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Sample records for phenylethynyl terminated imide

  1. Processing and Properties of Vacuum Assisted Resin Transfer Molded Phenylethynyl Terminated Imide Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cano, Roberto J.; Ghose, Sayata; Watson, Kent A.; Chunchu, Prasad B.; Jensen, Brian J.; Connell, John W.

    2012-01-01

    Polyimide composites are very attractive for applications that require a high strength to weight ratio and thermal stability. Recent work at NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC) has concentrated on developing new polyimide resin systems that can be processed without the use of an autoclave for advanced aerospace applications. Due to their low melt viscosities and long melt stability, certain phenylethynyl terminated imides (PETI) can be processed into composites using high temperature vacuum assisted resin transfer molding (HT-VARTM). VARTM has shown the potential to reduce the manufacturing cost of composite structures. In the current study, two PETI resins, LARC(Trademark) PETI-330 and LARC(Trademark) PETI-9, were infused into carbon fiber preforms at 260 C and cured at temperatures up to 371 C. Photomicrographs of polished cross sections were taken and void contents, determined by acid digestion, were below 4.5%. Mechanical properties including short block compression (SBC), compression after impact (CAI), and open hole compression (OHC) were determined at room temperature, 177 C, and 288 C. Both PETI-9 and PETI-330 composites demonstrated very good retention of mechanical properties at elevated temperatures. SBC and OHC properties after aging for 1000 hours at temperatures up to 288 C were also determined.

  2. Synthesis and characterization of phenylethynylcarbonyl terminated novel thermosetting imide compound

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Kimura

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Phenylethynyl terminated novel imide compound based on 1,3-bis(3-aminophenoxybenzene (APB and phenylethynyl trimellitic anhydride (PETA were prepared. The curing behavior of phenylethynyl terminated imide compound was investigated by differential scanning calorimetry and Fourier transform infrared spectrometry. The curing reaction of phenylethynylcarbonyl end group completed at 220°C, and proceeded much faster than that of phenylethynyl end group. Glass transition temperature of the thermosetting resin from phenylethynylcarbonyl terminated novel imide compound determined by dynamic mechanical analysis was almost the same as that of o-cresolnovolac type epoxy resin. In addition, the thermosetting resin from phenylethynylcarbonyl terminated novel imide compound exhibited excellent thermal and dimensional stabilities. These excellent properties of these phenylethynyl terminated imide compound might be due to the incorporation of alkene group or aromatic ring substitutes in the backbones, which might enhance the chain interaction (molecular packing and reduce the molecular chain mobility.

  3. Interpenetrating polymer networks based on cyanate ester and fluorinated ethynyl-terminated imide oligomers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Wen

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Highly soluble fluorinated ethynyl-terminated imide (FETI oligomers were prepared via a conventional one-step method in m-cresol, using 4, 4′-(hexafluoroisopropylidene diphthalic anhydride and 2, 2′-bis(trifluoromethyl benzidine as the monomers, and ethynylphthalic anhydride as the end-capper; then interpenetrating polymer networks (IPN were formulated from FETI oligomers and bisphenol A dicyanate ester (BADCy through a solvent-free procedure, and their thermal, mechanical, and dielectric properties were fully characterized. The curing mechanism was studied by model reactions using nitrogen nuclear magnetic resonance. As evidenced by differential scanning calorimetry analysis and rheological measurements, the FETI/BADCy blends exhibited lower curing temperature and shorter gelation time in comparison with pure BADCy due to the catalytic effects of ethynyl and residue amic acid groups. The properties of IPNs were fully compared with those of polycyanurate, and the results revealed that the incorporation of FETI into cyanate ester resins could significantly improve the toughness, glass transition temperatures, mechanical and dielectric properties of the resultant IPNs.

  4. Challenges in Laser Sintering of Thermoset Imide Resin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuang, Kathy C.; Gornet, Timothy; Koerner, Hilmar

    2016-01-01

    Polymer Laser Sintering (LS) is an additive manufacturing technique that builds 3D models layer by layer using a laser to selectively melt cross sections in powdered polymeric materials, following sequential slices of the CAD model. LS generally uses thermoplastic polymeric powders, such as polyamides (i.e. Nylon), and the resultant 3D objects are often weaker in their strength compared to traditionally processed materials, due to the lack of polymer inter-chain connection in the z-direction. The objective of this project is to investigate the possibility of printing a melt-processable RTM370 imide resin powder terminated with reactive phenylethynyl groups by LS, followed by a postcure in order to promote additional crosslinking to achieve higher temperature (250-300 C) capability. A preliminary study to build tensile specimens by LS and the corresponding DSC and rheology study of RTM370 during LS process is presented.

  5. Challenges in Laser Sintering of Melt-Processable Thermoset Imide Resin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuang, Kathy C.; Gornet, Timothy; Koerner, Hilmar

    2016-01-01

    Polymer Laser Sintering (LS) is an additive manufacturing technique that builds 3D models layer by layer using a laser to selectively melt cross sections in powdered polymeric materials, following sequential slices of the CAD model. LS generally uses thermoplastic polymeric powders, such as polyamides (i.e. Nylon), and the resultant 3D objects are often weaker in their strength compared to traditionally processed materials, due to the lack of polymer inter-chain connection in the z-direction. The objective of this project is to investigate the possibility of printing a melt-processable RTM370 imide resin powder terminated with reactive phenylethynyl groups by LS, followed by a postcure in order to promote additional crosslinking to achieve higher temperature (250-300 C) capability. A preliminary study to build tensile specimens by LS and the corresponding DSC and rheology study of RTM370 during LS process is presented.

  6. Electronic states of 1,4-bis(phenylethynyl)benzene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nguyen, Duy Duc; Jones, Nykola; Hoffmann, Søren Vrønning

    2012-01-01

    The electronic transitions of 1,4-bis(phenylethynyl)benzene (BPEB) were investigated by UV synchrotron radiation linear dichroism (SRLD) spectroscopy in the range 25,000 – 58,000 cm–1 (400 – 170 nm) on molecular samples aligned in stretched polyethylene. The investigation was supported by variable...

  7. Strategija upravljanja imidžom prodavaonice

    OpenAIRE

    Soče Kraljević, Sandra

    2007-01-01

    Pozicioniranje u svijesti kupaca i snažna promocijska podrška doveli su mnoge uspješne prodavaonice na malo na sam vrh. Najvećim dijelom to je zasluga imidža stvorenog u svijesti kupaca. Imidž jedne prodavaonice na malo može, ali ne mora odgovarati stvarnosti. Često djeluje poput klišeja. On precjenjuje određene čimbenike prodavaonice, dok neke druge jednostavno izostavlja. Upravo je zbog toga imidž značajan i često presudan u ponašanju potrošača. Predmet rada je utvrđivanje utjecaja imid...

  8. imide, crystal structure, thermal and dielectric studies

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    methyl imidazolium methylidene bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide, crystal structure, thermal and dielectric studies. BOUMEDIENE HADDAD1,2,3,∗, TAQIYEDDINE MOUMENE2, DIDIER VILLEMIN1,. JEAN-FRANÇOIS LOHIER1 and EL-HABIB ...

  9. Synthesis, Characterization, Topographical Modification, and Surface Properties of Copoly(Imide Siloxane)s

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wohl, Christopher J.; Atkins, Brad M.; Belcher, Marcus A.; Connell, John W.

    2012-01-01

    Novel copoly(imide siloxane)s were synthesized from commercially available aminopropyl terminated siloxane oligomers, aromatic dianhydrides, and diamines. This synthetic approach produced copolymers with well-defined siloxane blocks linked with imide units in a random fashion. The copoly(amide acid)s were characterized by solution viscosity and subsequently used to cast thin films followed by thermal imidization in an inert atmosphere. Thin films were characterized using contact angle goniometry, attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, confocal and optical microscopy, and tensile testing. Adhesion of micronsized particles was determined quantitatively using a sonication device. The polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) moieties lowered the copolymer surface energy due to migration of siloxane moieties to the film s surface, resulting in a notable reduction in particle adhesion. A further reduction in particle adhesion was achieved by introducing topographical features on a scale of several to tens of microns by a laser ablation technique.

  10. Mechanochemical N-alkylation of imides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anamarija Briš

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The mechanochemical N-alkylation of imide derivatives was studied. Reactions under solvent-free conditions in a ball mill gave good yields and could be put in place of the classical solution conditions. The method is general and can be applied to various imides and alkyl halides. Phthalimides prepared under ball milling conditions were used in a mechanochemical Gabriel synthesis of amines by their reaction with 1,2-diaminoethane.

  11. Phosphorus-containing imide resins - Modification by elastomers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varma, I. K.; Fohlen, G. M.; Parker, J. A.; Varma, D. S.

    1984-01-01

    The syntheses and general features of addition-type maleimide resins based on bis(m-aminophenyl)phosphine oxide and tris(m-aminophenyl)phosphine oxide have been reported previously. These resins have been used to fabricate graphite cloth laminates having excellent flame resistance. These composites did not burn even in pure oxygen. However, these resins were somewhat brittle. This paper reports the modification of these phosphorus-containing resins by an amine-terminated butadiene-acrylonitrile copolymer (ATBN) and a perfluoroalkylene diaromatic amine elastomer (3F). An approximately two-fold increase in short beam shear strength and flexural strength was observed at 7 percent ATBN concentration. The tensile, flexural, and shear strengths were reduced when 18 percent ATBN was used. Anaerobic char yields of the resins at 800 C and the limiting oxygen indexes of the laminates decreased with increasing ATBN concentration. The perfluorodiamine (3F) was used with both imide resins at 6.4 percent concentration. The shear strength was doubled in the case of the bisimide with no loss of flammability characteristics. The modified trisimide laminate also had improved properties over the unmodified one. The dynamic mechanical analysis of a four-ply laminate indicated a glass transition temperature above 300 C. Scanning electron micrographs of the ATBN modified imide resins were also recorded.

  12. Synthesis and Characterization of Poly (ether imide)s Containing Phthalazinone and Isopropyl Moieties

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    A novel poly(ether imide)s containing phthalazinone and isopropyl moieties derived from 2-(4-aminophenyl)-4-[4-(4-aminophenoxy)phenyl]-phthalazin-l-one and bisphenol-A diphthalic anhydride was synthesized by one-step solution condensation polymerization in m-cresol. The polymer was characterized by FTIR, NMR, molecular weights, glass transition temperature,thermal degradation temperature and WAXD.

  13. The Electronic Structure and Spectra of Triphenylamines Functionalized by Phenylethynyl Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baryshnikov, G. V.; Minaeva, V. A.; Minaev, B. F.; Grigoras, M.

    2018-01-01

    We study the features of the electronic structure and the IR, UV, and visible spectra of a series of triphenylamines substituted with phenylethynyl groups. The analysis is performed at the level of the density functional theory (DFT) and its nonstationary version in comparison with the experimental data of IR and electron spectroscopy. It is shown that, in the excited state, there is a change in the alternation of single, double, and triple bonds in accordance with the character of bonding and antibonding in the lowest vacant molecular orbital. The gradual introduction of additional phenylethynyl groups does not cause frequency shifts in the IR spectra of the molecules under study, but significantly affects the intensity of the corresponding IR bands. A similar effect is also observed in the electronic-absorption spectra of these compounds. This can be used for optical tuning of triphenylamines as promising materials for organic light-emitting diodes and solar cells.

  14. Novel (Phenylethynyl)pyrene-LNA Constructs for Fluorescence SNP Sensing in Polymorphic Nucleic Acid Targets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Astakhova, Irina Kira; Samokhina, Evgeniya; Babu, B Ravindra

    2012-01-01

    We describe fluorescent oligonucleotide probes labeled with novel (phenylethynyl)pyrene dyes attached to locked nucleic acids. Furthermore, we prove the utility of these probes for the effective detection of single-nucleotide polymorphisms in natural nucleic acids. High-affinity hybridization......DNA and RNA gene fragments. Target sequences were obtained by analysis of 200 clinical samples from patients currently receiving anti-HIV/AIDS combination therapy at the Russian Federal AIDS Center. Using these fluorescent oligonucleotides, we were able to detect the target mutation despite all the challenges...

  15. 21 CFR 177.2450 - Polyamide-imide resins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Components of Articles Intended for Repeated Use § 177.2450 Polyamide-imide resins. Polyamide-imide resins identified in paragraph (a) of this section may be safely used as components of articles intended for... Safety and Applied Nutrition (HFS-200), Food and Drug Administration, 5100 Paint Branch Pkwy., College...

  16. Poly (ether imide sulfone) membranes from solutions in ionic liquids

    KAUST Repository

    Kim, Dooli; Nunes, Suzana Pereira

    2017-01-01

    A membrane manufacture method based on non-volatile solvents and a high performance polymer, poly (ether imide sulfone) (EXTEM™), is proposed, as greener alternative to currently industrial process. We dissolved EXTEM™ in pure ionic liquids: 1-ethyl

  17. Dielectric constant and refractive index of poly (siloxane-imide) block copolymer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Othman, Muhammad Bisyrul Hafi; Ramli, Mohamad Riduwan; Tyng, Looi Yien; Ahmad, Zulkifli; Akil, Hazizan Md.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → We synthesis a series of poly(siloxane-imide) block copolymer. → We deals and examine the changes in optoelectronic properties. → The increasing silicone unit, decrease refractive index and dielectric properties. → However it does not significantly affected the optical transparency. -- Abstract: Recent technological advances demanded polyimides of improved versatility in terms of electronic, optical and thermal properties. In this work, a series of poly(siloxane-imide) block copolymers were synthesized in order to investigate the effect on their optical and electronic properties. The polyimide unit was derived from 3,3',4,4'-Biphenyltetracarboxylic dianhydride (BPDA) and 4-(4-{1-[4-(4-aminophenoxy) phenyl]-1-methylethyl} phenoxy) aniline (BAPP) while the siloxane unit was derived from 3-[3-(3-aminopropyl)-1,1,3,3-tetramethyldisiloxanyl] propylamine (DMS) and Poly(dimethylsiloxane), bis(3-aminopropyl)terminated (PDMS). The structure of the polyimide was characterized by fourier transformer infra red (FT-IR), nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, elemental analysis, solution viscosity and gas permeation chromatography (GPC). Scanning electron microscope (SEM) analysis suggested a microphase separation between the two components. The refractive index and dielectric properties showed a decreasing trend with increased silicone unit in the polyimide backbone. However ultra violet visible (UV-Vis) and optical transparency was not significantly affected. Electronic and optical properties of this copolymer were discussed in relation to the polysiloxane content.

  18. New organic semiconductors with imide/amide-containing molecular systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zitong; Zhang, Guanxin; Cai, Zhengxu; Chen, Xin; Luo, Hewei; Li, Yonghai; Wang, Jianguo; Zhang, Deqing

    2014-10-29

    Due to their high electron affinities, chemical and thermal stabilities, π-conjugated molecules with imide/amide frameworks have received considerable attentions as promising candidates for high-performance optoelectronic materials, particularly for organic semiconductors with high carrier mobilities. The purpose of this Research News is to give an overview of recent advances in development of high performance imide/amide based organic semiconductors for field-effect transistors. It covers naphthalene diimide-, perylene diimide- and amide-based conjugated molecules and polymers for organic semiconductors. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. Generation and selected reactions of chlorinated thiocarbonyl S-imides*

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mloston, Grzegorz; Pipiak, Paulina; Voss, Jürgen

    2017-01-01

    N-Aryl-1,1,1-trichloromethanesulfenamides ArNH-SCCl3 easily undergo dehydrochlorination upon treatment with potassium hydroxide in ethanolic solution. The intermediate thiocarbonyl S-imides formed thereby behave differently depending on the type of the N-aryl group. The sterically crowded N-(2,6-...

  20. Scandium Terminal Imido Chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Erli; Chu, Jiaxiang; Chen, Yaofeng

    2018-02-20

    Research into transition metal complexes bearing multiply bonded main-group ligands has developed into a thriving and fruitful field over the past half century. These complexes, featuring terminal M═E/M≡E (M = transition metal; E = main-group element) multiple bonds, exhibit unique structural properties as well as rich reactivity, which render them attractive targets for inorganic/organometallic chemists as well as indispensable tools for organic/catalytic chemists. This fact has been highlighted by their widespread applications in organic synthesis, for example, as olefin metathesis catalysts. In the ongoing renaissance of transition metal-ligand multiple-bonding chemistry, there have been reports of M═E/M≡E interactions for the majority of the metallic elements of the periodic table, even some actinide metals. In stark contrast, the largest subgroup of the periodic table, rare-earth metals (Ln = Sc, Y, and lanthanides), have been excluded from this upsurge. Indeed, the synthesis of terminal Ln═E/Ln≡E multiple-bonding species lagged behind that of the transition metal and actinide congeners for decades. Although these species had been pursued since the discovery of a rare-earth metal bridging imide in 1991, such a terminal (nonpincer/bridging hapticities) Ln═E/Ln≡E bond species was not obtained until 2010. The scarcity is mainly attributed to the energy mismatch between the frontier orbitals of the metal and the ligand atoms. This renders the putative terminal Ln═E/Ln≡E bonds extremely reactive, thus resulting in the formation of aggregates and/or reaction with the ligand/environment, quenching the multiple-bond character. In 2010, the stalemate was broken by the isolation and structural characterization of the first rare-earth metal terminal imide-a scandium terminal imide-by our group. The double-bond character of the Sc═N bond was unequivocally confirmed by single-crystal X-ray diffraction. Theoretical investigations revealed the presence

  1. Modulating the electronic properties of asymmetric push–pull and symmetric Zn(II)-diarylporphyrinates with para substituted phenylethynyl moieties in 5,15 meso positions: A combined electrochemical and spectroscopic investigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mussini, Patrizia Romana; Orbelli Biroli, Alessio; Tessore, Francesca; Pizzotti, Maddalena; Biaggi, Cinzia; Di Carlo, Gabriele; Lobello, Maria Grazia; De Angelis, Filippo

    2012-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Abstract: Push–pull Zn(II)-porphyrinates have recently shown attracting performances as light harvesting systems in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). To fully exploit their intrinsically high efficiency it is important to finely tune their HOMO and LUMO levels, which can be achieved by proper choice of the push and pull substituents. Of course such target-oriented molecular design requires the availability of reliable relationships between molecular structure and electronic properties; therefore we have carried out a combined electrochemical, spectroscopic and computational investigation on a wide, systematic range of Zn(II)-porphyrinates 5,15 meso substituted with phenylethynyl linkers, including a first symmetric series carrying on the opposite terminals the same substituent (-N(CH 3 ) 2 , -OCH 3 , -COOCH 3 , -COOH, -NO 2 ); and a second push–pull one, with the terminal positions carrying one donor and one acceptor group belonging to the series above. Moreover, two suitably modified porphyrins allowed evaluation of the effects of (i) the presence or absence of the phenyl group in the linker between the porphyrin core and the acceptor group, and (ii) the effect of perfluorination on the same phenyl group. A rationalization scheme is proposed encompassing the whole porphyrin set, affording inter alia interesting clues on the different localization of the redox centres and effective conjugation between the porphyrin core and the side chains as a function of the molecular design.

  2. Phenylethynyl-butyltellurium inhibits the sulfhydryl enzyme Na+, K+ -ATPase: an effect dependent on the tellurium atom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quines, Caroline B; Rosa, Suzan G; Neto, José S S; Zeni, Gilson; Nogueira, Cristina W

    2013-11-01

    Organotellurium compounds are known for their toxicological effects. These effects may be associated with the chemical structure of these compounds and the oxidation state of the tellurium atom. In this context, 2-phenylethynyl-butyltellurium (PEBT) inhibits the activity of the sulfhydryl enzyme, δ-aminolevulinate dehydratase. The present study investigated on the importance of the tellurium atom in the PEBT ability to oxidize mono- and dithiols of low molecular weight and sulfhydryl enzymes in vitro. PEBT, at high micromolar concentrations, oxidized dithiothreitol (DTT) and inhibited cerebral Na(+), K(+)-ATPase activity, but did not alter the lactate dehydrogenase activity. The inhibition of cerebral Na(+), K(+)-ATPase activity was completely restored by DTT. By contrast, 2-phenylethynyl-butyl, a molecule without the tellurium atom, neither oxidized DTT nor altered the Na(+), K(+)-ATPase activity. In conclusion, the tellurium atom of PEBT is crucial for the catalytic oxidation of sulfhydryl groups from thiols of low molecular weight and from Na(+), K(+)-ATPase.

  3. The Dielectric Behavior of Cyano-Substituted Poly imides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elshazly, E.S.; Abdelrahman, A.A.M.; Elmasry, M.A.A.

    2013-01-01

    A number of amorphous poly imides containing polar functional groups, cyano group, have been synthesized and investigated for potential use as high temperature piezoelectric sensors. The piezoelectric constants are related to the polarization. The remanent polarization and hence piezoelectric response of a material is determined by dielectric relaxation strength which is the difference in dielectric constant at the glass transition temperature vicinity. The intent of this work is to clarify the mechanism and key components required for developing piezoelectricity in amorphous polymers and further to apply this understanding in designing a unique high temperature piezoelectric polyimide. In this paper, experimental investigations of dielectric constant of piezoelectric cyano -substituted poly imides have been tested as a function of temperature to measure the dielectric relaxation strength in the glass transition temperature region.

  4. Photodegradation of polymer-dispersed perylene di-imide dyes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Nobuaki; Barashkov, Nikolay; Heath, Jerry; Sisk, Wade N.

    2006-06-01

    Polymer-dispersed perylene di-imide dye photodegradation is investigated by monitoring the fluorescence intensity as a function of 532 nm laser pulses. Anaerobically irradiated polymer-dye films exhibited an accelerated decrease in fluorescence intensity, which was partially recovered upon exposure to oxygen. Decelerated photodegradation rates were observed for perylene di-imide ethanol solutions upon the addition of a singlet oxygen quenching antioxidant. These observations suggest reversible photoreduction and type II photo-oxidation as important photodegradation mechanisms. Type II photo-oxidation for perylene red 532 nm irradiation is supported by a singlet oxygen quantum yield of 0.09±0.03, determined via detection of time-resolved O2 (a1Δg —> X3∑g-) infrared phosphorescence.

  5. Discovery of the target for immunomodulatory drugs (IMiDs).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Takumi; Ando, Hideki; Handa, Hiroshi

    2016-05-01

    Half a century ago, the sedative thalidomide caused a serious drug disaster because of its teratogenicity and was withdrawn from the market. However, thalidomide, which has returned to the market, is now used for the treatment of leprosy and multiple myeloma (MM) under strict control. The mechanism of thalidomide action had been a long-standing question. We developed a new affinity bead technology and identified cereblon (CRBN) as a thalidomide-binding protein. We found that CRBN functions as a substrate receptor of an E3 cullin-Ring ligase complex 4 (CRL4) and is a primary target of thalidomide teratogenicity. Recently, new thalidomide derivatives, called immunomodulatory drugs (IMiDs), have been developed by Celgene. Among them, lenalidomide (Len) and pomalidomide (Pom) were shown to exert strong therapeutic effects against MM. It was found that Len and Pom both bind CRBN-CRL4 and recruit neomorphic substrates (Ikaros and Aiolos). More recently it was reported that casein kinase 1a (Ck1a) was identified as a substrate for CRBN-CRL4 in the presence of Len, but not Pom. Ck1a breakdown explains why Len is specifically effective for myelodysplastic syndrome with 5q deletion. It is now proposed that binding of IMiDs to CRBN appears to alter the substrate specificity of CRBN-CRL4. In this review, we introduce recent findings on IMiDs.

  6. In Situ Poling and Imidization of Amorphous Piezoelectric Polyimides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Cheol; Ounaies, Zoubeida; Wise, Kristopher E.; Harrison, Joycelyn S.; Bushnell, Dennis M. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    An amorphous piezoelectric polyimide containing polar functional groups has been developed using a combination of experimental and molecular modeling for potential use in high temperature applications. This amorphous polyimide, (Beta-CN)APB/ODPA, has exhibited good thermal stability and piezoelectric response at temperatures up to 150C. Density functional calculations predicted that a partially cured amic acid (open imide ring) possesses a dipole moment four times larger than the fully imidized closed ring. In situ poling and imidization of the partially cured (Beta-CN)APB/ODPA, was studied in an attempt to maximize the degree of dipolar orientation and the resultant piezoelectric response. A positive corona poling was used to minimize localized arcing during poling and to allow use of higher poling fields without dielectric breakdown. The dielectric relaxation strength, remanent polarization, and piezoelectric response were evaluated as a function of the poling profile. The partially cured, corona poled polymers exhibited higher dielectric relaxation strength (delta varepsilon), remanent polarization (Pr) and piezoelectric strain coefficient (d33) than the fully cured, conventionally poled ones.

  7. "Yin and Yang" tuned fluorescence sensing behavior of branched 1,4-bis(phenylethynyl)benzene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xiaohuan; Qi, Yanyu; Liu, Huijing; Peng, Junxia; Liu, Kaiqiang; Fang, Yu

    2014-11-26

    Achieving high sensing performance and good photostability of fluorescent films based on adlayer construction represents a significant challenge in the area of functional fluorescent film research. A solution may be offered by "Yin and Yang", a balance idea from Chinese philosophy, for the design of a fluorophore and the relevant assembly. Accordingly, a 1,4-bis(phenylethynyl)benzene (BPEB) derivative (C2) with two cholesteryl residues in the side chains and two glucono units in the head and tail positions was designed and synthesized. As a control, compound C1 was also prepared. The only difference between C1 and C2 is that the hydroxyl groups in the glucono residues of C1 are fully acetylated. Studies of the fluorescence behaviors of the two compounds in solution revealed that both the profile and the intensity of the fluorescence emission of the compounds, in particular C2, are dependent on their concentration and on the nature of solvents employed. Presence of HCl also alters the emission of the compounds in solution. On the basis of the studies, three fluorescent films were prepared, and their sensing performances to HCl in vapor state were studied. Specifically, Film 1 and Film 3 were fabricated via physical coating, separately, of C2 and C1 on glass plate surfaces. As another comparison, Film 2 was also fabricated with C2 as a fluorophore but at a much lower concentration if compared to that for the preparation of Film 1. As revealed by SEM and fluorescent microscopy studies, Film 1 and Film 2 exhibit well-defined microstructures, which are spherical particles and spherical pores, respectively, while Film 3 is characterized by irregular aggregates of C1. Fluorescence measurements demonstrated that Film 1 and Film 3 both display an aggregation emission, of which the emission from Film 1 is supersensitive to the presence of HCl vapor (detection limit: 0.4 ppb, a lowest value reported in the literatures). For Film 3, however, its emission is insensitive to the

  8. Poly(amic acid)s and their poly(amide imide) counterparts containing azobenzene moieties: Characterization, imidization kinetics and photochromic properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Konieczkowska, Jolanta [Centre of Polymer and Carbon Materials, Polish Academy of Sciences, 34 M. Curie-Sklodowska Str., 41-819 Zabrze (Poland); Institute of Chemistry, University of Silesia, 9 Szkolna Str., 40-006 Katowice (Poland); Janeczek, Henryk [Centre of Polymer and Carbon Materials, Polish Academy of Sciences, 34 M. Curie-Sklodowska Str., 41-819 Zabrze (Poland); Kozanecka-Szmigiel, Anna, E-mail: annak@if.pw.edu.pl [Faculty of Physics, Warsaw University of Technology, 75 Koszykowa Str., 00-662 Warszawa (Poland); Schab-Balcerzak, Ewa, E-mail: eschab-balcerzak@cmpw-pan.edu.pl [Centre of Polymer and Carbon Materials, Polish Academy of Sciences, 34 M. Curie-Sklodowska Str., 41-819 Zabrze (Poland)

    2016-09-01

    We report on a series of novel photochromic poly(amide imide)s and their poly(amic acid) precursors bearing azobenzene chromophores as the side groups. The chemical structures of the polymers were designed so that they exhibited an enhanced thermal stability combined with a large and stable birefringence photogenerated by light of the wavelengths belonging to a wide spectral range. The polymers possessed rigidly attached azochromophores in the content of either one or two per a repeating unit, which in the latter case differed in their structures. The imidization kinetics of the poly(amic acid)s was investigated by differential scanning calorimetry and the kinetic parameters were estimated using Ozawa and Kissinger methods. Measurements of the selected physical properties of the polymers, such as solubility, supramolecular structure, linear absorption, thermal stability, glass transition and photochromic response were performed and used for determination of the structure-property relations. The measurements of photochromic properties showed a very efficient generation of optical anisotropy upon blue and violet irradiation, for both the poly(amide imide)s containing two different chromophores in the repeating unit and for their precursors. For these poly(amide imide)s and for their precursors an exceptionally slow decrease in the photoinduced optical anisotropy in the dark was also observed. - Highlights: • Three azopoly(amide imide)s were obtained from azopoly(amic acid)s. • Chosen physicochemical properties and photochromic responses were measured. • Desired optical response was found for polymers with two azo-dyes in repeating unit. • Structure-property relations were shown.

  9. Anisotropic Copoly(Imide Oxetane) Coatings and Articles of Manufacture, Copoly(Imide Oxetane)s Containing Pendant Fluorocarbon Moieties, Oligomers and Processes Therefor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wohl, Christopher J. (Inventor); Connell, John W. (Inventor); Siochi, Emilie J. (Inventor); Smith, Joseph G. (Inventor)

    2017-01-01

    Copoly(imide oxetane) materials are disclosed that can exhibit a low surface energy while possessing the mechanical, thermal, chemical and optical properties associated with polyimides. The copoly(imide oxetane)s are prepared using a minor amount of fluorinated oxetane-derived oligomer with sufficient fluorine-containing segments of the copoly(imide oxetane)s that migrate to the exterior surface of the polymeric material to yield low surface energies. Thus the coatings and articles of manufacture made with the copoly(imide oxetane)s of this invention are characterized as having an anisotropic fluorine composition. The low surface energies can be achieved with very low content of fluorinated oxetane-derived oligomer. The copolymers of this invention can enhance the viability of polyimides for many applications and may be acceptable where homopolyimide materials have been unacceptable.

  10. Poly (ether imide sulfone) membranes from solutions in ionic liquids

    KAUST Repository

    Kim, Dooli

    2017-11-20

    A membrane manufacture method based on non-volatile solvents and a high performance polymer, poly (ether imide sulfone) (EXTEM™), is proposed, as greener alternative to currently industrial process. We dissolved EXTEM™ in pure ionic liquids: 1-ethyl-3-methylimidalzolium thiocyanate ([EMIM]SCN), 1-butyl-3-methylimidalzolium thiocyanate ([BMIM]SCN), and 1-ethyl-3-methylimidalzolium acetate ([EMIM]OAc). The following polymer solution parameters were evaluated to optimize the manufacture: Gibbs free energy of mixing (G), intrinsic viscosity ([]) and hydrodynamic diameter. Membranes with sponge-like structure and narrow pore size distribution were obtained from solutions in [EMIM]SCN. They were tested for separation of proteins and deoxyribonucleic acids (DNA). Due to the polymer stability, we foresee that applications in more demanding chemical separations would be possible. [EMIM]SCN was 96 % purified and recovered after the membrane fabrication, contributing to the sustainability of the whole manufacturing process.

  11. The Synthesis of Unsubstituted Cyclic Imides Using Hydroxylamine under Microwave Irradiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yousef Hijji

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Unsubstituted cyclic imides were synthesized from a series of cyclic anhydrides,hydroxylamine hydrochloride (NH2OH·HCl, and 4-N,N-dimethylamino-pyridine (DMAP,base catalyst under microwave irradiation in monomode and multimode microwaves. Thisnovel microwave synthesis produced high yields of the unsubstituted cyclic imides forboth the monomode (61 - 81% and multimode (84 - 97% microwaves.

  12. Synthesis and photocatalytic activity of poly(triazine imide)

    KAUST Repository

    Ham, Yeilin

    2012-10-22

    Poly(triazine imide) was synthesized with incorporation of Li+ and Cl- ions (PTI/Li+Cl-) to form a carbon nitride derivative. The synthesis of this material by the temperature-induced condensation of dicyandiamide was examined both in a eutectic mixture of LiCl-KCl and without KCl. On the basis of X-ray diffraction measurements of the synthesized materials, we suggest that a stoichiometric amount of LiCl is necessary to obtain the PTI/Li+Cl- phase without requiring the presence of KCl at 873 K. PTI/Li+Cl- with modification by either Pt or CoOx as cocatalyst photocatalytically produced H2 or O2, respectively, from water. The production of H2 or O2 from water indicates that the valence and conduction bands of PTI/Li+Cl- were properly located to achieve overall water splitting. The treatment of PTI/Li +Cl- with [Pt(NH3)4]2+ cations enabled the deposition of Pt through ion exchange, demonstrating photocatalytic activity for H2 evolution, while treatment with [PtCl6]2- anions resulted in no Pt deposition. This was most likely because of the preferential exchange between Li+ ions and [Pt(NH3)4]2+ cations. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. Synthesis and photocatalytic activity of poly(triazine imide)

    KAUST Repository

    Ham, Yeilin; Maeda, Kazuhiko; Cha, Dong Kyu; Takanabe, Kazuhiro; Domen, Kazunari

    2012-01-01

    Poly(triazine imide) was synthesized with incorporation of Li+ and Cl- ions (PTI/Li+Cl-) to form a carbon nitride derivative. The synthesis of this material by the temperature-induced condensation of dicyandiamide was examined both in a eutectic mixture of LiCl-KCl and without KCl. On the basis of X-ray diffraction measurements of the synthesized materials, we suggest that a stoichiometric amount of LiCl is necessary to obtain the PTI/Li+Cl- phase without requiring the presence of KCl at 873 K. PTI/Li+Cl- with modification by either Pt or CoOx as cocatalyst photocatalytically produced H2 or O2, respectively, from water. The production of H2 or O2 from water indicates that the valence and conduction bands of PTI/Li+Cl- were properly located to achieve overall water splitting. The treatment of PTI/Li +Cl- with [Pt(NH3)4]2+ cations enabled the deposition of Pt through ion exchange, demonstrating photocatalytic activity for H2 evolution, while treatment with [PtCl6]2- anions resulted in no Pt deposition. This was most likely because of the preferential exchange between Li+ ions and [Pt(NH3)4]2+ cations. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. 2-Methyl-6-(phenylethynyl pyridine (MPEP reverses maze learning and PSD-95 deficits in Fmr1 knock-out mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Réno Michelle Gandhi

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Fragile X syndrome (FXS is caused by the lack of expression of the fragile X mental retardation protein (FMRP, which results in intellectual disability and other debilitating symptoms including impairment of visual-spatial functioning. FXS is the only single-gene disorder that is highly co-morbid with autism spectrum disorder and can therefore provide insight into its pathophysiology. Lack of FMRP results in altered group I metabotropic glutamate receptor (mGluR signalling, which is a target for putative treatments. The Hebb-Williams (H-W mazes are a set of increasingly complex spatial navigation problems that depend on intact hippocampal and thus mGluR-5 functioning. In the present investigation, we examined whether an antagonist of mGluR-5 would reverse previously described behavioural deficits in Fmr1 KO mice. Mice were trained on a subset of the H-W mazes and then treated with either 20 mg/kg of an mGluR-5 antagonist, 2-Methyl-6-(phenylethynyl pyridine (MPEP; n = 11 or an equivalent dose of saline (n = 11 prior to running test mazes. Latency and errors were dependent variables recorded during the test phase. Immediately after completing each test, marble-burying behavior was assessed which confirmed that the drug treatment was pharmacologically active during maze learning. Although latency was not statistically different between the groups, MPEP treated Fmr1 KO mice made significantly fewer errors on mazes deemed more difficult suggesting a reversal of the behavioural deficit. MPEP treated mice were also less perseverative and impulsive when navigating mazes. Furthermore, MPEP treatment reversed PSD-95 protein deficits in Fmr1 KO treated mice, whereas levels of a control protein (β-tubulin remained unchanged. These data further validate MPEP as a potentially beneficial treatment for FXS. Our findings also suggest that adapted H-W mazes may be a useful tool to document alterations in behavioural functioning following pharmacological

  15. Solvent free low-melt viscosity imide oligomers and thermosetting polymide composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuang, Chun-Hua (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    .[.This invention relates to the composition and a solvent-free process for preparing novel imide oligomers and polymers specifically formulated with effective amounts of a dianhydride such as 2,3,3',4-biphenyltetra carboxylic dianydride (a-BPDA), at least one aromatic diamine and an endcapped of 4-phenylethynylphthalic anhydride (PEPA) or nadic anhydride to produce imide oligomers that possess a low-melt viscosity of 1-60 poise at 260-280.degree. C. When the imide oligomer melt is cured at about 371.degree. C. in a press or autoclave under 100-500 psi, the melt resulted in a thermoset polyimide having a glass transition temperature (T.sub.g) equal to and above 310.degree. C. A novel feature of this process is that the monomers; namely the dianhydrides, diamines and the endcaps, are melt processable to form imide oligomers at temperatures ranging between 232-280.degree. C. (450-535.degree. F.) without any solvent. These low-melt imide oligomers can be easily processed by resin transfer molding (RTM), vacuum-assisted resin transfer molding (VARTM) or the resin infusion process with fiber preforms e.g. carbon, glass or quartz preforms to produce polyimide matrix composites with 288-343.degree. C. (550-650.degree. F.) high temperature performance capability..]. .Iadd.This invention relates to compositions and a solvent-free reaction process for preparing imide oligomers and polymers specifically derived from effective amounts of dianhydrides such as 2,3,3',4'-biphenyltetracarboxylic dianhydride (a-BPDA), at least one aromatic polyamine and an end-cap such as 4-phenylethynyphthalic anhydride (PEPA) or nadic anhydride to produce imide oligomers that possess a low-melt viscosity of 1-60 poise at 260.degree. C.-280.degree. C..Iaddend.

  16. Kaolinite Nanocomposite Platelets Synthesized by Intercalation and Imidization of Poly(styrene-co-maleic anhydride

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pieter Samyn

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available A synthesis route is presented for the subsequent intercalation, exfoliation and surface modification of kaolinite (Kln by an imidization reaction of high-molecular weight poly(styrene-co-maleic anhydride or SMA in the presence of ammonium hydroxide. In a first step, the intercalation of ammonolyzed SMA by guest displacement of intercalated dimethylsulfoxide has been proven. In a second step, the imidization of ammonolyzed SMA at 160 °C results in exfoliation of the kaolinite layers and deposition of poly(styrene-co-maleimide or SMI nanoparticles onto the kaolinite surfaces. Compared with a physical mixture of Kln/SMI, the chemically reacted Kln/SMI provides more efficient exfoliation and hydrogen bonding between the nanoparticles and the kaolinite. The kaolinite nanocomposite particles are synthesized in aqueous dispersion with solid content of 65 wt %. The intercalation and exfoliation are optimized for a concentration ratio of Kln/SMI = 70:30, resulting in maximum intercalation and interlayer distance in combination with highest imide content. After thermal curing at 135 °C, the imidization proceeds towards a maximum conversion of the intermediate amic acid moieties. The changes in O–H stretching and kaolinite lattice vibrations have been illustrated by infrared and FT-Raman spectroscopy, which allow for a good quantification of concentration and imidization effects.

