical and philosophical thought. Hesychasm is a kind of Christian mystical worldview that is embodied in a certain spiritual practices that form the basis of Orthodox asceticism. Even half a century ago, history of philosophy left without attention of philosophical and theological teachings of the authors of the late antiquity and the early middle ages, be they Christian thinkers or the neoPlatonists. The era of postPlotins philosophers Neoplatonists or commentators on Aristotle considered as a period of decline of this philosophy and the time of the rise of irrationality. For the same reason it was considered that the system of Christian thinkers cannot and should not be subject to the historical and philosophical science. This fully relates Hesychasm. However, on the basis of works of the French philosopher P. Ado, the paper argues that philosophy in late antiquity when there is Hesychasm is first of all a way of life, and therefore Hesychasm can be considered as a specific philosophical school of Christian asceticism. The main modern method of historical and philosophical studies is the hermeneutical reconstruction of cultural meaning of the philosophical texts, however, Hesychasm cannot be reduced to the «amount of texts» or rational philosophical discourses. When learning is impossible not to take into account the existing experience, what is behind the lyrics: the experience of the inner purification, «the noetic prayer, which often has verbal reflection. Therefore, along with the use of hermeneutic and semiotic principles of research work with the texts, there is a problem of the analysis of the experience of spiritual practices. This requires the use
Physics concerns direct analysis of the physical world, while philosophy analyzes knowledge about the physical world. This volume combines both disciplines for a philosophical interpretation of quantum physics - an interpretation free from the imprecision of metaphysics, offering a view of the atomic world and its quantum mechanical results as concrete as the visible everyday world.Written by an internationally renowned philosopher who specialized in symbolic logic and the theory of relativity, this approach consists of three parts. The first section, which requires no background in math or p
Moyano-Grimaldo, Wilmer Arturo
Resumen Desde el año 1876, cuando Melvil Dewey publicó la primera edición de su sistema de clasificación bibliográfico, este ha ido evolucionando como un sistema de clasificación muy firme y adaptable que permite organizar de manera práctica el conocimiento, incluso en la Internet. El presente artículo, es derivado de una investigación doctoral desarrollada durante 5 años acerca de diferentes aspectos semánticos, epistemológicos, históricos y tecnológicos de la Clasificación Decimal Dewey, in...
The year 2016 marked the tenth anniversary of the death of John McGahern (born 1934), the widely acclaimed Irish author. There is a shared temper of mind and several common strands in the work of McGahern and that of the English philosopher, Michael Oakeshott (1900-1990). Despite the very different cultural environments in which they grew up and…
Dewey's definition of democracy from "Democracy and Education" (1916) is analysed and rethought through a path exploring a shift from a conception of participation as a process to one of association as an institution. Contributions to this pathway among others come from political philosophy and educational philosophy. The rationale for…
Matthews, Michael R.
Mario Bunge was born in Argentina in the final year of the First World War.He learnt atomic physics and quantum mechanics from an Austrian refugee who had been a student of Heisenberg. Additionally he taught himself modern philosophy in an environment that was a philosophical backwater. He was the first South American philosopher of science to be trained in science. His publications in physics, philosophy, psychology, sociology and the foundations of biology, are staggering in number, and include a massive 8-volume Treatise on Philosophy. The unifying thread of his scholarship is the constant and vigorous advancement of the Enlightenment Project, and criticism of cultural and academic movements that deny or devalue the core planks of the project: namely its naturalism, the search for truth, the universality of science, rationality, and respect for individuals. At a time when specialisation is widely decried, and its deleterious effects on science, philosophy of science, educational research and science teaching are recognised - it is salutary to see the fruits of one person's pursuit of the Big'' scientific and philosophical picture.
While focusing on "Democracy and Education," James Campbell attempts in this essay to offer a synthesis of the full range of John Dewey's educational thought. Campbell explores in particular Dewey's understanding of the relationship between democracy and education by considering both his ideas on the reconstruction of education and on…
Articles should be relevant to the analytic tradition in philosophy, understood broadly and including critiques of that tradition. All submissions are independently refereed. In most cases, decisions are based on reports from at least two referees. Final editorial decisions are made by the Editorial Board of Philosophical Papers.
Feinstein, Noah Weeth
In the 1920s, John Dewey and Walter Lippmann both wrote important books examining whether the public was capable of playing a constructive role in policy, particularly when specialized knowledge was involved. This essay uses the Lippmann-Dewey debate to identify new challenges for science education and to explore the relationship between science…
Smith, Dennis R.
In this article, the author compares the legacies of two remarkable educators--John Dewey and Maria Montessori. These include changes in education now so commonplace that is accepted as traditional. Both Montessori and Dewey lived long enough to see their ideas receive worldwide recognition and acceptance, along with a share of misunderstanding…
This contribution discusses the philosophical meaning of the Martin Heidegger’s Rectoral address. First of all, Heidegger’s philosophical basic experience is sketched as the background of his Rectoral address; the being-historical concept of “Anfang”. Then, the philosophical question of the Rectoral
Marshall, James D.
In this paper the author looks at two forms of philosophical argument or critique. These are derived by himself from the work of the late Kantian scholar, Stephan Korner who, in his book "What is Philosophy?" (1969), draws a number of distinctions between different forms of "philosophical" argument or critique. The two forms of derived argument,…
Full Text Available Plato’s political theory rests on metaphysical principles that are understandable to only a few. It is assumed that only a narrow group of philosophers is able to put this theory into practice, and using repressive measures. The fewer the initiated the greater the repression. It is assumed that those who do not know the truth can neither predict their destiny nor do anything to make it better because they are unable to understand the goal and purpose of the repression. It is demonstrated that, in the imagined use of force, the sophists, who do acknowledge it, resort to repression to a much lesser extent than Plato’s philosopher. At first, Plato’s philosopher rejects the use of force as virtue, but it turns out to be indispensible, and in incomparably more aspects than it was in the sophists’ case. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 179049
As a landmark philosopher of language and of mind, Ludwig Wittgenstein is also remarkable for having crossed, with apparent ease, the "continental divide" in philosophy. It is consequently not surprising that Wittgenstein's work, particularly in the "Philosophical Investigations," has been taken up by philosophers of education…
Bardos, G. (Kossuth Lajos Tudomanyegyetem, Debrecen (Hungary). Elmeleti Fizikai Tanszek)
The history and philosophy of the Japanese school of dialectical materialism and its influence on nuclear and particle physicists are discussed. The ideas of main characters of this philosophical school are summerized. Parallel physical and philosophical works of Sakata are analyzed.
Zoellner, Brian P.; Chant, Richard H.; Lee, Kosze
Our revised secondary teacher education professional development plan (PDP) project required preservice teachers to identify their teaching beliefs, use these beliefs to analyze practice, and create an action plan centered on a research question from this analysis. We predicted these plans would show evidence of Dewey's (1964) reflective…
Ballard, Ariane; Khadra, Christelle; Le May, Sylvie; Gendron, Sylvie
doctoral studies in nursing engage a critical reflections about philosophical traditions inherent to knowledge development. critical realism, hermeneutics, postmodernism and poststructuralism refer to philosophical traditions that are generally less explored in nursing, although they are attracting greater attention. this paper offers an introductory presentation to these traditions as the authors also reflect upon their contribution to nursing knowledge development in. for each tradition, ontological and epistemological properties are presented to provide an overview of their main features. Contributions to nursing knowledge development are then discussed. ontology refers to stratified, fixed and changing, or multiple realities, depending on the philosophical tradition. Likewise, epistemology emphasizes the explanatory power of knowledge, intersubjectivity, or inherent power dynamics. the diversity of philosophical traditions represents an asset that can significantly contribute to the advancement of the nursing discipline. clarification of the philosophical dimensions that underlie knowledge development is essential for doctoral nursing students in the process of developing their research projects and future programmes of research.
S. R. Karpenko
Is social-philosophical experts of success represent the complicated system of various world outlook, speech, mental factors and events in life of the various professional, age and subcultural bunches producing assessments under different visual angles, from positions of various social installations and identity in what the social philosophy of success expresses. In the course of forming social an expert (both in daily, and in an institutional discourse are shaped also theoretical ideas success: instrumental, is social-philosophical, is social-psychological, world outlook, historical and cultural, etc., characterising thereby various systems of a social discourse. Examination is social-philosophical the success expert shows the real complexity and ambiguity of the given appearance. Besides the presented typology constructed as the most approximate abstract plan, in each separate case probably build-up of typological models according to a principle ad hoc. It looks quite justified, considering that circumstance that representations about success and the successful person are constantly transformed and acquire new performances. Efficiency of the further examinations of a discourse and a success expert will depend on accepting of new heuristic approaches, capable to consider multidimensionality and ambiguity of the given phenomenon.
Anstey, Peter R; Principe, Lawrence M
In June 1668 Anthony Ashley Cooper, later to become the 1st Earl of Shaftesbury, underwent abdominal surgery to drain a large abscess above his liver. The case is extraordinary, not simply on account of the eminence of the patient and the danger of the procedure, but also because of the many celebrated figures involved. A trove of manuscripts relating to this famous operation survives amongst the Shaftesbury Papers in the National Archives at Kew. These include case notes in the hand of the philosopher John Locke and advice from leading physicians of the day including Francis Glisson, Sir George Ent and Thomas Sydenham. The majority of this material has never been published before. This article provides complete transcriptions and translations of all of these manuscripts, thus providing for the first time a comprehensive case history. It is prefaced with an extended introduction.
A. O. Karpenko
Full Text Available The purpose of the study is to determine the key strategies of philosophical criticism of Heidegger’s Black Notebooks, whose achievement is realized in the following tasks: 1 to identify the body of texts that represent the discourse of philosophical criticism of Heidegger notes; 2 to reveal the typological features of the different strategies of interpreting Black Notebooks; 3 to reconstruct a thematic horizon of Heidegger studies, opened up by discussion on published notes. The methodology combines elements of discourse analysis with traditional methods of historical and philosophical criticism. Scientific novelty is expressed in the following: 1 philosophical discourse of the Notebooks’ reception includes texts of narrowly specialized character (Gatherings collection of articles, as well as reflections of key philosophers (A. Badiou, J.-L. Nancy 2 basic strategies in philosophical critique of Black Notebooks convey the overall structure of the discourse of interpretation of Heidegger’s legacy, distributed between apologetics and ideological criticism; 3 Black Notebooks have exacerbated the problem of architectonics of Gesammtausgabe and formed the textual basis for the study of "silence" period in philosophical life of Heidegger. Conclusions. The discourse of philosophical critique of Heidegger’s notes proves evidence for ideological charge of philosophizing and justifies socially oriented approaches of historical and philosophical studies examining philosophizing as a special cultural practice, not as a form of sublime creativity.
Full Text Available The article is dedicated to the analysis of philosophic anthropology of the great Spanish artist of the 17th century Diego Velazquez. This anthropology is considered through the prism of the problems that set the life of contemporary Russia and its "reflections" in the present-day Russian artists' works. At that Velazquez's philosophical anthropology is reconstructed on the basis of his works. As a consequence, significant part of attention is paid to the method that allows performing such reconstruction. The author proceeds from the belief according to which not only written texts can be considered philosophically. The visual "texts" connected with certain world outlook component of art creative work undoubtedly possess definite semantics. Expressed by the language of art, such image lines contain intelligible sense component reconstruction of which can be subjected to strict scientific and philosophical analysis and corrected with its help. At that one should not think that the images are "translated" into "the text of words" - on the contrary, philosophical reconstruction implies not as "verbalization" of visual line as coherent to it logical mastering of the picture's sense (in this case against the background of historical and historical-philosophical "scenery". The urgency of turning to this problem is brought about by the fact that a number of questions that found vivid and coherent (as philosophical-anthropological research shows embodiment in Velazquez's creative work are extremely interesting for contemporary thinkers speaking the language of contemporary fine arts. "The topic of mirror" is among such questions and it deals with correlation of intellectual and rational in a person's consciousness, and, finally, there is the issue of the man as a bearer of moral principles. Comparison of attitudes shown by contemporary painting with Velazquez's ideas enables to trace the development of philosophical anthropology and in the area of its
Vilela, Denise Silva
This article examines the extent to which Wittgenstein's analytical framework may be relevant to philosophical reflection on ethnomathematics. The discussion develops Bill Barton's suggestion that a philosophical basis for the ethnomathematical program should include and explain culturally different mathematics systems, and the coexistence of…
Stojanov, Trajce; Unsal, Zeynep
Philosophers weren`t thinking a lot about terrorism before the terrorist attacks in the United States on 11 September 2001. Or even when they were thinking the main concern was how to deal with terrorism. But after this attack terrorism was high on the philosophical agenda mainly manifested as an ethical problem. The key concern was: can terrorism be morally justified? That is the issue we are dealing in this paper too. But, the answer of this question largely depends on the treatment of t...
Ingwersen, Anja Toft; Olesen, Joan
an ideal for the teaching, which also expresses a professional value set by the clinical teacher. They bring a set of values from the nursing profession into their teaching. The value set contains a very holisticand humanistic view of humanity. The clinical teacher are paying high attention to the well...... being of the individual, both personally and socially. They are looking at the individual student and her academic level as the basis for the learning, that is to take place in practice. This set of values reflects an experience-based and pragmaticapproach to learning, which in this project...... is represented by the American philosopher and educator John Dewey. When the clinical counselors plan and evaluate the student's internship, they are oriented towards the module description from the nursing program. This includes a number of learning goals that govern what is going to happen in practice. All 6...
This volume presents a selection of papers from the Poincaré Project of the Center for the Philosophy of Science, University of Lisbon, bringing together an international group of scholars with new assessments of Henri Poincaré's philosophy of science—both its historical impact on the foundations of science and mathematics, and its relevance to contemporary philosophical inquiry. The work of Poincaré (1854-1912) extends over many fields within mathematics and mathematical physics. But his scientific work was inseparable from his groundbreaking philosophical reflections, and the scientific ferment in which he participated was inseparable from the philosophical controversies in which he played a pre-eminent part. The subsequent history of the mathematical sciences was profoundly influenced by Poincaré’s philosophical analyses of the relations between and among mathematics, logic, and physics, and, more generally, the relations between formal structures and the world of experience. The papers in this col...
