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Sample records for phenomena hazards evaluation

  1. Procedure for Prioritization of Natural Phenomena Hazards Evaluations for Existing DOE Facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conrads, T.J., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-05-07

    This document describes the procedure to be used for the prioritization for natural phenomena hazards evaluations of existing DOE facilities in conformance with DOE Order 5480.28, `Natural Phenomena Hazards Mitigation.`

  2. Prioritization of natural phenomena hazards evaluations for CHG facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    GRAVES, C.E.

    2001-01-01

    Natural phenomena hazards (NPH) are unexpected acts of nature that pose a threat or danger to workers, the public or to the environment by potential damage to structures, systems and components (SSCs). Earthquakes, extreme winds (hurricane and tornado), flood, volcanic eruption, lightning strike, or extreme cold or heat are examples of NPH. This document outlines the method used to prioritize buildings for inspection following an NPH event and contains the priority list for CH2M HILL Hanford Group, Inc. (CHG) buildings. Once an NPH event occurs and the Hanford Emergency Operations Center (EOC) is activated, this document will be used by the EOC to assign building inspections for the trained evaluators, barring any information from the field

  3. Prioritization of natural phenomena hazards evaluations for CHG facilities

    CERN Document Server

    Graves, C E

    2001-01-01

    Natural phenomena hazards (NPH) are unexpected acts of nature that pose a threat or danger to workers, the public or to the environment by potential damage to structures, systems and components (SSCs). Earthquakes, extreme winds (hurricane and tornado), flood, volcanic eruption, lightning strike, or extreme cold or heat are examples of NPH. This document outlines the method used to prioritize buildings for inspection following an NPH event and contains the priority list for CH2M HILL Hanford Group, Inc. (CHG) buildings. Once an NPH event occurs and the Hanford Emergency Operations Center (EOC) is activated, this document will be used by the EOC to assign building inspections for the trained evaluators, barring any information from the field.

  4. Design and evaluation guidelines for Department of Energy facilities subjected to natural phenomena hazards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kennedy, R.P.; Short, S.A.; McDonald, J.R.; McCann, M.W. Jr.; Murray, R.C.; Hill, J.R.

    1990-06-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) and the DOE Natural Phenomena Hazards Panel have developed uniform design and evaluation guidelines for protection against natural phenomena hazards at DOE sites throughout the United States. The goal of the guidelines is to assure that DOE facilities can withstand the effects of natural phenomena such as earthquakes, extreme winds, tornadoes, and flooding. The guidelines apply to both new facilities (design) and existing facilities (evaluation, modification, and upgrading). The intended audience is primarily the civil/structural or mechanical engineers conducting the design or evaluation of DOE facilities. The likelihood of occurrence of natural phenomena hazards at each DOE site has been evaluated by the DOE Natural Phenomena Hazard Program. Probabilistic hazard models are available for earthquake, extreme wind/tornado, and flood. Alternatively, site organizations are encouraged to develop site-specific hazard models utilizing the most recent information and techniques available. In this document, performance goals and natural hazard levels are expressed in probabilistic terms, and design and evaluation procedures are presented in deterministic terms. Design/evaluation procedures conform closely to common standard practices so that the procedures will be easily understood by most engineers. Performance goals are expressed in terms of structure or equipment damage to the extent that: (1) the facility cannot function; (2) the facility would need to be replaced; or (3) personnel are endangered. 82 refs., 12 figs., 18 tabs

  5. Design and evaluation guidelines for Department of Energy facilities subjected to natural phenomena hazards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kennedy, R.P. (Structural Mechanics Consulting, Inc., Yorba Linda, CA (USA)); Short, S.A. (ABB Impell Corp., Mission Viejo, CA (USA)); McDonald, J.R. (Texas Tech Univ., Lubbock, TX (USA)); McCann, M.W. Jr. (Benjamin (J.R.) and Associates, Inc., Mountain View, CA (USA)); Murray, R.C. (Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (USA)); Hill, J.R. (USDOE Assistant Secretary for Environment, Safety, and He

    1990-06-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) and the DOE Natural Phenomena Hazards Panel have developed uniform design and evaluation guidelines for protection against natural phenomena hazards at DOE sites throughout the United States. The goal of the guidelines is to assure that DOE facilities can withstand the effects of natural phenomena such as earthquakes, extreme winds, tornadoes, and flooding. The guidelines apply to both new facilities (design) and existing facilities (evaluation, modification, and upgrading). The intended audience is primarily the civil/structural or mechanical engineers conducting the design or evaluation of DOE facilities. The likelihood of occurrence of natural phenomena hazards at each DOE site has been evaluated by the DOE Natural Phenomena Hazard Program. Probabilistic hazard models are available for earthquake, extreme wind/tornado, and flood. Alternatively, site organizations are encouraged to develop site-specific hazard models utilizing the most recent information and techniques available. In this document, performance goals and natural hazard levels are expressed in probabilistic terms, and design and evaluation procedures are presented in deterministic terms. Design/evaluation procedures conform closely to common standard practices so that the procedures will be easily understood by most engineers. Performance goals are expressed in terms of structure or equipment damage to the extent that: (1) the facility cannot function; (2) the facility would need to be replaced; or (3) personnel are endangered. 82 refs., 12 figs., 18 tabs.

  6. Natural phenomena hazards design and evaluation criteria for Department of Energy Facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-01-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) has issued an Order 420.1 which establishes policy for its facilities in the event of natural phenomena hazards (NPH) along with associated NPH mitigation requirements. This DOE Standard gives design and evaluation criteria for NPH effects as guidance for implementing the NPH mitigation requirements of DOE Order 420.1 and the associated implementation Guides. These are intended to be consistent design and evaluation criteria for protection against natural phenomena hazards at DOE sites throughout the United States. The goal of these criteria is to assure that DOE facilities can withstand the effects of natural phenomena such as earthquakes, extreme winds, tornadoes, and flooding. These criteria apply to the design of new facilities and the evaluation of existing facilities. They may also be used for modification and upgrading of existing facilities as appropriate. The design and evaluation criteria presented herein control the level of conservatism introduced in the design/evaluation process such that earthquake, wind, and flood hazards are treated on a consistent basis. These criteria also employ a graded approach to ensure that the level of conservatism and rigor in design/evaluation is appropriate for facility characteristics such as importance, hazards to people on and off site, and threat to the environment. For each natural phenomena hazard covered, these criteria consist of the following: Performance Categories and target performance goals as specified in the DOE Order 420.1 NPH Implementation Guide, and DOE-STD-1 021; specified probability levels from which natural phenomena hazard loading on structures, equipment, and systems is developed; and design and evaluation procedures to evaluate response to NPH loads and criteria to assess whether or not computed response is permissible.

  7. Progress towards developing consistent design and evaluation guidelines for DOE facilities subjected to natural phenomena hazards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kennedy, R.P.; Short, S.A.; McDonald, J.R.; McCann, M.W. Jr.; Reed, J.W.

    1985-01-01

    Probabilistic definitions of earthquake, wind and tornado natural phenomena hazards for many Department of Energy (DOE) facilities throughout the United States have been developed. In addition, definitions of the flood hazards which might affect these locations are currently being developed. The Department of Energy Natural Phenomena Hazards Panel is now preparing a document to provide guidance and criteria for DOE facility managers to assure that DOE facilities are adequately constructed to resist the effects of natural phenomena such as earthquake, strong wind and flood. The intent of this document is to provide instruction on how to utilize the hazard definitions to evaluate existing facilities and design new facilities in a manner such that the risk of adverse consequences is consistent with the cost, function, and danger to the public or environment of the facility. Potential effects on facilities of natural phenomena hazards are emphasized in this paper. The philosophy for mitigating these effects to be employed in the design and evaluation guidelines is also presented

  8. Natural phenomena hazards evaluation of equipment and piping of Gaseous Diffusion Plant Uranium Enrichment Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singhal, M.K.; Kincaid, J.H.; Hammond, C.R.; Stockdale, B.I.; Walls, J.C.

    1995-01-01

    In support of the Gaseous Diffusion Plant Safety Analysis Report Upgrade program (GDP SARUP), a natural phenomena hazards evaluation was performed for the main process equipment and piping in the uranium enrichment buildings at Paducah and Portsmouth gaseous diffusion plants. In order to reduce the cost of rigorous analyses, the evaluation methodology utilized a graded approach based on an experience data base collected by SQUG/EPRI that contains information on the performance of industrial equipment and piping during past earthquakes. This method consisted of a screening walkthrough of the facility in combination with the use of engineering judgment and simple calculations. By using these screenings combined with evaluations that contain decreasing conservatism, reductions in the time and cost of the analyses were significant. A team of experienced seismic engineers who were trained in the use of the DOE SQUG/EPRI Walkdown Screening Material was essential to the success of this natural phenomena hazards evaluation

  9. Natural phenomena hazards evaluation of equipment and piping of Gaseous Diffusion Plant Uranium Enrichment Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singhal, M.K.; Kincaid, J.H.; Hammond, C.R.; Stockdale, B.I.; Walls, J.C. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States). Technical Programs and Services; Brock, W.R.; Denton, D.R. [Lockheed Martin Energy Systems, Inc., Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    1995-12-31

    In support of the Gaseous Diffusion Plant Safety Analysis Report Upgrade program (GDP SARUP), a natural phenomena hazards evaluation was performed for the main process equipment and piping in the uranium enrichment buildings at Paducah and Portsmouth gaseous diffusion plants. In order to reduce the cost of rigorous analyses, the evaluation methodology utilized a graded approach based on an experience data base collected by SQUG/EPRI that contains information on the performance of industrial equipment and piping during past earthquakes. This method consisted of a screening walkthrough of the facility in combination with the use of engineering judgment and simple calculations. By using these screenings combined with evaluations that contain decreasing conservatism, reductions in the time and cost of the analyses were significant. A team of experienced seismic engineers who were trained in the use of the DOE SQUG/EPRI Walkdown Screening Material was essential to the success of this natural phenomena hazards evaluation.

  10. Evaluation of natural phenomena hazards as part of safety assessments for nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kot, C.A.; Hsieh, B.J.; Srinivasan, M.G.; Shin, Y.W.

    1995-02-01

    The continued operation of existing US Department of Energy (DOE) nuclear facilities and laboratories requires a safety reassessment based on current criteria and guidelines. This also includes evaluations for the effects of Natural Phenomena Hazards (NPH), for which these facilities may not have been designed. The NPH evaluations follow the requirements of DOE Order 5480.28, Natural Phenomena Hazards Mitigation (1993) which establishes NPH Performance Categories (PCs) for DOE facilities and associated target probabilistic performance goals. These goals are expressed as the mean annual probability of exceedance of acceptable behavior for structures, systems and components (SSCs) subjected to NPH effects. The assignment of an NPH Performance Category is based on the overall hazard categorization (low, moderate, high) of a facility and on the function of an SSC under evaluation (DOE-STD-1021, 1992). Detailed guidance for the NPH analysis and evaluation criteria are also provided (DOE-STD-1020, 1994). These analyses can be very resource intensive, and may not be necessary for the evaluation of all SSCs in existing facilities, in particular for low hazard category facilities. An approach relying heavily on screening inspections, engineering judgment and use of NPH experience data (S. J. Eder et al., 1993), can minimize the analytical effort, give reasonable estimates of the NPH susceptibilities, and yield adequate information for an overall safety evaluation of the facility. In the following sections this approach is described in more detail and is illustrated by an application to a nuclear laboratory complex

  11. Natural phenomena hazards evaluation of concrete silos 1, 2, 3 and 4 at Fernald, Ohio

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Char, C.V.; Shiner, T.J.

    1995-08-01

    Fernald Environmental Management Project (FEMP) is a United States Department of Energy (DOE) site located near Cincinnati, Ohio. FEMP was formerly established as the Feed Materials Production Center (FMPC) in 1951 under the Atomic Energy Commission. FEMP is currently undergoing site wide environmental remediation. This paper addresses four concrete silos built during the 1950s and located in Operable Unit 4 (OU-4). Silos 1 and 2 known as K-65 Silos contain residues from Uranium Ore processing. Silo 3 contains metal oxides in powder form. Silo 4 is empty. The Silos are categorized as low hazard facilities and the Natural Phenomena Hazards (NPH) performance category is PC-2, based on a recently completed safety analysis report. This paper describes the structural evaluation of concrete Silos 1, 2, 3 and 4 for NPH. Non Destructive Tests (NDT) were conducted to establish the current conditions of the silos. Analytical and computer methods were used to evaluate the stresses and displacements for different silo configurations and different loading combinations. Finite element models were developed to uniquely represent each silo, and analyzed using SAP90 computer program. The SAPLOT post processor was used for rapid determination of critical areas of concern for critical loading combinations and for varying silo configurations

  12. Third DOE natural phenomena hazards mitigation conference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    This conference on Natural Phenomena Hazards Mitigation has been organized into 15 presentation, panel, and poster sessions. The sessions included an overview of activities at DOE Headquarters; natural phenomena hazards tasks underway for DOE; two sessions on codes, standards, orders, criteria, and guidelines; two sessions on seismic hazards; equipment qualification; wind; PRA and margin assessments; modifications, retrofit, and restart; underground structures with a panel discussion; seismic analysis; seismic evaluation and design; and a poster session. Individual projects are processed separately for the data bases

  13. Second DOE natural phenomena hazards mitigation conference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    This conference has been organized into ten presentation sessions which include an overview of the DOE Natural Phenomena Guidelines, Seismic Analysis, Seismic Design, Modifying Existing Facilities, DOE Orders, Codes, and Standards (2 sessions), Seismic Hazard (2 sessions), and Probabilistic Risk Assessment (2 sessions). Two poster sessions were also included in the program to provide a different forum for communication of ideas. Over the past fourteen years, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Nuclear Systems Safety Program, has been working with the US Department of Energy, Office of Safety Appraisals and their predecessors in the area of natural phenomena hazards. During this time we have developed seismic, extreme wind/tornado, and flood hazard models for DOE sites in the United States. Guidelines for designing and evaluating DOE facilities for natural phenomena have been developed and are in interim use throughout the DOE community. A series of state-of-the practice manuals have also been developed to aid the designers. All of this material is listed in the Natural Phenomena Hazards Bibliography included in these proceedings. This conference provides a mechanism to disseminate current information on natural phenomena hazards and their mitigation. It provides an opportunity to bring together members of the DOE community to discuss current projects, to share information, and to hear practicing members of the structural engineering community discuss their experiences from past natural phenomena, future trends, and any changes to building codes. Each paper or poster presented is included in these proceedings. We have also included material related to the luncheon and dinner talks

  14. Natural phenomena hazards, Hanford Site, Washington

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conrads, T.J.

    1998-01-01

    This document presents the natural phenomena hazard loads for use in implementing DOE Order 5480.28, Natural Phenomena Hazards Mitigation, and supports development of double-shell tank systems specifications at the Hanford Site in south-central Washington State. The natural phenomena covered are seismic, flood, wind, volcanic ash, lightning, snow, temperature, solar radiation, suspended sediment, and relative humidity

  15. Systematic Evaluation Program (SEP) at Rocky Flats Plant: An overview of practical management issues for evaluation of natural phenomena hazards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Badwan, F.M.

    1993-01-01

    Many of the buildings at the Rocky Flats Plant were designed and built before modern standards were developed, including standards for protection against extreme natural phenomenon such as tornadoes, earthquakes, and floods. The purpose of the SEP is to establish an integrated approach to assessing the design adequacy of specific high and moderate hazard Rocky Flats facilities from a safety perspective and to establish a basis for defining any needed facility improvements. The SEP is to be carried out in three Phases. In Phase 1, topics to be evaluated and an evaluation plan for each topic were developed. Any differences between Current Design Requirements (CDR) or acceptance criteria and the design of existing facilities, will be identified during Phase 2 and assessed using an integrated systematic approach during Phase 3. The integrated assessment performed during Phase 3 provides a process for evaluating the differences between existing facility design and CDRs so that decisions on corrective actions can be made on the basis of relative risk reduction and cost effectiveness. These efforts will ensure that a balanced and integrated level of safety is achieved for long-term operation of these buildings. Through appropriate selection of topics and identification of the structures, systems, and components to be evaluated, the SEP will address outstanding design issues related to the prevention and mitigation of design basis accidents, including those arising from natural phenomena. The objective of the SEP is not to bring these buildings into strict compliance with current requirements, but rather to ensure that an adequate level of safety is achieved in an economical fashion

  16. Natural phenomena hazards, Hanford Site, south central Washington

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tallman, A.M.

    1996-01-01

    This document presents the natural phenomena hazard (NPH) loads for use in implementing DOE Order 5480.28, Natural Phenomena Hazards Mitigation, at the Hanford Site in south-central Washington State. The purpose of this document is twofold: (1) summarize the NPH that are important to the design and evaluation of structures, systems, and components at the Hanford Site; (2) develop the appropriate natural phenomena loads for use in the implementation of DOE Order 5480.28. The supporting standards, DOE-STD-1020-94, Natural Phenomena Hazards Design and Evaluation Criteria for Department of Energy Facilities (DOE 1994a); DOE-STD-1022-94, Natural Phenomena Hazards Site Characteristics Criteria (DOE 1994b); and DOE-STD-1023-95, Natural Phenomena Hazards Assessment Criteria (DOE 1995) are the basis for developing the NPH loads

  17. WHC natural phenomena hazards mitigation implementation plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conrads, T.J.

    1996-09-11

    Natural phenomena hazards (NPH) are unexpected acts of nature which pose a threat or danger to workers, the public or to the environment. Earthquakes, extreme winds (hurricane and tornado),snow, flooding, volcanic ashfall, and lightning strike are examples of NPH at Hanford. It is the policy of U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to design, construct and operate DOE facilitiesso that workers, the public and the environment are protected from NPH and other hazards. During 1993 DOE, Richland Operations Office (RL) transmitted DOE Order 5480.28, ``Natural Phenomena Hazards Mitigation,`` to Westinghouse Hanford COmpany (WHC) for compliance. The Order includes rigorous new NPH criteria for the design of new DOE facilities as well as for the evaluation and upgrade of existing DOE facilities. In 1995 DOE issued Order 420.1, ``Facility Safety`` which contains the same NPH requirements and invokes the same applicable standards as Order 5480.28. It will supersede Order 5480.28 when an in-force date for Order 420.1 is established through contract revision. Activities will be planned and accomplished in four phases: Mobilization; Prioritization; Evaluation; and Upgrade. The basis for the graded approach is the designation of facilities/structures into one of five performance categories based upon safety function, mission and cost. This Implementation Plan develops the program for the Prioritization Phase, as well as an overall strategy for the implemention of DOE Order 5480.2B.

  18. DOE natural phenomena hazards mitigation conference: proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-10-01

    The conference includes sessions which present an overview of DOE programs, available codes, standards and criteria, examples of designs and upgrades from the DOE complex, lessons learned from past natural phenomena, ground motion, seismic evaluation of equipment, and applications of probabilistic risk assessment techniques to DOE facilities. Separate abstracts have been prepared for individual papers

  19. Department of Energy Natural Phenomena Hazards Mitigation program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murray, R.C.

    1993-01-01

    This paper presents a summary of past and present accomplishments of the Natural Phenomena Hazards Program that has been ongoing at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory since 1975. The Natural Phenomena covered includes earthquake; winds, hurricanes, and tornadoes; flooding and precipitation; lightning; and volcanic events. The work is organized into four major areas (1) Policy, requirements, standards, and guidance, (2) Technical support, research and development, (3) Technology transfer, and (4) Oversight

  20. Loss experience from natural phenomena hazards in the Department of Energy (50 years of natural phenomena hazard losses)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hill, J.R.

    1993-01-01

    This paper presents a historical prespective on losses due to natural hazard incidents (1943-1993) at Department of Energy (DOE) and predecessor agencies including the Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) and the Energy Research and Development Agency (ERDA). This paper also demonstrates how an existing DOE resource can be used to gain valuable insight into injury or property damage incidents. That resource is the Computerized Accident/Incident Reporting System (CAIRS) module of DOE's Safety Performance Measurement System. CAIRS data selected the 1981-1991 DOE injury/illness reports, from all the accident reports of the AEC that cited a natural phenomena hazard as either the direct or indirect cause of the injury/property damage. Specifically, injury or property damage reports were selected for analysis if they had a causal factor link to severe weather or natural phenomena hazard categories. Natural phenomena hazard categories are injury/property damage caused by hurricane/tornado, earthquake, lightning, or flood. Severe weather categories are injury/property damage associated with other than normal weather conditions. The lessons learned, as a result of reviewing case histories, are presented, as are suggestions on how to reduce the likelihood of future injuries/property damage as a result of similar events. A significant finding, is that most injuries and property damage were the result of an indirect causal link to a natural phenomena hazard and thus, may be more preventable than previously thought possible. The primary message, however, is that CAIRS and other incident data bases are valuable resources and should be considered for use by those interested in identifying new ways of protecting the health and safety of the worker and for reducing building losses due to the effects of natural phenomena hazards

  1. Guidelines for the development of natural phenomena hazards design criteria for surface facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nelson, T.A.; Hossain, Q.A.; Murray, R.C.

    1992-01-01

    This paper discusses the rationale behind the guidelines, criteria, and methodologies that are currently used for natural phenomena hazard design and evaluation of DOE nuclear and non-nuclear facilities. The bases for the performance goals and usage categories specified in UCRL-15910 are examined, and the sources of intentional conservatism in the analyses, design, and evaluation methods and criteria are identified. Outlines of recent developments/changes in DOE Orders related to Natural Phenomena hazard mitigation are also presented. Finally, the authors recommend the use of DOE methodologies as embodied in UCRL-15910 for design and evaluation of surface facilities of the high level nuclear waste repository site

  2. Fourth DOE Natural Phenomena Hazards Mitigation Conference: Proceedings. Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-12-31

    This conference allowed an interchange in the natural phenomena area among designers, safety professionals, and managers. The papers presented in Volume I of the proceedings are from sessions I - VIII which cover the general topics of: DOE standards, lessons learned and walkdowns, wind, waste tanks, ground motion, testing and materials, probabilistic seismic hazards, risk assessment, base isolation and energy dissipation, and lifelines and floods. Individual papers are indexed separately. (GH)

  3. Fourth DOE Natural Phenomena Hazards Mitigation Conference: Proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    This conference allowed an interchange in the natural phenomena area among designers, safety professionals, and managers. The papers presented in Volume I of the proceedings are from sessions I - VIII which cover the general topics of: DOE standards, lessons learned and walkdowns, wind, waste tanks, ground motion, testing and materials, probabilistic seismic hazards, risk assessment, base isolation and energy dissipation, and lifelines and floods. Individual papers are indexed separately. (GH)

  4. Quantitative physical models of volcanic phenomena for hazards assessment of critical infrastructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Antonio

    2016-04-01

    Volcanic hazards may have destructive effects on economy, transport, and natural environments at both local and regional scale. Hazardous phenomena include pyroclastic density currents, tephra fall, gas emissions, lava flows, debris flows and avalanches, and lahars. Volcanic hazards assessment is based on available information to characterize potential volcanic sources in the region of interest and to determine whether specific volcanic phenomena might reach a given site. Volcanic hazards assessment is focussed on estimating the distances that volcanic phenomena could travel from potential sources and their intensity at the considered site. Epistemic and aleatory uncertainties strongly affect the resulting hazards assessment. Within the context of critical infrastructures, volcanic eruptions are rare natural events that can create severe hazards. In addition to being rare events, evidence of many past volcanic eruptions is poorly preserved in the geologic record. The models used for describing the impact of volcanic phenomena generally represent a range of model complexities, from simplified physics based conceptual models to highly coupled thermo fluid dynamical approaches. Modelling approaches represent a hierarchy of complexity, which reflects increasing requirements for well characterized data in order to produce a broader range of output information. In selecting models for the hazard analysis related to a specific phenomenon, questions that need to be answered by the models must be carefully considered. Independently of the model, the final hazards assessment strongly depends on input derived from detailed volcanological investigations, such as mapping and stratigraphic correlations. For each phenomenon, an overview of currently available approaches for the evaluation of future hazards will be presented with the aim to provide a foundation for future work in developing an international consensus on volcanic hazards assessment methods.

  5. Natural phenomena hazards project for Department of Energy sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coats, D.W.

    1985-01-01

    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) has developed seismic and wind hazard models for the Office of Nuclear Safety (ONS), Department of Energy (DOE). The work is part of a three-phase effort aimed at establishing uniform building design criteria for seismic and wind hazards at DOE sites throughout the United States. In Phase 1, LLNL gathered information on the sites and their critical facilities, including nuclear reactors, fuel-reprocessing plants, high-level waste storage and treatment facilities, and special nuclear material facilities. In Phase 2, development of seismic and wind hazard models, was initiated. These hazard models express the annual probability that the site will experience an earthquake or wind speed greater than some specified magnitude. In the final phase, it is anticipated that the DOE will use the hazard models to establish uniform criteria for the design and evaluation of critical facilities. 13 references, 2 figures, 1 table

  6. Health Hazard Evaluations

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... May 1, 2018 Content source: National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health Division of Surveillance, Hazard Evaluation, and Field Studies ... Fear Act OIG 1600 Clifton Road Atlanta , GA 30329-4027 ...

  7. Development of a graded approach to natural phenomena hazard design and evaluation of radioactive waste and spent fuel stored at nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stevenson, J.D.

    2001-01-01

    Nuclear safety related structures, systems and components, SSC, at large commercial nuclear power plants other than those applicable to reactor safety have in general not received the attention and detailed loading and behavior criteria use for reactor design safety. Such systems include spent fuel storage and radioactive waste storage and processing. In this paper is a suggested grading of design bases for natural hazards to be applied to such facilities commensurate with their radioactive risk. They are applicable to the full range of safety related SSC which are determined by the inventory of radioactive isotopes and the unmitigated doses at appropriate plant and site boundaries. (author)

  8. Fluor Daniel Hanford implementation plan for DOE Order 5480.28. Natural phenomena hazards mitigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conrads, T.J.

    1997-01-01

    Natural phenomena hazards (NPH) are unexpected acts of nature that pose a threat or danger to workers, the public, or the environment. Earthquakes, extreme winds (hurricane and tornado), snow, flooding, volcanic ashfall, and lightning strikes are examples of NPH that could occur at the Hanford Site. U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) policy requires facilities to be designed, constructed, and operated in a manner that protects workers, the public, and the environment from hazards caused by natural phenomena. DOE Order 5480.28, Natural Phenomena Hazards Mitigation, includes rigorous new natural phenomena criteria for the design of new DOE facilities, as well as for the evaluation and, if necessary, upgrade of existing DOE facilities. The Order was transmitted to Westinghouse Hanford Company in 1993 for compliance and is also identified in the Project Hanford Management Contract, Section J, Appendix C. Criteria and requirements of DOE Order 5480.28 are included in five standards, the last of which, DOE-STD-1023, was released in fiscal year 1996. Because the Order was released before all of its required standards were released, enforcement of the Order was waived pending release of the last standard and determination of an in-force date by DOE Richland Operations Office (DOE-RL). Agreement also was reached between the Management and Operations Contractor and DOE-RL that the Order would become enforceable for new structures, systems, and components (SSCS) 60 days following issue of a new order-based design criteria in HNF-PRO-97, Engineering Design and Evaluation. The order also requires that commitments addressing existing SSCs be included in an implementation plan that is to be issued 1 year following the release of the last standard. Subsequently, WHC-SP-1175, Westinghouse Hanford Company Implementation Plan for DOE Order 5480.28, Natural Phenomena Hazards Mitigation, Rev. 0, was issued in November 1996, and this document, HNF-SP-1175, Fluor Daniel Hanford

  9. Natural phenomena risk analysis - an approach for the tritium facilities 5480.23 SAR natural phenomena hazards accident analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cappucci, A.J. Jr.; Joshi, J.R.; Long, T.A.; Taylor, R.P.

    1997-01-01

    A Tritium Facilities (TF) Safety Analysis Report (SAR) has been developed which is compliant with DOE Order 5480.23. The 5480.23 SAR upgrades and integrates the safety documentation for the TF into a single SAR for all of the tritium processing buildings. As part of the TF SAR effort, natural phenomena hazards (NPH) were analyzed. A cost effective strategy was developed using a team approach to take advantage of limited resources and budgets. During development of the Hazard and Accident Analysis for the 5480.23 SAR, a strategy was required to allow maximum use of existing analysis and to develop a cost effective graded approach for any new analysis in identifying and analyzing the bounding accidents for the TF. This approach was used to effectively identify and analyze NPH for the TF. The first part of the strategy consisted of evaluating the current SAR for the RTF to determine what NPH analysis could be used in the new combined 5480.23 SAR. The second part was to develop a method for identifying and analyzing NPH events for the older facilities which took advantage of engineering judgment, was cost effective, and followed a graded approach. The second part was especially challenging because of the lack of documented existing analysis considered adequate for the 5480.23 SAR and a limited budget for SAR development and preparation. This paper addresses the strategy for the older facilities

  10. Review of Natural Phenomena Hazard (NPH) Assessments for the DOE Hanford Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Snow, Robert L.; Ross, Steven B.

    2011-09-15

    The purpose of this review is to assess the need for updating Natural Phenomena Hazard (NPH) assessments for the DOE's Hanford Site, as required by DOE Order 420.1B Chapter IV, Natural Phenomena Hazards Mitigation, based on significant changes in state-of-the-art NPH assessment methodology or site-specific information. This review is an update and expansion to the September 2010 review of PNNL-19751, Review of Natural Phenomena Hazard (NPH) Assessments for the Hanford 200 Areas (Non-Seismic).

  11. Fourth DOE Natural Phenomena Hazards Mitigation Conference: Proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    Volume II of the proceedings covers sessions IX - XIV. The general topics of the presented papers are: volcanoes, piping and components, waste tanks, probabilistic seismic hazards, geological and geotechnical aspects, equipment, codes and standards, analysis, and upgrades. Individual papers are indexed separately. (GH)

  12. Consistent natural phenomena design and evaluation guidelines for U.S. Department of Energy facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murray, R.C.; Short, S.A.

    1989-01-01

    Uniform design and evaluation guidelines for protection against natural phenomena hazards such as earthquakes, extreme winds, and flooding for facilities at Department of Energy (DOE) sites throughout the United States have been developed. The guidelines apply to design of new facilities and to evaluation or modification of existing facilities. These guidelines are an approach for design or evaluation for mitigating the effects of natural phenomena hazards. These guidelines are intended to control the level of conservatism introduced in the design/evaluation process such that all hazards are treated on a reasonably consistent and uniform basis and such that the level of conservatism is appropriate for facility characteristics such as importance, cost, and hazards to on-site personnel, the general public, and the environment. The philosophy and goals of these guidelines are covered by this paper

  13. Hazard evaluation and risk management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fritzsche, A.F.

    1986-01-01

    The eigth chapter deals with the actual handling of hazards. The principal issue concerns man's behaviour towards hazards as an individual formerly and today; the evaluation of expected results of both a positive and a negative kind as determined by the individual's values which may differ and vary greatly from one individual to the next. The evaluation of benefit and hazard as well as the risk management resulting from decision-taking are political processes in the democratic state. Formal decision-taking tools play a major role in this process which concerns such central issues like who will participate; how the decision is arrived at; the participation of citizens; specialist knowledge and participation of the general public. (HSCH) [de

  14. Earthquake hazard evaluation for Switzerland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruettener, E.

    1995-01-01

    Earthquake hazard analysis is of considerable importance for Switzerland, a country with moderate seismic activity but high economic values at risk. The evaluation of earthquake hazard, i.e. the determination of return periods versus ground motion parameters, requires a description of earthquake occurrences in space and time. In this study the seismic hazard for major cities in Switzerland is determined. The seismic hazard analysis is based on historic earthquake records as well as instrumental data. The historic earthquake data show considerable uncertainties concerning epicenter location and epicentral intensity. A specific concept is required, therefore, which permits the description of the uncertainties of each individual earthquake. This is achieved by probability distributions for earthquake size and location. Historical considerations, which indicate changes in public earthquake awareness at various times (mainly due to large historical earthquakes), as well as statistical tests have been used to identify time periods of complete earthquake reporting as a function of intensity. As a result, the catalog is judged to be complete since 1878 for all earthquakes with epicentral intensities greater than IV, since 1750 for intensities greater than VI, since 1600 for intensities greater than VIII, and since 1300 for intensities greater than IX. Instrumental data provide accurate information about the depth distribution of earthquakes in Switzerland. In the Alps, focal depths are restricted to the uppermost 15 km of the crust, whereas below the northern Alpine foreland earthquakes are distributed throughout the entire crust (30 km). This depth distribution is considered in the final hazard analysis by probability distributions. (author) figs., tabs., refs

  15. Site characterization criteria (DOE-STD-1022-94) for natural phenomena hazards at DOE sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, J.C.; Ueng, T.S.; Boissonnade, A.C.

    1995-12-01

    This paper briefly summarizes requirements of site characterization for Natural Phenomena Hazards (NPH) at DOE sites. In order to comply with DOE Order 5480.28, site characterization criteria has been developed to provide site-specific information needed for development of NPH assessment criteria. Appropriate approaches are outlined to ensure that the current state-of-the-art methodologies and procedures are used in the site characterization. General and detailed site characterization requirements are provided in the areas of meteorology, hydrology, geology, seismology and geotechnical studies

  16. Volcanic Hazards in Site Evaluation for Nuclear Installations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-10-15

    This publication provides comprehensive and updated guidance for site evaluation in relation to volcanic hazards. It includes recommendations on assessing the volcanic hazards at a nuclear installation site, in order to identify and characterize, in a comprehensive manner, all potentially hazardous phenomena that may be associated with future volcanic events. It describes how some of these volcanic phenomena may affect the acceptability of the selected site, resulting in exclusion of a site or determining the corresponding design basis parameters for the installation. This Safety Guide is applicable to both existing and new sites, and a graded approach is recommended to cater for all types of nuclear installations. Contents: 1. Introduction; 2. Overview of volcanic hazard assessment; 3. General recommendations; 4. Necessary information and investigations (database); 5. Screening of volcanic hazards; 6. Site specific volcanic hazard assessment; 7. Nuclear installations other than nuclear power plants; 8. Monitoring and preparation for response; 9. Management system for volcanic hazard assessment; Annex I: Volcanic hazard scenarios; Annex II: Worldwide sources of information.

  17. US Department of Energy natural phenomena design/evaluation guidelines/lessons learned

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conrads, T.J.

    1991-08-01

    In the spring of 1988, DOE Order 6430.1A, General Design Criteria [1], was issued for use. This document references UCRL-15910, Design and Evaluation Guidelines for DOE Facilities Subjected to Natural Phenomena Hazards [2], which is to be used as the basis for the design and evaluation of new and existing facilities to natural phenomena loading. Rather than use the historical deterministic methods for computing structural and component loading from potential natural phenomena, UCRL-15910 incorporated the years of hazards studies conducted throughout the US Department of Energy complex into probabilistic-based methods. This paper describes the process used to incorporate US Department of Energy natural phenomena design guidelines into the Hanford Plant Standards -- Standard Design Criteria for Architectural and Civil Standards [3]. It also addresses the subsequent use of these criteria during structural assessments of facilities, systems, and components of various vintage in support of updating safety analysis reports. The paper includes comparison of results using these most recent probabilistic-based natural phenomena loading criteria to those obtained from previous assessments, and it addresses the lessons learned from the many structural evaluations of 1940--1960 vintage buildings

  18. Screening criteria of volcanic hazards aspect in the NPP site evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nur Siwhan

    2013-01-01

    Studies have been conducted on the completeness of regulation in Indonesia particularly on volcanic hazards aspects in the evaluation of nuclear power plant site. Volcanic hazard aspect needed to identify potential external hazards that may endanger the safety of the operation of nuclear power plants. There are four stages for evaluating volcanic hazards, which are initial assessment, characterization sources of volcanic activity in the future, screening volcanic hazards and assessment of capable volcanic hazards. This paper discuss the third stage of the general evaluation which is the screening procedure of volcanic hazards. BAPETEN Chairman Regulation No. 2 Year of 2008 has only one screening criteria for missile volcanic phenomena, so it required screening criteria for other hazard phenomena that are pyroclastic flow density; lava flows; avalanche debris materials; lava; opening hole new eruptions, volcano missile; tsunamis; ground deformation; and hydrothermal system and ground water anomaly. (author)

  19. Evaluation of seismic hazards for nuclear power plants. Safety guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    The main objective of this Safety Guide is to provide recommendations on how to determine the ground motion hazards for a plant at a particular site and the potential for surface faulting, which could affect the feasibility of construction and safe operation of a plant at that site. The guidelines and procedures presented in this Safety Guide can appropriately be used in evaluations of site suitability and seismic hazards for nuclear power plants in any seismotectonic environment. The probabilistic seismic hazard analysis recommended in this Safety Guide also addresses the needs for seismic hazard analysis of external event PSAs conducted for nuclear power plants. Many of the methods and processes described may also be applicable to nuclear facilities other than power plants. Other phenomena of permanent ground displacement (liquefaction, slope instability, subsidence and collapse) as well as the topic of seismically induced flooding are treated in Safety Guides relating to foundation safety and coastal flooding. Recommendations of a general nature are given in Section 2. Section 3 discusses the acquisition of a database containing the information needed to evaluate and address all hazards associated with earthquakes. Section 4 covers the use of this database for construction of a seismotectonic model. Sections 5 and 6 review ground motion hazards and evaluations of the potential for surface faulting, respectively. Section 7 addresses quality assurance in the evaluation of seismic hazards for nuclear power plants

  20. DOE natural phenomenal hazards design and evaluation criteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murray, R.C.; Nelson, T.A.; Short, S.A.; Kennedy, R.P.; Chander, H.; Hill, J.R.; Kimball, J.K.

    1994-10-01

    It is the policy of the Department of Energy (DOE) to design, construct, and operate DOE facilities so that workers, the general public, and the environment are protected from the impacts of natural phenomena hazards (NPH). Furthermore, DOE has established explicit goals of acceptable risk for NPH performance. As a result, natural phenomena hazard (earthquake, extreme wind, and flood) design and evaluation criteria for DOE facilities have been developed based on target probabilistic performance goals. These criteria include selection of design/evaluation NPH input from probabilistic hazard curves combined with commonly practiced deterministic response evaluation methods and acceptance criteria with controlled levels of conservatism. For earthquake considerations, conservatism is intentionally introduced in specification of material strengths and capacities, in the allowance of limited inelastic behavior, and by a seismic scale factor. Criteria have been developed following a graded approach for several performance goals ranging from that appropriate for normal-use facilities to that appropriate for facilities involving hazardous or critical operations. Performance goals are comprised of qualitative expressions of acceptable behavior and of target quantitative probabilities that acceptable limits of behavior are maintained. The criteria are simple procedures but have a rigorous basis. This paper addresses DOE seismic design and evaluation criteria

  1. Volcanic Hazard Assessments for Nuclear Installations: Methods and Examples in Site Evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-07-01

    To provide guidance on the protection of nuclear installations against the effects of volcanoes, the IAEA published in 2012 IAEA Safety Standards Series No. SSG-21, Volcanic Hazards in Site Evaluation for Nuclear Installations. SSG-21 addresses hazards relating to volcanic phenomena, and provides recommendations and general guidance for evaluation of these hazards. Unlike seismic hazard assessments, models for volcanic hazard assessment have not undergone decades of review, evaluation and testing for suitability in evaluating hazards at proposed nuclear installations. Currently in volcanology, scientific developments and detailed methodologies to model volcanic phenomena are evolving rapidly.This publication provides information on detailed methodologies and examples in the application of volcanic hazard assessment to site evaluation for nuclear installations, thereby addressing the recommendations in SSG-21. Although SSG-21 develops a logical framework for conducting a volcanic hazard assessment, this publication demonstrates the practicability of evaluating the recommendations in SSG-21 through a systematic volcanic hazard assessment and examples from Member States. The results of this hazard assessment can be used to derive the appropriate design bases and operational considerations for specific nuclear installations

  2. Hazard Evaluation for 244-CR Vault

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    GRAMS, W.H.

    1999-01-01

    This document presents the results of a hazards identification and evaluation performed on the 244-CR Vault to close a USQ (USQ No.TF-98-0785, Potential Inadequacy in Authorization Basis (PIAB): To Evaluate Miscellaneous Facilities Listed In HNF-2503 And Not Addressed In The TWRS Authorization Basis) that was generated as part of an evaluation of inactive TWRS facilities

  3. Hazard Evaluation for 244-CR Vault

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    GRAMS, W.H.

    1999-08-19

    This document presents the results of a hazards identification and evaluation performed on the 244-CR Vault to close a USQ (USQ No.TF-98-0785, Potential Inadequacy in Authorization Basis (PIAB): To Evaluate Miscellaneous Facilities Listed In HNF-2503 And Not Addressed In The TWRS Authorization Basis) that was generated as part of an evaluation of inactive TWRS facilities.

  4. Hazard evaluation for 244-AR vault facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    BRAUN, D.J.

    1999-01-01

    This document presents the results of a hazard identification and evaluation performed on the 244-AR Vault Facility to close a USQ (USQ No. TF-98-0785, Potential Inadequacy in Authorization Basis (PIAB): To Evaluate Miscellaneous Facilities Listed in HNF-2503 And Not Addressed In The TWRS Authorization Basis) that was generated as part of an evaluation of inactive TWRS facilities

  5. Comparison of evaluation guidelines for life-safety seismic hazards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wyllie, L.A.; Love, R.J.

    1989-01-01

    The guidelines presented in Design Evaluation guidelines for Department of Energy Facilities Subjected to natural Phenomena Hazards (UCRL 15910 Draft; May 1989) include evaluation criteria for existing Department of Energy buildings subjected to earthquakes. These criteria were developed at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory for use in both the seismic design of new structures and the evaluation of existing structures. ATC-14: Evaluating The Seismic Resistance of Existing Buildings developed by the Applied Technology Council, consists of guidelines and criteria for identifying the buildings or building components that present unacceptable risk to human lives. This paper compares and contrasts the two evaluation guidelines for existing buildings using a prototype building as an example. The prototype building is a seven story, concrete shear wall building assuming a General Use Occupancy

  6. Analysis and design of Fuel Cycle Plant for natural phenomena hazards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horsager, B.K.

    1985-01-01

    A description of the Design Basis and the analysis and design methods used for natural phenomena at the Fuel Cycle Plant at Hanford, Washington is presented. A physical description of the main process facility and the auxiliary emergency and support facilities is given. The mission of the facility is presented and a brief description of the processes which will take place within the facility is given. The Design Criteria and design bases for natural phenomena including tornados, earthquakes and volcanic eruptions are described

  7. Natural hazard losses: A DOE (Department of Energy) perspective. Injury and property damage experience from natural phenomena hazards Department of Energy 1943-1989

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hill, J.R.

    1989-01-01

    This presentation provides a perspective of DOE losses during the past 46 years even though loss data was not readily available for all DOE operations. As such this paper is considered preliminary and more work is needed to provide an informed view of all DOE losses. Review of the reported historical losses has provided an opportunity to create an awareness of the extent and location of a wide variety of natural phenomena hazards that have caused damage at most DOE sites. Some suggestions and observations to consider are: (1) mitigation strategies may achieve greatest reductions in wind damage; (2) most damage has occurred to conventional construction; (3) lightning damage review may provide insight for design standards change; (4) flood damage occurred where least expected. Through this awareness, the author hopes we are encouraged to provide our ideas and our professional skills for a Decade of Natural Hazard Reduction in the Department of Energy

  8. Site characterization criteria (DOE-STD-1022-94) for natural phenomena hazards at DOE sites. Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, J.C.; Ueng, Tzou-Shin; Boissonnade, A.C.

    1995-01-01

    This paper briefly summarizes requirements of site characterization for Natural Phenomena Hazards (NPH) at DOE sites. In order to comply with DOE Order 5480.28, site characterization criteria has been developed to provide site-specific information needed for development of NPH assessment criteria. Appropriate approaches are outlined to ensure that the current state-of-the-art methodologies and procedures are used in the site characterization. General and detailed site characterization requirements are provided in the areas of meteorology, hydrology, geology, seismology and geotechnical studies

  9. Light resin curing devices - a hazard evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glansholm, A.

    1985-09-01

    An evaluation has been made of optical hazards to the eye from 18 specified lamps designed for curing dental composite plastic fillings. Radiation source in all of the investigated units were incandescent lamps of the tungsten metal halide type. Ultraviolet and visible radiation was measured with a calibrated EGandG 585 spectroradiometer system. Tables and diagrams of spectral radiance (Wm -2 nm -1 sr -1 ) are given. Hazard evaluation based on the ACGIH Threshold Limit Values of ultraviolet and visible radiation gave the following results: 1. Ultraviolet radiation is of no concern ( -2 UVA at 10 cm). 2. Reflexes from teeth are harmless. 3. Retinal thermal injury hazard (permanent burn damage) is diminnutive and non-existent if the equipment is handled with sense (irradiation of an unprotected eye at a distance less than 10 cm should be avoided). 4. Retinal photochemical (blue-light) injury may appear after direct viewing of the end of the fiber-optics cable. A table with safe exposure time for each apparatus is given. Proper protective goggles can eliminate the blue-light hazard. (Author)

  10. Evaluation of ferrocyanide/nitrate explosive hazard

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cady, H.H.

    1992-06-01

    Los Alamos National Laboratory agreed to assist Pacific Northwest Laboratory in the Ferrocyanide Safety Evaluation Program by helping to evaluate the explosive hazard of several mixtures of simulated ferrocyanide waste-tank sludge containing sodium nitrite and sodium nitrate. This report is an evaluation of the small-scale safety tests used to assess the safety of these materials from an explosive point of view. These tests show that these materials are not initiated by mechanical insult, and they require an external heat source before any exothermic chemical reaction can be observed

  11. Technical basis, supporting information, and strategy for development and implementation of DOE policy for natural phenomena hazards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murray, R.C.

    1991-09-01

    Policy for addressing natural phenomenon comprises a hierarchy of interrelated documents. The top level of policy is contained in the code of Federal Regulations which establishes the framework and intent to ensure overall safety of DOE facilities when subjected to the effects of natural phenomena. The natural phenomena to be considered include earthquakes and tsunami, winds, hurricanes and tornadoes, floods, volcano effects and seiches. Natural phenomena criteria have been established for design of new facilities; evaluation of existing facilities; additions, modifications, and upgrades to existing facilities; and evaluation criteria for new or existing sites. Steps needed to implement these four general criteria are described. The intent of these criteria is to identify WHAT needs to be done to ensure adequate protection from natural phenomena. The commentary provides discussion of WHY this is needed for DOE facilities within the complex. Implementing procedures identifying HOW to carry out these criteria are next identified. Finally, short and long term tasks needed to identify the implementing procedure are tabulated. There is an overall need for consistency throughout the DOE complex related to natural phenomena including consistent terminology, policy, and implementation. 1 fig, 6 tabs.

  12. Analysis on Two Typical Landslide Hazard Phenomena in The Wenchuan Earthquake by Field Investigations and Shaking Table Tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Changwei Yang

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Based on our field investigations of landslide hazards in the Wenchuan earthquake, some findings can be reported: (1 the multi-aspect terrain facing empty isolated mountains and thin ridges reacted intensely to the earthquake and was seriously damaged; (2 the slope angles of most landslides was larger than 45°. Considering the above disaster phenomena, the reasons are analyzed based on shaking table tests of one-sided, two-sided and four-sided slopes. The analysis results show that: (1 the amplifications of the peak accelerations of four-sided slopes is stronger than that of the two-sided slopes, while that of the one-sided slope is the weakest, which can indirectly explain the phenomena that the damage is most serious; (2 the amplifications of the peak accelerations gradually increase as the slope angles increase, and there are two inflection points which are the point where the slope angle is 45° and where the slope angle is 50°, respectively, which can explain the seismic phenomenon whereby landslide hazards mainly occur on the slopes whose slope angle is bigger than 45°. The amplification along the slope strike direction is basically consistent, and the step is smooth.

  13. Evaluating optical hazards from plasma arc cutting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glassford, Eric; Burr, Gregory

    2018-01-01

    The Health Hazard Evaluation Program of the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health evaluated a steel building materials manufacturer. The employer requested the evaluation because of concerns about optical radiation hazards from a plasma arc cutting system and the need to clarify eye protection requirements for plasma operators, other employees, and visitors. The strength of the ultraviolet radiation, visible radiation (light), and infrared radiation generated by the plasma arc cutter was measured at various distances from the source and at different operating amperages. Investigators also observed employees performing the plasma arc cutting. Optical radiation above safe levels for the unprotected eyes in the ultraviolet-C, ultraviolet-B, and visible light ranges were found during plasma arc cutting. In contrast, infrared and ultraviolet-A radiation levels during plasma arc cutting were similar to background levels. The highest non-ionizing radiation exposures occurred when no welding curtains were used. A plasma arc welding curtain in place did not eliminate optical radiation hazards to the plasma arc operator or to nearby employees. In most instances, the measured intensities for visible light, UV-C, and UV-B resulted in welding shade lens numbers that were lower than those stipulated in the OSHA Filter Lenses for Protection Against Radiant Energy table in 29 CFR 1910.133(a)(5). [1] Investigators recommended using a welding curtain that enclosed the plasma arc, posting optical radiation warning signs in the plasma arc cutter area, installing audible or visual warning cues when the plasma arc cutter was operating, and using welding shades that covered the plasma arc cutter operator's face to protect skin from ultraviolet radiation hazards.

  14. Risk-Informed External Hazards Analysis for Seismic and Flooding Phenomena for a Generic PWR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parisi, Carlo [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Prescott, Steve [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Ma, Zhegang [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Spears, Bob [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Szilard, Ronaldo [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Coleman, Justin [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Kosbab, Ben [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2017-07-26

    This report describes the activities performed during the FY2017 for the US-DOE Light Water Reactor Sustainability Risk-Informed Safety Margin Characterization (LWRS-RISMC), Industry Application #2. The scope of Industry Application #2 is to deliver a risk-informed external hazards safety analysis for a representative nuclear power plant. Following the advancements occurred during the previous FYs (toolkits identification, models development), FY2017 focused on: increasing the level of realism of the analysis; improving the tools and the coupling methodologies. In particular the following objectives were achieved: calculation of buildings pounding and their effects on components seismic fragility; development of a SAPHIRE code PRA models for 3-loops Westinghouse PWR; set-up of a methodology for performing static-dynamic PRA coupling between SAPHIRE and EMRALD codes; coupling RELAP5-3D/RAVEN for performing Best-Estimate Plus Uncertainty analysis and automatic limit surface search; and execute sample calculations for demonstrating the capabilities of the toolkit in performing a risk-informed external hazards safety analyses.

  15. Eighty phenomena about the self: representation, evaluation, regulation, and change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thagard, Paul; Wood, Joanne V.

    2015-01-01

    We propose a new approach for examining self-related aspects and phenomena. The approach includes (1) a taxonomy and (2) an emphasis on multiple levels of mechanisms. The taxonomy categorizes approximately eighty self-related phenomena according to three primary functions involving the self: representing, effecting, and changing. The representing self encompasses the ways in which people depict themselves, either to themselves or to others (e.g., self-concepts, self-presentation). The effecting self concerns ways in which people facilitate or limit their own traits and behaviors (e.g., self-enhancement, self-regulation). The changing self is less time-limited than the effecting self; it concerns phenomena that involve lasting alterations in how people represent and control themselves (e.g., self-expansion, self-development). Each self-related phenomenon within these three categories may be examined at four levels of interacting mechanisms (social, individual, neural, and molecular). We illustrate our approach by focusing on seven self-related phenomena. PMID:25870574

  16. Eighty Phenomena About the Self: Representation, Evaluation, Regulation, and Change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul eThagard

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available We propose a new approach for examining self-related aspects and phenomena. The approach includes (1 a taxonomy and (2 an emphasis on multiple levels of mechanisms. The taxonomy categorizes approximately eighty self-related phenomena according to three primary functions involving the self: representing, effecting, and changing. The representing self encompasses the ways in which people depict themselves, either to themselves or to others (e.g., self-concepts, self-presentation. The effecting self concerns ways in which people facilitate or limit their own traits and behaviors (e.g., self-enhancement, self-regulation. The changing self is less time-limited than the regulating self; it concerns phenomena that involve lasting alterations in how people represent and control themselves (e.g., self-expansion, self-development. Each self-related phenomenon within these three categories may be examined at four levels of interacting mechanisms (social, individual, neural, and molecular. We illustrate our approach by focusing on seven self-related phenomena.

  17. Progress towards developing consistent design and evaluation guidelines for US Department of Energy facilities subjected to natural phenomena

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murray, R.C.

    1987-01-01

    Probabilistic definitions of earthquake, wind, and tornado hazards for many DOE facilities throughout the United States have been developed. In addition, definitions of the flood hazards which might affect these locations are currently being developed. We have prepared a document to provide guidance and criteria for DOE facility managers to assure that DOE facilities are adequately constructed to resist the effects of natural phenomena such as earthquake, strong wind, and flood. The intent of this document is to provide instruction on how to utilize the hazard definitions to evaluate existing facilities and design new facilities in a manner such that the risk of adverse consequences is consistent with the cost, function, and danger to the public or environment. A conference and six mini-courses were organized on natural phenomena hazards mitigation. This provided a mechanism for technology transfer to the DOE community. Complementary manuals have also been developed for 1) suspended ceiling systems and recommendations for bracing them, 2) practical equipment seismic upgrade and strengthening guidelines, and 3) suggested structural details for wind design. These manuals are intended to provide input and guidance for ongoing site safety programs. (orig./HP)

  18. Progress towards developing consistent design and evaluation guidelines for US Department of Energy facilities subjected to natural phenomena

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murray, R.C.

    1987-01-01

    Probabilistic definitions of earthquake, wind, and tornado hazards for many Department of Energy (DOE) facilities throughout the United States have been developed. In addition, definitions of the flood hazards which might affect these locations are currently being developed. The authors have prepared a document to provide guidance and criteria for DOE facility managers to assure that DOE facilities are adequately constructed to resist the effects of natural phenomena such as earthquake, strong wind, and flood. The intent of this document is to provide instruction on how to utilize the hazard definitions to evaluate existing facilities and design new facilities in a manner such that the risk of adverse consequences is consistent with the cost, function, and danger to the public or environment. A conference and six mini-courses were organized on natural phenomena hazards mitigation. This provided a mechanism for technology transfer to the DOE community. Complementary manuals have also been developed for 1) suspended ceiling systems and recommendations for bracing them, 2) practical equipment seismic upgrade and strengthening guidelines, and 3) suggested structural details for wind design. These manuals are intended to provide input and guidance for ongoing site safety programs

  19. Hazards evaluation of plutonium metal opening and stabilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    JOHNSON, L.E.

    1999-01-01

    Hazards evaluation is the analysis of the significance of hazardous situations associated with an activity OK process. The HE used qualitative techniques of Hazard and Operability (HazOp) analysis and What-If analysis to identify those elements of handling and thermal stabilization processing that could lead to accidents

  20. Structural evaluation of safety class components to natural phenomena loadings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conrads, T.J.

    1989-01-01

    This paper addresses the efforts completed at the US Department of Energy Hanford Site near Richland, Washington, to qualify structurally a number of existing safety class components in the Plutonium Finishing Plant complex. Design, fabrication, and installation of the facility occurred in the 1950s and 1960s and were based on the Uniform Building Code criteria for wind and earthquake loads. Recently the buildings were qualified to site-specific wind and seismic hazards. The methodology employed to qualify seismically the safety class components is discussed

  1. Natural phenomena evaluation of the Department of Energy-field office Oak Ridge office buildings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rucker, R.W.; Fricke, K.E.; Hunt, R.J.

    1991-01-01

    The Department of Energy - Field Office Oak Ridge (DOE-OR) is performing natural phenomena evaluations of existing office buildings located in the city of Oak Ridge, Tennessee. The natural phenomena considered are earthquake, wind, and flood. The evaluations are being performed to determine if the facilities are in compliance with DOE General Design Criteria 6430.IA. This paper presents results of the evaluations for three of the office buildings

  2. Tsunami hazard assessment on nuclear power plant site evaluation accordance on DS 417

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akhmad Khusyairi

    2011-01-01

    Nuclear power plant site evaluation should conduct the hazard evaluation on tsunami. Global climate changes and particularly extreme meteorology and hydrology phenomena have an impact on the structure, systems and important components related to safety. Therefore, IAEA makes efforts to revise the IAEA Safety Standard Series NS-G 3.4, Meteorological Events in Site Evaluation for Nuclear Power Plants and IAEA safety standard series NS-G 3.5 Flood Hazard For Nuclear Power Plants On Coastal And River Sites, in order to provide protection against the public and the environment safety due to operation of nuclear power plants. There are two methods used in assessing tsunami hazard, probabilistic and deterministic methods. In the tsunami hazard assessment, some necessary information and data should be obtained to determine the basic design of tsunami hazard during designing nuclear power plants, especially the cooling system design. Flooding caused tsunami must be evaluated to determine the site protection system. Furthermore, There must be an evaluation on either coincident event or meteorological simultaneously tsunami event that caused the worst effect on the site. Therefore, the protection of the site from extreme tsunami can be planned. (author)

  3. Revision to flood hazard evaluation for the Savannah River Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buckley, R. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Werth, D. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2014-08-25

    Requirements for the Natural Phenomena Hazard (NPH) mitigation for new and existing Department of Energy (DOE) facilities are outlined in DOE Order 420.1. This report examines the hazards posed by potential flooding and represents an update to two previous reports. The facility-specific probabilistic flood hazard curve is defined as the water elevation for each annual probability of precipitation occurrence (or inversely, the return period in years). New design hyetographs for both 6-hr and 24-hr precipitation distributions were used in conjunction with hydrological models of various basins within the Savannah River Site (SRS). For numerous locations of interest, peak flow discharge and flood water elevation were determined. In all cases, the probability of flooding of these facilities for a 100,000 year precipitation event is negligible.

  4. Accident hazard evaluation and control decisions on forested recreation sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee A. Paine

    1971-01-01

    Accident hazard associated with trees on recreation sites is inherently concerned with probabilities. The major factors include the probabilities of mechanical failure and of target impact if failure occurs, the damage potential of the failure, and the target value. Hazard may be evaluated as the product of these factors; i.e., expected loss during the current...

  5. Uranium storage bed accident hazards evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Longhurst, G.R.; Shmayda, W.T.

    1989-01-01

    To properly assess hazards and risks associated with the use of uranium beds as tritium storage devices in fusion reactor systems, it is necessary to understand the consequences occurring in the event of an accident. Accidents involving uranium beds are postulated, and the possible results are considered. A research program to more fully and accurately understand those results has been initiated involving the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory and Ontario Hydro. The plan and objectives of that program are presented. 11 refs., 1 tab

  6. Uranium storage bed accident hazards evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Longhurst, G.R.; Shmayda, W.T.

    1989-10-01

    To properly assess hazards and risks associated with the use of uranium beds as tritium storage devices in fusion reactor systems, it is necessary to understand the consequences occurring in the event of an accident. Accidents involving uranium beds are postulated, and the possible results are considered. A research program to more fully and accurately understand those results has been initiated involving the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory and Ontario Hydro. The plan and objectives of that program are presented. 11 refs., 1 tab

  7. Seismic Hazards in Site Evaluation for Nuclear Installations. Specific Safety Guide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-08-15

    This Safety Guide was prepared under the IAEA programme for safety standards for nuclear installations. It supplements the Safety Requirements publication on Site Evaluation for Nuclear Installations. The present publication provides guidance and recommends procedures for the evaluation of seismic hazards for nuclear power plants and other nuclear installations. It supersedes Evaluation of Seismic Hazards for Nuclear Power Plants, IAEA Safety Standards Series No. NS-G-3.3 (2002). In this publication, the following was taken into account: the need for seismic hazard curves and ground motion spectra for the probabilistic safety assessment of external events for new and existing nuclear installations; feedback of information from IAEA reviews of seismic safety studies for nuclear installations performed over the previous decade; collective knowledge gained from recent significant earthquakes; and new approaches in methods of analysis, particularly in the areas of probabilistic seismic hazard analysis and strong motion simulation. In the evaluation of a site for a nuclear installation, engineering solutions will generally be available to mitigate, by means of certain design features, the potential vibratory effects of earthquakes. However, such solutions cannot always be demonstrated to be adequate for mitigating the effects of phenomena of significant permanent ground displacement such as surface faulting, subsidence, ground collapse or fault creep. The objective of this Safety Guide is to provide recommendations and guidance on evaluating seismic hazards at a nuclear installation site and, in particular, on how to determine: (a) the vibratory ground motion hazards, in order to establish the design basis ground motions and other relevant parameters for both new and existing nuclear installations; and (b) the potential for fault displacement and the rate of fault displacement that could affect the feasibility of the site or the safe operation of the installation at

  8. Evaluation and control of radon daughter hazards in uranium mines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holaday, D.A.

    1974-11-01

    This monograph discusses primarily those health hazards to uranium miners which are produced by exposure to ionizing radiation. Emphasis is placed on the areas of evaluation of exposures to the radioactive gas radon-222 and its short-lived transformation products, and methods of controlling such exposures. A limited discussion of the biological effects of radon and radon daughters is undertaken, and some procedures are given for evaluating hazards created by other common contaminants of mine atmospheres. A large amount of information exists on these topics, some of which is unpublished or is not readily available. While efforts were made to obtain data from all sources, undoubtedly some valuable work was overlooked. The monograph is an endeavor to assemble pertinent information and make it available to those who are concerned with producing uranium at minimal risks. Where they were available, a variety of procedures for evaluating hazards are given, and examples of systems for controlling hazards are included. 154 references

  9. Evaluation of seismic hazard at the northwestern part of Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezzelarab, M.; Shokry, M. M. F.; Mohamed, A. M. E.; Helal, A. M. A.; Mohamed, Abuoelela A.; El-Hadidy, M. S.

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study is to evaluate the seismic hazard at the northwestern Egypt using the probabilistic seismic hazard assessment approach. The Probabilistic approach was carried out based on a recent data set to take into account the historic seismicity and updated instrumental seismicity. A homogenous earthquake catalogue was compiled and a proposed seismic sources model was presented. The doubly-truncated exponential model was adopted for calculations of the recurrence parameters. Ground-motion prediction equations that recently recommended by experts and developed based upon earthquake data obtained from tectonic environments similar to those in and around the studied area were weighted and used for assessment of seismic hazard in the frame of logic tree approach. Considering a grid of 0.2° × 0.2° covering the study area, seismic hazard curves for every node were calculated. Hazard maps at bedrock conditions were produced for peak ground acceleration, in addition to six spectral periods (0.1, 0.2, 0.3, 1.0, 2.0 and 3.0 s) for return periods of 72, 475 and 2475 years. The unified hazard spectra of two selected rock sites at Alexandria and Mersa Matruh Cities were provided. Finally, the hazard curves were de-aggregated to determine the sources that contribute most of hazard level of 10% probability of exceedance in 50 years for the mentioned selected sites.

  10. Study on evaluation method for potential effect of natural phenomena on a HLW disposal system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawamura, Makoto; Makino, Hitoshi; Umeda, Koji; Osawa, Hideaki; Seo, Toshihiro; Ishimaru, Tsuneaki

    2005-01-01

    Evaluation for the potential effect of natural phenomena on a HLW disposal system is an important issue in safety assessment. A scenario construction method for the effects on a HLW disposal system condition and performance has been developed for two purposes: the first being effective elicitation and organization of information from investigators of natural phenomena and performance assessor and the second being, maintenance of traceability of scenario construction processes with suitable records. In this method, a series of works to construct scenarios is divided into pieces to facilitate and to elicit the features of potential effect of natural phenomena on a HLW disposal system and is organized to create reasonable scenarios with consistency, traceability and adequate conservativeness within realistic view. (author)

  11. Development of evaluation method for software hazard identification techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, H. W.; Chen, M. H.; Shih, C.; Yih, S.; Kuo, C. T.; Wang, L. H.; Yu, Y. C.; Chen, C. W.

    2006-01-01

    This research evaluated the applicable software hazard identification techniques nowadays, such as, Preliminary Hazard Analysis (PHA), Failure Modes and Effects Analysis (FMEA), Fault Tree Analysis (FTA), Markov chain modeling, Dynamic Flow-graph Methodology (DFM), and simulation-based model analysis; and then determined indexes in view of their characteristics, which include dynamic capability, completeness, achievability, detail, signal/noise ratio, complexity, and implementation cost. By this proposed method, the analysts can evaluate various software hazard identification combinations for specific purpose. According to the case study results, the traditional PHA + FMEA + FTA (with failure rate) + Markov chain modeling (with transfer rate) combination is not competitive due to the dilemma for obtaining acceptable software failure rates. However, the systematic architecture of FTA and Markov chain modeling is still valuable for realizing the software fault structure. The system centric techniques, such as DFM and simulation-based model-analysis, show the advantage on dynamic capability, achievability, detail, signal/noise ratio. However, their disadvantages are the completeness complexity and implementation cost. This evaluation method can be a platform to reach common consensus for the stakeholders. Following the evolution of software hazard identification techniques, the evaluation results could be changed. However, the insight of software hazard identification techniques is much more important than the numbers obtained by the evaluation. (authors)

  12. Aqueous foam toxicology evaluation and hazard review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Archuleta, M.M.

    1995-10-01

    Aqueous foams are aggregates of bubbles mechanically generated by passing air or other gases through a net, screen, or other porous medium that is wetted by an aqueous solution of surface-active foaming agents (surfactants). Aqueous foams are important in modem fire-fighting technology, as well as for military uses for area denial and riot or crowd control. An aqueous foam is currently being developed and evaluated by Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) as a Less-Than-Lethal Weapon for the National Institute of Justice (NIJ). The purpose of this study is to evaluate the toxicity of the aqueous foam developed for the NIJ and to determine whether there are any significant adverse health effects associated with completely immersing individuals without protective equipment in the foam. The toxicity of the aqueous foam formulation developed for NIJ is determined by evaluating the toxicity of the individual components of the foam. The foam is made from a 2--5% solution of Steol CA-330 surfactant in water generated at expansion ratios ranging from 500:1 to 1000:1. SteoI CA-330 is a 35% ammonium laureth sulfate in water and is produced by Stepan Chemical Company and containing trace amounts (<0.1%) of 1,4-dioxane. The results of this study indicate that Steol CA-330 is a non-toxic, mildly irritating, surfactant that is used extensively in the cosmetics industry for hair care and bath products. Inhalation or dermal exposure to this material in aqueous foam is not expected to produce significant irritation or systemic toxicity to exposed individuals, even after prolonged exposure. The amount of 1,4-dioxane in the surfactant, and subsequently in the foam, is negligible and therefore, the toxicity associated with dioxane exposure is not significant. In general, immersion in similar aqueous foams has not resulted in acute, immediately life-threatening effects, or chronic, long-term, non-reversible effects following exposure.