  17. Solvent Free Low-Melt Viscosity Imide Oligomers And Thermosetting Polyimide Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuang, CHun-Hua (Inventor)

    2006-01-01

    This invention relates to the composition and a solvent-free process for preparing novel imide oligomers and polymers specifically formulated with effective amounts of a dianhydride such as 2,3,3',4-biphenyltetra carboxylic dianydride (a-BPDA), at least one aromatic diamine' and an endcapped of 4-phenylethynylphthalic anhydride (PEPA) or nadic anhydride to produce imide oligomers that possess a low-melt viscosity of 1-60 poise at 260-280" C. When the imide oligomer melt is cured at about 371 C. in a press or autoclave under 100-500 psi, the melt resulted in a thermoset polyimide having a glass transition temperature (T(sub g)) equal to and above 310 C. A novel feature of this process is that the monomers; namely the dianhydrides, diamines and the endcaps, are melt processable to form imide oligomers at temperatures ranging between 232-280 C. (450-535 F) without any solvent. These low-melt imide oligomers can be easily processed by resin transfer molding (RTM), vacuum-assisted resin transfer molding (VARTM) or the resin infusion process with fiber preforms e.g. carbon, glass or quartz preforms to produce polyimide matrix composites with 288-343C (550-650 F) high temperature performance capability.

  18. Physicochemical characterization of a new family of small alkyl phosphonium imide ionic liquids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hilder, M.; Girard, G.M.A.; Whitbread, K.; Zavorine, S.; Moser, M.; Nucciarone, D.; Forsyth, M.; MacFarlane, D.R.; Howlett, P.C.

    2016-01-01

    Despite their promising properties, phosphonium based ionic liquids have attracted little attention as compared to their nitrogen-based cation counterparts. This study focuses on the properties of a family of small phosphonium imide ionic liquids, as well as the effect of lithium salt addition to these. The 6 ionic liquids were either alkyl, cyclic or nitrile functionalised phoshonium cations with bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide, NTf_2, or bis(fluorosulfonyl)imide (FSI) as anion. Amongst the properties investigated were ionic conductivity, viscosity, thermal behaviour, electrochemical stability and the reversibility of electrochemical lithium cycling. All ionic liquids showed very promising properties e.g. having low transition temperatures, high electrochemical stabilities, low viscosities and high conductivities. Particularly the trimethyl phosphonium ionic liquids showed some of the highest conductivities reported amongst phosphonium ionic liquids generally. The combination of electrochemical stability, high conductivity and reversible lithium cycling makes them promising systems for energy storage devices such as lithium batteries.

  19. Poly(Amide-imide) Aerogel Materials Produced via an Ice Templating Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gawryla, Matthew D; Arndt, Eric M; Sánchez-Soto, Miguel; Schiraldi, David A

    2018-02-03

    Low density composites of sodium montmorillonite and poly(amide-imide) polymers have been created using an ice templating method, which serves as an alternative to the often-difficult foaming of high temperature/high performance polymers. The starting polymer was received in the poly(amic acid) form which can be cured using heat, into a water insoluble amide-imide copolymer. The resulting materials have densities in the 0.05 g/cm³ range and have excellent mechanical properties. Using a tertiary amine as a processing aid provides for lower viscosity and allows more concentrated polymer solutions to be used. The concentration of the amine relative to the acid groups on the polymer backbone has been found to cause significant difference in the mechanical properties of the dried materials. The synthesis and characterization of low density versions of two poly(amide-imide) polymers and their composites with sodium montmorillonite clay are discussed in the present work.

  20. Poly(imide benzimidazole)s for high temperature polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yuan, Sen; Guo, Xiaoxia; Aili, David

    2014-01-01

    A series of poly(imide benzimidazole) random copolymers (PIBIs) was synthesized by condensation polymerization of biphenyl-4,4'-diyldi(oxo)-4,4'-bis(1,8-naphthalenedicarboxylic anhydride) (BPNDA), 2-(4-aminophenyl)-5-aminobenzimidazole (APABI) and 4,4'diaminodiphenyl ether (ODA) in m-cresol in th......A series of poly(imide benzimidazole) random copolymers (PIBIs) was synthesized by condensation polymerization of biphenyl-4,4'-diyldi(oxo)-4,4'-bis(1,8-naphthalenedicarboxylic anhydride) (BPNDA), 2-(4-aminophenyl)-5-aminobenzimidazole (APABI) and 4,4'diaminodiphenyl ether (ODA) in m...

  1. Preparation of pyrrolizinone derivatives via sequential transformations of cyclic allyl imides: synthesis of quinolactacide and marinamide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simic, Milena; Tasic, Gordana; Jovanovic, Predrag; Petkovic, Milos; Savic, Vladimir

    2018-03-28

    A facile synthetic route has been developed for the preparation of pyrrolizinone derivatives employing N-allyl imides as starting materials. The nucleophilic addition of a vinyl Grignard reagent/RCM/elimination sequence afforded pyrrolizinones in good yields and has been applied for the preparation of naturally occurring quinolactacide and marinamide.

  2. Stereoselective Synthesis of(Z)-4-(2-Bromovinyl)benzenesulfonyl Azide and Its Synthetic Utility for the Transformation to(2)-N-[4-(2-Bromovinyl)benzenesulfonyl]imidates

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Wensheng; KUANG Chunxiang; YANG Qing

    2009-01-01

    A novel method for the stereoselective synthesis of(Z)-4-(2-bromovinyl)benzenesulfonyl azide by simultaneous azidation and debrorninative decarboxylation of anti-2,3-dibromo-3-(4-chlorosulfonylphenyl)propanoic acid using NaN3 only was developed.Facile transformation of(Z)-4-(2-bromovinyl)benzenesulfonyl azide to(Z)-N-[4(2-bromovinyl)benzenesulfonyl]imidates was also achieved by Cu-catalyzed three-component coulping of (Z)-4-(2-bromovinyi)benzenesulfonyl azide,terminal alkynes and alcohols/phenols.

  3. Methoxyphenylethynyl, methoxypyridylethynyl and phenylethynyl derivatives of pyridine: synthesis, radiolabeling and evaluation of new PET ligands for metabotropic glutamate subtype 5 receptors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Meixiang; Tueckmantel, Werner; Wang, Xukui; Zhu Aijun; Kozikowski, Alan P.; Brownell, Anna-Liisa

    2005-01-01

    We have synthesized three different PET ligands to investigate the physiological function of metabotropic glutamate subtype 5 receptors (mGluR5) in vivo: 2-[ 11 C]methyl-6-(2-phenylethynyl)pyridine ([ 11 C]MPEP), 2-(2-(3-[ 11 C]methoxyphenyl)ethynyl)pyridine ([ 11 C]M-MPEP) and 2-(2-(5-[ 11 C]methoxypyridin-3-yl)ethynyl)pyridine ([ 11 C]M-PEPy). [ 11 C]Methyl iodide was used to label the compounds under basic conditions, and a Pd(0) catalyst was applied to label [ 11 C]MPEP in a Stille coupling reaction. In vivo microPET imaging studies of the functional accumulation of radiolabeled ligands were conducted in 35 rats (Sprague-Dawley, 8 weeks old male, weight of 300 g). Specific binding was tested using pre-administration of unlabeled mGluR5 antagonist 2-methyl-6-(2-phenylethynyl)pyridine (MPEP) (10 mg/kg iv 5 min before radioactivity injection). In the radiolabeling of [ 11 C]MPEP, [ 11 C]M-MPEP and [ 11 C]M-PEPy, a specific radioactivity of 700-1200 mCi/μmol and over 97% radiochemical purity were obtained. The microPET studies showed these three radiolabeled mGluR5 antagonists having the highest binding in the olfactory bulb followed by striatum, hippocampus and cortex. Pre-administration of the mGluR5 antagonist MPEP induced a 45.1% decrease in [ 11 C]MPEP binding, a 59.7% decrease in [ 11 C]M-MPEP binding and an 84.6% decrease in [ 11 C]M-PEPy binding in the olfactory bulb at 5 min. The feasibility of synthesizing high-affinity and high-selectivity ligands for mGluR5 receptors and their suitability as PET imaging ligands for mGluR5 receptors in vivo are demonstrated

  4. Isomer effect on the near-infrared electrochromism of anthraquinone imides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yao, Bin; Chen, Fengkun; Jiang, Hong; Zhang, Jie; Wan, Xinhua

    2015-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Display Omitted - Highlights: • Two pairs of unsubstituted isomers (Ia and Ib) and nitro-substituted isomers (IIa and IIb) of anthraquinone imides (AQIs), which are a unique type of cathodically-colouring NIR electrochromic materials bearing both quinone and imide moieties, were synthesized. • Isomer effect on the NIR electrochromism of n-type optoelectric materials was first approached. • A meaningful reference to design cathodically active NIR EC materials, in which the molecular planarity and the orientation of polar groups are two key elements must to be carefully considered, is provided. - Abstract: To deeply explore the interplay between molecular structure and near-infrared electrochromism of anthraquinone imides, two pairs of unsubstituted isomers (Ia and Ib) and nitro-substituted isomers (IIa and IIb) of anthraquinone imides were synthesized, in which the molecules Ia and IIa took more linear shapes than Ib and IIb. Cyclic voltammetry and spectroelectrochemistry were combined to investigate their electrochemical properties. Cyclic voltammetry showed that Ib and IIb revealed decreased first reduction potentials and low cyclic stability compared to their isomers, indicating that the isomerization weakened the stabilization effect. Upon one-electron reduction, both the absorption wavelengths and absorption intensities of radical anions were greatly dependent on the structures of isomers. The radical anions of Ia, IIa, and IIb illustrated NIR absorptions peaked at 820, 1260, and 1380 nm, respectively, but that of Ib exhibited only weak absorption in the visible region centered at 660 nm. Gaussian calculations suggested that the electrons were delocalized over the whole molecular skeletons of Ia and IIa radical anions, but the effective conjugation length was interrupted on the imide section in both Ib and IIb. The isomer effects on the effective conjugation length and electron density distribution were considered to rationalize the

  5. Preparation and Characterization of Silica/Polyamide-imide Nanocomposite Thin Films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hwang Jong-Sun

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The functional silica/polyamide-imide composite films were prepared via simple ultrasonic blending, after the silica nanoparticles were modified by cationic surfactant—cetyltrimethyl ammonium bromide (CTAB. The composite films were characterized by scanning electron microscope (SEM, thermo gravimetric analysis (TGA and thermomechanical analysis (TMA. CTAB-modified silica nanoparticles were well dispersed in the polyamide-imide matrix, and the amount of silica nanoparticles to PAI was investigated to be from 2 to 10 wt%. Especially, the coefficients of thermal expansion (CET continuously decreased with the amount of silica particles increasing. The high thermal stability and low coefficient of thermal expansion showed that the nanocomposite films can be widely used in the enamel wire industry.

  6. Imides: forgotten players in the Ugi reaction. One-pot multicomponent synthesis of quinazolinones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mossetti, Riccardo; Pirali, Tracey; Saggiorato, Dèsirèe; Tron, Gian Cesare

    2011-06-28

    Up to now, the synthesis of quinazolinones has required lengthy synthetic procedures. Here, we describe an innovative one-pot multicomponent reaction leading to highly substituted quinazolinones. We believe that this novel transformation may open the door for the generation of new and pharmacologically active quinazolinones, but, most important of all, the resurrection of the imide-Ugi scaffold paves the way for the synthesis of novel molecular architectures. This journal is © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2011

  7. XPS investigations on the UV-laser ablation mechanism of poly(ether imide)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wambach, J; Kunz, T; Schnyder, B; Koetz, R; Wokaun, A [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland)

    1999-08-01

    UV-Laser ablated samples of poly(ether imide) [Kapton{sup TM}] were studied with small-spot XPS. Applying fluences above the threshold level (0.167 J/cm{sup 2}) resulted in the expected behaviour of a decline of both nitrogen and oxygen. Below the threshold level a hint for an altered ablation mechanism was found. (author) 1 fig., 5 refs.

  8. Lithium bis(fluorosulfonyl)imide-PYR14TFSI ionic liquid electrolyte compatible with graphite

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Nádherná, Martina; Reiter, Jakub; Moškon, J.; Dominko, R.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 196, č. 18 (2011), s. 7700-7706 ISSN 0378-7753 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) KJB200320801; GA AV ČR KJB200320901; GA MŠk(CZ) LC523 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40320502 Keywords : Graphite * Ionic liquid * Bis(fluorosulfonyl)imide * Lithium -ion battery * Solid electrolyte interface Subject RIV: CA - Inorganic Chemistry OBOR OECD: Inorganic and nuclear chemistry Impact factor: 4.951, year: 2011

  9. Sympathetic Nerve Hyperactivity in the Spleen: Causal for Nonpathogenic-Driven Chronic Immune-Mediated Inflammatory Diseases (IMIDs?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise L. Bellinger

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Immune-Mediated Inflammatory Diseases (IMIDs is a descriptive term coined for an eclectic group of diseases or conditions that share common inflammatory pathways, and for which there is no definitive etiology. IMIDs affect the elderly most severely, with many older individuals having two or more IMIDs. These diseases include, but are not limited to, type-1 diabetes, obesity, hypertension, chronic pulmonary disease, coronary heart disease, inflammatory bowel disease, and autoimmunity, such as rheumatoid arthritis (RA, Sjőgren’s syndrome, systemic lupus erythematosus, psoriasis, psoriatic arthritis, and multiple sclerosis. These diseases are ostensibly unrelated mechanistically, but increase in frequency with age and share chronic systemic inflammation, implicating major roles for the spleen. Chronic systemic and regional inflammation underlies the disease manifestations of IMIDs. Regional inflammation and immune dysfunction promotes targeted end organ tissue damage, whereas systemic inflammation increases morbidity and mortality by affecting multiple organ systems. Chronic inflammation and skewed dysregulated cell-mediated immune responses drive many of these age-related medical disorders. IMIDs are commonly autoimmune-mediated or suspected to be autoimmune diseases. Another shared feature is dysregulation of the autonomic nervous system and hypothalamic pituitary adrenal (HPA axis. Here, we focus on dysautonomia. In many IMIDs, dysautonomia manifests as an imbalance in activity/reactivity of the sympathetic and parasympathetic divisions of the autonomic nervous system (ANS. These major autonomic pathways are essential for allostasis of the immune system, and regulating inflammatory processes and innate and adaptive immunity. Pathology in ANS is a hallmark and causal feature of all IMIDs. Chronic systemic inflammation comorbid with stress pathway dysregulation implicate neural-immune cross-talk in the etiology and pathophysiology of IMIDs

  10. Poly(Amide-imide Aerogel Materials Produced via an Ice Templating Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew D. Gawryla

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Low density composites of sodium montmorillonite and poly(amide-imide polymers have been created using an ice templating method, which serves as an alternative to the often-difficult foaming of high temperature/high performance polymers. The starting polymer was received in the poly(amic acid form which can be cured using heat, into a water insoluble amide-imide copolymer. The resulting materials have densities in the 0.05 g/cm3 range and have excellent mechanical properties. Using a tertiary amine as a processing aid provides for lower viscosity and allows more concentrated polymer solutions to be used. The concentration of the amine relative to the acid groups on the polymer backbone has been found to cause significant difference in the mechanical properties of the dried materials. The synthesis and characterization of low density versions of two poly(amide-imide polymers and their composites with sodium montmorillonite clay are discussed in the present work.

  11. Novel poly (arylene-ether-ether-ketone)s containing preformed imide unit and pendant long chain alkyl group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sayyed, Maheboob M.; Maldar, Noormahmad N.

    2010-01-01

    The studies were carried out to get preformed imide unit containing PEEKs and Co-PEEKs with pendant long chain alkyl group. Thus two new bisphenols; N,N'-bis (4-hydroxy 2-pentadecyl phenyl) pyromellitimide (HPI) (I) and N,N'-bis (4-hydroxy 2-pentadecyl phenyl 3,3',4,4'-benzophenone tetracarboxylic imide (HBI) (II) containing imide unit, pendant C-15 alkyl substituents were synthesized, characterized by spectral data and polycondensed with 4,4'-difluorobenzophenone (DFB) to yield several PEEK and Co-PEEKs. The polymers were characterized by FTIR, inherent viscosity, solubility, and XRD. The polymers were obtained in good yields and had inherent viscosities up to 0.65 dL/g in NMP. Polymerization of mixture of two bisphenols; [(I) and BPA]; and [(II) and BPA] in various mol%, with DFB gave number of the copolymers viz. Co-PEEK-BPAPI and Co-PEEK-BPABI. Many of the Co-PEEKs had good solubility in polar solvents. The solubility of PEEK containing bulky pendant alkyl substituents did not much improve probably due to simultaneous presence of rigid imide structures. XRD analysis indicated that PEEK and Co-PEEKs were partially crystalline or amorphous depending on the nature and % content of imide-bisphenol. These new PEEK materials can be used as high performance films, coatings, gas separation membranes, in aerospace and nuclear industries.

  12. Thermophysical properties of 1-alkylpyridinum bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide ionic liquids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yunus, Normawati M.; Abdul Mutalib, M.I.; Man, Zakaria; Bustam, Mohamad Azmi; Murugesan, T.

    2010-01-01

    The thermophysical properties of 1-alkylpyridinium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide, [C n py][Tf 2 N] ionic liquids where n = 4, 8, 10, or 12 have been determined. Density ρ, and dynamic viscosity η, were determined at T = (293.15 to 353.15) K and refractive index n D , was measured at T = (293.15 to 333.15) K. Empirical correlations are proposed to represent the present experimental results. The values of the coefficient of thermal expansion were calculated from the experimental density values. The thermal decomposition temperature, T d was also determined using thermogravimetric analyzer (TGA) at a heating rate of (10 and 20) K . min -1 .

  13. Surface and adhesion properties of poly(imide-siloxane) block copolymers

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Novák, I.; Sysel, P.; Zemek, Josef; Špírková, Milena; Velič, D.; Aranyosiová, M.; Florián, Š.; Pollák, V.; Kleinová, A.; Lednický, František; Janigová, I.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 45, č. 1 (2009), s. 57-69 ISSN 0014-3057 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA100100622; GA AV ČR IAA400500505 Grant - others:GA ČR(CZ) GA203/06/1086; VEGA(SK) 2/7103/27 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100521; CEZ:AV0Z40500505 Keywords : Poly(imide-b-siloxane) * AFM * SIMS * XPS * wettability * adhesion Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 2.310, year: 2009

  14. An Imide-Based Pentacyclic Building Block for n-Type Organic Semiconductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Fu-Peng [Soochow Univ., Suzhou (China). Inst. of Functional Nano & Soft Materials (FUNSOM); Un, Hio-Ieng [Peking Univ., Beijing (China). Beijing National Lab. for Molecular Sciences, Key Lab. of Bioorganic Chemistry and Molecular Engineering of Ministry of Education, Key Lab. of Polymer Chemistry and Physics of Ministry of Education, Center for Soft Matter Science and Engineering, College of Chemistry and Molecular Engineering; Li, Yongxi [Soochow Univ., Suzhou (China). Inst. of Functional Nano & Soft Materials (FUNSOM); Hu, Hailiang [Soochow Univ., Suzhou (China). Inst. of Functional Nano & Soft Materials (FUNSOM); Yuan, Yi [Soochow Univ., Suzhou (China). Inst. of Functional Nano & Soft Materials (FUNSOM); Yang, Bin [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Center for Nanophase Materials Science (CNMS); Xiao, Kai [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Center for Nanophase Materials Science (CNMS); Chen, Wei [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Lemont, IL (United States). Science Div.; Wang, Jie-Yu [Peking Univ., Beijing (China). Beijing National Lab. for Molecular Sciences, Key Lab. of Bioorganic Chemistry and Molecular Engineering of Ministry of Education, Key Lab. of Polymer Chemistry and Physics of Ministry of Education, Center for Soft Matter Science and Engineering, College of Chemistry and Molecular Engineering; Jiang, Zuo-Quan [Soochow Univ., Suzhou (China). Inst. of Functional Nano & Soft Materials (FUNSOM); Pei, Jian [Peking Univ., Beijing (China). Beijing National Lab. for Molecular Sciences, Key Lab. of Bioorganic Chemistry and Molecular Engineering of Ministry of Education, Key Lab. of Polymer Chemistry and Physics of Ministry of Education, Center for Soft Matter Science and Engineering, College of Chemistry and Molecular Engineering; Liao, Liang-Sheng [Soochow Univ., Suzhou (China). Inst. of Functional Nano & Soft Materials (FUNSOM)

    2017-10-09

    A new electron-deficient unit with fused 5-heterocyclic ring was developed by replacing a cyclopenta-1,3-diene from electron-rich donor indacenodithiophene (IDT) with cyclohepta- 4,6-diene-1,3-diimde unit. The imide bridging endows BBI with fixed planar configuration and both low the highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO) and the lowest unoccupied molecular orbit (LUMO) energy levels. Organic field-effect transistors (OFETs) based on BBI polymers exhibit electron mobility up to 0.34 cm2 V-1 s-1, which indicates that the BBI is a promising ntype semiconductor for optoelectronics.

  15. Decomposition of poly(amide-imide) film enameled on solid copper wire using atmospheric pressure non-equilibrium plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugiyama, Kazuo; Suzuki, Katsunori; Kuwasima, Shusuke; Aoki, Yosuke; Yajima, Tatsuhiko

    2009-01-01

    The decomposition of a poly(amide-imide) thin film coated on a solid copper wire was attempted using atmospheric pressure non-equilibrium plasma. The plasma was produced by applying microwave power to an electrically conductive material in a gas mixture of argon, oxygen, and hydrogen. The poly(amide-imide) thin film was easily decomposed by argon-oxygen mixed gas plasma and an oxidized copper surface was obtained. The reduction of the oxidized surface with argon-hydrogen mixed gas plasma rapidly yielded a metallic copper surface. A continuous plasma heat-treatment process using a combination of both the argon-oxygen plasma and argon-hydrogen plasma was found to be suitable for the decomposition of the poly(amide-imide) thin film coated on the solid copper wire.

  16. Terminal Ballistics

    CERN Document Server

    Rosenberg, Zvi

    2012-01-01

    This book covers the important issues of terminal ballistics in a comprehensive way combining experimental data, numerical simulations and analytical modeling. The first chapter reviews the experimental equipment which are used for ballistic tests and the diagnostics for material characterization under impulsive loading conditions. The second chapter covers essential features of the codes which are used for terminal ballistics such as the Euler vs. Lagrange schemes and meshing techniques, as well as the most popular material models. The third chapter, devoted to the penetration mechanics of rigid penetrators, brings the update of modeling in this field. The fourth chapter deals with plate perforation and the fifth chapter deals with the penetration mechanics of shaped charge jets and eroding long rods. The last two chapters discuss several techniques for the disruption and defeating of the main threats in armor design. Throughout the book the authors demonstrate the advantages of numerical simulations in unde...

  17. Terminal structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Frank [Langenhagen, DE; Allais, Arnaud [Hannover, DE; Mirebeau, Pierre [Villebon sur Yvette, FR; Ganhungu, Francois [Vieux-Reng, FR; Lallouet, Nicolas [Saint Martin Boulogne, FR

    2009-10-20

    A terminal structure (2) for a superconducting cable (1) is described. It consists of a conductor (2a) and an insulator (2b) that surrounds the conductor (2a), wherein the superconducting cable (1) has a core with a superconducting conductor (5) and a layer of insulation that surrounds the conductor (5), and wherein the core is arranged in such a way that it can move longitudinally in a cryostat. The conductor (2a) of the terminal structure (2) is electrically connected with the superconducting conductor (5) or with a normal conductor (6) that is connected with the superconducting conductor (5) by means of a tubular part (7) made of an electrically conductive material, wherein the superconducting conductor (5) or the normal conductor (6) can slide in the part (7) in the direction of the superconductor.

  18. Termination unit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Traeholt, Chresten; Willen, Dag; Roden, Mark; Tolbert, Jerry C.; Lindsay, David; Fisher, Paul W.; Nielsen, Carsten Thidemann

    2016-05-03

    Cable end section comprises end-parts of N electrical phases/neutral, and a thermally-insulation envelope comprising cooling fluid. The end-parts each comprises a conductor and are arranged with phase 1 innermost, N outermost surrounded by the neutral, electrical insulation being between phases and N and neutral. The end-parts comprise contacting surfaces located sequentially along the longitudinal extension of the end-section. A termination unit has an insulating envelope connected to a cryostat, special parts at both ends comprising an adapter piece at the cable interface and a closing end-piece terminating the envelope in the end-section. The special parts houses an inlet and/or outlet for cooling fluid. The space between an inner wall of the envelope and a central opening of the cable is filled with cooling fluid. The special part at the end connecting to the cryostat houses an inlet or outlet, splitting cooling flow into cable annular flow and termination annular flow.

  19. An Efficient Synthesis of de novo Imidates via Aza-Claisen Rearrangements of N-Allyl Ynamides

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeKorver, Kyle A.; North, Troy D.; Hsung, Richard P.

    2010-01-01

    A novel thermal 3-aza-Claisen rearrangement of N-allyl ynamides for the synthesis of α-allyl imidates is described. Also, a sequential aza-Claisen, Pd-catalyzed Overman rearrangement is described for the synthesis of azapine-2-ones. PMID:21278848

  20. Nuclear quantum effects in ab initio dynamics: Theory and experiments for lithium imide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceriotti, Michele; Miceli, Giacomo; Pietropaolo, Antonino; Colognesi, Daniele; Nale, Angeloclaudio; Catti, Michele; Bernasconi, Marco; Parrinello, Michele

    2010-11-01

    Owing to their small mass, hydrogen atoms exhibit strong quantum behavior even at room temperature. Including these effects in first-principles calculations is challenging because of the huge computational effort required by conventional techniques. Here we present the first ab initio application of a recently developed stochastic scheme, which allows to approximate nuclear quantum effects inexpensively. The proton momentum distribution of lithium imide, a material of interest for hydrogen storage, was experimentally measured by inelastic neutron-scattering experiments and compared with the outcome of quantum thermostatted ab initio dynamics. We obtain favorable agreement between theory and experiments for this purely quantum-mechanical property, thereby demonstrating that it is possible to improve the modeling of complex hydrogen-containing materials without additional computational effort.

  1. Competitive solvation of (bis)(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide anion by acetonitrile and water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaban, Vitaly

    2014-10-01

    Competitive solvation of an ion by two or more solvents is one of the key phenomena determining the identity of our world. Solvation in polar solvents frequently originates from non-additive non-covalent interactions. Pre-parametrized potentials poorly capture these interactions, unless the force field derivation is repeated for every new system. Development cost increases drastically as new chemical species are supplied. This work represents an alternative simulation approach, PM7-MD, by coupling the latest semiempirical parametrization, PM7, with equation-of-motion propagation scheme and temperature coupling. Using a competitive solvation of (bis)(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide anion in acetonitrile and water, the work demonstrates efficiency and robustness of PM7-MD.

  2. Crystal structures and phase transformation of deuterated lithium imide, Li2ND

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balogh, Michael P.; Jones, Camille Y.; Herbst, J.F.; Hector, Louis G.; Kundrat, Matthew

    2006-01-01

    We have investigated the crystal structure of deuterated lithium imide, Li 2 ND, by means of neutron and X-ray diffraction. An order-disorder transition occurs near 360K. Below that temperature Li 2 ND can be described to the same level of accuracy as a disordered cubic (Fd3-bar m) structure with partially occupied Li 32e sites or as a fully occupied orthorhombic (Ima2 or Imm2) structure. The high temperature phase is best characterized as disordered cubic (Fm3-bar m) with D atoms randomized over the 192l sites. Density functional theory calculations complement and support the diffraction analyses. We compare our findings in detail with previous studies

  3. Liquid Crystalline Thermosets from Ester, Ester-imide, and Ester-amide Oligomers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dingemans, Theodorus J. (Inventor); Weiser, Erik S. (Inventor); St. Clair, Terry L. (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    Main chain thermotropic liquid crystal esters, ester-imides, and ester-amides were prepared from AA, BB, and AB type monomeric materials and end-capped with phenylacetylene, phenylmaleimide, or nadimide reactive end-groups. The end-capped liquid crystal oligomers are thermotropic and have, preferably, molecular weights in the range of approximately 1000-15,000 grams per mole. The end-capped liquid crystaloligomers have broad liquid crystalline melting ranges and exhibit high melt stability and very low melt viscosities at accessible temperatures. The end-capped liquid crystal oli-gomers are stable forup to an hour in the melt phase. They are highly processable by a variety of melt process shape forming and blending techniques. Once processed and shaped, the end-capped liquid crystal oigomers were heated to further polymerize and form liquid crystalline thermosets (LCT). The fully cured products are rubbers above their glass transition temperatures.

  4. Thermophysical properties of 1-alkylpyridinum bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide ionic liquids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yunus, Normawati M.; Abdul Mutalib, M.I.; Man, Zakaria; Bustam, Mohamad Azmi [Chemical Engineering Department, Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS, Tronoh-31750, Perak (Malaysia); Murugesan, T., E-mail: murugesan@petronas.com.m [Chemical Engineering Department, Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS, Tronoh-31750, Perak (Malaysia)

    2010-04-15

    The thermophysical properties of 1-alkylpyridinium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide, [C{sub n}py][Tf{sub 2}N] ionic liquids where n = 4, 8, 10, or 12 have been determined. Density rho, and dynamic viscosity eta, were determined at T = (293.15 to 353.15) K and refractive index n{sub D}, was measured at T = (293.15 to 333.15) K. Empirical correlations are proposed to represent the present experimental results. The values of the coefficient of thermal expansion were calculated from the experimental density values. The thermal decomposition temperature, T{sub d} was also determined using thermogravimetric analyzer (TGA) at a heating rate of (10 and 20) K . min{sup -1}.

  5. The effect of polyimide imidization conditions on adhesion strength of thin metal films on polyimide substrates

    CERN Document Server

    Yoo, S H

    1999-01-01

    The effects of Ar sup + RF plasma precleaning and polyimide curing conditions on the peel strength between Al thin films and polyimides have been studied. The BPDA-PDA polyimide precursor of PI-2611 (Du pont) was spin-coated and cured under various imidization conditions. The cured polyimide substrates were in-situ AR sup + RF plasma cleaned prior to metal deposition. Al-1 % Si-0.5 % Cu thin films were deposited onto the polyimide substrates by using DC magnetron sputtering. The peel strength was enhanced by Ar sup + RF plasma precleaning. The Al/modified PI specimen failed cohesively in the polyimide. The polyimide curing conditions strongly affect the peel strength in the Al/modified PI system.

  6. Terminal ballistics

    CERN Document Server

    Rosenberg, Zvi

    2016-01-01

    This book comprehensively discusses essential aspects of terminal ballistics, combining experimental data, numerical simulations and analytical modeling. Employing a unique approach to numerical simulations as a measure of sensitivity for the major physical parameters, the new edition also includes the following features: new figures to better illustrate the problems discussed; improved explanations for the equation of state of a solid and for the cavity expansion process; new data concerning the Kolsky bar test; and a discussion of analytical modeling for the hole diameter in a thin metallic plate impacted by a shaped charge jet. The section on thick concrete targets penetrated by rigid projectiles has now been expanded to include the latest findings, and two new sections have been added: one on a novel approach to the perforation of thin concrete slabs, and one on testing the failure of thin metallic plates using a hydrodynamic ram.

  7. Poly(anhydride-co-imides): in vivo biocompatibility in a rat model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibim, S M; Uhrich, K E; Bronson, R; El-Amin, S F; Langer, R S; Laurencin, C T

    1998-05-01

    The degradation and tissue compatibility characteristics of a novel class of biodegradable poly(anhydride-co-imide) polymers: poly[trimellitylimidoglycine-co-1,6-bis(carboxyphenoxy)hexan e] (TMA-gly: CPH) (in 10:90; 30:70 and 50: 50 molar ratios) and poly[pyromellitylimidoalanine-co-1,6-bis(carboxyphenoxy)hexa ne] (PMA-ala:CPH) (in 10:90 and 30:70 molar ratios) were investigated and compared with control poly(lactic acid/glycolic acid) (PLAGA in 50:50 molar ratio) matrices, a well-characterized biocompatible polymer, in rat subcutaneous tissues for 60 days. Polymers were compression-molded into circular discs of 14 mm x 1 mm in diameter. On post-operative days 7, 14, 28 and 60, histological tissue samples were removed, prepared by fixation and staining, and analyzed by light microscopy. PLAGA matrices produced mild inflammatory reactions and were completely degraded at the end of 60 days, leaving implant tissues that were similar to surgical wounds without implants. TMA-gly:CPH (10:90 and 30:70) matrices produced mild inflammatory reactions by the end of 60 days, similar to those seen with PLAGA. TMA-gly: CPH (50: 50) produced moderate inflammatory reactions characterized by macrophages and edema. PMA-ala:CPH matrices elicited minimal inflammatory reactions that were characterized by fibrous encapsulation by the end of 60 days. In vivo degradation rates of poly(anhydride-co-imides) were similar to PLAGA. Both PMA-ala:CPH and TMA-gly: CPH matrices maintained their shapes and degraded at a constant rate over the period of two months. These polymers, possessing good mechanical properties and tissue compatibility, may be useful in weight-bearing applications in bone.

  8. Termination unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traeholt, Chresten [Frederiksberg, DK; Willen, Dag [Klagshamn, SE; Roden, Mark [Newnan, GA; Tolbert, Jerry C [Carrollton, GA; Lindsay, David [Carrollton, GA; Fisher, Paul W [Heiskell, TN; Nielsen, Carsten Thidemann [Jaegerspris, DK

    2014-01-07

    This invention relates to a termination unit comprising an end-section of a cable. The end section of the cable defines a central longitudinal axis and comprising end-parts of N electrical phases, an end-part of a neutral conductor and a surrounding thermally insulation envelope adapted to comprising a cooling fluid. The end-parts of the N electrical phases and the end-part of the neutral conductor each comprising at least one electrical conductor and being arranged in the cable concentrically around a core former with a phase 1 located relatively innermost, and phase N relatively outermost in the cable, phase N being surrounded by the neutral conductor, electrical insulation being arrange between neighboring electrical phases and between phase N and the neutral conductor, and wherein the end-parts of the neutral conductor and the electrical phases each comprise a contacting surface electrically connected to at least one branch current lead to provide an electrical connection: The contacting surfaces each having a longitudinal extension, and being located sequentially along the longitudinal extension of the end-section of the cable. The branch current leads being individually insulated from said thermally insulation envelope by individual electrical insulators.

  9. Palladium-catalyzed regio- and stereoselective cross-addition of terminal alkynes to ynol ethers and synthesis of 1,4-enyn-3-ones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babu, Madala Hari; Dwivedi, Vikas; Kant, Ruchir; Reddy, Maddi Sridhar

    2015-03-16

    Conjugated enynes, enol ethers, and enynones are versatile building blocks that can be elaborated by a wide variety of synthetic transformations. The selective synthesis of such units is a prerequisite for their effective utilization. The synthesis of conjugated 2-phenoxyenynes through a palladium-catalyzed cross-addition of terminal alkynes to phenylethynyl ethers (hydroalkynylation) is now presented. The reaction is highly regio-, stereo-, and chemoselective, and shows excellent tolerance toward functional groups. The addition further features very mild reaction conditions (room temperature) and an inexpensive catalytic system (without a ligand and with a cheaply available Pd catalyst). The thus synthesized enynyl ethers with allylic hydroxy tethers, which survived the reaction, were shown to be ready precursors for valuable 1-en-4-yn-3-ones. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. Risk of progression and survival in multiple myeloma relapsing after therapy with IMiDs and bortezomib

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kumar, S K; Lee, JH; Lahuerta, J J

    2012-01-01

    with relapsed MM, who were refractory to bortezomib and were relapsed following, refractory to or ineligible to receive, an IMiD (immunomodulatory drug), had measurable disease, and ECOG PS of 0, 1 or 2. The date patients satisfied the entry criteria was defined as time zero (T(0)). The median age at diagnosis...... was 58 years, and time from diagnosis to T(0) was 3.3 years. Following T(0), 213 (74%) patients had a treatment recorded with one or more regimens (median=1; range 0-8). The first regimen contained bortezomib in 55 (26%) patients and an IMiD in 70 (33%). A minor response or better was seen to at least...

  11. Preparation of new series of poly(amide-imide) reinforced layer silicate nano composite containing N-trimellitimide-L-alanine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faghihi, K.; Soleimani, M.; Shabanian, M.

    2011-01-01

    A new poly(amide-imide)-montmorillonite series were generated through solution intercalation technique. Cloisite 20A was used as a modified montmorillonite for ample compatibility with the poly(amide-imide) (PAI) matrix. The PAI 5 chains were synthesized by the direct polycondensation reaction of N-trimellitylimido-L-alanine (3) with 4,4'-diamino diphenyl ether (4) in the presence of tryphenyl phosphites (TPP), CaCl 2 , pyridine and N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone (NMP). Morphology and structure of the resulting PAI-nano composite films 5a-5d with (5-20 Wt%) silicate particles were characterized by Ftir spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy. The effect of clay dispersion and the interaction between clay and polymeric chains on the properties of nano composites films were investigated by using UV-Vis spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analysis and water uptake measurements. (Author)

  12. Thermal and Optical Properties of New Poly(amide-imide)/Nanocomposite Reinforced by Layer Silicate Containing Diphenyl Ether Moieties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faghihi, Khalil; Faramarzi, Ellahe; Shabanian, Meisam

    2011-04-01

    New poly(amide-imide)-montmorillonite reinforced nanocomposites containing Bis(4-N-trimellitylimido) diphenyl ether moiety in the main chain were synthesized by a convenient solution intercalation technique. Poly(amide-imide) (PAI) 4 was synthesized by the direct polycondensation reaction of Bis(4-N-trimellitylimido) diphenyl ether 3 with 4,4'-diamino diphenyl ether 2 in the presence of triphenyl phosphite (TPP), CaCl2, pyridine and N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone (NMP). Morphology and structure of the resulting PAI-nanocomposite films 4a and 4b with 10 and 20 mass% silicate particles respectively, were characterized by FT-IR spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The properties of nanocomposites films were investigated by using Uv-vis spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and water uptake measurements.

  13. New Poly(amide-imide)/Nanocomposites Reinforced Silicate Nanoparticles Based on N-pyromellitimido-L-phenyl Alanine Containing Ether Moieties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faghihi, Khalil; Shabanian, Meisam; Dadfar, Ehsan

    2012-02-01

    A series of Poly(amide-imide)/montmorillonite nanocomposites containing N-pyromellitimido-L-phenyl alanine moiety in the main chain were synthesized by a convenient solution intercalation technique. Poly(amide-imide) (PAI) 5 as a source of polymer matrix was synthesized by the direct polycondensation reaction of N-pyromellitimido-L-phenyl alanine 3 with 4,4'-diamino diphenyl ether 4 in the presence of triphenyl phosphite (TPP), CaCl2, pyridine and N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone (NMP). The resulting nanocomposite films were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectra (FT-IR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The results showed that organo-modified clay was dispersed homogeneously in PAI matrix. TGA indicated an enhancement of thermal stability of new nanocomposites compared with the pure polymer.