Murray, Gina C.
The purpose of this study was to examine the motivation and satisfaction of adult learners who participated in non-credit studio art classes. Leisure motivation has been researched by educators, philosophers, psychologists, and social scientists (Candy, 1991; Brookfield, 2005: Dewey, 1980; Knowles, 1998; Maslow, 1970; Rogers, 1961, Stebbins,…
Moreira-dos-Santos, Frederik; El-Hani, Charbel N.
This article discusses how to deal with the relations between different cultural perspectives in classrooms, based on a proposal for considering understanding and knowledge as goals of science education, inspired by Dewey's naturalistic humanism. It thus combines educational and philosophical interests. In educational terms, our concerns relate to…
Full Text Available Interactions of philosophical and journalistic spheres, mediatization of philosophy are main problems of this article. Author considers public philosophy of contemporary Ukrainian philosopher Serhiy Krymsky and determines a role of philosophical journalism in modern media discourse.
Rendtorff, Jacob Dahl
This article gives an overview of my book French Philosophy and Social Theory. A Perspective for Ethics and Philosophy of Management, published by Springer 2014. As an extension of my earlier work on French philosophy, this book provides an application of important concepts from contemporary French...... philosophy to business ethics and the ethics of organizations. Although the book covers a wide range of philosophers and philosophical movements, there is a core and deep unity of the book. This is the demonstration of how the conceptual resources of contemporary French philosophy from the early 20th Century...... to the present day can be applied to give us new perspectives on business ethics and the ethics of organizations....
Full Text Available A philosophy teacher should constantly raise the question about the form of philosophical education. Following this need I undertook the problem “what is the philosophizing” once again. The results of this reflection are the following paper presented. It has two main parts. In the first – I present the philosophizing as rational reasoning which has to do with science and with common sense thinking even. In thesecond part – I point out a set of properties specific to philosophizing.
In this article it was argued that philosophical counselling opens up new avenues for pastoral care and counselling. Philosophical counselling probes into the realm of different schemata of interpretation. A model for the making of a spiritual existential analysis was proposed in order to detect the impact of the Christian ...
I explore the influence of game theory on the political philosopher John Rawls as a way of analyzing the character of his democratic thought. Recent narratives bring Rawls closer to direct democracy as a result of game theory's influence. I argue that game theory prompted creative, organic developments in Rawls's political framework rather than shaping it. It prompted Rawls to emphasize autonomy and fairness, leading him to the analogy between a just society and a fair game. And it prompted thought experiments that analyzed our considered judgments. This was an idealized analysis unconnected to the vision of direct democracy.
Lamal, P A
The Philosophical Legacy of Behaviorism, edited by Bruce A. Thyer, is a set of original contributions, each dealing, from a behavioral stance, with one of the following major topics of philosophy: epistemology, ethics, consciousness, language, free will and determinism, and self-control. Confusions about radical behaviorism and its similarities to, and differences from, other behavioral and non-behavioral approaches are described in the book, which provides a state-of-the-art description of the philosophical underpinnings of behavior analysis.
Dariia M. Skalska
Full Text Available Purpose. To understand the dynamics of aesthetic conception as representative of the main directions of philosophical anthropology, identifying their contribution to the development of aesthetics and expand its research field. The condition of the study of the problem is the evolutionary process of adequateness, authenticity and alternativeness in determination of both the phenomenon of "aesthetic" and its role in philosophical and anthropological convention. Methodology. Both the measurements of aesthetic as a unique, peculiar, specific and aesthetic dimensions of philosophical anthropology /systems of philisophy/ have in sight the necessity to solve the same problem - the identification of new methodological basis. Theoretical results. The experience of theoretical researches of contemporary domestic and foreign philosophical and aesthetic schools іs generalized. The content of phenomenological and existential breakthrough in modern age of aesthetics іs revealed. The essence of "anthropological turn" in European philosophy of 20th century as philosophical paradigm of the modern age and its impact on development of aesthetic theories of post-classical period was investigated. Conclusion. Philosophical and anthropological studies have amounted the "methodological synthesis" that appeared as the theoretical principles of the understanding of aesthetics due to its polystylistics.
J W Gericke
Full Text Available In popular orthodox Christian philosophical theology, it is often taken for granted that the divine philosophised about is none other than the Hebrew deity YHWH himself. Moreover , it is often assumed that the Old� Testament depicts YHWH as being, inter alia, single, omnipotent, omniscient, omnipresent, and eternal. Now while it is to be admitted that there are indeed depictions of YHWH in the Old Testament in which his profile might be thought of as corresponding more or less to the popular philosophical ideal, it is also true that there are many representations that contradict it. In this article, the author looks at how the popular profile of� YHWH in the Old Testament as reconstructed by some philosophical theologians claiming to be �biblical�� is deconstructed when it is juxtaposed with alternative renderings of the divine in the same texts.
Bell, Randy; Abd-El-Khalick, Fouad; Lederman, Norman G.; Mccomas, William F.; Matthews, Michael R.
Research on the nature of science and science education enjoys a long history, with its origins in Ernst Mach's work in the late nineteenth century and John Dewey's at the beginning of the twentieth century. As early as 1909 the Central Association for Science and Mathematics Teachers published an article - A Consideration of the Principles that Should Determine the Courses in Biology in Secondary Schools - in School Science and Mathematics that reflected foundational concerns about science and how school curricula should be informed by them. Since then a large body of literature has developed related to the teaching and learning about nature of science - see, for example, the Lederman (1992)and Meichtry (1993) reviews cited below. As well there has been intense philosophical, historical and philosophical debate about the nature of science itself, culminating in the much-publicised Science Wars of recent time. Thereferences listed here primarily focus on the empirical research related to the nature of science as an educational goal; along with a few influential philosophical works by such authors as Kuhn, Popper, Laudan, Lakatos, and others. While not exhaustive, the list should prove useful to educators, and scholars in other fields, interested in the nature of science and how its understanding can be realised as a goal of science instruction. The authors welcome correspondence regarding omissions from the list, and on-going additions that can be made to it.
Semper, José Víctor Orón; Blasco, Maribel
by the transition from a teacher-centered education to a student-centered educational model that takes the student’s experience as the starting point of learning. In this article we turn to several philosophers of education (Dewey, Kohlberg, Whitehead, Peters and Knowles) to propose that HC can be made explicit...
Johnson, Raymond H.
This report releases groundwater geochemistry data from samples that were collected in June 2011 at the Dewey Burdock proposed uranium in-situ recovery site near Edgemont, South Dakota. The sampling and analytical methods are summarized, and all of the data, including quality assurance/quality control information are provided in data tables.
Full Text Available In “Rothbard as a philosopher” (Feser 2006 Edward Feser harshly criticises the philosophical abilities of Murray Rothbard. According to Feser, Rothbard seems unable to produce arguments that don’t commit obvious fallacies or produces arguments that fail to address certain obvious objections. His criticism centres on what he regards as Rothbard’s principal argument for the thesis of self-ownership. In this paper, I attempt to show that Feser’s criticism fails of its purpose and that Rothbard is very far from being the epitome of philosophical ineptitude that Feser takes him to be.
Full Text Available The essay reconstructs the various phases of the discovery of John Dewey’s ideas on Education and the spread of their influence throughout Italian pedagogical circles from the end of the Second World War to the 1970s. Several Italian intellectual pioneers discerned within Dewey’s theories significant overtones of democratic political activism, and the potential for developing innovative practices by which the obsolete education system of the day could be modernized, and the demands for better schooling being put forward by many could be met. In the immediate aftermath of the Second World War, one such pioneer was Ernesto Codignola, a shrewd educational theorist who used the journal «Scuola e Città» (Schooling and the City, published by La Nuova Italia publishing house, as a mouthpiece for his ideas. Once the American philosopher’s ideas had been rediscovered, his most significant works were quickly translated and published, and then subjected to a flurry of detailed critical analysis and interpretation. During the 1960s and ‘70s, much of the research into Dewey’s theories was carried out in Florence, in particular by Lamberto Borghi, who interpreted them as the blueprint for a secular, democratic system of education that could be applied across the Italian peninsula.
Hansen, Finn Thorbjørn
In this article I invite the reader to reconsider philosophical counselling and practice first of all as a pedagogical practice. Recent research in adult education and especially in the area of "self-directed learning" reveals a growing interest in the existential and philosophical dimensions...... of learning and guidance in the adult education setting. I suggest that we use philosophical counselling to strengthen the adult´s capacity for lifelong and self-directed learning and that philosophical practice in general could be connected to a new kind of "existential adult pedagogy"....
Full Text Available The present article falls within a number of papers about research on specification of philosophical novels. The aim of this article is to analyze author’s function as a narrative category in classical philosophical novels (Franz Kafka "The Trial" (1925, "The Castle" (1926, Jean-Paul Sartre "Nausea" (1938, Hermann Hesse "The Glass Bead Game" (1943, Albert Camus "The Plague" (1947 and a novel of Latvian prose writer Ilze Šķipsna "Neapsolītās zemes" ["Un-Promised Lands"] (1970. The analysis is based on theoretical ideas of structural narratologists Gerard Genette, William Labov, Seymuor Chatman, Wolf Schmid, as well as philosophers Edmund Husserl, Jean-Paul Sartre, Paul Ricouer and semioticians Yuri Lotman (Юрий Лотман and Umberto Eco. The real author can ”enter” the text only indirectly—as an image, with the help of the storyteller, and the way how this ”entry” happens is determined by the narration of the real author or narrative (communication skills of the author. Thus, the author and implied author are functionally different concepts: author as a real person develops the concept idea, his intention is to define the concept under his original vision; narrator, in its turn, communicates with the reader, representing the concept, and his aim is to select appropriate means of communication with regard to reader’s perceptual abilities.
Full Text Available The paper is treating the theme of a Kantian turning-point in the philosophical hermeneutics of H.- G. Gadamer based on of the harmonic relationship between metaphysics and science in Kantian philosophy from the point of view of the philosophical hermeneutics of Gadamer. The philosophical work of Kant had such an influence on Gadamer that without exaggerating we can talk about the Kantian turning-point in Gadamerian hermeneutics. Grondin, a former student of Gadamer, is talking about Kantian turning-point on the field of aesthetics, but in reality Kantian turning-point means much more than a mere change in the reception of the concept of judgement. It is a discovery of harmonical relationship between the beauty and the moral, between the reason and the sensitivity, between the modern sciences and the metaphysical tradition in the Kantian philosophy, made by Gadamer. This is what we call the Kantian turning-point in Gadamerian hermeneutics.
In this paper I examine the meaning of physical touch as it occurs in the nurse-patient interaction. There are two aspects of the nurse-patient relationship that are found in most nurse-patient interactions which together have profound implications for nurses as practitioners and as individual human persons. The first is the clinical intimacy of the nurse-patient relationship where nurses touch, rub, smooth, clean, dress and otherwise physically interact with patients. The other is the existential crisis, the possibility of loss, suffering and death that lurks at the horizon of most, if not all, healthcare encounters. Edmund Husserl, Merleau-Ponty and more recently Robert Sokolowski argue that tactile sensations and resultant perceptions are fundamental to all sensory perception. Further, they argue that tactile sensation is fundamental for the ongoing constitution of 'my' self as a person and for the development and exercise of human intersubjectivity. If tactile interaction is crucial to the development of our very selves as persons and a significant aspect of our interaction with patients includes direct or observed tactile sensations and if further these sensations occur around the context of existential crises for our patients, then nurse's very selves as persons are being challenged by these interactions. Here, then I examine the philosophical argument for the role of tactile sensations in our human development and briefly look at contemporary neurophysiologic research that supports this philosophical account. I then suggest ways such physical intimacy can lead to a strengthening or weakening of the person of the nurse and the nursing interaction and end with some thoughts about ways to support nurses in these activities. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Page, James S.
Peace education has been recognized as an important aspect of social education for the past three decades. The critical literature as well as official documents, however, have given little attention to its philosophical foundations. This essay explores these foundations in the ethics of (1) virtue, (2) consequentialism, (3) aesthetics, (4) conservative politics and (5) care. Each of these alone composes a significant element of peace education, although ultimately its solid basis can only be established through an integrative approach encouraging a culture of peace. The more complete development and articulation of the philosophical rationale of peace education is yet to be accomplished and remains a task for the future.
International audience; Although he played a significant part in the history of legal positivism, John Austin is not very well known in France. Successively a lawyer, a professor of jurisprudence and a Royal commissionner, he only published one book during his life, based on his lectures. In The Province of Jurisprudence Determined, Austin develops a concept of law which is, although influenced by the greatest english philosophers, very peculiar for the time. By reducing the subject of jurisp...
Fenstermacher, Gary D.
Responds to Arcilla's article, "Why Aren't Philosophers and Educators Speaking to One Another?" suggesting that philosophers and educators are actually speaking to one another, copiously and productively, though the conversation sometimes takes other, less direct modes. The paper asks whether they should be talking to each other,…
Full Text Available For Latin American philosophers, the quality of their own philosophy is a recurrent issue. Why hasn’t it produced any internationally recognized figure, tradition, or movement? Why is it mostly unknown inside and outside Latin America? Although skeptical answers to these questions are not new, they have recently shifted to some critical-thinking competences and dispositions deemed necessary for successful philosophical theorizing. Latin American philosophers are said to lack, for example, originality in problem-solving, problem-making, argumentation, and to some extent, interpretation. Or does the problem arise from their vices of “arrogant reasoning?” On my view, all of these answers are incomplete, and some even self-defeating. Yet they cast some light on complex, critical-thinking virtues and vices that play a significant role in philosophical thinking.