  13. Research on evaluation of coupled thermo-hydro-mechanical phenomena in the near-field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chijimatsu, Masakazu; Imai, Hisashi; Fukutome, Kazuhito; Kayukawa, Koji; Sasaki, Hajime; Moro, Yoshiji

    2004-02-01

    After emplacement of the engineered barrier system (EBS), it is expected that the near-field environment will be impacted by phenomena such as heat dissipation by conduction and other heat transfer mechanisms, infiltration of groundwater from the surrounding rock in the engineered barrier system, stress imposed by the overburden pressure and generation of swelling pressure in the buffer due to water infiltration. In order to recognize and evaluate these coupled thermo-hydro-mechanical (THM) phenomena, it is necessary to make a confidence of the mathematical models and computer codes. Evaluating these coupled THM phenomena is important in order to clarify the initial transient behavior of the EBS within the near field. DECOVALEX project is an international co-operative project for the DEvelopment of COupled models and their VALidation against EXperiments in nuclear waste isolation and it is significance to participate this project and to apply the code for the validation. Therefore, we tried to apply the developed numerical code against the subjects of DECOVALEX. We carried out the simulation against the Task 1 (simulation of FEBEX in-situ full-scale experiment), Task 3 BMT1 (Bench Mark Test against the near field coupling phenomena) and Task 3 BMT2 (Bench Mark Test against the up-scaling of fractured rock mass). This report shows the simulation results against these tasks. Furthermore, technical investigations about the in-situ full-scale experiment (called Prototype Repository Project) in Aespoe HRL facility by SKB of Sweden were performed. In order to evaluate the coupled phenomena in the engineered barrier, we use the new swelling model based on the theoretical approach. In this paper, we introduce the modeling approach and applicability about the new model. (author)

  14. Oleoresin Capsicum toxicology evaluation and hazard review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Archuleta, M.M.

    1995-10-01

    Oleoresin Capsicum (OC) is an extract of the pepper plant used for centuries as a culinary spice (hot peppers). This material has been identified as a safe and effective Less-Than- Lethal weapon for use by Law enforcement and security professionals against assault. The National Institute of Justice (NIJ) is currently also evaluating its use in conjunction with other Less-Than-Lethal agents such as aqueous foam for use in corrections applications. Therefore, a comprehensive toxicological review of the literature was performed for the National Institute of Justice Less-Than-Lethal Force program to review and update the information available on the toxicity and adverse health effects associated with OC exposure. The results of this evaluation indicate that exposure to OC can result in dermatitis, as well as adverse nasal, pulmonary, and gastrointestinal effects in humans. The primary effects of OC exposure include pain and irritation of the mucous membranes of the eyes, nose, and lining of the mouth. Blistering and rash have been shown to occur after chronic or prolonged dermal exposure. Ingestion of capsicum may cause acute stinging of the lips, tongue, and oral mucosa and may lead to vomiting and diarrhea with large doses. OC vapors may also cause significant pulmonary irritation and prolonged cough. There is no evidence of long term effects associated with an acute exposure to OC, and extensive use as a culinary additive and medicinal ointment has further provided no evidence of long term adverse effects following repeated or prolonged exposure.

  15. Lower bound earthquake magnitude for probabilistic seismic hazard evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCann, M.W. Jr.; Reed, J.W.

    1990-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a study that develops an engineering and seismological basis for selecting a lower-bound magnitude (LBM) for use in seismic hazard assessment. As part of a seismic hazard analysis the range of earthquake magnitudes that are included in the assessment of the probability of exceedance of ground motion must be defined. The upper-bound magnitude is established by earth science experts based on their interpretation of the maximum size of earthquakes that can be generated by a seismic source. The lower-bound or smallest earthquake that is considered in the analysis must also be specified. The LBM limits the earthquakes that are considered in assessing the probability that specified ground motion levels are exceeded. In the past there has not been a direct consideration of the appropriate LBM value that should be used in a seismic hazard assessment. This study specifically looks at the selection of a LBM for use in seismic hazard analyses that are input to the evaluation/design of nuclear power plants (NPPs). Topics addressed in the evaluation of a LBM are earthquake experience data at heavy industrial facilities, engineering characteristics of ground motions associated with small-magnitude earthquakes, probabilistic seismic risk assessments (seismic PRAs), and seismic margin evaluations. The results of this study and the recommendations concerning a LBM for use in seismic hazard assessments are discussed. (orig.)

  16. Analysis of Precipitation (Rain and Snow) Levels and Straight-line Wind Speeds in Support of the 10-year Natural Phenomena Hazards Review for Los Alamos National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelly, Elizabeth J. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Dewart, Jean Marie [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Deola, Regina [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-12-10

    This report provides site-specific return level analyses for rain, snow, and straight-line wind extreme events. These analyses are in support of the 10-year review plan for the assessment of meteorological natural phenomena hazards at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). These analyses follow guidance from Department of Energy, DOE Standard, Natural Phenomena Hazards Analysis and Design Criteria for DOE Facilities (DOE-STD-1020-2012), Nuclear Regulatory Commission Standard Review Plan (NUREG-0800, 2007) and ANSI/ ANS-2.3-2011, Estimating Tornado, Hurricane, and Extreme Straight-Line Wind Characteristics at Nuclear Facility Sites. LANL precipitation and snow level data have been collected since 1910, although not all years are complete. In this report the results from the more recent data (1990–2014) are compared to those of past analyses and a 2004 National Oceanographic and Atmospheric Administration report. Given the many differences in the data sets used in these different analyses, the lack of statistically significant differences in return level estimates increases confidence in the data and in the modeling and analysis approach.

  17. Probabilistic seismic hazards: Guidelines and constraints in evaluating results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sadigh, R.K.; Power, M.S.

    1989-01-01

    In conducting probabilistic seismic hazard analyses, consideration of the dispersion as well as the upper bounds on ground motion is of great significance. In particular, the truncation of ground motion levels at some upper limit would have a major influence on the computed hazard at the low-to-very-low probability levels. Additionally, other deterministic guidelines and constraints should be considered in evaluating the probabilistic seismic hazard results. In contrast to probabilistic seismic hazard evaluations, mean plus one standard deviation ground motions are typically used for deterministic estimates of ground motions from maximum events that may affect a structure. To be consistent with standard deterministic maximum estimates of ground motions values should be the highest level considered for the site. These maximum values should be associated with the largest possible event occurring at the site. Furthermore, the relationships between the ground motion level and probability of exceedance should reflect a transition from purely probabilistic assessments of ground motion at high probability levels where there are multiple chances for events to a deterministic upper bound ground motion at very low probability levels where there is very limited opportunity for maximum events to occur. In Interplate Regions, where the seismic sources may be characterized by a high-to-very-high rate of activity, the deterministic bounds will be approached or exceeded by the computer probabilistic hazard values at annual probability of exceedance levels typically as high as 10 -2 to 10 -3 . Thus, at these or lower values probability levels, probabilistically computed hazard values could be readily interpreted in the light of the deterministic constraints

  18. Risk Evaluation of Multiple Hazards during Sediment and Water Related Disasters in a Small Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamanoi, Kazuki; Fujita, Masaharu

    2016-04-01

    To reduce human damage due to sediment and water related disasters induced by heavy rainfall, warning and evacuation system is very important. In Japan, the Meteorological Agency issues the sediment disaster alert when the potential of sediment disaster increases. Following the alert, local government issues evacuation advisory considering the alert and premonitory phenomena. However, it is very difficult for local people to perceive the dangerousness around them because the alert and advisory do not contain any definite information. Therefore, they sometimes misjudge the evacuation action. One reason of this is not only crucial hazards but also relatively small-scale multiple hazards take place and rise evacuation difficulties during sediment and water related disaster. Examples of small-scale hazards include: rainfall-associated hazards such as poor visibility or road submergence; landslide-associated hazards such as slope failure or sediment inflow; and flood-associated hazards such as overtopping of river dike, inundation, or destruction of bridges. The purpose of this study was to estimate the risk of multiple hazards during disaster events by numerical simulation. We applied the integrated sediment runoff model on unit channels, unit slopes, and slope units to an actual sediment and water related disaster occurred in a small basin in Tamba city, Hyogo, Japan. The maximum rainfall per hour was 91 mm (17/09/2014 2:00˜3:00) and the maximum daily precipitation was 414mm. The integrated model contains semi-physical based landslide prediction (sediment production) model, rainfall runoff model employing the kinematic wave method, model of sediment supply to channels, and bedload and suspended sediment transport model. We evaluated the risk of rainfall-associated hazards in each slope unit into 4 levels (Level I ˜ IV) using the rainfall intensity Ir [mm/hour]. The risk of flood- associated hazards were also estimated using the ratio of calculated water level and

  19. Evaluation of probability and hazard in nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Novikov, V.Ya.; Romanov, N.L.

    1979-01-01

    Various methods of evaluation of accident probability on NPP are proposed because of NPP security statistic evaluation unreliability. The conception of subjective probability for quantitative analysis of security and hazard are described. Intrepretation of probability as real faith of an expert is assumed as a basis of the conception. It is suggested to study the event uncertainty in the framework of subjective probability theory which not only permits but demands to take into account expert opinions when evaluating the probability. These subjective expert evaluations effect to a certain extent the calculation of the usual mathematical event probability. The above technique is advantageous to use for consideration of a separate experiment or random event

  20. Effective tree hazard control on forested recreation sites...losses and protection costs evaluated

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee A. Paine

    1967-01-01

    Effectiveness of hazard control was evaluated by analyzing data on tree failures, accidents, and control costs on California recreation sites. Results indicate that reduction of limb hazard in oaks and bole hazard in conifers is the most effective form of control. Least effective is limb hazard reduction in conifers. After hazard control goals or control budgets have...

  1. Preliminary evaluation of the seismic hazard at Cernavoda NPP site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mingiuc, C.; Serban, V.; Androne, M.

    2001-01-01

    The probabilistic seismic hazard analysis (PSHA) is a methodology by which one evaluates the probability of exceeding different parameters of the ground motions (the maximum ground acceleration - PGA and the ground response spectrum - SA) as effect of the seismic action, on a given site at a future time moment. Due to the large uncertainties in the geological, geophysical, seismological input data, as well as, in the models utilised, various interpretation schemes are applied in the PSHA analyses. This interpretation schemes lead to opinion discrepancies among specialists which finally lead to disagreements in estimating the values of the seismic design for a given site. In order to re-evaluate the methodology and to improve the PSHA result stability, U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) sponsored a project for defining methodological guides of performing PSHA analyses. The project was implemented by a panel of 7 experts, the Senior Seismic Hazard Analysis Committee - SSHAC. This paper presents a preliminary evaluation of the seismic hazard for the Cernavoda NPP site by application of the methodology mentioned, by taking into account the possible sources which could affect the site (the Vrancea focus, Galati - Tulcea fault, Sabla - Dulovo fault and local earthquakes)

  2. Natural phenomena evaluations of the K-25 site UF6 cylinder storage yards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fricke, K.E.

    1996-01-01

    The K-25 Site UF 6 cylinder storage yards are used for the temporary storage of UF 6 normal assay cylinders and long-term storage of other UF 6 cylinders. The K-25 Site UF 6 cylinder storage yards consist of six on-site areas: K-1066-B, K-1066-E, K-1066-F, K-1066-J, K-1066-K and K-1066-L. There are no permanent structures erected on the cylinder yards, except for five portable buildings. The operating contractor for the K-25 Site is preparing a Safety Analysis Report (SAR) to examine the safety related aspects of the K-25 Site UF 6 cylinder storage yards. The SAR preparation encompasses many tasks terminating in consequence analysis for the release of gaseous and liquid UF 6 , one of which is the evaluation of natural phenomena threats, such as earthquakes, floods, and winds. In support of the SAR, the six active cylinder storage yards were evaluated for vulnerabilities to natural phenomena, earthquakes, high winds and tornados, tornado-generated missiles, floods (local and regional), and lightning. This report summarizes those studies. 30 refs

  3. Harvesting rockfall hazard evaluation parameters from Google Earth Street View

    Science.gov (United States)

    Partsinevelos, Panagiotis; Agioutantis, Zacharias; Tripolitsiotis, Achilles; Steiakakis, Chrysanthos; Mertikas, Stelios

    2015-04-01

    Rockfall incidents along highways and railways prove extremely dangerous for properties, infrastructures and human lives. Several qualitative metrics such as the Rockfall Hazard Rating System (RHRS) and the Colorado Rockfall Hazard Rating System (CRHRS) have been established to estimate rockfall potential and provide risk maps in order to control and monitor rockfall incidents. The implementation of such metrics for efficient and reliable risk modeling require accurate knowledge of multi-parametric attributes such as the geological, geotechnical, topographic parameters of the study area. The Missouri Rockfall Hazard Rating System (MORH RS) identifies the most potentially problematic areas using digital video logging for the determination of parameters like slope height and angle, face irregularities, etc. This study aims to harvest in a semi-automated approach geometric and qualitative measures through open source platforms that may provide 3-dimensional views of the areas of interest. More specifically, the Street View platform from Google Maps, is hereby used to provide essential information that can be used towards 3-dimensional reconstruction of slopes along highways. The potential of image capturing along a programmable virtual route to provide the input data for photogrammetric processing is also evaluated. Moreover, qualitative characterization of the geological and geotechnical status, based on the Street View images, is performed. These attributes are then integrated to deliver a GIS-based rockfall hazard map. The 3-dimensional models are compared to actual photogrammetric measures in a rockfall prone area in Crete, Greece while in-situ geotechnical characterization is also used to compare and validate the hazard risk. This work is considered as the first step towards the exploitation of open source platforms to improve road safety and the development of an operational system where authorized agencies (i.e., civil protection) will be able to acquire near

  4. IARC monographs: 40 years of evaluating carcinogenic hazards to humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearce, Neil; Blair, Aaron; Vineis, Paolo; Ahrens, Wolfgang; Andersen, Aage; Anto, Josep M; Armstrong, Bruce K; Baccarelli, Andrea A; Beland, Frederick A; Berrington, Amy; Bertazzi, Pier Alberto; Birnbaum, Linda S; Brownson, Ross C; Bucher, John R; Cantor, Kenneth P; Cardis, Elisabeth; Cherrie, John W; Christiani, David C; Cocco, Pierluigi; Coggon, David; Comba, Pietro; Demers, Paul A; Dement, John M; Douwes, Jeroen; Eisen, Ellen A; Engel, Lawrence S; Fenske, Richard A; Fleming, Lora E; Fletcher, Tony; Fontham, Elizabeth; Forastiere, Francesco; Frentzel-Beyme, Rainer; Fritschi, Lin; Gerin, Michel; Goldberg, Marcel; Grandjean, Philippe; Grimsrud, Tom K; Gustavsson, Per; Haines, Andy; Hartge, Patricia; Hansen, Johnni; Hauptmann, Michael; Heederik, Dick; Hemminki, Kari; Hemon, Denis; Hertz-Picciotto, Irva; Hoppin, Jane A; Huff, James; Jarvholm, Bengt; Kang, Daehee; Karagas, Margaret R; Kjaerheim, Kristina; Kjuus, Helge; Kogevinas, Manolis; Kriebel, David; Kristensen, Petter; Kromhout, Hans; Laden, Francine; Lebailly, Pierre; LeMasters, Grace; Lubin, Jay H; Lynch, Charles F; Lynge, Elsebeth; 't Mannetje, Andrea; McMichael, Anthony J; McLaughlin, John R; Marrett, Loraine; Martuzzi, Marco; Merchant, James A; Merler, Enzo; Merletti, Franco; Miller, Anthony; Mirer, Franklin E; Monson, Richard; Nordby, Karl-Cristian; Olshan, Andrew F; Parent, Marie-Elise; Perera, Frederica P; Perry, Melissa J; Pesatori, Angela Cecilia; Pirastu, Roberta; Porta, Miquel; Pukkala, Eero; Rice, Carol; Richardson, David B; Ritter, Leonard; Ritz, Beate; Ronckers, Cecile M; Rushton, Lesley; Rusiecki, Jennifer A; Rusyn, Ivan; Samet, Jonathan M; Sandler, Dale P; de Sanjose, Silvia; Schernhammer, Eva; Costantini, Adele Seniori; Seixas, Noah; Shy, Carl; Siemiatycki, Jack; Silverman, Debra T; Simonato, Lorenzo; Smith, Allan H; Smith, Martyn T; Spinelli, John J; Spitz, Margaret R; Stallones, Lorann; Stayner, Leslie T; Steenland, Kyle; Stenzel, Mark; Stewart, Bernard W; Stewart, Patricia A; Symanski, Elaine; Terracini, Benedetto; Tolbert, Paige E; Vainio, Harri; Vena, John; Vermeulen, Roel; Victora, Cesar G; Ward, Elizabeth M; Weinberg, Clarice R; Weisenburger, Dennis; Wesseling, Catharina; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Zahm, Shelia Hoar

    2015-06-01

    Recently, the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) Programme for the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Humans has been criticized for several of its evaluations, and also for the approach used to perform these evaluations. Some critics have claimed that failures of IARC Working Groups to recognize study weaknesses and biases of Working Group members have led to inappropriate classification of a number of agents as carcinogenic to humans. The authors of this Commentary are scientists from various disciplines relevant to the identification and hazard evaluation of human carcinogens. We examined criticisms of the IARC classification process to determine the validity of these concerns. Here, we present the results of that examination, review the history of IARC evaluations, and describe how the IARC evaluations are performed. We concluded that these recent criticisms are unconvincing. The procedures employed by IARC to assemble Working Groups of scientists from the various disciplines and the techniques followed to review the literature and perform hazard assessment of various agents provide a balanced evaluation and an appropriate indication of the weight of the evidence. Some disagreement by individual scientists to some evaluations is not evidence of process failure. The review process has been modified over time and will undoubtedly be altered in the future to improve the process. Any process can in theory be improved, and we would support continued review and improvement of the IARC processes. This does not mean, however, that the current procedures are flawed. The IARC Monographs have made, and continue to make, major contributions to the scientific underpinning for societal actions to improve the public's health.

  5. DOE (Department of Energy) natural phenomena guidelines earthquake design and evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Short, S.A.; Murray, R.C.; Kennedy, R.P.

    1989-01-01

    Design and evaluation guidelines for DOE (Department of Energy) facilities subjected to earthquake, wind/tornado, and flood have been developed. This paper describes the philosophy and procedures fr the design or evaluation of facilities for earthquake ground shaking. The guidelines are intended to meet probabilistic-based performance goals expressed in terms of annual probability of exceedance of some level of structural damage. Meeting performance goals can be accomplished by specifying hazard probabilities of exceedance along with seismic behavior evaluation procedures in which the level of conservatism introduced is controlled such that desired performance can be achieved. Limited inelastic behavior is permitted by permitting demand determined from elastic response spectrum analyses to exceed capacity by an allowable inelastic demand-capacity ratio specified in the guidelines for different materials and construction

  6. Evaluation for leaded and unleaded Gasoline as Hazardous Waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abou El Naga, H.H.

    1999-01-01

    With the phase out of alkyl lead compounds as necessary additives for gasoline in order to raise its octane number , the alternative is to reformulate gasoline to have nearly same octane number but with other chemical structures. Such reformulated gasoline (RFG) is found to contain higher aromatics, benzene, iso paraffins, in comparison to leaded gasoline. Additionally, this reformulated gasoline can also contain oxygenated additives. Accordingly, this paper is aiming at evaluation of emitted hazardous chemical compounds from car engines at fuel combustion. Role of chemical structures for reformulated gasoline in emission of volatile organic compounds (VOC) and poisoning materials are considered

  7. Evaluation of an active learning module to teach hazard and risk in Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Points (HACCP) classes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyarzabal, Omar A; Rowe, Ellen

    2017-04-01

    The terms hazard and risk are significant building blocks for the organization of risk-based food safety plans. Unfortunately, these terms are not clear for some personnel working in food manufacturing facilities. In addition, there are few examples of active learning modules for teaching adult participants the principles of hazard analysis and critical control points (HACCP). In this study, we evaluated the effectiveness of an active learning module to teach hazard and risk to participants of HACCP classes provided by the University of Vermont Extension in 2015 and 2016. This interactive module is comprised of a questionnaire; group playing of a dice game that we have previously introduced in the teaching of HACCP; the discussion of the terms hazard and risk; and a self-assessment questionnaire to evaluate the teaching of hazard and risk. From 71 adult participants that completed this module, 40 participants (56%) provided the most appropriate definition of hazard, 19 participants (27%) provided the most appropriate definition of risk, 14 participants (20%) provided the most appropriate definitions of both hazard and risk, and 23 participants (32%) did not provide an appropriate definition for hazard or risk. Self-assessment data showed an improvement in the understanding of these terms (P active learning modules to teach food safety classes. This study suggests that active learning helps food personnel better understand important food safety terms that serve as building blocks for the understanding of more complex food safety topics.

  8. Robots, systems, and methods for hazard evaluation and visualization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Curtis W.; Bruemmer, David J.; Walton, Miles C.; Hartley, Robert S.; Gertman, David I.; Kinoshita, Robert A.; Whetten, Jonathan

    2013-01-15

    A robot includes a hazard sensor, a locomotor, and a system controller. The robot senses a hazard intensity at a location of the robot, moves to a new location in response to the hazard intensity, and autonomously repeats the sensing and moving to determine multiple hazard levels at multiple locations. The robot may also include a communicator to communicate the multiple hazard levels to a remote controller. The remote controller includes a communicator for sending user commands to the robot and receiving the hazard levels from the robot. A graphical user interface displays an environment map of the environment proximate the robot and a scale for indicating a hazard intensity. A hazard indicator corresponds to a robot position in the environment map and graphically indicates the hazard intensity at the robot position relative to the scale.

  9. Evaluation of an active learning module to teach hazard and risk in Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Points (HACCP classes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omar A. Oyarzabal

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The terms hazard and risk are significant building blocks for the organization of risk-based food safety plans. Unfortunately, these terms are not clear for some personnel working in food manufacturing facilities. In addition, there are few examples of active learning modules for teaching adult participants the principles of hazard analysis and critical control points (HACCP. In this study, we evaluated the effectiveness of an active learning module to teach hazard and risk to participants of HACCP classes provided by the University of Vermont Extension in 2015 and 2016. This interactive module is comprised of a questionnaire; group playing of a dice game that we have previously introduced in the teaching of HACCP; the discussion of the terms hazard and risk; and a self-assessment questionnaire to evaluate the teaching of hazard and risk. From 71 adult participants that completed this module, 40 participants (56% provided the most appropriate definition of hazard, 19 participants (27% provided the most appropriate definition of risk, 14 participants (20% provided the most appropriate definitions of both hazard and risk, and 23 participants (32% did not provide an appropriate definition for hazard or risk. Self-assessment data showed an improvement in the understanding of these terms (P < 0.05. Thirty participants (42% stated that the most valuable thing they learned with this interactive module was the difference between hazard and risk, and 40 participants (65% responded that they did not attend similar presentations in the past. The fact that less than one third of the participants answered properly to the definitions of hazard and risk at baseline is not surprising. However, these results highlight the need for the incorporation of modules to discuss these important food safety terms and include more active learning modules to teach food safety classes. This study suggests that active learning helps food personnel better understand important

  10. Hazard evaluation of The International Fusion Materials Irradiation Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burgazzi, Luciano [ENEA-Centro Ricerche ' Ezio Clementel' , Advanced Physics Technology Division, Via Martiri di Monte Sole, 4, 40129 Bologna (Italy)]. E-mail: burgazzi@bologna.enea.it

    2005-01-15

    The International Fusion Materials Irradiation Facility (IFMIF) is aimed to provide an intense neutron source by a high current deuteron linear accelerator and a high-speed lithium flow target, for testing candidate materials for fusion. Liquid lithium is being circulated through a loop and is kept at a temperature above its freezing point. In the frame of the design phase called Key Element technology Phase (KEP), jointly performed by an international team to verify the most important risk factors, safety assessment of the whole plant has been required in order to identify the hazards associated with the plant operation. This paper discusses the safety assessments that were performed and their outcome: Failure Mode and Effect Analysis (FMEA) approach has been adopted in order to accomplish the task. Main conclusions of the study is that, on account of the safety and preventive measures adopted, potential plant related hazards are confined within the IFMIF security boundaries and great care must be exercised to protect workers and site personnel from operating the plant. The analysis has provided as a result a set of Postulated Initiating Events (PIEs), that is off-normal events, that could result in hazardous consequences for the plant, together with the total frequency and the list of component failures which could induce the PIE: this assures the exhaustive list of major initiating events of accident sequences, helpful to the further accident sequence analysis phase. Finally, for each one of the individuated PIEs, the evaluation of the accident evolution, in terms of effects on the plant and relative countermeasures, has allowed to verify that adequate measures are being taken both to prevent the accident occurrence and to cope with the accident consequences, thus assuring the fulfilment of the safety requirements.

  11. IARC Monographs: 40 Years of Evaluating Carcinogenic Hazards to Humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blair, Aaron; Vineis, Paolo; Ahrens, Wolfgang; Andersen, Aage; Anto, Josep M.; Armstrong, Bruce K.; Baccarelli, Andrea A.; Beland, Frederick A.; Berrington, Amy; Bertazzi, Pier Alberto; Birnbaum, Linda S.; Brownson, Ross C.; Bucher, John R.; Cantor, Kenneth P.; Cardis, Elisabeth; Cherrie, John W.; Christiani, David C.; Cocco, Pierluigi; Coggon, David; Comba, Pietro; Demers, Paul A.; Dement, John M.; Douwes, Jeroen; Eisen, Ellen A.; Engel, Lawrence S.; Fenske, Richard A.; Fleming, Lora E.; Fletcher, Tony; Fontham, Elizabeth; Forastiere, Francesco; Frentzel-Beyme, Rainer; Fritschi, Lin; Gerin, Michel; Goldberg, Marcel; Grandjean, Philippe; Grimsrud, Tom K.; Gustavsson, Per; Haines, Andy; Hartge, Patricia; Hansen, Johnni; Hauptmann, Michael; Heederik, Dick; Hemminki, Kari; Hemon, Denis; Hertz-Picciotto, Irva; Hoppin, Jane A.; Huff, James; Jarvholm, Bengt; Kang, Daehee; Karagas, Margaret R.; Kjaerheim, Kristina; Kjuus, Helge; Kogevinas, Manolis; Kriebel, David; Kristensen, Petter; Kromhout, Hans; Laden, Francine; Lebailly, Pierre; LeMasters, Grace; Lubin, Jay H.; Lynch, Charles F.; Lynge, Elsebeth; ‘t Mannetje, Andrea; McMichael, Anthony J.; McLaughlin, John R.; Marrett, Loraine; Martuzzi, Marco; Merchant, James A.; Merler, Enzo; Merletti, Franco; Miller, Anthony; Mirer, Franklin E.; Monson, Richard; Nordby, Karl-Cristian; Olshan, Andrew F.; Parent, Marie-Elise; Perera, Frederica P.; Perry, Melissa J.; Pesatori, Angela Cecilia; Pirastu, Roberta; Porta, Miquel; Pukkala, Eero; Rice, Carol; Richardson, David B.; Ritter, Leonard; Ritz, Beate; Ronckers, Cecile M.; Rushton, Lesley; Rusiecki, Jennifer A.; Rusyn, Ivan; Samet, Jonathan M.; Sandler, Dale P.; de Sanjose, Silvia; Schernhammer, Eva; Costantini, Adele Seniori; Seixas, Noah; Shy, Carl; Siemiatycki, Jack; Silverman, Debra T.; Simonato, Lorenzo; Smith, Allan H.; Smith, Martyn T.; Spinelli, John J.; Spitz, Margaret R.; Stallones, Lorann; Stayner, Leslie T.; Steenland, Kyle; Stenzel, Mark; Stewart, Bernard W.; Stewart, Patricia A.; Symanski, Elaine; Terracini, Benedetto; Tolbert, Paige E.; Vainio, Harri; Vena, John; Vermeulen, Roel; Victora, Cesar G.; Ward, Elizabeth M.; Weinberg, Clarice R.; Weisenburger, Dennis; Wesseling, Catharina; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Zahm, Shelia Hoar

    2015-01-01

    Background: Recently, the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) Programme for the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Humans has been criticized for several of its evaluations, and also for the approach used to perform these evaluations. Some critics have claimed that failures of IARC Working Groups to recognize study weaknesses and biases of Working Group members have led to inappropriate classification of a number of agents as carcinogenic to humans. Objectives: The authors of this Commentary are scientists from various disciplines relevant to the identification and hazard evaluation of human carcinogens. We examined criticisms of the IARC classification process to determine the validity of these concerns. Here, we present the results of that examination, review the history of IARC evaluations, and describe how the IARC evaluations are performed. Discussion: We concluded that these recent criticisms are unconvincing. The procedures employed by IARC to assemble Working Groups of scientists from the various disciplines and the techniques followed to review the literature and perform hazard assessment of various agents provide a balanced evaluation and an appropriate indication of the weight of the evidence. Some disagreement by individual scientists to some evaluations is not evidence of process failure. The review process has been modified over time and will undoubtedly be altered in the future to improve the process. Any process can in theory be improved, and we would support continued review and improvement of the IARC processes. This does not mean, however, that the current procedures are flawed. Conclusions: The IARC Monographs have made, and continue to make, major contributions to the scientific underpinning for societal actions to improve the public’s health. Citation: Pearce N, Blair A, Vineis P, Ahrens W, Andersen A, Anto JM, Armstrong BK, Baccarelli AA, Beland FA, Berrington A, Bertazzi PA, Birnbaum LS, Brownson RC, Bucher JR, Cantor KP

  12. Proposal of risk evaluation methodology for hazardous materials transportation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartman, Luiz Carlos

    2009-01-01

    The increasing concern with the level of risk associated with the transportation of hazardous materials took some international institutions to pledge efforts in the evaluation of risk in regional level. Following this trend, the objective of this work was to analyze the most recent processes of analysis of risks from road transportation of hazardous materials. In the present work 21 methodologies of analysis of risks, developed by some authors and for diverse localities have been evaluated. Two of them, in special, have been reviewed and discussed: a method recently developed by the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology (Nicolet-Monnier and Gheorghe, 1996) and the strategy delineated by the Center for Chemical Process Safety CCPS (1995), taking into consideration the estimate of the individual and social risk. Also, the models of Harwood et al. (1990) and of Ramos (1997), adapted by Hartman (2003) have been applied to the reality of the roads of the state of Sao Paulo. The extension of these methodologies was explored, in order to find its advantages and disadvantages. As a study case the present work considered the ammonia transportation throughout two routes evaluating the reality of the roads of the state of Sao Paulo, including a significant parcel of evaluation in a densely populated area, getting the results using risk, at least, one of the methodologies mentioned above. The innovation proposed by this work was the research, the development and the introduction of two variables to the model considered by Harwood et al. (1990). These variables that influence in the value of the risk are: the age of the driver of truck and the zone of impact that is function type of product, period of the day where the transport was carried and the volume that has been transported. The aim of the proposed modifications is to let the value of the risk more sensible in relation to the type of the product carried and the age of the truck driver. The main related procedural stages

  13. 44 CFR 65.11 - Evaluation of sand dunes in mapping coastal flood hazard areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... mapping coastal flood hazard areas. 65.11 Section 65.11 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL... Insurance Program IDENTIFICATION AND MAPPING OF SPECIAL HAZARD AREAS § 65.11 Evaluation of sand dunes in mapping coastal flood hazard areas. (a) General conditions. For purposes of the NFIP, FEMA will consider...

  14. A study of risk evaluation methodology selection for the external hazards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuramoto, Takahiro; Yamaguchi, Akira; Narumiya, Yosiyuki

    2014-01-01

    Since the accident at Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant caused by the Great East Japan Earthquake in March 2011, there has been growing demands for assessing the effects of external hazards, including natural events, such as earthquake and tsunami, and external human behaviors, and taking actions to address those external hazards. The newly established Japanese regulatory requirements claim design considerations associated with external hazards. The primary objective of the risk assessment for external hazards is to establish countermeasures against such hazards rather than grasping the risk figures. Therefore, applying detailed risk assessment methods, such as probabilistic risk assessment (PRA), to all the external hazards is not always the most appropriate. Risk assessment methods can vary in types including qualitative evaluation, hazard analysis (analyzing hazard frequencies or their influence), and margin assessment. To resolve these issues, a process has been established that enables us to identify the external hazards in a comprehensive and systematic manner, which have potential risks leading to core damage and to select an appropriate evaluation method according to the risks associated with each of the external hazards. This paper discusses the comprehensive and systematic identification process for the external hazards which have potential risks leading to core damage, and the approaches of selecting an appropriate evaluation method for each external hazard. This paper also describes some applications of specific risk evaluation methods. (author)

  15. Evaluation of hazards from industrial activities near nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lannoy, A.; Gobert, T.

    1980-01-01

    Among the potential hazards which could arise from industrial activity near nuclear power plants, fires and explosions of dangerous products are of particular concern. Indeed, thermal radiation from an adjacent fire could endanger the resistance of a plant's structures. Likewise, an accident explosion would induce an overpressure wave which could affect buildings' integrity. This paper presents the methodology developed by Electricite de France to evaluate the consequences of accidents affecting: - Industrial facilities: refineries, chemical and petrochemical plants, storage areas, pipelines of gaseous, liquid and liquefied materials. - Transportation routes (roads, railways, inland waterways) used to carry dangerous substances (solid explosives, liquid, gaseous or liquefied hydrocarbons). Probabilistic methods have been developed by analysis of actual accident statistics (e.g. risks induced by transportation routes) and realistic and representative accident scenarios have been set up. Five sequences have been identified: Formation of a fluid jet at a breach. Evaporation and possible formation of a liquid layer. Atmospheric dispersion and drift of a gaseous cloud. Heat radiation from fire. Unconfined explosion of a gaseous cloud. This paper gives an overview of the methods and the main assumptions used to deal with each sequence. Those methods, presently applied by Electricite de France, provide a coherent and realistic approach for the evaluation of the risks at nuclear power plants induced by industrial activity. (orig.)

  16. Preliminary proposed seismic design and evaluation criteria for new and existing underground hazardous materials storage tanks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kennedy, R.P.

    1991-01-01

    The document provides a recommended set of deterministic seismic design and evaluation criteria for either new or existing underground hazardous materials storage tanks placed in either the high hazard or moderate hazard usage catagories of UCRL-15910. The criteria given herein are consistent with and follow the same philosophy as those given in UCRL-15910 for the US Department of Energy facilities. This document is intended to supplement and amplify upon Reference 1 for underground hazardous materials storage tanks

  17. Application of a hazard and operability study method to hazard evaluation of a chemical unit of the power station.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habibi, E; Zare, M; Barkhordari, A; Mirmohammadi, Sj; Halvani, Ghh

    2008-12-28

    The aim of this study was to identify the hazards, evaluate their risk factors and determine the measure for promotion of the process and reduction of accidents in the chemical unit of the power station. In this case and qualitative study, HAZOP technique was used to recognize the hazards and problems of operations on the chemical section at power station. Totally, 126 deviations were documented with various causes and consequences. Ranking and evaluation of identified risks indicate that the majority of deviations were categorized as "acceptable" and less than half of that were "unacceptable". The highest calculated risk level (1B) related to both the interruption of acid entry to the discharge pumps and an increased density of the acid. About 27% of the deviations had the lowest risk level (4B). The identification of hazards by HAZOP indicates that it could, systemically, assess and criticize the process of consumption or production of acid and alkali in the chemical unit of power plant.

  18. Paranormal phenomena

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaina, Alex

    1996-08-01

    Critical analysis is given of some paranormal phenomena events (UFO, healers, psychokinesis (telekinesis))reported in Moldova. It is argued that correct analysis of paranormal phenomena should be made in the framework of electromagnetism.

  19. Visualization test using piping group mock up specimen for evaluation of wastage phenomena in steam generator for FBR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kato, Keisuke; Yoshida, Atsuro; Arae, Kunihiko; Narabayashi, Tadashi; Ohshima, Hiroyuki; Kurihara, Akikazu

    2012-01-01

    There is a need for quantitative evaluation of wastage phenomena in steam generator for FBR. We focused attention on liquid droplet impingement erosion (LDIE) in wastage phenomena and performed basic study with piping group mock up specimen for quantitative evaluation of LDIE. First, we did visualization test of high pressure and high speed jet into the water. Test section mock up the crack of heat exchanger tube and neighboring heat exchanger tubes. We did the test under the following test conditions. Upstream pressure is 0.3MPa, vapor temperature is 300K, crack width is 0.1mm, and crack length is 40mm. (crack diameter is 0.2mm) Second, we did pressure and temperature measurement test in the same test conditions as before. We evaluated jet behavior at test section by those two tests. In addition, we did two phase flow analysis of the jet with TRAC code. (author)

  20. Experimental evaluation of ballistic hazards in imaging diagnostic center

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karpowicz, Jolanta; Gryz, Krzysztof

    2013-01-01

    Serious hazards for human health and life and devices in close proximity to the magnetic resonance scanners (MRI scanners) include the effects of being hit by ferromagnetic objects attracted by static magnetic field (SMF) produced by scanner magnet – the so-called ballistic hazards classified among indirect electromagnetic hazards. International safety guidelines and technical literature specify different SMF threshold values regarding ballistic hazards – e.g. 3 mT (directive 2004/40/EC, EN 60601-2-33), and 30 mT (BMAS 2009, directive proposal 2011). Investigations presented in this article were performed in order to experimentally verify SMF threshold for ballistic hazards near MRI scanners used in Poland. Investigations were performed with the use of a laboratory source of SMF (0–30 mT) and MRI scanners of various types. The levels of SMF in which metal objects of various shapes and 0.4–500 g mass are moved by the field influence were investigated. The distance from the MRI scanners (0.2–3T) where hazards may occur were also investigated. Objects investigated under laboratory conditions were moved by SMF of 2.2–15 mT magnetic flux density when they were freely suspended, but were moved by the SMF of 5.6–22 mT when they were placed on a smooth surface. Investigated objects were moved in fields of 3.5–40 mT by MRI scanners. Distances from scanner magnet cover, where ballistic hazards might occur are: up to 0.5 m for 0.2–0.3T scanners; up to 1.3 m for 0.5T scanners; up to 2.0 m for 1.5T scanners and up to 2.5 m for 3T scanners (at the front and back of the magnet). It was shown that SMF of 3 mT magnetic flux density should be taken as the threshold for ballistic hazards. Such level is compatible with SMF limit value regarding occupational safety and health-protected areas/zones, where according to the Polish labor law the procedures of work environment inspection and prevention measures regarding indirect electromagnetic hazards should be applied

  1. Experimental evaluation of ballistic hazards in imaging diagnostic center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karpowicz, Jolanta; Gryz, Krzysztof

    2013-04-01

    Serious hazards for human health and life and devices in close proximity to the magnetic resonance scanners (MRI scanners) include the effects of being hit by ferromagnetic objects attracted by static magnetic field (SMF) produced by scanner magnet - the so-called ballistic hazards classified among indirect electromagnetic hazards. International safety guidelines and technical literature specify different SMF threshold values regarding ballistic hazards - e.g. 3 mT (directive 2004/40/EC, EN 60601-2-33), and 30 mT (BMAS 2009, directive proposal 2011). Investigations presented in this article were performed in order to experimentally verify SMF threshold for ballistic hazards near MRI scanners used in Poland. Investigations were performed with the use of a laboratory source of SMF (0-30 mT) and MRI scanners of various types. The levels of SMF in which metal objects of various shapes and 0.4-500 g mass are moved by the field influence were investigated. The distance from the MRI scanners (0.2-3T) where hazards may occur were also investigated. Objects investigated under laboratory conditions were moved by SMF of 2.2-15 mT magnetic flux density when they were freely suspended, but were moved by the SMF of 5.6-22 mT when they were placed on a smooth surface. Investigated objects were moved in fields of 3.5-40 mT by MRI scanners. Distances from scanner magnet cover, where ballistic hazards might occur are: up to 0.5 m for 0.2-0.3T scanners; up to 1.3 m for 0.5T scanners; up to 2.0 m for 1.5T scanners and up to 2.5 m for 3T scanners (at the front and back of the magnet). It was shown that SMF of 3 mT magnetic flux density should be taken as the threshold for ballistic hazards. Such level is compatible with SMF limit value regarding occupational safety and health-protected areas/zones, where according to the Polish labor law the procedures of work environment inspection and prevention measures regarding indirect electromagnetic hazards should be applied. Presented results

  2. Hazard curve evaluation method development for a forest fire as an external hazard on nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okano, Yasushi; Yamano, Hidemasa

    2016-01-01

    A method to obtain a hazard curve of a forest fire was developed. The method has four steps: a logic tree formulation, a response surface evaluation, a Monte Carlo simulation, and an annual exceedance frequency calculation. The logic tree consists domains of 'forest fire breakout and spread conditions', 'weather conditions', 'vegetation conditions', and 'forest fire simulation conditions.' Condition parameters of the logic boxes are static if stable during a forest fire or not sensitive to a forest fire intensity, and non-static parameters are variables whose frequency/probability is given based on existing databases or evaluations. Response surfaces of a reaction intensity and a fireline intensity were prepared by interpolating outputs from a number of forest fire propagation simulations by fire area simulator (FARSITE). The Monte Carlo simulation was performed where one sample represented a set of variable parameters of the logic boxes and a corresponding intensity was evaluated from the response surface. The hazard curve, i.e. an annual exceedance frequency of the intensity, was therefore calculated from the histogram of the Monte Carlo simulation outputs. The new method was applied to evaluate hazard curves of a reaction intensity and a fireline intensity for a typical location around a sodium-cooled fast reactor in Japan. (author)

  3. BIOREMEDIATION OF HAZARDOUS WASTES - RESEARCH, DEVELOPMENT AND FIELD EVALUATIONS - 1995

    Science.gov (United States)

    The proceedings of the 1995 Symposium on Bioremediation of Hazardous Wastes, hosted by the Office of Research and Development (ORD) of the EPA in Rye Brook, New York. he symposium was the eighth annual meeting for the presentation of research conducted by EPA's Biosystems Technol...

  4. Snow hazard potential evaluation along G217 highway in Tianshan mountains by using GIS and RS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Jianwei

    2007-11-01

    Snow hazard especially avalanche potential along G217 national highway in Tianshan Mountains using remote sensing and GIS is evaluated and compared with actual site records of avalanche in a test area. Most places of the actual avalanche accidents are consistent with the places with the high snow hazard potential. But there are several places of the avalanche were not in the high hazard potential areas. The reason for this difference is discussed.

  5. The ESI scale, an ethical approach to the evaluation of seismic hazards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porfido, Sabina; Nappi, Rosa; De Lucia, Maddalena; Gaudiosi, Germana; Alessio, Giuliana; Guerrieri, Luca

    2015-04-01

    The dissemination of correct information about seismic hazard is an ethical duty of scientific community worldwide. A proper assessment of a earthquake severity and impact should not ignore the evaluation of its intensity, taking into account both the effects on humans, man-made structures, as well as on the natural evironment. We illustrate the new macroseismic scale that measures the intensity taking into account the effects of earthquakes on the environment: the ESI 2007 (Environmental Seismic Intensity) scale (Michetti et al., 2007), ratified by the INQUA (International Union for Quaternary Research) during the XVII Congress in Cairns (Australia). The ESI scale integrates and completes the traditional macroseismic scales, of which it represents the evolution, allowing to assess the intensity parameter also where buildings are absent or damage-based diagnostic elements saturate. Each degree reflects the corresponding strength of an earthquake and the role of ground effects, evaluating the Intensity on the basis of the characteristics and size of primary (e.g. surface faulting and tectonic uplift/subsidence) and secondary effects (e.g. ground cracks, slope movements, liquefaction phenomena, hydrological changes, anomalous waves, tsunamis, trees shaking, dust clouds and jumping stones). This approach can be considered "ethical" because helps to define the real scenario of an earthquake, regardless of the country's socio-economic conditions and level of development. Here lies the value and the relevance of macroseismic scales even today, one hundred years after the death of Giuseppe Mercalli, who conceived the homonymous scale for the evaluation of earthquake intensity. For an appropriate mitigation strategy in seismic areas, it is fundamental to consider the role played by seismically induced effects on ground, such as active faults (size in length and displacement) and secondary effects (the total area affecting). With these perspectives two different cases

  6. Investigation research on the evaluation of a coupled thermo-hydro-mechanical-chemical phenomena. 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishihara, Yoshinao; Sagawa, Hiroshi; Matsuoka, Fushiki; Chijimatsu, Masakazu; Amemiya, Kiyoshi

    2005-02-01

    In order to realize a coupling analysis in the near field of the geological disposal system, the coupling analysis code 'COUPLYS (Coupling analysis system)' on the Thermo-Hydro-Mechanical-Chemical (THMC) phenomena by THAMES, Dtransu-3D·EL and PHREEQC, those are existing analysis code, is developed in this study. (1) We have introduced 8 nodes element for THAMES code in order to solve the coupled thermal, hydraulic and mechanical phenomena. Furthermore, in order to obtain the reliable resolution, each phenomenon is solved separately instead of full coupling. (2) In order to upgrade Dtransu-3D·EL model, we have introduced gas diffusion independent on aqueous element. (3) We have adopted surface site density for the bentonite depend on water content and CSH solid phase based on the ratio of C/S for cementitious material in the geochemistry module, and studied on the methodology of time mesh for kinetic model and separate method for pore water chemistry in the bentonite. (4) In order to develop THMC code, we have modified Multi p hreeqc to keep efficiency distributed processing for geochemical calculation and modified COUPLYS to calculate continuous treatment, and studied on the coupling module. After THAMES, Dtransu, PHREEQC and the hydraulic conductivity module were installed in COUPLYS, verification study was carried out to check basic function. (5) In order to ensure efficiency of analysis processor, we have developed supporting tool for graphic processor for THMC code and supporting tool of interpretation for geochemistry results. (author)

  7. An evaluation of approximations of acute hazard indices based on chronic hazard indices for California fossil-fuel power stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gratt, L.B.; Levin, L.

    1998-01-01

    The measures for evaluating risk under the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 are yet to be defined. Many risk assessments have used only chronic risk measures (lifetime cancer probability and chronic hazard index) based on yearly averages of long-term dispersion of substances into ambient air. In California, many facilities prepared risk assessments using hourly meteorological data and short-term emission rates, allowing the calculation of an acute hazard index. These risk assessments are more costly and labor-intensive than those using the annualized meteorological data. A simple scheme to estimate the acute hazard index from the chronic index is proposed. This scheme is evaluated for four electric power stations in Southern California. The simple scheme was found lacking due to the inability to reasonably estimate both the hourly emission rates from annual averages and hourly concentrations from annual concentrations. The need for the acute risk measure for stack emission can be questioned based on the more detailed risk assessments performed in California

  8. Fire hazards evaluation for light duty utility arm system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    HUCKFELDT, R.A.

    1999-01-01

    In accordance with DOE Order 5480.7A, Fire Protection, a Fire Hazards Analysis must be performed for all new facilities. LMHC Fire Protection has reviewed and approved the significant documentation leading up to the LDUA operation. This includes, but is not limited to, development criteria and drawings, Engineering Task Plan, Quality Assurance Program Plan, and Safety Program Plan. LMHC has provided an appropriate level of fire protection for this activity as documented

  9. Risk evaluations of aging phenomena: The linear aging reliability model and its extensions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vesely, W.E.; Wolford, A.J.

    1988-01-01

    A model for component failure rates due to aging mechanisms is developed from basic phenomenological considerations. In the treatment, the occurrences of deterioration are modeled as following a Poisson process. The severity of damage is allowed to have any distribution, however the damage is assumed to accumulate independently. Finally, the failure rate is modeled as being proportional to the accumulated damage. Using this treatment, the linear aging failure rate model is obtained. The applicability of the linear aging model to various mechanisms is discussed. Extensions of the model to cover nonlinear and dependent aging phenomena are also described. The implementability of the linear aging model is demonstrated by applying it to the aging data collected in the U.S. NRC Nuclear Plant Aging Research (NPAR) Program. (orig./HP)

  10. Risk evaluations of aging phenomena: the linear aging reliability model and its extensions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vesely, W.E.

    1987-01-01

    A model for component failure rates due to aging mechanisms has been developed from basic phenomenological considerations. In the treatment, the occurrences of deterioration are modeled as following a Poisson process. The severity of damage is allowed to have any distribution, however the damage is assumed to accumulate independently. Finally, the failure rate is modeled as being proportional to the accumulated damage. Using this treatment, the linear aging failure rate model is obtained. The applicability of the linear aging model to various mechanisms is discussed. The model can be extended to cover nonlinear and dependent aging phenomena. The implementability of the linear aging model is demonstrated by applying it to the aging data collected in NRC's Nuclear Plant Aging Research (NPAR) Program. The applications show that aging as observed in collected data have significant effects on the component failure probability and component reliability when aging is not effectively detected and controlled by testing and maintenance

  11. Risk evaluations of aging phenomena: The linear aging reliability model and its extensions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vesely, W.E.

    1986-01-01

    A model for component failure rates due to aging mechanisms has been developed from basic phenomenological considerations. In the treatment, the occurrences of deterioration are modeled as following a Poisson process. The severity of damage is allowed to have any distribution, however the damage is assumed to accumulate independently. Finally, the failure rate is modeled as being proportional to the accumulated damage. Using this treatment, the linear aging failure rate model is obtained. The applicability of the linear aging model to various mechanisms is discussed. The model can be extended to cover nonlinear and dependent aging phenomena. The implementability of the linear aging model is demonstrated by applying it of the aging data collected in NRC's Nuclear Plant Aging Research (NPAR) Program. The applications show that aging as observed in collected data have significant effects on the component failure probability and component reliability when aging is not effectively detected and controlled by testing and maintenance

  12. Multivariate data analysis as a fast tool in evaluation of solid state phenomena

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Anna Cecilia; Miroshnyk, Inna; Karjalainen, Milja

    2006-01-01

    of information generated can be overwhelming and the need for more effective data analysis tools is well recognized. The aim of this study was to investigate the use of multivariate data analysis, in particular principal component analysis (PCA), for fast analysis of solid state information. The data sets...... the molecular level interpretation of the structural changes related to the loss of water, as well as interpretation of the phenomena related to the crystallization. The critical temperatures or critical time points were identified easily using the principal component analysis. The variables (diffraction angles...... or wavenumbers) that changed could be identified by the careful interpretation of the loadings plots. The PCA approach provides an effective tool for fast screening of solid state information....

  13. Investigation research on the evaluation of a coupled thermo-hydro-mechanical-chemical phenomena. Outline report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chijimatsu, Masakazu; Amemiya, Kiyoshi; Neyama, Atsushi; Iwata, Hiroshi; Nakagawa, Koichi; Ishihara, Yoshinao; Shiozaki, Isao; Sagawa, Hiroshi

    2002-02-01

    In order to realize a coupling analysis in the near field of the geological disposal system, this study has been studied on the addition of the mass transport model to the coupled thermo-hydro-mechanical analysis code (THAMES) and preliminary coupling analysis by using development environmental tool (Diffpack) for numerical analysis. (1) In order to prepare the strategy on the addition of the mass transport model to the coupled thermo-hydro-mechanical analysis code (THAMES), we have studied on the requirement of THAMES-Transport and methodology of coupling analysis. After that we set out modification plan by the Eulerian-Lagrangian (EL) method. (2) Based on the document of modification plan, we have done addition of the mass transport model to the coupled thermo-hydro-mechanical analysis code (THAMES) and carried out verification analysis in order to confirm on the accuracy of THAMES-Transport. (3) In order to understand on the behavior of NaCl in the porewater under the coupled thermo-hydro-mechanical phenomena in the HLW engineered barrier system, we have calculated coupling phenomenon by using THAMES-Transport. Transportation and concentration phenomena of NaCl are calculated but precipitation of NaCl is not occurred under the analysis conditions in this report. (4) In order to confirm about feasibility of coupling analysis under the development environmental tool (Diffpack) for numerical analysis, we have carried out on the design work and writing program of the preliminary coupling system. In this study, we have adopted existing transport model (HYDROGEOCHEM) and geochemical model (phreeqe60) for preliminary coupling system. (5) In order to confirm program correctness of preliminary coupling system, we have carried out benchmarking analysis by using existing reactive-transport analysis code (HYDROGEOCHEM). (6) We have been prepared short-range development plan based on through the modification study of THAMES and writing program of the preliminary coupling

  14. Investigation research on the evaluation of a coupled thermo-hydro-mechanical-chemical phenomena. Result report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chijimatsu, Masakazu; Amemiya, Kiyoshi; Shiozaki, Isao; Neyama, Atsushi; Iwata, Hiroshi; Nakagawa, Koichi; Ishihara, Yoshinao; Sagawa, Hiroshi

    2002-02-01

    In order to realize a coupling analysis in the near field of the geological disposal system, this study has been studied on the addition of the mass transport model to the coupled thermo-hydro-mechanical analysis code (THAMES) and preliminary coupling analysis by using development environmental tool (Diffpack) for numerical analysis. (1) In order to prepare the strategy on the addition of the mass transport model to the coupled thermo-hydro-mechanical analysis code (THAMES), we have studied on the requirement of THAMES-Transport and methodology of coupling analysis. After that we set out modification plan by the Eulerian-Lagrangian (EL) method. (2) Based on the document of modification plan, we have done addition of the mass transport model to the coupled thermo-hydro-mechanical analysis code (THAMES) and carried out verification analysis in order to confirm on the accuracy of THAMES-Transport. (3) In order to understand on the behavior of NaCl in the porewater under the coupled thermo-hydro-mechanical phenomena in the HLW engineered barrier system, we have calculated coupling phenomenon by using THAMES-Transport. Transportation and concentration phenomena of NaCl are calculated but precipitation of NaCl is not occurred under the analysis conditions in this report. (4) In order to confirm about feasibility of coupling analysis under the development environmental tool (Diffpack) for numerical analysis, we have carried out on the design work and writing program of the preliminary coupling system. In this study, we have adopted existing transport model (HYDROGEOCHEM) and geochemical model (phreeqe 60) for preliminary coupling system. (5) In order to confirm program correctness of preliminary coupling system, we have carried out benchmarking analysis by using existing reactive-transport analysis code (HYDROGEOCHEM). (6) We have been prepared short-range development plan based on through the modification study of THAMES and writing program of the preliminary coupling

  15. Hazard evaluation for transfer of waste from tank 241-SY-101 to tank 241-SY-102

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shultz, M.V.

    1999-01-01

    Tank 241-SY-101 waste level growth is an emergent, high priority issue. The purpose of this document is to record the hazards evaluation process and document potential hazardous conditions that could lead to the release of radiological and toxicological material from the proposed transfer of a limited quantity (approximately 100,000 gallons) of waste from Tank 241-SY-101 to Tank 241-SY-102. The results of the hazards evaluation were compared to the current Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) Basis for Interim Operation (HNF-SD-WM-BIO-001, 1998, Revision 1) to identify any hazardous conditions where Authorization Basis (AB) controls may not be sufficient or may not exist. Comparison to LA-UR-92-3196, A Safety Assessment for Proposed Pump Mixing Operations to Mitigate Episodic Gas Releases in Tank 241-SY-101, was also made in the case of transfer pump removal activities. Revision 1 of this document deletes hazardous conditions no longer applicable to the current waste transfer design and incorporates hazardous conditions related to the use of an above ground pump pit and overground transfer line. This document is not part of the AB and is not a vehicle for requesting authorization of the activity; it is only intended to provide information about the hazardous conditions associated with this activity. The AB Control Decision process will be used to determine the adequacy of controls and whether the proposed activity is within the AB. This hazard evaluation does not constitute an accident analysis

  16. Lessons learned from EU stress tests evaluations with regard to external hazards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Misak, J.

    2014-01-01

    The presentation was oriented to critical review of the lessons learned from the European Union (EU) Stress Test focusing on NPP robustness against external hazards. These lessons addressed: - organization of the stress tests, - scope and objectives of the stress tests, - peer review findings, recommendations and implications on the design in the area of external hazards, - further studies recommended in the area of external hazards and PSA, - relevant research areas identified by the SNETP Task Group in response to Fukushima accident. Some important conclusions were made in the final part of the presentation: - Vulnerability to the Fukushima Dai-ichi reactor accidents caused by external hazards and including their secondary effects was underestimated, - Lessons learned from Fukushima Dai-ichi reactor accidents, from the EU Stress Test and from peer reviews are to be reflected in safety improvements of operating plants and considered in new designs, - while no completely new phenomena were revealed from the Fukushima Dai-ichi reactor accidents, improvements in specific research areas (including external hazards and use of PSA) should be considered with high priority

  17. Evaluation of the hazard associated with fabricating beryllium copper alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Senn, T.J.

    1977-01-01

    Beryllium-copper alloys should be considered toxic materials and proper controls must be used when they are machined, heated, or otherwise fabricated. Air samples should be taken for each type of fabrication to determine the worker's exposure and the effectiveness of the controls in use. It has been shown that aerosols containing beryllium are generated during the four methods of fabrication tested, and that these aerosols can be reduced through local exhaust to undetectable levels. Considering the acute, chronic and possibly carcinogenic effects of exposure to beryllium, effective controls should be required because they are feasible both technologically and economically. The health hazards and control measures are reviewed

  18. [Hazard evaluation modeling of particulate matters emitted by coal-fired boilers and case analysis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Yan-Ting; Du, Qian; Gao, Jian-Min; Bian, Xin; Wang, Zhi-Pu; Dong, He-Ming; Han, Qiang; Cao, Yang

    2014-02-01

    In order to evaluate the hazard of PM2.5 emitted by various boilers, in this paper, segmentation of particulate matters with sizes of below 2. 5 microm was performed based on their formation mechanisms and hazard level to human beings and environment. Meanwhile, taking into account the mass concentration, number concentration, enrichment factor of Hg, and content of Hg element in different coal ashes, a comprehensive model aimed at evaluating hazard of PM2.5 emitted by coal-fired boilers was established in this paper. Finally, through utilizing filed experimental data of previous literatures, a case analysis of the evaluation model was conducted, and the concept of hazard reduction coefficient was proposed, which can be used to evaluate the performance of dust removers.

  19. Evaluating the relationship between explicit and implicit drinking identity centrality and hazardous drinking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristen P. Lindgren

    2016-12-01

    Conclusions: These studies provide preliminary evidence that drinking identity centrality may be an important factor for predicting hazardous drinking. Future research should improve its measurement and evaluate implicit and explicit centrality in experimental and longitudinal studies.

  20. Seismic hazard evaluation for major cities in Madagascar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Razafindrakoto, Hoby N.T.; Rambolamanana, Gerard; Panza, Giuliano F.

    2009-09-01

    The seismic hazard in some areas in Madagascar has been assessed at regional scale in terms of peak ground motion values (displacement, velocity, acceleration) and their periods, following the Neodeterministic approach, based on the computation of realistic synthetic seismograms. The main data input integrates all available tectonic, seismicity and structural model information. The largest peak values are 1.6cm/s for the velocity, 0.03g for the acceleration and more than 0.5cm for the displacement. These values are consistent within a range of macroseismic intensity from VI to VII MCS, and indicate that relatively simple prevention measures and retrofitting actions may guarantee a high safety level and a well sustainable development. (author)

  1. Evaluation of microbial hazards during creamy cream cheese processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Żukowska

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the work was to identify the potential microbial hazards that may occur during the manufacturing process of creamy cream cheese, and to present the means of their elimination or minimization. The analysis demonstrated that among the most crucial stages that should be particularly monitored are: the quality of raw materials, the control of pasteurization and souring parameters as well as temperature of product packaging, ensuring proper storage conditions of the finished product and hygiene throughout the production. Of these, the most critical step in the entire process (critical control points - CCP is a heat treatment process which is pasteurization. On the basis of the analysis, it can be concluded that the monitoring of such a process and consistent adherence to Operational Pre-Condition Pro-grams at the thermisation and centrifuging and later packaging, can help guarantee a safe product and its long shelf life.

  2. DOE (Department of Energy) natural phenomena guidelines flood design and evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCann, M.W.; Savy, J.B.

    1989-01-01

    Design and evaluation guidelines for DOE (Department of Energy) facilities subjected to earthquake, wind/tornado, and flood have been developed and presented in UCRL-15910 (Ref.1). This paper summarizes Chapter 6 of UCRL-15910 describing the philosophy and procedures for the design or evaluation of facilities for flood. The flood design and evaluation guidelines seek to ensure that DOE facilities satisfy the performance goals described in UCRL-15910. The guidelines are applicable to new and existing construction; however, in the evaluation of existing facilities, fewer design options may be available to satisfy the performance goals. Evaluation of the flood design for a facility consists of: (1) defining the design basis flood (DBFL), (2) evaluating site conditions (e.g., facility location, location of openings and doorways), and (3) assessing flood design strategies (e.g., build above DBFL levels, harden the site)

  3. Evaluating the hazard from Siding Spring dust: Models and predictions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christou, A.

    2014-12-01

    Long-period comet C/2013 A1 (Siding Spring) will pass at a distance of ~140 thousand km (9e-4 AU) - about a third of a lunar distance - from the centre of Mars, closer to this planet than any known comet has come to the Earth since records began. Closest approach is expected to occur at 18:30 UT on the 19th October. This provides an opportunity for a ``free'' flyby of a different type of comet than those investigated by spacecraft so far, including comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko currently under scrutiny by the Rosetta spacecraft. At the same time, the passage of the comet through Martian space will create the opportunity to study the reaction of the planet's upper atmosphere to a known natural perturbation. The flip-side of the coin is the risk to Mars-orbiting assets, both existing (NASA's Mars Odyssey & Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter and ESA's Mars Express) and in transit (NASA's MAVEN and ISRO's Mangalyaan) by high-speed cometary dust potentially impacting spacecraft surfaces. Much work has already gone into assessing this hazard and devising mitigating measures in the precious little warning time given to characterise this object until Mars encounter. In this presentation, we will provide an overview of how the meteoroid stream and comet coma dust impact models evolved since the comet's discovery and discuss lessons learned should similar circumstances arise in the future.

  4. Seismic Hazard Assessment in Site Evaluation for Nuclear Installations: Ground Motion Prediction Equations and Site Response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-07-01

    The objective of this publication is to provide the state-of-the-art practice and detailed technical elements related to ground motion evaluation by ground motion prediction equations (GMPEs) and site response in the context of seismic hazard assessments as recommended in IAEA Safety Standards Series No. SSG-9, Seismic Hazards in Site Evaluation for Nuclear Installations. The publication includes the basics of GMPEs, ground motion simulation, selection and adjustment of GMPEs, site characterization, and modelling of site response in order to improve seismic hazard assessment. The text aims at delineating the most important aspects of these topics (including current practices, criticalities and open problems) within a coherent framework. In particular, attention has been devoted to filling conceptual gaps. It is written as a reference text for trained users who are responsible for planning preparatory seismic hazard analyses for siting of all nuclear installations and/or providing constraints for anti-seismic design and retrofitting of existing structures

  5. Theoretical-probability evaluation of the fire hazard of coal accumulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sikora, F F

    1978-01-01

    An evaluation is suggested for the fire hazard of coal accumulations, based on determining the probability of an endogenic fire. This probability is computed by using the statistical characteristics of the temperature distribution of spontaneous heating in large accumulations, and the criteria of Gluzberg's fire hazard that is determined by the coal's physico-chemical properties, oxygen concentration, and the size of the accumulations. 4 references.

  6. The Contribution of Palaeoseismology to Seismic Hazard Assessment in Site Evaluation for Nuclear Installations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-06-01

    IAEA Safety Standards Series No. SSG-9, Seismic Hazards in Site Evaluation for Nuclear Installations, published in 2010, covers all aspects of site evaluation relating to seismic hazards and recommends the use of prehistoric, historical and instrumental earthquake data in seismic hazard assessments. Prehistoric data on earthquakes cover a much longer period than do historical and instrumental data. However, gathering such data is generally difficult in most regions of the world, owing to an absence of human records. Prehistoric data on earthquakes can be obtained through the use of palaeoseismic techniques. This publication describes the current status and practices of palaeoseismology, in order to support Member States in meeting the recommendations of SSG-9 and in establishing the necessary earthquake related database for seismic hazard assessment and reassessment. At a donors’ meeting of the International Seismic Safety Centre Extrabudgetary Project in January 2011, it was suggested to develop detailed guidelines on seismic hazards. Soon after the meeting, the disastrous Great East Japan Earthquake and Tsunami of 11 March 2011 and the consequent accident at the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant occurred. The importance of palaeoseismology for seismic hazard assessment in site evaluation was highlighted by the lessons learned from the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant accident. However, no methodology for performing investigations using palaeoseismic techniques has so far been available in an IAEA publication. The detailed guidelines and practical tools provided here will be of value to nuclear power plant operating organizations, regulatory bodies, vendors, technical support organizations and researchers in the area of seismic hazard assessment in site evaluation for nuclear installations, and the information will be of importance in support of hazard assessments in the future

  7. Hazard evaluation for transfer of waste from tank 241-SY-101 to tank 241-SY-102

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    SHULTZ, M.V.

    1999-01-01

    Tank 241-SY-101 (SY-101) waste level growth is an emergent, high priority issue. The purpose of this document is to record the hazards evaluation process and document potential hazardous conditions that could lead to the release of radiological and toxicological material from the proposed transfer of a limited quantity (approximately 100,000 gallons) of waste from SY-101 to 241-SY-102 (SY-102). The results of the hazards evaluation will be compared to the current Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) Basis for Interim Operation (HNF-SD-WM-BIO-001, 1998, Revision 1) to identify any hazardous conditions where Authorization Basis (AB) controls may not be sufficient or may not exist. Comparison to LA-UR-92-3196, A Safety Assessment for Proposed Pump Mixing Operations to Mitigate Episodic Gas Releases in Tank 241-SY-101, was also made in the case of transfer pump removal activities. This document is not intended to authorize the activity or determine the adequacy of controls; it is only intended to provide information about the hazardous conditions associated with this activity. The Unreviewed Safety Question (USQ) process will be used to determine the adequacy of controls and whether the proposed activity is within the AB. This hazard evaluation does not constitute an accident analysis

  8. INTERNAL HAZARDS ANALYSIS FOR LICENSE APPLICATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R.J. Garrett

    2005-02-17

    The purpose of this internal hazards analysis is to identify and document the internal hazards and potential initiating events associated with preclosure operations of the repository at Yucca Mountain. Internal hazards are those hazards presented by the operation of the facility and by its associated processes that can potentially lead to a radioactive release or cause a radiological hazard. In contrast to external hazards, internal hazards do not involve natural phenomena and external man-made hazards. This internal hazards analysis was performed in support of the preclosure safety analysis and the License Application for the Yucca Mountain Project. The methodology for this analysis provides a systematic means to identify internal hazards and potential initiating events that may result in a radiological hazard or radiological release during the repository preclosure period. These hazards are documented in tables of potential internal hazards and potential initiating events (Section 6.6) for input to the repository event sequence categorization process. The results of this analysis will undergo further screening and analysis based on the criteria that apply to the performance of event sequence analyses for the repository preclosure period. The evolving design of the repository will be re-evaluated periodically to ensure that internal hazards that have not been previously evaluated are identified.