  14. Preparation of new series of poly(amide-imide) reinforced layer silicate nano composite containing N-trimellitimide-L-alanine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faghihi, K.; Soleimani, M. [Polymer Research Laboratory, Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Islamic Azad University, Arak Branch, Arak (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Shabanian, M., E-mail: k-faghihi@araku.ac.ir [Young Researches Club, Islamic Azad University, Arak Branch, Arak (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2011-07-01

    A new poly(amide-imide)-montmorillonite series were generated through solution intercalation technique. Cloisite 20A was used as a modified montmorillonite for ample compatibility with the poly(amide-imide) (PAI) matrix. The PAI 5 chains were synthesized by the direct polycondensation reaction of N-trimellitylimido-L-alanine (3) with 4,4'-diamino diphenyl ether (4) in the presence of tryphenyl phosphites (TPP), CaCl{sub 2}, pyridine and N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone (NMP). Morphology and structure of the resulting PAI-nano composite films 5a-5d with (5-20 Wt%) silicate particles were characterized by Ftir spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy. The effect of clay dispersion and the interaction between clay and polymeric chains on the properties of nano composites films were investigated by using UV-Vis spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analysis and water uptake measurements. (Author)

  15. Electrical conduction of polyimide films prepared from polyamic acid (PAA and pre-imidized polyimide (PI solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Electrical conduction characteristics in two different polyimide films prepared by the imidization of polyamic acid (PAA and pre-imidized polyimide (PI solution were investigated. It is found that the current density of the polyimide film from PAA was higher than that of the polyimide film from PI at the same electric field, even though the conduction mechanism in both polyimide films follows the ionic hopping model. The hopping distance was calculated to be 2.8 nm for PAA type and 3.2 nm for PI type polyimide film. It is also found that the decay rate of the residual electrostatic charges on the polyimide films becomes faster in the PAA type than in the PI type polyimide film.

  16. New Flame-Retardant Poly(ester-imide)s Containing Phosphine Oxide Moieties in the Main Chain: Synthesis and Properties

    OpenAIRE

    FAGHIHI, Khalil

    2014-01-01

    Six new flame-retardant poly(ester-imide)s (9a-f) with high inherent viscosity and containing phosphine oxide moieties in the main chain were synthesized from the polycondensation reaction of N,N-(3,3-diphenylphenyl phosphine oxide) bistrimellitimide diacid chloride (7) with 6 aromatic diols (8a-f) by 2 different methods:--solution and microwave-assisted polycondensation. The results showed that compared to solution polycondensation, the microwave-assisted polycondensation reaction us...

  17. Ultrasound-assisted catalytic synthesis of acyclic imides in the presence of p-toluenesulfonic acid under solvent free conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasr-Esfahani Masoud

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A rapid and convenient preparation of acyclic imides by the reaction of aliphatic and aromatic nitriles with acyclic carboxylic anhydride in the presence of catalytic amounts of p-toluenesulfonic acid under thermal or ultrasonic conditions is reported. The advantages of this procedure are moderate reaction times, good to excellent yields, use of inexpensive and ecofriendly catalyst. The reaction of nitriles with aliphatic anhydrides proceeds in thermal conditions, while by the use of ultrasound irradiations these reactions get accelerated.

  18. Regioselective C-H imidation of five-membered heterocyclic compounds through a metal catalytic or organocatalytic approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xin; Sun, Kai; Lv, Yunhe; Ma, Fengji; Li, Gang; Li, Donghui; Zhu, Zhonghong; Jiang, Yongqing; Zhao, Feng

    2014-12-01

    An efficient method for the synthesis of 2-amino and β-amino five-membered heterocyclic derivatives that are closely related to a variety of biologically active natural products is described. Regioselectivity was achieved through a metal catalytic or organocatalytic approach. Preliminary studies on the reaction mechanism suggest a radical imidation pathway; however, further studies are needed to verify the mechanism. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. Helium Nanodroplet Isolation and Infrared Spectroscopy of the Isolated Ion-Pair 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-01

    Isolated Ion- Pair 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide   Emmanuel I. Obi†, Christopher M. Leavitt†, Paul L. Raston... Christopher P. Moradi†, Steven D.   Flynn†, Jerry A. Boatz§,*, Steven D. Chambreau‡,* and Gary E. Douberly†,*     †Department of Chemistry, University of...Windus, T. L.; Dupuis , M.; Montgomery, J. A. General Atomic and Molecular Electronic-Structure System. J. Comput. Chem. 1993, 14, 1347-1363

  20. Thermal phase behaviour of N-alkyl-N-methylpyrrolidinium and piperidinium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide salts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henderson, W A; Jr, V G Young; Pearson, W; Passerini, S; Long, H C De; Trulove, P C

    2006-01-01

    The phases, ion crystal packing and thermal properties of the N-alkyl-N-methylpyrrolidinium and piperidinium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide (PYR 1R TFSI and PIP 1R TFSI (subscript R = 1 for methyl and 2 for ethyl), respectively) salts are compared using powder and single-crystal x-ray diffraction (XRD) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The crystal structure of PIP 12 TFSI has been determined at 123 K. The salt crystallizes in the triclinic space group P1-bar with Z 8. Structural data are also reported for PYR 11 TFSI at 153 K and PIP 12 TFSI at 223 K. PIP 11 TFSI has identical ion crystal packing to the analogous pyrrolidinium salt PYR 11 TFSI. Since increasing the cation alkyl chain length to propyl or butyl (R = 3 or 4) reduces the melting point of the salts below room temperature, this study may provide valuable insight into why these pyrrolidinium and piperidinium salts form room-temperature ionic liquids

  1. Acoustic cavitation in 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(triflluoromethyl-sulfonyl)imide based ionic liquid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merouani, Slimane; Hamdaoui, Oualid; Haddad, Boumediene

    2018-03-01

    In this work, a comparison between the temperatures/pressures within acoustic cavitation bubble in an imidazolium-based room-temperature ionic liquid (RTIL), 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(triflluoromethyl-sulfonyl)imide ([BMIM][NTf 2 ]), and in water has been made for a wide range of cavitation parameters including frequency (140-1000kHz), acoustic intensity (0.5-1Wcm -2 ), liquid temperature (20-50°C) and external static pressure (0.7-1.5atm). The used cavitation model takes into account the liquid compressibility as well as the surface tension and the viscosity of the medium. It was found that the bubble temperatures and pressures were always much higher in the ionic liquid compared to those predicted in water. The valuable effect of [BMIM][NTf 2 ] on the bubble temperature was more pronounced at higher acoustic intensity and liquid temperature and lower frequency and external static pressure. However, confrontation between the predicted and the experimental estimated temperatures in ionic liquids showed an opposite trend as the temperatures measured in some pure ionic liquids are of the same order as those observed in water. The injection of liquid droplets into cavitation bubbles, the pyrolysis of ionic liquids at the bubble-solution interface as well as the lower number of collapsing bubbles in the ionic liquid may be the responsible for the lower measured bubble temperatures in ionic liquids, as compared with water. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Reactive phase inversion for manufacture of asymmetric poly (ether imide sulfone) membranes

    KAUST Repository

    Jalal, Taghreed; Charry Prada, Iran David; Tayouo Djinsu, Russell; Giannelis, Emmanuel P.; Nunes, Suzana Pereira

    2014-01-01

    Poly (ether imide sulfone) membranes were manufactured by combining phase inversion and functionalization reaction between epoxy groups and amine modified polyether oligomers (Jeffamine) or TiO2 nanoparticles. Polysilsesquioxanes containing epoxy functionalities were in-situ grown in the casting solution and made available for further reaction with amines in the coagulation/annealing baths. The membranes were characterized by field emission scanning electron microscopy, porosimetry and water flux measurements. Water permeances up to 1500 l m-2 h-1 bar-1 were obtained with sharp pore size distribution and a pore diameter peak at 66 nm, confirmed by porosimetry, which allowed 99.2% rejection of γ-globulin. Water flux recovery of 77.5% was achieved after filtration with proteins. The membranes were stable in 50:50 dimethylformamide/water, 50:50 N-methyl pyrrolidone/water and 100% tetrahydrofuran. The possibility of using similar concept for homogeneous and stable attachment of nanoparticles on the membrane surface was demonstrated.

  3. The Structure-Property Relationship of Poly(amide-imide)/Organoclay Nanocomposites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faghihi, Khalil; Soleimani, Masoumeh; Shabanian, Meisam; Abootalebi, Ashraf Sadateh

    2011-06-01

    Surface treated montmorillonite (MMT) was used to prepare nanocomposites with poly(amide-imide) (PAI) 5 by solution intercalation technique with various percent of organoclay (5-15 mass %). Surface modification of the MMT was performed with Cloisite 20A for ample compatibilization with the PAI matrix. The PAI 5 chains were produced through polycondensation of 4,4-diamino diphenyl sulfone 4 with N-trimellitylimido-L-alanine 3 in a medium consisting of triphenyl phosphite, N-methyl-2-pyrolidone (NMP), pyridine and calcium chloride. The PAI-Nanocomposites morphology and clay dispersion were investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The effect of clay dispersion and the interaction between clay and PAI chains on the properties of PAI-Nanocomposites films were investigated by using UV-Vis spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and water uptake measurements. Thermal stability of nanocomposites increased relative to the neat polyamide with increasing organoclay content but water uptake of these materials decreased as compared to the neat polyamide indicating reduced permeability.

  4. Surface modification of polyacrylonitrile-based carbon fiber and its interaction with imide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Bing; Wang Xiaoshu; Lu Yun

    2006-01-01

    In this work, sized polyacrylonitrile (PAN)-based carbon fibers were chemically modified with nitric acid and maleic anhydride (MA) in order to improve the interaction between carbon fiber surface and polyimide matrix. Bismaleimide (BMI) was selected as a model compound of polyimide to react with modified carbon fiber. The surface characteristic changing after modification and surface reaction was investigated by element analysis (EA), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS). The results indicated that the modification of carbon fiber surface with MA might follow the Diels Alder reaction mechanism. In the surface reaction between modified fibers and BMI, among the various surface functional groups, the hydroxyl group provided from phenolic hydroxyl group and bridged structure on carbon fiber may be the most effective group reacted with imide structure. The results may shed some light on the design of the appropriate surface structure, which could react with polyimide, and the manufacture of the carbon fiber-reinforced polyimide matrix composites

  5. Nanoscale organization in the fluorinated room temperature ionic liquid: Tetraethyl ammonium (trifluoromethanesulfonyl)(nonafluorobutylsulfonyl)imide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo Celso, F.; Appetecchi, G. B.; Jafta, C. J.; Gontrani, L.; Canongia Lopes, J. N.; Triolo, A.; Russina, O.

    2018-05-01

    Fluorinated Room Temperature Ionic Liquids (FRTILs) are a branch of ionic liquids that is the object of growing interest for a wide range of potential applications, due to the synergic combination of specifically ionic features and those properties that stem from fluorous tails. So far limited experimental work exists on the micro- and mesoscopic structural organization in this class of compounds. Such a work is however necessary to fully understand morphological details at atomistic level that would have strong implications in terms of bulk properties. Here we use the synergy between X-ray and neutron scattering together with molecular dynamics simulations to access structural details of a technologically relevant FRTIL that is characterised by an anion bearing a long enough fluorinated tail to develop specific morphological features. In particular, we find the first experimental evidence that in FRTILs bearing an asymmetric bis(perfluoroalkyl)sulfonyl-imide anion, fluorous side chains tend to be spatially segregated into nm-scale spatial heterogeneities. This feature together with the well-established micro-segregation of side alkyl chains in conventional RTILs leads to the concept of triphilic ILs, whose technological applications are yet to be fully developed.

  6. Reactive phase inversion for manufacture of asymmetric poly (ether imide sulfone) membranes

    KAUST Repository

    Jalal, Taghreed

    2014-12-01

    Poly (ether imide sulfone) membranes were manufactured by combining phase inversion and functionalization reaction between epoxy groups and amine modified polyether oligomers (Jeffamine) or TiO2 nanoparticles. Polysilsesquioxanes containing epoxy functionalities were in-situ grown in the casting solution and made available for further reaction with amines in the coagulation/annealing baths. The membranes were characterized by field emission scanning electron microscopy, porosimetry and water flux measurements. Water permeances up to 1500 l m-2 h-1 bar-1 were obtained with sharp pore size distribution and a pore diameter peak at 66 nm, confirmed by porosimetry, which allowed 99.2% rejection of γ-globulin. Water flux recovery of 77.5% was achieved after filtration with proteins. The membranes were stable in 50:50 dimethylformamide/water, 50:50 N-methyl pyrrolidone/water and 100% tetrahydrofuran. The possibility of using similar concept for homogeneous and stable attachment of nanoparticles on the membrane surface was demonstrated.

  7. Synthesis of Perylene Imide Diones as Platforms for the Development of Pyrazine Based Organic Semiconductors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Echegaray, Paula; Mancheño, María J; Arrechea-Marcos, Iratxe; Juárez, Rafael; López-Espejo, Guzmán; López Navarrete, J Teodomiro; Ramos, María Mar; Seoane, Carlos; Ortiz, Rocío Ponce; Segura, José L

    2016-11-18

    There is a great interest in peryleneimide (PI)-containing compounds given their unique combination of good electron accepting ability, high abosorption in the visible region, and outstanding chemical, thermal, and photochemical stabilities. Thus, herein we report the synthesis of perylene imide derivatives endowed with a 1,2-diketone functionality (PIDs) as efficient intermediates to easily access peryleneimide (PI)-containing organic semiconductors with enhanced absorption cross-section for the design of tunable semiconductor organic materials. Three processable organic molecular semiconductors containing thiophene and terthiophene moieties, PITa, PITb, and PITT, have been prepared from the novel PIDs. The tendency of these semiconductors for molecular aggregation have been investigated by NMR spectroscopy and supported by quantum chemical calculations. 2D NMR experiments and theoretical calculations point to an antiparallel π-stacking interaction as the most stable conformation in the aggregates. Investigation of the optical and electrochemical properties of the materials is also reported and analyzed in combination with DFT calculations. Although the derivatives presented here show modest electron mobilities of ∼10 -4 cm 2 V -1 s -1 , these preliminary studies of their performance in organic field effect transistors (OFETs) indicate the potential of these new building blocks as n-type semiconductors.

  8. Interaction of thrombocytes with poly(ether imide): The influence of processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braune, S; Lange, M; Richau, K; Lützow, K; Weigel, T; Jung, F; Lendlein, A

    2010-01-01

    The processing of polymers for blood contacting devices can have a major influence on surface properties. In this study, we fabricated poly(ether imide) (PEI) membranes and films to investigate the effects of the processing on physicochemical surface properties by atomic force microscopy (AFM), scanning electron microscopy, contact angle as well as zeta potential measurements. A static platelet adhesion test was performed to analyze the thrombogenicity of both devices. While contact angle measurements showed similar levels of hydrophobicity and zeta potential values were equivalent, mean surface roughness as well as surface energies in the dispersive part were found to be increased for the PEI membrane. The static platelet adhesion test showed a significantly decreased number of adherent platelets per surface area on the PEI film (178.98 ± 102.70/45000 μm2) compared to the PEI membrane (504 ± 314.27/45000μm2) and, consequently, revealed evidence for higher thrombogenicity of the PEI membrane. This study shows that processing can have a significant effect on platelet adhesion to biomaterials, even though, molar weight was identical. Thrombogenicity of polymer-based cardiovascular devices, therefore, have to be evaluated at the final product level, following the entire processing procedure.

  9. Effect of interface structure regulation caused by variation of imidization rate on conduction current characteristics of PI/nano-Al2O3 three-layer composite films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Xinyu; Liu, Lizhu; Zhang, Xiaorui; He, Hongju

    2018-06-01

    A series of sandwich structure PI films were prepared by different imidization process, with pure PI film as the interlayer and PI/Al2O3 composite films as outer layers. The imidization rate of the film with different cured processes was calculated by characterizing by infrared spectrum (FT-IR), and the morphology of interlayer interface with different imidization rates by scanning electron microscope (SEM). When the imidization conditions of the first and second films were 260 °C/120 min, the composite films displayed better interface structure and higher imidization rate (ID) than others. Moreover, results also showed that the conduction current of three-layer composite film steadily improved with increased ID and temperature, and was higher than that of the pure film. At the temperature of 30 °C, the electrical aging threshold at different ID was obtained. When the ID reached the maximum value of 78.9%, the electrical aging threshold reached the maximum 41.69 kV/mm.

  10. Tuning the bimetallic amide-imide precursor system to make paramagnetic GaMnN nanopowders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drygas, Mariusz [AGH University of Science and Technology, Faculty of Energy and Fuels, Al. Mickiewicza 30, 30-059 Krakow (Poland); Janik, Jerzy F., E-mail: janikj@agh.edu.pl [AGH University of Science and Technology, Faculty of Energy and Fuels, Al. Mickiewicza 30, 30-059 Krakow (Poland); Musial, Michal [AGH University of Science and Technology, Faculty of Energy and Fuels, Al. Mickiewicza 30, 30-059 Krakow (Poland); Gosk, Jacek [Warsaw University of Technology, Faculty of Physics, Koszykowa 75, 00-662 Warszawa (Poland); Twardowski, Andrzej, E-mail: andrzej.twardowski@fuw.edu.pl [University of Warsaw, Faculty of Physics, Pasteura 5, 02-093 Warszawa (Poland)

    2016-09-01

    A bimetallic molecular system made of gallium (III) tris(dimethyl)amide Ga(NMe{sub 2}){sub 3} and manganese (II) bis(trimethylsilyl)amide Mn[N(SiMe{sub 3}){sub 2}]{sub 2} (Me = CH{sub 3}, fixed initial Mn-content 10 at.%) was subjected to ammonolysis in refluxing/liquid ammonia. Upon isolation at room temperature, the amide-imide mixed metal precursor was pyrolyzed at elevated temperatures under an ammonia flow by two different routes. Route 1 consisted of a direct nitridation at high temperatures of 500, 700 or 900 °C. In route 2, a low temperature pyrolysis at 150 °C was applied prior to nitridation at the same final temperatures as in route 1. All nanopowders were characterized by XRD diffraction, FT-IR spectroscopy, and SEM/EDX microscopy and analysis. Thorough magnetization measurements in function of magnetic field and temperature were carried out with a SQUID magnetometer. In all samples, the paramagnetic phase of GaMnN was accompanied by an antiferromagnetic by-product linked to a Mn-containing species from decomposition and oxidation of Mn-precursor excess. The Mn-contents in the crystalline GaMnN, i.e., Mn-incorporated in GaN crystal lattice, were of the order of 2–3 at.% mostly independent on the nitridation route whereas the latter had a pronounced effect on amounts of the antiferromagnetic by-product. - Highlights: • New bimetallic precursor system for conversion to GaN/Mn nanopowders was designed. • Two conversion routes were applied with precursor nitridation at 500, 700 or 900 °C. • Prepared nanopowders were thoroughly characterized including magnetic measurements. • The major product was the gallium nitride Mn-doped phase GaMnN with 2–3 at.% of Mn.

  11. Fluorinated arene, imide and unsaturated pyrrolidinone based donor acceptor conjugated polymers: Synthesis, structure-property and device studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liyanage, Arawwawala Don Thilanga

    the structure-property study of imide functionalized D-A polymers. Here we used thiophene-imide (TPD) as the acceptor moiety and prepare several D-A polymers by varying the donor units. When selecting the donor units, more priority goes to the fused ring systems. One main reason to use imide functionality is due to the, open position of the imide nitrogen, which provides an attaching position to alkyl substituent. Through this we can easily manipulate solubility and solid state packing arrangement. Also these imide acceptors have low-lying LUMOs due to their electron deficient nature and this will allow tuning the optical energy gap by careful choice of donor materials with different electron donating ability. The fourth chapter mainly contribute to the synthesis and structure property study of a completely novel electron acceptor moiety consist of a unsaturated pyrrolidinone unit known as Pechmann dye (PD) core. Pechmann dyes are closely related to the Indigo family. This can refer as 3-butenolide dimer connected via an alkene bridge, containing a benzene ring at the 5 and 5' positions of the lactone rings. We have prepared several D-A polymers using this PD system with benzodithiophene (BDT) as the donor unit. Different to common D-A polymers the HOMO and LUMO of the PD acceptor moiety are energetically located within the gap of the BDT, so that the electronic and optical properties (HOMO-LUMO transition) are dictated by the PD properties. The promising electronic properties, band gaps, high absorption coefficients and broad absorption suggest this new D-A polymers as an interesting donor material for organic solar cell (OSC) applications. KEY WORDS: Organic semiconductor materials, Self assembly, (opto)-electronic properties, Donor-Acceptor conjugated polymers, Fluorinated arene, 3,3'-bithiophene donors, Thiophene-imide (TPD), Pechmann dye, benzodithiophene, organic solar cell.

  12. Investigating the nanostructure and thermal properties of chiral poly(amide-imide)/Al2O3 compatibilized with 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mallakpour, Shadpour; Dinari, Mohammad

    2013-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Chiral polymer with different functional groups was prepared in green route. • The surface of Al 2 O 3 -NPs was treated by KH550 as a silane coupling agent. • NCs of poly(amide-imide) and Al 2 O 3 were synthesized by ultrasonic irradiation. • TEM results show good dispersion of Al 2 O 3 -NPs in the poly(amide-imide) matrix. • The thermal and mechanical properties of the hybrid materials were improved. - Abstract: Novel chiral poly(amide-imide) (PAI)/Al 2 O 3 nanocomposites were prepared via incorporating surface modified Al 2 O 3 nanoparticles into polymer matrices for the first time. In the process of preparing the nanocomposites, severe aggregation of Al 2 O 3 nanoparticles could be reduced by surface modification and γ-aminopropyltriethoxysilane. The optically active PAI chains were formed from the polycondensation reaction of N,N′-(pyromellitoyl)-bis-phenylalanine diacid with 2-(3,5-diaminophenyl)-benzimidazole in green condition. The obtained polymer and inorganic metal oxide nanoparticles were used to prepare chiral PAI/Al 2 O 3 nanocomposites through ultrasonic irradiation. The resulting nanoparticle filled composites were also characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, field emission scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) techniques. TGA thermographs confirmed that the heat stability of the prepared nanoparticle-reinforced composites was improved. Mechanical properties showed that the film containing 10 wt% of modified Al 2 O 3 had a tensile strength of the order of 83.6 MPa, relative to the 64.3 MPa of the pure PAI

  13. Preliminary in vivo report on the osteocompatibility of poly(anhydride-co-imides) evaluated in a tibial model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibim, S E; Uhrich, K E; Attawia, M; Shastri, V R; El-Amin, S F; Bronson, R; Langer, R; Laurencin, C T

    1998-01-01

    A novel class of polymers with mechanical properties similar to cancellous bone are being investigated for their ability to be used in weight-bearing areas for orthopedic applications. The poly(anhydride-co-imide) polymers based on poly[trimellitylimidoglycine-co-1,6-bis(carboxyphenoxy)hexan e] (TMA-Gly:CPH) and poly[pyromellitylimidoalanine-co-1,6-bis(carboxyphenoxy)hexa ne] (PMA-Ala:CPH) in molar ratios of 30:70 were investigated for osteocompatibility, with effects on the healing of unicortical 3-mm defects in rat tibias examined over a 30-day period. Defects were made with surgical drill bits (3-mm diameter) and sites were filled with poly(anhydride-co-imide) matrices and compared to the control poly(lactic acid-glycolic acid) (PLAGA) (50:50), a well-characterized matrix frequently used in bone regeneration studies, and defects without polymeric implants. At predetermined time intervals (3, 6, 9, 12, 20, and 30 days), animals were sacrificed and tissue histology was examined for bone formation, polymer-tissue interaction, and local tissue response by light microscopy. The studies revealed that matrices of TMA-Gly:CPH and PMA-Ala:CPH produced responses similar to the control PLAGA with tissue compatibility characterized by a mild response involving neutrophils, macrophages, and giant cells throughout the experiment for all matrices studied. Matrices of PLAGA were nearly completely degraded by 21 days in contrast to matrices of TMA-Gly:CPH and PMA-Ala:CPH that displayed slow erosion characteristics and maintenance of shape. Defects in control rats without polymer healed by day 12, defects containing PLAGA healed after 20 days, and defects containing poly(anhydride-co-imide) matrices produced endosteal bone growth as early as day 3 and formed bridges of cortical bone around matrices by 30 days. In addition, there was marrow reconstitution at the defect site for all matrices studied along with matured bone-forming cells. This study suggests that novel poly(anhydride-co-imides

  14. Synthesis of benzimidazoles by PIDA-promoted direct C(sp2)-H imidation of N-arylamidines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jinbo; He, Yimiao; Wang, Yong; Zhu, Qiang

    2012-10-29

    A metal-free synthesis of diversified benzimidazoles from N-arylamidines through a phenyliodine(III) diacetate (PIDA) promoted intramolecular direct C(sp(2))-H imidation has been developed. The reaction proceeds smoothly at 0 °C or ambient temperature to provide the desired products in good to excellent yields. The synthesis of 2-alkyl- or 2-alkyl-fused benzimidazoles, which are generally inaccessible by similar Pd- or Cu-catalyzed approaches, can also be achieved. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. 2,3-Di­phenyl­male­imide 1-methyl­pyrrol­idin-2-one monosolvate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulatov, Evgeny; Boyarskaya, Dina; Chulkova, Tatiana; Haukka, Matti

    2014-01-01

    In the title compound, C16H11NO2·C5H9NO, the dihedral angles between the male­imide and phenyl rings are 34.7 (2) and 64.8 (2)°. In the crystal, the 2,3-di­phenyl­male­imide and 1-methyl­pyrrolidin-2-one mol­ecules form centrosymmetrical dimers via pairs of strong N—H⋯O hydrogen bonds and π–π stacking inter­actions between the two neighboring male­imide rings [centroid–centroid distance = 3.495 (2) Å]. The dimers are further linked by weak C—H⋯O and C—H⋯π hydrogen bonds into a three-dimensional framework. PMID:24764976

  16. Identification of succinimide sites in proteins by N-terminal sequence analysis after alkaline hydroxylamine cleavage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwong, M. Y.; Harris, R. J.

    1994-01-01

    Under favorable conditions, Asp or Asn residues can undergo rearrangement to a succinimide (cyclic imide), which may also serve as an intermediate for deamidation and/or isoaspartate formation. Direct identification of such succinimides by peptide mapping is hampered by their lability at neutral and alkaline pH. We determined that incubation in 2 M hydroxylamine, 0.2 M Tris buffer, pH 9, for 2 h at 45 degrees C will specifically cleave on the C-terminal side of succinimides without cleavage at Asn-Gly bonds; yields are typically approximately 50%. N-terminal sequence analysis can then be used to identify an internal sequence generated by cleavage of the succinimide, hence identifying the succinimide site. PMID:8142891

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    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  16. paor Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

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  17. kavl Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

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  18. kdrt Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

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  19. kstl Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

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  20. kbfi Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

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  1. khsv Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

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  2. pafa Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

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  3. kekn Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

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  4. tncm Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

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  5. kith Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

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    Data.gov (United States)

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  7. ktoi Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

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    Data.gov (United States)

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  9. nstu Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

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  10. kmgm Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

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  11. khib Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

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  12. pavd Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

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  13. kfar Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

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  14. kluk Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

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  16. klse Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

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  17. ksts Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

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  18. koth Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

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    Data.gov (United States)

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    Data.gov (United States)

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    Data.gov (United States)

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    Data.gov (United States)

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    Data.gov (United States)

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    Data.gov (United States)

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    Data.gov (United States)

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    Data.gov (United States)

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    Data.gov (United States)

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    Data.gov (United States)

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  10. khio Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

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  11. klaf Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

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  12. kfoe Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

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    Data.gov (United States)

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  14. kipt Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

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    Data.gov (United States)

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  16. Organizational Relationship Termination Competence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ritter, Thomas; Geersbro, Jens

    2011-01-01

    termination are found to significantly affect a firm's relationship termination competence. The findings suggest that managers should regard termination as a legitimate option in customer relationship management. In order to decrease the number of unwanted customers, managers must accept termination......Most firms are involved in a number of customer relationships that drain the firm's resources. However, many firms are hesitant to address this problem. This paper investigates customer relationship termination at the organizational level. We develop and analyze the organizational dimensions...... of organizational termination in order to improve our understanding of the management of termination. The impact of these termination dimensions on the percentage of unwanted customers is developed and tested using PLS on data gathered from a cross-sectional survey of more than 800 sales representatives. We find...

  17. kink Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

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  4. kpsm Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  5. kgrb Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

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    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  6. kgmu Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

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    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  7. papg Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

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    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  8. kbgm Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

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    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  9. pamc Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

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    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  10. klrd Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

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    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  11. ksan Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

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    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  12. patk Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

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    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  13. kowb Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

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    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  14. klru Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

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    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  15. kfxe Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

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    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  16. kjct Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

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    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  17. kcrg Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

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    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  18. paaq Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

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    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  19. kaex Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

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    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  20. klbx Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

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    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  1. kmia Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

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    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  2. kpit Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

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    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  3. kcrw Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

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    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  4. paen Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

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    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  5. kast Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

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    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  6. kuin Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

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    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  7. kmht Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

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    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  8. kcys Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

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    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  9. kflo Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

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    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  10. pakn Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  11. pabt Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  12. krdg Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

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    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  13. khdn Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

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    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  14. kjac Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  15. kphx Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

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    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  16. New glyme-cyclic imide lithium salt complexes as thermally stable electrolytes for lithium batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamura, Takashi; Hachida, Takeshi; Yoshida, Kazuki; Tachikawa, Naoki; Dokko, Kaoru; Watanabe, Masayoshi

    New glyme-Li salt complexes were prepared by mixing equimolar amounts of a novel cyclic imide lithium salt LiN(C 2F 4S 2O 4) (LiCTFSI) and a glyme (triglyme (G3) or tetraglyme (G4)). The glyme-Li salt complexes, [Li(G3)][CTFSI] and [Li(G4)][CTFSI], are solid and liquid, respectively, at room temperature. The thermal stability of [Li(G4)][CTFSI] is much higher than that of pure G4, and the vapor pressure of [Li(G4)][CTFSI] is negligible at temperatures lower than 100 °C. Although the viscosity of [Li(G4)][CTFSI] is high (132.0 mPa s at 30 °C), because of its high molar concentration (ca. 3 mol dm -3), its ionic conductivity at 30 °C is relatively high, i.e., 0.8 mS cm -1, which is slightly lower than that of a conventional organic electrolyte solution (1 mol dm -3 LiTFSI dissolved in propylene carbonate). The self-diffusion coefficients of a Li + cation, a CTFSI - anion, and a glyme molecule were measured by the pulsed gradient spin-echo NMR method (PGSE-NMR). The ionicity (dissociativity) of [Li(G4)][CTFSI] at 30 °C is ca. 0.5, as estimated from the PGSE-NMR diffusivity measurements and the ionic conductivity measurements. Results of linear sweep voltammetry revealed that [Li(G4)][CTFSI] is electrochemically stable in an electrode potential range of 0-4.5 V vs. Li/Li +. The reversible deposition-stripping behavior of lithium was observed by cyclic voltammetry. The [LiCoO 2|[Li(G4)][CTFSI]|Li metal] cell showed a stable charge-discharge cycling behavior during 50 cycles, indicating that the [Li(G4)][CTFSI] complex is applicable to a 4 V class lithium secondary battery.

  17. Immunological evaluation of polystyrene and poly(ether imide) cell culture inserts with different roughness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roch, Toralf; Krüger, Anne; Kratz, Karl; Ma, Nan; Jung, Friedrich; Lendlein, Andreas

    2012-01-01

    For the successful clinical and biological application of polymers, their interaction with cells, tissues, and body fluids has to be well characterized. In order to investigate how the physical, chemical, and mechanical properties of candidate biomaterials influence cell behaviours, the testing sample is usually placed in commercially available cell culture plates. Thus, not only the testing sample itself but also the culture dish material might influence the cell behaviour. Therefore, an insert system was created to exclude this influence and allow investigations of the testing material solely. In this study micropatterned inserts prepared from polystyrene (PS) as well as from poly(ether imide) (PEI) with three different roughness levels of i) Rq = 0.29 μm (PS) and 0.23 μm (PEI); ii) Rq = 3.47 μm (PS) and 3.92 μm (PEI); and iii) Rq = 22.16 μm [corrected] (PS) and 22.65 μm (PEI) were explored with regard of their immuno-compatibility including the determination of potential contaminations with endotoxins or other microbial products. The endotoxin levels of the inserts were determined to be less than 0.07 EU/mL, which is well below the U.S. Food and Drug Administration limit of 0.5 EU/mL and the survival of murine macrophages cultured in the inserts was not impaired. Activation of early immune mechanisms such as complement activation and the generation of reactive oxygen species could not be observed. All tested materials had no influence on the cytokine secretion from cells of whole human blood. The investigated inserts were immuno-compatible and apparently free of contaminations with microbial products. The roughness of the inserts had no stimulatory or inhibitory effect on early immune mechanisms. Conclusively, the 24-well plate insert systems introduced in this study allow investigating the interactions of tailored surface properties such as roughness with many other cell types, without the disadvantage of the standard commercially available culture

  18. Homogeneous Liquid–Liquid Extraction of Rare Earths with the Betaine—Betainium Bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide Ionic Liquid System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoogerstraete, Tom Vander; Onghena, Bieke; Binnemans, Koen

    2013-01-01

    Several fundamental extraction parameters such as the kinetics and loading were studied for a new type of metal solvent extraction system with ionic liquids. The binary mixture of the ionic liquid betainium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide and water shows thermomorphic behavior with an upper critical solution temperature (UCST), which can be used to avoid the slower mass transfer due to the generally higher viscosity of ionic liquids. A less viscous homogeneous phase and mixing on a molecular scale are obtained when the mixture is heated up above 55 °C. The influence of the temperature, the heating and cooling times, were studied for the extraction of neodymium(III) with betaine. A plausible and equal extraction mechanism is proposed in bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide, nitrate, and chloride media. After stripping of the metals from the ionic liquid phase, a higher recovery of the ionic liquid was obtained by salting-out of the ionic liquid fraction lost by dissolution in the aqueous phase. The change of the upper critical solution temperature by the addition of HCl or betaine was investigated. In addition, the viscosity was measured below and above the UCST as a function of the temperature. PMID:24169434

  19. Preparation and third-order nonlinear optical property of poly(urethane-imide containing dispersed red chromophore

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available A novel poly(urethane-imide (PUI containing dispersed red chromophore was synthesized. The PUI was characterized by FT-IR, UV-Vis, DSC and TGA. The results of DSC and TGA indicated that the PUI exhibited high thermal stability up to its glass-transition temperature (Tg of 196°C and 5% heat weight loss temperature of 229°C. According to UV-Vis spectrum and working curve, the maximum molar absorption coefficient and absorption wavelength were measured. They were used to calculate the third-order nonlinear optical coefficient χ(3. At the same time, the chromophore density of PUI, nonlinear refractive index coefficient and molecular hyperpolarizability of PUI were obtained. The fluorescence spectra of PUI and model compound DR-19 were determined at excitation wavelength 300 nm. The electron donor and acceptor in polymer formed the exciplex through the transfer of the electric charges. The results show that the poly(urethane-imide is a promising candidate for application in optical devices.

  20. Kinetic, stereochemical, and molecular association factors in the hydralumination of group IV subtituted alkynes. The role of p/sub π/-d/sub π/ conjugation in the addition of diisobutylaluminum hydride to trimethyl(phenylethynyl)silane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eisch, J.J.; Rhee, S.G.

    1975-01-01

    The kinetic, stereochemistry, and molecular association factors for the addition of diisobutylaluminum hydride to trimethyl(phenylethynyl)silane were studied in the temperature range of -10 to 38 0 . Hydralumination was found to have a kinetic true order of essentially one in the alkyne and one-third in the hydride. Although the trans adduct is the predominating product (approximately 99 percent) after completion of the hydralumination, the variation of the proportion of cis adduct and the initial rate law are consistent with a kinetically controlled cis hydralumination by monomeric R 2 'AlH, followed by a rapid isomerization to the trans adduct. The trans adduct formed a complex with l equivalent to the hydride. This complexation had to be taken into account, in order to explain the observed rate retardation and to obtain satisfactory integrated rate expressions for hydraluminations monitored to high conversion. Since in hydralumination this silylacetylene shows a stereospecificity and regiospecificity exactly opposite that of tert-butyl(phenyl)acetylene, as well as a heightened reactivity, a critical consideration of possible p/sub π/--d/sub π/ electronic effects was undertaken. The unusually facile isomerization of the resulting silyl-substituted vinylalanes, however, does seem more persuasive evidence for a p/sub π/--d/sub π/ effect, which promotes isomerization by electrophilic attack of R 2 'AlH on the carbon α to the Me 3 Si group. (U.S.)

  1. Formation of carboxy- and amide-terminated alkyl monolayers on silicon(111) investigated by ATR-FTIR, XPS, and X-ray scattering: Construction of photoswitchable surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rück-Braun, Karola; Petersen, Michael Åxman; Michalik, Fabian

    2013-01-01

    -FTIR and XPS studies of the fulgimide samples revealed closely covered amide-terminated SAMs. Reversible photoswitching of the headgroup was read out by applying XPS, ATR-FTIR, and difference absorption spectra in the mid-IR. In XPS, we observed a reversible breathing of the amide/imide C1s and N1s signals......We have prepared high-quality, densely packed, self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) of carboxy-terminated alkyl chains on Si(111). The samples were made by thermal grafting of methyl undec-10-enoate under an inert atmosphere and subsequent cleavage of the ester functionality to disclose the carboxylic...... zigzag-like substitution pattern for the ester- and carboxy-terminated monolayer. Hydrolysis of the remaining H-Si(111) bonds at the surface furnished HO-Si(111) groups according to XPS and attenuated total reflection Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR) studies. The amide-terminated alkyl...

  2. PETIs as High-Temperature Resin-Transfer-Molding Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connell, John N.; Smith, Joseph G., Jr.; Hergenrother, Paul M.

    2005-01-01

    Compositions of, and processes for fabricating, high-temperature composite materials from phenylethynyl-terminated imide (PETI) oligomers by resin-transfer molding (RTM) and resin infusion have been developed. Composites having a combination of excellent mechanical properties and long-term high-temperature stability have been readily fabricated. These materials are particularly useful for the fabrication of high-temperature structures for jet-engine components, structural components on highspeed aircraft, spacecraft, and missiles. Phenylethynyl-terminated amide acid oligomers that are precursors of PETI oligomers are easily made through the reaction of a mixture of aromatic diamines with aromatic dianhydrides at high stoichiometric offsets and 4-phenylethynylphthalic anhydride (PEPA) as an end-capper in a polar solvent such as N-methylpyrrolidinone (NMP). These oligomers are subsequently cyclodehydrated -- for example, by heating the solution in the presence of toluene to remove the water by azeotropic distillation to form low-molecular-weight imide oligomers. More precisely, what is obtained is a mixture of PETI oligomeric species, spanning a range of molecular weights, that exhibits a stable melt viscosity of less than approximately 60 poise (and generally less than 10 poise) at a temperature below 300 deg C. After curing of the oligomers at a temperature of 371 deg C, the resulting polymer can have a glass-transition temperature (Tg) as high as 375 C, the exact value depending on the compositions.