Peters, Michael A.; Jandric, Petar
Dewey was perhaps the foremost theorist and advocate of participatory democracy as an ethical ideal based on a belief and faith in human experience as a general theory of education that would generate the requisite aims and methods for what he called "organized intelligence" and what we might call today "collective…
While Peirce is a seminal figure for contemporary semiotic philosophers, it is axiomatic of a fully semiotic perspective that no philosopher or philosophy (semiotics included) can provide any final answer, as signs are always interpreted and the context of interpretation always varies. Semiosis is evolutionary: it may or may not be construed as…
This dissertation explores energy transition from a philosophical perspective. It puts forward the thesis that energy production and consumption are so intimately intertwined with society that the transition towards a sustainable alternative will involve more than simply implementing novel
Full Text Available John Dewey famously argued that we should think of democracy as a “way of life”. What this consists in he described as participating according to capacity in public decisions and participating according to need or desire in forming values. He also characterized democracy as “a mode of associated living, of conjoint communicated experience” (Dewey 1966 p. 87; 1954 p. 147; 1957 p. 209. Such and other passages in Dewey’s works show that his conception of democracy is complex. He did not think of it simply as a way of decision-making, nor is democratic procedure of particular importance to him. Concepts such as “associated living” or “communicated experience” point to the social dimensions Dewey was particularly interested in. Dewey also repeatedly claims that democracy demands “social return” from every individual and that democracy enables everyone to develop “distinct capacities” (Dewey 1966, p. 122. A related claim emphasizes how, in a democracy, “all share in useful service and enjoy a worthy leisure” (Dewey 1966, p. 256.
K. M. Alilova
Full Text Available Aim. The aim is to consider the relationship of philosophy and education; the article also reviews the Education for Sustainable Development (ESD, a global model for a special educational activity. We also discuss the features of the philosophical approach to the issue of sustainable development. Discussion. In research, we use the method of socio-natural approach, a new educational paradigm that combines the theory and concept of training and education within the anthropocentric approach based on humanistic philosophical ideas which laid the basis for understanding the person as the subject of life, history and culture. We analyzed environmental and educational aspects of sustainable development in the current context. In order to address these challenges, philosophy produces new concepts, theories and paradigms. It is necessary to work on people's motivation and values, develop their cooperation skills, teach civic engagement and democratic by action rather than words. Only a highly educated society can generate environmental paradigm and implement the strategy of sustainable development. Conclusions. We recommend transferring research outcomes into practice in schools starting with elementary school, as well as in vocational schools and universities. Clarifying the essence of the concept of education for sustainable development is possible through philosophical understanding of its genesis and ideas.
A. A. Kosolapov
Full Text Available Purpose.Computerization and informatization in recent decades gave the mankind automated electronic document management systems, automated process of production, Internet and network information resources WWW, expanded the communications capabilities and led to the globalization of the information society. At the same time gives rise to a number of processes of informatization philosophical and anthropological problems, that has become an existential character. It is necessary to identify and understanding of these issues on the basis of the gnoseological model of the evolution informatization paradigms and determine their main characteristics. Methodology. The system-activity approach was used; it allowed identifying and analyzing the impact of the main components of information and communication technologies (ICT for educational activities. And further to present them as a unified system of human activity in conditions computerization/informatization. The philosophical principles: a comprehensive review of the subject, the unity of the logical and historical, ascending from the abstract to the concrete was used. The general scientific principles: unity and development of the system, the decomposition hierarchy, individualization and cooperation, diversity and taxonomy were applied. Findings.The three-stage gnoseological model of the paradigms computerization/informatization evolution was proposed by the author. It is based on three information system characteristics: speed, interface and data access. The seven-bar anthrop-centric model, which is called the architecture of information systems (AIS, which describes the changes in their types of procuring, was proposed for each paradigm. The philosophical-anthropological problems that affect negatively its progress were formulated for each stage of modern information society transformation. Originality. The gnoseological model of development processes of informatization in the form of three
José J. Queiroz
Full Text Available This paper is an essay on the positions of some post-modern philosophers on religion, with the debate about post-modernity as a background. Its preliminary objective is to situate post-modernity taking a position between plain acceptance and categorical refusal in contemporary society. In this polemical field, the paper focuses on three important post-modern philosophers by pointing their contributions for a new thinking about religion today. The procedure consists in the reading of the authors´ texts looking for an interpretation of their discourses on God, religion and the sacred. The conclusion is that post-modernity is not as new era overcoming modernity, but that it is comprised of new themes that are on the fringes or even in opposite directions of modernity´s parameters . One can find these themes in many fields of human knowledge including theology and science of religion. On Derrida´s position, who is the most focused philosopher, the text is still embryonic as it comes from ongoing research.
Philosophers have talked to each other about moral issues concerning technology, but few of them have talked about issues of technology and the good life, and even fewer have talked about technology and the good life with the public in the form of recommendation. In effect, recommendations for various technologies are often left to technologists and gurus. Given the potential benefits of informing the public on their impacts on the good life, however, this is a curious state of affairs. In the present paper, I will examine why philosophers are seemingly reluctant to offer recommendations to the public. While there are many reasons for philosophers to refrain from offering recommendations, I shall focus on a specific normative reason. More specifically, it appears that, according to a particular definition, offering recommendations can be viewed as paternalistic, and therefore is prima facie wrong to do so. I will provide an argument to show that the worry about paternalism is unfounded, because a form of paternalism engendered by technology is inevitable. Given the inevitability of paternalism, I note that philosophers should accept the duty to offer recommendations to the public. I will then briefly turn to design ethics, which has reconceptualised the role of philosophers and, in my mind, fitted well with the inevitability of paternalism. Finally, I shall argue that design ethics has to be supplemented by the practice of recommendation if it is to sustain its objective.
with groundbreaking thoughts about culture and a basic human 'conditionality' among interwar philosophers such as Ernst Cassirer, Ludwig Wittgenstein, Walter Benjamin, and Martin Heidegger. Finally it draws a line to Jean-Luc Nancy’s deconstruction of Christianity which can also be seen as a deconstruction...
Karbasizadeh, Amir Ehsan
We show a lot of respect for science today. To back up our claims, we tend to appeal to scientific methods. It seems that we all agree that these methods are effective for gaining the truth. We can ask why science has its special status as a supplier of knowledge about our external world and our bodies. Of course, one should not always trust what scientists say. Nonetheless, epistemological justification of scientific claims is really a big project for philosophers of science. Philosophers of science are interested in knowing how science proves what it does claim and why it gives us good reasons to take these claims seriously. These questions are epistemological questions. Epistemology is a branch of philosophy which deals with knowledge claims and justification. Besides epistemological questions, metaphysical and ethical issues in science are worthy of philosophical scrutiny. This paper gives a short survey of these intellectually demanding issues.
Our work is aimed at presenting Shirakatsi astronomical and natural philosophical views. Karl Anania Shirakatsi is classified as one of the world-class intellectual geniuses. He was endowed with exceptional talent and analyzing scientific understanding of natural phenomena. He refers his philosophical works to almost all fields of science, cosmography, mathematics, calendarology, historiography, etc. Shirakatsy's earnings of natural science and natural philosophy in medieval is too big He was the first prominent scholar and thinker of his time, creating a unique, comprehensive gitapilisopayakan system that still feeds the human mind. The scientific value of Shirakatsi has great importance not only for Armenians but also for the whole world of science, history, culture and philosophy. Shirakatsi can be considered not only national but also universal greatness.
Oleg Borisovich Davydov
Full Text Available The article discusses one of the most pressing areas of social philosophy – communitarianism. Analyzes the basic concepts that operate representatives of the philosophical direction, among them – the community, the common good, virtue ethics. Demonstrates that the issues raised in the social and philosophical discussions that ensued between the liberal and communitarian social philosophy are essential for the social practice, and therefore, can not be solved solely by means of the theoretical. Considrered the main points of communitarian critics of liberal philosophy. Ethical dimensions of philosophy, which is constitutive for the communitarian discourse, also have importance in today’s society, which is accompanied by a deep crisis. Analyzed the concept of virtue, which plays a key role in the socio-philosophical communitarianism.
Davis, Daniel H J
This analysis presents a challenge to the biomedical view of dementia as a disease. This view is critiqued from two perspectives: those of sociology and philosophy. Because these domains inform the creation of the medical discourse, their analysis provides an important refinement to the apprehension of the phenomenon of dementia. From the work of Foucault, and in particular his analysis of the historical origins of modern medicine, the sociological construction of dementia is considered. Following this, the philosophical question of Being is discussed, considering particularly the positions of Heidegger and Merleau-Ponty. Lastly aspects of dementia nursing that are damaging to those relatives forced to take on the role of primary carer are isolated, in the context of Kitwood's view that it is possible to maintain personhood at the extremes of this condition. It is suggested that this critique of sociological and philosophical foundations of dementia might offer a way of approaching the dismantling of the self and revise current conceptions of dementia care for the better.
Full Text Available The purpose of the study was to identify and analyze the occurrence of cathartic states in a sample of long-distance runners. Data collected via questionnaires were used to evaluate quantitative variables complemented by heuristics while aiming at qualitatively categorize the areas of cathartic states in the context of philosophical and spiritual aspects of long-distance running. The study findings objectify philosophical and spiritual aspects affecting personalities of long-distance runners. The study findings have shown that catharsis represents a relevant philosophical and spiritual aspect affecting long-distance running. We assume that authentic experience of catharsis and its effects motivates runners to perform regular physical activity. The analysis of philosophical and spiritual aspects of long-distance running has revealed a multi-spectral holistic relevance based on the transfer affecting a specific way of life, spectrum of values, ethical personality traits, and also the quality of long-distance runners’ lives.
St. John Photo of Peter St. John Peter St. John Researcher III-Chemical Engineering Peter.StJohn @nrel.gov | 303-384-7969 Orcid ID http://orcid.org/0000-0002-7928-3722 Education Peter St. John received his engineering from the University of California at Santa Barbara in 2015. During his Ph.D., St. John applied
Amir Ehsan Karbasizadeh
Full Text Available We show a lot of respect for science today. To back up our claims, we tend to appeal to scientific methods. It seems that we all agree that these methods are effective for gaining the truth. We can ask why science has its special status as a supplier of knowledge about our external world and our bodies. Of course, one should not always trust what scientists say. Nonetheless, epistemological justification of scientific claims is really a big project for philosophers of science. Philosophers of science are interested in knowing how science proves what it does claim and why it gives us good reasons to take these claims seriously. These questions are epistemological questions. Epistemology is a branch of philosophy which deals with knowledge claims and justification. Besides epistemological questions, metaphysical and ethical issues in science are worthy of philosophical scrutiny. This paper gives a short survey of these intellectually demanding issues.
Maria Manuela Duarte Guilherme
Full Text Available This article offers a comparative analysis of John Dewey’s and Paulo Freire’s visions of the future, as a fundamental legacy of their work, having in mind the different cultural and epistemological environments that constituted the intellectual backdrop and socio-historical baggage of their works. Their visions of the future are here also approached from an intercultural perspective within the framework of two different (postcolonial matrices embodied by North and South Americas. This article attempts to unveil the underlying historical, political and social substrata influencing the form and essence of the rhetoric and ideology of such conceptual and academic frameworks of reference in the field of education and pedagogy in the 20th century. Finally, the valuable theoretical-practical legacies of both philosophers of education are here emphasized for the purpose of an idea of future in the educational policies and pedagogical practices of cosmopolitan societies of the 21st century.
The criterion of personal identity is clearly called into question by the project to perform a human head transplant. Is identity provided by psychological continuity alone, or does it depend on bodily continuity as well? And how do these different perspectives interface with our notion of mind and mind-body relationship? The reader will be provided with a discussion concerning these problems, together with a philosophical and literary survey about the conception of body-mind relationship from the Greek thought to contemporary philosophy. The analysis will conclude with a discussion concerning the possibility to consider the issue of personal identity from a statistic point of view, which privileges the general perception of identity, so as it has been shaped by the cultural trends of the last four centuries. It could hence be argued that personal identity is not something which can be defined once and for all. On the contrary, the general perception of identity is subject to significant alterations resulting from one's cultural environment. However, the cultural environment itself can be changed by particularly notable events, such as, hypothetically, the successful outcome of a human head transplant. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
The paper explicates a set of criteria the joint satisfaction of which is taken to qualify moral judgements as cognitive. The paper examines evidence that some moral judgements meet these criteria, and relates the resulting conception of moral judgements to ongoing controversies about cognitivism in ethics. Philosophical ...
The inaugural volume of the series, devoted to the work of philosopher Adolf Grünbaum, encompasses the philosophical problems of space, time, and cosmology, the nature of scientific methodology, and the foundations of psychoanalysis.
Full Text Available This paper aims to show how clinical pragmatics (the study of pragmatic deficits can fruitfully inform the classical theoretical models proposed by philosophical pragmatics. In the first part of the paper I argue that theories proposed in the domain of philosophical pragmatics, as those elaborated by Austin and Grice, are not plausible from a cognitive point of view and that for this reason they cannot be useful to understand pragmatic deficits. In the second part, I show that Relevance Theory overcomes this limitation (being consistent with the data about actual mind’s functioning, but I also argue that it offers a restricted view of human communication which has to be integrated with a model of language use that takes into account a central pragmatic property: coherence of discourse.
Shashoua, Ayala; Court, Deborah
This qualitative study investigated a 'personal education' program that operates in some middle schools in Israel. This article focuses on three teachers in three different Jewish Israeli middle schools, and their students, and the intrapersonal and interpersonal teaching and learning processes in their classrooms. The theories of Dewey, Piaget…
Standal, Øyvind; Rugseth, Gro
The purpose of this study was to investigate what adapted physical activity (APA) students learn from their practicum experiences. One cohort of APA students participated, and data were generated from an action research project that included observations, reflective journals, and a focus group interview. The theoretical framework for the study was Dewey's and Wackerhausen's theories of reflections. The findings show the objects of students' reflections, the kind of conceptual resources they draw on while reflecting, and their knowledge interests. In addition, two paradoxes are identified: the tension between reflecting from and on own values, and how practicum as a valued experience of reality can become too difficult to handle. In conclusion, we reflect on how practicum learning can be facilitated.