  9. INTERNAL HAZARDS ANALYSIS FOR LICENSE APPLICATION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garrett, R.J.

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this internal hazards analysis is to identify and document the internal hazards and potential initiating events associated with preclosure operations of the repository at Yucca Mountain. Internal hazards are those hazards presented by the operation of the facility and by its associated processes that can potentially lead to a radioactive release or cause a radiological hazard. In contrast to external hazards, internal hazards do not involve natural phenomena and external man-made hazards. This internal hazards analysis was performed in support of the preclosure safety analysis and the License Application for the Yucca Mountain Project. The methodology for this analysis provides a systematic means to identify internal hazards and potential initiating events that may result in a radiological hazard or radiological release during the repository preclosure period. These hazards are documented in tables of potential internal hazards and potential initiating events (Section 6.6) for input to the repository event sequence categorization process. The results of this analysis will undergo further screening and analysis based on the criteria that apply to the performance of event sequence analyses for the repository preclosure period. The evolving design of the repository will be re-evaluated periodically to ensure that internal hazards that have not been previously evaluated are identified

  10. Hazard Evaluation for Storage of Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) Sludge at the Solid Waste Treatment Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    SCHULTZ, M.V.

    2000-01-01

    As part of the Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) storage basin clean-up project, sludge that has accumulated in the K Basins due to corrosion of damaged irradiated N Reactor will be loaded into containers and placed in interim storage. The Hanford Site Treatment Complex (T Plant) has been identified as the location where the sludge will be stored until final disposition of the material occurs. Long term storage of sludge from the K Basin fuel storage facilities requires identification and analysis of potential accidents involving sludge storage in T Plant. This report is prepared as the initial step in the safety assurance process described in DOE Order 5480.23, Nuclear Safety Analysis Reports and HNF-PRO-704, Hazards and Accident Analysis Process. This report documents the evaluation of potential hazards and off-normal events associated with sludge storage activities. This information will be used in subsequent safety analyses, design, and operations procedure development to ensure safe storage. The hazards evaluation for the storage of SNF sludge in T-Plant used the Hazards and Operability Analysis (HazOp) method. The hazard evaluation identified 42 potential hazardous conditions. No hazardous conditions involving hazardous/toxic chemical concerns were identified. Of the 42 items identified in the HazOp study, eight were determined to have potential for onsite worker consequences. No items with potential offsite consequences were identified in the HazOp study. Hazardous conditions with potential onsite worker or offsite consequences are candidates for quantitative consequence analysis. The hazardous conditions with potential onsite worker consequences were grouped into two event categories, Container failure due to overpressure - internal to T Plant, and Spill of multiple containers. The two event categories will be developed into accident scenarios that will be quantitatively analyzed to determine release consequences. A third category, Container failure due to

  11. Evaluating the Zebrafish Embryo Toxicity Test for Pesticide Hazard Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Given the numerous chemicals used in society, it is critical to develop tools for accurate and efficient evaluation of potential risks to human and ecological receptors. Fish embryo acute toxicity tests are 1 tool that has been shown to be highly predictive of standard, more reso...

  12. Evaluation and hydrological modelization in the natural hazard prevention

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pla Sentis, Ildefonso

    2011-01-01

    Soil degradation affects negatively his functions as a base to produce food, to regulate the hydrological cycle and the environmental quality. All over the world soil degradation is increasing partly due to lacks or deficiencies in the evaluations of the processes and causes of this degradation on each specific situation. The processes of soil physical degradation are manifested through several problems as compaction, runoff, hydric and Eolic erosion, landslides with collateral effects in situ and in the distance, often with disastrous consequences as foods, landslides, sedimentations, droughts, etc. These processes are frequently associated to unfavorable changes into the hydrologic processes responsible of the water balance and soil hydric regimes, mainly derived to soil use changes and different management practices and climatic changes. The evaluation of these processes using simple simulation models; under several scenarios of climatic change, soil properties and land use and management; would allow to predict the occurrence of this disastrous processes and consequently to select and apply the appropriate practices of soil conservation to eliminate or reduce their effects. This simulation models require, as base, detailed climatic information and hydrologic soil properties data. Despite of the existence of methodologies and commercial equipment (each time more sophisticated and precise) to measure the different physical and hydrological soil properties related with degradation processes, most of them are only applicable under really specific or laboratory conditions. Often indirect methodologies are used, based on relations or empiric indexes without an adequate validation, that often lead to expensive mistakes on the evaluation of soil degradation processes and their effects on natural disasters. It could be preferred simple field methodologies, direct and adaptable to different soil types and climates and to the sample size and the spatial variability of the

  13. Switching Phenomena

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanley, H. E.; Buldyrev, S. V.; Franzese, G.; Havlin, S.; Mallamace, F.; Mazza, M. G.; Kumar, P.; Plerou, V.; Preis, T.; Stokely, K.; Xu, L.

    One challenge of biology, medicine, and economics is that the systems treated by these serious scientific disciplines can suddenly "switch" from one behavior to another, even though they possess no perfect metronome in time. As if by magic, out of nothing but randomness one finds remarkably fine-tuned processes in time. The past century has, philosophically, been concerned with placing aside the human tendency to see the universe as a fine-tuned machine. Here we will address the challenge of uncovering how, through randomness (albeit, as we shall see, strongly correlated randomness), one can arrive at some of the many temporal patterns in physics, economics, and medicine and even begin to characterize the switching phenomena that enable a system to pass from one state to another. We discuss some applications of correlated randomness to understanding switching phenomena in various fields. Specifically, we present evidence from experiments and from computer simulations supporting the hypothesis that water's anomalies are related to a switching point (which is not unlike the "tipping point" immortalized by Malcolm Gladwell), and that the bubbles in economic phenomena that occur on all scales are not "outliers" (another Gladwell immortalization).

  14. Evaluation of chemical phenomena that could have an effect on the performance of recirculation strainers in a Ringhals PWR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liljenzin, Jan-Olov

    2005-01-01

    An evaluation has been made of the various chemical phenomena that could have an effect on the performance of recirculation strainers after a LOCA in a PWR. Values of pH and concentrations in the water at the bottom of the containment have been calculated as functions of time and temperature for a postulated LOCA. The behaviour of glass wool insulation, its dissolution, and precipitation of amorphous silic acid have been evaluated. Also the corrosion of galvanized surfaces has been considered. Dissolution of zinc by hot boric acid solution can lead to a later precipitation of amorphous zinc hydroxide or phosphate when pH increases and temperature drops. Also a possible growth of microorganisms is discussed. A rough classification of the various phenomena possible along a simplified time scale yields the following conclusions: Hours after the beginning of the LOCA: Precipitation of zinc hydroxide and/or phosphate. Dissolution of glass wool giving rise to an increasing concentration of silic acid in the water. Days after the beginning of the LOCA: Continued dissolution of glass wool and increasing concentration of silica in the water. Perhaps a precipitation of phosphates or carbonates of the metal ions released during dissolution of glass wool. Weeks after the beginning of the LOCA: Continued slow dissolution of glass wool leading to a risk of precipitation of amorphous silica. Perhaps a precipitation of phosphates or carbonates of the metal ions released during dissolution of glass wool. Initial growth of microorganisms in the water and on surfaces after mutations and adaptation to the existing environment. Months after the beginning of the LOCA: Continued slow dissolution of glass wool leading to a risk of precipitation of amorphous silica. Perhaps a precipitation of phosphates or carbonates of the metal ions released during dissolution of glass wool. Continued growth of adapted microorganisms

  15. Small break LOCA RELAP5/MOD3 uncertainty quantification: Bias and uncertainty evaluation for important phenomena

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ortiz, M.G.; Ghan, L.S.; Vogl, J.

    1991-01-01

    The Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) revised the Emergency Core Cooling System (ECCS) licensing rule to allow the use of Best Estimate (BE) computer codes, provided the uncertainty of the calculations are quantified and used in the licensing and regulation process. The NRC developed a generic methodology called Code Scaling, Applicability and Uncertainty (CSAU) to evaluate BE code uncertainties. The CSAU methodology was demonstrated with a specific application to a pressurized water reactor (PWR), experiencing a postulated large break loss-of-coolant accident (LBLOCA). The current work is part of an effort to adapt and demonstrate the CSAU methodology to a small break (SB) LOCA in a PWR of B and W design using RELAP5/MOD3 as the simulation tool. The subject of this paper is the Assessment and Ranging of Parameters (Element 2 of the CSAU methodology), which determines the contribution to uncertainty of specific models in the code

  16. Numerical evaluation of fluid mixing phenomena in boiling water reactor using advanced interface tracking method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshida, Hiroyuki; Takase, Kazuyuki

    2008-01-01

    Thermal-hydraulic design of the current boiling water reactor (BWR) is performed with the subchannel analysis codes which incorporated the correlations based on empirical results including actual-size tests. Then, for the Innovative Water Reactor for Flexible Fuel Cycle (FLWR) core, an actual size test of an embodiment of its design is required to confirm or modify such correlations. In this situation, development of a method that enables the thermal-hydraulic design of nuclear reactors without these actual size tests is desired, because these tests take a long time and entail great cost. For this reason, we developed an advanced thermal-hydraulic design method for FLWRs using innovative two-phase flow simulation technology. In this study, a detailed Two-Phase Flow simulation code using advanced Interface Tracking method: TPFIT is developed to calculate the detailed information of the two-phase flow. In this paper, firstly, we tried to verify the TPFIT code by comparing it with the existing 2-channel air-water mixing experimental results. Secondary, the TPFIT code was applied to simulation of steam-water two-phase flow in a model of two subchannels of a current BWRs and FLWRs rod bundle. The fluid mixing was observed at a gap between the subchannels. The existing two-phase flow correlation for fluid mixing is evaluated using detailed numerical simulation data. This data indicates that pressure difference between fluid channels is responsible for the fluid mixing, and thus the effects of the time average pressure difference and fluctuations must be incorporated in the two-phase flow correlation for fluid mixing. When inlet quality ratio of subchannels is relatively large, it is understood that evaluation precision of the existing two-phase flow correlations for fluid mixing are relatively low. (author)

  17. Menstruation. A hazard in radionuclide renal transplant evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orzel, J.A.; Jaffers, G.J.

    1986-01-01

    Serial Tc-99m DTPA studies were performed to evaluate renal transplant blood flow and function in a 34-year-old woman. A hypervascular pelvic mass with increased blood pool activity was intermittently identified. This hypervascular lesion suggested a pathologic condition of the pelvis, and its blood pool simulated bladder activity, confusing interpretation of renal function. This perplexing vascular lesion was the uterus, with varying degrees of blood flow and blood pool activity depending on the timing of the renal study in relation to the menstrual cycle

  18. Menstruation. A hazard in radionuclide renal transplant evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orzel, J.A.; Jaffers, G.J.

    1986-06-01

    Serial Tc-99m DTPA studies were performed to evaluate renal transplant blood flow and function in a 34-year-old woman. A hypervascular pelvic mass with increased blood pool activity was intermittently identified. This hypervascular lesion suggested a pathologic condition of the pelvis, and its blood pool simulated bladder activity, confusing interpretation of renal function. This perplexing vascular lesion was the uterus, with varying degrees of blood flow and blood pool activity depending on the timing of the renal study in relation to the menstrual cycle.

  19. Spatial prediction models for landslide hazards: review, comparison and evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Brenning

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The predictive power of logistic regression, support vector machines and bootstrap-aggregated classification trees (bagging, double-bagging is compared using misclassification error rates on independent test data sets. Based on a resampling approach that takes into account spatial autocorrelation, error rates for predicting 'present' and 'future' landslides are estimated within and outside the training area. In a case study from the Ecuadorian Andes, logistic regression with stepwise backward variable selection yields lowest error rates and demonstrates the best generalization capabilities. The evaluation outside the training area reveals that tree-based methods tend to overfit the data.

  20. ECSIN's methodological approach for hazard evaluation of engineered nanomaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bregoli, Lisa; Benetti, Federico; Venturini, Marco; Sabbioni, Enrico

    2013-04-01

    The increasing production volumes and commercialization of engineered nanomaterials (ENM), together with data on their higher biological reactivity when compared to bulk counterpart and ability to cross biological barriers, have caused concerns about their potential impacts on the health and safety of both humans and the environment. A multidisciplinary component of the scientific community has been called to evaluate the real risks associated with the use of products containing ENM, and is today in the process of developing specific definitions and testing strategies for nanomaterials. At ECSIN we are developing an integrated multidisciplinary methodological approach for the evaluation of the biological effects of ENM on the environment and human health. While our testing strategy agrees with the most widely advanced line of work at the European level, the choice of methods and optimization of protocols is made with an extended treatment of details. Our attention to the methodological and technical details is based on the acknowledgment that the innovative characteristics of matter at the nano-size range may influence the existing testing methods in a partially unpredictable manner, an aspect which is frequently recognized at the discussion level but oftentimes disregarded at the laboratory bench level. This work outlines the most important steps of our testing approach. In particular, each step will be briefly discussed in terms of potential technical and methodological pitfalls that we have encountered, and which are often ignored in nanotoxicology research. The final aim is to draw attention to the need of preliminary studies in developing reliable tests, a crucial aspect to confirm the suitability of the chosen analytical and toxicological methods to be used for the specific tested nanoparticle, and to express the idea that in nanotoxicology,"devil is in the detail".

  1. ECSIN's methodological approach for hazard evaluation of engineered nanomaterials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bregoli, Lisa; Benetti, Federico; Venturini, Marco; Sabbioni, Enrico

    2013-01-01

    The increasing production volumes and commercialization of engineered nanomaterials (ENM), together with data on their higher biological reactivity when compared to bulk counterpart and ability to cross biological barriers, have caused concerns about their potential impacts on the health and safety of both humans and the environment. A multidisciplinary component of the scientific community has been called to evaluate the real risks associated with the use of products containing ENM, and is today in the process of developing specific definitions and testing strategies for nanomaterials. At ECSIN we are developing an integrated multidisciplinary methodological approach for the evaluation of the biological effects of ENM on the environment and human health. While our testing strategy agrees with the most widely advanced line of work at the European level, the choice of methods and optimization of protocols is made with an extended treatment of details. Our attention to the methodological and technical details is based on the acknowledgment that the innovative characteristics of matter at the nano-size range may influence the existing testing methods in a partially unpredictable manner, an aspect which is frequently recognized at the discussion level but oftentimes disregarded at the laboratory bench level. This work outlines the most important steps of our testing approach. In particular, each step will be briefly discussed in terms of potential technical and methodological pitfalls that we have encountered, and which are often ignored in nanotoxicology research. The final aim is to draw attention to the need of preliminary studies in developing reliable tests, a crucial aspect to confirm the suitability of the chosen analytical and toxicological methods to be used for the specific tested nanoparticle, and to express the idea that in nanotoxicology,'devil is in the detail'.

  2. REITP3-Hazard evaluation program for heat release based on thermochemical calculation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akutsu, Yoshiaki.; Tamura, Masamitsu. [The University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan). School of Engineering; Kawakatsu, Yuichi. [Oji Paper Corp., Tokyo (Japan); Wada, Yuji. [National Institute for Resources and Environment, Tsukuba (Japan); Yoshida, Tadao. [Hosei University, Tokyo (Japan). College of Engineering

    1999-06-30

    REITP3-A hazard evaluation program for heat release besed on thermochemical calculation has been developed by modifying REITP2 (Revised Estimation of Incompatibility from Thermochemical Properties{sup 2)}. The main modifications are as follows. (1) Reactants are retrieved from the database by chemical formula. (2) As products are listed in an external file, the addition of products and change in order of production can be easily conducted. (3) Part of the program has been changed by considering its use on a personal computer or workstation. These modifications will promote the usefulness of the program for energy hazard evaluation. (author)

  3. Transport phenomena

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirczenow, G.; Marro, J.

    1974-01-01

    Some simple remarks on the basis of transport theory. - Entropy, dynamics and scattering theory. - Response, relaxation and fluctuation. - Fluctuating hydrodynamics and renormalization of susceptibilities and transport coefficients. - Irreversibility of the transport equations. - Ergodic theory and statistical mechanics. - Correlation functions in Heisenberg magnets. - On the Enskog hard-sphere kinetic eqquation and the transport phenomena of dense simple gases. - What can one learn from Lorentz models. - Conductivity in a magnetic field. - Transport properties in gases in presence of external fields. - Transport properties of dilute gases with internal structure. (orig.) [de

  4. Tsunami Hazard Evaluation for the East Coast of Korea by using Empirical Data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Min Kyu; Choi, In Kil

    2010-01-01

    In this study, a tsunami hazard curve was determined for a probabilistic safety assessment (PSA) induced tsunami event in Nuclear Power Plant site. A Tsunami catalogue was developed by using historical tsunami record which happen before 1900 and instrumental tsunami record after 1900. For the evaluation of return period of tsunami run-up height, power-law, uppertruncated power law and exponential function were considered for the assessment of regression curves and compared with each result. Although the total tsunami records were only 9 times at the east coast of Korea during tsunami catalogue, there was no such research like this about tsunami hazard curve evaluation and this research lay a cornerstone for probabilistic tsunami hazard assessment (PTHA) in Korea

  5. Slope stability susceptibility evaluation parameter (SSEP) rating scheme - An approach for landslide hazard zonation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raghuvanshi, Tarun Kumar; Ibrahim, Jemal; Ayalew, Dereje

    2014-11-01

    In this paper a new slope susceptibility evaluation parameter (SSEP) rating scheme is presented which is developed as an expert evaluation approach for landslide hazard zonation. The SSEP rating scheme is developed by considering intrinsic and external triggering parameters that are responsible for slope instability. The intrinsic parameters which are considered are; slope geometry, slope material (rock or soil type), structural discontinuities, landuse and landcover and groundwater. Besides, external triggering parameters such as, seismicity, rainfall and manmade activities are also considered. For SSEP empirical technique numerical ratings are assigned to each of the intrinsic and triggering parameters on the basis of logical judgments acquired from experience of studies of intrinsic and external triggering factors and their relative impact in inducing instability to the slope. Further, the distribution of maximum SSEP ratings is based on their relative order of importance in contributing instability to the slope. Finally, summation of all ratings for intrinsic and triggering parameter based on actual observation will provide the expected degree of landslide in a given land unit. This information may be utilized to develop a landslide hazard zonation map. The SSEP technique was applied in the area around Wurgessa Kebelle of North Wollo Zonal Administration, Amhara National Regional State in northern Ethiopia, some 490 km from Addis Ababa. The results obtained indicates that 8.33% of the area fall under Moderately hazard and 83.33% fall within High hazard whereas 8.34% of the area fall under Very high hazard. Further, in order to validate the LHZ map prepared during the study, active landslide activities and potential instability areas, delineated through inventory mapping was overlain on it. All active landslide activities and potential instability areas fall within very high and high hazard zone. Thus, the satisfactory agreement confirms the rationality of

  6. Evaluation of Hazardous Material Management Safety in the Chemical Laboratory in BATAN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nur-Rahmah-Hidayati

    2005-01-01

    The management safety of the hazardous material (B3) in the chemical laboratory of BATAN was evaluated. The evaluation is necessary to be done because B3 is often used together with radioactive materials in the laboratory, but the attention to the safety aspect of B3 is not paid sufficiently in spite of its big potential hazard. The potential hazard generated from the nature of B3 could be flammable, explosive, oxidative, corrosive and poisonous. The handling of B3 could be conducted by enforcing the labelling and classification in the usage and disposal processes. Some observations of the chemical laboratory of BATAN show that the management safety of hazardous material in compliance with the government regulation no. 74 year 2001 has not been dully conducted. The management safety of B3 could be improved by, designating one who has adequate skill in hazardous material safety specially as the B3 safety officer, providing the Material Safety Data Sheet that is updated periodically to use in the laboratory and storage room, updating periodically the inventory of B3, performing training in work safety periodically, and monitoring the ventilation system intensively in laboratory and storage room. (author)

  7. Obtention to the methodology for evaluation to the confirmation of the hazardous wastes safety isolation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peralta, J.L.; Gil, R.; Castillo, R.; Leyva, D.

    2003-01-01

    Taking into account, the practical experience of the safety assessment in the radioactive wastes management, the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) recommendations in this topics, the norms and national and international legislation about noxious substances to the environment and their restriction limits, the best international practices and approaches of isolation hazardous wastes sites, a Methodology is developed (Cuba particular conditions) to obtaining and/or confirmation of the hazardous wastes safety isolation, as a tool able to carry out the assessment of facilities to build and all installation and/or place where hazardous wastes isolated from the environment. The Methodology, embraces the evaluation of technical, economic and social topics, allowing to develop an integral safety assessment which allows to estimate the environment possible impact for hazardous waste isolation (radioactive and non radioactive); Just are shown in this paper the selection approaches for the obtaining and/or evaluation of the best site, the steps description to continue for the definition of the main scenarios and the models to take into account in the valuation of the possible liberation and pathway to the environment of the non radioactive pollutants. The main contribution of this Methodology resides in the creation of a scientific-technique necessary guide for the evident demand of carrying out the most organized, effective and hazardous wastes safety management

  8. Evaluation of methods to compare consequences from hazardous materials transportation accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rhoads, R.E.; Franklin, A.L.; Lavender, J.C.

    1986-10-01

    This report presents the results of a project to develop a framework for making meaningful comparisons of the consequences from transportation accidents involving hazardous materials. The project was conducted in two phases. In Phase I, methods that could potentially be used to develop the consequence comparisons for hazardous material transportation accidents were identified and reviewed. Potential improvements were identified and an evaluation of the improved methods was performed. Based on this evaluation, several methods were selected for detailed evaluation in Phase II of the project. The methods selected were location-dependent scenarios, figure of merit and risk assessment. This evaluation included application of the methods to a sample problem which compares the consequences of four representative hazardous materials - chlorine, propane, spent nuclear fuel and class A explosives. These materials were selected because they represented a broad class of hazardous material properties and consequence mechanisms. The sample case aplication relied extensively on consequence calculations performed in previous transportation risk assessment studies. A consultant was employed to assist in developing consequence models for explosives. The results of the detailed evaluation of the three consequence comparison methods indicates that methods are available to perform technically defensible comparisons of the consequences from a wide variety of hazardous materials. Location-dependent scenario and risk assessment methods are available now and the figure of merit method could be developed with additional effort. All of the methods require substantial effort to implement. Methods that would require substantially less effort were identified in the preliminary evaluation, but questions of technical accuracy preclude their application on a scale. These methods may have application to specific cases, however

  9. Geotechnical applications of LiDAR pertaining to geomechanical evaluation and hazard identification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lato, Matthew J.

    Natural hazards related to ground movement that directly affect the safety of motorists and highway infrastructure include, but are not limited to, rockfalls, rockslides, debris flows, and landslides. This thesis specifically deals with the evaluation of rockfall hazards through the evaluation of LiDAR data. Light Detection And Ranging (LiDAR) is an imaging technology that can be used to delineate and evaluate geomechanically-controlled hazards. LiDAR has been adopted to conduct hazard evaluations pertaining to rockfall, rock-avalanches, debris flows, and landslides. Characteristics of LiDAR surveying, such as rapid data acquisition rates, mobile data collection, and high data densities, pose problems to traditional CAD or GIS-based mapping methods. New analyses methods, including tools specifically oriented to geomechanical analyses, are needed. The research completed in this thesis supports development of new methods, including improved survey techniques, innovative software workflows, and processing algorithms to aid in the detection and evaluation of geomechanically controlled rockfall hazards. The scientific research conducted between the years of 2006-2010, as presented in this thesis, are divided into five chapters, each of which has been published by or is under review by an international journal. The five research foci are: (i) geomechanical feature extraction and analysis using LiDAR data in active mining environments; (ii) engineered monitoring of rockfall hazards along transportation corridors: using mobile terrestrial LiDAR; (iii) optimization of LiDAR scanning and processing for automated structural evaluation of discontinuities in rockmasses; (iv) location orientation bias when using static LiDAR data for geomechanical analysis; and (v) evaluating roadside rockmasses for rockfall hazards from LiDAR data: optimizing data collection and processing protocols. The research conducted pertaining to this thesis has direct and significant implications with

  10. [Information content of immunologic parameters in the evaluation of the effects of hazardous substances].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litovskaia, A V; Sadovskiĭ, V V; Vifleemskiĭ, A B

    1995-01-01

    Clinical and immunologic examination including 1 and 2 level tests covered 429 staffers of chemical enterprises and 1122 of those engaged into microbiological synthesis of proteins, both the groups exposed to some irritating gases and isocyanates. Using calculation of Kulbak's criterion, the studies selected informative parameters to diagnose immune disturbances caused by occupational hazards. For integral evaluation of immune state, the authors applied general immunologic parameter, meanings of which can serve as criteria for early diagnosis of various immune disorders and for definition of risk groups among industrial workers exposed to occupational biologic and chemical hazards.

  11. Evaluating the tuberculosis hazard posed to cattle from wildlife across Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardstaff, Joanne L; Marion, Glenn; Hutchings, Michael R; White, Piran C L

    2014-10-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) caused by infection with Mycobacterium bovis (M. bovis) and other closely related members of the M. tuberculosis complex (MTC) infects many domestic and wildlife species across Europe. Transmission from wildlife species to cattle complicates the control of disease in cattle. By determining the level of TB hazard for which a given wildlife species is responsible, the potential for transmission to the cattle population can be evaluated. We undertook a quantitative review of TB hazard across Europe on a country-by-country basis for cattle and five widely-distributed wildlife species. Cattle posed the greatest current and potential TB hazard other cattle for the majority of countries in Europe. Wild boar posed the greatest hazard of all the wildlife species, indicating that wild boar have the greatest ability to transmit the disease to cattle. The most common host systems for TB hazards in Europe are the cattle-deer-wild boar ones. The cattle-roe deer-wild boar system is found in 10 countries, and the cattle-red deer-wild boar system is found in five countries. The dominance of cattle with respect to the hazards in many regions confirms that intensive surveillance of cattle for TB should play an important role in any TB control programme. The significant contribution that wildlife can make to the TB hazard to cattle is also of concern, given current population and distribution increases of some susceptible wildlife species, especially wild boar and deer, and the paucity of wildlife TB surveillance programmes. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. An Independent Evaluation of the FMEA/CIL Hazard Analysis Alternative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, Paul S.

    1996-01-01

    The present instruments of safety and reliability risk control for a majority of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) programs/projects consist of Failure Mode and Effects Analysis (FMEA), Hazard Analysis (HA), Critical Items List (CIL), and Hazard Report (HR). This extensive analytical approach was introduced in the early 1970's and was implemented for the Space Shuttle Program by NHB 5300.4 (1D-2. Since the Challenger accident in 1986, the process has been expanded considerably and resulted in introduction of similar and/or duplicated activities in the safety/reliability risk analysis. A study initiated in 1995, to search for an alternative to the current FMEA/CIL Hazard Analysis methodology generated a proposed method on April 30, 1996. The objective of this Summer Faculty Study was to participate in and conduct an independent evaluation of the proposed alternative to simplify the present safety and reliability risk control procedure.

  13. Evaluation of fire hazard analyses for nuclear power plants. A publication within the NUSS programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    The present publication has been developed with the help of experts from regulatory, operating and engineering organizations, all with practical experience in the field of fire safety of nuclear power plants. The publication supplements the broad concepts of Safety Series No. 50-SG-D2 (Rev.1), Fire Protection in Nuclear Power Plants, by providing a detailed list of the issues, and some of the limitations, to be considered when evaluating the adequacy and effectiveness of the fire hazard analysis of a nuclear power plant. The publication is intended for assessors of fire hazard analyses, including regulators, independent assessors or plant assessors, and gives a broad description of the methodology to be used by operators in preparing a fire hazard analysis for their own plant. 1 fig

  14. Evaluation of Heliostat Standby Aiming Strategies to Reduce Avian Flux Hazards and Impacts on Operational Performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wendelin, Timothy J [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Ho, Clifford K. [Sandia National Laboratories; Horstman, Luke [Sandia National Laboratories

    2017-06-03

    This paper presents a study of alternative heliostat standby aiming strategies and their impact on avian flux hazards and operational performance of a concentrating solar power plant. A mathematical model was developed that predicts the bird-feather temperature as a function of solar irradiance, thermal emittance, convection, and thermal properties of the feather. The irradiance distribution in the airspace above the Ivanpah Unit 2 heliostat field was simulated using a ray-trace model for two different times of the day, four days of the year, and nine different standby aiming strategies. The impact of the alternative aiming strategies on operational performance was assessed by comparing the heliostat slew times from standby position to the receiver for the different aiming strategies. Increased slew times increased a proxy start-up time that reduced the simulated annual energy production. Results showed that spreading the radial aim points around the receiver to a distance of ~150 m or greater reduced the hazardous exposure times that the feather temperature exceeded the hazard metric of 160 degrees C. The hazardous exposure times were reduced by ~23% and 90% at a radial spread of aim points extending to 150 m and 250 m, respectively, but the simulated annual energy production decreased as a result of increased slew times. Single point-focus aiming strategies were also evaluated, but these strategies increased the exposure hazard relative to other aiming strategies.

  15. The Atomic Energy Control Board criteria for identification and evaluation of fire hazards in nuclear power stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morrison, L.

    1986-03-01

    This report presents information for the identification and evaluation of fire hazards in nuclear power stations. The report consists of two volumes. Volume 1 contains background material which outlines tools and analytical techniques currently available to deterministically analyse fire hazards. Volume 2 presents criteria for evaluating fire hazard reports. The criteria are consistent with the existing AECB regulatory approach in Canada and cover the topics which should be included in a fire hazard analysis. This volume also provides details of each topic so that the quality of an analysis may be evaluated

  16. Providing a Clean Environment for Adolescents: Evaluation of the Tobacco Hazards Prevention Act in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min-Li Chen

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Cigarette smoking not only damages the health of adolescents, but also contributes to air pollution. The Tobacco Hazards Prevention Act in Taiwan stipulates that cigarettes should not be sold to persons younger than 18 years. Therefore, schools should actively educate students and raise awareness of the Tobacco Hazards Prevention Act to reduce the level of damage to the health of adolescents and maintain good air quality. This study had two main goals: (1 to evaluate the stipulation that no person shall provide tobacco products to persons under the age of 18 and the effects of counseling strategies on store managers confirming customer ages before tobacco sale in southern Taiwan; and (2 to evaluate the situation of tobacco hazard prevention education conducted by school in southern Taiwan. A cross-sectional design was adopted for this study. Study I: The investigation involved an analysis of 234 retailers including convenience stores (n = 70, grocery stores (n = 83, and betel nut stalls (n = 81. The results indicated that among the 234 retailers, 171 (73.1% of them routinely failed to confirm the buyers’ ages before allowing them to purchase tobacco. The number of retailers who exhibited failure to confirm customer ages before selling tobacco products had decreased from 171 (73.1% to 59 (25.2% and that of those who confirmed customer ages before selling tobacco products had increased from 63 (26.9% to 175 (74.8% after counseling strategies had been provided, thereby revealing statistical significance (χ2 = 11.26, p < 0.001. Study II: A total of 476 (89.1% participants had received tobacco hazards prevention education and 58 (10.9% had not. Among the various residential areas, the highest percentage of participants that did not received tobacco hazards prevention education located in the plane regions (8.4%. The government organizations should continue to adopt counseling strategies to reduce the rate of disobedience of the Tobacco Hazards

  17. Providing a Clean Environment for Adolescents: Evaluation of the Tobacco Hazards Prevention Act in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Min-Li; Chou, Li-Na; Zheng, Ya-Cheng

    2017-06-13

    Cigarette smoking not only damages the health of adolescents, but also contributes to air pollution. The Tobacco Hazards Prevention Act in Taiwan stipulates that cigarettes should not be sold to persons younger than 18 years. Therefore, schools should actively educate students and raise awareness of the Tobacco Hazards Prevention Act to reduce the level of damage to the health of adolescents and maintain good air quality. This study had two main goals: (1) to evaluate the stipulation that no person shall provide tobacco products to persons under the age of 18 and the effects of counseling strategies on store managers confirming customer ages before tobacco sale in southern Taiwan; and (2) to evaluate the situation of tobacco hazard prevention education conducted by school in southern Taiwan. A cross-sectional design was adopted for this study. Study I: The investigation involved an analysis of 234 retailers including convenience stores (n = 70), grocery stores (n = 83), and betel nut stalls (n = 81). The results indicated that among the 234 retailers, 171 (73.1%) of them routinely failed to confirm the buyers' ages before allowing them to purchase tobacco. The number of retailers who exhibited failure to confirm customer ages before selling tobacco products had decreased from 171 (73.1%) to 59 (25.2%) and that of those who confirmed customer ages before selling tobacco products had increased from 63 (26.9%) to 175 (74.8%) after counseling strategies had been provided, thereby revealing statistical significance (χ² = 11.26, p selling tobacco products to minors. Schools should pay close attention to tobacco hazard prevention education for junior high school students to ensure that such students are adequately educated about tobacco hazard prevention.

  18. PSA approach for the evaluation of external hazards as part of CNSC Fukushima action items

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, Michael; Yalaoui, Smain

    2014-01-01

    This paper introduces the PSA approach that Canadian licensees adopted to address the Canadian Nuclear Safety Commission (CNSC) Fukushima Action Items (FAIs) [1] with respect to external hazards evaluation. This paper focus on the FAIs specifically associated with the external hazard evaluation. It also briefly discusses the similarity and differences between the requirements of CNSC FAIs, the Western European Nuclear Regulators' Association (WENRA) Stress Test [2], and the USNRC 'Request for Information'[3]. This paper provides a status update on the completion of the FAIs by the Canadian licensees' and discusses the lessons learned from the implementation of these actions items. It also identifies the importance of a closer interaction between the CNSC and other government agencies for the characterization of as well as for the protection against the external natural hazards. It also highlights some other areas that include research projects on external hazards, combined methodologies from the licensees, etc. The views expressed in this paper are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect those of CNSC, or any part thereof. All Canadian licensees are currently preparing their plant specific reports to address the relevant FAIs. Some preliminary hazards screening reports, as well as the reports for probabilistic seismic hazards analysis, external flood hazard and high wind hazard have been submitted to CNSC. CNSC, in conjunction other Canadian government agencies, are currently reviewing these reports to determine their acceptability. The licensees are expected to submit all required reports by the end of this year. In the meantime, other Fukushima actions requiring facility enhancements are underway for some licensees. These include: - acquiring additional emergency mitigating portable equipment, such as power generators and pumps, which can be stored onsite and offsite and used to bring reactors to a safe shutdown state, in the unlikely event of a

  19. Canister storage building natural phenomena design loads

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tallman, A.M.

    1996-02-01

    This document presents natural phenomena hazard (NPH) loads for use in the design and construction of the Canister Storage Building (CSB), which will be located in the 200 East Area of the Hanford Site

  20. Topical Hazard Evaluation Program of Candidate Insect Repellent AI3- 39053a

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-05-01

    StudyNo. 75-51-O 71-R7 Mnay 19R71 12 PERSONAL AUTHOR(S) William T. Huebsam, SGT, U.S.A.; Maurice H. Weeks 1I8. TYPE Of REPORT 13b TIME COVERED 114...ARMY u.S. AUT ENVIVIf[NNIAL HYGINE AMIdT ASCROELN PROVING GROUND. MARYLAND M1蚉 HSHB-MO-T TOPICAL HAZARD EVALUATION PROGRAM OF CANDIDATE INSECT

  1. The evaluation of stack metal emissions from hazardous waste incinerators: assessing human exposure through noninhalation pathways.

    OpenAIRE

    Sedman, R M; Polisini, J M; Esparza, J R

    1994-01-01

    Potential public health effects associated with exposure to metal emissions from hazardous waste incinerators through noninhalation pathways were evaluated. Instead of relying on modeling the movement of toxicants through various environmental media, an approach based on estimating changes from baseline levels of exposure was employed. Changes in soil and water As, Cd, Hg, Pb, Cr, and Be concentrations that result from incinerator emissions were first determined. Estimates of changes in human...

  2. Chernobyl - an evaluation of health hazards. 3. enl. and rev. ed.

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huber, E.E.; Dersee, T.; Iwert, B.

    1986-01-01

    The pamphlet abstracted contains some general information about the radiation hazards and health risks of nuclear power plants. The consequences of the Chernobyl reactor accident are dealt with by way of summarizing the events and by evaluating the health risks and damage the public should be prepared for. This topical report is completed by a popular presentation of the risks of nuclear power and by definitions of the major terms and measuring units. (DG) [de

  3. Chemical hazard evaluation of material disposal area (MDA) B closure project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laul, Jagdish C [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2010-04-19

    TA-21, MDA-B (NES) is the 'contaminated dump,' landfill with radionuclides and chemicals from process waste disposed in 1940s. This paper focuses on chemical hazard categorization and hazard evaluation of chemicals of concern (e.g., peroxide, beryllium). About 170 chemicals were disposed in the landfill. Chemicals included products, unused and residual chemicals, spent, waste chemicals, non-flammable oils, mineral oil, etc. MDA-B was considered a High hazard site. However, based on historical records and best engineering judgment, the chemical contents are probably at best 5% of the chemical inventory. Many chemicals probably have oxidized, degraded or evaporated for volatile elements due to some fire and limited shelf-life over 60 yrs, which made it possible to downgrade from High to Low chemical hazard site. Knowing the site history and physical and chemical properties are very important in characterizing a NES site. Public site boundary is only 20 m, which is a major concern. Chemicals of concern during remediation are peroxide that can cause potential explosion and beryllium exposure due to chronic beryllium disease (CBD). These can be prevented or mitigated using engineering control (EC) and safety management program (SMP) to protect the involved workers and public.

  4. Re-evaluation and updating of the seismic hazard of Lebanon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huijer, Carla; Harajli, Mohamed; Sadek, Salah

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a study undertaken to evaluate the implications of the newly mapped offshore Mount Lebanon Thrust (MLT) fault system on the seismic hazard of Lebanon and the current seismic zoning and design parameters used by the local engineering community. This re-evaluation is critical, given that the MLT is located at close proximity to the major cities and economic centers of the country. The updated seismic hazard was assessed using probabilistic methods of analysis. The potential sources of seismic activities that affect Lebanon were integrated along with any/all newly established characteristics within an updated database which includes the newly mapped fault system. The earthquake recurrence relationships of these sources were developed from instrumental seismology data, historical records, and earlier studies undertaken to evaluate the seismic hazard of neighboring countries. Maps of peak ground acceleration contours, based on 10 % probability of exceedance in 50 years (as per Uniform Building Code (UBC) 1997), as well as 0.2 and 1 s peak spectral acceleration contours, based on 2 % probability of exceedance in 50 years (as per International Building Code (IBC) 2012), were also developed. Finally, spectral charts for the main coastal cities of Beirut, Tripoli, Jounieh, Byblos, Saida, and Tyre are provided for use by designers.

  5. HEURISTIC APPROACH BY GEOTECHNICAL HAZARD EVALUATION OF THE MEDVEDNICA NATURE PARK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Željko Miklin

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available In making the article, several thematic maps with scale 1:25000 were used. It is the lithological map with outlined engineering geological units, the inclination map with four categories and the landslide map with the areas with increased erosion and generally unstable areas are shown, structural-geomorphological map, surface and groundwater condition map and hydrogeological map. The last one was used with the aim to evaluate the influence of hydrogeological relationship on the synthetic hazard map. The integration of facts from all the maps and engineering evaluation lead to new quality that was presented in the last - synthetic, qualitative map of prognostic meaning. They have been adopted as the factor maps and with their overlapping the map with new contents was made. The Preliminary qualitative map of sliding hazard, including the erosion, was made by heuristic approach, as a predecessor to the hazard map. Such maps proved to be very useful as bases for spatial and development planning on the regional level as well as for evaluation of the site suitability for building.

  6. Seismic hazard review for the systematic evaluation program: a use of probability in decision making

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reiter, L.; Jackson, R.E.

    1983-03-01

    This document presents the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Geosciences Branch review and recommendations with respect to earthquake ground motion considerations in the Systematic Evaluation Program (SEP) Phases I and II. It evaluates the probabilistic estimates presented in the 5-volume report entitled Seismic Hazard Analysis (NUREG/CR-1582) and compares and modifies them to take into account deterministic estimates. It presents the NRC's Geosciences Branch first approach to utilizing complex state-of-the-art probabilistic studies in an area where probabilistic criteria have not yet been set and where decisions for specific plants have been previously made in a non-probabilistic way

  7. Evaluation of carcinogenic hazard of diesel engine exhaust needs to consider revolutionary changes in diesel technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClellan, Roger O; Hesterberg, Thomas W; Wall, John C

    2012-07-01

    Diesel engines, a special type of internal combustion engine, use heat of compression, rather than electric spark, to ignite hydrocarbon fuels injected into the combustion chamber. Diesel engines have high thermal efficiency and thus, high fuel efficiency. They are widely used in commerce prompting continuous improvement in diesel engines and fuels. Concern for health effects from exposure to diesel exhaust arose in the mid-1900s and stimulated development of emissions regulations and research to improve the technology and characterize potential health hazards. This included epidemiological, controlled human exposure, laboratory animal and mechanistic studies to evaluate potential hazards of whole diesel exhaust. The International Agency for Research on Cancer (1989) classified whole diesel exhaust as - "probably carcinogenic to humans". This classification stimulated even more stringent regulations for particulate matter that required further technological developments. These included improved engine control, improved fuel injection system, enhanced exhaust cooling, use of ultra low sulfur fuel, wall-flow high-efficiency exhaust particulate filters, exhaust catalysts, and crankcase ventilation filtration. The composition of New Technology Diesel Exhaust (NTDE) is qualitatively different and the concentrations of particulate constituents are more than 90% lower than for Traditional Diesel Exhaust (TDE). We recommend that future reviews of carcinogenic hazards of diesel exhaust evaluate NTDE separately from TDE. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Risk assessments for energy systems and role of preliminary degree-of-hazard evaluations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Habegger, L.J.; Fingleton, D.J.

    1985-11-01

    The appropriate approach to risk or hazard assessment can vary considerably, depending on various factors, including the intended application of the results and the time other resources available to conduct the assessment. This paper illustrates three types of interrelated assessments. Although they can be mutually supportive, they have fundamentally different objectives, which require major differences in approach. The example of the overall risk assessment of alternative major energy technologies illustrates the compilation of a wide range of available risk data applicable to these systems. However, major uncertainties exist in the assessments, and public perception of their importance could play an important role in final system evaluations. A more narrowly defined risk assessment, often focusing on an individual component of a larger system, is the most commonly used approach in regulatory applications. The narrow scope allows in-depth analysis of risks and associated uncertainties, but it may also contribute to a loss of perspective on the magnitude of the assessed risk relative to that of the unassessed risks. In some applications, it is useful to conduct semiquantitative degree-of-hazard evaluations as a means of setting priorities for detailed risk assessment. The MAHAS procedure described in this paper provides a means of rapidly ranking relative hazards from various sources using easily accessible data. However, these rankings should not be used as definitive input for selecting technology alternatives or developing regulations. 25 refs., 6 tabs

  9. Seismic hazard for the Savannah River Site: A comparative evaluation of the EPRI and LLNL assessments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wingo, H.E.

    1992-01-01

    This report was conducted to: (1) develop an understanding of causes for the vast differences between the two comprehensive studies, and (2) using a methodology consistent with the reconciled methods employed in the two studies, develop a single seismic hazard for the Savannah River Site suitable for use in seismic probabilistic risk assessments with emphasis on the K Reactor. Results are presented for a rock site which is a typical because detailed evaluations of soil characteristics at the K Reactor are still in progress that account for the effects of a soil stablizing grouting program. However when the soils analysis is completed, the effects of soils can be included with this analysis with the addition of a single factor that will decrease slightly the seismic hazard for a rock site

  10. Recommended approaches to the scientific evaluation of ecotoxicological hazards and risks of endocrine-active substances

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Matthiessen, Peter; Ankley, Gerald T.; Biever, Ronald C

    2017-01-01

    A SETAC Pellston Workshop(®) "Environmental Hazard and Risk Assessment Approaches for Endocrine-Active Substances (EHRA)" was held in February 2016 in Pensacola, Florida, USA. The primary objective of the workshop was to provide advice, based on current scientific understanding, to regulators...... and policy makers; the aim being to make considered, informed decisions on whether to select an ecotoxicological hazard- or a risk-based approach for regulating a given endocrine-disrupting substance (EDS) under review. The workshop additionally considered recent developments in the identification of EDS...... at multiple biological levels of organization for 1 or more ecologically relevant taxa. The substances selected were 17α-ethinylestradiol, perchlorate, propiconazole, 17β-trenbolone, tributyltin, and vinclozolin. The 6 case studies were not comprehensive safety evaluations but provided foundations...

  11. A Comprehensive Approach to Evaluating Hazards of Microplastics in the Marine Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noble, A. E.; Lewis, A. S.; Butler, C. H.; Lunsman, T. D.; Verslycke, T.

    2016-02-01

    Plastic debris in the environment is a growing global concern, and the past decade has brought particular attention to a small size range of plastic debris, often referred to as microplastics. The potential environmental effects of microplastics are complex and, as yet, poorly understood. Emerging research suggests that specific plastic types pose environmental risks primarily via indirect toxicity caused by hazardous compounds associated with microplastics (e.g., monomers, additives, and sorbed environmental pollutants). However, our understanding of the physicochemical properties that determine the environmental fate and toxicity of microplastics is limited. Some recent regulatory initiatives have been broad, seeking to regulate all solid synthetic polymers ≤5 mm despite the lack of a sound technical basis for using solely a size-based cutoff. Such broad regulation of all solid synthetic polymers may actually discourage the use and innovation of less hazardous synthetic polymers and "greener" substitutes. We propose a polymer-specific approach to evaluating potential hazards of microplastics, informed by the state of the science and current research needs. This approach relies on identifying focused tests and analyses to set criteria for determining the degree to which a solid synthetic polymer is likely to pose environmental risk. Important considerations include degradation, sorptive capacity, and monomer/additive content. Our approach is a first step toward a more comprehensive way to evaluate the environmental hazards and risks of microplastics. Our goals are to develop clearer criteria to assess future solid synthetic polymers of unknown concern, inform microplastics regulation, and drive innovation of greener solutions to this global concern.

  12. Scoping evaluation of the technical capabilities of DOE sites for disposal of hazardous metals in mixed low-level waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gruebel, M.M.; Waters, R.D.; Langkopf, B.S.

    1997-05-01

    A team of analysts designed and conducted a scoping evaluation to estimate the technical capabilities of fifteen Department of Energy sites for disposal of the hazardous metals in mixed low-level waste (i.e., waste that contains both low-level radioactive materials and hazardous constituents). Eight hazardous metals were evaluated: arsenic, barium, cadmium, chromium, lead, mercury, selenium, and silver. The analysis considered transport only through the groundwater pathway. The results are reported as site-specific estimates of maximum concentrations of each hazardous metal in treated mixed low-level waste that do not exceed the performance measures established for the analysis. Also reported are site-specific estimates of travel times of each hazardous metal to the point of compliance

  13. Evaluation of extractant-coated magnetic microparticles for the recovery of hazardous metals from waste solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaminski, M. D.

    1998-01-01

    A magnetically assisted chemical separation (MACS) process was developed earlier at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL). This compact process was designed for the separation of transuranics (TRU) and radionuclides from the liquid waste streams that exist at many DOE sites, with an overall reduction in waste volume requiring disposal. The MACS process combines the selectivity afforded by solvent extractant/ion exchange materials with magnetic separation to provide an efficient chemical separation. Recently, the MACS process has been evaluated with acidic organophosphorus extractants for hazardous metal recovery from waste solutions. Moreover, process scale-up design issues have been addressed with respect to particle filtration and recovery. Two acidic organophosphorus compounds have been investigated for hazardous metal recovery, bis(2,4,4-trimethylpentyl) phosphinic acid (Cyanexreg-sign 272) and bis(2,4,4-trimethylpentyl) dithiophosphinic acid (Cyanexreg-sign 301). Coated onto magnetic microparticles, these extractants demonstrated superior recovery of hazardous metals from solution, relative to what was expected on the basis of results from solvent extraction experiments. The results illustrate the diverse applications of MACS technology for dilute waste streams. Preliminary process scale-up experiments with a high-gradient magnetic separator at Oak Ridge National Laboratory have revealed that very low microparticle loss rates are possible

  14. Experimental investigation to evaluate the potential environmental hazards of photovoltaic panels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tammaro, Marco; Salluzzo, Antonio; Rimauro, Juri; Schiavo, Simona; Manzo, Sonia

    2016-04-05

    Recently the potential environmental hazard of photovoltaic modules together with their management as waste has attracted the attention of scientists. Particular concern is aroused by the several metals contained in photovoltaic panels whose potential release in the environment were scarcely investigated. Here, for the first time, the potential environmental hazard of panels produced in the last 30 years was investigated through the assessment of up to 18 releasable metals. Besides, the corresponding ecotoxicological effects were also evaluated. Experimental data were compared with the current European and Italian law limits for drinking water, discharge on soil and landfill inert disposal in order to understand the actual pollution load. Results showed that less than 3% of the samples respected all law limits and around 21% was not ecotoxic. By considering the technological evolutions in manufacturing, we have shown that during the years crystalline silicon panels have lower tendency to release hazardous metals with respect to thin film panels. In addition, a prediction of the amounts of lead, chromium, cadmium and nickel releasable from next photovoltaic waste was performed. The prevision up to 2050 showed high amounts of lead (30t) and cadmium (2.9t) releasable from crystalline and thin film panels respectively. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Evaluation of conflict hazard and financial risk in the E7 economies’ capital markets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ümit Hacıoğlu

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research is to examine the interaction between financial stress and conflict risk having impacts on fi nancial instruments in capital markets within an interdisciplinary frame. The Fuzzy TOPSIS method is applied in order to analyse effects of conflict hazard on capital markets and fi nancial instruments in the E7 economies and to demonstrate the best possible ranks of the E7 economies based on performance evaluation criteria. In order to obtain the dynamics of data as to develop a suffi cient reference bases for expert opinions, conflict hazard index and fi nancial stress index have been structured. The empirical results confirm that there is strong relation between fi nancial stress index and confl ict hazard index for the E7 economies. The fundamental conclusion demonstrates the effects of the financial and conflict risks for the stock selection in the E7 economies by the criteria derived from the Financial Stress Index and Confl ict Risk Index.

  16. Evaluation of Absorbents for Compatibility with Site Generated Hazardous and Mixed Liquid Wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oji, L.N.

    2002-01-01

    SRS Solid Waste requested SRTC to perform a literature-based evaluation of sorbents, which are compatible with hazardous mixed waste being generated on site. Polypropylene-based materials and ground corn cob (Toxi-dry), because of their compatibility with the Consolidated Incinerator Facility (CIF) process, are the only two spill stabilization agents which are recommended for use on site (IS manual, Waste Acceptance Criteria 3.18). While ensuring minimal potential for undesired reactions between spills and spill control agents, Solid Waste wants to increase the number of site approved absorbents to give waste generators more flexibility in choosing liquid spill immobilization agents

  17. The Atomic Energy Control Board criteria for identification and evaluation of fire hazards in nuclear power stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morrison, Luke

    1986-03-01

    This report presents criteria for the identification and evaluation of fire hazards in nuclear power stations. The report presents criteria that are consistent with the existing regulatory approach in Canada, and outlines engineering tools and analytical techniques currently available to deterministically analyse fire. The criteria presented cover the topics which should be included in a fire hazard analysis and provide details of each topic so that the accuracy of an analysis may be evaluated

  18. Investigation research on the evaluation of a coupled thermo-hydro-mechanical-chemical phenomena. 3. Result Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishihara, Yoshinao; Ito, Takaya; Chijimatsu, Masakazu; Amemiya, Kiyoshi; Shiozaki, Isao

    2004-02-01

    In order to realize a coupling analysis in the near field of the geological disposal system, the coupling analysis code 'COUPLYS (Coupling analysis system)' on the Thermo-Hydro-Mechanical-Chemical (THMC) phenomena by THAMES, Dtransu and phreeqc, which are existing analysis code, is developed in this study. And some case analyses on THMC phenomena are carried out by this code. (1) Some supporting modules, which include the transfer of dissolution concentration and total concentration (dissolution + precipitation concentration), were prepared as a functional expansion. And in order to add on the function of treat de-gases and gases diffusion, accumulation and dilution phenomena, the mass transport analysis code was modified. (2) We have modified reactive transport module to treat ionic exchange, surface reaction and kinetic reaction in the each barrier. (3) We have prepared hydraulic conductivity module of buffer material depending on change of dry density due to chemical equilibrium (dissolution and precipitation of minerals), degradation of buffer material such as Ca-type bentonite and change of concentration of NaCl solutions. After THAMES, Dtransu, phreeqc and the hydraulic conductivity module were installed in COUPLYS (Coupling Analysis), verification study was carried out to check basic function. And we have modified COUPLYS to control coupling process. (4) In order to confirm the applicability of the developed THMC analysis code (existing analysis code and COUPLYS), we have carried out case analyses on 1-dimensional and 3-dimensional model which are including vitrified waste, over-pack, buffer material and rock in the HLW near-field. (author)

  19. The potential monetary benefits of reclaiming hazardous waste sites in the Campania region: an economic evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerriero, Carla; Cairns, John

    2009-06-24

    Evaluating the economic benefit of reducing negative health outcomes resulting from waste management is of pivotal importance for designing an effective waste policy that takes into account the health consequences for the populations exposed to environmental hazards. Despite the high level of Italian and international media interest in the problem of hazardous waste in Campania little has been done to reclaim the land and the waterways contaminated by hazardous waste. This study aims to reduce the uncertainty about health damage due to waste exposure by providing for the first time a monetary valuation of health benefits arising from the reclamation of hazardous waste dumps in Campania. First the criteria by which the landfills in the Campania region, in particular in the two provinces of Naples and Caserta, have been classified are described. Then, the annual cases of premature death and fatal cases of cancers attributable to waste exposure are quantified. Finally, the present value of the health benefits from the reclamation of polluted land is estimated for each of the health outcomes (premature mortality, fatal cancer and premature mortality adjusted for the cancer premium). Due to the uncertainty about the time frame of the benefits arising from reclamation, the latency of the effects of toxic waste on human health and the lack of context specific estimates of the Value of Preventing a Fatality (VPF), extensive sensitivity analyses are performed. There are estimated to be 848 cases of premature mortality and 403 cases of fatal cancer per year as a consequence of exposure to toxic waste. The present value of the benefit of reducing the number of waste associated deaths after adjusting for a cancer premium is euro11.6 billion. This value ranges from euro5.4 to euro20.0 billion assuming a time frame for benefits of 10 and 50 years respectively. This study suggests that there is a strong economic argument for both reclaiming the land contaminated with hazardous

  20. Recommended approaches to the scientific evaluation of ecotoxicological hazards and risks of endocrine-active substances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthiessen, Peter; Ankley, Gerald T; Biever, Ronald C; Bjerregaard, Poul; Borgert, Christopher; Brugger, Kristin; Blankinship, Amy; Chambers, Janice; Coady, Katherine K; Constantine, Lisa; Dang, Zhichao; Denslow, Nancy D; Dreier, David A; Dungey, Steve; Gray, L Earl; Gross, Melanie; Guiney, Patrick D; Hecker, Markus; Holbech, Henrik; Iguchi, Taisen; Kadlec, Sarah; Karouna-Renier, Natalie K; Katsiadaki, Ioanna; Kawashima, Yukio; Kloas, Werner; Krueger, Henry; Kumar, Anu; Lagadic, Laurent; Leopold, Annegaaike; Levine, Steven L; Maack, Gerd; Marty, Sue; Meador, James; Mihaich, Ellen; Odum, Jenny; Ortego, Lisa; Parrott, Joanne; Pickford, Daniel; Roberts, Mike; Schaefers, Christoph; Schwarz, Tamar; Solomon, Keith; Verslycke, Tim; Weltje, Lennart; Wheeler, James R; Williams, Mike; Wolf, Jeffrey C; Yamazaki, Kunihiko

    2017-03-01

    A SETAC Pellston Workshop ® "Environmental Hazard and Risk Assessment Approaches for Endocrine-Active Substances (EHRA)" was held in February 2016 in Pensacola, Florida, USA. The primary objective of the workshop was to provide advice, based on current scientific understanding, to regulators and policy makers; the aim being to make considered, informed decisions on whether to select an ecotoxicological hazard- or a risk-based approach for regulating a given endocrine-disrupting substance (EDS) under review. The workshop additionally considered recent developments in the identification of EDS. Case studies were undertaken on 6 endocrine-active substances (EAS-not necessarily proven EDS, but substances known to interact directly with the endocrine system) that are representative of a range of perturbations of the endocrine system and considered to be data rich in relevant information at multiple biological levels of organization for 1 or more ecologically relevant taxa. The substances selected were 17α-ethinylestradiol, perchlorate, propiconazole, 17β-trenbolone, tributyltin, and vinclozolin. The 6 case studies were not comprehensive safety evaluations but provided foundations for clarifying key issues and procedures that should be considered when assessing the ecotoxicological hazards and risks of EAS and EDS. The workshop also highlighted areas of scientific uncertainty, and made specific recommendations for research and methods-development to resolve some of the identified issues. The present paper provides broad guidance for scientists in regulatory authorities, industry, and academia on issues likely to arise during the ecotoxicological hazard and risk assessment of EAS and EDS. The primary conclusion of this paper, and of the SETAC Pellston Workshop on which it is based, is that if data on environmental exposure, effects on sensitive species and life-stages, delayed effects, and effects at low concentrations are robust, initiating environmental risk

  1. The potential monetary benefits of reclaiming hazardous waste sites in the Campania region: an economic evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cairns John

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Evaluating the economic benefit of reducing negative health outcomes resulting from waste management is of pivotal importance for designing an effective waste policy that takes into account the health consequences for the populations exposed to environmental hazards. Despite the high level of Italian and international media interest in the problem of hazardous waste in Campania little has been done to reclaim the land and the waterways contaminated by hazardous waste. Objective This study aims to reduce the uncertainty about health damage due to waste exposure by providing for the first time a monetary valuation of health benefits arising from the reclamation of hazardous waste dumps in Campania. Methods First the criteria by which the landfills in the Campania region, in particular in the two provinces of Naples and Caserta, have been classified are described. Then, the annual cases of premature death and fatal cases of cancers attributable to waste exposure are quantified. Finally, the present value of the health benefits from the reclamation of polluted land is estimated for each of the health outcomes (premature mortality, fatal cancer and premature mortality adjusted for the cancer premium. Due to the uncertainty about the time frame of the benefits arising from reclamation, the latency of the effects of toxic waste on human health and the lack of context specific estimates of the Value of Preventing a Fatality (VPF, extensive sensitivity analyses are performed. Results There are estimated to be 848 cases of premature mortality and 403 cases of fatal cancer per year as a consequence of exposure to toxic waste. The present value of the benefit of reducing the number of waste associated deaths after adjusting for a cancer premium is €11.6 billion. This value ranges from €5.4 to €20.0 billion assuming a time frame for benefits of 10 and 50 years respectively. Conclusion This study suggests that there is a strong

  2. Recommended approaches to the scientific evaluation of ecotoxicological hazards and risks of endocrine-active substances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthiessen, Peter; Ankley, Gerald T.; Biever, Ronald C.; Bjerregaard, Poul; Borgert, Christopher; Brugger, Kristin; Blankinship, Amy; Chambers, Janice; Coady, Katherine K.; Constantine, Lisa; Dang, Zhichao; Denslow, Nancy D.; Dreier, David; Dungey, Steve; Gray, L. Earl; Gross, Melanie; Guiney, Patrick D.; Hecker, Markus; Holbech, Henrik; Iguchi, Taisen; Kadlec, Sarah; Karouna-Renier, Natalie K.; Katsiadaki, Ioanna; Kawashima, Yukio; Kloas, Werner; Krueger, Henry; Kumar, Anu; Lagadic, Laurent; Leopold, Annegaaike; Levine, Steven L.; Maack, Gerd; Marty, Sue; Meador, James P.; Mihaich, Ellen; Odum, Jenny; Ortego, Lisa; Parrott, Joanne L.; Pickford, Daniel; Roberts, Mike; Schaefers, Christoph; Schwarz, Tamar; Solomon, Keith; Verslycke, Tim; Weltje, Lennart; Wheeler, James R.; Williams, Mike; Wolf, Jeffery C.; Yamazaki, Kunihiko

    2017-01-01

    A SETAC Pellston Workshop® “Environmental Hazard and Risk Assessment Approaches for Endocrine-Active Substances (EHRA)” was held in February 2016 in Pensacola, Florida, USA. The primary objective of the workshop was to provide advice, based on current scientific understanding, to regulators and policy makers; the aim being to make considered, informed decisions on whether to select an ecotoxicological hazard- or a risk-based approach for regulating a given endocrine-disrupting substance (EDS) under review. The workshop additionally considered recent developments in the identification of EDS. Case studies were undertaken on 6 endocrine-active substances (EAS—not necessarily proven EDS, but substances known to interact directly with the endocrine system) that are representative of a range of perturbations of the endocrine system and considered to be data rich in relevant information at multiple biological levels of organization for 1 or more ecologically relevant taxa. The substances selected were 17α-ethinylestradiol, perchlorate, propiconazole, 17β-trenbolone, tributyltin, and vinclozolin. The 6 case studies were not comprehensive safety evaluations but provided foundations for clarifying key issues and procedures that should be considered when assessing the ecotoxicological hazards and risks of EAS and EDS. The workshop also highlighted areas of scientific uncertainty, and made specific recommendations for research and methods-development to resolve some of the identified issues. The present paper provides broad guidance for scientists in regulatory authorities, industry, and academia on issues likely to arise during the ecotoxicological hazard and risk assessment of EAS and EDS. The primary conclusion of this paper, and of the SETAC Pellston Workshop on which it is based, is that if data on environmental exposure, effects on sensitive species and life-stages, delayed effects, and effects at low concentrations are robust, initiating environmental risk

  3. Evaluation of Landfill Site Candidate for Naturally Occurring Radioactive Materials (Norm) and Hazardous Waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sucipta; Hadi Suntoko; Bunawas

    2007-01-01

    Refers to co-location concept, Kabil site, where located at the southeast end of low hills in Batam Island, will be sited as an integrated industrial waste management center including landfill. So that, it is necessary an evaluation of the landfill site candidate for NORM and hazardous waste. The evaluation includes geological and non-geological aspects, to determine the suitability or capability in supporting the function as landfill facility. The site candidate was evaluated by serial sreps as follows: 1) criteria formulation; 2) selecting the parameter for evaluation; 3) Positive screening or evaluation of the land having potentiality for landfill site by descriptive method: and 4) determine the land suitability or capability for landfill site. The evaluation of geological and non- geological aspects include topography, litology, seismicity, groundwater and surface water, climate, hydro-oceanography, flora and fauna, spatial pattern and transportation system. The most of the parameters evaluated show the fulfilling to the site criteria, and can be mentioned that the land is suitable for landfill site. Some parameters are not so suitable for that purpose, especially on permeability and homogeneity of the rocks/soils, distance to surface water body, depth of groundwater, the flow rate of groundwater, precipitation, and humidity of the air. The lack of suitability showed by some parameters can be compensated by improving the appropriate engineered barrier in order to fulfill the landfill performance in providing the supporting capacity, long live stability and waste containment. (author)

  4. An integrated study to evaluate debris flow hazard in alpine environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiranti, Davide; Crema, Stefano; Cavalli, Marco; Deangeli, Chiara

    2018-05-01

    Debris flows are among the most dangerous natural processes affecting the alpine environment due to their magnitude (volume of transported material) and the long runout. The presence of structures and infrastructures on alluvial fans can lead to severe problems in terms of interactions between debris flows and human activities. Risk mitigation in these areas requires identifying the magnitude, triggers, and propagation of debris flows. Here, we propose an integrated methodology to characterize these phenomena. The methodology consists of three complementary procedures. Firstly, we adopt a classification method based on the propensity of the catchment bedrocks to produce clayey-grained material. The classification allows us to identify the most likely rheology of the process. Secondly, we calculate a sediment connectivity index to estimate the topographic control on the possible coupling between the sediment source areas and the catchment channel network. This step allows for the assessment of the debris supply, which is most likely available for the channelized processes. Finally, with the data obtained in the previous steps, we modelled the propagation and depositional pattern of debris flows with a 3D code based on Cellular Automata. The results of the numerical runs allow us to identify the depositional patterns and the areas potentially involved in the flow processes. This integrated methodology is applied to a test-bed catchment located in Northwestern Alps. The results indicate that this approach can be regarded as a useful tool to estimate debris flow related potential hazard scenarios in an alpine environment in an expeditious way without possessing an exhaustive knowledge of the investigated catchment, including data on historical debris flow events.

  5. An Integrated Study to Evaluate Debris Flow Hazard in Alpine Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davide Tiranti

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Debris flows are among the most dangerous natural processes affecting the alpine environment due to their magnitude (volume of transported material and the long runout. The presence of structures and infrastructures on alluvial fans can lead to severe problems in terms of interactions between debris flows and human activities. Risk mitigation in these areas requires identifying the magnitude, triggers, and propagation of debris flows. Here, we propose an integrated methodology to characterize these phenomena. The methodology consists of three complementary procedures. Firstly, we adopt a classification method based on the propensity of the catchment bedrocks to produce clayey-grained material. The classification allows us to identify the most likely rheology of the process. Secondly, we calculate a sediment connectivity index to estimate the topographic control on the possible coupling between the sediment source areas and the catchment channel network. This step allows for the assessment of the debris supply, which is most likely available for the channelized processes. Finally, with the data obtained in the previous steps, we modeled the propagation and depositional pattern of debris flows with a 3D code based on Cellular Automata. The results of the numerical runs allow us to identify the depositional patterns and the areas potentially involved in the flow processes. This integrated methodology is applied to a test-bed catchment located in Northwestern Alps. The results indicate that this approach can be regarded as a useful tool to estimate debris flow related potential hazard scenarios in an alpine environment in an expeditious way without possessing an exhaustive knowledge of the investigated catchment, including data on historical debris flow events.