  3. Decomposition of poly(amide-imide) film using atmospheric pressure non-equilibrium plasma generated in a stream of H2O/Ar mixed gases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ueshima, M.; Aoki, Y.; Suzuki, K.; Kuwasima, S.; Sugiyama, K.

    2010-01-01

    Atmospheric pressure non-equilibrium Ar-H 2 O plasma was irradiated to exfoliate a thin film of a heat-resistant polymer, poly(amide-imide) coating on enamel copper wire. The plasma was produced by applying microwave power inducted with Ar-H 2 , Ar-O 2 , Ar-H 2 O or Ar-H 2 -O 2 mixed gases. The poly(amide-imide) thin film was exfoliate by those plasma irradiations. The magnitude of exfoliation depended on the distance of the copper wire from the plasma generating material and reached a maximum at a distance around 4 cm for each plasma irradiation. Surface conditions of the copper wire varied depending on the inducted gases. Ar-O 2 plasma irradiation oxidized the copper surface while other plasmas kept the copper surface unchanged. The time it took to exfoliate the poly(amide-imide) depended on the irradiation source, either Ar-O 2 (within 60 s), Ar-H 2 O (within 70 s), Ar-H 2 -O 2 (within 70 s) or Ar-H 2 (within 125 s). The Ar-H 2 O plasma irradiation under non-equilibrium atmospheric pressure was found to be the best method for exfoliating the poly(amide-imide) thin film coating on enamel copper wires rather than the Ar-H 2 -O 2 plasma because of its simplicity and safety.

  4. The dimerization of thiophosgene and trichlorothioacetyl chloride S-imides - Head-to-head and/or head-to-tail?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Voss, Jürgen; Buddensiek, Dirk; Senning, Alexander Erich Eugen

    2016-01-01

    It has been shown that certain N-aryltrichoromethanesulfenamides Cl3C-S-NHAr can be dehydrochlorinated to form red-colored thiocarbonyl S-imides CCl2=S=NAr which dimerize spontaneously. The dimers so far obtained were first assigned the 1,4,2,5-dithiadiazinane structure but later shown to be the ...

  5. Dual inhibition of DNMTs and EZH2 can overcome both intrinsic and acquired resistance of myeloma cells to IMiDs in a cereblon-independent manner

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dimopoulos, Konstantinos; Søgaard Helbo, Alexandra; Fibiger Munch-Petersen, Helga

    2018-01-01

    Thalidomide and its derivatives, lenalidomide and pomalidomide (also known as IMiDs), have significantly changed the treatment landscape of multiple myeloma, and the recent discovery of cereblon (CRBN) as their direct biological target has led to a deeper understanding of their complex mechanism ...

  6. Catalytic properties of lanthanide amide, imide and nitride formed by thermal degradation of liquid ammonia solutions of Eu and Yb metal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imamura, H.; Mizuno, K.; Ohishi, K.; Suda, E.; Kanda, K.; Sakata, Y.; Tsuchiya, S.

    1998-01-01

    The catalytic properties of lanthanide amide, imide and nitride prepared by the use of liquid ammonia solutions of lanthanide metals (Ln=Eu and Yb) were studied for catalytic hydrogenation. The reaction of Eu or Yb metal solutions in liquid ammonia with silica yielded SiO 2 -grafted lanthanide amide in the divalent state. The divalent amide showed catalytic activity for the selective hydrogenation of dienes and benzene. It was found that partial hydrogenation of benzene occurred with a very high selectivity for cyclohexene. Amides of calcium, strontium and barium were examined similarly in connection with catalytic studies on divalent amides. Imide and nitride, into which the lanthanide (Ln/AC) deposited by impregnation of active carbon (AC) with liquid ammonia solutions of lanthanide metals were converted thermally, were studied catalytically. It was concluded that imide or imide-like species generated during the thermal degradation of lanthanide amide to nitride were very active in the hydrogenation of ethene. Lanthanide nitride was virtually inactive, but the nitride highly dispersed on active carbon was activated when subjected to evacuation treatment above about 1000 K. (orig.)

  7. Polyethyleneimine-Functionalized Polyamide Imide (Torlon) Hollow-Fiber Sorbents for Post-Combustion CO 2 Capture

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Fuyue Stephanie

    2013-05-24

    Carbon dioxide emitted from existing coal-fired power plants is a major environmental concern due to possible links to global climate change. In this study, we expand upon previous work focused on aminosilane-functionalized polymeric hollow-fiber sorbents by introducing a new class of polyethyleneimine (PEI)-functionalized polymeric hollow-fiber sorbents for post-combustion carbon dioxide capture. Different molecular weight PEIs (Mn≈600, 1800, 10 000, and 60 000) were studied as functional groups on polyamide imide (PAI, Torlon) hollow fibers. This imide ring-opening modification introduces two amide functional groups and was confirmed by FTIR attenuated total reflectance spectroscopy. The carbon dioxide equilibrium sorption capacities of PEI-functionalized Torlon materials were characterized by using both pressure decay and gravimetric sorption methods. For equivalent PEI concentrations, PAI functionalized with lower molecular weight PEI exhibited higher carbon dioxide capacities. The effect of water in the ring-opening reaction was also studied. Up to a critical value, water in the reaction mixture enhanced the degree of functionalization of PEI to Torlon and resulted in higher carbon dioxide uptake within the functionalized material. Above the critical value, roughly 15 % w/w water, the fiber morphology was lost and the fiber was soluble in the solvent. PEI-functionalized (Mn≈600) PAI under optimal reaction conditions was observed to have the highest CO2 uptake: 4.9 g CO2 per 100 g of polymer (1.1 mmol g-1) at 0.1 bar and 35°C with dry 10 % CO2/90 % N2 feed for thermogravimetric analysis. By using water-saturated feeds (10 % CO2/90 % N2 dry basis), CO2 sorption was observed to increase to 6.0 g CO2 per 100 g of sorbent (1.4 mmol g-1). This material also demonstrated stability in cyclic adsorption-desorption operations, even under wet conditions at which some highly effective sorbents tend to lose performance. Thus, PEI-functionalized PAI fibers can be

  8. (Liquid + liquid) equilibrium for the ternary systems {heptane + toluene + 1-allyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide} and {heptane + toluene + 1-methyl-3-propylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide} ionic liquids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia, Silvia; Larriba, Marcos; Garcia, Julian; Torrecilla, Jose S.; Rodriguez, Francisco

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Values of D 1 and D 2 for [mpim][Tf 2 N] are higher than those for [amim][Tf 2 N]. → Values of α 2,1 for [mpim][Tf 2 N] are lower than those for [amim][Tf 2 N]. → Values of D 2 for both ionic liquids are higher than those for sulfolane. → Values of α 2,1 for [mpim][Tf 2 N] are lower than those for sulfolane at x 2 I 2 N] could be considered as an alternative solvent to sulfolane. - Abstract: The (liquid + liquid) equilibrium (LLE) data for two systems containing heptane, toluene, and 1-methyl-3-propylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide ([mpim][Tf 2 N]) or 1-allyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide ([amim][Tf 2 N]) ionic liquids (ILs) were determined at T = 313.2 K and atmospheric pressure. The effect of a double bond in an alkyl side chain in the imidazolium cation was evaluated in terms of selectivity and extractive capacity. The results show a decrease of the amount of toluene and heptane dissolved in the IL with the allyl group. Thus, the distribution ratios of toluene and heptane of [mpim][Tf 2 N] IL are higher than those of [amim][Tf 2 N] IL. On the other hand, the separation factor of the [amim][Tf 2 N] IL increases comparing to [mpim][Tf 2 N] IL. The NRTL model was used to correlate satisfactorily the experimental LLE data for the two studied ternary systems.

  9. CONTAINER TERMINALS IN EUROPE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bart W. WIEGMANS

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to address the linkage between logistics (in particular, the management of marketing channel flows and transport markets, while also the interaction between these two markets and intermodal container terminals is analysed. The marketing channel theory is used to describe all relevant actors and flows that run through marketing channels, starting with customer needs and ending with customer satisfaction. Porter's theory of competitive advantages is used to review competitive forces in both markets. Finally, a competitor analysis is performed for the logistics and transport market. These theories are applied so as to be able to determine the competitive position of intermodal container terminals with a view to the management of marketing channel flows and the physical transport of freight flows. Hence, the central question of this paper is: Which markets are served by intermodal container terminals and with whom are they competing? At present, neither the maritime container terminals nor the continental container terminals appear to have a significant influence in the logistics service market; they concentrate mainly on the physical movement of containers (transshipment. Furthermore, maritime container terminals and continental container terminals are not dominant players in the transport service market. Our conclusion is that continental terminals are predominantly competing with unimodal road transport, with neighbouring continental terminals and with barge transport companies.

  10. Effect of nanosized silica in poly(methyl methacrylate)-lithium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide based polymer electrolytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramesh, S.; Lu, Soon-Chien [Faculty of Engineering and Science, Universiti Tunku Abdul Rahman, Setapak, 53300 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia)

    2008-12-01

    The effect of nanosized silica when incorporated in polymer electrolytes is analyzed by means of Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, conductivity and thermal properties. Nanocomposite polymer electrolytes are synthesized by the dispersion of nanosized silica (SiO{sub 2}), up to 10 wt.% maximum, into a matrix formed by poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) and lithium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide (LiTFSI). The highest conductivity is 2.44 x 10{sup -6} S cm{sup -1} at room temperature, with 4 wt.% of silica added. The FTIR spectra show evidence of complexation between PMMA, LiTFSI and SiO{sub 2}. The addition of silica to the polymer electrolytes also improves the thermal stability and the ability to retain conductivity over time. (author)

  11. Fluoroethylene Carbonate-Based Electrolyte with 1 M Sodium Bis(fluorosulfonyl)imide Enables High-Performance Sodium Metal Electrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yongwon; Lee, Jaegi; Lee, Jeongmin; Kim, Koeun; Cha, Aming; Kang, Sujin; Wi, Taeung; Kang, Seok Ju; Lee, Hyun-Wook; Choi, Nam-Soon

    2018-05-02

    Sodium (Na) metal anodes with stable electrochemical cycling have attracted widespread attention because of their highest specific capacity and lowest potential among anode materials for Na batteries. The main challenges associated with Na metal anodes are dendritic formation and the low density of deposited Na during electrochemical plating. Here, we demonstrate a fluoroethylene carbonate (FEC)-based electrolyte with 1 M sodium bis(fluorosulfonyl)imide (NaFSI) salt for the stable and dense deposition of the Na metal during electrochemical cycling. The novel electrolyte combination developed here circumvents the dendritic Na deposition that is one of the primary concerns for battery safety and constructs the uniform ionic interlayer achieving highly reversible Na plating/stripping reactions. The FEC-NaFSI constructs the mechanically strong and ion-permeable interlayer containing NaF and ionic compounds such as Na 2 CO 3 and sodium alkylcarbonates.

  12. Effect of thermal annealing on a novel polyamide–imide polymer membrane for aggressive acid gas separations

    KAUST Repository

    Vaughn, Justin T.

    2012-05-01

    A fluorinated, 6FDA based polyamide-imide is investigated for the purification of CH 4 from CO 2 and H 2S containing gas streams. Dense polymer films were thermally annealed and showed that increased annealing temperatures at constant annealing time caused transport behavior that does not resemble physical aging. Free volume increased after annealing at 200°C for 24h relative to annealing at 150°C for the same time. CO 2 and CH 4 permeabilities and diffusivities did not decrease as a result of the higher annealing temperature, and in fact, were shown to increase slightly. A change to the intrinsic microstructure that cannot be described by simple, densification based physical aging is hypothesized to be the reason for this trend. Furthermore, annealing increased CO 2 induced plasticization resistance and a temperature of 200°C was shown to have the greatest effect on plasticization suppression. Annealing at 200°C for 24h suppressed pure gas CO 2 plasticization up to 450psia. Fluorescence spectroscopy revealed increased intramolecular charge transfer, which is presumably due to increased electron conjugation over the N-phenyl bond. Additionally, intermolecular charge transfer increased with thermal annealing, as inferred from fluorescence intensity measurements and XRD patterns. 50/50 CO 2/CH 4 mixed gas permeation measurements reveal stable separation performance up to 1000psia. Ternary mixed gas feeds containing toluene/CO 2/CH 4 and H 2S/CO 2/CH 4 show antiplasticization, but more importantly, selectivity losses due to plasticization did not occur up to 900psia of total feed pressure. These results show that the polyamide-imide family represents a promising class of separation materials for aggressive acid gas purifications. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.

  13. Effect of thermal annealing on a novel polyamide–imide polymer membrane for aggressive acid gas separations

    KAUST Repository

    Vaughn, Justin T.; Koros, William J.; Johnson, J.R.; Karvan, Oguz

    2012-01-01

    A fluorinated, 6FDA based polyamide-imide is investigated for the purification of CH 4 from CO 2 and H 2S containing gas streams. Dense polymer films were thermally annealed and showed that increased annealing temperatures at constant annealing time caused transport behavior that does not resemble physical aging. Free volume increased after annealing at 200°C for 24h relative to annealing at 150°C for the same time. CO 2 and CH 4 permeabilities and diffusivities did not decrease as a result of the higher annealing temperature, and in fact, were shown to increase slightly. A change to the intrinsic microstructure that cannot be described by simple, densification based physical aging is hypothesized to be the reason for this trend. Furthermore, annealing increased CO 2 induced plasticization resistance and a temperature of 200°C was shown to have the greatest effect on plasticization suppression. Annealing at 200°C for 24h suppressed pure gas CO 2 plasticization up to 450psia. Fluorescence spectroscopy revealed increased intramolecular charge transfer, which is presumably due to increased electron conjugation over the N-phenyl bond. Additionally, intermolecular charge transfer increased with thermal annealing, as inferred from fluorescence intensity measurements and XRD patterns. 50/50 CO 2/CH 4 mixed gas permeation measurements reveal stable separation performance up to 1000psia. Ternary mixed gas feeds containing toluene/CO 2/CH 4 and H 2S/CO 2/CH 4 show antiplasticization, but more importantly, selectivity losses due to plasticization did not occur up to 900psia of total feed pressure. These results show that the polyamide-imide family represents a promising class of separation materials for aggressive acid gas purifications. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.

  14. Sorption Behavior of Compressed CO2 and CH4 on Ultrathin Hybrid Poly(POSS-imide) Layers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raaijmakers, Michiel J T; Ogieglo, Wojciech; Wiese, Martin; Wessling, Matthias; Nijmeijer, Arian; Benes, Nieck E

    2015-12-09

    Sorption of compressed gases into thin polymeric films is essential for applications including gas sensors and membrane based gas separation. For glassy polymers, the sorption behavior is dependent on the nonequilibrium status of the polymer. The uptake of molecules by a polymer is generally accompanied by dilation, or swelling, of the polymer material. In turn, this dilation can result in penetrant induced plasticization and physical aging that affect the nonequilibrium status of the polymer. Here, we investigate the dilation and sorption behavior of ultrathin membrane layers of a hybrid inorganic-organic network material that consists of alternating polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxane and imide groups, upon exposure to compressed carbon dioxide and methane. The imide precursor contains fluoroalkene groups that provide affinity toward carbon dioxide, while the octa-functionalized silsesquioxane provides a high degree of cross-linking. This combination allows for extremely high sorption capacities, while structural rearrangements of the network are hindered. We study the simultaneous uptake of gases and dilation of the thin films at high pressures using spectroscopic ellipsometry measurements. Ellipsometry provides the changes in both the refractive index and the film thickness, and allows for accurate quantification of sorption and swelling. In contrast, gravimetric and volumetric measurements only provide a single parameter; this does not allow an accurate correction for, for instance, the changes in buoyancy because of the extensive geometrical changes of highly swelling films. The sorption behavior of the ultrathin hybrid layers depends on the fluoroalkene group content. At low pressure, the apparent molar volume of the gases is low compared to the liquid molar volume of carbon dioxide and methane, respectively. At high gas concentrations in the polymer film, the apparent molar volume of carbon dioxide and methane exceeds that of the liquid molar volume, and

  15. Lazy Productivity via Termination

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Endrullis, J.; Hendriks, R.D.A.

    2011-01-01

    We present a procedure for transforming strongly sequential constructor-based term rewriting systems (TRSs) into context-sensitive TRSs in such a way that productivity of the input system is equivalent to termination of the output system. Thereby automated termination provers become available for

  16. Termination of cycle rewriting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zantema, H.; König, B.; Bruggink, H.J.S.; Dowek, G.

    2014-01-01

    String rewriting can not only be applied on strings, but also on cycles and even on general graphs. In this paper we investigate termination of string rewriting applied on cycles, shortly denoted as cycle rewriting, which is a strictly stronger requirement than termination on strings. Most

  17. Kitimat LNG terminal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmaltz, I.; Boulton, R.

    2007-01-01

    Kitimat Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) terminal is a terminal development company owned by Galveston LNG, a privately owned Canadian energy development company. This presentation provided information on Kitimat LNG with particular reference to its terminal located in Bish Cove on the Douglas Channel in British Columbia. This LNG terminal is reported to be the only fully permitted regasification terminal on the west coast of Canada and the United States. The presentation addressed market fundamentals including several graphs, such as world natural gas proved reserves in 2006; LNG supplements to Canadian gas supplies; global LNG demand for 2005-2020; average annual United States LNG imports; and global LNG liquefaction projects. Other market fundamentals were described, including that Kitimat is the only other approved terminal aside from the Costa Azul terminal in Mexico; Kitimat is the only west coast LNG import terminal that connects to midwest and eastern North American markets through existing gas pipelines; LNG producers are looking for destination diversification; and markets and marketers are looking for supply diversification. The authors noted that by 2010, western Canadian gas demand will exceed Californian demand. Other topics that were discussed in the presentation included Canadian natural gas field receipts; unadjusted bitumen production outlook; oil sands gas demand; forward basis fundamentals; and the commercial drivers of the Kitimat LNG terminal. The presentation also discussed the pacific trail pipelines, a partnership between Galveston LNG and Pacific Northern Gas to develop the natural gas transmission line from Kitimat to Summit. The presentation concluded with a discussion of the benefits of Kitimat LNG terminal such as providing access to the largest natural gas markets in the world via major gas transmission lines with spare capacity. figs

  18. Nonleaking battery terminals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snider, W. E.; Nagle, W. J.

    1972-01-01

    Three different terminals were designed for usage in a 40 ampere/hour silver zinc battery which has a 45% KOH by weight electrolyte in a plastic battery case. Life tests, including thermal cycling, electrical charge and discharge for up to three years duration, were conducted on these three different terminal designs. Tests for creep rate and tensile strength were conducted on the polyphenylene oxide plastic battery cases. Some cases were unused and others containing KOH electrolyte were placed on life tests. The design and testing of nonleaking battery terminals for use with a KOH electrolyte in a plastic case are considered.

  19. Copoly(Imide Siloxane) Abhesive Materials with Varied Siloxane Oligomer Length

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wohl, Christopher J.; Atkins, Brad M.; Belcher, Marcus A.; Connell, John W.

    2010-01-01

    Incorporation of PDMS moieties into a polyimide matrix lowered the surface energy resulting in enhanced adhesive interactions. Polyimide siloxane materials were generated using amine-terminated PDMS oligomers of different lengths to study changes in surface migration behavior, phase segregation, mechanical, thermal, and optical properties. These materials were characterized using contact angle goniometry, tensile testing, and differential scanning calorimetry. The surface migration behavior of the PDMS component depended upon the siloxane molecular weight as indicated by distinct relationships between PDMS chain length and advancing water contact angles. Similar correlations were observed for percent elongation values obtained from tensile testing, while the addition of PDMS reduced the modulus. High fidelity topographical modification via laser ablation patterning further reduced the polyimide siloxane surface energy. Initial particulate adhesion testing experiments demonstrated that polyimide siloxane materials exhibited greater abhesive interactions relative to their respective homopolyimides.

  20. Nontraumatic terminal ileal perforation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wani Rauf A

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is still confusion and controversy over the diagnosis and optimal surgical treatment of non traumatic terminal ileal perforation-a cause of obscure peritonitis. Methods This study was a prospective study aimed at evaluating the clinical profile, etiology and optimal surgical management of patients with nontraumatic terminal ileal perforation. Results There were 79 cases of nontraumatic terminal ileal perforation; the causes for perforation were enteric fever(62%, nonspecific inflammation(26%, obstruction(6%, tuberculosis(4% and radiation enteritis (1%. Simple closure of the perforation (49% and end to side ileotransverse anastomosis(42% were the mainstay of the surgical management. Conclusion Terminal ileal perforation should be suspected in all cases of peritonitis especially in developing countries and surgical treatment should be optimized taking various accounts like etiology, delay in surgery and operative findings into consideration to reduce the incidence of deadly complications like fecal fistula.

  1. Terminated Multifamily Mortgages Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — This dataset includes all terminated HUD Multifamily mortgages except those from the Hospital Mortgage Insurance Program. It includes the Holder and Servicer at the...

  2. Coal terminal directory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-06-15

    The directory gives a comprehensive listing of the world's coal terminals, in a total of 50 countries including information on throughput, facilities, storage capacity, and vessel size limitation.

  3. Synthesis, characterization and photo behavior of new poly(amide-imide/montmorillonite nanocomposite containing N,N'-pyrromellitoyl-bis-L-alanine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Hajibeygi

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Two new samples of poly(amide-imide-nanocomposites were synthesized by insertion nano silicate particles in poly(amide-imide (PAI chains using a convenient solution intercalation technique. PAI as a source of polymer matrix was synthesized by the direct polycondensation reaction of N,N'-pyrromelitoyl-bis-L-alanine with 4,4'-diamino diphenyl ether in the presence of triphenyl phosphite (TPP, CaCl2, pyridine and N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone (NMP. Morphology and structure of the resulting PAI-nanocomposite films with 5 and 10% silicate particles were characterized by FTIR spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD and scanning electron microscopy (SEM. The effect of clay dispersion and the interaction between clay and polymeric chains on the properties of nanocomposites films were investigated by using UV-Vis spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA and water uptake measurements.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/bcse.v27i3.15

  4. Synthesis and characterization of hybrid organic-inorganic materials of polyamide-imide (PAI) and copolysilsesquioxanes of 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane (APES) and phenyltriethoxysilane (PTES)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Demarchi, A.A.; Pezzin, S.H.

    2010-01-01

    In this work, organic-inorganic hybrids were obtained by adding copolysilsesquioxanes of 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane (APES) and phenyltriethoxysilane (PTES), prepared by sol-gel, to the polyamide-imide (PAI). The synthesis of PAI oligomer from trimellitic anhydride (TMA) and 4,4-diphenyl-methane diisocyanate (MDI), was monitored by FTIR, noting that two steps of 80 deg C and 120 deg C for 2 h each are sufficient to obtain it. PAI-copolysilsesquioxanes hybrids were characterized by FTIR, viscometry, thermogravimetry, NMR and microscopy. The spectrum of the PAI and PAI-hybrid copolysilsesquioxanes show the formation of amide and imide. Copolysilsesquioxanes with high levels of APES increased the viscosity and generated the PAI oligomer gelatinization, hindering the formation of uniform films. Gelatinization did not occur with copolysilsesquioxanes rich PTES, allowing the formation of homogeneous films improvements in thermal resistance. (author)

  5. Visual communication and terminal equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Cheol Hui

    1988-06-01

    This book is divided two parts about visual communication and terminal equipment. The first part introduces visual communication, which deals with foundation of visual communication, technique of visual communication, equipment of visual communication, a facsimile and pictorial image system. The second part contains terminal equipment such as telephone, terminal equipment for data transmission on constitution and constituent of terminal equipment for data transmission, input device and output device, terminal device and up-to-date terminal device.

  6. Visual communication and terminal equipment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Cheol Hui

    1988-06-15

    This book is divided two parts about visual communication and terminal equipment. The first part introduces visual communication, which deals with foundation of visual communication, technique of visual communication, equipment of visual communication, a facsimile and pictorial image system. The second part contains terminal equipment such as telephone, terminal equipment for data transmission on constitution and constituent of terminal equipment for data transmission, input device and output device, terminal device and up-to-date terminal device.

  7. Exploiting the acylating nature of the imide-Ugi intermediate: a straightforward synthesis of tetrahydro-1,4-benzodiazepin-2-ones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mossetti, Riccardo; Saggiorato, Dèsirèe; Tron, Gian Cesare

    2011-12-16

    We describe a simple and novel protocol for the synthesis of tetrahydro-1,4-benzodiazepin-2-ones with three points of diversity, exploiting the acylating properties of the recently rediscovered Ugi-imide. The final compounds can be easily prepared in three synthetic steps using a multicomponent reaction, a Staudinger reduction, and an acylative protocol, with good to excellent yields for each synthetic step.

  8. N-Allyl-N-methylpiperidinium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide-A film forming ionic liquid for graphite anode of Li-ion batteries

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Reiter, Jakub; Nádherná, M.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 71, JUNE (2012), s. 22-26 ISSN 0013-4686 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) KJB200320801; GA AV ČR KJB200320901 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40320502 Keywords : Bis(trifluoromethansulfonyl)imide * Unsaturated piperidinium ionic liquid * Graphite * Solid electrolyte interface * Lithium -ion battery Subject RIV: CG - Electrochemistry Impact factor: 3.777, year: 2012

  9. Surface tension and density for members of four ionic liquid homologous series containing a pyridinium based-cation and the bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide anion

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Klomfar, Jaroslav; Součková, Monika; Pátek, Jaroslav

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 431, January (2017), s. 24-33 ISSN 0378-3812 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-00145S Institutional support: RVO:61388998 Keywords : ionic liquid * pyridinium-based cation * bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide anion * density-temperature relation * surface tension-temperature relation * recommended property values Subject RIV: BJ - Thermodynamics OBOR OECD: Thermodynamics Impact factor: 2.473, year: 2016

  10. Tandem Terminal Ion Source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harper, G.C.; Lindner, C.E.; Myers, A.W.; Wechel, T.D. van

    2000-01-01

    OAK-B135 Tandem Terminal Ion Source. The terminal ion source (TIS) was used in several experiments during this reporting period, all for the 7 Be(γ) 8 B experiment. Most of the runs used 1 H + at terminal voltages from 0.3 MV to 1.5 MV. One of the runs used 2 H + at terminal voltage of 1.4 MV. The other run used 4 He + at a terminal voltage of 1.37 MV. The list of experiments run with the TIS to date is given in table 1 below. The tank was opened four times for unscheduled source repairs. On one occasion the tank was opened to replace the einzel lens power supply which had failed. The 10 kV unit was replaced with a 15 kV unit. The second time the tank was opened to repair the extractor supply which was damaged by a tank spark. On the next occasion the tank was opened to replace a source canal which had sputtered away. Finally, the tank was opened to replace the discharge bottle which had been coated with aluminum sputtered from the exit canal

  11. Tandem Terminal Ion Source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    None

    2000-01-01

    OAK-B135 Tandem Terminal Ion Source. The terminal ion source (TIS) was used in several experiments during this reporting period, all for the(sup 7)Be((gamma))(sup 8)B experiment. Most of the runs used(sup 1)H(sup+) at terminal voltages from 0.3 MV to 1.5 MV. One of the runs used(sup 2)H(sup+) at terminal voltage of 1.4 MV. The other run used(sup 4)He(sup+) at a terminal voltage of 1.37 MV. The list of experiments run with the TIS to date is given in table 1 below. The tank was opened four times for unscheduled source repairs. On one occasion the tank was opened to replace the einzel lens power supply which had failed. The 10 kV unit was replaced with a 15 kV unit. The second time the tank was opened to repair the extractor supply which was damaged by a tank spark. On the next occasion the tank was opened to replace a source canal which had sputtered away. Finally, the tank was opened to replace the discharge bottle which had been coated with aluminum sputtered from the exit canal

  12. Thermophysical properties of 1-hexyl-3-methyl imidazolium based ionic liquids with tetrafluoroborate, hexafluorophosphate and bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide anions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muhammad, Ayyaz; Abdul Mutalib, M.I.; Wilfred, C.D.; Murugesan, T.; Shafeeq, Amir

    2008-01-01

    The thermophysical properties of 1-hexyl-3-methyl imidazolium based hydrophobic room temperature ionic liquids (RTILs); with tetrafluoroborate (BF 4 ), hexafluorophosphate (PF 6 ), and bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide (Tf 2 N) anions, namely density ρ (298.15 to 348.15) K, dynamic viscosity η (288.2 to 348.2) K, surface tension σ (298.15 to 338) K, and refractive index n D (302.95 to 332.95) K have been measured. The coefficients of thermal expansion α p values were calculated from the experimental density data using an empirical correlation. The thermal stability of all ILs is also investigated at two different heating rates (10 and 20) deg. C . min -1 ) using thermogravimetric analyzer (TGA). The experimental results presented in this study reveal that the choice of anion type shows the most significant effect on the properties of ILs. The chloride and water contents of ILs (as impurities) are also investigated and reported in the present work

  13. Recent Progress and New Perspectives on Metal Amide and Imide Systems for Solid-State Hydrogen Storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastiano Garroni

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Hydrogen storage in the solid state represents one of the most attractive and challenging ways to supply hydrogen to a proton exchange membrane (PEM fuel cell. Although in the last 15 years a large variety of material systems have been identified as possible candidates for storing hydrogen, further efforts have to be made in the development of systems which meet the strict targets of the Fuel Cells and Hydrogen Joint Undertaking (FCH JU and U.S. Department of Energy (DOE. Recent projections indicate that a system possessing: (i an ideal enthalpy in the range of 20–50 kJ/mol H2, to use the heat produced by PEM fuel cell for providing the energy necessary for desorption; (ii a gravimetric hydrogen density of 5 wt. % H2 and (iii fast sorption kinetics below 110 °C is strongly recommended. Among the known hydrogen storage materials, amide and imide-based mixtures represent the most promising class of compounds for on-board applications; however, some barriers still have to be overcome before considering this class of material mature for real applications. In this review, the most relevant progresses made in the recent years as well as the kinetic and thermodynamic properties, experimentally measured for the most promising systems, are reported and properly discussed.

  14. KrF pulsed laser ablation of thin films made from fluorinated heterocyclic poly(naphthyl-imide)s.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damaceanu, Mariana-Dana; Rusu, Radu-Dan; Olaru, Mihaela Adriana; Timpu, Daniel; Bruma, Maria

    2012-06-01

    Among the many aspects of laser ablation, development of conical structures induced by excimer laser radiation on polyimide surfaces has been thoroughly investigated. Because the mechanisms that produce these surface textures are not fully understood, two theories, photochemical bond breaking and thermal reaction, have been introduced. Here we present the first study of ultraviolet laser ablation behavior of thin films made from fluorinated poly(naphthyl-imide)s containing oxadiazole rings and the investigation of the mechanism of cone-like structure formation at two laser fluences, 57 and 240 mJ/cm(2). The morphology of thin films before and after laser ablation was studied by using various spectroscopy techniques such as Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, time-resolved emission and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy, and contact angle measurements. All of the data suggest impurities shielded at low fluence radiation (57 mJ/cm(2)) and a radiation hardening process at high value fluence (240 mJ/cm(2)), which are proposed as the main mechanisms for laser ablation of our polyimide films, and we bring evidence to support them.

  15. Density, electrical conductivity, viscosity and excess properties of 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide + propylene carbonate binary mixtures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vraneš, Milan; Zec, Nebojša; Tot, Aleksandar; Papović, Snežana; Dožić, Sanja; Gadžurić, Slobodan

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Densities of [bmim][NTf 2 ] mixtures with propylene carbonate were measured. • Excess properties were calculated. • Formation of hydrogen bonds between IL and PC was discussed. • Electrical conductivity and viscosity were also measured. • Influence of temperature and composition on mixture properties were studied. -- Abstract: Densities of binary liquid mixtures of 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide, [bmim][NTf 2 ], with propylene carbonate (PC) were measured at temperatures from (293.15 to 323.15) K and at atmospheric pressure over the whole composition range. The electrical conductivity was measured in the range from (293.15 to 328.15) K. Also, viscosity of [bmim][NTf 2 ] + PC binary mixtures was measured from (298.15 to 333.15) K. Excess molar volumes, V E , have been obtained from the experimental densities and were fitted to Redlich–Kister polynomial equation. Other volumetric properties, such as isobaric thermal expansion coefficients, partial molar volumes, apparent molar volumes and partial molar volumes at infinite dilution have been also calculated, in order to obtain information about interactions between PC and selected ionic liquid. Results are discussed in order to understand the hydrogen bonds formation between components of the mixture

  16. DFT calculation and experimental validation on the interactions of bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide and hexafluorophosphate with cesium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Taoxiang; Duan, Wuhua; Wang, Yaxing; Hu, Shaowen; Wang, Shuao; Chen, Jing; Shen, Xinghai

    2017-11-01

    Bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide (NTf2-) and hexafluorophosphate (PF6-) are the most frequently used anions for hydrophobic ionic liquids (ILs) which have been considered as promising solvents in the extraction of cesium ions. The interactions of NTf2- and PF6- with Cs+ were explored in this work. The results of DFT calculation indicated that both Cs+ and Cs(18C6)+ prefer to interact with two NTf2- or PF6- anions in gas phase, where 18C6 is 18-crown-6. The complex of Cs(NTf2)2- was observed in electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS), and the complexes of [Cs(18C6)NTf2]2 and [Cs(18C6)PF6]2 were crystallized in which Cs(18C6)+ interacted with two anions. The interactions of NTf2- with cesium resulted in a synergistic effect between dicyclohexano-18-crown-6 (DCH18C6) and NTf2- in the extraction of Cs+ using n-octanol as diluent. However, DFT calculation revealed that the complex Cs(DCH18C6)+ interacted with one NTf2- anion was more thermodynamically stable than that with two anions in organic phase, different from that in gas phase.

  17. Hardness and wear properties of boron-implanted poly(ether-ether-ketone) and poly-ether-imide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee Youngchul; Lee, E.H.; Mansur, L.K.

    1992-01-01

    The effects of boron beam irradiation on the hardness, friction, and wear of polymer surfaces were investigated. Typical high-performance thermoplastics, poly(ether-ether-ketone) (PEEK) and a poly-ether-imide (Ultem) were studied after 200 keV boron ion beam treatment at ambient temperature to doses of 2.3x10 14 , 6.8x10 14 , and 2.2x10 15 ions cm -2 . The hardnesses of pristine and boron-implanted materials were characterized by a conventional Knoop method and a load-depth sensing nanoindentation technique. Both measurements showed a significant increase in hardness with increasing dose. The increase in hardness was also found to depend on the penetration depth of the diamond indenter. Wear and friction properties were characterized by a reciprocating sliding friction tester with an SAE 52100 high-carbon, chrome steel ball at 0.5 and 1 N normal loads. Wear and frictional properties varied in a complex fashion with polymer type and dose, but not much with normal load. A substantial reduction in friction coefficient was observed for PEEK at the highest dose but no reduction was observed for Ultem. The wear damage was substantially reduced at the highest dose for both Ultem and PEEK. For the system studied, the highest dose, 2.2x10 15 ions cm -2 , appears to be optimum in improving wear resistance for both PEEK and Ultem. (orig.)

  18. Windows Terminal Servers Orchestration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bukowiec, Sebastian; Gaspar, Ricardo; Smith, Tim

    2017-10-01

    Windows Terminal Servers provide application gateways for various parts of the CERN accelerator complex, used by hundreds of CERN users every day. The combination of new tools such as Puppet, HAProxy and Microsoft System Center suite enable automation of provisioning workflows to provide a terminal server infrastructure that can scale up and down in an automated manner. The orchestration does not only reduce the time and effort necessary to deploy new instances, but also facilitates operations such as patching, analysis and recreation of compromised nodes as well as catering for workload peaks.

  19. The Tiny Terminators

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 6; Issue 5. The Tiny Terminators - Mosquitoes and Diseases. P K Sumodan. General Article Volume 6 Issue 5 May 2001 pp 48-55. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: https://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/006/05/0048-0055 ...

  20. Making Wireless Terminals Simpler

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Søren Skovgaard; Popovski, Petar; De Carvalho, Elisabeth

    2005-01-01

    equalization in the downlink, which these requirements lead to. We propose to solve the problem by applying pre-processing at the base station, thereby rendering the terminal simple. We establish a general MIMO block transmission model, and derive different transmit/receive filters, based on the Linear Minimum...

  1. Trauma and termination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferraro, F

    1995-02-01

    The author suggests a particular reading of the thesis put forward by Freud in 'Analysis terminable and interminable' that an effective and more definitive conclusion may be expected in analyses of cases with traumatic aetiology. This reading shifts the emphasis from the patient's history to the possibility of its crystallising in focal nuclei emerging within the analytic relationship under the pressure of the termination. The revival of separation anxieties which cannot be worked through, and their crystallisation in precipitating traumatic events, may give rise to decisive psychic work allowing the analysis to be brought to a conclusion. Two case histories are presented to show how the end of the analysis assumes the form of a new trauma, which reactivates in the present, traumatic anxieties from the patient's own infantile history. In the first case a premature birth and in the second a miscarriage, originally experienced as isolated automatic events without time or history, are relived in the terminal phase as vicissitudes of the transference, so that new meaning can be assigned to them and they can be withdrawn from the somatic cycle of repetition. The powerful tendency to act out and the intense countertransference pressure on the analyst are discussed in the light of the specificities of this phase, which is crucial to the success of the analysis. This leads to a re-examination, in the concluding notes, of some theoretical questions inherent in the problem of the termination and, in particular, to a discussion of the ambiguous concept of a natural ending.