Full Text Available We have entered the 21st century that is popularly known as the era of the development of modern science and technology. Philosophy provides naming for contemporary era as postmodern era. But do we suddenly come to this day and age? No! Because humans are homo viator, persona that does pilgrimage in history, space and time. Philosophy has expanded periodically in the long course of history. Since the days of classical antiquity, philosophy comes with a patterned metaphysical paradigm. This paradigm survives very long in the stage history of philosophy as maintained by many philosophers who hold fast to the philosophical-epistemic claim that philosophy should be (das sollen metaphysical. Classical Greek philosopher, Aristotle was a philosopher who claims metaphysics as the initial philosophy. Then, Immanuel Kant, Hegel, Heidegger, Marx even Habermas offer appropriate shades of metaphysical philosophy versus spirit of the age. Modern philosophers offer a new paradigm in the way of doing philosophy. The new spirit of modern philosophers declared as if giving criticism on traditional western metaphysics (since Aristotle that are considered irrelevant. This paper intends to show the argument between traditional metaphysical and modern philosophers who criticize metaphysics. The author will make a philosophical synthesis to obtain enlightenment to the position of human beings in the space of time. Using the method of Hegelian dialectic (thesis-antiteses-synthesis, this topic will be developed and assessed in accordance with the interests of this paper.
This paper attempts to illuminate a central concept and idea in special education discourse, namely, "special needs". It analyses philosophically what needs are and on what grounds they are defined as "special" or "exceptional". It also discusses whether sorting needs into ordinary and special is discriminatory. It is argued that individualistic…
This work with the title “Anarchism and the Nature of Man: a Philosophical Appraisal” holds that Anarchism as a belief, movement or school of thought boils down to the age long philosophical problem of the relationship between authority and individuals or put differently, the problem of the justification of constituted authority ...
Full Text Available This paper attempts to analyze realist philosophy as the way of knowing reality in the thought of Étienne Gilson. The French Philosopher was a defender of philosophical realism who rationally justified the thesis about knowing things existing in the world independently of the knowing subject. Philosophical inquiry, carried out in a realist way, should start with the being which really exists. The basic philosophical method aims to rationally understand reality as well as explain the multifaceted cognition of reality. Gilson’s contribution to the development of philosophical realism includes the promotion of a realist philosophical awareness and the opposition to idealistic philosophies (Cartesianism, Kantianism.
Mr. Pyotr N. Kondrashov
Full Text Available The article considers, that in Russian-speaking editions of K. Marx's works some philosophical concepts (produktiv, erzeugen, Erzeugung, Äußerung, Aneignung, Genuß, Arbeit, Verkehr, Gebrauchswert were translated as words with the productive and economic sense while Marx put philosophical, anthropological and existential connotations into these words in various contexts. It led to incorrect understanding of Marx's philosophy. The author of the article draws a conclusion about indispensability of new adequate translation of Marx's works and about radical reconsideration of its philosophical system.
This is the first interdisciplinary exploration of the philosophical foundations of the Web, a new area of inquiry that has important implications across a range of domains. Contains twelve essays that bridge the fields of philosophy, cognitive science, and phenomenologyTackles questions such as the impact of Google on intelligence and epistemology, the philosophical status of digital objects, ethics on the Web, semantic and ontological changes caused by the Web, and the potential of the Web to serve as a genuine cognitive extensionBrings together insightful new scholarship from well-known an
Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 4; Issue 4. Mapmakers - The Province of Philosophers. Harini Nagendra. Series Article Volume 4 Issue 4 April 1999 pp 6-11. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: https://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/004/04/0006-0011 ...
Apr 24, 2008 ... The nineteenth-century British botanist, Joseph Dalton Hooker, was one of the people whose career became a model for that of the modern, professional scientist. However, he preferred to refer to himself as a philosophical botanist, rather than a professional. This paper explores the reasons for this choice, ...
Schalk W. Vorster
Full Text Available Corruption has reached astounding proportions in South Africa. The purpose of this article is to contribute to philosophical approaches aimed at combating corruption. In considering punishment for acts of corruption the most common approach is based on the philosophical theory of consequentialism, which allows only consideration of the consequences of corrupt acts. Ideally, cognisance should be taken of the norms in question, especially those norms demanding the judicious execution of obligations. It was, however, found that the Kantian categorical imperative presupposes an ideal rational society. The imperative has to be ‘softened’ by also allowing for enquiry about the corruptor’s personal circumstances, in the light of Christ’s love commandment. This article highlights the most prominent attributes of two important philosophical theories applicable to the study of corruption, namely utilitarianism (a variant of consequentialism and deontology. It is argued that qualified deontological and utilitistic approaches hold the best promise to curb corruption in the long run. The conclusion is that the state will urgently have to attend to the social context by revitalising programmes of ‘social renewal’, based on effective application of the law, the provision of adequate education and the eradication of poverty. There is also an urgent need for the ‘moral renewal’ of the entire population, focused on Christian values, operationalised within the context of the South Africa of today. Herein lies a massive task for the church.
Discusses three philosophical pillars that support collaborative learning: "spaces of appearance," active engagement, and ownership. Describes classroom experiences with collaborative learning supported by these pillars. (PRA)
Brian McLaughlin (Rutgers) Chris Megone (Leeds) Seumas Miller (Charles Sturt) Ruth Garrett Millikan (Connecticut) Michael Pendlebury (Witwatersrand) John Perry (Stanford) Philip Pettit (Australian National University) Amélie Oksenberg Rorty (Brandeis) Mark Sainsbury (Texas—Austin) John Searle (California Berkeley)
Moor, James; Søraker, Johnny; Steinhart, Eric
Singularity Hypotheses: A Scientific and Philosophical Assessment offers authoritative, jargon-free essays and critical commentaries on accelerating technological progress and the notion of technological singularity. It focuses on conjectures about the intelligence explosion, transhumanism, and whole brain emulation. Recent years have seen a plethora of forecasts about the profound, disruptive impact that is likely to result from further progress in these areas. Many commentators however doubt the scientific rigor of these forecasts, rejecting them as speculative and unfounded. We therefore invited prominent computer scientists, physicists, philosophers, biologists, economists and other thinkers to assess the singularity hypotheses. Their contributions go beyond speculation, providing deep insights into the main issues and a balanced picture of the debate.
Theories and models are not equivalent. I argue that an orientation towards models as a primary carrier of nursing knowledge overcomes many ongoing challenges in philosophy of nursing science, including the theory-practice divide and the paradoxical pursuit of predictive theories in a discipline that is defined by process and a commitment to the non-reducibility of the health/care experience. Scientific models describe and explain the dynamics of specific phenomenon. This is distinct from theory, which is traditionally defined as propositions that explain and/or predict the world. The philosophical case has been made against theoretical universalism, showing that a theory can be true in its domain, but that no domain is universal. Subsequently, philosophers focused on scientific models argued that they do the work of defining the boundary conditions-the domain(s)-of a theory. Further analysis has shown the ways models can be constructed and function independent of theory, meaning models can comprise distinct, autonomous "carriers of scientific knowledge." Models are viewed as representations of the active dynamics, or mechanisms, of a phenomenon. Mechanisms are entities and activities organized such that they are productive of regular changes. Importantly, mechanisms are by definition not static: change may alter the mechanism and thereby alter or create entirely new phenomena. Orienting away from theory, and towards models, focuses scholarly activity on dynamics and change. This makes models arguably critical to nursing science, enabling the production of actionable knowledge about the dynamics of process and change in health/care. I briefly explore the implications for nursing-and health/care-knowledge and practice. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Wilmer Arturo Moyano-Grimaldo
Full Text Available Desde el año 1876, cuando Melvil Dewey publicó la primera edición de su sistema de clasificación bibliográfico, este ha ido evolucionando como un sistema de clasificación muy firme y adaptable que permite organizar de manera práctica el conocimiento, incluso en la Internet. El presente artículo, es derivado de una investigación doctoral desarrollada durante 5 años acerca de diferentes aspectos semánticos, epistemológicos, históricos y tecnológicos de la Clasificación Decimal Dewey, intentará mostrar la vigencia de este Sistema, a raíz de las nuevas tendencias en organización del conocimiento, mostrando esto desde la perspectiva de la evolución y su forma de adaptarse debido a los cambios tecnológicos y las tendencias actuales de la organización de contenidos.
JOHN HUNTER (SURGEON). John Hunter FRS (13 February 1728-16 October 1793) was a Scottish surgeon, one of the most distinguished scientists and surgeons of his day. He was an early advocate of careful observation and scientific method in medicine. He was the husband of Anne Hunter, a teacher, friend and ...
While environmental ethics has successfully established itself in philosophy, as presently conceived it is still largely irrelevant to grappling the global ecological crisis because, as Alasdair MacIntyre has argued, ethical philosophy itself is in grave disorder. MacIntyre's historically oriented recovery of virtue ethics is defended, but it is argued that even MacIntyre was too constrained by received assumptions to overcome this disorder. As he himself realized, his ideas need to be integrated and defended through philosophical anthropology. However, it is suggested that current defenders of philosophical anthropology have not done it justice. To appreciate its importance it is necessary accept that we are cultural beings in which the core of culture is the conception of what are humans. This is presupposed not only in thought but in social practices and forms of life. This was understood by Aristotle, but modernity has been straightjacketed by the Seventeenth Century scientific revolution and Hobbes' philosophical anthropology, identifying knowledge and with techno-science and eliminating any place for questioning this conception of humans. The only conception of humanity that could successfully challenge and replace Hobbes' philosophical anthropology, it is argued, is Hegel's philosophical anthropology reformulated and developed on naturalistic foundations. This involves subordinating science to a reconceived humanities with a fundamentally different role accorded to ethics, placing it at the center of social life, politics and economics and at the centre of the struggle to transform culture and society to create an ecologically sustainable civilization.
Michael R. Matthews
Full Text Available Mario Bunge was born in Argentina in the final year of the First World War. He learnt atomic physics andquantum mechanics from an Austrian refugee who had been a student of Heisenberg. Additionally he taughthimself modern philosophy in an environment that was a philosophical backwater. He was the first SouthAmerican philosopher of science to be trained in science. His publications in physics, philosophy, psychology,sociology and the foundations of biology, are staggering in number, and include a massive 8-volume Treatise onPhilosophy. The unifying thread of his scholarship is the constant and vigorous advancement of theEnlightenment Project, and criticism of cultural and academic movements that deny or devalue the core planksof the project: namely its naturalism, the search for truth, the universality of science, rationality, and respect forindividuals. At a time when specialisation is widely decried, and its deleterious effects on science, philosophy ofscience, educational research and science teaching are recognised – it is salutary to see the fruits of one person’spursuit of the ‘Big’ scientific and philosophical picture.
Markey, Karen; Demeyer, Anh N.
This research project focuses on the implementation and testing of the Dewey Decimal Classification (DDC) system as an online searcher's tool for subject access, browsing, and display in an online catalog. The research project comprises 12 activities. The three interim reports in this document cover the first seven of these activities: (1) obtain…
Professional philosophers are members of bioethical committees and regulatory bodies in areas of interest to bioethicists. This suggests they possess moral expertise even if they do not exercise it directly and without constraint. Moral expertise is defined, and four arguments given in support of scepticism about their possession of such expertise are considered and rejected: the existence of extreme disagreement between moral philosophers about moral matters; the lack of a means clearly to identify moral experts; that expertise cannot be claimed in that which lacks objectivity; and that ordinary people do not follow the advice of moral experts. I offer a better reason for scepticism grounded in the relation between moral philosophy and common-sense morality: namely that modern moral philosophy views even a developed moral theory as ultimately anchored in common-sense morality, that set of basic moral precepts which ordinary individuals have command of and use to regulate their own lives. Even if moral philosophers do nevertheless have a limited moral expertise, in that they alone can fully develop a set of moral judgments, I sketch reasons - grounded in the values of autonomy and of democracy - why moral philosophers should not wish non-philosophers to defer to their putative expertise. © 2009 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
Full Text Available On the occasion of the conference on Transcendence and Immanence - a topic buiding on the dialogue between philosophy and theology in the modern and post-modern time -, among the produced subjects, a discussion was held on the role played in respect with this dailogue by the inter-war famous philosophers, such as Lucian Blaga and Dumitru Stăniloaie. Below, we will present the issue of Transcendence according the the philosopher-poet Lucian Blaga’s vision; his vision is tructured into a Trilogy in his work: The Trilogy of Knowledge - The Dogmatic Aeon, The Luciferic Knowledge, The Transcendental Censorship - The Trilogy of the Culture - Horizon and Style; The Mioritic Space; The Genesis of the Metaphor and The Meaning of Culture - and The Trilogy of Values - Science and Creation; Magic Thinking and Religion; Art and Value. In these trilogies, the philosopher - poet elaborates, from an original metaphysical point of view, on the dimension of the knowledge of Transcendence - which he would define in in The Horizon of Mystery and Revelation. His vision will be addressed in a new theory of knowledge, which the philosopherpoet Lucian Blaga would distinguish as Paradisiac knowledge and Lucifer knowledge, within a new Metaphysics that would allow access to Transcendence and to the wonders beyond. Postulating the existence of certain faculties of Conscience, his Metaphysics would become, according to the Theory of Transcendence, a must for the human spirit; a proof for his approach would be the great philosophical systems of the world, from the antique to the modern.
There are three sentimental centres of 20th-century philosophical geography: Todtnauberg, Frankfurt and Vienna. Their exceptional status results not only from having given rise to decisive philosophical movements but also from the weight of stories about victimization and exile lacking with regard to Paris, Berkeley and Cambridge. Each of these centres is compromised in its own way: the Schwarzwald cottage from which Heidegger emerged to take over the Rektorat of Freiburg University and to wh...
Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education. John Stachel. Articles written in Resonance – Journal of Science Education. Volume 3 Issue 8 August 1998 pp 76-92 Reflections. Albert Einstein-The Man Behind the Myths · John Stachel · More Details Fulltext PDF ...