  6. Investigation research on the evaluation of a coupled thermo-hydro-mechanical-chemical phenomena. 2. Result report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishihara, Yoshinao; Ito Takaya; Chijimatsu, Masakazu; Amemiya, Kiyoshi; Shiozaki, Isao; Neyama, Atsushi; Tanaka, Yumiko

    2003-02-01

    In order to realize a coupling analysis in the near field of the geological disposal system, the coupling analysis code on the thermo-hydro-mechanical-chemical phenomena by THAMES, Dtransu and phreeqe60, which are existing analysis code, is developed in this study. And we carried out the case analysis on the thermo-hydro-mechanical-chemical phenomena by this code. (1) We have developed coupling analysis system to manage coupling analysis and to control coupling process automatically for THAMES (thermo-hydro-mechanical analysis code), Dtransu (mass transport analysis code) and phreeqe60 (geochemical analysis code). (2) Some supporting module, which includes transfer of dissolution concentration and total concentration (dissolution + precipitation concentration), was prepared as a functional expansion. And in order to treat multi-chemical elements, we have codified mass transport analysis code. (3) We have prepared hydraulic conductivity module of buffer material depending on change of dry density due to chemical equilibrium (dissolution and precipitation of minerals), and change of concentration of NaCl solutions. After THAMES, Dtransu, phreeqe60 and hydraulic conductivity module were installed in the COUPLYS, sensitivity analysis was carried out to check basic operation. (4) In order to confirm the applicability of the developed THMC analysis code, we have carried out case analysis on 1-dimensional and 3-dimensional model which including vitrified waste, over-pack, buffer material and rock in the HLW near-field. (author)

  7. MED SUV TASK 6.3 Capacity building and interaction with decision makers: Improving volcanic risk communication through volcanic hazard tools evaluation, Campi Flegrei Caldera case study (Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nave, Rosella; Isaia, Roberto; Sandri, Laura; Cristiani, Chiara

    2016-04-01

    In the communication chain between scientists and decision makers (end users), scientific outputs, as maps, are a fundamental source of information on hazards zoning and the related at risk areas definition. Anyway the relationship between volcanic phenomena, their probability and potential impact can be complex and the geospatial information not easily decoded or understood by not experts even if decision makers. Focusing on volcanic hazard the goal of MED SUV WP6 Task 3 is to improve the communication efficacy of scientific outputs, to contribute in filling the gap between scientists and decision-makers. Campi Flegrei caldera, in Neapolitan area has been chosen as the pilot research area where to apply an evaluation/validation procedure to provide a robust evaluation of the volcanic maps and its validation resulting from end users response. The selected sample involved are decision makers and officials from Campanian Region Civil Protection and municipalities included in Campi Flegrei RED ZONE, the area exposed to risk from to pyroclastic currents hazard. Semi-structured interviews, with a sample of decision makers and civil protection officials have been conducted to acquire both quantitative and qualitative data. The tested maps have been: the official Campi Flegrei Caldera RED ZONE map, three maps produced by overlapping the Red Zone limit on Orthophoto, DTM and Contour map, as well as other maps included a probabilistic one, showing volcanological data used to border the Red Zone. The outcomes' analysis have assessed level of respondents' understanding of content as displayed, and their needs in representing the complex information embedded in volcanic hazard. The final output has been the development of a leaflet as "guidelines" that can support decision makers and officials in understanding volcanic hazard and risk maps, and also in using them as a communication tool in information program for the population at risk. The same evaluation /validation process

  8. Experimental investigation to evaluate the potential environmental hazards of photovoltaic panels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tammaro, Marco, E-mail: marco.tammaro@enea.it [ENEA, Italian National Agency for New Technologies, Energy and the Environment, Centre of Research of Portici Naples (Italy); Salluzzo, Antonio, E-mail: antonio.salluzzo@enea.it [ENEA, Italian National Agency for New Technologies, Energy and the Environment, Centre of Research of Portici Naples (Italy); Rimauro, Juri, E-mail: juri.rimauro@enea.it [ENEA, Italian National Agency for New Technologies, Energy and the Environment, Centre of Research of Portici Naples (Italy); Schiavo, Simona, E-mail: simona.schiavo@unina.it [University “Federico II” of Naples Via Università 100, 80055 Portici (Italy); Manzo, Sonia, E-mail: sonia.manzo@enea.it [ENEA, Italian National Agency for New Technologies, Energy and the Environment, Centre of Research of Portici Naples (Italy)

    2016-04-05

    Highlights: • We measure the metals released in the leaching solution by samples of PV panels. • We measure the environmental effects by a battery of ecotoxicological tests. • The experimental data are compared with the European and Italian benchmark limits. • We assess the potential emissions of metals from future PV waste. • Experimental results show that the photovoltaic panels present an environmental risk. - Abstract: Recently the potential environmental hazard of photovoltaic modules together with their management as waste has attracted the attention of scientists. Particular concern is aroused by the several metals contained in photovoltaic panels whose potential release in the environment were scarcely investigated. Here, for the first time, the potential environmental hazard of panels produced in the last 30 years was investigated through the assessment of up to 18 releasable metals. Besides, the corresponding ecotoxicological effects were also evaluated. Experimental data were compared with the current European and Italian law limits for drinking water, discharge on soil and landfill inert disposal in order to understand the actual pollution load. Results showed that less than 3% of the samples respected all law limits and around 21% was not ecotoxic. By considering the technological evolutions in manufacturing, we have shown that during the years crystalline silicon panels have lower tendency to release hazardous metals with respect to thin film panels. In addition, a prediction of the amounts of lead, chromium, cadmium and nickel releasable from next photovoltaic waste was performed. The prevision up to 2050 showed high amounts of lead (30 t) and cadmium (2.9 t) releasable from crystalline and thin film panels respectively.

  9. Preliminary volcanic hazards evaluation for Los Alamos National Laboratory Facilities and Operations : current state of knowledge and proposed path forward

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keating, Gordon N.; Schultz-Fellenz, Emily S.; Miller, Elizabeth D.

    2010-09-01

    The integration of available information on the volcanic history of the region surrounding Los Alamos National Laboratory indicates that the Laboratory is at risk from volcanic hazards. Volcanism in the vicinity of the Laboratory is unlikely within the lifetime of the facility (ca. 50–100 years) but cannot be ruled out. This evaluation provides a preliminary estimate of recurrence rates for volcanic activity. If further assessment of the hazard is deemed beneficial to reduce risk uncertainty, the next step would be to convene a formal probabilistic volcanic hazards assessment.

  10. GIS based landslide hazard evaluation and zonation – A case from Jeldu District, Central Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tilahun Hamza

    2017-04-01

    The results revealed that 12% (5.64 km2 of the study area falls under no hazard, 27% (12.69 km2 as low hazard, 32% (15.04 km2 as moderate hazard, 21% (9.87 km2 as high hazard and the rest 8% (3.76 km2 as very high hazard. The validation of LHZ map shows that, 92% of past landslides fall in high or very high hazard zones, while 6% fall in medium and only 2% in low landslide hazard zones. The validation of LHZ map thus, reasonably showed that the adopted methodology produced satisfactory results and the delineated hazard zones may practically be applied for the regional planning and development of infrastructures in the area.

  11. Genetic toxicology at the crossroads-from qualitative hazard evaluation to quantitative risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Paul A; Johnson, George E

    2016-05-01

    Applied genetic toxicology is undergoing a transition from qualitative hazard identification to quantitative dose-response analysis and risk assessment. To facilitate this change, the Health and Environmental Sciences Institute (HESI) Genetic Toxicology Technical Committee (GTTC) sponsored a workshop held in Lancaster, UK on July 10-11, 2014. The event included invited speakers from several institutions and the contents was divided into three themes-1: Point-of-departure Metrics for Quantitative Dose-Response Analysis in Genetic Toxicology; 2: Measurement and Estimation of Exposures for Better Extrapolation to Humans and 3: The Use of Quantitative Approaches in Genetic Toxicology for human health risk assessment (HHRA). A host of pertinent issues were discussed relating to the use of in vitro and in vivo dose-response data, the development of methods for in vitro to in vivo extrapolation and approaches to use in vivo dose-response data to determine human exposure limits for regulatory evaluations and decision-making. This Special Issue, which was inspired by the workshop, contains a series of papers that collectively address topics related to the aforementioned themes. The Issue includes contributions that collectively evaluate, describe and discuss in silico, in vitro, in vivo and statistical approaches that are facilitating the shift from qualitative hazard evaluation to quantitative risk assessment. The use and application of the benchmark dose approach was a central theme in many of the workshop presentations and discussions, and the Special Issue includes several contributions that outline novel applications for the analysis and interpretation of genetic toxicity data. Although the contents of the Special Issue constitutes an important step towards the adoption of quantitative methods for regulatory assessment of genetic toxicity, formal acceptance of quantitative methods for HHRA and regulatory decision-making will require consensus regarding the

  12. Analysis of aerosol emission and hazard evaluation of electrical discharge machining (EDM) process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jose, Mathew; Sivapirakasam, S P; Surianarayanan, M

    2010-01-01

    The safety and environmental aspects of a manufacturing process are important due to increased environmental regulations and life quality. In this paper, the concentration of aerosols in the breathing zone of the operator of Electrical Discharge Machining (EDM), a commonly used non traditional manufacturing process is presented. The pattern of aerosol emissions from this process with varying process parameters such as peak current, pulse duration, dielectric flushing pressure and the level of dielectric was evaluated. Further, the HAZOP technique was employed to identify the inherent safety aspects and fire risk of the EDM process under different working conditions. The analysis of aerosol exposure showed that the concentration of aerosol was increased with increase in the peak current, pulse duration and dielectric level and was decreased with increase in the flushing pressure. It was also found that at higher values of peak current (7A) and pulse duration (520 micros), the concentration of aerosols at breathing zone of the operator was above the permissible exposure limit value for respirable particulates (5 mg/m(3)). HAZOP study of the EDM process showed that this process is vulnerable to fire and explosion hazards. A detailed discussion on preventing the fire and explosion hazard is presented in this paper. The emission and risk of fire of the EDM process can be minimized by selecting proper process parameters and employing appropriate control strategy.

  13. Effectiveness evaluation methodology for safety processes to enhance organisational culture in hazardous installations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mengolini, A.; Debarberis, L.

    2008-01-01

    Safety performance indicators are widely collected and used in hazardous installations. The IAEA, OECD and other international organisations have developed approaches that strongly promote deployment of safety performance indicators. These indicators focus mainly on operational performance, but some of them also address organisational and safety culture aspects. However, operators of hazardous installations, in particular those with limited resources and time constraints, often find it difficult to collect the large number of different safety performance indicators. Moreover, they also have difficulties with giving a meaning to the numbers and trends recorded, especially to those that should reflect a positive safety culture. In this light, the aim of this article is to address the need to monitor and assess progress on implementation of a programme to enhance safety and organisational culture. It proposes a specific process-view approach to effectiveness evaluation of organisational and safety culture indicators by means of a multi-level system in which safety processes and staff involvement in defining improvement activities are central. In this way safety becomes fully embedded in staff activities. Key members of personnel become directly involved in identifying and supplying leading indicators relating to their own daily activity and become responsible and accountable for keeping the measurement system alive. Besides use of lagging indicators, particular emphasis is placed on the importance of identifying and selecting leading indicators which can be used to drive safety performance for organisational and safety culture aspects as well

  14. Evaluation of soil bioassays for use at Washington state hazardous waste sites: A pilot study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blakley, N.; Norton, D.; Stinson, M.; Boyer, R.

    1994-01-01

    The Washington State Department of Ecology (Ecology) is developing guidelines to assess soil toxicity at hazardous waste sites being investigated under the Washington Model Toxics Control Act Cleanup Regulation. To evaluate soil toxicity, Ecology selected five bioassay protocols -- Daphnia, Earthworm, Seedling, Fathead Minnow, and Frog Embryo Teratogenesis Assay Xenopus (FETAX) -- for use as screening level assessment tools at six State hazardous waste sites. Sites contained a variety of contaminants including metals, creosote, pesticides, and petroleum products (leaking underground storage tanks). Three locations, representing high, medium, and low levels of contamination, were samples at each site. In general, the high contaminant samples resulted in the highest toxic response in all bioassays. The order of site toxicity, as assessed by overall toxic response, is creosote, petroleum products, metals, and pesticides. Results indicate that human health standards, especially for metals, may not adequately protect some of the species tested. The FETAX bioassay had the greatest overall number of toxic responses and lowest variance. The seedling and Daphnia bioassays had lower and similar overall toxic response results, followed by the earthworm and fathead minnow. Variability was markedly highest for the seedling. The Daphnia and fathead minnow variability were similar to the FETAX level, while the earthworm variability was slightly higher

  15. Radiation hazards evaluation for selected sand samples from Camburi beach, Vitoria, Espirito Santo, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barros, Livia F.; Pecequilo, Brigitte R.S.

    2013-01-01

    In this work, a single location at Camburi beach, known to be a naturally high background region, was studied. Radiation hazards indexes and annual effective dose were evaluated from the 226 Ra, 232 Th and 40 K sands activities concentrations. Sand samples were monthly collected during 2011, dried, sealed in standard 100 mL HPDE polyethylene flasks and measured by high resolution gamma spectrometry after a 4 weeks in-growth period. The 226 Ra concentration was determined from the weighted average concentrations of 214 Pb and 214 Bi. The 232 Th concentration was determined from the weighted average concentrations of 228 Ac, 212 Pb and 212 Bi and the 4 0K from its single gamma transition. The results, considering samples gamma-rays self-attenuation, show activities concentrations in the range from 6 Bq kg -1 to 39 Bq kg -1 for 226 Ra, 13 Bq kg -1 to 161 Bq kg -1 for 232 Th, and 7 Bq kg -1 to 65 Bq kg -1 for 40 K. The radium equivalent activity for the studied samples ranged from 26 Bq kg -1 to 274 Bq kg - '1. The external and internal hazard indexes varied, respectively, from 0.07 to 0.74 and from 0.09 to 0.85. The annual effective dose values laid from 0.07 mSv.y -1 to 0.72 mSv.y - '1. All values obtained in this work are below the radiological protection recommended limits. (author)

  16. Effectiveness evaluation methodology for safety processes to enhance organisational culture in hazardous installations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mengolini, A; Debarberis, L

    2008-06-30

    Safety performance indicators are widely collected and used in hazardous installations. The IAEA, OECD and other international organisations have developed approaches that strongly promote deployment of safety performance indicators. These indicators focus mainly on operational performance, but some of them also address organisational and safety culture aspects. However, operators of hazardous installations, in particular those with limited resources and time constraints, often find it difficult to collect the large number of different safety performance indicators. Moreover, they also have difficulties with giving a meaning to the numbers and trends recorded, especially to those that should reflect a positive safety culture. In this light, the aim of this article is to address the need to monitor and assess progress on implementation of a programme to enhance safety and organisational culture. It proposes a specific process-view approach to effectiveness evaluation of organisational and safety culture indicators by means of a multi-level system in which safety processes and staff involvement in defining improvement activities are central. In this way safety becomes fully embedded in staff activities. Key members of personnel become directly involved in identifying and supplying leading indicators relating to their own daily activity and become responsible and accountable for keeping the measurement system alive. Besides use of lagging indicators, particular emphasis is placed on the importance of identifying and selecting leading indicators which can be used to drive safety performance for organisational and safety culture aspects as well.

  17. Evaluation of external hazards to nuclear power plants in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kimura, C.Y.; Budnitz, R.J.

    1987-12-01

    The Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) has performed a study of the risk of core damage to nuclear power plants in the United States due to externally initiated events. The broad objective has been to gain an understanding of whether or not each external initiator is among the major potential accident initiators that may pose a threat of severe reactor core damage or of large radioactive release to the environment from the reactor. Four external hazards were investigated in this report. These external hazards are internal fires, high winds/tornadoes, external floods, and transportation accidents. Analysis was based on two figures-of-merit, one based on core damage frequency and the other based on the frequency of large radioactive releases. Using these two figures-of-merit as evaluation criteria, it has been feasible to ascertain whether the risk from externally initiated accidents is, or is not, an important contributor to overall risk for the US nuclear power plants studied. This has been accomplished for each initiator separately. 208 refs., 17 figs., 45 tabs

  18. Evaluation of the Potential of NASA Multi-satellite Precipitation Analysis in Global Landslide Hazard Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Yang; Adler, Robert F.; Huffman, George J.

    2007-01-01

    Landslides are one of the most widespread natural hazards on Earth, responsible for thousands of deaths and billions of dollars in property damage every year. In the U.S. alone landslides occur in every state, causing an estimated $2 billion in damage and 25- 50 deaths each year. Annual average loss of life from landslide hazards in Japan is 170. The situation is much worse in developing countries and remote mountainous regions due to lack of financial resources and inadequate disaster management ability. Recently, a landslide buried an entire village on the Philippines Island of Leyte on Feb 17,2006, with at least 1800 reported deaths and only 3 houses left standing of the original 300. Intense storms with high-intensity , long-duration rainfall have great potential to trigger rapidly moving landslides, resulting in casualties and property damage across the world. In recent years, through the availability of remotely sensed datasets, it has become possible to conduct global-scale landslide hazard assessment. This paper evaluates the potential of the real-time NASA TRMM-based Multi-satellite Precipitation Analysis (TMPA) system to advance our understanding of and predictive ability for rainfall-triggered landslides. Early results show that the landslide occurrences are closely associated with the spatial patterns and temporal distribution of rainfall characteristics. Particularly, the number of landslide occurrences and the relative importance of rainfall in triggering landslides rely on the influence of rainfall attributes [e.g. rainfall climatology, antecedent rainfall accumulation, and intensity-duration of rainstorms). TMPA precipitation data are available in both real-time and post-real-time versions, which are useful to assess the location and timing of rainfall-triggered landslide hazards by monitoring landslide-prone areas while receiving heavy rainfall. For the purpose of identifying rainfall-triggered landslides, an empirical global rainfall intensity

  19. New Evaluation of Seismic Hazard in Cental America and la Hispaniola

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benito, B.; Camacho, E. I.; Rojas, W.; Climent, A.; Alvarado-Induni, G.; Marroquin, G.; Molina, E.; Talavera, E.; Belizaire, D.; Pierristal, G.; Torres, Y.; Huerfano, V.; Polanco, E.; García, R.; Zevallos, F.

    2013-05-01

    The results from seismic hazard studies carried out in two seismic scenarios, Central America Region (CA) and La Hispaniola Island, are presented here. Both cases follow the Probabilistic Seismic Hazard Assessment (PSHA) methodology and they are developed in terms of PGA, and SA (T), for T of 0.1, 0.2, 0.5, 1 and 2s. In both anaysis, hybrid zonation models are considered, integrated by seismogenic zones and faults where data of slip rate and recurrence time are available. First, we present a new evaluation of seismic hazard in CA, starting with the results of a previous study by Benito et al (2011). Some improvements are now included, such as: updated catalogue till 2011, corrections in the zonning model in particular for subduction regime taken into account the variation of the dip in Costa Rica and Panama, and modelization of some faults as independent units for the hazard estimation. The results allow us to carry out a sensitivity analysis comparing the ones obtained with and without faults. In a second part we present the results of the PSHA in La Hispaniola, carried out as part of the cooperative project SISMO-HAITI supported by UPM and developed in cooperation with ONEV. It started a few months after the 2010 event, as an answer to a required help from the Haitian government to UPM. The study was aimed at obtaining results suitable for seismic design purposes and started with the elaboration of a seismic catalogue for the Hispaniola, requiring an exhaustive revision of data reported by around 30 seismic agencies, apart from these from Puerto Rico and Dominican Republic Seismic Networks. Seismotectonic models for the region were reviewed and a new regional zonation was proposed, taking into account different geophysical data. Attenuation models for subduction and crustal zones were also reviewed and the more suitable were calibrated with data recorded inside the Caribbean plate. As a result of the PSHA, different maps were generated for the quoted parameters

  20. Emergency Preparedness Hazards Assessment for solid waste management facilities in E-area not previously evaluated

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hadlock, D.J.

    1999-01-01

    This report documents the facility Emergency Preparedness Hazards Assessment (EPHA) for the Solid Waste Management Department (SWMD) activities located on the Department of Energy (DOE) Savannah River Site (SRS) within E Area that are not described in the EPHAs for Mixed Hazardous Waste storage, the TRU Waste Storage Pads or the E-Area Vaults. The hazards assessment is intended to identify and analyze those hazards that are significant enough to warrant consideration in the SWMD operational emergency management program

  1. Linear non-threshold (LNT) radiation hazards model and its evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Min Rui

    2011-01-01

    In order to introduce linear non-threshold (LNT) model used in study on the dose effect of radiation hazards and to evaluate its application, the analysis of comprehensive literatures was made. The results show that LNT model is more suitable to describe the biological effects in accuracy for high dose than that for low dose. Repairable-conditionally repairable model of cell radiation effects can be well taken into account on cell survival curve in the all conditions of high, medium and low absorbed dose range. There are still many uncertainties in assessment model of effective dose of internal radiation based on the LNT assumptions and individual mean organ equivalent, and it is necessary to establish gender-specific voxel human model, taking gender differences into account. From above, the advantages and disadvantages of various models coexist. Before the setting of the new theory and new model, LNT model is still the most scientific attitude. (author)

  2. Health hazard evaluation determination report HE-80-71-703, Bear Creek Uranium Company, Douglas, Wyoming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gunter, B.J.

    1980-06-01

    An environmental survey was conducted in February 1980 to evaluate exposure to CRC, a cleaning solvent containing perchloroethylene (127184), (PCE) and 1,1,1-trichloroethane (71556) (TCE) at Bear Creek Uranium Company (SIC-1094) in Wyoming. The survey was requested by the company safety engineer. Breathing zone and general room air samples were collected and analyzed. One mine electrician was exposed to 6,500 milligrams per cubic meter (mg/cu m) (PCE recommended OSHA limit is 690mg/cu m). Of the 7 samples of TCE, none exceeded the OSHA standard of 1900mg/cu m. Overexposure did occur when workers used the solvent in confined areas. The authors concluded that a health hazard existed when the solvent was used on confined spaces, and they recommend improved work practices

  3. Hazardous drug residue on exterior vial surfaces: evaluation of a commercial manufacturing process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Power, Luci A; Sessink, Paul J M; Gesy, Kathy; Charbonneau, Flay

    2014-04-01

    Hazardous drug residue on the exterior surface of drug vials poses a potential risk for exposure of health care workers involved in handling these products. The purpose of this article is to heighten the awareness of this serious issue and to evaluate a commercial manufacturing process for removing and containing hazardous drug (HD) residue on exterior vial surfaces. Additionally, findings from this study are interpreted, incorporated into the current body of evidence, and discussed by experts in this field. This study includes separate evaluations for the presence or absence of surface drug contamination on the vials of 3 HD products: 5-fluorouracil, cisplatin, and methotrexate. The drug products were packaged in vials using a patented prewashing/decontamination method, application of a polyvinylchloride (PVC) base, and use of clear glass vials. An additional step of encasing the vial in a shrink-wrapped sheath was used for 5-fluorouracil and cisplatin. Of all 5-fluorouracil (110 vials), methotrexate (60 vials), and cisplatin (60 vials) tested, only 2 had detectable amounts of surface residue. One 5-fluorouracil vial was found to have approximately 4 mg of 5-fluorouracil on the surface of the vial. The second contaminated vial was cisplatin, which was discovered to have 131 ng of platinum, equal to 200 ng of cisplatin or 0.2 μL of cisplatin solution, on the vial sheath. Using validated extraction and analytic methods, all but 2 of the 230 tested vials were found to be free of surface drug contamination. Pharmacy leaders need to take an active role in promoting the need for clean HD vials. Manufacturers should be required to provide their clients with data derived from externally validated analytic studies, reporting the level of HD contamination on the exterior of their vial products.

  4. Experimental evaluation of the buckling phenomena in the new joint design for upper deck structure of a bridge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Solazzi L.

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper is concerned with the experimental mechanical analysis of a new design of a joint for a main components of a upper deck of a road bridge. These components are subject to the compression state stress induced by the weight and the load acting on the road. Each upper deck of a bridge (positioned on each side of the bridge is composed by four tubular structures that must be joint each together. The joint must to take in to account many aspects, for example that the length of each component is not the same (because, obviously, there is a mechanical tolerance. This phenomena induce different compression stress on each component and so is very important non only the critical buckling load but also the post buckling behaviour of the structure. It is very important that if a single tubular structure reaches the critical load of instability, it still has load capacity . This is to avoid that, in the case where a column reaches the instability, the entire load acting on a column increase the load on the remaining three. For this purpose many different geometrical solutions have been designed (elaborated by fem analyses and successively tested experimentally. This work reports the main experimental results on the best joint solution and how this increase the load capacity and the displacement respect to the solution without this flange.

  5. Evaluation of alternative nonflame technologies for destruction of hazardous organic waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwinkendorf, W.E. [Lockheed Idaho Technologies Co., Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Musgrave, B.C. [BC Musgrave, Inc. (United States); Drake, R.N. [Drake Engineering, Inc. (United States)

    1997-04-01

    The US Department of Energy`s Mixed Waste Focus Area (MWFA) commissioned an evaluation of mixed waste treatment technologies that are alternatives to incineration for destruction of hazardous organic wastes. The purpose of this effort is to evaluate technologies that are alternatives to open-flame, free-oxygen combustion (as exemplified by incinerators), and recommend to the Waste Type Managers and the MWFA which technologies should be considered for further development. Alternative technologies were defined as those that have the potential to: destroy organic material without use of open-flame reactions with free gas-phase oxygen as the reaction mechanism; reduce the offgas volume and associated contaminants (metals, radionuclides, and particulates) emitted under normal operating conditions; eliminate or reduce the production of dioxins and furans; and reduce the potential for excursions in the process that can lead to accidental release of harmful levels of chemical or radioactive materials. Twenty-three technologies were identified that have the potential for meeting these requirements. These technologies were rated against the categories of performance, readiness for deployment, and environment safety, and health. The top ten technologies that resulted from this evaluation are Steam Reforming, Electron Beam, UV Photo-Oxidation, Ultrasonics, Eco Logic reduction process, Supercritical Water oxidation, Cerium Mediated Electrochemical Oxidation, DETOX{sup SM}, Direct Chemical Oxidation (peroxydisulfate), and Neutralization/Hydrolysis.

  6. Evaluation of alternative nonflame technologies for destruction of hazardous organic waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwinkendorf, W.E.; Musgrave, B.C.; Drake, R.N.

    1997-04-01

    The US Department of Energy's Mixed Waste Focus Area (MWFA) commissioned an evaluation of mixed waste treatment technologies that are alternatives to incineration for destruction of hazardous organic wastes. The purpose of this effort is to evaluate technologies that are alternatives to open-flame, free-oxygen combustion (as exemplified by incinerators), and recommend to the Waste Type Managers and the MWFA which technologies should be considered for further development. Alternative technologies were defined as those that have the potential to: destroy organic material without use of open-flame reactions with free gas-phase oxygen as the reaction mechanism; reduce the offgas volume and associated contaminants (metals, radionuclides, and particulates) emitted under normal operating conditions; eliminate or reduce the production of dioxins and furans; and reduce the potential for excursions in the process that can lead to accidental release of harmful levels of chemical or radioactive materials. Twenty-three technologies were identified that have the potential for meeting these requirements. These technologies were rated against the categories of performance, readiness for deployment, and environment safety, and health. The top ten technologies that resulted from this evaluation are Steam Reforming, Electron Beam, UV Photo-Oxidation, Ultrasonics, Eco Logic reduction process, Supercritical Water oxidation, Cerium Mediated Electrochemical Oxidation, DETOX SM , Direct Chemical Oxidation (peroxydisulfate), and Neutralization/Hydrolysis

  7. Evaluation of our prognosis of ST-phenomena made according to the solar inertial motion (SIM) and expected further development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charvátová, Ivanka; Hejda, Pavel

    2016-04-01

    During several latest years, a behavior of the Sun is slightly unusual (hibernation stage?). Our prediction of cycle 24 height and of geomagnetic index aa (Charvátová, 2011) was confirmed in two basic points: the cycle 24 height is around 100 W (predicted value according to a close similarity between the SIMs in the years 1840-1905 and 1980-2045 was 140(100) W). (Other predictions for cycle 24 were between 40 W and 185 W.) As concerns aa-index of geomagnetic activity, predicted great depression bellow 10 nT appeared, but before the predicted year. Although the continuation of our SIMs prediction shows lower future sunspot cycles 25(65 W), 26 (80 W), 27 (60 W), the values are much higher than during the Maunder minimum. These cycles could be longer, up to 12 years. A future course of geomagnetic index aa could follow its course after 1880. In aa-index and also in sunspot numbers, the cycle of 1.6 years, dominant period in the SIM due to the inner planets (synodic period of Venus and Earth), is permanently seen, including in distances between two peaks of sunspot cycles. We can use this for prediction of higher values of these both phenomena - it can occur in the years 2016.42, 2018.02, 2019.62. During the interval 1840-1905 also higher volcanic activity occurred - up to force of Krakatoa (1883, DVI=400). Since 1980, several great volcanic events appeared again (e.g. Mt. Pinatubo (1991), DVI=350). Survey and comparison of volcanic indices DVI and AI in the two corresponding mentioned intervals will be also presented.

  8. Evaluating and Addressing Potential Hazards of Fuel Tanks Surviving Atmospheric Reentry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelley, Robert L.; Johnson, Nicholas L.

    2011-01-01

    In order to ensure reentering spacecraft do not pose an undue risk to the Earth's population it is important to design satellites and rocket bodies with end of life considerations in mind. In addition to considering the possible consequences of deorbiting a vehicle, consideration must also be given to the possible risks associated with a vehicle failing to become operational or reach its intended orbit. Based on recovered space debris and numerous reentry survivability analyses, fuel tanks are of particular concern in both of these considerations. Most spacecraft utilize some type of fuel tank as part of their propulsion system. These fuel tanks are most often constructed using stainless steel or titanium and are filled with potentially hazardous substances such as hydrazine and nitrogen tetroxide. For a vehicle which has reached its scheduled end of mission the contents of the tanks are typically depleted. In this scenario the use of stainless steel and titanium results in the tanks posing a risk to people and property do to the high melting point and large heat of ablation of these materials leading to likely survival of the tank during reentry. If a large portion of the fuel is not depleted prior to reentry, there is the added risk of hazardous substance being released when the tank impact the ground. This paper presents a discussion of proactive methods which have been utilized by NASA satellite projects to address the risks associated with fuel tanks reentering the atmosphere. In particular it will address the design of a demiseable fuel tank as well as the evaluation of off the shelf designs which are selected to burst during reentry.

  9. Integrating Entropy-Based Naïve Bayes and GIS for Spatial Evaluation of Flood Hazard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Rui; Chen, Yun; Wu, Jianping; Gao, Lei; Barrett, Damian; Xu, Tingbao; Li, Xiaojuan; Li, Linyi; Huang, Chang; Yu, Jia

    2017-04-01

    Regional flood risk caused by intensive rainfall under extreme climate conditions has increasingly attracted global attention. Mapping and evaluation of flood hazard are vital parts in flood risk assessment. This study develops an integrated framework for estimating spatial likelihood of flood hazard by coupling weighted naïve Bayes (WNB), geographic information system, and remote sensing. The north part of Fitzroy River Basin in Queensland, Australia, was selected as a case study site. The environmental indices, including extreme rainfall, evapotranspiration, net-water index, soil water retention, elevation, slope, drainage proximity, and density, were generated from spatial data representing climate, soil, vegetation, hydrology, and topography. These indices were weighted using the statistics-based entropy method. The weighted indices were input into the WNB-based model to delineate a regional flood risk map that indicates the likelihood of flood occurrence. The resultant map was validated by the maximum inundation extent extracted from moderate resolution imaging spectroradiometer (MODIS) imagery. The evaluation results, including mapping and evaluation of the distribution of flood hazard, are helpful in guiding flood inundation disaster responses for the region. The novel approach presented consists of weighted grid data, image-based sampling and validation, cell-by-cell probability inferring and spatial mapping. It is superior to an existing spatial naive Bayes (NB) method for regional flood hazard assessment. It can also be extended to other likelihood-related environmental hazard studies. © 2016 Society for Risk Analysis.

  10. Health-hazard evaluation report HETA 87-311-2087, Penick Corporation, Newark, New Jersey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klincewicz, S.; Siwinski, G.; Fleeger, A.; Paulozzi, L.

    1990-11-01

    In response to a request from the International Chemical Workers Union to evaluate symptoms of headache, nausea, and respiratory symptoms among workers, an investigation was begun of possible hazardous working conditions at the Penick Corporation (SIC-2833), Newark, New Jersey. The company produced morphine, codeine, synthetic and semisynthetic narcotics from the raw materials gum opium and poppy straw concentrate. Industrial hygiene monitoring detected substantial exposures to alkaloid dusts throughout the building. A concentration as high as 23,564 micrograms/cubic meter was detected in a short term sample collected during the hand scooping of dry powder. Over exposures were detected to toluene (108883), butanol (71363), methanol (67561), and ethanol (64175) during short term episodic jobs. Thirty-two current employees participated in a study of immunologic parameters. A significant decrease in morphine-6-hemisuccinate/human serum albumin immunoglobulin-G antibody levels was noted in 21 workers who submitted blood specimens during both test periods. Narcotic production workers had greater reactivity to most of the compounds on a quantitative skin prick test with opiates. The authors conclude that workers at Penick Corporation developed asthma from occupational exposure to narcotic dusts. The authors recommend that exposures to narcotic dusts and solvents be reduced, and that workers with suspected work related illnesses be evaluated.

  11. Evaluation of the Adequacy of GMP to Control Microbial Hazards in Dairy Factories in Fars Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sajjad Abdi no

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Pre-requisite programs (PRPs are “primary conditions and requirements essential for HACCP operations, which are crucial in food safety programs”. The present study was conducted to evaluate the impact of implementation of PRPs on the microbial parameters of pasteurized milk (according to the National Standard of Iran. Effectiveness of HACCP operation requirements and efficiency of Good Laboratory Practice (GLP were also evaluated in control of the above-mentioned microbial parameters. Materials and Methods: According to the approved checklist of the Vice-chancellor in Food and Drug affairs, PRPs of 26 factories were evaluated from March 2014 to March 2015 in two-month intervals, and their total and component scores were obtained along with the microbial parameters of pasteurized milk. Generalized Estimating Equations (GEEs were used to determine the significance of total score and the impact of its components on controlling microbial hazards. Results: There was a reverse significant relation between the total scores of the PRPs and microbial hygiene indices (total and coliform count which approves the effectiveness of operating the programs in controlling the mentioned microorganisms. Efficiency of each pre-requisite program was different in controlling the microbial parameters. Good Laboratory Practice (GLP had a prominent effect on controlling of the index microorganisms of hygienic operations. Overall, the results showed a little probability of contamination with E. coli in the pasteurized milk samples of Fars Province for which the statistical analysis was ignored. Conclusions: The exact operation of PRPs resulted in reduction of microbial parameters in a way that increasing the total score of PRPs led to decrease in microbial parameters of total count (TC, coliforms, molds and yeasts. The findings further suggest the application of this checklist in evaluation and prediction of microbial parameters. Keywords

  12. Dropout Phenomena at Universities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Michael Søgaard; Kornbeck, Kasper Pihl; Kristensen, Rune

    Dropout from university studies comprises a number of complex phenomena with serious complex consequences and profound political attention. Further analysis of the field is, therefore, warranted. Such an analysis is offered here as a systematic review which gives answers based on the best possible...... such dropout phenomena occur at universities? What can be done by the universities to prevent or reduce such dropout phenomena?...

  13. Use of a Novel Visual Metaphor Measure (PRISM) to Evaluate School Children's Perceptions of Natural Hazards, Sources of Hazard Information, Hazard Mitigation Organizations, and the Effectiveness of Future Hazard Education Programs in Dominica, Eastern Car

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parham, Martin; Day, Simon; Teeuw, Richard; Solana, Carmen; Sensky, Tom

    2015-04-01

    This project aims to study the development of understanding of natural hazards (and of hazard mitigation) from the age of 11 to the age of 15 in secondary school children from 5 geographically and socially different schools on Dominica, through repeated interviews with the students and their teachers. These interviews will be coupled with a structured course of hazard education in the Geography syllabus; the students not taking Geography will form a control group. To avoid distortion of our results arising from the developing verbalization and literacy skills of the students over the 5 years of the project, we have adapted the PRISM tool used in clinical practice to assess patient perceptions of illness and treatment (Buchi & Sensky, 1999). This novel measure is essentially non-verbal, and uses spatial positions of moveable markers ("object" markers) on a board, relative to a fixed marker that represents the subject's "self", as a visual metaphor for the importance of the object to the subject. The subjects also explain their reasons for placing the markers as they have, to provide additional qualitative information. The PRISM method thus produces data on the perceptions measured on the board that can be subjected to statistical analysis, and also succinct qualitative data about each subject. Our study will gather data on participants' perceptions of different natural hazards, different sources of information about these, and organizations or individuals to whom they would go for help in a disaster, and investigate how these vary with geographical and social factors. To illustrate the method, which is generalisable, we present results from our initial interviews of the cohort of 11 year olds whom we will follow through their secondary school education. Büchi, S., & Sensky, T. (1999). PRISM: Pictorial Representation of Illness and Self Measure: a brief nonverbal measure of illness impact and therapeutic aid in psychosomatic medicine. Psychosomatics, 40(4), 314-320.

  14. geomorphological mapping and geophysical profiling for the evaluation of natural hazards in an alpine catchment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Seijmonsbergen, A.C.; de Graaff, L.W.S.

    2006-01-01

    Liechtenstein has faced an increasing number of natural hazards over recent decades: debris flows, slides, snow avalanches and floods repeatedly endanger the local infrastructure. Geomorphological field mapping and geo-electrical profiling was used to assess hazards near Malbun, a village

  15. Evaluation of Imminent Fire Hazards of Inheritance Ancestral Temple and Mansion in Georgetown, Penang

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Othuman Mydin M.A.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Fire hazards of the inheritance buildings are often been neglected, causing fire to take place. Most of the heritage buildings are of large scale, flammable priceless contents and large numbers of visitors, however, the existing structures are weak in fire resistance. There are a few factors that contribute to the fire in these unique yet vulnerable structures Therefore, fire risk assessment plays an important role as many historic buildings in Penang are significant in their architectural value and historically importantt and their destructions by fire are great irreplaceable losses. Thus, this study is intended to identify the current fire emergency plan of heritage temples and mansions in Penang which includes 4 buildings such as Khoo Kongsi, Cheah Kongsi, Hock Teik Chen Shin Temple and Teochew Temple. The possible fire risks of these heritage buildings will be identified and evaluated comprehensively. The previous fire cases will be considered as well in order to discover the common factors contributing to the fire cases at heritage buildings. Time and again, people do not record their findings upon completing the fire risk assessment. Hence this particular research will prepare a complete record of the fire risk assessment. Having a fire risk assessment in the heritage building in Penang can be an interesting study to find out the current situation of heritage building fire protection awareness.

  16. Evaluating the toxic effects of three priority hazardous and noxious substances (HNS) to rotifer Brachionus plicatilis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Lei; Pan, Luqing; Lin, Pengfei; Miao, Jingjing; Wang, Xiufen; Lin, Yufei; Wu, Jiangyue

    2017-12-01

    Hazardous and noxious substances (HNS) spill in the marine environment is an issue of growing concern, and it will mostly continue to do so in the future owing to the increase of high chemical traffic. Nevertheless, the effects of HNS spill on marine environment, especially on aquatic organisms are unclear. Consequently, it is emergent to provide valuable information for the toxicities to marine biota caused by HNS spill. Accordingly, the acute toxicity of three preferential HNS and sub-lethal effects of acrylonitrile on Brachionus plicatilis were evaluated. The median lethal concentration (LC 50 ) at 24 h were 47.2 mg acrylonitrile L -1 , 276.9 mg styrene L -1 , and 488.3 mg p-xylene L -1 , respectively. Sub-lethal toxicity effects of acrylonitrile on feeding behavior, development, and reproduction parameters of B. plicatilis were also evaluated. Results demonstrated that rates of filtration and ingestion were significantly reduced at 2.0, 4.0, and 8.0 mg L -1 of acrylonitrile. Additionally, reproductive period, fecundity, and life span were significantly decreased at high acrylonitrile concentrations. Conversely, juvenile period was significantly increased at the highest two doses and no effects were observed on embryonic development and post-reproductive period. Meanwhile, we found that ingestion rate decline could be a good predictor of reproduction toxicity in B. plicatilis and ecologically relevant endpoint for toxicity assessment. These data will be useful to assess and deal with marine HNS spillages.

  17. Earthquake and volcano hazard notices: An economic evaluation of changes in risk perceptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernknopf, R.L.; Brookshire, D.S.; Thayer, M.A.

    1990-01-01

    Earthquake and volcano hazard notices were issued for the Mammoth Lakes, California area by the U.S. Geological Survey under the authority granted by the Disaster Relief Act of 1974. The effects on investment, recretion visitation, and risk perceptionsare explored. The hazard notices did not affect recreation visitation, although investment was affected. A perceived loss in the market value of homes was documented. Risk perceptions were altered for property owners. Communication of the probability of an event over time would enhance hazard notices as a policy instrument and would mitigate unnecessary market perturbations. ?? 1990.

  18. Computer code system for the R and D of nuclear fuel cycle with fast reactor. 2. Development and application of analytical evaluation system for thermal striping phenomena

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muramatsu, Toshiharu

    2001-01-01

    Fluid-structure thermal interaction phenomena characterized by stationary random temperature fluctuations, namely thermal striping are observed in the downstream region such as a T-junction piping system of liquid metal fast reactors (LMFRs). Therefore, the piping wall located in the downstream region must be protected against the stationary random thermal process, which might induce high-cycle fatigue. This paper describes the evaluation system based on numerical simulation methods consisting of three thermohydraulics computer programs AQUA, DINUS-3 and THEMIS and of three thermomechanical computer programs BEMSET, FINAS and CANIS, for the thermal striping developed at Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Institute (JNC). Verification results for each computer code and the system are also introduced based on out-of-pile experimental data using water and sodium as working fluids. (author)

  19. Climate change and flood hazard: Evaluation of the SCHADEX methodology in a non-stationary context

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brigode, Pierre

    2013-01-01

    Since 2006, Electricite de France (EDF) applies a new hydro-climatological approach of extreme rainfall and flood predetermination - the SCHADEX method - for the design of dam spillways. In a context of potential increase of extreme event intensity and frequency due to climate change, the use of the SCHADEX method in non-stationary conditions is a main interest topic for EDF hydrologists. Thus, the scientific goal of this Ph.D. thesis work has been to evaluate the ability of the SCHADEX method to take into account future climate simulations for the estimation of future extreme floods. The recognized inabilities of climate models and down-scaling methods to simulate (extreme) rainfall distribution at the catchment-scale have been avoided, by developing and testing new methodological approaches. Moreover, the decomposition of the flood-producing factors proposed by the SCHADEX method has been used for considering different simulated climatic evolutions and for quantifying the relative impact of these factors on the extreme flood estimation. First, the SCHADEX method has been applied in present time over different climatic contexts (France, Austria, Canada and Norway), thanks to several colorations with academic and industrial partners. A sensitivity analysis allowed to quantify the extreme flood estimation sensitivity to rainfall hazard, catchment saturation hazard and rainfall-runoff transformation, independently. The results showed a large sensitivity of SCHADEX flood estimations to the rainfall hazard and to the rainfall-runoff transformation. Using the sensitivity analysis results, tests have been done in order to estimate the future evolution of 'key' variables previously identified. New climate model outputs (done within the CMIP5 project) have been analyzed and used for determining future frequency of rainfall events and future catchment saturation conditions. Considering these simulated evolutions within the SCHADEX method lead to a significant decrease of

  20. Evaluation of landscape coverings to reduce soil lead hazards in urban residential yards: The Safer Yards Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Binns, H.J.; Gray, K.A.; Chen Tianyue; Finster, M.E.; Peneff, Nicholas; Schaefer, Peter; Ovsey, Victor; Fernandes, Joyce; Brown, Mavis; Dunlap, Barbara

    2004-01-01

    This study was designed primarily to evaluate the effectiveness of landscape coverings to reduce the potential for exposure to lead-contaminated soil in an urban neighborhood. Residential properties were randomized in to three groups: application of ground coverings/barriers plus placement of a raised garden bed (RB), application of ground coverings/barriers only (no raised bed, NRB), and control. Outcomes evaluated soil lead concentration (employing a weighting method to assess acute hazard soil lead [areas not fully covered] and potential hazard soil lead [all soil surfaces regardless of covering status]), density of landscape coverings (6=heavy, >90% covered; 1=bare, <10% covered), lead tracked onto carpeted entryway floor mats, and entryway floor dust lead loadings. Over 1 year, the intervention groups had significantly reduced acute hazard soil lead concentration (median change: RB, -478 ppm; NRB, -698 ppm; control, +52 ppm; Kruskal-Wallis, P=0.02), enhanced landscape coverings (mean change in score: RB, +0.6; NRB, +1.5; control, -0.6; ANOVA, P<0.001), and a 50% decrease in lead tracked onto the floor mats. The potential hazard soil lead concentration and the entryway floor dust lead loading did not change significantly. Techniques evaluated by this study are feasible for use by property owners but will require continued maintenance. The long-term sustainability of the method needs further examination

  1. Hazardous materials safety and security technology field operational test. Volume II, evaluation final report synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-11-11

    The catastrophic events of September 11, 2001 and the ongoing war on terrorism have heightened the level of concern from Federal government officials and the transportation industry regarding the secure transport of hazardous materials (HAZMAT). Secu...

  2. Recent research in earth structure, earthquake and mine seismology, and seismic hazard evaluation in South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Wright, C

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available of earthquakes, earthquake hazard and earth structure in South Africa was prepared for the centennial handbook of the Interna- tional Association of Seismology and the Physics of the Earth?s Interior(IASPEI).3 Referencestothesescompletedinthelastfour...

  3. Hazard Evaluation for a Salt Well Centrifugal Pump Design Using Service Water for Lubrication and Cooling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    GRAMS, W.H.

    2000-01-01

    This report documents the results of a preliminary hazard analysis (PHA) covering the new salt well pump design. The PHA identified ten hazardous conditions mapped to four analyzed accidents: flammable gas deflagrations, fire in contaminated area, tank failure due to excessive loads, and waste transfer leaks. This document also presents the results of the control decision/allocation process. A backflow preventer and associated limiting condition were assigned

  4. Evaluation of CFD Methods for Simulation of Two-Phase Boiling Flow Phenomena in a Helical Coil Steam Generator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pointer, William David [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Shaver, Dillon [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Liu, Yang [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Vegendla, Prasad [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Tentner, Adrian [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2016-09-30

    The U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Nuclear Energy charges participants in the Nuclear Energy Advanced Modeling and Simulation (NEAMS) program with the development of advanced modeling and simulation capabilities that can be used to address design, performance and safety challenges in the development and deployment of advanced reactor technology. The NEAMS has established a high impact problem (HIP) team to demonstrate the applicability of these tools to identification and mitigation of sources of steam generator flow induced vibration (SGFIV). The SGFIV HIP team is working to evaluate vibration sources in an advanced helical coil steam generator using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations of the turbulent primary coolant flow over the outside of the tubes and CFD simulations of the turbulent multiphase boiling secondary coolant flow inside the tubes integrated with high resolution finite element method assessments of the tubes and their associated structural supports. This report summarizes the demonstration of a methodology for the multiphase boiling flow analysis inside the helical coil steam generator tube. A helical coil steam generator configuration has been defined based on the experiments completed by Polytecnico di Milano in the SIET helical coil steam generator tube facility. Simulations of the defined problem have been completed using the Eulerian-Eulerian multi-fluid modeling capabilities of the commercial CFD code STAR-CCM+. Simulations suggest that the two phases will quickly stratify in the slightly inclined pipe of the helical coil steam generator. These results have been successfully benchmarked against both empirical correlations for pressure drop and simulations using an alternate CFD methodology, the dispersed phase mixture modeling capabilities of the open source CFD code Nek5000.

  5. Evaluating earthquake hazards in the Los Angeles region; an earth-science perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziony, Joseph I.

    1985-01-01

    Potentially destructive earthquakes are inevitable in the Los Angeles region of California, but hazards prediction can provide a basis for reducing damage and loss. This volume identifies the principal geologically controlled earthquake hazards of the region (surface faulting, strong shaking, ground failure, and tsunamis), summarizes methods for characterizing their extent and severity, and suggests opportunities for their reduction. Two systems of active faults generate earthquakes in the Los Angeles region: northwest-trending, chiefly horizontal-slip faults, such as the San Andreas, and west-trending, chiefly vertical-slip faults, such as those of the Transverse Ranges. Faults in these two systems have produced more than 40 damaging earthquakes since 1800. Ninety-five faults have slipped in late Quaternary time (approximately the past 750,000 yr) and are judged capable of generating future moderate to large earthquakes and displacing the ground surface. Average rates of late Quaternary slip or separation along these faults provide an index of their relative activity. The San Andreas and San Jacinto faults have slip rates measured in tens of millimeters per year, but most other faults have rates of about 1 mm/yr or less. Intermediate rates of as much as 6 mm/yr characterize a belt of Transverse Ranges faults that extends from near Santa Barbara to near San Bernardino. The dimensions of late Quaternary faults provide a basis for estimating the maximum sizes of likely future earthquakes in the Los Angeles region: moment magnitude .(M) 8 for the San Andreas, M 7 for the other northwest-trending elements of that fault system, and M 7.5 for the Transverse Ranges faults. Geologic and seismologic evidence along these faults, however, suggests that, for planning and designing noncritical facilities, appropriate sizes would be M 8 for the San Andreas, M 7 for the San Jacinto, M 6.5 for other northwest-trending faults, and M 6.5 to 7 for the Transverse Ranges faults. The

  6. Development of a Probabilistic Tsunami Hazard Analysis in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toshiaki Sakai; Tomoyoshi Takeda; Hiroshi Soraoka; Ken Yanagisawa; Tadashi Annaka

    2006-01-01

    It is meaningful for tsunami assessment to evaluate phenomena beyond the design basis as well as seismic design. Because once we set the design basis tsunami height, we still have possibilities tsunami height may exceeds the determined design tsunami height due to uncertainties regarding the tsunami phenomena. Probabilistic tsunami risk assessment consists of estimating for tsunami hazard and fragility of structures and executing system analysis. In this report, we apply a method for probabilistic tsunami hazard analysis (PTHA). We introduce a logic tree approach to estimate tsunami hazard curves (relationships between tsunami height and probability of excess) and present an example for Japan. Examples of tsunami hazard curves are illustrated, and uncertainty in the tsunami hazard is displayed by 5-, 16-, 50-, 84- and 95-percentile and mean hazard curves. The result of PTHA will be used for quantitative assessment of the tsunami risk for important facilities located on coastal area. Tsunami hazard curves are the reasonable input data for structures and system analysis. However the evaluation method for estimating fragility of structures and the procedure of system analysis is now being developed. (authors)

  7. Rock mass evaluation for predicting tunnel constructability in the preliminary investigation stage. Phenomena causing difficult tunneling and rockburst prediction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shin, Koichi; Sawada, Masataka; Inohara, Yoshiki; Shidahara, Takumi; Hatano, Teruyoshi

    2011-01-01

    For the selection of the Detailed Investigation Areas for HLW disposal, predicting the tunnel constructability is one of the requirements together with assessing long-term safety. This report is the 1st of the three papers dealing with the evaluation of tunnel constructability. This paper deals with the geological factors relating to difficult tunneling such as squeezing, rockburst, and others. Also it deals with the prediction of rockburst. The 2nd paper will deal with the prediction of squeezing. The 3rd paper deals with the engineering characteristics of rock mass through rock mass classification. This paper about difficult tunneling has been based upon analysis of more than 500 tunneling reports about 280 tunnel constructions. The causes of difficult tunneling are related to (1) underground water, (2) mechanical properties of the rock, or (3) others such as gas. The geological factors for excessive water inflow are porous volcanic product of Quarternary, fault crush zone and hydrothermally altered zone of Green Tuff area, and degenerated mixed rock in accretionary complex. The geological factors for squeezing are solfataric clay at Quarternary volcanic zone, fault crush zone and hydrothermally altered zone of Green Tuff area, mudstone and fault crush zone of sedimentary rock of Neogene and later. Information useful for predicting rockburst has been gathered from previous reports. In the preliminary investigation stage, geological survey, geophysical survey and borehole survey from the surface are the source of information. Therefore rock type, P-wave velocity from seismic exploration and in-situ rock stress from hydrofracturing have been considered. Majority of rockburst events occurred at granitic rock, excluding coal mine where different kind of rockburst occurred at pillars. And P-wave velocity was around 5 km/s at the rock of rockburst events. Horizontal maximum and minimum stresses SH and Sh have been tested as a criterion for rockburst. It has been

  8. In situ evaluation of supersolidus liquid phase sintering phenomena of stainless steel 316L: Densification and distortion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bollina, Ravi

    Supersolidus liquid phase sintering (SLPS) is a variant of liquid phase sintering. In SLPS, prealloyed powders are heated between the solidus and liquidus temperature of the alloy. This thesis focuses on processing of stainless steel 316L via SLPS by adding boron. Various amounts of boron were added to study the effect of boron on densification and distortion. The sintering window for water atomized 316L with 0.2% boron ranges from 1430 to 1435°C and 1225 to 1245°C for water atomized 316L with 0.8% boron. The rate of change of liquid content with temperature dVL/dt decreases from 1.5%/°C to 0.1%/°C for in increase in boron content from 0 to 0.8%, giving a wider range and better control during sintering. Further; effect of boron on mechanical properties and corrosion properties was researched. It was possible to achieve tensile strength of 476+/-21 MPa and an yield strength of 250+/-5 MPa with an elongation of 15+/-2 % in water atomized 316L with 0.8% boron. Fracture analysis indicates the presence of a brittle boride phase along the grain boundary causing intergranular fracture resulting in poor ductility. The crux of this thesis discusses the evolution of apparent viscosity and its relation to the microstructure. Beam bending viscometry was successfully used to evaluate the in situ apparent viscosity evolution of water atomized 316L with 0.2 and 0.8% boron additions. The apparent viscosity drops from 174 GPa.s at 1200°C to 4 GPa.s at 1275°C with increasing fractional liquid coverage in the water atomized 316L with 0.8% boron. The apparent viscosity calculated from bending beam and was used as an input into a finite element model (FEM) derived from constitutive equations and gives an excellent, fit between simulation and experiment. The densification behavior of boron doped stainless steel was modelled using Master Sintering Curve (MSC) (based on work of sintering) for the first time. It is proven that MSC can be used to identify change in densification rate

  9. Economic and microbiologic evaluation of single-dose vial extension for hazardous drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowe, Erinn C; Savage, Scott W; Rutala, William A; Weber, David J; Gergen-Teague, Maria; Eckel, Stephen F

    2012-07-01

    The update of US Pharmacopeia Chapter in 2008 included guidelines stating that single-dose vials (SDVs) opened and maintained in an International Organization for Standardization Class 5 environment can be used for up to 6 hours after initial puncture. A study was conducted to evaluate the cost of discarding vials after 6 hours and to further test sterility of vials beyond this time point, subsequently defined as the beyond-use date (BUD). Financial determination of SDV waste included 2 months of retrospective review of all doses prescribed. Additionally, actual waste log data were collected. Active and control vials (prepared using sterilized trypticase soy broth) were recovered, instead of discarded, at the defined 6-hour BUD. The institution-specific waste of 19 selected SDV medications discarded at 6 hours was calculated at $766,000 annually, and tracking waste logs for these same medications was recorded at $770,000 annually. Microbiologic testing of vial extension beyond 6 hours showed that 11 (1.86%) of 592 samples had one colony-forming unit on one of two plates. Positive plates were negative at subsequent time points, and all positives were single isolates most likely introduced during the plating process. The cost of discarding vials at 6 hours was significant for hazardous medications in a large academic medical center. On the basis of microbiologic data, vial BUD extension demonstrated a contamination frequency of 1.86%, which likely represented exogenous contamination; vial BUD extension for the tested drugs showed no growth at subsequent time points and could provide an annual cost savings of more than $600,000.

  10. Spatial screening methods for evaluating environmental contaminant hazards and exposure vulnerability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, D. K.

    2016-12-01

    Human and biotic communities are becoming increasingly vulnerable to sea-level rise and severe storms due to climate change. These events enhance the dispersion and concentration of natural and anthropogenic chemicals and pathogenic microorganisms, which could adversely impact the health and resilience of coastal communities and ecosystems in coming years. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has developed spatial screening methods to identify and map contaminant sources and potential exposure pathways for human and ecological receptors. These methods have been applied within the northeastern U.S. to document contaminants of emerging concern, highlight vulnerable communities, and prioritize locations for future sampling campaigns. Integration of this information provides a means to better assess the baseline status of a complex system and the significance of changes in contaminant hazards due to storm-induced (episodic) and sea-level rise (incremental) disturbances. This presentation will provide an overview of a decision support tool developed by the USGS to document contaminants in the environment relative to key receptor populations and historic storm vulnerabilities. The support tool is designed to accommodate a broad array of geologic, land-use, and climatic variables and utilizes public, nationally available data sources to define contaminant sources and storm vulnerabilities. By employing a flexible and adaptable strategy built upon publicly available data, the method can readily be applied to other site selection or landscape evaluation efforts. Examples will be presented including the Sediment-bound Contaminant Resiliency and Response pilot study (see http://toxics.usgs.gov/scorr/), and investigations of endocrine disruption in the Chesapeake Bay. Key limitations and future applications will be discussed in addition to ongoing method developments to accommodate non-coastal disaster scenarios and more refined contaminant definitions.

  11. An accurate evaluation of the potential hazardous impact of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in biochars

    Science.gov (United States)

    María De la Rosa, José; Sánchez-Martín, Águeda; Villaverde-Capellán, Jaime; Madrid, Fernando; Paneque, Marina; Knicker, Heike

    2017-04-01

    Biochar may act as a soil conditioner, enhancing plant growth by supplying and retaining nutrients and by providing other services such as improving soil physical, chemical and biological properties. Feedstock properties and production conditions drive the nature of produced biochars [1]. Special attention have to be paid to their content of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), which are persistent organic pollutants formed during biochar production due to incomplete combustion (pyrolysis step) [2]. These PAHs may enter the environment when the biochar is applied as soil conditioner. Therefore, the intention of this study was to test a potential hazardous impact of biochar amendment due to the presence of PAHs. In order to find a relationship between pyrolysis conditions, feedstock and abundance of PAHs, four biochars produced from different feedstock were analyzed. Three biochars were produced by technical pyrolysis (500-600 °C; 20 min) from wood, paper sludge and sewage sludge respectively (samples B1, B2 and B3). The fourth biochar sample derived from old grapevine wood by using the traditional carbonization method in kilns (kiln-stack wood biochar; B4). A detailed characterization of physical and chemical properties of these samples can be found in De la Rosa et al, [3]. Two different PAHs extraction techniques were applied to evaluate the total and available PAHs content of the biochars. They consisted in an extraction with toluene using a Soxhlet extractor and a non-exhaustive extraction with Cyclodextrins (CDs). Chromatographic and mass spectrometric conditions applied are described in [1]. Total PAHs yielded between 3 ppm (B3) and 7 (B4) ppm. The production of biochar by using traditional kilns instead of controlled pyrolysis, increased significantly the total PAHs levels. No direct relationship was found between the total PAHs and the PAHs extracted by CDs, which can be considered as the bioavailable fraction. This parameter should replace the total

  12. Recording and Evaluating the Role of Volunteers Regarding Natural Hazards Prevention and Disaster Management in Greece

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papanikolaou, Ioannis; Papanikolaou, Dimitrios; Diakakis, Michalis; Deligiannakis, Georgios

    2013-04-01

    The role of volunteers in disaster management is of decisive importance, particularly for major catastrophes. In Northern Europe, volunteers are the main group that responds even in regular low impact incidents. On the other hand, in Southern Europe, state professionals hold the primary role. This is partly cultural, but it is also defined by the different types of hazards involved. For example, Southern Europe suffers from earthquakes and wildfires that can cause severe and widespread damage. This implies that there is a need for highly trained and skilled personnel, not only for efficiency purposes, but also in order to avoid casualties among the operating staff. However, the need of volunteers' involvement is well recognised both for prevention measures (mainly regarding forest fires) and for disaster management purposes particularly during major catastrophes whereas the professional personnel are outsourced. Moreover, the economic crisis stretches the public sector, decreasing the capability and resources of the state mechanism. The latter increases the need for the volunteers' active participation, which is also regarded as cost effective. Greece has a short tradition regarding volunteers and their official involvement with natural hazards. This is also due to the fact that civil protection has a short history in Greece, since it was established in 1995, whereas its legal framework was only shaped in 2002. The act 3013/2002 introduces officially the role of volunteers within the legal framework. In particular, the act N3013/2002 offers a detailed description of the role of voluntary organizations within the civil protection system, the interagency cooperation, and the financial instruments through which the various bodies secure their funding along with the establishment of an inventory from the General Secretariat of Civil Protection. However, several provisions described in the 2002 Act have not been applied yet. For instance voluntary organizations are not

  13. Fundamentals of Fire Phenomena

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Quintiere, James

    analyses. Fire phenomena encompass everything about the scientific principles behind fire behaviour. Combining the principles of chemistry, physics, heat and mass transfer, and fluid dynamics necessary to understand the fundamentals of fire phenomena, this book integrates the subject into a clear...

  14. Individual risk evaluation and interventions for mitigation in the transportation of hazardous goods: a case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rada Elena Cristina

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The transport of hazardous substances is an economic activity essential for goods’ transference chain. However, the risk in transporting hazardous materials is related to the occur of accidents causing environmental damages and public health dangerous consequences. A quite recent Italian example is the Viareggio accident (2010, which involved a train with tank cars containing liquefied petroleum gas (LPG which caused more than thirty deaths. This paper describes the safety state in the Varese district (an area of northern Italy with a very high population density and industrial activities, with the aim at comparing the current situation (considering the risks due to the transportation of hazardous materials on the main motorways and main national roads with a potential scenario that introduces a few mitigating interventions, such as a partial conversion from road haulage to rail transport. This comparison can be accomplished by developing the existing intermodal platforms and implementing new ones in strategic areas.

  15. EVALUATING ROBOT TECHNOLOGIES AS TOOLS TO EXPLORE RADIOLOGICAL AND OTHER HAZARDOUS ENVIRONMENTS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Curtis W. Nielsen; David I. Gertman; David J. Bruemmer; R. Scott Hartley; Miles C. Walton

    2008-01-01

    There is a general consensus that robots could be beneficial in performing tasks within hazardous radiological environments. Most control of robots in hazardous environments involves master-slave or teleoperation relationships between the human and the robot. While teleoperation-based solutions keep humans out of harms way, they also change the training requirements to accomplish a task. In this paper we present a research methodology that allowed scientists at Idaho National Laboratory to identify, develop, and prove a semi-autonomous robot solution for search and characterization tasks within a hazardous environment. Two experiments are summarized that validated the use of semi-autonomy and show that robot autonomy can help mitigate some of the performance differences between operators who have different levels of robot experience, and can improve performance over teleoperated systems

  16. A balanced hazard ratio for risk group evaluation from survival data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Branders, Samuel; Dupont, Pierre

    2015-07-30

    Common clinical studies assess the quality of prognostic factors, such as gene expression signatures, clinical variables or environmental factors, and cluster patients into various risk groups. Typical examples include cancer clinical trials where patients are clustered into high or low risk groups. Whenever applied to survival data analysis, such groups are intended to represent patients with similar survival odds and to select the most appropriate therapy accordingly. The relevance of such risk groups, and of the related prognostic factors, is typically assessed through the computation of a hazard ratio. We first stress three limitations of assessing risk groups through the hazard ratio: (1) it may promote the definition of arbitrarily unbalanced risk groups; (2) an apparently optimal group hazard ratio can be largely inconsistent with the p-value commonly associated to it; and (3) some marginal changes between risk group proportions may lead to highly different hazard ratio values. Those issues could lead to inappropriate comparisons between various prognostic factors. Next, we propose the balanced hazard ratio to solve those issues. This new performance metric keeps an intuitive interpretation and is as simple to compute. We also show how the balanced hazard ratio leads to a natural cut-off choice to define risk groups from continuous risk scores. The proposed methodology is validated through controlled experiments for which a prescribed cut-off value is defined by design. Further results are also reported on several cancer prognosis studies, and the proposed methodology could be applied more generally to assess the quality of any prognostic markers. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  17. Chernobyl - an evaluation of health hazards. 3. Enl. and Rev. Ed. Tschernobyl - eine Einschaetzung der gesundheitlichen Schaeden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huber, E E; Dersee, T; Iwert, B

    1986-01-01

    The pamphlet abstracted contains some general information about the radiation hazards and health risks of nuclear power plants. The consequences of the Chernobyl reactor accident are dealt with by way of summarizing the events and by evaluating the health risks and damage the public should be prepared for. This topical report is completed by a popular presentation of the risks of nuclear power and by definitions of the major terms and measuring units.

  18. Seismic Data for Evaluation of Ground Motion Hazards in Las Vegas in Support of Test Site Readiness Ground Motion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodgers, A

    2008-01-16

    In this report we describe the data sets used to evaluate ground motion hazards in Las Vegas from nuclear tests at the Nevada Test Site. This analysis is presented in Rodgers et al. (2005, 2006) and includes 13 nuclear explosions recorded at the John Blume and Associates network, the Little Skull Mountain earthquake and a temporary deployment of broadband station in Las Vegas. The data are available in SAC format on CD-ROM as an appendix to this report.

  19. Evaluation of radioactive environmental hazards in Area-3, Northern Palmyrides, Central Syria using airborne spectrometric gamma technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asfahani, J.; Aissa, M.; Al-Hent, R.

    2016-01-01

    Airborne spectrometric gamma data are used in this paper to estimate the degree of radioactive hazard on humanity in Area-3, Northern Palmyrides, Central Syria. Exposure Rate (ER), Absorbed Dose Rate (ADR), Annual Effective Dose Rate (AEDR), and Heat Production (HP) of the eleven radiometric units included in the established lithological scored map in the study area have been computed to evaluate the radiation background influence in humans. The results obtained indicate that a human body in Area-3 is subjected to radiation hazards in the acceptable limits for long duration exposure. The highest radiogenetic heat production values in Area-3 correspond to the phosphatic locations characterized by relatively high values of uranium and thorium. - Highlights: • Degree of radioactive hazard has been estimated by using airborne spectrometric gamma data. • ER, ADR, AEDR, and HP of the eleven radiometric units have been computed. • Comparison of AEDR of Area-3 with the AEDR of Area-1. • Human body in Area-3 is subjected to radiation hazards in the acceptable limits for long duration exposure. • The highest heat production in Area-3 correspond to the phosphatic locations.