  2. Prematurely terminated slug tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karasaki, K.

    1990-07-01

    A solution of the well response to a prematurely terminated slug test (PTST) is presented. The advantages of a PTST over conventional slug tests are discussed. A systematized procedure of a PTST is proposed, where a slug test is terminated in the midpoint of the flow point, and the subsequent shut-in data is recorded and analyzed. This method requires a downhole shut-in device and a pressure transducer, which is no more than the conventional deep-well slug testing. As opposed to slug tests, which are ineffective when a skin is present, more accurate estimate of formation permeability can be made using a PTST. Premature termination also shortens the test duration considerably. Because in most cases no more information is gained by completing a slug test to the end, the author recommends that conventional slug tests be replaced by the premature termination technique. This study is part of an investigation of the feasibility of geologic isolation of nuclear wastes being carried out by the US Department of Energy and the National Cooperative for the Storage of Radioactive Waste of Switzerland

  3. NPOESS Field Terminal Updates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heckmann, G.; Route, G.

    2009-12-01

    The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Department of Defense (DoD), and National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) are jointly acquiring the next-generation weather and environmental satellite system; the National Polar-orbiting Operational Environmental Satellite System (NPOESS). NPOESS replaces the current Polar-orbiting Operational Environmental Satellites (POES) managed by NOAA and the Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP) managed by the DoD. The NPOESS satellites carry a suite of sensors that collect meteorological, oceanographic, climatological, and solar-geophysical observations of the earth, atmosphere, and space. The ground data processing segment for NPOESS is the Interface Data Processing Segment (IDPS), developed by Raytheon Intelligence and Information Systems. The IDPS processes NPOESS satellite data to provide environmental data products (aka, Environmental Data Records or EDRs) to NOAA and DoD processing centers operated by the United States government. The IDPS will process EDRs beginning with the NPOESS Preparatory Project (NPP) and continuing through the lifetime of the NPOESS system. IDPS also provides the software and requirements for the Field Terminal Segment (FTS). NPOESS provides support to deployed field terminals by providing mission data in the Low Rate and High Rate downlinks (LRD/HRD), mission support data needed to generate EDRs and decryption keys needed to decrypt mission data during Selective data Encryption (SDE). Mission support data consists of globally relevant data, geographically constrained data, and two line element sets. NPOESS provides these mission support data via the Internet accessible Mission Support Data Server and HRD/LRD downlinks. This presentation will illustrate and describe the NPOESS capabilities in support of Field Terminal users. This discussion will include the mission support data available to Field Terminal users, content of the direct broadcast HRD and LRD

  4. Surface tensions of binary mixtures of ionic liquids with bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide as the common anion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, M.B.; Domínguez-Pérez, M.; Cabeza, O.; Lopes-da-Silva, J.A.; Freire, M.G.; Coutinho, J.A.P.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Novel data for the surface tensions of mixtures [C 4 mim][NTf 2 ] + [C 4 C 1 mim]/[C 3 mpy]/[C 3 mpyr]/[C 3 mpip][NTf 2 ] are presented. • γ were determined at a fixed temperature, 298.2 K, and at atmospheric pressure, for the whole composition range. • Surface tension deviations showed the near ideal behavior of the selected mixtures. • Gibbs adsorption isotherms showed the surface preferential adsorption of one ionic liquid over the other. -- Abstract: While values for thermophysical properties of ionic liquids are becoming widely available, data for ionic liquid mixtures are still scarce. In an effort to overcome this limitation and understand the behavior of ionic liquid mixtures, novel data for the surface tension of mixtures composed of 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide, [C 4 mim][NTf 2 ], with other ionic liquids with a common anion, namely 1-butyl-2,3-dimethylimidazolium, [C 4 C 1 mim] + , 3-methyl-1-propylpyridinium, [C 3 mpy] + , 1-methyl-1-propylpyrrolidinium, [C 3 mpyr] + , and 1-methyl-1-propylpiperidinium, [C 3 mpip] + , were measured at T = 298.2 K and atmospheric pressure over the entire composition range. From the surface tension deviations derived from the experimental results, it was possible to infer that the cation alkyl chain length of the second ionic liquid constituting the mixture has a stronger influence in the ideal mixture behavior than the type of family the ionic liquid cation belongs to. The Gibbs adsorption isotherms, estimated from the experimental values, show that the composition of the vapor–liquid interface is not the same as that of the bulk and that the interface is richer in the ionic liquid with the lowest surface tension, [C 4 mim][NTf 2

  5. Electrochemical behavior of platinum nanoparticles on a carbon xerogel support modified with a [(trifluoromethyl)-benzenesulfonyl]imide electrolyte.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Bing; Mei, Hua; DesMarteau, Darryl; Creager, Stephen E

    2014-12-11

    A monoprotic [(trifluoromethyl)benzenesulfonyl]imide (SI) superacid electrolyte was used to covalently modify a mesoporous carbon xerogel (CX) support via reaction of the corresponding trifluoromethyl aryl sulfonimide diazonium zwitterion with the carbon surface. Electrolyte attachment was demonstrated by elemental analysis, acid-base titration, and thermogravimetric analysis. The ion-exchange capacity of the fluoroalkyl-aryl-sulfonimide-grafted carbon xerogel (SI-CX) was ∼0.18 mequiv g(-1), as indicated by acid-base titration. Platinum nanoparticles were deposited onto the SI-grafted carbon xerogel samples by the impregnation and reduction method, and these materials were employed to fabricate polyelectrolyte membrane fuel-cell (PEMFC) electrodes by the decal transfer method. The SI-grafted carbon-xerogel-supported platinum (Pt/SI-CX) was characterized by X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy to determine platinum nanoparticle size and distribution, and the findings are compared with CX-supported platinum catalyst without the grafted SI electrolyte (Pt/CX). Platinum nanoparticle sizes are consistently larger on Pt/SI-CX than on Pt/CX. The electrochemically active surface area (ESA) of platinum catalyst on the Pt/SI-CX and Pt/CX samples was measured with ex situ cyclic voltammetry (CV) using both hydrogen adsorption/desorption and carbon monoxide stripping methods and by in situ CV within membrane electrode assemblies (MEAs). The ESA values for Pt/SI-CX are consistently lower than those for Pt/CX. Some possible reasons for the behavior of samples with and without grafted SI layers and implications for the possible use of SI-grafted carbon layers in PEMFC devices are discussed.

  6. Ideal and non-ideal behaviour of {1-butyl-1-methylpyrrolydinium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide + γ-butyrolactone} binary mixtures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vraneš, Milan; Tot, Aleksandar; Papović, Snežana; Zec, Nebojša; Dožić, Sanja; Gadžurić, Slobodan

    2015-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Excess properties of ([bmpyrr][NTf 2 ] + γ-butyrolactone) mixtures are reported. • An ideal behaviour of the mixture was observed. • Interactions in the mixtures are weaker comparing to pure IL and GBL. • Calculated Angell’s strength parameter indicates a “fragile” ionic liquid. • [bmpyrr] + forms micellar structures when x IL > 0.6. - Abstract: Density, electrical conductivity and viscosity of binary liquid mixtures of 1-butyl-1-methylpyrrolydinium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide, [bmpyrr][NTf 2 ], with γ-butyrolactone (GBL) were measured at temperatures from (293.15 to 323.15) K and at atmospheric pressure over the whole composition range. Excess molar volumes have been calculated from the experimental densities and fitted with the Redlich–Kister polynomial equation. These values are positive over the whole range of ionic liquid mole fraction and at all temperatures. In the range between 0.55 and 0.6 [bmpyrr][NTf 2 ] mole fraction, an ideal behaviour of the ionic liquid mixture with molecular solvent was observed for the first time. Other volumetric properties, such as isobaric thermal expansion coefficients, partial molar volumes and partial molar volumes at infinite dilution have been also calculated, in order to obtain information about interactions between GBL and selected ionic liquid. Positive values of these properties for both components also indicate weaker interactions between GBL and IL compared to the pure components. From the viscosity results, the Angell strength parameter was calculated and found to be 3.24 indicating that [bmpyrr][NTf 2 ] is a “fragile” liquid. From the volumetric and transport properties obtained, formation of the [bmpyrr] + micellar structures was also discussed. All the results are compared to those obtained for imidazolium-based ionic liquid with GBL

  7. Assessment of the imprinting efficiency of an imide with a "stoichiometric" pyridine-based functional monomer in precipitation polymerisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, K Fremielle; Hall, Andrew J; Lettieri, Stefania; Holdsworth, Clovia I

    2018-03-01

    The efficiency of the stoichiometric non-covalent imprinting of the imide 2,3,5-tri-O-acetyluridine (TAU) with 2,6-bis(acrylamido)pyridine (BAAPy) as functional monomer due to their strong donor-acceptor-donor/acceptor-donor-acceptor (DAD/ADA) hydrogen bond array interaction has been evaluated by bulk imprinting. This study is the first to investigate the imprinting and template rebinding efficiencies of the TAU/BAAPy molecularly imprinted polymeric (MIP) system prepared by precipitation polymerisation. We found that the stoichiometric 1:1 T:FM ratio has not been maintained in precipitation polymerisation and an optimal TAU:BAAPy ratio of 1:2.5 was obtained in acetonitrile without agitation affording an affinity constant (1.7 × 10 4 M -1 ) and a binding capacity (3.69 μmol/g) higher than its bulk counterpart. Molecular modelling, NMR studies, and selectivity assays against analogues uridine and 2,3,5-tri-O-acetyl cytidine (TAC) indicate that, aside from the DAD/ADA hydrogen bond interaction, BAAPy also interacts with the acetyl groups of TAU. Template incorporation and rebinding in precipitation MIPs are favoured by a moderate initiator concentration, ie, initiator:total monomer (I:TM) ratio of 1:131, while low I:TM ratio (ie, 1:200) drastically reduced template incorporation and binding capacity. Vigorous agitation by stirring showed higher template incorporation but significantly lower template rebinding compared to that prepared without agitation. While the imprinting efficiencies for the best performing bulk and precipitation TAU MIPs generated in this study were moderate, 41% and 60%, respectively, their rebinding capacities were only between 3 and 4% of the incorporated template. We also present quantitative nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy as an efficient method for MIP characterisation. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  8. Isobutane as a probe of the structure of 1-alkyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide ionic liquids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pison, Laure; Bernales, Varinia; Fuentealba, Patricio; Padua, Agilio A.H.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • The solubility of isobutane was determined in [C n C 1 Im][NTf 2 ] (n = 2, 4, 6, 8 and 10). • Iso-C 4 H 10 solubility decreases with T and increases with n to reach x = 0.1 (n = 10, T = 303 K). • Isobutane is, on average, 1.6 times less soluble than n-butane in this family of ionic liquids. • Solubility increase with n is due to a more negative enthalpy of dissolution (n ⩾ 6). - Abstract: An experimental study of the solubility and of the thermodynamic properties of solvation, between temperatures (303 and 343) K and at pressures close to atmospheric, of 2-methylpropane (isobutane) in several ionic liquids based on the bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide anion and on 1-alkyl-3-methylimidazolium cations, [C n C 1 Im][NTf 2 ], with alkyl side-chains varying from two to ten carbon atoms is presented. The isobutane solubility increases with increasing size of the alkyl side-chain of the cation in the ionic liquid and decreases with increasing temperature (as typical of an exothermal dissolution process). The mole fraction solubility of isobutane varies from 0.904 · 10 −2 in [C 2 C 1 Im][NTf 2 ] at T = 343 K to 1.002 · 10 −1 in [C 10 C 1 Im][NTf 2 ] at T = 303 K. The values measured in this work are compared to the behaviour of n-butane in the same ionic liquids published in a previous study (Costa Gomes et al., 2012). Isobutane was found to be significantly less soluble than n-butane in all the ionic liquids. The differences found are interpreted in relation to the molecular structures obtained by molecular dynamics simulations for the solutions of n-butane and isobutane in the studied [C n C 1 Im][NTf 2 ] ionic liquids

  9. Development of biosensors containing laccase and imidazolium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide ionic liquid for the determination of rutin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Franzoi, Ana Cristina [Departamento de Quimica, Laboratorio de Biossensores, Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, 88040-970 Florianopolis, SC (Brazil); Migowski, Pedro; Dupont, Jairton [Departamento de Quimica Organica, Laboratorio de Catalise Molecular, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, 91501-970 Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Cruz Vieira, Iolanda, E-mail: iolanda@qmc.ufsc.br [Departamento de Quimica, Laboratorio de Biossensores, Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, 88040-970 Florianopolis, SC (Brazil)

    2009-04-20

    Biosensors based on hydrophobic ionic liquids (ILs) derived from the bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide [(CF{sub 3}SO{sub 2}){sub 2}N{sup -} = Tf{sub 2}N{sup -}] anion associated with three different imidazolium cations: 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium (BMI.Tf{sub 2}N), 1-decyl-3-methylimidazolium (DMI.Tf{sub 2}N) and 1-tetradecyl-3-methylimidazolium (TDMI.Tf{sub 2}N), along with laccase from Aspergillus oryzae, were constructed and optimized for determination of rutin. The laccase catalyzes the oxidation of rutin to the corresponding o-quinone, which is electrochemically reduced back to rutin. The best performance was obtained with 50:20:15:15% (w/w/w/w) as the graphite powder:laccase:Nujol:ILs composition in 0.1 mol L{sup -1} acetate buffer solution (pH 5.0). The parameters for the square-wave voltammetry experiments and scanning electron microscopy images of the biosensors were studied. Under the selected conditions, the cathodic peak current increased linearly in the rutin concentration ranges of 4.77 x 10{sup -6} to 4.62 x 10{sup -5} mol L{sup -1}, 5.84 x 10{sup -6} to 5.36 x 10{sup -5} mol L{sup -1} and 5.84 x 10{sup -6} to 5.36 x 10{sup -5} mol L{sup -1} using the (I) BMI.Tf{sub 2}N-laccase, (II) DMI.Tf{sub 2}N-laccase and (III) TDMI.Tf{sub 2}N-laccase, respectively. The rutin contents of commercial samples of pharmaceuticals were successfully determined by the biosensors and the results compared well with those obtained using the official method. The studies on rutin recovery from these samples gave values of 96.9-104.6%.

  10. Development of biosensors containing laccase and imidazolium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide ionic liquid for the determination of rutin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franzoi, Ana Cristina; Migowski, Pedro; Dupont, Jairton; Cruz Vieira, Iolanda

    2009-01-01

    Biosensors based on hydrophobic ionic liquids (ILs) derived from the bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide [(CF 3 SO 2 ) 2 N - = Tf 2 N - ] anion associated with three different imidazolium cations: 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium (BMI.Tf 2 N), 1-decyl-3-methylimidazolium (DMI.Tf 2 N) and 1-tetradecyl-3-methylimidazolium (TDMI.Tf 2 N), along with laccase from Aspergillus oryzae, were constructed and optimized for determination of rutin. The laccase catalyzes the oxidation of rutin to the corresponding o-quinone, which is electrochemically reduced back to rutin. The best performance was obtained with 50:20:15:15% (w/w/w/w) as the graphite powder:laccase:Nujol:ILs composition in 0.1 mol L -1 acetate buffer solution (pH 5.0). The parameters for the square-wave voltammetry experiments and scanning electron microscopy images of the biosensors were studied. Under the selected conditions, the cathodic peak current increased linearly in the rutin concentration ranges of 4.77 x 10 -6 to 4.62 x 10 -5 mol L -1 , 5.84 x 10 -6 to 5.36 x 10 -5 mol L -1 and 5.84 x 10 -6 to 5.36 x 10 -5 mol L -1 using the (I) BMI.Tf 2 N-laccase, (II) DMI.Tf 2 N-laccase and (III) TDMI.Tf 2 N-laccase, respectively. The rutin contents of commercial samples of pharmaceuticals were successfully determined by the biosensors and the results compared well with those obtained using the official method. The studies on rutin recovery from these samples gave values of 96.9-104.6%.

  11. Antecedents of Customer Relationship Termination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Geersbro, Jens; Ritter, Thomas

    To end business relationships, or to more actively terminate relationships, has long been acknowledged as part of customer relationship management. However, compared to other elements such as initiation and maintenance of relationships, little is known about the termination of business...... relationships as a managerial task. This paper contributes by (1) developing a conceptualization of relationship termination competence and (2) analyzing its antecedents. The empirical results identify termination acceptance, definition non-customers, organizational relationship termination routines......, and motivation as significant antecedents. Because of this, managers need to develop their organizations in order to use relationship termination as a vital strategy....

  12. Review paper. Terminal lucidity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiriboga-Oleszczak Boris Alejandro

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Terminal lucidity is a term used in the medical literature to determine the improvement of mental functioning shortly before death, even among patients with serious and long-term disorders. In 19th century, cases of mind clarity recovery shortly before death, were often recognized by doctors and interpreted as a sign of an impending death. In 20th century, the interest in this phenomenon decreased and then, virtually disappear. In recent years, on the wave of publications concerning near death experiences and related events such as the end of life experiences, papers about the improvement of mental functioning shortly before death, exponentially grew and got a new name, terminal lucidity. In this paper, an overview of the available literature is presented to outline the historical, phenomenological and clinical picture of this phenomenon and its possible implications for medical care and future studies.

  13. Characterization, liquid crystalline behavior, electrochemical and optoelectrical properties of new poly(azomethine)s and a poly(imide) with siloxane linkages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwan, Agnieszka; Schab-Balcerzak, Ewa; Pociecha, Damian; Krompiec, Michal; Grucela, Marzena; Bilski, Pawel; Kłosowski, Mariusz; Janeczek, Henryk

    2011-11-01

    New siloxane-containing poly(azomethine)s and a six-membered poly(imide) have been developed from siloxane-containing diamine with four different dialdehydes and 3,4,9,10-perylenetetracarboxylic dianhydride, and their thermotropic behavior, optoelectrical and electrochemical properties were examined. Mesomorphic behavior of the polymers was investigated via differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), polarizing optical microscopy (POM) and X-ray diffraction (WAXRD, SAXRD) studies. The electrochemical behavior of poly(azomethine)s and poly(imide) was studied by differential pulse voltammetry (DPV). The HOMO levels of these polymers were in the range of -5.13 to -5.90 eV. UV-vis properties of the polymers were investigated in solid state as thin films and in chloroform solution. Optical energy band gap ( Egopt.) was calculated from absorption spectra and absorption coefficients α. The photoluminescence properties (PL) of obtained polymers were studied in chloroform solution. The investigated poly(azomethine)s emitted blue light, while the poly(imide) emitted green light. The polymers were irradiated with a test dose of 1 Gy Co-60 gamma-rays to detect their thermoluminescence properties in the temperature range of 50-200 °C. Polymer monolayer (ITO/polymer/Al) and bulk heterojunction (BHJ) (ITO/polymer:PCBM/Al and ITO/PEDOT:PSS/polymer:PCBM/Al) devices were prepared with PAZ and PI used as active layers and I- U curves were measured in the dark and during irradiation with light (under illumination of 1000 W/m 2). Poly(azomethine)s were blended with [6,6]-phenyl C 61 butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM). Selected properties of the investigated polymers with siloxane linkages were compared with the polymers ( PAZ1a- PAZ3a, PIa) prepared from the same dialdehydes or dianhydride and poly(1,4-butanediol)bis(4-aminobenzoate).

  14. Metal coordination in the high-temperature leaching of roasted NdFeB magnets with the ionic liquid betainium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide

    OpenAIRE

    Orefice, Martina; Binnemans, Koen; Vander Hoogerstraete, Tom

    2018-01-01

    Ionic liquids are largely used to leach metals from primary (ores) and secondary sources (end-of-life products). However, dry ionic liquids with a carboxylic function on the cation have not yet been used to leach metals at temperature above 100 °C and under atmospheric pressure. The ionic liquid betainium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide, [Hbet][Tf2N], was used in the dry state to recover neodymium, dysprosium and cobalt from NdFeB magnets and NdFeB production scrap. The magnets and the scra...

  15. Strong luminescence of rare earth compounds in ionic liquids: Luminescent properties of lanthanide(III) iodides in the ionic liquid 1-dodecyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mudring, Anja-Verena; Babai, Arash; Arenz, Sven; Giernoth, Ralf; Binnemans, K.; Driesen, Kris; Nockemann, Peter

    2006-01-01

    Purposely designed ionic liquids can be excellent solvents for spectroscopic studies of rare earth compounds. Absorption, excitation and emission spectra of LnI 3 (Ln = Nd, Dy and Tb) in the ionic liquid 1-dodecyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide are presented. Electronic transitions were assigned from the energy level diagrams for Ln(III). Emission lifetimes for DyI 3 in [C 12 mim][Tf 2 N] are discussed. Traces of water dramatically reduce the otherwise long lifetimes and comparatively high quantum yields

  16. The human immunodeficiency virus-1 protein Tat and its discrete fragments evoke selective release of acetylcholine from human and rat cerebrocortical terminals through species-specific mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feligioni, Marco; Raiteri, Luca; Pattarini, Roberto; Grilli, Massimo; Bruzzone, Santina; Cavazzani, Paolo; Raiteri, Maurizio; Pittaluga, Anna

    2003-07-30

    The effect of the human immunodeficiency virus-1 protein Tat was investigated on neurotransmitter release from human and rat cortical nerve endings. Tat failed to affect the release of several neurotransmitters, such as glutamate, GABA, norepinephrine, and others, but it evoked the release of [3H]ACh via increase of cytosolic [Ca2+]. In human nerve terminals, the Tat effect partly depends on Ca2+ entry through voltage-sensitive Ca2+ channels, because Cd2+ halved the Tat-evoked release. Activation of group I metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluR) and mobilization of Ca2+ from IP3-sensitive intraterminal stores are also involved, because the Tat effect was prevented by mGluR antagonists 2-methyl-6-(phenylethynyl)pyridine hydrochloride and 7-(hydroxyimino)cyclopropa[b]chromen-1a-carboxylate ethyl ester and by the IP3 receptor antagonists heparin and xestospongin C. Furthermore, the group I selective mGlu agonist (RS)-3,5-dihydroxyphenylglycine enhanced [3H]ACh release. In rat nerve terminals, the Tat-evoked release neither depends on external Ca2+ ions entry nor on IP3-mediated mechanisms. Tat seems to cause mobilization of Ca2+ from ryanodine-sensitive internal stores because its effect was prevented by both 8-bromo-cyclic adenosine diphosphate-ribose and dantrolene. The Tat-evoked release from human synaptosomes was mimicked by the peptide sequences Tat 32-62, Tat 49-86, and Tat 41-60. In contrast, the Tat 49-86 and Tat 61-80 fragments, but not the Tat 32-62 fragment, were active in rat synaptosomes. In conclusion, Tat elicits Ca2+-dependent [3H]ACh release by species-specific intraterminal mechanisms by binding via discrete amino acid sequences to different receptive sites on human and rat cholinergic terminals.

  17. LNG TERMINAL SAFE OPERATION MANAGEMENT

    OpenAIRE

    Andrzej ADAMKIEWICZ; Włodzimierz KAMIŃSKI

    2012-01-01

    This article presents the significance of LNG terminal safety issues in natural gas sea transport. It shows particular requirements for LNG transmission installations resulting from the specific properties of LNG. Out of the multi‐layer critical safety areas comprising structural elements of the terminal safety system, possibilities to decrease the risk of emergency occurrence on LNG terminals have been selected. Tasks performed by the LNG terminal, together with its own personnel and the out...

  18. LNG TERMINAL SAFE OPERATION MANAGEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrzej ADAMKIEWICZ

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available This article presents the significance of LNG terminal safety issues in natural gas sea transport. It shows particular requirements for LNG transmission installations resulting from the specific properties of LNG. Out of the multi‐layer critical safety areas comprising structural elements of the terminal safety system, possibilities to decrease the risk of emergency occurrence on LNG terminals have been selected. Tasks performed by the LNG terminal, together with its own personnel and the outside one, have been defined. General theses for LNG terminal safety have been formulated.

  19. Terminal weather information management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Alfred T.

    1990-01-01

    Since the mid-1960's, microburst/windshear events have caused at least 30 aircraft accidents and incidents and have killed more than 600 people in the United States alone. This study evaluated alternative means of alerting an airline crew to the presence of microburst/windshear events in the terminal area. Of particular interest was the relative effectiveness of conventional and data link ground-to-air transmissions of ground-based radar and low-level windshear sensing information on microburst/windshear avoidance. The Advanced Concepts Flight Simulator located at Ames Research Center was employed in a line oriented simulation of a scheduled round-trip airline flight from Salt Lake City to Denver Stapleton Airport. Actual weather en route and in the terminal area was simulated using recorded data. The microburst/windshear incident of July 11, 1988 was re-created for the Denver area operations. Six experienced airline crews currently flying scheduled routes were employed as test subjects for each of three groups: (1) A baseline group which received alerts via conventional air traffic control (ATC) tower transmissions; (2) An experimental group which received alerts/events displayed visually and aurally in the cockpit six miles (approx. 2 min.) from the microburst event; and (3) An additional experimental group received displayed alerts/events 23 linear miles (approx. 7 min.) from the microburst event. Analyses of crew communications and decision times showed a marked improvement in both situation awareness and decision-making with visually displayed ground-based radar information. Substantial reductions in the variability of decision times among crews in the visual display groups were also found. These findings suggest that crew performance will be enhanced and individual differences among crews due to differences in training and prior experience are significantly reduced by providing real-time, graphic display of terminal weather hazards.

  20. Preparation and characterization of new poly(amide–imide reinforced layer silicate nanocomposite containing N,N′-pyrromellitoyl-bis-l-phenyl acetic acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khalil Faghihi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Two new samples of poly(amide–imide/montmorillonite reinforced nanocomposites containing N,N′-pyrromellitoyl-bis-l-phenyl acetic acid moiety in the main chain were synthesized by a convenient solution intercalation technique. Poly(amide–imide (PAI 3 as a source of polymer matrix was synthesized by the direct polycondensation reaction of N,N′-pyrromelitoyl-bis-l-phenyl acetic acid 1 with 4,4′-diamino diphenyl ether 2 in the presence of triphenyl phosphite (TPP, CaCl2, pyridine and N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone (NMP. Morphology and structure of the resulting PAI-nanocomposite films 4a and 4b with 10% and 20% silicate particles were characterized by FTIR spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD and scanning electron microscopy (SEM. The effect of clay dispersion and the interaction between clay and polymeric chains on the properties of nanocomposite films were investigated by using UV–vis spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA and water uptake measurements.

  1. Synthesis and characterization of thermally stable poly(amide-imide-montmorillonite nanocomposites based on bis(4-carboxyphenyl-N,N'-pyromellitimide acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Hajibeygi

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Two new poly(amide-imide-montmorillonite reinforced nanocomposites containing bis(4-carboxyphenyl-N,N'-pyromellitimide acid moiety in the main chain were synthesized by a convenient solution intercalation technique. Poly(amide-imide (PAI as a source of polymer matrix was synthesized by the direct polycondensation reaction of bis(4-carboxyphenyl-N,N'-pyromellitimide acid with 4,4'-diamino diphenyl sulfone in the presence of triphenyl phosphite (TPP, CaCl2, pyridine and N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone (NMP. Morphology and structure of the resulting PAI-nanocomposite films with 10 and 20% silicate particles were characterized by FT-IR spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD and scanning electron microscopy (SEM. The effect of clay dispersion and the interaction between clay and polymeric chains on the properties of nanocomposites films were investigated by using UV-Vis spectroscopy, thermal gravimetry analysis (TGA and water uptake measurements.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/bcse.v27i1.10

  2. Electrochemically cathodic exfoliation of graphene sheets in room temperature ionic liquids N-butyl, methylpyrrolidinium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide and their electrochemical properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Yingchang; Lu, Fang; Zhou, Zhou; Song, Weixin; Chen, Qiyuan; Ji, Xiaobo

    2013-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Electrochemically cathodic exfoliation of graphite into few-layer graphene sheets in room temperature ionic liquids (RTILs) N-butyl, methylpyrrolidinium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)-imide (BMPTF 2 N). -- Highlights: • Few-layer graphene sheets were prepared through electrochemically cathodic exfoliation in room temperature ionic liquids. • The mechanism of cathodic exfoliation in ionic liquids was proposed. • The derived activated graphene sheets show enhanced electrochemical properties. -- Abstract: Electrochemically cathodic exfoliation in room temperature ionic liquids N-butyl, methylpyrrolidinium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)-imide (BMPTF 2 N) has been developed for few-layer graphene sheets, demonstrating low levels of oxygen (2.7 at% of O) with a nearly perfect structure (I D /I G 2 N involves the intercalation of ionic liquids cation [BMP] + under highly negatively charge followed by graphite expansion. Porous activated graphene sheets were also obtained by activation of graphene sheets in KOH. Transmission electron microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and Raman spectroscopy were used to characterize these graphene materials. The electrochemical performances of the graphene sheets and porous activated graphene sheets for lithium-ion battery anode materials were evaluated using cyclic voltammetry, galvanostatic charge–discharge cycling, and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy

  3. Performance Enhancement of Silicon Alloy-Based Anodes Using Thermally Treated Poly(amide imide) as a Polymer Binder for High Performance Lithium-Ion Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Hwi Soo; Kim, Sang-Hyung; Kannan, Aravindaraj G; Kim, Seon Kyung; Park, Cheolho; Kim, Dong-Won

    2016-04-05

    The development of silicon-based anodes with high capacity and good cycling stability for next-generation lithium-ion batteries is a very challenging task due to the large volume changes in the electrodes during repeated cycling, which results in capacity fading. In this work, we synthesized silicon alloy as an active anode material, which was composed of silicon nanoparticles embedded in Cu-Al-Fe matrix phases. Poly(amide imide)s, (PAI)s, with different thermal treatments were used as polymer binders in the silicon alloy-based electrodes. A systematic study demonstrated that the thermal treatment of the silicon alloy electrodes at high temperature made the electrodes mechanically strong and remarkably enhanced the cycling stability compared to electrodes without thermal treatment. The silicon alloy electrode thermally treated at 400 °C initially delivered a discharge capacity of 1084 mAh g(-1) with good capacity retention and high Coulombic efficiency. This superior cycling performance was attributed to the strong adhesion of the PAI binder resulting from enhanced secondary interactions, which maintained good electrical contacts between the active materials, electronic conductors, and current collector during cycling. These findings are supported by results from X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and a surface and interfacial cutting analysis system.

  4. Facile Synthesis of Potassium Poly(heptazine imide) (PHIK)/Ti-Based Metal-Organic Framework (MIL-125-NH2) Composites for Photocatalytic Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, Nicolás A; Savateev, Aleksandr; Grela, María A; Dontsova, Dariya

    2017-07-12

    Photocatalytically active composites comprising potassium poly(heptazine imide) (PHIK) and a Ti-based metal-organic framework (MOF, MIL-125-NH 2 ) are prepared in situ by simply dispersing both materials in water. The driving forces of composite formation are the electrostatic interactions between the solids and the diffusion of potassium ions from PHIK to MIL-125-NH 2 . This mechanism implies that other composites of poly(heptazine imide) salts and different MOFs bearing positive surface charge can potentially be obtained in a similar fashion. The suggested strategy thus opens a new avenue for the facile synthesis of such materials. The composites are shown to have a superior photocatalytic activity in Rhodamine B degradation under blue light irradiation. The reaction rate is doubled compared to that of pure MOF compound and is 7 times higher than the activity of the pristine PHIK. The results of the electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) investigations and the analysis of the electronic structures of the solids suggest the electron transfer from MIL-125-NH 2 to PHIK in the composite. The possible pathways for the dye degradation and the rationalization of the increased activity of the composites are elaborated.

  5. The Heliospheric Termination Shock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jokipii, J. R.

    2013-06-01

    The heliospheric termination shock is a vast, spheroidal shock wave marking the transition from the supersonic solar wind to the slower flow in the heliosheath, in response to the pressure of the interstellar medium. It is one of the most-important boundaries in the outer heliosphere. It affects energetic particles strongly and for this reason is a significant factor in the effects of the Sun on Galactic cosmic rays. This paper summarizes the general properties and overall large-scale structure and motions of the termination shock. Observations over the past several years, both in situ and remote, have dramatically revised our understanding of the shock. The consensus now is that the shock is quite blunt, is with the front, blunt side canted at an angle to the flow direction of the local interstellar plasma relative to the Sun, and is dynamical and turbulent. Much of this new understanding has come from remote observations of energetic charged particles interacting with the shock, radio waves and radiation backscattered from interstellar neutral atoms. The observations and the implications are discussed.

  6. Resolution and termination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adina FOLTIŞ

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The resolution, the termination and the reduction of labour conscription are regulated by articles 1549-1554 in the new Civil Code, which represents the common law in this matter. We appreciate that the new regulation does not conclusively clarify the issue related to whether the existence of liability in order to call upon the resolution is necessary or not, because the existence of this condition has been inferred under the previous regulation from the fact that the absence of liability shifts the inexecution issue on the domain of fortuitous impossibility of execution, situation in which the resolution of the contract is not in question, but that of the risk it implies.

  7. Mobile Termination and Mobile Penetration

    OpenAIRE

    Hurkens, Sjaak; Jeon, Doh-Shin

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we study how access pricing affects network competition when subscription demand is elastic and each network uses non-linear prices and can apply termination-based price discrimination. In the case of a fixed per minute termination charge, we find that a reduction of the termination charge below cost has two oppos- ing effects: it softens competition but helps to internalize network externalities. The former reduces mobile penetration while the latter boosts it. We find that fi...

  8. Mobile termination and mobile penetration

    OpenAIRE

    Hurkens, Sjaak

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we study how access pricing affects network competition when subscription demand is elastic and each network uses non-linear prices and can apply termination-based price discrimination. In the case of a fixed per minute termination charge, we find that a reduction of the termination charge below cost has two opposing effects: it softens competition but helps to internalize network externalities. The former reduces mobile penetration while the latter boosts it. We find that firm...

  9. Low-Temperature and High-Pressure p-rho-T Relation for 1-(2-Methoxyethyl)-1-methylpyrrolidinium Bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide and 1-C-n-3-methylimidazolium Thiocyanate with n=2 and 4

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Klomfar, Jaroslav; Součková, Monika; Pátek, Jaroslav

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 60, č. 6 (2015), s. 1855-1867 ISSN 0021-9568 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-00145S Institutional support: RVO:61388998 Keywords : ionic liquid * 1-(2-Methoxyethyl)-1-methylpyrrolidinium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide * thiocyanate anion * experimental pvT data Subject RIV: BJ - Thermodynamics Impact factor: 1.835, year: 2015

  10. Application of PhSCF2CF2SiMe3 as a Tandem Anion and Radical Tetrafluoroethylene Equivalent: Fluoride-Catalyzed Addition to N-Substituted Cyclic Imides Followed by Radical Cyclization

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Chernykh, Yana; Opekar, Stanislav; Klepetářová, Blanka; Beier, Petr

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 23, č. 8 (2012), s. 1187-1190 ISSN 0936-5214 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP207/11/0421 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40550506 Keywords : nucleophilic addition * radical reaction * fluorine * heterocycles * imides Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry Impact factor: 2.655, year: 2012

  11. Drug utilization of biological drugs in the treatment of chronic Immune-Mediated Inflammatory Diseases (IMIDs: an observational study on Italian patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Faccendini

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Drug utilization of biological drugs in the treatment of chronic Immune-Mediated Inflammatory Diseases (IMIDs: an observational study on Italian patientsObjectives:The aim of this analysis was to provide an estimate of drug utilization indicators (dose escalation and dose tapering related to biologic drugs in the chronic treatment of adult patients with Immune-Mediated Inflammatory Diseases (IMIDs.Methods:We conducted an observational retrospective cohort analysis using the Policlinico di Tor Vergata (PTV database. We considered all biologic drugs dispensed by the PTV hospital pharmacy between January 2010 and December 2015:abatacept, adalimumab, certolizumab, etanercept, golimumab, infliximab (originator and biosimilar, tocilizumab, and ustekinumab were included. Drug dose escalation and dose tapering were calculated and compared with their Defined Daily Dose (DDD.Results:A total of 1803 patients with IMID and biologic drug prescription were analyzed (male: 51.2%. The majority of patients were in the class 36-50 years (n = 612. The median follow-up was 33.8 months (IQR 14.43-56.20. Dermatology was the ward with the largest number of patients (n = 882; 48.9%, followed by rheumatology (n = 619; 34.3% and gastroenterology (n = 302; 16.8%. Dose escalation was observed in 406 patients (22.5%. Infliximab biosimilar (n = 51 was the biological drug with the highest dose escalation rate (86.3%, followed by infliximab originator (n = 28; 60.3% and ustekinumab (37.8%. Etanercept was the biological drug with the lowest dose escalation rate (7.4%, followed by golimumab (12.2% and adalimumab (13.8%. In 677 patients (37.5% a dose tapering was observed. Etanercept showed the highest rate of patients with dose tapering (41.6%, followed by adalimumab (33.6%.Conclusions:The results of this analysis show that dose modification is quite common in PTV clinical practice. Considering the strong focus on the pharmaceutical expenditure and the need of cost containment

  12. Selection of Air Terminal Device

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Peter V.

    This paper discusses the selection of the air terminal device for the experiments and numerical prediction in the International Energy Agency Annex 20 work: Air Flow Pattern within Buildings,......This paper discusses the selection of the air terminal device for the experiments and numerical prediction in the International Energy Agency Annex 20 work: Air Flow Pattern within Buildings,...

  13. The practice of terminal discharge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radha Krishna, Lalit Kumar; Murugam, Vengadasalam; Quah, Daniel Song Chiek

    2017-01-01

    'Terminal discharges' are carried out in Singapore for patients who wish to die at home. However, if due diligence is not exercised, parallels may be drawn with euthanasia. We present a theoretical discussion beginning with the definition of terminal discharges and the reasons why they are carried out in Singapore. By considering the intention behind terminal discharges and utilising a multidisciplinary team to deliberate on the clinical, social and ethical intricacies with a patient- and context-specific approach, euthanasia is avoided. It is hoped that this will provide a platform for professionals in palliative medicine to negotiate challenging issues when arranging a terminal discharge, so as to avoid the pitfall of committing euthanasia in a country such as Singapore where euthanasia is illegal. It is hoped that a set of guidelines for terminal discharges may someday be realised to assist professionals in Singapore and around the world.

  14. Activity coefficients at infinite dilution for solutes in the trioctylmethylammonium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide ionic liquid using gas-liquid chromatography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gwala, Nobuhle V.; Deenadayalu, Nirmala; Tumba, Kaniki; Ramjugernath, Deresh

    2010-01-01

    The activity coefficient at infinite dilution (γ 13 ∞ ) for 30 solutes: alkanes, alkenes, cycloalkanes, alkynes, ketones, alcohols, and aromatic compounds was determined from gas-liquid chromatography (glc) measurements at three temperatures (303.15, 313.15, and 323.15) K. The ionic liquid: trioctylmethylammonium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide, was used as the stationary phase. For each temperature, γ 13 ∞ values were determined using two columns with different mass percent packing of the ionic liquid. The selectivity (S 12 ∞ ) value was calculated from the γ 13 ∞ to determine the suitability of the solvent as a potential entrainer for extractive distillation in the separation of an hexane/benzene mixture, indicative of a typical industrial separation problem for benchmarking purposes.

  15. Synthesis and characterization of new copoly(amide-imides based on N,N’-(4,4’-diphenylsulfonebistrimellitimide with different diacids and diamines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khalil Faghihi

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper six new copoly(amide-imides (7a-f were synthesized through the direct polycondensation reaction of N,N'-(4,4'-diphenylsulfonebistrimellitimide (1 with 4,4'-diamino diphenylsulfone (2, 4,4'-diamino diphenylether (3, in the presence of adipic acid (4, fumaric acid (5 or terephthalic acid (6 as the second diacid in a medium consisting of N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone, triphenyl phosphite, calcium chloride and pyridine. The resulted polymers were fully characterized by means of FTIR spectroscopy, elemental analyses, inherent viscosity, solubility tests and UV-vis spectroscopy. Thermal stabilities of resulted polymers (7a-c containing three different second diacids were compared by using TGA and DTG thermograms.