Barnes-Holmes (2000) discussed certain issues regarding philosophy, pragmatism, and behavior analysis, and offered a “behavioral pragmatism” based on or derived from behavior-analytic perspectives. In a comparison of certain philosophical views, Quine's concept of observation sentences was employed for representing pragmatism, but this concept is not sufficiently representative of the literature of philosophical pragmatism to warrant the broad conclusions drawn by Barnes-Holmes. Further, although the extensive and diverse literature of philosophical pragmatism has been shown by a number of writers to have various themes and perspectives in common with Skinner's radical behaviorism, it is unnecessary to extract a limited, generic version of pragmatism because (a) the latter cannot match the range and depth of the various extant versions and (b) the problems raised by Barnes-Holmes in justification for the new version yield readily to the current versions in philosophy. A set of philosophical views may provide additional verbal support for a given system of science, and the science of behavior analysis may eventually contribute to philosophical discourse. The latter, however, will not be achieved by proposing new versions of old philosophy, but rather by approaching established philosophical issues in new ways. PMID:22478409
Seaman, Jayson; Quay, John
In this response to Molly Ware's review of our 2013 book, John Dewey and Education Outdoors, we extend her suggestion that complexity be regarded as an important, generative force in education reform. Drawing on Dewey's 1933 Utopian Schools speech, we discuss the "level deeper" that Dewey sought as he criticized the method/subject mater dichotomy, which he saw as an artifact of social class carried forward in the form of a curricular debate rather than a natural source of tension that would be productive to democratic education. Dewey radically argued that learning itself contained similar anti-democratic potential. Eschewing the false child versus curriculum dichotomy, Dewey believed complexity as a catalyst for educational action would be achieved by engaging children in historically formed occupations, harnessing the forces that drive technological and cultural evolution in order to spur interest, effort, and the formation of social attitudes among students. Following Ware, we suggest that reformers should seek to understand at a lever deeper the many sources of complexity they encounter as they both challenge and honor what is.
Moreira-dos-Santos, Frederik; El-Hani, Charbel N.
This article discusses how to deal with the relations between different cultural perspectives in classrooms, based on a proposal for considering understanding and knowledge as goals of science education, inspired by Dewey's naturalistic humanism. It thus combines educational and philosophical interests. In educational terms, our concerns relate to how science teachers position themselves in multicultural classrooms. In philosophical terms, we are interested in discussing the relations between belief, understanding, and knowledge under the light of Dewey's philosophy. We present a synthesis of Dewey's theory of inquiry through his naturalistic humanism and discuss its implications for the concepts of belief, understanding, and knowledge, as well as for the goals of science teaching. In particular, we highlight problems arising in the context of possible conflicts between scientific and religious claims in the school environment that result from totalitarian positions. We characterize an individual's position as totalitarian if he or she takes some way of thinking as the only one capable of expressing the truth about all that exists in the world, lacks open-mindedness to understand different interpretative perspectives, and attempts to impose her or his interpretation about the facts to others by violent means or not. From this stance, any other perspective is taken to be false a priori and, accordingly, as a putative target to be suppressed or adapted to the privileged way of thinking. We argue, instead, for a more fallibilist evaluation of our own beliefs and a more respectful appraisal of the diversity of students' beliefs by both students and teachers.
Rafael Gómez Miranda
Full Text Available The main focus and interest of José Manzana’s philosophical anthropology is centred on the human condition, the sense of man’s action, the possibility of knowledge… and all that refers to «vertical transcendence», towards the Absolute, which finally culminates in God. With his philosophical anthropology, Manzana aims to ground on a transcendental method of reflection the conditions of man and his different options as a human being. The objective of this author is to clarify human existence by identifying his moment of creation. The aforementioned reflection brings us to three main dimensions of the individual: the human being as an inquiring entity, his interpersonal dimension and his awakening to the Transcendental.
Richerme, Lauren Kapalka
Despite substantial attention to measurement and assessment in contemporary education and music education policy and practice, the process of measurement has gone largely undiscussed in music education philosophy. Using the work of physicist and philosopher Karen Barad, in this philosophical inquiry, I investigated the nature of measurement in…
. I argue that we should distinguish not only between Wittgenstein's personal opinions and his philosophy, but also, within his philosophical work, between broadly methodological remarks and what Wittgenstein might call genuinely ...
Hopkins, Richard L.
Differing philosophies of education associated with John Dewey, Robert Maynard Hutchins, Jerome Bruner, and A. S. Neill are outlined. Implications of each philosophy for mathematics and science teaching are suggested. (MP)
Behnaz Aghili Dehkordi
Full Text Available Although Presocratics in 600 B.C founded new research ways in science and philosophy, wrote the first scientific essays, introduced basic conceptions of deduction, and abandoned mythological explanations, all we have of their works is but the fragments in the works of further doxographers, biographers, historians or philosophers who brought their statements between their own words. This would sometimes result in misunderstanding the presocratics’ purposes. Hermann Diels in his Doxographi Graeci raised a new method for dealing with doxography tradition. Diels’ new approach to doxography returned all this tradition to Aristotle’s pupil, Theophrastus. Some scholars like Jaap Mansfield criticized his disregard for the sophists like Gorgias and Hippias, and the successions of philosophers. According to his criticism, some matters like the Sophists’ influence on Plato, Aristotle’s definition of Doxa in the Placita and the influence of the succession and interpretation tradition on doxogtaphy are more noteworthy than Diels has thought.
In outdoor education discourse the notion of relation is often employed to convey basic connections between humanity and nature as human-nature relationships, yet the sense of relation itself is rarely questioned. Drawing on the work of Peirce and Dewey, I explore the ramifications of a more nuanced understanding of relation, specifically how…
N. V. Litvinenko
The highest value for the philosophical problems of education should consider introducing within the philosophical foundations of marketing management methodology for systematic consideration of education as a social subjectobject process, which is based on needs. Philosophy of Education in the face of marketing philosophy and management philosophy got a good theoretical and methodological framework for the synthesis of market interpretations educational development and the development of fu...
I extract some philosophical morals from some aspects of Lagrangian mechanics. (A companion paper will present similar morals from Hamiltonian mechanics and Hamilton-Jacobi theory.) One main moral concerns methodology: Lagrangian mechanics provides a level of description of phenomena which has been largely ignored by philosophers, since it falls between their accustomed levels--``laws of nature'' and ``models''. Another main moral concerns ontology: the ontology of Lagrangian mechanics is bot...
早川, 操; Hayakawa, Misao
The aim of this paper is to clarify the insights of John Dewey on his observations and analyses of the social change and school education in Mexico, Turkey and China during the 1920's with reference to the impact of modernization upon these three countries. First, Dewey's impression of the Mexican society is explored in relation to his analysis of the influences of American capitalism upon business activities in Mexico. Also, his impressions of the newly-built schools and art education in Mex...
Full Text Available The british legal philosopher John Austin stands at the threshold of the evolution of the legal positivist tradition. His work, which dates back to the first half of the 19th century, was especially important to establish the basic elements of this school of legal understanding. Among his contributions to the legal positivist doctrine, lies the creation of the thesis that separates morality from law. Under an ethical context, however, John Austin was an ardent utilitarian who defended the use of the principle of utility as the only rational criteria for the unveiling of superior moral standards (divine laws. Considering both dimensions of his understanding, it has long been wondered if his utilitarian ethics have influenced, somehow, his legal theory, especially in regards to the separation thesis. Said thesis, which is in the center of the legal positivist tradition, has been interpreted in different ways in contemporary legal debate. A particular branch, called ethical positivism, opened new perspectives to the study of this tradition, defending the legal positivism theory as a morally satisfactory theoretical model for the contemporary legal systems. Hence, using the main premise of ethical positivism (which states that there are moral reasons to defend the separation thesis as an interprative and methodological tool, this paper plans on revisiting the link between John Austins legal and ethical convictions, in order to comprehend what were the moral reasons which led him to defend the separation of what law is and what it should be.
"A pleasure to read. Gracefully written by a scholar well grounded in the relevant philosophical, historical, and technical background. . . . a helpfully clarifying review and analysis of some issues of importance to recent philosophy of science and a source of some illuminating insights."—Burke Townsend, Philosophy of Science
Maurice O'Connor Drury (1907-76), an Irish psychiatrist, is best known for his accounts of his close friendship with the eminent twentieth-century philosopher, Ludwig Wittgenstein. His only book, The Danger of Words (1973), was well received by those who had an interest in the relationship between psychiatry, psychology and philosophy. This article concentrates on Drury's experiences, studies and writings in these fields.
N. V. Litvinenko
Full Text Available Philosophy of Education creates conceptual and methodological prerequisites for distribution to the field of marketing management in education as a portion of the general laws of development of scientific knowledge. Marketing management education facilitates the implementation of a sociologically principles, adapting to their needs sociocentrical priorities developed within the philosophy of education. The most significant factor in social development has been the ability of society to the creation and innovation through the use of their intellectual potential. The concept of intellectual capacity within the philosophical and educational research marketing management should be used primarily in view of its importance for personal development needs analysis in the context of the needs of social and economic development, that is a combination of the characteristics of carrier capacity (human and its sociocultural environment. For marketing management education is most important composition of individual intellectual potential. The most heuristic value for philosophical and educational analysis of marketing management has its creative cognitive component that directs people to the practical application of knowledge and mental abilities. Intellectual potential can be seen within the philosophical and educational analysis of marketing management is quite close to the economic category of «human capital» and the philosophical category of «personal capacity».
Anderson, Christine A; Whall, Ann L
Opinion leaders are informal leaders who have the ability to influence others' decisions about adopting new products, practices or ideas. In the healthcare setting, the importance of translating new research evidence into practice has led to interest in understanding how opinion leaders could be used to speed this process. Despite continued interest, gaps in understanding opinion leadership remain. Agent-based models are computer models that have proven to be useful for representing dynamic and contextual phenomena such as opinion leadership. The purpose of this paper is to describe the work conducted in preparation for the development of an agent-based model of nursing opinion leadership. The aim of this phase of the model development project was to clarify basic assumptions about opinions, the individual attributes of opinion leaders and characteristics of the context in which they are effective. The process used to clarify these assumptions was the construction of a preliminary nursing opinion leader model, derived from philosophical theories about belief formation. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Van Luchene, Stephen R.
Since passage of the No Child Left Behind Act of 2001, thinking about America's schools has been taken over by something like philosopher Rene Descartes's malignant demon of doubt. The act's exclusive focus on assessing student achievement and faculty accountability in terms that can be "proved" mathematically has cast into doubt a…
Lee, Dr Keekok
An exploration of the philosophical foundation of modern medicine which explains why such a medicine possesses the characteristics it does and where precisely its strengths as well as its weaknesses lie. Written in plain English, it should be accessible to anyone who is intellectually curious, lay persons and medical professionals alike.
Thomas, Tessy A; McCullough, Laurence B
Moral distress is one of the core topics of clinical ethics. Although there is a large and growing empirical literature on the psychological aspects of moral distress, scholars, and empirical investigators of moral distress have recently called for greater conceptual clarity. To meet this recognized need, we provide a philosophical taxonomy of the categories of what we call ethically significant moral distress: the judgment that one is not able, to differing degrees, to act on one's moral knowledge about what one ought to do. We begin by unpacking the philosophical components of Andrew Jameton's original formulation from his landmark 1984 work and identify two key respects in which that formulation remains unclear: the origins of moral knowledge and impediments to acting on that moral knowledge. We then selectively review subsequent literature that shows that there is more than one concept of moral distress and that explores the origin of the values implicated in moral distress and impediments to acting on those values. This review sets the stage for identifying the elements of a philosophical taxonomy of ethically significant moral distress. The taxonomy uses these elements to create six categories of ethically significant moral distress: challenges to, threats to, and violations of professional integrity; and challenges to, threats to, and violations of individual integrity. We close with suggestions about how the proposed philosophical taxonomy of ethically significant moral distress sheds light on the concepts of moral residue and crescendo effect of moral distress and how the proposed taxonomy might usefully guide prevention of and future qualitative and quantitative empirical research on ethically significant moral distress. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press, on behalf of the Journal of Medicine and Philosophy Inc. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: email@example.com.
Grace, Pamela J; Perry, Donna J
Philosophical inquiry remains critically important for nursing education, practice, and knowledge development. We propose a 3-level taxonomy of philosophical inquiry to guide nursing curricula and research development. Important background information about philosophy and the development of philosophical methods is given. Then philosophical inquiry is linked to the goals of nursing using our proposed taxonomy: level I-cultivating an attitude of "critical consciousness" related to all nursing situations and actions, level II-analysis and application of philosophical perspectives to nursing problems and level III-generating new knowledge for nursing purposes including new theories of practice and research.
Fleury, Stephen; Garrison, Jim
Philosophical anthropology is philosophical inquiry into human nature that seeks to answer the fundamental question of what generally characterizes human beings and differentiates them from other creatures and things. Political theories considerably influence educational theories. We call attention to the fact that the three main political…
H. V. Skalatskaya
Full Text Available The purpose of the article is to consider the prospects of social and philosophical analysis of the product (clothes of fashion brand. In social and philosophical analysis of brand clothes, its fashion shows there is a range of discursive questions: the use and the definition of the concepts «designer» and «brand»; thematic focus of the brand (fabrics, colors, prints, shapes its semantics; format of representation of fashion collection in dependence; and a number of other structural elements. In the analysis of fashion trends or seasonal collections the concepts designer or brand are used. The concept «brand» contains an economic component, certain calculations, and intangible assets (goodwill; design work is subject to market needs and the interests of consumers (for analysis of the individual designer the biographical method is used. Theoretical analysis of fashion cannot be made apart from empirical material. A performative approach of K. Wolfe can be the methodology of the social and philosophical research of fashion show. The advantages of this method of the research are to determine fashion as performative space, staging ideas of the designer in the fashion show and making clothes. Implementation of performative approach allowed considering thematic focus of the brand of clothes and format of its representation in seasonal fashion shows on the example of Ukrainian brand «Domanoff». Social and philosophical analysis of brand clothes can be divided into the following main components, excluding aesthetic and economic aspects: the use of the concepts designer and brand (a set of aesthetic, economic, social and subjective components and design`s view; review of the semantics of clothes and staging (by providing clothes in the form of seasonal fashion shows of collections. For complex social and sociophilosophical analysis of fashion brand it necessary to have: the press release (description, designer`s interview (disclosure of early
van Houte, M.S.A.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304835862
This study aims at a better understanding of the theological views of the Roman Stoic Seneca and the status of these views in relation to those of the earlier Stoics, and in the context of various other factors, such as the views of other philosophical schools and the purpose of Seneca's work.This
Pittard, Julian M.