  20. An evaluation of a risk-based environmental regulation in Brazil: Limitations to risk management of hazardous installations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naime, Andre

    2017-01-01

    The environmental regulation of hazardous projects with risk-based decision-making processes can lead to a deficient management of human exposure to technological hazards. Such an approach for regulation is criticized for simplifying the complexity of decisions involving the economic, social, and environmental aspects of the installation and operation of hazardous facilities in urban areas. Results of a Brazilian case study indicate that oil and gas transmission pipelines may represent a threat to diverse communities if the relationship between such linear projects and human populations is overlooked by regulatory bodies. Results also corroborate known challenges to the implementation of EIA processes and outline limitations to an effective environmental and risk management. Two preliminary topics are discussed to strengthen similar regulatory practices. Firstly, an effective integration between social impact assessment and risk assessment in EIA processes to have a more comprehensive understanding of the social fabric. Secondly, the advancement of traditional management practices for hazardous installations to pursue a strong transition from assessment and evaluation to management and control and to promote an effective interaction between land-use planning and environmental regulation.

  1. An evaluation of a risk-based environmental regulation in Brazil: Limitations to risk management of hazardous installations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naime, Andre, E-mail: andre.naime.ibama@gmail.com

    2017-03-15

    The environmental regulation of hazardous projects with risk-based decision-making processes can lead to a deficient management of human exposure to technological hazards. Such an approach for regulation is criticized for simplifying the complexity of decisions involving the economic, social, and environmental aspects of the installation and operation of hazardous facilities in urban areas. Results of a Brazilian case study indicate that oil and gas transmission pipelines may represent a threat to diverse communities if the relationship between such linear projects and human populations is overlooked by regulatory bodies. Results also corroborate known challenges to the implementation of EIA processes and outline limitations to an effective environmental and risk management. Two preliminary topics are discussed to strengthen similar regulatory practices. Firstly, an effective integration between social impact assessment and risk assessment in EIA processes to have a more comprehensive understanding of the social fabric. Secondly, the advancement of traditional management practices for hazardous installations to pursue a strong transition from assessment and evaluation to management and control and to promote an effective interaction between land-use planning and environmental regulation.

  2. Evaluation of subsidence hazard in mantled karst setting: a case study from Val d'Orléans (France)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrin, Jérôme; Cartannaz, Charles; Noury, Gildas; Vanoudheusden, Emilie

    2015-04-01

    Soil subsidence/collapse is a major geohazard occurring in karst region. It occurs as suffosion or dropout sinkholes developing in the soft cover. Less frequently it corresponds to a breakdown of karst void ceiling (i.e., collapse sinkhole). This hazard can cause significant engineering challenges. Therefore decision-makers require the elaboration of methodologies for reliable predictions of such hazards (e.g., karst subsidence susceptibility and hazards maps, early-warning monitoring systems). A methodological framework was developed to evaluate relevant conditioning factors favouring subsidence (Perrin et al. submitted) and then to combine these factors to produce karst subsidence susceptibility maps. This approach was applied to a mantled karst area south of Paris (Val d'Orléans). Results show the significant roles of the overburden lithology (presence/absence of low-permeability layer) and of the karst aquifer piezometric surface position within the overburden. In parallel, an experimental site has been setup to improve the understanding of key processes leading to subsidence/collapse and includes piezometers for measurements of water levels and physico-chemical parameters in both the alluvial and karst aquifers as well as surface deformation monitoring. Results should help in designing monitoring systems to anticipate occurrence of subsidence/collapse. Perrin J., Cartannaz C., Noury G., Vanoudheusden E. 2015. A multicriteria approach to karst subsidence hazard mapping supported by Weights-of-Evidence analysis. Submitted to Engineering Geology.

  3. Classification of coal seam outburst hazards and evaluation of the importance of influencing factors

    OpenAIRE

    Shi Xianzhi; Song Dazhao; Qian Ziwei

    2017-01-01

    Coal and gas outbursts are the result of several geological factors related to coal seam gas (coal seam gas pressure P, coal seam sturdiness coefficient f and coal seam gas content W), and these parameters can be used to classify the outburst hazard level of a coal seam.

  4. Recommended approaches to the scientific evaluation of ecotoxicological hazards and risks of endocrine‐active substances

    Science.gov (United States)

    A SETAC Pellston Workshop™ ?‘Environmental Hazard and Risk Assessment Approaches for Endocrine-Active Substances (EHRA)’ was held from 31st January to 5th February 2016 in Pensacola, Florida, USA. The primary aim of the workshop was to provide objective advice, based on current s...

  5. Reducing hazardous waste generation: an evaluation and a call for action

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    National Research Council Staff; Environmental Studies Board; Commission on Physical Sciences, Mathematics, and Applications; Division on Engineering and Physical Sciences; National Research Council; National Academy of Sciences

    1985-01-01

    ... Considerations in Reducing the Generation of Hazardous Industrial Wastes Environmental Studies Board Commission on Physical Sciences, Mathematics, and Resources National Research Council NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS Washington, D.C. 1985 Copyrightoriginal retained, the be not from cannot book, paper original however, for version formatting, authoritative the typesett...

  6. Environmental impact of industrial sludge stabilization/solidification products: chemical or ecotoxicological hazard evaluation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Marcos A R; Testolin, Renan C; Godinho-Castro, Alcione P; Corrêa, Albertina X R; Radetski, Claudemir M

    2011-09-15

    Nowadays, the classification of industrial solid wastes is not based on risk analysis, thus the aim of this study was to compare the toxicity classifications based on the chemical and ecotoxicological characterization of four industrial sludges submitted to a two-step stabilization/solidification (S/S) processes. To classify S/S products as hazardous or non-hazardous, values cited in Brazilian chemical waste regulations were adopted and compared to the results obtained with a battery of biotests (bacteria, alga and daphnids) which were carried out with soluble and leaching fractions. In some cases the hazardous potential of industrial sludge was underestimated, since the S/S products obtained from the metal-mechanics and automotive sludges were chemically classified as non-hazardous (but non-inert) when the ecotoxicity tests showed toxicity values for leaching and soluble fractions. In other cases, the environmental impact was overestimated, since the S/S products of the textile sludges were chemically classified as non-inert (but non-hazardous) while ecotoxicity tests did not reveal any effects on bacteria, daphnids and algae. From the results of the chemical and ecotoxicological analyses we concluded that: (i) current regulations related to solid waste classification based on leachability and solubility tests do not ensure reliable results with respect to environmental protection; (ii) the two-step process was very effective in terms of metal immobilization, even at higher metal-concentrations. Considering that S/S products will be subject to environmental conditions, it is of great interest to test the ecotoxicity potential of the contaminants release from these products with a view to avoiding environmental impact given the unreliability of ecotoxicological estimations originating from chemical analysis. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Ultrashort Laser Pulse Phenomena

    CERN Document Server

    Diels, Jean-Claude

    2006-01-01

    Ultrashort Laser Pulse Phenomena, 2e serves as an introduction to the phenomena of ultra short laser pulses and describes how this technology can be used to examine problems in areas such as electromagnetism, optics, and quantum mechanics. Ultrashort Laser Pulse Phenomena combines theoretical backgrounds and experimental techniques and will serve as a manual on designing and constructing femtosecond (""faster than electronics"") systems or experiments from scratch. Beyond the simple optical system, the various sources of ultrashort pulses are presented, again with emphasis on the basic

  8. Science and Paranormal Phenomena

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noyes, H. Pierre

    1999-06-03

    In order to ground my approach to the study of paranormal phenomena, I first explain my operational approach to physics, and to the ''historical'' sciences of cosmic, biological, human, social and political evolution. I then indicate why I believe that ''paranormal phenomena'' might-but need not- fit into this framework. I endorse the need for a new theoretical framework for the investigation of this field presented by Etter and Shoup at this meeting. I close with a short discussion of Ted Bastin's contention that paranormal phenomena should be defined as contradicting physics.

  9. Nonequilibrium Phenomena in Plasmas

    CERN Document Server

    Sharma, A Surjalal

    2005-01-01

    The complexity of plasmas arises mainly from their inherent nonlinearity and far from equilibrium nature. The nonequilibrium behavior of plasmas is evident in the natural settings, for example, in the Earth's magnetosphere. Similarly, laboratory plasmas such as fusion bottles also have their fair share of complex behavior. Nonequilibrium phenomena are intimately connected with statistical dynamics and form one of the growing research areas in modern nonlinear physics. These studies encompass the ideas of self-organization, phase transition, critical phenomena, self-organized criticality and turbulence. This book presents studies of complexity in the context of nonequilibrium phenomena using theory, modeling, simulations, and experiments, both in the laboratory and in nature.

  10. Nonlinear surface electromagnetic phenomena

    CERN Document Server

    Ponath, H-E

    1991-01-01

    In recent years the physics of electromagnetic surface phenomena has developed rapidly, evolving into technologies for communications and industry, such as fiber and integrated optics. The variety of phenomena based on electromagnetism at surfaces is rich and this book was written with the aim of summarizing the available knowledge in selected areas of the field. The book contains reviews written by solid state and optical physicists on the nonlinear interaction of electromagnetic waves at and with surfaces and films. Both the physical phenomena and some potential applications are

  11. Nuclear fuel deformation phenomena

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Brutzel, L.; Dingreville, R.; Bartel, T.J.

    2015-01-01

    Nuclear fuel encounters severe thermomechanical environments. Its mechanical response is profoundly influenced by an underlying heterogeneous microstructure but also inherently dependent on the temperature and stress level histories. The ability to adequately simulate the response of such microstructures, to elucidate the associated macroscopic response in such extreme environments is crucial for predicting both performance and transient fuel mechanical responses. This chapter discusses key physical phenomena and the status of current modelling techniques to evaluate and predict fuel deformations: creep, swelling, cracking and pellet-clad interaction. This chapter only deals with nuclear fuel; deformations of cladding materials are discussed elsewhere. An obvious need for a multi-physics and multi-scale approach to develop a fundamental understanding of properties of complex nuclear fuel materials is presented. The development of such advanced multi-scale mechanistic frameworks should include either an explicit (domain decomposition, homogenisation, etc.) or implicit (scaling laws, hand-shaking,...) linkage between the different time and length scales involved, in order to accurately predict the fuel thermomechanical response for a wide range of operating conditions and fuel types (including Gen-IV and TRU). (authors)

  12. The evaluation of an analytical protocol for the determination of substances in waste for hazard classification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hennebert, Pierre, E-mail: pierre.hennebert@ineris.fr [INERIS – Institut National de l’Environnement Industriel et des Risques, Domaine du Petit Arbois BP33, F-13545 Aix-en-Provence (France); Papin, Arnaud [INERIS, Parc Technologique ALATA, BP No. 2, 60550 Verneuil en Halatte (France); Padox, Jean-Marie [INERIS – Institut National de l’Environnement Industriel et des Risques, Domaine du Petit Arbois BP33, F-13545 Aix-en-Provence (France); Hasebrouck, Benoît [INERIS, Parc Technologique ALATA, BP No. 2, 60550 Verneuil en Halatte (France)

    2013-07-15

    Highlights: • Knowledge of wastes in substances will be necessary to assess HP1–HP15 hazard properties. • A new analytical protocol is proposed for this and tested by two service laboratories on 32 samples. • Sixty-three percentage of the samples have a satisfactory analytical balance between 90% and 110%. • Eighty-four percentage of the samples were classified identically (Seveso Directive) for their hazardousness by the two laboratories. • The method, in progress, is being normalized in France and is be proposed to CEN. - Abstract: The classification of waste as hazardous could soon be assessed in Europe using largely the hazard properties of its constituents, according to the the Classification, Labelling and Packaging (CLP) regulation. Comprehensive knowledge of the component constituents of a given waste will therefore be necessary. An analytical protocol for determining waste composition is proposed, which includes using inductively coupled plasma (ICP) screening methods to identify major elements and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC–MS) screening techniques to measure organic compounds. The method includes a gross or indicator measure of ‘pools’ of higher molecular weight organic substances that are taken to be less bioactive and less hazardous, and of unresolved ‘mass’ during the chromatography of volatile and semi-volatile compounds. The concentration of some elements and specific compounds that are linked to specific hazard properties and are subject to specific regulation (examples include: heavy metals, chromium(VI), cyanides, organo-halogens, and PCBs) are determined by classical quantitative analysis. To check the consistency of the analysis, the sum of the concentrations (including unresolved ‘pools’) should give a mass balance between 90% and 110%. Thirty-two laboratory samples comprising different industrial wastes (liquids and solids) were tested by two routine service laboratories, to give circa 7000 parameter

  13. Interfacial transport phenomena

    CERN Document Server

    Slattery, John C; Oh, Eun-Suok

    2007-01-01

    Revised and updated extensively from the previous editionDiscusses transport phenomena at common lines or three-phase lines of contactProvides a comprehensive summary about the extensions of continuum mechanics to the nanoscale.

  14. Time-dependent earthquake hazard evaluation in seismogenic systems using mixed Markov Chains: An application to the Japan area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrera, C.; Nava, F. A.; Lomnitz, C.

    2006-08-01

    A previous work introduced a new method for seismic hazard evaluation in a system (a geographic area with distinct, but related seismogenic regions) based on modeling the transition probabilities of states (patterns of presence or absence of seismicity, with magnitude greater or equal to a threshold magnitude Mr, in the regions of the system, during a time interval Δt) as a Markov chain. Application of this direct method to the Japan area gave very good results. Given that the most important limitation of the direct method is the relative scarcity of large magnitude events, we decided to explore the possibility that seismicity with magnitude M ≥ Mmr contains information about the future occurrence of earthquakes with M ≥ Mmr > Mmr. This mixed Markov chain method estimates the probabilities of occurrence of a system state for M ≥ MMr on the basis of the observed state for M ≥ Mmr in the previous Δt. Application of the mixed method to the area of Japan gives better hazard estimations than the direct method; in particular for large earthquakes. As part of this study, the problem of performance evaluation of hazard estimation methods is addressed, leading to the use of grading functions.

  15. Severe accident phenomena

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jokiniemi, J.; Kilpi, K.; Lindholm, I.; Maekynen, J.; Pekkarinen, E.; Sairanen, R.; Silde, A.

    1995-02-01

    Severe accidents are nuclear reactor accidents in which the reactor core is substantially damaged. The report describes severe reactor accident phenomena and their significance for the safety of nuclear power plants. A comprehensive set of phenomena ranging from accident initiation to containment behaviour and containment integrity questions are covered. The report is based on expertise gained in the severe accident assessment projects conducted at the Technical Research Centre of Finland (VTT). (49 refs., 32 figs., 12 tabs.)

  16. Introduction to wetting phenomena

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Indekeu, J.O.

    1995-01-01

    In these lectures the field of wetting phenomena is introduced from the point of view of statistical physics. The phase transition from partial to complete wetting is discussed and examples of relevant experiments in binary liquid mixtures are given. Cahn's concept of critical-point wetting is examined in detail. Finally, a connection is drawn between wetting near bulk criticality and the universality classes of surface critical phenomena. (author)

  17. Evaluation of external hazards to nuclear power plants in the United States: Other external events

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kimura, C.Y.; Prassinos, P.G.

    1989-02-01

    In support of implementation of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission's Severe Accident Policy, the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) has performed a study of the risk of core damage to nuclear power plants in the United States due to ''other external events.'' The broad objective has been to gain an understanding of whether ''other external events'' (the hazards not covered by previous reports) are among the major potential accident initiators that may pose a threat of severe reactor core damage or of large radioactive release to the environment from the reactor. The ''other external events'' covered in this report are nearby industrial/military facility accidents, on site hazardous material storage accidents, severe temperature transients, severe weather storms, lightning strikes, external fires, extraterrestrial activity, volcanic activity, earth movement, and abrasive windstorms. The analysis was based on two figures-of-merit, one based on core damage frequency and the other based on the frequency of large radioactive releases. 37 refs., 8 tabs

  18. Dynamic evaluation of seismic hazard and risks based on the Unified Scaling Law for Earthquakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kossobokov, V. G.; Nekrasova, A.

    2016-12-01

    We continue applying the general concept of seismic risk analysis in a number of seismic regions worldwide by constructing seismic hazard maps based on the Unified Scaling Law for Earthquakes (USLE), i.e. log N(M,L) = A + B•(6 - M) + C•log L, where N(M,L) is the expected annual number of earthquakes of a certain magnitude M within an seismically prone area of linear dimension L, A characterizes the average annual rate of strong (M = 6) earthquakes, B determines the balance between magnitude ranges, and C estimates the fractal dimension of seismic locus in projection to the Earth surface. The parameters A, B, and C of USLE are used to assess, first, the expected maximum magnitude in a time interval at a seismically prone cell of a uniform grid that cover the region of interest, and then the corresponding expected ground shaking parameters. After a rigorous testing against the available seismic evidences in the past (e.g., the historically reported macro-seismic intensity or paleo data), such a seismic hazard map is used to generate maps of specific earthquake risks for population, cities, and infrastructures. The hazard maps for a given territory change dramatically, when the methodology is applied to a certain size moving time window, e.g. about a decade long for an intermediate-term regional assessment or exponentially increasing intervals for a daily local strong aftershock forecasting. The of dynamical seismic hazard and risks assessment is illustrated by applications to the territory of Greater Caucasus and Crimea and the two-year series of aftershocks of the 11 October 2008 Kurchaloy, Chechnya earthquake which case-history appears to be encouraging for further systematic testing as potential short-term forecasting tool.

  19. The evaluation of an analytical protocol for the determination of substances in waste for hazard classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hennebert, Pierre; Papin, Arnaud; Padox, Jean-Marie; Hasebrouck, Benoît

    2013-07-01

    The classification of waste as hazardous could soon be assessed in Europe using largely the hazard properties of its constituents, according to the the Classification, Labelling and Packaging (CLP) regulation. Comprehensive knowledge of the component constituents of a given waste will therefore be necessary. An analytical protocol for determining waste composition is proposed, which includes using inductively coupled plasma (ICP) screening methods to identify major elements and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC-MS) screening techniques to measure organic compounds. The method includes a gross or indicator measure of 'pools' of higher molecular weight organic substances that are taken to be less bioactive and less hazardous, and of unresolved 'mass' during the chromatography of volatile and semi-volatile compounds. The concentration of some elements and specific compounds that are linked to specific hazard properties and are subject to specific regulation (examples include: heavy metals, chromium(VI), cyanides, organo-halogens, and PCBs) are determined by classical quantitative analysis. To check the consistency of the analysis, the sum of the concentrations (including unresolved 'pools') should give a mass balance between 90% and 110%. Thirty-two laboratory samples comprising different industrial wastes (liquids and solids) were tested by two routine service laboratories, to give circa 7000 parameter results. Despite discrepancies in some parameters, a satisfactory sum of estimated or measured concentrations (analytical balance) of 90% was reached for 20 samples (63% of the overall total) during this first test exercise, with identified reasons for most of the unsatisfactory results. Regular use of this protocol (which is now included in the French legislation) has enabled service laboratories to reach a 90% mass balance for nearly all the solid samples tested, and most of liquid samples (difficulties were caused in some samples from polymers in solution and

  20. The effect of interior lead hazard controls on children's blood lead concentrations: a systematic evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haynes, Erin; Lanphear, Bruce P; Tohn, Ellen; Farr, Nick; Rhoads, George G

    2002-01-01

    Dust control is often recommended to prevent children's exposure to residential lead hazards, but the effect of these controls on children's blood lead concentrations is uncertain. We conducted a systematic review of randomized, controlled trials of low-cost, lead hazard control interventions to determine the effect of lead hazard control on children's blood lead concentration. Four trials met the inclusion criteria. We examined mean blood lead concentration and elevated blood lead concentrations (> or = 10 microg/dL, > or = 15 microg/dL, and > or = 20 microg/dL) and found no significant differences in mean change in blood lead concentration for children by random group assignment (children assigned to the intervention group compared with those assigned to the control group). We found no significant difference between the intervention and control groups in the percentage of children with blood lead > or = 10 microg/dL, 29% versus 32% [odds ratio (OR), 0.85; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.56-1.3], but there was a significant difference in the percentage of children with blood lead > or = 15 microg/dL between the intervention and control groups, 6% versus 14% (OR, 0.40; 95% CI, 0.21-0.80) and in the percentage of children with blood lead > or = 20 microg/dL between the intervention and control groups, 2% versus 6% (OR, 0.29; 95% CI, 0.10-0.85). We conclude that although low-cost, interior lead hazard control was associated with 50% or greater reduction in the proportion of children who had blood lead concentrations exceeding 15 microg/dL and > or = 20 microg/dL, there was no substantial effect on mean blood lead concentration.

  1. Environmental geophysics: Locating and evaluating subsurface geology, geologic hazards, groundwater contamination, etc

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benson, A.K.

    1994-01-01

    Geophysical surveys can be used to help delineate and map subsurface geology, including potential geologic hazards, the water table, boundaries of contaminated plumes, etc. The depth to the water table can be determined using seismic and ground penetrating radar (GPR) methods, and hydrogeologic and geologic cross sections of shallow alluvial aquifers can be constructed from these data. Electrical resistivity and GPR data are especially sensitive to the quality of the water and other fluids in a porous medium, and these surveys help to identify the stratigraphy, the approximate boundaries of contaminant plumes, and the source and amount of contamination in the plumes. Seismic, GPR, electromagnetic (VLF), gravity, and magnetic data help identify and delineate shallow, concealed faulting, cavities, and other subsurface hazards. Integration of these geophysical data sets can help pinpoint sources of subsurface contamination, identify potential geological hazards, and optimize the location of borings, monitoring wells, foundations for building, dams, etc. Case studies from a variety of locations will illustrate these points. 20 refs., 17 figs., 6 tabs

  2. Investigations of natural groundwater hazards at the proposed Yucca Mountain high level nuclear waste repository. Part A: Geology at Yucca Mountain. Part B: Modeling of hydro-tectonic phenomena relevant to Yucca Mountain. Annual report - Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szymanski, J.S.; Schluter, C.M.; Livingston, D.E.

    1993-05-01

    This document is an annual report describing investigations of natural groundwater hazards at the proposed Yucca Mountain, Nevada High-Level Nuclear Waste Repository.This document describes research studies of the origin of near surface calcite/silica deposits at Yucca Mountain. The origin of these deposits is controversial and the authors have extended and strengthened the basis of their arguments for epigenetic, metasomatic alteration of the tuffs at Yucca Mountain. This report includes stratigraphic, mineralogical, and geochronological information along with geochemical data to support the conclusions described by Livingston and Szymanski, and others. As part of their first annual report, they take this opportunity to clarify the technical basis of their concerns and summarize the critical geological field evidence and related information. Selected papers are indexed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database

  3. Multi-factor evaluation indicator method for the risk assessment of atmospheric and oceanic hazard group due to the attack of tropical cyclones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Peng; Du, Mei

    2018-06-01

    China's southeast coastal areas frequently suffer from storm surge due to the attack of tropical cyclones (TCs) every year. Hazards induced by TCs are complex, such as strong wind, huge waves, storm surge, heavy rain, floods, and so on. The atmospheric and oceanic hazards cause serious disasters and substantial economic losses. This paper, from the perspective of hazard group, sets up a multi-factor evaluation method for the risk assessment of TC hazards using historical extreme data of concerned atmospheric and oceanic elements. Based on the natural hazard dynamic process, the multi-factor indicator system is composed of nine natural hazard factors representing intensity and frequency, respectively. Contributing to the indicator system, in order of importance, are maximum wind speed by TCs, attack frequency of TCs, maximum surge height, maximum wave height, frequency of gusts ≥ Scale 8, rainstorm intensity, maximum tidal range, rainstorm frequency, then sea-level rising rate. The first four factors are the most important, whose weights exceed 10% in the indicator system. With normalization processing, all the single-hazard factors are superposed by multiplying their weights to generate a superposed TC hazard. The multi-factor evaluation indicator method was applied to the risk assessment of typhoon-induced atmospheric and oceanic hazard group in typhoon-prone southeast coastal cities of China.

  4. User's manual of a computer code for seismic hazard evaluation for assessing the threat to a facility by fault model. SHEAT-FM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugino, Hideharu; Onizawa, Kunio; Suzuki, Masahide

    2005-09-01

    To establish the reliability evaluation method for aged structural component, we developed a probabilistic seismic hazard evaluation code SHEAT-FM (Seismic Hazard Evaluation for Assessing the Threat to a facility site - Fault Model) using a seismic motion prediction method based on fault model. In order to improve the seismic hazard evaluation, this code takes the latest knowledge in the field of earthquake engineering into account. For example, the code involves a group delay time of observed records and an update process model of active fault. This report describes the user's guide of SHEAT-FM, including the outline of the seismic hazard evaluation, specification of input data, sample problem for a model site, system information and execution method. (author)

  5. Evaluation of Seismic Hazards at California Department of Transportation (CALTRANS)Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merriam, M. K.

    2005-12-01

    The California Department of Transportation (CALTRANS) has responsibility for design, construction, and maintenance of approximately 12,000 state bridges. CALTRANS also provides oversight for similar activities for 12,200 bridges owned by local agencies throughout the state. California is subjected to a M6 or greater seismic event every few years. Recent earthquakes include the 1971 Mw6.6 San Fernando earthquake which struck north of Los Angeles and prompted engineers to begin retrofitting existing bridges and re-examine the way bridges are detailed to improve their response to earthquakes, the 1989 Mw6.9 Loma Prieta earthquake which destroyed the Cypress Freeway and damaged the San Francisco-Oakland Bay Bridge, and the 1994 Mw6.7 Northridge earthquake in the Los Angeles area which heavily damaged four major freeways. Since CALTRANS' seismic performance goal is to ensure life-safety needs are met for the traveling public during an earthquake, estimating earthquake magnitude, peak bedrock acceleration, and determining if special seismic considerationsare needed at specific bridge sites are critical. CALTRANS is currently developing a fourth generation seismic hazard map to be used for estimating these parameters. A deterministic approach has been used to develop this map. Late-Quaternary-age faults are defined as the expected seismic sources. Caltrans requires site-specific studies to determine potential for liquefaction, seismically induced landslides, and surface fault rupture. If potential for one of these seismic hazards exists, the hazard is mitigated by avoidance, removal, or accommodated through design. The action taken, while complying with the Department's "no collapse" requirement, depends upon many factors, including cost.

  6. Flow evaluation of the leaching hazardous materials from spent nickel-cadmium batteries discarded in different water surroundings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Xingmei; Song, Yan; Nan, Junmin

    2018-02-01

    The leaching characteristics of hazardous materials from Ni-Cd batteries immersed in four typical water samples, i.e., water with NaCl, river water, tap water, and deionized water, were investigated to evaluate the potential environmental harm of spent Ni-Cd batteries in the water surroundings. It is shown that four water surroundings all could leach hazardous materials from the Ni-Cd batteries. The water with NaCl concentration of 66.7 mg L -1 had the highest leaching ability, the hazardous materials were leached after only approximately 50 days (average time, with a standard deviation of 4.1), while less than 100 days were needed in the others. An electrochemical corrosion is considered to be the main leaching mechanism leading to battery breakage, while the dissolution-deposition process and the powder route result in the leakage and transference of nickel and cadmium materials from the electrodes. The anions, i.e., SO 4 2- and Cl - , and dissolved oxygen in water were demonstrated to be the vital factors that influence the leaching processes. Thus, it is proposed that spent Ni-Cd batteries must be treated properly to avoid potential danger to the environment.

  7. Importance of historical seismicity in the evaluation of large return period hazards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, C.S.

    1983-01-01

    This paper reports the results from an historical investigation on earthquake activity in Portugal based on data collected from original sources. A detailed revision of earthquake catalogues in what concerns date of occurrence, isosseismal maps, epicentral location, magnitude and duration of vibration was made for most of the 260 events identified in the period 1000 to 1900. Introducing this new piece of information which exhibits a much higher degree of quality into standard hazard models, uncertainties on final estimates for the zones of large return periods, RP, (RP > 200 years) are greatly reduced

  8. 2002 Report to Congress: Evaluating the Consensus Best Practices Developed through the Howard Hughes Medical Institute’s Collaborative Hazardous Waste Management Demonstration Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    This report discusses a collaborative project initiated by the Howard Hughes Medical Institute (HHMI) to establish and evaluate a performance-based approach to management of hazardous wastes in the laboratories of academic research institutions.

  9. Evaluation of potential hazards presented by the nearby industrial environment and transportation routes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-05-01

    RFS or Regles Fondamentales de Surete (Basic Safety Rules) applicable to certain types of nuclear facilities lay down requirements with which compliance, for the type of facilities and within the scope of application covered by the RFS, is considered to be equivalent to compliance with technical French regulatory practice. The object of the RFS is to take advantage of standardization in the field of safety, while allowing for technical progress in that field. They are designed to enable the operating utility and contractors to know the rules pertaining to various subjects which are considered to be acceptable by the Service Central de Surete des Installations Nucleaires, or the SCSIN (Central Department for the Safety of Nuclear Facilities). These RFS should make safety analysis easier and lead to better understanding between experts and individuals concerned with the problems of nuclear safety. The SCSIN reserves the right to modify, when considered necessary, any RFS and specify, if need be, the terms under which a modification is deemed retroactive. The purpose of this RFS is to define methods for determining risks created by potential hazards represented by the industrial environment and transportation routes in the vicinity of a PWR, in order to verify design criteria acceptability with regard to such hazards

  10. Evaluation of MEDALUS model for desertification hazard zonation using GIS; study area: Iyzad Khast plain, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farajzadeh, Manuchehr; Egbal, Mahbobeh Nik

    2007-08-15

    In this study, the MEDALUS model along with GIS mapping techniques are used to determine desertification hazards for a province of Iran to determine the desertification hazard. After creating a desertification database including 20 parameters, the first steps consisted of developing maps of four indices for the MEDALUS model including climate, soil, vegetation and land use were prepared. Since these parameters have mostly been presented for the Mediterranean region in the past, the next step included the addition of other indicators such as ground water and wind erosion. Then all of the layers weighted by environmental conditions present in the area were used (following the same MEDALUS framework) before a desertification map was prepared. The comparison of two maps based on the original and modified MEDALUS models indicates that the addition of more regionally-specific parameters into the model allows for a more accurate representation of desertification processes across the Iyzad Khast plain. The major factors affecting desertification in the area are climate, wind erosion and low land quality management, vegetation degradation and the salinization of soil and water resources.

  11. Evaluation of Fire Hazard and Safety Management of Heritage Buildings in Georgetown, Penang

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Othuman Mydin M.A.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Fire is a subject that is always neglected and ignored as far as heritage buildings are concerned. Unlike newly-built buildings, which are required under UBBL to undergo certain fire protection system tests, people are less likely to carry out such tests and detailed assessments for heritage buildings. Thus, this research is significant as it is aimed at accomplishing several objectives including studying the current fire emergency plan, besides identifying and assessing the possible fire hazards in heritage buildings in Penang. Several case studies were carried out at a few premises such as the Khoo Kongsi, Cheah Kongsi, Hock Teik Chen Shin Temple and the Teochew Temple with the aid of the Fire Rescue Department Malaysia (FRDM. The results obtained from this study will be discussed according to several aspects focusing on general health and safety management at the site, the fire-fighting system, fire exit routes and signage at the temples, fire hazards, and fire detection and alarm.

  12. Evaluation of natural radioactivity and radiological hazards caused by different marbles of India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramasamy, V.; Ponnusamy, V.; Hemalatha, J.; Meenakshisundaram, V.; Gajendiran, V.

    2005-01-01

    The samples used in this study are of various coloured varieties of marbles collected from marble dealers. The specific activity concentration of 238 U, 232 Th and 40 K has been determined by gamma ray spectrometry. The materials showed concentrations of 238 U, 232 Th and 40 K which were found to be dramatically variable depending on mineral content and type of formation. Using FTIR and thin section analyses, quartz, feldspar, calcite and mafic minerals present in the samples have been determined quantitatively. From our experimental data, it can be seen that the geochemical parameters such as SiO 2 or mafic minerals or CaCO 3 may be considered to be an appropriate index to select the marbles of low radiological risk. The average specific activities of 40 K are found to be higher than 232 Th, 238 U. The ratio of Th/U was calculated and correlated. Assessment of radiological hazards was made by calculating radium equivalent activities, external and internal hazard indices which were found to vary from 30.92 to 54.45, 0.08 to 0.14 and 0.10 to 0.17 Bq/kg, respectively. The observed values are lower than the recommended limits. (author)

  13. [Evaluation of the sanitary-and-epidemiological hazard of solid garbage in Astana].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gumarova, Zh Zh; Bekshin, Zh M; Aushakhmetova, Z T

    2008-01-01

    According to the national plan of actions on environmental protection, industrial garbage recycling is to be introduced in Almaty and Astana for the sustainable development of the Republic of Kazakhstan. Integrated assessment of the hazard of garage is made by the sanitary-and-chemical and sanitary-and-epidemiological indices to provide the hygienic and ecological reliability of a procedure for neutralization and utilization of solid garbage (SG). According to the data obtained, Astana SG Astana in summer is characterized by the high total level of bacterial contamination. The indices of microbial contamination of SG and soil near the dustbins correlate with the density of population and the maturity of an infrastructure. Comparison of the sanitary-and-epidemiological indices of different types of SG (wastes from housing facilities, wholesale and retail outlays, and education, culture, and entertainment institutions) revealed no significant differences. According to the sanitary-and-helmintological indices, the Astana soil should be classified as pure (noninvasive). Involvement of SG into industrial recycling should be accompanied by a hygienic assessment of the hazard of waste and the reliability of used technologies in the context of warning and on-going sanitary surveillance.

  14. Ion exchange phenomena

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bourg, I.C.; Sposito, G.

    2011-05-01

    Ion exchange phenomena involve the population of readily exchangeable ions, the subset of adsorbed solutes that balance the intrinsic surface charge and can be readily replaced by major background electrolyte ions (Sposito, 2008). These phenomena have occupied a central place in soil chemistry research since Way (1850) first showed that potassium uptake by soils resulted in the release of an equal quantity of moles of charge of calcium and magnesium. Ion exchange phenomena are now routinely modeled in studies of soil formation (White et al., 2005), soil reclamation (Kopittke et al., 2006), soil fertilitization (Agbenin and Yakubu, 2006), colloidal dispersion/flocculation (Charlet and Tournassat, 2005), the mechanics of argillaceous media (Gajo and Loret, 2007), aquitard pore water chemistry (Tournassat et al., 2008), and groundwater (Timms and Hendry, 2007; McNab et al., 2009) and contaminant hydrology (Chatterjee et al., 2008; van Oploo et al., 2008; Serrano et al., 2009).

  15. A Case Study of Geologic Hazards Affecting School Buildings: Evaluating Seismic Structural Vulnerability and Landslide Hazards at Schools in Aizawl, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perley, M. M.; Guo, J.

    2016-12-01

    India's National School Safety Program (NSSP) aims to assess all government schools in earthquake prone regions of the country. To supplement the Mizoram State Government's recent survey of 141 government schools, we screened an additional 16 private and 4 government schools for structural vulnerabilities due to earthquakes, as well as landslide hazards, in Mizoram's capital of Aizawl. We developed a geomorphologically derived landslide susceptibility matrix, which was cross-checked with Aizawl Municipal Corporation's landslide hazard map (provided by Lettis Consultants International), to determine the geologic hazards at each school. Our research indicates that only 7% of the 22 assessed school buildings are located within low landslide hazard zones; 64% of the school buildings, with approximately 9,500 students, are located within very high or high landslide hazard zones. Rapid Visual Screening (RVS) was used to determine the structural earthquake vulnerability of each school building. RVS is an initial vulnerability assessment procedure used to inventory and rank buildings that may be hazardous during an earthquake. Our study indicates that all of the 22 assessed school buildings have a damageability rating of Grade 3 or higher on the 5-grade EMS scale, suggesting a significant vulnerability and potential for damage in buildings, ranging from widespread cracking of columns and beam column joints to collapse. Additionally, 86% of the schools we visited had reinforced concrete buildings constructed before Aizawl's building regulations were passed in 2007, which can be assumed to lack appropriate seismic reinforcement. Using our findings, we will give recommendations to the Government of Mizoram to prevent unnecessary loss of life by minimizing each school's landslide risk and ensuring schools are earthquake-resistant.

  16. Preliminary Investigation of Impact on Multiple-Sheet Structures and an Evaluation of the Meteoroid Hazard to Space Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nysmith, C. Robert; Summers, James L.

    1961-01-01

    Small pyrex glass spheres, representative of stoney meteoroids, were fired into 2024-T3 aluminum alclad multiple-sheet structures at velocities to 11,000 feet per second to evaluate the effectiveness of multisheet hull construction as a means of increasing the resistance of a spacecraft to meteoroid penetrations. The results of these tests indicate that increasing the number of sheets in a structure while keeping the total sheet thickness constant and increasing the spacing between sheets both tend to increase the penetration resistance of a structure of constant weight per unit area. In addition, filling the space between the sheets with a light filler material was found to substantially increase structure penetration resistance with a small increase in weight. An evaluation of the meteoroid hazard to space vehicles is presented in the form of an illustrative-example for two specific lunar mission vehicles, a single-sheet, monocoque hull vehicle and a glass-wool filled, double-sheet hull vehicle. The evaluation is presented in terms of the "best" and the "worst" conditions that might be expected as determined from astronomical and satellite measurements, high-speed impact data, and hypothesized meteoroid structures and compositions. It was observed that the vehicle flight time without penetration can be increased significantly by use of multiple-sheet rather than single-sheet hull construction with no increase in hull weight. Nevertheless, it is evident that a meteoroid hazard exists, even for the vehicle with the selected multiple-sheet hull.

  17. Graphic products used in the evaluation of traditional and emerging remote sensing technologies for the detection of fugitive contamination at selected superfund hazardous waste sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slonecker, E. Terrence; Fisher, Gary B.

    2011-01-01

    This report presents the overhead imagery and field sampling results used to prepare U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 2011-1050, 'Evaluation of Traditional and Emerging Remote Sensing Technologies for the Detection of Fugitive Contamination at Selected Superfund Hazardous Waste Sites'. These graphic products were used in the evaluation of remote sensing technology in postclosure monitoring of hazardous waste sites and represent an ongoing research effort. Soil sampling results presented here were accomplished with field portable x-ray fluoresence (XRF) technology and are used as screening tools only representing the current conditions of metals and other contaminants at selected Superfund hazardous waste sites.

  18. Hazard Analysis Database Report

    CERN Document Server

    Grams, W H

    2000-01-01

    The Hazard Analysis Database was developed in conjunction with the hazard analysis activities conducted in accordance with DOE-STD-3009-94, Preparation Guide for U S . Department of Energy Nonreactor Nuclear Facility Safety Analysis Reports, for HNF-SD-WM-SAR-067, Tank Farms Final Safety Analysis Report (FSAR). The FSAR is part of the approved Authorization Basis (AB) for the River Protection Project (RPP). This document describes, identifies, and defines the contents and structure of the Tank Farms FSAR Hazard Analysis Database and documents the configuration control changes made to the database. The Hazard Analysis Database contains the collection of information generated during the initial hazard evaluations and the subsequent hazard and accident analysis activities. The Hazard Analysis Database supports the preparation of Chapters 3 ,4 , and 5 of the Tank Farms FSAR and the Unreviewed Safety Question (USQ) process and consists of two major, interrelated data sets: (1) Hazard Analysis Database: Data from t...

  19. SEPARATION PHENOMENA LOGISTIC REGRESSION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ikaro Daniel de Carvalho Barreto

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes an application of concepts about the maximum likelihood estimation of the binomial logistic regression model to the separation phenomena. It generates bias in the estimation and provides different interpretations of the estimates on the different statistical tests (Wald, Likelihood Ratio and Score and provides different estimates on the different iterative methods (Newton-Raphson and Fisher Score. It also presents an example that demonstrates the direct implications for the validation of the model and validation of variables, the implications for estimates of odds ratios and confidence intervals, generated from the Wald statistics. Furthermore, we present, briefly, the Firth correction to circumvent the phenomena of separation.

  20. Rheological phenomena in focus

    CERN Document Server

    Boger, DV

    1993-01-01

    More than possibly any other scientific discipline, rheology is easily visualized and the relevant literature contains many excellent photographs of unusual and often bizarre phenomena. The present book brings together these photographs for the first time. They are supported by a full explanatory text. Rheological Phenomena in Focus will be an indispensable support manual to all those who teach rheology or have to convince colleagues of the practical relevance of the subject within an industrial setting. For those who teach fluid mechanics, the book clearly illustrates the difference be

  1. Research for developing precise tsunami evaluation methods. Probabilistic tsunami hazard analysis/numerical simulation method with dispersion and wave breaking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    The present report introduces main results of investigations on precise tsunami evaluation methods, which were carried out from the viewpoint of safety evaluation for nuclear power facilities and deliberated by the Tsunami Evaluation Subcommittee. A framework for the probabilistic tsunami hazard analysis (PTHA) based on logic tree is proposed and calculation on the Pacific side of northeastern Japan is performed as a case study. Tsunami motions with dispersion and wave breaking were investigated both experimentally and numerically. The numerical simulation method is verified for its practicability by applying to a historical tsunami. Tsunami force is also investigated and formulae of tsunami pressure acting on breakwaters and on building due to inundating tsunami are proposed. (author)

  2. Health hazard evaluation report HETA 82-361-1437, Kerr-McGee Nuclear Corporation, Grants, New Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ward, E.M.; Smith, A.B.; Thun, M.J.; Hills, B.

    1984-03-01

    A health-hazard evaluation at Kerr/McGee Nuclear Corporation's uranium (7440611) mill (SIC-1094) in Grants, New Mexico was conducted in November, 1982. Evaluation was requested because of union concern about exposure and possible nephrotoxic effects of yellowcake, a concentrate of natural uranium, produced at the mill. Personnel records, company environmental and personal monitoring, and urine uranium bioassay data were reviewed. Further medical evaluation at the facility is not warranted as the longest exposure to yellowcake was only 7 years. The authors recommend that Kerr/McGee use the NRC guidelines for assessing exposure. Emission source in the drier and precipitation area should be identified and engineering controls installed to reduce the exposure

  3. Large-scale radon hazard evaluation in the Oslofjord region of Norway utilizing indoor radon concentrations, airborne gamma ray spectrometry and geological mapping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smethurst, Mark Andrew; Strand, Terje; Sundal, Aud Venke; Rudjord, Anne Liv

    2008-01-01

    We test whether airborne gamma ray spectrometer measurements can be used to estimate levels of radon hazard in the Oslofjord region of Norway. We compile 43,000 line kilometres of gamma ray spectrometer data from 8 airborne surveys covering 10,000 km 2 and compare them with 6326 indoor radon measurements. We find a clear spatial correlation between areas with elevated concentrations of uranium daughters in the near surface of the ground and regions with high incidence of elevated radon concentrations in dwellings. This correlation permits cautious use of the airborne data in radon hazard evaluation where direct measurements of indoor radon concentrations are few or absent. In radon hazard evaluation there is a natural synergy between the mapping of radon in indoor air, bedrock and drift geology mapping and airborne gamma ray surveying. We produce radon hazard forecast maps for the Oslofjord region based on a spatial union of hazard indicators from all four of these data sources. Indication of elevated radon hazard in any one of the data sets leads to the classification of a region as having an elevated radon hazard potential. This approach is inclusive in nature and we find that the majority of actual radon hazards lie in the assumed elevated risk regions

  4. Evaluation of coupled thermo-hydro-mechanical phenomena in the near field for geological disposal of high-level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chijimatsu, Masakazu; Fujita, Tomoo; Sugita, Yutaka; Taniguchi, Wataru

    2000-01-01

    Geological disposal of high-level radioactive waste (HLW) in Japan is based on a multibarrier system composed of engineered and natural barriers. The engineered barriers are composed of vitrified waste confined within a canister, overpack and buffer material. Highly compacted bentonite clay is considered one of the most promising candidate buffer material mainly because of its low hydraulic conductivity and high adsorption capacity of radionuclides. In a repository of HLW, complex thermal, hydraulic and mechanical (T-H-M) phenomena will take place, involving the interactive processes between radioactive decay heat from the vitrified waste, infiltration of ground water and stress generation due to the earth pressure, the thermal loading and the swelling pressure of the buffer material. In order to evaluate the performance of the buffer material, the coupled T-H-M behaviors within the compacted bentonite have to be modelled. Before establishing a fully coupled T-H-M model, the mechanism of each single phenomenon or partially coupled phenomena should be identified. Furthermore, in order to evaluate the coupled T-H-M phenomena, the analysis model was developed physically and numerically and the adequacy and the applicability was tested though the engineered scale laboratory test and in-situ test. In this report, the investigative results for the development of coupled T-H-M model were described. This report consists of eight chapters. In Chapter 1, the necessity of coupled T-H-M model in the geological disposal project of the high-level radioactive waste was described . In Chapter 2, the laboratory test results of the rock sample and the buffer material for the coupled T-H-M analysis were shown. The rock samples were obtained from the in-situ experimental site at Kamaishi mine. As the buffer material, bentonite clay (Kunigel V1 and Kunigel OT-9607) and bentonite-sand mixture were used. In Chapter 3, in-situ tests to obtain the rock property were shown. As in-situ tests

  5. Evaluation of coupled thermo-hydro-mechanical phenomena in the near field for geological disposal of high-level radioactive waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chijimatsu, Masakazu; Fujita, Tomoo; Sugita, Yutaka; Taniguchi, Wataru [Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Inst., Tokai Works, Waste Management and Fuel Cycle Research Center, Waste Isolation Research Division, Barrier Performance Group, Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan)

    2000-01-01

    Geological disposal of high-level radioactive waste (HLW) in Japan is based on a multibarrier system composed of engineered and natural barriers. The engineered barriers are composed of vitrified waste confined within a canister, overpack and buffer material. Highly compacted bentonite clay is considered one of the most promising candidate buffer material mainly because of its low hydraulic conductivity and high adsorption capacity of radionuclides. In a repository of HLW, complex thermal, hydraulic and mechanical (T-H-M) phenomena will take place, involving the interactive processes between radioactive decay heat from the vitrified waste, infiltration of ground water and stress generation due to the earth pressure, the thermal loading and the swelling pressure of the buffer material. In order to evaluate the performance of the buffer material, the coupled T-H-M behaviors within the compacted bentonite have to be modelled. Before establishing a fully coupled T-H-M model, the mechanism of each single phenomenon or partially coupled phenomena should be identified. Furthermore, in order to evaluate the coupled T-H-M phenomena, the analysis model was developed physically and numerically and the adequacy and the applicability was tested though the engineered scale laboratory test and in-situ test. In this report, the investigative results for the development of coupled T-H-M model were described. This report consists of eight chapters. In Chapter 1, the necessity of coupled T-H-M model in the geological disposal project of the high-level radioactive waste was described . In Chapter 2, the laboratory test results of the rock sample and the buffer material for the coupled T-H-M analysis were shown. The rock samples were obtained from the in-situ experimental site at Kamaishi mine. As the buffer material, bentonite clay (Kunigel V1 and Kunigel OT-9607) and bentonite-sand mixture were used. In Chapter 3, in-situ tests to obtain the rock property were shown. As in-situ tests

  6. Seismic hazard in Romania associated to Vrancea subcrustal source Deterministic evaluation

    CERN Document Server

    Radulian, M; Moldoveanu, C L; Panza, G F; Vaccari, F

    2002-01-01

    Our study presents an application of the deterministic approach to the particular case of Vrancea intermediate-depth earthquakes to show how efficient the numerical synthesis is in predicting realistic ground motion, and how some striking peculiarities of the observed intensity maps are properly reproduced. The deterministic approach proposed by Costa et al. (1993) is particularly useful to compute seismic hazard in Romania, where the most destructive effects are caused by the intermediate-depth earthquakes generated in the Vrancea region. Vrancea is unique among the seismic sources of the World because of its striking peculiarities: the extreme concentration of seismicity with a remarkable invariance of the foci distribution, the unusually high rate of strong shocks (an average frequency of 3 events with magnitude greater than 7 per century) inside an exceptionally narrow focal volume, the predominance of a reverse faulting mechanism with the T-axis almost vertical and the P-axis almost horizontal and the mo...

  7. Pattern recognition methodologies and deterministic evaluation of seismic hazard: A strategy to increase earthquake preparedness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peresan, Antonella; Panza, Giuliano F.; Gorshkov, Alexander I.; Aoudia, Abdelkrim

    2001-05-01

    Several algorithms, structured according to a general pattern-recognition scheme, have been developed for the space-time identification of strong events. Currently, two of such algorithms are applied to the Italian territory, one for the recognition of earthquake-prone areas and the other, namely CN algorithm, for earthquake prediction purposes. These procedures can be viewed as independent experts, hence they can be combined to better constrain the alerted seismogenic area. We examine here the possibility to integrate CN intermediate-term medium-range earthquake predictions, pattern recognition of earthquake-prone areas and deterministic hazard maps, in order to associate CN Times of Increased Probability (TIPs) to a set of appropriate scenarios of ground motion. The advantage of this procedure mainly consists in the time information provided by predictions, useful to increase preparedness of safety measures and to indicate a priority for detailed seismic risk studies to be performed at a local scale. (author)

  8. Geotechnical Seismic Hazard Evaluation At Sellano (Umbria, Italy) Using The GIS Technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Capilleri, P.; Maugeri, M.

    2008-01-01

    A tool that has been widely-used in civil engineering in recent years is the geographic information system (GIS). Geographic Information systems (GIS) are powerful tools for organizing, analyzing, and presenting spatial data. The GIS can be used by geotechnical engineers to aid preliminary assessment through to the final geotechnical design. The aim of this work is to provide some indications for the use of the GIS technique in the field of seismic geotechnical engineering, particularly as regards the problems of seismic hazard zonation maps. The study area is the village of Sellano located in the Umbrian Apennines in central Italy, about 45 km east of Perugia and 120 km north-east of Rome The increasing importance attributed to microzonation derives from the spatial variability of ground motion due to particular local conditions. The use of GIS tools can lead to an early identification of potential barriers to project completion during the design process that may help avoid later costly redesign

  9. Evaluation of seismic hazard of the Gökova bay in terms of seismotectonics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erkoç, Ebru Aktepe, E-mail: ebru.aktepe@deu.edu.tr [The Graduate School of Natural and Applied Sciences, Dokuz Eylül University, İzmir-Turkey (Turkey); Uluğ, Atilla, E-mail: atilla.ulug@deu.edu.tr [Institute of Marine Science and Technology, Dokuz Eylül University, İzmir-Turkey (Turkey)

    2016-04-18

    While discovering the seismicity of our country, knowing the array of earthquake occurrence which reflects the characteristic tectonic features of each region makes vital contributions to the earthquakes that have occurred and to the pursuit of the processes which might occur in the future. When considering the region’s seismic activity, the presence of active faults that create earthquake within the bay is obvious. Many active fault parts in the Gulf of Gökova region continues their seismic activity with the opening effect that is generally prevailing in Western Anatolia. The region has generally been continuing its seismic activity under the control of normal faults. Considering the marine studies that are made and marine continuity of the faults which are on land in addition to the seismological and tectonic studies, the determination of seismic hazard in the Gulf of Gökova and its surroundings is also important in terms of introducing the earthquake scenarios with minimized errors.

  10. Evaluating lightning hazards to building environments using explicit numerical solutions of Maxwell's equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collier, Richard S.; McKenna, Paul M.; Perala, Rodney A.

    1991-08-01

    The objective here is to describe the lightning hazards to buildings and their internal environments using advanced formulations of Maxwell's Equations. The method described is the Three Dimensional Finite Difference Time Domain Solution. It can be used to solve for the lightning interaction with such structures in three dimensions with the inclusion of a considerable amount of detail. Special techniques were developed for including wire, plumbing, and rebar into the model. Some buildings have provisions for lightning protection in the form of air terminals connected to a ground counterpoise system. It is shown that fields and currents within these structures can be significantly high during a lightning strike. Time lapse video presentations were made showing the electric and magnetic field distributions on selected cross sections of the buildings during a simulated lightning strike.

  11. Evaluation of seismic hazard of the Gökova bay in terms of seismotectonics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erkoç, Ebru Aktepe; Uluğ, Atilla

    2016-01-01

    While discovering the seismicity of our country, knowing the array of earthquake occurrence which reflects the characteristic tectonic features of each region makes vital contributions to the earthquakes that have occurred and to the pursuit of the processes which might occur in the future. When considering the region’s seismic activity, the presence of active faults that create earthquake within the bay is obvious. Many active fault parts in the Gulf of Gökova region continues their seismic activity with the opening effect that is generally prevailing in Western Anatolia. The region has generally been continuing its seismic activity under the control of normal faults. Considering the marine studies that are made and marine continuity of the faults which are on land in addition to the seismological and tectonic studies, the determination of seismic hazard in the Gulf of Gökova and its surroundings is also important in terms of introducing the earthquake scenarios with minimized errors.

  12. A tiered asthma hazard characterization and exposure assessment approach for evaluation of consumer product ingredients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maier, Andrew; Vincent, Melissa J; Parker, Ann; Gadagbui, Bernard K; Jayjock, Michael

    2015-12-01

    Asthma is a complex syndrome with significant consequences for those affected. The number of individuals affected is growing, although the reasons for the increase are uncertain. Ensuring the effective management of potential exposures follows from substantial evidence that exposure to some chemicals can increase the likelihood of asthma responses. We have developed a safety assessment approach tailored to the screening of asthma risks from residential consumer product ingredients as a proactive risk management tool. Several key features of the proposed approach advance the assessment resources often used for asthma issues. First, a quantitative health benchmark for asthma or related endpoints (irritation and sensitization) is provided that extends qualitative hazard classification methods. Second, a parallel structure is employed to include dose-response methods for asthma endpoints and methods for scenario specific exposure estimation. The two parallel tracks are integrated in a risk characterization step. Third, a tiered assessment structure is provided to accommodate different amounts of data for both the dose-response assessment (i.e., use of existing benchmarks, hazard banding, or the threshold of toxicological concern) and exposure estimation (i.e., use of empirical data, model estimates, or exposure categories). Tools building from traditional methods and resources have been adapted to address specific issues pertinent to asthma toxicology (e.g., mode-of-action and dose-response features) and the nature of residential consumer product use scenarios (e.g., product use patterns and exposure durations). A case study for acetic acid as used in various sentinel products and residential cleaning scenarios was developed to test the safety assessment methodology. In particular, the results were used to refine and verify relationships among tiered approaches such that each lower data tier in the approach provides a similar or greater margin of safety for a given

  13. Bioelectrochemistry II membrane phenomena

    CERN Document Server

    Blank, M

    1987-01-01

    This book contains the lectures of the second course devoted to bioelectro­ chemistry, held within the framework of the International School of Biophysics. In this course another very large field of bioelectrochemistry, i. e. the field of Membrane Phenomena, was considered, which itself consists of several different, but yet related subfields. Here again, it can be easily stated that it is impossible to give a complete and detailed picture of all membrane phenomena of biological interest in a short course of about one and half week. Therefore the same philosophy, as the one of the first course, was followed, to select a series of lectures at postgraduate level, giving a synthesis of several membrane phenomena chosen among the most'important ones. These lectures should show the large variety of membrane-regulated events occurring in living bodies, and serve as sound interdisciplinary basis to start a special­ ized study of biological phenomena, for which the investigation using the dual approach, physico-che...

  14. Sawtooth phenomena in tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuvshinov, B.N.; Savrukhin, P.V.

    1989-01-01

    A review of experimental and theoretical investigaions of sawtooth phenomena in tokamaks is presented. Different types of sawtooth oscillations, scaling laws and methods of interanl disruption stabilization are described. Theoretical models of the sawtooth instability are discussed. 122 refs.; 4 tabs

  15. Fundamentals of wave phenomena

    CERN Document Server

    Hirose, Akira

    2010-01-01

    This textbook provides a unified treatment of waves that either occur naturally or can be excited and propagated in various media. This includes both longitudinal and transverse waves. The book covers both mechanical and electrical waves, which are normally covered separately due to their differences in physical phenomena.

  16. FDA-iRISK--a comparative risk assessment system for evaluating and ranking food-hazard pairs: case studies on microbial hazards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yuhuan; Dennis, Sherri B; Hartnett, Emma; Paoli, Greg; Pouillot, Régis; Ruthman, Todd; Wilson, Margaret

    2013-03-01

    Stakeholders in the system of food safety, in particular federal agencies, need evidence-based, transparent, and rigorous approaches to estimate and compare the risk of foodborne illness from microbial and chemical hazards and the public health impact of interventions. FDA-iRISK (referred to here as iRISK), a Web-based quantitative risk assessment system, was developed to meet this need. The modeling tool enables users to assess, compare, and rank the risks posed by multiple food-hazard pairs at all stages of the food supply system, from primary production, through manufacturing and processing, to retail distribution and, ultimately, to the consumer. Using standard data entry templates, built-in mathematical functions, and Monte Carlo simulation techniques, iRISK integrates data and assumptions from seven components: the food, the hazard, the population of consumers, process models describing the introduction and fate of the hazard up to the point of consumption, consumption patterns, dose-response curves, and health effects. Beyond risk ranking, iRISK enables users to estimate and compare the impact of interventions and control measures on public health risk. iRISK provides estimates of the impact of proposed interventions in various ways, including changes in the mean risk of illness and burden of disease metrics, such as losses in disability-adjusted life years. Case studies for Listeria monocytogenes and Salmonella were developed to demonstrate the application of iRISK for the estimation of risks and the impact of interventions for microbial hazards. iRISK was made available to the public at http://irisk.foodrisk.org in October 2012.

  17. Evaluation of flood hazard maps in print and web mapping services as information tools in flood risk communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagemeier-Klose, M.; Wagner, K.

    2009-04-01

    Flood risk communication with the general public and the population at risk is getting increasingly important for flood risk management, especially as a precautionary measure. This is also underlined by the EU Flood Directive. The flood related authorities therefore have to develop adjusted information tools which meet the demands of different user groups. This article presents the formative evaluation of flood hazard maps and web mapping services according to the specific requirements and needs of the general public using the dynamic-transactional approach as a theoretical framework. The evaluation was done by a mixture of different methods; an analysis of existing tools, a creative workshop with experts and laymen and an online survey. The currently existing flood hazard maps or web mapping services or web GIS still lack a good balance between simplicity and complexity with adequate readability and usability for the public. Well designed and associative maps (e.g. using blue colours for water depths) which can be compared with past local flood events and which can create empathy in viewers, can help to raise awareness, to heighten the activity and knowledge level or can lead to further information seeking. Concerning web mapping services, a linkage between general flood information like flood extents of different scenarios and corresponding water depths and real time information like gauge levels is an important demand by users. Gauge levels of these scenarios are easier to understand than the scientifically correct return periods or annualities. The recently developed Bavarian web mapping service tries to integrate these requirements.

  18. Evaluation of potential surface rupture and review of current seismic hazards program at the Los Alamos National Laboratory. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    This report summarizes the authors review and evaluation of the existing seismic hazards program at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The report recommends that the original program be augmented with a probabilistic analysis of seismic hazards involving assignment of weighted probabilities of occurrence to all potential sources. This approach yields a more realistic evaluation of the likelihood of large earthquake occurrence particularly in regions where seismic sources may have recurrent intervals of several thousand years or more. The report reviews the locations and geomorphic expressions of identified fault lines along with the known displacements of these faults and last know occurrence of seismic activity. Faults are mapped and categorized into by their potential for actual movement. Based on geologic site characterization, recommendations are made for increased seismic monitoring; age-dating studies of faults and geomorphic features; increased use of remote sensing and aerial photography for surface mapping of faults; the development of a landslide susceptibility map; and to develop seismic design standards for all existing and proposed facilities at LANL

  19. Some preliminary results of a worldwide seismicity estimation: a case study of seismic hazard evaluation in South America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. V. Christova

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available Global data have been widely used for seismicity and seismic hazard assessment by seismologists. In the present study we evaluate worldwide seismicity in terms of maps of maximum observed magnitude (Mmax, seismic moment (M 0 and seismic moment rate (M 0S. The data set used consists of a complete and homogeneous global catalogue of shallow (h £ 60 km earthquakes of magnitude MS ³ 5.5 for the time period 1894-1992. In order to construct maps of seismicity and seismic hazard the parameters a and b derived from the magnitude-frequency relationship were estimated by both: a the least squares, and b the maximum likelihood, methods. The values of a and b were determined considering circles centered at each grid point 1° (of a mesh 1° ´1° and of varying radius, which starts from 30 km and moves with a step of 10 km. Only a and b values which fulfill some predefined conditions were considered in the further procedure for evaluating the seismic hazard maps. The obtained worldwide M max distribution in general delineates the contours of the plate boundaries. The highest values of M max observed are along the circum-Pacific belt and in the Himalayan area. The subduction plate boundaries are characterized by the largest amount of M 0 , while areas of continental collision are next. The highest values of seismic moment rate (per 1 year and per equal area of 10 000 km 2 are found in the Southern Himalayas. The western coasts of U.S.A., Northwestern Canada and Alaska, the Indian Ocean and the eastern rift of Africa are characterized by high values of M 0 , while most of the Pacific subduction zones have lower values of seismic moment rate. Finally we analyzed the seismic hazard in South America comparing the predicted by the NUVEL1 model convergence slip rate between Nazca and South America plates with the average slip rate due to earthquakes. This consideration allows for distinguishing between zones of high and low coupling along the studied convergence

  20. The evaluation of chosen properties of ashes created by thermal utilization of hazardous and communal wastes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damian Krawczykowski

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available One of methods of the waste neutralization is their thermal transformation in suitable installations or devices in order to achieve the state, which is no longer dangerous for the human health and life or for the environment. In effect of the thermal transformation the “new” wastes are created, which, by law are suppose a to be utilized first. These wastes may be utilized if their properties are suitable. In the paper, the process of thermal utilization of hazardous and municipal wastes is presented, together with the investigation results of the grain composition, surface area, density and of the initial chemical analysis of the created ashes. The research of the grain composition was conducted by using the “Fritsch” apparatus. On the base of the grain composition, the surface area of ashes under investigation was determined, whereas the density was determined by using the helium pycnometer. The purpose of the research was to determine how the properties of ashes are changed and if the differences allow to use these ashes in future.

  1. Hazards of Secondary Bromadiolone Intoxications Evaluated using High-performance Liquid Chromatography with Electrochemical Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    René Kizek

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available This study reported on the possibility of intoxications of non-target wild animalsassociated with use of bromadiolone as the active component of rodenticides withanticoagulation effects. A laboratory test was done with earthworms were exposed tobromadiolone-containing granules under the conditions specified in the modified OECD207 guideline. No mortality of earthworms was observed during the fourteen days longexposure. When the earthworms from the above test became a part of the diet of commonvoles in the following experiment, no mortality of consumers was observed too. However,electrochemical analysis revealed higher levels of bromadiolone in tissues fromearthworms as well as common voles compared to control animals. There were determinedcomparable levels of bromadiolone in the liver tissue of common voles after primary(2.34±0.10 μg/g and secondary (2.20±0.53 μg/g intoxication. Therefore, the risk ofsecondary intoxication of small mammalian species feeding on bromadiolone-containing earthworms is the same as of primary intoxication through baited granules. Bromadiolone bio-accumulation in the food chain was monitored using the newly developed analytical procedure based on the use of a liquid chromatography coupled with electrochemical detector (HPLC-ED. The HPLC-ED method allowed to determine the levels of bromadiolone in biological samples and is therefore suitable for examining the environmental hazards of this substance.

  2. Evaluating the applicability of regulatory leaching tests for assessing the hazards of Pb-contaminated soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halim, Cheryl E; Scott, Jason A; Amal, Rose; Short, Stephen A; Beydoun, Donia; Low, Gary; Cattle, Julie

    2005-04-11

    Soil contamination is a major environmental problem due to the ecological threat it poses. In this work, electron probe microanalysis (EPMA), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and leaching studies were employed to explain the different leaching behaviors of non-stabilized and stabilized soils. The applicability of the leaching fluids used in the toxicity characteristic leaching procedure (TCLP) and Australian Standards, AS 4439.1-1997 for assessing the hazards of contaminated soils was investigated as was the leaching of lead from soil stabilized by cement and buffered phosphate techniques. The results showed Pb speciation in the soil highly influenced metal leaching. The synthetic leaching fluids were unable to provide a reliable estimation of Pb concentration in the municipal landfill leachate (ML) due to the absence of organic ligands capable of forming stable complexes with the lead. Water provided the closest representation of lead leaching from the non-stabilized and phosphate stabilized soils while sodium tetraborate buffer was found to be suitable for cement-stabilized soil in a non-putrescible landfill leachate system. A comparison of stabilization methods revealed that the buffered phosphate technique was more suitable for stabilizing the lead in the soil relative to cement stabilization.

  3. Role of human- and animal-sperm studies in the evaluation of male reproductive hazards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wyrobek, A.J.; Gordon, L.; Watchmaker, G.

    1982-04-07

    Human sperm tests provide a direct means of assessing chemically induced spermatogenic dysfunction in man. Available tests include sperm count, motility, morphology (seminal cytology), and Y-body analyses. Over 70 different human exposures have been monitored in various groups of exposed men. The majority of exposures studied showed a significant change from control in one or more sperm tests. When carefully controlled, the sperm morphology test is statistically the most sensitive of these human sperm tests. Several sperm tests have been developed in nonhuman mammals for the study of chemical spermatotoxins. The sperm morphology test in mice has been the most widely used. Results with this test seem to be related to germ-cell mutagenicity. In general, animal sperm tests should play an important role in the identification and assessment of potential human reproductive hazards. Exposure to spermatotoxins may lead to infertility, and more importantly, to heritable genetic damage. While there are considerable animal and human data suggesting that sperm tests may be used to detect agents causing infertility, the extent to which these tests detect heritable genetic damage remains unclear. (ERB)

  4. Ground motion input in seismic evaluation studies: impacts on risk assessment of uniform hazard spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, S.C.; Sewell, R.T.

    1996-07-01

    Conservatism and variability in seismic risk estimates are studied: effects of uniform hazard spectrum (UHS) are examined for deriving probabilistic estimates of risk and in-structure demand levels, as compared to the more-exact use of realistic time history inputs (of given probability) that depend explicitly on magnitude and distance. This approach differs from the conventional in its exhaustive treatment of the ground-motion threat and in its more detailed assessment of component responses to that threat. The approximate UH-ISS (in-structure spectrum) obtained based on UHS appear to be very close to the more-exact results directed computed from scenario earthquakes. This conclusion does not depend on site configurations and structural characteristics. Also, UH-ISS has composite shapes and may not correspond to the characteristics possessed a single earthquake. The shape is largely affected by the structural property in most cases and can be derived approximately from the corresponding UHS. Motions with smooth spectra, however, will not have the same damage potential as those of more realistic motions with jagged spectral shapes. As a result, UHS-based analysis may underestimate the real demands in nonlinear structural analyses

  5. Health-hazard evaluation report No. HETA-88-377-2120, Armco Coke Oven, Ashland Kentucky

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kinnes, G.M.; Fleeger, A.K.; Baron, S.L.