  16. Activity coefficients at infinite dilution measurements for organic solutes and water in the ionic liquid 4-methyl-N-butyl-pyridinium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)-imide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Domanska, Urszula [Physical Chemistry Department, Faculty of Chemistry, Warsaw University of Technology, Noakowskiego 3, 00-664 Warsaw (Poland)], E-mail: ula@ch.pw.edu.pl; Marciniak, Andrzej [Physical Chemistry Department, Faculty of Chemistry, Warsaw University of Technology, Noakowskiego 3, 00-664 Warsaw (Poland)

    2009-12-15

    The activity coefficients at infinite dilution, {gamma}{sub 13}{sup {infinity}} for 36 solutes: alkanes, cycloalkanes, alkenes, alkynes, aromatic hydrocarbons, alcohols, thiophene, tetrahydrofuran, ethers, acetone, and water in the ionic liquid 4-methyl-N-butyl-pyridinium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)-imide [bmPY][NTf{sub 2}] were determined by gas-liquid chromatography at temperatures from 298.15 K to 368.15 K. The partial molar excess enthalpies at infinite dilution values {delta}H{sub 1}{sup E,{infinity}} were calculated from the experimental {gamma}{sub 13}{sup {infinity}} values obtained over the temperature range. The selectivity for different separation problems were calculated from the {gamma}{sub 13}{sup {infinity}} and compared to the literature values for other ionic liquids, N-methyl-2-pyrrolidinone (NMP) and sulfolane.

  17. Activity coefficients at infinite dilution measurements for organic solutes and water in the ionic liquid 4-methyl-N-butyl-pyridinium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)-imide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Domanska, Urszula; Marciniak, Andrzej

    2009-01-01

    The activity coefficients at infinite dilution, γ 13 ∞ for 36 solutes: alkanes, cycloalkanes, alkenes, alkynes, aromatic hydrocarbons, alcohols, thiophene, tetrahydrofuran, ethers, acetone, and water in the ionic liquid 4-methyl-N-butyl-pyridinium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)-imide [bmPY][NTf 2 ] were determined by gas-liquid chromatography at temperatures from 298.15 K to 368.15 K. The partial molar excess enthalpies at infinite dilution values ΔH 1 E,∞ were calculated from the experimental γ 13 ∞ values obtained over the temperature range. The selectivity for different separation problems were calculated from the γ 13 ∞ and compared to the literature values for other ionic liquids, N-methyl-2-pyrrolidinone (NMP) and sulfolane.

  18. Excess molar volumes and isentropic compressibility of binary systems {trioctylmethylammonium bis(trifluoromethysulfonyl)imide + methanol or ethanol or 1-propanol} at different temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sibiya, P.N.; Deenadayalu, N.

    2008-01-01

    This paper reports measurements of densities for the binary systems of an ionic liquid and an alkanol at T = (298.15, 303.15, and 313.15) K. The IL is trioctylmethylammonium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide [OMA] + [Tf 2 N] - and the alkanols are methanol, or ethanol, or 1-propanol. The speed of sound at T = 298.15 K for the same binary systems was also measured. The excess molar volumes and the isentropic compressibilities for the above systems were then calculated from the experimental densities and the speed of sound, respectively. Redlich-Kister smoothing polynomial equation was used to fit the excess molar volume and the deviation in isentropic compressibility data. The partial molar volumes were determined from the Redlich-Kister coefficients. For all the systems studied, the excess molar volumes have both negative and positive values, while the deviations in isentropic compressibility are negative over the entire composition range

  19. Density, excess properties, electrical conductivity and viscosity of 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide + γ-butyrolactone binary mixtures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vraneš, Milan; Papović, Snežana; Tot, Aleksandar; Zec, Nebojša; Gadžurić, Slobodan

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Densities of [bmim][NTf 2 ] mixtures with γ-butyrolactone were measured. • Excess properties were calculated. • Nature of interactions between IL and GBL were discussed. • Specific conductivity and viscosity were also measured. • Walden plot is presented. - Abstract: Density, electrical conductivity and viscosity of binary liquid mixtures of 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide, [bmim][NTf 2 ], with γ-butyrolactone (GBL) were measured at temperatures from (293.15 to 323.15) K and at atmospheric pressure over the whole composition range. Excess molar volumes have been calculated from the experimental densities and were fitted with Redlich–Kister polynomial equation. Other volumetric properties, such as isobaric thermal expansion coefficients, partial molar volumes, apparent molar volumes and partial molar volumes at infinite dilution have been also calculated, in order to obtain information about interactions between GBL and selected ionic liquid

  20. Activity coefficients at infinite dilution and enthalpies of solution of methanol, 1-butanol, and 1-hexanol in 1-hexyl-3-methyl-imidazolium bis(trifluoromethyl-sulfonyl) imide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heintz, Andreas; Verevkin, Sergey P.; Lehmann, Jochen K.; Vasiltsova, Tatiana V.; Ondo, Daniel

    2007-01-01

    Activity coefficients at infinite dilution γ i ∼ of methanol, 1-butanol, and 1-hexanol in the ionic liquid 1-hexyl-3-methyl-imidazolium bis(trifluoromethyl-sulfonyl) imide ([HMIM][NTf 2 ]) have been determined by gas chromatography using the ionic liquids as stationary phase. The measurements were carried out at different temperatures between 298K and 396K. From the temperature dependence of the limiting activity coefficients partial molar excess enthalpies at infinite dilution H i E,∼ of the alcohol in the ionic liquid have been derived. Additionally, enthalpies of solution of the same alcohols in the [HMIM][NTf 2 ] have been measured at T=298.15K in the range of low concentrations using titration calorimetry. Results at infinite dilution, H i E,∼ , are compared with those indirectly obtained from activity coefficients in infinite dilution γ i ∼ . Within the experimental error of both methods thermodynamic consistency has been confirmed

  1. Structure, conformations, vibrations, and ideal-gas properties of 1-alkyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide ionic pairs and constituent ions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulechka, Yauheni U; Kabo, Gennady J; Emel'yanenko, Vladimir N

    2008-12-11

    Energies, geometries, and frequencies of normal vibrations have been calculated by quantum-chemical methods for different conformers of a bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide anion (NTf2-), 1-alkyl-3-methylimidazolium cations ([C(n)mim]+, n = 2, 4, 6, 8), and [C(n)mim]NTf2 ionic pairs. The assignment of frequencies for NTf2-, [C2mim]+, and [C4mim]+ in the vibrational spectra of ionic liquids have been performed. Thermodynamic properties of [C(n)mim]NTf2, [C(n)mim]+, and NTf2- in the gas state have been calculated by the statistical thermodynamic methods. The resulting entropies are in satisfactory agreement with the values obtained from the experimental data previously reported in literature.

  2. Pulse radiolysis study of the intermediates formed in ionic liquids. Intermediate spectra in the p-terphenyl solution in the ionic liquid methyltributylammonium bis[(trifluoromethyl)sulfonyl]imide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grodkowski, J.; Kocia, R.; Mirkowski, J.

    2006-01-01

    Room temperature ionic liquids (Il) are non-volatile,and non-flammable and serve as good solvents for various reactions, mainly for g reen processing . To understand the effect of these solvents on the chemical reactions, the rate constants of several elementary reactions in ionic liquids have been studied by the pulse radiolysis technique. In this study, the formation of intermediates derived from p-terphenyl (Tp) in the ionic liquid methyl tributylammonium bis[(trifluoromethyl)sulfonyl] imide (R 4 NNTf 2 ) solutions have been studied by pulse radiolysis as a part of broader studies concerning CO 2 reduction. The registered spectra can be explained by CO 2 reaction with solvated and dry electrons thus eliminating one path of TP ·- formation. Some TP ·- are formed by reaction of excited TP *- states with Tea. Direct reactions involving Tp, TP ·- , CO 2 and CO 2 ·- are too slow to be observed in pulse radiolysis time scale

  3. Effect of alkyl chain length on the rotational diffusion of nonpolar and ionic solutes in 1-alkyl-3-methylimidazolium-bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gangamallaiah, V; Dutt, G B

    2013-10-10

    Rotational diffusion of a nonpolar solute 9-phenylanthracene (9-PA) and a cationic solute rhodamine 110 (R110) has been examined in a series of 1-alkyl-3-methylimidazolium (alkyl = octyl, decyl, dodecyl, tetradecyl, hexadecyl, and octadecyl) bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imides to understand the influence of alkyl chain length on solute rotation. In this study, reorientation times (τr) have been measured as a function of viscosity (η) by varying the temperature (T) of the solvents. These results have been analyzed using the Stokes-Einstein-Debye (SED) hydrodynamic theory along with the ones obtained for the same solutes in 1-alkyl-3-methylimidazolium (alkyl = methyl, ethyl, propyl, butyl, and hexyl) bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imides (Gangamallaiah and Dutt, J. Phys. Chem. B 2012, 116, 12819-12825). It has been noticed that the data for 9-PA and R110 follows the relation τr = A(η/T)(n) with A being the ratio of hydrodynamic volume of the solute to the Boltzmann constant and n = 1 as envisaged by the SED theory. However, upon increasing the alkyl chain length from methyl to octadecyl significant deviations from the SED theory have been observed especially from the octyl derivative onward. From methyl to octadecyl derivatives, the value of A decreases by a factor of 3 for both the solutes and n by a factor of 1.4 and 1.6 for 9-PA and R110, respectively. These observations have been rationalized by taking into consideration the organized structure of the ionic liquids, whose influence appears to be pronounced when the number of carbon atoms in the alkyl chain attached to the imidazolium cation exceeds eight.

  4. Ports and Terminals : Planning and Functional Design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groenveld, R.; Velsink, H.

    1993-01-01

    1. Maritime transport, means and commodities 3. Principles of integrated port planning 4. Planning and design of a port's water areas 5. Port terminals - introduction 6. Conventional general cargo terminals 7. Container terminals 8. Oil & liquid gas terminals 9. Dry bulk cargo terminals 10. Fishery

  5. Mechanisms of DNA replication termination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewar, James M; Walter, Johannes C

    2017-08-01

    Genome duplication is carried out by pairs of replication forks that assemble at origins of replication and then move in opposite directions. DNA replication ends when converging replication forks meet. During this process, which is known as replication termination, DNA synthesis is completed, the replication machinery is disassembled and daughter molecules are resolved. In this Review, we outline the steps that are likely to be common to replication termination in most organisms, namely, fork convergence, synthesis completion, replisome disassembly and decatenation. We briefly review the mechanism of termination in the bacterium Escherichia coli and in simian virus 40 (SV40) and also focus on recent advances in eukaryotic replication termination. In particular, we discuss the recently discovered E3 ubiquitin ligases that control replisome disassembly in yeast and higher eukaryotes, and how their activity is regulated to avoid genome instability.

  6. JCO criticality accident termination operation

    OpenAIRE

    金盛 正至

    2010-01-01

    In 2001, we summarized the circumstances surrounding termination of the JCO criticality accident based on testimony in the Mito District Court on December 17, 2001. JCO was the company for uranium fuels production in Japan. That document was assembled based on actual testimony in the belief that a description of the work involved in termination of the accident would be useful in some way for preventing nuclear disasters in the future. This year is the tenth year of the JCO criticality acciden...

  7. Rare Examples of Fe(IV) Alkyl-Imide Migratory Insertions: Impact of Fe-C Covalency in (Me2IPr)Fe(═NAd)R2 (R = neoPe, 1-nor).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, Brian P; Wolczanski, Peter T; Jiang, Quan; Cundari, Thomas R; MacMillan, Samantha N

    2017-09-06

    The iron(IV) imide complexes, (Me 2 IPr)-R 2 Fe=NAd (R = neo Pe (3a), 1-nor (3b)) undergo migratory insertion to iron(II) amides (Me 2 IPr)RFe{NR(Ad)} (R = neo Pe (4a), 1-nor (4b)) without evidence of imidyl or free nitrene character. By increasing the field strength about iron, odd-electron reactivity was circumvented via increased covalency.

  8. Low Temperature Densities from (218 to 364) K and up to 50 MPa in Pressure and Surface Tension for Trihexyl(tetradecyl)phosphonium Bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide and Dicyanamide and 1-Hexyl-3-methylimidazolium Hexafluorophosphate

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Klomfar, Jaroslav; Součková, Monika; Pátek, Jaroslav

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 59, July (2014), s. 2263-2274 ISSN 0021-9568 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-00145S; GA ČR GA101/09/0010 Institutional support: RVO:61388998 Keywords : trihexyl(tetradecyl)phosphonium cation * 1-hexyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate * bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide anion * dicyanamide anion * experimental pvT data * surface tension * internal pressure Subject RIV: BJ - Thermodynamics Impact factor: 2.037, year: 2014

  9. A QuaternaryPoly(ethylene carbonate)-Lithium Bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide-Ionic Liquid-Silica Fiber Composite Polymer Electrolyte for Lithium Batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kimura, Kento; Matsumoto, Hidetoshi; Hassoun, Jusef; Panero, Stefania; Scrosati, Bruno; Tominaga, Yoichi

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • A quaternary PEC-LiTFSI-Pyr 14 TFSI-Silica fiber electrolyte was prepared by a solvent casting method. • Both electrochemical and mechanical properties were improved by the presence of the Silica fiber. • The electrolyte showed a t Li+ value of 0.36 with an anodic stability extended up to 4.5 V vs. Li/Li + . • A prototype Li/LiFePO 4 polymer cell delivered a discharge capacity of about 100 mAh g −1 (75 °C, C/15). - Abstract: Poly(ethylene carbonate) (PEC) is known as an alternating copolymer derived from carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) and an epoxide as monomers. Here, we describe a new quaternary PEC-based composite electrolyte containing lithium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl) imide (LiTFSI) salt, N-n-butyl-N-methylpyrrolidinium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl) imide (Pyr 14 TFSI) ionic liquid, and an electrospun silica (SiO 2 ) fiber (SiF) with a submicron diameter in view of its possible applications in solid-state Li polymer batteries. A free-standing electrolyte membrane is prepared by a solvent casting method. The Pyr 14 TFSI ionic liquid enhances the ionic conductivity of the electrolyte as a result of its plasticizing effect. The electrochemical properties, such as ionic conductivity and Li transference number (t Li+ ), as well as mechanical strength of the electrolyte, are further improved by the SiF. We show that the quaternary electrolyte has a conductivity of the order of 10 −7 S cm −1 at ambient temperature and a high t Li+ value of 0.36 with an excellent flexibility. A prototype Li polymer cell using LiFePO 4 as a cathode material is assembled and tested. We demonstrate that this battery delivers a reversible charge-discharge capacity close to 100 mAh g −1 at 75 °C and C/15 rate. We believe that this work may pave the road to utilize CO 2 as a carbon source for highly-demanded, functional battery materials in future

  10. Terminal Disease: A Biolaw Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Rivas García

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available There are numerous and varied pathologies that can lead to a state of terminal illness, provoking numerous bioethical dilemmas that are inherent and specific to each circumstance. The objective of the present work has been to provide a current and useful analysis that can help to understand the main bioethical problems, from the perspective of biolaw that must be solved in the inevitable path towards the end of life that any terminal illness implies. The methodology used included a study of bibliographic documentation in the main databases of interest in bioethics. It can be concluded that the biolaw is a very useful tool that helps health care professionals and relatives when it comes to the analysis and decision making regarding a terminal illness. Independently of medical practice based on protocols and scientific knowledge, it is necessary to ensure that not everything that can legally be carried out is accepted in the field of biolaw.

  11. Digital autonomous terminal access communications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novacki, S.

    1987-01-01

    A significant problem for the Bus Monitor Unit is to identify the source of a given transmission. This problem arises from the fact that the label which identifies the source of the transmission as it is put into the bus is intercepted by the Digital Autonomous Terminal Access Communications (DATAC) terminal and removed from the transmission. Thus, a given subsystem will see only data associated with a label and never the identifying label itself. The Bus Monitor must identify the source of the transmission so as to be able to provide some type of error identification/location in the event that some problem with the data transmission occurs. Steps taken to alleviate this problem by modifications to the DATAC terminal are discussed.

  12. SIRKULASI TERMINAL PENUMPANG KAPAL LAUT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Etsa Purnama Sari

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Wilayah Indonesia yang terdiri dari pulau dan perairan menjadikan angkutan laut menjadi salah satu sarana transportasi yang cukup efektif di negara ini. Daya angkut yang besar dan beragam serta biaya yang lebih murah dengan jarak jangkauan yang luas, membuat sarana ini banyak diminati oleh masyarakat sekaligus juga merupakan pendukung utama perkembangan kehidupan sosial budaya dan roda perekonomian. Untuk mendukung proses transportasi laut ini perlu sarana berupa pelabuhan. Pelabuhan dalam melakukan pelayanan terhadap kapal memiliki beberapa fasilitas pokok dan penunjang yang wajib dimiliki. Salah satunya adalah terminal penumpang kapal laut dengan berbagai kegiatan di dalamnya untuk kedatangan maupun keberangkatan. Masalah ketidaknyamanan dalam berkegiatan, jauhnya akses sirkulasi antara satu kegiatan dengan kegiatan kegiatan embarkasi dan debarkasi yang tidak teratur, pembagian jalur sirkulasi penumpang dan pengantar penumpang yang tidak jelas seringkali muncul akibat sirkulasi yang tidak direncanakan dengan baik pada terminal penumpang kapal laut. Bahkan tidak jarang dapat menimbulkan adanya calo tiket hingga adanya penumpang tanpa tiket yang dapat masuk ke dalam kapal hingga kapal berlayar. Perencanaan sebuah sirkulasi yang tepat pada terminal penumpang kapal laut memerlukan kajian terhadap unsur-unsur sirkulasi seperti pencapaian, pola sirkulasi, jalur sirkulasi, serta bentuk ruang sirkulasi. Kajian unsur-unsur ini selanjutnya diselidiki melalui penelusuran masalah dengan analisis deskriptif melalui penggambaran objek penelitian yang terdapat pada Terminal Penumpang Pelabuhan International Yokohama, Terminal Penumpang Pelabuhan Kobe dan Terminal Penumpang Pelabuhan Osanbashi Hall   As one of the largest archipelago country, sea transportation acts as one of the most effective means of transportation in Indonesia. Large and diverse carrying capacity, lower cost with wide range of distances, are factors which making sea

  13. What Determines Joint Venture Termination?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Bo Bernhard

    2012-01-01

    Joint venture (JV) research continues to flourish as researchers seek to advance our understanding of why so many JVs fail. Cui and Kumar (this issue) take a contingency approach to explain how and why business relatedness may provide new insights as to what determines JV termination. This commen......Joint venture (JV) research continues to flourish as researchers seek to advance our understanding of why so many JVs fail. Cui and Kumar (this issue) take a contingency approach to explain how and why business relatedness may provide new insights as to what determines JV termination...

  14. The 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(trifluoro-methylsulfonyl)-imide ionic liquid nanodroplets on solid surfaces and in electric field: A molecular dynamics simulation study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Dengpan; Vatamanu, Jenel P.; Wei, Xiaoyu; Bedrov, Dmitry

    2018-05-01

    Atomistic molecular dynamics simulations were conducted to study the wetting states of 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(trifluoro-methylsulfonyl)-imide ionic liquid (IL) nanodroplets on surfaces with different strengths of van der Waals (VDW) interactions and in the presence of an electric field. By adjusting the depth of Lennard-Jones potential, the van der Waals interaction between the solid surface and ionic liquid was systematically varied. The shape of the droplets was analyzed to extract the corresponding contact angle utilized to characterize wetting states of the nanodroplets. The explored range of surface-IL interactions allowed contact angles ranging from complete IL spreading on the surface to poor wettability. The effect of the external electrical field was explored by adding point charges to the surface atoms. Systems with two charge densities (±0.002 e/atom and ±0.004 e/atom) that correspond to 1.36 V/nm and 2.72 V/nm electric fields were investigated. Asymmetrical wetting states were observed for both cases. At 1.36 V/nm electric field, contributions of IL-surface VDW interactions and Coulombic interactions to the wetting state were competitive. At 2.72 V/nm field, electrostatic interactions dominate the interaction between the nanodroplet and surface, leading to enhanced wettability on all surfaces.

  15. Prediction of (liquid + liquid) equilibrium for binary and ternary systems containing ionic liquids with the bis[(trifluoromethyl)sulfonyl]imide anion using the ASOG method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robles, Pedro A.; Cisternas, Luis A.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • ASOG model was used to predict LLE data for ionic liquid systems. • Twenty five binary and seven ternary systems that include the NTf 2 anion were used. • New group interaction parameters were determined. • The results are satisfactory, with rms deviations of about 3%. - Abstract: Ionic liquids are neoteric, environmentally friendly solvents (as they do not produce emissions) composed of large organic cations and relatively small inorganic anions. They have favorable physical properties, such as negligible volatility and a wide range of liquid existence. (Liquid + liquid) equilibrium (LLE) data for systems including ionic liquids, although essential for the design, optimization and operation of separation processes, remain scarce. However, some recent studies have presented ternary LLE data involving several ionic liquids and organic compounds such as alkanes, alkenes, alkanols, ethers and aromatics, as well as water. In this work, the ASOG model for the activity coefficient is used to predict LLE data for 25 binary and 07 ternary systems at 101.3 kPa and several temperatures; all the systems are formed by ionic liquids including the bis[(trifluoromethyl)sulfonyl]imide (NTf 2 ) anion plus alkanes, alkenes, cycloalkanes, alkanols, water, thiophene and aromatics. New group interaction parameters were determined using a modified Simplex method, minimizing a composition-based objective function of experimental data obtained from the literature. The results are satisfactory, with rms deviations of approximately 3%

  16. A convenient strategy to functionalize carbon nanotubes with ascorbic acid and its effect on the physical and thermomechanical properties of poly(amide–imide) composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mallakpour, Shadpour; Zadehnazari, Amin

    2014-01-01

    Multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) were functionalized by ascorbic acid by a fast strategy under microwave irradiation to improve interfacial interactions and dispersion of CNTs in a poly(amide–imide) (PAI) matrix. This technique provides a rapid and economically viable route to produce covalently functionalized CNTs. The as-prepared, new type of functionalized CNTs were analyzed by several techniques. The thermal stabilities and mechanical interfacial properties of CNT/PAI composites were investigated using several techniques. The dispersion state of CNTs in the PAI matrix was observed by field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The mechanical interfacial property of the composites was significantly increased by the addition of ascorbic acid treated CNTs. The FE-SEM and TEM results showed that the separation and uniform dispersion of CNTs in the PAI matrix. The overview of these recent results is presented. -- Graphical abstract: Presentation of possible interactions of hydrogen bonding between the MWCNT-AS and the PAI chains. Highlights: • Surface functionalization of MWCNTs with ascorbic acid under microwave irradiation. • The MWCNT-AS/PAI composite films were fabricated by solution blending process. • Microstructure and MWCNT states in the composites were studied. • Thermal and mechanical properties of the composite films were evaluated. • Films of different contents of the MWCNTs-AS showed a superior tensile behavior

  17. Colorless to purple-red switching electrochromic anthraquinone imides with broad visible/near-IR absorptions in the radical anion state: simulation-aided molecular design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Fengkun; Zhang, Jie; Jiang, Hong; Wan, Xinhua

    2013-07-01

    The large redshift of near-infrared (NIR) absorptions of nitro-substituted anthraquinone imide (Nitro-AQI) radical anions, relative to other AQI derivatives, is rationalized based on quantum chemical calculations. Calculations reveal that the delocalization effects of electronegative substitution in the radical anion states is dramatically enhanced, thus leading to a significant decrease in the HOMO-LUMO band gap in the radical anion states. Based on this understanding, an AQI derivative with an even stronger electron-withdrawing dicyanovinyl (di-CN) substituent was designed and prepared. The resulting molecule, di-CN-AQI, displays no absorption in the Vis/NIR region in the neutral state, but absorbs intensively in the range of λ=700-1000 (λmax ≈860 nm) and λ=1100-1800 nm (λmax ≈1400 nm) upon one-electron reduction; this is accompanied by a transition from a highly transmissive colorless solution to one that is purple-red. The relationship between calculated radical anionic HOMO-LUMO gaps and the electron-withdrawing capacity of the substituents is also determined by employing Hammett parameter, which could serve as a theoretical tool for further molecular design. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. Catalytic Proton Coupled Electron Transfer from Metal Hydrides to Titanocene Amides, Hydrazides and Imides: Determination of Thermodynamic Parameters Relevant to Nitrogen Fixation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pappas, Iraklis; Chirik, Paul J

    2016-10-03

    The hydrogenolysis of titanium-nitrogen bonds in a series of bis(cyclopentadienyl) titanium amides, hydrazides and imides by proton coupled electron transfer (PCET) is described. Twelve different N-H bond dissociation free energies (BDFEs) among the various nitrogen-containing ligands were measured or calculated, and effects of metal oxidation state and N-ligand substituent were determined. Two metal hydride complexes, (η 5 -C 5 Me 5 )(py-Ph)Rh-H (py-Ph = 2-pyridylphenyl, [Rh]-H) and (η 5 -C 5 R 5 )(CO) 3 Cr-H ([Cr] R -H, R= H, Me) were evaluated for formal H atom transfer reactivity and were selected due to their relatively weak M-H bond strengths yet ability to activate and cleave molecular hydrogen. Despite comparable M-H BDFEs, disparate reactivity between the two compounds was observed and was traced to the vastly different acidities of the M-H bonds and overall redox potentials of the molecules. With [Rh]-H, catalytic syntheses of ammonia, silylamine and N,N-dimethylhydrazine have been accomplished from the corresponding titanium(IV) complex using H 2 as the stoichiometric H atom source. The data presented in this study provides the thermochemical foundation for the synthesis of NH 3 by proton coupled electron transfer at a well-defined transition metal center.

  19. Using ethane and butane as probes to the molecular structure of 1-alkyl-3-methylimidazolium bis[(trifluoromethyl)sulfonyl] imide ionic liquids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa Gomes, Margarida F; Pison, Laure; Pensado, Alfonso S; Pádua, Agilio A H

    2012-01-01

    In this work, we have studied the solubility and the thermodynamic properties of solvation, between 298 and 343 K and at pressures close to atmospheric, of ethane and n-butane in several ionic liquids based on the bis[(trifluoromethyl) sulfonyl]imide anion and on 1-alkyl-3-methylimidazolium cations, [CnC1Im] [NTf2], with alkyl side-chains varying from two to ten carbon atoms. The solubility of butane is circa one order of magnitude larger than that of ethane with mole fractions as high as 0.15 in [C10C1Im][NTf2] at 300 K. The solubilities of both n-butane and ethane gases are higher for ionic liquids with longer alkyl chains. The behaviour encountered is explained by the preferential solvation of the gases in the non-polar domains of the solvents, the larger solubility of n-butane being attributed to the dispersive contributions to the interaction energy. The rise in solubility with increasing size of the alkyl-side chain is explained by a more favourable entropy of solvation in the ionic liquids with larger cations. These conclusions are corroborated by molecular dynamics simulation studies.

  20. Study of the formation process and the characteristics of tantalum layers electrodeposited on Nitinol plates in the 1-butyl-1-methylpyrrolidinium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide ionic liquid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maho, A.; Delhalle, J.; Mekhalif, Z.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Tantalum electrodeposition on Nitinol plates in the [BMP]Tf 2 N ionic liquid at room temperature. ► Generation of intrinsically nanostructured porous tantalum layers in “soft” cathodic current conditions. ► Important impact of substrate nature, working solution composition and electrodeposition duration. ► Primary assessment of surface corrosion resistance and bioactivity. -- Abstract: Thanks to excellent mechanical and biochemical properties, the nickel–titanium shape memory alloy (Nitinol) constitutes an increasingly praised platform material in dental, cardiovascular and orthopedic biomedical devices. In order to strengthen their protective abilities toward corrosion, to reinforce their biocompatibility and to confer them specific osseointegrative capacities, Nitinol plates are covered with a thin tantalum layer by electrodeposition in the 1-butyl-1-methylpyrrolidinium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide ionic liquid. XPS and SEM/EDX analyses highlight the chemical and morphological characteristics of the deposits: notably, these present an intrinsic dimpled nanometric structuration which is particularly remarkable considering the “soft” experimental conditions and very interesting for fundamental and applied bioactive perspectives. The present study investigates the specific and synergic effects of the Ni occurrence on the surface of the Nitinol substrates, the presence of fluorine species in the working bath, and the electrodeposition duration on the resulting formation process, morphology and chemical composition of the tantalum coating. Finally, samples are submitted to electrochemical characterizations and in vitro hydroxyapatite growth tests for a primary assessment of their corrosion resistance and osseoinductive features

  1. Importance of poly(ethylene oxide)-modification and chloride anion for the electron transfer reaction of cytochrome c in 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohno, Hiroyuki; Suzuki, Chiiko; Fujita, Kyoko

    2006-01-01

    Horse heart cytochrome c (cyt c) was chemically modified with poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) to dissolve it in room temperature ionic liquid 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide ([emim][TFSI]). The redox response of the modified cyt c, hereafter PEO-cyt c, was analyzed in [emim][TFSI]. PEO modification to the surface of cyt c, which exceeded 60% of the total mass of the PEO-cyt c, was an effective method to solubilize the cyt c. In spite of the high ion density and sufficient ionic conductivity of [emim][TFSI], no redox response of pure PEO-cyt c was detected. However, a reversible redox response of PEO-cyt c was observed after adding a simple electrolyte such as KCl to [emim][TFSI]. The redox response of PEO-cyt c was sensitive to the anion radius of the added salt, and the chloride anion was found to be the best anion species to produce a redox response of PEO-cyt c in [emim][TFSI]. However, above a certain salt concentration, the resulting increase in solution viscosity would suppress the redox reaction. The results strongly indicate that the chloride anions, because of their mobility in the polypeptide matrix, compensate the charge change of heme during the electron transfer reaction. Larger anions did not show such an effect due to sterical restrictions on the migration through the protein shell to the heme pocket of cyt c

  2. Charging/discharging kinetics of poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) in 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium bis-(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide ionic liquid under galvanostatic conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Randriamahazaka, H. [Equipe Interactions et Dynamiques aux Interfaces, Laboratoire de Physico-Chimie des Polymeres et des Interfaces (LPPI) E.A. 2528, Universite de Cergy-Pontoise, 5 mail Gay Lussac, Neuville sur Oise, 95031 Cergy-Pontoise Cedex (France); Plesse, C.; Teyssie, D.; Chevrot, C. [Laboratoire de Physico-Chimie des Polymeres et des Interfaces (LPPI) E.A. 2528, Universite de Cergy-Pontoise, 5 mail Gay Lussac, Neuville sur Oise, 95031 Cergy-Pontoise Cedex (France)

    2005-08-01

    The constant current charging/discharging experiments of poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT), modified electrodes in room temperature ionic liquid, for instance 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium bis-(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide, were performed for two types of cell configurations, three and two-electrode cells. In each case, a linear variation of the voltage with respect to time was observed. The electrochemical responses were analyzed in term of a series combination of a resistance R and a capacitor C. Accordingly, the capacitance of the modified electrodes was determined. One observed a linear variation of the capacitance as a function of the amount of PEDOT. This capacitance described the chemical capacitance of PEDOT that reflected the capability of the system to accept or release additional charge carriers on a given variation of the chemical potential. Also, the electrochemical response during constant current charging/discharging experiments for two-electrode cell in which the same amount of PEDOT was deposited on each electrode showed a type I electrochemical supercapacitor response. This kind of an electrochemical chain allowed us to mimic and to analyze the electrical responses of an electrochemical actuator based on an interpenetrating polymer networks containing PEDOT that was able to work in air. (author)

  3. Thermochemical Properties of the 1-Ethyl-3-Methylimidazolium Bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide Ionic Liquid under Conditions of Equilibrium with Atmospheric Moisture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramenskaya, L. M.; Grishina, E. P.; Kudryakova, N. O.

    2018-01-01

    Thermochemical properties of the 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl) imide ionic liquid [EMim]NTf2 containing moisture absorbed from the atmosphere (0.242 wt %) are investigated. The phase behavior and thermal stability relative to salt dried in vacuum are studied by means of thermogravimetry and differential scanning calorimetry at different heating and cooling rates. The glass transition, crystallization, and melting temperatures, the enthalpies of phase transitions, and the changes in heat capacity during the formation of glass are determined. It is established that the absorbed water crystallizes at a temperature of around -40.6°C and has virtually no effect on the thermal stability and phase behavior of the salt. Rapid cooling results in the ionic liquid transitioning into the glass state at -91.7 °C and the formation of three mesophases with different melting temperatures; one crystalline modification that melts at a temperature of -19.3°C forms upon slow cooling.

  4. Use of water in aiding olefin/paraffin (liquid + liquid) extraction via complexation with a silver bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide salt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Yu; Thompson, Jillian; Zhou, Jingjing; Goodrich, Peter; Atilhan, Mert; Pensado, Alfonso S.; Kirchner, Barbara; Rooney, David; Jacquemin, Johan; Khraisheh, Majeda

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Silver-based ILs used as olefin extracting agents for olefin/paraffin mixtures. • Each extraction process is based on the olefin complexation and solvation. • The presence of water influences positively each extraction process. • Each extraction process was evaluated by DFT calculations, NMR, IR and Raman. • LLE data were then correlated by using the UNIQUAC model. - Abstract: This paper describes the extraction of C 5 –C 8 linear α-olefins from olefin/paraffin mixtures of the same carbon number via a reversible complexation with a silver salt (silver bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide, Ag[Tf 2 N]) to form room temperature ionic liquids [Ag(olefin) x ][Tf 2 N]. From the experimental (liquid + liquid) equilibrium data for the olefin/paraffin mixtures and Ag[Tf 2 N], 1-pentene showed the best separation performance while C 7 and C 8 olefins could only be separated from the corresponding mixtures on addition of water which also improves the selectivity at lower carbon numbers like the C 5 and C 6 , for example. Using infrared and Raman spectroscopy of the complex and Ag[Tf 2 N] saturated by olefin, the mechanism of the extraction was found to be based on both chemical complexation and the physical solubility of the olefin in the ionic liquid ([Ag(olefin) x ][Tf 2 N]). These experiments further support the use of such extraction techniques for the separation of olefins from paraffins

  5. Bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide-based frozen ionic liquid for the hollow-fiber solid-phase microextraction of dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane and its main metabolites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, Long; Yang, Peijie; Pang, Rong; Li, Shunyi

    2017-08-01

    1-Hexadecyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide is a solid-phase ionic organic material under ambient temperature and is considered as a kind of "frozen" ionic liquid. Because of their solid-state and ultra-hydrophobicity, "frozen" ionic liquids are able to be confined in the pores of hollow fiber, based on which a simple method was developed for the hollow-fiber solid-phase microextraction of dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane and its main metabolites. Under optimized conditions, the proposed method results in good linearity (R 2 > 0.9965) over the range of 0.5-50 μg/L, with low limits of detection and quantification in the range of 0.33-0.38 and 1.00-1.25 μg/L, respectively. Intra- and interday precisions evaluated by relative standard deviation were 3-6 and 1-6%, respectively. The spiked recoveries of dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane and its main metabolites from real water samples were in the range of 64-113 and 79-112%, respectively, at two different concentration levels. The results suggest that "frozen" ionic liquids are promising for use as a class of novel sorbents. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. Designing of molecular architecture, synthesis and properties of the next generation of state-of-the-art high-performance thermoplastic fluoro-poly(ether amide)s, (6F-PEA), fluoro-poly(ether amide-imide)s (6F-PEAI), and their co-polymers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vora, Rohitkumar H.

    2010-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Molecular architectures of next generation of high-performance advanced heat stable thermoplastic polymer compositions of fluoro-poly(ether amide) (6F-PA) and fluoro-poly(ether amide-imide) (6F-PEAI) having di-ether diamines moieties were designed based on fluoro-polyimide (6F-PI) chemistry, and polymers were synthesized using two novel state-of-the-art 2-(3,4'-carboxy anhydrophenyl-2(4-carboxyphenyl) hexafluoropropane (6FTMA) and 2,2'-bis(4-carboxyphenyl) hexafluropropane (6F-DAc) monomers. Their copolymers: fluoro-copoly(ether amide-(ether imide))s (6F-co(PEA-PEI)), fluoro-copoly(ether amide-(ether amide-imide))s (6F-co(PEA-PEAI)) and fluoro-copoly(ether amide-imide-(ether imide))s (6F-co(PEAI-PEI)) were also designed and synthesized using 2,2'-bis(3,4-dicarboxyphenyl) hexafluoropropane dianhydrides (6FDA) for the advanced aerospace, defense and industrial engineering applications. -- Abstract: A new generation of high-performance polymers for the advanced industrial, aerospace and defense engineering applications are being investigated in the academic and industrial research institutions throughout the world. Fluoro-polyimides (6F-PI) are one such sub-class of high-performance polyimide polymers. In the last 25 years a number of fluoro-polyimides have been reported but only a handful of them have been commercialized. This paper describes the 6F-polyimide chemistry-based designed molecular architectures and synthesis of two series of next generation of heat stable thermoplastic polymer compositions having di-ether diamines moieties, such as fluoro-poly(ether amide) (6F-PA) and fluoro-poly(ether amide-imide) (6F-PEAI) using the novel state-of-the-art 2-(3,4'-carboxy anhydrophenyl-2(4-carboxyphenyl) hexafluoropropane (6F-TMA) and 2,2'-bis(4-carboxyphenyl) hexafluoropropane (6F-DAc) monomers. Their co-polymers: fluoro-copoly(ether amide-(ether imide))s (6F-co(PEA-PEI)), fluoro-copoly(ether amide-(ether amide-imide))s (6F-co(PEA-PEAI)) and fluoro

  7. The management of terminal delirium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Macleod A

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Delirium is a distressing and disturbing clinical event. Palliation of the symptoms by multi-component interventions can be effective. The goal of interventions is to raise the deliriant threshold by combined symptom relief, environmental, psychological and pharmacological interventions. Haloperidol remains the drug of choice for delirium. For intractable delirious symptoms at the end of life terminal sedation may be indicated.

  8. Terminal nerve: cranial nerve zero

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Eduardo Duque Parra

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available It has been stated, in different types of texts, that there are only twelve pairs of cranial nerves. Such texts exclude the existence of another cranial pair, the terminal nerve or even cranial zero. This paper considers the mentioned nerve like a cranial pair, specifying both its connections and its functional role in the migration of liberating neurons of the gonadotropic hormone (Gn RH. In this paper is also stated the hypothesis of the phylogenetic existence of a cerebral sector and a common nerve that integrates the terminal nerve with the olfactory nerves and the vomeronasals nerves which seem to carry out the odors detection function as well as in the food search, pheromone detection and nasal vascular regulation.