John Dyson was born on the 7th January 1941 in Meltham Mills, West Yorkshire, England, and later grew up in Harrogate and Leeds. The proudest moment of John's early life was meeting Freddie Trueman, who became one of the greatest fast bowlers of English cricket. John used a state scholarship to study at Kings College London, after hearing a radio lecture by D. M. McKay. He received a first class BSc Special Honours Degree in Physics in 1962, and began a Ph.D. at the University of Manchester Department of Astronomy after being attracted to astronomy by an article of Zdenek Kopal in the semi-popular journal New Scientist. John soon started work with Franz Kahn, and studied the possibility that the broad emission lines seen from the Orion Nebula were due to flows driven by the photoevaporation of neutral globules embedded in a HII region. John's thesis was entitled ``The Age and Dynamics of the Orion Nebula`` and he passed his oral examination on 28th February 1966.
Raquel Alvim Monteiro
Full Text Available This paper intends to think the relation between teaching and learning, questioning the conception of education as a way to shape the subject involved in this relationship. Thus, introduce some legal bases readings that establish the Brazilian high school in order to consider the importance of discussing philosophically the Philosophy teaching.This way, with the reading of Foucault and Deleuze, rethink the conception of subject present in the parameters that rule the education, as well as the education paradigm as a way to promote the student to a social subject. In this sense, it is necessary to bring official discourse elements to stablish the conception of educating in this curriculum and, together, discuss about the notion of subject present in this documents. We intend to dissolve the comprehension of universal subject in order to treat the subjectivities and rethink the relation between teaching and learning. This relation is designed, most of the time, with a certain homogeneity in the formation of a certain subject and a certain knowledge. Therefore, this proposal aims to question the bases of education that start from a perception of teaching as a product. Discourse about a teaching that does not address only content transmission, but a teaching as philosophical experience. Think with Deleuze that learning is related not only to a rational aspect, but also to a sensitive one. However, starting with some researchers interested in the subject, consider these terms in order to propose possibilities of thinking a philosophical Philosophy teaching in high school. It is noteworthy that this proposal do not intend to deplete the thought of concepts that are so complex, but to raise questions that are still in an investigation process and should be analyzed constantly.
Maria Emilia de Oliveira Schpallir Silva
Full Text Available Given the difficulty in demonstrating the moment of ontogenesis in which personalization takes place, we sought to define, from a philosophic point of view, the nature of the human embryo regarding its individuality, using Phenomenology, specifically reflections of philosophers Bourghet and Merleau-Ponty on the embryo. Although the statement of their individuality does not entail ethical content in itself, from the point of view of ethical responsibility, it is an extremely important fact to be considered in the bioethical reflection about the moment of ontogeny from which human life must (ethical duty be protected.
Cunningham, Kathryn Burns
To provide and elucidate a comprehensible framework for the design of social research. An abundance of information exists concerning the process of designing social research. The overall message that can be gleaned is that numerable elements - both philosophical (ontological and epistemological assumptions and theoretical perspective) and practical (issue to be addressed, purpose, aims and research questions) - are influential in the process of selecting a research methodology and methods, and that these elements and their inter-relationships must be considered and explicated to ensure a coherent research design that enables well-founded and meaningful conclusions. There is a lack of guidance concerning the integration of practical and philosophical elements, hindering their consideration and explication. The author's PhD research into loneliness and cancer. This is a methodology paper. A guiding framework that incorporates all of the philosophical and practical elements influential in social research design is presented. The chronological and informative relationships between the elements are discussed. The framework presented can be used by social researchers to consider and explicate the practical and philosophical elements influential in the selection of a methodology and methods. It is hoped that the framework presented will aid social researchers with the design and the explication of the design of their research, thereby enhancing the credibility of their projects and enabling their research to establish well-founded and meaningful conclusions.
The notion of moral attention allows the recognition of fundamental aspects of ethical life ignored or neglected by mainstream ethical theories. It is central to the theories of several notable female ethicists and many of them identify the French philosopher Simone Weil as the source of the contemporary use of this concept which invites…
Robinson, J C
The social rate of discount--that is, the way decision makers today evaluate future consequences of collective activity--raises difficult issues of intergenerational justice. When benefits are discounted at the present rate the United States government requires, serious efforts to promote public health over the long term will fail cost-benefit tests. No consensus exists among theorists to establish fair rates; philosophers support discounting with economic arguments that economists reject, while economists no less paradoxically support the concept using philosophical arguments that philosophers disavow. A new emphasis on the role of consumers' and citizens' time preferences, however, will keep open rather than close debates on the social discount rate.
Richard G. Erskine
The Philosophical principles of a relationally focused Integrative Psychotherapy are described through the concepts of vulnerability, authenticity, and inter-subjective contact. Eight principles or therapist attitudes are outlined with clinical examples that illustrate the philosophy. These philosophical principles provide the foundation for a theory of methods. This article is based on a keynote address given at the 6th International Integrative Psychotherapy Association Conference, Granth...
Full Text Available Between April and November 1912, Bertrand Russell and Ludwig Wittgenstein were engaged in a joint philosophical program. Wittgenstein’s meeting with Gottlob Frege in December 1912 led, however, to its dissolution—the joint program was abandoned. Section 1 of this paper outlines the key points of that program, identifying what Russell and Wittgenstein each contributed to it. The second section determines precisely those features of their collaborative work that Frege criticized. Finally, building upon the evidence developed in the first two sections, section 3 recasts along previously undeveloped lines Wittgensein’s logical–philosophical discoveries in the two years following his encounter with Frege in 1912. The paper concludes, in section 4, with an overview of the dramatic consequences the Frege–Wittgenstein critique had for Russell’s philosophical development.
I claim that there is nothing so unusual in the interleaving of myth or fiction and history that Williams finds in Herodotus. I also reflect on the difficulty of separating acceptance of truth from acceptance of myth, metaphor, and model, not only in history but also in science. Philosophical Papers Vol.32(3) 2003: 243-260 ...
Dunlop, Lynda; de Schrijver, Jelle
Philosophical dialogue requires an approach to teaching and learning in science that is focused on problem posing and provides space for meaning making, finding new ways of thinking and understanding and for linking science with broader human experiences. This article explores the role that philosophical dialogue can play in science lessons and…
Economics is en route to its further expansion in medicine, but many in the medical community remain unconvinced that its impact will be positive. Thus, a philosophical enquiry into the compatibility of economics and medicine is necessary to resolve the disagreements. The fundamental mission of medicine obliges physicians to practise science and compassion to serve the patient's best interests. Conventional (neoclassical) economics assumes that individuals are self-interested and that competitive markets will emerge optimal states. Economics is seemingly incompatible with the emphasis of putting patients' interests first. This idea is refuted by Professor Kenneth Arrow's health economics seminal paper. Arrow emphasizes that medical practice involves agency, knowledge, trust and professionalism, and physician-patient relation critically affects care quality. The term Arrow Physician is used to mean a humanistic carer who has a concern for the patient and acts on the best available evidence with health equity in mind. To make this practice sustainable, implementing appropriate motivations, constitutions and institutions to enable altruistic agency is critical. There is substantial evidence that polycentric governance can encourage building trust and reciprocity, so as to avoid depletion of communal resources. This paper proposes building trusting institutions through granting altruistic physicians adequate autonomy to direct resources based on patients' technical needs. It also summarizes the philosophy bases of medicine and economics. It, therefore, contributes to developing a shared language to facilitate intellectual dialogues, and will encourage trans-disciplinary research into medical practice. This should lead to medicine being reoriented to care for whole persons again. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Examines the arguments of E. D. Hirsch (and others) who argue for a return to basic education. Proposes John Dewey's program of educational reform as a sensible response to the current neoconservative discourse of crisis. (MS)
Théodule Ribot (1839-1916) is regarded by many historians of psychology as the "father" of the discipline in France. Ribot contributed to the development of a "new psychology" independent from philosophy, relying on the methods of the natural sciences. However, such an epistemological transition encountered fierce opposition from both the champions of the old-fashioned metaphysical psychology and the representatives of the "scientific spirit." This article focuses on the objections raised by the latter, and especially philosophers of science, against the possibility of a scientific psychology. For instance, according to Auguste Comte, psychology does not satisfy certain basic methodological requirements. To overcome these objections, Ribot, in his La Psychologie Anglaise Contemporaine (1870/1914), devised an epistemological strategy that amounted to invoking criticisms of Comte's views made by other representatives of the positivist school, such as John Stuart Mill and Herbert Spencer. Copyright 2004 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Elkjær, Bente; Simpson, Barbara
specifically on the works of John Dewey and George Herbert Mead, who developed these general Pragmatist principles in ways that directly inform practice. Dewey concentrated particularly on relational dynamics, emphasising the continuous transactions between subjects and worlds in the situated construction...... of meanings. He argued that inquiry, which he saw as synonymous with critical and reflective thinking, is the foundation of all constructive activity, and that creative thinking and action are generated by a forward-looking, anticipative mode of inquiry. Mead contributed considerable analytical detail...
Виктор Семенович Корнилов
Full Text Available The article describes specific questions student learning inverse problems of mathematical physics. When teaching inverse problems of mathematical physics to the understanding of the students brought the information that the inverse problems of mathematical physics with a philosophical point of view are the problems of determining the unknown causes of known consequences, and the search for their solutions have great scientific and educational potential. The reasons are specified in the form of unknown coefficients, right side, initial conditions of the mathematical model of inverse problems, and as a consequence are functionals of the solution of this mathematical model. In the process of learning the inverse problems of mathematical physics focuses on the philosophical aspects of the phenomenon of information and identify cause-effect relations. It is emphasized that in the process of logical analysis applied and humanitarian character, students realize that information is always related to the fundamental philosophical questions that the analysis applied and the humanitarian aspects of the obtained results the inverse problem of mathematical physics allows students to make appropriate inferences about the studied process and to, ultimately, new information, to study its properties and understand its value. Philosophical understanding of the notion of information opens up to students a new methodological opportunities to comprehend the world and helps us to reinterpret existing science and philosophy of the theory related to the disclosure of the interrelationship of all phenomena of reality.
William H. F. Altman
Full Text Available In celebration of Newton da Costa’s place in the history of paraconsistency, this paper considers the use and abuse of deliberate self-contradiction. Beginning with Parmenides, developed by Plato, and continued by Cicero, an ancient philosophical tradition used deliberately paraconsistent discourses to reveal the truth. In modern times, decisionism has used deliberate self-contradiction against Judeo-Christian revelation.
Full Text Available The alleged apprentice of Albrecht Dürer, Hans Süss von Kulmbach (d. 1522, ‘must’ have painted at least one crypto-portrait of the Krakow banker John Boner (d. 1523, who went down in history as ‘the Polish Jacob Fugger.’ Such a conviction has seemingly inspired art-history scholarship devoted to Kulmbach and his relations to Poland. What varies is the selection of figures in his religious pictures claimed to represent Boner. This paper aims to examine two best argued theories, which concern two panel paintings preserved in the collection of St Mary’s Basilica in Krakow: Disputation of St Catherine of Alexandria with heathen philosophers, 1514-15, and Self-burial of St John the Evangelist, 1516. The suspect images will be analysed in terms of the enduring ‘premodern’ concept of recognizability, with focus on such aspects as mimesis versus schematism, heraldry and costume.
Full Text Available The article is concerned with the philosophical talks which became popular in the 1980s and have kept their popularity till now–the philosophical essays about self-organization. The author attempts to find out as to which extent are these essays founded on the scientific theory to which they regularly refer, that is, Ilya Prigogine’s non-linear thermodynamics. The author insists that the equivalent of self-organization in Prigogine’s theoretical physics is the concept of dissipative structure. The concept of selforganization, as it is used in philosophical literature, presupposes a sequence of extrapolations, the first extrapolation being conducted by Prigogine and his coauthors. They became to use the concept of dissipative structure beyond the rigorous theory of this phenomenon. The subsequent step was that the scientific term “dissipative structure” was replaced by the vague concept “self-organization” in many popular and semi-popular books and papers. The author also emphasizes that by placing the concept of self-organization into the framework of philosophical concepts (the picture of the world, the ideals of scientific thought, the contemporary scientific revolution, etc. a philosopher conducts the extrapolation of extrapolation and comes to a kind of what Edmund Husserl called Weltanschauung (‘worldview’ philosophy.
On the occasion of the recent experimental detection of a Higgs-type particle at the Large Hadron Collider at CERN, the paper reviews philosophical aspects of the Higgs mechanism as the presently preferred account of the generation of particle masses in the Standard Model of elementary particle
Richard G. Erskine
Full Text Available The Philosophical principles of a relationally focused Integrative Psychotherapy are described through the concepts of vulnerability, authenticity, and inter-subjective contact. Eight principles or therapist attitudes are outlined with clinical examples that illustrate the philosophy. These philosophical principles provide the foundation for a theory of methods. This article is based on a keynote address given at the 6th International Integrative Psychotherapy Association Conference, Grantham, UK, July 11-14, 2013.
Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education. John P Craig. Articles written in Resonance – Journal of Science Education. Volume 17 Issue 10 October 2012 pp 924-925 Article-in-a-Box. S N De - An Appreciation · John P Craig · More Details Fulltext PDF ...
Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education. A John Wilson. Articles written in Resonance – Journal of Science Education. Volume 11 Issue 7 July 2006 pp 70-76 Classroom. Inverting Matrices Constructed from Roots of Unity · A John Wilson · More Details Fulltext PDF ...
Geraldo Dôres Armendane
Full Text Available This article examines Wittgenstein’s cultural pessimism on the progress of Western techno-scientific civilization in the first half of the twentieth century, as well as the contributions of the Austrian thinker for a philosophical reflection on technology. We will also show that Wittgenstein’s philosophical position was based on a deep and intense activity of thought and language. The text is divided on in three parts: the first shows Wittgenstein’s cultural pessimism on the technological civilization progress; the second shows Wittgenstein's relationship with science and his strong opposition to the scientist ideology; the third presents Wittgenstein’s conception of philosophy therapy including for the uses of technological civilization. Finally, we conclude by showing that Wittgenstein's philosophy avoids the use of the "ladder" dealing with problems in the contemporary world.