    1991-06-01

    In response to a request from the Oil, Chemical and Atomic Workers International Union, a study was made of possible hazardous working conditions at ARMCO Coke Oven (SIC-3312), Ashland, Kentucky. The facility produces about 1,000,000 tons of coke annually. Of the approximately 400 total employees at the coke oven site, 55 work in the by products area. Air quality sampling results indicated overexposure to both benzene (71432) and coal tar pitch volatiles (CTPVs). Airborne levels of benzene ranged as high as 117 parts per million (ppm) with three of 17 samples being above the OSHA limit of 1ppm. Airborne concentrations of CTPVs ranged as high as 0.38mg/cu m with two of six readings being above OSHA limit of 0.2mg/cu m. Several polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons were also detected. The authors conclude that by products area workers are potentially overexposed to carcinogens, including benzene, CTPVs, and polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons. An epidemiologic study is considered unlikely to yield meaningful information at this time, due to the small number of workers and the short follow up period. The authors recommend specific measures for reducing potential employee exposures, including an environmental sampling program, a preventive maintenance program, improved housekeeping procedures, and reducing exposure in operators' booths

  6. Evaluation of natural radioactivity and its associated health hazard indices of a South Indian river

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krishnamoorthy, N.; Mullainathan, S.; Mehra, R.; Chaparro, Marcos A.E.; Chaparro, Mauro A.E.

    2014-01-01

    The activity concentration of the natural radionuclides 226 Ra, 232 Th and 40 K was measured for sediment samples collected from thirty-three different locations along the Bharathapuzha river basin by using high-resolution gamma-ray spectrometry. The concentrations of the natural radionuclides were found to vary from location to location, and their mean values are 19.6, 82.87 and 19.44 % higher than the worldwide mean values of 226 Ra, 232 Th and 40 K, respectively. The value of 232 Th was found to be higher than that of 226 Ra in 82 % of the samples collected for this study. The calculated values of indoor gamma dose rate (D IN ) ranged between 89.55 and 194.24 nGy h -1 , and the overall mean value is 63.2 % higher than the recommended safe and criterion limit by UNSCEAR. The internal and external hazard indices (H in and H ex ), the representative gamma index and alpha index (I gamma and I alpha ), the annual gonad dose equivalent (AGDE) and the excess lifetime cancer risk (ELCR) were also calculated and compared with the international recommended values. Multivariate statistical analyses were also carried out to determine the relation between the natural radionuclides and various radiological parameters. (authors)

  7. Health-hazard evaluation report HETA-86-381-1934, Nuclear Fuel Services, Erwin, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thun, M.J.; Schober, S.

    1988-10-01

    In response to a request from the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, a study was made of excessive kidney disease at Nuclear Fuel Services, Erwin, Tennessee. This facility was the sole producer of nuclear fuel rods for the United States Navy. The major operations involved the production of highly enriched uranium fuel for naval nuclear reactors and the recovery from scrap of low enriched uranium for commercial light water reactors. Highly enriched uranium-hexafluoride was converted to oxides and ultimately into finished nuclear fuel. A medical questionnaire revealed more frequent kidney stones (19%) and urinary tract infections (28%) among the workers than among the guards used as a comparison group, 7 and 12%, respectively. Dairy farmers from a nearby town used as an additional comparison group reported kidney stones more frequently (26 versus 21%) and infections less frequently (20 versus 30%) than the current and former senior workers at the nuclear facility. Kidney function was similar in both groups. Workers in both groups had frequent risk factors for kidney stones, particularly high calcium, oxalate, sodium, uric-acid, phosphorus and low urinary volume on testing. The authors conclude that the urinary tract disorders in the nuclear workers were not the result of occupational hazards at this site

  8. Threshold Evaluation of Emergency Risk Communication for Health Risks Related to Hazardous Ambient Temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yang; Hoppe, Brenda O; Convertino, Matteo

    2018-04-10

    Emergency risk communication (ERC) programs that activate when the ambient temperature is expected to cross certain extreme thresholds are widely used to manage relevant public health risks. In practice, however, the effectiveness of these thresholds has rarely been examined. The goal of this study is to test if the activation criteria based on extreme temperature thresholds, both cold and heat, capture elevated health risks for all-cause and cause-specific mortality and morbidity in the Minneapolis-St. Paul Metropolitan Area. A distributed lag nonlinear model (DLNM) combined with a quasi-Poisson generalized linear model is used to derive the exposure-response functions between daily maximum heat index and mortality (1998-2014) and morbidity (emergency department visits; 2007-2014). Specific causes considered include cardiovascular, respiratory, renal diseases, and diabetes. Six extreme temperature thresholds, corresponding to 1st-3rd and 97th-99th percentiles of local exposure history, are examined. All six extreme temperature thresholds capture significantly increased relative risks for all-cause mortality and morbidity. However, the cause-specific analyses reveal heterogeneity. Extreme cold thresholds capture increased mortality and morbidity risks for cardiovascular and respiratory diseases and extreme heat thresholds for renal disease. Percentile-based extreme temperature thresholds are appropriate for initiating ERC targeting the general population. Tailoring ERC by specific causes may protect some but not all individuals with health conditions exacerbated by hazardous ambient temperature exposure. © 2018 Society for Risk Analysis.

  9. Evaluating the applicability of regulatory leaching tests for assessing the hazards of Pb-contaminated soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halim, Cheryl E.; Scott, Jason A.; Amal, Rose; Short, Stephen A.; Beydoun, Donia; Low, Gary; Cattle, Julie

    2005-01-01

    Soil contamination is a major environmental problem due to the ecological threat it poses. In this work, electron probe microanalysis (EPMA), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and leaching studies were employed to explain the different leaching behaviors of non-stabilized and stabilized soils. The applicability of the leaching fluids used in the toxicity characteristic leaching procedure (TCLP) and Australian Standards, AS 4439.1-1997 for assessing the hazards of contaminated soils was investigated as was the leaching of lead from soil stabilized by cement and buffered phosphate techniques. The results showed Pb speciation in the soil highly influenced metal leaching. The synthetic leaching fluids were unable to provide a reliable estimation of Pb concentration in the municipal landfill leachate (ML) due to the absence of organic ligands capable of forming stable complexes with the lead. Water provided the closest representation of lead leaching from the non-stabilized and phosphate stabilized soils while sodium tetraborate buffer was found to be suitable for cement-stabilized soil in a non-putrescible landfill leachate system. A comparison of stabilization methods revealed that the buffered phosphate technique was more suitable for stabilizing the lead in the soil relative to cement stabilization

  10. Hazard Analysis Database Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    GAULT, G.W.

    1999-10-13

    The Hazard Analysis Database was developed in conjunction with the hazard analysis activities conducted in accordance with DOE-STD-3009-94, Preparation Guide for US Department of Energy Nonreactor Nuclear Facility Safety Analysis Reports, for the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) Final Safety Analysis Report (FSAR). The FSAR is part of the approved TWRS Authorization Basis (AB). This document describes, identifies, and defines the contents and structure of the TWRS FSAR Hazard Analysis Database and documents the configuration control changes made to the database. The TWRS Hazard Analysis Database contains the collection of information generated during the initial hazard evaluations and the subsequent hazard and accident analysis activities. The database supports the preparation of Chapters 3,4, and 5 of the TWRS FSAR and the USQ process and consists of two major, interrelated data sets: (1) Hazard Evaluation Database--Data from the results of the hazard evaluations; and (2) Hazard Topography Database--Data from the system familiarization and hazard identification.

  11. Chaotic phenomena in plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawai, Y.

    1991-08-01

    It has recently been recognized that the research on various aspects of chaotic dynamics grows rapidly as one of some areas in nonlinear science. On the other hands, the plasma has long been called a treasure-house of nonlinear phenomena, so it is easy to imagine that the plasma is abundant in chaotic phenomena. In fact, the research on plasma chaos is going on, such as the research on the stochastic magnetic field and the chaotic orbit in the toroidal helical system, as well as the research in other experiments. To review the present status of the research on plasma chaos and to make clear the basic common physics, a working group was organized in 1990 as a collaboration research of National Institute for Fusion Science. This is the report on its activity in 1990, with a stress on experimental data obtained in basic plasma experiments and RFP, and on the relaxed theories and computer simulations. (author)

  12. Theory of threshold phenomena

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hategan, Cornel

    2002-01-01

    Theory of Threshold Phenomena in Quantum Scattering is developed in terms of Reduced Scattering Matrix. Relationships of different types of threshold anomalies both to nuclear reaction mechanisms and to nuclear reaction models are established. Magnitude of threshold effect is related to spectroscopic factor of zero-energy neutron state. The Theory of Threshold Phenomena, based on Reduced Scattering Matrix, does establish relationships between different types of threshold effects and nuclear reaction mechanisms: the cusp and non-resonant potential scattering, s-wave threshold anomaly and compound nucleus resonant scattering, p-wave anomaly and quasi-resonant scattering. A threshold anomaly related to resonant or quasi resonant scattering is enhanced provided the neutron threshold state has large spectroscopic amplitude. The Theory contains, as limit cases, Cusp Theories and also results of different nuclear reactions models as Charge Exchange, Weak Coupling, Bohr and Hauser-Feshbach models. (author)

  13. Wolf-Rayet phenomena

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conti, P.S.

    1982-01-01

    The author reviews in broad terms the concept of Wolf-Rayet (W-R) phenomena, outlines what we currently know about the properties of stars showing such phenomena and indicates the directions in which future work is leading. He begins by listing the characteristics of W-R spectra and then considers the following specific problems: the absolute visual magnitudes; the heterogeneity of WN spectra; the existence of transition type spectra and compositions; the mass loss rates; the existence of very luminous and possibly very massive W-R stars. He discusses briefly our current understanding of the theoretical aspects of stellar evolution and stellar winds and the various scenarios that have been proposed to understand W-R stars. (Auth.)

  14. Gravitational Anomaly and Transport Phenomena

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Landsteiner, Karl; Megias, Eugenio; Pena-Benitez, Francisco

    2011-01-01

    Quantum anomalies give rise to new transport phenomena. In particular, a magnetic field can induce an anomalous current via the chiral magnetic effect and a vortex in the relativistic fluid can also induce a current via the chiral vortical effect. The related transport coefficients can be calculated via Kubo formulas. We evaluate the Kubo formula for the anomalous vortical conductivity at weak coupling and show that it receives contributions proportional to the gravitational anomaly coefficient. The gravitational anomaly gives rise to an anomalous vortical effect even for an uncharged fluid.

  15. Transport phenomena II essentials

    CERN Document Server

    REA, The Editors of

    2012-01-01

    REA's Essentials provide quick and easy access to critical information in a variety of different fields, ranging from the most basic to the most advanced. As its name implies, these concise, comprehensive study guides summarize the essentials of the field covered. Essentials are helpful when preparing for exams, doing homework and will remain a lasting reference source for students, teachers, and professionals. Transport Phenomena II covers forced convention, temperature distribution, free convection, diffusitivity and the mechanism of mass transfer, convective mass transfer, concentration

  16. Student evaluations of teaching: teaching quantitative courses can be hazardous to one’s career

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bob Uttl

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Anonymous student evaluations of teaching (SETs are used by colleges and universities to measure teaching effectiveness and to make decisions about faculty hiring, firing, re-appointment, promotion, tenure, and merit pay. Although numerous studies have found that SETs correlate with various teaching effectiveness irrelevant factors (TEIFs such as subject, class size, and grading standards, it has been argued that such correlations are small and do not undermine the validity of SETs as measures of professors’ teaching effectiveness. However, previous research has generally used inappropriate parametric statistics and effect sizes to examine and to evaluate the significance of TEIFs on personnel decisions. Accordingly, we examined the influence of quantitative vs. non-quantitative courses on SET ratings and SET based personnel decisions using 14,872 publicly posted class evaluations where each evaluation represents a summary of SET ratings provided by individual students responding in each class. In total, 325,538 individual student evaluations from a US mid-size university contributed to theses class evaluations. The results demonstrate that class subject (math vs. English is strongly associated with SET ratings, has a substantial impact on professors being labeled satisfactory vs. unsatisfactory and excellent vs. non-excellent, and the impact varies substantially depending on the criteria used to classify professors as satisfactory vs. unsatisfactory. Professors teaching quantitative courses are far more likely not to receive tenure, promotion, and/or merit pay when their performance is evaluated against common standards.

  17. Student evaluations of teaching: teaching quantitative courses can be hazardous to one's career.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uttl, Bob; Smibert, Dylan

    2017-01-01

    Anonymous student evaluations of teaching (SETs) are used by colleges and universities to measure teaching effectiveness and to make decisions about faculty hiring, firing, re-appointment, promotion, tenure, and merit pay. Although numerous studies have found that SETs correlate with various teaching effectiveness irrelevant factors (TEIFs) such as subject, class size, and grading standards, it has been argued that such correlations are small and do not undermine the validity of SETs as measures of professors' teaching effectiveness. However, previous research has generally used inappropriate parametric statistics and effect sizes to examine and to evaluate the significance of TEIFs on personnel decisions. Accordingly, we examined the influence of quantitative vs. non-quantitative courses on SET ratings and SET based personnel decisions using 14,872 publicly posted class evaluations where each evaluation represents a summary of SET ratings provided by individual students responding in each class. In total, 325,538 individual student evaluations from a US mid-size university contributed to theses class evaluations. The results demonstrate that class subject (math vs. English) is strongly associated with SET ratings, has a substantial impact on professors being labeled satisfactory vs. unsatisfactory and excellent vs. non-excellent, and the impact varies substantially depending on the criteria used to classify professors as satisfactory vs. unsatisfactory. Professors teaching quantitative courses are far more likely not to receive tenure, promotion, and/or merit pay when their performance is evaluated against common standards.

  18. Modelling of transport phenomena

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Itoh, Kimitaka; Itoh, Sanae; Fukuyama, Atsushi.

    1993-09-01

    In this review article, we discuss key features of the transport phenomena and theoretical modelling to understand them. Experimental observations have revealed the nature of anomalous transport, i.e., the enhancement of the transport coefficients by the gradients of the plasma profiles, the pinch phenomena, the radial profile of the anomalous transport coefficients, the variation of the transport among the Bohm diffusion, Pseudo-classical confinement, L-mode and variety of improved confinement modes, and the sudden jumps such as L-H transition. Starting from the formalism of the transport matrix, the modelling based on the low frequency instabilities are reviewed. Theoretical results in the range of drift wave frequency are examined. Problems in theories based on the quasilinear and mixing-length estimates lead to the renewal of the turbulence theory, and the physics picture of the self-sustained turbulence is discussed. The theory of transport using the fluid equation of plasma is developed, showing that the new approach is very promising in explaining abovementioned characteristics of anomalous transport in both L-mode and improved confinement plasmas. The interference of the fluxes is the key to construct the physics basis of the bifurcation theory for the L-H transition. The present status of theories on the mechanisms of improved confinement is discussed. Modelling on the nonlocal nature of transport is briefly discussed. Finally, the impact of the anomalous transport on disruptive phenomena is also described. (author) 95 refs

  19. Large momentum transfer phenomena

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imachi, Masahiro; Otsuki, Shoichiro; Matsuoka, Takeo; Sawada, Shoji.

    1978-01-01

    The large momentum transfer phenomena in hadron reaction drastically differ from small momentum transfer phenomena, and are described in this paper. Brief review on the features of the large transverse momentum transfer reactions is described in relation with two-body reactions, single particle productions, particle ratios, two jet structure, two particle correlations, jet production cross section, and the component of momentum perpendicular to the plane defined by the incident protons and the triggered pions and transverse momentum relative to jet axis. In case of two-body process, the exponent N of the power law of the differential cross section is a value between 10 to 11.5 in the large momentum transfer region. The breaks of the exponential behaviors into the power ones are observed at the large momentum transfer region. The break would enable to estimate the order of a critical length. The large momentum transfer phenomena strongly suggest an important role of constituents of hadrons in the hard region. Hard rearrangement of constituents from different initial hadrons induces large momentum transfer reactions. Several rules to count constituents in the hard region have been proposed so far to explain the power behavior. Scale invariant quark interaction and hard reactions are explained, and a summary of the possible types of hard subprocess is presented. (Kato, T.)

  20. Numerical modeling of debris avalanches at Nevado de Toluca (Mexico): implications for hazard evaluation and mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grieco, F.; Capra, L.; Groppelli, G.; Norini, G.

    2007-05-01

    The present study concerns the numerical modeling of debris avalanches on the Nevado de Toluca Volcano (Mexico) using TITAN2D simulation software, and its application to create hazard maps. Nevado de Toluca is an andesitic to dacitic stratovolcano of Late Pliocene-Holocene age, located in central México near to the cities of Toluca and México City; its past activity has endangered an area with more than 25 million inhabitants today. The present work is based upon the data collected during extensive field work finalized to the realization of the geological map of Nevado de Toluca at 1:25,000 scale. The activity of the volcano has developed from 2.6 Ma until 10.5 ka with both effusive and explosive events; the Nevado de Toluca has presented long phases of inactivity characterized by erosion and emplacement of debris flow and debris avalanche deposits on its flanks. The largest epiclastic events in the history of the volcano are wide debris flows and debris avalanches, occurred between 1 Ma and 50 ka, during a prolonged hiatus in eruptive activity. Other minor events happened mainly during the most recent volcanic activity (less than 50 ka), characterized by magmatic and tectonic-induced instability of the summit dome complex. According to the most recent tectonic analysis, the active transtensive kinematics of the E-W Tenango Fault System had a strong influence on the preferential directions of the last three documented lateral collapses, which generated the Arroyo Grande and Zaguàn debris avalanche deposits towards E and Nopal debris avalanche deposit towards W. The analysis of the data collected during the field work permitted to create a detailed GIS database of the spatial and temporal distribution of debris avalanche deposits on the volcano. Flow models, that have been performed with the software TITAN2D, developed by GMFG at Buffalo, were entirely based upon the information stored in the geological database. The modeling software is built upon equations

  1. Subchronic mercury exposure in coturnix and a method of hazard evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, E.F.; Soares, J.H.

    1984-01-01

    The sublethal toxicity of inorganic (HgCI 2) and organic (CH3HgCI) mercury chloride was studied in coturnix (Corurnix japonica) by feeding them mercuric compounds (CH3HgCI at concentrations of 0.125,0.5,2 and 8 ppm; HgCI2 at 0.5, 2, 8 and 32 ppm) in ad libitum diets from hatching to adulthood. Differences of response to the mercurials were compared on the basis of selected indicator enzymes and plasma chemistries. Comparisons of response to equivalent concentrations of the two mercurials and dose-response relationships were made at 1,3,5,7 and 9 weeks. Changes of activity were detected for brain acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and the plasma enzymes aspartate aminotransferase (ASA T), butyrylcholinesterase (BChE), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and ornithine carbamoyl transferase (OCT). Changes of ASA T, LDH and OCT were then quantified by probit analysis and the mercurials were compared through their median effective concentrations (EC50). This quantal procedure was based on the establishment of normal control values for each enzyme and then classifying mercury-treated outliers (more than + 2 SD) as respondents. The EC50 values at 9 weeks for ASA T, LDH and OCT, respectively, were 9, 3 and 63 ppm for HgCl 2, and 5, 1 and 4 ppm for CH3HgCI. These results provided the basis for two hazard indices that were calculated by dividing the EC50 into the oral LD50 and the 5-d dietary LC50. Mercury also had contradictory effects on gonadal maturation in both sexes.

  2. Radiation dose estimates and hazard evaluations for inhaled airborne radionuclides: Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mewhinney, J.A.

    1987-09-01

    The project objective was to conduct confirmatory research on physical chemical characteristics of aerosols produced during manufacture of mixed plutonium and uranium oxide nuclear fuel, to determine the radiation dose distribution in tissues of animals after inhalation exposure to representative aerosols of these materials, and to provide estimates of the relationship of radiation dose and biological response in animals after such inhalation exposure. The first chapter summarizes the physical chemical characterization of samples of aerosols collected from gloveboxes at industrial facilities during normal operations. This chapter provides insights into key aerosol characteristics which are of potential importance in determining the biological fate of specific radionuclides contained in the particulates that would be inhaled by humans following accidental release. The second chapter describes the spatial and temporal distribution of radiation dose in tissues of three species of animals exposed to representative aerosols collected from the industrial facilities. These inhalation studies provide a basis for comparison of the influence of physical chemical form of the inhaled particulates and the variability among species of animal in the radiation dose to tissue. The third chapter details to relationship between radiation dose and biological response in rats exposed to two aerosol forms each at three levels of initial pulmonary burden. This study, conducted over the lifespan of the rats and assuming results to be applicable to humans, indicates that the hazard to health due to inhalation of these industrial aerosols is not different than previously determined for laboratory produced aerosol of PuO 2 . Each chapter is processed separately for the data base

  3. Evaluation of hazardous chemicals in edible insects and insect-based food intended for human consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poma, Giulia; Cuykx, Matthias; Amato, Elvio; Calaprice, Chiara; Focant, Jean Francois; Covaci, Adrian

    2017-02-01

    Due to the rapid increase in world population, the waste of food and resources, and non-sustainable food production practices, the use of alternative food sources is currently strongly promoted. In this perspective, insects may represent a valuable alternative to main animal food sources due to their nutritional value and sustainable production. However, edible insects may be perceived as an unappealing food source and are indeed rarely consumed in developed countries. The food safety of edible insects can thus contribute to the process of acceptance of insects as an alternative food source, changing the perception of developed countries regarding entomophagy. In the present study, the levels of organic contaminants (i.e. flame retardants, PCBs, DDT, dioxin compounds, pesticides) and metals (As, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, Sn, Zn) were investigated in composite samples of several species of edible insects (greater wax moth, migratory locust, mealworm beetle, buffalo worm) and four insect-based food items currently commercialized in Belgium. The organic chemical mass fractions were relatively low (PCBs: 27-2065 pg/g ww; OCPs: 46-368 pg/g ww; BFRs: up to 36 pg/g ww; PFRs 783-23800 pg/g ww; dioxin compounds: up to 0.25 pg WHO-TEQ/g ww) and were generally lower than those measured in common animal products. The untargeted screening analysis revealed the presence of vinyltoluene, tributylphosphate (present in 75% of the samples), and pirimiphos-methyl (identified in 50% of the samples). The levels of Cu and Zn in insects were similar to those measured in meat and fish in other studies, whereas As, Co, Cr, Pb, Sn levels were relatively low in all samples (consume these insect species with no additional hazards in comparison to the more commonly consumed animal products. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. An evaluation of remote sensing technologies for the detection of fugitive contamination at selected Superfund hazardous waste sites in Pennsylvania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slonecker, E. Terrence; Fisher, Gary B.

    2014-01-01

    This evaluation was conducted to assess the potential for using both traditional remote sensing, such as aerial imagery, and emerging remote sensing technology, such as hyperspectral imaging, as tools for postclosure monitoring of selected hazardous waste sites. Sixteen deleted Superfund (SF) National Priorities List (NPL) sites in Pennsylvania were imaged with a Civil Air Patrol (CAP) Airborne Real-Time Cueing Hyperspectral Enhanced Reconnaissance (ARCHER) sensor between 2009 and 2012. Deleted sites are those sites that have been remediated and removed from the NPL. The imagery was processed to radiance and atmospherically corrected to relative reflectance with standard software routines using the Environment for Visualizing Imagery (ENVI, ITT–VIS, Boulder, Colorado) software. Standard routines for anomaly detection, endmember collection, vegetation stress, and spectral analysis were applied.

  5. Radon and its hazards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang Guilan

    2002-01-01

    The author describes basic physical and chemical properties of radon and the emanation, introduces methods of radon measurement, expounds the hazards of non-mine radon accumulation to the health of human being and the protection, as well as the history how the human being recognizes the hazards of radon through the specific data and examples, and finally proposes protecting measures to avoid the hazards of radon to the health of human being, and to do ecologic evaluation of environments

  6. Evaluation of flood hazard maps in print and web mapping services as information tools in flood risk communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Hagemeier-Klose

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Flood risk communication with the general public and the population at risk is getting increasingly important for flood risk management, especially as a precautionary measure. This is also underlined by the EU Flood Directive. The flood related authorities therefore have to develop adjusted information tools which meet the demands of different user groups. This article presents the formative evaluation of flood hazard maps and web mapping services according to the specific requirements and needs of the general public using the dynamic-transactional approach as a theoretical framework. The evaluation was done by a mixture of different methods; an analysis of existing tools, a creative workshop with experts and laymen and an online survey.

    The currently existing flood hazard maps or web mapping services or web GIS still lack a good balance between simplicity and complexity with adequate readability and usability for the public. Well designed and associative maps (e.g. using blue colours for water depths which can be compared with past local flood events and which can create empathy in viewers, can help to raise awareness, to heighten the activity and knowledge level or can lead to further information seeking. Concerning web mapping services, a linkage between general flood information like flood extents of different scenarios and corresponding water depths and real time information like gauge levels is an important demand by users. Gauge levels of these scenarios are easier to understand than the scientifically correct return periods or annualities. The recently developed Bavarian web mapping service tries to integrate these requirements.

  7. Quantification of natural phenomena

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Botero Alvarez, Javier

    1997-01-01

    The science is like a great spider's web in which unexpected connections appear and therefore it is frequently difficult to already know the consequences of new theories on those existent. The physics is a clear example of this. The Newton mechanics laws describe the physical phenomena observable accurately by means of our organs of the senses or by means of observation teams not very sophisticated. After their formulation at the beginning of the XVIII Century, these laws were recognized in the scientific world as a mathematical model of the nature. Together with the electrodynamics law, developed in the XIX century, and the thermodynamic one constitutes what we call the classic physics. The state of maturity of the classic physics at the end of last century it was such that some scientists believed that the physics was arriving to its end obtaining a complete description of the physical phenomena. The spider's web of the knowledge was supposed finished, or at least very near its termination. It ended up saying, in arrogant form, that if the initial conditions of the universe were known, we could determine the state of the same one in any future moment. Two phenomena related with the light would prove in firm form that mistaken that they were, creating unexpected connections in the great spider's web of the knowledge and knocking down part of her. The thermal radiation of the bodies and the fact that the light spreads to constant speed in the hole, without having an absolute system of reference with regard to which this speed is measured, they constituted the decisive factors in the construction of a new physics. The development of sophisticated of measure teams gave access to more precise information and it opened the microscopic world to the observation and confirmation of existent theories

  8. Acoustic phenomena during boiling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dorofeev, B.M.

    1985-01-01

    Applied and theoretical significance of investigation into acoustic phenomena on boiling is discussed. Effect of spatial and time conditions on pressure vapour bubble has been elucidated. Collective effects were considered: acoustic interaction of bubbles, noise formation ion developed boiling, resonance and hydrodynamic autooscillations. Different methods for predicting heat transfer crisis using changes of accompanying noise characteristics were analysed. Principle peculiarities of generation mechanism of thermoacoustic autooscillations were analysed as well: formation of standing waves; change of two-phase medium contraction in a channel; relation of alternating pressure with boiling process as well as with instantaneous and local temperatures of heat transfer surface and liquid in a boundary layer

  9. Magnetohydrodynamic flow phenomena

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerbeth, G.; Mutschke, G.; Eckert, S.

    1995-01-01

    The MHD group of the Institute of Safety Research performs basic studies on fluid dynamics and heat/mass transfer in fluids, particularly for electrically conducting fluids (liquid metals) exposed to external magnetic fields (Magnetohydrodynamics - MHD). Such a contactless influence on transport phenomena is of principal importance for a variety of applied problems including safety and design aspects in liquid metal cooled fusion reactors, fast reactors, and chemical systems. Any electrically conducting flow can be influenced without any contact by means of an external electromagnetic field. This, of course, can change the known hydromechanically flow patterns considerably. In the following two examples of such magnetic field influence are presented. (orig.)

  10. Random phenomena; Phenomenes aleatoires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonnet, G. [Commissariat a l' energie atomique et aux energies alternatives - CEA, C.E.N.G., Service d' Electronique, Section d' Electronique, Grenoble (France)

    1963-07-01

    This document gathers a set of conferences presented in 1962. A first one proposes a mathematical introduction to the analysis of random phenomena. The second one presents an axiomatic of probability calculation. The third one proposes an overview of one-dimensional random variables. The fourth one addresses random pairs, and presents basic theorems regarding the algebra of mathematical expectations. The fifth conference discusses some probability laws: binomial distribution, the Poisson distribution, and the Laplace-Gauss distribution. The last one deals with the issues of stochastic convergence and asymptotic distributions.

  11. Transport phenomena I essentials

    CERN Document Server

    REA, The Editors of

    2012-01-01

    REA's Essentials provide quick and easy access to critical information in a variety of different fields, ranging from the most basic to the most advanced. As its name implies, these concise, comprehensive study guides summarize the essentials of the field covered. Essentials are helpful when preparing for exams, doing homework and will remain a lasting reference source for students, teachers, and professionals. Transport Phenomena I includes viscosity, flow of Newtonian fluids, velocity distribution in laminar flow, velocity distributions with more than one independent variable, thermal con

  12. Subduction zone and crustal dynamics of western Washington; a tectonic model for earthquake hazards evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanley, Dal; Villaseñor, Antonio; Benz, Harley

    1999-01-01

    The Cascadia subduction zone is extremely complex in the western Washington region, involving local deformation of the subducting Juan de Fuca plate and complicated block structures in the crust. It has been postulated that the Cascadia subduction zone could be the source for a large thrust earthquake, possibly as large as M9.0. Large intraplate earthquakes from within the subducting Juan de Fuca plate beneath the Puget Sound region have accounted for most of the energy release in this century and future such large earthquakes are expected. Added to these possible hazards is clear evidence for strong crustal deformation events in the Puget Sound region near faults such as the Seattle fault, which passes through the southern Seattle metropolitan area. In order to understand the nature of these individual earthquake sources and their possible interrelationship, we have conducted an extensive seismotectonic study of the region. We have employed P-wave velocity models developed using local earthquake tomography as a key tool in this research. Other information utilized includes geological, paleoseismic, gravity, magnetic, magnetotelluric, deformation, seismicity, focal mechanism and geodetic data. Neotectonic concepts were tested and augmented through use of anelastic (creep) deformation models based on thin-plate, finite-element techniques developed by Peter Bird, UCLA. These programs model anelastic strain rate, stress, and velocity fields for given rheological parameters, variable crust and lithosphere thicknesses, heat flow, and elevation. Known faults in western Washington and the main Cascadia subduction thrust were incorporated in the modeling process. Significant results from the velocity models include delineation of a previously studied arch in the subducting Juan de Fuca plate. The axis of the arch is oriented in the direction of current subduction and asymmetrically deformed due to the effects of a northern buttress mapped in the velocity models. This

  13. Dealing with uncertainties in the context of post mining hazard evaluation

    OpenAIRE

    Cauvin , Maxime; Salmon , Romuald; Verdel , Thierry

    2008-01-01

    International audience; Risk analyses related to a past mining activity are generally performed in a strong context in uncertainties. A PhD Thesis has been undertaken in 2004 in order to draw up solutions to take into account these uncertainties in the practice. The possibility of elaborating a more quantified evaluation of risk has also been discussed, and in particular the contribution that probabilistic methods may brought to an analysis. This paper summarizes the main results of the Thesi...

  14. Safety evaluation of a conceptual fuel recycle complex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hodges, M.E.

    1980-01-01

    A conceptual design integration study for an integrated Fuel Recycle Complex (FRC) has been completed. A safety evaluation of the radiation shielding, fire precautions, handling of nonradioactive hazardous materials, criticality hazards, operating errors, and the influence of natural phenomena on the FRC shows that all federal regulations are met or exceeded

  15. Evaluation of a self-guided transport vehicle for remote transportation of transuranic and other hazardous waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rice, P.M.; Moody, S.J.; Peterson, R. [and others

    1997-04-01

    Between 1952 and 1970, over two million cubic ft of transuranic mixed waste was buried in shallow pits and trenches in the Subsurface Disposal Area at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory`s Radioactive Waste Management Complex. Commingled with this two million cubic ft of waste is up to 10 million cubic ft of fill soil. The pits and trenches were constructed similarly to municipal landfills with both stacked and random dump waste forms such as barrels and boxes. The main contaminants are micron-sized particles of plutonium and americium oxides, chlorides, and hydroxides. Retrieval, treatment, and disposal is one of the options being considered for the waste. This report describes the results of a field demonstration conducted to evaluate a technology for transporting exhumed transuranic wastes at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) and at other hazardous or radioactive waste sites through the U.S. Department of Energy complex. The full-scale demonstration, conducted at the INEEL Robotics Center in the summer of 1995, evaluated equipment performance and techniques for remote transport of exhumed buried waste. The technology consisted of a Self-Guided Transport Vehicle designed to remotely convey retrieved waste from the retrieval digface and transport it to a receiving/processing area with minimal human intervention. Data were gathered and analyzed to evaluate performance parameters such as precision and accuracy of navigation and transportation rates.

  16. Evaluation of a self-guided transport vehicle for remote transportation of transuranic and other hazardous waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rice, P.M.; Moody, S.J.; Peterson, R.

    1997-04-01

    Between 1952 and 1970, over two million cubic ft of transuranic mixed waste was buried in shallow pits and trenches in the Subsurface Disposal Area at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory's Radioactive Waste Management Complex. Commingled with this two million cubic ft of waste is up to 10 million cubic ft of fill soil. The pits and trenches were constructed similarly to municipal landfills with both stacked and random dump waste forms such as barrels and boxes. The main contaminants are micron-sized particles of plutonium and americium oxides, chlorides, and hydroxides. Retrieval, treatment, and disposal is one of the options being considered for the waste. This report describes the results of a field demonstration conducted to evaluate a technology for transporting exhumed transuranic wastes at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) and at other hazardous or radioactive waste sites through the U.S. Department of Energy complex. The full-scale demonstration, conducted at the INEEL Robotics Center in the summer of 1995, evaluated equipment performance and techniques for remote transport of exhumed buried waste. The technology consisted of a Self-Guided Transport Vehicle designed to remotely convey retrieved waste from the retrieval digface and transport it to a receiving/processing area with minimal human intervention. Data were gathered and analyzed to evaluate performance parameters such as precision and accuracy of navigation and transportation rates

  17. Hazardous Waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... chemicals can still harm human health and the environment. When you throw these substances away, they become hazardous waste. Some hazardous wastes come from products in our homes. Our garbage can include such hazardous wastes as old batteries, bug spray cans and paint thinner. U.S. residents ...

  18. Direct channel problems and phenomena

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cutkosky, R.E.

    1975-01-01

    Direct channel problems and phenomena are considered covering the need for precision hadron spectroscopy, the data base for precision hadron spectroscopy, some relations between direct-channel and cross-channel effects, and spin rotation phenomena

  19. Hazard Analysis for Pneumatic Flipper Suitport/Z-1 Manned Evaluation, Chamber B, Building 32. Revision: Basic

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    One of the characteristics of an effective safety program is the recognition and control of hazards before mishaps or failures occur. Conducting potentially hazardous tests necessitates a thorough hazard analysis in order to protect our personnel from injury and our equipment from damage. The purpose of this hazard analysis is to define and address the potential hazards and controls associated with the Z1 Suit Port Test in Chamber B located in building 32, and to provide the applicable team of personnel with the documented results. It is imperative that each member of the team be familiar with the hazards and controls associated with his/her particular tasks, assignments, and activities while interfacing with facility test systems, equipment, and hardware. The goal of this hazard analysis is to identify all hazards that have the potential to harm personnel and/or damage facility equipment, flight hardware, property, or harm the environment. This analysis may also assess the significance and risk, when applicable, of lost test objectives when substantial monetary value is involved. The hazards, causes, controls, verifications, and risk assessment codes have been documented on the hazard analysis work sheets in appendix A of this document. The preparation and development of this report is in accordance with JPR 1700.1, JSC Safety and Health Handbook.

  20. Health Hazard Evaluation Report HETA 84-204-1600, Dental Health Associates, Paoli, Pennsylvania. [Nitrous oxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crandall, M.S.

    1985-06-01

    Area air and breathing-zone samples were analyzed for nitrous oxide at Dental Health Associates, Paoli, Pennsylvania on August 2, 1984. The evaluation was requested by a dental assistant because of general concern about the extent of nitrous oxide exposure, especially since the office was not equipped with a waste-anesthetic gas-scavenging system. The author recommends installing a waste anesthetic gas scavenging system with a dedicated exhaust. The nitrous oxide delivery and mixing system should be checked for leaks monthly and work practices for handling nitrous oxide should be improved.

  1. Integrating Volcanic Hazard Data in a Systematic Approach to Develop Volcanic Hazard Maps in the Lesser Antilles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan M. Lindsay

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available We report on the process of generating the first suite of integrated volcanic hazard zonation maps for the islands of Dominica, Grenada (including Kick ‘em Jenny and Ronde/Caille, Nevis, Saba, St. Eustatius, St. Kitts, Saint Lucia, and St Vincent in the Lesser Antilles. We developed a systematic approach that accommodated the range in prior knowledge of the volcanoes in the region. A first-order hazard assessment for each island was used to develop one or more scenario(s of likely future activity, for which scenario-based hazard maps were generated. For the most-likely scenario on each island we also produced a poster-sized integrated volcanic hazard zonation map, which combined the individual hazardous phenomena depicted in the scenario-based hazard maps into integrated hazard zones. We document the philosophy behind the generation of this suite of maps, and the method by which hazard information was combined to create integrated hazard zonation maps, and illustrate our approach through a case study of St. Vincent. We also outline some of the challenges we faced using this approach, and the lessons we have learned by observing how stakeholders have interacted with the maps over the past ~10 years. Based on our experience, we recommend that future map makers involve stakeholders in the entire map generation process, especially when making design choices such as type of base map, use of colour and gradational boundaries, and indeed what to depict on the map. We also recommend careful consideration of how to evaluate and depict offshore hazard of island volcanoes, and recommend computer-assisted modelling of all phenomena to generate more realistic hazard footprints. Finally, although our systematic approach to integrating individual hazard data into zones generally worked well, we suggest that a better approach might be to treat the integration of hazards on a case-by-case basis to ensure the final product meets map users' needs. We hope that

  2. An evaluation of the occupational health risks to workers in a hazardous waste incinerator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakoğlu, Mithat; Karademir, Aykan; Ayberk, Savaş

    2004-03-01

    A study was conducted to evaluate the health impact of airborne pollutants on incinerator workers at IZAYDAS Incinerator, Turkey. Ambient air samples were taken from two sampling points in the incinerator area and analyzed for particulate matter, heavy metals, volatile and semi-volatile organic compounds (VOCs and SVOCs) and dioxins. The places where the maximum exposure was expected to occur were selected in determining the sampling points. The first point was placed in the front area of the rotary kiln, between the areas of barrel feeding, aqueous and liquid waste storage and solid waste feeding, and the second one was near the fly ash transfer line from the ash silo. Results were evaluated based on the regulations related to occupational health. Benzene, dibromochloropropane (DBCP) and hexachlorobutadiene (HCBD) concentrations in the ambient air of the plant were measured at levels higher than the occupational exposure limits. Dioxin concentrations were measured as 0.050 and 0.075 pg TEQ.m(-3), corresponding to a daily intake between 0.007 and 0.01 pg TEQ. kg body weight(-1).day (-1). An assessment of dioxin congener and homologue profiles suggested that gaseous fractions of dioxin congeners are higher in front of the rotary kiln, while most of them are in particle-bound phases near the ash conveyor. Finally, the necessity of further studies including occupational health and medical surveillance assessments on the health effects of the pollutants for the workers and the general population in such an industrialized area was emphasized.

  3. Health-hazard evaluation report GHETA 83-309-1405, Chrysler Corporation Foundry, Indianapolis, Indiana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patil, A.

    1984-01-01

    In response to a request arising out of employee concerns over the medical surveillance program at the Chrysler Corporation Foundry located in Indianapolis, Indiana, an evaluation was made of chest radiographs evaluated by the program with specific concern directed to disagreement on the radiographic diagnosis of pneumoconiosis. The request was made by the Chrysler Corporation and the United Auto Workers National Joint Committee on Health and Safety. Three NIOSH certified B-readers independently interpreted a set of 78 systematically sampled posteroanterior (PA) chest radiographs from the system files. These interpretations were compared among themselves and with company interpretations. While none of the radiographs was deemed unreadable, 35% were classified as having poor technical quality. Only one film was found which had a profusion of small opacities, and the company had interpreted the film as positive. Overall, agreement on proportion of positive readings and agreement on individual films was as good between the company and B-readers as it was between any two of the individual B-readers. The author recommends, however, that in order to avoid future complaints of the nature, the company should use standard radiographic equipment and techniques, NIOSH certified B-readers, and current international classifications of radiographs for pneumoconioses in their medical surveillance program

  4. Aerosol sampling and characterization for hazard evaluation. Progress report, July 1, 1975--September 30, 1976

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scripsick, R.C.; Gray, D.C.; Tillery, M.I.; Stafford, R.G.; Romero, P.O.

    1977-04-01

    A draft Manual of Recommended Practice for Aerosol Sampling and Evaluation was completed and sent to the Energy Research and Development Administration (ERDA) Division of Safety, Standards, and Compliance (DSSC) for review. The results of the Survey of Sampling Techniques for Defining Respirable Concentration and/or Particle Size Characteristics of Aerosols were published as LA-6087. The need for greater standardization of ERDA aerosol sampling techniques was indicated. The Aerosol Training Course was presented in 11 sessions to 85 persons. General elements of good practice were emphasized, and recommendation of specific sampling devices or procedures was avoided. A system for estimating dissolution rates of plutonium aerosols was developed. Studies indicate that plutonium aerosols found in the field have a rapid initial dissolution phase followed by a slower secondary phase. Three methods of particle sizing air samples collected on membrane filters were investigated. The most promising was a scanning electron microscope electron microprobe (SEM-EMp) method. An operating plutonium handling facility was a model for development of techniques to evaluate aerosol surveillance systems performance. Airborne contamination records were studied. The physicochemical properties of a plutonium aerosol existing in the facility were investigated in relation to plutonium handling operations. The techniques developed have indicated some areas of the aerosol surveillance system that need improvement

  5. Performance evaluation of the quarter-scale Russian retrieval equipment for the removal of hazardous waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Enderlin, C.W.; Mullen, O.D.; Terrones, G.

    1997-09-01

    This report describes the test program for evaluating the Russian Retrieval Equipment fabricated by the Integrated Mining Chemical Company (IMCC) and delivered to the US by Radiochem Services Company (RCSC), both of Russia. The testing and fabrication of this equipment were sponsored by the US Department of Energy (DOE). The tests described in this report were conducted at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) at the DOE Hanford Site by the Retrieval Process Development and Enhancement (RPD and E) team of the Tank Focus Area program (TFA). Tests were carried out jointly by Russian and US personnel for the purpose of evaluating the Russian Retrieval Equipment for potential deployment within the DOE complex. Section 1.0 of this report presents the objectives and a brief background for the test program. The Russian Equipment is described in Section 2.0. Section 3.0 describes the approach taken for testing the equipment. The results of the tests and an analysis of the data are described in Section 4.0. The results and observations obtained from the tests are discussed in Section 5.0. Recommendations and conclusions are presented in Section 6.0

  6. Hazard evaluation of soil contaminants from an abandoned oil refinery site with chemical and biological assays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramanathan, A.; Yates, C.W.; Burks, S.L.

    1993-01-01

    The phytotoxic characteristics of soil and leachates of soil from an abandoned oil refinery site were evaluated with rice (Oryza sativa L.) seed germinations and root elongation assays. Toxicity of soil leachates to aquatic animals was determined with acute and martial chronic toxicity tests with Ceriodaphnia dubia, fathead minnows, and Microtox reg-sign. Soil samples from uncontaminated (control) and selected contaminated areas within the old refinery were extracted with Toxic Characteristics Leachate Procedure (TCLP), an aqueous procedure and a supercritical carbon dioxide method. Aqueous extracts of soil from the oil leaded gasoline storage area exhibited greatest effects in all tests. Aqueous extracts from this site also caused a significant reduction in rice root development. Supercritical carbon dioxide extraction proved to be a quick and non-toxic procedure for isolating non-polar organics for assay with aquatic toxicity tests. Subsequent supercritical extracts collected in solvent can help characterize the class of toxicants through HPLC and Gas Chromatography. The toxic constituents were characterized with a Toxicity Identification/Toxicity Reduction Evaluation protocol to fractionate the contaminants into conventional non-polar organics, weak acids, base-neutrals, or heavy metals for subsequent analysis

  7. Phenomena Associated With EIT Waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, B. J.; Biesecker, D. A.; Gopalswamy, N.

    2003-01-01

    We discuss phenomena associated with "EIT Wave" transients. These phenomena include coronal mass ejections, flares, EUV/SXR dimmings, chromospheric waves, Moreton waves, solar energetic particle events, energetic electron events, and radio signatures. Although the occurrence of many phenomena correlate with the appearance of EIT waves, it is difficult to mfer which associations are causal. The presentation will include a discussion of correlation surveys of these phenomena.

  8. Damage Analysis and Evaluation of Light Steel Structures Exposed to Wind Hazards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Na Yang

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Compared to hot-rolled steel structures, cold-formed steel structures are susceptible to extreme winds because of the light weight of the building and its components. Many modern cold-formed steel structures have sustained significant structural damage ranging from loss of cladding to complete collapse in recent cyclones. This article first provides some real damage cases for light steel structures induced by the high winds. After that, the paper reviews research on the damage analysis and evaluation of light steel structures caused by strong winds, which include connection failure, fatigue failure, purlin buckling, and primary frame component instability problems. Moreover, this review will mention some applications of structure damage assessment methods in this area, such as vulnerability analysis and performance-based theory, etc.

  9. Aerosol sampling and characterization for hazard evaluation. Progress report, October 1, 1977-September 30, 1978

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scripsick, R.C.; Tillery, M.I.; Stafford, R.G.; Romero, P.O.

    1979-11-01

    Measurements of the dilution of air contaminants between worker breathing zone and area air samplers were made by releasing a test fluorescent aerosol in workrooms equipped with aerosol surveillance systems. These data were used to evaluate performance and suggest improvements in design of alarming air monitor systems. In one workroom studied, average half-hour breathing zone air concentration needed to trigger alarm was found to be 960 times the maximum permissible air concentration for occupational exposure to soluble 239 Pu (MPC/sub a/). It was shown that alternative monitor placement in this room could result in decreasing average triggering concentration to 354 times the MPC/sub a/. Analysis of data from impaction-autoradiographic sizing comparison studies showed average disintegration to track ratio called track efficiency factor, to be 2.7 +- 0.4

  10. Health-hazard evaluation report HETA 86-456-1877, South Texas Nuclear Project, Wadsworth, Texas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sinks, T.H.; Hartle, R.W.

    1988-03-01

    An evaluation was made of an outbreak of dermatitis among workers at the South Texas Nuclear Project construction site, Wadsworth, Texas. The dermatitis occurred ten times more frequently among carpenters than other laborers, with the incidence in 1986 being 250% greater than it was in 1985. Some workers demonstrated pruritic, macular/papular lesions. Carpenters working on the inside of the power-project buildings had a higher incidence of skin disease than those employed on the outside of the buildings. Samples of plywood and lumber treated with fire-retardant indicated that they contained 3 and 5% phosphate, respectively. Arsenic was not detected but formaldehyde was detected at 59 parts per million. General environmental air samples were taken with no evidence found of airborne phosphate, melamine, dicyandiamide, or formaldehyde. Concentrations of total particulates ranged from 0.1 to 0.6mg/m 3 . The authors conclude that the workers were probably suffering from a contact dermatitis. The authors recommend specific precautions

  11. Evaluation of hazards from industrial activity near nuclear power plants. Study of typical accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lannoy, A.; Gobert, T.; Granier, J.P.

    1981-08-01

    The design and dimensioning of nuclear power plant structures necessitate the evaluation of risks due to industrial activity. Among these risks, those due to the storage or transport of dangerous products merit special attention. They result, inter alia, in the explosion of flammable gas clouds. Such clouds can drift before igniting and, once alight, the resulting pressure wave can cause serious damage, even at a distance. A methodology both deterministic and probabilistic enabling this risk to be quantified has therefore been developed. It is based in part on an analysis of the statistics of actual accidents that have occurred. After briefly recalling the probabilistic model, the typical accidents selected are described and for three usual cases (storage under pressure, rail tank cars and road units) the main characteristics of the rupture are explicited. The deterministic models that have been worked out to calculate the consequences of such an accident: flow rate at the bursting point, evaporation, drift and atmospheric dispersion of the cloud formed, explosion of this cloud, are then described. At the present time the overpressure wave is quantified against a TNT equivalent of the explosive mixture. Some data are given as examples for three commonly employed hydrocarbons (butane, propane, propylene) [fr

  12. Evaluation of the effects of exposure to organic solvents and hazardous noise among US Air Force Reserve personnel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hayley Hughes

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Hearing loss affects many workers including those in the military and may be caused by noise, medications, and chemicals. Exposures to some chemicals may lead to an increase in the incidence of hearing loss when combined with hazardous noise. This retrospective study evaluated the risk for hearing loss among Air Force Reserve personnel exposed to occupational noise with and without exposures to toluene, styrene, xylene, benzene, and JP-8 (jet fuel. Risk factors associated with hearing loss were determined using logistic and linear regression. Stratified analysis was used to evaluate potential interaction between solvent and noise exposure. The majority of the subjects were male (94.6% and 35 years or older on the date of their first study audiogram (66%. Followed for an average of 3.2 years, 9.2% of the study subjects had hearing loss in at least one ear. Increasing age (odds ratio [OR] = 1.03 per year of age and each year of follow-up time (OR = 1.23 were significantly associated with hearing loss. Low and moderate solvent exposures were not associated with hearing loss. Linear regression demonstrated that hearing loss was significantly associated with age at first study audiogram, length of follow-up time, and exposure to noise. Hearing decreased by 0.04 decibels for every decibel increase in noise level or by almost half a decibel (0.4 dB for every 10 decibel increase in noise level.

  13. Health-hazard evaluation report No. HETA 85-126-1932, Bryn Mawr Hospital, Bryn Mawr, Pennsylvania

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bryant, C.J.; Gorman, R.; Stewart, J.; Whong, W.Z.

    1988-09-01

    In response to a request from a group of surgeons at the Bryn Mawr Hospital, located in Bryn Mawr, Pennsylvania, an evaluation was made of possible hazardous working conditions. The surgeons were concerned about emissions generated by electrocautery knives when performing reduction mammoplasty. Several operating room personnel were experiencing acute health effects during this procedure, which does produce a considerable amount of smoke. Symptoms included respiratory and eye irritation, headache, and nausea. Personal and area air samples were taken for hydrocarbons, nitrosamines, total particulates, benzene soluble fraction, and polynuclear aromatic compounds. Total particulate concentrations ranged from 0.4 to 2.0 mg/m3 in personal breathing zone samples and from 0.7 to 9.4 mg/m3 in area samples. During a brief demonstration of the laser cutting technique, a particulate sample was taken which measured 9.4 mg/m3, 7.4 mg/m3 of which was benzene soluble. The benzene soluble fraction exceeded the NIOSH REL and the OSHA PEL in seven of eleven samples collected. Trace amounts of hydrocarbons were identified. The major component of the samples appeared to be a compound or compounds related to fatty acid esters. Solvent extracts of airborne particles collected from the room using cauterization were mutagenic. The authors recommend that engineering ventilation controls be used, that any further acute or chronic health effects be evaluated and documented, and that exposure to electrocautery smoke be reevaluated.

  14. Vacuum arc anode phenomena

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, H.C.

    1976-01-01

    A brief review of anode phenomena in vacuum arcs is presented. Discussed in succession are: the transition of the arc into the anode spot mode; the temperature of the anode before, during and after the anode spot forms; and anode ions. Characteristically the anode spot has a temperature of the order of the atmospheric boiling point of the anode material and is a copious source of vapor and energetic ions. The dominant mechanism controlling the transition of the vacuum arc into the anode spot mode appears to depend upon the electrode geometry, the electrode material, and the current waveform of the particular vacuum arc being considered. Either magnetic constriction in the gap plasma or gross anode melting can trigger the transition; indeed, a combination of the two is a common cause of anode spot formation

  15. Foot morphometric phenomena.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agić, Ante

    2007-06-01

    Knowledge of the foot morphometry is important for proper foot structure and function. Foot structure as a vital part of human body is important for many reasons. The foot anthropometric and morphology phenomena are analyzed together with hidden biomechanical descriptors in order to fully characterize foot functionality. For Croatian student population the scatter data of the individual foot variables were interpolated by multivariate statistics. Foot morphometric descriptors are influenced by many factors, such as life style, climate, and things of great importance in human society. Dominant descriptors related to fit and comfort are determined by the use 3D foot shape and advanced foot biomechanics. Some practical recommendations and conclusions for medical, sportswear and footwear practice are highlighted.

  16. Workshop on Interface Phenomena

    CERN Document Server

    Kreuzer, Hans

    1987-01-01

    This book contains the proceedings of the first Workshop on Interface Phenomena, organized jointly by the surface science groups at Dalhousie University and the University of Maine. It was our intention to concentrate on just three topics related to the kinetics of interface reactions which, in our opinion, were frequently obscured unnecessarily in the literature and whose fundamental nature warranted an extensive discussion to help clarify the issues, very much in the spirit of the Discussions of the Faraday Society. Each session (day) saw two principal speakers expounding the different views; the session chairmen were asked to summarize the ensuing discussions. To understand the complexity of interface reactions, paradigms must be formulated to provide a framework for the interpretation of experimen­ tal data and for the construction of theoretical models. Phenomenological approaches have been based on a small number of rate equations for the concentrations or mole numbers of the various species involved i...

  17. Fast fission phenomena

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gregoire, Christian.

    1982-03-01

    Experimental studies of fast fission phenomena are presented. The paper is divided into three parts. In the first part, problems associated with fast fission processes are examined in terms of interaction potentials and a dynamic model is presented in which highly elastic collisions, the formation of compound nuclei and fast fission appear naturally. In the second part, a description is given of the experimental methods employed, the observations made and the preliminary interpretation of measurements suggesting the occurence of fast fission processes. In the third part, our dynamic model is incorporated in a general theory of the dissipative processes studied. This theory enables fluctuations associated with collective variables to be calculated. It is applied to highly inelastic collisions, to fast fission and to the fission dynamics of compound nuclei (for which a schematic representation is given). It is with these calculations that the main results of the second part can be interpreted [fr

  18. Observations and theoretical evaluations of color changes of traveling light beams caused by optical rotation phenomena in sugared water and their applications for educational purposes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tokumitsu, Seika; Hasegawa, Makoto

    2017-08-01

    Investigations were conducted for the purposes of understanding coloring phenomena to be caused by optical rotation of polarized light beams in sugared water and realizing their applications as educational tools. By allowing polarized laser beams in red, blue or green to travel in sugared water of certain concentrations, changes in their intensities were measured while changing a distance between a pair of polarizing plates in the sugared water. An equation was established for a theoretical value for the angle of rotation for light of any colors (wavelengths) travelling in sugared water of any concentrations. The predicted results exhibited satisfactory matching with the measured values. In addition, the intensities of transmitted laser beams, as well as colors to be observable when a white-color LED torch was employed as a light source, were also become predictable, and the predicted results were well-matched with the observation results.

  19. Critical evaluation of key evidence on the human health hazards of exposure to bisphenol A

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hengstler, JG; Foth, H; Gebel, T; Kramer, P-J; Lilienblum, W; Schweinfurth, H; Völkel, W; Wollin, K-M; Gundert-Remy, U

    2011-01-01

    Despite the fact that more than 5000 safety-related studies have been published on bisphenol A (BPA), there seems to be no resolution of the apparently deadlocked controversy as to whether exposure of the general population to BPA causes adverse effects due to its estrogenicity. Therefore, the Advisory Committee of the German Society of Toxicology reviewed the background and cutting-edge topics of this BPA controversy. The current tolerable daily intake value (TDI) of 0.05 mg/kg body weight [bw]/day, derived by the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA), is mainly based on body weight changes in two- and three-generation studies in mice and rats. Recently, these studies and the derivation of the TDI have been criticized. After having carefully considered all arguments, the Committee had to conclude that the criticism was scientifically not justified; moreover, recently published additional data further support the reliability of the two-and three-generation studies demonstrating a lack of estrogen-dependent effects at and below doses on which the current TDI is based. A frequently discussed topic is whether doses below 5 mg/ kg bw/day may cause adverse health effects in laboratory animals. Meanwhile, it has become clear that positive results from some explorative studies have not been confirmed in subsequent studies with higher numbers of animals or a priori defined hypotheses. Particularly relevant are some recent studies with negative outcomes that addressed effects of BPA on the brain, behavior, and the prostate in rodents for extrapolation to the human situation. The Committee came to the conclusion that rodent data can well be used as a basis for human risk evaluation. Currently published conjectures that rats are insensitive to estrogens compared to humans can be refuted. Data from toxicokinetics studies show that the half-life of BPA in adult human subjects is less than 2 hours and BPA is completely recovered in urine as BPA-conjugates. Tissue deconjugation

  20. Evaluation of Knowledge, Attitude and Practice of Personnel in Operating Room, ERCP, and ESWL Towards Radiation Hazards and Protection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shima Moshfegh

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Background Recently, X-rays radiation hazards rise with the exposure of patients and personnel. Exposure of people to radiation in the operating rooms is an important problem to study the safety of personnel and patients. To date, few studies are accomplished to evaluate knowledge, attitude, and practice (KAP among personnel in hospitals. The current study aimed at evaluating KAP level of radiation hazards and protection amongst personnel in the operating room. Methods A questionnaire-based, cross sectional study was conducted in 11 provinces of Iran from 2014 to 2015. Respondents in the current study were 332 personnel of operating room, endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography, and extracorporeal shock-wave lithotripsy. Demographic characteristics, as well as knowledge, attitude, and practice levels of operating room personnel were collected. The selected hospitals were 3 types (educational, non-educational, and private clinics located in 5 different regions of Iran (Tehran, Center, East, North, and West. Data were analyzed using SPSS version 16.0 and statistical analyses were accomplished with the one-way ANOVA. Results The current study results showed no statistically significant difference in the KAP level of operating room personnel towards radiation protection for both genders (P = 0.1, time since graduation (P = 0.4, and work experience (P = 0.1. According to the analyses, the highest level of KAP concerning radiation protection was observed in the personnel of private clinics (mean score = 53.60 and the lowest value was observed in non-educational hospitals (mean score = 45.61. Besides, the KAP level was significantly higher in the Northern region (P < 0.0001 and the lowest was observed in the hospital personnel of the Central region (mean score = 34.27. Conclusions The current study findings showed that the level of KAP regarding radiation protection among operating room personnel was inadequate and it is necessary to pay

  1. Transport phenomena in porous media

    CERN Document Server

    Ingham, Derek B

    1998-01-01

    Research into thermal convection in porous media has substantially increased during recent years due to its numerous practical applications. These problems have attracted the attention of industrialists, engineers and scientists from many very diversified disciplines, such as applied mathematics, chemical, civil, environmental, mechanical and nuclear engineering, geothermal physics and food science. Thus, there is a wealth of information now available on convective processes in porous media and it is therefore appropriate and timely to undertake a new critical evaluation of this contemporary information. Transport Phenomena in Porous Media contains 17 chapters and represents the collective work of 27 of the world's leading experts, from 12 countries, in heat transfer in porous media. The recent intensive research in this area has substantially raised the expectations for numerous new practical applications and this makes the book a most timely addition to the existing literature. It includes recent major deve...

  2. Evaluation of prospective hazardous waste treatment technologies for use in processing low-level mixed wastes at Rocky Flats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McGlochlin, S.C.; Harder, R.V.; Jensen, R.T.; Pettis, S.A.; Roggenthen, D.K.

    1990-01-01

    Several technologies for destroying or decontaminating hazardous wastes were evaluated (during early 1988) as potential processes for treating low-level mixed wastes destined for destruction in the Fluidized Bed Incinerator. The processes that showed promise were retained for further consideration and placed into one (or more) of three categories based on projected availability: short, intermediate, and long-term. Three potential short-term options were identified for managing low-level mixed wastes generated or stored at the Rocky Flats Plant (operated by Rockwell International in 1988). These options are: (1) Continue storing at Rocky Flats, (2) Ship to Nevada Test Site for landfill disposal, or (3) Ship to the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory for incineration in the Waste Experimental Reduction Facility. The third option is preferable because the wastes will be destroyed. Idaho National Engineering Laboratory has received interim status for processing solid and liquid low-level mixed wastes. However, low-level mixed wastes will continue to be stored at Rocky Flats until the Department of Energy approval is received to ship to the Nevada Test Site or Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. Potential intermediate and long-term processes were identified; however, these processes should be combined into complete waste treatment ''systems'' that may serve as alternatives to the Fluidized Bed Incinerator. Waste treatment systems will be the subject of later work. 59 refs., 2 figs

  3. One-step green synthesis of non-hazardous dicarboxyl cellulose flocculant and its flocculation activity evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu, Hangcheng; Zhang, Yong; Yang, Xiaogang; Liu, Hongyi; Shao, Lan; Zhang, Xiumei; Yao, Juming

    2015-01-01

    The waste management of used flocculants is a thorny issue in the field of wastewater treatment. To natural cellulose based flocculants, utilization of hazardous cellulose solvent and simplification of synthetic procedure are the two urgent problems needing to be further improved. In this work, a series of natural dicarboxyl cellulose flocculants (DCCs) were one-step synthesized via Schiff-base route. The cellulose solvent (NaOH/Urea solution) was utilized during the synthesis process. The full-biodegradable flocculants avoid causing secondary pollution to environment. The chemical structure and solution property of the DCC products were characterized by FT-IR, 1 H NMR, 13 C NMR, TGA, FESEM, charge density and ζ-potential. Kaolin suspension and effluent from paper mill were selected to evaluate the flocculation activity of the DCCs. Their flocculation performance was compared with that of commercial cationic polyacrylamide and poly aluminium chloride flocculants. The positive results showed that the NaOH/Urea solvent effectively promoted the dialdehyde cellulose (DAC) conversion to DCC in the one-step synthesis reaction. The DCCs with the carboxylate content more than 1 mmol/g exhibited steady flocculation performance to kaolin suspension in the broad pH range from 4 to 10. Its flocculation capacity to the effluent from paper mill also showed excellent

  4. Arcjet cathode phenomena

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curran, Francis M.; Haag, Thomas W.; Raquet, John F.

    1989-01-01

    Cathode tips made from a number of different materials were tested in a modular arcjet thruster in order to examine cathode phenomena. Periodic disassembly and examination, along with the data collected during testing, indicated that all of the tungsten-based materials behaved similarly despite the fact that in one of these samples the percentage of thorium oxide was doubled and another was 25 percent rhenium. The mass loss rate from a 2 percent thoriated rhenium cathode was found to be an order of magnitude greater than that observed using 2 percent thoriated tungsten. Detailed analysis of one of these cathode tips showed that the molten crater contained pure tungsten to a depth of about 150 microns. Problems with thermal stress cracking were encountered in the testing of a hafnium carbide tip. Post test analysis showed that the active area of the tip had chemically reacted with the propellant. A 100 hour continuous test was run at about 1 kW. Post test analysis revealed no dendrite formation, such as observed in a 30 kW arcjet lifetest, near the cathode crater. The cathodes from both this test and a previously run 1000 hour cycled test displayed nearly identical arc craters. Data and calculations indicate that the mass losses observed in testing can be explained by evaporation.

  5. Acid Deposition Phenomena

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramadan, A.E.K.

    2004-01-01

    Acid deposition, commonly known as acid rain, occurs when emissions from the combustion of fossil fuels and other industrial processes undergo complex chemical reactions in the atmosphere and fall to the earth as wet deposition (rain, snow, cloud, fog) or dry deposition (dry particles, gas). Rain and snow are already naturally acidic, but are only considered problematic when less than a ph of 5.0 The main chemical precursors leading to acidic conditions are atmospheric concentrations of sulfur dioxide (SO 2 ) and nitrogen oxides (NO x ). When these two compounds react with water, oxygen, and sunlight in the atmosphere, the result is sulfuric (H 2 SO 4 ) and nitric acids (HNO 3 ), the primary agents of acid deposition which mainly produced from the combustion of fossil fuel and from petroleum refinery. Airborne chemicals can travel long distances from their sources and can therefore affect ecosystems over broad regional scales and in locations far from the sources of emissions. According to the concern of petroleum ministry with the environment and occupational health, in this paper we will discussed the acid deposition phenomena through the following: Types of acidic deposition and its components in the atmosphere Natural and man-made sources of compounds causing the acidic deposition. Chemical reactions causing the acidic deposition phenomenon in the atmosphere. Factors affecting level of acidic deposition in the atmosphere. Impact of acid deposition. Procedures for acidic deposition control in petroleum industry

  6. Hazard management at the workplace

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasfazilah Hassan; Azimawati Ahmad; Syed Asraf Fahlawi Wafa S M Ghazi; Hairul Nizam Idris

    2005-01-01

    Failure to ensure health and safety environment at workplace will cause an accident involving loss to the time, human resource, finance and for the worse case effect the moral value of an organization. If we go through to the cause of the accident, it is impossible to have a totally safety workplace. It is because every process in work activities has it own hazard elements. The purpose of this paper is to discuss the best action to prevent from the hazard with a comprehensive and effectiveness hazard management. Hazard management is the one of the pro-active hazard control. With this we manage to identify and evaluate the hazard and control the hazard risk. Therefore, hazard management should be screened constantly and continuously to make sure work hazard always in control. (Author)

  7. Hysteresis phenomena in hydraulic measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ran, H J; Farhat, M; Luo, X W; Chen, Y L; Xu, H Y

    2012-01-01

    Hysteresis phenomena demonstrate the lag between the generation and the removal of some physical phenomena. This paper studies the hysteresis phenomena of the head-drop in a scaled model pump turbine using experiment test and CFD methods. These lag is induced by complicated flow patterns, which influenced the reliability of rotating machine. Keeping the same measurement procedure is concluded for the hydraulic machine measurement.

  8. Haters Phenomena in Social Media

    OpenAIRE

    Pradipta, Angga; Lailiyah, S.Sos, M.I.Kom, Nuriyatul

    2016-01-01

    Social media is internet-basic media, functioned as interaction media room based on multimedia technology. And social media created some effects. One of the negative effects of social media is haters phenomena. Haters are a person who easily said dirty words, harass, and humiliate to others. This phenomena causes anxiety—especially in Indonesia, even the Government issued public policy and letter of regulation about this phenomena, through Paragraph 27 verse (3) IT Constitution, Paragraph 45 ...