  9. Three-terminal superconducting devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gallagher, W.J.

    1985-01-01

    The transistor has a number of properties that make it so useful. The authors discuss these and the additional properties a transistor would need to have for high performance applications at temperatures where superconductivity could contribute advantages to system-level performance. These properties then serve as criteria by which to evaluate three-terminal devices that have been proposed for applications at superconducting temperatures. FETs can retain their transistor properties at low temperatures, but their power consumption is too large for high-speed, high-density cryogenic applications. They discuss in detail why demonstrated superconducting devices with three terminals -Josephson effect based devices, injection controlled weak links, and stacked tunnel junction devices such as the superconducting transistor proposed by K. Gray and the quiteron -- each fail to have true transistor-like properties. They conclude that the potentially very rewarding search for a transistor compatible with superconductivity in high performance applications must be in new directions

  10. JCO criticality accident termination operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanamori, Masashi

    2001-12-01

    On September 30 at around 10:35 AM, criticality accident occurred at the JCO's conversion building in Tokai-mura. Since criticality accident had not been anticipated, neither devices for termination of criticality accident nor neutron detectors were available. Immediately after the information of the accident, our emergency staff (Japan Nuclear Cycle development institute staff) went to JCO site, to measure the intensity of neutrons and gammas. There were four main tasks, first one was to measure the radiation intensity, second one was to terminate the criticality accident, third one is to alert the residents surrounding the JCO site, fourth one is to evacuate the employees in the site. These tasks were successfully performed until October 1. This paper describes about how these operations were performed by the relevant staffs. (author)

  11. Dictionary of nuclear energy termination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1983-04-15

    This book lists termination of nuclear energy such as abbreviation, symbol, unit of nuclear energy, radiological unit, the symbol for element, isotope chart and the periodic table. This book contains about 5500 words involving to nuclear energy with index in Korean and English. It arranges alphabetically. So, with this book, it is easy and fast to find out the glossary, unit and symbol on nuclear energy.

  12. Combining norms to prove termination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Genaim, S.; Codish, M.; Gallagher, John Patrick

    2002-01-01

    Automatic termination analysers typically measure the size of terms applying norms which are mappings from terms to the natural numbers. This paper illustrates howt o enable the use of size functions defined as tuples of these simpler norm functions. This approach enables us to simplify the probl...... of the recursive data-types in the program, is often a suitable choice. We first demonstrate the power of combining norm functions and then the adequacy of combining norms based on regular types....

  13. Dictionary of nuclear energy termination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-04-01

    This book lists termination of nuclear energy such as abbreviation, symbol, unit of nuclear energy, radiological unit, the symbol for element, isotope chart and the periodic table. This book contains about 5500 words involving to nuclear energy with index in Korean and English. It arranges alphabetically. So, with this book, it is easy and fast to find out the glossary, unit and symbol on nuclear energy.

  14. War Termination: A Selected Bibliography

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    UA25 .L342 2009) Mandel, Robert . The Meaning of Military Victory. Boulder: Lynne Rienner, 2006. 190pp. (U163 .M266 2006) Marshall, Monty G., and...Ted Robert Gurr. Peace and Conflict 2005: A Global Survey of Armed Conflicts, Self-Determination Movements, and Democracy. College Park: Center for...18pp. (AD-A468-990) http://handle.dtic.mil/100.2/ADA468990 Raymer , James H. In Search of Lasting Results: Military War Termination Doctrine. Fort

  15. High Octane Fuel: Terminal Backgrounder

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moriarty, Kristi [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2016-02-11

    The Bioenergy Technologies Office of the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy sponsored a scoping study to assess the potential of ethanol-based high octane fuel (HOF) to reduce energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions. When the HOF blend is made with 25%-40% ethanol by volume, this energy efficiency improvement is potentially sufficient to offset the reduced vehicle range often associated with the decreased volumetric energy density of ethanol. The purpose of this study is to assess the ability of the fuel supply chain to accommodate more ethanol at fuel terminals. Fuel terminals are midstream in the transportation fuel supply chain and serve to store and distribute fuels to end users. While there are no technical issues to storing more ethanol at fuel terminals, there are several factors that could impact the ability to deploy more ethanol. The most significant of these issues include the availability of land to add more infrastructure and accommodate more truck traffic for ethanol deliveries as well as a lengthy permitting process to erect more tanks.

  16. Functionalization of hydroxyl terminated polybutadiene with ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    CBDT), has been covalently attached at the terminal carbon atoms of the hydroxyl terminated polybutadiene (HTPB) backbone. The modification of HTPB backbone by CBDT molecule does not affect the unique physico-chemical properties such ...

  17. Magnetic fabric and flow direction in the Ediacaran Imider dyke swarms (Eastern Anti-Atlas, Morocco), inferred from the Anisotropy of Magnetic Susceptibility (AMS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otmane, Khadija; Errami, Ezzoura; Olivier, Philippe; Berger, Julien; Triantafyllou, Antoine; Ennih, Nasser

    2018-03-01

    Located in the Imiter Inlier (Eastern Saghro, Anti-Atlas, Morocco), Ediacaran volcanic dykes have been studied for their petrofabric using Anisotropy of Magnetic Susceptibility (AMS) technique. Four dykes, namely TF, TD, FF and FE show andesitic compositions and are considered to belong to the same dyke swarm. They are oriented respectively N25E, N40E, N50E, and N10E and have been emplaced during a first tectonic event. The dyke FW, oriented N90E displays a composition of alkali basalt and its emplacement is attributed to a subsequent tectonic event. These rocks are propylitized under greenschist facies conditions forming a secondary paragenesis constituted by calcite, chlorite, epidote and sericite. The dykes TF, TD, FF and FE are sub-volcanic calc-alkaline, typical of post-collisional basalts/andesites, belonging to plate margin andesites. The FW dyke shows a within-plate basalt signature; alkaline affinity reflecting a different petrogenetic process. The thermomagnetic analyses show a dominantly ferromagnetic behaviour in the TF dyke core carried by single domain Ti-poor magnetite, maghemite and pyrrhotite. The dominantly paramagnetic susceptibilities in TF dyke rims and TD, FE, FF and FW dykes are controlled by ilmenite, amphibole, pyroxene and chlorite. The magnetic fabrics of the Imider dykes, determined by our AMS study, allows us to reconstitute the tectonic conditions which prevailed during the emplacement of these two generations of volcanic dykes. The first tectonic event was characterized by a roughly NE-SW compression and the second tectonic event is characterized by an E-W shortening followed by a relaxation recording the end of the Pan-African orogeny in the eastern Anti-Atlas.

  18. Effect of the solvent type and polymerization conditions on the curing kinetics, thermal and viscoelastic performance of poly(amide-imide resins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Rasheva

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Isothermal and non-isothermal curing kinetics of both N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone (NMP and N-methylimidazole (MI based poly(amide-imide (PAI resins were investigated by DSC analysis using tightly closed high-pressure crucibles. Several exothermal peaks on the non-isothermal DSC-traces were observed and attributed to the reactions of different functional groups of PAI-resin. Furthermore the final conversion (polymerization degree of PAI was determined under isothermal conditions, simulating three programs with the post-curing temperatures set as 215, 240 and 270°C. For the MI-PAI based resin, the conversion values were found to be much higher compared to those for the NMP-PAI system. Compared to NMP-based PAI-resin, a shift of the main exothermal peaks to the lower temperatures was observed in the non-isothermal kinetic investigations when MI was used as a solvent. This was accompanied with a reduction of activation energy (Ea values, as up to a factor of 3 determined by the Flynn-Wall-Ozawa approach for all the main formation reactions. It indicates a catalytic effect of MI on the PAI polymerization. In addition, conversion values were determined according to the Di Benedetto equation for both systems cured using open molds in the oven. Regardless the different post-curing temperatures, the conversion values were similar for all the samples. Thermal and viscoelastic properties as well as crosslink density (nc were also investigated for these systems. It was found that the MI-based samples demonstrate lower nc values compared to the NMP-based ones at an almost two times higher storage modulus (E' at room temperature.

  19. Efficiency analysis of container ports and terminals

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Q.

    2010-01-01

    In the past two decades the steady growth of seaborne trade has resulted in the increase of container ships, container ports and their terminals. The structure of the shipping market is, moreover, continuously evolving. On the carrier side, shipping companies form consortia and alliances; on the port side, global terminal operators and dedicated container terminals are emerging. The aim of this research is to evaluate the efficiency of container ports and terminals and to study...

  20. Kajian Kinerja Terminal Batu Ampar Kota Balikpapan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Randha Alief Chikita

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Batu Ampar Terminal Balikpapan is the only type A passenger terminal in Balikpapan City. The purpose of this study is to determine the operational performance of the terminal at this time and also to determine the level of service in the terminal. The results of this study indicate that for FIFO queue discipline analysis on AKDP and AKAP bus lines, it is known that ρ <1 means that there is currently no queue in the terminal. For the analysis of terminal facilities it is known that there are still some terminal facilities that are not yet available from the main facilities and supporting facilities, therefore the need for additional facilities in order to meet the standard of passenger terminal type A. In the next 15 years analysis for traffic intensity value is approaching 1 which means in the future will cause the queue in the terminal, so it is necessary for the improvement of terminal performance. For the service performance with IPA method there are 35 variables that there are 7 variables that enter in quadrant I. In the next step to do analysis to know the priority of handling by using QFD method. Keywords: Batu Ampar Terminal Balikpapan, IPA, terminal performance, QFD

  1. Strategic technology alliance termination : an empirical investigation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sadowski, B.M.; Duysters, G.M.

    2008-01-01

    There is growing consensus that overall alliance termination rates are high. However, despite this track record of termination and despite unsurpassed growth rates of strategic technology alliances, little is known about the reasons for their termination. Typically strategic alliances have been

  2. 49 CFR 374.309 - Terminal facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Terminal facilities. 374.309 Section 374.309... REGULATIONS Adequacy of Intercity Motor Common Carrier Passenger Service § 374.309 Terminal facilities. (a... attendants and be regularly patrolled. (b) Outside facilities. At terminals and stations that are closed when...

  3. 9 CFR 3.40 - Terminal facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Terminal facilities. 3.40 Section 3.40... Pigs and Hamsters Transportation Standards § 3.40 Terminal facilities. No person subject to the Animal... animal holding areas of a terminal facility where shipments of live guinea pigs or hamsters are...

  4. 9 CFR 3.91 - Terminal facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Terminal facilities. 3.91 Section 3.91... Primates 2 Transportation Standards § 3.91 Terminal facilities. (a) Placement. Any persons subject to the... with inanimate cargo or with other animals in animal holding areas of terminal facilities. Nonhuman...

  5. 9 CFR 3.65 - Terminal facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Terminal facilities. 3.65 Section 3.65... Transportation Standards § 3.65 Terminal facilities. No person subject to the Animal Welfare regulations shall commingle shipments of live rabbits with inanimate cargo. All animal holding areas of a terminal facility...

  6. 9 CFR 3.18 - Terminal facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Terminal facilities. 3.18 Section 3.18... Cats 1 Transportation Standards § 3.18 Terminal facilities. (a) Placement. Any person subject to the... inanimate cargo in animal holding areas of terminal facilities. (b) Cleaning, sanitization, and pest control...

  7. 46 CFR 525.2 - Terminal schedules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... domestic law and international conventions and agreements adopted by the United States; such terminal... their own negligence, or that impose upon others the obligation to indemnify or hold-harmless the terminals from liability for their own negligence. (2) Enforcement of terminal schedules. Any schedule that...

  8. 25 CFR 11.1114 - Termination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Minor-in-Need-of-Care Procedure § 11.1114 Termination. (a) Parental rights to a child may be terminated... rights if, following efforts to prevent or eliminate the need to remove the minor, it finds such efforts... alternatives: (1) If parental rights to a child are terminated, the children's court shall place the minor in a...

  9. 2,1,3-benzothiadiazole-5,6-dicarboxylic imide - A versatile building block for additive- and annealing-free processing of organic solar cells with effi ciencies exceeding 8%

    KAUST Repository

    Nielsen, Christian Bergenstof

    2014-12-15

    A new photoactive polymer comprising benzo[1,2-b:3,4-b′:5,6-d′]trithiophene and 2,1,3-benzothiadiazole-5,6-dicarboxylic imide is reported. The synthetic design allows for alkyl chains to be introduced on both electron-rich and electron-deficient components, which in turn allows for rapid optimization of the alkyl chain substitution pattern. Consequently, the optimized polymer shows a maximum efficiency of 8.3% in organic photovoltaic devices processed in commercially viable fashion without solvent additives, annealing, or device engineering.

  10. 2,1,3-benzothiadiazole-5,6-dicarboxylic imide - A versatile building block for additive- and annealing-free processing of organic solar cells with effi ciencies exceeding 8%

    KAUST Repository

    Nielsen, Christian Bergenstof; Ashraf, Raja Shahid; Treat, Neil D.; Schroeder, Bob C.; Donaghey, Jenny E.; White, Andrew J P; Stingelin, Natalie; McCulloch, Iain

    2014-01-01

    A new photoactive polymer comprising benzo[1,2-b:3,4-b′:5,6-d′]trithiophene and 2,1,3-benzothiadiazole-5,6-dicarboxylic imide is reported. The synthetic design allows for alkyl chains to be introduced on both electron-rich and electron-deficient components, which in turn allows for rapid optimization of the alkyl chain substitution pattern. Consequently, the optimized polymer shows a maximum efficiency of 8.3% in organic photovoltaic devices processed in commercially viable fashion without solvent additives, annealing, or device engineering.

  11. Intrinsic terminators in Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae transcription.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fritsch, Tiago Ebert; Siqueira, Franciele Maboni; Schrank, Irene Silveira

    2015-04-08

    Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae, an important pathogen of swine, exhibits a low guanine and cytosine (GC) content genome. M. hyopneumoniae genome is organised in long transcriptional units and promoter sequences have been mapped upstream of all transcription units. These analysis provided insights into the gene organisation and transcription initiation at the genome scale. However, the presence of transcriptional terminator sequences in the M. hyopneumoniae genome is poorly understood. In silico analyses demonstrated the presence of putative terminators in 82% of the 33 monocistronic units (mCs) and in 74% of the 116 polycistronic units (pCs) considering different classes of terminators. The functional activity of 23 intrinsic terminators was confirmed by RT-PCR and qPCR. Analysis of all terminators found by three software algorithms, combined with experimental results, allowed us to propose a pattern of RNA hairpin formation during the termination process and to predict the location of terminators in the M. hyopneumoniae genome sequence. The stem-loop structures of intrinsic terminators of mycoplasma diverge from the pattern of terminators found in other bacteria due the low content of guanine and cytosine. In M. hyopneumoniae, transcription can end after a transcriptional unit and before its terminator sequence and can also continue past the terminator sequence with RNA polymerases gradually releasing the RNA.

  12. Thermophysical properties and phase equilibria study of the binary systems {l_brace}N-hexylquinolinium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide + aromatic hydrocarbons, or an alcohol{r_brace}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Domanska, Urszula, E-mail: ula@ch.pw.edu.p [Department of Physical Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, Warsaw University of Technology, Noakowskiego 3, 00-664 Warsaw (Poland); Thermodynamic Research Unit, School of Chemical Engineering, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Howard College Campus, King George V Avenue, Durban 4001 (South Africa); Zawadzki, Maciej [Department of Physical Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, Warsaw University of Technology, Noakowskiego 3, 00-664 Warsaw (Poland); Zwolinska, Magdalena [Department of Ergonomics, Laboratory of Thermal Loads, Central Institute for Labour Protection-National Research Institute, Czerniakowska 16, 00-701 Warsaw (Poland)

    2011-05-15

    Research highlights: We synthesized new ionic liquid, [HQuin][NTf{sub 2}] with low viscosity, and low density. We found high heat capacity, high enthalpy of melting and low melting temperature. HQuin][NTf{sub 2}] is proposed for possible use in the phase change materials (PCM). We examine phase equilibrium changes, SLE and LLE with hydrocarbons and alcohols. [HQuin][NTf{sub 2}] may be proposed as entrainer for the separation proceses. - Abstract: The new quinolinium ionic liquid has been synthesised as a continuation of our work with quinolinium-based ionic liquids (ILs). The work includes specific basic characterisation of synthesized compounds: N-hexylquinolinium bromide, [HQuin][Br] and N-hexylquinolinium bis{l_brace}(trifluoromethyl)sulfonyl{r_brace}imide [HQuin][NTf{sub 2}] by NMR spectra, elementary analysis and water content. The basic thermal properties of the pure [HQuin][NTf{sub 2}] i.e. melting and glass-transition temperatures, the enthalpy of fusion as well as heat capacity have been measured using a differential scanning microcalorimetry technique (DSC) and thermal analysis instrument (TA). Densities and viscosities were determined as a function of temperature. Phase equilibria for the binary systems: {l_brace}[HQuin][NTf{sub 2}]) + aromatic hydrocarbon (benzene, or toluene, or ethylbenzene, or n-propylbenzene), or an alcohol (1-butanol, or 1-hexanol, or 1-octanol, or 1-decanol){r_brace} have been determined at ambient pressure. A dynamic method was used over a broad range of mole fractions and temperatures from (270 to 320) K. For all the binary systems with benzene and alkylbenzenes, the eutectic diagrams were observed with immiscibility gap in the liquid phase beginning from (0.13 to 0.28) mole fraction of the IL with very high an upper critical solution temperature (UCST). For mixtures with alcohols, the complete miscibility was observed for 1-butanol and immiscibility with UCST in the liquid phase for the remaining alcohols. The typical

  13. Synthesis of mono- and geminal dimetalated carbanions of bis(phenylsulfonyl)methane using alkali metal bases and structural comparisons with lithiated bis(phenylsulfonyl)imides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDougall, Dugald J; Kennedy, Alan R; Noll, Bruce C; Henderson, Kenneth W

    2005-06-21

    The alpha,alpha'-stabilized carbanion complexes [(PhSO2)2CHLi.THF]1, [(PhSO2)2CHNa.THF]2 and [(PhSO2)2CHK]3 were prepared by the direct deprotonation of bis(phenylsulfonyl)methane I in THF with one molar equivalent of MeLi, BuNa and BnK respectively. The geminal dianionic complexes [(PhSO2)2CLi2.THF]4, [(PhSO2)2CNa2.0.55THF]5 and [(PhSO2)2CK2]6 were similarly prepared by the reaction of I with two molar equivalents of MeLi, BuNa and BnK respectively in THF. NMR and MS solution studies of 1-3 are consistent with the formation of charge-separated species in DMSO media. Solutions studies of 4-6, in conjunction with trapping experiments, indicate that the dianions deprotonate DMSO and regenerate the monoanions 1-3. Crystallographic analysis of 1 revealed a 1D chain polymer in which the metal centers are chelated by the bis(sulfonyl) ligands and connect to neighboring units through Li-O(S) interactions. An unexpected feature of 1 is that the polymeric chains are homochiral, since the chelating ligands of the backbone adopt the same relative configuration. Also, the phenyl substituents of each chelate in 1 are oriented in a cisoid manner. The sodium derivative 2 adopts a related solid-state structure, where enantiomeric pairs of chains combine to give a 1D ribbon motif. The lithium bis(phenylsulfonyl)imides [(PhSO2)2NLi.THF]9 and [(PhSO2)2NLi.Pyr2]10 were also prepared and structurally characterized. In the solid state 9 has a similar connectivity to that found for 1 but with heterochiral chains. In comparison, the more highly solvated complex 10 forms a 1D polymeric arrangement without chelation of the ligands and with the phenyl substituents oriented in a transoid fashion.

  14. New optically active and thermally stable poly(amide-imide)s containing N,N'-(Bicyclo[2,2,2]oct-7-ene-2,3,5,6-tetracarboxylic)-bis-L-alanine and aromatic diamines: synthesis and characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faghihi, Khalil; Absalar, Morteza; Hajibeygi, Mohsen [Arak University (Iran, Islamic Republic of). Faculty of Science. Organic Polymer Chemistry Research Lab.

    2009-07-01

    Five new optically active poly(amide-imide)s (PAIs) 6a-e were prepared by direct polycondensation reaction of the newly synthesized N,N'-(bicyclo[2,2,2]oct-7-ene-2,3,5,6-tetra carboxylic)-bis-L-alanine 4 with various aromatic diamines 5a-e using polar aprotic solvents such as N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone (NMP). In this technique triphenyl phosphite (TPP) and pyridine were used as condensing agents to form poly(amide-imide)s through the N-phosphonium salts of pyridine. All of the polymers were obtained in quantitative yields with inherent viscosities between 0.29-0.46 dL g{sup -1} and were highly soluble in polar aprotic solvents such as N,N-dimethyl acetamide (DMAc), N,N-dimethyl formamide (DMF), dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), N-methyl- 2-pyrrolidone (NMP) and solvents such as sulfuric acid. They were fully characterized by means of {sup 1}H NMR, FTIR spectroscopy, elemental analyses, inherent viscosity, solubility test, specific rotation and thermal properties of these polymers were investigated using thermogravimetric analysis techniques (TGA and DTG). (author)

  15. New optically active and thermally stable poly(amide-imide)s containing N,N'-(Bicyclo[2,2,2]oct-7-ene-2,3,5,6-tetracarboxylic)-bis-L-alanine and aromatic diamines: synthesis and characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faghihi, Khalil; Absalar, Morteza; Hajibeygi, Mohsen

    2009-01-01

    Five new optically active poly(amide-imide)s (PAIs) 6a-e were prepared by direct polycondensation reaction of the newly synthesized N,N'-(bicyclo[2,2,2]oct-7-ene-2,3,5,6-tetra carboxylic)-bis-L-alanine 4 with various aromatic diamines 5a-e using polar aprotic solvents such as N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone (NMP). In this technique triphenyl phosphite (TPP) and pyridine were used as condensing agents to form poly(amide-imide)s through the N-phosphonium salts of pyridine. All of the polymers were obtained in quantitative yields with inherent viscosities between 0.29-0.46 dL g -1 and were highly soluble in polar aprotic solvents such as N,N-dimethyl acetamide (DMAc), N,N-dimethyl formamide (DMF), dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), N-methyl- 2-pyrrolidone (NMP) and solvents such as sulfuric acid. They were fully characterized by means of 1 H NMR, FTIR spectroscopy, elemental analyses, inherent viscosity, solubility test, specific rotation and thermal properties of these polymers were investigated using thermogravimetric analysis techniques (TGA and DTG). (author)

  16. Rotational diffusion of nonpolar and ionic solutes in 1-alkyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imides: is solute rotation always influenced by the length of the alkyl chain on the imidazolium cation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gangamallaiah, V; Dutt, G B

    2012-10-25

    In an attempt to find out whether the length of the alkyl chain on the imidazolium cation has a bearing on solute rotation, temperature-dependent fluorescence anisotropies of three structurally similar solutes have been measured in a series of 1-alkyl-3-methylimidazolium (alkyl = methyl, ethyl, propyl, butyl, and hexyl) bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imides. Solute-solvent coupling constants obtained from the experimentally measured reorientation times with the aid of Stokes-Einstein-Debye hydrodynamic theory indicate that there is no influence of the length of the alkyl chain on the rotation of nonpolar, anionic, and cationic solutes 9-phenylanthracene (9-PA), fluorescein (FL), and rhodamine 110 (R110), respectively. It has also been noticed that the rotational diffusion of 9-PA is closer to the predictions of slip hydrodynamics, whereas the rotation of negatively charged FL and positively charged R110 is almost identical and follows stick hydrodynamics in these ionic liquids. Despite having similar shape and size, ionic solutes rotate slower by a factor of 3-4 compared to the nonpolar solute. Interplay of specific and electrostatic interactions between FL and the imidazolium cation of the ionic liquids, and between R110 and the bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide anion, appear to be responsible for the observed behavior. These results are an indication that the length of the alkyl chain on the imidazolium cation does not alter their physical properties in a manner that has an effect on solute rotation.

  17. Novel organo soluble poly imides and polyimide nano composites based on 1,4-bis(4-aminophenyl)-1,3,4-oxadiaz olyl)benzene, BAOB, via BAOB-modified organo clay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mansoori, Y.; Darvishi, K.

    2014-01-01

    New, thermally stable poly imides (PI) containing a 1,3,4-oxadiazole ring in the polymer backbone based on 1,4-bis((4-aminophenyl)-1,3,4-oxadiaz olyl)benzene, BAOB, were synthesized. The prepared polymers were soluble in polar and aprotic solvents. The obtained results reveal that within the prepared polymers, polyimide which has been obtained from BAOB and 4,4-oxy diphthalic dianhydride, ODPA, has the most improved thermal properties. In the next part, thermally stable organophilic clay was obtained via cation exchange reaction between sodium montmorillonite (Na-MMT) and the hydrochloride salt of BAOB. Then, a series of PI/clay nano composite materials (PCNs) were synthesized from the in situ polymerization reaction of BAOB and ODPA via thermal imidization, BAOB-MMT was used as the filler at different concentrations. Intercalation of polymer chains within the organo clay galleries was confirmed by W XRD. The glass transition temperature is increased with respect to pristine PI for PCNs 1-3 wt %. At high clay loadings, the aggregation of organo clay particles results in a decrease in T g . In the Sem images of the pure polymer too many micro-cracks were observed in the background, while surface homogeneity of PCN 1 wt % is increased and micro-cracks are reduced. (Author)

  18. Novel organo soluble poly imides and polyimide nano composites based on 1,4-bis(4-aminophenyl)-1,3,4-oxadiaz olyl)benzene, BAOB, via BAOB-modified organo clay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mansoori, Y.; Darvishi, K., E-mail: ya_mansoori@yahoo.com [University of Mohaghegh Ardabili, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Chemistry, Daneshgah, Ardabil (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2014-10-01

    New, thermally stable poly imides (PI) containing a 1,3,4-oxadiazole ring in the polymer backbone based on 1,4-bis((4-aminophenyl)-1,3,4-oxadiaz olyl)benzene, BAOB, were synthesized. The prepared polymers were soluble in polar and aprotic solvents. The obtained results reveal that within the prepared polymers, polyimide which has been obtained from BAOB and 4,4-oxy diphthalic dianhydride, ODPA, has the most improved thermal properties. In the next part, thermally stable organophilic clay was obtained via cation exchange reaction between sodium montmorillonite (Na-MMT) and the hydrochloride salt of BAOB. Then, a series of PI/clay nano composite materials (PCNs) were synthesized from the in situ polymerization reaction of BAOB and ODPA via thermal imidization, BAOB-MMT was used as the filler at different concentrations. Intercalation of polymer chains within the organo clay galleries was confirmed by W XRD. The glass transition temperature is increased with respect to pristine PI for PCNs 1-3 wt %. At high clay loadings, the aggregation of organo clay particles results in a decrease in T{sub g}. In the Sem images of the pure polymer too many micro-cracks were observed in the background, while surface homogeneity of PCN 1 wt % is increased and micro-cracks are reduced. (Author)

  19. JCO criticality accident termination operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanamori, Masashi

    2010-07-01

    In 2001, we summarized the circumstances surrounding termination of the JCO criticality accident based on testimony in the Mito District Court on December 17, 2001. JCO was the company for uranium fuels production in Japan. That document was assembled based on actual testimony in the belief that a description of the work involved in termination of the accident would be useful in some way for preventing nuclear disasters in the future. The description focuses on the witness' own behavior, and what he saw and heard, and thus is written from the perspective of action by one individual. This was done simply because it was easier for the witness to write down his memories as he remembers them. Description of the activities of other organizations and people is provided only as necessary, to ensure that consistency in the descriptive approach is not lost. The essentials of this report were rewritten as a third-person objective description in the summary of the report by the Atomic Energy Society of Japan (AESJ). Since then, comments have been received from sources such as former members of the Nuclear Safety Commission (Dr. Kenji Sumita and Dr. Akira Kanagawa), concerned parties from the former Science and Technology Agency, and reports from the JCO Criticality Accident Investigation Committee of the AESJ, and thus this report was rewritten to correct incorrect information, and add material where that was felt to be necessary. This year is the tenth year of the JCO criticality accident. To mark this occasion we have decided to translate the record of what occurred at the accident site into English so that more people can draw lessons from this accident. This report is an English version of JAEA-Technology 2009-073. (author)

  20. Concept Layout Model of Transportation Terminals

    OpenAIRE

    Yao, Li-ya; Sun, Li-shan; Wang, Wu-hong; Xiong, Hui

    2012-01-01

    Transportation terminal is the key node in transport systems. Efficient terminals can improve operation of passenger transportation networks, adjust the layout of public transportation networks, provide a passenger guidance system, and regulate the development of commercial forms, as well as optimize the assembly and distribution of modern logistic modes, among others. This study aims to clarify the relationship between the function and the structure of transportation terminals and establish ...

  1. Performance Evaluation and Modelling of Container Terminals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkatasubbaiah, K.; Rao, K. Narayana; Rao, M. Malleswara; Challa, Suresh

    2018-02-01

    The present paper evaluates and analyzes the performance of 28 container terminals of south East Asia through data envelopment analysis (DEA), principal component analysis (PCA) and hybrid method of DEA-PCA. DEA technique is utilized to identify efficient decision making unit (DMU)s and to rank DMUs in a peer appraisal mode. PCA is a multivariate statistical method to evaluate the performance of container terminals. In hybrid method, DEA is integrated with PCA to arrive the ranking of container terminals. Based on the composite ranking, performance modelling and optimization of container terminals is carried out through response surface methodology (RSM).

  2. What is a "good enough" termination?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabbard, Glen O

    2009-06-01

    In Freud's technique papers, he failed to develop a systematic approach to termination. Much of the existing literature is based on psychoanalytic mythologies about the way patients are expected to end analysis. The models described in the literature are often starkly at odds with what one sees in clinical practice. A wish for idealized versions of termination underlies much of what has been written, and we need to shift to a conceptual model involving "good enough" termination. A number of different endings to psychoanalysis may, in the long run, lead to productive outcomes; these models are examined, as are various approaches to the dilemmas presented at the time of termination.

  3. St. James marine terminal facility description

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-10-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) currently owns and operates a marine terminal on the west bank of the Mississippi River at St. James, Louisiana. The St. James facility was constructed by the Department to provide marine services associated with the fill and drawdown of the Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR) crude oil storage facilities located at Bayou Choctaw and Weeks Island, Louisiana. Although strategic to the mission of the SPR in the event of a national emergency, the St. James terminal is situated such that it has a high potential to also serve the commercial industry`s needs for crude oil terminalling and storage. The St. James terminal is located approximately 45 miles west of New Orleans and 30 miles southeast of Baton Rouge, and approximately 160 miles upstream from the mouth of the Mississippi River. Construction of the St. James terminal was initiated in 1978 and was completed in 1980. Since then, the terminal has received and transferred over 125 million barrels of crude oil to the SPR sites for storage. For crude oil distribution, the St. James terminal was connected to the neighboring LOCAP terminal by a 0.1 mile 36-inch pipeline in 1981 and to the Capline terminal by a 0.5 mile 30-inch pipeline in 1988. The terminal also has a 30-inch pipeline connection to the Koch oil terminal which was used for initial fill purposes; however, this pipeline has been disconnected and is currently inactive. A complete description of the St. James terminal facilities, operational capabilities, operational certifications, and future Government requirements are presented in Sections 2, 3, 4, and 5 respectively.

  4. 78 FR 5717 - Safety Zone; Military Ocean Terminal Concord Safety Zone, Suisun Bay, Military Ocean Terminal...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-28

    ...-AA00 Safety Zone; Military Ocean Terminal Concord Safety Zone, Suisun Bay, Military Ocean Terminal... Guard is establishing a safety zone in the navigable waters of Suisun Bay near Military Ocean Terminal Concord, CA in support of military onload and offload operations. This safety zone is established to...

  5. Irradiation from video display terminals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Backe, S.; Hannevik, M.

    1987-01-01

    Video display terminals (VDT's) are in common use by computer operators. In the last years this group of workers has expressed growing concern about their work environment and possible hazardious effects in connection with radiation emission from VDT's. Radiation types and levels of emission and possible biological effects have been the subject of research activity in Norway and in other countries. This report summarizes the various radiation types and their levels of emission from VDT's. An overview of recent epidemiological studies and animal experiments, and the conclusions given by the research groups are also presented. The conclusions drawn in this report based on the current knowledge are: Radiation, other than low frequency pulsed magnetic fields, have low and negligible emission levels and will not represent any health hazard to VDT-operator or to the foetus of pregnant operators. The biological effects of low frequency pulsed mangetic fields have been the subject of epidemiological studies and animal experiments. Epidemiological studies carried out in Canada, Finland, Sweden and Norway gave no support for any correlation between pregnancy complications and operation of VDT's. From animal experiments it has so far been impossible to assert an effect on pregnancy outcome from low frequency pulsed magnetic fields

  6. 9 CFR 3.117 - Terminal facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Terminal facilities. 3.117 Section 3... Marine Mammals Transportation Standards § 3.117 Terminal facilities. Carriers and intermediate handlers... facility of any carrier or intermediate handler where marine mammal shipments are maintained must be...

  7. Bargaining in Mergers and Termination Fees

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weitzel, U.; Rosenkranz, S.

    We model takeovers as a bargaining process and explain termination fees for, both, the target and the acquirer, subject to parties’ bargaining power and outside options. In equilibrium, termination fees are offered by firms with outside options in exchange for a greater share of merger synergies.

  8. [Terminal phase hydration, pain and delirium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heick, A.

    2009-01-01

    Hydration of the terminal patient may relieve confusion and complaints of "dry mouth". But it may worsen oedema of the brain, lungs, and extremities, worsen terminal rattling and cause a need for frequent changing of diapers. The decision of whether and how to treat a dying patient with fluids...

  9. 48 CFR 32.109 - Termination financing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Termination financing. 32... CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS CONTRACT FINANCING Non-Commercial Item Purchase Financing 32.109 Termination financing. To encourage contractors to invest their own funds in performance despite the susceptibility of...

  10. Diffractive optical elements for space communication terminals

    OpenAIRE

    Herzig, Hans-Peter; Ehbets, Peter; Teijido, Juan M.; Weible, Kenneth J.; Heimbeck, Hans-Joerg

    2007-01-01

    The potential of diffractive optical elements for advanced laser communication terminals has been investigated. Applications include beam shaping of high- power laser diode arrays, optical filter elements for position detection and hybrid (refractive/diffractive) elements. In addition, we present a design example of a miniaturized terminal including diffractive optics.

  11. Size-change termination and transition invariants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heizmann, Matthias; Jones, Neil; Podelski, Andreas

    2010-01-01

    Two directions of recent work on program termination use the concepts of size-change termination resp. transition invariants. The difference in the setting has as consequence the inherent incomparability of the analysis and verification methods that result from this work. Yet, in order...

  12. 28 CFR 2.43 - Early termination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... terminated because there is a likelihood that the parolee will engage in conduct violating any criminal law... shall review the status of the parolee to determine the need for continued supervision. The Commission shall also conduct a status review whenever the supervision officer recommends early termination of the...

  13. 14 CFR 272.12 - Termination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (AVIATION PROCEEDINGS) ECONOMIC REGULATIONS ESSENTIAL AIR SERVICE TO THE FREELY ASSOCIATED STATES § 272.12 Termination. These provisions shall terminate on October 1, 1998, unless the program of essential air service to the Federated States of...

  14. 43 CFR 29.13 - Termination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Termination. Upon termination of operations of the Pipeline, the full disposition of all claims, and the... shall request that Congress provide for final disposition of the Fund. If Congress at any time establishes a comprehensive oil pollution liability fund which supersedes or repeals the Fund, the Fund assets...

  15. 75 FR 49510 - Credit Watch Termination Initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-13

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT [Docket No. FR-5411-N-02] Credit Watch Termination Initiative AGENCY: Office of the Assistant Secretary for Housing--Federal Housing Commissioner, HUD. ACTION... FHA Credit Watch Termination Initiative. This notice includes a list of mortgagees which have had...

  16. 75 FR 17944 - Credit Watch Termination Initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-08

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT [Docket No. FR-5411-N-01] Credit Watch Termination Initiative AGENCY: Office of the Assistant Secretary for Housing--Federal Housing Commissioner, HUD. ACTION... FHA Credit Watch Termination Initiative. This notice includes a list of mortgagees which have had...

  17. [Terminal phase hydration, pain and delirium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heick, A.

    2009-01-01

    Hydration of the terminal patient may relieve confusion and complaints of "dry mouth". But it may worsen oedema of the brain, lungs, and extremities, worsen terminal rattling and cause a need for frequent changing of diapers. The decision of whether and how to treat a dying patient with fluids sh...

  18. 7 CFR 983.89 - Termination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ..., ARIZONA, AND NEW MEXICO Miscellaneous Provisions § 983.89 Termination. (a) The Secretary may at any time..., That such majority has, during such representative period, produced for market more than fifty percent of the volume of such pistachios produced for market, but such termination shall be announced at...

  19. Two-terminal video coding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yang; Stanković, Vladimir; Xiong, Zixiang; Zhao, Wei

    2009-03-01

    Following recent works on the rate region of the quadratic Gaussian two-terminal source coding problem and limit-approaching code designs, this paper examines multiterminal source coding of two correlated, i.e., stereo, video sequences to save the sum rate over independent coding of both sequences. Two multiterminal video coding schemes are proposed. In the first scheme, the left sequence of the stereo pair is coded by H.264/AVC and used at the joint decoder to facilitate Wyner-Ziv coding of the right video sequence. The first I-frame of the right sequence is successively coded by H.264/AVC Intracoding and Wyner-Ziv coding. An efficient stereo matching algorithm based on loopy belief propagation is then adopted at the decoder to produce pixel-level disparity maps between the corresponding frames of the two decoded video sequences on the fly. Based on the disparity maps, side information for both motion vectors and motion-compensated residual frames of the right sequence are generated at the decoder before Wyner-Ziv encoding. In the second scheme, source splitting is employed on top of classic and Wyner-Ziv coding for compression of both I-frames to allow flexible rate allocation between the two sequences. Experiments with both schemes on stereo video sequences using H.264/AVC, LDPC codes for Slepian-Wolf coding of the motion vectors, and scalar quantization in conjunction with LDPC codes for Wyner-Ziv coding of the residual coefficients give a slightly lower sum rate than separate H.264/AVC coding of both sequences at the same video quality.

  20. Concept Layout Model of Transportation Terminals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li-ya Yao

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Transportation terminal is the key node in transport systems. Efficient terminals can improve operation of passenger transportation networks, adjust the layout of public transportation networks, provide a passenger guidance system, and regulate the development of commercial forms, as well as optimize the assembly and distribution of modern logistic modes, among others. This study aims to clarify the relationship between the function and the structure of transportation terminals and establish the function layout design. The mapping mechanism of demand, function, and structure was analyzed, and a quantitative relationship between function and structure was obtained from a design perspective. Passenger demand and terminal structure were decomposed into several demand units and structural elements following the principle of reverse engineering. The relationship maps between these two kinds of elements were then analyzed. Function-oriented concept layout model of transportation terminals was established using the previous method. Thus, a technique in planning and design of transportation structures was proposed. Meaningful results were obtained from the optimization of transportation terminal facilities, which guide the design of the functional layout of transportation terminals and improve the development of urban passenger transportation systems.