Literacy and Technological Development in Nigeria: A Philosophical ... Many challenges have occurred in society as a result of advances in sciences and technology. ... historical and cultural factors determine if and how, a technology is used.
Full Text Available Any scientific intercession that has as objective, the understanding of the significances of the “principle of law” needs to have an interdisciplinary character, the basis for the approach being the philosophy of the law. In this study we fulfill such an analysis with the purpose to underline the multiple theoretical significances due to this concept, but also the relationship between the juridical principles and norms, respectively the normative value of the principle of the law. Thus are being materialized extensive references to the philosophical and juridical doctrine in the matter. This study is a pleading to refer to the principles, in the work for the law’s creation and applying. Starting with the difference between “given” and ‘constructed” we propose the distinction between the “metaphysical principles” outside the law, which by their contents have philosophical significances, and the “constructed principles” elaborated inside the law. We emphasize the obligation of the law maker, but also of the expert to refer to the principles in the work of legislation, interpretation and applying of the law. Arguments are brought for the updating, in certain limits, the justice – naturalistic concepts in the law.
Full Text Available Although many different views of social media coexist in the field of information systems (IS, such theories are usually not introduced in a consistent framework based on philosophical foundations. This paper introduces the dimensions of lifeworld and consideration of others. The concept of lifeworld includes Descartes’ rationality and Heidegger’s historicity, and consideration of others is based on instrumentalism and Heidegger’s “being-with.” These philosophical foundations elaborate a framework where different archetypal theories applied to social media may be compared: Goffman’s presentation of self, Bourdieu’s social capital, Sartre’s existential project, and Heidegger’s “shared-world.” While Goffman has become a frequent reference in social media, the three other references are innovative in IS research. The concepts of these four theories of social media are compared with empirical findings in IS literature. While some of these concepts match the empirical findings, some other concepts have not yet been investigated in the use of social media, suggesting future research directions. Keywords: Social media, Lifeworld, Consideration of others, Rationality, Historicity, Instrumentalism, Being-with, Presentation of self
This book engages directly in close readings of technical texts and computer code in order to show how software works. It offers an analysis of the cultural, political, and philosophical implications of software technologies that demonstrates the significance of software for the relationship between technology, philosophy, culture, and society.
The primary mechanism for ideological and theoretical unification in modern mathematics, set theory forms an essential element of any comprehensive treatment of the philosophy of mathematics. This unique approach to set theory offers a technically informed discussion that covers a variety of philosophical issues. Rather than focusing on intuitionist and constructive alternatives to the Cantorian/Zermelian tradition, the author examines the two most important aspects of the current philosophy of mathematics, mathematical structuralism and mathematical applications of plural reference and plural
The 20th century with its political, social, and scientific aspects bundles itself in the life of Carl Friedrich v. Weizsaecker. As comprehensive thinker of the presence he led natural science, philosophy, and spirituality to a unity. In the public the grandson of last in Germany enobled minster and brother of the senior federal president achieved by his engagement for peace and disarmament a global effect. Competently and understandably his visionary and prospective physical ideas and his philosophical considerations are explained by his long standing coworker and close confident.
Pasachoff, Jay M.; Olson, R. J. M.
We report on the discovery and drawings of comets by William, Caroline, and John Herschel. The first discovery, by William Herschel, in 1781 from Bath, published in the Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society with the title "Report of a Comet," turned out to be Uranus, the first planet ever discovered, Mercury through Saturn having been known since antiquity. William's sister Caroline was given duties of sweeping the skies and turned out to be a discoverer of 8 comets in her own right, in addition to keeping William's notes. Caroline's comets were discovered from Slough between 1786 and 1797. In the process, we also discuss original documents from the archives of the Royal Society and of the Royal Astronomical Society. We conclude by showing comet drawings that we have recently attributed to John Herschel, including Halley's Comet from 1836, recently located in the Ransom Center of the University of Texas at Austin. Acknowledgments: Planetary astronomy at Williams College is supported in part by grant NNX08AO50G from NASA Planetary Astronomy. We thank Peter Hingley of the Royal Astronomical Society and Richard Oram of the Harry Ransom Center of The University of Texas at Austin for their assistance.
This paper aims to show how contemporary Aristotelian political philosophy can be utilised in our reflections on European integration. It argues that changes in international relations after the end of the Cold War and a growing cultural divide between Europe and the US makes Europe's Western identity untenable. Through a brief philosophical sketch of the history of 'the West' it argues that Europe needs to return to its European rather than Western roots. The philosophical emphasis on nation...
Clarke, Imogen; Mussell, James
In 1921 Oliver Lodge defended Philosophical Magazine against charges of mismanagement from the National Union of Scientific Workers. They alleged that its editors performed little editorial work, the bulk being done by the publishers, Taylor & Francis. Lodge reassured Nature's readers that the journal did consult its editors, and suggested 'a conservative attitude towards old-established organs is wise; and that it is possible to over-organise things into lifelessness.' The paper explores Lodge's response by considering the editorial arrangements at Philosophical Magazine. Founded in 1798, it remained remarkably unchanged and so appeared old-fashioned when compared with its closest rivals, Proceedings of the Royal Society and Proceedings of the Physical Society. We argue that for Lodge the management of Philosophical Magazine gave it the flexibility and independence required to sustain the kind of physics, also open to accusations of obsolescence, in which he believed.
How can one be both a philosophical ethicist and a democrat? In this article I conclude that it can be difficult to reconcile the two roles. One involves understanding, and reconciling, the conflicting views of citizens, and the other requires the pursuit of truth through reason. Nevertheless, an important function of philosophy and ethics is to inform and improve policy. If done effectively, we could expect better, and more just, laws and policies, thereby benefiting many lives. So applying philosophical thinking to policy is an important job. However, it comes with substantial difficulties, not least in reconciling, or choosing between, competing philosophical theories. Despite the importance of the task, and the apparent obstacles, there is relatively little literature on how to apply ethics to real-world policy-making. Democracies need ethicists who can engage in democratic debate and bridge the gap between philosophy and public policy. I offer some tactics here.
Yu. D. Gensitskiy
Full Text Available Purpose. Understanding the philosophical and anthropological importance of the development the artificial intelligence systems requires the analysis of the socio and anthropological content of intercomputer problems of interaction in the context of media philosophical praxis, anthropological maintenance of intellect nature, considering the specifics of the concept of artificial intelligence systems in the environment of M2M development of socio-cognitive practices of intercomputer interaction of social and humanitarian potential. Methodology. The implementation target is seen in the use of scientific and theoretical basis of the media philosophical, philosophical anthropology, the media philosophical approach to understanding society, science and technology, the use of publications on selected topics of research. Scientific novelty. The concept of artificial intelligence systems in the aspect of social and humanitarian potential of their formation and development in the environment of M2M was considered. The problems of machine learning as technology transformation M2M were analysed. The anthropological threats to the development of artificially created intelligent systems were defined. Conclusions. From the global risks point of view, one of the most critical circumstances due to the artificial intelligent system can strengthen its intelligence very quickly. The obvious reason for suspecting such an opportunity – a recursive self-improvement. Such system becomes smarter, including the intelligent writing of internal cognitive function, that the ability to rewrite their existing cognitive function to make it work better. This will make such systems more intelligent, and smarter in terms of the processing itself. The success of artificial intelligence may be the beginning of the end of the human race. Almost any technology falling into malicious hands reveals the potential for harm, but when it comes to artificial intelligent system, there is a
Full Text Available O objetivo do artigo é realizar uma reflexão sobre a vida e a obra de Anísio Teixeira (1900-1971, na comemoração do seu centenário de nascimento, destacando momentos decisivos da sua biografia, suas motivações como educador, aspectos da sua apropriação de John Dewey e a atualidade das suas concepções para pensar a educação brasileira contemporânea.The objective this article is to look back on Anísio Teixeira's life and work (1900-1971, on the 100th anniversary of his birth, including decisive moments in his biography, his motivations as an educator, different aspects of his appropriation of John Dewey's work, and the usefulness of his conceptions for reflecting on contemporary Brazilian education.
Rüdiger H. Rimpler
Following some of the ideas of Julian Klein and Arno Böhler on the significance of our feelings and on the limits of conceptual thinking I propose a specific form of philosophical performances, which is based on a grounding of emotions within thinking and on postponed deliberations within networking groups of individuals who are sharing a similar background of specific experiences in a given population.
Aleksić Slađana V.
Full Text Available Laza Kostić, in the early seventies of the XIX century, opposed the utilitarianism of Nikolay Chernyshevsky and Svetozar Markovié, and advocated the idea of aestheticism in poetry and art. In his study about Jovan Jovanović Zmaj, Kostić had discovered two opposing processes in the poet, which he symbolically named the battle between the dragon and the nightingale. Kostić's conception about the origin of poetry is at the intersection of romanticist poetics about creation from divine inspiration, and a philosophical concept of the interference as a basic principle. The paper sheds light on the correspondence among the philosophical and literary views of Laza Kostić and his artistic work.
This book treats Adam Smith as a systematic philosopher. Smith was a giant of the Scottish Enlightenment with polymath interests. The book explores Smith’s economics and ethics in light of his other commitments on the nature of knowledge, the theory of emotions, the theory of mind, his account of
This essay aims to introduce Giovanni Gentile to scholars of Gramsci studies broadly and Gramsci-education studies more specifically. The largest part of the essay explores Gentile's academic life, his philosophical agenda, and his political career. Having established a basis for understanding the educational reform Gentile enacted as Mussolini's…
Full Text Available Wittgenstein is the author of two conceptions of “grammar”, that were meant to be tools of reaching the same goal: discrediting of the traditional, i.e. “metaphysical” questions of philosophy. His early conception concerns logical grammar being the language of logic notation, which is devoid of logical constants. This idea was supported by the ontological thesis that there are no logical objects. In fact, it was not indispensable for achieving the intended purpose, since the elimination of philosophical problems was provided by the semantic argument that the only sensible statements are those of the natural sciences. The second concept of grammar, presented in the writings of the later Wittgenstein, seems more ambiguous. Grammar is a set of rules of the language game, having a status of grammatical statements. Examples of such statements are diverse, and desirable, according to the authors, reformulation of them all into concrete orders or prohibitions seems problematic. In the Investigations Wittgenstein distinguishes between deep and surface grammar, which serves to determine the proper task of philosophy as description of the deep grammar (especially the grammar of philosophically relevant words. In this sense New Philosophy is a kind of philosophical grammar. Wittgensteinian grammar is also anti-philosophical, as it aims at the elimination of erroneous (pseudometaphysical claims derived from misleading forms of surface grammar. Despite the differences in the concepts of language and grammar in the early and late Wittgenstein, he has not changed his critical approach to the traditional philosophical questions.
Full Text Available Spirituality for Seyyed Hossen Nasr is an inner reality that becomes a religious central in Islam. It is the esoteric dimension hidden in the reality of exoteric Islam. That view on spirituality brings Nasr to the philosophical thought that cannot be separated from religious metaphysical doctrine. Nasr argues that philosophy is more than just a ratio but also the activity of intellect that can reach the meta-cosmic nature to find the essence of truth namely the universal and eternal truth that lies behind the physical and relative truth. The philosophical efforts to find this truth are a combination of the optimizing potential of reason and intellectual intuition. Nasr refers to ḥikmah or wisdom as a kind of philosophy that combines logic and intellectual intuition. That philosophical view brings Nasr on a dualistic view of nature which not only has a cosmic dimension as such but also has a meta-cosmic dimension. This dualistic view is his fundamental reason in formulating the concept of metaphysical cosmology as a solution to the crisis of modern science that has caused a variety of ecological damage due to the secular vision. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.20414/ujis.v20i2.812
Several recently developed philosophical approaches to the self promise to enhance the exchange of ideas between the philosophy of the mind and the other cognitive sciences. This review examines two important concepts of self: the 'minimal self', a self devoid of temporal extension, and the 'narrative self', which involves personal identity and continuity across time. The notion of a minimal self is first clarified by drawing a distinction between the sense of self-agency and the sense of self-ownership for actions. This distinction is then explored within the neurological domain with specific reference to schizophrenia, in which the sense of self-agency may be disrupted. The convergence between the philosophical debate and empirical study is extended in a discussion of more primitive aspects of self and how these relate to neonatal experience and robotics. The second concept of self, the narrative self, is discussed in the light of Gazzaniga's left-hemisphere 'interpreter' and episodic memory. Extensions of the idea of a narrative self that are consistent with neurological models are then considered. The review illustrates how the philosophical approach can inform cognitive science and suggests that a two-way collaboration may lead to a more fully developed account of the self.
Full Text Available This article focuses on the philosophical presuppositions of the second King Report on corporate governance for South Africa (hereafter referred to as the King II Report. Especially in the “Introduction and Background” section of the King II Report it is clear that the Report is premised upon a specific understanding of the present-day corporation and its moral obligations. The purpose of this article is to commit what Charles Taylor called “an act of retrieval” in which the philosophical premises of the King II Report will be unearthed and exposed. It will be argued that the view of the present-day corporation that underlies the King II Report could be related back to a number of debates on the notion of the comtemporary corporation and its moral responsibilities that have been played out since the 1970s. It will be indicated how these debates provide the philosophical foundations for the view of the comtemporary corporation and its moral obligations that is espoused in the King II Report. The claim made in the Report that the African world view and culture influenced the Report’s notion of corporate governance will also be critically reviewed. Finally it will be attempted to evaluate to what extent the recommendations of the King II Report live up to its own philosophical premises.