  9. Radiation hazards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rausch, L.

    1979-01-01

    On a scientific basis and with the aid of realistic examples, the author gives a popular introduction to an understanding and judgment of the public discussion over radiation hazards: Uses and hazards of X-ray examinations, biological radiation effects, civilisation risks in comparison, origins and explanation of radiation protection regulations. (orig.) [de

  10. Transport phenomena in environmental engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sander, Aleksandra; Kardum, Jasna Prlić; Matijašić, Gordana; Žižek, Krunoslav

    2018-01-01

    A term transport phenomena arises as a second paradigm at the end of 1950s with high awareness that there was a strong need to improve the scoping of chemical engineering science. At that point, engineers became highly aware that it is extremely important to take step forward from pure empirical description and the concept of unit operations only to understand the specific process using phenomenological equations that rely on three elementary physical processes: momentum, energy and mass transport. This conceptual evolution of chemical engineering was first presented with a well-known book of R. Byron Bird, Warren E. Stewart and Edwin N. Lightfoot, Transport Phenomena, published in 1960 [1]. What transport phenomena are included in environmental engineering? It is hard to divide those phenomena through different engineering disciplines. The core is the same but the focus changes. Intention of the authors here is to present the transport phenomena that are omnipresent in treatment of various process streams. The focus in this chapter is made on the transport phenomena that permanently occur in mechanical macroprocesses of sedimentation and filtration for separation in solid-liquid particulate systems and on the phenomena of the flow through a fixed and a fluidized bed of particles that are immanent in separation processes in packed columns and in environmental catalysis. The fundamental phenomena for each thermal and equilibrium separation process technology are presented as well. Understanding and mathematical description of underlying transport phenomena result in scoping the separation processes in a way that ChEs should act worldwide.

  11. Natural phenomena analyses, Hanford Site, Washington

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tallman, A.M.

    1989-01-01

    Probabilistic seismic hazard studies completed for the Washington Public Power Supply System's Nuclear Plant 2 and for the US Department of Energy's N Reactor sites, both on the Hanford Site, suggested that the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory seismic exposure estimates were lower than appropriate, especially for sites near potential seismic sources. A probabilistic seismic hazard assessment was completed for those areas that contain process and/or waste management facilities. the lower bound magnitude of 5.0 is used in the hazard analysis and the characteristics of small-magnitude earthquakes relatively common to the Hanford Site are addressed. The recommended ground motion for high-hazard facilities is somewhat higher than the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory model and the ground motion from small-magnitude earthquakes is addressed separately from the moderate- to large-magnitude earthquake ground motion. The severe wind and tornado hazards determined for the Hanford Siste are in agreement with work completed independently using 43 years of site data. The low-probability, high-hazard, design-basis flood at the Hanford Site is dominated by dam failure on the Columbia River. Further evaluation of the mechanisms and probabilities of such flooding is in progress. The Hanford Site is downwind from several active Cascade volcanoes. Geologic and historical data are used to estimate the ashfall hazard

  12. Development of a Probabilistic Flood Hazard Assessment (PFHA) for the nuclear safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Daoued, Amine; Guimier, Laurent; Hamdi, Yasser; Duluc, Claire-Marie; Rebour, Vincent

    2016-04-01

    The purpose of this study is to lay the basis for a probabilistic evaluation of flood hazard (PFHA). Probabilistic assessment of external floods has become a current topic of interest to the nuclear scientific community. Probabilistic approaches complement deterministic approaches by exploring a set of scenarios and associating a probability to each of them. These approaches aim to identify all possible failure scenarios, combining their probability, in order to cover all possible sources of risk. They are based on the distributions of initiators and/or the variables caracterizing these initiators. The PFHA can characterize the water level for example at defined point of interest in the nuclear site. This probabilistic flood hazard characterization takes into account all the phenomena that can contribute to the flooding of the site. The main steps of the PFHA are: i) identification of flooding phenomena (rains, sea water level, etc.) and screening of relevant phenomena to the nuclear site, ii) identification and probabilization of parameters associated to selected flooding phenomena, iii) spreading of the probabilized parameters from the source to the point of interest in the site, v) obtaining hazard curves and aggregation of flooding phenomena contributions at the point of interest taking into account the uncertainties. Within this framework, the methodology of the PFHA has been developed for several flooding phenomena (rain and/or sea water level, etc.) and then implemented and tested with a simplified case study. In the same logic, our study is still in progress to take into account other flooding phenomena and to carry out more case studies.

  13. Simulations of Biomechanical Phenomena

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, Jose Cruz

    Recent studies have published breakthroughs in the application of finite element (FEA) studies in the design and analysis of advanced orthodontics. However, FEA has not captured bone remodeling responses to advanced orthodontics. The results of these simulations report unrealistic displacement around the nasal bridge, which impeded correlation with clinical data. Bone remodeling has been previously documented in FEA and has shown bone response to mechanical stimulus in femur bone models. However, the relationship between mechanical stimulus and bone remodeling has not been reported in orthodontic studies due to the complexity of the skull. In the current study, strain energy is used as the mechanical stimulus to control remodeling, from which density and modulus evolve. Due to the localization of forces in orthodontics, current remodeling algorithms have limited application. In turn, we developed an algorithm that dynamically collects, sorts, and bins stresses in all elements for regional remodeling based on the proximity of the element to the load. The results demonstrate that bone response to orthodontic appliances is different than that of an FEA without bone remodeling, due to load path changes based upon evolution of the bone properties. It was also found that density and moduli proximal to the load application site exhibit faster remodeling than those located remotely. Modeling another biomechanical phenomena, a 3D simulation was created to simulate recent experimental results that discovered a difference in impact mitigation properties of dense-polymer/foam bilayer structure based on the orientation of the dense-polymer with respect to the impact site. The impact energy transmitted varied in time of arrival and amplitude depending on the orientation of the structure (thin layer up or down). By creating a 3D explicit dynamic FEA simulation, it is expected to reduce costly experiments and time consumed in set up, and offer opportunities for optimization for

  14. Hazard Ranking System evaluation of CERCLA [Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act] inactive waste sites at Hanford: Volume 1, Evaluation methods and results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stenner, R.D.; Cramer, K.H.; Higley, K.A.; Jette, S.J.; Lamar, D.A.; McLaughlin, T.J.; Sherwood, D.R.; Van Houten, N.C.

    1988-10-01

    The purpose of this report is to formally document the individual site Hazard Ranking System (HRS) evaluations conducted as part of the preliminary assessment/site inspection (PA/SI) activities at the US Department of Energy (DOE) Hanford Site. These activities were carried out pursuant to the DOE orders that describe the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) Program addressing the cleanup of inactive waste sites. These orders incorporate the US Environmental Protection Agency methodology, which is based on the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act of 1986 (SARA). The methodology includes six parts: PA/SI, remedial investigation/feasibility study, record of decision, design and implementation of remedial action, operation and monitoring, and verification monitoring. Volume 1 of this report discusses the CERCLA inactive waste-site evaluation process, assumptions, and results of the HRS methodology employed. Volume 2 presents the data on the individual CERCLA engineered-facility sites at Hanford, as contained in the Hanford Inactive Site Surveillance (HISS) Data Base. Volume 3 presents the data on the individual CERCLA unplanned-release sites at Hanford, as contained in the HISS Data Base. 34 refs., 43 figs., 47 tabs

  15. Hazard Ranking System evaluation of CERCLA (Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act) inactive waste sites at Hanford: Volume 1, Evaluation methods and results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stenner, R.D.; Cramer, K.H.; Higley, K.A.; Jette, S.J.; Lamar, D.A.; McLaughlin, T.J.; Sherwood, D.R.; Van Houten, N.C.

    1988-10-01

    The purpose of this report is to formally document the individual site Hazard Ranking System (HRS) evaluations conducted as part of the preliminary assessment/site inspection (PA/SI) activities at the US Department of Energy (DOE) Hanford Site. These activities were carried out pursuant to the DOE orders that describe the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) Program addressing the cleanup of inactive waste sites. These orders incorporate the US Environmental Protection Agency methodology, which is based on the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act of 1986 (SARA). The methodology includes six parts: PA/SI, remedial investigation/feasibility study, record of decision, design and implementation of remedial action, operation and monitoring, and verification monitoring. Volume 1 of this report discusses the CERCLA inactive waste-site evaluation process, assumptions, and results of the HRS methodology employed. Volume 2 presents the data on the individual CERCLA engineered-facility sites at Hanford, as contained in the Hanford Inactive Site Surveillance (HISS) Data Base. Volume 3 presents the data on the individual CERCLA unplanned-release sites at Hanford, as contained in the HISS Data Base. 34 refs., 43 figs., 47 tabs.

  16. Multicenter evaluation of a new closed system drug-transfer device in reducing surface contamination by antineoplastic hazardous drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartel, Sylvia B; Tyler, Timothy G; Power, Luci A

    2018-02-15

    Results of a study to evaluate the effectiveness of a recently introduced closed system drug-transfer device (CSTD) in reducing surface contamination during compounding and simulated administration of antineoplastic hazardous drugs (AHDs) are reported. Wipe samples were collected from 6 predetermined surfaces in compounding and infusion areas of 13 U.S. cancer centers to establish preexisting levels of surface contamination by 2 marker AHDs (cyclophosphamide and fluorouracil). Stainless steel templates were placed over the 6 previously sampled surfaces, and the marker drugs were compounded and infused per a specific protocol using all components of the CSTD. Wipe samples were collected from the templates after completion of tasks and analyzed for both marker AHDs. Aggregated results of wipe sampling to detect preexisting contamination at the 13 study sites showed that overall, 66.7% of samples (104 of 156) had detectable levels of at least 1 marker AHD; subsequent testing after CSTD use per protocol found a sample contamination rate of 5.8% (9 of 156 samples). In the administration areas alone, the rate of preexisting contamination was 78% (61 of 78 samples); with use of the CSTD protocol, the contamination rate was 2.6%. Twenty-six participants rated the CSTD for ease of use, with 100% indicating that they were satisfied or extremely satisfied. A study involving a rigorous protocol and 13 cancer centers across the United States demonstrated that the CSTD reduced surface contamination by cyclophosphamide and fluorouracil during compounding and simulated administration. Participants reported that the CSTD was easy to use. Copyright © 2018 by the American Society of Health-System Pharmacists, Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Quantitative evaluation of the hazards involved in transferring foreign cells and tissues to immunologically suppressed or deficient subjects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bekkum, D.W. van

    1971-04-01

    It has already been pointed out in a preceding chapter that a successful take of allogenic bone marrow in primates inevitably entails a most severe early or acute form of secondary disease caused by a violent immunological reaction of the immune competent cells of the graft directed against the host. In mice and rats such an acute graft versus host disease is not seen following grafting of allogenic bone marrow, but only if substantial numbers of spleen or lymph node cells are transferred. Apparently, primate bone marrow is exceptionally aggressive compared to rodent bone marrow and it is not possible to prevent this reaction by decreasing the number of infused bone marrow cells without simultaneously eliminating the restorative effect of the graft. There are many reasons for assuming that the property to elicit a graft versus host reaction resides exclusively in the lymphoid cell series. These cells are normally to be found not only in the bone marrow and the lymphatic organs but also in the peripheral blood and in other tissues. Since surprisingly small numbers of lymphoid cells have been shown to cause graft versus host disease in completely non-reactive recipients, a calculation of the risks involved in transfusing sizable amounts of fresh blood or leukocyte concentrates to human recipients appears to be opportune. Moreover, the current attempts to restore immunological function in agammaglobulinaemic patients by implantations of allogenic foetal thymus tissue and by infusion of foetal liver and bone marrow cell suspensions (Dooren et al., 1968; Hong et al., 1968) require a critical analysis of the risks involved. Finally, the rapidly advancing clinical transplantation of organs - all of which contain scattered lymphoid cells - seems to necessitate a re-evaluation of this potential hazard in the light of the present knowledge of the induction of graft versus host disease. Most of our factual information concerning graft versus host reactions comes from

  18. Introductory lectures on critical phenomena

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khajehpour, M.R.H.

    1988-09-01

    After a presentation of classical models for phase transitions and critical phenomena (Van der Waals theory, Weiss theory of ferromagnetism) and theoretical models (Ising model, XY model, Heisenberg model, spherical model) the Landau theory of critical and multicritical points and some single applications of renormalization group method in static critical phenomena are presented. 115 refs, figs and tabs

  19. Periurbanisation and natural hazards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delphine Loison

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available In mountainous areas in recent decades urbanisation has expanded to areas where low ground adjoins mountainsides that are unstable in a number of respects. Periurbanisation in mountain basins with unstable sides poses specific problems that local players have to address. The Lavanchon basin (southeast of Grenoble, which is subject to very rapid urban growth combined with particularly dynamic mountainsides, is representative of the way activity is being brought into closer contact with potential hazards. A diachronic study of changes in land use between 1956 and 2001 shows how valley infrastructures at the bottom of mountainsides have become increasingly dense. In this context, a survey was carried out among a number of residents in the Lavanchon basin in an attempt to evaluate the degree of awareness that the population has of the natural hazards to which it is exposed. The results show that slightly more than half of the population surveyed was aware of the problem of natural hazards being present in the area, with most inhabitants being more concerned about industrial and pollution hazards. New residents were unaware of or were unwilling to accept the reality of hazards. The low incidence of significant natural events, the effectiveness of the protective structures built, the absence of information provided by the public authorities and the division of the basin between several management bodies appear to have engendered a feeling of safety from natural phenomena. The geographical distribution of appreciation of the hazard clearly shows a distinction between those inhabitants living on the low ground and those at the bottom of the mountainsides, and this corresponds fairly closely with the historical and current location of the main potentially hazardous events that have occurred.Dans les territoires de montagne, les dernières décennies ont vu l’expansion de l’urbanisation vers les zones de contact entre la plaine et les versants, lieux

  20. Hazardous materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... substances that could harm human health or the environment. Hazardous means dangerous, so these materials must be ... M. is also a founding member of Hi-Ethics and subscribes to the principles of the Health ...

  1. ''Hazardous'' terminology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Powers, J.

    1991-01-01

    A number of terms (e.g., ''hazardous chemicals,'' ''hazardous materials,'' ''hazardous waste,'' and similar nomenclature) refer to substances that are subject to regulation under one or more federal environmental laws. State laws and regulations also provide additional, similar, or identical terminology that may be confused with the federally defined terms. Many of these terms appear synonymous, and it easy to use them interchangeably. However, in a regulatory context, inappropriate use of narrowly defined terms can lead to confusion about the substances referred to, the statutory provisions that apply, and the regulatory requirements for compliance under the applicable federal statutes. This information Brief provides regulatory definitions, a brief discussion of compliance requirements, and references for the precise terminology that should be used when referring to ''hazardous'' substances regulated under federal environmental laws. A companion CERCLA Information Brief (EH-231-004/0191) addresses ''toxic'' nomenclature

  2. Hazardous Chemicals

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    Chemicals are a part of our daily lives, providing many products and modern conveniences. With more than three decades of experience, The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) has been in the forefront of efforts to protect and assess people's exposure to environmental and hazardous chemicals. This report provides information about hazardous chemicals and useful tips on how to protect you and your family from harmful exposure.

  3. Welding hazards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, M.A.

    1992-01-01

    Welding technology is advancing rapidly in the developed countries and has converted into a science. Welding involving the use of electricity include resistance welding. Welding shops are opened in residential area, which was causing safety hazards, particularly the teenagers and children who eagerly see the welding arc with their naked eyes. There are radiation hazards from ultra violet rays which irritate the skin, eye irritation. Welding arc light of such intensity could damage the eyes. (Orig./A.B.)

  4. A Sensitivity Study for an Evaluation of Input Parameters Effect on a Preliminary Probabilistic Tsunami Hazard Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rhee, Hyun-Me; Kim, Min Kyu; Choi, In-Kil [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Sheen, Dong-Hoon [Chonnam National University, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-10-15

    The tsunami hazard analysis has been based on the seismic hazard analysis. The seismic hazard analysis has been performed by using the deterministic method and the probabilistic method. To consider the uncertainties in hazard analysis, the probabilistic method has been regarded as attractive approach. The various parameters and their weight are considered by using the logic tree approach in the probabilistic method. The uncertainties of parameters should be suggested by analyzing the sensitivity because the various parameters are used in the hazard analysis. To apply the probabilistic tsunami hazard analysis, the preliminary study for the Ulchin NPP site had been performed. The information on the fault sources which was published by the Atomic Energy Society of Japan (AESJ) had been used in the preliminary study. The tsunami propagation was simulated by using the TSUNAMI{sub 1}.0 which was developed by Japan Nuclear Energy Safety Organization (JNES). The wave parameters have been estimated from the result of tsunami simulation. In this study, the sensitivity analysis for the fault sources which were selected in the previous studies has been performed. To analyze the effect of the parameters, the sensitivity analysis for the E3 fault source which was published by AESJ was performed. The effect of the recurrence interval, the potential maximum magnitude, and the beta were suggested by the sensitivity analysis results. Level of annual exceedance probability has been affected by the recurrence interval.. Wave heights have been influenced by the potential maximum magnitude and the beta. In the future, the sensitivity analysis for the all fault sources in the western part of Japan which were published AESJ would be performed.

  5. Risk assessment and ranking methodologies for hazardous chemical defense waste: a state-of-the-art review and evaluation. Task 1 report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chu, M.S.Y.; Rodricks, J.V.; St Hilaire, C.; Bras, R.L.

    1986-06-01

    This report summarizes the work performed under Task 1 of the Risk Assessment Evaluation Task under the Hazardous Chemical Defense Waste Management Program of the Department of Energy (DOE). The objective of Task 1 was to identify, review, and evaluate the state-of-the-art tools and techniques available for ranking and evaluating disposal facilities. These tools were evaluated for their applicability to DOE's mixed hazardous chemical and radioactive waste sites. Various ranking methodologies were reviewed and three were evaluated in detail. Areas that were found to be deficient in each ranking methodology were presented in the report. Recommendations were given for the development of an improved ranking methodology for use on DOE's sites. A literature review was then performed on the various components of a risk assessment methodology. They include source term evaluation, geosphere transport models, exposure pathways models, dose effects models, and sensitivity/uncertainty techniques. A number of recommendations have been made in the report based on the review and evaluation for the development of a comprehensive risk assessment methodology in evaluating mixed waste disposal sites

  6. The safety assessment system based on virtual networked environment for evaluation on the hazards from human errors during decommissioning of nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeong, Kwan Seong; Choi, Byung Seon; Moon, Jei Kwon; Hyun, Dong Jun; Lee, Jong Hwan; Kim, Ik June; Kang, Shin Young; Choi, Jong Won; Ahn, Sang Myeon; Lee, Jung Jun; Lee, Byung Sik

    2016-01-01

    This paper is intended to suggest a system for evaluation on the hazards from human errors during decommissioning of nuclear facilities. The system was developed under virtual networked environment. The innovative features are real-time changing direction of workers in a scenario and real-time measuring personal exposure dose and collective exposure dose. The system will be expected to be utilized as a training tool for improving familiarization of a workplace and for preventing workers from accidents. - Highlights: • A system for evaluation on the hazards from human errors during decommissioning of nuclear facilities. • Real-time changing direction of workers in a scenario. • Real-time measuring personal exposure dose and collective exposure dose. • A tool for improving familiarization of a workplace and for preventing workers from accidents.

  7. Assessment of volcanic hazards, vulnerability, risk and uncertainty (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sparks, R. S.

    2009-12-01

    A volcanic hazard is any phenomenon that threatens communities . These hazards include volcanic events like pyroclastic flows, explosions, ash fall and lavas, and secondary effects such as lahars and landslides. Volcanic hazards are described by the physical characteristics of the phenomena, by the assessment of the areas that they are likely to affect and by the magnitude-dependent return period of events. Volcanic hazard maps are generated by mapping past volcanic events and by modelling the hazardous processes. Both these methods have their strengths and limitations and a robust map should use both approaches in combination. Past records, studied through stratigraphy, the distribution of deposits and age dating, are typically incomplete and may be biased. Very significant volcanic hazards, such as surge clouds and volcanic blasts, are not well-preserved in the geological record for example. Models of volcanic processes are very useful to help identify hazardous areas that do not have any geological evidence. They are, however, limited by simplifications and incomplete understanding of the physics. Many practical volcanic hazards mapping tools are also very empirical. Hazards maps are typically abstracted into hazards zones maps, which are some times called threat or risk maps. Their aim is to identify areas at high levels of threat and the boundaries between zones may take account of other factors such as roads, escape routes during evacuation, infrastructure. These boundaries may change with time due to new knowledge on the hazards or changes in volcanic activity levels. Alternatively they may remain static but implications of the zones may change as volcanic activity changes. Zone maps are used for planning purposes and for management of volcanic crises. Volcanic hazards maps are depictions of the likelihood of future volcanic phenomena affecting places and people. Volcanic phenomena are naturally variable, often complex and not fully understood. There are

  8. Advanced diffusion processes and phenomena

    CERN Document Server

    Öchsner, Andreas; Belova, Irina

    2014-01-01

    This topical volume on Advanced Diffusion Processes and Phenomena addresses diffusion in a wider sense of not only mass diffusion but also heat diffusion in fluids and solids. Both diffusion phenomena play an important role in the characterization of engineering materials and corresponding structures. Understanding these different transport phenomena at many levels, from atomistic to macro, has therefore long attracted the attention of many researchers in materials science and engineering and related disciplines. The present topical volume captures a representative cross-section of some of the

  9. Kinetic effects on magnetohydrodynamic phenomena

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naito, Hiroshi; Matsumoto, Taro

    2001-01-01

    Resistive and ideal magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) theories are insufficient to adequately explain MHD phenomena in the high-temperature plasma. Recent progress in numerical simulations concerning kinetic effects on magnetohydrodynamic phenomena is summarized. The following three topics are studied using various models treating extended-MHD phenomena. (1) Kinetic modifications of internal kink modes in tokamaks with normal and reversed magnetic shear configurations. (2) Temporal evolution of the toroidal Alfven eigenmode and fishbone mode in tokamaks with energetic ions. (3) Kinetic stabilization of a title mode in field-reversed configurations by means of anchoring ions and beam ions. (author)

  10. Hazard screening application guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-06-01

    The basic purpose of hazard screening is to group precesses, facilities, and proposed modifications according to the magnitude of their hazards so as to determine the need for and extent of follow on safety analysis. A hazard is defined as a material, energy source, or operation that has the potential to cause injury or illness in human beings. The purpose of this document is to give guidance and provide standard methods for performing hazard screening. Hazard screening is applied to new and existing facilities and processes as well as to proposed modifications to existing facilities and processes. The hazard screening process evaluates an identified hazards in terms of the effects on people, both on-site and off-site. The process uses bounding analyses with no credit given for mitigation of an accident with the exception of certain containers meeting DOT specifications. The process is restricted to human safety issues only. Environmental effects are addressed by the environmental program. Interfaces with environmental organizations will be established in order to share information

  11. Current status of studies on temperature fluctuation phenomena in LMFRs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohshima, H.; Muramatsu, T.; Kobayashi, J.; Yamaguchi, A.

    1994-01-01

    This paper describes the current status of studies being performed in PNC on temperature fluctuation phenomena occurring in fast reactors. The studies concentrate on four problems: thermal stratification, thermal striping, core-plenum interaction and free surface sloshing. Both experimental and analytical approaches to reveal these phenomena and to establish design and safety evaluation methods are presented together with future works. (author)

  12. Evaluation of model-predicted hazardous air pollutants (HAPs) near a mid-sized U.S. airport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vennam, Lakshmi Pradeepa; Vizuete, William; Arunachalam, Saravanan

    2015-10-01

    Accurate modeling of aircraft-emitted pollutants in the vicinity of airports is essential to study the impact on local air quality and to answer policy and health-impact related issues. To quantify air quality impacts of airport-related hazardous air pollutants (HAPs), we carried out a fine-scale (4 × 4 km horizontal resolution) Community Multiscale Air Quality model (CMAQ) model simulation at the T.F. Green airport in Providence (PVD), Rhode Island. We considered temporally and spatially resolved aircraft emissions from the new Aviation Environmental Design Tool (AEDT). These model predictions were then evaluated with observations from a field campaign focused on assessing HAPs near the PVD airport. The annual normalized mean error (NME) was in the range of 36-70% normalized mean error for all HAPs except for acrolein (>70%). The addition of highly resolved aircraft emissions showed only marginally incremental improvements in performance (1-2% decrease in NME) of some HAPs (formaldehyde, xylene). When compared to a coarser 36 × 36 km grid resolution, the 4 × 4 km grid resolution did improve performance by up to 5-20% NME for formaldehyde and acetaldehyde. The change in power setting (from traditional International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) 7% to observation studies based 4%) doubled the aircraft idling emissions of HAPs, but led to only a 2% decrease in NME. Overall modeled aircraft-attributable contributions are in the range of 0.5-28% near a mid-sized airport grid-cell with maximum impacts seen only within 4-16 km from the airport grid-cell. Comparison of CMAQ predictions with HAP estimates from EPA's National Air Toxics Assessment (NATA) did show similar annual mean concentrations and equally poor performance. Current estimates of HAPs for PVD are a challenge for modeling systems and refinements in our ability to simulate aircraft emissions have made only incremental improvements. Even with unrealistic increases in HAPs aviation emissions the model

  13. The Hazardous-Drums Project: A Multiweek Laboratory Exercise for General Chemistry Involving Environmental, Quality Control, and Cost Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, David; Widanski, Bozena

    2013-01-01

    A laboratory experiment is described that introduces students to "real-world" hazardous waste management issues chemists face. The students are required to define an analytical problem, choose a laboratory analysis method, investigate cost factors, consider quality-control issues, interpret the meaning of results, and provide management…

  14. Further Evaluation of DNT Hazard Screening using Neural Networks from Rat Cortical Neurons on Multi-well Microelectrode Arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thousands of chemicals have not been characterized for their DNT potential. Due to the need for DNT hazard identification, efforts to develop screening assays for DNT potential is a high priority. Multi-well microelectrode arrays (MEA) measure the spontaneous activity of electr...

  15. ST-HASSET for volcanic hazard assessment: A Python tool for evaluating the evolution of unrest indicators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartolini, Stefania; Sobradelo, Rosa; Martí, Joan

    2016-08-01

    Short-term hazard assessment is an important part of the volcanic management cycle, above all at the onset of an episode of volcanic agitation (unrest). For this reason, one of the main tasks of modern volcanology is to use monitoring data to identify and analyse precursory signals and so determine where and when an eruption might occur. This work follows from Sobradelo and Martí [Short-term volcanic hazard assessment through Bayesian inference: retrospective application to the Pinatubo 1991 volcanic crisis. Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research 290, 111, 2015] who defined the principle for a new methodology for conducting short-term hazard assessment in unrest volcanoes. Using the same case study, the eruption on Pinatubo (15 June 1991), this work introduces a new free Python tool, ST-HASSET, for implementing Sobradelo and Martí (2015) methodology in the time evolution of unrest indicators in the volcanic short-term hazard assessment. Moreover, this tool is designed for complementing long-term hazard assessment with continuous monitoring data when the volcano goes into unrest. It is based on Bayesian inference and transforms different pre-eruptive monitoring parameters into a common probabilistic scale for comparison among unrest episodes from the same volcano or from similar ones. This allows identifying common pre-eruptive behaviours and patterns. ST-HASSET is especially designed to assist experts and decision makers as a crisis unfolds, and allows detecting sudden changes in the activity of a volcano. Therefore, it makes an important contribution to the analysis and interpretation of relevant data for understanding the evolution of volcanic unrest.

  16. [Evaluation of hazards caused by magnetic field emitted from magnetotherapy applicator to the users of bone conduction hearing prostheses].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zradziński, Patryk; Karpowicz, Jolanta; Gryz, Krzysztof; Leszko, Wiesław

    2017-06-27

    Low frequency magnetic field, inducing electrical field (Ein) inside conductive structures may directly affect the human body, e.g., by electrostimulation in the nervous system. In addition, the spatial distribution and level of Ein are disturbed in tissues neighbouring the medical implant. Numerical models of magneto-therapeutic applicator (emitting sinusoidal magnetic field of frequency 100 Hz) and the user of hearing implant (based on bone conduction: Bonebridge type - IS-BB or BAHA (bone anchorde hearing aid) type - IS-BAHA) were worked out. Values of Ein were analyzed in the model of the implant user's head, e.g., physiotherapist, placed next to the applicator. It was demonstrated that the use of IS-BB or IS-BAHA makes electromagnetic hazards significantly higher (up to 4-fold) compared to the person without implant exposed to magnetic field heterogeneous in space. Hazards for IS-BAHA users are higher than those for IS-BB users. It was found that applying the principles of directive 2013/35/EU, at exposure to magnetic field below exposure limits the direct biophysical effects of exposure in hearing prosthesis users may exceed relevant limits. Whereas applying principles and limits set up by Polish labor law or the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP) guidelines, the compliance with the exposure limits also ensures the compliance with relevant limits of electric field induced in the body of hearing implant user. It is necessary to assess individually electromagnetic hazard concerning hearing implant users bearing in mind significantly higher hazards to them compared to person without implant or differences between levels of hazards faced by users of implants of various structural or technological solutions. Med Pr 2017;68(4):469-477. This work is available in Open Access model and licensed under a CC BY-NC 3.0 PL license.

  17. Evaluation of hazards caused by magnetic field emitted from magnetotherapy applicator to the users of bone conduction hearing prostheses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patryk Zradziński

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Low frequency magnetic field, inducing electrical field (Ein inside conductive structures may directly affect the human body, e.g., by electrostimulation in the nervous system. In addition, the spatial distribution and level of Ein are disturbed in tissues neighbouring the medical implant. Material and Methods: Numerical models of magneto-therapeutic applicator (emitting sinusoidal magnetic field of frequency 100 Hz and the user of hearing implant (based on bone conduction: Bonebridge type – IS-BB or BAHA (bone anchorde hearing aid type – IS-BAHA were worked out. Values of Ein were analyzed in the model of the implant user’s head, e.g., physiotherapist, placed next to the applicator. Results: It was demonstrated that the use of IS-BB or IS-BAHA makes electromagnetic hazards significantly higher (up to 4-fold compared to the person without implant exposed to magnetic field heterogeneous in space. Hazards for IS-BAHA users are higher than those for IS-BB users. It was found that applying the principles of directive 2013/35/EU, at exposure to magnetic field below exposure limits the direct biophysical effects of exposure in hearing prosthesis users may exceed relevant limits. Whereas applying principles and limits set up by Polish labor law or the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP guidelines, the compliance with the exposure limits also ensures the compliance with relevant limits of electric field induced in the body of hearing implant user. Conclusions: It is necessary to assess individually electromagnetic hazard concerning hearing implant users bearing in mind significantly higher hazards to them compared to person without implant or differences between levels of hazards faced by users of implants of various structural or technological solutions. Med Pr 2017;68(4:469–477

  18. Micro transport phenomena during boiling

    CERN Document Server

    Peng, Xiaofeng

    2011-01-01

    "Micro Transport Phenomena During Boiling" reviews the new achievements and contributions in recent investigations at microscale. It presents some original research results and discusses topics at the frontier of thermal and fluid sciences.

  19. Mixed Fluid Conditions: Capillary Phenomena

    KAUST Repository

    Santamarina, Carlos; Sun, Zhonghao

    2017-01-01

    Mixed fluid phenomena in porous media have profound implications on soil-atmosphere interaction, energy geotechnology, environmental engineering and infrastructure design. Surface tension varies with pressure, temperature, solute concentration

  20. Probabilistic Tsunami Hazard Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thio, H. K.; Ichinose, G. A.; Somerville, P. G.; Polet, J.

    2006-12-01

    The recent tsunami disaster caused by the 2004 Sumatra-Andaman earthquake has focused our attention to the hazard posed by large earthquakes that occur under water, in particular subduction zone earthquakes, and the tsunamis that they generate. Even though these kinds of events are rare, the very large loss of life and material destruction caused by this earthquake warrant a significant effort towards the mitigation of the tsunami hazard. For ground motion hazard, Probabilistic Seismic Hazard Analysis (PSHA) has become a standard practice in the evaluation and mitigation of seismic hazard to populations in particular with respect to structures, infrastructure and lifelines. Its ability to condense the complexities and variability of seismic activity into a manageable set of parameters greatly facilitates the design of effective seismic resistant buildings but also the planning of infrastructure projects. Probabilistic Tsunami Hazard Analysis (PTHA) achieves the same goal for hazards posed by tsunami. There are great advantages of implementing such a method to evaluate the total risk (seismic and tsunami) to coastal communities. The method that we have developed is based on the traditional PSHA and therefore completely consistent with standard seismic practice. Because of the strong dependence of tsunami wave heights on bathymetry, we use a full waveform tsunami waveform computation in lieu of attenuation relations that are common in PSHA. By pre-computing and storing the tsunami waveforms at points along the coast generated for sets of subfaults that comprise larger earthquake faults, we can efficiently synthesize tsunami waveforms for any slip distribution on those faults by summing the individual subfault tsunami waveforms (weighted by their slip). This efficiency make it feasible to use Green's function summation in lieu of attenuation relations to provide very accurate estimates of tsunami height for probabilistic calculations, where one typically computes

  1. Renormalization group and critical phenomena

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ji Qing

    2004-01-01

    The basic clue and the main steps of renormalization group method used for the description of critical phenomena is introduced. It is pointed out that this method really reflects the most important physical features of critical phenomena, i.e. self-similarity, and set up a practical solving method from it. This way of setting up a theory according to the features of the physical system is really a good lesson for today's physicists. (author)

  2. Development of nuclear thermal hydraulic verification test and evaluation technology - Development of fundamental technique for experiment of natural circulation phenomena in PWR systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Goon Cherl; Lee, Tae Ho; Kim, Moon Oh; Kim, Hak Joon [Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea)

    2000-04-01

    The dimensional analysis applied two-fluid model of CFX-4,2 were performed. For verification of analysis results, experimental measurement data of two-phase flow parameters in subcooled boiling flow were produced for vertical(0 deg) and inclination (60 deg). And through comparison analysis and experiments the application possibility of various two -phase flow models and the analysis ability of code were evaluated. Measurement technique of bubble velocity in two-phase flow using backscattering standard LDV was investigated from slug to bubbly flow regime. The range of velocity measured is from 0.2 to 1.5 m/s and that of bubble size is from 2 to 20 mm. For local temperature of boiling flow measurement, microthermocouple were manufactured and local liquid and vapor temperatures were measured in pool boiling and boiling flow. 66 refs., 74 figs., 4 tabs. (Author)

  3. Lunar magma transport phenomena

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spera, Frank J.

    1992-01-01

    An outline of magma transport theory relevant to the evolution of a possible Lunar Magma Ocean and the origin and transport history of the later phase of mare basaltic volcanism is presented. A simple model is proposed to evaluate the extent of fractionation as magma traverses the cold lunar lithosphere. If Apollo green glasses are primitive and have not undergone significant fractionation en route to the surface, then mean ascent rates of 10 m/s and cracks of widths greater than 40 m are indicated. Lunar tephra and vesiculated basalts suggest that a volatile component plays a role in eruption dynamics. The predominant vapor species appear to be CO CO2, and COS. Near the lunar surface, the vapor fraction expands enormously and vapor internal energy is converted to mixture kinetic energy with the concomitant high-speed ejection of vapor and pyroclasts to form lunary fire fountain deposits such as the Apollo 17 orange and black glasses and Apollo 15 green glass.

  4. Hazardous Chemicals

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2007-04-10

    Chemicals are a part of our daily lives, providing many products and modern conveniences. With more than three decades of experience, The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) has been in the forefront of efforts to protect and assess people's exposure to environmental and hazardous chemicals. This report provides information about hazardous chemicals and useful tips on how to protect you and your family from harmful exposure.  Created: 4/10/2007 by CDC National Center for Environmental Health.   Date Released: 4/13/2007.

  5. An evaluation of traditional and emerging remote sensing technologies for the detection of fugitive contamination at selected Superfund hazardous waste sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slonecker, E. Terrence; Fisher, Gary B.

    2011-01-01

    This report represents a remote sensing research effort conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) for the EPA Office of Inspector General. The objective of this investigation was to explore the efficacy of remote sensing as a technology for postclosure monitoring of hazardous waste sites as defined under the Comprehensive Environmental Response Compensation and Liability Act of 1980 (Public Law 96-510, 42 U.S.C. §9601 et seq.), also known as \\"Superfund.\\" Five delisted Superfund sites in Maryland and Virginia were imaged with a hyperspectral sensor and visited for collection of soil, water, and spectral samples and inspection of general site conditions. This report evaluates traditional and hyperspectral imagery and field spectroscopic measurement techniques in the characterization and analysis of fugitive (anthropogenic, uncontrolled) contamination at previously remediated hazardous waste disposal sites.

  6. Hazard evaluation of inorganics, singly and in mixtures, to Flannelmouth Sucker Catostomus latipinnis in the San Juan River, New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, S.J.; Buhl, K.J.

    1997-01-01

    Larval flannelmouth sucker (Catostomus latipinnis) were exposed to arsenate, boron, copper, molybdenum, selenate, selenite, uranium, vanadium, and zinc singly, and to five mixtures of five to nine inorganics. The exposures were conducted in reconstituted water representative of the San Juan River near Shiprock, New Mexico. The mixtures simulated environmental ratios reported for sites along the San Juan River (San Juan River backwater, Fruitland marsh, Hogback East Drain, Mancos River, and McElmo Creek). The rank order of the individual inorganics, from most to least toxic, was: copper > zinc > vanadium > selenite > selenate > arsenate > uranium > boron > molybdenum. All five mixtures exhibited additive toxicity to flannelmouth sucker. In a limited number of tests, 44-day-old and 13-day-old larvae exhibited no difference in sensitivity to three mixtures. Copper was the major toxic component in four mixtures (San Juan backwater, Hogback East Drain, Mancos River, and McElmo Creek), whereas zinc was the major toxic component in the Fruitland marsh mixture, which did not contain copper. The Hogback East Drain was the most toxic mixture tested. Comparison of 96-h LC50values with reported environmental water concentrations from the San Juan River revealed low hazard ratios for arsenic, boron, molybdenum, selenate, selenite, uranium, and vanadium, moderate hazard ratios for zinc and the Fruitland marsh mixture, and high hazard ratios for copper at three sites and four environmental mixtures representing a San Juan backwater, Hogback East Drain, Mancos River, and McElmo Creek. The high hazard ratios suggest that inorganic contaminants could adversely affect larval flannelmouth sucker in the San Juan River at four sites receiving elevated inorganics.

  7. Evaluating a multi-criteria model for hazard assessment in urban design. The Porto Marghera case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luria, Paolo; Aspinall, Peter A.

    2003-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to describe a new approach to major industrial hazard assessment, which has been recently studied by the authors in conjunction with the Italian Environmental Protection Agency ('ARPAV'). The real opportunity for developing a different approach arose from the need of the Italian EPA to provide the Venice Port Authority with an appropriate estimation of major industrial hazards in Porto Marghera, an industrial estate near Venice (Italy). However, the standard model, the quantitative risk analysis (QRA), only provided a list of individual quantitative risk values, related to single locations. The experimental model is based on a multi-criteria approach--the Analytic Hierarchy Process--which introduces the use of expert opinions, complementary skills and expertise from different disciplines in conjunction with quantitative traditional analysis. This permitted the generation of quantitative data on risk assessment from a series of qualitative assessments, on the present situation and on three other future scenarios, and use of this information as indirect quantitative measures, which could be aggregated for obtaining the global risk rate. This approach is in line with the main concepts proposed by the last European directive on Major Hazard Accidents, which recommends increasing the participation of operators, taking the other players into account and, moreover, paying more attention to the concepts of 'urban control', 'subjective risk' (risk perception) and intangible factors (factors not directly quantifiable)

  8. Using the New Two-Phase-Titan to Evaluate Potential Lahar Hazard at Villa la Angostura, Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheridan, M. F.; Cordoba, G. A.; Viramonte, J. G.; Folch, A.; Villarosa, G.; Delgado, H.

    2013-05-01

    The 2011 eruption of Puyehue Volcano, located in the Cordon del Caulle volcanic complex, Chile, produced an ash plume that mainly affected downwind areas in Argentina. This plume forced air transport in the region to be closed for several weeks. Tephra fall deposits from this eruption affected many locations and pumice deposits on lakes killed most of the fish. As the ash emission occurred during the southern hemisphere winter (June), ash horizons were inter layered with layers of snow. This situation posed a potential threat for human settlements located downslope of the mountains. This was the case at Villa la Angostura, Neuquen province, Argentina, which sits on a series of fluvial deposits that originate in three major basins: Piedritas, Colorado, and Florencia. The Institute of Geological Survey of Argentina (SEGEMAR) estimated that the total accumulated deposit in each basin contains a ratio of approximately 30% ash and 70% snow. The CyTED-Ceniza Iberoamerican network worked together with Argentinean, Colombian and USA institutions in this hazard assessment. We used the program Two-Phase-Titan to model two scenarios in each of the basins. This computer code was developed at SUNY University at Buffalo supported by NSF Grant EAR 711497. Two-Phase-Titan is a new depth-averaged model for two phase flows that uses balance equations for multiphase mixtures. We evaluate the stresses using a Coulomb law for the solid phase and the typical hydraulic shallow water approach for the fluid phase. The linkage for compositions in the range between the pure end-member phases is accommodated by the inclusion of a phenomenological-based drag coefficient. The model is capable of simulating the whole range of particle volumetric fractions, from pure fluid flows to pure solid avalanches. The initial conditions, volume and solid concentration, required by Two-Phase-Titan were imposed using the SEGEMAR estimation of total deposited volume, assuming that the maximum volume that can

  9. Evaluation of climate-induced waterlogging hazards in the south-west coast of Bangladesh using Geoinformatics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tareq, Syed M; Tauhid Ur Rahman, M; Zahedul Islam, A Z M; Baddruzzaman, A B M; Ashraf Ali, M

    2018-03-19

    Climate-induced waterlogging has been significantly affecting the lives and livelihood of people in the south-west coastal region of Bangladesh for a couple of decades. The objective of this study is to investigate the waterlogging hazards of Tala, a south-western coastal Upazila of Bangladesh by analyzing satellite image. An empirical model based on velocity of flow, depth of flow, and inundation depth has been proposed to assess waterlogging hazard in pre monsoon, monsoon, and post monsoon period. Landsat TM images for the years 1989, 2000, and 2011 were analyzed by using Geoinformatics including GIS and remote sensing techniques to quantify the water hazard. Three dominant land use classes such as "water," "vegetation," and "bare lands and others" were selected to identify the land use land cover change. Both FGD (focus group discussions) and KII (key informant interviews) were also accomplished to assess the waterlogging hazard. It was revealed that 0.7% of the study area (246 ha) was under water in 1989, which increased alarmingly to 34% (11,525 ha) in 2011. There was an increase in 62.9% of water bodies during 1989 to 2000, which was further expanded to 77% during 2000 to 2011. Satellite image analysis between 2011 and 2015 also showed that nearly 89% of the waterlogged area including floodplain is inundated by tidal saline water that supports shrimp cultivation. On the contrary, 11% of the waterlogged area was occupied by trapped rain water. Confirmation of saline water and fresh water was done by measuring electrical conductivity and conducting "mouth taste" during field visit. The decreasing rate of "bare lands and others" category indicates that there is around 69.4% of reduction in this category to accommodate the increasing water covering areas. The hazard model shows that the middle part of the Tala along with the flood plain of the Kabodak River usually have to suffer waterlogged in both pre monsoon and post monsoon period. It was found that low

  10. Carbon Structure Hazard Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoder, Tommy; Greene, Ben; Porter, Alan

    2015-01-01

    Carbon composite structures are widely used in virtually all advanced technology industries for a multitude of applications. The high strength-to-weight ratio and resistance to aggressive service environments make them highly desirable. Automotive, aerospace, and petroleum industries extensively use, and will continue to use, this enabling technology. As a result of this broad range of use, field and test personnel are increasingly exposed to hazards associated with these structures. No single published document exists to address the hazards and make recommendations for the hazard controls required for the different exposure possibilities from damaged structures including airborne fibers, fly, and dust. The potential for personnel exposure varies depending on the application or manipulation of the structure. The effect of exposure to carbon hazards is not limited to personnel, protection of electronics and mechanical equipment must be considered as well. The various exposure opportunities defined in this document include pre-manufacturing fly and dust, the cured structure, manufacturing/machining, post-event cleanup, and post-event test and/or evaluation. Hazard control is defined as it is applicable or applied for the specific exposure opportunity. The carbon exposure hazard includes fly, dust, fiber (cured/uncured), and matrix vapor/thermal decomposition products. By using the recommendations in this document, a high level of confidence can be assured for the protection of personnel and equipment.

  11. Containment severe accident thermohydraulic phenomena

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frid, W.

    1991-08-01

    This report describes and discusses the containment accident progression and the important severe accident containment thermohydraulic phenomena. The overall objective of the report is to provide a rather detailed presentation of the present status of phenomenological knowledge, including an account of relevant experimental investigations and to discuss, to some extent, the modelling approach used in the MAAP 3.0 computer code. The MAAP code has been used in Sweden as the main tool in the analysis of severe accidents. The dependence of the containment accident progression and containment phenomena on the initial conditions, which in turn are heavily dependent on the in-vessel accident progression and phenomena as well as associated uncertainties, is emphasized. The report is in three parts dealing with: * Swedish reactor containments, the severe accident mitigation programme in Sweden and containment accident progression in Swedish PWRs and BWRs as predicted by the MAAP 3.0 code. * Key non-energetic ex-vessel phenomena (melt fragmentation in water, melt quenching and coolability, core-concrete interaction and high temperature in containment). * Early containment threats due to energetic events (hydrogen combustion, high pressure melt ejection and direct containment heating, and ex-vessel steam explosions). The report concludes that our understanding of the containment severe accident progression and phenomena has improved very significantly over the parts ten years and, thereby, our ability to assess containment threats, to quantify uncertainties, and to interpret the results of experiments and computer code calculations have also increased. (au)

  12. Teaching optical phenomena with Tracker

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, M.; Simeão Carvalho, P.

    2014-11-01

    Since the invention and dissemination of domestic laser pointers, observing optical phenomena is a relatively easy task. Any student can buy a laser and experience at home, in a qualitative way, the reflection, refraction and even diffraction phenomena of light. However, quantitative experiments need instruments of high precision that have a relatively complex setup. Fortunately, nowadays it is possible to analyse optical phenomena in a simple and quantitative way using the freeware video analysis software ‘Tracker’. In this paper, we show the advantages of video-based experimental activities for teaching concepts in optics. We intend to show: (a) how easy the study of such phenomena can be, even at home, because only simple materials are needed, and Tracker provides the necessary measuring instruments; and (b) how we can use Tracker to improve students’ understanding of some optical concepts. We give examples using video modelling to study the laws of reflection, Snell’s laws, focal distances in lenses and mirrors, and diffraction phenomena, which we hope will motivate teachers to implement it in their own classes and schools.

  13. Seismic hazard maps for earthquake-resistant construction designs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohkawa, Izuru

    2004-01-01

    Based on the idea that seismic phenomena in Japan varying in different localities are to be reflected in designing specific nuclear facilities in specific site, the present research program started to make seismic hazard maps representing geographical distribution of seismic load factors. First, recent research data on historical earthquakes and materials on active faults in Japan have been documented. Differences in character due to different localities are expressed by dynamic load in consideration of specific building properties. Next, hazard evaluation corresponding to seismic-resistance factor is given as response index (spectrum) of an adequately selected building, for example a nuclear power station, with the help of investigation results of statistical analysis. (S. Ohno)

  14. Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL) seismic hazard analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Savy, J.

    1989-01-01

    New design and evaluation guidelines for department of energy facilities subjected to natural phenomena hazard, are being finalized. Although still in draft form at this time, the document describing those guidelines should be considered to be an update of previously available guidelines. The recommendations in the guidelines document mentioned above, and simply referred to as the ''guidelines'' thereafter, are based on the best information at the time of its development. In particular, the seismic hazard model for the Princeton site was based on a study performed in 1981 for Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), which relied heavily on the results of the NRC's Systematic Evaluation Program and was based on a methodology and data sets developed in 1977 and 1978. Considerable advances have been made in the last ten years in the domain of seismic hazard modeling. Thus, it is recommended to update the estimate of the seismic hazard at the DOE sites whenever possible. The major differences between previous estimates and the ones proposed in this study for the PPPL are in the modeling of the strong ground motion at the site, and the treatment of the total uncertainty in the estimates to include knowledge uncertainty, random uncertainty, and expert opinion diversity as well. 28 refs

  15. Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL) seismic hazard analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Savy, J.

    1989-10-01

    New design and evaluation guidelines for department of energy facilities subjected to natural phenomena hazard, are being finalized. Although still in draft form at this time, the document describing those guidelines should be considered to be an update of previously available guidelines. The recommendations in the guidelines document mentioned above, and simply referred to as the guidelines'' thereafter, are based on the best information at the time of its development. In particular, the seismic hazard model for the Princeton site was based on a study performed in 1981 for Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), which relied heavily on the results of the NRC's Systematic Evaluation Program and was based on a methodology and data sets developed in 1977 and 1978. Considerable advances have been made in the last ten years in the domain of seismic hazard modeling. Thus, it is recommended to update the estimate of the seismic hazard at the DOE sites whenever possible. The major differences between previous estimates and the ones proposed in this study for the PPPL are in the modeling of the strong ground motion at the site, and the treatment of the total uncertainty in the estimates to include knowledge uncertainty, random uncertainty, and expert opinion diversity as well. 28 refs.

  16. The Center for Natural Phenomena Engineering (CNPE), 1990--1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-07-01

    The Center for Natural Phenomena Engineering (CNPE) was established to provide a natural phenomena (NP) engineering oversight role within Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc. (MMES). In this oversight role CNPE's goals are to provide coordination and direction of activities related to earthquake and other natural phenomena engineering, including development of hazard definition, development of design criteria, conducting new facility design, development and conducting of testing, performance of analysis and vulnerability studies, development of analysis methodology, and provision of support for preparation of safety analysis reports for the five MMES sites. In conducting these activities it is CNPE's goal to implement the elements of Total Quality Management (TQM) in a cost-effective manner, providing its customers with a quality product. This report describes 1990--1991 activities

  17. The Center for Natural Phenomena Engineering (CNPE), 1990--1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1992-07-01

    The Center for Natural Phenomena Engineering (CNPE) was established to provide a natural phenomena (NP) engineering oversight role within Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc. (MMES). In this oversight role CNPE`s goals are to provide coordination and direction of activities related to earthquake and other natural phenomena engineering, including development of hazard definition, development of design criteria, conducting new facility design, development and conducting of testing, performance of analysis and vulnerability studies, development of analysis methodology, and provision of support for preparation of safety analysis reports for the five MMES sites. In conducting these activities it is CNPE`s goal to implement the elements of Total Quality Management (TQM) in a cost-effective manner, providing its customers with a quality product. This report describes 1990--1991 activities.

  18. Critical Phenomena in Gravitational Collapse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gundlach Carsten

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available As first discovered by Choptuik, the black hole threshold in the space of initial data for general relativity shows both surprising structure and surprising simplicity. Universality, power-law scaling of the black hole mass, and scale echoing have given rise to the term 'critical phenomena'. They are explained by the existence of exact solutions which are attractors within the black hole threshold, that is, attractors of codimension one in phase space, and which are typically self-similar. This review gives an introduction to the phenomena, tries to summarize the essential features of what is happening, and then presents extensions and applications of this basic scenario. Critical phenomena are of interest particularly for creating surprising structure from simple equations, and for the light they throw on cosmic censorship and the generic dynamics of general relativity.

  19. Abnormal pressures as hydrodynamic phenomena

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuzil, C.E.

    1995-01-01

    So-called abnormal pressures, subsurface fluid pressures significantly higher or lower than hydrostatic, have excited speculation about their origin since subsurface exploration first encountered them. Two distinct conceptual models for abnormal pressures have gained currency among earth scientists. The static model sees abnormal pressures generally as relict features preserved by a virtual absence of fluid flow over geologic time. The hydrodynamic model instead envisions abnormal pressures as phenomena in which flow usually plays an important role. This paper develops the theoretical framework for abnormal pressures as hydrodynamic phenomena, shows that it explains the manifold occurrences of abnormal pressures, and examines the implications of this approach. -from Author

  20. Whistlers and related ionospheric phenomena

    CERN Document Server

    Helliwell, Robert A

    2006-01-01

    The investigation of whistlers and related phenomena is a key element in studies of very-low-frequency propagation, satellite communication, the outer ionosphere, and solar-terrestrial relationships. This comprehensive text presents a history of the study of the phenomena and includes all the elements necessary for the calculation of the characteristics of whistlers and whistler-mode signals.An introduction and brief history are followed by a summary of the theory of whistlers and a detailed explanation of the calculation of their characteristics. Succeeding chapters offer a complete atlas of

  1. Hazards and hazard combinations relevant for the safety of nuclear power plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decker, Kurt; Brinkman, Hans; Raimond, Emmanuel

    2017-04-01

    The potential of the contemporaneous impact of different, yet causally related, hazardous events and event cascades on nuclear power plants is a major contributor to the overall risk of nuclear installations. In the aftermath of the Fukushima accident, which was caused by a combination of severe ground shaking by an earthquake, an earthquake-triggered tsunami and the disruption of the plants from the electrical grid by a seismically induced landslide, hazard combinations and hazard cascades moved into the focus of nuclear safety research. We therefore developed an exhaustive list of external hazards and hazard combinations which pose potential threats to nuclear installations in the framework of the European project ASAMPSAE (Advanced Safety Assessment: Extended PSA). The project gathers 31 partners from Europe, North Amerika and Japan. The list comprises of exhaustive lists of natural hazards, external man-made hazards, and a cross-correlation matrix of these hazards. The hazard list is regarded comprehensive by including all types of hazards that were previously cited in documents by IAEA, the Western European Nuclear Regulators Association (WENRA), and others. 73 natural hazards and 24 man-made external hazards are included. Natural hazards are grouped into seismotectonic hazards, flooding and hydrological hazards, extreme values of meteorological phenomena, rare meteorological phenomena, biological hazards / infestation, geological hazards, and forest fire / wild fire. The list of external man-made hazards includes industry accidents, military accidents, transportation accidents, pipeline accidents and other man-made external events. The large number of different hazards results in the extremely large number of 5.151 theoretically possible hazard combinations (not considering hazard cascades). In principle all of these combinations are possible to occur by random coincidence except for 82 hazard combinations that - depending on the time scale - are mutually

  2. Evaluating the Spatial Distribution of Quantitative Risk and Hazard Level of Arsenic Exposure in Groundwater, case Study of Qorveh County, Kurdistan Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Touraj Nasrabadi

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Regional distribution of quantitative risk and hazard levels due to arsenic poisoning in some parts of Iran’s Kurdistan province is considered. To investigate the potential risk and hazard level regarding arsenic-contaminated drinking water and further carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic effects on villagers, thirteen wells in rural areas of Qorveh County were considered for evaluation of arsenic concentration in water. Sampling campaign was performed in August 2010 and arsenic concentration was measured via the Silver Diethyldithiocarbamate method. The highest and lowest arsenic concentration are reported in Guilaklu and Qezeljakand villages with 420 and 67 μg/L, respectively. None of thirteen water samples met the maximum contaminant level issued by USEPA and Institute of Standards and Industrial Research of Iran (10 ppb. The highest arsenic concentration and consequently risk and hazard levels belong to villages situated alongside the eastern frontiers of the county. Existence of volcanic activities within the upper Miocene and Pleistocene in this part of the study area may be addressed as the main geopogenic source of arsenic pollution. Quantitative risk values are varying from 1.49E-03 in Qezeljakand to 8.92E-03 in Guilaklu and may be interpreted as very high when compared by similar studies in Iran. Regarding non-carcinogenic effects, all thirteen water samples are considered hazardous while all calculated chronic daily intakes are greater than arsenic reference dose. Such drinking water source has the potential to impose adverse carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic effects on villagers. Accordingly, an urgent decision must be made to substitute the current drinking water source with a safer one.

  3. Radioactive hazards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gill, J.R.

    1980-01-01

    The use of radioactive substances in hospital laboratories is discussed and the attendant hazards and necessary precautions examined. The new legislation under the Health and Safety at Work Act which, it is proposed, will replace existing legal requirements in the field of health and safety at work by a system of regulations and approved codes of practice designed to maintain or improve the standards of health, safety and welfare already established, is considered with particular reference to protection against ionising radiations. (UK)

  4. Coastal dynamics studies for evaluation of hazard and vulnerability for coastal erosion. case study the town La Bocana, Buenaventura, colombian pacific

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coca-Domínguez, Oswaldo; Ricaurte-Villota, Constanza

    2015-04-01

    The analysis of the hazard and vulnerability in coastal areas caused for erosion is based on studies of coastal dynamics since that allows having a better information detail that is useful for decision-making in aspects like prevention, mitigation, disaster reduction and integrated risk management. The Town of La Bocana, located in Buenaventura (Colombian Pacific) was selected to carry out the threat assessment for coastal erosion based on three components: i) magnitude, ii) occurrence and iii) susceptibility. Vulnerability meanwhile, is also composed of three main components for its evaluation: i) exposure ii) fragility and iii) resilience, which in turn are evaluated in 6 dimensions of vulnerability: physical, social, economic, ecological, institutional and cultural. The hazard analysis performed used a semi-quantitative approach, and an index of variables such as type of geomorphological unit, type of beach, exposure of the surfing coast, occurrence, among others. Quantitative data of coastal retreat was measured through the use of DSAS (Digital Shoreline Analysis System) an application of ArcGIS, as well as the development of digital elevation models from the beach and 6 beach profiles strategically located on the coast obtained with GNSS technology. Sediment samples collected from these beaches, medium height and wave direction were used as complementary data. The information was integrated across the coast line into segments of 250 x 250 meters. 4 sectors are part of the coastal area of La Bocana: Pianguita, Vistahermosa, Donwtown and Shangay. 6 vulnerability dimensions units were taken from these population, as well as its density for exposure, wich was analyzed through a multi-array method that include variables such as, land use, population, type of structure, education, basic services, among others, to measure frailty, and their respective indicator of resilience. The hazard analysis results indicate that Vistahermosa is in very high threat, while

  5. FY1995 development of a clean CVD process by evaluation and control of gas phase nucleation phenomena; 1995 nendo kisokaku seisei gensho no hyoka to seigyo ni yoru clean CVD process no kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    The purpose of this study is to develop a high-rate and clean chemical vapor deposition (CVD) process as a breakthrough technique to overcome the problems that particles generated in the gas phase during CVD process for preparation of functional thin films cause reduced product yield and deterioration of the films. In the CVD process proposed here, reactant gas and generated particles are electrically charged to control the motion of them with an electric field. In this study, gas-phase nucleation phenomena are evaluated both theoretically and experimentally. A high-rate, ionized CVD method is first developed, in which reactant gas and generated particles are charged with negative ions generated from a radioisotope source and the UV/photoelectron method, and the motion of the charged gas and particles is controlled with an electric field. Charging and transport processes of fine particles are then investigated experimentally and theoretically to develop a clean CVD method in which generated particles are removed with the electric forces. As a result, quantitative evaluation of the charging and transport process was made possible. We also developed devices for measuring the size distribution and concentration of fine particles in low pressure gas such as those found in plasma CVD processes. In addition, numerical simulation and experiments in this study for a TEOS/O{sub 3} CVD process to prepare thin films could determine reaction rates which have not been known so far and give information on selecting good operation conditions for the process. (NEDO)

  6. Health-hazard-evaluation report HETA 87-376-2018, US Department of Justice, United States Marshals Service, Washington, DC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reh, C.M.; Klein, M.K.

    1990-03-01

    In response to a request from the United States Marshals Service (SIC-9221) in Washington, D.C. for assistance in testing the effect of renovations to the ventilation system of their indoor firing range, lead (7439921) exposures were measured during handgun qualifying sessions. Each qualifying session of firing consisted of 60 rounds fired in 10 to 12 minutes. Personal breathing zone air samples were taken from three shooters and the range officer. Lead exposure concentrations measured were 2073, 1786, 172, and 142 micrograms of lead per cubic meter of air (microg/cu m). Eight hour time weighted average concentrations were calculated to be 194, 167, 101, and 13microg/cu m, respectively. The three shooters were therefore overexposed to lead. Bulk sampling of the sand from the bullet trap indicated it to be contaminated, containing 41% lead by weight. The authors concluded that a health hazard existed from exposure to lead. The authors recommended changes to improve the ventilation system. Following modification of the system, tests were again conducted and 11 of the 12 samples taken were below the limits of detection for the method used. The authors conclude that after modification, a hazard did not exist during qualifying sessions. The authors recommend specific measures to protect personnel from exposure to lead.

  7. Analysis of radiation dose rate profile in the ambient Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay environment to evaluate radiation hazard

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vikas; Anoj Kumar; Meena, T.R.; Vikas Kumar; Patra, R.P.; Patil, S.S.; Murali, S.; Singh, Rajvir; Pradeepkumar, K.S.

    2014-01-01

    Periodic radiological survey and its analysis are useful on a two way approach. First, it will be used to generate baseline dose profile that will be prominently important during any radiological emergency. Secondly, due to some unforeseen human acts if orphan/abandoned radioactive source were present across Bhabha Atomic Research Centre site, the same can be detected and retrieved from the incident location. Periodic radiation survey of Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay site primarily validate/serve as an indicator of integrity of the various safety measures at the different nuclear fuel cycle facilities and on the prevailing radiological status at the vicinity of the facilities at Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay site. Radiation dose profile as a quality information has been accumulated in the last five years. Analysis of data has led to the conclusion that there has been no increase in hazard over the years though the quantum of radioactivity processed at the various facilities has undergone wide increase and radiation hazard at the site continues to be very negligible. Nuclear fuel cycle activities at Bhabha Atomic Research Centre do not pose any excess radiation risk at the site

  8. APROBA-Plus: A probabilistic tool to evaluate and express uncertainty in hazard characterization and exposure assessment of substances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bokkers, Bas G H; Mengelers, Marcel J; Bakker, Martine I; Chiu, Weihsueh A; Slob, Wout

    2017-12-01

    To facilitate the application of probabilistic risk assessment, the WHO released the APROBA tool. This tool applies lognormal uncertainty distributions to the different aspects of the hazard characterization, resulting in a probabilistic health-based guidance value. The current paper describes an extension, APROBA-Plus, which combines the output from the probabilistic hazard characterization with the probabilistic exposure to rapidly characterize risk and its uncertainty. The uncertainty in exposure is graphically compared with the uncertainty in the target human dose, i.e. the dose that complies with the specified protection goals. APROBA-Plus is applied to several case studies, resulting in distinct outcomes and illustrating that APROBA-Plus could serve as a standard extension of routine risk assessments. By visualizing the uncertainties, APROBA-Plus provides a more transparent and informative outcome than the more usual deterministic approaches, so that risk managers can make better informed decisions. For example, APROBA-Plus can help in deciding whether risk-reducing measures are warranted or that a refined risk assessment would first be needed. If the latter, the tool can be used to prioritize possible refinements. APROBA-Plus may also be used to rank substances into different risk categories, based on potential health risks without being compromised by different levels of conservatism that may be associated with point estimates of risk. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Evaluation of a Parchment Document, the 13th Century Incorporation Charter for the City of Krakow, Poland, for Microbial Hazards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lech, Tomasz

    2016-05-01

    The literature of environmental microbiology broadly discusses issues associated with microbial hazards in archives, but these publications are mainly devoted to paper documents. There are few articles on historical parchment documents, which used to be very important for the development of literature and the art of writing. These studies present a broad spectrum of methods for the assessment of biodeterioration hazards of the parchment document in question. They are based on both conventional microbiological methods and advanced techniques of molecular biology. Here, a qualitative analysis was conducted, based on genetic identification of bacteria and fungi present on the document as well as denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis profiling and examining the destructive potential of isolated microbes. Moreover, the study involved a quantitative and qualitative microbiological assessment of the indoor air in the room where the parchment was kept. The microbes with the highest destructive potential that were isolated from the investigated item were Bacillus cereus and Acinetobacter lwoffii bacteria and Penicillium chrysogenum,Chaetomium globosum, and Trichoderma longibrachiatum fungi. The presence of the B. cereuss train was particularly interesting since, under appropriate conditions, it leads to complete parchment degradation within several days. Copyright © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  10. Hydrothermal Liquefaction Treatment Preliminary Hazard Analysis Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lowry, Peter P.; Wagner, Katie A.

    2015-08-31

    A preliminary hazard assessment was completed during February 2015 to evaluate the conceptual design of the modular hydrothermal liquefaction treatment system. The hazard assessment was performed in 2 stages. An initial assessment utilizing Hazard Identification and Preliminary Hazards Analysis (PHA) techniques identified areas with significant or unique hazards (process safety-related hazards) that fall outside of the normal operating envelope of PNNL and warranted additional analysis. The subsequent assessment was based on a qualitative What-If analysis. This analysis was augmented, as necessary, by additional quantitative analysis for scenarios involving a release of hazardous material or energy with the potential for affecting the public.

  11. Research Implementation and Quality Assurance Project Plan: An Evaluation of Hyperspectral Remote Sensing Technologies for the Detection of Fugitive Contamination at Selected Superfund Hazardous Waste Sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slonecker, E. Terrence; Fisher, Gary B.

    2009-01-01

    This project is a research collaboration between the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Office of Inspector General (OIG) and the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Eastern Geographic Science Center (EGSC), for the purpose of evaluating the utility of hyperspectral remote sensing technology for post-closure monitoring of residual contamination at delisted and closed hazardous waste sites as defined under the Comprehensive Environmental Response Compensation and Liability Act [CERCLA (also known as 'Superfund')] of 1980 and the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act (SARA) of 1986.

  12. Transport phenomena in particulate systems

    CERN Document Server

    Freire, José Teixeira; Ferreira, Maria do Carmo

    2012-01-01

    This volume spans 10 chapters covering different aspects of transport phenomena including fixed and fluidized systems, spouted beds, electrochemical and wastewater treatment reactors. This e-book will be valuable for students, engineers and researchers aiming to keep updated on the latest developments on particulate systems.

  13. Discovery potential for new phenomena

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Godfrey, S.; Price, L.E.

    1997-03-01

    The authors examine the ability of future facilities to discover and interpret non-supersymmetric new phenomena. The authors first explore explicit manifestations of new physics, including extended gauge sectors, leptoquarks, exotic fermions, and technicolor models. They then take a more general approach where new physics only reveals itself through the existence of effective interactions at lower energy scales

  14. Strings, fields and critical phenomena

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ambjoern, J.