  1. Compact Termination for Structural Soft-goods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkes, Robert, Jr.

    2013-01-01

    Glass fiber is unique in its ability to withstand atomic oxygen and ultraviolet radiation in-space environments. However, glass fiber is also difficult to terminate by traditional methods without decreasing its strength significantly. Glass fiber products are especially sensitive to bend radius, and do not work very well with traditional 'sewn loop on pin' type connections. As with most composites, getting applied loads from a metallic structure into the webbing without stress concentrations is the key to a successful design. A potted end termination has been shown in some preliminary work to out-perform traditional termination methods. It was proposed to conduct a series of tensile tests on structural webbing or cord to determine the optimum potting geometry, and to then be able to estimate a weight and volume savings over traditional sewn-overa- pin connections. During the course of the investigation into potted end terminations for glass fiber webbing, a new and innovative connection was developed that has lower weight, reduced fabrication time, and superior thermal tolerance over the metallic end terminations that were to be optimized in the original proposal. This end termination essentially transitions the flexible glass fiber webbing into a rigid fiberglass termination, which can be bolted/fastened with traditional methods

  2. The Practice of Hospital Intranet Terminal Access Control Solution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QI Shi-tao; TANG Li-ming

    2016-01-01

    Along with the increasingly urgent management needs of intranet terminals in hospital, and large scaled deployment of terminal management system, terminal access control has become one of the standard functions of terminal management. This paper mainly aims at some simple research for the system construction of hospital intranet terminal access control.

  3. 42 CFR 489.53 - Termination by CMS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Termination by CMS. 489.53 Section 489.53 Public... Reinstatement After Termination § 489.53 Termination by CMS. (a) Basis for termination of agreement with any provider. CMS may terminate the agreement with any provider if CMS finds that any of the following failings...

  4. 7 CFR 1469.25 - Contract violations and termination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... termination without delay. (c) If NRCS terminates a contract due to breach of contract, the participant will... terminates a contract due to breach of contract, or the participant voluntarily terminates the contract... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Contract violations and termination. 1469.25 Section...

  5. Activity coefficients at infinite dilution of organic solutes in N-alkylpyridinium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide ([CnPY][NTf2], n = 2, 4, 5) using gas-liquid chromatography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan Peifang; Liu Qingshan; Yang Miao; Liu Xiumei; Tan Zhicheng; Welz-Biermann, Urs

    2010-01-01

    The activity coefficients at infinite dilution, γ i ∞ for both polar and non-polar solutes in the ionic liquids N-alkylpyridinium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide ([C n PY][NTf 2 ], n = 2, 4, 5) have been determined by gas-liquid chromatography using the ionic liquid as the stationary phase. The measurements were carried out at the temperatures from (303 to 353) K. The partial molar excess enthalpies at infinite dilution H i E,∞ of the solutes in the ionic liquids were also derived from the temperature dependence of the γ i ∞ values. The values of the selectivity for the hexane/benzene and cyclohexane/benzene separation problems were calculated from experimental infinite dilution activity coefficient values and compared to the other ionic liquids, taken from the recent literatures.

  6. Operational Optimization in Port Container Terminals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    As a result of the significant increase in worldwide containerized transportation the development of efficient handling systems in marine terminals has become very important for port competitiveness. In order to optimize the productivity the total handling time for containers in the terminal must...... be minimized. An overview of the different operational problems in port container terminals is presented and an aggregated model and solution approach is shown. Next, there will be focused on the yard storage problem and a mathematical formulation and solution proposals will be presented....

  7. Termination of plastic-clad fiber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nance, W.R.

    1982-03-01

    Optical waveguides are ideal in a nuclear weapon environment because of their resistance to electromagnetic interference. Of the fibers on today's market, plastic-clad silica (PCS) is the most radiation resistant and therfore the best choice. Because terminating PCS is complex, this paper attemps to address the major problems associated with these terminations including selecting the proper connector and optimizing the terminating procedures. The sources of losses in the connectors are summarized and typical loss values are given for four connectors which were tested

  8. Terminal location planning in intermodal transportation with Bayesian inference method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    In this project, we consider the planning of terminal locations for intermodal transportation systems. For a given number of potential terminals and coexisted multiple service pairs, we find the set of appropriate terminals and their locations that p...

  9. Terminal Area Conflict Detection and Resolution Tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Savita Arora

    2011-01-01

    This poster will describe analysis of a conflict detection and resolution tool for the terminal area called T-TSAFE. With altitude clearance information, the tool can reduce false alerts to as low as 2 per hour.

  10. Conflict Termination: Every Conflict Must End

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Garza, Mario

    1997-01-01

    .... The operational commander and his staff must understand the nature of conflict termination and the post-conflict activities so that they will be able to effectively translate the desired end state...

  11. Keerukas terminal valiti aasta betoonehitiseks / Aivo Vahemets

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Vahemets, Aivo

    2002-01-01

    Aasta Betoonehitise nimetuse võitis Muuga kuivpuisteainete terminal, projekteerija Randväli&Karema AS. Eriauhind arhitektuurse osa eest - Birgitta klooster Pirital. Eriauhind tellijale - büroohoone Tallinnas Toompuiestee 33. Eriauhind ehitajale - konteinerterminal Muugal, projekteerija AS Merin

  12. Compact Termination for Structural Soft-goods

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Glass fiber is unique in its ability to withstand atomic oxygen and ultraviolet radiation in-space environments. However, glass fiber is also difficult to terminate...

  13. Mandatory Compensation to Commercial Agents upon Termination ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Kamil Abdu Oumer

    the compensation due to the agent upon the termination of the commercial .... Virginia School of Law Legal Studies Working Papers Series, Working Paper No. ..... grant up to a one year commission if they find the circumstances equitable.67 In.

  14. 48 CFR 12.403 - Termination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... guidance to the extent that part 49 does not conflict with this section and the language of the termination... required to comply with the cost accounting standards or the contract cost principles in part 31. The...

  15. Multiemployer Pension Plan Terminations, Mergers, and Insolvencies

    Data.gov (United States)

    Pension Benefit Guaranty Corporation — A listing of multiemployer pension plan terminations, mergers, and insolvencies reported to the PBGC for the current fiscal year. This data set will be updated...

  16. 29 CFR 402.5 - Terminal reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... reporting labor organization through merger, consolidation or otherwise, shall file a report containing a... on Form LM-2 in connection with the terminal financial report required by § 403.5 of this chapter and...

  17. Cholesterol: the debate should be terminated.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nathan, David G

    2017-07-01

    Here, I offer personal perspectives on cholesterol homeostasis that reflect my belief that certain aspects of the debate have been overstated.-Nathan, D. G. Cholesterol: the debate should be terminated. © FASEB.

  18. Macro scale models for freight railroad terminals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-02

    The project has developed a yard capacity model for macro-level analysis. The study considers the detailed sequence and scheduling in classification yards and their impacts on yard capacities simulate typical freight railroad terminals, and statistic...

  19. 77 FR 21981 - Maher Terminal, LLC

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-12

    ... continues to agree with another marine terminal operator or common carrier to boycott and/or unreasonably... costs and other undue and unreasonable payments, economic considerations, restrictions on transfers and...

  20. Modeling and Design of Container Terminal Operations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D. Roy (Debjit); M.B.M. de Koster (René)

    2014-01-01

    textabstractDesign of container terminal operations is complex because multiple factors affect the operational perfor- mance. These factors include: topological constraints, a large number of design parameters and settings, and stochastic interactions that interplay among the quayside, vehicle

  1. Phenylethynyl Silsesquioxanes: Monomer Synthesis, Characterization,Thermolysis and Thermal Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-14

    Government is joint author of the...H3C H2N NH2 Ph Ph Ph Ph ∆ O O O Ph + Para/Para Meta /Para Meta / Meta Para/Para 100% 0% 0% Mixed Isomers 25% 50% 25% Meta / Meta 0% 0% 100% Meta / Meta , Para...Cure Temp (°C) Peak Cure Temp (°C) Cure Energy (J/g) Para/Para 340.21 369.51 162.2 Meta / Meta 338.75 373.25 160.9 Meta / Meta ,Para/Para 339.51

  2. Controlling S2 terminal using FS software

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Zhuhe

    New S2FS software for controlling S2 terminal of Sheshan station has been developed. It works under Field System software. All S2 operation commands are incorporated in a station program. The interface of SWT computer and S2 terminal is RS232 interface. S2FS software is designed by using Shell and C language. It has been used in VSOP experiments.

  3. Intermodal terminals simulation for operation management

    OpenAIRE

    Baldassarra, Alessandro; Impastato, Stefano; Ricci, Stefano

    2010-01-01

    A freight terminal is a key node in a transportation network and the transit time of containers through this terminal represents one of the most relevant bottlenecks in logistic chains. The system performance reduction and the corresponding increase of transit time are often due to the increase of the freight flow without a corresponding increase of stacking and handling capacity. For this purpose it was decided to approach the problem by a discrete event simulation model, in order to reprodu...

  4. Minimum Efficient Scale (MES) and preferred scale of container terminals

    OpenAIRE

    Kaselimi, Evangelia N.; Notteboom, Theo E.; Pallis, Athanasios A.; Farrell, Sheila

    2011-01-01

    Abstract: The decision on the scale of a port terminal affects the terminals managerial, operational and competitive position in all the phases of its life. It also affects competition structures in the port in which the terminal is operating, and has a potential impact on other terminals. Port authorities and terminal operators need to know the scale of the terminal when engaging in concession agreements. In economic theory the scale of a plant/firm is typically defined in relation to the Mi...

  5. Terminal Gold-Oxo Complexes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cao, R.; Anderson, T.M.; Piccoli, P.M.B.; Schultz, A.J.; Koetzle, T.F.; Geletii, Y.V.; Slonkina, E.; Hedman, B.; Hodgson, K.O.; Hardcastle, K.I.; Fang, X.; Kirk, M.L.; Knottenbelt, S.; Kogerler, P.; Musaev, D.G.; Morokuma, K.; Takahashi, M.; Hill, C.L.; /Emory U. /Argonne /SLAC, SSRL /New Mexico U. /Iowa State U. /Toho U.

    2007-10-19

    In contradiction to current bonding paradigms, two terminal Au-oxo molecular complexes have been synthesized by reaction of AuCl{sub 3} with metal oxide-cluster ligands that model redox-active metal oxide surfaces. Use of K{sub 10}[{alpha}{sub 2}-P{sub 2}W{sub 17}O{sub 61}] x 20H{sub 2}O and K{sub 2}WO{sub 4} (forming the [A-PW{sub 9}O{sub 34}]{sup 9-} ligand in situ) produces K{sub 15}H{sub 2}[Au(O)(OH{sub 2})P{sub 2}W{sub 18}O{sub 68}] x 25H{sub 2}O (1); use of K{sub 10}[P{sub 2}W{sub 20}O{sub 70}(OH{sub 2}){sub 2}] x 22H{sub 2}O (3) produces K{sub 7}H{sub 2}[Au(O)(OH{sub 2})P{sub 2}W{sub 20}O{sub 70}(OH{sub 2}){sub 2}] x 27H{sub 2}O (2). Complex 1 crystallizes in orthorhombic Fddd, with a = 28.594(4) Angstroms, b = 31.866(4) Angstroms, c = 38.241(5) Angstroms, V = 34844(7) Angstroms{sup 3}, Z = 16 (final R = 0.0540), and complex 2 crystallizes in hexagonal P6(3)/mmc, with a = 16.1730(9) Angstroms, b = 16.1730(9) Angstroms, c = 19.7659(15) Angstroms, V = 4477.4(5) Angstroms{sup 3}, Z = 2 (final R = 0.0634). The polyanion unit in 1 is disorder-free. Very short ({approx}1.76 Angstroms) Au-oxo distances are established by both X-ray and 30 K neutron diffraction studies, and the latter confirms oxo and trans aqua (H2O) ligands on Au. Seven findings clarify that Au and not W is present in the Au-oxo position in 1 and 2. Five lines of evidence are consistent with the presence of d8 Au(III) centers that are stabilized by the flanking polytungstate ligands in both 1 and 2: redox titrations, electrochemical measurements, 17 K optical spectra, Au L2 edge X-ray absorption spectroscopy, and Au-oxo bond distances. Variable-temperature magnetic susceptibility data for crystalline 1 and 2 establish that both solids are diamagnetic, and {sup 31}P and {sup 17}O NMR spectroscopy confirm that both remain diamagnetic in solution. Both complexes have been further characterized by FT-IR, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), and other techniques.

  6. Modular approach for satellite communication ground terminals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gould, G. R.

    1984-01-01

    The trend in satellite communications is toward completely digital, time division multiple access (TDMA) systems with uplink and downlink data rates dictated by the type of service offered. Trunking terminals will operate in the 550 MBPS (megabit per second) region uplink and downlink, whereas customer premise service (CPS) terminals will operate in the 25 to 10 MBPS region uplink and in the 200 MBPS region downlink. Additional criteria for the ground terminals will be to maintain clock sychronization with the system and burst time integrity to within a matter of nanoseconds, to process required order-fire information, to provide adaptive data scrambing, and to compensate for variations in the user input output data rates, and for changes in range in the satellite communications links resulting from satellite perturbations in orbit. To achieve the required adaptability of a ground terminal to the above mentioned variables, programmable building blocks can be developed that will meet all of these requirements. To maintain system synchronization, i.e., all bursted data arriving at the satellite within assigned TDMA windows, ground terminal transmit data rates and burst timing must be maintained within tight tolerances. With a programmable synchronizer as the heart of the terminal timing generation, variable data rates and burst timing tolerances are achievable. In essence, the unit inputs microprocessor generated timing words and outputs discrete timing pulses.

  7. Terminal addition in a cellular world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torday, J S; Miller, William B

    2018-07-01

    Recent advances in our understanding of evolutionary development permit a reframed appraisal of Terminal Addition as a continuous historical process of cellular-environmental complementarity. Within this frame of reference, evolutionary terminal additions can be identified as environmental induction of episodic adjustments to cell-cell signaling patterns that yield the cellular-molecular pathways that lead to differing developmental forms. Phenotypes derive, thereby, through cellular mutualistic/competitive niche constructions in reciprocating responsiveness to environmental stresses and epigenetic impacts. In such terms, Terminal Addition flows according to a logic of cellular needs confronting environmental challenges over space-time. A reconciliation of evolutionary development and Terminal Addition can be achieved through a combined focus on cell-cell signaling, molecular phylogenies and a broader understanding of epigenetic phenomena among eukaryotic organisms. When understood in this manner, Terminal Addition has an important role in evolutionary development, and chronic disease might be considered as a form of 'reverse evolution' of the self-same processes. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  8. Training simulator for operations at LNG terminals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsuta, T.; Yamamoto, K.; Tetsuka, S.; Koyama, K.

    1997-01-01

    The Tokyo Gas LNG terminals are among the major energy centers of the Tokyo area, supplying 8 million customers with city gas, and also supplying fuel for thermal power generation at the neighboring thermal power plant operated by the Tokyo Electric Power Company. For this reason, in the event of an emergency at the terminal operators have to be able to respond quickly and accurately to restore operations and prevent secondary damage. Modern LNG terminals are highly reliable and are equipped with backup systems, and occurrences of major trouble are now almost nil. Operators therefore have to be trained to respond to emergencies using simulators, in order to heighten their emergency response capabilities. Tokyo Gas Co., Ltd. has long been aware of the need for simulators and has used them in training, but a new large-scale, real-time simulator has now developed in response to new training needs, applying previously accumulated expertise to create a model of an entire LNG terminal incorporating new features. The development of this new simulator has made possible training for emergencies affecting an entire terminal, and this has been very effective in raising the standards of operators. (au)

  9. Osteogenic cell differentiation on H-terminated and O-terminated nanocrystalline diamond films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liskova J

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Jana Liskova,1 Oleg Babchenko,2 Marian Varga,2 Alexander Kromka,2 Daniel Hadraba,1 Zdenek Svindrych,1 Zuzana Burdikova,1 Lucie Bacakova1 1Institute of Physiology, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Prague, Czech Republic; 2Institute of Physics, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Prague, Czech Republic Abstract: Nanocrystalline diamond (NCD films are promising materials for bone implant coatings because of their biocompatibility, chemical resistance, and mechanical hardness. Moreover, NCD wettability can be tailored by grafting specific atoms. The NCD films used in this study were grown on silicon substrates by microwave plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition and grafted by hydrogen atoms (H-termination or oxygen atoms (O-termination. Human osteoblast-like Saos-2 cells were used for biological studies on H-terminated and O-terminated NCD films. The adhesion, growth, and subsequent differentiation of the osteoblasts on NCD films were examined, and the extracellular matrix production and composition were quantified. The osteoblasts that had been cultivated on the O-terminated NCD films exhibited a higher growth rate than those grown on the H-terminated NCD films. The mature collagen fibers were detected in Saos-2 cells on both the H-terminated and O-terminated NCD films; however, the quantity of total collagen in the extracellular matrix was higher on the O-terminated NCD films, as were the amounts of calcium deposition and alkaline phosphatase activity. Nevertheless, the expression of genes for osteogenic markers – type I collagen, alkaline phosphatase, and osteocalcin – was either comparable on the H-terminated and O-terminated films or even lower on the O-terminated films. In conclusion, the higher wettability of the O-terminated NCD films is promising for adhesion and growth of osteoblasts. In addition, the O-terminated surface also seems to support the deposition of extracellular matrix proteins and extracellular matrix

  10. Synthesis and characterization of hybrid organic-inorganic materials of polyamide-imide (PAI) and copolysilsesquioxanes of 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane (APES) and phenyltriethoxysilane (PTES); Sintese e caracterizacao de materiais hibridos organico-inorganicos de poliamida-imida e copolisilsesquioxanos de 3-aminopropiltrietoxissilano e feniltrietoxissilano

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Demarchi, A.A., E-mail: aa_demarchi@terra.com.b [WEG Equipamentos Eletricos S.A., Jaragua do Sul, SC (Brazil). Dept. de P e D do Produto; Pezzin, S H [Universidade do Estado de Santa Catarina (UDESC), SC (Brazil). Centro de Ciencias Tecnologicas

    2010-07-01

    In this work, organic-inorganic hybrids were obtained by adding copolysilsesquioxanes of 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane (APES) and phenyltriethoxysilane (PTES), prepared by sol-gel, to the polyamide-imide (PAI). The synthesis of PAI oligomer from trimellitic anhydride (TMA) and 4,4-diphenyl-methane diisocyanate (MDI), was monitored by FTIR, noting that two steps of 80 deg C and 120 deg C for 2 h each are sufficient to obtain it. PAI-copolysilsesquioxanes hybrids were characterized by FTIR, viscometry, thermogravimetry, NMR and microscopy. The spectrum of the PAI and PAI-hybrid copolysilsesquioxanes show the formation of amide and imide. Copolysilsesquioxanes with high levels of APES increased the viscosity and generated the PAI oligomer gelatinization, hindering the formation of uniform films. Gelatinization did not occur with copolysilsesquioxanes rich PTES, allowing the formation of homogeneous films improvements in thermal resistance. (author)

  11. 42 CFR 422.510 - Termination of contract by CMS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Termination of contract by CMS. 422.510 Section 422... Advantage Organizations § 422.510 Termination of contract by CMS. (a) Termination by CMS. CMS may at any time terminate a contract if CMS determines that the MA organization meets any of the following: (1...

  12. 42 CFR 423.509 - Termination of contract by CMS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Termination of contract by CMS. 423.509 Section 423... Contracts with Part D plan sponsors § 423.509 Termination of contract by CMS. (a) Termination by CMS. CMS may at any time terminate a contract if CMS determines that the Part D plan sponsor meets any of the...

  13. Ligand sphere conversions in terminal carbide complexes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morsing, Thorbjørn Juul; Reinholdt, Anders; Sauer, Stephan P. A.

    2016-01-01

    Metathesis is introduced as a preparative route to terminal carbide complexes. The chloride ligands of the terminal carbide complex [RuC(Cl)2(PCy3)2] (RuC) can be exchanged, paving the way for a systematic variation of the ligand sphere. A series of substituted complexes, including the first...... example of a cationic terminal carbide complex, [RuC(Cl)(CH3CN)(PCy3)2]+, is described and characterized by NMR, MS, X-ray crystallography, and computational studies. The experimentally observed irregular variation of the carbide 13C chemical shift is shown to be accurately reproduced by DFT, which also...... demonstrates that details of the coordination geometry affect the carbide chemical shift equally as much as variations in the nature of the auxiliary ligands. Furthermore, the kinetics of formation of the sqaure pyramidal dicyano complex, trans-[RuC(CN)2(PCy3)2], from RuC has been examined and the reaction...

  14. Three-Terminal Amorphous Silicon Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng-Hung Tai

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Many defects exist within amorphous silicon since it is not crystalline. This provides recombination centers, thus reducing the efficiency of a typical a-Si solar cell. A new structure is presented in this paper: a three-terminal a-Si solar cell. The new back-to-back p-i-n/n-i-p structure increased the average electric field in a solar cell. A typical a-Si p-i-n solar cell was also simulated for comparison using the same thickness and material parameters. The 0.28 μm-thick three-terminal a-Si solar cell achieved an efficiency of 11.4%, while the efficiency of a typical a-Si p-i-n solar cell was 9.0%. Furthermore, an efficiency of 11.7% was achieved by thickness optimization of the three-terminal solar cell.

  15. Location of terminals in a communications network

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2015-01-01

    A method (400, 500) of identifying nodes in a communications network is disclosed, the nodes being for use in locating wireless terminals within the network based upon reports from the wireless terminals of transmissions received from the nodes. The method (400, 500) comprises prioritising...... combinations of nodes in which at least three nodes are located around a reference node in a configuration satisfying similarity criteria to an idealised star configuration, wherein an idealised star configuration comprises three nodes evenly angularly distributed around, and at the same distance from......, a reference node. Also disclosed is a method (100, 200) for locating a plurality of wireless terminals in a communications network, the network comprising a plurality of network nodes at known locations, wherein the nodes emit wireless transmissions in an unsynchronised manner, such that a time difference...

  16. Selective termination, fetal reduction and analogical reasoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pennings, G

    2013-06-01

    Analogical reasoning is a basic method in bioethics. Its main purpose is to transfer the rule from an existing or known situation to a new and problematic situation. This commentary applies the lifeboat analogy to the context of selective termination and fetal reduction. It turns out that the analogy is only partially helpful as the main principle in the case of selective termination is the procreative beneficence principle. However, the wide person-affecting form of this principle doubly justifies selective termination: i.e. one prevents the harm caused by the birth of an affected child and one increases the life chances of the remaining fetuses. I conclude, however, that all analogies are basically flawed since they assume that fetuses as such have interests. I argue that fetuses only have interests to the extent that they are potential future persons. Copyright © 2013 Reproductive Healthcare Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Universal statistics of terminal dynamics before collapse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenner, Nicolas; Eule, Stephan; Wolf, Fred

    Recent biological developments have both drastically increased the precision as well as amount of generated data, allowing for a switching from pure mean value characterization of the process under consideration to an analysis of the whole ensemble, exploiting the stochastic nature of biology. We focus on the general class of non-equilibrium processes with distinguished terminal points as can be found in cell fate decision, check points or cognitive neuroscience. Aligning the data to a terminal point (e.g. represented as an absorbing boundary) allows to device a general methodology to characterize and reverse engineer the terminating history. Using a small noise approximation we derive mean variance and covariance of the aligned data for general finite time singularities.

  18. Automatic termination of a protective action

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heil, P.H.

    1986-01-01

    Subcommittee 6 of NPEC is responsible for the development of IEEE Standard 603. The adequacy of requirements concerning control and termination of protective actions was raised during the balloting of IEEE Standard 603-1980. In essence, the concern dealt with the requirement for deliberate operator action to return the system to normal. It was questioned if control actions such as automatic termination of system operation were allowed. Changes in the standard were made to clarify that there was a distinction between control (including termination) and return to normal and also state that automatic control may be required. Additionally, an action item was identified in the forward of IEEE Standard 603-1980 to determine if any additional changes were needed. The purpose of the paper is to present the results of this additional work

  19. Termination Criteria for Computerized Classification Testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathan A. Thompson

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Computerized classification testing (CCT is an approach to designing tests with intelligent algorithms, similar to adaptive testing, but specifically designed for the purpose of classifying examinees into categories such as - pass- and - fail.- Like adaptive testing for point estimation of ability, the key component is the termination criterion, namely the algorithm that decides whether to classify the examinee and end the test or to continue and administer another item. This paper applies a newly suggested termination criterion, the generalized likelihood ratio (GLR, to CCT. It also explores the role of the indifference region in the specification of likelihood-ratio based termination criteria, comparing the GLR to the sequential probability ratio test. Results from simulation studies suggest that the GLR is always at least as efficient as existing methods.

  20. Fuzzy containers allocation problem in maritime terminal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed-Mohammad Seyed-Hosseini

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Normal.dotm 0 0 1 140 799 UPC 6 1 981 12.0 0 false 18 pt 18 pt 0 0 false false false /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:12.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ascii-font-family:Cambria; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:??; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Cambria; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;} Containers allocation in terminals has attracted lots of research works due to practical & theoretical importance in transportation literature. In this paper, we developed a fuzzy mathematical programming model for solving problem of allocating the containers in terminal area. The objective is minimizing the total distance traversed by the containers from the ship to the terminal area they are assigned. Fuzzy set concepts are used to treat imprecision regarding the distances between berth and terminals area, number of containers in an arrived ship and estimation of available area in each terminal at a port. We proposed two types of models for optimistic and pessimistic situations. The proposed models have been coded in LINGO8.0 solver and a numerical example has been solved for illustration purpose. The full analysis of the proposed models can cause an optimum allocation of containers of several ships to different terminals of berths in fuzzy environment.

  1. Hydrogen terminal solubility in Zircaloy-4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vizcaino, Pablo; Banchik, Abrahan D.

    1999-01-01

    Terminal solubility temperature of hydrogen in zirconium and its alloys is an important parameter because hydrides precipitation embrittled these materials making them susceptible to the phenomenon known as retarded hydrogen cracking. This work continues the study presented in the 25 AATN Meeting. Within this framework, a study focused on determining these curves in recrystallized Zircaloy-4, using scanning differential calorimetric technique. Terminal solubility curves for Zircaloy-4 were constructed within a concentration range from 40 to 640 ppm in hydrogen weight and comparisons with results obtained by other authors were made. (author)

  2. Memristive Systems Analysis of 3-Terminal Devices

    OpenAIRE

    Mouttet, Blaise

    2010-01-01

    Memristive systems were proposed in 1976 by Leon Chua and Sung Mo Kang as a model for 2-terminal passive nonlinear dynamical systems which exhibit memory effects. Such systems were originally shown to be relevant to the modeling of action potentials in neurons in regards to the Hodgkin-Huxley model and, more recently, to the modeling of thin film materials such as TiO2-x proposed for non-volatile resistive memory. However, over the past 50 years a variety of 3-terminal non-passive dynamical d...

  3. Terminating America's wars : the Gulf War and Kosovo

    OpenAIRE

    Musser, William G.

    2002-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited This thesis asks two questions: 1) What factors have contributed to the termination of recent United States wars? and 2) How can elements of national power be applied successfully to terminate the future wars of the United States? To answer these questions, this thesis offers a model of war termination and applies it to cases of war termination, in the Gulf War and in Kosovo. These case studies indicate that termination of future wars ...

  4. Termination of Dynamic Contracts in an Equilibrium Labor Market Model

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Cheng

    2005-01-01

    I construct an equilibrium model of the labor market where workers and firms enter into dyamic contracts that can potentially last forever, but are subject to optimal terminations. Upon a termination, the firm hires a new worker, and the worker who is terminated receives a termination compensation from the firm and is then free to go back to the labor market to seek new employment opportunities and enter into new dynamic contracts. The model permits only two types of equilibrium terminations ...

  5. A comparative study on the thermophysical properties for two bis[(trifluoromethyl)sulfonyl]imide-based ionic liquids containing the trimethyl-sulfonium or the trimethyl-ammonium cation in molecular solvents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Couadou, Erwan; Jacquemin, Johan; Galiano, Hervé; Hardacre, Christopher; Anouti, Mérièm

    2013-02-07

    Herein, we present a comparative study of the thermophysical properties of two homologous ionic liquids, namely, trimethyl-sulfonium bis[(trifluoromethyl)sulfonyl]imide, [S(111)][TFSI], and trimethyl-ammonium bis[(trifluoromethyl)sulfonyl]imide, [HN(111)][TFSI], and their mixtures with propylene carbonate, acetonitrile, or gamma butyrolactone as a function of temperature and composition. The influence of solvent addition on the viscosity, conductivity, and thermal properties of IL solutions was studied as a function of the solvent mole fraction from the maximum solubility of IL, x(s), in each solvent to the pure solvent. In this case, x(s) is the composition corresponding to the maximum salt solubility in each liquid solvent at a given temperature from 258.15 to 353.15 K. The effect of temperature on the transport properties of each binary mixture was then investigated by fitting the experimental data using Arrhenius' law and the Vogel-Tamman-Fulcher (VTF) equation. The experimental data shows that the residual conductivity at low temperature, e.g., 263.15 K, of each binary mixture is exceptionally high. For example, conductivity values up to 35 and 42 mS·cm(-1) were observed in the case of the [S(111)][TFSI] + ACN and [HN(111)][TFSI] + ACN binary mixtures, respectively. Subsequently, a theoretical approach based on the conductivity and on the viscosity of electrolytes was formulated by treating the migration of ions as a dynamical process governed by ion-ion and solvent-ion interactions. Within this model, viscosity data sets were first analyzed using the Jones-Dole equation. Using this theoretical approach, excellent agreement was obtained between the experimental and calculated conductivities for the binary mixtures investigated at 298.15 K as a function of the composition up to the maximum solubility of the IL. Finally, the thermal characterization of the IL solutions, using DSC measurements, showed a number of features corresponding to different solid

  6. Siting considerations for LNG import terminals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meratla, Z. [CDS Research Ltd., Vancouver, BC (Canada)

    2005-07-01

    Site selection criteria for liquefied natural gas (LNG) facilities and terminals were reviewed in this PowerPoint presentation. Onshore and offshore sites were discussed. Typical public opposition issues were examined, including public concerns over safety and the environment. Low key consultation processes with local communities was advised to assess levels of interest and opposition during initial stages. It was suggested that desirable LNG sites should not be visible from local communities. Remoteness from built-up areas was advised, as well as ensuring that sites meet the requirements of future expansion and large LNG carriers. Issues concerning waterway drawbacks and exclusion zones were examined, as well as the relative merits of onshore and offshore terminals. It was noted that onshore terminals are accessible to personnel as well as outside emergency response resources, and are less susceptible to weather related downtime. In addition, onshore spills are generally impounded. Offshore LNG import terminals are visible from shorelines and susceptible to stray marine traffic and abnormal events. Siting considerations for offshore facilities include sensitive areas; shipping channels; foundation issues; shipping lane access; and offshore pipeline lengths. Issues concerning loading arms, remote flare systems, integral ballast and process equipment for offshore facilities were discussed. Membrane type storage systems and tank construction details were presented as well as details of self supporting storage systems. A comparison of gravity-based structures and floating facilities was presented. It was concluded that floating LNG facilities have well developed security procedures, passive protection and automatic intruder detection alarms. tabs., figs.

  7. 9 CFR 3.141 - Terminal facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Warmblooded Animals Other Than Dogs, Cats, Rabbits, Hamsters, Guinea Pigs, Nonhuman Primates, and Marine... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Terminal facilities. 3.141 Section 3.141 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE...

  8. Instorting Terminal 2e luchthaven Parijs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Herwijnen, van F.

    2008-01-01

    Terminal 2E van luchthaven Charles de Gaulle, ontworpen voor de nieuwe Airbus A380, was bedoeld als kroonjuweel van Air France, maar bleek een constructieve miskleun. Mei 2004 ontstaan scheuren in het beton. Dat is de opmaat tot een kettingreactie, waarbij betonplaten, boogsegmenten en loopbruggen

  9. Functionalization of hydroxyl terminated polybutadiene with ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    The hydroxyl terminated polybutadiene (HTPB) used in this work was prepared by free radical polymerization using hydrogen peroxide as initiator and was received from HEMRL Pune, India, as a gift sample. The molecu- lar weight and polydispersity of the HTPB was deter- mined by using gel permeable chromatography ...

  10. Kolmveerand miljardit maksev terminal avatud / Koit Brinkmann

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Brinkmann, Koit

    2006-01-01

    21. juulil avati 750 miljonit krooni maksma läinud AS-i Trendgate nafta ja tumedate naftaproduktide ümberlaadimise terminal. Avamisel viibisid ka majandus- ja kommunikatsiooniminister Edgar Savisaar ja Vene transpordiminister Igor Levitin. Lisa: Trendigate'i neli aastat

  11. Terminating DNA Tile Assembly with Nanostructured Caps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agrawal, Deepak K; Jiang, Ruoyu; Reinhart, Seth; Mohammed, Abdul M; Jorgenson, Tyler D; Schulman, Rebecca

    2017-10-24

    Precise control over the nucleation, growth, and termination of self-assembly processes is a fundamental tool for controlling product yield and assembly dynamics. Mechanisms for altering these processes programmatically could allow the use of simple components to self-assemble complex final products or to design processes allowing for dynamic assembly or reconfiguration. Here we use DNA tile self-assembly to develop general design principles for building complexes that can bind to a growing biomolecular assembly and terminate its growth by systematically characterizing how different DNA origami nanostructures interact with the growing ends of DNA tile nanotubes. We find that nanostructures that present binding interfaces for all of the binding sites on a growing facet can bind selectively to growing ends and stop growth when these interfaces are presented on either a rigid or floppy scaffold. In contrast, nucleation of nanotubes requires the presentation of binding sites in an arrangement that matches the shape of the structure's facet. As a result, it is possible to build nanostructures that can terminate the growth of existing nanotubes but cannot nucleate a new structure. The resulting design principles for constructing structures that direct nucleation and termination of the growth of one-dimensional nanostructures can also serve as a starting point for programmatically directing two- and three-dimensional crystallization processes using nanostructure design.

  12. Heathrow Terminal 5 Excavation Archive (Data Paper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Framework Archaeology

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Framework Archaeology is a Joint Venture agreement between Oxford Archaeology (OA and Wessex Archaeology (WA to provide archaeological services to BAA (formerly British Airports Authority, now Heathrow Airport Holdings Ltd. Given the potential scale of some of BAA's projects, the joint venture enables Framework Archaeology to draw on the full resources of both OA and WA, including site staff, specialist managers, administrative support, and technical facilities. In 1993, BAA plc and Heathrow Airport Limited submitted a joint planning application to develop an additional passenger terminal complex (Terminal 5, together with the provision of aircraft aprons and taxiways, and include the realignment of rivers and landscaping. The resulting archaeological excavations were undertaken as three main phases of work. Excavations in 1996 by the Museum of London Archaeology Service of approximately 4 ha of sludge stockpile areas (site code POK96. Between 1999-2000 Framework Archaeology excavated approximately 21 ha in the Perry Oaks sludge works and adjacent areas (WPR98. Framework Archaeology also undertook excavations between 2002-2007 as part of the construction of Terminal 5 (PSH02, TEC05 covering a further 50 hectares. Importantly the aim of the Terminal 5 archaeological programme was to move beyond the description and recovery of archaeological remains and to arrive at an understanding of the history of human inhabitation and the practical ways in which people established their presence in the material, social and political conditions of their day.

  13. Nurses' attitudes to terminally ill patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Román, E M; Sorribes, E; Ezquerro, O

    2001-05-01

    The care of terminally ill patients is a challenge for nurses that has raised special interest in recent years. Several studies have shown a stereotyped negative attitude in nurses towards terminally ill patients. However, all have used methods with several limitations. The aim of the study presented in this paper was to identify the nurses' attitude to the terminally ill patient in Catalonia, Spain, and the relationship of this attitude to different socio-demographic data (type of centre, shift, years of experience, age and sex) by means of a new quantitative method based on the free word-association test. One hundred and seventy-five nurses working in 18 hospitals and hospices in Catalonia, Spain were included in the study. Data were analysed by the Associative Semantic Field Differential method by means of the computer programme CONTEXT and a quantitative evaluation of the degree of attitudes positivity was obtained. The study revealed a general slight negative trend in attitudes towards the terminally ill patient. A more positive attitude was observed in older caregivers and in women. The positivity in attitude decreased from morning to night shift. No differences were observed between nurses working in hospitals and those working in hospices. We conclude that nursing attitudes can be analysed by methods such as that used in this study. Attempts can be made to modify this attitude in caregivers by means of training programmes and stimulating awareness of an adequate professional approach.

  14. Self-Terminating, Oxidative Radical Cyclizations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uta Wille

    2004-05-01

    Full Text Available The recently discovered novel concept of self-terminating, oxidative radical cyclizations, through which alkynes can be converted into carbonyl compounds under very mild reaction conditions using O-centered inorganic and organic radicals as oxidants, is described

  15. A Delay Discounting Model of Psychotherapy Termination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swift, Joshua K.; Callahan, Jennifer L.

    2009-01-01

    Delay discounting (DD) procedures are emerging as an important new method for psychotherapy researchers. In this paper a framework for conceptualizing existing, seemingly discrepant, research findings on termination is introduced and new directions for research are described. To illustrate the value of a DD framework, the common psychotherapy…

  16. Misoprostol alone for the termination of Pregnancy

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The use of Misoprostol for ter- mination of pregnancy has been approved by the Medicines Control. Council of South Africa. It is part of the approved protocol for termina- tion of pregnancy in public sector facilities in the Western Cape.1. Reference. 1. Provincial Administration: Western Cape: Termination of Pregnancy (Top):.

  17. Questions Students Ask: About Terminal Velocity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Earl R.; Nelson, Jim

    1984-01-01

    If a ball were given an initial velocity in excess of its terminal velocity, would the upward force of air resistance (a function of velocity) be greater than the downward force of gravity and thus push the ball back upwards? An answer to this question is provided. (JN)

  18. Towards the N-terminal acetylome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Xumin; Højrup, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Protein N-terminal acetylation (N(α)-acetylation) is observed widely from prokaryotes to eukaryotes. It gains increased importance in biological field, due to its multiple roles in many aspects of the protein life, such as assembly, stability, activity, and location. Today, mass spectrometry (MS...

  19. Size-change termination and bound analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Avery, James Emil

    2006-01-01

    . The extended size-change principle is realized through combining abstract interpretation over the domain of convex polyhedra with the use of size-change graphs. In the cases when data types are well founded, the method handles every case that is handled by LJB size-change termination. The method has been...

  20. 48 CFR 801.690-7 - Termination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... should discuss a termination of contracting authority for cause with the servicing Human Resource Management Office to determine the impact, if any, on the contracting officer's continued employment. (c) All... OF VETERANS AFFAIRS ACQUISITION REGULATION SYSTEM Career Development, Contracting Authority, and...