Fernanda Antônia Barbosa da Mota
Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to present a possible course for the study of human formation within the philosophy of education and also to offer a preamble about our version of the philosophy of Deleuzian education. The study is based on theoretical references such as Jaeger (1995, Chauí (2002, Paviani (2003, Pagni and Silva (2007, Gallo (2007; 2008, Deleuze and Guattari (2010, among others. Initially, we favor the relations between Philosophy and Education in antiquity (Paidea and modernity (Bildung, emphasizing the most influential philosophical ideas for education. In contemporaneity, we highlight some of the most expressive theoretical contributions constituent of the Brazilian educational philosophical scenario: Dewey, Adorno and Deleuze. Finally, the article shows that Geophilosophy of Education connects rhizomatically the philosophical and educational territories without incurring the linear reproduction of the history of philosophy or education, but looking for platforms for the creation of new concepts.
Cutting, J; Musalek, M
The first part of this article dealt with the extant formulations of delusion, psychiatric and psychological, suggestions which, respectively, regard delusion as psychologically inexplicable or explicable. All this was subjected to critique. This second part puts forward informed philosophical thesis whereby delusion can be explained within the philosophical movement known as phenomenology and, in particular, Max Scheler's version of this. © The Author(s) 2015.
A. V. Kulik
Full Text Available Modern philosophical researches pay attention to various aspects of self-knowledge investigation. For instance, there are works on historical concepts of self-knowledge (e.g. ones by C. Moore, or articles about the place of self-knowledge in the phenomenon of rationality (e.g. ones by J. Roessler, or articles about epistemological lacks of self-knowledge (e.g. ones by J. Fernández. However, our paper is about the aspect that is not in the researchers’ centre of attention. Our study shows that practicing of book reading can be a source of information not only about the content of the books, but also about their readers. We investigate a phenomenon of incompatible interpretations, Ludwig Wittgenstein’s ideas about understanding his texts, Merab Mamardashvili’s concept of ‘novel as a machine’, Ludwig Feuerbach’s theory of specifics of human cognition, and Philosophical Hermeneutics thinkers’ concepts about problems of understanding. The purpose of our paper is to describe possibilities of getting self-knowledge by analyzing the information about the results of philosophical texts reading. The research holds that these results give information about the content of the text as well as a reader’s ideas. A reader can use word forms from the texts to express his own implicit thoughts. Philosophical texts are the most effective tool for doing that because their content and ways of text organization stimulate such an activity. We illustrate these statements by examples from history of philosophy. For instance, we investigate the creation of the theory on the genealogy of morality by Friedrich Nietzsche. Analyzing phrases, which were important for him in the text, a person can estimate his own ideas. If one uses this theoretical model for getting self-knowledge he takes a new source of information about his own implicit ideas. The interpretation of this information will be effective. As a result of analyzing of Friedrich Schleiermacher
Labaree, Robert V.; Scimeca, Ross
The authors develop a framework for addressing the question of truth in librarianship and in doing so attempt to move considerations of truth closer to the core of philosophical debates within the profession. After establishing ways in which philosophy contributes to social scientific inquiry in library science, the authors examine concepts of…
This book presents the entire body of thought of Norbert Wiener (1894–1964), knowledge of which is essential if one wishes to understand and correctly interpret the age in which we live. The focus is in particular on the philosophical and sociological aspects of Wiener’s thought, but these aspects are carefully framed within the context of his scientific journey. Important biographical events, including some that were previously unknown, are also highlighted, but while the book has a biographical structure, it is not only a biography. The book is divided into four chronological sections, the first two of which explore Wiener’s development as a philosopher and logician and his brilliant interwar career as a mathematician, supported by his philosophical background. The third section considers his research during World War II, which drew upon his previous scientific work and reflections and led to the birth of cybernetics. Finally, the radical post-war shift in Wiener’s intellectual path is considered, e...
on Chinua Achebe's epic novel, Things Fall Apart, set among the Igbo of South-. Eastern ... because they chose to deny philosophic status to Africans in order to be compliant with the ..... condemned for seven years to live in a strange land.
Deretić Irina J.
Full Text Available In this paper, the author attempts to demonstrate that certain philosophical questions are articulated in Homer's Odyssey, especially those that consider the relationship between truth, probability, and falsehood. First, the author discusses the following two assertions: 'Nobody is my name' and 'Nobody will I eat last among his comrades.' When asked by the one-eyed giant Polyphemus what his name really is, Odysseus replies that his name is 'Nobody'. Thereon, Polyphemus says that he will eat 'Nobody', considering 'Nobody' to be 'Somebody'. What appears to be a word-game is in fact an indicator of the necessity to determine the role of negative pronouns in a language, as well as to question their referential status. The negative pronouns like nobody or no one imply the non-existence of someone who can be described as 'nobody' or 'no one'. They can only designate, but they are non-referential. Because Polyphemus does not understand the sense of the negative pronouns, he believes that there is such a man, who is called 'Nobody', and whom he will eat. Therefore, one may claim that Homer's Odysseus discovers the meaning and role of the negative pronouns in a natural language, as well as how the misuse of these words can become a generator in lying and deceiving. Homer distinguishes two types of lies: 1 the absolute falsehoods, which are lies under all circumstances, and 2 the falsehoods which 'seem like the truth'. Most of Homer's Odysseus fantastic tales are of that kind - they are neither true nor false, but they 'seem like the truth'. The truth status of fiction as resembling the truth is one of Homer's discoveries, since he held that his main protagonist's narrations are neither true nor false, but they resemble the truth. The narrations should be as consistent and plausible as possible, in order to describe not what really happened, but 'what could have been happened', as Aristotle would claim. In the course of the paper, the author has
The author makes sense of the story of his professional life through the eyes of several important writers and teachers on education and says that, for him, Bridget Plowden ranks alongside John Dewey, Friedrich Froebel, Ben Morris and A.S. Neill.
Andersson, Joacim; Garrison, Jim
Recently, there has been increasing pedagogical interest in the qualities and characteristics of movement. This article examines these qualities and characteristics in terms of John Dewey's distinction between abstract, linguistic "significant" meanings and concrete, embodied "imminent" meanings. Imminent meanings are comprised…
The views of Immanuel Kant, Soren Kierkegaard, Henri Bergson, John Dewey, and Susanne Langer were discussed. In this article they served as five important figures in a historical account of the concept of the aesthetic as the immediately sensuous. (Author/RK)
Markey, Karen; Demeyer, Anh N.
In this research project, subject terms from the Dewey Decimal Classification (DDC) Schedules and Relative Index were incorporated into an online catalog as searcher's tools for subject access, browsing, and display. Four features of the DDC were employed to help searchers browse for and match their own subject terms with the online catalog's…
Inglesfield, John; Echenique, Pedro
John Pendry John Inglesfield and Pedro Echenique write: John Pendry's 65th birthday is on 4 July 2008, and this issue of the Journal of Physics: Condensed Matter is dedicated to him, with articles by friends, colleagues, and former students. By any standards, John Pendry is a great scientist, who has made—and continues to make—an enormous contribution to physics; the wide range of his interests is reflected in the scope of these articles. Not many scientists can establish a completely new and unexpected area of research, but this has been John's achievement in the last few years in the field of metamaterials, materials whose electromagnetic properties depend on their structure rather than the materials of which the structure is built. In this way, structures with effectively negative electrical permittivity and negative magnetic permeability can be constructed, demonstrating negative refraction; through metamaterials scientists now have access to properties not found in nature, and never previously explored experimentally. Never a week goes by without a potential new application of metamaterials, whether it is perfect lensing, or the cloak of invisibility. This has certainly led to tremendous visibility for John himself, with guest lectures all over the world, and radio and television appearances. John Pendry's first paper was published exactly 40 years ago, 'Analytic properties of pseudopotentials' , and since then he has published 310 articles at the latest count. But this first paper already reflected something of the way John works. His PhD project, with Volker Heine at the Cavendish Laboratory, was to interpret the scattering of low energy electrons from surfaces, the technique of LEED which was to become the method of choice for determining surface structure. Although the energy of the electrons in LEED is relatively low—say 50 eV—it is much higher than the energy of the conduction electrons, for which pseudopotentials had been devised, and John
S. K. Kostiuchkov
Full Text Available In the paper the approaches to sociocultural understanding of human nature in the context of philosophical anthropology, analyzes the essence of human nature contradictions inherent in the contradiction between biological and social components; author focuses attention on the concept of «identity» in the context of philosophical anthropology and characterization of the status of human life; put forward a reasoned statement that outlook, as the level of philosophical understanding of the world, combining both biological and social components of human nature. It is emphasized that universal principle transistorychnym public attitudes towards human life is the recognition of its absolute value in different dimensions religious, philosophical, scientific. The author notes that religious, especially biblical doctrine emphasizes the value of human life that flows from dignity of man, created in God’s image, a rational being who comes to Earth as, in a sense, a representative of God. The article stresses the urgency of a new philosophical paradigm as an important ideological guideline that requires perceive and understand the biological basis of man is not as indispensable, but neutral background of social life, but as a basis upon which and through which a person is transformed into a cultural and civilized being.
P. V. Kretov
Full Text Available The aim of the study is to find out the meaning of the symbolic nature of the philosophical and anthropological knowledge deployment, as well as symbolic forms of correlation between artificial and natural in the consciousness of human identity and their fixation in the language and also in the forms and structures of culture. The research is based on the methodology of historical and philosophical analysis in synchronic and diachronic aspects, principles of hermeneutic understanding and reconstruction and phenomenological descriptions. Scientific novelty is represented by the postulating such predications of symbolic structures of language and consciousness as multipanorama and transfinite, justification of the ontological status of symbol and symbolism. The symbolic functioning character of language metaphor in scientific discourse and especially the symbolic dimension of semantic field of language and culture, as well as their symbolic association was fixed. The author proves the thesis about the symbolic nature of a holistic, means forming, philosophical knowledge of man, and the relation between the underlying symbolic and metaphorical structures of language and the mechanisms of consciousness, which finds its expression, in particular, in the language of science. The symbolic design that transmits the philosophical aspects of meaning that go beyond definition and formal-logic descriptions is used. In the comparison of the concepts of spiral dynamics, memetics and autopoiesis the existence of a specific symbolic dimension of the semantic field of language, culture and consciousness is postulated. Conclusions of the article define the role of symbol and symbolic and metaphorical constructions and structures of language in forming the discourse of modern philosophical anthropology, which would include the whole thesaurus of language and culture.
Acupuncture in Chinese medicine has been a treasure in Chinese traditional medicine for thousands of years. It is opposite to many basic theories in modern medicine in dynasties. Different from the cross compatibility and interactions among medical medicines, acupuncture in Chinese medicine has its own consolidation and inherent philosophical ideas. In view of this, how to discuss the philosophical ideas and its development of acupuncture in Chinese medicine becomes of great importance. It is crucial to clearly answer the three theoretical propositions in the development of acupuncture in Chinese medicine. Firstly, the differences in acupuncture should be identified between the ancient time and the modern time. The issues focus on the origin of Huangdi Neijing ( Yellow Emperor's Internal Medicine ) and its philosophical divergence. Secondly, the origin of acupuncture should be identified, whether it is from China or India. Thirdly, the differences in acupuncture should be identified between China and the west, focusing on the explanation and rectification of the interrelationship between the acupuncture in Chinese medicine and the western acupuncture. Hence, the basic features are discussed on the reality of acupuncture in Chinese medicine as well as its diversity. Finally, the proposition is extended on how to holistically grasp the philosophical foundation of acupuncture in Chinese medicine and its future trend.
Full Text Available Understanding inductive reasoning is a problem that has engaged mankind for thousands of years. This problem is relevant to a wide range of fields and is integral to the philosophy of science. It has been tackled by many great minds ranging from philosophers to scientists to mathematicians, and more recently computer scientists. In this article we argue the case for Solomonoff Induction, a formal inductive framework which combines algorithmic information theory with the Bayesian framework. Although it achieves excellent theoretical results and is based on solid philosophical foundations, the requisite technical knowledge necessary for understanding this framework has caused it to remain largely unknown and unappreciated in the wider scientific community. The main contribution of this article is to convey Solomonoff induction and its related concepts in a generally accessible form with the aim of bridging this current technical gap. In the process we examine the major historical contributions that have led to the formulation of Solomonoff Induction as well as criticisms of Solomonoff and induction in general. In particular we examine how Solomonoff induction addresses many issues that have plagued other inductive systems, such as the black ravens paradox and the confirmation problem, and compare this approach with other recent approaches.
Full Text Available Due to the intensive economic growth and consumer society formation, there expands a view that the human life value depends mainly on the material benefits and money; meanwhile, the moral values trail behind leading the humanity towards the spiritual crisis. The author recommends addressing the heritage of our great ancestors and studying both the works of L. N. Tolstoy and Taoism philosophy in order to maintain the spiritual self and revive our faith in human powers. Taoism is the native law of the world’s order demonstrating the natural ways of life, developing the harmonious life style, and teaching the natural control methods in compliance with the laws of nature.For the most Russian and Chinese readers Lev Tolstoy is a great writer and thinker; his philosophic system being one of the most significant in the Russian spirituality and ideology. L. Tolstoy rejected the western rationalism and studied the Chinese philosophic and religious doctrines. The author conducted a comparative analysis of Tolstoy’s concepts (non-resistance to evil by violence, wise non- doing and Taoism key concepts, and makes a conclusion about their organic interrelations, and the influence of the Chinese wisdom on Tolstoy’s works and worldview.
In this largely nontechnical book, eminent physicists and philosophers address the philosophical impact of recent advances in quantum physics. These are shown to shed new light on profound questions about realism, determinism, causality or locality. The participants contribute in the spirit of an open and honest discussion, reminiscent of the time when science and philosophy were inseparable. After the editors’ introduction, the next chapter reveals the strangeness of quantum mechanics and the subsequent discussions examine our notion of reality. The spotlight is then turned to the topic of decoherence. Bohm’s theory is critically examined in two chapters, and the relational interpretation of quantum mechanics is likewise described and discussed. The penultimate chapter presents a proposal for resolving the measurement problem, and finally the topic of loop quantum gravity is presented by one of its founding fathers, Carlo Rovelli. The original presentations and discussions on which this volume is based t...
The herb St. John's Wort is believed to be helpful in relieving mild to moderate depression, but should only be taken under a physician's supervision. St. John's Wort may clash with other medications or ...