    1987-07-01

    The connection between field theory and critical phenomena is reviewed. Emphasis is put on the use of Monte Carlo methods in the study of non-perturbative aspects of field theory. String theory is then described as a statistical theory of random surfaces and the critical behaviour is analyzed both by analytical and numerical methods. (orig.)

  15. Evaluation and design of a rain gauge network using a statistical optimization method in a severe hydro-geological hazard prone area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fattoruso, Grazia; Longobardi, Antonia; Pizzuti, Alfredo; Molinara, Mario; Marocco, Claudio; De Vito, Saverio; Tortorella, Francesco; Di Francia, Girolamo

    2017-06-01

    Rainfall data collection gathered in continuous by a distributed rain gauge network is instrumental to more effective hydro-geological risk forecasting and management services though the input estimated rainfall fields suffer from prediction uncertainty. Optimal rain gauge networks can generate accurate estimated rainfall fields. In this research work, a methodology has been investigated for evaluating an optimal rain gauges network aimed at robust hydrogeological hazard investigations. The rain gauges of the Sarno River basin (Southern Italy) has been evaluated by optimizing a two-objective function that maximizes the estimated accuracy and minimizes the total metering cost through the variance reduction algorithm along with the climatological variogram (time-invariant). This problem has been solved by using an enumerative search algorithm, evaluating the exact Pareto-front by an efficient computational time.

  16. Hazard and consequence analysis for waste emplacement at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerstner, D.M.; Clayton, S.G.; Farrell, R.F.; McCormick, J.A.; Ortiz, C.; Standiford, D.L.

    1996-01-01

    The Carlsbad Area Office established and analyzed the safety bases for the design and operations as documented in the WIPP Safety Analysis Report (SAR). Additional independent efforts are currently underway to assess the hazards associated with the long-term (10,000 year) isolation period as required by 40 CFR 191. The structure of the WIPP SAR is unique due to the hazards involved, and the agreement between the State of New Mexico and the DOE regarding SAR content and format. However, the hazards and accident analysis philosophy as contained in DOE-STD-3009-94 was followed as closely as possible, while adhering to state agreements. Hazards associated with WIPP waste receipt, emplacement, and disposal operations were systematically identified using a modified Hazard and Operability Study (HAZOP) technique. The WIPP HAZOP assessed the potential internal, external, and natural phenomena events that can cause the identified hazards to develop into accidents. The hazard assessment identified deviations from the intended design and operation of the waste handling system, analyzed potential accident consequences to the public and workers, estimated likelihood of occurrence, and evaluated associated preventative and mitigative features. It was concluded from the assessment that the proposed WIPP waste emplacement operations and design are sufficient to ensure safety of the public, workers, and environment, over the 35 year disposal phase

  17. Moral Hazard in Pediatrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunnquell, Donald; Michaelson, Christopher M

    2016-07-01

    "Moral hazard" is a term familiar in economics and business ethics that illuminates why rational parties sometimes choose decisions with bad moral outcomes without necessarily intending to behave selfishly or immorally. The term is not generally used in medical ethics. Decision makers such as parents and physicians generally do not use the concept or the word in evaluating ethical dilemmas. They may not even be aware of the precise nature of the moral hazard problem they are experiencing, beyond a general concern for the patient's seemingly excessive burden. This article brings the language and logic of moral hazard to pediatrics. The concept reminds us that decision makers in this context are often not the primary party affected by their decisions. It appraises the full scope of risk at issue when decision makers decide on behalf of others and leads us to separate, respect, and prioritize the interests of affected parties.

  18. Evaluation of protocol change in burn-care management using the Cox proportional hazards model with time-dependent covariates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ichida, J M; Wassell, J T; Keller, M D; Ayers, L W

    1993-02-01

    Survival analysis methods are valuable for detecting intervention effects because detailed information from patient records and sensitive outcome measures are used. The burn unit at a large university hospital replaced routine bathing with total body bathing using chlorhexidine gluconate for antimicrobial effect. A Cox proportional hazards model was used to analyse time from admission until either infection with Staphylococcus aureus or discharge for 155 patients, controlling for burn severity and two time-dependent covariates: days until first wound excision and days until first administration of prophylactic antibiotics. The risk of infection was 55 per cent higher in the historical control group, although not statistically significant. There was also some indication that early wound excision may be important as an infection-control measure for burn patients.

  19. How credible are the study results? Evaluating and applying internal validity tools to literature-based assessments of environmental health hazards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rooney, Andrew A.; Cooper, Glinda S.; Jahnke, Gloria D.; Lam, Juleen; Morgan, Rebecca L.; Boyles, Abee L.; Ratcliffe, Jennifer M.; Kraft, Andrew D.; Schünemann, Holger J.; Schwingl, Pamela; Walker, Teneille D.; Thayer, Kristina A.; Lunn, Ruth M.

    2016-01-01

    Environmental health hazard assessments are routinely relied upon for public health decision-making. The evidence base used in these assessments is typically developed from a collection of diverse sources of information of varying quality. It is critical that literature-based evaluations consider the credibility of individual studies used to reach conclusions through consistent, transparent and accepted methods. Systematic review procedures address study credibility by assessing internal validity or “risk of bias” — the assessment of whether the design and conduct of a study compromised the credibility of the link between exposure/intervention and outcome. This paper describes the commonalities and differences in risk-of-bias methods developed or used by five groups that conduct or provide methodological input for performing environmental health hazard assessments: the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation (GRADE) Working Group, the Navigation Guide, the National Toxicology Program’s (NTP) Office of Health Assessment and Translation (OHAT) and Office of the Report on Carcinogens (ORoC), and the Integrated Risk Information System of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA-IRIS). Each of these groups have been developing and applying rigorous assessment methods for integrating across a heterogeneous collection of human and animal studies to inform conclusions on potential environmental health hazards. There is substantial consistency across the groups in the consideration of risk-of-bias issues or “domains” for assessing observational human studies. There is a similar overlap in terms of domains addressed for animal studies; however, the groups differ in the relative emphasis placed on different aspects of risk of bias. Future directions for the continued harmonization and improvement of these methods are also discussed. PMID:26857180

  20. An evaluation of three representative multimedia models used to support cleanup decision-making at hazardous, mixed, and radioactive waste sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moskowitz, P.D.; Pardi, R.; Fthenakis, V.M.; Holtzman, S.

    1996-01-01

    The decision process involved in cleaning sites contaminated with hazardous, mixed, and radioactive materials is supported often by results obtained from computer models. These results provide limits within which a decision-maker can judge the importance of individual transport and fate processes, and the likely outcome of alternative cleanup strategies. The transport of hazardous materials may occur predominately through one particular pathway but, more often, actual or potential transport must be evaluated across several pathways and media. Multimedia models are designed to simulate the transport of contaminants from a source to a receptor through more than one environmental pathway. Three such multimedia models are reviewed here: MEPAS, MMSOILS, and PRESTO-EPA-CPG. The reviews are based on documentation provided with the software, on published reviews, on personal interviews with the model developers, and on model summaries extracted from computer databases and expert systems. The three models are reviewed within the context of specific media components: air, surface water, ground water, and food chain. Additional sections evaluate the way that these three models calculate human exposure and dose and how they report uncertainty. Special emphasis is placed on how each model handles radionuclide transport within specific media. For the purpose of simulating the transport, fate and effects of radioactive contaminants through more than one pathway, both MEPAS and PRESTO-EPA-CPG are adequate for screening studies; MMSOILS only handles nonradioactive substances and must be modified before it can be used in these same applications. Of the three models, MEPAS is the most versatile, especially if the user needs to model the transport, fate, and effects of hazardous and radioactive contaminants. 44 refs., 2 tabs

  1. Identification of Aircraft Hazards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    K. Ashley

    2006-12-08

    Aircraft hazards were determined to be potentially applicable to a repository at Yucca Mountain in ''Monitored Geological Repository External Events Hazards Screening Analysis'' (BSC 2005 [DIRS 174235], Section 6.4.1). That determination was conservatively based upon limited knowledge of flight data in the area of concern and upon crash data for aircraft of the type flying near Yucca Mountain. The purpose of this report is to identify specific aircraft hazards that may be applicable to a monitored geologic repository (MGR) at Yucca Mountain, using NUREG-0800, ''Standard Review Plan for the Review of Safety Analysis Reports for Nuclear Power Plants'' (NRC 1987 [DIRS 103124], Section 3.5.1.6), as guidance for the inclusion or exclusion of identified aircraft hazards. The intended use of this report is to provide inputs for further screening and analysis of identified aircraft hazards based upon the criteria that apply to Category 1 and Category 2 event sequence analyses as defined in 10 CFR 63.2 [DIRS 176544] (Section 4). The scope of this report includes the evaluation of military, private, and commercial use of airspace in the 100-mile regional setting of the repository at Yucca Mountain with the potential for reducing the regional setting to a more manageable size after consideration of applicable screening criteria (Section 7).

  2. IDENTIFICATION OF AIRCRAFT HAZARDS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    K.L. Ashley

    2005-01-01

    Aircraft hazards were determined to be potentially applicable to a repository at Yucca Mountain in the ''Monitored Geological Repository External Events Hazards Screening Analysis'' (BSC 2004, Section 6.4.1). That determination was conservatively based on limited knowledge of flight data in the area of concern and on crash data for aircraft of the type flying near Yucca Mountain. The purpose of this report is to identify specific aircraft hazards that may be applicable to a Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR) at Yucca Mountain using NUREG-0800, ''Standard Review Plan for the Review of Safety Analysis Reports for Nuclear Power Plants'' (NRC 1987, Section 3.5.1.6), as guidance for the inclusion or exclusion of identified aircraft hazards. NUREG-0800 is being used here as a reference because some of the same considerations apply. The intended use of this report is to provide inputs for further screening and analysis of the identified aircraft hazards based on the criteria that apply to Category 1 and 2 event sequence analyses as defined in 10 CFR 63.2 (see Section 4). The scope of this technical report includes the evaluation of military, private, and commercial use of airspace in the 100-mile regional setting of the MGR at Yucca Mountain with the potential for reducing the regional setting to a more manageable size after consideration of applicable screening criteria (see Section 7)

  3. Identification of Aircraft Hazards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    K. Ashley

    2006-01-01

    Aircraft hazards were determined to be potentially applicable to a repository at Yucca Mountain in ''Monitored Geological Repository External Events Hazards Screening Analysis'' (BSC 2005 [DIRS 174235], Section 6.4.1). That determination was conservatively based upon limited knowledge of flight data in the area of concern and upon crash data for aircraft of the type flying near Yucca Mountain. The purpose of this report is to identify specific aircraft hazards that may be applicable to a monitored geologic repository (MGR) at Yucca Mountain, using NUREG-0800, ''Standard Review Plan for the Review of Safety Analysis Reports for Nuclear Power Plants'' (NRC 1987 [DIRS 103124], Section 3.5.1.6), as guidance for the inclusion or exclusion of identified aircraft hazards. The intended use of this report is to provide inputs for further screening and analysis of identified aircraft hazards based upon the criteria that apply to Category 1 and Category 2 event sequence analyses as defined in 10 CFR 63.2 [DIRS 176544] (Section 4). The scope of this report includes the evaluation of military, private, and commercial use of airspace in the 100-mile regional setting of the repository at Yucca Mountain with the potential for reducing the regional setting to a more manageable size after consideration of applicable screening criteria (Section 7)

  4. Scenario based tsunami wave height estimation towards hazard evaluation for the Hellenic coastline and examples of extreme inundation zones in South Aegean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melis, Nikolaos S.; Barberopoulou, Aggeliki; Frentzos, Elias; Krassanakis, Vassilios

    2016-04-01

    A scenario based methodology for tsunami hazard assessment is used, by incorporating earthquake sources with the potential to produce extreme tsunamis (measured through their capacity to cause maximum wave height and inundation extent). In the present study we follow a two phase approach. In the first phase, existing earthquake hazard zoning in the greater Aegean region is used to derive representative maximum expected earthquake magnitude events, with realistic seismotectonic source characteristics, and of greatest tsunamigenic potential within each zone. By stacking the scenario produced maximum wave heights a global maximum map is constructed for the entire Hellenic coastline, corresponding to all expected extreme offshore earthquake sources. Further evaluation of the produced coastline categories based on the maximum expected wave heights emphasizes the tsunami hazard in selected coastal zones with important functions (i.e. touristic crowded zones, industrial zones, airports, power plants etc). Owing to its proximity to the Hellenic Arc, many urban centres and being a popular tourist destination, Crete Island and the South Aegean region are given a top priority to define extreme inundation zoning. In the second phase, a set of four large coastal cities (Kalamata, Chania, Heraklion and Rethymno), important for tsunami hazard, due i.e. to the crowded beaches during the summer season or industrial facilities, are explored towards preparedness and resilience for tsunami hazard in Greece. To simulate tsunamis in the Aegean region (generation, propagation and runup) the MOST - ComMIT NOAA code was used. High resolution DEMs for bathymetry and topography were joined via an interface, specifically developed for the inundation maps in this study and with similar products in mind. For the examples explored in the present study, we used 5m resolution for the topography and 30m resolution for the bathymetry, respectively. Although this study can be considered as

  5. Rockfall Hazard Process Assessment : Final Project Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-01

    After a decade of using the Rockfall Hazard Rating System (RHRS), the Montana Department of Transportation (MDT) sought a reassessment of their rockfall hazard evaluation process. Their prior system was a slightly modified version of the RHRS and was...

  6. Evaluating Land Use and Emergency Management Plans for Natural Hazards as a Function of Good Governance:A Case Study from New Zealand

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wendy Saunders; Emily Grace; James Beban; David Johnston

    2015-01-01

    Plan evaluation is of utmost importance as a function of good governance. It provides a means to im-prove the institutional basis for implementing land use controls, provides an important opportunity to improve future plans to reduce risk, and improves the vision for sustainable development and management. This article provides an overview of the methods and findings of a plan evaluation project undertaken in New Zealand. The project analyzed 99 operative plans, provided in-depth analysis of ten plans, and included a capability and capacity study of councils. This is the first time all operative plans in New Zealand have had their natural hazard provisions assessed in this manner. The information provides an important baseline for future policy improvements, and a basis for future research and policy directions. The project found that, while New Zealand land use plans appear to be im-proving over time, there are still opportunities for im-provement. These include improving linkages between objectives, policies, and rules within land use plans; and strengthening the linkages between land use and emer-gency management plans. The largest challenge is the ac-cessibility, understanding of, and updating of hazard information.

  7. Tsunami hazard

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-08-15

    Tohoku Earthquake Tsunami on 11 March, 2011 has led the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant to a serious accident, which highlighted a variety of technical issues such as a very low design tsunami height and insufficient preparations in case a tsunami exceeding the design tsunami height. Lessons such as to take measures to be able to maintain the important safety features of the facility for tsunamis exceeding design height and to implement risk management utilizing Probabilistic Safety Assessment are shown. In order to implement the safety assessment on nuclear power plants across Japan accordingly to the back-fit rule, Nuclear Regulatory Commission will promulgate/execute the New Safety Design Criteria in July 2013. JNES has positioned the 'enhancement of probabilistic tsunami hazard assessment' as highest priority issue and implemented in order to support technically the Nuclear Regulatory Authority in formulating the new Safety Design Criteria. Findings of the research had reflected in the 'Technical Review Guidelines for Assessing Design Tsunami Height based on tsunami hazards'. (author)

  8. Tsunami hazard

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    Tohoku Earthquake Tsunami on 11 March, 2011 has led the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant to a serious accident, which highlighted a variety of technical issues such as a very low design tsunami height and insufficient preparations in case a tsunami exceeding the design tsunami height. Lessons such as to take measures to be able to maintain the important safety features of the facility for tsunamis exceeding design height and to implement risk management utilizing Probabilistic Safety Assessment are shown. In order to implement the safety assessment on nuclear power plants across Japan accordingly to the back-fit rule, Nuclear Regulatory Commission will promulgate/execute the New Safety Design Criteria in July 2013. JNES has positioned the 'enhancement of probabilistic tsunami hazard assessment' as highest priority issue and implemented in order to support technically the Nuclear Regulatory Authority in formulating the new Safety Design Criteria. Findings of the research had reflected in the 'Technical Review Guidelines for Assessing Design Tsunami Height based on tsunami hazards'. (author)

  9. Transport phenomena in multiphase flows

    CERN Document Server

    Mauri, Roberto

    2015-01-01

    This textbook provides a thorough presentation of the phenomena related to the transport of mass, momentum and energy.  It lays all the basic physical principles, then for the more advanced readers, it offers an in-depth treatment with advanced mathematical derivations and ends with some useful applications of the models and equations in specific settings. The important idea behind the book is to unify all types of transport phenomena, describing them within a common framework in terms of cause and effect, respectively represented by the driving force and the flux of the transported quantity. The approach and presentation are original in that the book starts with a general description of transport processes, providing the macroscopic balance relations of fluid dynamics and heat and mass transfer, before diving into the mathematical realm of continuum mechanics to derive the microscopic governing equations at the microscopic level. The book is a modular teaching tool and can be used either for an introductory...

  10. Hazards assessment for the Hazardous Waste Storage Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knudsen, J.K.; Calley, M.B.

    1994-04-01

    This report documents the hazards assessment for the Hazardous Waste Storage Facility (HWSF) located at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. The hazards assessment was performed to ensure that this facility complies with DOE and company requirements pertaining to emergency planning and preparedness for operational emergencies. The hazards assessment identifies and analyzes hazards that are significant enough to warrant consideration in a facility's operational emergency management program. The area surrounding HWSF, the buildings and structures at HWSF, and the processes used at HWSF are described in this report. All nonradiological hazardous materials at the HWSF were identified (radiological hazardous materials are not stored at HWSF) and screened against threshold quantities according to DOE Order 5500.3A guidance. Two of the identified hazardous materials exceeded their specified threshold quantity. This report discusses the potential release scenarios and consequences associated with an accidental release for each of the two identified hazardous materials, lead and mercury. Emergency considerations, such as emergency planning zones, emergency classes, protective actions, and emergency action levels, are also discussed based on the analysis of potential consequences. Evaluation of the potential consequences indicated that the highest emergency class for operational emergencies at the HWSF would be a Site Area Emergency

  11. List of external hazards to be considered in ASAMPSA-E

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Decker, Kurt; Brinkman, Hans

    2016-01-01

    The current report includes an exhaustive list of external hazards posing potential threats to nuclear installations. The list comprises of both, natural and man-made external hazards. Also, a cross correlation matrix of the hazards is presented. The list is the starting point for the hazard analysis process in Level 1 PSA as outlined by IAEA (2010; SSG-3) and the definition of design basis as required by WENRA (2014; Reference Levels for Existing Reactors). The list is regarded comprehensive by including all types of hazards that were previously cited in documents by IAEA and WENRA-RHWG. 73 natural hazards (N1 to N73) and 24 man-made external hazards (M1 to M24) are included. Natural hazards are grouped into seismo-tectonic hazards, flooding and hydrological hazards, extreme values of meteorological phenomena, rare meteorological phenomena, biological hazards / infestation, geological hazards, and forest fire. The list of external man-made hazards includes industry accidents, military accidents, transportation accidents, pipeline accidents and other man-made external events. The dataset further contains information on hazard correlations. 577 correlations between individual hazards are identified and shown in a cross-correlation chart. Correlations discriminate between: (1) Causally connected hazards (cause-effect relation) where one hazard (e.g., liquefaction) may be caused by another hazard (e.g., earthquake); or where one hazard (e.g., high wind) is a prerequisite for a correlated hazard (e.g., storm surge). (authors)

  12. Mathematical Modeling of Diverse Phenomena

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, J. C.

    1979-01-01

    Tensor calculus is applied to the formulation of mathematical models of diverse phenomena. Aeronautics, fluid dynamics, and cosmology are among the areas of application. The feasibility of combining tensor methods and computer capability to formulate problems is demonstrated. The techniques described are an attempt to simplify the formulation of mathematical models by reducing the modeling process to a series of routine operations, which can be performed either manually or by computer.

  13. Multiparticle phenomena and Landau damping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Talman, R.

    1987-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to survey various methods of studying multiparticle phenomena in accelerators. Both experimental and theoretical methods are described. An effort has been made to emphasize the intuitive and qualitative aspects rather than the detailed mathematics. Some of the terms or concepts to be explained are coherent and incoherent tunes, normal modes, Landau damping, beam-transfer functions, and feedback. These are all of daily importance in the interpretation of colliding-beam observations and the control of performance

  14. Use of Infrasound for evaluating potentially hazardous conditions for barge transit on the Mississippi River at Vicksburg, Mississippi

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenna, M. H.; Simpson, C. P.; Jordan, A. M.

    2017-12-01

    Navigating the Mississippi River in Vicksburg, MS is known to be difficult for barge traffic in even the best of conditions due to the river's sharp bend 2 km north of the Highway 80 Bridge. When river levels rise, the level of difficulty in piloting barges under the bridge rises. Ongoing studies by the U.S. Army Engineer Research and Development Center (ERDC) are investigating infrasound as a means to correlate the low frequency acoustics generated by the river with the presence of hazardous conditions observed during flood stage, i.e., rough waters and high currents, which may lead to barge-bridge impacts. The Denied Area Monitoring and Exploitation of Structures (DAMES) Array at the ERDC Vicksburg, MS campus is a persistent seismic-acoustic array used for structural monitoring and explosive event detection. The DAMES Array is located 4.3 km from the Mississippi River/Highway 80 Bridge junction and recorded impulsive sub-audible acoustic signals, similar to an explosive event, from barge-bridge collisions that occurred between 2011 and 2017. This study focuses on five collisions that occurred during January 2016, which resulted in closing the river for barge transit and the Highway 80 Bridge for rail transit for multiple days until safety inspections were completed. The Highway 80 Bridge in Vicksburg, MS is the only freight-crossing over the Mississippi River between Baton Rouge, LA and Memphis, TN, meaning delays from these closings have significant impacts on all transit of goods throughout the Southeastern United States. River basin data and regional meteorological data have been analyzed to find correlations between the river conditions in January 2016, and recorded infrasound data with the aim of determining the likelihood that hazardous conditions are present on the river. Frequency-wavenumber analysis was used to identify the transient signals associated with the barge-bridge impacts and calculate the backazimuth to their source. Then, with the use of

  15. Numerical approach for quantification of self wastage phenomena in sodium-cooled fast reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jang, Sung Hyun; Takata, Takashi; Yamaguchi, Akira; Uchbori, Akihiro; Kurihara, Akikazu; Ohshima, Hiroyuki

    2015-01-01

    Sodium-cooled fast breeder reactors use liquid sodium as a moderator and coolant to transfer heat from the reactor core. The main hazard associated with sodium is its rapid reaction with water. Sodium-water reaction (SWR) takes place when water or vapor leak into the sodium side through a crack on a heat-transfer tube in a steam generator. If the SWR continues for some time, the SWR will damage the surface of the defective area, causing it to enlarge. This self-enlargement of the crack is called 'self-wastage phenomena'. A stepwise numerical evaluation model of the self-wastage phenomena was devised using a computational code of multicomponent multiphase flow involving a sodium-water chemical reaction: sodium-water reaction analysis physics of interdisciplinary multiphase flow (SERAPHIM). The temperature of gas mixture and the concentration of NaOH at the surface of the tube wall are obtained by a numerical calculation using SERAPHIM. Averaged thermophysical properties are used to assess the local wastage depth at the tube surface. By reflecting the wastage depth to the computational grid, the self-wastage phenomena are evaluated. A two-dimensional benchmark analysis of an SWAT (Sodium-Water reAction Test rig) experiment is carried out to evaluate the feasibility of the numerical model. Numerical results show that the geometry and scale of enlarged cracks show good agreement with the experimental result. Enlarged cracks appear to taper inward to a significantly smaller opening on the inside of the tube wall. The enlarged outer diameter of the crack is 4.72 mm, which shows good agreement with the experimental data (4.96 mm)

  16. Numerical approach for quantification of self wastage phenomena in sodium-cooled fast reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jang, Sung Hyun; Takata, Takashi [Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka University, Osaka (Japan); Yamaguchi, Akira [Graduate School of Engineering, The University of Tokyo, Ibaraki (Japan); Uchbori, Akihiro; Kurihara, Akikazu; Ohshima, Hiroyuki [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Ibaraki (Japan)

    2015-10-15

    Sodium-cooled fast breeder reactors use liquid sodium as a moderator and coolant to transfer heat from the reactor core. The main hazard associated with sodium is its rapid reaction with water. Sodium-water reaction (SWR) takes place when water or vapor leak into the sodium side through a crack on a heat-transfer tube in a steam generator. If the SWR continues for some time, the SWR will damage the surface of the defective area, causing it to enlarge. This self-enlargement of the crack is called 'self-wastage phenomena'. A stepwise numerical evaluation model of the self-wastage phenomena was devised using a computational code of multicomponent multiphase flow involving a sodium-water chemical reaction: sodium-water reaction analysis physics of interdisciplinary multiphase flow (SERAPHIM). The temperature of gas mixture and the concentration of NaOH at the surface of the tube wall are obtained by a numerical calculation using SERAPHIM. Averaged thermophysical properties are used to assess the local wastage depth at the tube surface. By reflecting the wastage depth to the computational grid, the self-wastage phenomena are evaluated. A two-dimensional benchmark analysis of an SWAT (Sodium-Water reAction Test rig) experiment is carried out to evaluate the feasibility of the numerical model. Numerical results show that the geometry and scale of enlarged cracks show good agreement with the experimental result. Enlarged cracks appear to taper inward to a significantly smaller opening on the inside of the tube wall. The enlarged outer diameter of the crack is 4.72 mm, which shows good agreement with the experimental data (4.96 mm)

  17. Antagonistic Phenomena in Network Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motter, Adilson E.; Timme, Marc

    2018-03-01

    Recent research on the network modeling of complex systems has led to a convenient representation of numerous natural, social, and engineered systems that are now recognized as networks of interacting parts. Such systems can exhibit a wealth of phenomena that not only cannot be anticipated from merely examining their parts, as per the textbook definition of complexity, but also challenge intuition even when considered in the context of what is now known in network science. Here, we review the recent literature on two major classes of such phenomena that have far-reaching implications: (a) antagonistic responses to changes of states or parameters and (b) coexistence of seemingly incongruous behaviors or properties - both deriving from the collective and inherently decentralized nature of the dynamics. They include effects as diverse as negative compressibility in engineered materials, rescue interactions in biological networks, negative resistance in fluid networks, and the Braess paradox occurring across transport and supply networks. They also include remote synchronization, chimera states, and the converse of symmetry breaking in brain, power-grid, and oscillator networks as well as remote control in biological and bioinspired systems. By offering a unified view of these various scenarios, we suggest that they are representative of a yet broader class of unprecedented network phenomena that ought to be revealed and explained by future research.

  18. Evaluation of technologies for remediation of disposed radioactive and hazardous wastes in a facility at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reno, H.W.; Martin, D.D.; Rasmussen, T.L.

    1989-01-01

    For the past twenty years the US Department of Energy has been investigating and evaluating technologies for the long term management of disposed transuranic contaminated wastes at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex of the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. More than fifty technologies have been investigated and evaluated and three technologies have been selected for feasibility study demonstration at the complex. This paper discusses the evaluation of those technologies and describes the three technologies selected for demonstration. The paper further suggests that future actions under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act should build from previous evaluations completed heretofore. 18 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab

  19. Sampling of resident earthworms using mustard expellant to evaluate ecological risk at a mixed hazardous and radioactive waste site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stair, D.M. Jr.; Keller, L.J.

    1994-01-01

    As residents of contaminated soils and as prey for many species of wildlife, earthworms can serve as integrative biomonitors of soil contamination, which is biologically available to the terrestrial food chain. The assessment of contaminants within earthworm tissue provides a more realistic measurement of the potential biological hazards and ecological risks than physical and chemical measurements of soil. A unique sampling procedure using a mixture of ground mustard powder and water was implemented for cost-effectively collecting earthworms without digging; the procedure minimized occupational exposure to soil contaminants and reduced the quantity of investigation-derived wastes. The study site is located at a closed burial ground for low-level radioactive waste and transuranic waste that lies within the Valley and Ridge Physiographic Province of East Tennessee. Earthworms were maintained in the laboratory for four days to allow passage of the contents of the digestive tract. Earthworm body burdens, castings, and soil were analyzed for gamma-emitting radioisotopes (potassium 40, cobalt 60, cesium 137), strontium 90, trace metals (arsenic, cadmium, chromium, mercury, lead, and selenium), and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). Ecological effects of soil contamination on the earthworms were also assessed through analysis of weight, abundance, and reproductive success

  20. Flood hazards for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yen, B.C.

    1988-01-01

    Flooding hazards for nuclear power plants may be caused by various external geophysical events. In this paper the hydrologic hazards from flash floods, river floods and heavy rain at the plant site are considered. Depending on the mode of analysis, two types of hazard evaluation are identified: 1) design hazard which is the probability of flooding over an expected service period, and 2) operational hazard which deals with real-time forecasting of the probability of flooding of an incoming event. Hazard evaluation techniques using flood frequency analysis can only be used for type 1) design hazard. Evaluation techniques using rainfall-runoff simulation or multi-station correlation can be used for both types of hazard prediction. (orig.)

  1. Luminous Phenomena - A Scientific Investigation of Anomalous Luminous Atmospheric Phenomena

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teodorani, M.

    2003-12-01

    Anomalous atmospheric luminous phenomena reoccur in several locations of Earth, in the form of multi-color light balls characterized by large dimensions, erratic motion, long duration and a correlated electromagnetic field. The author (an astrophysicist) of this book, which is organized as a selection of some of his technical and popularizing papers and seminars, describes and discusses all the efforts that have been done in 10 years, through several missions and a massive data analysis, in order to obtain some scientific explanation of this kind of anomalies, in particular the Hessdalen anomaly in Norway. The following topics are treated in the book: a) geographic archive of the areas of Earth where such phenomena are known to reoccur most often; b) observational techniques of astrophysical kind that have been used to acquire the data; c) main scientific results obtained so far; d) physical interpretation and natural hypothesis vs. ETV hypothesis; e) historical and chronological issues; f) the importance to brindle new energy sources; g) the importance to keep distance from any kind of "ufology". An unpublished chapter is entirely devoted to a detailed scientific investigation project of light phenomena reoccurring on the Ontario lake; the chosen new-generation multi-wavelength sensing instrumentation that is planned to be used in future missions in that specific area, is described together with scientific rationale and planned procedures. The main results, which were obtained in other areas of the world, such as the Arizona desert, USA and the Sibillini Mountains, Italy, are also briefly mentioned. One chapter is entirely dedicated to the presentation of extensive abstracts of technical papers by the author concerning this specific subject. The book is accompanied with a rich source of bibliographic references.

  2. Electrostatic hazards

    CERN Document Server

    Luttgens, Günter; Luttgens, Gnter; Luttgens, G Nter

    1997-01-01

    In the US, UK and Europe there is in excess of one notifiable dust or electrostatic explosion every day of the year. This clearly makes the hazards associated with the handling of materials subject to either cause or react to electrostatic discharge of vital importance to anyone associated with their handling or industrial bulk use. This book provides a comprehensive guide to the dangers of static electricity and how to avoid them. It will prove invaluable to safety managers and professionals, as well as all personnel involved in the activities concerned, in the chemical, agricultural, pharmaceutical and petrochemical process industries. The book makes extended use of case studies to illustrate the principles being expounded, thereby making it far more open, accessible and attractive to the practitioner in industry than the highly theoretical texts which are also available. The authors have many years' experience in the area behind them, including the professional teaching of the content provided here. Günte...

  3. Human hazards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delpla, M.; Vignes, S.; Wolber, G.

    1976-01-01

    Among health hazards from ionizing radiations, a distinction is made of observed, likely and theoretical risks. Theoretical risks, derived from extrapolation of observations on sublethal exposures to low doses may frighten. However, they have nothing in common with reality as shown for instance, by the study of carcinogenesis risks at Nagasaki. By extrapolation to low doses, theoretical mutation risks are derived by geneticians from the observation of some characters especially deleterious in the progeny of parents exposed to sublethal doses. One cannot agree when by calculation they express a population exposure by a shift of its genetic balance with an increase of the proportion of disabled individuals. As a matter of fact, experimental exposure of successive generations of laboratory animals shows no accumulation of deleterious genes, sublethal doses excepted. Large nuclear plants should not be overwhelmed by horrible charges on sanitary grounds, whereas small sources have but too often shown they may originate mortal risks [fr

  4. The Optimizer Topology Characteristics in Seismic Hazards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sengor, T.

    2015-12-01

    The characteristic data of the natural phenomena are questioned in a topological space approach to illuminate whether there is an algorithm behind them bringing the situation of physics of phenomena to optimized states even if they are hazards. The optimized code designing the hazard on a topological structure mashes the metric of the phenomena. The deviations in the metric of different phenomena push and/or pull the fold of the other suitable phenomena. For example if the metric of a specific phenomenon A fits to the metric of another specific phenomenon B after variation processes generated with the deviation of the metric of previous phenomenon A. Defining manifold processes covering the metric characteristics of each of every phenomenon is possible for all the physical events; i.e., natural hazards. There are suitable folds in those manifold groups so that each subfold fits to the metric characteristics of one of the natural hazard category at least. Some variation algorithms on those metric structures prepare a gauge effect bringing the long time stability of Earth for largely scaled periods. The realization of that stability depends on some specific conditions. These specific conditions are called optimized codes. The analytical basics of processes in topological structures are developed in [1]. The codes are generated according to the structures in [2]. Some optimized codes are derived related to the seismicity of NAF beginning from the quakes of the year 1999. References1. Taner SENGOR, "Topological theory and analytical configuration for a universal community model," Procedia- Social and Behavioral Sciences, Vol. 81, pp. 188-194, 28 June 2013, 2. Taner SENGOR, "Seismic-Climatic-Hazardous Events Estimation Processes via the Coupling Structures in Conserving Energy Topologies of the Earth," The 2014 AGU Fall Meeting, Abstract no.: 31374, ABD.

  5. Hazard Evaluation for the Salt Well Chempump and a Salt Well Centrifugal Pump Design using Service Water for Lubrication and Cooling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    GRAMS, W.H.

    2000-01-01

    This report documents results of a preliminary hazard analysis (PHA) covering the existing Crane Chempump and the new salt well pumping design. Three hazardous conditions were identified for the Chempump and ten hazardous conditions were identified for the new salt well pump design. This report also presents the results of the control decision/allocation process. A backflow preventer and associated limiting condition for operation were assigned to one hazardous condition with the new design

  6. Correlated randomness and switching phenomena

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanley, H. E.; Buldyrev, S. V.; Franzese, G.; Havlin, S.; Mallamace, F.; Kumar, P.; Plerou, V.; Preis, T.

    2010-08-01

    One challenge of biology, medicine, and economics is that the systems treated by these serious scientific disciplines have no perfect metronome in time and no perfect spatial architecture-crystalline or otherwise. Nonetheless, as if by magic, out of nothing but randomness one finds remarkably fine-tuned processes in time and remarkably fine-tuned structures in space. Further, many of these processes and structures have the remarkable feature of “switching” from one behavior to another as if by magic. The past century has, philosophically, been concerned with placing aside the human tendency to see the universe as a fine-tuned machine. Here we will address the challenge of uncovering how, through randomness (albeit, as we shall see, strongly correlated randomness), one can arrive at some of the many spatial and temporal patterns in biology, medicine, and economics and even begin to characterize the switching phenomena that enables a system to pass from one state to another. Inspired by principles developed by A. Nihat Berker and scores of other statistical physicists in recent years, we discuss some applications of correlated randomness to understand switching phenomena in various fields. Specifically, we present evidence from experiments and from computer simulations supporting the hypothesis that water’s anomalies are related to a switching point (which is not unlike the “tipping point” immortalized by Malcolm Gladwell), and that the bubbles in economic phenomena that occur on all scales are not “outliers” (another Gladwell immortalization). Though more speculative, we support the idea of disease as arising from some kind of yet-to-be-understood complex switching phenomenon, by discussing data on selected examples, including heart disease and Alzheimer disease.

  7. Use of high-throughput in vitro toxicity screening data in cancer hazard evaluations by IARC Monograph Working Groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Weihsueh A; Guyton, Kathryn Z; Martin, Matthew T; Reif, David M; Rusyn, Ivan

    2018-01-01

    Evidence regarding carcinogenic mechanisms serves a critical role in International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) Monograph evaluations. Three recent IARC Working Groups pioneered inclusion of the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) ToxCast program high-throughput screening (HTS) data to supplement other mechanistic evidence. In Monograph V110, HTS profiles were compared between perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and prototypical activators across multiple nuclear receptors. For Monograph V112-113, HTS assays were mapped to 10 key characteristics of carcinogens identified by an IARC expert group, and systematically considered as an additional mechanistic data stream. Both individual assay results and ToxPi-based rankings informed mechanistic evaluations. Activation of multiple nuclear receptors in HTS assays showed that PFOA targets not only peroxisome proliferator activated receptors, but also other receptors. ToxCast assays substantially covered 5 of 10 key characteristics, corroborating literature evidence of "induces oxidative stress" and "alters cell proliferation, cell death or nutrient supply" and filling gaps for "modulates receptor-mediated effects." Thus, ToxCast HTS data were useful both in evaluating specific mechanistic hypotheses and in contributing to the overall evaluation of mechanistic evidence. However, additional HTS assays are needed to provide more comprehensive coverage of the 10 key characteristics of carcinogens that form the basis of current IARC mechanistic evaluations.

  8. Example evaluation of a permit application for a proposed hazardous-waste landfill in eastern Adams County, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banta, E.R.

    1986-01-01

    A project was undertaken by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the U. S. Environmental Protection Agency to demonstrate methods by which RCRA (Resources Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976) Part B permit applications might be evaluated. The purpose of the project was to prepare a report that would supplement a series of case studies to be made available to permit writers in the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Four sites in the United States were chosen for their potential applicability to geologically similar sites. The Adams County, Colorado, site was chosen to be representative of sites in the Upper Cretaceous Pierre Shale. The intent of this report is to provide an example of how available earth-science information might be used in evaluating an application and not to evaluate the acceptability of the site. Because this study is an evaluation of a permit application, the data used are limited to the data supplied in the application and in published reports. Of the five criteria required by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency to be addressed in the permit application considered in the case study, the application was evaluated to be inadequate in addressing three criteria: (1) Site characterization, (2) ability to monitor the location, and (3) flow paths and 100-foot time of travel. Details of the inadequacies and a description of the information needed to eliminate the inadequacies are included in the report. (USGS)

  9. Phenomena and Diosignes of Aratous

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avgoloupis, S. I.

    2013-01-01

    Aratous (305-240B.C.) was a singular intellectual, writer and poet which engage himself to compose a very interesting astronomical poet, using the "Dactylous sixstage' style, the formal style of the ancient Greek Epic poetry. This astronomic poem of Aratous "Phenomena and Diosignes" became very favorite reading during the Alexandrine, the Romman and the Byzandin eras as well and had received many praises from significant poets and particularly from Hipparchous and from Theonas from Alexandria, an astronomer of 4rth century A.C.(in Greeks)

  10. Phase transitions and critical phenomena

    CERN Document Server

    Domb, Cyril

    2001-01-01

    The field of phase transitions and critical phenomena continues to be active in research, producing a steady stream of interesting and fruitful results. It has moved into a central place in condensed matter studies.Statistical physics, and more specifically, the theory of transitions between states of matter, more or less defines what we know about 'everyday' matter and its transformations.The major aim of this serial is to provide review articles that can serve as standard references for research workers in the field, and for graduate students and others wishing to obtain reliable in

  11. Phase transitions and critical phenomena

    CERN Document Server

    Domb, Cyril

    2000-01-01

    The field of phase transitions and critical phenomena continues to be active in research, producing a steady stream of interesting and fruitful results. No longer an area of specialist interest, it has acquired a central focus in condensed matter studies. The major aim of this serial is to provide review articles that can serve as standard references for research workers in the field, and for graduate students and others wishing to obtain reliable information on important recent developments.The two review articles in this volume complement each other in a remarkable way. Both deal with what m

  12. Nonlinear phenomena in general relativity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allahyari, Alireza; Firouzjaee, Javad T.; Mansouri, Reza

    2018-04-01

    The perturbation theory plays an important role in studying structure formation in cosmology and post-Newtonian physics, but not all phenomena can be described by the linear perturbation theory. Thus, it is necessary to study exact solutions or higher-order perturbations. Specifically, we study black hole (apparent) horizons and the cosmological event horizon formation in the perturbation theory. We emphasize that in the perturbative regime of the gravitational potential these horizons cannot form in the lower order. Studying the infinite plane metric, we show that, to capture the cosmological constant effect, we need at least a second-order expansion.

  13. Nonlinear phenomena at cyclotron resonance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Subbarao, D.; Uma, R.

    1986-01-01

    Finite amplitude electromagnetic waves in a magnetoplasma which typically occur in situations as in present day wave heating, current drives and other schemes in magnetically confined fusion systems, can show qualitatively different absorption and emission characteristics around resonant frequencies of the plasma because of anharmonicity. Linear wave plasma coupling as well as weak nonlinear effects such as parametric instabilities generally overlook this important effect even though the thresholds for the two phenomena as shown here are comparable. Though the effects described here are relevant to a host of nonlinear resonance effects in fusion plasmas, the authors mainly limit themselves to ECRH

  14. Violent phenomena in the Universe

    CERN Document Server

    Narlikar, Jayant V

    2007-01-01

    The serenity of a clear night sky belies the evidence-gathered by balloons, rockets, satellites, and telescopes-that the universe contains centers of furious activity that pour out vast amounts of energy, some in regular cycles and some in gigantic bursts. This reader-friendly book, acclaimed by Nature as ""excellent and uncompromising,"" traces the development of modern astrophysics and its explanations of these startling celestial fireworks.This lively narrative ranges from the gravitational theories of Newton and Einstein to recent exciting discoveries of such violent phenomena as supernova

  15. Nonlinear Dynamic Phenomena in Mechanics

    CERN Document Server

    Warminski, Jerzy; Cartmell, Matthew P

    2012-01-01

    Nonlinear phenomena should play a crucial role in the design and control of engineering systems and structures as they can drastically change the prevailing dynamical responses. This book covers theoretical and applications-based problems of nonlinear dynamics concerned with both discrete and continuous systems of interest in civil and mechanical engineering. They include pendulum-like systems, slender footbridges, shape memory alloys, sagged elastic cables and non-smooth problems. Pendulums can be used as a dynamic absorber mounted in high buildings, bridges or chimneys. Geometrical nonlinear

  16. Quantum theory of collective phenomena

    CERN Document Server

    Sewell, G L

    2014-01-01

    ""An excellent and competent introduction to the field … [and] … a source of information for the expert."" - Physics Today""This a book of major importance…. I trust that this book will be used as a basis for the teaching of a balanced, modern and rigorous course on statistical mechanics in all universities."" - Bulletin of the London Mathematical Society""This is one of the best introductions to the subject, and it is strongly recommended to anyone interested in collective phenomena."" - Physics Bulletin ""The book may be recommended for students as a well-balanced introduction to this rich s

  17. Foot anthropometry and morphology phenomena.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agić, Ante; Nikolić, Vasilije; Mijović, Budimir

    2006-12-01

    Foot structure description is important for many reasons. The foot anthropometric morphology phenomena are analyzed together with hidden biomechanical functionality in order to fully characterize foot structure and function. For younger Croatian population the scatter data of the individual foot variables were interpolated by multivariate statistics. Foot structure descriptors are influenced by many factors, as a style of life, race, climate, and things of the great importance in human society. Dominant descriptors are determined by principal component analysis. Some practical recommendation and conclusion for medical, sportswear and footwear practice are highlighted.

  18. Quantum phenomena in gravitational field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourdel, Th.; Doser, M.; Ernest, A. D.; Voronin, A. Yu.; Voronin, V. V.

    2011-10-01

    The subjects presented here are very different. Their common feature is that they all involve quantum phenomena in a gravitational field: gravitational quantum states of ultracold antihydrogen above a material surface and measuring a gravitational interaction of antihydrogen in AEGIS, a quantum trampoline for ultracold atoms, and a hypothesis on naturally occurring gravitational quantum states, an Eötvös-type experiment with cold neutrons and others. Considering them together, however, we could learn that they have many common points both in physics and in methodology.

  19. Quantum phenomena in gravitational field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bourdel, Th.; Doser, M.; Ernest, A.D.; Voronin, A.Y.; Voronin, V.V.

    2010-01-01

    The subjects presented here are very different. Their common feature is that they all involve quantum phenomena in a gravitational field: gravitational quantum states of ultracold anti-hydrogen above a material surface and measuring a gravitational interaction of anti-hydrogen in AEGIS, a quantum trampoline for ultracold atoms, and a hypothesis on naturally occurring gravitational quantum states, an Eoetvoes-type experiment with cold neutrons and others. Considering them together, however, we could learn that they have many common points both in physics and in methodology. (authors)

  20. Natural hazard and disaster tourism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rucińska Dorota

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available An observed trend, which can be defined as tourist interest in natural hazards and disasters, has persuaded the authors to attempt to research several issues, including tourist motivations and specific tourism properties and functions of this form of activity. The objective also covered the allocation of this social and natural process in the general structure of tourism. This interest has a long history, and a new stage is currently forming, which partly results from factors affecting society, such as information and education, which provoke antagonistic reactions. Extreme natural phenomena entail a common reduction of tourist interest in the destination which hosted the event; however, it never drops to zero. Differences are visible depending on the type of phenomenon. On the other hand, natural hazards and disasters are considered to hold a specific tourism value. This article discusses the allocation of this human activity in the tourism forms known to scientists, accounting for its diversity and relating to ethics.

  1. Seismic hazard assessment of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Ghafory-Ashtiany

    1999-06-01

    Full Text Available The development of the new seismic hazard map of Iran is based on probabilistic seismic hazard computation using the historical earthquakes data, geology, tectonics, fault activity and seismic source models in Iran. These maps have been prepared to indicate the earthquake hazard of Iran in the form of iso-acceleration contour lines, and seismic hazard zoning, by using current probabilistic procedures. They display the probabilistic estimates of Peak Ground Acceleration (PGA for the return periods of 75 and 475 years. The maps have been divided into intervals of 0.25 degrees in both latitudinal and longitudinal directions to calculate the peak ground acceleration values at each grid point and draw the seismic hazard curves. The results presented in this study will provide the basis for the preparation of seismic risk maps, the estimation of earthquake insurance premiums, and the preliminary site evaluation of critical facilities.

  2. 77 FR 41406 - Evaluation of In Vitro Tests for Identifying Eye Injury Hazard Potential of Chemicals and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-13

    ...://www.epa.gov/oppad001/eye-irritation.pdf ). The IRE test is an organotypic test method that evaluates... rabbit corneal epithelial cells following test substance exposure (Takahashi et al., 2008). NICEATM is..., mailing address, phone, fax, email, and sponsoring organization, as applicable). NICEATM prefers that data...

  3. Evaluation of semi-generic PBTK modeling for emergency risk assessment after acute inhalation exposure to volatile hazardous chemicals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Olie, J Daniël N; Bessems, Jos G; Clewell, Harvey J; Meulenbelt, Jan; Hunault, Claudine C

    BACKGROUND: Physiologically Based Toxicokinetic Models (PBTK) may facilitate emergency risk assessment after chemical incidents with inhalation exposure, but they are rarely used due to their relative complexity and skill requirements. We aimed to tackle this problem by evaluating a semi-generic

  4. Evaluation of semi-generic PBTK modeling for emergency risk assessment after acute inhalation exposure to volatile hazardous chemicals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Olie, J. Daniël N; Bessems, Jos G.; Clewell, Harvey J.; Meulenbelt, Jan; Hunault, Claudine C.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Physiologically Based Toxicokinetic Models (PBTK) may facilitate emergency risk assessment after chemical incidents with inhalation exposure, but they are rarely used due to their relative complexity and skill requirements. We aimed to tackle this problem by evaluating a semi-generic

  5. Development of a systematic method to assess similarity between nanomaterials for human hazard evaluation purposes - lessons learnt.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vdz Park, Margriet; Catalán, Julia; Ferraz, Natalia; Cabellos, Joan; Vanhauten, Ralph; Vázquez-Campos, Socorro; Janer, Gemma

    2018-01-01

    Within the EU FP-7 GUIDEnano project, a methodology was developed to systematically quantify the similarity between a nanomaterial (NM) that has been tested in toxicity studies and the NM for which risk needs to be evaluated, for the purpose of extrapolating toxicity data between the two materials.

  6. Decay extent evaluation of wood degraded by a fungal community using NIRS: application for ecological engineering structures used for natural hazard mitigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baptiste Barré, Jean; Bourrier, Franck; Bertrand, David; Rey, Freddy

    2015-04-01

    Ecological engineering corresponds to the design of efficient solutions for protection against natural hazards such as shallow landslides and soil erosion. In particular, bioengineering structures can be composed of a living part, made of plants, cuttings or seeds, and an inert part, a timber logs structure. As wood is not treated by preservatives, fungal degradation can occur from the start of the construction. It results in wood strength loss, which practitioners try to evaluate with non-destructive tools (NDT). Classical NDT are mainly based on density measurements. However, the fungal activity reduces the mechanical properties (modulus of elasticity - MOE) well before well before a density change could be measured. In this context, it would be useful to provide a tool for assessing the residual mechanical strength at different decay stages due to a fungal community. Near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) can be used for that purpose, as it can allow evaluating wood mechanical properties as well as wood chemical changes due to brown and white rots. We monitored 160 silver fir samples (30x30x6000mm) from green state to different levels of decay. The degradation process took place in a greenhouse and samples were inoculated with silver fir decayed debris in order to accelerate the process. For each sample, we calculated the normalized bending modulus of elasticity loss (Dw moe) and defined it as decay extent. Near infrared spectra collected from both green and decayed ground samples were corrected by the subtraction of baseline offset. Spectra of green samples were averaged into one mean spectrum and decayed spectra were subtracted from the mean spectrum to calculate the absorption loss. Partial least square regression (PLSR) has been performed between the normalized MOE loss Dw moe (0 wood decay extent in the context of ecological engineering structures used for natural hazard mitigation.

  7. In vessel core melt progression phenomena

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Courtaud, M.

    1993-01-01

    For all light water reactor (LWR) accidents, including the so called severe accidents where core melt down can occur, it is necessary to determine the amount and characteristics of fission products released to the environment. For existing reactors this knowledge is used to evaluate the consequences and eventual emergency plans. But for future reactors safety authorities demand decrease risks and reactors designed in such a way that fission products are retained inside the containment, the last protective barrier. This requires improved understanding and knowledge of all accident sequences. In particular it is necessary to be able to describe the very complex phenomena occurring during in vessel core melt progression because they will determine the thermal and mechanical loads on the primary circuit and the timing of its rupture as well as the fission product source term. On the other hand, in case of vessel failure, knowledge of the physical and chemical state of the core melt will provide the initial conditions for analysis of ex-vessel core melt progression and phenomena threatening the containment. Finally a good understanding of in vessel phenomena will help to improve accident management procedures like Emergency Core Cooling System water injection, blowdown and flooding of the vessel well, with their possible adverse effects. Research and Development work on this subject was initiated a long time ago and is still in progress but now it must be intensified in order to meet the safety requirements of the next generation of reactors. Experiments, limited in scale, analysis of the TMI 2 accident which is a unique source of global information and engineering judgment are used to establish and assess physical models that can be implemented in computer codes for reactor accident analysis

  8. BWR core melt progression phenomena: Experimental analyses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ott, L.J.

    1992-01-01

    In the BWR Core Melt in Progression Phenomena Program, experimental results concerning severe fuel damage and core melt progression in BWR core geometry are used to evaluate existing models of the governing phenomena. These include control blade eutectic liquefaction and the subsequent relocation and attack on the channel box structure; oxidation heating and hydrogen generation; Zircaloy melting and relocation; and the continuing oxidation of zirconium with metallic blockage formation. Integral data have been obtained from the BWR DF-4 experiment in the ACRR and from BWR tests in the German CORA exreactor fuel-damage test facility. Additional integral data will be obtained from new CORA BWR test, the full-length FLHT-6 BWR test in the NRU test reactor, and the new program of exreactor experiments at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) on metallic melt relocation and blockage formation. an essential part of this activity is interpretation and use of the results of the BWR tests. The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has developed experiment-specific models for analysis of the BWR experiments; to date, these models have permitted far more precise analyses of the conditions in these experiments than has previously been available. These analyses have provided a basis for more accurate interpretation of the phenomena that the experiments are intended to investigate. The results of posttest analyses of BWR experiments are discussed and significant findings from these analyses are explained. The ORNL control blade/canister models with materials interaction, relocation and blockage models are currently being implemented in SCDAP/RELAP5 as an optional structural component

  9. Hazardous material reduction initiative

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nichols, D.H.

    1995-02-01

    The Hazardous Material Reduction Initiative (HMRI) explores using the review of purchase requisitions to reduce both the use of hazardous materials and the generation of regulated and nonregulated wastes. Based on an 11-month program implemented at the Hanford Site, hazardous material use and waste generation was effectively reduced by using a centralized procurement control program known as HMRI. As expected, several changes to the original proposal were needed during the development/testing phase of the program to accommodate changing and actual conditions found at the Hanford Site. The current method requires a central receiving point within the Procurement Organization to review all purchase requisitions for potentially Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) hazardous products. Those requisitions (approximately 4% to 6% of the total) are then forwarded to Pollution Prevention personnel for evaluation under HMRI. The first step is to determine if the requested item can be filled by existing or surplus material. The requisitions that cannot filled by existing or surplus material are then sorted into two groups based on applicability to the HMRI project. For example, laboratory requests for analytical reagents or standards are excluded and the purchase requisitions are returned to Procurement for normal processing because, although regulated, there is little opportunity for source reduction due to the strict protocols followed. Each item is then checked to determine if it is regulated or not. Regulated items are prioritized based on hazardous contents, quantity requested, and end use. Copies of these requisitions are made and the originals are returned to Procurement within 1-hr. Since changes to the requisition can be made at later stages during procurement, the HMRI fulfills one of its original premises in that it does not slow the procurement process

  10. Summary of November 2010 meeting to evaluate turbidite data for constraining the recurrence parameters of great Cascadia earthquakes for the update of national seismic hazard maps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frankel, Arthur D.

    2011-01-01

    This report summarizes a meeting of geologists, marine sedimentologists, geophysicists, and seismologists that was held on November 18–19, 2010 at Oregon State University in Corvallis, Oregon. The overall goal of the meeting was to evaluate observations of turbidite deposits to provide constraints on the recurrence time and rupture extent of great Cascadia subduction zone (CSZ) earthquakes for the next update of the U.S. national seismic hazard maps (NSHM). The meeting was convened at Oregon State University because this is the major center for collecting and evaluating turbidite evidence of great Cascadia earthquakes by Chris Goldfinger and his colleagues. We especially wanted the participants to see some of the numerous deep sea cores this group has collected that contain the turbidite deposits. Great earthquakes on the CSZ pose a major tsunami, ground-shaking, and ground-failure hazard to the Pacific Northwest. Figure 1 shows a map of the Pacific Northwest with a model for the rupture zone of a moment magnitude Mw 9.0 earthquake on the CSZ and the ground shaking intensity (in ShakeMap format) expected from such an earthquake, based on empirical ground-motion prediction equations. The damaging effects of such an earthquake would occur over a wide swath of the Pacific Northwest and an accompanying tsunami would likely cause devastation along the Pacifc Northwest coast and possibly cause damage and loss of life in other areas of the Pacific. A magnitude 8 earthquake on the CSZ would cause damaging ground shaking and ground failure over a substantial area and could also generate a destructive tsunami. The recent tragic occurrence of the 2011 Mw 9.0 Tohoku-Oki, Japan, earthquake highlights the importance of having accurate estimates of the recurrence times and magnitudes of great earthquakes on subduction zones. For the U.S. national seismic hazard maps, estimating the hazard from the Cascadia subduction zone has been based on coastal paleoseismic evidence of great

  11. THE VULNERABILITY OF THE BAIA MARE URBAN SYSTEM (ROMANIA TO EXTREME CLIMATE PHENOMENA DURING THE WARM SEMESTER OF THE YEAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DRAGOTĂ CARMEN

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The geographical position of the Baia Mare Urban System (intra-hilly depression favours the occurrence of a wide range of extreme climate phenomena which, coupled with the industrial profile of the city (non-ferrous mining and metallurgical industry triggering typical emissions (CO2, SOX, particulate matters and Pb, might pose a significant threat to human health. The article is aiming to assess the occurrence, frequency and amplitude of these extreme climate phenomena based on monthly and daily extreme climatic values from Baia Mare weather station in order to identify the areas more exposed. A GIS-based qualitative-heuristic method was used, each extreme climatic hazard being evaluated on a 1 to 3 scale according to its significance/impact in the study area and assigned with a weight (w and a rank (r, resulting the climate hazard map for the warm semester of the year. The authors further relate the areas exposed to the selected extreme climatic events to socio-economic aspects: demographic and economic in order to delineate the spatial distribution of the environmental vulnerability in the Baia Mare Urban System.

  12. Syntactic Idioms and Precedent Phenomena: Intersection Zones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanna Sytar

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: One examined mainly structural and semantic features of syntactic idioms so far. The pragmatic dimension of these original units that are on the verge of syntax and phraseology, has not been highlighted properly in the scientific literature, so it needs theoretical understanding. The combination of syntactic idiom and phraseological phenomenon refers to the communication techniques impacting on message recipient. Purpose: to analyze the intersection zones of syntactic idioms and precedent phenomena. Results: Analysis of the collected factual material allows to distinguish two areas of interpenetration of syntactic idioms and precedent units: 1 construction of expression according to the phraseologized model, within which the position of variable component is filled by the precedent name or precedent expression; 2 the model of sentence itself is precedent, and lexical content does not comply with generally known one that does not affect on understanding of model content by recipient. With a combination of syntactic idiom and precedent phenomena speakers provide drawing of recipients’ attention, carry out a hidden influence on them, express their own attitude to the realities, so that perform phatic, manipulative and expressive-evaluative functions. The modifications and transformations of precedent expressions and names appeared to be regular in such interpenetrations. Discussion: The obtained results reflect the general trend towards transform (transformation, modification, variation, etc. of precedent, as well as phraseological units, and can be used for the analysis of patterns of their formation and modifications. Further research phase implies tracing patterns of syntactic idioms combination with other means of expressive syntax.

  13. Health Hazard Evaluation Report HETA 84-412-1612, Drs. Youdelman and Teig, Brentwood, New York. [Nitrous oxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crandall, M.S.

    1985-07-01

    Environmental and breathing zone samples were analyzed for nitrous-oxide (10102440) at two oral surgery clinics in Holbrook and Brentwood, New York on July 30 to 31, 1984. The evaluation was requested by the dentists because of general concern regarding the extent of exposure to nitrous oxide. The Brentwood office was equipped with a waste anesthetic gas scavenging system. Recommendations include checking the nitrous-oxide delivery and mixing systems at both clinics, installing a waste anesthetic gas scavenging system with a dedicated exhaust at the Holbrook office, and improving work practices at the Brentwood clinic.

  14. Evaluating the impact of climate change on landslide occurrence, hazard, and risk: from global to regional scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gariano, Stefano Luigi; Guzzetti, Fausto

    2017-04-01

    According to the fifth report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, "warming of the climate system is unequivocal". The influence of climate changes on slope stability and landslides is also undisputable. Nevertheless, the quantitative evaluation of the impact of global warming, and the related changes in climate, on landslides remains a complex question to be solved. The evidence that climate and landslides act at only partially overlapping spatial and temporal scales complicates the evaluation. Different research fields, including e.g., climatology, physics, hydrology, geology, hydrogeology, geotechnics, soil science, environmental science, and social science, must be considered. Climatic, environmental, demographic, and economic changes are strictly correlated, with complex feedbacks, to landslide occurrence and variation. Thus, a holistic, multidisciplinary approach is necessary. We reviewed the literature on landslide-climate studies, and found a bias in their geographical distribution, with several studies centered in Europe and North America, and large parts of the world not investigated. We examined advantages and drawbacks of the approaches adopted to evaluate the effects of climate variations on landslides, including prospective modelling and retrospective methods that use landslide and climate records, and paleo-environmental information. We found that the results of landslide-climate studies depend more on the emission scenarios, the global circulation models, the regional climate models, and the methods to downscale the climate variables, than on the description of the variables controlling slope processes. Using ensembles of projections based on a range of emissions scenarios would reduce (or at least quantify) the uncertainties in the obtained results. We performed a preliminary global assessment of the future landslide impact, presenting a global distribution of the projected impact of climate change on landslide activity and abundance

  15. The contribute of DInSAR techniques to landslide hazard evaluation in mountain and hilly regions: a case study from Agno Valley (North-Eastern Italian Alps)

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Agostini, A.; Floris, M.; Pasquali, P.; Barbieri, M.; Cantone, A.; Riccardi, P.; Stevan, G.; Genevois, R.

    2012-04-01

    In the last twenty years, Differential Synthetic Aperture Radar Interferometry (DInSAR) techniques have been widely used to investigate geological processes, such as subsidence, earthquakes and landslides, through the evaluation of earth surface displacements caused by these processes. In the study of mass movements, contribution of interferometry can be limited due to the acquisition geometry of RADAR images and the rough morphology of mountain and hilly regions which represent typical landslide-prone areas. In this study, the advanced DInSAR techniques (i.e. Small Baseline Subset and Persistent Scatterers techniques), available in SARscape software, are used. These methods involve the use of multiple acquisitions stacks (large SAR temporal series) allowing improvements and refinements in landslide identification, characterization and hazard evaluation at the basin scale. Potential and limits of above mentioned techniques are outlined and discussed. The study area is the Agno Valley, located in the North-Eastern sector of Italian Alps and included in the Vicenza Province (Veneto Region, Italy). This area and the entire Vicenza Province were hit by an exceptional rainfall event on November 2010 that triggered more than 500 slope instabilities. The main aim of the work is to verify if spatial information available before the rainfall event, including ERS and ENVISAT RADAR data from 1992 to 2010, were able to predict the landslides occurred in the study area, in order to implement an effectiveness forecasting model. In the first step of the work a susceptibility analysis is carried out using landslide dataset from the IFFI project (Inventario Fenomeni Franosi in Italia, Landslide Italian Inventory) and related predisposing factors, which consist of morphometric (elevation, slope, aspect and curvature) and non-morphometric (land use, distance of roads and distance of river) factors available from the Veneto Region spatial database. Then, to test the prediction, the

  16. Earthquake prediction with electromagnetic phenomena

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hayakawa, Masashi, E-mail: hayakawa@hi-seismo-em.jp [Hayakawa Institute of Seismo Electomagnetics, Co. Ltd., University of Electro-Communications (UEC) Incubation Center, 1-5-1 Chofugaoka, Chofu Tokyo, 182-8585 (Japan); Advanced Wireless & Communications Research Center, UEC, Chofu Tokyo (Japan); Earthquake Analysis Laboratory, Information Systems Inc., 4-8-15, Minami-aoyama, Minato-ku, Tokyo, 107-0062 (Japan); Fuji Security Systems. Co. Ltd., Iwato-cho 1, Shinjyuku-ku, Tokyo (Japan)

    2016-02-01

    Short-term earthquake (EQ) prediction is defined as prospective prediction with the time scale of about one week, which is considered to be one of the most important and urgent topics for the human beings. If this short-term prediction is realized, casualty will be drastically reduced. Unlike the conventional seismic measurement, we proposed the use of electromagnetic phenomena as precursors to EQs in the prediction, and an extensive amount of progress has been achieved in the field of seismo-electromagnetics during the last two decades. This paper deals with the review on this short-term EQ prediction, including the impossibility myth of EQs prediction by seismometers, the reason why we are interested in electromagnetics, the history of seismo-electromagnetics, the ionospheric perturbation as the most promising candidate of EQ prediction, then the future of EQ predictology from two standpoints of a practical science and a pure science, and finally a brief summary.

  17. Research in magnetospheric wave phenomena

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barfield, J.N.

    1975-01-01

    During the last 4 years a number of developments have occurred which have led to an increased understanding of the role of wave phenomena in the physical processes of the magnetosphere. While the studies span the frequency regime from millihertz to the electron gyrofrequency, the developments to be discussed in this paper have in common that they have added substantially to the understanding of the controlling processes, regions, and boundaries in the magnetosphere. The topics discussed are the increased awareness and documentation of the role of the plasmapause in micropulsation generation and propagation; the establishment of the role of ion cyclotron waves in the wave-particle interactions at the plasmapause; the discovery of magnetospheric electrostatic waves with ω = (3/2)Ω/sub -/; the discovery and preliminary identification of the source of plasmaspheric hiss; and the analysis of storm time Pc 5 waves as observed on the satellites ATS 1 and Explorer 45. (auth)

  18. Emergent Phenomena at Oxide Interfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwang, H.Y.

    2012-01-01

    Transition metal oxides (TMOs) are an ideal arena for the study of electronic correlations because the s-electrons of the transition metal ions are removed and transferred to oxygen ions, and hence the strongly correlated d-electrons determine their physical properties such as electrical transport, magnetism, optical response, thermal conductivity, and superconductivity. These electron correlations prohibit the double occupancy of metal sites and induce a local entanglement of charge, spin, and orbital degrees of freedom. This gives rise to a variety of phenomena, e.g., Mott insulators, various charge/spin/orbital orderings, metal-insulator transitions, multiferroics, and superconductivity. In recent years, there has been a burst of activity to manipulate these phenomena, as well as create new ones, using oxide heterostructures. Most fundamental to understanding the physical properties of TMOs is the concept of symmetry of the order parameter. As Landau recognized, the essence of phase transitions is the change of the symmetry. For example, ferromagnetic ordering breaks the rotational symmetry in spin space, i.e., the ordered phase has lower symmetry than the Hamiltonian of the system. There are three most important symmetries to be considered here. (i) Spatial inversion (I), defined as r → -r. In the case of an insulator, breaking this symmetry can lead to spontaneous electric polarization, i.e. ferroelectricity, or pyroelectricity once the point group belongs to polar group symmetry. (ii) Time-reversal symmetry (T) defined as t → -t. In quantum mechanics, the time-evolution of the wave-function Ψ is given by the phase factor e -iEt/h b ar with E being the energy, and hence time-reversal basically corresponds to taking the complex conjugate of the wave-function. Also the spin, which is induced by the 'spinning' of the particle, is reversed by time-reversal. Broken T-symmetry is most naturally associated with magnetism, since the spin operator changes sign

  19. Electrostatic Phenomena on Planetary Surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calle, Carlos I.

    2017-02-01

    The diverse planetary environments in the solar system react in somewhat different ways to the encompassing influence of the Sun. These different interactions define the electrostatic phenom